Sample records for cell surface receptors

  1. Soluble and cell surface receptors for tumor necrosis factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallach, D; Engelmann, H; Nophar, Y


    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) initiates its multiple effects on cell function by binding at a high affinity to specific cell surface receptors. Two different molecular species of these receptors, which are expressed differentially in different cells, have been identified. The cDNAs of both receptor...... have recently been cloned. Antibodies to one of these receptor species (the p55, type I receptor) can trigger a variety of TNF like effects by cross-linking of the receptor molecules. Thus, it is not TNF itself but its receptors that provide the signal for the response to this cytokine...... in certain pathological situations. Release of the soluble receptors from the cells seems to occur by proteolytic cleavage of the cell surface forms and appears to be a way of down-regulating the cell response to TNF. Because of their ability to bind TNF, the soluble receptors exert an inhibitory effect...

  2. Challenges in imaging cell surface receptor clusters (United States)

    Medda, Rebecca; Giske, Arnold; Cavalcanti-Adam, Elisabetta Ada


    Super-resolution microscopy offers unique tools for visualizing and resolving cellular structures at the molecular level. STED microscopy is a purely optical method where neither complex sample preparation nor mathematical post-processing is required. Here we present the use of STED microscopy for imaging receptor cluster composition. We use two-color STED to further determine the distribution of two different receptor subunits of the family of receptor serine/threonine kinases in the presence or absence of their ligands. The implications of receptor clustering on the downstream signaling are discussed, and future challenges are also presented.

  3. CD44 is the principal cell surface receptor for hyaluronate. (United States)

    Aruffo, A; Stamenkovic, I; Melnick, M; Underhill, C B; Seed, B


    CD44 is a broadly distributed cell surface protein thought to mediate cell attachment to extracelular matrix components or specific cell surface ligands. We have created soluble CD44-immunoglobulin fusion proteins and characterized their reactivity with tissue sections and lymph node high endothelial cells in primary culture. The CD44 target on high endothelial cells is sensitive to enzymes that degrade hyaluronate, and binding of soluble CD44 is blocked by low concentrations of hyaluronate or high concentrations of chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfates. A mouse anti-hamster hyaluonate receptor antibody reacts with COS cells expressing hamster CD44 cDNA. In sections of all tissues examined, including lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, predigestion with hyaluronidase eliminated CD44 binding.

  4. Distribution, Arrangement and Interconnectedness of Cell Surface Receptor sites in the body of an Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Cell surface receptors have been identified as the sites of disease infectivity in living organisms in a previous study. Drugs used for the treatment or cure of infections have to eliminate infections through attacking infective organisms at the cell surface receptors to which the infective organisms are attached. Problem statement: The present study examines a wide sample of living things to get more information on the relationship of one cell surface receptor to other cell surface receptors in the body of an organism. Approach: The arrangement of cell surface receptors on the external covering of a few samples of fruits, leaves, stems, dry wood of a plant; wall gecko and some parts of the human body, were examined and photographed. Transverse and/or Longitudinal sections of soursop fruit and sycamore fruit were also examined and photographed. The five different coverings of the fleshy part of a coconut were also photographed. The photographs were studied to note the relationship of disease infection attached to cell surface receptors on the external surface of an organ to disease infection on the innermost covering of the same organ. Results: The results of the study showed that all living things had ubiquitous distribution of cell surface receptors which are usually observable with the unaided eye as dots or spots on the external covering of an organ, tissue or cell. The dots or receptor sites of cell surface receptors in the study are arranged in lines which were perpendicular, oblique, transverse or arranged in any other lineal geometrical form. The lineally arranged cell surface receptors were noted to be connected by grooves, channels or pipes which joined other receptor channels or intersected with them. Smaller cell surface receptor channels emptied into bigger channels or continued as small sized channels that ran side by side in a connective tissue bundle. These connective tissue bundles that carried many independent small-sized cell

  5. Cell-Surface Receptors Transactivation Mediated by G Protein-Coupled Receptors

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    Fabio Cattaneo


    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are seven transmembrane-spanning proteins belonging to a large family of cell-surface receptors involved in many intracellular signaling cascades. Despite GPCRs lack intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, tyrosine phosphorylation of a tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK occurs in response to binding of specific agonists of several such receptors, triggering intracellular mitogenic cascades. This suggests that the notion that GPCRs are associated with the regulation of post-mitotic cell functions is no longer believable. Crosstalk between GPCR and RTK may occur by different molecular mechanism such as the activation of metalloproteases, which can induce the metalloprotease-dependent release of RTK ligands, or in a ligand-independent manner involving membrane associated non-receptor tyrosine kinases, such as c-Src. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are also implicated as signaling intermediates in RTKs transactivation. Intracellular concentration of ROS increases transiently in cells stimulated with GPCR agonists and their deliberated and regulated generation is mainly catalyzed by enzymes that belong to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase family. Oxidation and/or reduction of cysteine sulfhydryl groups of phosphatases tightly controls the activity of RTKs and ROS-mediated inhibition of cellular phosphatases results in an equilibrium shift from the non-phosphorylated to the phosphorylated state of RTKs. Many GPCR agonists activate phospholipase C, which catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bis-phosphate to produce inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglicerol. The consequent mobilization of Ca2+ from endoplasmic reticulum leads to the activation of protein kinase C (PKC isoforms. PKCα mediates feedback inhibition of RTK transactivation during GPCR stimulation. Recent data have expanded the coverage of transactivation to include Serine/Threonine kinase receptors and Toll-like receptors

  6. Research Resource: Androgen Receptor Activity Is Regulated Through the Mobilization of Cell Surface Receptor Networks. (United States)

    Hsiao, Jordy J; Ng, Brandon H; Smits, Melinda M; Martinez, Harryl D; Jasavala, Rohini J; Hinkson, Izumi V; Fermin, Damian; Eng, Jimmy K; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I; Wright, Michael E


    The aberrant expression of androgen receptor (AR)-dependent transcriptional programs is a defining pathology of the development and progression of prostate cancers. Transcriptional cofactors that bind AR are critical determinants of prostate tumorigenesis. To gain a deeper understanding of the proteins linked to AR-dependent gene transcription, we performed a DNA-affinity chromatography-based proteomic screen designed to identify proteins involved in AR-mediated gene transcription in prostate tumor cells. Functional experiments validated the coregulator roles of known AR-binding proteins in AR-mediated transcription in prostate tumor cells. More importantly, novel coregulatory functions were detected in components of well-established cell surface receptor-dependent signal transduction pathways. Further experimentation demonstrated that components of the TNF, TGF-β, IL receptor, and epidermal growth factor signaling pathways modulated AR-dependent gene transcription and androgen-dependent proliferation in prostate tumor cells. Collectively, our proteomic dataset demonstrates that the cell surface receptor- and AR-dependent pathways are highly integrated, and provides a molecular framework for understanding how disparate signal-transduction pathways can influence AR-dependent transcriptional programs linked to the development and progression of human prostate cancers.

  7. The modulation of cell surface cAMP receptors from Dictyostelium disscoideum by ammonium sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van


    Dictyostelium discoideum cells contain a heterogeneous population of cell surface cAMP receptors with components possessing different affinities (Kd between 15 and 450 nM) and different off-rates of the cAMP-receptor complex (t½ between 0.7 and 150 s). The association of cAMP to the receptor and the

  8. Cell receptor and surface ligand density effects on dynamic states of adhering circulating tumor cells. (United States)

    Zheng, Xiangjun; Cheung, Luthur Siu-Lun; Schroeder, Joyce A; Jiang, Linan; Zohar, Yitshak


    Dynamic states of cancer cells moving under shear flow in an antibody-functionalized microchannel are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The cell motion is analyzed with the aid of a simplified physical model featuring a receptor-coated rigid sphere moving above a solid surface with immobilized ligands. The motion of the sphere is described by the Langevin equation accounting for the hydrodynamic loadings, gravitational force, receptor-ligand bindings, and thermal fluctuations; the receptor-ligand bonds are modeled as linear springs. Depending on the applied shear flow rate, three dynamic states of cell motion have been identified: (i) free motion, (ii) rolling adhesion, and (iii) firm adhesion. Of particular interest is the fraction of captured circulating tumor cells, defined as the capture ratio, via specific receptor-ligand bonds. The cell capture ratio decreases with increasing shear flow rate with a characteristic rate. Based on both experimental and theoretical results, the characteristic flow rate increases monotonically with increasing either cell-receptor or surface-ligand density within certain ranges. Utilizing it as a scaling parameter, flow-rate dependent capture ratios for various cell-surface combinations collapse onto a single curve described by an exponential formula.

  9. Interaction of KSHV with Host Cell Surface Receptors and Cell Entry

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    Mohanan Valiya Veettil


    Full Text Available Virus entry is a complex process characterized by a sequence of events. Since the discovery of KSHV in 1994, tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of KSHV entry into its in vitro target cells. KSHV entry is a complex multistep process involving viral envelope glycoproteins and several cell surface molecules that is utilized by KSHV for its attachment and entry. KSHV has a broad cell tropism and the attachment and receptor engagement on target cells have an important role in determining the cell type-specific mode of entry. KSHV utilizes heparan sulfate, integrins and EphrinA2 molecules as receptors which results in the activation of host cell pre-existing signal pathways that facilitate the subsequent cascade of events resulting in the rapid entry of virus particles, trafficking towards the nucleus followed by viral and host gene expression. KSHV enters human fibroblast cells by dynamin dependant clathrin mediated endocytosis and by dynamin independent macropinocytosis in dermal endothelial cells. Once internalized into endosomes, fusion of the viral envelope with the endosomal membranes in an acidification dependent manner results in the release of capsids which subsequently reaches the nuclear pore vicinity leading to the delivery of viral DNA into the nucleus. In this review, we discuss the principal mechanisms that enable KSHV to interact with the host cell surface receptors as well as the mechanisms that are required to modulate cell signaling machinery for a successful entry.

  10. Modeling multivalent ligand-receptor interactions with steric constraints on configurations of cell surface receptor aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monine, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Posner, Richard [TRANSLATION GENOMICS RESAEARCH INSTITUTE; Savage, Paul [BYU; Faeder, James [UNIV OF PITTSBURGH; Hlavacek, William S [UNM


    Signal transduction generally involves multivalent protein-protein interactions, which can produce various protein complexes and post-translational modifications. The reaction networks that characterize these interactions tend to be so large as to challenge conventional simulation procedures. To address this challenge, a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method has been developed that can take advantage of a model specification in terms of reaction rules for molecular interactions. A set of rules implicitly defines the reactions that can occur as a result of the interactions represented by the rules. With the rule-based KMC method, explicit generation of the underlying chemical reaction network implied by rules is avoided. Here, we apply and extend this method to characterize the interactions of a trivalent ligand with a bivalent cell-surface receptor. This system is also studied experimentally. We consider the following kinetic models: an equivalent-site model, an extension of this model, which takes into account steric constraints on the configurations of receptor aggregates, and finally, a model that accounts for cyclic receptor aggregates. Simulation results for the equivalent-site model are consistent with an equilibrium continuum model. Using these models, we investigate the effects of steric constraints and the formation of cyclic aggregates on the kinetics and equilibria of small and large aggregate formation and the percolation phase transition that occurs in this system.

  11. Antibody-protein A conjugated quantum dots for multiplexed imaging of surface receptors in living cells. (United States)

    Jin, Takashi; Tiwari, Dhermendra K; Tanaka, Shin-Ichi; Inouye, Yasushi; Yoshizawa, Keiko; Watanabe, Tomonobu M


    To use quantum dots (QDs) as fluorescent probes for receptor imaging, QD surface should be modified with biomolecules such as antibodies, peptides, carbohydrates, and small-molecule ligands for receptors. Among these QDs, antibody conjugated QDs are the most promising fluorescent probes. There are many kinds of coupling reactions that can be used for preparing antibody conjugated QDs. Most of the antibody coupling reactions, however, are non-selective and time-consuming. In this paper, we report a facile method for preparing antibody conjugated QDs for surface receptor imaging. We used ProteinA as an adaptor protein for binding of antibody to QDs. By using ProteinA conjugated QDs, various types of antibodies are easily attached to the surface of the QDs via non-covalent binding between the F(c) (fragment crystallization) region of antibody and ProteinA. To show the utility of ProteinA conjugated QDs, HER2 (anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) in KPL-4 human breast cancer cells were stained by using anti-HER2 antibody conjugated ProteinA-QDs. In addition, multiplexed imaging of HER2 and CXCR4 (chemokine receptor) in the KPL-4 cells was performed. The result showed that CXCR4 receptors coexist with HER2 receptors in the membrane surface of KPL-4 cells. ProteinA mediated antibody conjugation to QDs is very useful to prepare fluorescent probes for multiplexed imaging of surface receptors in living cells.

  12. Cargo binding promotes KDEL receptor clustering at the mammalian cell surface. (United States)

    Becker, Björn; Shaebani, M Reza; Rammo, Domenik; Bubel, Tobias; Santen, Ludger; Schmitt, Manfred J


    Transmembrane receptor clustering is a ubiquitous phenomenon in pro- and eukaryotic cells to physically sense receptor/ligand interactions and subsequently translate an exogenous signal into a cellular response. Despite that receptor cluster formation has been described for a wide variety of receptors, ranging from chemotactic receptors in bacteria to growth factor and neurotransmitter receptors in mammalian cells, a mechanistic understanding of the underlying molecular processes is still puzzling. In an attempt to fill this gap we followed a combined experimental and theoretical approach by dissecting and modulating cargo binding, internalization and cellular response mediated by KDEL receptors (KDELRs) at the mammalian cell surface after interaction with a model cargo/ligand. Using a fluorescent variant of ricin toxin A chain as KDELR-ligand (eGFP-RTA(H/KDEL)), we demonstrate that cargo binding induces dose-dependent receptor cluster formation at and subsequent internalization from the membrane which is associated and counteracted by anterograde and microtubule-assisted receptor transport to preferred docking sites at the plasma membrane. By means of analytical arguments and extensive numerical simulations we show that cargo-synchronized receptor transport from and to the membrane is causative for KDELR/cargo cluster formation at the mammalian cell surface.

  13. Phosphorylation and chronic agonist treatment atypically modulate GABAB receptor cell surface stability. (United States)

    Fairfax, Benjamin P; Pitcher, Julie A; Scott, Mark G H; Calver, Andrew R; Pangalos, Menelas N; Moss, Stephen J; Couve, Andrés


    GABA(B) receptors are heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptors that mediate slow synaptic inhibition in the central nervous system. The dynamic control of the cell surface stability of GABA(B) receptors is likely to be of fundamental importance in the modulation of receptor signaling. Presently, however, this process is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that GABA(B) receptors are remarkably stable at the plasma membrane showing little basal endocytosis in cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons. In addition, we show that exposure to baclofen, a well characterized GABA(B) receptor agonist, fails to enhance GABA(B) receptor endocytosis. Lack of receptor internalization in neurons correlates with an absence of agonist-induced phosphorylation and lack of arrestin recruitment in heterologous systems. We also demonstrate that chronic exposure to baclofen selectively promotes endocytosis-independent GABA(B) receptor degradation. The effect of baclofen can be attenuated by activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase or co-stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors. Furthermore, we show that increased degradation rates are correlated with reduced receptor phosphorylation at serine 892 in GABA(B)R2. Our results support a model in which GABA(B)R2 phosphorylation specifically stabilizes surface GABA(B) receptors in neurons. We propose that signaling pathways that regulate cAMP levels in neurons may have profound effects on the tonic synaptic inhibition by modulating the availability of GABA(B) receptors.

  14. Cell surface estrogen receptor alpha is upregulated during subchronic metabolic stress and inhibits neuronal cell degeneration.

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    Cristiana Barbati

    Full Text Available In addition to the classical nuclear estrogen receptor, the expression of non-nuclear estrogen receptors localized to the cell surface membrane (mER has recently been demonstrated. Estrogen and its receptors have been implicated in the development or progression of numerous neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, the pathogenesis of these diseases has been associated with disturbances of two key cellular programs: apoptosis and autophagy. An excess of apoptosis or a defect in autophagy has been implicated in neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of ER in determining neuronal cell fate and the possible implication of these receptors in regulating either apoptosis or autophagy. The human neuronal cell line SH-SY5Y and mouse neuronal cells in primary culture were thus exposed to chronic minimal peroxide treatment (CMP, a form of subcytotoxic minimal chronic stress previously that mimics multiple aspects of long-term cell stress and represents a limited molecular proxy for neurodegenerative processes. We actually found that either E2 or E2-bovine serum albumin construct (E2BSA, i.e. a non-permeant form of E2 was capable of modulating intracellular cell signals and regulating cell survival and death. In particular, under CMP, the up-regulation of mERα, but not mERβ, was associated with functional signals (ERK phosphorylation and p38 dephosphorylation compatible with autophagic cytoprotection triggering and leading to cell survival. The mERα trafficking appeared to be independent of the microfilament system cytoskeletal network but was seemingly associated with microtubular apparatus network, i.e., to MAP2 molecular chaperone. Importantly, antioxidant treatments, administration of siRNA to ERα, or the presence of antagonist of ERα hindered these events. These results support that the surface expression of mERα plays a pivotal role in determining cell fate, and that ligand-induced activation of mER signalling exerts a

  15. Cell surface receptors for signal transduction and ligand transport: a design principles study.

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    Harish Shankaran


    Full Text Available Receptors constitute the interface of cells to their external environment. These molecules bind specific ligands involved in multiple processes, such as signal transduction and nutrient transport. Although a variety of cell surface receptors undergo endocytosis, the systems-level design principles that govern the evolution of receptor trafficking dynamics are far from fully understood. We have constructed a generalized mathematical model of receptor-ligand binding and internalization to understand how receptor internalization dynamics encodes receptor function and regulation. A given signaling or transport receptor system represents a particular implementation of this module with a specific set of kinetic parameters. Parametric analysis of the response of receptor systems to ligand inputs reveals that receptor systems can be characterized as being: i avidity-controlled where the response control depends primarily on the extracellular ligand capture efficiency, ii consumption-controlled where the ability to internalize surface-bound ligand is the primary control parameter, and iii dual-sensitivity where both the avidity and consumption parameters are important. We show that the transferrin and low-density lipoprotein receptors are avidity-controlled, the vitellogenin receptor is consumption-controlled, and the epidermal growth factor receptor is a dual-sensitivity receptor. Significantly, we show that ligand-induced endocytosis is a mechanism to enhance the accuracy of signaling receptors rather than merely serving to attenuate signaling. Our analysis reveals that the location of a receptor system in the avidity-consumption parameter space can be used to understand both its function and its regulation.

  16. Modulation of cell surface GABA B receptors by desensitization,trafficking and regulated degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dietmar; Benke; Khaled; Zemoura; Patrick; J; Maier


    Inhibitory neurotransmission ensures normal brain function by counteracting and integrating excitatory activity.-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system,and mediates its effects via two classes of receptors:the GABA A and GABA B receptors.GABA A receptors are heteropentameric GABA-gated chloride channels and responsible for fast inhibitory neurotransmission.GABA B receptors are heterodimeric G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) that mediate slow and prolonged inhibitory transmission.The extent of inhibitory neurotransmission is determined by a variety of factors,such as the degree of transmitter release and changes in receptor activity by posttranslational modifications (e.g.,phosphorylation),as well as by the number of receptors present in the plasma membrane available for signal transduction.The level of GABA B receptors at the cell surface critically depends on the residence time at the cell surface and finally the rates of endocytosis and degradation.In this review we focus primarily on recent advances in the understanding of trafficking mechanisms that determine the expression level of GABA B receptors in the plasma membrane,and thereby signaling strength.

  17. Inhibition of experimental ascending urinary tract infection by an epithelial cell-surface receptor analogue (United States)

    Edén, C. Svanborg; Freter, R.; Hagberg, L.; Hull, R.; Hull, S.; Leffler, H.; Schoolnik, G.


    It has been shown that the establishment of urinary tract infection by Escherichia coli is dependent on attachment of the bacteria to epithelial cells1-4. The attachment involves specific epithelial cell receptors, which have been characterized as glycolipids5-10. Reversible binding to cell-surface mannosides may also be important4,11-13. This suggests an approach to the treatment of infections-that of blocking bacterial attachment with cell membrane receptor analogues. Using E. coli mutants lacking one or other of the two binding specificities (glycolipid and mannose), we show here that glycolipid analogues can block in vitro adhesion and in vivo urinary tract infection.

  18. Wellcome Prize Lecture. Cell surface, ion-sensing receptors. (United States)

    Riccardi, Daniela


    Changes in extracellular calcium (Ca(2+)o) concentration ([Ca2+]o) affect kidney function both under basal and hormone-stimulated conditions. The molecular identification of an extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaR) has confirmed a direct role of Ca(2+)o on parathyroid and kidney function (i.e. independent of calciotropic hormones) as a modulator of Ca2+ homeostasis. In addition, evidence accumulated over the last 10 years has shown that CaR is also expressed in regions outside the calcium homeostatic system where its role is largely undefined but seems to be linked to regulation of local ionic homeostasis. The parathyroid and kidney CaRs are 1081 and 1079 amino acids long, respectively, and belong to the type III family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which includes other CaRs, metabotropic glutamate receptors and putative vomeronasal organ receptors. For the CaR, its low (millimolar) affinity for Ca2+, its positive cooperativity and its large ion-sensing extracellular domain, indicate that the receptor is more sensitive to changes in net cationic charge rather than to a specific ligand. Mg2+, trivalent cations of the lanthanide series and polyvalent cations such as spermine and aminoglycoside antibiotics can all activate the receptor in vitro with EC50 values in the micromolar range for trivalent and polyvalent cations or in the millimolar range for Ca2+ and Mg2+. In addition to true CaR agonists, CaR sensitivity to Ca(2+)o is also susceptible to allosteric modulation by ionic strength, L-amino acids and by pharmacological agents. This review will address endogenous and exogenous CaR agonists, the role of the receptor in the calcium homeostatic system and some speculation on possible role(s) of the CaR in regions not involved in mineral ion homeostasis.

  19. Generalized paired-agent kinetic model for in vivo quantification of cancer cell-surface receptors under receptor saturation conditions (United States)

    Sadeghipour, N.; Davis, S. C.; Tichauer, K. M.


    New precision medicine drugs oftentimes act through binding to specific cell-surface cancer receptors, and thus their efficacy is highly dependent on the availability of those receptors and the receptor concentration per cell. Paired-agent molecular imaging can provide quantitative information on receptor status in vivo, especially in tumor tissue; however, to date, published approaches to paired-agent quantitative imaging require that only ‘trace’ levels of imaging agent exist compared to receptor concentration. This strict requirement may limit applicability, particularly in drug binding studies, which seek to report on a biological effect in response to saturating receptors with a drug moiety. To extend the regime over which paired-agent imaging may be used, this work presents a generalized simplified reference tissue model (GSRTM) for paired-agent imaging developed to approximate receptor concentration in both non-receptor-saturated and receptor-saturated conditions. Extensive simulation studies show that tumor receptor concentration estimates recovered using the GSRTM are more accurate in receptor-saturation conditions than the standard simple reference tissue model (SRTM) (% error (mean  ±  sd): GSRTM 0  ±  1 and SRTM 50  ±  1) and match the SRTM accuracy in non-saturated conditions (% error (mean  ±  sd): GSRTM 5  ±  5 and SRTM 0  ±  5). To further test the approach, GSRTM-estimated receptor concentration was compared to SRTM-estimated values extracted from tumor xenograft in vivo mouse model data. The GSRTM estimates were observed to deviate from the SRTM in tumors with low receptor saturation (which are likely in a saturated regime). Finally, a general ‘rule-of-thumb’ algorithm is presented to estimate the expected level of receptor saturation that would be achieved in a given tissue provided dose and pharmacokinetic information about the drug or imaging agent being used, and physiological

  20. Evidence for leptin receptor isoforms heteromerization at the cell surface. (United States)

    Bacart, Johan; Leloire, Audrey; Levoye, Angélique; Froguel, Philippe; Jockers, Ralf; Couturier, Cyril


    Leptin mediates its metabolic effects through several leptin receptor (LEP-R) isoforms. In humans, long (LEPRb) and short (LEPRa,c,d) isoforms are generated by alternative splicing. Most of leptin's effects are believed to be mediated by the OB-Rb isoform. However, the role of short LEPR isoforms and the possible existence of heteromers between different isoforms are poorly understood. Using BRET1 and optimized co-immunoprecipitation, we observed LEPRa/b and LEPRb/c heteromers located at the plasma membrane and stabilized by leptin. Given the widespread coexpression of LEPRa and LEPRb, our results suggest that LEPRa/b heteromers may represent a major receptor species in most tissues.

  1. New Insights into VacA Intoxication Mediated through Its Cell Surface Receptors

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    Kinnosuke Yahiro


    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, a major cause of gastroduodenal diseases, produces VacA, a vacuolating cytotoxin associated with gastric inflammation and ulceration. The C-terminal domain of VacA plays a crucial role in receptor recognition on target cells. We have previously identified three proteins (i.e., RPTPα, RPTPβ, and LRP1 that serve as VacA receptors. These receptors contribute to the internalization of VacA into epithelial cells, activate signal transduction pathways, and contribute to cell death and gastric ulceration. In addition, other factors (e.g., CD18, sphingomyelin have also been identified as cell-surface, VacA-binding proteins. Since we believe that, following interactions with its host cell receptors, VacA participates in events leading to disease, a better understanding of the cellular function of VacA receptors may provide valuable information regarding the mechanisms underlying the pleiotropic actions of VacA and the pathogenesis of H. pylori-mediated disease. In this review, we focus on VacA receptors and their role in events leading to cell damage.

  2. The ligand-binding domain of the cell surface receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Ploug, M; Patthy, L;


    part of the intact receptor, probably including the whole sequence 1-87, and contained N-linked carbohydrate. After detergent phase separation in the Triton X-114 system, the fragment was present in the water phase where its binding activity could be demonstrated in the absence of the rest...... applications in interfering with cell-surface plasmin-mediated proteolysis....

  3. Cell-surface acceleration of urokinase-catalyzed receptor cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer-Hansen, G; Ploug, M; Behrendt, N;


    937 cell lysates, had the same amino termini as uPAR(2+3), generated by uPA in a purified system. In both cases cleavage had occurred at two positions in the hinge region connecting domain 1 and 2, between Arg83-Ala84 and Arg89-Ser90, respectively. The uPA-catalyzed cleavage of uPAR is a new negative...

  4. Cell Surface Receptor Theory of Disease Infectivity; Body's Defence and Normal Body Functioning in Living Things

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    Full Text Available Problem statement: A study of the pattern of Candida spp. infection of the human body and the mode and pattern of reaction of the human body to this infection showed that disease infectivity and self healing by plants followed the same procedures and patterns. Approach: A comparism of these procedures and patterns of natural self- healing of disease infection by the human body and plants/plant parts with the cutaneous Candida spp. killing and elimination procedures and patterns of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract, showed that cell surface receptors are the sites through which disease infects the body and also the sites at which the body is defended. They are also the sites where activities which result in normal body functioning are carried out. The mode and patterns of Cutaneous Candida infection in a human subject and its containment by the body was examined and photographed. The disease infection and self healing procedures and patterns of plants were also examined in comparism with those of their healthy counterparts and photographed. The findings from the observations on disease infectivity and natural body’s defence patterns and procedures of the plant parts studied and those of the human body in reaction to Candida spp. infection were compared with those of the Candida spp. killing procedures and patterns of aqueous and Arachis hypogeal oil extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaf. Results: The findings of this study also showed that disease-infective organisms gain access to the body of a host through attachment to the cell surface receptors of that host which are placed linearly and are interconnected by channels. The results of the study also indicated that living organisms have a main endogenous substance that mediates both their body’s defence and their normal physiological functioning which is therefore the owner of the cell surface receptor. Other endogenous substances which participate in normal body functioning/body’s defence or in

  5. Matricryptins network with matricellular receptors at the surface of endothelial and tumor cells

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    Sylvie eRICARD-BLUM


    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix is a source of bioactive fragments called matricryptins or matrikines resulting from the proteolytic cleavage of extracellular proteins (e.g. collagens, elastin and laminins and proteoglycans (e.g. perlecan. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, cathepsins and bone-morphogenetic protein-1 release fragments, which regulate physiopathological processes including tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis, a pre-requisite for tumor growth. A number of matricryptins, and/or synthetic peptides derived from them, are currently investigated as potential anti-cancer drugs both in vitro and in animal models. Modifications aiming at improving their efficiency and their delivery to their target cells are studied. However their use as drugs is not straightforward. The biological activities of these fragments are mediated by several receptor families. Several matricryptins may bind to the same matricellular receptor, and a single matricryptin may bind to two different receptors belonging or not to the same family such as integrins and growth factor receptors. Furthermore some matricryptins interact with each other, integrins and growth factor receptors crosstalk and a signaling pathway may be regulated by several matricryptins. This forms an intricate 3D interaction network at the surface of tumor and endothelial cells, which is tightly associated with other cell-surface associated molecules such as heparan sulfate, caveolin and nucleolin. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the behavior of this network is required in order to optimize the development of matricryptins as anti-cancer agents.

  6. Polymorphisms of the cell surface receptor control mouse susceptibilities to xenotropic and polytropic leukemia viruses. (United States)

    Marin, M; Tailor, C S; Nouri, A; Kozak, S L; Kabat, D


    The differential susceptibilities of mouse strains to xenotropic and polytropic murine leukemia viruses (X-MLVs and P-MLVs, respectively) are poorly understood but may involve multiple mechanisms. Recent evidence has demonstrated that these viruses use a common cell surface receptor (the X-receptor) for infection of human cells. We describe the properties of X-receptor cDNAs with distinct sequences cloned from five laboratory and wild strains of mice and from hamsters and minks. Expression of these cDNAs in resistant cells conferred susceptibilities to the same viruses that naturally infect the animals from which the cDNAs were derived. Thus, a laboratory mouse (NIH Swiss) X-receptor conferred susceptibility to P-MLVs but not to X-MLVs, whereas those from humans, minks, and several wild mice (Mus dunni, SC-1 cells, and Mus spretus) mediated infections by both X-MLVs and P-MLVs. In contrast, X-receptors from the resistant mouse strain Mus castaneus and from hamsters were inactive as viral receptors. These results suggest that X-receptor polymorphisms are a primary cause of resistances of mice to members of the X-MLV/P-MLV family of retroviruses and are responsible for the xenotropism of X-MLVs in laboratory mice. By site-directed mutagenesis, we substituted sequences between the X-receptors of M. dunni and NIH Swiss mice. The NIH Swiss protein contains two key differences (K500E in presumptive extracellular loop 3 [ECL 3] and a T582 deletion in ECL 4) that are both required to block X-MLV infections. Accordingly, a single inverse mutation in the NIH Swiss protein conferred X-MLV susceptibility. Furthermore, expression of an X-MLV envelope glycoprotein in Chinese hamster ovary cells interfered efficiently with X-MLV and P-MLV infections mediated by X-receptors that contained K500 and/or T582 but had no effect on P-MLV infections mediated by X-receptors that lacked these amino acids. In contrast, moderate expression of a P-MLV (MCF247) envelope glycoprotein did not

  7. Aged mice have increased inflammatory monocyte concentration and altered expression of cell-surface functional receptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kelley Strohacker; Whitney L Breslin; Katie C Carpenter; Brian K McFarlin


    The expression of monocyte cell-surface receptors represents one index of immune dysfunction, which is common with aging. Although mouse models of aging are prevalent, monocyte subset assessment is rare. Our purpose was to compare cell receptor expression on classic (CD115+/Gr-1high) and non-classic (CD115+/Gr-1low) monocytes from 80- or 20-week-old CD-1 mice. Three-colour flow cytometry was used to determine the concentration of monocyte subsets and their respective cell-surface expression of TLR2, TLR4, CD80, CD86, MHC II and CD54. These receptors were selected because they have been previously associated with altered monocyte function. Data were analysed with independent -tests; significance was set at < 0.05. Old mice had a greater concentration of both classic (258%, =0.003) and non-classic (70%, =0.026) monocytes. The classic : non-classic monocyte ratio doubled in old as compared with that in young mice (=0.006), indicating a pro-inflammatory shift. TLR4 ($\\downarrow$27%, =0.001) and CD80 ($\\downarrow$37%, =0.004) were decreased on classic monocytes from old as compared with those from young mice. TLR2 ($\\uparrow$24%, =0.002) and MHCII ($\\downarrow$21%, =0.026) were altered on non-classic monocytes from old as compared with those from young mice. The increased classic : non-classic monocyte ratio combined with changes in the cell-surface receptor expression on both monocyte subsets is indicative of immune dysfunction, which may increase age-associated disease risk.

  8. Structural evidence for evolution of shark Ig new antigen receptor variable domain antibodies from a cell-surface receptor. (United States)

    Streltsov, V A; Varghese, J N; Carmichael, J A; Irving, R A; Hudson, P J; Nuttall, S D


    The Ig new antigen receptors (IgNARs) are single-domain antibodies found in the serum of sharks. Here, we report 2.2- and 2.8-A structures of the type 2 IgNAR variable domains 12Y-1 and 12Y-2. Structural features include, first, an Ig superfamily topology transitional between cell adhesion molecules, antibodies, and T cell receptors; and, second, a vestigial complementarity-determining region 2 at the "bottom" of the molecule, apparently discontinuous from the antigen-binding paratope and similar to that observed in cell adhesion molecules. Thus, we suggest that IgNARs originated as cell-surface adhesion molecules coopted to the immune repertoire and represent an evolutionary lineage independent of variable heavy chain/variable light chain type antibodies. Additionally, both 12Y-1 and 12Y-2 form unique crystallographic dimers, predominantly mediated by main-chain framework interactions, which represent a possible model for primordial cell-based interactions. Unusually, the 12Y-2 complementarity-determining region 3 also adopts an extended beta-hairpin structure, suggesting a distinct selective advantage in accessing cryptic antigenic epitopes.

  9. Chemokine receptor expression on the surface of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in Chagas disease. (United States)

    Talvani, Andre; Rocha, Manoel O C; Ribeiro, Antonio L; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Mauro M


    We evaluated the expression of chemokine receptors (CCR1, CCR2, CCR5, and CXCR4) on the surface of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from patients with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) and noninfected individuals. Only CCR5 and CXCR4 expression was different on the surface of the subsets (CD4, CD8, and CD14) evaluated. Patients with mild CCC had elevated leukocyte expression of CCR5, compared with noninfected individuals or those with severe disease. CXCR4 expression was lower on leukocytes from patients with severe CCC. The differential expression of both receptors on leukocytes of patients with CCC was consistent and clearly correlated with the degree of heart function such that the lower the heart function, the lower the expression of either CCR5 or CXCR4. These results highlight the possible participation of the chemokine system in early forms of chagasic cardiomyopathy and the relevance of heart failure-induced remodeling in modifying immune parameters in infected individuals.

  10. A model for the biosynthesis and transport of plasma membrane-associated signaling receptors to the cell surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Claudia Popescu


    Full Text Available Intracellular protein transport is emerging as critical in determining the outcome of receptor-activated signal transduction pathways. In plants, relatively little is known about the nature of the molecular components and mechanisms involved in coordinating receptor synthesis and transport to the cell surface. Recent advances in this field indicate that signaling pathways and intracellular transport machinery converge and coordinate to render receptors competent for signaling at their plasma membrane activity sites. The biogenesis and transport to the cell surface of signaling receptors appears to require both general trafficking and receptor-specific factors. Several molecular determinants, residing or associated with compartments of the secretory pathway and known to influence aspects in receptor biogenesis, are discussed and integrated into a predictive cooperative model for the functional expression of signaling receptors at the plasma membrane.

  11. Structure-function Aspects of Extracellular Leucine-rich Repeat-containing Cell Surface Receptors in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhang; Bart PHJ Thomma


    Plants exploit several types of cell surface receptors for perception of extracellular signals, of which the extracellular leucine-rich repeat (eLRR)-containing receptors form the major class. Although the function of most plant eLRR receptors remains unclear, an increasing number of these receptors are shown to play roles in innate immunity and a wide variety of developmental processes. Recent efforts using domain swaps, gene shuffling analyses, site-directed mutagenesis, interaction studies, and crystallographic analyses resulted in the current knowledge on ligand binding and the mechanism of activation of plant eLRR receptors. This review provides an overview of eLRR receptor research, specifically summarizing the recent understanding of interactions among plant eLRR receptors, their co-receptors and corresponding ligands. The functions of distinct eLRR receptor domains, and their role in structure, ligand perception and multimeric complex formation are discussed.

  12. Selection of functional T cell receptor mutants from a yeast surface-display library. (United States)

    Kieke, M C; Shusta, E V; Boder, E T; Teyton, L; Wittrup, K D; Kranz, D M


    The heterodimeric alphabeta T cell receptor (TCR) for antigen is the key determinant of T cell specificity. The structure of the TCR is very similar to that of antibodies, but the engineering of TCRs by directed evolution with combinatorial display libraries has not been accomplished to date. Here, we report that yeast surface display of a TCR was achieved only after the mutation of specific variable region residues. These residues are located in two regions of the TCR, at the interface of the alpha- and beta-chains and in the beta-chain framework region that is thought to be in proximity to the CD3 signal-transduction complex. The mutations are encoded naturally in many antibody variable regions, indicating specific functional differences that have not been appreciated between TCRs and antibodies. The identification of these residues provides an explanation for the inherent difficulties in the display of wild-type TCRs compared with antibodies. Yeast-displayed mutant TCRs bind specifically to the peptide/MHC antigen, enabling engineering of soluble T cell receptors as specific T cell antagonists. This strategy of random mutagenesis followed by selection for surface expression may be of general use in the directed evolution of other eukaryotic proteins that are refractory to display.

  13. Cell wall trapping of autocrine peptides for human G-protein-coupled receptors on the yeast cell surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ishii

    Full Text Available G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs regulate a wide variety of physiological processes and are important pharmaceutical targets for drug discovery. Here, we describe a unique concept based on yeast cell-surface display technology to selectively track eligible peptides with agonistic activity for human GPCRs (Cell Wall Trapping of Autocrine Peptides (CWTrAP strategy. In our strategy, individual recombinant yeast cells are able to report autocrine-positive activity for human GPCRs by expressing a candidate peptide fused to an anchoring motif. Following expression and activation, yeast cells trap autocrine peptides onto their cell walls. Because captured peptides are incapable of diffusion, they have no impact on surrounding yeast cells that express the target human GPCR and non-signaling peptides. Therefore, individual yeast cells can assemble the autonomous signaling complex and allow single-cell screening of a yeast population. Our strategy may be applied to identify eligible peptides with agonistic activity for target human GPCRs.

  14. Detection of the plant parasite Cuscuta reflexa by a tomato cell surface receptor. (United States)

    Hegenauer, Volker; Fürst, Ursula; Kaiser, Bettina; Smoker, Matthew; Zipfel, Cyril; Felix, Georg; Stahl, Mark; Albert, Markus


    Parasitic plants are a constraint on agriculture worldwide. Cuscuta reflexa is a stem holoparasite that infests most dicotyledonous plants. One exception is tomato, which is resistant to C. reflexa We discovered that tomato responds to a small peptide factor occurring in Cuscuta spp. with immune responses typically activated after perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns. We identified the cell surface receptor-like protein CUSCUTA RECEPTOR 1 (CuRe1) as essential for the perception of this parasite-associated molecular pattern. CuRe1 is sufficient to confer responsiveness to the Cuscuta factor and increased resistance to parasitic C. reflexa when heterologously expressed in otherwise susceptible host plants. Our findings reveal that plants recognize parasitic plants in a manner similar to perception of microbial pathogens.

  15. Class I major histocompatibility proteins as cell surface receptors for simian virus 40. (United States)

    Atwood, W J; Norkin, L C


    Class I major histocompatibility complex proteins appear to be the major cell surface receptors for simian virus 40 (SV40), as implied by the following observations. Adsorption of SV40 to LLC-MK2 rhesus monkey kidney cells specifically inhibited binding of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against class I human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. Conversely, pretreatment of LLC-MK2 cells with anti-HLA MAbs inhibited infection by SV40. The ability of anti-HLA to inhibit infection was greatly reduced when the order of addition of the anti-HLA and the virus was reversed. Infection was also inhibited by preincubating SV40 with purified soluble class I protein. Finally, human lymphoblastoid cells of the Daudi line, which do not express class I major histocompatibility complex proteins, were infected at relatively low levels with SV40 virions. In a control experiment, we found that pretreatment of cells with a MAb specific for the leukocytic-function-associated antigen LFA-3 actually enhanced infection. This finding may also support the premise that class I major histocompatibility complex proteins are receptors for SV40.

  16. Brownian nanoimaging of interface dynamics and ligand-receptor binding at cell surfaces in 3-D. (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Igor R; Evans, Evan A


    We describe a method for nanoimaging interfacial dynamics and ligand-receptor binding at surfaces of live cells in 3-D. The imaging probe is a 1-μm diameter glass bead confined by a soft laser trap to create a "cloud" of fluctuating states. Using a facile on-line method of video image analysis, the probe displacements are reported at ~10 ms intervals with bare precisions (±SD) of 4-6 nm along the optical axis (elevation) and 2 nm in the transverse directions. We demonstrate how the Brownian distributions are analyzed to characterize the free energy potential of each small probe in 3-D taking into account the blur effect of its motions during CCD image capture. Then, using the approach to image interactions of a labeled probe with lamellae of leukocytic cells spreading on cover-glass substrates, we show that deformations of the soft distribution in probe elevations provide both a sensitive long-range sensor for defining the steric topography of a cell lamella and a fast telemetry for reporting rare events of probe binding with its surface receptors. Invoking established principles of Brownian physics and statistical thermodynamics, we describe an off-line method of super resolution that improves precision of probe separations from a non-reactive steric boundary to ~1 nm.

  17. Isolation of anti-T cell receptor scFv mutants by yeast surface display. (United States)

    Kieke, M C; Cho, B K; Boder, E T; Kranz, D M; Wittrup, K D


    Yeast surface display and sorting by flow cytometry have been used to isolate mutants of an scFv that is specific for the Vbeta8 region of the T cell receptor. Selection was based on equilibrium binding by two fluorescently labeled probes, a soluble Vbeta8 domain and an antibody to the c-myc epitope tag present at the carboxy-terminus of the scFv. The mutants that were selected in this screen included a scFv with threefold increased affinity for the Vbeta8 and scFv clones that were bound with reduced affinities by the anti-c-myc antibody. The latter finding indicates that the yeast display system may be used to map conformational epitopes, which cannot be revealed by standard peptide screens. Equilibrium antigen binding constants were estimated within the surface display format, allowing screening of isolated mutants without necessitating subcloning and soluble expression. Only a relatively small library of yeast cells (3 x 10[5]) displaying randomly mutagenized scFv was screened to identify these mutants, indicating that this system will provide a powerful tool for engineering the binding properties of eucaryotic secreted and cell surface proteins.

  18. Ligand-receptor binding kinetics in surface plasmon resonance cells: A Monte Carlo analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Jacob; Forsten-Williams, Kimberly; Täuber, Uwe C


    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chips are widely used to measure association and dissociation rates for the binding kinetics between two species of chemicals, e.g., cell receptors and ligands. It is commonly assumed that ligands are spatially well mixed in the SPR region, and hence a mean-field rate equation description is appropriate. This approximation however ignores the spatial fluctuations as well as temporal correlations induced by multiple local rebinding events, which become prominent for slow diffusion rates and high binding affinities. We report detailed Monte Carlo simulations of ligand binding kinetics in an SPR cell subject to laminar flow. We extract the binding and dissociation rates by means of the techniques frequently employed in experimental analysis that are motivated by the mean-field approximation. We find major discrepancies in a wide parameter regime between the thus extracted rates and the known input simulation values. These results underscore the crucial quantitative importance of s...

  19. Scratching the surface: Regulation of cell surface receptors in cholesterol metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Nelson


    Elevated plasma levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) are an established risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. The LDL-Receptor is a key determinant in regulating LDL levels in plasma, and current lipid-lowering strategies aim to increase its c

  20. Receptor-Mediated Surface Charge Inversion Platform Based on Porous Silicon Nanoparticles for Efficient Cancer Cell Recognition and Combination Therapy. (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Correia, Alexandra; Mäkilä, Ermei; Li, Wei; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni J; Zhang, Hongbo; Santos, Hélder A


    Negatively charged surface-modified drug delivery systems are promising for in vivo applications as they have more tendency to accumulate in tumor tissues. However, the inefficient cell uptake of these systems restricts their final therapeutic performance. Here, we have fabricated a receptor-mediated surface charge inversion nanoparticle made of undecylenic acid modified, thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (UnTHCPSi) nanoparticles core and sequentially modified with polyethylenimine (PEI), methotrexate (MTX), and DNA aptamer AS1411 (herein termed as UnTHCPSi-PEI-MTX@AS1411) for enhancing the cell uptake of nucleolin-positive cells. The efficient interaction of AS1411 and the relevant receptor nucleolin caused the disintegration of the negative-charged AS1411 surface. The subsequent surface charge inversion and exposure of the active targeting ligand, MTX, enhanced the cell uptake of the nanoparticles. On the basis of this synergistic effect, the UnTHCPSi-PEI-MTX@AS1411 (hydrodynamic diameter is 242 nm) were efficiently internalized by nucleolin-positive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, with an efficiency around 5.8 times higher than that of nucleolin-negative cells (NIH 3T3 fibroblasts). The receptor competition assay demonstrated that the major mechanism (more than one-half) of the internalized nanoparticles in MDA-MB-231 cells was due to the receptor-mediated surface charge inversion process. Finally, after loading of sorafenib, the nanosystem showed efficient performance for combination therapy with an inhibition ratio of 35.6%.

  1. Cell surface receptors for signal transduction and ligand transport - a design principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankaran, Harish; Resat, Haluk; Wiley, H. S.


    Although many different receptors undergo endocytosis, the system-level design principles that govern the evolution of receptor dynamics are far from fully understood. We have constructed a generalized mathematical model to understand how receptor internalization dynamics encodes receptor function and regulation. Parametric analysis of the response of receptor systems to ligand inputs reveals that receptors can be categorized a being: i) avidity-controlled where the response control depends primarily on the extracelluar ligand capture efficiency, ii) consumption-controlled where the ability to internalize surface-bound ligand is the primary control parameter, and iii) dual-sensitivity where both the avidity and consumption parameters are important. We show that the transferrin and low-density lipoprotein receptors are avidity-controlled, the vitellogenin receptor is consumption-controlled and epidermal growth factor receptor is a dual-sensitivity receptor. Significantly, we show that ligand-induced endocytosis is a mechanism to anhance the accuracy of signaling receptors rather than serving to attenuate signaling. Our analysis reveals that the location of a receptor system in the avidity-consumption parameter space can be used to understand both its function and its regulations.

  2. Binding of /sup 125/I-labeled reovirus to cell surface receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, R.L.; Powers, M.L.; Rogart, R.B.; Weiner, H.L.


    Quantitative studies of /sup 125/I-labeled reovirus binding at equilibrium to several cell types was studied, including (1) murine L cell fibroblasts; (2) murine splenic T lymphocytes; (3) YAC cells, a murine lymphoma cell line; and (4) R1.1 cells, a murine thymoma cell line. Competition and saturation studies demonstrated (1) specific, saturable, high-affinity binding of reovirus types 1 and 3 to nonidentical receptors on L cell fibroblasts; (2) high-affinity binding of type 3 reovirus to murine splenic lymphocytes and R1.1 cells; (3) low-affinity binding of reovirus type 1 to lymphocytes and R1.1 cells; and (4) no significant binding of either serotype to YAC cells. Differences in the binding characteristics of the two reovirus serotypes to L cell fibroblasts were found to be a property of the viral hemagglutinin, as demonstrated using a recombinant viral clone. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) for viral binding was of extremely high affinity (Kd in the range of 0.5 nM), and was slowly reversible. Experiments demonstrated temperature and pH dependence of reovirus binding and receptor modification studies using pronase, neuraminidase, and various sugars confirmed previous studies that reovirus receptors are predominantly protein in structure. The reovirus receptor site density was in the range of 2-8 X 10(4) sites/cell. These studies demonstrate that the pseudo-first-order kinetic model for ligand-receptor interactions provides a useful model for studying interactions of viral particles with membrane viral receptors. They also suggest that one cell may have distinct receptor sites for two serotypes of the same virus, and that one viral serotype may bind with different kinetics depending on the cell type.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yu. Lvova


    Full Text Available Abstract. During the passage through the utero-placental circulation, peripheral blood monocytes are exposed to action of various soluble placenta-derived factors. Subsequently these cells migrate to placental tissue and play a key role in regulation of placental growth and development. We investigated the influence of placental secretory factors upon expression of THP-1 cells surface receptors during normal pregnancy, and pregnancy complicated with preeclampsia. Soluble placenta-derived factors produced by the third-trimester placenta caused reduced intensity of CD11а, CD18, CD54, CD14, TRAIL and VEGFR1 expression on THP-1 cells, as compared with the first-trimester placental extracts. Soluble placenta-derived factors from preeclamptic placenta caused an increased intensity of CD18 and CD54 expression by THP-1 cells and decreased intensity of VEGFR1 expression in comparison to normal pregnancy. The work was supported by grants of the President of the Russian Federation № НШ-131.2012.7, СП-3492.2013.4 МК-1580.2013.7 and by grant РФФИ № 13-04-00304 А.

  4. The Dentin Sialoprotein (DSP) Domain Regulates Dental Mesenchymal Cell Differentiation through a Novel Surface Receptor. (United States)

    Wan, Chunyan; Yuan, Guohua; Luo, Daoshu; Zhang, Lu; Lin, Heng; Liu, Huan; Chen, Lei; Yang, Guobin; Chen, Shuo; Chen, Zhi


    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is a dentin extracellular matrix protein that is processed into dentin sialoprotein (DSP), dentin glycoprotein (DGP) and dentin phosphoprotein (DPP). DSP is mainly expressed in odontoblasts. We hypothesized that DSP interacts with cell surface receptors and subsequently activates intracellular signaling. Using DSP as bait for screening a protein library, we demonstrate that DSP acts as a ligand and binds to integrin β6. The 36 amino acid residues of DSP are sufficient to bind to integrin β6. This peptide promoted cell attachment, migration, differentiation and mineralization of dental mesenchymal cells. In addition, DSP (aa183-219) stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and P38 kinases. This activation was inhibited by an anti-integrin β6 antibody and siRNA. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this DSP fragment induces SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation via ERK1/2 and P38 signaling. SMAD1/5/8 binds to SMAD binding elements (SBEs) in the DSPP gene promoter. SBE mutations result in a decrease in DSPP transcriptional activity. Endogenous DSPP expression was up-regulated by DSP (aa183-219) in dental mesenchymal cells. The data in the current study demonstrate for the first time that this DSP domain acts as a ligand in a RGD-independent manner and is involved in intracellular signaling via interacting with integrin β6. The DSP domain regulates DSPP expression and odontoblast homeostasis via a positive feedback loop.

  5. The cell surface receptor Slamf6 modulates innate immune responses during Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis. (United States)

    van Driel, Boaz; Wang, Guoxing; Liao, Gongxian; Halibozek, Peter J; Keszei, Marton; O'Keeffe, Michael S; Bhan, Atul K; Wang, Ninghai; Terhorst, Cox


    The homophilic cell surface receptors CD150 (Slamf1) and CD352 (Slamf6) are known to modulate adaptive immune responses. Although the Th17 response was enhanced in Slamf6(-/-) C57BL/6 mice upon oral infection with Citrobacter rodentium, the pathologic consequences are indistinguishable from an infection of wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Using a reporter-based binding assay, we show that Slamf6 can engage structures on the outer cell membrane of several Gram(-) bacteria. Therefore, we examined whether Slamf6, like Slamf1, is also involved in innate responses to bacteria and regulates peripheral inflammation by assessing the outcome of C. rodentium infections in Rag(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, the pathology and immune responses in the lamina propria of C. rodentium-infected Slamf6(-/-) Rag(-/-) mice were markedly reduced as compared with those of Rag(-/-) mice. Infiltration of inflammatory phagocytes into the lamina propria was consistently lower in Slamf6(-/-) Rag(-/-) mice than in Rag(-/-) animals. Concomitant with the reduced systemic translocation of the bacteria was an enhanced production of IL-22, suggesting that Slamf6 suppresses a mucosal protective program. Furthermore, administering a mAb (330) that inhibits bacterial interactions with Slamf6 to Rag(-/-) mice ameliorated the infection compared with a control antibody. We conclude that Slamf6-mediated interactions of colonic innate immune cells with specific Gram(-) bacteria reduce mucosal protection and enhance inflammation, contributing to lethal colitis that is caused by C. rodentium infections in Rag(-/-) mice.

  6. Identification of Hyal2 as the cell-surface receptor for jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus and ovine nasal adenocarcinoma virus. (United States)

    Miller, A D


    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) and ovine nasal adenocarcinoma virus (ONAV) replicate in the airway and cause epithelial cell tumors through the activity of their envelope (Env) proteins. Identification of the receptor(s) that mediate cell entry by these viruses is crucial to understanding the oncogenic activity of Env and for the development of gene therapy vectors based on these viruses that are capable of targeting airway cells. To identify the viral receptor(s) and to further study the biology of JSRV and ONAV, we developed retroviral vectors containing Moloney murine leukemia virus components and the Env proteins of JSRV or ONAV. We used a new technique involving positional cloning by phenotypic mapping in radiation hybrid cells to identify and clone the human receptor for JSRV, Hyal2, which also serves as the receptor for ONAV. Hyal2 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell-surface protein that has low hyaluronidase activity and is a member of a large family that includes sperm hyaluronidase (Spam) and serum hyaluronidase (Hyal1). Hyal2 is located in a region of human chromosome 3p21.3 that is often deleted in lung cancer, suggesting that it may be a tumor suppressor. However, its role in JSRV or ONAV tumorigenesis, if any, is still unclear. JSRV vectors are capable of transducing various human cells, and are being further evaluated for gene therapy purposes.

  7. The Cell Surface Estrogen Receptor, G Protein- Coupled Receptor 30 (GPR30, is Markedly Down Regulated During Breast Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Poola


    Full Text Available Background: GPR30 is a cell surface estrogen receptor that has been shown to mediate a number of non-genomic rapid effects of estrogen and appear to balance the signaling of estrogen and growth factors. In addition, progestins appear to use GPR30 for their actions. Therefore, GPR30 could play a critical role in hormonal regulation of breast epithelial cell integrity. Deregulation of the events mediated by GPR30 could contribute to tumorigenesis.Methods: To understand the role of GPR30 in the deregulation of estrogen signaling processes during breast carcinogenesis, we have undertaken this study to investigate its expression at mRNA levels in tumor tissues and their matched normal tissues. We compared its expression at mRNA levels by RT quantitative real-time PCR relative to GAPDH in ERα”—positive (n = 54 and ERα”—negative (n = 45 breast cancer tissues to their matched normal tissues.Results: We report here, for the first time, that GPR30 mRNA levels were significantly down-regulated in cancer tissues in comparison with their matched normal tissues (p 0.0001 by two sided paired t-test. The GPR30 expression levels were significantly lower in tumor tissues from patients (n = 29 who had lymph node metastasis in comparison with tumors from patients (n = 53 who were negative for lymph node metastasis (two sample t-test, p 0.02, but no association was found with ERα, PR and other tumor characteristics.Conclusions: Down-regulation of GPR30 could contribute to breast tumorigenesis and lymph node metastasis.

  8. Increased accuracy of ligand sensing by receptor diffusion on cell surface (United States)

    Aquino, Gerardo; Endres, Robert G.


    The physical limit with which a cell senses external ligand concentration corresponds to the perfect absorber, where all ligand particles are absorbed and overcounting of same ligand particles does not occur. Here, we analyze how the lateral diffusion of receptors on the cell membrane affects the accuracy of sensing ligand concentration. Specifically, we connect our modeling to neurotransmission in neural synapses where the diffusion of glutamate receptors is already known to refresh synaptic connections. We find that receptor diffusion indeed increases the accuracy of sensing for both the glutamate α -Amino-3-hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-isoxazolePropionic Acid (AMPA) and N -Methyl-D-aspartic Acid (NMDA) receptor, although the NMDA receptor is overall much noisier. We propose that the difference in accuracy of sensing of the two receptors can be linked to their different roles in neurotransmission. Specifically, the high accuracy in sensing glutamate is essential for the AMPA receptor to start membrane depolarization, while the NMDA receptor is believed to work in a second stage as a coincidence detector, involved in long-term potentiation and memory.

  9. Receptor-mediated gene delivery using polyethylenimine (PEI)coupled with polypeptides targeting FGF receptors on cells surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Da; WANG Qing-qing; TANG Gu-ping; HUANG Hong-liang; SHEN Fen-ping; LI Jing-zhong; YU Hai


    Objective: To construct a novel kind ofnonviral gene delivery vector based on polyethylenimine (PEI) conjugated with polypeptides derived from ligand FGF with high transfection efficiency and according to tumor targeting ability. Methods:The synthetic polypeptides CR16 for binding FGF receptors was conjugated to PEI and the characters of the polypeptides including DNA condensing and particle size were determined. Enhanced efficiency and the targeting specificity of the synthesized vector were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Results: The polypeptides were successfully coupled to PEI. The new vectors PEI-CR16 could efficiently condense pDNA into particles with around 200 nm diameter. The PEI-CR16/pDNA polyplexes showed significantly greater transgene activity than PEI/pDNA in FGF receptors positive tumor cells in vitro and in vivo gene transfer, while no difference was observed in FGF receptors negative tumor cells. The enhanced transfection efficiency of PEI-CR16 could be blocked by excess free polypeptides. Conclusion: The synthesized vector could improve the efficiency of gene transfer and targeting specificity in FGF receptors positive cells. The vector had good prospect for use in cancer gene therapy.

  10. Propranolol Restricts the Mobility of Single EGF-Receptors on the Cell Surface before Their Internalization (United States)

    Otero, Carolina; Linke, Max; Sanchez, Paula; González, Alfonso; Schaap, Iwan A. T.


    The epidermal growth factor receptor is involved in morphogenesis, proliferation and cell migration. Its up-regulation during tumorigenesis makes this receptor an interesting therapeutic target. In the absence of the ligand, the inhibition of phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase activity by propranolol treatment leads to internalization of empty/inactive receptors. The molecular events involved in this endocytosis remain unknown. Here, we quantified the effects of propranolol on the mobility of single quantum-dot labelled receptors before the actual internalization took place. The single receptors showed a clear stop-and-go motion; their diffusive tracks were continuously interrupted by sub-second stalling events, presumably caused by transient clustering. In the presence of propranolol we found that: i) the diffusion rate reduced by 22 %, which indicates an increase in drag of the receptor. Atomic force microscopy measurements did not show an increase of the effective membrane tension, such that clustering of the receptor remains the likely mechanism for its reduced mobility. ii) The receptor got frequently stalled for longer periods of multiple seconds, which may signal the first step of the internalization process. PMID:24349439

  11. The thrombopoietin receptor, c-Mpl, is a selective surface marker for human hematopoietic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr William G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thrombopoietin (TPO, the primary cytokine regulating megakaryocyte proliferation and differentiation, exerts significant influence on other hematopoietic lineages as well, including erythroid, granulocytic and lymphoid lineages. We previously demonstrated that the receptor for TPO, c-mpl, is expressed by a subset of human adult bone marrow hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSC/PC that are enriched for long-term multilineage repopulating ability in the SCID-hu Bone in vivo model of human hematopoiesis. Methods Here, we employ flow cytometry and an anti-c-mpl monoclonal antibody to comprehensively define the surface expression pattern of c-mpl in four differentiation stages of human CD34+ HSC/PC (I: CD34+38--, II: CD34+38dim, III: CD34+38+, IV: CD34dim38+ for the major sources of human HSC: fetal liver (FL, umbilical cord blood (UCB, adult bone marrow (ABM, and cytokine-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (mPBSC. We use a surrogate in vivo model of human thymopoiesis, SCID-hu Thy/Liv, to compare the capacity of c-mpl+ vs. c-mpl-- CD34+38--/dim HSC/PC for thymocyte reconstitution. Results For all tissue sources, the percentage of c-mpl+ cells was significantly highest in stage I HSC/PC (FL 72 ± 10%, UCB 67 ± 19%, ABM 82 ± 16%, mPBSC 71 ± 15%, and decreased significantly through stages II, III, and IV ((FL 3 ± 3%, UCB 8 ± 13%, ABM 0.6 ± 0.6%, mPBSC 0.2 ± 0.1% [ANOVA: P I, decreasing through stage IV [ANOVA: P + cells [P = 0.89] or intensity of c-mpl expression [P = 0.21]. Primary Thy/Liv grafts injected with CD34+38--/dimc-mpl+ cells showed slightly higher levels of donor HLA+ thymocyte reconstitution vs. CD34+38--/dimc-mpl---injected grafts and non-injected controls (c-mpl+ vs. c-mpl--: CD2+ 6.8 ± 4.5% vs. 2.8 ± 3.3%, CD4+8-- 54 ± 35% vs. 31 ± 29%, CD4--8+ 29 ± 19% vs. 18 ± 14%. Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that the TPO receptor, c-mpl, participates in the regulation of primitive human HSC

  12. Studies of cell-surface glorin receptors, glorin degradation, and glorin-induced cellular responses during development of Polysphondylium violaceum. (United States)

    De Wit, R J; van Bemmelen, M X; Penning, L C; Pinas, J E; Calandra, T D; Bonner, J T


    The chemoattractant mediating cell aggregation in the slime mold Polysphondylium violaceum is N-propionyl-gamma-L-glutamyl-L-ornithine-delta-lactam ethylester (glorin). Here we examine the binding properties of tritiated glorin to intact P. violaceum cells. Scatchard analysis of binding data yielded slightly curvilinear plots with Kd values in the range of 20 and 100 nM. The number of glorin receptors increased from 35,000 in the vegetative stage to 45,000 per cell during aggregation. Later, during culmination receptor numbers decreased to undetectable levels (less than 1000). The receptor binding kinetics show binding equilibrium within 30 s at 0 degrees C, and ligand dissociation occurs from two kinetically distinct receptors whose half-times were 2 s for 72% of the bound glorin and 28 s for the remainder. The enzymatic degradation of glorin did not affect binding data during incubations of up to 1 min at 0 degrees C. Two glorinase activities were observed. An ornithine delta-lactam cleaving activity with a Km of ca. 10(-4) M and a propionic acid removing activity (Km 10(-5) M), both of which were detected mainly on the cell surface. Cleavage of the lactam occurred at a higher rate than removal of propionic acid. Lactam-cleaved glorin showed no chemotactic activity nor did it bind to cell-surface glorin receptors. Cell-surface-bound glorinase activity and glorin-induced cGMP synthesis were developmentally regulated, peaking at aggregation. In the most sensitive stage half-maximal responses (cGMP synthesis, chemotaxis, light-scattering) were elicited in the 10-100 nM range. Neither cAMP synthesis nor glorin-induced glorin synthesis was observed. Guanine nucleotides specifically modulated glorin receptor binding on isolated membranes, and, conversely, glorin modulated GTP gamma S binding to membrane preparations. Our results support the notion that glorin mediates chemotactic cell aggregation in P. violaceum acting via cell-surface receptors, G-proteins, and c

  13. Cytisine binds with similar affinity to nicotinic alpha4beta2 receptors on the cell surface and in homogenates. (United States)

    Zhang, Jessie; Steinbach, Joe Henry


    Cytisine and nicotine bound to specific sites in homogenates prepared from HEK 293 cells which stably express human neuronal nicotinic alpha4 and beta2 subunits. The number of sites was the same for both ligands and nicotine was a full competitive inhibitor of cytisine binding. However, when binding was done to intact cells the number of binding sites per cell for nicotine was approximately 4-fold the number of sites for cytisine. Nicotine fully blocked cytisine binding, but cytisine only partially blocked nicotine binding to intact cells. When cells were permeabilized with saponin, the number of sites for nicotine was unchanged, while the number of sites for cytisine was increased, and cytisine was able to fully block nicotine binding. These data indicate that cytisine binds only to surface receptors on intact cells. The apparent affinity of cytisine for surface receptors (K(d)=0.8 nM) was not significantly different from that for receptors in the cell homogenate (0.3 nM).

  14. Identification of cell surface receptors for murine macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha. (United States)

    Oh, K O; Zhou, Z; Kim, K K; Samanta, H; Fraser, M; Kim, Y J; Broxmeyer, H E; Kwon, B S


    We have produced recombinant proteins for a cytokine, L2G25BP (macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha) (MIP-1 alpha). By using the recombinant protein (rMIP-1 alpha), receptors for MIP-1 alpha were identified on Con A-stimulated and unstimulated CTLL-R8, a T cell line, and LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7, a macrophage cell line. The 125I-rMIP-1 alpha binds to the receptor in a specific and saturable manner. Scatchard analysis indicated a single class of high affinity receptor, with a Kd of approximately 1.5 x 10(-9) M and approximately 1200 binding sites/Con A-stimulated CTLL-R8 cell and a Kd of 0.9 x 10(-9) M and approximately 380 binding sites/RAW 264.7 cell. 125I-rMIP-1 alpha binding was inhibited by unlabeled rMIP-1 alpha in a dose-dependent manner, but not by IL-1 alpha or IL-2. rMIP-1 alpha inhibited the proliferation of unstimulated CTLL-R8 cells. Rabbit anti-rMIP-1 alpha antibodies blocked the growth-inhibitory effect of the rMIP-1 alpha on CTLL-R8 cells.

  15. Expression of SLAM (CD150) cell-surface receptors on human B-cell subsets: from pro-B to plasma cells. (United States)

    De Salort, Jose; Sintes, Jordi; Llinàs, Laia; Matesanz-Isabel, Jessica; Engel, Pablo


    The SLAM (CD150) family receptors are leukocyte cell-surface glycoproteins involved in leukocyte activation. These molecules and their adaptor protein SAP contribute to the effective germinal center formation, generation of high-affinity antibody-secreting plasma cells, and memory B cells, thereby facilitating long-term humoral immune response. Multi-color flow cytometric analysis was performed to determine the expression of CD48 (SLAMF2), CD84 (SLAMF5), CD150 (SLAM or SLAMF1), CD229 (Ly9 or SLAMF3), CD244 (2B4 or SLAMF4), CD319 (CRACC, CS1, or SLAMF7), and CD352 (NTB-A or SLAMF6) on human cell lines and B-cell subsets. The following subsets were assessed: pro-B, pre-B, immature-B, and mature-B cells from bone marrow; transitional and B1/B2 subsets from peripheral blood; and naïve, pre-germinal center, germinal center, memory, plasmablasts, and plasma cells from tonsil and spleen. All receptors were expressed on B cells, with the exception of CD244. SLAM family molecules were widely distributed during B-cell development, maturation and terminal differentiation into plasmablasts and plasma cells, but their expression among various B-cell subsets differed significantly. Such heterogeneous expression patterns suggest that SLAM molecules play an essential and non-redundant role in the control of humoral immune responses.

  16. GABAB receptor subunit GB1 at the cell surface independently activates ERK1/2 through IGF-1R transactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume A Baloucoune

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Functional GABA(B receptor is believed to require hetero-dimerization between GABA(B1 (GB1 and GABA(B2 (GB2 subunits. The GB1 extracellular domain is required for ligand binding, and the GB2 trans-membrane domain is responsible for coupling to G proteins. Atypical GABA(B receptor responses observed in GB2-deficient mice suggested that GB1 may have activity in the absence of GB2. However the underlying mechanisms remain poorly characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, by using cells overexpressing a GB1 mutant (GB1asa with the ability to translocate to the cell surface in the absence of GB2, we show that GABA(B receptor agonists, such as GABA and Baclofen, can induce ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the absence of GB2. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GB1asa induces ERK1/2 phosphorylation through Gi/o proteins and PLC dependent IGF-1R transactivation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that GB1 may form a functional receptor at the cell surface in the absence of GB2.

  17. Targeting cell surface receptors for axon regeneration in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menghon Cheah


    Full Text Available Axon regeneration in the CNS is largely unsuccessful due to excess inhibitory extrinsic factors within lesion sites together with an intrinsic inability of neurons to regrow following injury. Recent work demonstrates that forced expression of certain neuronal transmembrane receptors can recapitulate neuronal growth resulting in successful growth within and through inhibitory lesion environments. More specifically, neuronal expression of integrin receptors such as alpha9beta1 integrin which binds the extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin-C, trk receptors such as trkB which binds the neurotrophic factor BDNF, and receptor PTPσ which binds chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans, have all been show to significantly enhance regeneration of injured axons. We discuss how reintroduction of these receptors in damaged neurons facilitates signalling from the internal environment of the cell with the external environment of the lesion milieu, effectively resulting in growth and repair following injury. In summary, we suggest an appropriate balance of intrinsic and extrinsic factors are required to obtain substantial axon regeneration.

  18. Targeting cell surface receptors for axon regeneration in the central nervous system (United States)

    Cheah, Menghon; Andrews, Melissa R.


    Axon regeneration in the CNS is largely unsuccessful due to excess inhibitory extrinsic factors within lesion sites together with an intrinsic inability of neurons to regrow following injury. Recent work demonstrates that forced expression of certain neuronal transmembrane receptors can recapitulate neuronal growth resulting in successful growth within and through inhibitory lesion environments. More specifically, neuronal expression of integrin receptors such as alpha9beta1 integrin which binds the extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin-C, trk receptors such as trkB which binds the neurotrophic factor BDNF, and receptor PTPσ which binds chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans, have all been show to significantly enhance regeneration of injured axons. We discuss how reintroduction of these receptors in damaged neurons facilitates signalling from the internal environment of the cell with the external environment of the lesion milieu, effectively resulting in growth and repair following injury. In summary, we suggest an appropriate balance of intrinsic and extrinsic factors are required to obtain substantial axon regeneration. PMID:28197173

  19. Cotinine inhibits the pro-inflammatory response initiated by multiple cell surface Toll-like receptors in monocytic THP cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagaitkar Juhi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary, stable metabolite of nicotine [(S-3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl pyridine] in humans is cotinine [(S-1-methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl-2-pyrrolidinone]. We have previously shown that cotinine exposure induces convergence and amplification of the GSK3β-dependent PI3 kinase and cholinergic anti-inflammatory systems. The consequence is reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by human monocytes responding to bacteria or LPS, a TLR4 agonist. Findings Here we show that cotinine-induced inflammatory suppression may not be restricted to individual Toll-like receptors (TLRs. Indeed, in monocytic cells, cotinine suppresses the cytokine production that is normally resultant upon agonist-specific engagement of all of the major surface exposed TLRs (TLR 2/1; 2/6; 4 and 5, although the degree of suppression varies by TLR. Conclusions These results provide further mechanistic insight into the increased susceptibility to multiple bacterial infections known to occur in smokers. They also establish THP-1 cells as a potentially suitable model with which to study the influence of tobacco components and metabolites on TLR-initiated inflammatory events.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective: To investigate the F1t3 receptor expression on the surface of malignant hematopoietic cells, the effect of TNFa and dexamethasone (DXM) on its expression and the responses of those cells to recombinant human F1t3 ligand (rhFL). Methods: Eighteen malignant hematopoietic cell lines were determined for the F1t3 receptor expression by flow cytometric analysis. The effect of rhFL on the proliferation of malignant hematopoietic cells in vitro was measured using MTT assay. Results: The expressions of F1t3 receptor on the surface of Raji, Daudi, HL-60, 8266 and XG-6 cells were detected by flow cytometric analysis. Following incubation with 20 ng/ml TNFa for 24h, the number of F1t3 receptor positive cells decreased in Raji and 8266, increased in HL-60 and XG-6, and no difference in Daudi cells. After incubation with 10-6 mol/L DXM for 24h, the number of F1t3 receptor positive cells decreased in all the 5 F1t3 receptor positive cell lines. rhFL stimulated the proliferation of HL-60 and Raji cells. Conclusion: For most of the malignant hematopoietic cells, there was neither the expression of F1t3 receptor nor the response to rhFL. DXM may be useful to reduce the effect of FL on the proliferation of some F1t3 receptor positive malignant hematopoietic cells in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Nuclear trafficking of secreted factors and cell-surface receptors: new pathways to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation, and involvement in cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planque Nathalie


    Full Text Available Abstract Secreted factors and cell surface receptors can be internalized by endocytosis and translocated to the cytoplasm. Instead of being recycled or proteolysed, they sometimes translocate to the nucleus. Nuclear import generally involves a nuclear localization signal contained either in the secreted factor or its transmembrane receptor, that is recognized by the importins machinery. In the nucleus, these molecules regulate transcription of specific target genes by direct binding to transcription factors or general coregulators. In addition to the transcription regulation, nuclear secreted proteins and receptors seem to be involved in other important processes for cell life and cellular integrity such as DNA replication, DNA repair and RNA metabolism. Nuclear secreted proteins and transmembrane receptors now appear to induce new signaling pathways to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. Their nuclear localization is often transient, appearing only during certain phases of the cell cycle. Nuclear secreted and transmembrane molecules regulate the proliferation and differentiation of a large panel of cell types during embryogenesis and adulthood and are also potentially involved in wound healing. Secreted factors such as CCN proteins, EGF, FGFs and their receptors are often detected in the nucleus of cancer cells. Nuclear localization of these molecules has been correlated with tumor progression and poor prognosis for patient survival. Nuclear growth factors and receptors may be responsible for resistance to radiotherapy.

  2. Early Alterations in Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells and Induction of Ovarian Epithelial Tumors Triggered by Loss of FSH Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlei Chen


    Full Text Available Little is known about the behavior of the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE, which plays a central role in ovarian cancer etiology. It has been suggested that incessant ovulation causes OSE changes leading to transformation and that high gonadotropin levels during postmenopause activate OSE receptors, inducing proliferation. We examined the chronology of OSE changes, including tumor appearance, in a mouse model where ovulation never occurs due to deletion of follitropin receptor. Changes in epithelial cells were marked by pan-cytokeratin (CK staining. Histologic changes and CK staining in the OSE increased from postnatal day 2. CK staining was observed inside the ovary by 24 days and increased thereafter in tumor-bearing animals. Ovaries from a third of aged (1 year mutant mice showed CK deep inside, indicating cell migration. These tumors resembled serous papillary adenoma of human ovaries. Weak expression of GATA-4 and elevation of PCNA, cyclooxygenase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and plateletderived growth factor receptors α and β in mutants indicated differences in cell proliferation, differentiation, and inflammation. Thus, we report that OSE changes occur long before epithelial tumors appear in FORKO mice. Our results suggest that neither incessant ovulation nor follicle-stimulating hormone receptor presence in the OSE is required for inducing ovarian tumors; thus, other mechanisms must contribute to ovarian tumorigenesis.

  3. Characterization of surface interleukin-2 receptor expression on gated populations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris. (United States)

    Sweat, J M; Johnson, C M; Marikar, Y; Gibbs, E P


    An in vitro system to determine surface interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) expression on mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from free-ranging manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris was developed. Human recombinant IL-2, conjugated with a fluorescein dye was used in conjunction with flow cytometric analysis to determine changes in surface expression of IL-2R at sequential times over a 48-h period of in vitro stimulation. Surface expression of IL-2R was detected on manatee PBMC, which also cross-reacted with an anti-feline pan T-cell marker. An expression index (EI) was calculated by comparing mitogen-activated and non-activated PBMC. Based on side- and forward-scatter properties, flow cytometric analysis showed an increase in the number of larger, more granular "lymphoblasts" following concanavalin A (Con A) stimulation. The appearance of lymphoblasts was correlated with an increase in their surface expression of IL-2 receptors. Surface IL-2R expression, in Con A-stimulated PBMC, was detected at 16 h, peaked at 24-36 h, and began to decrease by 48 h. Characterization of the IL-2R expression should provide additional information on the health status of manatees, and the effect of their sub lethal exposure to brevetoxin.

  4. The chemokine receptor CCR7 expressed by dendritic cells: a key player in corneal and ocular surface inflammation. (United States)

    Saban, Daniel R


    Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly potent stimulators of the immune system, and their contribution as such to the pathogenesis of corneal and ocular surface inflammatory disease has been well established. These vigorous antigen-presenting cells are reliant upon their effective migration from peripheral tissues (e.g., those of the ocular surface) to the lymphoid organs, where immune responses are triggered and can then cause disease. The chemokine receptor CCR7 expressed on DCs has emerged as the master mediator of this highly complex migratory process, and thus it is important in causing corneal and ocular surface inflammation. Furthermore, CCR7 has received considerable attention as a potential therapeutic target, as topically instilled antagonists of this receptor are quite effective therapeutically in a mouse model of ocular allergy. These findings and more are reviewed in the current article. In addition, the understanding regarding CCR7 function in mice and humans, and the biology of DCs that populate the ocular surface are also detailed herein. The involvement of DCs and their expression of CCR7 in corneal and ocular surface diseases such as in ocular allergy, dry eye disease, immune rejection and more, are also reviewed here.

  5. Identification of biological markers of liver X receptor (LXR activation at the cell surface of human monocytes.

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    Cédric Rébé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liver X receptor (LXR α and LXR β (NR1H3 and NR1H2 are oxysterol-activated nuclear receptors involved in the control of major metabolic pathways such as cholesterol homeostasis, lipogenesis, inflammation and innate immunity. Synthetic LXR agonists are currently under development and could find applications in various fields such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. The clinical development of LXR agonists requires the identification of biological markers for pharmacodynamic studies. In this context, monocytes represent an attractive target to monitor LXR activation. They are easily accessible cells present in peripheral blood; they express LXR α and β and respond to LXR agonist stimulation in vitro. The aim of our study was to identify cell surface markers of LXR agonists on monocytes. For this, we focused on clusters of differentiation (CD markers because they are well characterized and accessible cell surface molecules allowing easy immuno-phenotyping. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using microarray analysis of monocytes treated or not with an LXR agonist in vitro, we selected three CD, i.e. CD82, CD226, CD244 for further analysis by real time PCR and flow cytometry. The three CD were up-regulated by LXR agonist treatment in vitro in a time- and dose- dependent manner and this induction was LXR specific as assessed by a SiRNA or LXR antagonist strategy. By using flow cytometry, we could demonstrate that the expression of these molecules at the cell surface of monocytes was significantly increased after LXR agonist treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified three new cell surface markers that could be useful to monitor LXR activation. Future studies will be required to confirm the biological and diagnostic significance of the markers.

  6. Identification and characterization of the murine cell surface receptor for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, H; Løber, D; Eriksen, J;


    -hybridization and pronounced sequence similarity with human u-PAR cDNA [Kristensen, P., Eriksen, J., Blasi, F. & Danø, K. (1991) J. Cell Biol. 115, 1763-1771]. A rabbit antiserum raised against this peptide specifically recognized two polypeptide bands with electrophoretic mobilities identical to those identified by ligand...... of this variant yielded a polypeptide with an apparent M(r) of about 30,000, which corresponds to the Mr calculated from the cDNA derived protein sequence of mouse u-PAR. Receptor-bound mouse u-PA could be released by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C treatment, indicating that mouse u-PAR is attached...... by ligand-blotting analysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...

  7. Syndecans as cell surface receptors: Unique structure equates with functional diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Youngsil; Chung, Heesung; Jung, Heyjung


    An increasing number of functions for syndecan cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been proposed over the last decade. Moreover, aberrant syndecan regulation has been found to play a critical role in multiple pathologies, including cancers, as well as wound healing and inflammation...... glycosaminoglycan chains, especially heparan sulfate. This heterodisperse polysaccharide has the potential to interact with many ligands from diverse protein families. Here, we relate the structural features of syndecans to some of their known functions....

  8. Alpha-enolase on apical surface of renal tubular epithelial cells serves as a calcium oxalate crystal receptor (United States)

    Fong-Ngern, Kedsarin; Thongboonkerd, Visith


    To search for a strategy to prevent kidney stone formation/recurrence, this study addressed the role of α-enolase on apical membrane of renal tubular cells in mediating calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystal adhesion. Its presence on apical membrane and in COM crystal-bound fraction was confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. Pretreating MDCK cells with anti-α-enolase antibody, not isotype-controlled IgG, dramatically reduced cell-crystal adhesion. Immunofluorescence staining also confirmed the direct binding of purified α-enolase to COM crystals at {121} > {100} > {010} crystal faces. Coating COM crystals with urinary proteins diminished the crystal binding capacity to cells and purified α-enolase. Moreover, α-enolase selectively bound to COM, not other crystals. Chemico-protein interactions analysis revealed that α-enolase interacted directly with Ca2+ and Mg2+. Incubating the cells with Mg2+ prior to cell-crystal adhesion assay significantly reduced crystal binding on the cell surface, whereas preincubation with EDTA, a divalent cation chelator, completely abolished Mg2+ effect, indicating that COM and Mg2+ competitively bind to α-enolase. Taken together, we successfully confirmed the role of α-enolase as a COM crystal receptor to mediate COM crystal adhesion at apical membrane of renal tubular cells. It may also serve as a target for stone prevention by blocking cell-crystal adhesion and stone nidus formation.

  9. Expression of Interleukin-15 and Its Receptor on the Surface of Stimulated Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuping LIU; Yumei ZUO; Weina ZHANG; Deguang YANG; Changyun XIONG; Xiaozhou ZHANG


    Human interleukin-15 (hlL-15) is an important cytokine to activate endothelial cells and can be regulated by many other cytokines. The aim of this study is to examine the ability of interferon-γ,(IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-ct (TNF-α) to induce the production of human interleukin-15 (hlL-15)and IL-15 receptor (IL-15Rα) by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The data are summarized as follows: 1. Northern blot revealed that IL-15 mRNA was up-regulated by IFN-γ and TNF-α. 2. lntracellular IL-15 protein was visualized by fluorescence microscopy, whereas the expres-sion of IL-15 on the surface of HUVECs was detected by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS),and no detectable IL-15 in the medium was verified by ELISA. 3. IL-15Rα was detected on the surface of HUVECs by FACS after IFN-γ and TNF-α stimulation, whereas Western blotting revealed that the elevated expression on surface IL-15Rα was not due to the increased protein expression. The conclusion demonstrated from our results is that IFN-γ and TNF-α play an important role in regulating the expres-sion of IL-15 and IL-15Rα on the surface of HUVECs.

  10. Enhanced Growth Inhibition of Osteosarcoma by Cytotoxic Polymerized Liposomal Nanoparticles Targeting the Alcam Cell Surface Receptor

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    Noah Federman


    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone in children, adolescents, and adults. Despite extensive surgery and adjuvant aggressive high-dose systemic chemotherapy with potentially severe bystander side effects, cure is attainable in about 70% of patients with localized disease and only 20%–30% of those patients with metastatic disease. Targeted therapies clearly are warranted in improving our treatment of this adolescent killer. However, a lack of osteosarcoma-associated/specific markers has hindered development of targeted therapeutics. We describe a novel osteosarcoma-associated cell surface antigen, ALCAM. We, then, create an engineered anti-ALCAM-hybrid polymerized liposomal nanoparticle immunoconjugate (α-AL-HPLN to specifically target osteosarcoma cells and deliver a cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin. We have demonstrated that α-AL-HPLNs have significantly enhanced cytotoxicity over untargeted HPLNs and over a conventional liposomal doxorubicin formulation. In this way, α-AL-HPLNs are a promising new strategy to specifically deliver cytotoxic agents in osteosarcoma.

  11. Ric-3 chaperone-mediated stable cell-surface expression of the neuronal a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in mammalian cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Sofia VALLfiS; Ana M ROCCAMO; Francisco J BARRANTES


    Aim: Studies of the a7-type neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR), one of the receptor forms involved in many physiologically relevant processes in the central nervous system, have been hampered by the inability of this homomeric protein to assemble in most heterologous expression systems. In a recent study, it was shown that the chaperone Ric-3 is necessary for the maturation and functional expression of a7-type AChRs'11. The current work aims at obtaining and characterizing a cell line with high functional expression of the human a7 AChR.Methods: Ric-3 cDNA was incorporated into SHE-Pl-ha7 cells expressing the a7-type AChR. Functional studies were undertaken using single-channel patch-clamp recordings. Equilibrium and kinetic [125I]a-bungarotoxin binding assays, as well as fluorescence microscopy using fluorescent a-bungarotoxin, anti-a7 antibody, and GFP-a7 were performed on the new clone.Results: The human a7-type AChR was stably expressed in a new cell line, which we coined SHE-PI-ha7-Ric-3, by co-expression of the chaperone Ric-3. Cell-surface AChRs exhibited [125I]aBTX saturable binding with an apparent KD of about 55 nmol/L. Fluorescence microscopy revealed dispersed and micro-clustered AChR aggregates at the surface of SHE-PI-ha7-Ric-3 cells. Larger micron-sized clusters were observed in the absence of receptor-clustering proteins or upon aggregation with anti-a7 antibodies, hi contrast, chaperone-less SHE-PI-ha7 cells expressed only intracellular a.7 AChRs and failed to produce detectable single-channel currents.Conclusion: The production of a stable and functional cell line of neuroepithelial lineage with robust cell-surface expression of neuronal a7-type AChR, as reported here, constitutes an important advance in the study of homomeric receptors in mammalian cells.

  12. Galectin-3 induces clustering of CD147 and integrin-β1 transmembrane glycoprotein receptors on the RPE cell surface.

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    Claudia S Priglinger

    Full Text Available Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR is a blinding disease frequently occurring after retinal detachment surgery. Adhesion, migration and matrix remodeling of dedifferentiated retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells characterize the onset of the disease. Treatment options are still restrained and identification of factors responsible for the abnormal behavior of the RPE cells will facilitate the development of novel therapeutics. Galectin-3, a carbohydrate-binding protein, was previously found to inhibit attachment and spreading of retinal pigment epithelial cells, and thus bares the potential to counteract PVR-associated cellular events. However, the identities of the corresponding cell surface glycoprotein receptor proteins on RPE cells are not known. Here we characterize RPE-specific Gal-3 containing glycoprotein complexes using a proteomic approach. Integrin-β1, integrin-α3 and CD147/EMMPRIN, a transmembrane glycoprotein implicated in regulating matrix metalloproteinase induction, were identified as potential Gal-3 interactors on RPE cell surfaces. In reciprocal immunoprecipitation experiments we confirmed that Gal-3 associated with CD147 and integrin-β1, but not with integrin-α3. Additionally, association of Gal-3 with CD147 and integrin-β1 was observed in co-localization analyses, while integrin-α3 only partially co-localized with Gal-3. Blocking of CD147 and integrin-β1 on RPE cell surfaces inhibited binding of Gal-3, whereas blocking of integrin-α3 failed to do so, suggesting that integrin-α3 is rather an indirect interactor. Importantly, Gal-3 binding promoted pronounced clustering and co-localization of CD147 and integrin-β1, with only partial association of integrin-α3. Finally, we show that RPE derived CD147 and integrin-β1, but not integrin-α3, carry predominantly β-1,6-N-actyl-D-glucosamine-branched glycans, which are high-affinity ligands for Gal-3. We conclude from these data that extracellular Gal-3 triggers

  13. The structure and function of the urokinase receptor, a membrane protein governing plasminogen activation on the cell surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Rønne, E; Danø, K


    PA receptor, uPAR, is a cell-surface protein which plays an important role in the localization and regulation of these processes. In the present article a number of established conclusions concerning the structure and function of uPAR are presented, and in addition various models are discussed which might...... explain additional observations for which the mechanisms involved have not yet been clarified experimentally. uPAR is a highly glycosylated, 3-domain protein, anchored in the plasma membrane by a glycolipid moiety. The domain organization is important for efficient ligand-binding, and the NH2-terminal...... to an interplay between uPAR and other, unidentified components. In addition to the function in the regulation of proteolysis, uPAR seems to play a role in internalization processes and in cellular signal transduction and adhesion. A few reagents have been identified which are capable to inhibit the interaction...

  14. Genetic Variations in the Human G Protein-coupled Receptor Class C, Group 6, Member A (GPRC6A) Control Cell Surface Expression and Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Stine; Have, Christian Theil; Underwood, Christina Rye


    -expressed and functional. By analyses of chimeric human/mouse and human/bonobo receptors, bonobo receptor mutants, and the single nucleotide polymorphism database at NCBI, we identify an insertion/deletion variation in the third intracellular loop responsible for the intracellular retention and lack of function...... of the human ortholog. Genetic analyses of the 1000 genome database and the Inter99 cohort of 6,000 Danes establish the distribution of genotypes among ethnic groups, showing that the cell surface-expressed and functional variant is much more prevalent in the African population than in European and Asian...... populations and that this variant is partly linked with a stop codon early in the receptor sequence (rs6907580, amino acid position 57). In conclusion, our data solve a more than decade-old question of why the cloned human GPRC6A receptor is not cell surface-expressed and functional and provide a genetic...

  15. Crystal Structure of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type a in Complex With the Cell Surface Co-Receptor GT1b-Insight Into the Toxin-Neuron Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenmark, P.; Dupuy, J.; Inamura, A.; Kiso, M.; Stevens, R.C.


    Botulinum neurotoxins have a very high affinity and specificity for their target cells requiring two different co-receptors located on the neuronal cell surface. Different toxin serotypes have different protein receptors; yet, most share a common ganglioside co-receptor, GT1b. We determined the crystal structure of the botulinum neurotoxin serotype A binding domain (residues 873-1297) alone and in complex with a GT1b analog at 1.7 A and 1.6 A, respectively. The ganglioside GT1b forms several key hydrogen bonds to conserved residues and binds in a shallow groove lined by Tryptophan 1266. GT1b binding does not induce any large structural changes in the toxin; therefore, it is unlikely that allosteric effects play a major role in the dual receptor recognition. Together with the previously published structures of botulinum neurotoxin serotype B in complex with its protein co-receptor, we can now generate a detailed model of botulinum neurotoxin's interaction with the neuronal cell surface. The two branches of the GT1b polysaccharide, together with the protein receptor site, impose strict geometric constraints on the mode of interaction with the membrane surface and strongly support a model where one end of the 100 A long translocation domain helix bundle swing into contact with the membrane, initiating the membrane anchoring event.

  16. Quantitative in vivo cell-surface receptor imaging in oncology: kinetic modeling and paired-agent principles from nuclear medicine and optical imaging (United States)

    Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Wang, Yu; Pogue, Brian W.; Liu, Jonathan T. C.


    The development of methods to accurately quantify cell-surface receptors in living tissues would have a seminal impact in oncology. For example, accurate measures of receptor density in vivo could enhance early detection or surgical resection of tumors via protein-based contrast, allowing removal of cancer with high phenotype specificity. Alternatively, accurate receptor expression estimation could be used as a biomarker to guide patient-specific clinical oncology targeting of the same molecular pathway. Unfortunately, conventional molecular contrast-based imaging approaches are not well adapted to accurately estimating the nanomolar-level cell-surface receptor concentrations in tumors, as most images are dominated by nonspecific sources of contrast such as high vascular permeability and lymphatic inhibition. This article reviews approaches for overcoming these limitations based upon tracer kinetic modeling and the use of emerging protocols to estimate binding potential and the related receptor concentration. Methods such as using single time point imaging or a reference-tissue approach tend to have low accuracy in tumors, whereas paired-agent methods or advanced kinetic analyses are more promising to eliminate the dominance of interstitial space in the signals. Nuclear medicine and optical molecular imaging are the primary modalities used, as they have the nanomolar level sensitivity needed to quantify cell-surface receptor concentrations present in tissue, although each likely has a different clinical niche.

  17. Cell-surface protein-protein interaction analysis with time-resolved FRET and snap-tag technologies: application to G protein-coupled receptor oligomerization. (United States)

    Comps-Agrar, Laëtitia; Maurel, Damien; Rondard, Philippe; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Trinquet, Eric; Prézeau, Laurent


    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key players in cell-cell communication, the dysregulation of which has often deleterious effects leading to pathologies such as psychiatric and neurological diseases. Consequently, GPCRs represent excellent drug targets, and as such are the object of intense research in drug discovery for therapeutic application. Recently, the GPCR field has been revolutionized by the demonstration that GPCRs are part of large protein complexes that control their pharmacology, activity, and signaling. Moreover, in these complexes, one GPCR can either associate with itself, forming homodimers or homooligomers, or with other receptor types, forming heterodimeric or heterooligomeric receptor entities that display new receptor features. These features include alterations in ligand cooperativity and selectivity, the activation of novel signaling pathways, and novel processes of desensitization. Thus, it has become necessary to identify GPCR-associated protein complexes of interest at the cell surface, and to determine the state of oligomerization of these receptors and their interactions with their partner proteins. This is essential to understand the function of GPCRs in their native environment, as well as ways to either modulate or control receptor activity with appropriate pharmacological tools, and to develop new therapeutic strategies. This requires the development of technologies to precisely address protein-protein interactions between oligomers at the cell surface. In collaboration with Cisbio Bioassay, we have developed such a technology, which combines TR-FRET detection with a new labeling method called SnapTag. This technology has allowed us to address the oligomeric state of many GPCRs.

  18. A straightforward route to the synthesis of a surface-enhanced Raman scattering probe for targeting transferrin receptor-overexpressed cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jing; Wang Zhuyuan; Tan Xuebin; Li Jin; Song Chunyuan; Zhang Ruohu; Cui Yiping, E-mail: [Advanced Photonics Center, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)


    A tumor cell targeting surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probe has been successfully synthesized by using p-mercaptobenzoic acid (pMBA) as both the SERS reporter and the conjugation agent for attaching transferrin molecules, which shows experimentally the targeting ability for transferrin receptor-overexpressed HeLa cells and exhibits strong SERS signals when being incubated inside cells. To prove that the uptake of such a SERS probe is through a Tf-receptor-mediated endocytosis process, two control experiments: (1) HeLa cells being incubated with the probe at 4 deg. C and (2) HeLa cells being pre-blocked with free transferrin at 37 deg. C, were employed. The difference of SERS intensity between the transferrin-overexpressed HeLa cells and transferrin-pre-blocked HeLa cells indicates that the probe has the potential to selectively target tumor cells.

  19. Genetic Variations in the Human G Protein-coupled Receptor Class C, Group 6, Member A (GPRC6A) Control Cell Surface Expression and Function. (United States)

    Jørgensen, Stine; Have, Christian Theil; Underwood, Christina Rye; Johansen, Lars Dan; Wellendorph, Petrine; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Jørgensen, Christinna V; Quan, Shi; Rui, Gao; Inoue, Asuka; Linneberg, Allan; Grarup, Niels; Jun, Wang; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans


    GPRC6A is a G protein-coupled receptor activated by l-amino acids, which, based on analyses of knock-out mice, has been suggested to have physiological functions in metabolism and testicular function. The human ortholog is, however, mostly retained intracellularly in contrast to the cell surface-expressed murine and goldfish orthologs. The latter orthologs are Gq-coupled and lead to intracellular accumulation of inositol phosphates and calcium release. In the present study we cloned the bonobo chimpanzee GPRC6A receptor, which is 99% identical to the human receptor, and show that it is cell surface-expressed and functional. By analyses of chimeric human/mouse and human/bonobo receptors, bonobo receptor mutants, and the single nucleotide polymorphism database at NCBI, we identify an insertion/deletion variation in the third intracellular loop responsible for the intracellular retention and lack of function of the human ortholog. Genetic analyses of the 1000 genome database and the Inter99 cohort of 6,000 Danes establish the distribution of genotypes among ethnic groups, showing that the cell surface-expressed and functional variant is much more prevalent in the African population than in European and Asian populations and that this variant is partly linked with a stop codon early in the receptor sequence (rs6907580, amino acid position 57). In conclusion, our data solve a more than decade-old question of why the cloned human GPRC6A receptor is not cell surface-expressed and functional and provide a genetic framework to study human phenotypic traits in large genome sequencing projects linked with physiological measurement and biomarkers.

  20. Impact of Cell-surface Antigen Expression on Target Engagement and Function of an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor × c-MET Bispecific Antibody* (United States)

    Jarantow, Stephen W.; Bushey, Barbara S.; Pardinas, Jose R.; Boakye, Ken; Lacy, Eilyn R.; Sanders, Renouard; Sepulveda, Manuel A.; Moores, Sheri L.; Chiu, Mark L.


    The efficacy of engaging multiple drug targets using bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) is affected by the relative cell-surface protein levels of the respective targets. In this work, the receptor density values were correlated to the in vitro activity of a BsAb (JNJ-61186372) targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET). Simultaneous binding of the BsAb to both receptors was confirmed in vitro. By using controlled Fab-arm exchange, a set of BsAbs targeting EGFR and c-MET was generated to establish an accurate receptor quantitation of a panel of lung and gastric cancer cell lines expressing heterogeneous levels of EGFR and c-MET. EGFR and c-MET receptor density levels were correlated to the respective gene expression levels as well as to the respective receptor phosphorylation inhibition values. We observed a bias in BsAb binding toward the more highly expressed of the two receptors, EGFR or c-MET, which resulted in the enhanced in vitro potency of JNJ-61186372 against the less highly expressed target. On the basis of these observations, we propose an avidity model of how JNJ-61186372 engages EGFR and c-MET with potentially broad implications for bispecific drug efficacy and design. PMID:26260789

  1. Impact of Cell-surface Antigen Expression on Target Engagement and Function of an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor × c-MET Bispecific Antibody. (United States)

    Jarantow, Stephen W; Bushey, Barbara S; Pardinas, Jose R; Boakye, Ken; Lacy, Eilyn R; Sanders, Renouard; Sepulveda, Manuel A; Moores, Sheri L; Chiu, Mark L


    The efficacy of engaging multiple drug targets using bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) is affected by the relative cell-surface protein levels of the respective targets. In this work, the receptor density values were correlated to the in vitro activity of a BsAb (JNJ-61186372) targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET). Simultaneous binding of the BsAb to both receptors was confirmed in vitro. By using controlled Fab-arm exchange, a set of BsAbs targeting EGFR and c-MET was generated to establish an accurate receptor quantitation of a panel of lung and gastric cancer cell lines expressing heterogeneous levels of EGFR and c-MET. EGFR and c-MET receptor density levels were correlated to the respective gene expression levels as well as to the respective receptor phosphorylation inhibition values. We observed a bias in BsAb binding toward the more highly expressed of the two receptors, EGFR or c-MET, which resulted in the enhanced in vitro potency of JNJ-61186372 against the less highly expressed target. On the basis of these observations, we propose an avidity model of how JNJ-61186372 engages EGFR and c-MET with potentially broad implications for bispecific drug efficacy and design.

  2. Giardiavirus-resistant Giardia lamblia lacks a virus receptor on the cell membrane surface.



    Giardia lamblia virus (GLV) is a small nonenveloped double-stranded RNA virus that infects specifically the parasitic protozoan G. lamblia. Among the many collected strains of G. lamblia, a few turn out to be highly resistant to the virus infection. Two of these strains, Ac and JH, were subjected to electroporation with the RNA from GLV-infected G. lamblia WB strain. Subsequent studies indicated the presence of GLV double-stranded RNA and GLV protein in the electroporated and propagated cells...

  3. Cell surface-bound TIMP3 induces apoptosis in mesenchymal Cal78 cells through ligand-independent activation of death receptor signaling and blockade of survival pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Koers-Wunrau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their endogenous regulators, the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs 1-4 are responsible for the physiological remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM. Among all TIMPs, TIMP3 appears to play a unique role since TIMP3 is a secreted protein and, unlike the other TIMP family members, is tightly bound to the ECM. Moreover TIMP3 has been shown to be able to induce apoptotic cell death. As little is known about the underlying mechanisms, we set out to investigate the pro-apoptotic effect of TIMP3 in human mesenchymal cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lentiviral overexpression of TIMP3 in mesenchymal cells led to a strong dose-dependent induction of ligand-independent apoptosis as reflected by a five-fold increase in caspase 3 and 7 activity compared to control (pLenti6/V5-GW/lacZ or uninfected cells, whereas exogenous TIMP3 failed to induce apoptosis. Concordantly, increased cleavage of death substrate PARP and the caspases 3 and 7 was observed in TIMP3 overexpressing cultures. Notably, activation of caspase-8 but not caspase-9 was observed in TIMP3-overexpressing cells, indicating a death receptor-dependent mechanism. Moreover, overexpression of TIMP3 led to a further induction of apoptosis after stimulation with TNF-alpha, FasL and TRAIL. Most interestingly, TIMP3-overexpression was associated with a decrease in phosphorylation of cRaf, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (Erk1/2, ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK1 and Akt and serum deprivation of TIMP3-overexpressing cells resulted in a distinct enhancement of apoptosis, pointing to an impaired signaling of serum-derived survival factors. Finally, heparinase treatment of heparan sulfate proteoglycans led to the release of TIMP3 from the surface of overexpressing cells and to a significant decrease in apoptosis indicating that the binding of TIMP3 is necessary for apoptosis induction. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that

  4. Nanoscale organization of {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor-Venus fusion protein domains on the surface of mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vobornik, Dusan; Rouleau, Yanouchka; Haley, Jennifer [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada); Bani-Yaghoub, Mahmud [Institute for Biological Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada); Taylor, Rod [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada); Johnston, Linda J., E-mail: [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada); Pezacki, John Paul, E-mail: [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada)


    Adrenergic receptors are a key component of nanoscale multiprotein complexes that are responsible for controlling the beat rate in a mammalian heart. We demonstrate the ability of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) to visualize {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors ({beta}{sub 2}AR) fused to the GFP analogue Venus at the nanoscale on HEK293 cells. The expression of the {beta}{sub 2}AR-Venus fusion protein was tightly controlled using a tetracycline-induced promoter. Both the size and density of the observed nanoscale domains are dependent on the level of induction and thus the level of protein expression. At concentrations between 100 and 700 ng/ml of inducer doxycycline, the size of domains containing the {beta}{sub 2}AR-Venus fusion protein appears to remain roughly constant, but the number of domains per cell increase. At 700 ng/ml doxycycline the functional receptors are organized into domains with an average diameter of 150 nm with a density similar to that observed for the native protein on primary murine cells. By contrast, larger micron-sized domains of {beta}{sub 2}AR are observed in the membrane of the HEK293 cells that stably overexpress {beta}{sub 2}AR-GFP and {beta}{sub 2}AR-eYFP. We conclude that precise chemical control of gene expression is highly advantageous for the use {beta}{sub 2}AR-Venus fusion proteins as models for {beta}{sub 2}AR function. These observations are critical for designing future cell models and assays based on {beta}{sub 2}AR, since the receptor biology is consistent with a relatively low density of nanoscale receptor domains.

  5. The Human Laminin Receptor is a Member of the Integrin Family of Cell Adhesion Receptors (United States)

    Gehlsen, Kurt R.; Dillner, Lena; Engvall, Eva; Ruoslahti, Erkki


    A receptor for the adhesive basement membrane protein, laminin, was isolated from human glioblastoma cells by affinity chromatography on laminin. This receptor has a heterodimeric structure similar to that of receptors for other extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin and vitronectin. Incorporation of the laminin receptor into liposomal membranes makes it possible for liposomes to attach to surfaces coated with laminin. The receptor liposomes also attached to some extent to surfaces coated with fibronectin, but not with other matrix proteins. These properties identify the laminin receptor as a member of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors.

  6. Complete structure of the cell surface polysaccharide of Streptococcus oralis ATCC 10557: A receptor for lectin-mediated interbacterial adherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeygunawardana, C.; Bush, C.A. (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (United States)); Cisar, J.O. (National Inst. of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (United States))


    Lectin-carbohydrate binding is known to play an important role in a number of different cell-cell interactions including those between certain species of oral streptococci and actinomyces that colonize teeth. The cell wall polysaccharides of Streptococcus oralis ATCC 10557, S. oralis 34, and Streptococcus mitis J22, although not identical antigenically, each function as a receptor molecule for the galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine reactive fimbrial lectins of Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii. Carbohydrate analysis of the receptor polysaccharide isolated from S. oralis ATCC 10557 shows galactose (3 mol), glucose (1 mol), GalNAc (1 mol), and rhamnose (1 mol). {sup 1}H NMR spectra of the polysaccharide show that is partially O-acetylated. Analysis of the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of the de-O-acetylated polysaccharide shows that it is composed of repeating subunits containing six monosaccharides and that the subunits are joined by a phosphodiester linkage. The {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra were completely assigned by two-dimensional homonuclear correlation methods and by {sup 1}H-detected heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation ({sup 1}H({sup 13}C)HMQC). The complete {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C assignment of the native polysaccharide was carried out by the same techniques augmented by a {sup 13}C-coupled hybrid HMQC-COSY method, which is shown to be especially useful for carbohydrates in which strong coupling and overlapping peaks in the {sup 1}H spectrum pose difficulties.

  7. Human cytomegalovirus chemokine receptor US28 induces migration of cells on a CX3CL1-presenting surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortø, Gertrud M; Kiilerich-Pedersen, Katrine; Selmeczi, David


    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded G protein-coupled-receptor US28 is believed to participate in virus dissemination through modulation of cell migration and immune evasion. US28 binds different CC chemokines and the CX3C chemokine CX3CL1. Membrane-anchored CX3CL1 is expressed by immune......-activated endothelial cells, causing redirection of CX3CR1-expressing leukocytes in the blood to sites of infection. Here, we used stable transfected cell lines to examine how US28 expression affects cell migration on immobilized full-length CX3CL1, to model how HCMV-infected leukocytes interact with inflamed...... endothelium. We observed that US28-expressing cells migrated more than CX3CR1-expressing cells when adhering to immobilized CX3CL1. US28-induced migration was G protein-signalling dependent and was blocked by the phospholipase Cβ inhibitor U73122 and the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM. In addition...

  8. The herpes virus Fc receptor gE-gI mediates antibody bipolar bridging to clear viral antigens from the cell surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaise Ndjamen


    Full Text Available The Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1 glycoprotein gE-gI is a transmembrane Fc receptor found on the surface of infected cells and virions that binds human immunoglobulin G (hIgG. gE-gI can also participate in antibody bipolar bridging (ABB, a process by which the antigen-binding fragments (Fabs of the IgG bind a viral antigen while the Fc binds to gE-gI. IgG Fc binds gE-gI at basic, but not acidic, pH, suggesting that IgG bound at extracellular pH by cell surface gE-gI would dissociate and be degraded in acidic endosomes/lysosomes if endocytosed. The fate of viral antigens associated with gE-gI-bound IgG had been unknown: they could remain at the cell surface or be endocytosed with IgG. Here, we developed an in vitro model system for ABB and investigated the trafficking of ABB complexes using 4-D confocal fluorescence imaging of ABB complexes with transferrin or epidermal growth factor, well-characterized intracellular trafficking markers. Our data showed that cells expressing gE-gI and the viral antigen HSV-1 gD endocytosed anti-gD IgG and gD in a gE-gI-dependent process, resulting in lysosomal localization. These results suggest that gE-gI can mediate clearance of infected cell surfaces of anti-viral host IgG and viral antigens to evade IgG-mediated responses, representing a general mechanism for viral Fc receptors in immune evasion and viral pathogenesis.

  9. Suppression of p75 neurotrophin receptor surface expression with intrabodies influences Bcl-xL mRNA expression and neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells.

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    Congcong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR is the first neurotrophin receptor isolated, its diverse physiological functions and signaling have remained elusive for many years. Loss-of-function phenotypic analyses for p75NTR were mainly focused at the genetic level; however these approaches were impacted by off-target effect, insufficient stability, unspecific stress response or alternative active splicing products. In this study, p75NTR surface expression was suppressed for the first time at the protein level by endoplasmic reticulum (ER retained intrabodies. RESULTS: Three monoclonal recombinant antibody fragments (scFv with affinities in the low nanomolar range to murine p75NTR were isolated by antibody phage display. To suppress p75NTR cell surface expression, the encoding genes of these scFvs extended by the ER retention peptide KDEL were transiently transfected into the neuron-like rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 and the mouse neuroblastoma x mouse spinal cord hybrid cell line NSC19. The ER retained intrabody construct, SH325-G7-KDEL, mediated a downregulation of p75NTR cell surface expression as shown by flow cytometry. This effect was maintained over a period of at least eight days without activating an unfolded protein response (UPR. Moreover, the ER retention of p75NTR resulted in downregulation of mRNA levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL as well as in strong inhibition of NGF-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. CONCLUSION: The ER retained intrabody SH325-G7-KDEL not only induces phenotypic knockdown of this p75NTR but also p75NTR-associated cellular responses in PC12 cells.

  10. The impact of the 67kDa laminin receptor on both cell-surface binding and anti-allergic action of tea catechins. (United States)

    Fujimura, Yoshinori; Umeda, Daisuke; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi


    Here, we investigated the structure-activity relationship of major green tea catechins and their corresponding epimers on cell-surface binding and inhibitory effect on histamine release. Galloylated catechins; (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), (-)-gallocatechin-3-O-gallate (GCG), (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG), and (-)-catechin-3-O-gallate (CG) showed the cell-surface binding to the human basophilic KU812 cells by surface plasmon resonance analysis, but their non-galloylated forms did not. Binding activities of pyrogallol-type catechins (EGCG and GCG) were higher than those of catechol-type catechins (ECG and CG). These patterns were also observed in their inhibitory effects on histamine release. Previously, we have reported that biological activities of EGCG are mediated through the binding to the cell-surface 67kDa laminin receptor (67LR). Downregulation of 67LR expression caused a reduction of both activities of galloylated catechins. These results suggest that both the galloyl moiety and the B-ring hydroxylation pattern contribute to the exertion of biological activities of tea catechins and their 67LR-dependencies.

  11. Epitope Mapping of Antibodies Suggests the Novel Membrane Topology of B-Cell Receptor Associated Protein 31 on the Cell Surface of Embryonic Stem Cells: The Novel Membrane Topology of BAP31.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Tae Kim

    Full Text Available When located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane, B-cell receptor associated protein 31 (BAP31 is involved in the export of secreted proteins from the ER to the plasma membrane. In a previous study, we generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, 297-D4 and 144-A8, that bound to surface molecules on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, but not to surface molecules on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs. Subsequent studies revealed that the mAbs recognized BAP31 on the surface of hESCs. To investigate the membrane topology of BAP31 on the cell surface, we first examined the epitope specificity of 297-D4 and 144-A8, as well as a polyclonal anti-BAP31 antibody (α-BAP31. We generated a series of GST-fused BAP31 mutant proteins in which BAP31 was serially deleted at the C- terminus. GST-fused BAP31 mutant proteins were then screened to identify the epitopes targeted by the antibodies. Both 297-D4 and 144-A8 recognized C-terminal residues 208-217, while α-BAP31 recognized C-terminal residues 165-246, of BAP31 on hESCs, suggesting that the C-terminal domain of BAP31 is exposed on the cell surface. The polyclonal antibody α-BAP31 bound to mESCs, which confirmed that the C-terminal domain of BAP31 is also exposed on the surface of these cells. Our results show for the first time the novel membrane topology of cell surface-expressed BAP31 as the extracellular exposure of the BAP31 C-terminal domain was not predicted from previous studies.

  12. Epitope Mapping of Antibodies Suggests the Novel Membrane Topology of B-Cell Receptor Associated Protein 31 on the Cell Surface of Embryonic Stem Cells: The Novel Membrane Topology of BAP31. (United States)

    Kim, Won-Tae; Choi, Hong Seo; Hwang, Hyo Jeong; Jung, Han-Sung; Ryu, Chun Jeih


    When located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, B-cell receptor associated protein 31 (BAP31) is involved in the export of secreted proteins from the ER to the plasma membrane. In a previous study, we generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), 297-D4 and 144-A8, that bound to surface molecules on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), but not to surface molecules on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Subsequent studies revealed that the mAbs recognized BAP31 on the surface of hESCs. To investigate the membrane topology of BAP31 on the cell surface, we first examined the epitope specificity of 297-D4 and 144-A8, as well as a polyclonal anti-BAP31 antibody (α-BAP31). We generated a series of GST-fused BAP31 mutant proteins in which BAP31 was serially deleted at the C- terminus. GST-fused BAP31 mutant proteins were then screened to identify the epitopes targeted by the antibodies. Both 297-D4 and 144-A8 recognized C-terminal residues 208-217, while α-BAP31 recognized C-terminal residues 165-246, of BAP31 on hESCs, suggesting that the C-terminal domain of BAP31 is exposed on the cell surface. The polyclonal antibody α-BAP31 bound to mESCs, which confirmed that the C-terminal domain of BAP31 is also exposed on the surface of these cells. Our results show for the first time the novel membrane topology of cell surface-expressed BAP31 as the extracellular exposure of the BAP31 C-terminal domain was not predicted from previous studies.

  13. Requirement of plasminogen binding to its cell-surface receptor α-enolase for efficient regeneration of normal and dystrophic skeletal muscle.

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    Àngels Díaz-Ramos

    Full Text Available Adult regenerative myogenesis is central for restoring normal tissue structure and function after muscle damage. In muscle repair after injury, as in severe myopathies, damaged and necrotic fibers are removed by infiltrating inflammatory cells and then replaced by muscle stem cells or satellite cells, which will fuse to form new myofibers. Extracellular proteolysis mediated by uPA-generated plasmin plays a critical role in controlling inflammation and satellite-cell-dependent myogenesis. α-enolase has been described as plasminogen receptor in several cell types, where it acts concentrating plasmin proteolytic activity on the cell surface. In this study, we investigated whether α-enolase plasminogen receptor plays a regulatory role during the muscular repair process. Inhibitors of α-enolase/plasminogen binding: MAb11G1 (a monoclonal antibody against α-enolase and ε-aminocaproic acid, EACA (a lysine analogue inhibited the myogenic abilities of satellite cells-derived myoblasts. Furthermore, knockdown of α-enolase decreased myogenic fusion of myoblasts. Injured wild-type mice and dystrophic mdx mice were also treated with MAb11G1 and EACA. These treatments had negative impacts on muscle repair impairing satellite cell functions in vitro in agreement with blunted growth of new myofibers in vivo. Furthermore, both MAb11G1 and EACA treatments impaired adequate inflammatory cell infiltration and promoted extracellular matrix deposition in vivo, which resulted in persistent degeneration. These results demonstrate the novel requirement of α-enolase for restoring homeostasis of injured muscle tissue, by controlling the pericellular localization of plasmin activity.

  14. Cloning and expression of the receptor for human urokinase plasminogen activator, a central molecule in cell surface, plasmin dependent proteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan, A L; Cubellis, M V; Masucci, M T


    , and therefore the capacity of cells to migrate and invade neighboring tissues. We have isolated a 1.4 kb cDNA clone coding for the entire human uPAR. An oligonucleotide synthesized on the basis of the N-terminal sequence of the purified protein was used to screen a cDNA library made from SV40 transformed human......, a size very close to that of the cloned cDNA. Expression of the uPAR cDNA in mouse cells confirms that the clone is complete and expresses a functional uPA binding protein, located on the cell surface and with properties similar to the human uPAR. Caseinolytic plaque assay, immunofluorescence analysis...

  15. Residues essential for Panton-Valentine leukocidin S component binding to its cell receptor suggest both plasticity and adaptability in its interaction surface.

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    Benoit-Joseph Laventie

    Full Text Available Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, a bicomponent staphylococcal leukotoxin, is involved in the poor prognosis of necrotizing pneumonia. The present study aimed to elucidate the binding mechanism of PVL and in particular its cell-binding domain. The class S component of PVL, LukS-PV, is known to ensure cell targeting and exhibits the highest affinity for the neutrophil membrane (Kd∼10(-10 M compared to the class F component of PVL, LukF-PV (Kd∼10(-9 M. Alanine scanning mutagenesis was used to identify the residues involved in LukS-PV binding to the neutrophil surface. Nineteen single alanine mutations were performed in the rim domain previously described as implicated in cell membrane interactions. Positions were chosen in order to replace polar or exposed charged residues and according to conservation between leukotoxin class S components. Characterization studies enabled to identify a cluster of residues essential for LukS-PV binding, localized on two loops of the rim domain. The mutations R73A, Y184A, T244A, H245A and Y250A led to dramatically reduced binding affinities for both human leukocytes and undifferentiated U937 cells expressing the C5a receptor. The three-dimensional structure of five of the mutants was determined using X-ray crystallography. Structure analysis identified residues Y184 and Y250 as crucial in providing structural flexibility in the receptor-binding domain of LukS-PV.

  16. Expression of the IL-7 receptor alpha-chain is down regulated on the surface of CD4 T-cells by the HIV-1 Tat protein.

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    Denny McLaughlin

    Full Text Available HIV infection elicits defects in CD4 T-cell homeostasis in both a quantitative and qualitative manner. Interleukin-7 (IL-7 is essential to T-cell homeostasis and several groups have shown reduced levels of the IL-7 receptor alpha-chain (CD127 on both CD4 and CD8 T-cells in viremic HIV+ patients. We have shown previously that soluble HIV Tat protein specifically down regulates cell surface expression of CD127 on human CD8 T-cells in a paracrine fashion. The effects of Tat on CD127 expression in CD4 T-cells has yet to be described. To explore this effect, CD4 T-cells were isolated from healthy individuals and expression levels of CD127 were examined on cells incubated in media alone or treated with Tat protein. We show here that, similar to CD8 T-cells, the HIV-1 Tat protein specifically down regulates CD127 on primary human CD4 T-cells and directs the receptor to the proteasome for degradation. Down regulation of CD127 in response to Tat was seen on both memory and naive CD4 T-cell subsets and was blocked using either heparin or anti-Tat antibodies. Tat did not induce apoptosis in cultured primary CD4 T-cells over 72 hours as determined by Annexin V and PI staining. Pre-incubation of CD4 T-cells with HIV-1 Tat protein did however reduce the ability of IL-7 to up regulate Bcl-2 expression. Similar to exogenous Tat, endogenously expressed HIV Tat protein also suppressed CD127 expression on primary CD4 T-cells. In view of the important role IL-7 plays in lymphocyte proliferation, homeostasis and survival, down regulation of CD127 by Tat likely plays a central role in immune dysregulation and CD4 T-cell decline. Understanding this effect could lead to new approaches to mitigate the CD4 T-cell loss evident in HIV infection.

  17. Six host range variants of the xenotropic/polytropic gammaretroviruses define determinants for entry in the XPR1 cell surface receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozak Christine A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary interactions between retroviruses and their receptors result in adaptive selection of restriction variants that can allow natural populations to evade retrovirus infection. The mouse xenotropic/polytropic (X/PMV gammaretroviruses rely on the XPR1 cell surface receptor for entry into host cells, and polymorphic variants of this receptor have been identified in different rodent species. Results We screened a panel of X/PMVs for infectivity on rodent cells carrying 6 different XPR1 receptor variants. The X/PMVs included 5 well-characterized laboratory and wild mouse virus isolates as well as a novel cytopathic XMV-related virus, termed Cz524, isolated from an Eastern European wild mouse-derived strain, and XMRV, a xenotropic-like virus isolated from human prostate cancer. The 7 viruses define 6 distinct tropisms. Cz524 and another wild mouse isolate, CasE#1, have unique species tropisms. Among the PMVs, one Friend isolate is restricted by rat cells. Among the XMVs, two isolates, XMRV and AKR6, differ from other XMVs in their PMV-like restriction in hamster cells. We generated a set of Xpr1 mutants and chimeras, and identified critical amino acids in two extracellular loops (ECLs that mediate entry of these different viruses, including 3 residues in ECL3 that are involved in PMV entry (E500, T507, and V508 and can also influence infectivity by AKR6 and Cz524. Conclusion We used a set of natural variants and mutants of Xpr1 to define 6 distinct host range variants among naturally occurring X/PMVs (2 XMV variants, 2 PMVs, 2 different wild mouse variants. We identified critical amino acids in XPR1 that mediate entry of these viruses. These gammaretroviruses and their XPR1 receptor are thus highly functionally polymorphic, a consequence of the evolutionary pressures that favor both host resistance and virus escape mutants. This variation accounts for multiple naturally occurring virus resistance phenotypes and

  18. Cell death sensitization of leukemia cells by opioid receptor activation (United States)

    Friesen, Claudia; Roscher, Mareike; Hormann, Inis; Fichtner, Iduna; Alt, Andreas; Hilger, Ralf A.; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Miltner, Erich


    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) regulates a number of cellular processes and modulates cell death induction. cAMP levels are altered upon stimulation of specific G-protein-coupled receptors inhibiting or activating adenylyl cyclases. Opioid receptor stimulation can activate inhibitory Gi-proteins which in turn block adenylyl cyclase activity reducing cAMP. Opioids such as D,L-methadone induce cell death in leukemia cells. However, the mechanism how opioids trigger apoptosis and activate caspases in leukemia cells is not understood. In this study, we demonstrate that downregulation of cAMP induced by opioid receptor activation using the opioid D,L-methadone kills and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Enhancing cAMP levels by blocking opioid-receptor signaling strongly reduced D,L-methadone-induced apoptosis, caspase activation and doxorubicin-sensitivity. Induction of cell death in leukemia cells by activation of opioid receptors using the opioid D,L-methadone depends on critical levels of opioid receptor expression on the cell surface. Doxorubicin increased opioid receptor expression in leukemia cells. In addition, the opioid D,L-methadone increased doxorubicin uptake and decreased doxorubicin efflux in leukemia cells, suggesting that the opioid D,L-methadone as well as doxorubicin mutually increase their cytotoxic potential. Furthermore, we found that opioid receptor activation using D,L-methadone alone or in addition to doxorubicin inhibits tumor growth significantly in vivo. These results demonstrate that opioid receptor activation via triggering the downregulation of cAMP induces apoptosis, activates caspases and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Hence, opioid receptor activation seems to be a promising strategy to improve anticancer therapies. PMID:23633472

  19. Role of Site-Specific N-Glycans Expressed on GluA2 in the Regulation of Cell Surface Expression of AMPA-Type Glutamate Receptors. (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yusuke; Morise, Jyoji; Morita, Ippei; Takematsu, Hiromu; Oka, Shogo


    The AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR), which is a tetrameric complex composed of four subunits (GluA1-4) with several combinations, mediates the majority of rapid excitatory synaptic transmissions in the nervous system. Cell surface expression levels of AMPAR modulate synaptic plasticity, which is considered one of the molecular bases for learning and memory formation. To date, a unique trisaccharide (HSO3-3GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc), human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) carbohydrate, was found expressed specifically on N-linked glycans of GluA2 and regulated the cell surface expression of AMPAR and the spine maturation process. However, evidence that the HNK-1 epitope on N-glycans of GluA2 directly affects these phenomena is lacking. Moreover, it is thought that other N-glycans on GluA2 also have potential roles in the regulation of AMPAR functions. In the present study, using a series of mutants lacking potential N-glycosylation sites (N256, N370, N406, and N413) within GluA2, we demonstrated that the mutant lacking the N-glycan at N370 strongly suppressed the intracellular trafficking of GluA2 from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in HEK293 cells. Cell surface expression of GluA1, which is a major subunit of AMPAR in neurons, was also suppressed by co-expression of the GluA2 N370S mutant. The N370S mutant and wild-type GluA2 were co-immunoprecipitated with GluA1, suggesting that N370S was properly associated with GluA1. Moreover, we found that N413 was the main potential site of the HNK-1 epitope that promoted the interaction of GluA2 with N-cadherin, resulting in enhanced cell surface expression of GluA2. The HNK-1 epitope on N-glycan at the N413 of GluA2 was also involved in the cell surface expression of GluA1. Thus, our data suggested that site-specific N-glycans on GluA2 regulate the intracellular trafficking and cell surface expression of AMPAR.

  20. Role of Site-Specific N-Glycans Expressed on GluA2 in the Regulation of Cell Surface Expression of AMPA-Type Glutamate Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Takeuchi

    Full Text Available The AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR, which is a tetrameric complex composed of four subunits (GluA1-4 with several combinations, mediates the majority of rapid excitatory synaptic transmissions in the nervous system. Cell surface expression levels of AMPAR modulate synaptic plasticity, which is considered one of the molecular bases for learning and memory formation. To date, a unique trisaccharide (HSO3-3GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc, human natural killer-1 (HNK-1 carbohydrate, was found expressed specifically on N-linked glycans of GluA2 and regulated the cell surface expression of AMPAR and the spine maturation process. However, evidence that the HNK-1 epitope on N-glycans of GluA2 directly affects these phenomena is lacking. Moreover, it is thought that other N-glycans on GluA2 also have potential roles in the regulation of AMPAR functions. In the present study, using a series of mutants lacking potential N-glycosylation sites (N256, N370, N406, and N413 within GluA2, we demonstrated that the mutant lacking the N-glycan at N370 strongly suppressed the intracellular trafficking of GluA2 from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER in HEK293 cells. Cell surface expression of GluA1, which is a major subunit of AMPAR in neurons, was also suppressed by co-expression of the GluA2 N370S mutant. The N370S mutant and wild-type GluA2 were co-immunoprecipitated with GluA1, suggesting that N370S was properly associated with GluA1. Moreover, we found that N413 was the main potential site of the HNK-1 epitope that promoted the interaction of GluA2 with N-cadherin, resulting in enhanced cell surface expression of GluA2. The HNK-1 epitope on N-glycan at the N413 of GluA2 was also involved in the cell surface expression of GluA1. Thus, our data suggested that site-specific N-glycans on GluA2 regulate the intracellular trafficking and cell surface expression of AMPAR.

  1. Ca2+ - or Phorbol Ester - Dependent Effect of ATP on a Subpopulation of cAMP Cell-Surface Receptors in Membranes from D. discoideum. A Role for Protein Kinase C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Wit, René J.W. de; Lookeren Campagne, Michiel M. van


    D. discoideum cells contain surface receptors for the chemoattractant cAMP which are composed of fast and slowly dissociating binding sites with half-lifes of respectively about 1 s and 15 s. In membranes prepared by shearing the cells through a Nucleopore filter, ATP has no effect on cAMP-binding a

  2. Apoplastic venom allergen-like proteins of cyst nematodes modulate the activation of basal plant innate immunity by cell surface receptors. (United States)

    Lozano-Torres, Jose L; Wilbers, Ruud H P; Warmerdam, Sonja; Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Diaz-Granados, Amalia; van Schaik, Casper C; Helder, Johannes; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska; Schots, Arjen; Smant, Geert


    Despite causing considerable damage to host tissue during the onset of parasitism, nematodes establish remarkably persistent infections in both animals and plants. It is thought that an elaborate repertoire of effector proteins in nematode secretions suppresses damage-triggered immune responses of the host. However, the nature and mode of action of most immunomodulatory compounds in nematode secretions are not well understood. Here, we show that venom allergen-like proteins of plant-parasitic nematodes selectively suppress host immunity mediated by surface-localized immune receptors. Venom allergen-like proteins are uniquely conserved in secretions of all animal- and plant-parasitic nematodes studied to date, but their role during the onset of parasitism has thus far remained elusive. Knocking-down the expression of the venom allergen-like protein Gr-VAP1 severely hampered the infectivity of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. By contrast, heterologous expression of Gr-VAP1 and two other venom allergen-like proteins from the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in plants resulted in the loss of basal immunity to multiple unrelated pathogens. The modulation of basal immunity by ectopic venom allergen-like proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana involved extracellular protease-based host defenses and non-photochemical quenching in chloroplasts. Non-photochemical quenching regulates the initiation of the defense-related programmed cell death, the onset of which was commonly suppressed by venom allergen-like proteins from G. rostochiensis, H. schachtii, and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Surprisingly, these venom allergen-like proteins only affected the programmed cell death mediated by surface-localized immune receptors. Furthermore, the delivery of venom allergen-like proteins into host tissue coincides with the enzymatic breakdown of plant cell walls by migratory nematodes. We, therefore, conclude that parasitic nematodes most likely utilize

  3. Enhancing the receptor-mediated cell uptake of PLGA nanoparticle for targeted drug delivery by incorporation chitosan onto the particle surface (United States)

    Jiang, Guoqiang; Tang, Shifu; Chen, Xuelan; Ding, Fuxin


    Cationic polymer chitosan (CS) and target ligand were both incorporated onto nanoparticles (NPs) to enhance the cell uptake by integration of electrostatic interaction and receptor-mediated internalization. CS and biotin-contained amphipathic polymer biotin-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (biotin-PEG-PLA) were simultaneously decorated on the poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs surface in one step during the o/w solvent evaporation procedure. The incorporation of CS increased the zeta potential of the NPs to positive value and showed little impacts on particle size and biotin density. Cell uptake was investigated in vitro using human hepatic carcinoma cell lines SMMC-7721. The CS and biotin co-decorated NPs (CS-B-NPs) presented significantly higher cell uptake than that of the mono biotin-decorated NPs (B-NPs). In acid environment, as CS-B-NPs are more positive charged, cell uptake of CS-B-NPs is further increased, which is 3.8-fold as much as that of the undecorated NPs (U-NPs) and 1.9-fold higher than that of B-NPs at pH 6.6. When either the ligand density was reduced within limited or the particle size was slightly increased, cell uptake of CS-B-NPs remained almost the same. The cell uptake mechanism study demonstrated that the internalization due to the electrostatic interaction would contribute more to the cell uptake when the internalization based on clathrin-mediated endocytosis and other ATP-dependent pathways were blocked. The co-decoration of CS and target ligand is an effective approach for improving the specific cell uptake of NPs.

  4. Conjugated Bilirubin Differentially Regulates CD4+ T Effector Cells and T Regulatory Cell Function through Outside-In and Inside-Out Mechanisms: The Effects of HAV Cell Surface Receptor and Intracellular Signaling (United States)

    Corral-Jara, Karla F.; Gómez-Leyva, Juan F.; Rosenstein, Yvonne; Jose-Abrego, Alexis; Roman, Sonia


    We recently reported an immune-modulatory role of conjugated bilirubin (CB) in hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. During this infection the immune response relies on CD4+ T lymphocytes (TLs) and it may be affected by the interaction of HAV with its cellular receptor (HAVCR1/TIM-1) on T cell surface. How CB might affect T cell function during HAV infection remains to be elucidated. Herein, in vitro stimulation of CD4+ TLs from healthy donors with CB resulted in a decrease in the degree of intracellular tyrosine phosphorylation and an increase in the activity of T regulatory cells (Tregs) expressing HAVCR1/TIM-1. A comparison between CD4+ TLs from healthy donors and HAV-infected patients revealed changes in the TCR signaling pathway relative to changes in CB levels. The proportion of CD4+CD25+ TLs increased in patients with low CB serum levels and an increase in the percentage of Tregs expressing HAVCR1/TIM-1 was found in HAV-infected patients relative to controls. A low frequency of 157insMTTTVP insertion in the viral receptor gene HAVCR1/TIM-1 was found in patients and controls. Our data revealed that, during HAV infection, CB differentially regulates CD4+ TLs and Tregs functions by modulating intracellular pathways and by inducing changes in the proportion of Tregs expressing HAVCR1/TIM-1. PMID:27578921

  5. A putative cell surface receptor for white spot syndrome virus is a member of a transporter superfamily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Ting Huang

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV, a large enveloped DNA virus, can cause the most serious viral disease in shrimp and has a wide host range among crustaceans. In this study, we identified a surface protein, named glucose transporter 1 (Glut1, which could also interact with WSSV envelope protein, VP53A. Sequence analysis revealed that Glut1 is a member of a large superfamily of transporters and that it is most closely related to evolutionary branches of this superfamily, branches that function to transport this sugar. Tissue tropism analysis showed that Glut1 was constitutive and highly expressed in almost all organs. Glut1's localization in shrimp cells was further verified and so was its interaction with Penaeus monodon chitin-binding protein (PmCBP, which was itself identified to interact with an envelope protein complex formed by 11 WSSV envelope proteins. In vitro and in vivo neutralization experiments using synthetic peptide contained WSSV binding domain (WBD showed that the WBD peptide could inhibit WSSV infection in primary cultured hemocytes and delay the mortality in shrimps challenged with WSSV. These findings have important implications for our understanding of WSSV entry.

  6. Signal transduction in Dictyostelium fgd A mutants with a defective interaction between surface cAMP receptors and a GTP-binding regulatory protein [published erratum appears in J Cell Biol 1988 Dec;107(6 Pt 1):following 2463



    Transmembrane signal transduction was investigated in four Dictyostelium discoideum mutants that belong to the fgd A complementation group. The results show the following. (a) Cell surface cAMP receptors are present in fgd A mutants, but cAMP does not induce any of the intracellular responses, including the activation of adenylate or guanylate cyclase and chemotaxis. (b) cAMP induces down- regulation and the covalent modification (presumably phosphorylation) of the cAMP receptor. (c) The inhi...

  7. The study of interaction of HIV-1 surface GP120 protein with CD4 cell receptor by EXAFS spectroscopy (United States)

    Lukashev, Vitaly Alexeevich; Bausk, Nikolay Vladimirovich; Mazalov, Lev Nikolaevich; Kaurov, Oleg Alexeevich; Kolobov, Alexandr Alexandrovich; Naumochkin, Andrey Nikolaevich; Kulichkov, Vladimir Anatolevich


    This work is aimed at the study of the interaction between gp120 protein (HIV-1) and peptides, which are similar to CD4 protein receptors from T4 lymphocytes. The preliminary results demonstrated that peptide structural information could be obtained from fluorescent EXAFS.

  8. A Val85Met mutation in melanocortin-1 receptor is associated with reductions in eumelanic pigmentation and cell surface expression in domestic rock pigeons (Columba livia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W Guernsey

    Full Text Available Variation in the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r is associated with pigmentation diversity in wild and domesticated populations of vertebrates, including several species of birds. Among domestic bird species, pigmentation variation in the rock pigeon (Columbalivia is particularly diverse. To determine the potential contribution of Mc1r variants to pigment diversity in pigeons, we sequenced Mc1r in a wide range of pigeon breeds and identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms, including a variant that codes for an amino acid substitution (Val85Met. In contrast to the association between Val85Met and eumelanism in other avian species, this change was associated with pheomelanism in pigeons. In vitro cAMP accumulation and protein expression assays revealed that Val85Met leads to decreased receptor function and reduced cell surface expression of the mutant protein. The reduced in vitro function is consistent with the observed association with reduced eumelanic pigmentation. Comparative genetic and cellular studies provide important insights about the range of mechanisms underlying diversity among vertebrates, including different phenotypic associations with similar mutations in different species.

  9. A response calculus for immobilized T cell receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Menné, C; Mariuzza, R A


    To address the molecular mechanism of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, we have formulated a model for T cell activation, termed the 2D-affinity model, in which the density of TCR on the T cell surface, the density of ligand on the presenting surface, and their corresponding two-dimensional affini...

  10. Activating Receptor Signals Drive Receptor Diversity in Developing Natural Killer Cells. (United States)

    Freund, Jacquelyn; May, Rebecca M; Yang, Enjun; Li, Hongchuan; McCullen, Matthew; Zhang, Bin; Lenvik, Todd; Cichocki, Frank; Anderson, Stephen K; Kambayashi, Taku


    It has recently been appreciated that NK cells exhibit many features reminiscent of adaptive immune cells. Considerable heterogeneity exists with respect to the ligand specificity of individual NK cells and as such, a subset of NK cells can respond, expand, and differentiate into memory-like cells in a ligand-specific manner. MHC I-binding inhibitory receptors, including those belonging to the Ly49 and KIR families, are expressed in a variegated manner, which creates ligand-specific diversity within the NK cell pool. However, how NK cells determine which inhibitory receptors to express on their cell surface during a narrow window of development is largely unknown. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that signals from activating receptors are critical for induction of Ly49 and KIR receptors during NK cell development; activating receptor-derived signals increased the probability of the Ly49 bidirectional Pro1 promoter to transcribe in the forward versus the reverse direction, leading to stable expression of Ly49 receptors in mature NK cells. Our data support a model where the balance of activating and inhibitory receptor signaling in NK cells selects for the induction of appropriate inhibitory receptors during development, which NK cells use to create a diverse pool of ligand-specific NK cells.

  11. CD229 (Ly9) lymphocyte cell surface receptor interacts homophilically through its N-terminal domain and relocalizes to the immunological synapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, [No Value; Zapater, N; Calvo, M; Kalko, SG; de la Fuente, MA; Tovar, [No Value; Ockeloen, C; Pizcueta, P; Engel, P


    CD229 is a member of the CD150 family of the Ig superfamily expressed on T and B cells. Receptors of this family regulate cytokine production and cytotoxicity of lymphocytes and NK cells. The cytoplasmic tail of CD229 binds to SAP, a protein that is defective in X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome

  12. Role of laminin receptor in tumor cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Taraboletti, G; Sobel, M E;


    Polyclonal antisera were made against biochemically purified laminin receptor protein as well as against synthetic peptides deduced from a complementary DNA clone corresponding to the COOH-terminal end of the laminin receptor (U.M. Wewer et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 83: 7137-7141, 1986......). These antisera were used to study the potential role of laminin receptor in laminin-mediated attachment and haptotactic migration of human A2058 melanoma cells. The anti-laminin receptor antisera reacted with the surface of suspended, nonpermeabilized melanoma and carcinoma cells. The anti-laminin receptor...... antisera blocked the surface interaction of A2058 cells with endogenous laminin, resulting in the inhibition of laminin-mediated cell attachment. The A2058 melanoma cells migrated toward a gradient of solid phase laminin or fibronectin (haptotaxis). Anti-laminin antiserum abolished haptotaxis on laminin...

  13. Poliovirus Mutants Resistant to Neutralization with Soluble Cell Receptors (United States)

    Kaplan, Gerardo; Peters, David; Racaniello, Vincent R.


    Poliovirus mutants resistant to neutralization with soluble cellular receptor were isolated. Replication of soluble receptor-resistant (srr) mutants was blocked by a monoclonal antibody directed against the HeLa cell receptor for poliovirus, indicating that the mutants use this receptor to enter cells. The srr mutants showed reduced binding to HeLa cells and cell membranes. However, the reduced binding phenotype did not have a major impact on viral replication, as judged by plaque size and one-step growth curves. These results suggest that the use of soluble receptors as antiviral agents could lead to the selection of neutralization-resistant mutants that are able to bind cell surface receptors, replicate, and cause disease.

  14. Assembly, intracellular processing, and expression at the cell surface of the human alpha beta T cell receptor/CD3 complex. Function of the CD3-zeta chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Kuhlmann, J; Rubin, B


    The TCR/CD3 complex is a multimeric protein complex composed of a minimum of seven transmembrane chains (TCR alpha beta-CD3 gamma delta epsilon zeta 2). Whereas earlier studies have demonstrated that both the TCR-alpha and -beta chains are required for the cell surface expression of the TCR/CD3 c...... to form the heptameric complex (TCR alpha beta-CD3 gamma delta epsilon----TCR alpha beta-CD3 gamma delta epsilon 2); and 5) CD3-zeta is required for the export of the TCR/CD3 complex from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus for subsequent processing....

  15. Selective decrease in cell surface expression and mRNA level of the 55-kDa tumor necrosis factor receptor during differentiation of HL-60 cells into macrophage-like but not granulocyte-like cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winzen, R; Wallach, D; Engelmann, H;


    Expression of the two known receptors for TNF was studied in the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 before and after differentiation of the cells along the granulocyte lineage (induced by incubation with retinoic acid), or along the macrophage lineage (induced by incubation with the phorbol d...

  16. Lipopolysaccharide Could Be Internalized into Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Elicits TNF-α Release,but not via the Pathway of Toll-Like Receptor 4 on the Cell Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongZhou; GuofuDing; WeiLiu; LiangxiWang; YonglingLu; HongweiCao; JiangZheng


    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS [endotoxin]), the principal component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, stimulate various cell types to release numerous proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12, which may damage cells and lead to organ injury, even sepsis and septic shock. Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4) has been identified as the receptor involved in the recognition of LPS, but the role of LPS uptake inactivating signal transduction remains controversial. In the present study, TNF-α was used as a marker of macrophages/monocytes activated by LPS, and CQ was used as an inhibitor of endosome mature in order to definitude what stage the signal transduction elicited by LPS was interrupted. We found that there indeed existed internalization of LPS and internalization partially participated in LPS signaling since CQ inhibitedcytokine release, and decreased accumulation of FITC-LPS in hPBMC. In contrast, anti-hTLR4 antibodycould decrease cytokines' release, but no inhibition on accumulation of FITC-LPS. This result revealed thatinhibition of cytokine release was related to reduction of FITC-LPS accumulation in the cells. But TLR4 on thecell surface didn't possibly participated in internalization of LPS. Thus, LPS signaling and internalizationcannot be viewed as mutually independent processes. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(5):373-377.

  17. Cell-Based Selection Expands the Utility of DNA-Encoded Small-Molecule Library Technology to Cell Surface Drug Targets: Identification of Novel Antagonists of the NK3 Tachykinin Receptor. (United States)

    Wu, Zining; Graybill, Todd L; Zeng, Xin; Platchek, Michael; Zhang, Jean; Bodmer, Vera Q; Wisnoski, David D; Deng, Jianghe; Coppo, Frank T; Yao, Gang; Tamburino, Alex; Scavello, Genaro; Franklin, G Joseph; Mataruse, Sibongile; Bedard, Katie L; Ding, Yun; Chai, Jing; Summerfield, Jennifer; Centrella, Paolo A; Messer, Jeffrey A; Pope, Andrew J; Israel, David I


    DNA-encoded small-molecule library technology has recently emerged as a new paradigm for identifying ligands against drug targets. To date, this technology has been used with soluble protein targets that are produced and used in a purified state. Here, we describe a cell-based method for identifying small-molecule ligands from DNA-encoded libraries against integral membrane protein targets. We use this method to identify novel, potent, and specific inhibitors of NK3, a member of the tachykinin family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The method is simple and broadly applicable to other GPCRs and integral membrane proteins. We have extended the application of DNA-encoded library technology to membrane-associated targets and demonstrate the feasibility of selecting DNA-tagged, small-molecule ligands from complex combinatorial libraries against targets in a heterogeneous milieu, such as the surface of a cell.

  18. Linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA ameliorates stress-induced depression-related behavior by promoting cell surface 5-HT1A receptor translocation, stimulating serotonin release, and inactivating GSK-3β. (United States)

    Kanno, Takeshi; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki


    Impairment of serotonergic neurotransmission is the major factor responsible for depression and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) participates in serotonergic transmission-mediated signaling networks relevant to mental illnesses. In the forced-swim test to assess depression-like behavior, the immobility time for mice with restraint stress was significantly longer than that for nonstressed control mice. Postsynaptic cell surface localization of 5-HT1A receptor, but not 5-HT2A receptor, in the hypothalamus for mice with restraint stress was significantly reduced as compared with that for control mice, which highly correlated to prolonged immobility time, i.e., depression-like behavior. The linoleic acid derivative 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) restored restraint stress-induced reduction of cell surface 5-HT1A receptor and improved depression-like behavior in mice with restraint stress. Moreover, DCP-LA stimulated serotonin release from hypothalamic slices and cancelled restraint stress-induced reduction of GSK-3β phosphorylation at Ser9. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate that DCP-LA could ameliorate depression-like behavior by promoting translocation of 5-HT1A receptor to the plasma membrane on postsynaptic cells, stimulating serotonin release, and inactivating GSK-3β.

  19. High affinity binding of /sup 125/I-labeled mouse interferon to a specific cell surface receptor. II. Analysis of binding properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguet, M.; Blanchard, B.


    Direct ligand-binding studies with highly purified /sup 125/I-labeled virus-induced mouse interferon on mouse lymphoma L 1210 cells revealed a direct correlation of specific high-affinity binding with the biologic response to interferon. Neutralization of the antiviral effect by anti-interferon gamma globulin occurred at the same antibody concentration as the inhibition of specific binding. These results suggest that specific high-affinity binding of /sup 125/I-interferon occurred at a biologically functional interferon receptor. Competitive inhibition experiments using /sup 125/I- and /sup 127/I-labeled interferon provided strong evidence that the fraction of /sup 125/I-interferon inactivated upon labeling did not bind specifically. Scatchard analysis of the binding data yielded linear plots and thus suggested that interferon binds to homogeneous noncooperative receptor sites. In contrast to a characteristic property of several peptide hormone systems, binding of /sup 125/I-interferon to its specific receptor did not induce subsequent ligand degradation. At 37/sup o/ bound interferon was rapidly released in a biologically active form without evidence for molecular degradation. The expression of interferon receptors was not modified by treatment with interferon. Trypsin treatment of target cells and inhibition of protein synthesis abolished the specific binding of /sup 125/I-interferon. Three major molecular weight species of Newcastle disease virus-induced mouse C 243 cell interferon were isolated, separated, and identified as mouse ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. interferons. These interferons were shown to inhibit competitively the specific binding of the highly purified labeled starting material thus providing evidence for a common receptor site for mouse interferon.

  20. High-Dose Estrogen and Clinical Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators Induce Growth Arrest, p21, and p53 in Primate Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Jay W.; Stouffer, Richard L.; Rodland, Karin D.


    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer affecting women. Hormone-based therapies are variably successful in treating ovarian cancer, but the reasoning behind these therapies is paradoxical. Clinical reagents such as tamoxifen are considered to inhibit or reverse tumor growth by competitive inhibition of the estrogen receptor (ER); however high dose estrogen is as clinically effective as tamoxifen, and it is unlikely that estrogen is acting by blocking ER activity; however, it may be activating a unique function of the ER that is nonmitogenic. For poorly defined reasons, 90% of varian cancers derive from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). In vivo the ER-positive OSE is exposed to high estrogen levels, reaching micromolar concentrations in dominant ovarian follicles. Using cultured OSE cells in vitro, we show that these levels of estradiol (1 ug/ml; {approx}3um) block the actions of serum growth factors, activate the G1 phase retinoblastoma AQ:A checkpoint, and induce p21, an inhibitor of kinases that normally inactivate the retinoblastoma checkpoint. We also show that estradiol increases p53 levels, which may contribute to p21 induction. Supporting the hypothesis that clinical selective ER modulators activate this novel ER function, we find that micromolar doses of tamoxifen and the ''pure antiestrogen'' ICI 182,780 elicit the same effects as estradiol. We propose that, in the context of proliferation, these data clarify some paradoxical aspects of hormone-based therapy and suggest that fuller understanding of normal ER function is necessary to improve therapeutic strategies that target the ER. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90: 0000-0000, 2005)

  1. A computational analysis of non-genomic plasma membrane progestin binding proteins: signaling through ion channel-linked cell surface receptors. (United States)

    Morrill, Gene A; Kostellow, Adele B; Gupta, Raj K


    A number of plasma membrane progestin receptors linked to non-genomic events have been identified. These include: (1) α1-subunit of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (ATP1A1), (2) progestin binding PAQR proteins, (3) membrane progestin receptor alpha (mPRα), (4) progesterone receptor MAPR proteins and (5) the association of nuclear receptor (PRB) with the plasma membrane. This study compares: the pore-lining regions (ion channels), transmembrane (TM) helices, caveolin binding (CB) motifs and leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) of putative progesterone receptors. ATP1A1 contains 10 TM helices (TM-2, 4, 5, 6 and 8 are pores) and 4 CB motifs; whereas PAQR5, PAQR6, PAQR7, PAQRB8 and fish mPRα each contain 8 TM helices (TM-3 is a pore) and 2-4 CB motifs. MAPR proteins contain a single TM helix but lack pore-lining regions and CB motifs. PRB contains one or more TM helices in the steroid binding region, one of which is a pore. ATP1A1, PAQR5/7/8, mPRα, and MAPR-1 contain highly conserved leucine-rich repeats (LRR, common to plant membrane proteins) that are ligand binding sites for ouabain-like steroids associated with LRR kinases. LRR domains are within or overlap TM helices predicted to be ion channels (pore-lining regions), with the variable LRR sequence either at the C-terminus (PAQR and MAPR-1) or within an external loop (ATP1A1). Since ouabain-like steroids are produced by animal cells, our findings suggest that ATP1A1, PAQR5/7/8 and mPRα represent ion channel-linked receptors that respond physiologically to ouabain-like steroids (not progestin) similar to those known to regulate developmental and defense-related processes in plants.

  2. Cytokine and surface receptor diversity of NK cells in resistant C3H/HeN and susceptible BALB/c mice with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Moser, Claus; Jensen, Peter Østrup;


    the infection in cystic fibrosis. Lung cell suspensions were depleted of lymphocytes by magnetic cell sorting. The concentrations of IFN-gamma, IL-1beta and GM-CSF were estimated by ELISA at day 1 and 2 after infection. Non-infected mice were used as controls. Flow cytometry was used to estimate the surface...

  3. Mapping the energy and diffusion landscapes of membrane proteins at the cell surface using high-density single-molecule imaging and Bayesian inference: application to the multi-scale dynamics of glycine receptors in the neuronal membrane

    CERN Document Server

    Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Salvatico, Charlotte; Renner, Marianne; Specht, Christian G; Triller, Antoine; Dahan, Maxime


    Protein mobility is conventionally analyzed in terms of an effective diffusion. Yet, this description often fails to properly distinguish and evaluate the physical parameters (such as the membrane friction) and the biochemical interactions governing the motion. Here, we present a method combining high-density single-molecule imaging and statistical inference to separately map the diffusion and energy landscapes of membrane proteins across the cell surface at ~100 nm resolution (with acquisition of a few minutes). When applying these analytical tools to glycine neurotransmitter receptors (GlyRs) at inhibitory synapses, we find that gephyrin scaffolds act as shallow energy traps (~3 kBT) for GlyRs, with a depth modulated by the biochemical properties of the receptor-gephyrin interaction loop. In turn, the inferred maps can be used to simulate the dynamics of proteins in the membrane, from the level of individual receptors to that of the population, and thereby, to model the stochastic fluctuations of physiologi...

  4. Tumor cell marker PVRL4 (nectin 4 is an epithelial cell receptor for measles virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan S Noyce


    Full Text Available Vaccine and laboratory adapted strains of measles virus can use CD46 as a receptor to infect many human cell lines. However, wild type isolates of measles virus cannot use CD46, and they infect activated lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages via the receptor CD150/SLAM. Wild type virus can also infect epithelial cells of the respiratory tract through an unidentified receptor. We demonstrate that wild type measles virus infects primary airway epithelial cells grown in fetal calf serum and many adenocarcinoma cell lines of the lung, breast, and colon. Transfection of non-infectable adenocarcinoma cell lines with an expression vector encoding CD150/SLAM rendered them susceptible to measles virus, indicating that they were virus replication competent, but lacked a receptor for virus attachment and entry. Microarray analysis of susceptible versus non-susceptible cell lines was performed, and comparison of membrane protein gene transcripts produced a list of 11 candidate receptors. Of these, only the human tumor cell marker PVRL4 (Nectin 4 rendered cells amenable to measles virus infections. Flow cytometry confirmed that PVRL4 is highly expressed on the surfaces of susceptible lung, breast, and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Measles virus preferentially infected adenocarcinoma cell lines from the apical surface, although basolateral infection was observed with reduced kinetics. Confocal immune fluorescence microscopy and surface biotinylation experiments revealed that PVRL4 was expressed on both the apical and basolateral surfaces of these cell lines. Antibodies and siRNA directed against PVRL4 were able to block measles virus infections in MCF7 and NCI-H358 cancer cells. A virus binding assay indicated that PVRL4 was a bona fide receptor that supported virus attachment to the host cell. Several strains of measles virus were also shown to use PVRL4 as a receptor. Measles virus infection reduced PVRL4 surface expression in MCF7 cells, a

  5. Cell and molecular biology of epidermal growth factor receptor. (United States)

    Ceresa, Brian P; Peterson, Joanne L


    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been one of the most intensely studied cell surface receptors due to its well-established roles in developmental biology, tissue homeostasis, and cancer biology. The EGFR has been critical for creating paradigms for numerous aspects of cell biology, such as ligand binding, signal transduction, and membrane trafficking. Despite this history of discovery, there is a continual stream of evidence that only the surface has been scratched. New ways of receptor regulation continue to be identified, each of which is a potential molecular target for manipulating EGFR signaling and the resultant changes in cell and tissue biology. This chapter is an update on EGFR-mediated signaling, and describes some recent developments in the regulation of receptor biology.

  6. Evolutionary vignettes of natural killer cell receptors. (United States)

    Sambrook, Jennifer G; Beck, Stephan


    The discovery of novel immune receptors has led to a recent renaissance of research into the innate immune system, following decades of intense research of the adaptive immune system. Of particular interest has been the discovery of the natural killer (NK) cell receptors which, depending on type, interact with classical or non-classical MHC class I antigens of the adaptive immune system, thus functioning at the interface of innate and adaptive immunity. Here, we review recent progress with respect to two such families of NK receptors, the killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and the killer cell lectin-like receptors (KLRs), and attempt to trace their evolution across vertebrates.

  7. Receptor-recognized α₂-macroglobulin binds to cell surface-associated GRP78 and activates mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling in prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma K Misra

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Tetrameric α(2-macroglobulin (α(2M, a plasma panproteinase inhibitor, is activated upon interaction with a proteinase, and undergoes a major conformational change exposing a receptor recognition site in each of its subunits. Activated α(2M (α(2M* binds to cancer cell surface GRP78 and triggers proliferative and antiapoptotic signaling. We have studied the role of α(2M* in the regulation of mTORC1 and TORC2 signaling in the growth of human prostate cancer cells. METHODS: Employing immunoprecipitation techniques and Western blotting as well as kinase assays, activation of the mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes, as well as down stream targets were studied. RNAi was also employed to silence expression of Raptor, Rictor, or GRP78 in parallel studies. RESULTS: Stimulation of cells with α(2M* promotes phosphorylation of mTOR, TSC2, S6-Kinase, 4EBP, Akt(T308, and Akt(S473 in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Rheb, Raptor, and Rictor also increased. α(2M* treatment of cells elevated mTORC1 kinase activity as determined by kinase assays of mTOR or Raptor immunoprecipitates. mTORC1 activity was sensitive to LY294002 and rapamycin or transfection of cells with GRP78 dsRNA. Down regulation of Raptor expression by RNAi significantly reduced α(2M*-induced S6-Kinase phosphorylation at T389 and kinase activity in Raptor immunoprecipitates. α(2M*-treated cells demonstrate about a twofold increase in mTORC2 kinase activity as determined by kinase assay of Akt(S473 phosphorylation and levels of p-Akt(S473 in mTOR and Rictor immunoprecipitates. mTORC2 activity was sensitive to LY294002 and transfection of cells with GRP78 dsRNA, but insensitive to rapamycin. Down regulation of Rictor expression by RNAi significantly reduces α(2M*-induced phosphorylation of Akt(S473 phosphorylation in Rictor immunoprecipitates. CONCLUSION: Binding of α(2M* to prostate cancer cell surface GRP78 upregulates mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation and promotes protein

  8. The evolution of natural killer cell receptors. (United States)

    Carrillo-Bustamante, Paola; Keşmir, Can; de Boer, Rob J


    Natural killer (NK) cells are immune cells that play a crucial role against viral infections and tumors. To be tolerant against healthy tissue and simultaneously attack infected cells, the activity of NK cells is tightly regulated by a sophisticated array of germline-encoded activating and inhibiting receptors. The best characterized mechanism of NK cell activation is "missing self" detection, i.e., the recognition of virally infected or transformed cells that reduce their MHC expression to evade cytotoxic T cells. To monitor the expression of MHC-I on target cells, NK cells have monomorphic inhibitory receptors which interact with conserved MHC molecules. However, there are other NK cell receptors (NKRs) encoded by gene families showing a remarkable genetic diversity. Thus, NKR haplotypes contain several genes encoding for receptors with activating and inhibiting signaling, and that vary in gene content and allelic polymorphism. But if missing-self detection can be achieved by a monomorphic NKR system why have these polygenic and polymorphic receptors evolved? Here, we review the expansion of NKR receptor families in different mammal species, and we discuss several hypotheses that possibly underlie the diversification of the NK cell receptor complex, including the evolution of viral decoys, peptide sensitivity, and selective MHC-downregulation.

  9. Differential infection of receptor-modified host cells by receptor-specific influenza viruses. (United States)

    Carroll, S M; Paulson, J C


    Influenza viruses of contrasting receptor specificity have been examined for their ability to infect receptor-modified MDCK cells containing sialyloligosaccharide receptor determinants of defined sequence. Cells were treated with sialidase to remove sialic acid and render them resistant to infection and were then incubated with sialyltransferase and CMP-sialic acid to restore sialic acid in the SA alpha 2,6Gal or SA alpha 2,3Gal linkages. The viruses A/RI/5 + /57 and A/duck/Ukraine/1/63, previously shown to exhibit preferential binding of SA alpha 2,6Gal and SA alpha 2,3Gal linkages, respectively, were found to exhibit differential infection of the receptor-modified cells in accord with their receptor specificity. Coinfection of SA alpha 2,3Gal derivatized cells with a mixture of the two viruses resulted in selective propagation of the SA alpha 2,3Gal-specific A/duck/Ukraine/1/63 virus. The results demonstrate the potential for cell surface receptors to mediate selection of receptor-specific variants of influenza virus.

  10. Calreticulin: Roles in Cell-Surface Protein Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Jiang


    Full Text Available In order to perform their designated functions, proteins require precise subcellular localizations. For cell-surface proteins, such as receptors and channels, they are able to transduce signals only when properly targeted to the cell membrane. Calreticulin is a multi-functional chaperone protein involved in protein folding, maturation, and trafficking. However, evidence has been accumulating that calreticulin can also negatively regulate the surface expression of certain receptors and channels. In these instances, depletion of calreticulin enhances cell-surface expression and function. In this review, we discuss the role of calreticulin with a focus on its negative effects on the expression of cell-surface proteins.

  11. Human Neuroepithelial Cells Express NMDA Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappell B


    Full Text Available Abstract L-glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter, binds to both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. In certain parts of the brain the BBB contains two normally impermeable barriers: 1 cerebral endothelial barrier and 2 cerebral epithelial barrier. Human cerebral endothelial cells express NMDA receptors; however, to date, human cerebral epithelial cells (neuroepithelial cells have not been shown to express NMDA receptor message or protein. In this study, human hypothalamic sections were examined for NMDA receptors (NMDAR expression via immunohistochemistry and murine neuroepithelial cell line (V1 were examined for NMDAR via RT-PCR and Western analysis. We found that human cerebral epithelium express protein and cultured mouse neuroepithelial cells express both mRNA and protein for the NMDA receptor. These findings may have important consequences for neuroepithelial responses during excitotoxicity and in disease.

  12. Reconstituted B cell receptor signaling reveals carbohydrate-dependent mode of activation



    Activation of immune cells (but not B cells) with lectins is widely known. We used the structurally defined interaction between influenza hemagglutinin (HA) and its cell surface receptor sialic acid (SA) to identify a B cell receptor (BCR) activation modality that proceeded through non-cognate interactions with antigen. Using a new approach to reconstitute antigen-receptor interactions in a human reporter B cell line, we found that sequence-defined BCRs from the human germline repertoire coul...

  13. Mast Cell and Immune Inhibitory Receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LixinLi; ZhengbinYao


    Modulation by balancing activating and inhibitory receptors constitutes an important mechanism for regulating immune responses. Cells that are activated following ligation of receptors bearing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) can be negatively regulated by other receptors bearing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs). Human mast cells (MCs) are the major effector cells of type I hypersensitivity and important participants in a number of disease processes. Antigen-mediated aggregation of IgE bound to its high-affinity receptor on MCs initiates a complex series of biochemical events leading to MC activation. With great detailed description and analysis of several inhibitory receptors on human MCs, a central paradigm of negative regulation of human MC activation by these receptors has emerged. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(6):408-415.

  14. G-protein-mediated interconversions of cell-surface cAMP receptors and their involvement in excitation and desensitization of guanylate cyclase in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Haastert, P.J.; de Wit, R.J.; Janssens, P.M.; Kesbeke, F.; DeGoede, J.


    In Dictyostelium discoideum cells, extracellular cAMP induces the rapid (within 2 s) activation of guanylate cyclase, which is followed by complete desensitization after about 10 s. cAMP binding to these cells is heterogeneous, showing a subclass of fast dissociating sites coupled to adenylate cyclase (A-sites) and a subclass of slowly dissociating sites coupled to guanylate cyclase (B-sites). The kinetics of the B-sites were further investigated on a seconds time scale. Statistical analysis of the association of (/sup 3/H)cAMP to the B-sites and dissociation of the complex revealed that the receptor can exist in three states which interconvert according to the following scheme. cAMP binds to the BF-state (off-rate 2.5 s) which rapidly (t1/2 = 3 s) converts to the BS-state (off-rate 15 s) and subsequently (without a detectable delay) into the BSS-state (off-rate 150 s). In membranes, both the BS- and BSS-states are converted to the BF-state by GTP and GDP, suggesting the involvement of a G-protein. Densensitized cells show a 80% reduction of the formation of the BSS-state, but no reduction of the BF- or BS-state. These data are combined into a model in which the transitions of the B-sites are mediated by a G-protein; activation of the G-protein and guanylate cyclase is associated with the transition of the BS- to the BSS-state of the receptor, whereas desensitization is associated with the inhibition of this transition.

  15. P2X and P2Y receptor signaling in red blood cells. (United States)

    Sluyter, Ronald


    Purinergic signaling involves the activation of cell surface P1 and P2 receptors by extracellular nucleosides and nucleotides such as adenosine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respectively. P2 receptors comprise P2X and P2Y receptors, and have well-established roles in leukocyte and platelet biology. Emerging evidence indicates important roles for these receptors in red blood cells. P2 receptor activation stimulates a number of signaling pathways in progenitor red blood cells resulting in microparticle release, reactive oxygen species formation, and apoptosis. Likewise, activation of P2 receptors in mature red blood cells stimulates signaling pathways mediating volume regulation, eicosanoid release, phosphatidylserine exposure, hemolysis, impaired ATP release, and susceptibility or resistance to infection. This review summarizes the distribution of P2 receptors in red blood cells, and outlines the functions of P2 receptor signaling in these cells and its implications in red blood cell biology.

  16. Natural killer cells and cancer: regulation by the killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIR). (United States)

    Purdy, Amanda K; Campbell, Kerry S


    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune effector cells that make up approximately 10-15% of the peripheral blood lymphocytes in humans and are primarily involved in immunosurveillance to eliminate transformed and virally-infected cells. They were originally defined by their ability to spontaneously eliminate rare cells lacking expression of class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) self molecules, which is commonly referred to as "missing self" recognition. The molecular basis for missing self recognition emerges from the expression of MHC-I-specific inhibitory receptors on the NK cell surface that tolerize NK cells toward normal MHC-I-expressing cells. By lacking inhibitory receptor ligands, tumor cells or virus-infected cells that have down-modulated surface MHC-I expression become susceptible to attack by NK cells. Killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIR; CD158) constitute a family of MHC-I binding receptors that plays a major role in regulating the activation thresholds of NK cells and some T cells in humans. Here, we review the multiple levels of KIR diversity that contribute to the generation of a highly varied NK cell repertoire and explain how this diversity can influence susceptibility to a variety of diseases, including cancer. We further describe strategies by which KIR can be manipulated therapeutically to treat cancer, through the exploitation of KIR/MHC-I ligand mismatch to potentiate hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the use of KIR blockade to enhance tumor cell killing.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The distribution of IgE FcR (Fc-epsilon-R)-positive and -negative B cells was examined in normal adult mice. Using three-color flow cytometry, the expression of the Fc-epsilon-R was analyzed on various B-cell subsets present in the peritoneum and spleen. The results demonstrate that in the peritonea

  18. The regions within the N-terminus critical for human glucagon like peptide-1 receptor (hGLP-1R) cell Surface expression


    Aiysha Thompson; Venkateswarlu Kanamarlapudi


    The hGLP-1R is a target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and belongs to the class B family of GPCRs. Like other class B GPCRs, the GLP-1R contains an N-terminal signal peptide (SP) and undergoes N-linked glycosylation, which are important for its trafficking and maturation. This study analysed the role of the SP, the hydrophobic region after the SP (HRASP), glycosylation and the conserved residues within the N-terminus in GLP-1R trafficking. HGLP-1R targeted to the cell surface showed no ...

  19. Manipulating the Lateral Diffusion of Surface-Anchored EGF Demonstrates that Receptor Clustering Modulates its Phosphorylation Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabley, Daniel [Emory University; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Marshal, Stephen [Emory University; Salaita, Khalid [Emory University


    Upon activation, the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor becomes phosphorylated and triggers a vast signaling network that has profound effects on cell growth. The EGF receptor is observed to assemble into clusters after ligand binding and tyrosine kinase autophosphorylation, but the role of these assemblies in the receptor signaling pathway remains unclear. To address this question, we measured the phosphorylation of EGFR when the EGF ligand was anchored onto laterally mobile and immobile surfaces. We found that cells generated clusters of ligand-receptor complex on mobile EGF surfaces, and generated a lower ratio of phosphorylated EGFR to EGF than when compared to immobilized EGF that is unable to cluster. This result was verified by tuning the lateral assembly of ligand-receptor complexes on the surface of living cells using patterned supported lipid bilayers. Nanoscale metal lines fabricated into the supported membrane constrained lipid diffusion and EGF receptor assembly into micron and sub-micron scale corrals. Single cell analysis indicated that clustering impacts EGF receptor activation, and larger clusters (> 1 m2) of ligand-receptor complex generated lower EGF receptor phosphorylation per ligand than smaller assemblies (< 1 m2) in HCC1143 cells that were engaged to ligand-functionalized surfaces. We investigated EGFR clustering by treating cells with compounds that disrupt the cytoskeleton (Latrunculin-B), clathrin-mediated endocytosis (Pitstop2), and inhibit EGFR activation (Gefitinib). These results help elucidate the nature of large-scale EGFR clustering, thus underscoring the general significance of receptor spatial organization in tuning function.

  20. The assay of thyrotropin receptor antibodies with human TSH/LH-CG chimeric receptor expressed on chinese hamster ovary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Ka Hee; Kim, Chang Min [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    TSH/LH-CG chimera cDNA is transfected to CHO-K1 cell to obtain the chimeric receptor expressed on the cell surface. The optimal conditions for TSAb and TSBAb measurements are determined using chimeric receptors and under these conditions activity of TSAb and TSBAb in the sera of the Graves` patients. The results obtained are compared to those of TSAb assays using FRTL5 cells CHO-TSHR cells which have wild type human TSH receptor. The transfection procedure of chimeric receptor gene to CHO-K1 cells are on going. The optimal conditions for TSAb and TSBAb measurement using chimeric receptor will be determined after success of transfection procedure. If this study is successfully completed, not only the heterogeneity of Graves. IgG but also pathogenesis of Graves` disease will be elucidated. (author). 25 refs.

  1. Five layers of receptor signalling in γδ T cell differentiation and activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio T. Ribeiro


    Full Text Available The contributions of gamma-delta T cells to immunity to infection or tumours critically depend on their activation and differentiation into effectors capable of secreting cytokines and killing infected or transformed cells. These processes are molecularly controlled by surface receptors that capture key extracellular cues and convey downstream intracellular signals that regulate gamma-delta T cell physiology. The understanding of how environmental signals are integrated by gamma-delta T cells is critical for their manipulation in clinical settings. Here we discuss how different classes of surface receptors impact on human and murine gamma-delta T cell differentiation, activation and expansion. In particular, we review the role of five receptor types: the T cell receptor (TCR, costimulatory receptors, cytokine receptors, NK receptors and inhibitory receptors. Some of the key players are the costimulatory receptors CD27 and CD28, which differentially impact on pro-inflammatory subsets of gamma-delta T cells; the cytokine receptors IL-2R, IL-7R and IL-15R, which drive functional differentiation and expansion of gamma-delta T cells; the NK receptor NKG2D and its contribution to gamma-delta T cell cytotoxicity; and the inhibitory receptors PD-1 and BTLA that control gamma-delta T cell homeostasis. We discuss these and other receptors in the context of a five-step model of receptor signalling in gamma-delta T cell differentiation and activation, and discuss its implications for the manipulation of gamma-delta T cells in immunotherapy.

  2. Transitional cell carcinoma express vitamin D receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Andersen, C B


    Recently, vitamin D analogues have shown antineoplastic effect in several diseases. Vitamin D analogues exert its effect by interacting with the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Studies of VDR in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) have not been reported. The purpose of the present study was therefore.......05). Similarly, also tumor grade appeared to be related to the number of cells expressing the receptor. Normal urothlium also expressed VDR but only with low intensity. Our study shows that TCC cells possess the VDR receptor which may make them capable to respond to stimulation with vitamin D, but functional...... studies of vitamin D's effect on TCC cells in vitro are necessary before the efficacy of treatment with vitamin D analogues in TCC can be evaluated in patients....

  3. Thyrotropin modulates receptor-mediated processing of the atrial natriuretic peptide receptor in cultured thyroid cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Y.L.; Burman, K.D.; Lahiri, S.; Abdelrahim, M.M.; D' Avis, J.C.; Wartofsky, L. (Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC (USA))


    In a prior study of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) binding to cultured thyroid cells, we reported that at 4 C, more than 95% of bound ANP is recovered on cell membranes, with negligible ANP internalization observed. Since ANP binding was inhibited by TSH, we have further studied TSH effects on postbinding ANP processing to determine whether this phenomenon reflects enhanced endocytosis of the ANP-receptor complex. An ANP chase study was initiated by binding (125I) ANP to thyroid cells at 4 C for 2 h, followed by incubation at 37 C. ANP processing was then traced by following 125I activity at various time intervals in three fractions: cell surface membranes, incubation medium, and inside the cells. Radioactivity released into medium represented processed ANP rather than ANP dissociated from surface membranes, since prebound (125I)ANP could not be competitively dissociated by a high concentration of ANP (1 mumol/L) at 37 C. Chase study results showed that prebound ANP quickly disappeared from cell membranes down to 34% by 30 min. Internalized ANP peaked at 10 min, with 21% of initial prebound ANP found inside the cells. At the same time, radioactivity recovered in incubation medium sharply increased between 10-30 min from 8% to 52%. Preincubation of cells with chloroquine (which blocks degradation of the ANP-receptor complex by inhibiting lysosomal hydrolase) caused a 146% increase in internalized (125I)ANP by 30 min (39% compared to 15% control), while medium radioactivity decreased from 52% to 16%, suggesting that processing of the receptor complex is mediated via lysosomal enzymes. In chase studies employing cells pretreated with chloroquine, TSH stimulated the internalization rate of ANP-receptor complex. By 30 min, TSH significantly reduced the membrane-bound ANP, and the decrease was inversely correlated to the increase in internalized radioactivity.

  4. Labeling of lectin receptors during the cell cycle. (United States)

    Garrido, J


    Labeling of lectin receptors during the cell cycle. (Localizabión de receptores para lectinas durante el ciclo celular). Arch. Biol. Med. Exper. 10: 100-104, 1976. The topographic distribution of specific cell surface receptors for concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin was studied by ultrastructural labeling in the course of the cell cycle. C12TSV5 cells were synchronized by double thymidine block or mechanical selection (shakeoff). They were labeled by means of lectin-peroxidase techniques while in G1 S, G2 and M phases of the cycle. The results obtained were similar for both lectins employed. Interphase cells (G1 S, G2) present a stlihtly discontinous labeling pattern that is similar to the one observed on unsynchronized cells of the same line. Cells in mitosis, on the contrary, present a highly discontinous distribution of reaction product. This pattern disappears after the cells enters G1 and is not present on mitotic cells fixed in aldehyde prior to labeling.

  5. Variant B Cell Receptor Isotype Functions Differ in Hairy Cell Leukemia with Mutated BRAF and IGHV Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weston-Bell, Nicola J.; Forconi, Francesco; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Sahota, Surinder S.


    A functional B-cell receptor (BCR) is critical for survival of normal B-cells, but whether it plays a comparable role in B-cell malignancy is as yet not fully delineated. Typical Hairy Cell Leukemia (HCL) is a rare B-cell tumor, and unique in expressing multiple surface immunoglobulin (sIg) isotypes

  6. Molecular characterization of the di-leucine-based internalization motif of the T cell receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J; Hou, X; Wegener, A M;


    Several cell surface receptors including the T cell receptor (TCR) are phosphorylated and down-regulated following activation of protein kinases. We have recently shown that both phosphorylation of Ser-126 and the presence of the di-leucine sequence Leu-131 and Leu-132 in CD3 gamma are required f...

  7. Entry of Francisella tularensis into Murine B Cells: The Role of B Cell Receptors and Complement Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Plzakova

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia, is an intracellular pathogen that dominantly infects and proliferates inside phagocytic cells but can be seen also in non-phagocytic cells, including B cells. Although protective immunity is known to be almost exclusively associated with the type 1 pathway of cellular immunity, a significant role of B cells in immune responses already has been demonstrated. Whether their role is associated with antibody-dependent or antibody-independent B cell functions is not yet fully understood. The character of early events during B cell-pathogen interaction may determine the type of B cell response regulating the induction of adaptive immunity. We used fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry to identify the basic requirements for the entry of F. tularensis into B cells within in vivo and in vitro infection models. Here, we present data showing that Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica strain LVS significantly infects individual subsets of murine peritoneal B cells early after infection. Depending on a given B cell subset, uptake of Francisella into B cells is mediated by B cell receptors (BCRs with or without complement receptor CR1/2. However, F. tularensis strain FSC200 ΔiglC and ΔftdsbA deletion mutants are defective in the ability to enter B cells. Once internalized into B cells, F. tularensis LVS intracellular trafficking occurs along the endosomal pathway, albeit without significant multiplication. The results strongly suggest that BCRs alone within the B-1a subset can ensure the internalization process while the BCRs on B-1b and B-2 cells need co-signaling from the co receptor containing CR1/2 to initiate F. tularensis engulfment. In this case, fluidity of the surface cell membrane is a prerequisite for the bacteria's internalization. The results substantially underline the functional heterogeneity of B cell subsets in relation to F. tularensis.

  8. Interneuron- and GABAA receptor-specific inhibitory synaptic plasticity in cerebellar Purkinje cells (United States)

    He, Qionger; Duguid, Ian; Clark, Beverley; Panzanelli, Patrizia; Patel, Bijal; Thomas, Philip; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Smart, Trevor G.


    Inhibitory synaptic plasticity is important for shaping both neuronal excitability and network activity. Here we investigate the input and GABAA receptor subunit specificity of inhibitory synaptic plasticity by studying cerebellar interneuron-Purkinje cell (PC) synapses. Depolarizing PCs initiated a long-lasting increase in GABA-mediated synaptic currents. By stimulating individual interneurons, this plasticity was observed at somatodendritic basket cell synapses, but not at distal dendritic stellate cell synapses. Basket cell synapses predominantly express β2-subunit-containing GABAA receptors; deletion of the β2-subunit ablates this plasticity, demonstrating its reliance on GABAA receptor subunit composition. The increase in synaptic currents is dependent upon an increase in newly synthesized cell surface synaptic GABAA receptors and is abolished by preventing CaMKII phosphorylation of GABAA receptors. Our results reveal a novel GABAA receptor subunit- and input-specific form of inhibitory synaptic plasticity that regulates the temporal firing pattern of the principal output cells of the cerebellum.

  9. Presence of insulin receptors in cultured glial C6 cells. Regulation by butyrate. (United States)

    Montiel, F; Ortiz-Caro, J; Villa, A; Pascual, A; Aranda, A


    The presence of insulin receptor and its regulation by butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids was studied in C6 cells, a rat glioma cell line. Intact C6 cells bind 125I-insulin in a rapid, reversible and specific manner. Scatchard analysis of the binding data gives typical curvilinear plots with apparent affinities of approx. 6 nM and 70 nM for the low-affinity (approx. 90% of total) and high-affinity (approx. 10% of total) sites respectively. Incubation with butyrate results in a time- and dose-dependent decrease of insulin binding to C6 cells. A maximal effect was found with 2 mM-butyrate that decreased the receptor by 40-70% after 48 h. Butyrate decreased numbers of receptors of both classes, but did not significantly alter receptor affinity. Other short-chain fatty acids, as well as keto acids, had a similar effect, but with a lower potency. Cycloheximide caused an accumulation of insulin receptors at the cell surface, since insulin binding increased and receptor affinity did not change after incubation with the inhibitor. Simultaneous addition of butyrate and cycloheximide abolished the loss of receptors produced by the fatty acid. In cells preincubated with butyrate, cycloheximide also produced a large increase in receptor numbers, showing that in the absence of new receptor synthesis a large pool of receptors re-appears at the surface of butyrate-treated cells. PMID:2930502

  10. A mass spectrometric-derived cell surface protein atlas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris Bausch-Fluck

    Full Text Available Cell surface proteins are major targets of biomedical research due to their utility as cellular markers and their extracellular accessibility for pharmacological intervention. However, information about the cell surface protein repertoire (the surfaceome of individual cells is only sparsely available. Here, we applied the Cell Surface Capture (CSC technology to 41 human and 31 mouse cell types to generate a mass-spectrometry derived Cell Surface Protein Atlas (CSPA providing cellular surfaceome snapshots at high resolution. The CSPA is presented in form of an easy-to-navigate interactive database, a downloadable data matrix and with tools for targeted surfaceome rediscovery ( The cellular surfaceome snapshots of different cell types, including cancer cells, resulted in a combined dataset of 1492 human and 1296 mouse cell surface glycoproteins, providing experimental evidence for their cell surface expression on different cell types, including 136 G-protein coupled receptors and 75 membrane receptor tyrosine-protein kinases. Integrated analysis of the CSPA reveals that the concerted biological function of individual cell types is mainly guided by quantitative rather than qualitative surfaceome differences. The CSPA will be useful for the evaluation of drug targets, for the improved classification of cell types and for a better understanding of the surfaceome and its concerted biological functions in complex signaling microenvironments.

  11. The Plant Cell Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anne-Mie C.Emons; Kurt V.Fagerstedt


    @@ Multicellular organization and tissue construction has evolved along essentially different lines in plants and animals. Since plants do not run away, but are anchored in the soil, their tissues are more or less firm and stiff. This strength stems from the cell walls, which encase the fragile cytoplasm, and protect it.

  12. Cell cycle phase regulates glucocorticoid receptor function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Matthews

    Full Text Available The glucocorticoid receptor (GR is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. In contrast to many other nuclear receptors, GR is thought to be exclusively cytoplasmic in quiescent cells, and only translocate to the nucleus on ligand binding. We now demonstrate significant nuclear GR in the absence of ligand, which requires nuclear localisation signal 1 (NLS1. Live cell imaging reveals dramatic GR import into the nucleus through interphase and rapid exclusion of the GR from the nucleus at the onset of mitosis, which persists into early G(1. This suggests that the heterogeneity in GR distribution is reflective of cell cycle phase. The impact of cell cycle-driven GR trafficking on a panel of glucocorticoid actions was profiled. In G2/M-enriched cells there was marked prolongation of glucocorticoid-induced ERK activation. This was accompanied by DNA template-specific, ligand-independent GR transactivation. Using chimeric and domain-deleted receptors we demonstrate that this transactivation effect is mediated by the AF1 transactivation domain. AF-1 harbours multiple phosphorylation sites, which are consensus sequences for kinases including CDKs, whose activity changes during the cell cycle. In G2/M there was clear ligand independent induction of GR phosphorylation on residues 203 and 211, both of which are phosphorylated after ligand activation. Ligand-independent transactivation required induction of phospho-S211GR but not S203GR, thereby directly linking cell cycle driven GR modification with altered GR function. Cell cycle phase therefore regulates GR localisation and post-translational modification which selectively impacts GR activity. This suggests that cell cycle phase is an important determinant in the cellular response to Gc, and that mitotic index contributes to tissue Gc sensitivity.

  13. Sendai virus utilizes specific sialyloligosaccharides as host cell receptor determinants. (United States)

    Markwell, M A; Paulson, J C


    Purified sialyltransferases (CMP-N-acetyl-neuraminate:D-galactosyl-glycoprotein N-acetylneuraminyl-transferase, EC in conjunction with neuraminidase (acylneuraminyl hydrolase, EC were used to produce cell surface sialyloligosaccharides of defined sequence to investigate their role in paramyxovirus infection of host cells. Infection of Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells by Sendai virus was monitored by hemagglutination titer of the virus produced and by changes in morphological characteristics. By either criterion, treatment of the cells with Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase to remove cell surface sialic acids rendered them resistant to infection by Sendai virus. Endogenous replacement of receptors by the cell occurred slowly but supported maximal levels of infection within 6 hr. In contrast, sialylation during a 20-min incubation with CMP-sialic acid and beta-galactoside alpha 2,3-sialytransferase restored full susceptibility to infection. This enzyme elaborates the NeuAc alpha 2,3Gal beta 1,3GalNAc (NeuAc, N-acetylneuraminic acid) sequence on glycoproteins and glycolipids. No restoration of infectivity was observed when neuraminidase-treated cells were sialylated by using beta-galactoside alpha 2,6-sialytransferase, which elaborates the NeuAc-alpha 2,6Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc sequence. These results suggest that sialyloligosaccharide receptor determinants of defined sequence are required for Sendai virus infection of host cells.

  14. Regulation of Immune Cells by Eicosanoid Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy D. Kim


    Full Text Available Eicosanoids are potent, bioactive, lipid mediators that regulate important components of the immune response, including defense against infection, ischemia, and injury, as well as instigating and perpetuating autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. Although these lipids have numerous effects on diverse cell types and organs, a greater understanding of their specific effects on key players of the immune system has been gained in recent years through the characterization of individual eicosanoid receptors, the identification and development of specific receptor agonists and inhibitors, and the generation of mice genetically deficient in various eicosanoid receptors. In this review, we will focus on the receptors for prostaglandin D2, DP1 and DP2/CRTH2; the receptors for leukotriene B4, BLT1 and BLT2; and the receptors for the cysteinyl leukotrienes, CysLT1 and CysLT2, by examining their specific effects on leukocyte subpopulations, and how they may act in concert towards the development of immune and inflammatory responses.

  15. Infection of Polarized MDCK Cells with Herpes Simplex Virus 1: Two Asymmetrically Distributed Cell Receptors Interact with Different Viral Proteins (United States)

    Sears, Amy E.; McGwire, Bradford S.; Roizman, Bernard


    Herpes simplex virus 1 attaches to at least two cell surface receptors. In polarized epithelial (Madin-Darby canine kidney; MDCK) cells one receptor is located in the apical surface and attachment to the cells requires the presence of glycoprotein C in the virus. The second receptor is located in the basal surface and does not require the presence of glycoprotein C. Exposure of MDCK cells at either the apical or basal surface to wild-type virus yields plaques and viral products whereas infection by a glycoprotein C-negative mutant yields identical results only after exposure of MDCK cells to virus at the basal surface. Multiple receptors for viral entry into cells expand the host range of the virus. The observation that glycoprotein C-negative mutants are infectious in many nonpolarized cell lines suggests that cells in culture may express more than one receptor and explains why genes that specify the viral proteins that recognize redundant receptors, like glycoprotein C, are expendable.

  16. Inhibitors for Androgen Receptor Activation Surfaces (United States)


    support from UCSF and the Sandler Research Founda- tion. We thank J. Williams, M. Uehara- Bingen , B. Wolff, and L. Hicks for their help with the HTS and...C. Ocasio for assistance in cell culture and the TH competition assay. REFERENCES 1. Yen, P. M. (2001) Physiol. Rev. 81, 1097–1142 2. Malm, J. (2004

  17. Tumor-derived death receptor 6 modulates dendritic cell development. (United States)

    DeRosa, David C; Ryan, Paul J; Okragly, Angela; Witcher, Derrick R; Benschop, Robert J


    Studies in murine models of cancer as well as in cancer patients have demonstrated that the immune response to cancer is often compromised. This paradigm is viewed as one of the major mechanisms of tumor escape. Many therapies focus on employing the professional antigen presenting dendritic cells (DC) as a strategy to overcome immune inhibition in cancer patients. Death receptor 6 (DR6) is an orphan member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF21). It is overexpressed on many tumor cells and DR6(-/-) mice display altered immunity. We investigated whether DR6 plays a role in tumorigenesis by negatively affecting the generation of anti-tumor activity. We show that DR6 is uniquely cleaved from the cell surface of tumor cell lines by the membrane-associated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14, which is often overexpressed on tumor cells and is associated with malignancy. We also demonstrate that >50% of monocytes differentiating into DC die when the extracellular domain of DR6 is present. In addition, DR6 affects the cell surface phenotype of the resulting immature DC and changes their cytokine production upon stimulation with LPS/IFN-gamma. The effects of DR6 are mostly amended when these immature DC are matured with IL-1beta/TNF-alpha, as measured by cell surface phenotype and their ability to present antigen. These results implicate MMP-14 and DR6 as a mechanism tumor cells can employ to actively escape detection by the immune system by affecting the generation of antigen presenting cells.

  18. SHP-1 phosphatase activity counteracts increased T cell receptor affinity. (United States)

    Hebeisen, Michael; Baitsch, Lukas; Presotto, Danilo; Baumgaertner, Petra; Romero, Pedro; Michielin, Olivier; Speiser, Daniel E; Rufer, Nathalie


    Anti-self/tumor T cell function can be improved by increasing TCR-peptide MHC (pMHC) affinity within physiological limits, but paradoxically further increases (K(d) affinity for the tumor antigen HLA-A2/NY-ESO-1, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying this high-affinity-associated loss of function. As compared with cells expressing TCR affinities generating optimal function (K(d) = 5 to 1 μM), those with supraphysiological affinity (K(d) = 1 μM to 15 nM) showed impaired gene expression, signaling, and surface expression of activatory/costimulatory receptors. Preferential expression of the inhibitory receptor programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) was limited to T cells with the highest TCR affinity, correlating with full functional recovery upon PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade. In contrast, upregulation of the Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1/PTPN6) was broad, with gradually enhanced expression in CD8(+) T cells with increasing TCR affinities. Consequently, pharmacological inhibition of SHP-1 with sodium stibogluconate augmented the function of all engineered T cells, and this correlated with the TCR affinity-dependent levels of SHP-1. These data highlight an unexpected and global role of SHP-1 in regulating CD8(+) T cell activation and responsiveness and support the development of therapies inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatases to enhance T cell-mediated immunity.

  19. G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling in Stem Cells and Cancer


    Lynch, Jennifer R.; Jenny Yingzi Wang


    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large superfamily of cell-surface signaling proteins that bind extracellular ligands and transduce signals into cells via heterotrimeric G proteins. GPCRs are highly tractable drug targets. Aberrant expression of GPCRs and G proteins has been observed in various cancers and their importance in cancer stem cells has begun to be appreciated. We have recently reported essential roles for G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) and G protein subunit Gαq in ...

  20. Expression and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman S. Cheung


    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are prototypical ligand gated ion channels typically found in muscular and neuronal tissues. Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, however, have also recently been identified on other cell types, including stem cells. Activation of these receptors by the binding of agonists like choline, acetylcholine, or nicotine has been implicated in many cellular changes. In regards to stem cell function, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation leads to changes in stem cell proliferation, migration and differentiation potential. In this review we summarize the expression and function of known nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different classes of stem cells including: pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, periodontal ligament derived stem cells, and neural progenitor cells and discuss the potential downstream effects of receptor activation on stem cell function.

  1. Identification and characterization of a cell surface scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein of Sciaenops ocellatus: bacterial interaction and its dependence on the conserved structural features of the SRCR domain. (United States)

    Qiu, Reng; Sun, Bo-Guang; Li, Jun; Liu, Xiao; Sun, Li


    The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) proteins are secreted or membrane-bound receptors with one or multiple SRCR domains. Members of the SRCR superfamily are known to have diverse functions that include pathogen recognition and immunoregulation. In teleost, although protein sequences with SRCR structure have been identified in some species, very little functional investigation has been carried out. In this study, we identified and characterized a teleost SRCR protein from red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. The protein was named S. ocellatus SRCR1 (SoSRCRP1). SoSRCRP1 is 410-residue in length and was predicted to be a transmembrane protein, with the extracellular region containing a collagen triple helix repeat and a SRCR domain. The SRCR domain has six conserved cysteines, of which, C338 and C399, C351 and C409, and C379 and C389 were predicted to form three disulfide bonds. SoSRCRP1 expression was detected mainly in immune-relevant tissues and upregulated by bacterial and viral infection. In head kidney leukocytes, bacterial infection stimulated the expression of SoSRCRP1, and the expressed SoSRCRP1 was localized on cell surface. Recombinant SoSRCRP1 (rSoSRCRP1) corresponding to the SRCR domain was purified from Escherichia coli and found to be able to bind Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. To examine the structure-function relationship of SoSRCRP1, the mutant proteins SoSRCRP1M1, SoSRCRP1M2, SoSRCRP1M3, and SoSRCRP1M4 were created, which bear C351S and C409S, C338S, C379S, and R325A mutations respectively. Compared to rSoSRCRP1, all mutants were significantly reduced in the ability of bacterial interaction, with the highest reduction observed with SoSRCRP1M4. Taken together, these results indicate that SoSRCRP1 is a cell surface-localized SRCR protein that binds bacterial ligands in a manner that depends on the conserved structural features of the SRCR domain.

  2. Binding of the influenza A virus to cell-surface receptors: structures of five hemagglutinin-sialyloligosaccharide complexes determined by X-ray crystallography. (United States)

    Eisen, M B; Sabesan, S; Skehel, J J; Wiley, D C


    The structures of five complexes of the X-31 influenza A (H3N2) virus hemagglutinin with sialyloligosaccharide receptor analogs have been determined from 2.5 to 2.8 A resolution by X-ray crystallography. There is well-defined electron density for three to five saccharides in all five complexes and a striking conformational difference between two linear pentasaccharides with the same composition but different linkage [alpha(2-->6) or alpha(2-->3)] at the terminal sialic acid. The bound position of the terminal sialic acid (NeuAc) is the same in all five complexes and is identical to that reported previously from the study of mono- and trisaccharides. The two oligosaccharides with NeuAc alpha(2-->6)Gal linkages and GlcNAc at the third position have a folded conformation with the GlcNAc doubled back to contact the sialic acid. The pentasaccharide with a terminal NeuAc alpha(2-->3)Gal linkage and GlcNAc at the third position has an extended (not folded) conformation and exits from the opposite side of the binding site than the alpha(2-->6)-linked molecule of the same composition. The difference between the conformation of the pentasaccharide with a 2,6 linkage and the trisaccharide 2,6-sialyllactose suggests that 2,6-sialyllactose is not, as previously believed, an appropriate analog of natural influenza A virus receptors. The oligosaccharides studied are NeuAc alpha(2-->3)Gal beta(1-->4)Glc, NeuAc alpha(2-->6)Gal beta(1-->4)Glc, NeuAc alpha(2-->3)Gal beta(1-->3)GlcNAc beta(1-->3)Gal beta(1-->4)Glc, NeuAc alpha(2-->6)Gal beta(1-->4)GlcNAc beta(1-->3)Gal beta(1-->4)Glc, and [NeuAc alpha(2-->6)Gal beta(1-->4)GlcNAc]2 beta(1-->3/6)Gal-beta-O-(CH2)5-COOCH3.

  3. Oropharyngeal malignant epithelial cell, lymphocyte and macrophage CD44 surface receptors for hyaluronate are expressed in sustained EBV infection: immunohistochemical data and EBV DNA tissue indices. (United States)

    Groma, Valerija; Kazanceva, Anna; Nora-Krukle, Zaiga; Murovska, Modra


    The role of CD44 in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related epithelial tumors is poorly understood. We studied the expression of CD44 in EBV infection in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and measured the EBV DNA. Whole blood, plasma and tissue samples from 8 male and 2 female patients with oral SCC, NPC, salivary gland lymphoepithelioma, normal salivary gland and buccal mucosa were assayed for EBV DNA. Expression of CD44, latent membrane protein (LMP), and labeling of lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells were estimated by immunohistochemistry. Tissue EBV DNA was detected in 7 of 8 cases (87.5%) of oral malignant, benign and border-line lesions. LMP expression levels in tumors varied from absence and minimal to moderate - 50.3, 43.6, 6.0% and 91.1, 6.7, 2.2% for SCC and NPC, respectively. Levels of CD44 positivity in neoplasms were minimal (15.5 and 16.7%), moderate (30.3 and 47.8%), and diffuse (54.2 and 35.5%) for SCC and NPC, respectively, thus deviating from normal oral mucosa revealing heavily stained (100.0%) epithelial contours. CD19-positive B lymphocytes and S100-positive dendritic cells were intermixed with neoplastic cells. Collectively, CD44 mediated signaling may be implicated in EBV infection associated with the pathogenesis of oral SCC and NPC.

  4. A yeast surface display system for the discovery of ligands that trigger cell activation. (United States)

    Cho, B K; Kieke, M C; Boder, E T; Wittrup, K D; Kranz, D M


    Opposing cells often communicate signalling events using multivalent interactions between receptors present on their cell surface. For example, T cells are typically activated when the T cell receptor (TCR) and its associated costimulatory molecules are multivalently engaged by the appropriate ligands present on an antigen presenting cell. In this report, yeast expressing high cell-surface levels of a TCR ligand (a recombinant antibody to the TCR Vbeta domain) were shown to act as 'pseudo' antigen presenting cells and induce T cell activation as monitored by increased levels of CD25 and CD69 and by downregulation of cell surface TCR. Similar levels of T cell activation could occur even when a 30-fold excess of irrelevant yeast was present, suggesting that such a yeast display system, by virtue of its ability to present ligands multivalently, may be used in highly sensitive procedures to identify novel polypeptides that interact multivalently with cell surface receptors and thereby trigger specific cellular responses.

  5. Recruitment of activation receptors at inhibitory NK cell immune synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Schleinitz

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cell activation receptors accumulate by an actin-dependent process at cytotoxic immune synapses where they provide synergistic signals that trigger NK cell effector functions. In contrast, NK cell inhibitory receptors, including members of the MHC class I-specific killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR family, accumulate at inhibitory immune synapses, block actin dynamics, and prevent actin-dependent phosphorylation of activation receptors. Therefore, one would predict inhibition of actin-dependent accumulation of activation receptors when inhibitory receptors are engaged. By confocal imaging of primary human NK cells in contact with target cells expressing physiological ligands of NK cell receptors, we show here that this prediction is incorrect. Target cells included a human cell line and transfected Drosophila insect cells that expressed ligands of NK cell activation receptors in combination with an MHC class I ligand of inhibitory KIR. The two NK cell activation receptors CD2 and 2B4 accumulated and co-localized with KIR at inhibitory immune synapses. In fact, KIR promoted CD2 and 2B4 clustering, as CD2 and 2B4 accumulated more efficiently at inhibitory synapses. In contrast, accumulation of KIR and of activation receptors at inhibitory synapses correlated with reduced density of the integrin LFA-1. These results imply that inhibitory KIR does not prevent CD2 and 2B4 signaling by blocking their accumulation at NK cell immune synapses, but by blocking their ability to signal within inhibitory synapses.

  6. Intracellular adenosine 3',5'-phosphate formation is essential for down-regulation of surface adenosine 3',5'-phosphate receptors in Dictyostelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van


    Dictyostelium discoideum cells contain cell surface cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptors that bind cAMP as a first messenger and intracellular cAMP receptors that bind cAMP as a second messenger. Prolonged incubation of Dictyostelium cells with cAMP induces a sequential process of phosphorylation, sequestrat

  7. SLAM family receptors and the SLAM-associated protein (SAP) modulate T cell functions. (United States)

    Detre, Cynthia; Keszei, Marton; Romero, Xavier; Tsokos, George C; Terhorst, Cox


    One or more of the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family (SLAMF) of cell surface receptors, which consists of nine transmembrane proteins, i.e., SLAMF1-9, are expressed on most hematopoietic cells. While most SLAMF receptors serve as self-ligands, SLAMF2 and SLAMF4 use each other as counter structures. Six of the receptors carry one or more copies of a unique intracellular tyrosine-based switch motif, which has high affinity for the single SH2-domain signaling molecules SLAM-associated protein and EAT-2. Whereas SLAMF receptors are costimulatory molecules on the surface of CD4+, CD8+, and natural killer (NK) T cells, they also involved in early phases of lineage commitment during hematopoiesis. SLAMF receptors regulate T lymphocyte development and function and modulate lytic activity, cytokine production, and major histocompatibility complex-independent cell inhibition of NK cells. Furthermore, they modulate B cell activation and memory generation, neutrophil, dendritic cell, macrophage and eosinophil function, and platelet aggregation. In this review, we will discuss the role of SLAM receptors and their adapters in T cell function, and we will examine the role of these receptors and their adapters in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease and their contribution to disease susceptibility in systemic lupus erythematosus.

  8. Associations of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Genes with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramírez-De los Santos


    Full Text Available Objective: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is an autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors are expressed on the surface of natural killer cells and CD28null T-cells, both present in synovial membrane of RA. Therefore we evaluated the associations of KIR genes with RA.

  9. The macrophage CD163 surface glycoprotein is an erythroblast adhesion receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabriek, Babs O; Polfliet, Machteld M J; Vloet, Rianka P M;


    on the surface of macrophages in erythroblastic islands, in erythroblast binding. In particular, the monoclonal antibody ED2 was found to inhibit erythroblast binding to bone marrow macrophages. Here, we identify the ED2 antigen as the rat CD163 surface glycoprotein, a member of the group B scavenger receptor...... cysteine-rich (SRCR) family that has previously been shown to function as a receptor for hemoglobin-haptoglobin (Hb-Hp) complexes and is believed to contribute to the clearance of free hemoglobin. CD163 transfectants and recombinant protein containing the extracellular domain of CD163 supported...... the adhesion of erythroblastic cells. Furthermore, we identified a 13-amino acid motif (CD163p2) corresponding to a putative interaction site within the second scavenger receptor domain of CD163 that could mediate erythroblast binding. Finally, CD163p2 promoted erythroid expansion in vitro, suggesting...

  10. Relationship between internalization and calcitonin-induced receptor loss in T 47D cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, D.M.; Martin, T.J.


    Exposure of T 47D human breast cancer cells to salmon calcitonin (sCT) resulted in a reduction of binding capacity for (/sup 125/I)iodo-sCT in washed cells. The reduction was both time and concentration dependent. Recovery of binding capacity in CT-pretreated T 47D cells occurred in the absence of CT, but was prevented by inhibitors of protein synthesis. Studies were carried out to determine the mechanism of CT-induced reduction of binding capacity. It was found that at 37/sup 0/ C sCT induced a time-dependent loss of cell surface receptors, so that initially the lost binding capacity was largely reclaimable by acid treatment, whereas after longer exposure to sCT, acid treatment was much less effective in regenerating binding capacity. The CT-induced reduction in binding capacity was not observed when cells were pretreated with sCT at 4 C or in the presence of inhibitors of cellular metabolic energy. These results are consistent with the view that initially CT-induced loss of CT receptors in T 47D cells is primarily due to occupancy of cell-surface receptors and later to a reduction in the concentration of cell-surface receptors mediated by an energy requiring internalization process involving the CT-receptor complex; reappearance of receptors requires new protein synthesis.

  11. Expression, surface immobilization, and characterization of functional recombinant cannabinoid receptor CB2. (United States)

    Locatelli-Hoops, Silvia C; Gorshkova, Inna; Gawrisch, Klaus; Yeliseev, Alexei A


    Human peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in regulation of immune response has become an important target for pharmaceutical drug development. Structural and functional studies on CB2 may benefit from immobilization of the purified and functional receptor onto a suitable surface at a controlled density and, preferably in a uniform orientation. The goal of this project was to develop a generic strategy for preparation of functional recombinant CB2 and immobilization at solid interfaces. Expression of CB2 as a fusion with Rho-tag (peptide composed of the last nine amino acids of rhodopsin) in E. coli was evaluated in terms of protein levels, accessibility of the tag, and activity of the receptor. The structural integrity of CB2 was tested by ligand binding to the receptor solubilized in detergent micelles, captured on tag-specific monoclonal 1D4 antibody-coated resin. Highly pure and functional CB2 was obtained by sequential chromatography on a 1D4- and Ni-NTA-resin and its affinity to the 1D4 antibody characterized by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Either the purified receptor or fusion CB2 from the crude cell extract was captured onto a 1D4-coated CM4 chip (Biacore) in a quantitative fashion at uniform orientation as demonstrated by the SPR signal. Furthermore, the accessibility of the extracellular surface of immobilized CB2 and the affinity of interaction with a novel monoclonal antibody NAA-1 was studied by SPR. In summary, we present an integral strategy for purification, surface immobilization, ligand- and antibody binding studies of functional cannabinoid receptor CB2.

  12. Receptors for T cell-replacing factor/interleukin 5. Specificity, quantitation, and its implication



    T cell-replacing factor (TRF)/IL-5 is a glycosylated polypeptide that acts as a key factor for B cell growth and differentiation. Since IL-5 action is probably mediated by specific cell surface receptor(s), we have characterized the binding of IL-5 to cells using biosynthetically [35S]methionine-labeled IL-5 and 125I-IL-5 that had been prepared using Bolton-Hunter reagent. The radiolabeled IL-5 binds specifically to BCL1- B20 (in vitro line) (a murine chronic B cell leukemic cell line previou...

  13. Surface Modification of ZnO Nanorods with Hamilton Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Zeininger


    Full Text Available A new prototype of a Hamilton receptor suitable for the functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles was synthesized and characterized. The hydrogen bonding receptor was coupled to a catechol moiety, which served as anchor group for the functionalization of metal oxides, in particular zinc oxide. Synthesized zinc oxide nanorods [ZnO] were used for surface functionalization. The wet-chemical functionalization procedure towards monolayer-grafted particles [ZnO-HR] is described and a detailed characterization study is presented. In addition, the detection of specific cyanurate molecules is demonstrated. The hybrid structures [ZnO-HR-CA] were stable towards agglomeration and exhibited enhanced dispersability in apolar solvents. This observation, in combination with several spectroscopic experiments gave evidence of the highly directional supramolecular recognition at the surface of nanoparticles.

  14. Defining an olfactory receptor function in airway smooth muscle cells (United States)

    Aisenberg, William H.; Huang, Jessie; Zhu, Wanqu; Rajkumar, Premraj; Cruz, Randy; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Natarajan, Niranjana; Yong, Hwan Mee; De Santiago, Breann; Oh, Jung Jin; Yoon, A-Rum; Panettieri, Reynold A.; Homann, Oliver; Sullivan, John K.; Liggett, Stephen B.; Pluznick, Jennifer L.; An, Steven S.


    Pathways that control, or can be exploited to alter, the increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass and cellular remodeling that occur in asthma are not well defined. Here we report the expression of odorant receptors (ORs) belonging to the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), as well as the canonical olfaction machinery (Golf and AC3) in the smooth muscle of human bronchi. In primary cultures of isolated human ASM, we identified mRNA expression for multiple ORs. Strikingly, OR51E2 was the most highly enriched OR transcript mapped to the human olfactome in lung-resident cells. In a heterologous expression system, OR51E2 trafficked readily to the cell surface and showed ligand selectivity and sensitivity to the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate and propionate. These endogenous metabolic byproducts of the gut microbiota slowed the rate of cytoskeletal remodeling, as well as the proliferation of human ASM cells. These cellular responses in vitro were found in ASM from non-asthmatics and asthmatics, and were absent in OR51E2-deleted primary human ASM. These results demonstrate a novel chemo-mechanical signaling network in the ASM and serve as a proof-of-concept that a specific receptor of the gut-lung axis can be targeted to treat airflow obstruction in asthma. PMID:27905542

  15. Molecularly engineered surfaces for cell biology: from static to dynamic surfaces. (United States)

    Gooding, J Justin; Parker, Stephen G; Lu, Yong; Gaus, Katharina


    Surfaces with a well-defined presentation of ligands for receptors on the cell membrane can serve as models of the extracellular matrix for studying cell adhesion or as model cell surfaces for exploring cell-cell contacts. Because such surfaces can provide exquisite control over, for example, the density of these ligands or when the ligands are presented to the cell, they provide a very precise strategy for understanding the mechanisms by which cells respond to external adhesive cues. In the present feature article, we present an overview of the basic biology of cell adhesion before discussing surfaces that have a static presentation of immobile ligands. We outline the biological information that such surfaces have given us, before progressing to recently developed switchable surfaces and surfaces that mimic the lipid bilayer, having adhesive ligands that can move around the membrane and be remodeled by the cell. Finally, the feature article closes with some of the biological information that these new types of surfaces could provide.

  16. M1 muscarinic receptor activation mediates cell death in M1-HEK293 cells. (United States)

    Graham, E Scott; Woo, Kerhan K; Aalderink, Miranda; Fry, Sandie; Greenwood, Jeffrey M; Glass, Michelle; Dragunow, Mike


    HEK293 cells have been used extensively to generate stable cell lines to study G protein-coupled receptors, such as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). The activation of M1 mAChRs in various cell types in vitro has been shown to be protective. To further investigate M1 mAChR-mediated cell survival, we generated stable HEK293 cell-lines expressing the human M1 mAChR. M1 mAChRs were efficiently expressed at the cell surface and efficiently internalised within 1 h by carbachol. Carbachol also induced early signalling cascades similar to previous reports. Thus, ectopically expressed M1 receptors behaved in a similar fashion to the native receptor over short time periods of analysis. However, substantial cell death was observed in HEK293-M1 cells within 24 h after carbachol application. Death was only observed in HEK cells expressing M1 receptors and fully blocked by M1 antagonists. M1 mAChR-stimulation mediated prolonged activation of the MEK-ERK pathway and resulted in prolonged induction of the transcription factor EGR-1 (>24 h). Blockade of ERK signalling with U0126 did not reduce M1 mAChR-mediated cell-death significantly but inhibited the acute induction of EGR-1. We investigated the time-course of cell death using time-lapse microscopy and xCELLigence technology. Both revealed the M1 mAChR cytotoxicity occurs within several hours of M1 activation. The xCELLigence assay also confirmed that the ERK pathway was not involved in cell-death. Interestingly, the MEK blocker did reduce carbachol-mediated cleaved caspase 3 expression in HEK293-M1 cells. The HEK293 cell line is a widely used pharmacological tool for studying G-protein coupled receptors, including mAChRs. Our results highlight the importance of investigating the longer term fate of these cells in short term signalling studies. Identifying how and why activation of the M1 mAChR signals apoptosis in these cells may lead to a better understanding of how mAChRs regulate cell-fate decisions.

  17. Role of the T cell receptor ligand affinity in T cell activation by bacterial superantigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Geisler, C; Buus, S


    Similar to native peptide/MHC ligands, bacterial superantigens have been found to bind with low affinity to the T cell receptor (TCR). It has been hypothesized that low ligand affinity is required to allow optimal TCR signaling. To test this, we generated variants of Staphylococcus enterotoxin C3...... (SEC3) with up to a 150-fold increase in TCR affinity. By stimulating T cells with SEC3 molecules immobilized onto plastic surfaces, we demonstrate that increasing the affinity of the SEC3/TCR interaction caused a proportional increase in the ability of SEC3 to activate T cells. Thus, the potency...... correlation between ligand affinity and ligand potency indicating that it is the density of receptor-ligand complexes in the T cell contact area that determines TCR signaling strength....

  18. Immune receptors involved in Streptococcus suis recognition by dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pier Lecours

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent of septicemia and meningitis. Knowledge on host immune responses towards S. suis, and strategies used by this pathogen for subversion of these responses is scarce. The objective of this study was to identify the immune receptors involved in S. suis recognition by dendritic cells (DCs. Production of cytokines and expression of co-stimulatory molecules by DCs were shown to strongly rely on MyD88-dependent signaling pathways, suggesting that DCs recognize S. suis and become activated mostly through Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling. Supporting this fact, TLR2(-/- DCs were severely impaired in the release of several cytokines and the surface expression of CD86 and MHC-II. The release of IL-12p70 and CXC10, and the expression of CD40 were found to depend on signaling by both TLR2 and TLR9. The release of IL-23 and CXCL1 were partially dependent on NOD2. Finally, despite the fact that MyD88 signaling was crucial for DC activation and maturation, MyD88-dependent pathways were not implicated in S. suis internalization by DCs. This first study on receptors involved in DC activation by S. suis suggests a major involvement of MyD88 signaling pathways, mainly (but not exclusively through TLR2. A multimodal recognition involving a combination of different receptors seems essential for DC effective response to S. suis.

  19. Both host and parasite MIF molecules bind to chicken macrophages via CD74 surface receptor. (United States)

    Kim, Sungwon; Cox, Chasity M; Jenkins, Mark C; Fetterer, Ray H; Miska, Katarzyna B; Dalloul, Rami A


    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is recognized as a soluble protein that inhibits the random migration of macrophages and plays a pivotal immunoregulatory function in innate and adaptive immunity. Our group has identified both chicken and Eimeria MIFs, and characterized their function in enhancing innate immune responses during inflammation. In this study, we report that chicken CD74 (ChCD74), a type II transmembrane protein, functions as a macrophage surface receptor that binds to MIF molecules. First, to examine the binding of MIF to chicken monocytes/macrophages, fresh isolated chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with rChIFN-γ and then incubated with recombinant chicken MIF (rChMIF). Immunofluorescence staining with anti-ChMIF followed by flow cytometry revealed the binding of MIF to stimulated PBMCs. To verify that ChCD74 acts as a surface receptor for MIF molecules, full-length ChCD74p41 was cloned, expressed and its recombinant protein (rChCD74p41) transiently over-expressed with green fluorescent protein in chicken fibroblast DF-1 cells. Fluorescence analysis revealed a higher population of cells double positive for CD74p41 and rChMIF, indicating the binding of rChMIF to DF-1 cells via rChCD74p41. Using a similar approach, it was found that Eimeria MIF (EMIF), which is secreted by Eimeria sp. during infection, bound to chicken macrophages via ChCD74p41 as a surface receptor. Together, this study provides conclusive evidence that both host and parasite MIF molecules bind to chicken macrophages via the surface receptor ChCD74.

  20. Interleukin-1 receptors are differentially expressed in normal and psoriatic T cells. (United States)

    Bebes, Attila; Kovács-Sólyom, Ferenc; Prihoda, Judit; Kui, Róbert; Kemény, Lajos; Gyulai, Rolland


    This study was carried out to examine the possible role of interleukin-1 (IL-1) in the functional insufficiency of regulatory T cells in psoriasis, by comparing the expression of IL-1 receptors on healthy control and psoriatic T cells. Patients with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis and healthy volunteers, matched in age and sex, were selected for all experiments. CD4(+)CD25(-) effector and CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low) regulatory T cells were separated and used for the experiments. Expression of the mRNA of IL-1 receptors (IL-1R1, IL-1R2, and sIL-1R2) was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Cell surface IL-1 receptor expression was assessed by flow cytometry. Relative expression of the signal transmitting IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) mRNA is higher in resting psoriatic effector and regulatory T cells, and activation induces higher IL-1R1 protein expression in psoriatic T cells than in healthy cells. Psoriatic regulatory and effector T cells express increased mRNA levels of the decoy IL-1 receptors (IL-1R2 and sIL-1R2) upon activation compared to healthy counterparts. Psoriatic T cells release slightly more sIL-1R2 into their surrounding than healthy T cells. In conclusion, changes in the expression of IL-1 receptors in psoriatic regulatory and effector T cells could contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  1. Mapping cell surface adhesion by rotation tracking and adhesion footprinting (United States)

    Li, Isaac T. S.; Ha, Taekjip; Chemla, Yann R.


    Rolling adhesion, in which cells passively roll along surfaces under shear flow, is a critical process involved in inflammatory responses and cancer metastasis. Surface adhesion properties regulated by adhesion receptors and membrane tethers are critical in understanding cell rolling behavior. Locally, adhesion molecules are distributed at the tips of membrane tethers. However, how functional adhesion properties are globally distributed on the individual cell’s surface is unknown. Here, we developed a label-free technique to determine the spatial distribution of adhesive properties on rolling cell surfaces. Using dark-field imaging and particle tracking, we extract the rotational motion of individual rolling cells. The rotational information allows us to construct an adhesion map along the contact circumference of a single cell. To complement this approach, we also developed a fluorescent adhesion footprint assay to record the molecular adhesion events from cell rolling. Applying the combination of the two methods on human promyelocytic leukemia cells, our results surprisingly reveal that adhesion is non-uniformly distributed in patches on the cell surfaces. Our label-free adhesion mapping methods are applicable to the variety of cell types that undergo rolling adhesion and provide a quantitative picture of cell surface adhesion at the functional and molecular level.

  2. Analysis of cell surface antigens by Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojanovic, I.; Schasfoort, R.B.M.; Terstappen, L.W.M.M.


    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is most commonly used to measure bio-molecular interactions. SPR is used significantly less frequent for measuring whole cell interactions. Here we introduce a method to measure whole cells label free using the specific binding of cell surface antigens expressed on th

  3. Impact of cell type and epitope tagging on heterologous expression of G protein-coupled receptor: a systematic study on angiotensin type II receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Jiang

    Full Text Available Despite heterologous expression of epitope-tagged GPCR is widely adopted for functional characterization, there is lacking of systematic analysis of the impact of expression host and epitope tag on GPCR expression. Angiotensin type II (AT2 receptor displays agonist-dependent and -independent activities, coupling to a spectrum of signaling molecules. However, consensus has not been reached on the subcellular distributions, signaling cascades and receptor-mediated actions. To examine the contributions of host cell and epitope tag on receptor expression and activity, epitope-tagged AT2 receptor variants were transiently or stably expressed in HEK293, CHO-K1 and PC12 cells. The epitope-tagged AT2 receptor variants were detected both on the cell membrane and in the perinuclear region. In transiently transfected HEK293 cells, Myc-AT2 existed predominantly as monomer. Additionally, a ladder of ubiquitinated AT2 receptor proteins was detected. By contrast, stably expressed epitope-tagged AT2 receptor variants existed as both monomer and high molecular weight complexes, and the latter was enriched in cell surface. Glycosylation promoted cell surface expression of Myc-AT2 but had no effect on AT2-GFP in HEK293 cells. In cells that stably expressed Myc-AT2, serum starvation induced apoptosis in CHO-K1 cells but not in HEK293 or PC12 cells. Instead, HEK293 and PC12 cells stably expressing Myc-AT2 exhibited partial cell cycle arrest with cells accumulating at G1 and S phases, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that expression levels, subcellular distributions and ligand-independent constitutive activities of AT2 receptor were cell type-dependent while posttranslational processing of nascent AT2 receptor protein was modulated by epitope tag and mode of expression.

  4. Neuromedin B receptors regulate EGF receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in lung cancer cells (United States)

    Moody, Terry W.; Berna, Marc J.; Mantey, Samuel; Sancho, Veronica; Ridnour, Lisa; Wink, David A.; Chan, Daniel; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Jensen, Robert T.


    Neuromedin B (NMB), a member of the bombesin family of peptides, is an autocrine growth factor for many lung cancer cells. The present study investigated the ability of NMB to cause transactivation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in lung cancer cells. By Western blot, addition of NMB or related peptides to NCI-H1299 human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, caused phosphorylation of Tyr1068 of the EGF receptor. The signal was amplified using NCI-H1299 cells stably transected with NMB receptors. The transactivation of the EGF receptor or the tyrosine phosphorylation of ERK caused by NMB-like peptides was inhibited by AG1478 or gefitinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitors) and NMB receptor antagonist PD168368 but not the GRP receptor antagonist, BW2258U89. The transactivation of the EGF receptor caused by NMB-like peptides was inhibited by GM6001 (matrix metalloprotease inhibitor), PP2 (Src inhibitor), or transforming growth factor (TGF)α antibody. The transactivation of the EGF receptor and the increase in reactive oxygen species caused by NMB-like peptides was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or Tiron. Gefitinib inhibited the proliferation of NCI-H1299 cells and its sensitivity was increased by the addition of PD168368. The results indicate that the NMB receptor regulates EGF receptor transactivation by a mechanism dependent on Src as well as metalloprotease activation and generation of reactive oxygen species. PMID:20388507

  5. Molecular cell biology of androgen receptor signalling. (United States)

    Bennett, Nigel C; Gardiner, Robert A; Hooper, John D; Johnson, David W; Gobe, Glenda C


    The classical action of androgen receptor (AR) is to regulate gene transcriptional processes via AR nuclear translocation, response element binding and recruitment of, or crosstalk with, transcription factors. AR also utilises non-classical, non-genomic mechanisms of signal transduction. These precede gene transcription or protein synthesis, and involve steroid-induced modulation of cytoplasmic or cell membrane-bound regulatory proteins. Despite many decades of investigation, the role of AR in gene regulation of cells and tissues remains only partially characterised. AR exerts most of its effects in sex hormone-dependent tissues of the body, but the receptor is also expressed in many tissues not previously thought to be androgen sensitive. Thus it is likely that a complex, more over-arching, role for AR exists. Each AR domain co-ordinates a multitude of individual and vital roles via a diverse array of interacting partner molecules that are necessary for cellular and tissue development and maintenance. Aberrant AR activity, promoted by mutations or binding partner misregulation, can present as many clinical manifestations including androgen insensitivity syndrome and prostate cancer. In the case of malignant prostate cancer, treatment generally revolves around androgen deprivation therapies designed to interfere with AR action and the androgen signalling axis. Androgen therapies for prostate cancer often fail, highlighting a real need for increased research into AR function.

  6. Genetic engineering with T cell receptors. (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Morgan, Richard A


    In the past two decades, human gene transfer research has been translated from a laboratory technology to clinical evaluation. The success of adoptive transfer of tumor-reactive lymphocytes to treat the patients with metastatic melanoma has led to new strategies to redirect normal T cells to recognize tumor antigens by genetic engineering with tumor antigen-specific T cell receptor (TCR) genes. This new strategy can generate large numbers of defined antigen-specific cells for therapeutic application. Much progress has been made to TCR gene transfer systems by optimizing gene expression and gene transfer protocols. Vector and protein modifications have enabled excellent expression of introduced TCR chains in human lymphocytes with reduced mis-pairing between the introduced and endogenous TCR chains. Initial clinical studies have demonstrated that TCR gene-engineered T cells could mediate tumor regression in vivo. In this review, we discuss the progress and prospects of TCR gene-engineered T cells as a therapeutic strategy for treating patients with melanoma and other cancers.

  7. The receptors for gibbon ape leukemia virus and amphotropic murine leukemia virus are not downregulated in productively infected cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiden Maribeth V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last several decades it has been noted, using a variety of different methods, that cells infected by a specific gammaretrovirus are resistant to infection by other retroviruses that employ the same receptor; a phenomenon termed receptor interference. Receptor masking is thought to provide an earlier means of blocking superinfection, whereas receptor down regulation is generally considered to occur in chronically infected cells. Results We used replication-competent GFP-expressing viruses containing either an amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MLV or the gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV envelope. We also constructed similar viruses containing fluorescence-labeled Gag proteins for the detection of viral particles. Using this repertoire of reagents together with a wide range of antibodies, we were able to determine the presence and availability of viral receptors, and detect viral envelope proteins and particles presence on the cell surface of chronically infected cells. Conclusions A-MLV or GALV receptors remain on the surface of chronically infected cells and are detectable by respective antibodies, indicating that these receptors are not downregulated in these infected cells as previously proposed. We were also able to detect viral envelope proteins on the infected cell surface and infected cells are unable to bind soluble A-MLV or GALV envelopes indicating that receptor binding sites are masked by endogenously expressed A-MLV or GALV viral envelope. However, receptor masking does not completely prevent A-MLV or GALV superinfection.

  8. Direct and in vitro observation of growth hormone receptor molecules in A549 human lung epithelial cells by nanodiamond labeling (United States)

    Cheng, C.-Y.; Perevedentseva, E.; Tu, J.-S.; Chung, P.-H.; Cheng, C.-L.; Liu, K.-K.; Chao, J.-I.; Chen, P.-H.; Chang, C.-C.


    This letter presents direct observation of growth hormone receptor in one single cancer cell using nanodiamond-growth hormone complex as a specific probe. The interaction of surface growth hormone receptor of A549 human lung epithelial cells with growth hormone was observed using nanodiamond's unique spectroscopic signal via confocal Raman mapping. The growth hormone molecules were covalent conjugated to 100nm diameter carboxylated nanodiamonds, which can be recognized specifically by the growth hormone receptors of A549 cell. The Raman spectroscopic signal of diamond provides direct and in vitro observation of growth hormone receptors in physiology condition in a single cell level.

  9. Receptor Expression in Rat Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures (United States)

    Young, Ronald B.


    One on the most persistent problems with long-term space flight is atrophy of skeletal muscles. Skeletal muscle is unique as a tissue in the body in that its ability to undergo atrophy or hypertrophy is controlled exclusively by cues from the extracellular environment. The mechanism of communication between muscle cells and their environment is through a group of membrane-bound and soluble receptors, each of which carries out unique, but often interrelated, functions. The primary receptors include acetyl choline receptors, beta-adrenergic receptors, glucocorticoid receptors, insulin receptors, growth hormone (i.e., somatotropin) receptors, insulin-like growth factor receptors, and steroid receptors. This project has been initiated to develop an integrated approach toward muscle atrophy and hypertrophy that takes into account information on the populations of the entire group of receptors (and their respective hormone concentrations), and it is hypothesized that this information can form the basis for a predictive computer model for muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. The conceptual basis for this project is illustrated in the figure below. The individual receptors are shown as membrane-bound, with the exception of the glucocorticoid receptor which is a soluble intracellular receptor. Each of these receptors has an extracellular signalling component (e.g., innervation, glucocorticoids, epinephrine, etc.), and following the interaction of the extracellular component with the receptor itself, an intracellular signal is generated. Each of these intracellular signals is unique in its own way; however, they are often interrelated.

  10. Imaging Cancer Cells Expressing the Folate Receptor with Carbon Dots Produced from Folic Acid. (United States)

    Bhunia, Susanta Kumar; Maity, Amit Ranjan; Nandi, Sukhendu; Stepensky, David; Jelinek, Raz


    Development of new imaging tools for cancer cells in vitro and in vitro is important for advancing cancer research, elucidating drug effects upon cancer cells, and studying cellular processes. We showed that fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots) synthesized from folic acid can serve as an effective vehicle for imaging cancer cells expressing the folate receptor on their surface. The C-dots, synthesized through a simple one-step process from folic acid as the carbon source, exhibited selectivity towards cancer cells displaying the folate receptor, making such cells easily distinguishable in fluorescence microscopy imaging. Biophysical measurements and competition experiments both confirmed the specific targeting and enhanced uptake of C-dots by the folate receptor-expressing cells. The folic acid-derived C-dots were not cytotoxic, and their use in bioimaging applications could aid biological studies of cancer cells, identification of agonists/antagonists, and cancer diagnostics.

  11. Activation of intracellular angiotensin AT2 receptors induces rapid cell death in human uterine leiomyosarcoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yi; Lützen, Ulf; Fritsch, Jürgen;


    densities in mitochondria. Activation of the cell membrane AT2 receptors by a concomitant treatment with angiotensin II and the AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, induces apoptosis but does not affect the rate of cell death. We demonstrate for the first time that the high-affinity, non-peptide AT2 receptor...... of apoptosis and cell death in cultured human uterine leiomyosarcoma (SK-UT-1) cells and control human uterine smooth muscle cells (HutSMC). The intracellular levels of the AT2 receptor are low in proliferating SK-UT-1 cells but the receptor is substantially up-regulated in quiescent SK-UT-1 cells with high...... agonist, Compound 21 (C21) penetrates the cell membrane of quiescent SK-UT-1 cells, activates intracellular AT2 receptors and induces rapid cell death; approximately 70% of cells died within 24 h. The cells, which escaped from the cell death, displayed activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, i...

  12. Mechanotransduction Across the Cell Surface and Through the Cytoskeleton (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Butler, James P.; Ingber, Donald E.


    Mechanical stresses were applied directly to cell surface receptors with a magnetic twisting device. The extracellular matrix receptor, integrin β_1, induced focal adhesion formation and supported a force-dependent stiffening response, whereas nonadhesion receptors did not. The cytoskeletal stiffness (ratio of stress to strain) increased in direct proportion to the applied stress and required intact microtubules and intermediate filaments as well as microfilaments. Tensegrity models that incorporate mechanically interdependent struts and strings that reorient globally in response to a localized stress mimicked this response. These results suggest that integrins act as mechanoreceptors and transmit mechanical signals to the cytoskeleton. Mechanotransduction, in turn, may be mediated simultaneously at multiple locations inside the cell through force-induced rearrangements within a tensionally integrated cytoskeleton.

  13. Direct identification of ligand-receptor interactions on living cells and tissues. (United States)

    Frei, Andreas P; Jeon, Ock-Youm; Kilcher, Samuel; Moest, Hansjoerg; Henning, Lisa M; Jost, Christian; Plückthun, Andreas; Mercer, Jason; Aebersold, Ruedi; Carreira, Erick M; Wollscheid, Bernd


    Many cellular responses are triggered by proteins, drugs or pathogens binding to cell-surface receptors, but it can be challenging to identify which receptors are bound by a given ligand. Here we describe TRICEPS, a chemoproteomic reagent with three moieties--one that binds ligands containing an amino group, a second that binds glycosylated receptors on living cells and a biotin tag for purifying the receptor peptides for identification by quantitative mass spectrometry. We validated this ligand-based, receptor-capture (LRC) technology using insulin, transferrin, apelin, epidermal growth factor, the therapeutic antibody trastuzumab and two DARPins targeting ErbB2. In some cases, we could also determine the approximate ligand-binding sites on the receptors. Using TRICEPS to label intact mature vaccinia viruses, we identified the cell surface proteins AXL, M6PR, DAG1, CSPG4 and CDH13 as binding factors on human cells. This technology enables the identification of receptors for many types of ligands under near-physiological conditions and without the need for genetic manipulations.

  14. Monte Carlo study of receptor-lipid raft formation on a cell membrane (United States)

    Yu-Yang, Paul; Srinivas Reddy, A.; Raychaudhuri, Subhadip


    Receptors are cell surface molecules that bind with extracellular ligand molecules leading to propagation of downstream signals and cellular activation. Even though ligand binding-induced formation of receptor-lipid rafts has been implicated in such a process, the formation mechanism of such large stable rafts is not understood. We present findings from our Monte Carlo (MC) simulations involving (i) receptor interaction with the membrane lipids and (ii) lipid-lipid interactions between raft forming lipids. We have developed a hybrid MC simulation method that combines a probabilistic MC simulation with an explicit free energy-based MC scheme. Some of the lipid-mediated interactions, such as the cholesterol-lipid interactions, are simulated in an implicit way. We examine the effect of varying attractive interactions between raft forming lipids and ligand-bound receptors and show that strong coupling between receptor-receptor and receptor-sphingolipid molecules generate raft formation similar to that observed in recent biological experiments. We study the effect of variation of receptor affinity for ligands (as happens in adaptive immune cells) on raft formation. Such affinity dependence in receptor-lipid raft formation provides insight into important problems in B cell biology.

  15. Distribution and dynamics of rat basophilic leukemia immunoglobulin E receptors (FcepsilonRI) on planar ligand-presenting surfaces. (United States)

    Spendier, Kathrin; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda; Lidke, Keith A; Wilson, Bridget S; Timlin, Jerilyn A; Thomas, James L


    There is considerable interest in the signaling mechanisms of immunoreceptors, especially when triggered with membrane-bound ligands. We have quantified the spatiotemporal dynamics of the redistribution of immunoglobulin E-loaded receptors (IgE-FcepsilonRI) on rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 mast cells in contact with fluid and gel-phase membranes displaying ligands for immunoglobulin E, using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. To clearly separate the kinetics of receptor redistribution from cell spreading, and to precisely define the initial contact time (+/-50 ms), micropipette cell manipulation was used to bring individual cells into contact with surfaces. On ligand-free surfaces, there are micron-scale heterogeneities in fluorescence that likely reflect regions of the cell that are more closely apposed to the substrate. When ligands are present, receptor clusters form with this same size scale. The initial rate of accumulation of receptors into the clusters is consistent with diffusion-limited trapping with D approximately 10(-1) microm2/s. These results support the hypothesis that clusters form by diffusion to cell-surface contact regions. Over longer timescales (>10 s), individual clusters moved with both diffusive and directed motion components. The dynamics of the cluster motion is similar to the dynamics of membrane fluctuations of cells on ligand-free fluid membranes. Thus, the same cellular machinery may be responsible for both processes.

  16. CD84 is a survival receptor for CLL cells. (United States)

    Binsky-Ehrenreich, I; Marom, A; Sobotta, M C; Shvidel, L; Berrebi, A; Hazan-Halevy, I; Kay, S; Aloshin, A; Sagi, I; Goldenberg, D M; Leng, L; Bucala, R; Herishanu, Y; Haran, M; Shachar, I


    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the accumulation of CD5+ B lymphocytes in peripheral blood, lymphoid organs and bone marrow. The main feature of the disease is accumulation of the malignant cells due to decreased apoptosis. CD84 belongs to the signaling lymphocyte activating molecule family of immunoreceptors, and has an unknown function in CLL cells. Here, we show that the expression of CD84 is significantly elevated from the early stages of the disease, and is regulated by macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its receptor, CD74. Activation of cell surface CD84 initiates a signaling cascade that enhances CLL cell survival. Both downmodulation of CD84 expression and its immune-mediated blockade induce cell death in vitro and in vivo. In addition, analysis of samples derived from an on-going clinical trial, in which human subjects were treated with humanized anti-CD74 (milatuzumab), shows a decrease in CD84 messenger RNA and protein levels in milatuzumab-treated cells. This downregulation was correlated with reduction of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 expression. Thus, our data show that overexpression of CD84 in CLL is an important survival mechanism that appears to be an early event in the pathogenesis of the disease. These findings suggest novel therapeutic strategies based on the blockade of this CD84-dependent survival pathway.

  17. Identification and characterization of estrogen receptor-related receptor alpha and gamma in human glioma and astrocytoma cells


    Gandhari, Mukesh K; Frazier, Chester R.; Hartenstein, Julia S; Cloix, Jean-Francois; Bernier, Michel; Wainer, Irving W.


    The purpose of this study was to examine expression and function of estrogen receptor-related receptors (ERRs) in human glioma and astrocytoma cell lines. These estrogen receptor-negative cell lines expressed ERRα and ERRγ proteins to varying degree in a cell context dependent manner, with U87MG glioma cells expressing both orphan nuclear receptors. Cell proliferation assays were performed in the presence of ERR isoform-specific agonists and antagonists, and the calculated EC50 and IC50 value...

  18. Recent Insights into Cell Surface Heparan Sulphate Proteoglycans and Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, John R; Multhaupt, Hinke; Sanderson, Ralph D


    A small group of cell surface receptors are proteoglycans, possessing a core protein with one or more covalently attached glycosaminoglycan chains. They are virtually ubiquitous and their chains are major sites at which protein ligands of many types interact. These proteoglycans can signal and re...... or fragmented proteoglycans into exosomes that can be paracrine effectors or biomarkers, and lateral interactions between some proteoglycans and calcium channels that impact the actin cytoskeleton....

  19. Ubiquitylation of the chemokine receptor CCR7 enables efficient receptor recycling and cell migration


    Schäuble, Karin; Hauser, Mark A.; Rippl, Alexandra; Bruderer, Roland; Otero, Carolina; Gröttrup, Marcus; Legler, Daniel F.


    The chemokine receptor CCR7 is essential for lymphocyte and dendritic cell homing to secondary lymphoid organs. Owing to the ability to induce directional migration, CCR7 and its ligands CCL19 and CCL21 are pivotal for the regulation of the immune system. Here, we identify a novel function for receptor ubiquitylation in the regulation of the trafficking process of this G-protein-coupled seven transmembrane receptor. We discovered that CCR7 is ubiquitylated in a constitutive, ligand-independen...

  20. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 4 Receptor in the Endothelial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Profirovic, Jasmina; Vardya, Irina; Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Tatyana


    in the CNS, none of the studies showed its expression and function in the endothelial cells. In the present study, we provide evidence for the first time that 5-HT4 receptor is expressed in the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We demonstrate the transcription of 5-HT4 mRNA in the HUVECs using...... reverse transcription polimerase chain reaction. Additionally, we show 5- HT4 receptor expression in HUVECs by immunoblotting and immunofluorescent analysis with 5-HT4 specific antibody. Importantly, we determine that overexpression of 5-HT4 receptor leads to a pronounced cell rounding and intercellular...... gap formation in HUVECs. We are currently investigating the mechanism underlying 5-HT4 receptor-induced actin cytoskeleton changes in the endothelial cells. These data suggest that by activating 5-HT4 receptor, serotonin could be involved in regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in the endothelial...

  1. Distribution of P2Y receptor subtypes on haematopoietic cells



    RT–PCR-southern hybridization analyses with radiolabelled P2Y receptor cDNAs as probes indicated that the peripheral blood leukocytes and the human umbilical vein endothelial cells express P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4 and P2Y6 receptors.Of the haematopoietic cell lines tested, promonocytic U937 cells express P2Y2 and P2Y6, but not P2Y1 or P2Y4; promyelocytic HL-60 cells express the P2Y1, P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors but not the P2Y4 receptor; K562 cells express P2Y1 but not P2Y2, P2Y4 or P2Y6; and Dami cells ...

  2. Distinct regions within the GluN2C subunit regulate the surface delivery of NMDA receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina eLichnerova


    Full Text Available N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian central nervous system. The activation of NMDA receptors plays a key role in brain development, synaptic plasticity, and memory formation, and is a major contributor to many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated the mechanisms that underlie the trafficking of GluN1/GluN2C receptors. Using an approach combining molecular biology, microscopy, and electrophysiology in mammalian cell lines and cultured cerebellar granule cells, we found that the surface delivery of GluN2C-containing receptors is reduced compared to GluN2A- and GluN2B-containing receptors. Furthermore, we identified three distinct regions within the N-terminus, M3 transmembrane domain, and C-terminus of GluN2C subunits that are required for proper intracellular processing and surface delivery of NMDA receptors. These results shed new light on the regulation of NMDA receptor trafficking, and these findings can be exploited to develop new strategies for treating some forms of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  3. Role of ErbB receptors in cancer cell migration and invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline eAppert-Collin


    Full Text Available Growth factors mediate their diverse biologic responses (regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration and survival by binding to and activating cell-surface receptors with intrinsic protein kinase activity named Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs. About 60 RTKs have been identified and can be classified into more than 16 different receptor families. Their activity is normally tightly controlled and regulated. Overexpression of RTK proteins or functional alterations caused by mutations in the corresponding genes or abnormal stimulation by autocrine growth factor loops contribute to constitutive RTK signaling, resulting in alterations in the physiological activities of cells. The ErbB receptor family of RTKs comprises four distinct receptors: the EGFR (also known as ErbB1/HER1, ErbB2 (neu, HER2, ErbB3 (HER3 and ErbB4 (HER4. ErbB family members are often overexpressed, amplified, or mutated in many forms of cancer, making them important therapeutic targets. EGFR has been found to be amplified in gliomas and non-small-cell lung carcinoma while ErbB2 amplifications are seen in breast, ovarian, bladder, non-small-cell lung carcinoma, as well as several other tumor types. Several data have shown that ErbB receptor family and its downstream pathway regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration, and tumor invasion by modulating extracellular matrix components. Recent findings indicate that extracellular matrix components such as matrikines bind specifically to EGF receptor and promote cell invasion. In this review, we will present an in-depth overview of the structure, mechanisms, cell signaling, and functions of ErbB family receptors in cell adhesion and migration. Furthermore, we will describe in a last part the new strategies developed in anti-cancer therapy to inhibit ErbB family receptor activation.

  4. T cell receptor-engineered T cells to treat solid tumors: T cell processing toward optimal T cell fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.J. Lamers (Cor); S. van Steenbergen-Langeveld (Sabine); M. van Brakel (Mandy); C.M. Groot-van Ruijven (Corrien); P.M.M.L. van Elzakker (Pascal); B.A. van Krimpen (Brigitte); S. Sleijfer (Stefan); J.E.M.A. Debets (Reno)


    textabstractTherapy with autologous T cells that have been gene-engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) or T cell receptors (TCR) provides a feasible and broadly applicable treatment for cancer patients. In a clinical study in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients with CAR T ce

  5. Programming Surface Chemistry with Engineered Cells. (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihua; Heyde, Keith C; Scott, Felicia Y; Paek, Sung-Ho; Ruder, Warren C


    We have developed synthetic gene networks that enable engineered cells to selectively program surface chemistry. E. coli were engineered to upregulate biotin synthase, and therefore biotin synthesis, upon biochemical induction. Additionally, two different functionalized surfaces were developed that utilized binding between biotin and streptavidin to regulate enzyme assembly on programmable surfaces. When combined, the interactions between engineered cells and surfaces demonstrated that synthetic biology can be used to engineer cells that selectively control and modify molecular assembly by exploiting surface chemistry. Our system is highly modular and has the potential to influence fields ranging from tissue engineering to drug development and delivery.

  6. Comparative receptor surface analysis of agonists for tyramine receptor which inhibit sex-pheromone production in Plodia interpunctella. (United States)

    Hirashima, A; Eiraku, T; Kuwano, E; Eto, M


    The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of a set of 29 agonists for tyramine (TA) receptor responsible for the inhibition of sex-pheromone production in Plodia interpunctella, was analyzed using comparative receptor surface analysis (CoRSA). Using the common steric and electrostatic features of the most active members of a series of compounds, CoRSA generated a virtual receptor model, represented as points on a surface complementary to the van der Waals or Wyvill steric surface of the aligned compounds. Three-dimensional energetics descriptors were calculated from receptor surface model (RSM)/ligand interaction and these three-dimensional descriptors were used in genetic partial least squares data analysis to generate a QSAR model, giving a 3D QSAR with r(2)=0.969 for calibration and CV- r(2)=0.635 for the leave-one-out cross validation.

  7. Chemokine receptor expression by inflammatory T cells in EAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mony, Jyothi Thyagabhavan; Khorooshi, Reza; Owens, Trevor


    Chemokines direct cellular infiltration to tissues, and their receptors and signaling pathways represent targets for therapy in diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The chemokine CCL20 is expressed in choroid plexus, a site of entry of T cells to the central nervous system (CNS). The CCL20...... receptor CCR6 has been reported to be selectively expressed by CD4(+) T cells that produce the cytokine IL-17 (Th17 cells). Th17 cells and interferon-gamma (IFNγ)-producing Th1 cells are implicated in induction of MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We have assessed...... whether CCR6 identifies specific inflammatory T cell subsets in EAE. Our approach was to induce EAE, and then examine chemokine receptor expression by cytokine-producing T cells sorted from CNS at peak disease. About 7% of CNS-infiltrating CD4(+) T cells produced IFNγ in flow cytometric cytokine assays...

  8. Gravity and the cells of gravity receptors in mammals (United States)

    Ross, M. D.

    Two new findings, that crystals located in the inner ear gravity receptors of mammals have the internal organization requisite for the piezoelectric property, and that sensory hair cells of these same receptors possess contractile-appearing striated organelles, have prompted the author to model mammalian gravity receptors in the ear on the principles of piezoelectricity and bioenergetics. This model is presented and a brief discussion of its implications for the possible effects of weightlessness follows.

  9. Interaction of urokinase with specific receptors stimulates mobilization of bovine adrenal capillary endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fibbi, G.; Ziche, M.; Morbidelli, L. (Mario Aiazzi Mancini - Viale Morgagni, Firenze (Italy)); Magnelli, L.; Del Rosso, M. (Institute of General Pathology, Viale Morgagni, Firenze (Italy))


    On the basis of {sup 125}I-labeled plasminogen activator binding analysis the authors have found that bovine adrenal capillary endothelial cells have specific receptors for human urinary-type plasminogen activator on the cell membrane. Each cell exposes about 37,000 free receptors with a K{sub d} of 0.8958{times}10{sup {minus}12} M. A monoclonal antibody against the 17,500 proteolytic fragment of the A chain of the plasminogen activator, not containing the catalytic site of the enzyme, impaired the specific binding, thus suggesting the involvement of a sequence present on the A chain in the interaction with the receptor, as previously shown in other cell model systems. Both the native molecule and the A chain are able to stimulate endothelial cell motility in the Boyden chamber, when used at nanomolar concentrations. The use of the same monoclonal antibody that can inhibit ligand-receptor interaction can impair the plasminogen activator and A-chain-induced endothelial cell motility, suggesting that under the conditions used in this in vitro model system, the motility of bovine adrenal capillary endothelial cells depends on the specific interaction of the ligand with free receptors on the surface of endothelial cells.

  10. The phosphorylation state of CD3gamma influences T cell responsiveness and controls T cell receptor cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J; Backstrom, T; Lauritsen, JP


    The T cell receptor (TCR) is internalized following activation of protein kinase C (PKC) via a leucine (Leu)-based motif in CD3gamma. Some studies have indicated that the TCR is recycled back to the cell surface following PKC-mediated internalization. The functional state of recycled TCR and the ......The T cell receptor (TCR) is internalized following activation of protein kinase C (PKC) via a leucine (Leu)-based motif in CD3gamma. Some studies have indicated that the TCR is recycled back to the cell surface following PKC-mediated internalization. The functional state of recycled TCR...... the phosphorylation state of CD3gamma and T cell responsiveness. Based on these observations a physiological role of CD3gamma and TCR cycling is proposed....

  11. α-Tocopherol modulates the low density lipoprotein receptor of human HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottema Cynthia DK


    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the effects of vitamin E (α-tocopherol on the low density lipoprotein (LDL receptor, a cell surface protein which plays an important role in controlling blood cholesterol. Human HepG2 hepatoma cells were incubated for 24 hours with increasing amounts of α, δ, or γ-tocopherol. The LDL receptor binding activity, protein and mRNA, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase mRNA, cell cholesterol and cell lathosterol were measured. The effect of α-tocopherol was biphasic. Up to a concentration of 50 μM, α-tocopherol progressively increased LDL receptor binding activity, protein and mRNA to maximum levels 2, 4 and 6-fold higher than control, respectively. The HMG-CoA reductase mRNA and the cell lathosterol concentration, indices of cholesterol synthesis, were also increased by 40% over control by treatment with 50 μM α-tocopherol. The cell cholesterol concentration was decreased by 20% compared to control at 50 μM α-tocopherol. However, at α-tocopherol concentrations higher than 50 μM, the LDL receptor binding activity, protein and mRNA, the HMG-CoA reductase mRNA and the cell lathosterol and cholesterol concentrations all returned to control levels. The biphasic effect on the LDL receptor was specific for α-tocopherol in that δ and γ-tocopherol suppressed LDL receptor binding activity, protein and mRNA at all concentrations tested despite the cells incorporating similar amounts of the three homologues. In conclusion, α-tocopherol, exhibits a specific, concentration-dependent and biphasic "up then down" effect on the LDL receptor of HepG2 cells which appears to be at the level of gene transcription. Cholesterol synthesis appears to be similarly affected and the cell cholesterol concentration may mediate these effects.

  12. Cell attachment on ion implanted titanium surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Sreejith


    Full Text Available Purpose: Of outmost importance for the successful use of an implant is a good adhesion of the surrounding tissue to the biomaterial. In addition to the surface composition of the implant, the surface topography also influences the properties of the adherent cells. In the present investigation, ion implanted and untreated surfaces were compared for cell adhesion and spreading.Design/methodology/approach: The surface topography of the surfaces were analyzed using AFM and the cell studies with SEM.Findings: The results of our present investigation is indicative of the fact that ion implanted titanium surface offer better cell binding affinity compared to untreated/polished surface.Practical implications: Success of non-biodegradable implants will first and foremost depend on biocompatibility, followed by the capacity of the surface topography of the implants to evince desired cell matrix, surface cell matrix interactions. In the present study, the cell growth on ion implanted Ti material is analyzed and discussed.Originality/value: In this paper, we have utilized ion implantation technique, which will produce nano-texturing of the surface without producing any detrimental effects to both the dimensions and properties of the implants.

  13. Neurohypophysial Receptor Gene Expression by Thymic T Cell Subsets and Thymic T Cell Lymphoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hansenne


    transcribed in thymic epithelium, while immature T lymphocytes express functional neurohypophysial receptors. Neurohypophysial receptors belong to the G protein-linked seven-transmembrane receptor superfamily and are encoded by four distinct genes, OTR, V1R, V2R and V3R. The objective of this study was to identify the nature of neurohypophysial receptor in thymic T cell subsets purified by immunomagnetic selection, as well as in murine thymic lymphoma cell lines RL12-NP and BW5147. OTR is transcribed in all thymic T cell subsets and T cell lines, while V3R transcription is restricted to CD4+ CD8+ and CD8+ thymic cells. Neither V1R nor V2R transcripts are detected in any kind of T cells. The OTR protein was identified by immunocytochemistry on thymocytes freshly isolated from C57BL/6 mice. In murine fetal thymic organ cultures, a specific OTR antagonist does not modify the percentage of T cell subsets, but increases late T cell apoptosis further evidencing the involvement of OT/OTR signaling in the control of T cell proliferation and survival. According to these data, OTR and V3R are differentially expressed during T cell ontogeny. Moreover, the restriction of OTR transcription to T cell lines derived from thymic lymphomas may be important in the context of T cell leukemia pathogenesis and treatment.

  14. Pumpkin seed extract: Cell growth inhibition of hyperplastic and cancer cells, independent of steroid hormone receptors. (United States)

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Hobiger, Stefanie; Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bucar, Franz; Jungbauer, Alois


    Pumpkin seeds have been known in folk medicine as remedy for kidney, bladder and prostate disorders since centuries. Nevertheless, pumpkin research provides insufficient data to back up traditional beliefs of ethnomedical practice. The bioactivity of a hydro-ethanolic extract of pumpkin seeds from the Styrian pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca, was investigated. As pumpkin seed extracts are standardized to cucurbitin, this compound was also tested. Transactivational activity was evaluated for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor with in vitro yeast assays. Cell viability tests with prostate cancer cells, breast cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and a hyperplastic cell line from benign prostate hyperplasia tissue were performed. As model for non-hyperplastic cells, effects on cell viability were tested with a human dermal fibroblast cell line (HDF-5). No transactivational activity was found for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, for both, extract and cucurbitin. A cell growth inhibition of ~40-50% was observed for all cell lines, with the exception of HDF-5, which showed with ~20% much lower cell growth inhibition. Given the receptor status of some cell lines, a steroid-hormone receptor independent growth inhibiting effect can be assumed. The cell growth inhibition for fast growing cells together with the cell growth inhibition of prostate-, breast- and colon cancer cells corroborates the ethnomedical use of pumpkin seeds for a treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. Moreover, due to the lack of androgenic activity, pumpkin seed applications can be regarded as safe for the prostate.

  15. Functions of proteoglycans at the cell surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höök, M; Woods, A; Johansson, S;


    Proteoglycans (primarily heparan sulphate proteoglycans) are found at the surface of most adherent eukaryotic cells. Earlier studies suggest that these molecules can be associated with the cell surface principally by two different mechanisms. Proteoglycans may occur as membrane......-intercalated glycoproteins, where the core protein of the proteoglycan is anchored in the lipid interior of the plasma membrane, or they may be bound via the polysaccharide components of the molecule to specific anchoring proteins present at the cell surface. A number of functions have been proposed for cell surface......-associated proteoglycans, including: regulation of cell-substrate adhesion; regulation of cell proliferation; participation in the binding and uptake of extracellular components; and participation in the regulation of extracellular matrix formation. Evidence is discussed suggesting that the cell-associated heparan...

  16. The neural cell adhesion molecule binds to fibroblast growth factor receptor 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus; Lauridsen, Jes B; Berezin, Vladimir;


    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) can bind to and activate fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1). However, there are four major FGFR isoforms (FGFR1-FGFR4), and it is not known whether NCAM also interacts directly with the other three FGFR isoforms. In this study, we show by surface...

  17. Controlled surface chemistries and quantitative cell response (United States)

    Plant, Anne L.


    Living cells experience a large number of signaling cues from their extracellular matrix. As a result of these inputs, a variety of intracellular signaling pathways are apparently initiated simultaneously. The vast array of alternative responses that result from the integration of these inputs suggests that it may be reasonable to look for cellular response not as an 'on' or 'off' condition but as a distribution of responses. A difficult challenge is to determine whether variations in responses from individual cells arise from the complexity of intracellular signals or are due to variations in the cell culture environment. By controlling surface chemistry so that every cell 'sees' the same chemical and physical environment, we can begin to assess how the distribution of cell response is affected strictly by changes in the chemistry of the cell culture surface. Using the gene for green fluorescent protein linked to the gene for the promoter of the extracellular matrix protein, tenascin, we can easily probe the end product in a signaling pathway that is purported to be linked to surface protein chemistry and to cell shape. Cell response to well-controlled, well-characterized, and highly reproducible surfaces prepared using soft lithography techniques are compared with more conventional ways of preparing extracellular matrix proteins for cell culture. Using fluorescence microscopy and image analysis of populations of cells on these surfaces, we probe quantitatively the relationship between surface chemistry, cell shape and variations in gene expression endpoint.

  18. Functional significance of erythropoietin receptor on tumor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kodetthoor B Udupa


    Erythropoietin (Epo) is the regulator of red blood cell formation. Its receptor (EpoR) is now found in many cells and tissues of the body. EpoR is also shown to occur in tumor cells and Epo enhances the proliferation of these cells through cell signaling. EpoR antagonist can reduce the growth of the tumor in vivo. In view of our current knowledge of Epo, its recombinant forms and receptor,use of Epo in cancer patients to enhance the recovery of hematocrit after chemotherapy treatment has to be carefully evaluated.

  19. The cell surface of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley de Souza


    Full Text Available The cell surface of trypanosomatids is formed by the plasma membrane and a layer of sub-pellicular microtubules which are connected to the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane is composed by proteins, lipids and carbohydrates which form the glycocalix. In this paper we will review briefly aspects related to the organization of the cell surface of Trypanosoma cruzi.

  20. A luminescent assay for real-time measurements of receptor endocytosis in living cells. (United States)

    Robers, Matthew B; Binkowski, Brock F; Cong, Mei; Zimprich, Chad; Corona, Cesear; McDougall, Mark; Otto, George; Eggers, Christopher T; Hartnett, Jim; Machleidt, Thomas; Fan, Frank; Wood, Keith V


    Ligand-mediated endocytosis is a key autoregulatory mechanism governing the duration and intensity of signals emanating from cell surface receptors. Due to the mechanistic complexity of endocytosis and its emerging relevance in disease, simple methods capable of tracking this dynamic process in cells have become increasingly desirable. We have developed a bioluminescent reporter technology for real-time analysis of ligand-mediated receptor endocytosis using genetic fusions of NanoLuc luciferase with various G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This method is compatible with standard microplate formats, which should decrease work flows for high-throughput screens. This article also describes the application of this technology to endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), demonstrating potential applicability of the method beyond GPCRs.

  1. Interleukin-1 Receptors Are Differentially Expressed in Normal and Psoriatic T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Bebes


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine the possible role of interleukin-1 (IL-1 in the functional insufficiency of regulatory T cells in psoriasis, by comparing the expression of IL-1 receptors on healthy control and psoriatic T cells. Patients with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis and healthy volunteers, matched in age and sex, were selected for all experiments. CD4+CD25− effector and CD4+CD25+CD127low regulatory T cells were separated and used for the experiments. Expression of the mRNA of IL-1 receptors (IL-1R1, IL-1R2, and sIL-1R2 was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Cell surface IL-1 receptor expression was assessed by flow cytometry. Relative expression of the signal transmitting IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1 mRNA is higher in resting psoriatic effector and regulatory T cells, and activation induces higher IL-1R1 protein expression in psoriatic T cells than in healthy cells. Psoriatic regulatory and effector T cells express increased mRNA levels of the decoy IL-1 receptors (IL-1R2 and sIL-1R2 upon activation compared to healthy counterparts. Psoriatic T cells release slightly more sIL-1R2 into their surrounding than healthy T cells. In conclusion, changes in the expression of IL-1 receptors in psoriatic regulatory and effector T cells could contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  2. Attenuation of eph receptor kinase activation in cancer cells by coexpressed ephrin ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Falivelli

    Full Text Available The Eph receptor tyrosine kinases mediate juxtacrine signals by interacting "in trans" with ligands anchored to the surface of neighboring cells via a GPI-anchor (ephrin-As or a transmembrane segment (ephrin-Bs, which leads to receptor clustering and increased kinase activity. Additionally, soluble forms of the ephrin-A ligands released from the cell surface by matrix metalloproteases can also activate EphA receptor signaling. Besides these trans interactions, recent studies have revealed that Eph receptors and ephrins coexpressed in neurons can also engage in lateral "cis" associations that attenuate receptor activation by ephrins in trans with critical functional consequences. Despite the importance of the Eph/ephrin system in tumorigenesis, Eph receptor-ephrin cis interactions have not been previously investigated in cancer cells. Here we show that in cancer cells, coexpressed ephrin-A3 can inhibit the ability of EphA2 and EphA3 to bind ephrins in trans and become activated, while ephrin-B2 can inhibit not only EphB4 but also EphA3. The cis inhibition of EphA3 by ephrin-B2 implies that in some cases ephrins that cannot activate a particular Eph receptor in trans can nevertheless inhibit its signaling ability through cis association. We also found that an EphA3 mutation identified in lung cancer enhances cis interaction with ephrin-A3. These results suggest a novel mechanism that may contribute to cancer pathogenesis by attenuating the tumor suppressing effects of Eph receptor signaling pathways activated by ephrins in trans.

  3. Supernatant from a cloned helper T cell stimulates resting B cells to express transferrin and IL-2 receptors. (United States)

    Diu, A; Leclercq, L; Dautry-Varsat, A; Theze, J


    We describe the properties of the supernatant from a murine cloned helper T cell (clone 52.3) which is able to polyclonally activate most resting B cells in the absence of any additional stimulus. We hypothesize that an activity which we call BCAF (B-cell-activating factor(s] exists in our supernatant which can activate resting B cells alone or in conjunction with other lymphokines. In the present report, we investigate changes in the surface antigen pattern induced on resting B cells by BCAF-containing supernatant. Analysis of the cells by flow cytometry shows that transferrin receptor and IL-2 receptor expression increase on a large fraction of B cells after 2 days of activation by the T-helper-cell clone supernatant. Monoclonal anti-transferrin receptor antibody inhibits cell division but does not affect blastogenesis, while IL-2 has no effect in our experimental system. Our present results confirm that BCAF-containing supernatants can act on most resting B cells and replace helper T cells in inducing B-cell activation and proliferation.

  4. Efficient cell-free production of olfactory receptors: detergent optimization, structure, and ligand binding analyses. (United States)

    Kaiser, Liselotte; Graveland-Bikker, Johanna; Steuerwald, Dirk; Vanberghem, Mélanie; Herlihy, Kara; Zhang, Shuguang


    High-level production of membrane proteins, particularly of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in heterologous cell systems encounters a number of difficulties from their inherent hydrophobicity in their transmembrane domains, which frequently cause protein aggregation and cytotoxicity and thus reduce the protein yield. Recent advances in cell-free protein synthesis circumvent those problems to produce membrane proteins with a yield sometimes exceeding the cell-based approach. Here, we report cell-free production of a human olfactory receptor 17-4 (hOR17-4) using the wheat germ extract. Using the simple method, we also successful produced two additional olfactory receptors. To obtain soluble olfactory receptors and to increase yield, we directly added different detergents in varying concentrations to the cell-free reaction. To identify a purification buffer system that maintained the receptor in a nonaggregated form, we developed a method that uses small-volume size-exclusion column chromatography combined with rapid and sensitive dot-blot detection. Different buffer components including salt concentration, various detergents and detergent concentration, and reducing agent and its concentrations were evaluated for their ability to maintain the cell-free produced protein stable and nonaggregated. The purified olfactory receptor displays a typical a alpha-helical CD spectrum. Surface plasmon resonance measurements were used to show binding of a known ligand undecanal to hOR17-4. Our approach to produce a high yield of purified olfactory receptor is a milestone toward obtaining a large quantity of olfactory receptors for designing bionic sensors. Furthermore, this simple approach may be broadly useful not only for other classes of GPCRs but also for other membrane proteins.

  5. Cell-surface remodelling during mammalian erythropoiesis. (United States)

    Wraith, D C; Chesterton, C J


    Current evidence suggests that the major cell-surface modification occurring during mammalian erythropoiesis could be generated by two separate mechanisms: either selective loss of membrane proteins during enucleation or endocytosis at the subsequent reticulocyte and erythrocyte stages. The former idea was tested by collecting developing rabbit erythroid cells before and after the enucleation step and comparing their cell-surface protein composition via radiolabelling and electrophoresis. Few changes were observed. Our data thus lend support to the endocytosis mechanism.

  6. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells: a novel therapy for solid tumors. (United States)

    Yu, Shengnan; Li, Anping; Liu, Qian; Li, Tengfei; Yuan, Xun; Han, Xinwei; Wu, Kongming


    The chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy is a newly developed adoptive antitumor treatment. Theoretically, CAR-T cells can specifically localize and eliminate tumor cells by interacting with the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) expressing on tumor cell surface. Current studies demonstrated that various TAAs could act as target antigens for CAR-T cells, for instance, the type III variant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII) was considered as an ideal target for its aberrant expression on the cell surface of several tumor types. CAR-T cell therapy has achieved gratifying breakthrough in hematological malignancies and promising outcome in solid tumor as showed in various clinical trials. The third generation of CAR-T demonstrates increased antitumor cytotoxicity and persistence through modification of CAR structure. In this review, we summarized the preclinical and clinical progress of CAR-T cells targeting EGFR, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and mesothelin (MSLN), as well as the challenges for CAR-T cell therapy.

  7. Receptor ganglioside content of three hosts for Sendai virus. MDBK, HeLa, and MDCK cells. (United States)

    Markwell, M A; Fredman, P; Svennerholm, L


    Specific gangliosides GD1a, GT1b and GQ1b isolated from brain have been shown to function as receptors for Sendai virus by conferring susceptibility to infection when they are incorporated into receptor-deficient cells (Markwell, M.A.K., Svennerholm, L. and Paulson, J.C. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 5406-5410). The endogenous gangliosides of three commonly used hosts for Sendai virus: MDBK, HeLa, and MDCK cells were analyzed to determine the amount and type of receptor gangliosides present. In all three cell lines, GM3 was the major ganglioside component. The presence of GM1, GD1a and the more complex homologs of the gangliotetraose series was also established. In cell lines derived from normal tissue, MDBK and MDCK cells, gangliosides contributed 47-65% of the total sialic acid. In HeLa cells, gangliosides contributed substantially less (17% of the total sialic acid). The ganglioside content of each cell line was shown not to be immutable but instead to depend on the state of differentiation, passage number, and surface the cells were grown on. Thus, the ganglioside concentration of undifferentiated MDCK cells was found to be substantially greater than that of MDBK or HeLa cells, but decreased as the MDCK cells underwent differentiation. Changes in culture conditions that were shown to decrease the receptor ganglioside content of the cells resulted in a corresponding decrease in susceptibility to infection. The endogenous oligosialogangliosides present in susceptible host cells were shown to function as receptors for Sendai virus.

  8. Regulator T cells: specific for antigen and/or antigen receptors? (United States)

    Rubin, B; de Durana, Y Diaz; Li, N; Sercarz, E E


    Adaptive immune responses are regulated by many different molecular and cellular effectors. Regulator T cells are coming to their rights again, and these T cells seem to have ordinary alpha/beta T-cell receptors (TCRs) and to develop in the thymus. Autoimmune responses are tightly regulated by such regulatory T cells, a phenomenon which is beneficial to the host in autoimmune situations. However, the regulation of autoimmune responses to tumour cells is harmful to the host, as this regulation delays the defence against the outgrowth of neoplastic cells. In the present review, we discuss whether regulatory T cells are specific for antigen and/or for antigen receptors. Our interest in these phenomena comes from the findings that T cells produce many more TCR-alpha and TCR-beta chains than are necessary for surface membrane expression of TCR-alphabeta heterodimers with CD3 complexes. Excess TCR chains are degraded by the proteasomes, and TCR peptides thus become available to the assembly pathway of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Consequently, do T cells express two different identification markers on the cell membrane, the TCR-alphabeta clonotype for recognition by B-cell receptors and clonotypic TCR-alphabeta peptides for recognition by T cells?

  9. Thymic selection of T-cell receptors as an extreme value problem

    CERN Document Server

    Kosmrlj, Andrej; Kardar, Mehran; Shakhnovich, Eugene I


    T lymphocytes (T cells) orchestrate adaptive immune responses upon activation. T cell activation requires sufficiently strong binding of T cell receptors (TCRs) on their surface to short peptides (p) derived from foreign proteins, which are bound to major histocompatibility (MHC) gene products (displayed on antigen presenting cells). A diverse and self-tolerant T cell repertoire is selected in the thymus. We map thymic selection processes to an extreme value problem and provide an analytic expression for the amino acid compositions of selected TCRs (which enable its recognition functions).

  10. Ovarian carcinoma cells synthesize both chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate cell surface proteoglycans that mediate cell adhesion to interstitial matrix. (United States)

    Kokenyesi, R

    Metastatic ovarian carcinoma metastasizes by intra-peritoneal, non-hematogenous dissemination. The adhesion of the ovarian carcinoma cells to extracellular matrix components, such as types I and III collagen and cellular fibronectin, is essential for intra-peritoneal dissemination. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cell surface proteoglycans (a class of matrix receptors) are produced by ovarian carcinoma cells, and whether these proteoglycans have a role in the adhesion of ovarian carcinoma cells to types I and III collagen and fibronectin. Proteoglycans were metabolically labeled for biochemical studies. Both phosphatidylinositol-anchored and integral membrane-type cell surface proteoglycans were found to be present on the SK-OV-3 and NIH:OVCAR-3 cell lines. Three proteoglycan populations of differing hydrodynamic size were detected in both SK-OV-3 and NIH:OVCAR-3 cells. Digestions with heparitinase and chondroitinase ABC showed that cell surface proteoglycans of SK-OV-3 cells had higher proportion of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (75:25 of chondroitin sulfate:heparan sulfate ratio), while NIH:OVCAR-3 cells had higher proportion of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (10:90 of chondroitin sulfate:heparan sulfate ratio). RT-PCR indicated the synthesis of a unique assortment of syndecans, glypicans, and CD44 by the two cell lines. In adhesion assays performed on matrix-coated titer plates both cell lines adhered to types I and III collagen and cellular fibronectin, and cell adhesion was inhibited by preincubation of the matrix with heparin, heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, or chondroitin glycosaminoglycans. Treatment of the cells with heparitinase, chondroitinase ABC, or methylumbelliferyl xyloside also interfered with adhesion confirming the role of both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate cell surface proteoglycans as matrix receptors on ovarian carcinoma cells.

  11. Differential T cell receptor-mediated signaling in naive and memory CD4 T cells. (United States)

    Farber, D L; Acuto, O; Bottomly, K


    Naive and memory CD4 T cells differ in cell surface phenotype, function, activation requirements, and modes of regulation. To investigate the molecular bases for the dichotomies between naive and memory CD4 T cells and to understand how the T cell receptor (TCR) directs diverse functional outcomes, we investigated proximal signaling events triggered through the TCR/CD3 complex in naive and memory CD4 T cell subsets isolated on the basis of CD45 isoform expression. Naive CD4 T cells signal through TCR/CD3 similar to unseparated CD4 T cells, producing multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated protein species overall and phosphorylating the T cell-specific ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase which is recruited to the CD3zeta subunit of the TCR. Memory CD4 T cells, however, exhibit a unique pattern of signaling through TCR/CD3. Following stimulation through TCR/CD3, memory CD4 T cells produce fewer species of tyrosine-phosphorylated substrates and fail to phosphorylate ZAP-70, yet unphosphorylated ZAP-70 can associate with the TCR/CD3 complex. Moreover, a 26/28-kDa phosphorylated doublet is associated with CD3zeta in resting and activated memory but not in naive CD4 T cells. Despite these differences in the phosphorylation of ZAP-70 and CD3-associated proteins, the ZAP-70-related kinase, p72syk, exhibits similar phosphorylation in naive and memory T cell subsets, suggesting that this kinase could function in place of ZAP-70 in memory CD4 T cells. These results indicate that proximal signals are differentially coupled to the TCR in naive versus memory CD4 T cells, potentially leading to distinct downstream signaling events and ultimately to the diverse functions elicited by these two CD4 T cell subsets.

  12. G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling in Stem Cells and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Lynch


    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are a large superfamily of cell-surface signaling proteins that bind extracellular ligands and transduce signals into cells via heterotrimeric G proteins. GPCRs are highly tractable drug targets. Aberrant expression of GPCRs and G proteins has been observed in various cancers and their importance in cancer stem cells has begun to be appreciated. We have recently reported essential roles for G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84 and G protein subunit Gαq in the maintenance of cancer stem cells in acute myeloid leukemia. This review will discuss how GPCRs and G proteins regulate stem cells with a focus on cancer stem cells, as well as their implications for the development of novel targeted cancer therapies.

  13. Nanostructuring of Solar Cell Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    Solar energy is by far the most abundant renewable energy source available, but the levelized cost of solar energy is still not competitive with that of fossil fuels. Therefore there is a need to improve the power conversion effciency of solar cells without adding to the production cost. The main...... objective of this PhD thesis is to develop nanostructured silicon (Si) solar cells with higher power conversion efficiency using only scalable and cost-efficient production methods. The nanostructures, known as 'black silicon', are fabricated by single-step, maskless reactive ion etching and used as front...... and characterized for comparison. Power conversion eciency of 16.5% was obtained for this batch of RIE-textured Si solar cells. The eciency of the KOH-textured reference cell was 17.8%. Quantum Efficiency measurements and carrier loss analysis show that the lower eciency of the RIE-textured cells is primarily due...

  14. Glycosaminoglycans in human retinoblastoma cells: Heparan sulfate, a modulator of the pigment epithelium-derived factor-receptor interactions (United States)

    Alberdi, Elena M; Weldon, John E; Becerra, S Patricia


    Background Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has binding affinity for cell-surface receptors in retinoblastoma cells and for glycosaminoglycans. We investigated the effects of glycosaminoglycans on PEDF-receptor interactions. Results 125I-PEDF formed complexes with protease-resistant components of medium conditioned by human retinoblastoma Y-79 cells. Using specific glycosaminoglycan degrading enzymes in spectrophotometric assays and PEDF-affinity chromatography, we detected heparin and heparan sulfate-like glycosaminoglycans in the Y-79 conditioned media, which had binding affinity for PEDF. The Y-79 conditioned media significantly enhanced the binding of 125I-PEDF to Y-79 cell-surface receptors. However, enzymatic and chemical depletion of sulfated glycosaminoglycans from the Y-79 cell cultures by heparitinase and chlorate treatments decreased the degree of 125I-PEDF binding to cell-surface receptors. Conclusions These data indicate that retinoblastoma cells secrete heparin/heparan sulfate with binding affinity for PEDF, which may be important in efficient cell-surface receptor binding. PMID:12625842

  15. Murine complement receptor 1 is required for germinal center B cell maintenance but not initiation. (United States)

    Donius, Luke R; Weis, Janis J; Weis, John H


    Germinal centers are the anatomic sites for the generation of high affinity immunoglobulin expressing plasma cells and memory B cells. The germinal center B cells that are precursors of these cells circulate between the light zone B cell population that interact with antigen laden follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and the proliferative dark zone B cell population. Antigen retention by follicular dendritic cells is dependent on Fc receptors and complement receptors, and complement receptor 1 (Cr1) is the predominant complement receptor expressed by FDC. The newly created Cr1KO mouse was used to test the effect of Cr1-deficiency on the kinetics of the germinal center reaction and the generation of IgM and switched memory B cell formation. Immunization of Cr1KO mice with a T cell-dependent antigen resulted in the normal initial expansion of B cells with a germinal center phenotype however these cells were preferentially lost in the Cr1KO animal over time (days). Bone marrow chimera animals documented the surprising finding that the loss of germinal center B cell maintenance was linked to the expression of Cr1 on B cells, not the FDC. Cr1-deficiency further resulted in antigen-specific IgM titer and IgM memory B cell reductions, but not antigen-specific IgG after 35-37 days. Investigations of nitrophenyl (NP)-specific IgG demonstrated that Cr1 is not necessary for affinity maturation during the response to particulate antigen. These data, along with those generated in our initial description of the Cr1KO animal describe unique functions of Cr1 on the surface of both B cells and FDC.

  16. Cell behaviour on chemically microstructured surfaces

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    Magnani, Agnese; Priamo, Alfredo; Pasqui, Daniela; Barbucci, Rolando


    Micropatterned surfaces with different chemical topographies were synthesised in order to investigate the influence of surface chemistry and topography on cell behaviour. The microstructured materials were synthesised by photoimmobilising natural Hyaluronan (Hyal) and its sulphated derivative (HyalS), both adequately functionalised with a photorective moiety, on glass substrates. Four different grating patterns (10, 25, 50 and 100 {mu}m) were used to pattern the hyaluronan. The micropatterned samples were analysed by Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy to investigate the chemistry and the topography of the surfaces. The spectroscopic and microscopic analysis of the microstructured surfaces revealed that the photoimmobilisation process was successful, demonstrating that the photomask patterns were well reproduced on the sample surface. The influence of chemical topographies on the cell behaviour was then analysed. Human and 3T3 fibroblasts, bovine aortic and human (HGTFN line) endothelial cells were used and their behaviour on the micropatterned surfaces was analysed in terms of adhesion, proliferation, locomotion and orientation. Both chemical and topographical controls were found to be important for cell guidance. By decreasing the stripe dimensions, a more fusiform shape of cell was observed. At the same time, the cell locomotion and orientation parallel to the structure increased. However, differences in cell behaviour were detected according to both cell type and micropattern dimensions.

  17. Potentiation of NMDA receptor-dependent cell responses by extracellular high mobility group box 1 protein.

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    Marco Pedrazzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extracellular high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 protein can operate in a synergistic fashion with different signal molecules promoting an increase of cell Ca(2+ influx. However, the mechanisms responsible for this effect of HMGB1 are still unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that, at concentrations of agonist per se ineffective, HMGB1 potentiates the activation of the ionotropic glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR in isolated hippocampal nerve terminals and in a neuroblastoma cell line. This effect was abolished by the NMDA channel blocker MK-801. The HMGB1-facilitated NMDAR opening was followed by activation of the Ca(2+-dependent enzymes calpain and nitric oxide synthase in neuroblastoma cells, resulting in an increased production of NO, a consequent enhanced cell motility, and onset of morphological differentiation. We have also identified NMDAR as the mediator of HMGB1-stimulated murine erythroleukemia cell differentiation, induced by hexamethylenebisacetamide. The potentiation of NMDAR activation involved a peptide of HMGB1 located in the B box at the amino acids 130-139. This HMGB1 fragment did not overlap with binding sites for other cell surface receptors of HMGB1, such as the advanced glycation end products or the Toll-like receptor 4. Moreover, in a competition assay, the HMGB1((130-139 peptide displaced the NMDAR/HMGB1 interaction, suggesting that it comprised the molecular and functional site of HMGB1 regulating the NMDA receptor complex. CONCLUSION: We propose that the multifunctional cytokine-like molecule HMGB1 released by activated, stressed, and damaged or necrotic cells can facilitate NMDAR-mediated cell responses, both in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues, independently of other known cell surface receptors for HMGB1.

  18. Similarities and Distinctions in Actions of Surface-Directed and Classic Androgen Receptor Antagonists.

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    Ji Ho Suh

    Full Text Available The androgen receptor (AR surface-directed antagonist MJC13 inhibits AR function and proliferation of prostate cancer (PC cells. These effects are related to arrest of an AR/chaperone complex in the cytoplasm. Here, we compared MJC13 and classic AR antagonists such as flutamide and bicalutamide. Microarray analysis and confirmatory qRT-PCR reveals that MJC13 and flutamide inhibit dihydrotestosterone (DHT-dependent genes in LNCaP PC cells. Both compounds are equally effective on a genome wide basis and as effective as second generation AR antagonists (MDV3100, ARN-509 at selected genes. MJC13 inhibits AR binding to the prostate specific antigen (PSA promoter more strongly than flutamide, consistent with different mechanisms of action. Examination of efficacy of MJC13 in conditions that reflect aspects castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC reveals that it inhibits flutamide activation of an AR mutant (ART877A that emerges during flutamide withdrawal syndrome, but displays greatly restricted gene-specific activity in 22Rv1 cells that express a constitutively active truncated AR and is inactive against glucocorticoid receptor (GR, which can co-opt androgen-dependent signaling networks in CRPC. Importantly, MJC13 inhibits AR interactions with SRC2 and β-catenin in the nucleus and, unlike flutamide, strongly inhibits amplification of AR activity obtained with transfected SRC2 and β-catenin. MJC13 also inhibits DHT and β-catenin-enhanced cell division in LNCaP cells. Thus, a surface-directed antagonist can block AR activity in some conditions in which a classic antagonist fails and may display utility in particular forms of CRPC.

  19. Similarities and Distinctions in Actions of Surface-Directed and Classic Androgen Receptor Antagonists. (United States)

    Suh, Ji Ho; Chattopadhyay, Arundhati; Sieglaff, Douglas H; Storer Samaniego, Cheryl; Cox, Marc B; Webb, Paul


    The androgen receptor (AR) surface-directed antagonist MJC13 inhibits AR function and proliferation of prostate cancer (PC) cells. These effects are related to arrest of an AR/chaperone complex in the cytoplasm. Here, we compared MJC13 and classic AR antagonists such as flutamide and bicalutamide. Microarray analysis and confirmatory qRT-PCR reveals that MJC13 and flutamide inhibit dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-dependent genes in LNCaP PC cells. Both compounds are equally effective on a genome wide basis and as effective as second generation AR antagonists (MDV3100, ARN-509) at selected genes. MJC13 inhibits AR binding to the prostate specific antigen (PSA) promoter more strongly than flutamide, consistent with different mechanisms of action. Examination of efficacy of MJC13 in conditions that reflect aspects castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) reveals that it inhibits flutamide activation of an AR mutant (ART877A) that emerges during flutamide withdrawal syndrome, but displays greatly restricted gene-specific activity in 22Rv1 cells that express a constitutively active truncated AR and is inactive against glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which can co-opt androgen-dependent signaling networks in CRPC. Importantly, MJC13 inhibits AR interactions with SRC2 and β-catenin in the nucleus and, unlike flutamide, strongly inhibits amplification of AR activity obtained with transfected SRC2 and β-catenin. MJC13 also inhibits DHT and β-catenin-enhanced cell division in LNCaP cells. Thus, a surface-directed antagonist can block AR activity in some conditions in which a classic antagonist fails and may display utility in particular forms of CRPC.

  20. Somatostatin actions via somatostatin receptors on the ocular surface are modulated by inflammatory processes. (United States)

    Minsel, Ivonne; Mentlein, Rolf; Sel, Saadettin; Diebold, Yolanda; Bräuer, Lars; Mühlbauer, Eckhard; Paulsen, Friedrich P


    Recent investigations support the presence of human somatostatin (SS) in the excretory system of the human lacrimal gland. To get deeper insights into a possible role of SS at the ocular surface and in the lacrimal apparatus, we investigated the distribution pattern of SS and its receptors 1-5 (SSTR1-5) by means of RT-PCR, real-time RT-PCR, Western blot and immunodot blot analysis as well as immunohistochemistry in lacrimal gland, tear fluid, conjunctiva, cornea, nasolacrimal duct epithelium, and conjunctival (HCjE) and corneal (HCE) epithelial cell lines. Cell culture experiments with HCjE and HCE were performed to analyze a possible impact of SS and inflammatory mediators on the regulation of SSTR. The results confirmed the presence of SS in lacrimal gland and tear fluid, whereas it was absent at the protein level in all other tissues and cell lines investigated. Expression of SSTR1, -2, and -5 was detectable in lacrimal gland, conjunctiva, cornea, and nasolacrimal ducts. HCjE expressed only hSSTR1 and -2, and HCE revealed only SSTR2. SSTR3 and -4 were not detected in any of the analyzed samples or cell lines. In vitro on cultured immortalized HCjE cells SS leads to a concentration-dependent down-regulation of SSTR1 mRNA but does not affect SSTR2 mRNA expression. Relative expression of SSTR1 and -2 is differentially modulated by proinflammatory cytokines and bacterial components, suggesting that the expression of both receptors is immunomodulated. Our data support an autocrine and paracrine role of SS in the lacrimal system and at the ocular surface and implicate a role of SS in corneal immunology.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Qi; Rajesh Agarwal; Rana Singh; Gail S. Harrisona; L.Michael Glodea


    Since the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a key regulator in cell signaling pathways of cancer cell. To investigate the mechanism between cancer cells survival and its EGFR expression, drug selection of cancer cells target therapy, we generated a cell line, 9L-EGFR, which stably expressed human EGFR; the parental rat glioma cell line, 9L, does not contain endogenous EGFR message or protein. Our results show that 9L-EGFR cells had high levels of EGFR on their cell surface by using RT-PCR, Western analysis and Flow cytometry analysis. The EGFR transfected into 9L cells was capable of being activated by EGF, in which either phosphorylated (p-EGFR) or total (EGFR) was showed by Western blot. This investigation may contribute to the further studies of cancer cells bearing EGFR.

  2. P2 receptor-mediated signaling in mast cell biology. (United States)

    Bulanova, Elena; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia


    Mast cells are widely recognized as effector cells of allergic inflammatory reactions. They contribute to the pathogenesis of different chronic inflammatory diseases, wound healing, fibrosis, thrombosis/fibrinolysis, and anti-tumor immune responses. In this paper, we summarized the role of P2X and P2Y receptors in mast cell activation and effector functions. Mast cells are an abundant source of ATP which is stored in their granules and secreted upon activation. We discuss the contribution of mast cells to the extracellular ATP release and to the maintenance of extracellular nucleotides pool. Recent publications highlight the importance of purinergic signaling for the pathogenesis of chronic airway inflammation. Therefore, the role of ATP and P2 receptors in allergic inflammation with focus on mast cells was analyzed. Finally, ATP functions as mast cell autocrine/paracrine factor and as messenger in intercellular communication between mast cells, nerves, and glia in the central nervous system.

  3. Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy in Hematology. (United States)

    Ataca, Pınar; Arslan, Önder


    It is well demonstrated that the immune system can control and eliminate cancer cells. Immune-mediated elimination of tumor cells has been discovered and is the basis of both cancer vaccines and cellular therapies including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Adoptive T cell transfer has been improved to be more specific and potent and to cause less off-target toxicity. Currently, there are two forms of engineered T cells being tested in clinical trials: T cell receptor (TCR) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cells. On 1 July 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration granted 'breakthrough therapy' designation to anti-CD19 CAR T cell therapy. Many studies were conducted to evaluate the benefits of this exciting and potent new treatment modality. This review summarizes the history of adoptive immunotherapy, adoptive immunotherapy using CARs, the CAR manufacturing process, preclinical and clinical studies, and the effectiveness and drawbacks of this strategy.

  4. Activation of intracellular angiotensin AT₂ receptors induces rapid cell death in human uterine leiomyosarcoma cells. (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Lützen, Ulf; Fritsch, Jürgen; Zuhayra, Maaz; Schütze, Stefan; Steckelings, Ulrike M; Recanti, Chiara; Namsoleck, Pawel; Unger, Thomas; Culman, Juraj


    The presence of angiotensin type 2 (AT₂) receptors in mitochondria and their role in NO generation and cell aging were recently demonstrated in various human and mouse non-tumour cells. We investigated the intracellular distribution of AT₂ receptors including their presence in mitochondria and their role in the induction of apoptosis and cell death in cultured human uterine leiomyosarcoma (SK-UT-1) cells and control human uterine smooth muscle cells (HutSMC). The intracellular levels of the AT₂ receptor are low in proliferating SK-UT-1 cells but the receptor is substantially up-regulated in quiescent SK-UT-1 cells with high densities in mitochondria. Activation of the cell membrane AT₂ receptors by a concomitant treatment with angiotensin II and the AT₁ receptor antagonist, losartan, induces apoptosis but does not affect the rate of cell death. We demonstrate for the first time that the high-affinity, non-peptide AT₂ receptor agonist, Compound 21 (C21), penetrates the cell membrane of quiescent SK-UT-1 cells, activates intracellular AT₂ receptors and induces rapid cell death; approximately 70% of cells died within 24 h. The cells, which escaped cell death, displayed activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, i.e. down-regulation of the Bcl-2 protein, induction of the Bax protein and activation of caspase-3. All quiescent SK-UT-1 cells died within 5 days after treatment with a single dose of C21. C21 was devoid of cytotoxic effects in proliferating SK-UT-1 cells and in quiescent HutSMC. Our results point to a new, unique approach enabling the elimination non-cycling uterine leiomyosarcoma cells providing that they over-express the AT₂ receptor.

  5. Schwann cells express erythropoietin receptor and represent a major target for Epo in peripheral nerve injury. (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqing; Gonias, Steven L; Campana, W Marie


    Erythropoietin (Epo) expresses potent neuroprotective activity in the peripheral nervous system; however, the underlying mechanism remains incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate that Epo is upregulated in sciatic nerve after chronic constriction injury (CCI) and crush injury in rats, largely due to local Schwann cell production. In uninjured and injured nerves, Schwann cells also express Epo receptor (EpoR), and its expression is increased during Wallerian degeneration. CCI increased the number of Schwann cells at the injury site and the number was further increased by exogenously administered recombinant human Epo (rhEpo). To explore the activity of Epo in Schwann cells, primary cultures were established. These cells expressed cell-surface Epo receptors, with masses of 71 and 62 kDa, as determined by surface protein biotinylation and affinity precipitation. The 71-kDa species was rapidly but transiently tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to rhEpo. ERK/MAP kinase was also activated in rhEpo-treated Schwann cells; this response was blocked by pharmacologic antagonism of JAK-2. RhEpo promoted Schwann cell proliferation, as determined by BrdU incorporation. Cell proliferation was ERK/MAP kinase-dependent. These results support a model in which Schwann cells are a major target for Epo in injured peripheral nerves, perhaps within the context of an autocrine signaling pathway. EpoR-induced cell signaling and Schwann cell proliferation may protect injured peripheral nerves and promote regeneration.

  6. Mast cell adenosine receptors function: a focus on the A3 adenosine receptor and inflammation

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    Noam eRudich


    Full Text Available Adenosine is a metabolite, which has long been implicated in a variety of inflammatory processes. Inhaled adenosine provokes bronchoconstriction in asthmatics or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients, but not in non-asthmatics. This hyper responsiveness to adenosine appears to be mediated by mast cell activation. These observations have marked the receptor that mediates the bronchoconstrictor effect of adenosine on mast cells, as an attractive drug candidate. Four subtypes (A1, A2a, A2b and A3 of adenosine receptors have been cloned and shown to display distinct tissue distributions and functions. Animal models have firmly established the ultimate role of the A3 adenosine receptor (A3R in mediating hyper responsiveness to adenosine in mast cells, although the influence of the A2b adenosine receptor was confirmed as well. In contrast, studies of the A3R in humans have been controversial. In this review, we summarize data on the role of different adenosine receptors in mast cell regulation of inflammation and pathology, with a focus on the common and distinct functions of the A3R in rodent and human mast cells. The relevance of mouse studies to the human is discussed.

  7. RNase L Suppresses Androgen Receptor Signaling, Cell Migration and Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in Prostate Cancer Cells. (United States)

    Dayal, Shubham; Zhou, Jun; Manivannan, Praveen; Siddiqui, Mohammad Adnan; Ahmad, Omaima Farid; Clark, Matthew; Awadia, Sahezeel; Garcia-Mata, Rafael; Shemshedini, Lirim; Malathi, Krishnamurthy


    The interferon antiviral pathways and prostate cancer genetics converge on a regulated endoribonuclease, RNase L. Positional cloning and linkage studies mapped Hereditary Prostate Cancer 1 (HPC1) to RNASEL. To date, there is no correlation of viral infections with prostate cancer, suggesting that RNase L may play additional roles in tumor suppression. Here, we demonstrate a role of RNase L as a suppressor of androgen receptor (AR) signaling, cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase activity. Using RNase L mutants, we show that its nucleolytic activity is dispensable for both AR signaling and migration. The most prevalent HPC1-associated mutations in RNase L, R462Q and E265X, enhance AR signaling and cell migration. RNase L negatively regulates cell migration and attachment on various extracellular matrices. We demonstrate that RNase L knockdown cells promote increased cell surface expression of integrin β1 which activates Focal Adhesion Kinase-Sarcoma (FAK-Src) pathway and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1-guanosine triphosphatase (Rac1-GTPase) activity to increase cell migration. Activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 is significantly increased in cells where RNase L levels are ablated. We show that mutations in RNase L found in HPC patients may promote prostate cancer by increasing expression of AR-responsive genes and cell motility and identify novel roles of RNase L as a prostate cancer susceptibility gene.

  8. Roles of cell and microvillus deformation and receptor-ligand binding kinetics in cell rolling. (United States)

    Pawar, Parag; Jadhav, Sameer; Eggleton, Charles D; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos


    Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) recruitment to sites of inflammation is initiated by selectin-mediated PMN tethering and rolling on activated endothelium under flow. Cell rolling is modulated by bulk cell deformation (mesoscale), microvillus deformability (microscale), and receptor-ligand binding kinetics (nanoscale). Selectin-ligand bonds exhibit a catch-slip bond behavior, and their dissociation is governed not only by the force but also by the force history. Whereas previous theoretical models have studied the significance of these three "length scales" in isolation, how their interplay affects cell rolling has yet to be resolved. We therefore developed a three-dimensional computational model that integrates the aforementioned length scales to delineate their relative contributions to PMN rolling. Our simulations predict that the catch-slip bond behavior and to a lesser extent bulk cell deformation are responsible for the shear threshold phenomenon. Cells bearing deformable rather than rigid microvilli roll slower only at high P-selectin site densities and elevated levels of shear (>or=400 s(-1)). The more compliant cells (membrane stiffness=1.2 dyn/cm) rolled slower than cells with a membrane stiffness of 3.0 dyn/cm at shear rates >50 s(-1). In summary, our model demonstrates that cell rolling over a ligand-coated surface is a highly coordinated process characterized by a complex interplay between forces acting on three distinct length scales.

  9. P2 receptor-mediated signaling in mast cell biology


    Bulanova, Elena; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia


    Mast cells are widely recognized as effector cells of allergic inflammatory reactions. They contribute to the pathogenesis of different chronic inflammatory diseases, wound healing, fibrosis, thrombosis/fibrinolysis, and anti-tumor immune responses. In this paper, we summarized the role of P2X and P2Y receptors in mast cell activation and effector functions. Mast cells are an abundant source of ATP which is stored in their granules and secreted upon activation. We discuss the contribution of ...

  10. A balance between B cell receptor and inhibitory receptor signaling controls plasma cell differentiation by maintaining optimal Ets1 levels. (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Mayeux, Jessica; Gutierrez, Toni; Russell, Lisa; Getahun, Andrew; Müller, Jennifer; Tedder, Thomas; Parnes, Jane; Rickert, Robert; Nitschke, Lars; Cambier, John; Satterthwaite, Anne B; Garrett-Sinha, Lee Ann


    Signaling through the BCR can drive B cell activation and contribute to B cell differentiation into Ab-secreting plasma cells. The positive BCR signal is counterbalanced by a number of membrane-localized inhibitory receptors that limit B cell activation and plasma cell differentiation. Deficiencies in these negative signaling pathways may cause autoantibody generation and autoimmune disease in both animal models and human patients. We have previously shown that the transcription factor Ets1 can restrain B cell differentiation into plasma cells. In this study, we tested the roles of the BCR and inhibitory receptors in controlling the expression of Ets1 in mouse B cells. We found that Ets1 is downregulated in B cells by BCR or TLR signaling through a pathway dependent on PI3K, Btk, IKK2, and JNK. Deficiencies in inhibitory pathways, such as a loss of the tyrosine kinase Lyn, the phosphatase Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP1) or membrane receptors CD22 and/or Siglec-G, result in enhanced BCR signaling and decreased Ets1 expression. Restoring Ets1 expression in Lyn- or SHP1-deficient B cells inhibits their enhanced plasma cell differentiation. Our findings indicate that downregulation of Ets1 occurs in response to B cell activation via either BCR or TLR signaling, thereby allowing B cell differentiation and that the maintenance of Ets1 expression is an important function of the inhibitory Lyn → CD22/SiglecG → SHP1 pathway in B cells.

  11. Distinctive receptor binding properties of the surface glycoprotein of a natural Feline Leukemia Virus isolate with unusual disease spectrum

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    Albritton Lorraine M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline leukemia virus (FeLV-945, a member of the FeLV-A subgroup, was previously isolated from a cohort of naturally infected cats. An unusual multicentric lymphoma of non-T-cell origin was observed in natural and experimental infection with FeLV-945. Previous studies implicated the FeLV-945 surface glycoprotein (SU as a determinant of disease outcome by an as yet unknown mechanism. The present studies demonstrate that FeLV-945 SU confers distinctive properties of binding to the cell surface receptor. Results Virions bearing the FeLV-945 Env protein were observed to bind the cell surface receptor with significantly increased efficiency, as was soluble FeLV-945 SU protein, as compared to the corresponding virions or soluble protein from a prototype FeLV-A isolate. SU proteins cloned from other cohort isolates exhibited increased binding efficiency comparable to or greater than FeLV-945 SU. Mutational analysis implicated a domain containing variable region B (VRB to be the major determinant of increased receptor binding, and identified a single residue, valine 186, to be responsible for the effect. Conclusions The FeLV-945 SU protein binds its cell surface receptor, feTHTR1, with significantly greater efficiency than does that of prototype FeLV-A (FeLV-A/61E when present on the surface of virus particles or in soluble form, demonstrating a 2-fold difference in the relative dissociation constant. The results implicate a single residue, valine 186, as the major determinant of increased binding affinity. Computational modeling suggests a molecular mechanism by which residue 186 interacts with the receptor-binding domain through residue glutamine 110 to effect increased binding affinity. Through its increased receptor binding affinity, FeLV-945 SU might function in pathogenesis by increasing the rate of virus entry and spread in vivo, or by facilitating entry into a novel target cell with a low receptor density.

  12. The T cell antigen receptor: the Swiss army knife of the immune system. (United States)

    Attaf, M; Legut, M; Cole, D K; Sewell, A K


    The mammalian T cell receptor (TCR) orchestrates immunity by responding to many billions of different ligands that it has never encountered before and cannot adapt to at the protein sequence level. This remarkable receptor exists in two main heterodimeric isoforms: αβ TCR and γδ TCR. The αβ TCR is expressed on the majority of peripheral T cells. Most αβ T cells recognize peptides, derived from degraded proteins, presented at the cell surface in molecular cradles called major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Recent reports have described other αβ T cell subsets. These 'unconventional' T cells bear TCRs that are capable of recognizing lipid ligands presented in the context of the MHC-like CD1 protein family or bacterial metabolites bound to the MHC-related protein 1 (MR1). γδ T cells constitute a minority of the T cell pool in human blood, but can represent up to half of total T cells in tissues such as the gut and skin. The identity of the preferred ligands for γδ T cells remains obscure, but it is now known that this receptor can also functionally engage CD1-lipid, or immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily proteins called butyrophilins in the presence of pyrophosphate intermediates of bacterial lipid biosynthesis. Interactions between TCRs and these ligands allow the host to discriminate between self and non-self and co-ordinate an attack on the latter. Here, we describe how cells of the T lymphocyte lineage and their antigen receptors are generated and discuss the various modes of antigen recognition by these extraordinarily versatile receptors.

  13. Fluorescent ligand for human progesterone receptor imaging in live cells. (United States)

    Weinstain, Roy; Kanter, Joan; Friedman, Beth; Ellies, Lesley G; Baker, Michael E; Tsien, Roger Y


    We employed molecular modeling to design and then synthesize fluorescent ligands for the human progesterone receptor. Boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) or tetramethylrhodamine were conjugated to the progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 (Mifepristone) through an extended hydrophilic linker. The fluorescent ligands demonstrated comparable bioactivity to the parent antagonist in live cells and triggered nuclear translocation of the receptor in a specific manner. The BODIPY labeled ligand was applied to investigate the dependency of progesterone receptor nuclear translocation on partner proteins and to show that functional heat shock protein 90 but not immunophilin FKBP52 activity is essential. A tissue distribution study indicated that the fluorescent ligand preferentially accumulates in tissues that express high levels of the receptor in vivo. The design and properties of the BODIPY-labeled RU486 make it a potential candidate for in vivo imaging of PR by positron emission tomography through incorporation of (18)F into the BODIPY core.

  14. Macrophage recognition of toxic advanced glycosylation end products through the macrophage surface-receptor nucleolin. (United States)

    Miki, Yuichi; Dambara, Hikaru; Tachibana, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Kazuya; Konishi, Mio; Beppu, Masatoshi


    Advanced glycosylation end-products (AGEs) are non-enzymatically glycosylated proteins that play an important role in several diseases and aging processes, including angiopathy, renal failure, diabetic complications, and some neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, glyceraldehyde (GCA)- and glycolaldehyde (GOA)-derived AGEs are deemed toxic AGEs, due to their cytotoxicity. Recently, the shuttling-protein nucleolin has been shown to possess scavenger receptor-activity. Here, we investigated whether or not macrophages recognize toxic AGEs through nucleolin receptors expressed on their surface. Free amino acid groups and arginine residues found in bovine serum albumin (BSA) were time-dependently modified by incubation with GCA and GOA. In addition, average molecular size was increased by incubation with GCA and GOA. While GCA-treated BSA (GCA-BSA) and GOA-treated BSA (GOA-BSA) were recognized by thioglycollate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages in proportion to their respective aldehyde-modification ratios, aldehyde-untreated control-BSA was not. Surface plasmon-resonance analysis revealed that nucleolin strongly associated with GCA-BSA and GOA-BSA, but not with control-BSA. Further, pretreating macrophages with anti-nucleolin antibody, but not control-Immunoglobulin G, inhibited recognition of GCA-BSA and GOA-BSA by macrophages. Additionally, AGRO, a nucleolin-specific oligonucleotide aptamer, inhibited recognition of GCA-BSA and GOA-BSA. Moreover, nucleolin-transfected HEK293 cells recognized more GCA-BSA and GOA-BSA than control HEK cells did. Binding of nucleolin and GCA-BSA/GOA-BSA was also blocked by anti-nucleolin antibody at molecular level. These results indicate that nucleolin is a receptor that allows macrophages to recognize toxic AGEs.

  15. Importance of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Santana Alessio Franceschi


    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the treatment of choice for many hematologic diseases, such as multiple myeloma, bone marrow aplasia and leukemia. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA compatibility is an important tool to prevent post-transplant complications such as graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease, but the high rates of relapse limit the survival of transplant patients. Natural Killer cells, a type of lymphocyte that is a key element in the defense against tumor cells, cells infected with viruses and intracellular microbes, have different receptors on their surfaces that regulate their cytotoxicity. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors are the most important, interacting consistently with human leukocyte antigen class I molecules present in other cells and thus controlling the activation of natural killer cells. Several studies have shown that certain combinations of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and human leukocyte antigens (in both donors and recipients can affect the chances of survival of transplant patients, particularly in relation to the graft-versusleukemia effect, which may be associated to decreased relapse rates in certain groups. This review aims to shed light on the mechanisms and effects of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors - human leukocyte antigen associations and their implications following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and to critically analyze the results obtained by the studies presented herein.

  16. Laminins and their receptors in Schwann cells and hereditary neuropathies. (United States)

    Feltri, Maria Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence


    This review focuses on the influence of laminins, mediated through laminin receptors present on Schwann cells, on peripheral nerve development and pathology. Laminins influence multiple aspects of cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis, including cell survival, proliferation, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and polarity. Peripheral nerves are no exception, as shown by the discovery that defective laminin signals contribute to the pathogenesis of diverse neuropathies such as merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth 4F, neurofibromatosis, and leprosy. In the last 5 years, advanced molecular and cell biological techniques and conditional mutagenesis in mice began revealing the role of different laminins and receptors in developing nerves. In this way, we are starting to explain morphological and pathological observations beginning at the start of the last century. Here, we review these recent advances and show how the roles of laminins and their receptors are surprisingly varied in both time and place.

  17. The ligand Sas and its receptor PTP10D drive tumour-suppressive cell competition. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masatoshi; Ohsawa, Shizue; Kunimasa, Kei; Igaki, Tatsushi


    Normal epithelial cells often exert anti-tumour effects against nearby oncogenic cells. In the Drosophila imaginal epithelium, clones of oncogenic cells with loss-of-function mutations in the apico-basal polarity genes scribble or discs large are actively eliminated by cell competition when surrounded by wild-type cells. Although c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling plays a crucial role in this cell elimination, the initial event, which occurs at the interface between normal cells and polarity-deficient cells, has not previously been identified. Here, through a genetic screen in Drosophila, we identify the ligand Sas and the receptor-type tyrosine phosphatase PTP10D as the cell-surface ligand-receptor system that drives tumour-suppressive cell competition. At the interface between the wild-type 'winner' and the polarity-deficient 'loser' clones, winner cells relocalize Sas to the lateral cell surface, whereas loser cells relocalize PTP10D there. This leads to the trans-activation of Sas-PTP10D signalling in loser cells, which restrains EGFR signalling and thereby enables elevated JNK signalling in loser cells, triggering cell elimination. In the absence of Sas-PTP10D, elevated EGFR signalling in loser cells switches the role of JNK from pro-apoptotic to pro-proliferative by inactivating the Hippo pathway, thereby driving the overgrowth of polarity-deficient cells. These findings uncover the mechanism by which normal epithelial cells recognize oncogenic polarity-deficient neighbours to drive cell competition.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D-M,Chuang; M.Belchers; J.Barg; J.Rowinski; G.Clark; C.A.Gloeckner; A.Ho; X-M.Gao; C.J.Coscia


    The mechanisms underlying tolerance and dependence arising from chronic opioid exposure are poorly understood. However, the development of neuroblastoma and neurohybrid cell culturea, has provided a simplified model for the atudy of opioid receptor adaptation. Using neuroblastoma NG108-15 cells,

  19. Differential expression of functional Fc-receptors and additional immune complex receptors on mouse kidney cells. (United States)

    Suwanichkul, Adisak; Wenderfer, Scott E


    The precise mechanisms by which circulating immune complexes accumulate in the kidney to form deposits in glomerulonephritis are not well understood. In particular, the role of resident cells within glomeruli of the kidney has been widely debated. Immune complexes have been shown to bind one glomerular cell type (mesangial cells) leading to functional responses such as pro-inflammatory cytokine production. To further assess the presence of functional immunoreceptors on resident glomerular cells, cultured mouse renal epithelial, endothelial, and mesangial cells were treated with heat-aggregated mouse IgG or preformed murine immune complexes. Mesangial and renal endothelial cells were found to bind IgG complexes, whereas glomerular epithelial cell binding was minimal. A blocking antibody for Fc-gamma receptors reduced binding to mesangial cells but not renal endothelial cells, suggesting differential immunoreceptor utilization. RT-PCR and immunostaining based screening of cultured renal endothelial cells showed limited low-level expression of known Fc-receptors and Ig binding proteins. The interaction between mesangial cells and renal endothelial cells and immune complexes resulted in distinct, cell-specific patterns of chemokine and cytokine production. This novel pathway involving renal endothelial cells likely contributes to the predilection of circulating immune complex accumulation within the kidney and to the inflammatory responses that drive kidney injury.

  20. Mouse Leydig cells express multiple P2X receptor subunits



    ATP acts on cellular membranes by interacting with P2X (ionotropic) and P2Y (metabotropic) receptors. Seven homomeric P2X receptors (P2X1–P2X7) and seven heteromeric receptors (P2X1/2, P2X1/4, P2X1/5, P2X2/3, P2X2/6, P2X4/6, P2X4/7) have been described. ATP treatment of Leydig cells leads to an increase in [Ca2+]i and testosterone secretion, supporting the hypothesis that Ca2+ signaling through purinergic receptors contributes to the process of testosterone secretion in these cells. Mouse Ley...

  1. The evolution of natural killer cell receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrillo-Bustamante, Paola; Kesmir, C.; de Boer, Rob J


    Natural killer (NK) cells are immune cells that play a crucial role against viral infections and tumors. To be tolerant against healthy tissue and simultaneously attack infected cells, the activity of NK cells is tightly regulated by a sophisticated array of germline-encoded activating and inhibitin

  2. Natural Killer Cell Receptors and Cytotoxic Activity in Phosphomannomutase 2 Deficiency (PMM2-CDG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto García-López

    Full Text Available PMM2-CDG is the most common N-glycosylation defect and shows an increased risk of recurrent and/or severe, sometimes fatal, infections in early life. We hypothesized that natural killer (NK cells, as important mediators of the immune response against microbial pathogens and regulators of adaptive immunity, might be affected in this genetic disorder.To evaluate possible defects on PMM2-CDG NK peripheral blood cell number, killing activity and expression of membrane receptors.We studied fresh and activated NK cells from twelve PMM2-CDG cells. The number and expression of lymphoid surface receptors were studied by flow cytometry. The NK responsiveness (frequency of degranulated NK cells and killing activity against K562 target cells was determined in the NK cytotoxicity assay.We found an increase of blood NK cells in three patients with a severe phenotype. Two of them, who had suffered from moderate/severe viral infections during their first year of life, also had reduced T lymphocyte numbers. Patient activated NK cells showed increased expression of CD54 adhesion molecule and NKG2D and NKp46 activating receptors. NKp46 and 2B4 expression was inversely correlated with the expression of NKG2D in activated PMM2-CDG cells. Maximal NK activity against K562 target cells was similar in control and PMM2-CDG cells. Interestingly, the NK cell responsiveness was higher in patient cells. NKG2D and specially CD54 increased surface expression significantly correlated with the increased NK cell cytolytic activity according to the modulation of the killer activity by expression of triggering receptors and adhesion molecules.Our results indicate that hypoglycosylation in PMM2-CDG altered NK cell reactivity against target cells and the expression of CD54 and NKG2D, NKp46 and 2B4 activating receptors during NK cell activation. This suggests a defective control of NK cell killing activity and the overall anti-viral immune response in PMM2-CDG patients. The present

  3. Natural Killer Cell Receptors and Cytotoxic Activity in Phosphomannomutase 2 Deficiency (PMM2-CDG) (United States)

    García-López, Roberto; de la Morena-Barrio, María Eugenia; Alsina, Laia; Pérez-Dueñas, Belén; Jaeken, Jaak; Serrano, Mercedes; Casado, Mercedes; Hernández-Caselles, Trinidad


    Background PMM2-CDG is the most common N-glycosylation defect and shows an increased risk of recurrent and/or severe, sometimes fatal, infections in early life. We hypothesized that natural killer (NK) cells, as important mediators of the immune response against microbial pathogens and regulators of adaptive immunity, might be affected in this genetic disorder. Objective To evaluate possible defects on PMM2-CDG NK peripheral blood cell number, killing activity and expression of membrane receptors. Methods We studied fresh and activated NK cells from twelve PMM2-CDG cells. The number and expression of lymphoid surface receptors were studied by flow cytometry. The NK responsiveness (frequency of degranulated NK cells) and killing activity against K562 target cells was determined in the NK cytotoxicity assay. Results We found an increase of blood NK cells in three patients with a severe phenotype. Two of them, who had suffered from moderate/severe viral infections during their first year of life, also had reduced T lymphocyte numbers. Patient activated NK cells showed increased expression of CD54 adhesion molecule and NKG2D and NKp46 activating receptors. NKp46 and 2B4 expression was inversely correlated with the expression of NKG2D in activated PMM2-CDG cells. Maximal NK activity against K562 target cells was similar in control and PMM2-CDG cells. Interestingly, the NK cell responsiveness was higher in patient cells. NKG2D and specially CD54 increased surface expression significantly correlated with the increased NK cell cytolytic activity according to the modulation of the killer activity by expression of triggering receptors and adhesion molecules. Conclusions Our results indicate that hypoglycosylation in PMM2-CDG altered NK cell reactivity against target cells and the expression of CD54 and NKG2D, NKp46 and 2B4 activating receptors during NK cell activation. This suggests a defective control of NK cell killing activity and the overall anti-viral immune response

  4. Fibronectin on the Surface of Myeloma Cell-derived Exosomes Mediates Exosome-Cell Interactions. (United States)

    Purushothaman, Anurag; Bandari, Shyam Kumar; Liu, Jian; Mobley, James A; Brown, Elizabeth E; Sanderson, Ralph D


    Exosomes regulate cell behavior by binding to and delivering their cargo to target cells; however, the mechanisms mediating exosome-cell interactions are poorly understood. Heparan sulfates on target cell surfaces can act as receptors for exosome uptake, but the ligand for heparan sulfate on exosomes has not been identified. Using exosomes isolated from myeloma cell lines and from myeloma patients, we identify exosomal fibronectin as a key heparan sulfate-binding ligand and mediator of exosome-cell interactions. We discovered that heparan sulfate plays a dual role in exosome-cell interaction; heparan sulfate on exosomes captures fibronectin, and on target cells it acts as a receptor for fibronectin. Removal of heparan sulfate from the exosome surface releases fibronectin and dramatically inhibits exosome-target cell interaction. Antibody specific for the Hep-II heparin-binding domain of fibronectin blocks exosome interaction with tumor cells or with marrow stromal cells. Regarding exosome function, fibronectin-mediated binding of exosomes to myeloma cells activated p38 and pERK signaling and expression of downstream target genes DKK1 and MMP-9, two molecules that promote myeloma progression. Antibody against fibronectin inhibited the ability of myeloma-derived exosomes to stimulate endothelial cell invasion. Heparin or heparin mimetics including Roneparstat, a modified heparin in phase I trials in myeloma patients, significantly inhibited exosome-cell interactions. These studies provide the first evidence that fibronectin binding to heparan sulfate mediates exosome-cell interactions, revealing a fundamental mechanism important for exosome-mediated cross-talk within tumor microenvironments. Moreover, these results imply that therapeutic disruption of fibronectin-heparan sulfate interactions will negatively impact myeloma tumor growth and progression.

  5. WASH drives early recycling from macropinosomes and phagosomes to maintain surface phagocytic receptors (United States)

    Buckley, Catherine M.; Gopaldass, Navin; Bosmani, Cristina; Johnston, Simon A.; Insall, Robert H.


    Macropinocytosis is an ancient mechanism that allows cells to harvest nutrients from extracellular media, which also allows immune cells to sample antigens from their surroundings. During macropinosome formation, bulk plasma membrane is internalized with all its integral proteins. It is vital for cells to salvage these proteins before degradation, but the mechanisms for sorting them are not known. Here we describe the evolutionarily conserved recruitment of the WASH (WASP and SCAR homolog) complex to both macropinosomes and phagosomes within a minute of internalization. Using Dictyostelium, we demonstrate that WASH drives protein sorting and recycling from macropinosomes and is thus essential to maintain surface receptor levels and sustain phagocytosis. WASH functionally interacts with the retromer complex at both early and late phases of macropinosome maturation, but mediates recycling via retromer-dependent and -independent pathways. WASH mutants consequently have decreased membrane levels of integrins and other surface proteins. This study reveals an important pathway enabling cells to sustain macropinocytosis without bulk degradation of plasma membrane components. PMID:27647881

  6. Receptor-Targeted Nipah Virus Glycoproteins Improve Cell-Type Selective Gene Delivery and Reveal a Preference for Membrane-Proximal Cell Attachment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben R Bender


    Full Text Available Receptor-targeted lentiviral vectors (LVs can be an effective tool for selective transfer of genes into distinct cell types of choice. Moreover, they can be used to determine the molecular properties that cell surface proteins must fulfill to act as receptors for viral glycoproteins. Here we show that LVs pseudotyped with receptor-targeted Nipah virus (NiV glycoproteins effectively enter into cells when they use cell surface proteins as receptors that bring them closely enough to the cell membrane (less than 100 Å distance. Then, they were flexible in receptor usage as demonstrated by successful targeting of EpCAM, CD20, and CD8, and as selective as LVs pseudotyped with receptor-targeted measles virus (MV glycoproteins, the current standard for cell-type specific gene delivery. Remarkably, NiV-LVs could be produced at up to two orders of magnitude higher titers compared to their MV-based counterparts and were at least 10,000-fold less effectively neutralized than MV glycoprotein pseudotyped LVs by pooled human intravenous immunoglobulin. An important finding for NiV-LVs targeted to Her2/neu was an about 100-fold higher gene transfer activity when particles were targeted to membrane-proximal regions as compared to particles binding to a more membrane-distal epitope. Likewise, the low gene transfer activity mediated by NiV-LV particles bound to the membrane distal domains of CD117 or the glutamate receptor subunit 4 (GluA4 was substantially enhanced by reducing receptor size to below 100 Å. Overall, the data suggest that the NiV glycoproteins are optimally suited for cell-type specific gene delivery with LVs and, in addition, for the first time define which parts of a cell surface protein should be targeted to achieve optimal gene transfer rates with receptor-targeted LVs.

  7. Receptor-Dependent Coronavirus Infection of Dendritic Cells (United States)

    Turner, Brian C.; Hemmila, Erin M.; Beauchemin, Nicole; Holmes, Kathryn V.


    In several mammalian species, including humans, coronavirus infection can modulate the host immune response. We show a potential role of dendritic cells (DC) in murine coronavirus-induced immune modulation and pathogenesis by demonstrating that the JAW SII DC line and primary DC from BALB/c mice and p/p mice with reduced expression of the murine coronavirus receptor, murine CEACAM1a, are susceptible to murine coronavirus infection by a receptor-dependent pathway. PMID:15113927

  8. In vitro behaviour of endothelial cells on a titanium surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira-Filho Ricardo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial cells play an important role in the delivery of cells to the inflammation site, chemotaxis, cell adhesion and extravasation. Implantation of a foreign material into the human body determines inflammatory and repair reactions, involving different cell types with a plethora of released chemical mediators. The evaluation of the interaction of endothelial cells and implanted materials must take into account other parameters in addition to the analysis of maintenance of cell viability. Methods In the present investigation, we examined the behavior of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs harvested on titanium (Ti, using histological and immunohistochemical methods. The cells, after two passages, were seeded in a standard density on commercially plate-shaped titanium pieces, and maintained for 1, 7 or 14 days. Results After 14 days, we could observe a confluent monolayer of endothelial cells (ECs on the titanium surface. Upon one-day Ti/cell contact the expression of fibronectin was predominantly cytoplasmatic and stronger than on the control surface. It was observed strong and uniform cell expression along the time of α5β1 integrin on the cells in contact with titanium. Conclusion The attachment of ECs on titanium was found to be related to cellular-derived fibronectin and the binding to its specific receptor, the α5β1 integrin. It was observed that titanium effectively serves as a suitable substrate for endothelial cell attachment, growth and proliferation. However, upon a 7-day contact with Ti, the Weibel-Palade bodies appeared to be not fully processed and exhibited an anomalous morphology, with corresponding alterations of PECAM-1 localization.

  9. Regulation of cell death receptor S-nitrosylation and apoptotic signaling by Sorafenib in hepatoblastoma cells. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, A; Navarro-Villarán, E; González, R; Pereira, S; Soriano-De Castro, L B; Sarrias-Giménez, A; Barrera-Pulido, L; Álamo-Martínez, J M; Serrablo-Requejo, A; Blanco-Fernández, G; Nogales-Muñoz, A; Gila-Bohórquez, A; Pacheco, D; Torres-Nieto, M A; Serrano-Díaz-Canedo, J; Suárez-Artacho, G; Bernal-Bellido, C; Marín-Gómez, L M; Barcena, J A; Gómez-Bravo, M A; Padilla, C A; Padillo, F J; Muntané, J


    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a relevant role during cell death regulation in tumor cells. The overexpression of nitric oxide synthase type III (NOS-3) induces oxidative and nitrosative stress, p53 and cell death receptor expression and apoptosis in hepatoblastoma cells. S-nitrosylation of cell death receptor modulates apoptosis. Sorafenib is the unique recommended molecular-targeted drug for the treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study was addressed to elucidate the potential role of NO during Sorafenib-induced cell death in HepG2 cells. We determined the intra- and extracellular NO concentration, cell death receptor expression and their S-nitrosylation modifications, and apoptotic signaling in Sorafenib-treated HepG2 cells. The effect of NO donors on above parameters has also been determined. Sorafenib induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. However, low concentration of the drug (10nM) increased cell death receptor expression, as well as caspase-8 and -9 activation, but without activation of downstream apoptotic markers. In contrast, Sorafenib (10 µM) reduced upstream apoptotic parameters but increased caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells. The shift of cell death signaling pathway was associated with a reduction of S-nitrosylation of cell death receptors in Sorafenib-treated cells. The administration of NO donors increased S-nitrosylation of cell death receptors and overall induction of cell death markers in control and Sorafenib-treated cells. In conclusion, Sorafenib induced alteration of cell death receptor S-nitrosylation status which may have a relevant repercussion on cell death signaling in hepatoblastoma cells.

  10. Activation of D4 dopamine receptor decreases angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression in rat renal proximal tubule cells. (United States)

    Chen, Ken; Deng, Kun; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhen; Zheng, Shuo; Ren, Hongmei; He, Duofen; Han, Yu; Asico, Laureano D; Jose, Pedro A; Zeng, Chunyu


    The dopaminergic and renin-angiotensin systems interact to regulate blood pressure. Disruption of the D4 dopamine receptor gene in mice produces hypertension that is associated with increased renal angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor expression. We hypothesize that the D4 receptor can inhibit AT1 receptor expression and function in renal proximal tubule cells from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, but the D4 receptor regulation of AT1 receptor is aberrant in renal proximal tubule cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The D4 receptor agonist, PD168077, decreased AT1 receptor protein expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in WKY cells. By contrast, in SHR cells, PD168077 increased AT1 receptor protein expression. The inhibitory effect of D4 receptor on AT1 receptor expression in WKY cells was blocked by a calcium channel blocker, nicardipine, or calcium-free medium, indicating that calcium is involved in the D4 receptor-mediated signaling pathway. Angiotensin II increased Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity in WKY cells. Pretreatment with PD168077 decreased the stimulatory effect of angiotensin II on Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity in WKY cells. In SHR cells, the inhibitory effect of D4 receptor on angiotensin II-mediated stimulation of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity was aberrant; pretreatment with PD168077 augmented the stimulatory effect of AT1 receptor on Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity in SHR cells. This was confirmed in vivo; pretreatment with PD128077 for 1 week augmented the antihypertensive and natriuretic effect of losartan in SHRs but not in WKY rats. We suggest that an aberrant interaction between D4 and AT1 receptors may play a role in the abnormal regulation of sodium excretion in hypertension.

  11. Immunological role of neuronal receptor vanilloid receptor 1 expressed on dendritic cells


    Basu, Sreyashi; Srivastava, Pramod


    Capsaicin (CP), the pungent component of chili pepper, acts on sensory neurons to convey the sensation of pain. The CP receptor, vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1), has been shown to be highly expressed by nociceptive neurons in dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia. We demonstrate here that the dendritic cell (DC), a key cell type of the vertebrate immune system, expresses VR1. Engagement of VR1 on immature DCs such as by treatment with CP leads to maturation of DCs as measured by up-regulation of anti...

  12. Opiate receptor blockade on human granulosa cells inhibits VEGF release. (United States)

    Lunger, Fabian; Vehmas, Anni P; Fürnrohr, Barbara G; Sopper, Sieghart; Wildt, Ludwig; Seeber, Beata


    The objectives of this study were to determine whether the main opioid receptor (OPRM1) is present on human granulosa cells and if exogenous opiates and their antagonists can influence granulosa cell vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production via OPRM1. Granulosa cells were isolated from women undergoing oocyte retrieval for IVF. Complementary to the primary cells, experiments were conducted using COV434, a well-characterized human granulosa cell line. Identification and localization of opiate receptor subtypes was carried out using Western blot and flow cytometry. The effect of opiate antagonist on granulosa cell VEGF secretion was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For the first time, the presence of OPRM1 on human granulosa cells is reported. Blocking of opiate signalling using naloxone, a specific OPRM1 antagonist, significantly reduced granulosa cell-derived VEGF levels in both COV434 and granulosa-luteal cells (P opiate receptors and opiate signalling in granulosa cells suggest a possible role in VEGF production. Targeting this signalling pathway could prove promising as a new clinical option in the prevention and treatment of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

  13. Structure and functions of fungal cell surfaces (United States)

    Nozawa, Y.


    A review with 24 references on the biochemistry, molecular structure, and function of cell surfaces of fungi, especially dermatophytes: the chemistry and structure of the cell wall, the effect of polyene antibiotics on the morphology and function of cytoplasmic membranes, and the chemical structure and function of pigments produced by various fungi are discussed.

  14. NF-κB activity marks cells engaged in receptor editing (United States)

    Cadera, Emily J.; Wan, Fengyi; Amin, Rupesh H.; Nolla, Hector; Lenardo, Michael J.


    Because of the extreme diversity in immunoglobulin genes, tolerance mechanisms are necessary to ensure that B cells do not respond to self-antigens. One such tolerance mechanism is called receptor editing. If the B cell receptor (BCR) on an immature B cell recognizes self-antigen, it is down-regulated from the cell surface, and light chain gene rearrangement continues in an attempt to edit the autoreactive specificity. Analysis of a heterozygous mutant mouse in which the NF-κB–dependent IκBα gene was replaced with a lacZ (β-gal) reporter complementary DNA (cDNA; IκBα+/lacZ) suggests a potential role for NF-κB in receptor editing. Sorted β-gal+ pre–B cells showed increased levels of various markers of receptor editing. In IκBα+/lacZ reporter mice expressing either innocuous or self-specific knocked in BCRs, β-gal was preferentially expressed in pre–B cells from the mice with self-specific BCRs. Retroviral-mediated expression of a cDNA encoding an IκBα superrepressor in primary bone marrow cultures resulted in diminished germline κ and rearranged λ transcripts but similar levels of RAG expression as compared with controls. We found that IRF4 transcripts were up-regulated in β-gal+ pre–B cells. Because IRF4 is a target of NF-κB and is required for receptor editing, we suggest that NF-κB could be acting through IRF4 to regulate receptor editing. PMID:19581408

  15. NF-kappaB activity marks cells engaged in receptor editing. (United States)

    Cadera, Emily J; Wan, Fengyi; Amin, Rupesh H; Nolla, Hector; Lenardo, Michael J; Schlissel, Mark S


    Because of the extreme diversity in immunoglobulin genes, tolerance mechanisms are necessary to ensure that B cells do not respond to self-antigens. One such tolerance mechanism is called receptor editing. If the B cell receptor (BCR) on an immature B cell recognizes self-antigen, it is down-regulated from the cell surface, and light chain gene rearrangement continues in an attempt to edit the autoreactive specificity. Analysis of a heterozygous mutant mouse in which the NF-kappaB-dependent IkappaB alpha gene was replaced with a lacZ (beta-gal) reporter complementary DNA (cDNA; IkappaB alpha(+/lacZ)) suggests a potential role for NF-kappaB in receptor editing. Sorted beta-gal(+) pre-B cells showed increased levels of various markers of receptor editing. In IkappaB alpha(+/lacZ) reporter mice expressing either innocuous or self-specific knocked in BCRs, beta-gal was preferentially expressed in pre-B cells from the mice with self-specific BCRs. Retroviral-mediated expression of a cDNA encoding an IkappaB alpha superrepressor in primary bone marrow cultures resulted in diminished germline kappa and rearranged lambda transcripts but similar levels of RAG expression as compared with controls. We found that IRF4 transcripts were up-regulated in beta-gal(+) pre-B cells. Because IRF4 is a target of NF-kappaB and is required for receptor editing, we suggest that NF-kappaB could be acting through IRF4 to regulate receptor editing.

  16. Attenuation of chemokine receptor function and surface expression as an immunomodulatory strategy employed by human cytomegalovirus is linked to vGPCR US28

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Theresa; Reichel, Anna; Larsen, Olav;


    and constitutive surface expression in HEK293T cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this effect is not mediated by receptor heteromerization but via signaling crosstalk. Additionally, we show that in HCMV, strain TB40E, infected HUVEC the surface expression of CXCR4 is strongly downregulated, whereas in TB40E...

  17. Cholera Toxin Inhibits the T-Cell Antigen Receptor-Mediated Increases in Inositol Trisphosphate and Cytoplasmic Free Calcium (United States)

    Imboden, John B.; Shoback, Dolores M.; Pattison, Gregory; Stobo, John D.


    The addition of monoclonal antibodies to the antigen receptor complex on the malignant human T-cell line Jurkat generates increases in inositol trisphosphate and in the concentration of cytoplasmic free calcium. Exposure of Jurkat cells to cholera toxin for 3 hr inhibited these receptor-mediated events and led to a selective, partial loss of the antigen receptor complex from the cellular surface. None of the effects of cholera toxin on the antigen receptor complex were mimicked by the B subunit of cholera toxin or by increasing intracellular cAMP levels with either forskolin or 8-bromo cAMP. These results suggest that a cholera toxin substrate can regulate signal transduction by the T-cell antigen receptor.

  18. Probes for anionic cell surface detection (United States)

    Smith, Bradley D.


    Embodiments of the present invention are generally directed to compositions comprising a class of molecular probes for detecting the presence of anionic cell surfaces. Embodiments include compositions that are enriched for these compositions and preparations, particularly preparations suitable for use as laboratory/clinical reagents and diagnostic indicators, either alone or as part of a kit. An embodiment of the invention provides for a highly selective agent useful in the discernment and identification of dead or dying cells, such as apoptotic cells, in a relatively calcium-free environment. An embodiment of the invention provides a selective agent for the identification of bacteria in a mixed population of bacterial cells and nonbacterial cells.

  19. Nanotomography of Cell Surfaces with Evanescent Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wagner


    Full Text Available The technique of variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM and its application to nanotomography of cell surfaces are described. Present applications include (1 3D imaging of chromosomes in their metaphase to demonstrate axial resolution in the nanometre range, (2 measurements of cell-substrate topology, which upon cholesterol depletion shows some loosening of cell-substrate contacts, and (3 measurements of cell topology upon photodynamic therapy (PDT, which demonstrate cell swelling and maintenance of focal contacts. The potential of the method for in vitro diagnostics, but also some requirements and limitations are discussed.

  20. Pancreatic hormones are expressed on the surfaces of human and rat islet cells through exocytotic sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, L I; Hutton, J C; Madsen, O D


    . Electron microscopy reveals the labeling to occur at sites of exocytotic granule release, involving the surfaces of extruded granule cores. The surfaces of islet cells were labeled both by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, excluding that receptor-interacting, anti-idiotypic hormone antibodies were...... responsible for the staining. Human insulin cells were surface-labeled by monoclonal antibodies recognizing the mature secretory products, insulin and C-peptide but not with monoclonal antibodies specific for proinsulin. Thus, routing of unprocessed preproinsulin to the cell surface may not account...... for these results. It is concluded that the staining reflects interactions between the appropriate antibodies and exocytotic sites of hormone release....

  1. Generation of antigen-specific T cell immunity through T cell receptor gene transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coccoris, Miriam


    Cancer cells often escape the attack of immune cells because they originate from self-tissue. Through T cell receptor gene transfer it is possible to equip peripheral T cells with a desired specificity, and this strategy may be useful to generate tumor-specific T cells for the treatment of cancer in

  2. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 upregulates surface NMDA receptor expression in striatal neurons via CaMKII


    Jin, Dao-Zhong; Xue, Bing; Mao, Li-Min; Wang, John Q


    Metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors are closely clustered in postsynaptic membranes and are believed to interact actively with each other to control excitatory synaptic transmission. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), for example, has been well documented to potentiate ionotropic NMDA receptor activity, although underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of mGluR5 in regulating trafficking and subcellular distribution of NMDA rece...

  3. Targeting of peptide conjugated magnetic nanoparticles to urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expressing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line; Unmack Larsen, Esben Kjær; Nielsen, Erik Holm


    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted...... towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor...... to nanoparticles carrying a non-binding control peptide. In accordance with specific receptor-mediated recognition, a low uptake was observed in the presence of an excess of ATF, a natural ligand for uPAR. The uPAR specific magnetic nanoparticles can potentially provide a useful supplement for tumor patient...

  4. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Signaling in Mammalian Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel J. Pyne


    Full Text Available The bioactive lipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P binds to a family of G protein-coupled receptors, termed S1P1-S1P5. These receptors function in, for example, the cardiovascular system to regulate vascular barrier integrity and tone, the nervous system to regulate neuronal differentiation, myelination and oligodendrocyte/glial cell survival and the immune system to regulate T- and B-cell subsets and trafficking. S1P receptors also participate in the pathophysiology of autoimmunity, inflammatory disease, cancer, neurodegeneration and others. In this review, we describe how S1P1 can form a complex with G-protein and β-arrestin, which function together to regulate effector pathways. We also discuss the role of the S1P1-Platelet derived growth factor receptor β functional complex (which deploys G-protein/β-arrestin and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling in regulating cell migration. Possible mechanisms by which different S1P-chaperones, such as Apolipoprotein M-High-Density Lipoprotein induce biological programmes in cells are also described. Finally, the role of S1P1 in health and disease and as a target for clinical intervention is appraised.

  5. Cooperation of tyrosine kinase receptor TrkB and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling enhances migration and dispersal of lung tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Götz

    Full Text Available TrkB mediates the effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in neuronal and nonnneuronal cells. Based on recent reports that TrkB can also be transactivated through epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR signaling and thus regulates migration of early neurons, we investigated the role of TrkB in migration of lung tumor cells. Early metastasis remains a major challenge in the clinical management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. TrkB receptor signaling is associated with metastasis and poor patient prognosis in NSCLC. Expression of this receptor in A549 cells and in another adenocarcinoma cell line, NCI-H441, promoted enhanced migratory capacity in wound healing assays in the presence of the TrkB ligand BDNF. Furthermore, TrkB expression in A549 cells potentiated the stimulatory effect of EGF in wound healing and in Boyden chamber migration experiments. Consistent with a potential loss of cell polarity upon TrkB expression, cell dispersal and de-clustering was induced in A549 cells independently of exogeneous BDNF. Morphological transformation involved extensive cytoskeletal changes, reduced E-cadherin expression and suppression of E-cadherin expression on the cell surface in TrkB expressing tumor cells. This function depended on MEK and Akt kinase activity but was independent of Src. These data indicate that TrkB expression in lung adenoma cells is an early step in tumor cell dissemination, and thus could represent a target for therapy development.

  6. Functionalization of Ruthenium(II) terpyridine complexes with cyclic RGD pep-tides to target integrin receptors in cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, Eva M.; Estrada Ortiz, Natalia; Han, Jiaying; Ferreira, Vera F. C.; Kapp, Tobias G.; Correia, Joao D. G.; Casini, Angela; Kuehn, Fritz E.


    The lack of selectivity for cancer cells and the resulting negative impact on healthy tissue is a severe drawback of actual cancer chemotherapy. Tethering of cytotoxic drugs to targeting vectors such as peptides, which recognize receptors overexpressed on the surface of tumor cells, is one possible

  7. The responses to surface wettability gradients induced by chitosan nanofilms on microtextured titanium mediated by specific integrin receptors (United States)

    Park, Jung Hwa; Wasilewski, Christine E.; Almodovar, Noelia; Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Boyan, Barbara D.; Tannenbaum, Rina; Schwartz, Zvi


    Microtexture and chemistry of implant surfaces are important variables for modulating cellular responses. Surface chemistry and wettability are connected directly. While each of these surface properties can influence cell response, it is difficult to decouple their specific contributions. To address this problem, the aims of this study were to develop a surface wettability gradient with a specific chemistry without altering micron scale roughness and to investigate the role of surface wettability on osteoblast response. Microtextured sandblasted/acid-etched (SLA, Sa = 3.1 μm) titanium disks were treated with oxygen plasma to increase reactive oxygen density on the surface. At 0, 2, 6, 10, and 24 h after removing them from the plasma, the surfaces were coated with chitosan for 30 min, rinsed and dried. Modified SLA surfaces are denoted as SLA/h in air prior to coating. Surface characterization demonstrated that this process yielded differing wettability (SLA0 < SLA2 < SLA10 < SLA24) without modifying the micron scale features of the surface. Cell number was reduced in a wettability-dependent manner, except for the most water-wettable surface, SLA24. There was no difference in alkaline phosphatase activity with differing wettability. Increased wettability yielded increased osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin production, except on the SLA24 surfaces. mRNA for integrins α1, α2, α5, β1, and β3 was sensitive to surface wettability. However, surface wettability did not affect mRNA levels for integrin α3. Silencing β1 increased cell number with reduced osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin in a wettability-dependent manner. Surface wettability as a primary regulator enhanced osteoblast differentiation, but integrin expression and silencing β1 results indicate that surface wettability regulates osteoblast through differential integrin expression profiles than microtexture does. The results may indicate that both microtexture and wettability with a specific chemistry have

  8. T cells induce extended class II MHC compartments in dendritic cells in a Toll-like receptor-dependent manner. (United States)

    Boes, Marianne; Bertho, Nicolas; Cerny, Jan; Op den Brouw, Marjolein; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Ploegh, Hidde


    Interaction of Ag-loaded dendritic cells with Ag-specific CD4 T cells induces the formation of long tubular class II MHC-positive compartments that polarize toward the T cell. We show involvement of a Toll-like receptor-mediated signal in this unusual form of intracellular class II MHC trafficking. First, wild-type dendritic cells loaded with LPS-free Ag failed to show formation of class II-positive tubules upon Ag-specific T cell engagement, but did so upon supplementation of the Ag with low concentrations of LPS. Second, Ag-loaded myeloid differentiation factor 88 -deficient dendritic cells failed to form these tubules upon interaction with T cells, regardless of the presence of LPS. Finally, inclusion of a cell-permeable peptide that blocks TNFR-associated factor 6 function, downstream of myeloid differentiation factor 88, blocked T cell-dependent tubulation. A Toll-like receptor-dependent signal is thus required to allow Ag-loaded dendritic cells to respond to T cell contact by formation of extended endosomal compartments. This activation does not result in massive translocation of class II MHC molecules to the cell surface.

  9. Plasma Membrane Nucleolin Is a Receptor for the Anticancer Aptamer AS1411 in MV4-11 Leukemia Cells


    Soundararajan, Sridharan; Wang, Li; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Chen, Weiwei; Courtenay-Luck, Nigel; Jones, David; Spicer, Eleanor K.; Fernandes, Daniel J.


    AS1411 is a DNA aptamer that is in phase II clinical trials for relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia and for renal cell carcinoma. AS1411 binds to nucleolin, a protein that is overexpressed in the cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane of some tumor cells compared with normal cells. Studies were performed to determine whether cell surface nucleolin is a receptor for AS1411 in the acute myeloid leukemia cell line MV4-11. Biotinylation of MV4-11 cell surface proteins followed by immunobl...

  10. Trafficking of α1B-adrenergic receptor mediated by inverse agonist in living cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MingXU; Ying-huaGUAN; NingXU; Zhang-yiLIANG; Shu-yiWang; YaoSONG; Chi-deHAN; Xin-shengZHAO; You-yiZHANG


    AIM The project is aimed at understanding the action of inverse agonist at single molecule level and capturing the real time picture of molecular behavior of α1B-adrenergic receptor (AR) mediated by inverse agonist in living cells by single molecule detection (SMD). METHODS The location and distribution of α1B-AR was detected by laser confocal and whole cell 3H-prazosin binding assay. Dynamic imaging of BODIPY-FL-labeled prazosin (Praz), specific antagonist of (1-AR, was observed in α1B-AR stably expressed human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) living cells. The detection of real-time dynamic behaviors of AR was achieved by using fluorescence-labeled AR and its ligand combined with SMD techniques. RESULTS α1B-AR was predominantly distributed on the cell surface and 8.2% of the total receptors were located in cytosol.

  11. Detachment of esophageal carcinoma cells from extracellular matrix causes relocalization of death receptor 5 and apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Chao Liu; Jun Zhang; Shi-Gui Liu; Rong Gao; Zhang-Fu Long; Ke Tao; Yuan-Fang Ma


    AIM:To investigate the effect of detachment of esophageal cancer cells from extracellular matrix on the localization of death receptor 5 (DR5) and apoptosis.METHODS: Anchorage-dependent EC9706 cells of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were pretreated or not treated with brefeldin A. Detached cells were harvested by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid digestion. Expression and localization of DR5 in these cells were determined by immunocytochemical and immunofluorescence assays, as well as flow cytometry analysis. Apoptosis of EC9706 cells was detected by flow cytometry after stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled annexin V/propidium iodide. Activation of caspase 8 was detected by Western blot analysis.RESULTS: Immunocytochemical assay indicated that DR5 was predominantly perinuclear in adherent cells but was mainly localized in cell membrane in detached cells. In addition, immunofluorescence assay also confirmed the above-mentioned results, and further demonstrated that DR5 was present in the form of coarse granules in detached cells, but in the form of fine granules in adherent cells. Cytometry analysis revealed higher levels of DR5 expression on the surfaces of brefeldin-A-untreated cells than on the surfaces of brefeldin-A-treated cells, but brefeldin A treatment did not affect the total DR5 expression levels. Moreover, nocodazole did not influence the extracelluar DR5 expression levels in EC9706 cells. Apoptosis assay revealed that detached cells were more sensitive to DR5 antibody-induced apoptosis than adherent cells. Western blotting showed that caspase 8 was activated in temporarily detached cells 4 h earlier than in adherent cells.CONCLUSION: Progress from adhesion to detachment of EC9706 cells causes DR5 relocalization, and promotes cytoplasmic translocation of DR5 to cell surfaces via a Golgi-dependent pathway. Moreover, it might also result in DR5 aggregation to render apoptosis of detached cells.

  12. Vaccination against Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis with T Cell Receptor Peptides (United States)

    Howell, Mark D.; Winters, Steven T.; Olee, Tsaiwei; Powell, Henry C.; Carlo, Dennis J.; Brostoff, Steven W.


    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system mediated by CD4+ T cells reactive with myelin basic protein (MBP). Rats were rendered resistant to the induction of EAE by vaccination with synthetic peptides corresponding to idiotypic determinants of the β chain VDJ region and Jα regions of the T cell receptor (TCR) that are conserved among encephalitogenic T cells. These findings demonstrate the utility of TCR peptide vaccination for modulating the activity of autoreactive T cells and represent a general therapeutic approach for T cell--mediated pathogenesis.

  13. Know Thyself: NK cell inhibitory receptors prompt self-tolerance, education, and viral control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eNash


    Full Text Available Natural killer cells (NK provide essential protection against viral infections. One of the defining features of this lymphocyte population is the expression of a wide array of variable cell surface stimulatory and inhibitory NK receptors (sNKR and iNKR respectively. The iNKR are particularly important in terms of NK cell education. As receptors specific for MHC class I (MHC I molecules, they are responsible for self-tolerance and adjusting NK cell reactivity based the expression level of self-MHC I. The end result of this education is two-fold: 1 inhibitory signaling tunes the functional capacity of the NK cell, endowing greater potency with greater education, and 2 education on self allows the NK cell to detect aberrations in MHC I expression, a common occurrence during many viral infections. Many studies have indicated an important role for iNKR and MHC I in disease, making these receptors attractive targets for manipulating NK cell reactivity in the clinic. A greater understanding of iNKR and their ability to regulate NK cells will provide a basis for future attempts at translating their potential utility into benefits for human health.

  14. Distinct roles for dystroglycan, beta1 integrin and perlecan in cell surface laminin organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henry, M D; Satz, J S; Brakebusch, C;


    Dystroglycan (DG) is a cell surface receptor for several extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules including laminins, agrin and perlecan. Recent data indicate that DG function is required for the formation of basement membranes in early development and the organization of laminin on the cell surface....... Here we show that DG-mediated laminin clustering on mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells is a dynamic process in which clusters are consolidated over time into increasingly more complex structures. Utilizing various null-mutant ES cell lines, we define roles for other molecules in this process. In beta1...... integrin-deficient ES cells, laminin-1 binds to the cell surface, but fails to organize into more morphologically complex structures. This result indicates that beta1 integrin function is required after DG function in the cell surface-mediated laminin assembly process. In perlecan-deficient ES cells...

  15. Differential expression of bitter taste receptors in non-cancerous breast epithelial and breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Singh, Nisha; Chakraborty, Raja; Bhullar, Rajinder Pal; Chelikani, Prashen


    The human bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) are chemosensory receptors that belong to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. T2Rs are present on the surface of oral and many extra-oral cells. In humans 25 T2Rs are present, and these are activated by hundreds of chemical molecules of diverse structure. Previous studies have shown that many bitter compounds including chloroquine, quinidine, bitter melon extract and cucurbitacins B and E inhibit tumor growth and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the existence of T2Rs in cancer cell is not yet elucidated. In this report using quantitative (q)-PCR and flow cytometry, we characterized the expression of T2R1, T2R4, T2R10, T2R38 and T2R49 in the highly metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, poorly metastatic cell line MCF-7, and non-cancerous mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10A. Among the 5 T2Rs analyzed by qPCR and flow cytometry, T2R4 is expressed at 40-70% in mammary epithelial cells in comparison to commonly used breast cancer marker proteins, estrogen receptor and E-cadherin. Interestingly, the expression of T2R4 was downregulated in breast cancer cells. An increase in intracellular calcium mobilization was observed after the application of bitter agonists, quinine, dextromethorphan, and phenylthiocarbamide that are specific for some of the 5 T2Rs. This suggests that the endogenous T2Rs expressed in these cells are functional. Taken together, our novel findings suggest that T2Rs are differentially expressed in mammary epithelial cells, with some T2Rs downregulated in breast cancer cells.

  16. Surface cell immobilization within perfluoroalkoxy microchannels (United States)

    Stojkovič, Gorazd; Krivec, Matic; Vesel, Alenka; Marinšek, Marjan; Žnidaršič-Plazl, Polona


    Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) is one of the most promising materials for the fabrication of cheap, solvent resistant and reusable microfluidic chips, which have been recently recognized as effective tools for biocatalytic process development. The application of biocatalysts significantly depends on efficient immobilization of enzymes or cells within the reactor enabling long-term biocatalyst use. Functionalization of PFA microchannels by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (ATPES) and glutaraldehyde was used for rapid preparation of microbioreactors with surface-immobilized cells. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to accurately monitor individual treatment steps and to select conditions for cell immobilization. The optimized protocol for Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilization on PFA microchannel walls comprised ethanol surface pretreatment, 4 h contacting with 10% APTES aqueous solution, 10 min treatment with 1% glutaraldehyde and 20 min contacting with cells in deionized water. The same protocol enabled also immobilization of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis cells on PFA surface in high densities. Furthermore, the developed procedure has been proved to be very efficient also for surface immobilization of tested cells on other materials that are used for microreactor fabrication, including glass, polystyrene, poly (methyl methacrylate), polycarbonate, and two olefin-based polymers, namely Zeonor® and Topas®.

  17. The four serotypes of dengue recognize the same putative receptors in Aedes aegypti midgut and Ae. albopictus cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camacho-Nuez Minerva


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue viruses (DENV attach to the host cell surface and subsequently enter the cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Several primary and low affinity co-receptors for this flavivirus have been identified. However, the presence of these binding molecules on the cell surface does not necessarily render the cell susceptible to infection. Determination of which of them serve as bona fide receptors for this virus in the vector may be relevant to treating DENV infection and in designing control strategies. Results (1 Overlay protein binding assay showed two proteins with molecular masses of 80 and 67 kDa (R80 and R67. (2 Specific antibodies against these two proteins inhibited cell binding and infection. (3 Both proteins were bound by all four serotypes of dengue virus. (4 R80 and R67 were purified by affinity chromatography from Ae. aegypti mosquito midguts and from Ae albopictus C6/36 cells. (5 In addition, a protein with molecular mass of 57 kDa was purified by affinity chromatography from the midgut extracts. (6 R80 and R67 from radiolabeled surface membrane proteins of C6/36 cells were immunoprecipitated by antibodies against Ae. aegypti midgut. Conclusion Our results strongly suggest that R67 and R80 are receptors for the four serotypes of dengue virus in the midgut cells of Ae. aegypti and in C6/36 Ae. albopictus cells.

  18. Surface cell immobilization within perfluoroalkoxy microchannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovič, Gorazd; Krivec, Matic [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vesel, Alenka [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Marinšek, Marjan [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Žnidaršič-Plazl, Polona, E-mail: [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A very efficient approach for immobilization of cells into microreactors is presented. • It is applicable to various materials, including PFA and cyclic olefin (co)polymers. • It was used to immobilize different prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes. • Cells were immobilized on the surface in high density and showed good stability. • Mechanisms of APTES interactions with target materials are proposed. - Abstract: Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) is one of the most promising materials for the fabrication of cheap, solvent resistant and reusable microfluidic chips, which have been recently recognized as effective tools for biocatalytic process development. The application of biocatalysts significantly depends on efficient immobilization of enzymes or cells within the reactor enabling long-term biocatalyst use. Functionalization of PFA microchannels by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (ATPES) and glutaraldehyde was used for rapid preparation of microbioreactors with surface-immobilized cells. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to accurately monitor individual treatment steps and to select conditions for cell immobilization. The optimized protocol for Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilization on PFA microchannel walls comprised ethanol surface pretreatment, 4 h contacting with 10% APTES aqueous solution, 10 min treatment with 1% glutaraldehyde and 20 min contacting with cells in deionized water. The same protocol enabled also immobilization of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis cells on PFA surface in high densities. Furthermore, the developed procedure has been proved to be very efficient also for surface immobilization of tested cells on other materials that are used for microreactor fabrication, including glass, polystyrene, poly (methyl methacrylate), polycarbonate, and two olefin-based polymers, namely Zeonor{sup ®} and Topas{sup ®}.

  19. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor and Vitamin D Receptor Signaling Pathways in Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Satoru, E-mail:; Kitagishi, Yasuko [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Nara Women’s University, Kita-Uoya Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506 (Japan)


    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors, which respond to specific ligands such as polyunsaturated fatty acids by altering gene expression. Three subtypes of this receptor have been discovered, each evolving to achieve different biological functions. Like other nuclear receptors, the transcriptional activity of PPARs is affected not only by ligand-stimulation, but also by cross-talk with other molecules. For example, both PPARs and the RXRs are ligand-activated transcription factors that coordinately regulate gene expression. In addition, PPARs and vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling pathways regulate a multitude of genes that are of importance for cellular functions including cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Interaction of the PPARs and VDR signaling pathways has been shown at the level of molecular cross-regulation of their transcription factor. A variety of ligands influencing the PPARs and VDR signaling pathways have been shown to reveal chemopreventive potential by mediating tumor suppressive activities in human cancers. Use of these compounds may represent a potential novel strategy to prevent cancers. This review summarizes the roles of the PPARs and the VDR in pathogenesis and progression of cancer.

  20. Rapid agonist-induced loss of sup 125 I-. beta. -endorphin opioid receptor sites in NG108-15, but not SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, R.I.; Lameh, J.; Sadee, W. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States))


    The authors have measured {mu} and {delta} opioid receptor sites on intact SK-N-SH and NG108-15 neuroblastoma cells, respectively, in culture. Use of {sup 125}I-{beta}-endorphin ({beta}E) as a tracer, together with {beta}E(6-31) to block high-affinity non-opioid binding in both cell lines, permitted the measurement of cell surface {mu} and {delta} opioid receptor sites. Labeling was at {delta} sites in NG108-15 cells and predominantly at {mu} sites in SK-N-SH cells. Pretreatment with the {mu} and {delta} agonist, DADLE, caused a rapid loss of cell surface {delta} receptor sites in NG108-15 cells, but failed to reduce significantly {mu} receptor density in SK-N-SH cells.

  1. The phosphorylation state of CD3gamma influences T cell responsiveness and controls T cell receptor cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J; Bäckström, T; Lauritsen, J P


    The T cell receptor (TCR) is internalized following activation of protein kinase C (PKC) via a leucine (Leu)-based motif in CD3gamma. Some studies have indicated that the TCR is recycled back to the cell surface following PKC-mediated internalization. The functional state of recycled TCR and the ...... the phosphorylation state of CD3gamma and T cell responsiveness. Based on these observations a physiological role of CD3gamma and TCR cycling is proposed.......The T cell receptor (TCR) is internalized following activation of protein kinase C (PKC) via a leucine (Leu)-based motif in CD3gamma. Some studies have indicated that the TCR is recycled back to the cell surface following PKC-mediated internalization. The functional state of recycled TCR...... and the mechanisms involved in the sorting events following PKC-induced internalization are not known. In this study, we demonstrated that following PKC-induced internalization, the TCR is recycled back to the cell surface in a functional state. TCR recycling was dependent on dephosphorylation of CD3gamma, probably...

  2. Toxicities of chimeric antigen receptor T cells: recognition and management. (United States)

    Brudno, Jennifer N; Kochenderfer, James N


    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells can produce durable remissions in hematologic malignancies that are not responsive to standard therapies. Yet the use of CAR T cells is limited by potentially severe toxicities. Early case reports of unexpected organ damage and deaths following CAR T-cell therapy first highlighted the possible dangers of this new treatment. CAR T cells can potentially damage normal tissues by specifically targeting a tumor-associated antigen that is also expressed on those tissues. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS), a systemic inflammatory response caused by cytokines released by infused CAR T cells can lead to widespread reversible organ dysfunction. CRS is the most common type of toxicity caused by CAR T cells. Neurologic toxicity due to CAR T cells might in some cases have a different pathophysiology than CRS and requires different management. Aggressive supportive care is necessary for all patients experiencing CAR T-cell toxicities, with early intervention for hypotension and treatment of concurrent infections being essential. Interleukin-6 receptor blockade with tocilizumab remains the mainstay pharmacologic therapy for CRS, though indications for administration vary among centers. Corticosteroids should be reserved for neurologic toxicities and CRS not responsive to tocilizumab. Pharmacologic management is complicated by the risk of immunosuppressive therapy abrogating the antimalignancy activity of the CAR T cells. This review describes the toxicities caused by CAR T cells and reviews the published approaches used to manage toxicities. We present guidelines for treating patients experiencing CRS and other adverse events following CAR T-cell therapy.

  3. Altered B cell receptor signaling in human systemic lupus erythematosus (United States)

    Jenks, Scott A.; Sanz, Iñaki


    Regulation of B cell receptor signaling is essential for the development of specific immunity while retaining tolerance to self. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by a loss of B cell tolerance and the production of anti-self antibodies. Accompanying this break down in tolerance are alterations in B cell receptor signal transduction including elevated induced calcium responses and increased protein phosphorylation. Specific pathways that negatively regulate B cell signaling have been shown to be impaired in some SLE patients. These patients have reduced levels of the kinase Lyn in lipid raft microdomains and this reduction is inversely correlated with increased CD45 in lipid rafts. Function and expression of the inhibitory immunoglobulin receptor FcγRIIB is also reduced in Lupus IgM- CD27+ memory cells. Because the relative contribution of different memory and transitional B cell subsets can be abnormal in SLE patients, we believe studies targeted to well defined B cell subsets will be necessary to further our understanding of signaling abnormalities in SLE. Intracellular flow cytometric analysis of signaling is a useful approach to accomplish this goal. PMID:18723129

  4. Cell surface engineering with edible protein nanoshells. (United States)

    Drachuk, Irina; Shchepelina, Olga; Harbaugh, Svetlana; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Stone, Morley; Tsukruk, Vladimir V


    Natural protein (silk fibroin) nanoshells are assembled on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells without compromising their viability. The nanoshells facilitate initial protection of the cells and allow them to function in encapsulated state for some time period, afterwards being completely biodegraded and consumed by the cells. In contrast to a traditional methanol treatment, the gentle ionic treatment suggested here stabilizes the shell silk fibroin structure but does not compromise the viability of the cells, as indicated by the fast response of the encapsulated cells, with an immediate activation by the inducer molecules. Extremely high viability rates (up to 97%) and preserved activity of encapsulated cells are facilitated by cytocompatibility of the natural proteins and the formation of highly porous shells in contrast to traditional polyelectrolyte-based materials. Moreover, in a high contrast to traditional synthetic shells, the silk proteins are biodegradable and can be consumed by cells at a later stage of growth, thus releasing the cells from their temporary protective capsules. These on-demand encapsulated cells can be considered a valuable platform for biocompatible and biodegradable cell encapsulation, controlled cell protection in a synthetic environment, transfer to a device environment, and cell implantation followed by biodegradation and consumption of protective protein shells.

  5. Adaptive and innate immune reactions regulating mast cell activation: from receptor-mediated signaling to responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tkaczyk, Christine; Jensen, Bettina M; Iwaki, Shoko


    differentially activate multiple signaling pathways within the mast cells required for the generation and/or release of inflammatory mediators. Thus, the composition of the suite of mediators released and the physiologic ramifications of these responses are dependent on the stimuli and the microenvironment...... activation. The exact interconnections between the signaling pathways initiated by the surface receptors described in this article remain to be completely worked out; thus, this remains a topic for future investigation....

  6. Charged MVB protein 5 is involved in T-cell receptor signaling. (United States)

    Wi, Sae Mi; Min, Yoon; Lee, Ki-Young


    Charged multivesicular body protein 5 (CHMP5) has a key role in multivesicular body biogenesis and a critical role in the downregulation of signaling pathways through receptor degradation. However, the role of CHMP5 in T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated signaling has not been previously investigated. In this study, we utilized a short hairpin RNA-based RNA interference approach to investigate the functional role of CHMP5. Upon TCR stimulation, CHMP5-knockdown (CHMP5(KD)) Jurkat T cells exhibited activation of TCR downstream signaling molecules, such as PKCθ and IKKαβ, and resulted in the activation of nuclear factor-κB and the marked upregulation of TCR-induced gene expression. Moreover, we found that activator protein-1 and nuclear factor of activated T-cells transcriptional factors were markedly activated in CHMP5(KD) Jurkat cells in response to TCR stimulation, which led to a significant increase in interleukin-2 secretion. Biochemical studies revealed that CHMP5 endogenously forms high-molecular-weight complexes, including TCR molecules, and specifically interacts with TCRβ. Interestingly, flow cytometry analysis also revealed that CHMP5(KD) Jurkat T cells exhibit upregulation of TCR expression on the cell surface compared with control Jurkat T cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that CHMP5 might be involved in the homeostatic regulation of TCR on the cell surface, presumably through TCR recycling or degradation. Thus CHMP5 is implicated in TCR-mediated signaling.

  7. Receptor pre-clustering and T cell responses: insights into molecular mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eCastro


    Full Text Available T~cell activation, initiated by T~cell receptor (TCR mediated recognition of pathogen derived peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex class I or II molecules (pMHC, shows exquisite specificity and sensitivity, even though the TCR-pMHC binding interaction is of low affinity. Recent experimental work suggests that TCR pre-clustering may be a mechanism via which T~cells can achieve such high sensitivity. The unresolved stoichiometry of the TCR makes TCR-pMHC binding and TCR triggering an open question. We formulate a mathematical model to characterise the pre-clustering of T~cell receptors (TCRs on the surface of T~cells, motivated by the experimentally-observed distribution of TCR clusters on the surface of naive and memory T~cells. We extend a recently-introduced stochastic criterion to compute the timescales of T~cell responses, assuming that ligand-induced cross-linked TCR is the minimum signalling unit. We derive an approximate formula for the mean time to signal initiation. Our results show that pre-clustering reduces the mean activation time. However, additional mechanisms favouring the existence of clusters are required to explain the difference between naive and memory T~cell responses. We discuss the biological implications of our results, and both the compatibility and complementarity of our approach with other existing mathematical models.

  8. Functional bitter taste receptors are expressed in brain cells. (United States)

    Singh, Nisha; Vrontakis, Maria; Parkinson, Fiona; Chelikani, Prashen


    Humans are capable of sensing five basic tastes which are sweet, sour, salt, umami and bitter. Of these, bitter taste perception provides protection against ingestion of potentially toxic substances. Bitter taste is sensed by bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) that belong to the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) superfamily. Humans have 25 T2Rs that are expressed in the oral cavity, gastrointestinal (GI) neuroendocrine cells and airway cells. Electrophysiological studies of the brain neurons show that the neurons are able to respond to different tastants. However, the presence of bitter taste receptors in brain cells has not been elucidated. In this report using RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry analysis we show that T2Rs are expressed in multiple regions of the rat brain. RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of T2R4, T2R107 and T2R38 transcripts in the brain stem, cerebellum, cortex and nucleus accumbens. The bitter receptor T2R4 was selected for further analysis at the transcript level by quantitative real time PCR and at the protein level by immunohistochemistry. To elucidate if the T2R4 expressed in these cells is functional, assays involving G-protein mediated calcium signaling were carried out. The functional assays showed an increase in intracellular calcium levels after the application of exogenous ligands for T2R4, denatonium benzoate and quinine to these cultured cells, suggesting that endogenous T2R4 expressed in these cells is functional. We discuss our results in terms of the physiological relevance of bitter receptor expression in the brain.

  9. Sex steroids and their receptors: molecular actions on brain cells. (United States)

    Mannella, Paolo; Simoncini, Tommaso


    Sex steroids exert actions of paramount importance on brain cells. They contribute to shape the central nervous system during embryo development. They modulate the formation and the turnover of the interconnections between neurons. They control the function of glial cells. And they do it through a signaling machinery that is apparently simple, but that hides a level of complexity that has been unveiled only in part. Different receptor isoforms, different interactions between receptors and co-regulators, chains of events originating at the cell membrane and leading to effects in the nucleus (or the other way around) all interact to determine selective modulations of brain cells. All these actions end up in phenomenal effects on brain function that change through adolescence, pregnancy, adulthood, up to menopause and ageing. Many of these actions are relevant for degenerative processes and research may offer soon new strategies to counteract these diseases.

  10. Localization of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in plant guard cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Acetylcholine (ACh), as an important neurotransmitter in animals, also plays a significant role in various kinds of physiological functions in plants. But relatively little is known about its receptors in plants. A green fluorescence BODIPY FL-labeled ABT, which is a high affinity ligand of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), was used to localize mAChR in plant guard cells. In Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L., mAChR was found both on the plasma membrane of guard cells. mAChR may also be distributed on guard cell chloroplast membrane of Vicia faba L. The evidence that mAChR localizes in the guard cells provides a new possible signal transduction pathway in ACh mediated stomata movement.

  11. Ceramide, a mediator of interleukin 1, tumour necrosis factor α, as well as Fas receptor signalling, induces apoptosis of rheumatoid arthritis synovial cells


    Mizushima, N; Kohsaka, H.; Miyasaka, N


    OBJECTIVES—To examine the effects of ceramide, which is a lipid second messenger of cell surface receptors, including tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 1 (IL1), and Fas receptors, on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial cells.
METHODS—Synovial cells from RA patients and normal skin fibroblasts were cultured with cell permeable ceramide (C2-ceramide). Apoptosis was assessed by microscopic observation of morphological changes, nuclear staining, and DNA electrophoresis. DNA synthesis wa...

  12. A promiscuous liaison between IL-15 receptor and Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in cell death control. (United States)

    Budagian, Vadim; Bulanova, Elena; Orinska, Zane; Thon, Lutz; Mamat, Uwe; Bellosta, Paola; Basilico, Claudio; Adam, Dieter; Paus, Ralf; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia


    Discrimination between cytokine receptor and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling pathways is a central paradigm in signal transduction research. Here, we report a 'promiscuous liaison' between both receptors that enables interleukin (IL)-15 to transactivate the signaling pathway of a tyrosine kinase. IL-15 protects murine L929 fibroblasts from tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-induced cell death, but fails to rescue them upon targeted depletion of the RTK, Axl; however, Axl-overexpressing fibroblasts are TNFalpha-resistant. IL-15Ralpha and Axl colocalize on the cell membrane and co-immunoprecipitate even in the absence of IL-15, whereby the extracellular part of Axl proved to be essential for Axl/IL-15Ralpha interaction. Most strikingly, IL-15 treatment mimics stimulation by the Axl ligand, Gas6, resulting in a rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of both Axl and IL-15Ralpha, and activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. This is also seen in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from wild-type but not Axl-/- or IL-15Ralpha-/- mice. Thus, IL-15-induced protection from TNFalpha-mediated cell death involves a hitherto unknown IL-15 receptor complex, consisting of IL-15Ralpha and Axl RTK, and requires their reciprocal activation initiated by ligand-induced IL-15Ralpha.

  13. Soluble forms of tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNF-Rs). The cDNA for the type I TNF-R, cloned using amino acid sequence data of its soluble form, encodes both the cell surface and a soluble form of the receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nophar, Y; Kemper, O; Brakebusch, C


    found to have effects characteristic of TNF, including stimulating phosphorylation of specific cellular proteins. Oligonucleotide probes designed on the basis of the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of TBPI were used to clone the cDNA for the structurally related cell surface type 1 TNF-R. It is notable...

  14. Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M;


    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor expression was evaluated in a panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell lines with radioreceptor assay, affinity labeling, and Northern blotting. We found high-affinity receptors to be expressed in 10 cell lines. Scatchard analysis of the binding data...... demonstrated that the cells bound between 3 and 52 fmol/mg protein with a KD ranging from 0.5 x 10(-10) to 2.7 x 10(-10) M. EGF binding to the receptor was confirmed by affinity-labeling EGF to the EGF receptor. The cross-linked complex had a M(r) of 170,000-180,000. Northern blotting showed the expression...... of EGF receptor mRNA in all 10 cell lines that were found to be EGF receptor-positive and in one cell line that was found to be EGF receptor-negative in the radioreceptor assay and affinity labeling. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of small cell...

  15. Toll-like receptor polymorphisms in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornblit, Brian; Enevold, Christian; Wang, Tao;


    To assess the impact of the genetic variation in toll-like receptors (TLRs) on outcome after allogeneic myeloablative conditioning hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), we investigated 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms across 10 TLRs in 816 patients and donors. Only donor genotype of TLR8 rs...

  16. Enhanced cytotoxicity of natural killer cells following the acquisition of chimeric antigen receptors through trogocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Nan Cho

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells have the capacity to target tumors and are ideal candidates for immunotherapy. Viral vectors have been used to genetically modify in vitro expanded NK cells to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs, which confer cytotoxicity against tumors. However, use of viral transduction methods raises the safety concern of viral integration into the NK cell genome. In this study, we used trogocytosis as a non-viral method to modify NK cells for immunotherapy. A K562 cell line expressing high levels of anti-CD19 CARs was generated as a donor cell to transfer the anti-CD19 CARs onto NK cells via trogocytosis. Anti-CD19 CAR expression was observed in expanded NK cells after these cells were co-cultured for one hour with freeze/thaw-treated donor cells expressing anti-CD19 CARs. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the localization of the anti-CD19 CARs on the NK cell surface. Acquisition of anti-CD19 CARs via trogocytosis enhanced NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against the B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL cell lines and primary B-ALL cells derived from patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report that describes the increased cytotoxicity of NK cells following the acquisition of CARs via trogocytosis. This novel strategy could be a potential valuable therapeutic approach for the treatment of B-cell tumors.

  17. Chemokine receptor expression by inflammatory T cells in EAE. (United States)

    Mony, Jyothi Thyagabhavan; Khorooshi, Reza; Owens, Trevor


    Chemokines direct cellular infiltration to tissues, and their receptors and signaling pathways represent targets for therapy in diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The chemokine CCL20 is expressed in choroid plexus, a site of entry of T cells to the central nervous system (CNS). The CCL20 receptor CCR6 has been reported to be selectively expressed by CD4(+) T cells that produce the cytokine IL-17 (Th17 cells). Th17 cells and interferon-gamma (IFNγ)-producing Th1 cells are implicated in induction of MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We have assessed whether CCR6 identifies specific inflammatory T cell subsets in EAE. Our approach was to induce EAE, and then examine chemokine receptor expression by cytokine-producing T cells sorted from CNS at peak disease. About 7% of CNS-infiltrating CD4(+) T cells produced IFNγ in flow cytometric cytokine assays, whereas less than 1% produced IL-17. About 1% of CD4(+) T cells produced both cytokines. CCR6 was expressed by Th1, Th1+17 and by Th17 cells, but not by CD8(+) T cells. CD8(+) T cells expressed CXCR3, which was also expressed by CD4(+) T cells, with no correlation to cytokine profile. Messenger RNA for IFNγ, IL-17A, and the Th1 and Th17-associated transcription factors T-bet and RORγt was detected in both CCR6(+) and CXCR3(+) CD4(+) T cells. IFNγ, but not IL-17A mRNA expression was detected in CD8(+) T cells in CNS. CCR6 and CD4 were co-localized in spinal cord infiltrates by double immunofluorescence. Consistent with flow cytometry data some but not all CD4(+) T cells expressed CCR6 within infiltrates. CD4-negative CCR6(+) cells included macrophage/microglial cells. Thus we have for the first time directly studied CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the CNS of mice with peak EAE, and determined IFNγ and IL17 expression by cells expressing CCR6 and CXCR3. We show that neither CCR6 or CXCR3 align with CD4 T cell subsets, and Th1 or mixed Th1+17 predominate in EAE.

  18. Estrogen receptors and cell proliferation in breast cancer. (United States)

    Ciocca, D R; Fanelli, M A


    Most of the actions of estrogens on the normal and abnormal mammary cells are mediated via estrogen receptors (ERs), including control of cell proliferation; however, there are also alternative pathways of estrogen action not involving ERs. Estrogens control several genes and proteins that induce the cells to enter the cell cycle (protooncogenes, growth factors); estrogens also act on proteins directly involved in the control of the cell cycle (cyclins), and moreover, estrogens stimulate the response of negative cell cycle regulators (p53, BRCA1). The next challenge for researchers is elucidating the integration of the interrelationships of the complex pathways involved in the control of cell proliferation. This brief review focuses on the mechanisms of estrogen action to control cell proliferation and the clinical implications in breast cancer. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997;8:313-321). (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  19. Thymic Selection of T-Cell Receptors as an Extreme Value Problem (United States)

    Kosmrlj, Andrej; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Kardar, Mehran; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.


    T lymphocytes (T cells) orchestrate adaptive immune responses that clear pathogens from infected hosts. T cells recognize short peptides (p) derived from foreign proteins, which are bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene products (displayed on antigen- presenting cells). Recognition occurs when T cell receptor (TCR) proteins expressed on T cells bind sufficiently strongly to antigen- derived pMHC complexes on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. A diverse repertoire of self-tolerant TCR sequences is shaped during development of T cells in the thymus by processes called positive and negative selection. We map thymic selection processes to an extreme value problem and provide analytic expression for the amino acid composition of selected TCR sequences (which enable its recognition functions).

  20. Limitations in plasticity of the T-cell receptor repertoire.


    Nanda, N K; Apple, R; Sercarz, E.


    How constrained is T-cell recognition? Is a truncated T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire, missing half of its V beta components (where V indicates variable), still broad enough to produce an antigen-specific T-cell response to all determinants? These questions can be answered for certain T-cell antigenic determinants whose response in the wild type is limited to specific gene segments. Our results show that mice with such a deletion in their TCR V beta genes (V beta truncated haplotype, Va beta...

  1. Regulation of gene expression in ovarian cancer cells by luteinizing hormone receptor expression and activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dam Phuongan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since a substantial percentage of ovarian cancers express gonadotropin receptors and are responsive to the relatively high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins during the postmenopausal years, it has been suggested that receptor activation may contribute to the etiology and/or progression of the neoplasm. The goal of the present study was to develop a cell model to determine the impact of luteinizing hormone (LH receptor (LHR expression and LH-mediated LHR activation on gene expression and thus obtain insights into the mechanism of gonadotropin action on ovarian surface epithelial (OSE carcinoma cells. Methods The human ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV-3, was stably transfected to express functional LHR and incubated with LH for various periods of time (0-20 hours. Transcriptomic profiling was performed on these cells to identify LHR expression/activation-dependent changes in gene expression levels and pathways by microarray and qRT-PCR analyses. Results Through comparative analysis on the LHR-transfected SKOV-3 cells exposed to LH, we observed the differential expression of 1,783 genes in response to LH treatment, among which five significant families were enriched, including those of growth factors, translation regulators, transporters, G-protein coupled receptors, and ligand-dependent nuclear receptors. The most highly induced early and intermediate responses were found to occupy a network impacting transcriptional regulation, cell growth, apoptosis, and multiple signaling transductions, giving indications of LH-induced apoptosis and cell growth inhibition through the significant changes in, for example, tumor necrosis factor, Jun and many others, supportive of the observed cell growth reduction in in vitro assays. However, other observations, e.g. the substantial up-regulation of the genes encoding the endothelin-1 subtype A receptor, stromal cell-derived factor 1, and insulin-like growth factor II, all of which are

  2. Pharmacologic suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors. (United States)

    Alvarez-Vallina, L; Yañez, R; Blanco, B; Gil, M; Russell, S J


    Adoptive therapy with autologous T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors (chTCRs) is of potential interest for the treatment of malignancy. To limit possible T-cell-mediated damage to normal tissues that weakly express the targeted tumor antigen (Ag), we have tested a strategy for the suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells. Jurkat T cells were transduced with an anti-hapten chTCR tinder the control of a tetracycline-suppressible promoter and were shown to respond to Ag-positive (hapten-coated) but not to Ag-negative target cells. The engineered T cells were then reacted with hapten-coated target cells at different effector to target cell ratios before and after exposure to tetracycline. When the engineered T cells were treated with tetracycline, expression of the chTCR was greatly decreased and recognition of the hapten-coated target cells was completely suppressed. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells may be a useful strategy to limit the toxicity of the approach to cancer gene therapy.

  3. Asymmetric Receptor Contact is Required for Tyrosine Autophosphorylation of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor in Living Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, J.; Boggon, T; Tomé, F; Mandiyan, V; Lax, I; Schlessinge, J


    Tyrosine autophosphorylation of receptor tyrosine kinases plays a critical role in regulation of kinase activity and in recruitment and activation of intracellular signaling pathways. Autophosphorylation is mediated by a sequential and precisely ordered intermolecular (trans) reaction. In this report we present structural and biochemical experiments demonstrating that formation of an asymmetric dimer between activated FGFR1 kinase domains is required for transphosphorylation of FGFR1 in FGF-stimulated cells. Transphosphorylation is mediated by specific asymmetric contacts between the N-lobe of one kinase molecule, which serves as an active enzyme, and specific docking sites on the C-lobe of a second kinase molecule, which serves a substrate. Pathological loss-of-function mutations or oncogenic activating mutations in this interface may hinder or facilitate asymmetric dimer formation and transphosphorylation, respectively. The experiments presented in this report provide the molecular basis underlying the control of transphosphorylation of FGF receptors and other receptor tyrosine kinases.

  4. Functional Mimetics of the HIV-1 CCR5 Co-Receptor Displayed on the Surface of Magnetic Liposomes. (United States)

    Kuzmina, Alona; Vaknin, Karin; Gdalevsky, Garik; Vyazmensky, Maria; Marks, Robert S; Taube, Ran; Engel, Stanislav


    Chemokine G protein coupled receptors, principally CCR5 or CXCR4, function as co-receptors for HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T cells. Initial binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 subunit to the host CD4 receptor induces a cascade of structural conformational changes that lead to the formation of a high-affinity co-receptor-binding site on gp120. Interaction between gp120 and the co-receptor leads to the exposure of epitopes on the viral gp41 that mediates fusion between viral and cell membranes. Soluble CD4 (sCD4) mimetics can act as an activation-based inhibitor of HIV-1 entry in vitro, as it induces similar structural changes in gp120, leading to increased virus infectivity in the short term but to virus Env inactivation in the long term. Despite promising clinical implications, sCD4 displays low efficiency in vivo, and in multiple HIV strains, it does not inhibit viral infection. This has been attributed to the slow kinetics of the sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and to the failure to obtain sufficient sCD4 mimetic levels in the serum. Here we present uniquely structured CCR5 co-receptor mimetics. We hypothesized that such mimetics will enhance sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and inhibition of HIV entry. Co-receptor mimetics were derived from CCR5 gp120-binding epitopes and functionalized with a palmitoyl group, which mediated their display on the surface of lipid-coated magnetic beads. CCR5-peptidoliposome mimetics bound to soluble gp120 and inhibited HIV-1 infectivity in a sCD4-dependent manner. We concluded that CCR5-peptidoliposomes increase the efficiency of sCD4 to inhibit HIV infection by acting as bait for sCD4-primed virus, catalyzing the premature discharge of its fusion potential.

  5. Functional Mimetics of the HIV-1 CCR5 Co-Receptor Displayed on the Surface of Magnetic Liposomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alona Kuzmina

    Full Text Available Chemokine G protein coupled receptors, principally CCR5 or CXCR4, function as co-receptors for HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T cells. Initial binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env gp120 subunit to the host CD4 receptor induces a cascade of structural conformational changes that lead to the formation of a high-affinity co-receptor-binding site on gp120. Interaction between gp120 and the co-receptor leads to the exposure of epitopes on the viral gp41 that mediates fusion between viral and cell membranes. Soluble CD4 (sCD4 mimetics can act as an activation-based inhibitor of HIV-1 entry in vitro, as it induces similar structural changes in gp120, leading to increased virus infectivity in the short term but to virus Env inactivation in the long term. Despite promising clinical implications, sCD4 displays low efficiency in vivo, and in multiple HIV strains, it does not inhibit viral infection. This has been attributed to the slow kinetics of the sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and to the failure to obtain sufficient sCD4 mimetic levels in the serum. Here we present uniquely structured CCR5 co-receptor mimetics. We hypothesized that such mimetics will enhance sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and inhibition of HIV entry. Co-receptor mimetics were derived from CCR5 gp120-binding epitopes and functionalized with a palmitoyl group, which mediated their display on the surface of lipid-coated magnetic beads. CCR5-peptidoliposome mimetics bound to soluble gp120 and inhibited HIV-1 infectivity in a sCD4-dependent manner. We concluded that CCR5-peptidoliposomes increase the efficiency of sCD4 to inhibit HIV infection by acting as bait for sCD4-primed virus, catalyzing the premature discharge of its fusion potential.

  6. Genetic disruption of oncogenic Kras sensitizes lung cancer cells to Fas receptor-mediated apoptosis. (United States)

    Mou, Haiwei; Moore, Jill; Malonia, Sunil K; Li, Yingxiang; Ozata, Deniz M; Hough, Soren; Song, Chun-Qing; Smith, Jordan L; Fischer, Andrew; Weng, Zhiping; Green, Michael R; Xue, Wen


    Genetic lesions that activate KRAS account for ∼30% of the 1.6 million annual cases of lung cancer. Despite clinical need, KRAS is still undruggable using traditional small-molecule drugs/inhibitors. When oncogenic Kras is suppressed by RNA interference, tumors initially regress but eventually recur and proliferate despite suppression of Kras Here, we show that tumor cells can survive knockout of oncogenic Kras, indicating the existence of Kras-independent survival pathways. Thus, even if clinical KRAS inhibitors were available, resistance would remain an obstacle to treatment. Kras-independent cancer cells exhibit decreased colony formation in vitro but retain the ability to form tumors in mice. Comparing the transcriptomes of oncogenic Kras cells and Kras knockout cells, we identified 603 genes that were specifically up-regulated in Kras knockout cells, including the Fas gene, which encodes a cell surface death receptor involved in physiological regulation of apoptosis. Antibodies recognizing Fas receptor efficiently induced apoptosis of Kras knockout cells but not oncogenic Kras-expressing cells. Increased Fas expression in Kras knockout cells was attributed to decreased association of repressive epigenetic marks at the Fas promoter. Concordant with this observation, treating oncogenic Kras cells with histone deacetylase inhibitor and Fas-activating antibody efficiently induced apoptosis, thus bypassing the need to inhibit Kras. Our results suggest that activation of Fas could be exploited as an Achilles' heel in tumors initiated by oncogenic Kras.

  7. A sharp T-cell antigen receptor signaling threshold for T-cell proliferation


    Au-Yeung, Byron B.; Zikherman, Julie; James L. Mueller; Ashouri, Judith F.; Matloubian, Mehrdad; Cheng, Debra A.; Chen, Yiling; Shokat, Kevan M; Weiss, Arthur


    Biochemical signals triggered by the T-cell receptor (TCR) are required for stimulating T cells and can be initiated within seconds. However, a hallmark of T-cell activation, cell division, occurs hours after TCR signaling has begun, implying that T cells require a minimum duration and/or accumulate TCR signaling events to drive proliferation. To visualize the accumulated signaling experienced by T cells, we used a fluorescent reporter gene that is activated by TCR stimulation. This technique...

  8. H/KDEL receptors mediate host cell intoxication by a viral A/B toxin in yeast (United States)

    Becker, Björn; Blum, Andrea; Gießelmann, Esther; Dausend, Julia; Rammo, Domenik; Müller, Nina C.; Tschacksch, Emilia; Steimer, Miriam; Spindler, Jenny; Becherer, Ute; Rettig, Jens; Breinig, Frank; Schmitt, Manfred J.


    A/B toxins such as cholera toxin, Pseudomonas exotoxin and killer toxin K28 contain a KDEL-like amino acid motif at one of their subunits which ensures retrograde toxin transport through the secretory pathway of a target cell. As key step in host cell invasion, each toxin binds to distinct plasma membrane receptors that are utilized for cell entry. Despite intensive efforts, some of these receptors are still unknown. Here we identify the yeast H/KDEL receptor Erd2p as membrane receptor of K28, a viral A/B toxin carrying an HDEL motif at its cell binding β-subunit. While initial toxin binding to the yeast cell wall is unaffected in cells lacking Erd2p, binding to spheroplasts and in vivo toxicity strongly depend on the presence of Erd2p. Consistently, Erd2p is not restricted to membranes of the early secretory pathway but extends to the plasma membrane where it binds and internalizes HDEL-cargo such as K28 toxin, GFPHDEL and Kar2p. Since human KDEL receptors are fully functional in yeast and restore toxin sensitivity in the absence of endogenous Erd2p, toxin uptake by H/KDEL receptors at the cell surface might likewise contribute to the intoxication efficiency of A/B toxins carrying a KDEL-motif at their cytotoxic A-subunit(s). PMID:27493088

  9. The meaning and relevance of B-cell receptor structure and function in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (United States)

    Stevenson, Freda K; Forconi, Francesco; Packham, Graham


    The B-cell receptor (BCR) is of critical importance for normal B cells and for the majority of B-cell malignancies, especially chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The two major subsets of CLL are biologically distinct, being derived from B cells at different stages of differentiation and carrying unmutated (U-CLL) or mutated (M-CLL) IGHV genes. U-CLL, which has a poorer prognosis, often has relatively conserved (stereotypic) IGHV-HD-HJ sequences, indicative of interaction with large (super)antigens and similar to those in normal naive innate B cells. Conserved sequences are less evident in M-CLL, in keeping with its postfollicular origin. However, both subsets exhibit features of chronic antigen exposure in tissue sites, with local proliferative events, but also downregulation of surface immunoglobulin M but not surface immunoglobulin D, a characteristic of normal anergic B cells. BCR-mediated anergy can spread to other receptors such as CXCR4. Circulating CLL cells retain a shadow of tissue-based events that can reverse over time, but the overall extent of anergy is greater in M-CLL. Despite this stereotypic variety and more genomic complexity, BCR-mediated responses in vitro appear relatively homogeneous in U-CLL, but M-CLL is more heterogeneous. The differential balance between antigen-induced proliferation or anergy is the likely determinant of clinical behavior and possibly of response to kinase inhibitors.

  10. Identification and characterization of estrogen receptor-related receptor alpha and gamma in human glioma and astrocytoma cells. (United States)

    Gandhari, Mukesh K; Frazier, Chester R; Hartenstein, Julia S; Cloix, Jean-Francois; Bernier, Michel; Wainer, Irving W


    The purpose of this study was to examine expression and function of estrogen receptor-related receptors (ERRs) in human glioma and astrocytoma cell lines. These estrogen receptor-negative cell lines expressed ERRalpha and ERRgamma proteins to varying degree in a cell context dependent manner, with U87MG glioma cells expressing both orphan nuclear receptors. Cell proliferation assays were performed in the presence of ERR isoform-specific agonists and antagonists, and the calculated EC(50) and IC(50) values were consistent with previous reported values determined in other types of cancer cell lines. Induction of luciferase expression under the control of ERR isoform-specific promoters was also observed in these cells. These results indicate that ERRalpha and ERRgamma are differentially expressed in these tumor cell lines and likely contribute to agonist-dependent ERR transcriptional activity.

  11. Estradiol attenuates EGF-induced rapid uPAR mobilization and cell migration via the G-protein-coupled receptor 30 in ovarian cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henic, Emir; Noskova, Vera; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla;


    : rapid mobilization of uPAR from detergent-resistant domains, increased mRNA, and decreased degradation. G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) is a newly identified membrane estrogen receptor (ER).The objective of this study was to explore the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) on uPAR expression......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates proliferation and migration in ovarian cancer cells, and high tumor expression of the EGF system correlates with poor prognosis. Epidermal growth factor upregulates urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) on the cell surface via 3 distinct mechanisms...... and cell migration in ovarian cancer cells and further to identify the ER involved.We used 7 ovarian cancer cell lines, cell migration assay, cellular binding of (125)I-uPA, cellular degradation of (125)I-uPA/PAI-1 complex, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for uPAR, solid-phase enzyme immunoassay...

  12. The cell surface proteome of Entamoeba histolytica. (United States)

    Biller, Laura; Matthiesen, Jenny; Kühne, Vera; Lotter, Hannelore; Handal, Ghassan; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Saito-Nakano, Yumiko; Schümann, Michael; Roeder, Thomas; Tannich, Egbert; Krause, Eberhard; Bruchhaus, Iris


    Surface molecules are of major importance for host-parasite interactions. During Entamoeba histolytica infections, these interactions are predicted to be of prime importance for tissue invasion, induction of colitis and liver abscess formation. To date, however, little is known about the molecules involved in these processes, with only about 20 proteins or protein families found exposed on the E. histolytica surface. We have therefore analyzed the complete surface proteome of E. histolytica. Using cell surface biotinylation and mass spectrometry, 693 putative surface-associated proteins were identified. In silico analysis predicted that ∼26% of these proteins are membrane-associated, as they contain transmembrane domains and/or signal sequences, as well as sites of palmitoylation, myristoylation, or prenylation. An additional 25% of the identified proteins likely represent nonclassical secreted proteins. Surprisingly, no membrane-association sites could be predicted for the remaining 49% of the identified proteins. To verify surface localization, 23 proteins were randomly selected and analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Of these 23 proteins, 20 (87%) showed definite surface localization. These findings indicate that a far greater number of E. histolytica proteins than previously supposed are surface-associated, a phenomenon that may be based on the high membrane turnover of E. histolytica.

  13. Femtosecond fabricated surfaces for cell biology (United States)

    Day, Daniel; Gu, Min


    Microfabrication using femtosecond pulse lasers is enabling access to a range of structures, surfaces and materials that was not previously available for scientific and engineering applications. The ability to produce micrometre sized features directly in polymer and metal substrates is demonstrated with applications in cell biology. The size, shape and aspect ratio of the etched features can be precisely controlled through the manipulation of the fluence of the laser etching process with respect to the properties of the target material. Femtosecond laser etching of poly(methyl methacrylate) and aluminium substrates has enabled the production of micrometre resolution moulds that can be accurately replicated using soft lithography. The moulded surfaces are used in the imaging of T cells and demonstrate the improved ability to observe biological events over time periods greater than 10 h. These results indicate the great potential femtosecond pulse lasers may have in the future manufacturing of microstructured surfaces and devices.

  14. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 is a functional part of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor complex in pancreatic β cells. (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Robitaille, Mélanie; Showalter, Aaron D; Huang, Xinyi; Liu, Ying; Bhattacharjee, Alpana; Willard, Francis S; Han, Junfeng; Froese, Sean; Wei, Li; Gaisano, Herbert Y; Angers, Stéphane; Sloop, Kyle W; Dai, Feihan F; Wheeler, Michael B


    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that regulates glucose homeostasis. Because of their direct stimulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells, GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are now important therapeutic options for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. To better understand the mechanisms that control the insulinotropic actions of GLP-1, affinity purification and mass spectrometry (AP-MS) were employed to uncover potential proteins that functionally interact with the GLP-1R. AP-MS performed on Chinese hamster ovary cells or MIN6 β cells, both expressing the human GLP-1R, revealed 99 proteins potentially associated with the GLP-1R. Three novel GLP-1R interactors (PGRMC1, Rab5b, and Rab5c) were further validated through co-immunoprecipitation/immunoblotting, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and immunofluorescence. Functional studies revealed that overexpression of PGRMC1, a novel cell surface receptor that associated with liganded GLP-1R, enhanced GLP-1-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) with the most robust effect. Knockdown of PGRMC1 in β cells decreased GIIS, indicative of positive interaction with GLP-1R. To gain insight mechanistically, we demonstrated that the cell surface PGRMC1 ligand P4-BSA increased GIIS, whereas its antagonist AG-205 decreased GIIS. It was then found that PGRMC1 increased GLP-1-induced cAMP accumulation. PGRMC1 activation and GIIS induced by P4-BSA could be blocked by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase/EPAC signaling or the EGF receptor-PI3K signal transduction pathway. These data reveal a dual mechanism for PGRMC1-increased GIIS mediated through cAMP and EGF receptor signaling. In conclusion, we identified several novel GLP-1R interacting proteins. PGRMC1 expressed on the cell surface of β cells was shown to interact with the activated GLP-1R to enhance the insulinotropic actions of GLP-1.

  15. Gravity and the cells of gravity receptors in mammals (United States)

    Ross, M. D.


    A model of the mammalian gravity receptor system is presented, with attention given to the effects of weightlessness. Two receptors are on each side of the head, with end organs in the saccule and utricle of the vestibular membranous labyrinth of the inner ear, embedded in the temporal bone. Each end organ has a macula, containing hair cells and supporting cells, and an otoconial complex, an otoconial membrane and mineral masses called otoconia. X ray powder diffraction examinations have revealed that the otoconia can behave like crystals, i.e., with piezoelectric properties, due to the mineral deposits. Bending of the hair cells because of acceleration can put pressure on the otoconial mineral, producing an electrical signal in the absence of a gravitational field. The possibility that pyroelectricity, as well as piezoelectricity, is present in the otoconial complexes, is discussed.

  16. Mesenchymal stromal cells engage complement and complement receptor bearing innate effector cells to modulate immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Moll

    Full Text Available Infusion of human third-party mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs appears to be a promising therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD. To date, little is known about how MSCs interact with the body's innate immune system after clinical infusion. This study shows, that exposure of MSCs to blood type ABO-matched human blood activates the complement system, which triggers complement-mediated lymphoid and myeloid effector cell activation in blood. We found deposition of complement component C3-derived fragments iC3b and C3dg on MSCs and fluid-phase generation of the chemotactic anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. MSCs bound low amounts of immunoglobulins and lacked expression of complement regulatory proteins MCP (CD46 and DAF (CD55, but were protected from complement lysis via expression of protectin (CD59. Cell-surface-opsonization and anaphylatoxin-formation triggered complement receptor 3 (CD11b/CD18-mediated effector cell activation in blood. The complement-activating properties of individual MSCs were furthermore correlated with their potency to inhibit PBMC-proliferation in vitro, and both effector cell activation and the immunosuppressive effect could be blocked either by using complement inhibitor Compstatin or by depletion of CD14/CD11b-high myeloid effector cells from mixed lymphocyte reactions. Our study demonstrates for the first time a major role of the complement system in governing the immunomodulatory activity of MSCs and elucidates how complement activation mediates the interaction with other immune cells.

  17. A Comprehensive Nuclear Receptor Network for Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Kittler


    Full Text Available In breast cancer, nuclear receptors (NRs play a prominent role in governing gene expression, have prognostic utility, and are therapeutic targets. We built a regulatory map for 24 NRs, six chromatin state markers, and 14 breast-cancer-associated transcription factors (TFs that are expressed in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The resulting network reveals a highly interconnected regulatory matrix where extensive crosstalk occurs among NRs and other breast -cancer-associated TFs. We show that large numbers of factors are coordinately bound to highly occupied target regions throughout the genome, and these regions are associated with active chromatin state and hormone-responsive gene expression. This network also provides a framework for stratifying and predicting patient outcomes, and we use it to show that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta binds to a set of genes also regulated by the retinoic acid receptors and whose expression is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer.

  18. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor gene associations with autoimmune and allergic diseases, recurrent spontaneous abortion, and neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr eKusnierczyk


    Full Text Available Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs are a family of cell surface inhibitory or activating receptors expressed on natural killer cells and some subpopulations of T lymphocytes. KIR genes are clustered in the 19q13.4 region and are characterized by both allelic (high numbers of variants and haplotypic (different numbers of genes for inhibitory and activating receptors on individual chromosomes polymorphism. This contributes to diverse susceptibility to diseases and other clinical situations. Associations of KIR genes, as well as of genes for their ligands, with selected diseases such as psoriasis vulgaris and atopic dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, recurrent spontaneous abortion, and non-small cell lung cancer are discussed in the context of NK and T cell functions.

  19. DMPD: Signals and receptors involved in recruitment of inflammatory cells. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7744810 Signals and receptors involved in recruitment of inflammatory cells. Ben-Ba...ow Signals and receptors involved in recruitment of inflammatory cells. PubmedID 7744810 Title Signals and r...eceptors involved in recruitment of inflammatory cells. Authors Ben-Baruch A, Mic

  20. Antiandrogens act as selective androgen receptor modulators at the proteome level in prostate cancer cells. (United States)

    Brooke, Greg N; Gamble, Simon C; Hough, Michael A; Begum, Shajna; Dart, D Alwyn; Odontiadis, Michael; Powell, Sue M; Fioretti, Flavia M; Bryan, Rosie A; Waxman, Jonathan; Wait, Robin; Bevan, Charlotte L


    Current therapies for prostate cancer include antiandrogens, inhibitory ligands of the androgen receptor, which repress androgen-stimulated growth. These include the selective androgen receptor modulators cyproterone acetate and hydroxyflutamide and the complete antagonist bicalutamide. Their activity is partly dictated by the presence of androgen receptor mutations, which are commonly detected in patients who relapse while receiving antiandrogens, i.e. in castrate-resistant prostate cancer. To characterize the early proteomic response to these antiandrogens we used the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line, which harbors the androgen receptor mutation most commonly detected in castrate-resistant tumors (T877A), analyzing alterations in the proteome, and comparing these to the effect of these therapeutics upon androgen receptor activity and cell proliferation. The majority are regulated post-transcriptionally, possibly via nongenomic androgen receptor signaling. Differences detected between the exposure groups demonstrate subtle changes in the biological response to each specific ligand, suggesting a spectrum of agonistic and antagonistic effects dependent on the ligand used. Analysis of the crystal structures of the AR in the presence of cyproterone acetate, hydroxyflutamide, and DHT identified important differences in the orientation of key residues located in the AF-2 and BF-3 protein interaction surfaces. This further implies that although there is commonality in the growth responses between androgens and those antiandrogens that stimulate growth in the presence of a mutation, there may also be influential differences in the growth pathways stimulated by the different ligands. This therefore has implications for prostate cancer treatment because tumors may respond differently dependent upon which mutation is present and which ligand is activating growth, also for the design of selective androgen receptor modulators, which aim to elicit differential proteomic

  1. Cell surface and transcriptional characterization of human adipose-derived adherent stromal (hADAS) cells. (United States)

    Katz, Adam J; Tholpady, Ashok; Tholpady, Sunil S; Shang, Hulan; Ogle, Roy C


    Adult human subcutaneous adipose tissue contains cells with intriguing multilineage developmental plasticity, much like marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Putative stem or progenitor cells from fat have been given many different names in the literature, reflecting an early and evolving consensus regarding their phenotypic characterization. The study reported here used microarrays to evaluate over 170 genes relating to angiogenesis and extracellular matrix in undifferentiated, early-passage human adipose-derived adherent stromal (hADAS) cells isolated from three separate donors. The hADAS populations unanimously transcribed 66% of the screened genes, and 83% were transcribed by at least two of the three populations. The most highly transcribed genes relate to functional groupings such as cell adhesion, matrix proteins, growth factors and receptors, and proteases. The transcriptome of hADAS cells demonstrated by this work reveals many similarities to published profiles of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In addition, flow analysis of over 24 hADAS cell surface proteins (n = 7 donors) both confirms and expands on the existing literature and reveals strong intergroup correlation, despite an inconsistent nomenclature and the lack of standardized protocols for cell isolation and culture. Finally, based on flow analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction studies, our results suggest that hADAS cells do not express several proteins that are implicated as markers of "stemness" in other stem cell populations, including telomerase, CD133, and the membrane transporter ABCG2.

  2. Cytomegalovirus m154 hinders CD48 cell-surface expression and promotes viral escape from host natural killer cell control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Zarama


    Full Text Available Receptors of the signalling lymphocyte-activation molecules (SLAM family are involved in the functional regulation of a variety of immune cells upon engagement through homotypic or heterotypic interactions amongst them. Here we show that murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV dampens the surface expression of several SLAM receptors during the course of the infection of macrophages. By screening a panel of MCMV deletion mutants, we identified m154 as an immunoevasin that effectively reduces the cell-surface expression of the SLAM family member CD48, a high-affinity ligand for natural killer (NK and cytotoxic T cell receptor CD244. m154 is a mucin-like protein, expressed with early kinetics, which can be found at the cell surface of the infected cell. During infection, m154 leads to proteolytic degradation of CD48. This viral protein interferes with the NK cell cytotoxicity triggered by MCMV-infected macrophages. In addition, we demonstrate that an MCMV mutant virus lacking m154 expression results in an attenuated phenotype in vivo, which can be substantially restored after NK cell depletion in mice. This is the first description of a viral gene capable of downregulating CD48. Our novel findings define m154 as an important player in MCMV innate immune regulation.

  3. Role of Prokineticin Receptor-1 in Epicardial Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan G. Nebigil


    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs form a large class of seven transmembrane (TM domain receptors. The use of endogenous GPCR ligands to activate the stem cell maintenance or to direct cell differentiation would overcome many of the problems currently encountered in the use of stem cells, such as rapid in vitro differentiation and expansion or rejection in clinical applications. This review focuses on the definition of a new GPCR signaling pathway activated by peptide hormones, called “prokineticins”, in epicardium-derived cells (EPDCs. Signaling via prokineticin-2 and its receptor, PKR1, is required for cardiomyocyte survival during hypoxic stress. The binding of prokineticin-2 to PKR1 induces proliferation, migration and angiogenesis in endothelial cells. The expression of prokineticin and PKR1 increases during cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction. Gain of function of PKR1 in the adult mouse heart revealed that cardiomyocyte-PKR1 signaling activates EPDCs in a paracrine fashion, thereby promoting de novo vasculogenesis. Transient PKR1 gene therapy after myocardial infarction in mice decreases mortality and improves heart function by promoting neovascularization, protecting cardiomyocytes and mobilizing WT1+ cells. Furthermore, PKR1 signaling promotes adult EPDC proliferation and differentiation to adopt endothelial and smooth muscle cell fate, for the induction of de novo vasculogenesis. PKR1 is expressed in the proepicardium and epicardial cells derived from mice kidneys. Loss of PKR1 causes deficits in EPDCs in the neonatal mice hearts and kidneys and impairs vascularization and heart and kidney function. Taken together, these data indicate a novel role for PKR1 in heart-kidney complex via EPDCs.

  4. Integrating signals from the T-cell receptor and the interleukin-2 receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo Beyer


    Full Text Available T cells orchestrate the adaptive immune response, making them targets for immunotherapy. Although immunosuppressive therapies prevent disease progression, they also leave patients susceptible to opportunistic infections. To identify novel drug targets, we established a logical model describing T-cell receptor (TCR signaling. However, to have a model that is able to predict new therapeutic approaches, the current drug targets must be included. Therefore, as a next step we generated the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R signaling network and developed a tool to merge logical models. For IL-2R signaling, we show that STAT activation is independent of both Src- and PI3-kinases, while ERK activation depends upon both kinases and additionally requires novel PKCs. In addition, our merged model correctly predicted TCR-induced STAT activation. The combined network also allows information transfer from one receptor to add detail to another, thereby predicting that LAT mediates JNK activation in IL-2R signaling. In summary, the merged model not only enables us to unravel potential cross-talk, but it also suggests new experimental designs and provides a critical step towards designing strategies to reprogram T cells.

  5. Defective signaling through the B cell antigen receptor in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed ataxia-telangiectasia cells. (United States)

    Khanna, K K; Yan, J; Watters, D; Hobson, K; Beamish, H; Spring, K; Shiloh, Y; Gatti, R A; Lavin, M F


    A characteristic series of immunological abnormalities are observed in the human genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). The recent cloning of a gene mutated in this syndrome provides additional evidence for a defect in intracellular signaling in A-T. We have investigated the possibility that signaling through the B cell antigen receptor is one manifestation of the A-T defect. In response to cross-linking of the B cell receptor, several A-T cell lines were defective in their mitogenic response; in addition Ca2+ mobilization from internal stores was either absent or considerably reduced in these cell lines in response to cross-linking. The defect in signaling was not due to difference in expression of surface immunoglobulin. The defective response in A-T cells was also evident in several arms of the intracellular cascade activated by B cell cross-linking. Tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma1, a key step in activation of the enzyme, was reduced or negligible in some A-T cell lines. This defect in signaling was also seen at the level of Lyn tyrosine kinase activation and its association with and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Our results provide evidence for a role for the ATM gene product in intracellular signaling which may account at least in part for the abnormalities in B cell function in A-T.

  6. Robert Feulgen Prize Lecture 1993. The journey of the insulin receptor into the cell: from cellular biology to pathophysiology. (United States)

    Carpentier, J L


    The data that we have reviewed indicate that insulin binds to a specific cell-surface receptor. The complex then becomes involved in a series of steps which lead the insulin-receptor complex to be internalized and rapidly delivered to endosomes. From this sorting station, the hormone is targeted to lysosomes to be degraded while the receptor is recycled back to the cell surface. This sequence of events presents two degrees of ligand specificity: (a) The first step is ligand-dependent and requires insulin-induced receptor phosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues. It consists in the surface redistribution of the receptor from microvilli where it preferentially localizes in its unoccupied form. (b) The second step is more general and consists in the association with clathrin-coated pits which represents the internalization gate common to many receptors. This sequence of events participates in the regulation of the biological action of the hormone and can thus be implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and various extreme insulin resistance syndromes, including type A extreme insulin resistance, leprechaunism, and Rabson-Mendehall syndrome. Alterations of the internalization process can result either from intrinsic abnormalities of the receptor or from more general alteration of the plasma membrane or of the cell metabolism. Type I diabetes is an example of the latter possibility, since general impairment of endocytosis could contribute to extracellular matrix accumulation and to an increase in blood cholesterol. Thus, better characterization of the molecular and cellular biology of the insulin receptor and of its journey inside the cell definitely leads to better understanding of disease states, including diabetes.

  7. Engineering novel cell surface chemistry for selective tumor cell targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertozzi, C.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)


    A common feature of many different cancers is the high expression level of the two monosaccharides sialic acid and fucose within the context of cell-surface associated glycoconjugates. A correlation has been made between hypersialylation and/or hyperfucosylation and the highly metastatic phenotype. Thus, a targeting strategy based on sialic acid or fucose expression would be a powerful tool for the development of new cancer cell-selective therapies and diagnostic agents. We have discovered that ketone groups can be incorporated metabolically into cell-surface associated sialic acids. The ketone is can be covalently ligated with hydrazide functionalized proteins or small molecules under physiological conditions. Thus, we have discovered a mechanism to selectively target hydrazide conjugates to highly sialylated cells such as cancer cells. Applications of this technology to the generation of novel cancer cell-selective toxins and MRI contrast reagents will be discussed, in addition to progress towards the use of cell surface fucose residues as vehicles for ketone expression.

  8. Blockade of murine T cell activation by antagonists of P2Y6 and P2X7 receptors. (United States)

    Tsukimoto, Mitsutoshi; Tokunaga, Akihiro; Harada, Hitoshi; Kojima, Shuji


    Extracellular nucleotides and their metabolites activate ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors on the surface of various types of cells. Here, we investigated the involvement of P2X and P2Y receptor-mediated signaling in TCR-dependent T cell activation. Murine T cells were activated by stimulation of TCR, and both CD25 expression and interleukin (IL)-2 production were observed in activated T cells. Ecto-nucleotidase apyrase and P2Y6 antagonist MRS2578 significantly blocked the increases of both CD25 expression and IL-2 production, and P2X7 antagonists A438079 and oxidized ATP inhibited IL-2 production rather than CD25 expression, suggesting the involvement of P2Y6 and P2X7 receptors in different processes of T cell activation. MRS2578 also blocked TCR-dependent elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ in T cells. The P2X7 and P2Y6 receptors were expressed in murine CD4 T cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that activation of P2Y6 and P2X7 receptors contributes to T cell activation via TCR.

  9. Obtaining control of cell surface functionalizations via Pre-targeting and Supramolecular host guest interactions. (United States)

    Rood, Mark T M; Spa, Silvia J; Welling, Mick M; Ten Hove, Jan Bart; van Willigen, Danny M; Buckle, Tessa; Velders, Aldrik H; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B


    The use of mammalian cells for therapeutic applications is finding its way into modern medicine. However, modification or "training" of cells to make them suitable for a specific application remains complex. By envisioning a chemical toolbox that enables specific, but straight-forward and generic cellular functionalization, we investigated how membrane-receptor (pre)targeting could be combined with supramolecular host-guest interactions based on β-cyclodextrin (CD) and adamantane (Ad). The feasibility of this approach was studied in cells with membranous overexpression of the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). By combining specific targeting of CXCR4, using an adamantane (Ad)-functionalized Ac-TZ14011 peptide (guest; KD = 56 nM), with multivalent host molecules that entailed fluorescent β-CD-Poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic-anhydride)-polymers with different fluorescent colors and number of functionalities, host-guest cell-surface modifications could be studied in detail. A second set of Ad-functionalized entities enabled introduction of additional surface functionalities. In addition, the attraction between CD and Ad could be used to drive cell-cell interactions. Combined we have shown that supramolecular interactions, that are based on specific targeting of an overexpressed membrane-receptor, allow specific and stable, yet reversible, surface functionalization of viable cells and how this approach can be used to influence the interaction between cells and their surroundings.

  10. A molecular basis underpinning the T cell receptor heterogeneity of mucosal-associated invariant T cells. (United States)

    Eckle, Sidonia B G; Birkinshaw, Richard W; Kostenko, Lyudmila; Corbett, Alexandra J; McWilliam, Hamish E G; Reantragoon, Rangsima; Chen, Zhenjun; Gherardin, Nicholas A; Beddoe, Travis; Liu, Ligong; Patel, Onisha; Meehan, Bronwyn; Fairlie, David P; Villadangos, Jose A; Godfrey, Dale I; Kjer-Nielsen, Lars; McCluskey, James; Rossjohn, Jamie


    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express an invariant T cell receptor (TCR) α-chain (TRAV1-2 joined to TRAJ33, TRAJ20, or TRAJ12 in humans), which pairs with an array of TCR β-chains. MAIT TCRs can bind folate- and riboflavin-based metabolites restricted by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-related class I-like molecule, MR1. However, the impact of MAIT TCR and MR1-ligand heterogeneity on MAIT cell biology is unclear. We show how a previously uncharacterized MR1 ligand, acetyl-6-formylpterin (Ac-6-FP), markedly stabilized MR1, potently up-regulated MR1 cell surface expression, and inhibited MAIT cell activation. These enhanced properties of Ac-6-FP were attributable to structural alterations in MR1 that subsequently affected MAIT TCR recognition via conformational changes within the complementarity-determining region (CDR) 3β loop. Analysis of seven TRBV6-1(+) MAIT TCRs demonstrated how CDR3β hypervariability impacted on MAIT TCR recognition by altering TCR flexibility and contacts with MR1 and the Ag itself. Ternary structures of TRBV6-1, TRBV6-4, and TRBV20(+) MAIT TCRs in complex with MR1 bound to a potent riboflavin-based antigen (Ag) showed how variations in TRBV gene usage exclusively impacted on MR1 contacts within a consensus MAIT TCR-MR1 footprint. Moreover, differential TRAJ gene usage was readily accommodated within a conserved MAIT TCR-MR1-Ag docking mode. Collectively, MAIT TCR heterogeneity can fine-tune MR1 recognition in an Ag-dependent manner, thereby modulating MAIT cell recognition.

  11. Differential expression of NK receptors CD94 and NKG2A by T cells in rheumatoid arthritis patients in remission compared to active disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Ceara E


    TNF inhibitors (TNFi) have revolutionised the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Natural killer (NK) cells and Natural Killer Cell Receptor+ T (NKT) cells comprise important effector lymphocytes whose activity is tightly regulated through surface NK receptors (NKRs). Dysregulation of NKRs in patients with autoimmune diseases has been shown, however little is known regarding NKRs expression in patients with TNFi-induced remission and in those who maintain remission vs disease flare following TNFi withdrawal.

  12. Biphasic coupling of neuronal nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation to the NMDA receptor regulates AMPA receptor trafficking and neuronal cell death. (United States)

    Rameau, Gerald A; Tukey, David S; Garcin-Hosfield, Elsa D; Titcombe, Roseann F; Misra, Charu; Khatri, Latika; Getzoff, Elizabeth D; Ziff, Edward B


    Postsynaptic nitric oxide (NO) production affects synaptic plasticity and neuronal cell death. Ca2+ fluxes through the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) stimulate the production of NO by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). However, the mechanisms by which nNOS activity is regulated are poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of neuronal stimulation with glutamate on the phosphorylation of nNOS. We show that, in cortical neurons, a low glutamate concentration (30 microM) induces rapid and transient NMDAR-dependent phosphorylation of S1412 by Akt, followed by sustained phosphorylation of S847 by CaMKII (calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II). We demonstrate that phosphorylation of S1412 by Akt is necessary for activation of nNOS by the NMDAR. nNOS mutagenesis confirms that these phosphorylations respectively activate and inhibit nNOS and, thus, transiently activate NO production. A constitutively active (S1412D), but not a constitutively repressed (S847D) nNOS mutant elevated surface glutamate receptor 2 levels, demonstrating that these phosphorylations can control AMPA receptor trafficking via NO. Notably, an excitotoxic stimulus (150 microM glutamate) induced S1412, but not S847 phosphorylation, leading to deregulated nNOS activation. S1412D did not kill neurons; however, it enhanced the excitotoxicity of a concomitant glutamate stimulus. We propose a swinging domain model for the regulation of nNOS: S1412 phosphorylation facilitates electron flow within the reductase module of nNOS, increasing nNOS sensitivity to Ca2+-calmodulin. These findings suggest a critical role for a kinetically complex and novel series of regulatory nNOS phosphorylations induced by the NMDA receptor for the in vivo control of nNOS.

  13. Bacterial cell surface structures in Yersinia enterocolitica. (United States)

    Białas, Nataniel; Kasperkiewicz, Katarzyna; Radziejewska-Lebrecht, Joanna; Skurnik, Mikael


    Yersinia enterocolitica is a widespread member of the family of Enterobacteriaceae that contains both non-virulent and virulent isolates. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, especially belonging to serotypes O:3, O:5,27, O:8 and O:9 are etiologic agents of yersiniosis in animals and humans. Y. enterocolitica cell surface structures that play a significant role in virulence have been subject to many investigations. These include outer membrane (OM) glycolipids such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) and several cell surface adhesion proteins present only in virulent Y. enterocolitica, i.e., Inv, YadA and Ail. While the yadA gene is located on the Yersinia virulence plasmid the Ail, Inv, LPS and ECA are chromosomally encoded. These structures ensure the correct architecture of the OM, provide adhesive properties as well as resistance to antimicrobial peptides and to host innate immune response mechanisms.

  14. Targeting of peptide conjugated magnetic nanoparticles to urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expressing cells (United States)

    Hansen, Line; Unmack Larsen, Esben Kjær; Nielsen, Erik Holm; Iversen, Frank; Liu, Zhuo; Thomsen, Karen; Pedersen, Michael; Skrydstrup, Troels; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Ploug, Michael; Kjems, Jørgen


    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor patient prognosis shared by several cancers including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Conjugation of a uPAR specific targeting peptide onto polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated USPIO nanoparticles by click chemistry resulted in a five times higher uptake in vitro in a uPAR positive cell line compared to nanoparticles carrying a non-binding control peptide. In accordance with specific receptor-mediated recognition, a low uptake was observed in the presence of an excess of ATF, a natural ligand for uPAR. The uPAR specific magnetic nanoparticles can potentially provide a useful supplement for tumor patient management when combined with MRI and drug delivery.Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor patient prognosis shared by several cancers including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Conjugation of a uPAR specific

  15. Erythropoietin regulates Treg cells in asthma through TGFβ receptor signaling. (United States)

    Wan, Guoshi; Wei, Bing


    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, the development of which is suppressed by regulatory T cells (Treg). Erythropoietin (EPO) is originally defined as a hematopoietic growth factor. Recently, the anti-inflammatory effects of EPO in asthma have been acknowledged. However, the underlying mechanisms remain ill-defined. Here, we showed that EPO treatment significantly reduced the severity of an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma in mice, seemingly through promoting Foxp3-mediated activation of Treg cells in OVA-treated mouse lung. The activation of Treg cells resulted from increases in transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), which were mainly produced by M2 macrophages (M2M). In vitro, Co-culture with M2M increased Foxp3 levels in Treg cells and the Treg cell number, in a TGFβ receptor signaling dependent manner. Moreover, elimination of macrophages abolished the therapeutic effects of EPO in vivo. Together, our data suggest that EPO may increase M2M, which activate Treg cells through TGFβ receptor signaling to mitigate the severity of asthma.

  16. Targeting a G-protein-coupled receptor overexpressed in endocrine tumors by magnetic nanoparticles to induce cell death. (United States)

    Sanchez, Claire; El Hajj Diab, Darine; Connord, Vincent; Clerc, Pascal; Meunier, Etienne; Pipy, Bernard; Payré, Bruno; Tan, Reasmey P; Gougeon, Michel; Carrey, Julian; Gigoux, Véronique; Fourmy, Daniel


    Nanotherapy using targeted magnetic nanoparticles grafted with peptidic ligands of receptors overexpressed in cancers is a promising therapeutic strategy. However, nanoconjugation of peptides can dramatically affect their properties with respect to receptor recognition, mechanism of internalization, intracellular trafficking, and fate. Furthermore, investigations are needed to better understand the mechanism whereby application of an alternating magnetic field to cells containing targeted nanoparticles induces cell death. Here, we designed a nanoplatform (termed MG-IONP-DY647) composed of an iron oxide nanocrystal decorated with a ligand of a G-protein coupled receptor, the cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK2R) that is overexpressed in several malignant cancers. MG-IONP-DY647 did not stimulate inflammasome of Raw 264.7 macrophages. They recognized cells expressing CCK2R with a high specificity, subsequently internalized via a mechanism involving recruitment of β-arrestins, clathrin-coated pits, and dynamin and were directed to lysosomes. Binding and internalization of MG-IONP-DY647 were dependent on the density of the ligand at the nanoparticle surface and were slowed down relative to free ligand. Trafficking of CCK2R internalized with the nanoparticles was slightly modified relative to CCK2R internalized in response to free ligand. Application of an alternating magnetic field to cells containing MG-IONP-DY647 induced apoptosis and cell death through a lysosomal death pathway, demonstrating that cell death is triggered even though nanoparticles of low thermal power are internalized in minute amounts by the cells. Together with pioneer findings using iron oxide nanoparticles targeting tumoral cells expressing epidermal growth factor receptor, these data represent a solid basis for future studies aiming at establishing the proof-of-concept of nanotherapy of cancers using ligand-grafted magnetic nanoparticles specifically internalized via cell surface receptors.

  17. Mineralocorticoid Receptors in Immune Cells; Emerging Role in Cardiovascular Disease


    Bene, Nicholas C.; Alcaide, Pilar; Wortis, Henry H.; Jaffe, Iris Z.


    Mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) contribute to the pathophysiology of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in humans. As such, MR antagonists improve cardiovascular outcomes but the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The actions of the MR in the kidney to increase blood pressure are well known, but the recent identification of MRs in immune cells has led to novel discoveries in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease that are reviewed here. MR regulates macrophage activation to the pr...

  18. TRAIL Death Receptor-4, Decoy Receptor-1 and Decoy Receptor-2 Expression on CD8+ T Cells Correlate with the Disease Severity in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisgin Atil


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disorder. Although the pathogenesis of disease is unclear, it is well known that T cells play a major role in both development and perpetuation of RA through activating macrophages and B cells. Since the lack of TNF-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL expression resulted in defective thymocyte apoptosis leading to an autoimmune disease, we explored evidence for alterations in TRAIL/TRAIL receptor expression on peripheral T lymphocytes in the molecular mechanism of RA development. Methods The expression of TRAIL/TRAIL receptors on T cells in 20 RA patients and 12 control individuals were analyzed using flow cytometry. The correlation of TRAIL and its receptor expression profile was compared with clinical RA parameters (RA activity scored as per DAS28 using Spearman Rho Analysis. Results While no change was detected in the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ T cells between controls and RA patient groups, upregulation of TRAIL and its receptors (both death and decoy was detected on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in RA patients compared to control individuals. Death Receptor-4 (DR4 and the decoy receptors DcR1 and DcR2 on CD8+ T cells, but not on CD4+ T cells, were positively correlated with patients' DAS scores. Conclusions Our data suggest that TRAIL/TRAIL receptor expression profiles on T cells might be important in revelation of RA pathogenesis.

  19. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and surface and ground water in a drilling-dense region (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Davis, J. Wade; Hormann, Anette M.; Nagel, Susan C.


    The rapid rise in natural gas extraction using hydraulic fracturing increases the potential for contamination of surface and ground water from chemicals used throughout the process. Hundreds of products containing more than 750 chemicals and components are potentially used throughout the extraction process, including more than 100 known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We hypothesized thataselected subset of chemicalsusedin natural gas drilling operationsandalso surface and ground water samples collected in a drilling-dense region of Garfield County, Colorado, would exhibit estrogen and androgen receptor activities. Water samples were collected, solid-phase extracted, and measured for estrogen and androgen receptor activities using reporter gene assays in human cell lines. Of the 39 unique water samples, 89%, 41%, 12%, and 46% exhibited estrogenic, antiestrogenic, androgenic, and antiandrogenic activities, respectively. Testing of a subset of natural gas drilling chemicals revealed novel antiestrogenic, novel antiandrogenic, and limited estrogenic activities. The Colorado River, the drainage basin for this region, exhibited moderate levels of estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and antiandrogenic activities, suggesting that higher localized activity at sites with known natural gas–related spills surrounding the river might be contributing to the multiple receptor activities observed in this water source. The majority of water samples collected from sites in a drilling-dense region of Colorado exhibited more estrogenic, antiestrogenic, or antiandrogenic activities than reference sites with limited nearby drilling operations. Our data suggest that natural gas drilling operationsmayresult in elevated endocrine-disrupting chemical activity in surface and ground water.

  20. Nucleolin on the cell surface as a new molecular target for gastric cancer treatment. (United States)

    Watanabe, Tatsuro; Hirano, Kazuya; Takahashi, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Kensei; Beppu, Masatoshi; Fujiki, Hirota; Suganuma, Masami


    Nucleolin is an abundant non-ribosomal protein found in nucleolus and a major component of silver-stained nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR), a histopathological marker of cancer which is highly elevated in cancer cells. We recently reported that nucleolin on the cell surface of mouse gastric cancer cells acts as a receptor for tumor necrosis factor-alpha-inducing protein (Tipalpha), a new carcinogenic factor of Helicobacter pylori. In this study, we first examined the localization of nucleolin on cell surface of five gastric cancer cell lines by cell fractionation and flow cytometry: We found that large amounts of nucleolin were present on surface of MKN-45, KATOIII, MKN-74, and AGS cells, with smaller amounts on surface of MKN-1 cells. The membrane fraction of normal epithelial cells of mouse glandular stomach did not contain much nucleolin, suggesting that translocation of nucleolin to the cell surface occurs during carcinogenesis, making for easier binding with Tipalpha. AS1411, a nucleolin targeted DNA aptamer, inhibited growth of gastric cancer cell lines in this order of potency: MKN-45>KATOIII>AGS>MKN-74=MKN-1, associated with induction of S-phase cell cycle arrest. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-AS1411 was more rapidly incorporated into MKN-45 and AGS than into MKN-1 cells, based on varying amounts of cell surface nucleolin. We think that AS1411 first binds to nucleolin on the cell surface and that the binding complex is then incorporated into the cells. All results indicate that nucleolin on the cell surface is a new and promising therapeutic target for treatment of gastric cancer.

  1. Gut-homing CD4+ T cell receptor alpha beta+ T cells in the pathogenesis of murine inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolphi, A; Boll, G; Poulsen, S S;


    We studied which T cell subsets from the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) can migrate out of the gut mucosa and repopulate GALT compartments of an immunodeficient (semi)syngeneic host. Many distinct lymphocyte subsets were found in GALT of immunocompetent H-2d (BALB/c, BALB/cdm2, C.B-17......+/+) mice. No antigen receptor-expressing lymphoid cells were found in GALT of congenic C.B-17 scid/scid (scid) mice. The heterotopic transplantation of a full-thickness gut wall graft from the ileum or colon of immunocompetent (C.B-17+/+, BALB/cdm2) donor mice onto immunodeficient scid mice selectively...... reconstituted a CD3+ T cell receptor alpha beta+ CD4+ T cell subset. CD4+ cells of this subset expressed the surface phenotype of mucosa-seeking, memory T cells. In the immunodeficient scid host, this gut-derived CD4+ T cell subset was found in spleen, peritoneal cavity, mesenteric lymph nodes (LN), epithelial...

  2. Molecular Aspects of HTLV-1 Entry: Functional Domains of the HTLV-1 Surface Subunit (SU and Their Relationships to the Entry Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Lambert


    Full Text Available The initial step in retroviral infection involves specific interactions between viral envelope proteins (Env and specific receptors on the surface of target cells. For many years, little was known about the entry receptors for HTLV-1. During this time, however, functional domains of the HTLV-1 Env were identified by analyzing the effects of neutralizing antibodies and specific mutations in Env on HTLV-1 infectivity. More recent studies have revealed that HTLV-1 infectivity involves interactions with three different molecules: heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG, the VEGF-165 receptor Neuropilin 1 (NRP-1 and glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1. Here, we revisit previously published data on the functional domains of Env in regard to the recent knowledge acquired about this multi-receptor complex. We also discuss the similarities and differences between HTLV-1 and other deltaretroviruses in regards to receptor usage.

  3. Can selective MHC downregulation explain the specificity and genetic diversity of NK cell receptors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eCarrillo-Bustamante


    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells express inhibiting receptors (iNKRs s which specifically bind MHC-I molecules on the surface of healthy cells. When the expression of MHC-I on the cell surface decreases, which might occur during certain viral infections and cancer, iNKRs s lose inhibiting signals and the infected cells become target for NK cell activation (missing-self detection. Although the detection of MHC-I deficient cells can be achieved by conserved receptor-ligand interactions, several iNKRs are encoded by gene families with a remarkable genetic diversity, containing many haplotypes varying in gene content and allelic polymorphism. So far, the biological function of this expansion within the NKR cluster has remained poorly understood. Here, we investigate whether the evolution of diverse iNKRs genes can be driven by a specific viral immunoevasive mechanism: selective MHC downregulation. Several viruses, including EBV, CMV, and HIV, decrease the expression of MHC-I to escape from T cell responses. This downregulation does not always affect all MHC loci in the same way, as viruses target particular MHC molecules. To study the selection pressure of selective MHC downregulation on iNKRs, we have developed an agent-based model simulating an evolutionary scenario of hosts infected with herpes-like viruses that are able to selectively downregulate the expression of MHC-I molecules on the cell surface. We show that iNKRs evolve specificity and, depending on the similarity of MHC alleles within each locus and the differences between the loci, they can specialize to a particular MHC-I locus. The easier it is to classify an MHC allele to its locus, the lower the required diversity of the NKRs. Thus, the diversification of the iNKR cluster depends on the locus specific MHC structure.

  4. Signal Transduction in Dictyostelium fgd A Mutants with a Defective Interaction between Surface cAMP Receptors and a GTP-binding Regulatory Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesbeke, Fanja; Snaar-Jagalska, B. Ewa; Haastert, Peter J.M. van


    Transmembrane signal transduction was investigated in four Dictyostelium discoideum mutants that belong to the fgd A complementation group. The results show the following. (a) Cell surface cAMP receptors are present in fgd A mutants, but cAMP does not induce any of the intracellular responses, inclu

  5. Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell (Car T Cell Therapy In Hematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Ataca


    Full Text Available It is well demonstrated that immune system can control and eliminate cancer cells. Immune-mediated elimination of tumor cells has been discovered and is the basis of both cancer vaccines and cellular therapies including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. Adoptive T cell transfer has been improved to be more specific and potent and cause less off-target toxicities. Currently, there are two forms of engineered T cells being tested in clinical trials: T cell receptor (TCR and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR modified T cells. On July 1, 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration granted ‘breakthrough therapy’ designation to anti-CD19 CAR T cell therapy. Many studies were conducted to evaluate the beneficiaries of this exciting and potent new treatment modality. This review summarizes the history of adoptive immunotherapy, adoptive immunotherapy using CARs, the CAR manufacturing process, preclinical-clinical studies, effectiveness and drawbacks of this strategy.

  6. Heterologous Expression of Rat Testis GABAA Receptor β3t Splicing Variant in CHO Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-feng LI; Yu-guang CHEN; Yuan-chang YAN; Yi-ping LI


    Objective To characterize a possible retention function of unique sequence in the 5'end of rat testis GABAA receptor β3t splicing variantMethods Rat testis GABAA receptor β3t splicing variant cDNA was cloned and two eukaryotic expression recombinant plasmids of pEGFP-N1 and pEGFP-C1 were constructed respectively by fusing green fluorescent protein to the N or C-terminus of β3t isoform. The recombinant plasmids were transfected into CHO cells by calcium phosphate co-precipitation method. Fluorescence microscope and laser confocal microscope were used to analyze localization of β3t in the transfected cells. ConA-Texas-Red was used to label cell ER and the localization of rat testis β3t splicing variant in CHO cells was determined.Results When rat testis β3t splicing variant was expressed in CHO cells, two expression patterns were delineated, the distributions of uniform and mainly discrete intracellular compartments respectively. The chimera product failed to be translocated into the cell surface when expressed in CHO cells; whereas the β3 subunit of rat brain was incorporated into the plasma membrane.Conclusion The inability of β3t to target into the ER may be a consequence of the unique 25 specific amino acid segments in the N terminus.

  7. Going viral: chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for hematological malignancies. (United States)

    Gill, Saar; June, Carl H


    On July 1, 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration granted 'breakthrough therapy' designation to CTL019, the anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy developed at the University of Pennsylvania. This is the first personalized cellular therapy for cancer to be so designated and occurred 25 years after the first publication describing genetic redirection of T cells to a surface antigen of choice. The peer-reviewed literature currently contains the outcomes of more than 100 patients treated on clinical trials of anti-CD19 redirected T cells, and preliminary results on many more patients have been presented. At last count almost 30 clinical trials targeting CD19 were actively recruiting patients in North America, Europe, and Asia. Patients with high-risk B-cell malignancies therefore represent the first beneficiaries of an exciting and potent new treatment modality that harnesses the power of the immune system as never before. A handful of trials are targeting non-CD19 hematological and solid malignancies and represent the vanguard of enormous preclinical efforts to develop CAR T-cell therapy beyond B-cell malignancies. In this review, we explain the concept of chimeric antigen receptor gene-modified T cells, describe the extant results in hematologic malignancies, and share our outlook on where this modality is likely to head in the near future.

  8. Involvement of Activating NK Cell Receptors and Their Modulation in Pathogen Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marras


    Full Text Available Natural Killer (NK cells are endowed with cell-structure-sensing receptors providing inhibitory protection from self-destruction (inhibitory NK receptors, iNKRs, including killer inhibitory receptors and other molecules and rapid triggering potential leading to functional cell activation by Toll-like receptors (TLRs, cytokine receptors, and activating NK cell receptors including natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs, i.e., NKp46, NKp46, and NKp44. NCR and NKG2D recognize ligands on infected cells which may be endogenous or may directly bind to some structures derived from invading pathogens. In this paper, we address the known direct or indirect interactions between activating receptors and pathogens and their expression during chronic HIV and HCV infections.

  9. Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH) Induced Internalization of Porcine FSH Receptor in Cultured Porcine Granulosa Cells and Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Transfected with Recombinant Porcine FSH Receptor cDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Changhong; TIAN; Hong; XIONG; Zhongming; XIA; Huizhu


    In order to study the fate of human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) when hormone binds to its receptor, a quick biochemical method that can differentiate between the surface-bound and internalized hormone was used to determine the internalization induced by FSH in cultured both porcine granulosa cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing recombinant porcine FSH receptor. The results showed that FSH was slowly internalized, and the internalized radioactivity (acid resistant) reached a peak 10-12 h after addition of 125I-hFSH. It was suggested that FSHR do not get internalized rapidly under physiological circumstances precisely because the appropriate sequences are absent.

  10. A novel gene delivery system targeting cells expressing VEGF receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Two ligand oligopeptides GV1 and GV2 were designed according to the putative binding region of VEGF to its receptors.GV1,GV2 and endosome releasing oligopeptide HA20 were conjugated with poly-L-lysine or protamine and the resulting conjugates could interact with DNA in a noncovalent bond to form a complex.Using pSV2-β-galactosidase as a reporter gene,it has been demonstrated that exogenous gene was transferred into bovine aortic arch-derived endothelial cells (ABAE) and human malignant melanoma cell lines (A375) in vitro.In vivo experiments,exogenous gene was transferred into tumor vascular endothelial cells and tumor cells of subcutaneously transplanted human colon cancer LOVO,human malignant melanoma A375 and human hepatoma graft in nude mice.This system could also target gene to intrahepatically transplanted human hepatoma injected via portal vein in nude mice.These results are correlated with the relevant receptors(flt-1,flk-1/KDR) expression on the targeted cells and tissues.

  11. Quercetin suppresses insulin receptor signaling through inhibition of the insulin ligand–receptor binding and therefore impairs cancer cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng [Department of Gastroenterology, The Tenth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Yang, Yong, E-mail: [Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065 (United States)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quercetin inhibits insulin ligand–receptor interactions. • Quercetin reduces downstream insulin receptor signaling. • Quercetin blocks insulin induced glucose uptake. • Quercetin suppresses insulin stimulated cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. - Abstract: Although the flavonoid quercetin is known to inhibit activation of insulin receptor signaling, the inhibitory mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that quercetin suppresses insulin induced dimerization of the insulin receptor (IR) through interfering with ligand–receptor interactions, which reduces the phosphorylation of IR and Akt. This inhibitory effect further inhibits insulin stimulated glucose uptake due to decreased cell membrane translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), resulting in impaired cancer cell proliferation. The effect of quercetin in inhibiting tumor growth was also evident in an in vivo model, indicating a potential future application for quercetin in the treatment of cancers.

  12. Sendai virus utilizes specific sialyloligosaccharides as host cell receptor determinants.



    Purified sialyltransferases (CMP-N-acetyl-neuraminate:D-galactosyl-glycoprotein N-acetylneuraminyl-transferase, EC in conjunction with neuraminidase (acylneuraminyl hydrolase, EC were used to produce cell surface sialyloligosaccharides of defined sequence to investigate their role in paramyxovirus infection of host cells. Infection of Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells by Sendai virus was monitored by hemagglutination titer of the virus produced and by changes in morphologica...

  13. Cell Surface Enzymatic Engineering-Based Approaches to Improve Cellular Therapies

    KAUST Repository

    AbuElela, Ayman


    The cell surface represents the interface between the cell and its environment. As such, the cell surface controls cell–cell interactions and functions such as adhesion and migration, and will transfer external cues to regulate processes such as survival, death, and differentiation. Redefining the cell surface by temporarily (or permanently) modifying the molecular landscape of the plasma membrane affects the way in which the cell interacts with its environment and influences the information that is relayed into the cell along downstream signaling pathways. This chapter outlines the role of key enzymes, the glycosyltransferases, in posttranslationally modifying proteins and lipids to fine-tune cells, ability to migrate. These enzymes are critical in controlling the formation of a platform structure, sialyl Lewis x (sLex), on circulating cells that plays a central role in the recognition and recruitment by selectin counter receptors on endothelial cells that line blood vessels of tissues throughout the body. By developing methods to manipulate the activity of these enzymes and hence the cell surface structures that result, treatments can be envisioned that direct the migration of therapeutic cells to specific locations throughout the body and also to inhibit metastasis of detrimental cells such as circulating tumor cells.

  14. Characterization of human endothelial cell urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor protein and messenger RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnathan, E S; Kuo, A; Karikó, K


    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture (HUVEC) express receptors for urokinase-type plasminogen activators (u-PA). The immunochemical nature of this receptor and its relationship to u-PA receptors expressed by other cell types is unknown. Cross-linking active site-blocked u-PA to HUVEC...

  15. M-CSF receptor mutations in hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids impair not only kinase activity but also surface expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiyoshi, Masateru; Hashimoto, Michihiro; Yukihara, Mamiko; Bhuyan, Farzana; Suzu, Shinya, E-mail:


    Highlights: •Many mutations were identified in Fms as a putative genetic cause of HDLS. •All of the mutations tested severely impair the kinase activity. •Most of the mutations also impair the trafficking to the cell surface. •These defects further suggest that HDLS is caused by a loss of Fms function. -- Abstract: The tyrosine kinase Fms, the cell surface receptor for M-CSF and IL-34, is critical for microglial proliferation and differentiation in the brain. Recently, a number of mutations have been identified in Fms as a putative genetic cause of hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS), implying an important role of microglial dysfunction in HDLS pathogenesis. In this study, we initially confirmed that 11 mutations, which reside within the ATP-binding or major tyrosine kinase domain, caused a severe impairment of ligand-induced Fms auto-phosphorylation. Intriguingly, we found that 10 of the 11 mutants also showed a weak cell surface expression, which was associated with a concomitant increase in the low molecular weight hypo-N-glycosylated immature gp130Fms-like species. Indeed, the mutant proteins heavily accumulated to the Golgi-like perinuclear regions. These results indicate that all of the Fms mutations tested severely impair the kinase activity and most of the mutations also impair the trafficking to the cell surface, further suggesting that HDLS is caused by the loss of Fms function.


    Rainbow Trout Androgen Receptor Alpha And Human Androgen Receptor: Comparisons in the COS Whole Cell Binding Assay Mary C. Cardon, L. Earl Gray, Jr. and Vickie S. WilsonU.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle...

  17. Relation of cell proliferation to expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in human breast cancer cell lines. (United States)

    Beinlich, A; Strohmeier, R; Kaufmann, M; Kuhl, H


    Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) agonist [(3)H]Ro5-4864 has been shown to bind with high affinity to the human breast cancer cell line BT-20. Therefore, we investigated different human breast cancer cell lines with regard to binding to [(3)H]Ro5-4864 and staining with the PBR-specific monoclonal antibody 8D7. Results were correlated with cell proliferation characteristics. In flow cytometric analysis, the estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer cell lines BT-20, MDA-MB-435-S, and SK-BR-3 showed significantly higher PBR expression (relative fluorescence intensity) than the ER-positive cells T47-D, MCF-7 and BT-474 (Pdiazepam-binding inhibitor are possibly involved in the regulation of cell proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines.

  18. CZTSSe thin film solar cells: Surface treatments (United States)

    Joglekar, Chinmay Sunil

    Chalcopyrite semiconducting materials, specifically CZTS, are a promising alternative to traditional silicon solar cell technology. Because of the high absorption coefficient; films of the order of 1 micrometer thickness are sufficient for the fabrication of solar cells. Liquid based synthesis methods are advantageous because they are easily scalable using the roll to roll manufacturing techniques. Various treatments are explored in this study to enhance the performance of the selenized CZTS film based solar cells. Thiourea can be used as a sulfur source and can be used to tune band gap of CZTSSe. Bromine etching can be used to manipulate the thickness of sintered CZTSSe film. The etching treatment creates recombination centers which lead to poor device performance. Various after treatments were used to improve the performance of the devices. It was observed that the performance of the solar cell devices could not be improved by any of the after treatment steps. Other surface treatment processes are explored including KCN etching and gaseous H2S treatments. Hybrid solar cells which included use of CIGS nanoparticles at the interface between CZTSSe and CdS are also explored.

  19. Single-molecule analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120-receptor interactions in living cells. (United States)

    Chang, Melissa I; Panorchan, Porntula; Dobrowsky, Terrence M; Tseng, Yiider; Wirtz, Denis


    A quantitative description of the binding interactions between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 envelope glycoproteins and their host cell surface receptors remains incomplete. Here, we introduce a single-molecule analysis that directly probes the binding interactions between an individual viral subunit gp120 and a single receptor CD4 and/or chemokine coreceptor CCR5 in living cells. This analysis differentiates single-molecule binding from multimolecule avidity and shows that, while the presence of CD4 is required for gp120 binding to CCR5, the force required to rupture a single gp120-coreceptor bond is significantly higher and its lifetime is much longer than those of a single gp120-receptor bond. The lifetimes of these bonds are themselves shorter than those of the P-selectin/PSGL-1 bond involved in leukocyte attachment to the endothelium bonds during an inflammation response. These results suggest an amended model of HIV entry in which, immediately after the association of gp120 to its receptor, gp120 seeks its coreceptor to rapidly form a new bond. This "bond transfer" occurs only if CCR5 is in close proximity to CD4 and CD4 is still attached to gp120. The analysis presented here may serve as a general framework to study mechanisms of receptor-mediated interactions between viral envelope proteins and host cell receptors at the single-molecule level in living cells.

  20. [The level of EGF receptor expression effects its transactivation by IFN gamma in epithelial cells]. (United States)

    Gonchar, I V; Dorosh, V N; Nikol'skiĭ, N N; Burova, E B


    Earlier, we demonstrated transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in response to interferon gamma (IFNgamma) in epidermal carcinoma A431 cells. It was shown that IFNgamma-induced EGFR transactivation is impossible in some cancer epithelial cells. Here, we hypothesize that IFNgamma-dependent EGFR transactivation in these cells correlates with EGFR quantity on the cell surface. To test this suggestion, a line of stably transfected HEK293 cells (HEK293delta99 cells) expressing high level of mutant EGFR lacking 99 C-terminal residues has been established. HEK293delta99 cells demonstrated EGFR transactivation in response to IFNgamma unlike the parent HEK293 cells, in which transactivation lacked. In HEK293delta99 and A431 cells, the time courses of EGFR activation induced by IFNgamma have the same pattern. In HEK293delta99 cells like A431, IFNgamma-induced EGFR transactivation requires EGFR kinase activity and occurs via autophosphorylation mechanism. Taken together, these data provide direct evidence of the dependence of IFNgamma-induced EGFR transactivation upon EGFR expression level in epithelial cells.

  1. Microfluidic devices for label-free separation of cells through transient interaction with asymmetric receptor patterns (United States)

    Bose, S.; Singh, R.; Hollatz, M. H.; Lee, C.-H.; Karp, J.; Karnik, R.


    Cell sorting serves an important role in clinical diagnosis and biological research. Most of the existing microscale sorting techniques are either non-specific to antigen type or rely on capturing cells making sample recovery difficult. We demonstrate a simple; yet effective technique for isolating cells in an antigen specific manner by using transient interactions of the cell surface antigens with asymmetric receptor patterned surface. Using microfluidic devices incorporating P-selectin patterns we demonstrate separation of HL60 cells from K562 cells. We achieved a sorting purity above 90% and efficiency greater than 85% with this system. We also present a mathematical model incorporating flow mediated and adhesion mediated transport of cells in the microchannel that can be used to predict the performance of these devices. Lastly, we demonstrate the clinical significance of the method by demonstrating single step separation of neutrophils from whole blood. When whole blood is introduced in the device, the granulocyte population gets separated exclusively yielding neutrophils of high purity (<10% RBC contamination). To our knowledge, this is the first ever demonstration of continuous label free sorting of neutrophils from whole blood. We believe this technology will be useful in developing point-of-care diagnostic devices and also for a host of cell sorting applications.

  2. Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor on invasive cancer cells: A prognostic factor in distal gastric adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpizar, Warner Enrique Alpizar; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric


    Gastric cancer is the second cancer causing death worldwide. The five-year survival for this malignancy is below 25% and few parameters have shown an impact on the prognosis of the disease. The receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) is involved in extracellular matrix degradation...... by mediating cell surface associated plasminogen activation, and its presence on gastric cancer cells is linked to micrometastasis and poor prognosis. Using immunohistochemistry, the prognostic significance of uPAR was evaluated in tissue samples from a retrospective series of 95 gastric cancer patients. u...... association between the expression of uPAR on tumor cells in the peripheral invasion zone and overall survival of gastric cancer patients (HR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.13-4.14; p = 0.02). Multivariate analysis showed that uPAR immunoreactivity in cancer cells at the invasive front is an independent prognostic factor...

  3. Activation of P2X7 receptors decreases the proliferation of murine luteal cells. (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Shuangmei; Nie, Yijun; Wu, Bing; Wu, Qin; Song, Miaomiao; Tang, Min; Xiao, Li; Xu, Ping; Tan, Ximin; Zhang, Luyin; Li, Gang; Liang, Shangdong; Zhang, Chunping


    Extracellular ATP regulates cellular function in an autocrine or paracrine manner through activating purinergic signalling. Studies have shown that purinergic receptors were expressed in mammalian ovaries and they have been proposed as an intra-ovarian regulatory mechanism. P2X7 was expressed in porcine ovarian theca cells and murine and human ovarian surface epithelium and is involved in ATP-induced apoptotic cell death. However, the role of P2X7 in corpus luteum is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ATP signalling in murine luteal cells and the possible mechanism(s) involved. We found that P2X7 was highly expressed in murine small luteal cells. The agonists of P2X7, ATP and BzATP, inhibited the proliferation of luteal cells. P2X7 antagonist BBG reversed the inhibition induced by ATP and BzATP. Further studies showed that ATP and BzATP inhibited the expression of cell cycle regulators cyclinD2 and cyclinE2. ATP and BzATP also inhibited the p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway. These results reveal that P2X7 receptor activation is involved in corpus luteum formation and function.

  4. Receptor-like Molecules on Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells Interact with an Adhesion Factor from Lactobacillus reuteri


    Matsuo, Yosuke; MIYOSHI, Yukihiro; Okada, Sanae; SATOH, Eiichi


    A surface protein of Lactobacillus reuteri, mucus adhesion-promoting protein (MapA), is considered to be an adhesion factor. MapA is expressed in L. reuteri strains and adheres to piglet gastric mucus, collagen type I, and human intestinal epithelial cells such as Caco-2. The aim of this study was to identify molecules that mediate the attachment of MapA from L. reuteri to the intestinal epithelial cell surface by investigating the adhesion of MapA to receptor-like molecules on Caco-2 cells. ...

  5. Human olfactory receptors: recombinant expression in the baculovirus/Sf9 insect cell system, functional characterization, and odorant identification. (United States)

    Matarazzo, Valéry; Ronin, Catherine


    Cell surface expression of recombinant olfactory receptors (ORs) is a major limitation in characterizing their functional nature. We have shown that the recombinant expression of a human OR, OR 17-210, in the baculovirus/Sf9 insect cell system allows this protein to be expressed at the cell surface. We used Ca(2+) imaging to demonstrate that recombinant OR 17-210 produces cellular activities upon odorant stimulation with ketones. Furthermore, this expression and functional system has been used to show that the preincubation of Human Odorant Binding Protein 2A decrease the calcium response of OR 17-210 following stimulation by acetophenone and beta ionone.

  6. Frequency Selective Surfaces with Nanoparticles Unit Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nga Hung Poon


    Full Text Available The frequency selective surface (FSS is a periodic structure with filtering performance for optical and microwave signals. The general periodic arrays made with patterned metallic elements can act as an aperture or patch on a substrate. In this work, two kinds of materials were used to produce unit cells with various patterns. Gold nanoparticles of 25 nm diameter were used to form periodic monolayer arrays by a confined photocatalytic oxidation-based surface modification method. As the other material, silver gel was used to create multiple layers of silver. Due to the ultra-thin nature of the self-assembled gold nanoparticle monolayer, it is very easy to penetrate the FSS with terahertz radiation. However, the isolated silver islands made from silver gel form thicker multiple layers and contribute to much higher reflectance. This work demonstrated that multiple silver layers are more suitable than gold nanoparticles for use in the fabrication of FSS structures.

  7. Detection of multiple hormonal activities in wastewater effluents and surface water, using a panel of steroid receptor CALUX bioassays. (United States)

    Van der Linden, Sander C; Heringa, Minne B; Man, Hai-Yen; Sonneveld, Edwin; Puijker, Leo M; Brouwer, Abraham; Van der Burg, Bart


    It is generally known that there are compounds present in the aquatic environment that can disturb endocrine processes, for example via interaction with the endogenous hormone receptors. Most research so far has focused on compounds that bind to the estrogen and/or androgen receptor, but ligands for other hormone receptors might also be present. In this study, a newly completed panel of human cell derived CALUX reporter gene bioassays was utilized to test water extracts for estrogen (ER), as well as androgen (AR), progesterone (PR), and glucocorticoid (GR) receptor mediated transactivation activity. Effluents from industry, hospital, and municipal sewage treatment plants, as well as tap water and different sources of surface water were tested. The CALUX reporter gene panel showed high sensitivity and specificity to known agonists, enabling discrimination between different receptor based endocrine responses present in the aquatic environment. Our results clearly showed the presence of agonistic activity on the ER, as well as on the AR, PR, and GR in the raw and wastewater and surface water extracts. However, no hormone receptor-mediated transactivation was detected in the drinking water or in the blank water. The levels of estrogenic activity were 0.2-0.5 ng E2-equiv/L for surface water and 0.4-1.0 ng E2-equiv/L for municipal effluents, which was consistent with previous studies. Surprisingly, the other hormonal activities were found to be present in similar or much higher levels. Most notably, glucocorticoid-like activity was detected in all samples, at surprisingly high levels ranging from 0.39-1.3 ng Dex-equiv/L in surface water and 11-243 ng Dex-equiv/L in effluents. When regarding the fact that dexamethasone in the GR CALUX bioassay is a factor 12 more potent than the natural hormone cortisol, results expressed as cortisol equivalents would range up to 2900 ng cortisol equiv/L. Further studies are needed to establish the identity of the active compounds and to

  8. Secretory phospholipase A2-mediated neuronal cell death involves glutamate ionotropic receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Turco, Elena B; Diemer, Nils Henrik; Bazan, Nicolas G


    To define the significance of glutamate ionotropic receptors in sPLA -mediated neuronal cell death we used the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 and the AMPA receptor antagonist PNQX. In primary neuronal cell cultures both MK-801 and PNQX inhibited sPLA - and glutamate-induced neuronal death. [ H...... neuronal cell death. We conclude that glutamatergic synaptic activity modulates sPLA -induced neuronal cell death....

  9. Activin Receptor Signaling Regulates Prostatic Epithelial Cell Adhesion and Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek P. Simon


    Full Text Available Mutational changes coupled with endocrine, paracrine, and/or autocrine signals regulate cell division during carcinogenesis. The hormone signals remain undefined, although the absolute requirement in vitro for fetal serum indicates the necessity for a fetal serum factor(s in cell proliferation. Using prostatic cancer cell (PCC lines as a model of cancer cell proliferation, we have identified the fetal serum component activin A and its signaling through the activin receptor type II (ActRII, as necessary, although not sufficient, for PCC proliferation. Activin A induced Smad2 phosphorylation and PCC proliferation, but only in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS. Conversely, activin A antibodies and inhibin A suppressed FBS-induced PCC proliferation confirming activin A as one of multiple serum components required for PCC proliferation. Basic fibroblast growth factor was subsequently shown to synergize activin A-induced PCC proliferation. Inhibition of ActRII signaling using a blocking antibody or antisense-P decreased mature ActRII expression, Smad2 phosphorylation, and the apparent viability of PCCs and neuroblastoma cells grown in FBS. Suppression of ActRII signaling in PCC and neuroblastoma cells did not induce apoptosis as indicated by the ratio of active/inactive caspase 3 but did correlate with increased cell detachment and ADAM-15 expression, a disintegrin whose expression is strongly correlated with prostatic metastasis. These findings indicate that ActRII signaling is required for PCC and neuroblastoma cell viability, with ActRII mediating cell fate via the regulation of cell adhesion. That ActRII signaling governs both cell viability and cell adhesion has important implications for developing therapeutic strategies to regulate cancer growth and metastasis.

  10. Autocrine regulation of cell proliferation by estrogen receptor-alpha in estrogen receptor-alpha-positive breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zhongzong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen receptor-α (ERα is essential for mammary gland development and is a major oncogene in breast cancer. Since ERα is not colocalized with the cell proliferation marker Ki-67 in the normal mammary glands and the majority of primary breast tumors, it is generally believed that paracrine regulation is involved in ERα mediated cell proliferation. In the paracrine model, ERα-positive cells don't proliferate but will release some paracrine growth factors to stimulate the neighboring cells to proliferate. In a subpopulation of cancer cells in some primary breast tumors, however, ERα does colocalize with the cell proliferation marker Ki-67, suggesting an autocrine regulation by ERα in some primary breast tumors. Methods Colocalization of ERα with Ki-67 in ERα-positive breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, and ZR75-1 was evaluated by immunofluorescent staining. Cell cycle phase dependent expression of ERα was determined by co-immunofluorescent staining of ERα and the major cyclins (D, E, A, B, and by flow cytometry analysis of ERαhigh cells. To further confirm the autocrine action of ERα, MCF-7 cells were growth arrested by ICI182780 treatment, followed by treatment with EGFR inhibitor, before estrogen stimulation and analyses for colocalization of Ki-67 and ERα and cell cycle progression. Results Colocalization of ERα with Ki-67 was present in all three ERα-positive breast cancer cell lines. Unlike that in the normal mammary glands and the majority of primary breast tumors, ERα is highly expressed throughout the cell cycle in MCF-7 cells. Without E2 stimulation, MCF-7 cells released from ICI182780 treatment remain at G1 phase. E2 stimulation of ICI182780 treated cells, however, promotes the expression and colocalization of ERα and Ki-67 as well as the cell cycle progressing through the S and G2/M phases. Inhibition of EGFR signaling does not inhibit the autocrine action of ERα. Conclusion Our data indicate

  11. Pharmacological Characterization of Human Histamine Receptors and Histamine Receptor Mutantsin the Sf9 Cell Expression System. (United States)

    Schneider, Erich H; Seifert, Roland


    A large problem of histamine receptor research is data heterogeneity. Various experimental approaches, the complex signaling pathways of mammalian cells, and the use of different species orthologues render it difficult to compare and interpret the published results. Thus, the four human histamine receptor subtypes were analyzed side-by-side in the Sf9 insect cell expression system, using radioligand binding assays as well as functional readouts proximal to the receptor activation event (steady-state GTPase assays and [(35)S]GTPγS assays). The human H1R was co-expressed with the regulators of G protein signaling RGS4 or GAIP, which unmasked a productive interaction between hH1R and insect cell Gαq. By contrast, functional expression of the hH2R required the generation of an hH2R-Gsα fusion protein to ensure close proximity of G protein and receptor. Fusion of hH2R to the long (GsαL) or short (GsαS) splice variant of Gαs resulted in comparable constitutive hH2R activity, although both G protein variants show different GDP affinities. Medicinal chemistry studies revealed profound species differences between hH1R/hH2R and their guinea pig orthologues gpH1R/gpH2R. The causes for these differences were analyzed by molecular modeling in combination with mutational studies. Co-expression of the hH3R with Gαi1, Gαi2, Gαi3, and Gαi/o in Sf9 cells revealed high constitutive activity and comparable interaction efficiency with all G protein isoforms. A comparison of various cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+)) and anions (Cl(-), Br(-), I(-)) revealed that anions with large radii most efficiently stabilize the inactive hH3R state. Potential sodium binding sites in the hH3R protein were analyzed by expressing specific hH3R mutants in Sf9 cells. In contrast to the hH3R, the hH4R preferentially couples to co-expressed Gαi2 in Sf9 cells. Its high constitutive activity is resistant to NaCl or GTPγS. The hH4R shows structural instability and adopts a G protein-independent high

  12. Localisation of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors to cells of vascular and avascular epiretinal membranes


    Chen, Y.(California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA); Hackett, S.; Schoenfeld, C.; Vinores, M.; Vinores, S.; Campochiaro, P


    AIMS/BACKGROUND—Epiretinal membranes (ERMs) arise from a variety of causes or, in some cases, for unknown reasons. Once established, ERMs tend to progress, becoming more extensive and exerting increasing traction along the inner surface of the retina. One possible cause for their progression is the production of growth factors by cells within ERMs that may provide autocrine or paracrine stimulation. Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptors have been localised to cells of ERMs a...

  13. N-wasp is essential for the negative regulation of B cell receptor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaohong Liu


    Full Text Available Negative regulation of receptor signaling is essential for controlling cell activation and differentiation. In B-lymphocytes, the down-regulation of B-cell antigen receptor (BCR signaling is critical for suppressing the activation of self-reactive B cells; however, the mechanism underlying the negative regulation of signaling remains elusive. Using genetically manipulated mouse models and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP, which is coexpressed with WASP in all immune cells, is a critical negative regulator of B-cell signaling. B-cell-specific N-WASP gene deletion causes enhanced and prolonged BCR signaling and elevated levels of autoantibodies in the mouse serum. The increased signaling in N-WASP knockout B cells is concurrent with increased accumulation of F-actin at the B-cell surface, enhanced B-cell spreading on the antigen-presenting membrane, delayed B-cell contraction, inhibition in the merger of signaling active BCR microclusters into signaling inactive central clusters, and a blockage of BCR internalization. Upon BCR activation, WASP is activated first, followed by N-WASP in mouse and human primary B cells. The activation of N-WASP is suppressed by Bruton's tyrosine kinase-induced WASP activation, and is restored by the activation of SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase that inhibits WASP activation. Our results reveal a new mechanism for the negative regulation of BCR signaling and broadly suggest an actin-mediated mechanism for signaling down-regulation.

  14. Activation of Estrogen Receptor Transfected into a Receptor-Negative Brest Cancer Cell Line Decreases the Metastatic and Invasive Potential of the Cells (United States)

    Garcia, Marcel; Derocq, Danielle; Freiss, Gilles; Rochefort, Henri


    Breast cancers containing estrogen receptors are responsive to antiestrogen treatment and have a better prognosis than estrogen receptor-negative tumors. The loss of estrogen and progesterone receptors appears to be associated with a progression to less-differentiated tumors. We transfected the human estrogen receptor into the estrogen receptor-negative metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in an attempt to restore their sensitivity to antiestrogens. Two stable sublines of MDA-MB-231 cells (HC1 and HE5) expressing functional estrogen receptors were studied for their ability to grow and invade in vitro and to metastasize in athymic nude mice. The number and size of lung metastases developed by these two sublines in ovariectomized nude mice was not markedly altered by tamoxifen but was inhibited 3-fold by estradiol. Estradiol also significantly inhibited in vitro cell proliferation of these sublines and their invasiveness in Matrigel, a reconstituted basement membrane, whereas the antiestrogens 4-hydroxytamoxifen and ICI 164,384 reversed these effects. These results show that estradiol inhibits the metastatic ability of estrogen receptornegative breast cancer cells following transfection with the estrogen receptor, whereas estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers are stimulated by estrogen, indicating that factors other than the estrogen receptor are involved in progression toward hormone independence. Reactivation or transfer of the estrogen receptor gene can therefore be considered as therapeutic approaches to hormone-independent cancers

  15. A Coevolutionary Arms Race between Hosts and Viruses Drives Polymorphism and Polygenicity of NK Cell Receptors. (United States)

    Carrillo-Bustamante, Paola; Keşmir, Can; de Boer, Rob J


    Natural killer cell receptors (NKRs) monitor the expression of major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) and stress molecules to detect unhealthy tissue, such as infected or tumor cells. The NKR gene family shows a remarkable genetic diversity, containing several genes encoding receptors with activating and inhibiting signaling, and varying in gene content and allelic polymorphism. The expansion of the NKR genes is species-specific, with different species evolving alternative expanded NKR genes, which encode structurally different proteins, yet perform comparable functions. So far, the biological function of this expansion within the NKR cluster has remained poorly understood. To study the evolution of NKRs, we have developed an agent-based model implementing a coevolutionary scenario between hosts and herpes-like viruses that are able to evade the immune response by downregulating the expression of MHC-I on the cell surface. We show that hosts evolve specific inhibitory NKRs, specialized to particular MHC-I alleles in the population. Viruses in our simulations readily evolve proteins mimicking the MHC molecules of their host, even in the absence of MHC-I downregulation. As a result, the NKR locus becomes polygenic and polymorphic, encoding both specific inhibiting and activating receptors to optimally protect the hosts from coevolving viruses.

  16. Plasma membrane nucleolin is a receptor for the anticancer aptamer AS1411 in MV4-11 leukemia cells. (United States)

    Soundararajan, Sridharan; Wang, Li; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Chen, Weiwei; Courtenay-Luck, Nigel; Jones, David; Spicer, Eleanor K; Fernandes, Daniel J


    AS1411 is a DNA aptamer that is in phase II clinical trials for relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia and for renal cell carcinoma. AS1411 binds to nucleolin, a protein that is overexpressed in the cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane of some tumor cells compared with normal cells. Studies were performed to determine whether cell surface nucleolin is a receptor for AS1411 in the acute myeloid leukemia cell line MV4-11. Biotinylation of MV4-11 cell surface proteins followed by immunoblotting of the biotinylated proteins showed that full-length (106 kDa) and truncated forms of nucleolin were present on the cell surface. In contrast, K-562 cells, which are 4-fold less sensitive than MV4-11 cells to AS1411, showed no full-length nucleolin and lesser amounts of the truncated forms of nucleolin on the cell surface. Incubation of MV4-11 cells with [(32)P]AS1411 and immunoprecipitation of the plasma membrane fraction with anti-nucleolin antibody demonstrated the presence of [(32)P]AS1411-nucleolin complexes. Anti-nucleolin antibody inhibited binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-AS1411 to plasma membrane nucleolin 56 +/- 10% SE (P AS1411 only. Cellular uptake of [(32)P]AS1411 into MV4-11 cells was blocked by a 20-fold excess of unlabeled AS1411 but not by a 20-fold excess of the biologically inactive oligonucleotide CRO-26. Uptake was approximately 3-fold faster into MV4-11 cells than into K-562 cells. Partial knockdown of plasma membrane and cytosolic nucleolin in MCF-7 cells resulted in a 3-fold decrease in AS1411 uptake. These results provide evidence that plasma membrane nucleolin is a functional receptor for AS1411 in MV4-11 cells.

  17. The linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA increases membrane surface localization of the α7 ACh receptor in a protein 4.1N-dependent manner. (United States)

    Kanno, Takeshi; Tsuchiya, Ayako; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki


    In yeast two-hybrid screening, protein 4.1N, a scaffolding protein, was identified as a binding partner of the α7 ACh (acetylcholine) receptor. For rat hippocampal slices, the linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA {8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid} increased the association of the α7 ACh receptor with 4.1N, and the effect was inhibited by GF109203X, an inhibitor of PKC (protein kinase C), although DCP-LA did not induce PKC phosphorylation of 4.1N. For PC-12 cells, the presence of the α7 ACh receptor in the plasma membrane fraction was significantly suppressed by knocking down 4.1N. DCP-LA increased the presence of the α7 ACh receptor in the plasma membrane fraction, and the effect was still inhibited by knocking down 4.1N. In the monitoring of α7 ACh receptor mobilization, DCP-LA enhanced signal intensities for the α7 ACh receptor at the membrane surface in PC-12 cells, which was clearly prevented by knocking down 4.1N. Taken together, the results of the present study show that 4.1N interacts with the α7 ACh receptor and participates in the receptor tethering to the plasma membrane. The results also indicate that DCP-LA increases membrane surface localization of the α7 ACh receptor in a 4.1N-dependent manner under the control of PKC, but without phosphorylating 4.1N.

  18. Wettability influences cell behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces with different topographies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenco, B.N.; Marchioli, G.; Song, W; Reis, R.L.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Karperien, H.B.J.; Apeldoorn, van A.A.; Mano, J.F.


    Surface wettability and topography are recognized as critical factors influencing cell behavior on biomaterials. So far only few works have reported cell responses on surfaces exhibiting extreme wettability in combination with surface topography. The goal of this work is to study whether cell behavi

  19. Role of receptor activity modifying protein 1 in function of the calcium sensing receptor in the human TT thyroid carcinoma cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya J Desai

    Full Text Available The Calcium Sensing Receptor (CaSR plays a role in calcium homeostasis by sensing minute changes in serum Ca(2+ and modulating secretion of calciotropic hormones. It has been shown in transfected cells that accessory proteins known as Receptor Activity Modifying Proteins (RAMPs, specifically RAMPs 1 and 3, are required for cell-surface trafficking of the CaSR. These effects have only been demonstrated in transfected cells, so their physiological relevance is unclear. Here we explored CaSR/RAMP interactions in detail, and showed that in thyroid human carcinoma cells, RAMP1 is required for trafficking of the CaSR. Furthermore, we show that normal RAMP1 function is required for intracellular responses to ligands. Specifically, to confirm earlier studies with tagged constructs, and to provide the additional benefit of quantitative stoichiometric analysis, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to show equal abilities of RAMP1 and 3 to chaperone CaSR to the cell surface, though RAMP3 interacted more efficiently with the receptor. Furthermore, a higher fraction of RAMP3 than RAMP1 was observed in CaSR-complexes on the cell-surface, suggesting different ratios of RAMPs to CaSR. In order to determine relevance of these findings in an endogenous expression system we assessed the effect of RAMP1 siRNA knock-down in medullary thyroid carcinoma TT cells, (which express RAMP1, but not RAMP3 constitutively and measured a significant 50% attenuation of signalling in response to CaSR ligands Cinacalcet and neomycin. Blockade of RAMP1 using specific antibodies induced a concentration-dependent reduction in CaSR-mediated signalling in response to Cinacalcet in TT cells, suggesting a novel functional role for RAMP1 in regulation of CaSR signalling in addition to its known role in receptor trafficking. These data provide evidence that RAMPs traffic the CaSR as higher-level oligomers and play a role in CaSR signalling even after cell surface localisation has

  20. Receptor-like Molecules on Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells Interact with an Adhesion Factor from Lactobacillus reuteri. (United States)

    Matsuo, Yosuke; Miyoshi, Yukihiro; Okada, Sanae; Satoh, Eiichi


    A surface protein of Lactobacillus reuteri, mucus adhesion-promoting protein (MapA), is considered to be an adhesion factor. MapA is expressed in L. reuteri strains and adheres to piglet gastric mucus, collagen type I, and human intestinal epithelial cells such as Caco-2. The aim of this study was to identify molecules that mediate the attachment of MapA from L. reuteri to the intestinal epithelial cell surface by investigating the adhesion of MapA to receptor-like molecules on Caco-2 cells. MapA-binding receptor-like molecules were detected in Caco-2 cell lysates by 2D-PAGE. Two proteins, annexin A13 (ANXA13) and paralemmin (PALM), were identified by MALDI TOF-MS. The results of a pull-down assay showed that MapA bound directly to ANXA13 and PALM. Fluorescence microscopy studies confirmed that MapA binding to ANXA13 and PALM was colocalized on the Caco-2 cell membrane. To evaluate whether ANXA13 and PALM are important for MapA adhesion, ANXA13 and PALM knockdown cell lines were established. The adhesion of MapA to the abovementioned cell lines was reduced compared with that to wild-type Caco-2 cells. These knockdown experiments established the importance of these receptor-like molecules in MapA adhesion.

  1. Glycine receptors contribute to cytoprotection of glycine in myocardial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Ren-bin; ZHANG Jun-yan; LU Da-xiang; WANG Hua-dong; WANG Hai-hua; LI Chu-jie


    Background The classic glycine receptor (GlyR) in the central nervous system is a ligand-gated membrane-spanning ion channel. Recent studies have provided evidence for the existence of GlyR in endothelial cells, renal proximal tubular cells and most leukocytes. In contrast, no evidence for GlyR in myocardial cells has been found so far. Our recent researches have showed that glycine could protect myocardial cells from the damage induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Further studies suggest that myocardial cells could contain GlyR or binding site of glycine.Methods In isolated rat heart damaged by LPS, the myocardial monophasic action potential (MAP), the heart rate (HR),the myocardial tension and the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the coronary effluent were determined.The concentration of intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) was measured in cardiomyocytes injured by LPS and by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), which excludes the possibility that reduced calcium influx because of LPS neutralized by glycine. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the GlyR in myocardial tissue. GlyR and its subunit in the purified cultured cardiomyocytes were identified by Western blotting.Results Although significant improvement in the MAP/MAPD20, HR, and reduction in LDH release were observed in glycine + LPS hearts, myocardial tension did not recover. Further studies demonstrated that glycine could prevent rat mycordial cells from LPS and hypoxia/reoxygenation injury (no endotoxin) by attenuating calcium influx.Immunohistochemistry exhibited a positive green-fluorescence signaling along the cardiac muscle fibers. Western blotting shows that the purified cultured cardiomyocytes express GlyR β subunit, but GlyR α1 subunit could not be detected.Conclusions The results suggest that glycine receptor is expressed in cardiomyocytes and participates in cytoprotection from LPS and hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Glycine could directly activate GlyR on the cardiomyocytes and

  2. Extracellular calcium sensing receptor in human pancreatic cells (United States)

    Rácz, G Z; Kittel, Á; Riccardi, D; Case, R M; Elliott, A C; Varga, G


    Background and aims: The extracellular calcium sensing receptor (CaR) plays a key role in the calcium homeostatic system and is therefore widely expressed in tissues involved in calcium metabolism. However, the CaR has also been identified in other tissues where its role is less clear. We have investigated the presence of the CaR in the human pancreas. Methods: Messenger RNA for the CaR was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the protein was localised by immunostaining. CaR function was assayed in Capan-1 cells by measuring intracellular calcium and [3H] thymidine incorporation. Results: The receptor was highly expressed in human pancreatic ducts. It was also expressed in exocrine acinar cells, in islets of Langerhans, and in intrapancreatic nerves and blood vessels. The CaR was expressed in both normal and neoplastic human tissue samples but was detected in only one of five ductal adenocarcinoma cells lines examined. Experiments on the CaR expressing adenocarcinoma cell line Capan-1 showed that the CaR was functional and was linked to mobilisation of intracellular calcium. Stimulation of the CaR reduced Capan-1 cell proliferation. Conclusions: We propose that the CaR may play multiple functional roles in the human pancreas. In particular, the CaR on the duct luminal membrane may monitor and regulate the Ca2+ concentration in pancreatic juice by triggering ductal electrolyte and fluid secretion. This could help to prevent precipitation of calcium salts in the duct lumen. The CaR may also help to regulate the proliferation of pancreatic ductal cells. PMID:12377811

  3. Multiple receptor-ligand interactions direct tissue resident gamma delta T cell activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Witherden


    Full Text Available Gamma delta T cells represent a major T cell population in epithelial tissues, such as skin, intestine, and lung, where they function in maintenance of the epithelium and provide a crucial first line defense against environmental and pathogenic insults. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanisms directing their activation and function have remained elusive. Epithelial resident gamma delta T cells function through constant communication with neighboring cells, either via direct cell-to-cell contact or cell-to-matrix interactions. These intimate relationships allow gamma delta T cells to facilitate the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis, tissue repair following injury, inflammation, and protection from malignancy. Recent studies have identified a number of molecules involved in these complex interactions, under both homeostatic conditions, as well as following perturbation of these barrier tissues. These interactions are crucial to the timely production of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins for restoration of homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the mechanisms directing epithelial-T cell crosstalk and the distinct roles played by individual receptor-ligand pairs of cell surface molecules in this process.

  4. The role of G protein-coupled receptors in cochlear planar cell polarity. (United States)

    Sun, Jinpeng; Zhang, Daolai; Wang, Yanfei; Lin, Hal; Yu, Xiao; Xu, Zhigang


    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is defined as the coordinated alignment of cell polarity across the tissue plane, which is important for the integration of cells into tissues. One of the best examples of PCP is in the cochlear epithelium. Several core PCP proteins have been identified to play important roles in PCP regulation, in which these proteins form complexes and associate with the cell membrane asymmetrically, mediating intercellular PCP signal transduction. Among the core PCP proteins are two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), Celsr and Frizzled, both of which have been shown to play important roles in cochlear PCP regulation. Celsr and Frizzled genes are expressed in the cochlear sensory epithelium, and Frizzled1, 2, 3 and 6 show asymmetric localizations on the cell membrane of hair cells or supporting cells. In the animal model, Celsr1, Frizzled2 and Frizzled3/6 mutant or knockout mice have profound cochlear PCP deficits. Downstream of GPCR signaling, Gαi was shown to asymmetrically localize on the apical surface of hair cells, together with LGN and mInsc, Gαi controls cochlear PCP in a cell-autonomous way. Inactivity of Gαi, LGN or mInsc results in PCP deficits in the mouse cochlea. We hypothesize that GPCR-Gαi coupling plays a pivotal role in cochlear PCP regulation via connecting the intercellular PCP signals with cell-autonomous PCP machinery. Further investigations are needed to fully understand the mechanism of cochlear PCP regulation.

  5. Role of nuclear receptors in breast cancer stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessio; Papi; Marina; Orlandi


    The recapitulation of primary tumour heterogenity and the existence of a minor sub-population of cancer cells,capable of initiating tumour growth in xenografts on serial passages, led to the hypothesis that cancer stem cells(CSCs) exist. CSCs are present in many tumours, among which is breast cancer. Breast CSCs(BCSCs) are likely to sustain the growth of the primary tumour mass, as wellas to be responsible for disease relapse and metastatic spreading. Consequently, BCSCs represent the most significant target for new drugs in breast cancer therapy. Both the hypoxic condition in BCSCs biology and proinflammatory cytokine network has gained increasing importance in the recent past. Breast stromal cells are crucial components of the tumours milieu and are a major source of inflammatory mediators. Recently, the antiinflammatory role of some nuclear receptors ligands has emerged in several diseases, including breast cancer. Therefore, the use of nuclear receptors ligands may be a valid strategy to inhibit BCSCs viability and consequently breast cancer growth and disease relapse.

  6. Knowledge discovery of cell-cell and cell-surface interactions (United States)

    Su, Jing

    High-throughput cell culture is an emerging technology that shows promise as a tool for research in tissue engineering, drug discovery, and medical diagnostics. An important, but overlooked, challenge is the integration of experimental methods with information processing suitable for handling large databases of cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions. In this work the traditional global descriptions of cell behaviors and surface characteristics was shown insufficient for investigating short-distance cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface interactions. Traditional summary metrics cannot distinguish information of cell near neighborhood from the average, global features, thus often is not suitable for studying distance-sensitive cell behaviors. The problem of traditional summary metrics was addressed by introducing individual-cell based local metrics that emphasize cell local environment. An individual-cell based local data analysis method was established. Contact inhibition of cell proliferation was used as a benchmark for the effectiveness of the local metrics and the method. Where global, summary metrics were unsuccessful, the local metrics successfully and quantitatively distinguished the contact inhibition effects of MC3T3-E1 cells on PLGA, PCL, and TCPS surfaces. In order to test the new metrics and analysis method in detail, a model of cell contact inhibition was proposed. Monte Carlo simulation was performed for validating the individual-cell based local data analysis method as well as the cell model itself. The simulation results well matched with the experimental observations. The parameters used in the cell model provided new descriptions of both cell behaviors and surface characteristics. Based on the viewpoint of individual cells, the local metrics and local data analysis method were extended to the investigation of cell-surface interactions, and a new high-throughput screening and knowledge discovery method on combinatorial libraries, local cell

  7. Loss of receptor on tuberculin-reactive T-cells marks active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Streitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculin-specific T-cell responses have low diagnostic specificity in BCG vaccinated populations. While subunit-antigen (e.g. ESAT-6, CFP-10 based tests are useful for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection, there is no reliable immunological test for active pulmonary tuberculosis. Notably, all existing immunological tuberculosis-tests are based on T-cell response size, whereas the diagnostic potential of T-cell response quality has never been explored. This includes surface marker expression and functionality of mycobacterial antigen specific T-cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Flow-cytometry was used to examine over-night antigen-stimulated T-cells from tuberculosis patients and controls. Tuberculin and/or the relatively M. tuberculosis specific ESAT-6 protein were used as stimulants. A set of classic surface markers of T-cell naïve/memory differentiation was selected and IFN-gamma production was used to identify T-cells recognizing these antigens. The percentage of tuberculin-specific T-helper-cells lacking the surface receptor CD27, a state associated with advanced differentiation, varied considerably between individuals (from less than 5% to more than 95%. Healthy BCG vaccinated individuals had significantly fewer CD27-negative tuberculin-reactive CD4 T-cells than patients with smear and/or culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis, discriminating these groups with high sensitivity and specificity, whereas individuals with latent tuberculosis infection exhibited levels in between. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Smear and/or culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis can be diagnosed by a rapid and reliable immunological test based on the distribution of CD27 expression on peripheral blood tuberculin specific T-cells. This test works very well even in a BCG vaccinated population. It is simple and will be of great utility in situations where sputum specimens are difficult to obtain or sputum-smear is negative. It will also help

  8. Expression of EPO Receptor in Pancreatic Cells and Its Effect on Cell Apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongxia SHUAI; Ji ZHANG; Yikai YU; Muxun ZHANG


    In order to explore the expression of erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) in pancreatic cell ine NIT-1 and its effect on cell apoptosis after binding with erythropoietin (EPO), NIT-1 cells were cultured and expanded. The expression of EPOR was detected using electrophoresis. NIT-1 apoptosis was induced by cytokines and their effects on cell apoptosis and cell insulin secretion were assayed after binding of EPO to EPOR. The results showed that EPOR was expressed in NIT-1 cells. Recom- binant human EPO (rHuEPO) had no effect on cell apoptosis but significantly inhibited apoptosis in- duced by cytokines, rHuEPO had no effect on cell insulin secretion but significantly improved insulin secretion inhibited by cytokines. From these findings, it was concluded that EPOR was expressed in NIT-1 cells and EPO could protect N1T-1 cells from apoptosis induced by cytokines.

  9. An electrostatic selection mechanism controls sequential kinase signaling downstream of the T cell receptor (United States)

    Shah, Neel H; Wang, Qi; Yan, Qingrong; Karandur, Deepti; Kadlecek, Theresa A; Fallahee, Ian R; Russ, William P; Ranganathan, Rama; Weiss, Arthur; Kuriyan, John


    The sequence of events that initiates T cell signaling is dictated by the specificities and order of activation of the tyrosine kinases that signal downstream of the T cell receptor. Using a platform that combines exhaustive point-mutagenesis of peptide substrates, bacterial surface-display, cell sorting, and deep sequencing, we have defined the specificities of the first two kinases in this pathway, Lck and ZAP-70, for the T cell receptor ζ chain and the scaffold proteins LAT and SLP-76. We find that ZAP-70 selects its substrates by utilizing an electrostatic mechanism that excludes substrates with positively-charged residues and favors LAT and SLP-76 phosphosites that are surrounded by negatively-charged residues. This mechanism prevents ZAP-70 from phosphorylating its own activation loop, thereby enforcing its strict dependence on Lck for activation. The sequence features in ZAP-70, LAT, and SLP-76 that underlie electrostatic selectivity likely contribute to the specific response of T cells to foreign antigens. DOI: PMID:27700984

  10. Interaction between mouse adenovirus type 1 and cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Lenaerts

    Full Text Available Application of human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 derived vectors for cancer gene therapy has been limited by the poor cell surface expression, on some tumor cell types, of the primary Ad5 receptor, the coxsackie-adenovirus-receptor (CAR, as well as the accumulation of Ad5 in the liver following interaction with blood coagulation factor X (FX and subsequent tethering of the FX-Ad5 complex to heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG on liver cells. As an alternative vector, mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1 is particularly attractive, since this non-human adenovirus displays pronounced endothelial cell tropism and does not use CAR as a cellular attachment receptor. We here demonstrate that MAV-1 uses cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs as primary cellular attachment receptor. Direct binding of MAV-1 to heparan sulfate-coated plates proved to be markedly more efficient compared to that of Ad5. Experiments with modified heparins revealed that the interaction of MAV-1 to HSPGs depends on their N-sulfation and, to a lesser extent, 6-O-sulfation rate. Whereas the interaction between Ad5 and HSPGs was enhanced by FX, this was not the case for MAV-1. A slot blot assay demonstrated the ability of MAV-1 to directly interact with FX, although the amount of FX complexed to MAV-1 was much lower than observed for Ad5. Analysis of the binding of MAV-1 and Ad5 to the NCI-60 panel of different human tumor cell lines revealed the preference of MAV-1 for ovarian carcinoma cells. Together, the data presented here enlarge our insight into the HSPG receptor usage of MAV-1 and support the development of an MAV-1-derived gene vector for human cancer therapy.

  11. Muscarinic receptors stimulate cell proliferation in the human urothelium-derived cell line UROtsa. (United States)

    Arrighi, Nicola; Bodei, Serena; Lucente, Alessandra; Michel, Martin C; Zani, Danilo; Simeone, Claudio; Cunico, Sergio Cosciani; Spano, PierFranco; Sigala, Sandra


    The widespread non-neuronal synthesis of acetylcholine (ACh) has changed the paradigm of ACh acting solely as a neurotransmitter. Indeed, the presence of ACh in many types of proliferating cells suggests a role for this neurotransmitter in the control of cell division. The parasympathetic system is a major pathway regulating micturition, but ACh-mediated control plays a more complex role than previously described, acting not only in the detrusor muscle, but also influencing detrusor function through the activity of urothelial muscarinic receptors. Here we investigated the role of muscarinic receptors in mediating cell proliferation in the human UROtsa cell line, which is a widely used experimental model to study urothelium physiology and pathophysiology. Our results demonstrate that UROtsa cells express the machinery for ACh synthesis and that muscarinic receptors, with the rank order of M3>M2>M5>M1=M4, are present and functionally linked to their known second messengers. Indeed, the cholinergic receptor agonist carbachol (CCh) (1-100 μM) concentration-dependently raised IP(3) levels, reaching 66±5% over basal. The forskolin-mediated adenylyl cyclase activation was reduced by CCh exposure (forskolin: 1.4±0.14 pmol/ml; forskolin+100 μM CCh: 0.84±0.12 pmol/ml). CCh (1-100 μM) concentration-dependently increased UROtsa cell proliferation and this effect was inhibited by the non-selective antagonist atropine and the M(3)-selective antagonists darifenacin and J104129. Finally, CCh-induced cell proliferation was blocked by selective PI-3 kinase and ERK activation inhibitors, strongly suggesting that these intracellular pathways mediate, at least in part, the muscarinic receptor-mediated cell proliferation.

  12. Renal cell carcinoma-infiltrating natural killer cells express differential repertoires of activating and inhibitory receptors and are inhibited by specific HLA class I allotypes. (United States)

    Schleypen, Julia S; Von Geldern, Marion; Weiss, Elisabeth H; Kotzias, Nicole; Rohrmann, Karl; Schendel, Dolores J; Falk, Christine S; Pohla, Heike


    Among tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) directly isolated from renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), we found substantial numbers of natural killer (NK) cells in most tumor tissues. They could be identified reliably in situ with an antibody directed against the activating receptor (AR) NKp46 that is exclusively expressed by all NK cells. NK-enriched TILs (NK-TILs) showed cytotoxicity against major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-negative cell lines. The ability to detect lysis of target cells was dependent on the percentage of NK cells within the TILs, and cytotoxicity was only observed after overnight activation with low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2). Infiltrating NK cells were found to express various inhibitory receptors (IRs); among these the CD94/NKG2A receptor complex was overrepresented compared to the autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) population. Other IRs were underrepresented, indicating that NK subpopulations vary in their tumor-infiltrating capacity. IRs expressed by NK-TILs are functional since receptor engagement with MHC class I ligands presented by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-transfected target cell lines was able to inhibit NK-mediated cytotoxicity. NK-TILs were also able to lyse autologous or allogeneic tumor cell lines in vitro. This activity correlated with low HLA class I surface expression since lysis could be inhibited by interferon (IFN)-gamma-expressing RCC transductants that displayed a higher surface density of HLA class I molecules. Therefore, NK cells infiltrating tumor tissues have an inherent ability to recognize transformed cells, but they require cytokine activation and are sensitive to inhibition by IR ligands.

  13. Targeting Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Cells with a T-Cell Receptor-Like Antibody▿ † (United States)

    Sastry, Konduru S. R.; Too, Chien Tei; Kaur, Kaval; Gehring, Adam J.; Low, Lionel; Javiad, Alia; Pollicino, Teresa; Li, Li; Kennedy, Patrick T. F.; Lopatin, Uri; Macary, Paul A.; Bertoletti, Antonio


    Virus-specific CD8 T cells are activated when their T-cell receptors (TCRs) recognize the specific viral peptide/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I (pMHC) complexes present on the surface of infected cells. Antibodies able to recognize the specific pMHC can mimic TCR specificity and both represent a valuable biological tool to visualize pMHC complexes on infected cells and serve as a delivery system for highly targeted therapies. To evaluate these possibilities, we created a monoclonal antibody able to specifically recognize a hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope epitope (Env at positions 183 to 91 [Env183-91]) presented by the HLA-A201 molecule, and we tested its ability to recognize HBV-infected hepatocytes and to deliver a cargo to a specific target. We demonstrate that this antibody detects and visualizes the processed product of HBV proteins produced in naturally HBV-infected cells, is not inhibited by soluble HBV proteins present in patient sera, and mediates the intracellular delivery of a fluorescent molecule to target cells. Additionally, compared to CD8 T cells specific for the same HBV epitope, the TCR-like antibody has both a superior sensitivity and a specificity focused on distinct amino acids within the epitope. These data demonstrate that a T-cell receptor-like antibody can be used to determine the quantitative relationship between HBV replication and specific antigen presentation to CD8 T cells and serves as a novel therapeutic delivery platform for personalized health care for HBV-infected patients. PMID:21159876

  14. Extracellular ATP induces cytokine expression and apoptosis through P2X7 receptor in murine mast cells. (United States)

    Bulanova, Elena; Budagian, Vadim; Orinska, Zane; Hein, Martina; Petersen, Frank; Thon, Lutz; Adam, Dieter; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia


    Extracellular ATP and other nucleotides act through specific cell surface receptors and regulate a wide variety of cellular responses in many cell types and tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that murine mast cells express several P2Y and P2X receptor subtypes including P2X(7), and describe functional responses of these cells to extracellular ATP. Stimulation of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC), as well as MC/9 and P815 mast cell lines with millimolar concentrations of ATP, resulted in Ca(2+) influx across the cellular membrane and cell permeabilization. Moreover, brief exposures to ATP were sufficient to induce apoptosis in BMMCs, MC/9, and P815 cells which involved activation of caspase-3 and -8. However, in the time period between commitment to apoptosis and actual cell death, ATP triggered rapid but transient phosphorylation of multiple signaling molecules in BMMCs and MC/9 cells, including ERK, Jak2, and STAT6. In addition, ATP stimulation enhanced the expression of several proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-6, IL-13, and TNF-alpha. The effects of ATP were mimicked by submillimolar concentrations of 3-O-(4'-benzoyl)-benzoyl-benzoyl-ATP, and were inhibited by pretreatment of mast cells with a selective blocker of human and mouse P2X(7) receptor, 1[N,O-bis(5-isoquinolinesulphonyl)-N-methyl-l-tyrosyl]-4-phenylpiperazine, as well as oxidized ATP. The nucleotide selectivity and pharmacological profile data support the role for P2X(7) receptor as the mediator of the ATP-induced responses. Given the importance of mast cells in diverse pathological conditions, the ability of extracellular ATP to induce the P2X(7)-mediated apoptosis in these cells may facilitate the development of new strategies to modulate mast cell activities.

  15. Chemistry and material science at the cell surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weian Zhao


    Full Text Available Cell surfaces are fertile ground for chemists and material scientists to manipulate or augment cell functions and phenotypes. This not only helps to answer basic biology questions but also has diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances in the engineering of the cell surface. In particular, we focus on the potential applications of surface engineered cells for 1 targeting cells to desirable sites in cell therapy, 2 programming assembly of cells for tissue engineering, 3 bioimaging and sensing, and ultimately 4 manipulating cell biology.

  16. TRPM5, a taste-signaling transient receptor potential ion-channel, is a ubiquitous signaling component in chemosensory cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Thomas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of TRP channels have been identified as key players in the sensation of smell, temperature, mechanical forces and taste. TRPM5 is known to be abundantly expressed in taste receptor cells where it participates in sweet, amino acid and bitter perception. A role of TRPM5 in other sensory systems, however, has not been studied so far. Results Here, we systematically investigated the expression of TRPM5 in rat and mouse tissues. Apart from taste buds, where we found TRPM5 to be predominantly localized on the basolateral surface of taste receptor cells, TRPM5 immunoreactivity was seen in other chemosensory organs – the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ. Most strikingly, we found solitary TRPM5-enriched epithelial cells in all parts of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. Based on their tissue distribution, the low cell density, morphological features and co-immunostaining with different epithelial markers, we identified these cells as brush cells (also known as tuft, fibrillovesicular, multivesicular or caveolated cells. In terms of morphological characteristics, brush cells resemble taste receptor cells, while their origin and biological role are still under intensive debate. Conclusion We consider TRPM5 to be an intrinsic signaling component of mammalian chemosensory organs, and provide evidence for brush cells being an important cellular correlate in the periphery.

  17. Regulation of breast cancer stem cell activity by signaling through the Notch4 receptor


    Harrison, Hannah; Farnie, Gillian; Howell, Sacha J.; Rock, Rebecca E; Stylianou, Spyros; Brennan, Keith R.; Bundred, Nigel J; Clarke, Robert B.


    Notch receptor signaling pathways play an important role not only in normal breast development but also in breast cancer development and progression. We assessed the role of Notch receptors in stem cell activity in breast cancer cell lines and nine primary human tumor samples. Stem cells were enriched by selection of anoikis-resistant cells or cells expressing the membrane phenotype ESA+/CD44+/CD24low. Using these breast cancer stem cell populations, we compared the activation status of Notch...

  18. Vitamin D controls T cell antigen receptor signaling and activation of human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Marina Rode; Kongsbak-Wismann, Martin; Schjerling, Peter


    Phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes are key signaling proteins downstream of many extracellular stimuli. Here we show that naive human T cells had very low expression of PLC-gamma1 and that this correlated with low T cell antigen receptor (TCR) responsiveness in naive T cells. However, TCR triggering...... led to an upregulation of approximately 75-fold in PLC-gamma1 expression, which correlated with greater TCR responsiveness. Induction of PLC-gamma1 was dependent on vitamin D and expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Naive T cells did not express VDR, but VDR expression was induced by TCR...... signaling via the alternative mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 pathway. Thus, initial TCR signaling via p38 leads to successive induction of VDR and PLC-gamma1, which are required for subsequent classical TCR signaling and T cell activation....

  19. Modeling and simulation of ion channels and action potentials in taste receptor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN PeiHua; LIU Xiaodong; ZHANG Wei; ZHOU Jun; WANG Ping; YANG Wei; LUO JianHong


    Based on patch clamp data on the ionic currents of rat taste receptor cells,a mathematical model of mammalian taste receptor cells was constructed to simulate the action potentials of taste receptor cells and their corresponding ionic components,including voltage-gated Na~+ currents and outward delayed rectifier K~+ currents.Our simulations reproduced the action potentials of taste receptor cells in response to electrical stimuli or sour tastants.The kinetics of ion channels and their roles in action potentials of taste receptor cells were also analyzed.Our prototype model of single taste receptor cell and simulation results presented in this paper provide the basis for the further study of taste information processing in the gustatory system.

  20. Modeling and simulation of ion channels and action potentials in taste receptor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on patch clamp data on the ionic currents of rat taste receptor cells, a mathematical model of mammalian taste receptor cells was constructed to simulate the action potentials of taste receptor cells and their corresponding ionic components, including voltage-gated Na+ currents and outward delayed rectifier K+ currents. Our simulations reproduced the action potentials of taste receptor cells in response to electrical stimuli or sour tastants. The kinetics of ion channels and their roles in action potentials of taste receptor cells were also analyzed. Our prototype model of single taste receptor cell and simulation results presented in this paper provide the basis for the further study of taste information processing in the gustatory system.

  1. Troglitazone inhibits cell proliferation by attenuation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling independent of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoqi Li; Xuanming Yang; Youli Xu; Xuejun Jiang; Xin Li; Fajun Nan; Hong Tang


    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors. Recent results have shown that agonists of PPARy, such as troglitazone (TGZ), can inhibit cell proliferation and promote cell differentiation independent of PPARγ. In the present study, we provide evidence that TGZ may bind directly to EGFR and trigger its signaling and internalization independent of PPARγ. Detailed studies revealed that prolonged incubation with TGZ effectively attenuated EGFR signaling by target-ing the receptor to the endo-lysosomal degradation machinery. Although the extracellular signal-regulated kinase-signaling pathway was transiently activated by TGZ in EGFR overexpressing cancer cells, inhibition of EGF-induced Akt phosphorylation most likely accounted for the growth arrest of tumor cells caused by TGZ at pharmacologically achievable concentrations. Therefore, we have provided a new line of evidence indicating that TGZ inhibits cell pro-liferation by promoting EGFR degradation and attenuating Akt phosphorylation.

  2. Ryanodine Receptors Selectively Interact with L Type Calcium Channels in Mouse Taste Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R Rebello

    Full Text Available WE REPORTED THAT RYANODINE RECEPTORS ARE EXPRESSED IN TWO DIFFERENT TYPES OF MAMMALIAN PERIPHERAL TASTE RECEPTOR CELLS: Type II and Type III cells. Type II cells lack voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs and chemical synapses. In these cells, ryanodine receptors contribute to the taste-evoked calcium signals that are initiated by opening inositol trisphosphate receptors located on internal calcium stores. In Type III cells that do have VGCCs and chemical synapses, ryanodine receptors contribute to the depolarization-dependent calcium influx.The goal of this study was to establish if there was selectivity in the type of VGCC that is associated with the ryanodine receptor in the Type III taste cells or if the ryanodine receptor opens irrespective of the calcium channels involved. We also wished to determine if the ryanodine receptors and VGCCs require a physical linkage to interact or are simply functionally associated with each other. Using calcium imaging and pharmacological inhibitors, we found that ryanodine receptors are selectively associated with L type VGCCs but likely not through a physical linkage.Taste cells are able to undergo calcium induced calcium release through ryanodine receptors to increase the initial calcium influx signal and provide a larger calcium response than would otherwise occur when L type channels are activated in Type III taste cells.

  3. The biology of NK cells and their receptors affects clinical outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). (United States)

    Foley, Bree; Felices, Martin; Cichocki, Frank; Cooley, Sarah; Verneris, Michael R; Miller, Jeffrey S


    Natural killer (NK) cells were first identified for their capacity to reject bone marrow allografts in lethally irradiated mice without prior sensitization. Subsequently, human NK cells were detected and defined by their non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxicity toward transformed or virally infected target cells. Karre et al. later proposed 'the missing self hypothesis' to explain the mechanism by which self-tolerant cells could kill targets that had lost self MHC class I. Subsequently, the receptors that recognize MHC class I to mediate tolerance in the host were identified on NK cells. These class I-recognizing receptors contribute to the acquisition of function by a dynamic process known as NK cell education or licensing. In the past, NK cells were assumed to be short lived, but more recently NK cells have been shown to mediate immunologic memory to secondary exposures to cytomegalovirus infection. Because of their ability to lyse tumors with aberrant MHC class I expression and to produce cytokines and chemokines upon activation, NK cells may be primed by many stimuli, including viruses and inflammation, to contribute to a graft-versus-tumor effect. In addition, interactions with other immune cells support the therapeutic potential of NK cells to eradicate tumor and to enhance outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

  4. Targeting and molecular imaging of HepG2 cells using surface-functionalized gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathinaraj, Pierson [Auckland University of Technology, Institute of Biomedical Technologies (New Zealand); Lee, Kyubae; Choi, Yuri; Park, Soo-Young [Kyungpook National University, School of Applied Chemical Engineering, Graduate School (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh Hyeong [Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Inn-Kyu, E-mail: [Kyungpook National University, School of Applied Chemical Engineering, Graduate School (Korea, Republic of)


    Mercaptosuccinic acid (M)-conjugated gold nanoparticles (GM) were prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering. M was used to improve the monodispersity and non-specific intracellular uptake of nanoparticles. Lactobionic acid (L) was subsequently conjugated to the GM to target preferentially HepG2 cells (liver cancer cells) that express asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR) on their membrane surfaces and facilitate the transit of nanoparticles across the cell membrane. The mean size of lactobionic acid-conjugated gold nanoparticle (GL) was approximately 10 ± 0.2 nm. Finally, the Atto 680 dye (A6) was coupled to the nanoparticles to visualize their internalization into HepG2 cells. The interaction of surface-modified gold nanoparticles with HepG2 cells was studied after culturing cells in media containing the GM or L-conjugated GM (GL)

  5. Transcriptional and Functional Characterization of the G Protein-Coupled Receptor Repertoire of Gastric Somatostatin Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Kristoffer L; Engelstoft, Maja S; Lund, Mari L;


    characterized the G protein-coupled receptors expressed in gastric Sst-RFP-positive cells and probed their effects on SST secretion in primary cell cultures. Surprisingly, besides SST, amylin and PYY were also highly enriched in the SST cells. Several receptors found to regulate SST secretion were highly...

  6. p38 signaling and receptor recycling events in a microfluidic endothelial cell adhesion assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwayne A L Vickers

    Full Text Available Adhesion-based microfluidic cell separation has proven to be very useful in applications ranging from cancer diagnostics to tissue engineering. This process involves functionalizing microchannel surfaces with a capture molecule. High specificity and purity capture can be achieved using this method. Despite these advances, little is known about the mechanisms that govern cell capture within these devices and their relationships to basic process parameters such as fluid shear stress and the presence of soluble factors. This work examines how the adhesion of human endothelial cells (ECs is influenced by a soluble tetrapeptide, Arg-Glu-Asp-Val (REDV and fluidic shear stress. The ability of these ECs to bind within microchannels coated with REDV is shown to be governed by shear- and soluble-factor mediated changes in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase expression together with recycling of adhesion receptors from the endosome.

  7. Cell-specific information processing in segregating populations of Eph receptor ephrin-expressing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus; Sherman, Andrew; Chen, Ginny I;


    Cells have self-organizing properties that control their behavior in complex tissues. Contact between cells expressing either B-type Eph receptors or their transmembrane ephrin ligands initiates bidirectional signals that regulate cell positioning. However, simultaneously investigating how...... information is processed in two interacting cell types remains a challenge. We implemented a proteomic strategy to systematically determine cell-specific signaling networks underlying EphB2- and ephrin-B1-controlled cell sorting. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of mixed populations of EphB2......- and ephrin-B1-expressing cells that were labeled with different isotopes revealed cell-specific tyrosine phosphorylation events. Functional associations between these phosphotyrosine signaling networks and cell sorting were established with small interfering RNA screening. Data-driven network modeling...

  8. Cloning of two adenosine receptor subtypes from mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. (United States)

    Marquardt, D L; Walker, L L; Heinemann, S


    Adenosine potentiates the stimulated release of mast cell mediators. Pharmacologic studies suggest the presence of two adenosine receptors, one positively coupled to adenylate cyclase and the other coupled to phospholipase C activation. To identify mast cell adenosine receptor subtypes, cDNAs for the A1 and A2a adenosine receptors were obtained by screening a mouse brain cDNA library with the use of PCR-derived probes. Mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell cDNA libraries were constructed and screened with the use of A1 and A2a cDNA probes, which revealed the presence of A2a, but not A1, receptor clones. A putative A2b receptor was identified by using low stringency mast cell library screening. Northern blotting of mast cell poly(A)+ RNA with the use of receptor subtype probes labeled single mRNA bands of 2.4 kb and 1.8 kb for the A2a and A2b receptors, respectively. In situ cells. An A2a receptor-specific agonist failed to enhance mast cell mediator release, which suggests that the secretory process is modulated through the A2b and/or another receptor subtype. By using RNase protection assays, we found that mast cells that had been cultured in the presence of N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine for 24 h exhibited a decrease in both A2a and A2b receptor RNA levels. Cells that had been cultured for 1 to 2 days in the presence of dexamethasone demonstrated increased amounts of A2a receptor mRNA, but no identifiable change in A2b receptor mRNA. Mast cells possess at least two adenosine receptor subtypes that may be differentially regulated.

  9. Estrogen receptors regulate innate immune cells and signaling pathways. (United States)

    Kovats, Susan


    Humans show strong sex differences in immunity to infection and autoimmunity, suggesting sex hormones modulate immune responses. Indeed, receptors for estrogens (ERs) regulate cells and pathways in the innate and adaptive immune system, as well as immune cell development. ERs are ligand-dependent transcription factors that mediate long-range chromatin interactions and form complexes at gene regulatory elements, thus promoting epigenetic changes and transcription. ERs also participate in membrane-initiated steroid signaling to generate rapid responses. Estradiol and ER activity show profound dose- and context-dependent effects on innate immune signaling pathways and myeloid cell development. While estradiol most often promotes the production of type I interferon, innate pathways leading to pro-inflammatory cytokine production may be enhanced or dampened by ER activity. Regulation of innate immune cells and signaling by ERs may contribute to the reported sex differences in innate immune pathways. Here we review the recent literature and highlight several molecular mechanisms by which ERs regulate the development or functional responses of innate immune cells.

  10. Controlling cell-cell interactions using surface acoustic waves. (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Li, Peng; French, Jarrod B; Mao, Zhangming; Zhao, Hong; Li, Sixing; Nama, Nitesh; Fick, James R; Benkovic, Stephen J; Huang, Tony Jun


    The interactions between pairs of cells and within multicellular assemblies are critical to many biological processes such as intercellular communication, tissue and organ formation, immunological reactions, and cancer metastasis. The ability to precisely control the position of cells relative to one another and within larger cellular assemblies will enable the investigation and characterization of phenomena not currently accessible by conventional in vitro methods. We present a versatile surface acoustic wave technique that is capable of controlling the intercellular distance and spatial arrangement of cells with micrometer level resolution. This technique is, to our knowledge, among the first of its kind to marry high precision and high throughput into a single extremely versatile and wholly biocompatible technology. We demonstrated the capabilities of the system to precisely control intercellular distance, assemble cells with defined geometries, maintain cellular assemblies in suspension, and translate these suspended assemblies to adherent states, all in a contactless, biocompatible manner. As an example of the power of this system, this technology was used to quantitatively investigate the gap junctional intercellular communication in several homotypic and heterotypic populations by visualizing the transfer of fluorescent dye between cells.

  11. Cancer cell exosomes depend on cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans for their internalization and functional activity. (United States)

    Christianson, Helena C; Svensson, Katrin J; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Li, Jin-Ping; Belting, Mattias


    Extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated intercellular transfer of signaling proteins and nucleic acids has recently been implicated in the development of cancer and other pathological conditions; however, the mechanism of EV uptake and how this may be targeted remain as important questions. Here, we provide evidence that heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans (PGs; HSPGs) function as internalizing receptors of cancer cell-derived EVs with exosome-like characteristics. Internalized exosomes colocalized with cell-surface HSPGs of the syndecan and glypican type, and exosome uptake was specifically inhibited by free HS chains, whereas closely related chondroitin sulfate had no effect. By using several cell mutants, we provide genetic evidence of a receptor function of HSPG in exosome uptake, which was dependent on intact HS, specifically on the 2-O and N-sulfation groups. Further, enzymatic depletion of cell-surface HSPG or pharmacological inhibition of endogenous PG biosynthesis by xyloside significantly attenuated exosome uptake. We provide biochemical evidence that HSPGs are sorted to and associate with exosomes; however, exosome-associated HSPGs appear to have no direct role in exosome internalization. On a functional level, exosome-induced ERK1/2 signaling activation was attenuated in PG-deficient mutant cells as well as in WT cells treated with xyloside. Importantly, exosome-mediated stimulation of cancer cell migration was significantly reduced in PG-deficient mutant cells, or by treatment of WT cells with heparin or xyloside. We conclude that cancer cell-derived exosomes use HSPGs for their internalization and functional activity, which significantly extends the emerging role of HSPGs as key receptors of macromolecular cargo.

  12. Fulvestrant radiosensitizes human estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing, E-mail: [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong Univeristy, Wenhua Xi Road 107, Shandong Province (China); Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Shandong Province (China); Yang, Qifeng, E-mail: [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong Univeristy, Wenhua Xi Road 107, Shandong Province (China); Haffty, Bruce G., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, NB (United States); Li, Xiaoyan, E-mail: [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Shandong Province (China); Moran, Meena S., E-mail: [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)


    Highlights: ► Fulvestrant radiosensitizes MCF-7 cells. ► Fulvestrant increases G1 arrest and decreases S phase in MCF-7 cells. ► Fulvestrant down-regulates DNA-PKcs and RAD51 in MCF-7 cells. -- Abstract: The optimal sequencing for hormonal therapy and radiation are yet to be determined. We utilized fulvestrant, which is showing promise as an alternative to other agents in the clinical setting of hormonal therapy, to assess the cellular effects of concomitant anti-estrogen therapy (fulvestrant) with radiation (F + RT). This study was conducted to assess the effects of fulvestrant alone vs. F + RT on hormone-receptor positive breast cancer to determine if any positive or negative combined effects exist. The effects of F + RT on human breast cancer cells were assessed using MCF-7 clonogenic and tetrazolium salt colorimetric (MTT) assays. The assays were irradiated with a dose of 0, 2, 4, 6 Gy ± fulvestrant. The effects of F + RT vs. single adjuvant treatment alone on cell-cycle distribution were assessed using flow cytometry; relative expression of repair proteins (Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs, Rad51) was assessed using Western Blot analysis. Cell growth for radiation alone vs. F + RT was 0.885 ± 0.013 vs. 0.622 ± 0.029 @2 Gy, 0.599 ± 0.045 vs. 0.475 ± 0.054 @4 Gy, and 0.472 ± 0.021 vs. 0.380 ± 0.018 @6 Gy RT (p = 0.003). While irradiation alone induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, the combination of F + RT induced cell redistribution in the G1 phase and produced a significant decrease in the proportion of cells in G2 phase arrest and in the S phase in breast cancer cells (p < 0.01). Furthermore, levels of repair proteins DNA-PKcs and Rad51 were significantly decreased in the cells treated with F + RT compared with irradiation alone. F + RT leads to a decrease in the surviving fraction, increased cell cycle arrest, down regulating of nonhomologous repair protein DNA-PKcs and homologous recombination repair protein RAD51. Thus, our findings suggest that F + RT

  13. Flow cytometry analysis of hormone receptors on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to identify stress-induced neuroendocrine effects (United States)

    Meehan, R. T.


    Understanding the role of circulating peptide hormones in the pathogenesis of space-flight induced disorders would be greatly facilitated by a method which monitors chronic levels of hormones and their effects upon in vivo cell physiology. Single and simultaneous multiparameter flow cytometry analysis was employed to identify subpopulations of mononuclear cells bearing receptors for ACTH, Endorphin, and Somatomedin-C using monoclonal antibodies and monospecific antisera with indirect immunofluorescence. Blood samples were obtained from normal donors and subjects participating in decompression chamber studies (acute stress), medical student academic examination (chronic stress), and a drug study (Dexamethasone). Preliminary results indicate most ACTH and Endorphin receptor positive cells are monocytes and B-cells, exhibit little diurnal variation but the relative percentages of receptor positive cells are influenced by exposure to various stressors and ACTH inhibition. This study demonstrates the capability of flow cytometry analysis to study cell surface hormone receptor regulation which should allow insight into neuroendocrine modulation of the immune and other cellular systems during exposure to stress or microgravity.

  14. Targeting death receptor TRAIL-R2 by chalcones for TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. (United States)

    Szliszka, Ewelina; Jaworska, Dagmara; Ksek, Małgorzata; Czuba, Zenon P; Król, Wojciech


    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in cancer cells without toxicity to normal cells. TRAIL binds to death receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5) expressed on cancer cell surface and activates apoptotic pathways. Endogenous TRAIL plays an important role in immune surveillance and defense against cancer cells. However, as more tumor cells are reported to be resistant to TRAIL mediated death, it is important to search for and develop new strategies to overcome this resistance. Chalcones can sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of TRAIL in combination with four chalcones: chalcone, isobavachalcone, licochalcone A and xanthohumol on HeLa cancer cells. The cytotoxicity was measured by MTT and LDH assays. The apoptosis was detected using annexin V-FITC staining by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Death receptor expression was analyzed using flow cytometry. The decreased expression of death receptors in cancer cells may be the cause of TRAIL-resistance. Chalcones enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells through increased expression of TRAIL-R2. Our study has indicated that chalcones augment the antitumor activity of TRAIL and confirm their cancer chemopreventive properties.

  15. Targeting Death Receptor TRAIL-R2 by Chalcones for TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ksek


    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL induces apoptosis in cancer cells without toxicity to normal cells. TRAIL binds to death receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4 and TRAIL-R2 (DR5 expressed on cancer cell surface and activates apoptotic pathways. Endogenous TRAIL plays an important role in immune surveillance and defense against cancer cells. However, as more tumor cells are reported to be resistant to TRAIL mediated death, it is important to search for and develop new strategies to overcome this resistance. Chalcones can sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of TRAIL in combination with four chalcones: chalcone, isobavachalcone, licochalcone A and xanthohumol on HeLa cancer cells. The cytotoxicity was measured by MTT and LDH assays. The apoptosis was detected using annexin V-FITC staining by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Death receptor expression was analyzed using flow cytometry. The decreased expression of death receptors in cancer cells may be the cause of TRAIL-resistance. Chalcones enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells through increased expression of TRAIL-R2. Our study has indicated that chalcones augment the antitumor activity of TRAIL and confirm their cancer chemopreventive properties.

  16. Statistical inference of the generation probability of T-cell receptors from sequence repertoires. (United States)

    Murugan, Anand; Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra M; Callan, Curtis G


    Stochastic rearrangement of germline V-, D-, and J-genes to create variable coding sequence for certain cell surface receptors is at the origin of immune system diversity. This process, known as "VDJ recombination", is implemented via a series of stochastic molecular events involving gene choices and random nucleotide insertions between, and deletions from, genes. We use large sequence repertoires of the variable CDR3 region of human CD4+ T-cell receptor beta chains to infer the statistical properties of these basic biochemical events. Because any given CDR3 sequence can be produced in multiple ways, the probability distribution of hidden recombination events cannot be inferred directly from the observed sequences; we therefore develop a maximum likelihood inference method to achieve this end. To separate the properties of the molecular rearrangement mechanism from the effects of selection, we focus on nonproductive CDR3 sequences in T-cell DNA. We infer the joint distribution of the various generative events that occur when a new T-cell receptor gene is created. We find a rich picture of correlation (and absence thereof), providing insight into the molecular mechanisms involved. The generative event statistics are consistent between individuals, suggesting a universal biochemical process. Our probabilistic model predicts the generation probability of any specific CDR3 sequence by the primitive recombination process, allowing us to quantify the potential diversity of the T-cell repertoire and to understand why some sequences are shared between individuals. We argue that the use of formal statistical inference methods, of the kind presented in this paper, will be essential for quantitative understanding of the generation and evolution of diversity in the adaptive immune system.

  17. p75 neurotrophin receptor and pro-BDNF promote cell survival and migration in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (United States)

    Sánchez-Prieto, Ricardo; Saada, Sofiane; Naves, Thomas; Guillaudeau, Angélique; Perraud, Aurélie; Sindou, Philippe; Lacroix, Aurélie; Descazeaud, Aurélien; Lalloué, Fabrice; Jauberteau, Marie-Odile


    p75NTR, a member of TNF receptor family, is the low affinity receptor common to several mature neurotrophins and the high affinity receptor for pro-neurotrophins. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), a member of neurotrophin family has been described to play an important role in development and progression of several cancers, through its binding to a high affinity tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) and/or p75NTR. However, the functions of these two receptors in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have never been investigated. An overexpression of p75NTR, pro-BDNF, and to a lesser extent for TrkB and sortilin, was detected by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 83 clear cell RCC tumors. p75NTR, mainly expressed in tumor tissues, was significantly associated with higher Fuhrman grade in multivariate analysis. In two derived-RCC lines, 786-O and ACHN cells, we demonstrated that pro-BDNF induced cell survival and migration, through p75NTR as provided by p75NTR RNA silencing or blocking anti-p75NTR antibody. This mechanism is independent of TrkB activation as demonstrated by k252a, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor for Trk neurotrophin receptors. Taken together, these data highlight for the first time an important role for p75NTR in renal cancer and indicate a putative novel target therapy in RCC. PMID:27120782

  18. Receptor-mediated binding and uptake of GnRH agonist and antagonist by pituitary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennes, L.; Stumpf, W.E.; Conn, P.M.


    The intracellular pathway of an enzyme resistant GnRH agonist (D- Lys6 -GnRH) conjugated to ferritin or to colloidal gold was followed in cultured pituitary cells. After an initial uniform distribution over the cell surface of gonadotropes, the electrondense marker was internalized, either individually or in small groups. After longer incubation times, the marker appeared in the lysosomal compartment and the Golgi apparatus, where it could be found in the vesicular as well as cisternal portion. In addition, the receptor-mediated endocytosis of the GnRH antagonist D-p-Glu1-D-Phe2-D-Trp3-D- Lys6 -GnRH was studied by light and electron microscopic autoradiography after 30 and 60 min of incubation to ensure uptake. At both time points, in in vitro as well as in vivo studies, silver grains were localized over cytoplasmic organelles of castration cells, including dilated endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and clear vesicles. No consistent association with cell nuclei, mitochondria, or secretory vesicles could be observed. The results suggest that both agonist and antagonist are binding selectively to the plasma membrane of gonadotropes and subsequently are taken up via receptor-mediated endocytosis for degradation or possible action on synthetic processes.

  19. The osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) is a novel receptor regulated by oxidized low-density lipoprotein in human endothelial cells. (United States)

    Goettsch, Claudia; Rauner, Martina; Sinningen, Kathrin; Helas, Susann; Al-Fakhri, Nadia; Nemeth, Katharina; Hamann, Christine; Kopprasch, Steffi; Aikawa, Elena; Bornstein, Stefan R; Schoppet, Michael; Hofbauer, Lorenz C


    Cross talks between the vascular and immune system play a critical role in vascular diseases, in particular in atherosclerosis. The osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) is a regulator of osteoclast differentiation and dendritic cell maturation. Whether OSCAR plays a role in vascular biology and has an impact on atherogenic processes provoked by proinflammatory stimuli is yet unknown. We identified OSCAR on the surface of human primary endothelial cells. Stimulation of endothelial cells with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) caused a time- and dose-dependent induction of OSCAR, which was lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor 1 and Ca(2+) dependent. OSCAR was transcriptionally regulated by oxLDL as shown by OSCAR promoter analysis. Specific inhibition of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway prevented the oxLDL-mediated increase of endothelial OSCAR expression. As assessed by EMSA, oxLDL induced binding of NFATc1 to the OSCAR promoter. Notably, in vivo-modified LDL from patients with diabetes mellitus stimulated OSCAR mRNA expression in human endothelial cells. Furthermore, apolipoprotein E knockout mice fed a high-fat diet showed an enhanced aortic OSCAR expression associated with increased expression of NFATc1. In summary, OSCAR is expressed in vascular endothelial cells and is regulated by oxLDL involving NFATc1. Our data suggest that OSCAR, originally described in bone as immunological mediator and regulator of osteoclast differentiation, may be involved in cell activation and inflammation during atherosclerosis.

  20. Endo- and exocytic rate constants for spontaneous and protein kinase C-activated T cell receptor cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, Charlotte; Møller Sørensen, Tine; Siersma, Volkert


    To determine the rate constants of spontaneous and activated TCR cycling, we examined TCR endo- and exocytosis in the human T cell line Jurkat by three different methods. Using a simple kinetic model for TCR cycling and non-linear regression analyses, we found that the spontaneous endocytic rate......)) whereas the exocytic rate constant was unaffected. Thus, the TCR becomes a rapidly cycling receptor with kinetics similar to classical cycling receptors subsequent to PKC activation. This results in a reduction of the half-life of cell surface expressed TCR from approximately 58 to 6 min and allows rapid...... constant of the TCR was low (approximately 0.012 min(-1)) whereas the spontaneous exocytic rate constant was similar to that of other cycling receptors (approximately 0.055 min(-1)). Following protein kinase C activation (PKC) the endocytic rate constant was increased tenfold (to approximately 0.128 min(-1...

  1. The interaction between LYVE-1 with hyaluronan on the cell surface may play a role in the diversity of adhesion to cancer cells.

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    Yan Du

    Full Text Available Hyaluronan (HA, a simple disaccharide unit, can polymerize and is considered a primary component of the extracellular matrix, which has a wide range of biological functions. In recent years, HA was found on the surface of tumor cells. According to previous reports, differing HA content on the cell surface of tumor cells is closely related to lymph node metastases, but the mechanisms mediating this process remained unclear. This research intended to study the surface content of HA on tumor cells and analyze cell adhesive changes caused by the interaction between HA and its lymphatic endothelial receptor (LYVE-1. We screened and observed high HA content on HS-578T breast cells and low HA content on MCF-7 breast cells through particle exclusion, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry experiments. The expression of LYVE-1, the lymph-vessel specific HA receptor, was consistent with our previous report and enhanced the adhesion of HA(high-HS-578T cells to COS-7(LYVE-1(+ through HA in cell static adhesion and dynamic parallel plate flow chamber experiments. MCF-7 breast cells contain little HA on the surface; however, our results showed little adhesion difference between MCF-7 cells and COS-7(LYVE-1(+ and COS-7(LYVE-1(- cells. Similar results were observed concerning the adhesion of HS-578T cells or MCF-7 cells to SVEC4-10 cells. Furthermore, we observed for the first time that the cell surface HA content of high transfer tumor cells was rich, and we visualized the cross-linking of HA cable structures, which may activate LYVE-1 on lymphatic endothelial cells, promoting tumor adhesion. In summary, high-low cell surface HA content of tumor cells through the interaction with LYVE-1 leads to adhesion differences.

  2. Delineation of the GPRC6A Receptor Signaling Pathways Using a Mammalian Cell Line Stably Expressing the Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Engesgaard; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Lenea; Thomsen, Alex Rojas Bie;


    receptor has been suggested to couple to multiple G protein classes albeit via indirect methods. Thus, the exact ligand preferences and signaling pathways are yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we generated a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line that stably expresses mouse GPRC6A. In an effort...... of the stable CHO cell line with robust receptor responsiveness and optimization of the highly sensitive homogeneous time resolved fluorescence technology allow fast assessment of Gq activation without previous manipulations like cotransfection of mutated G proteins. This cell-based assay system for GPRC6A...

  3. Specific antibody-receptor interactions trigger InlAB-independent uptake of listeria monocytogenes into tumor cell lines

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    Hotz Christian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specific cell targeting is an important, yet unsolved problem in bacteria-based therapeutic applications, like tumor or gene therapy. Here, we describe the construction of a novel, internalin A and B (InlAB-deficient Listeria monocytogenes strain (Lm-spa+, which expresses protein A of Staphylococcus aureus (SPA and anchors SPA in the correct orientation on the bacterial cell surface. Results This listerial strain efficiently binds antibodies allowing specific interaction of the bacterium with the target recognized by the antibody. Binding of Trastuzumab (Herceptin® or Cetuximab (Erbitux® to Lm-spa+, two clinically approved monoclonal antibodies directed against HER2/neu and EGFR/HER1, respectively, triggers InlAB-independent internalization into non-phagocytic cancer cell lines overexpressing the respective receptors. Internalization, subsequent escape into the host cell cytosol and intracellular replication of these bacteria are as efficient as of the corresponding InlAB-positive, SPA-negative parental strain. This specific antibody/receptor-mediated internalization of Lm-spa+ is shown in the murine 4T1 tumor cell line, the isogenic 4T1-HER2 cell line as well as the human cancer cell lines SK-BR-3 and SK-OV-3. Importantly, this targeting approach is applicable in a xenograft mouse tumor model after crosslinking the antibody to SPA on the listerial cell surface. Conclusions Binding of receptor-specific antibodies to SPA-expressing L. monocytogenes may represent a promising approach to target L. monocytogenes to host cells expressing specific receptors triggering internalization.

  4. One Step Quick Detection of Cancer Cell Surface Marker by Integrated NiFe-based Magnetic Biosensing Cell Cultural Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenchen Bao; Lei Chen; Tao Wang; Chong Lei; Furong Tian; Daxiang Cui; Yong Zhou


    RGD peptides has been used to detect cell surface integrin and direct clinical effective therapeutic drug selection. Herein we report that a quick one step detection of cell surface marker that was realized by a specially designed NiFe-based magnetic biosensing cell chip combined with functionalized magnetic nanoparti-cles. Magnetic nanoparticles with 20-30 nm in diameter were prepared by coprecipitation and modified with RGD-4C, and the resultant RGD-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were used for targeting cancer cells cul-tured on the NiFe-based magnetic biosensing chip and distinguish the amount of cell surface receptor-integrin. Cell lines such as Calu3, Hela, A549, CaFbr, HEK293 and HUVEC exhibiting different integrin expression were chosen as test samples. Calu3, Hela, HEK293 and HUVEC cells were successfully identified. This approach has advantages in the qualitative screening test. Compared with traditional method, it is fast, sensitive, low cost, easy-operative, and needs very little human intervention. The novel method has great potential in applications such as fast clinical cell surface marker detection, and diagnosis of early cancer, and can be easily extended to other biomedical applications based on molecular recognition.

  5. [Research Progress on Expression and Function of P2 Purinergic Receptor in Blood Cells]. (United States)

    Feng, Wen-Li; Wang, Li-Na; Zheng, Guo-Guang


    Nucleotides have unambiguously emerged as a family of mediators of intercellular communication, which bind a class of plasma membrane receptors, P2 purinergic receptors, to trigger intercellular signaling. P2 receptors can be further divided into two structurally and functionally different sub-famlies, the P2X and P2Y receptors. Different blood cells express diverse spectrum of P2 receptors at different levels. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) exerts different effects on blood cells, regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, chemotaxis, release of cytokines or lysosomal constituents, and generation of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species. The relationship between abnormal P2 receptors and human diseases attracts more and more attention. This review briefly discusses the expression and function of P2 receptors in hematopoietic system.

  6. Targeting Gallium to Cancer Cells through the Folate Receptor

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    Nerissa Viola-Villegas


    Full Text Available The development of gallium(III compounds as anti-cancer agents for both treatment and diagnosis is a rapidly developing field of research. Problems remain in exploring the full potential of gallium(III as a safe and successful therapeutic agent or as an imaging agent. One of the major issues is that gallium(III compounds have little tropism for cancer cells. We have combined the targeting properties of folic acid (FA with long chain liquid polymer poly(ethylene glycol (PEG ‘spacers’. This FA-PEG unit has been coupled to the gallium coordination complex of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclo-dodecane-N,N′,N′′,N′′′-tetraacetic acid (DOTA through amide linkages for delivery into target cells overexpressing the folate receptor (FR. In vitro cytotoxicity assays were conducted against a multi-drug resistant ovarian cell line (A2780/AD that overexpresses the FR and contrasted against a FR free Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell line. Results are rationalized taking into account stability studies conducted in RPMI 1640 media and HEPES buffer at pH 7.4.

  7. Intracellular expression of toll-like receptor 4 in neuroblastoma cells and their unresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide

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    Mori Isamu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently it has been reported that, toll-like receptors (TLRs are expressed on a series of tumor cells, such as colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, melanoma and lung cancer. Although some cancer cells like melanoma cells are known to respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS via TLR4, not all cancer cells are positive for TLR4. There is little information on the expression and function of TLR4 in neuroblastoma cells. In this study, we investigated the expression of TLR4 in human neuroblastoma NB-1 cell line. Methods Expression and localization of TLR4 were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Activation of nuclear factor (NF-κB by LPS was detected by degradation of IκB-α and NF-κB luciferase assay. Activation and expression of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase and interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3 was detected by immunoblot analysis. Results Human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells expressed intracellular form of TLR4, but not the cell surface form. Further, NB-1 cells express CD14, MD2 and MyD88, which are required for LPS response. However, LPS did not significantly induce NF-κB activation in NB-1 cells although it slightly degraded IκB-α. NB-1 cells expressed no IRF-3, which plays a pivotal role on the MyD88-independent pathway of LPS signaling. Collectively, NB-1 cells are capable to avoid their response to LPS. Conclusion Although human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells possessed all the molecules required for LPS response, they did not respond to LPS. It might be responsible for intracellular expression of TLR4 or lack of IRF-3.

  8. Activation profiles of opioid ligands in HEK cells expressing δ opioid receptors


    Clark J; Demirci Hasan; Gharagozlou Parham; Lameh Jelveh


    Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to characterize the activation profiles of 15 opioid ligands in transfected human embryonic kidney cells expressing only δ opioid receptors. Activation profiles of most of these ligands at δ opioid receptors had not been previously characterized in vitro. Receptor activation was assessed by measuring the inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. Results Naltrexone and nalorphine were classified as antagonists at δ opioid receptor....

  9. Neural stem cells express melatonin receptors and neurotrophic factors: colocalization of the MT1 receptor with neuronal and glial markers

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    McMillan Catherine R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to optimize the potential benefits of neural stem cell (NSC transplantation for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, it is necessary to understand their biological characteristics. Although neurotrophin transduction strategies are promising, alternative approaches such as the modulation of intrinsic neurotrophin expression by NSCs, could also be beneficial. Therefore, utilizing the C17.2 neural stem cell line, we have examined the expression of selected neurotrophic factors under different in vitro conditions. In view of recent evidence suggesting a role for the pineal hormone melatonin in vertebrate development, it was also of interest to determine whether its G protein-coupled MT1 and MT2 receptors are expressed in NSCs. Results RT-PCR analysis revealed robust expression of glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and nerve growth factor (NGF in undifferentiated cells maintained for two days in culture. After one week, differentiating cells continued to exhibit high expression of BDNF and NGF, but GDNF expression was lower or absent, depending on the culture conditions utilized. Melatonin MT1 receptor mRNA was detected in NSCs maintained for two days in culture, but the MT2 receptor was not seen. An immature MT1 receptor of about 30 kDa was detected by western blotting in NSCs cultured for two days, whereas a mature receptor of about 40 – 45 kDa was present in cells maintained for longer periods. Immunocytochemical studies demonstrated that the MT1 receptor is expressed in both neural (β-tubulin III positive and glial (GFAP positive progenitor cells. An examination of the effects of melatonin on neurotrophin expression revealed that low physiological concentrations of this hormone caused a significant induction of GDNF mRNA expression in NSCs following treatment for 24 hours. Conclusions The phenotypic characteristics of C17.2 cells suggest that they are

  10. The Orphan Receptor Tie1 Controls Angiogenesis and Vascular Remodeling by Differentially Regulating Tie2 in Tip and Stalk Cells. (United States)

    Savant, Soniya; La Porta, Silvia; Budnik, Annika; Busch, Katrin; Hu, Junhao; Tisch, Nathalie; Korn, Claudia; Valls, Aida Freire; Benest, Andrew V; Terhardt, Dorothee; Qu, Xianghu; Adams, Ralf H; Baldwin, H Scott; Ruiz de Almodóvar, Carmen; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Augustin, Hellmut G


    Tie1 is a mechanistically poorly characterized endothelial cell (EC)-specific orphan receptor. Yet, Tie1 deletion is embryonic lethal and Tie1 has been implicated in critical vascular pathologies, including atherosclerosis and tumor angiogenesis. Here, we show that Tie1 does not function independently but exerts context-dependent effects on the related receptor Tie2. Tie1 was identified as an EC activation marker that is expressed during angiogenesis by a subset of angiogenic tip and remodeling stalk cells and downregulated in the adult quiescent vasculature. Functionally, Tie1 expression by angiogenic EC contributes to shaping the tip cell phenotype by negatively regulating Tie2 surface presentation. In contrast, Tie1 acts in remodeling stalk cells cooperatively to sustain Tie2 signaling. Collectively, our data support an interactive model of Tie1 and Tie2 function, in which dynamically regulated Tie1 versus Tie2 expression determines the net positive or negative effect of Tie1 on Tie2 signaling.

  11. EGF receptor signaling blocks aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated transcription and cell differentiation in human epidermal keratinocytes


    Sutter, Carrie Hayes; Yin, Hong; Li, Yunbo; Mammen, Jennifer S.; Bodreddigari, Sridevi; Stevens, Gaylene; Cole, Judith A; Sutter, Thomas R.


    Dioxin is an extremely potent carcinogen. In highly exposed people, the most commonly observed toxicity is chloracne, a pathological response of the skin. Most of the effects of dioxin are attributed to its activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a transcription factor that binds to the Ah receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) to regulate the transcription of numerous genes, including CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. In cultures of normal human epidermal keratinocytes dioxin accelerates cell diff...

  12. Broad T-cell receptor repertoire in T-lymphocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

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    Chia-Wei Chang

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs have enormous potential for the treatment of inherited and acquired disorders. Recently, antigen-specific T lymphocytes derived from hiPSCs have been reported. However, T lymphocyte populations with broad T cell receptor (TCR diversity have not been generated. We report that hiPSCs derived from skin biopsy are capable of producing T lymphocyte populations with a broad TCR repertoire. In vitro T cell differentiation follows a similar developmental program as observed in vivo, indicated by sequential expression of CD7, intracellular CD3 and surface CD3. The γδ TCR locus is rearranged first and is followed by rearrangement of the αβ locus. Both γδ and αβ T cells display a diverse TCR repertoire. Upon activation, the cells express CD25, CD69, cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-