Sample records for cell surface protein

  1. Cell surface engineering with edible protein nanoshells. (United States)

    Drachuk, Irina; Shchepelina, Olga; Harbaugh, Svetlana; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Stone, Morley; Tsukruk, Vladimir V


    Natural protein (silk fibroin) nanoshells are assembled on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells without compromising their viability. The nanoshells facilitate initial protection of the cells and allow them to function in encapsulated state for some time period, afterwards being completely biodegraded and consumed by the cells. In contrast to a traditional methanol treatment, the gentle ionic treatment suggested here stabilizes the shell silk fibroin structure but does not compromise the viability of the cells, as indicated by the fast response of the encapsulated cells, with an immediate activation by the inducer molecules. Extremely high viability rates (up to 97%) and preserved activity of encapsulated cells are facilitated by cytocompatibility of the natural proteins and the formation of highly porous shells in contrast to traditional polyelectrolyte-based materials. Moreover, in a high contrast to traditional synthetic shells, the silk proteins are biodegradable and can be consumed by cells at a later stage of growth, thus releasing the cells from their temporary protective capsules. These on-demand encapsulated cells can be considered a valuable platform for biocompatible and biodegradable cell encapsulation, controlled cell protection in a synthetic environment, transfer to a device environment, and cell implantation followed by biodegradation and consumption of protective protein shells.

  2. Calreticulin: Roles in Cell-Surface Protein Expression

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    Yue Jiang


    Full Text Available In order to perform their designated functions, proteins require precise subcellular localizations. For cell-surface proteins, such as receptors and channels, they are able to transduce signals only when properly targeted to the cell membrane. Calreticulin is a multi-functional chaperone protein involved in protein folding, maturation, and trafficking. However, evidence has been accumulating that calreticulin can also negatively regulate the surface expression of certain receptors and channels. In these instances, depletion of calreticulin enhances cell-surface expression and function. In this review, we discuss the role of calreticulin with a focus on its negative effects on the expression of cell-surface proteins.

  3. A mass spectrometric-derived cell surface protein atlas.

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    Damaris Bausch-Fluck

    Full Text Available Cell surface proteins are major targets of biomedical research due to their utility as cellular markers and their extracellular accessibility for pharmacological intervention. However, information about the cell surface protein repertoire (the surfaceome of individual cells is only sparsely available. Here, we applied the Cell Surface Capture (CSC technology to 41 human and 31 mouse cell types to generate a mass-spectrometry derived Cell Surface Protein Atlas (CSPA providing cellular surfaceome snapshots at high resolution. The CSPA is presented in form of an easy-to-navigate interactive database, a downloadable data matrix and with tools for targeted surfaceome rediscovery ( The cellular surfaceome snapshots of different cell types, including cancer cells, resulted in a combined dataset of 1492 human and 1296 mouse cell surface glycoproteins, providing experimental evidence for their cell surface expression on different cell types, including 136 G-protein coupled receptors and 75 membrane receptor tyrosine-protein kinases. Integrated analysis of the CSPA reveals that the concerted biological function of individual cell types is mainly guided by quantitative rather than qualitative surfaceome differences. The CSPA will be useful for the evaluation of drug targets, for the improved classification of cell types and for a better understanding of the surfaceome and its concerted biological functions in complex signaling microenvironments.

  4. RPE cell surface proteins in normal and dystrophic rats

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    Clark, V.M.; Hall, M.O.


    Membrane-bound proteins in plasma membrane enriched fractions from cultured rat RPE were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Membrane proteins were characterized on three increasingly specific levels. Total protein was visualized by silver staining. A maximum of 102 separate proteins were counted in silver-stained gels. Glycoproteins were labeled with 3H-glucosamine or 3H-fucose and detected by autoradiography. Thirty-eight fucose-labeled and 61-71 glucosamine-labeled proteins were identified. All of the fucose-labeled proteins were labeled with glucosamine-derived radioactivity. Proteins exposed at the cell surface were labeled by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination prior to preparation of membranes for two-dimensional analysis. Forty separate 125I-labeled surface proteins were resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis/autoradiography. Comparison with the glycoprotein map showed that a number of these surface labeled proteins were glycoproteins. Two-dimensional maps of total protein, fucose-labeled, and glucosamine-labeled glycoproteins, and 125I-labeled surface proteins of membranes from dystrophic (RCS rdy-p+) and normal (Long Evans or RCS rdy+p+) RPE were compared. No differences in the total protein or surface-labeled proteins were observed. However, the results suggest that a 183K glycoprotein is more heavily glycosylated with glucosamine and fucose in normal RPE membranes as compared to membranes from dystrophic RPE.

  5. ABI domain-containing proteins contribute to surface protein display and cell division in Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Frankel, Matthew B; Wojcik, Brandon M; DeDent, Andrea C; Missiakas, Dominique M; Schneewind, Olaf


    The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus requires cell wall anchored surface proteins to cause disease. During cell division, surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides are secreted into the cross-wall, a layer of newly synthesized peptidoglycan between separating daughter cells. The molecular determinants for the trafficking of surface proteins are, however, still unknown. We screened mutants with non-redundant transposon insertions by fluorescence-activated cell sorting for reduced deposition of protein A (SpA) into the staphylococcal envelope. Three mutants, each of which harboured transposon insertions in genes for transmembrane proteins, displayed greatly reduced envelope abundance of SpA and surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides. Characterization of the corresponding mutations identified three transmembrane proteins with abortive infectivity (ABI) domains, elements first described in lactococci for their role in phage exclusion. Mutations in genes for ABI domain proteins, designated spdA, spdB and spdC (surface protein display), diminish the expression of surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides, but not of precursor proteins with conventional signal peptides. spdA, spdB and spdC mutants display an increase in the thickness of cross-walls and in the relative abundance of staphylococci with cross-walls, suggesting that spd mutations may represent a possible link between staphylococcal cell division and protein secretion.

  6. Proteomics and glycoproteomics of pluripotent stem-cell surface proteins. (United States)

    Sun, Bingyun


    Pluripotent stem cells are a unique cell type with promising potential in regenerative and personalized medicine. Yet the difficulty to understand and coax their seemingly stochastic differentiation and spontaneous self-renewal have largely limited their clinical applications. A call has been made by numerous researchers for a better characterization of surface proteins on these cells, in search of biomarkers that can dictate developmental stages and lineage specifications, and can help formulate mechanistic insight of stem-cell fate choices. In the past two decades, proteomics has gained significant recognition in profiling surface proteins at high throughput. This review will summarize the impact of these studies on stem-cell biology, and discuss the used proteomic techniques. A systematic comparison of all the techniques and their results is also attempted here to help reveal pros, cons, and the complementarity of the existing methods. This awareness should assist in selecting suitable strategies for stem-cell related research, and shed light on technical improvements that can be explored in the future.

  7. Proteomic inventory of "anchorless" proteins on the colon adenocarcinoma cell surface.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjalsma, H.; Pluk, W.J.G.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Peters, W.H.M.; Roelofs, R.H.W.M.; Swinkels, D.W.


    Surface proteins play important pathophysiological roles in health and disease, and accumulating proteomics-based studies suggest that several "non-membrane" proteins are sorted to the cell surface by unconventional mechanisms. Importantly, these proteins may comprise attractive therapeutic targets

  8. Extraction of cell surface-associated proteins from living yeast cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. Klis; M. de Jong; S. Brul; P.W.J. de Groot


    To extract cell surface-associated proteins from living fungal cells, reducing agents such as beta-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol are often used. We show here that both compounds are moderately lipophilic and may perturb the plasma membrane, thus causing the release of cytosolic proteins, especi

  9. Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging to Detect Ovarian Cancer Early (United States)


    10-1-0422 TITLE: Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging to Detect Ovarian Cancer Early PRINCIPAL...DATES COVERED 1 July 2010 - 30 June 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Photoacoustic ...upon request). Aim 2) Prioritize ovarian cancer-associated surface proteins for their utility as molecular photoacoustic imaging targets and

  10. Cell surface hydrophobicity is conveyed by S-layer proteins - A study in recombinant lactobacilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, H.C. van der; Belt-Gritter, B. van de; Pouwels, P.H.; Martinez, B.; Busscher, H.J.


    Cell surface hydrophobicity is one of the most important factors controlling adhesion of microorganisms to surfaces. In this paper, cell surface properties of lactobacilli and recombinant lactobacilli with and without a surface layer protein (SLP) associated with cell surface hydrophobicity were det

  11. Multidimensional profiling of cell surface proteins and nuclear markers

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    Han, Ju; Chang, Hang; Andarawewa, Kumari; Yaswen, Paul; Helen Barcellos-Hoff, Mary; Parvin, Bahram


    Cell membrane proteins play an important role in tissue architecture and cell-cell communication. We hypothesize that segmentation and multidimensional characterization of the distribution of cell membrane proteins, on a cell-by-cell basis, enable improved classification of treatment groups and identify important characteristics that can otherwise be hidden. We have developed a series of computational steps to (i) delineate cell membrane protein signals and associate them with a specific nucleus; (ii) compute a coupled representation of the multiplexed DNA content with membrane proteins; (iii) rank computed features associated with such a multidimensional representation; (iv) visualize selected features for comparative evaluation through heatmaps; and (v) discriminate between treatment groups in an optimal fashion. The novelty of our method is in the segmentation of the membrane signal and the multidimensional representation of phenotypic signature on a cell-by-cell basis. To test the utility of this method, the proposed computational steps were applied to images of cells that have been irradiated with different radiation qualities in the presence and absence of other small molecules. These samples are labeled for their DNA content and E-cadherin membrane proteins. We demonstrate that multidimensional representations of cell-by-cell phenotypes improve predictive and visualization capabilities among different treatment groups, and identify hidden variables.

  12. Wolbachia surface protein induces innate immune responses in mosquito cells

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    Pinto Sofia B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria are capable of inducing chronic upregulation of insect immune genes in some situations and this phenotype may influence the transmission of important insect-borne pathogens. However the molecules involved in these interactions have not been characterized. Results Here we show that recombinant Wolbachia Surface Protein (WSP stimulates increased transcription of immune genes in mosquito cells derived from the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, which is naturally uninfected with Wolbachia; at least two of the upregulated genes, TEP1 and APL1, are known to be important in Plasmodium killing in this species. When cells from Aedes albopictus, which is naturally Wolbachia-infected, were challenged with WSP lower levels of upregulation were observed than for the An. gambiae cells. Conclusions We have found that WSP is a strong immune elicitor in a naturally Wolbachia-uninfected mosquito species (Anopheles gambiae while a milder elicitor in a naturally-infected species (Aedes albopictus. Since the WSP of a mosquito non-native (nematode Wolbachia strain was used, these data suggest that there is a generalized tolerance to WSP in Ae. albopictus.

  13. Regulation of ADAM12 cell-surface expression by protein kinase C epsilon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundberg, Christina; Thodeti, Charles Kumar; Kveiborg, Marie;


    as a constitutively active protein. However, little is known about the regulation of ADAM12 cell-surface translocation. Here, we used human RD rhabdomyosarcoma cells, which express ADAM12 at the cell surface, in a temporal pattern. We report that protein kinase C (PKC) epsilon induces ADAM12 translocation to the cell...

  14. Fixation and stabilization of Escherichia coli cells displaying genetically engineered cell surface proteins. (United States)

    Freeman, A; Abramov, S; Georgiou, G


    A large biotechnological potential is inherent in the display of proteins (e.g., enzymes, single-chain antibodies, on the surface of bacterial cells) (Georgiou et al., 1993). Applications such as immobilized whole-cell biocatalysts or cellular adsorbents require cell fixation to prevent disintegration, stabilization of the anchored protein from leakage, denaturation or proteolysis, and total loss of cell viability, preventing medium and potential product contamination with cells. In this article we describe the adaptation of a simple two-stage chemical crosslinking procedure based on "bi-layer encagement" (Tor et al., 1989) for stabilizing Escherichia coli cells expressing an Lpp-OmpA (46-159)-beta-lactamase fusion that displays beta-lactamase on the cell surface. Bilayer crosslinking and coating the bacteria with a polymeric matrix is accomplished by treating the cells first with either glutaraldehyde or polyglutaraldehyde, followed by secondary crosslinking with polyacrylamide hydrazide. These treatments resulted in a 5- to 25-fold reduction of the thermal inactivation rate constant at 55 degrees C of surface anchored beta-lactamase and completely prevented the deterioration of the cells for at least a week of storage at 4 degrees C. The stabilization procedure developed paves the way to scalable biotechnological applications of E. coli displaying surface anchored proteins as whole-cell biocatalysts and adsorbents.

  15. Fixation and stabilization of Escherichia coli cells displaying genetically engineered cell surface proteins

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    Freeman, A.; Abramov, S. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel); Georgiou, G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    A large biotechnological potential is inherent in the display of proteins. Applications such as immobilized whole-cell biocatalysts or cellular adsorbents require cell fixation to prevent disintegration, stabilization of the anchored protein from leakage, denaturation or proteolysis, and total loss of cell viability, preventing medium and potential product contamination with cells. In this article the authors describe the adaptation of a simple two-stage chemical crosslinking procedure based on bi-layer encagement for stabilizing Escherichia coli cells expressing an Lpp-OmpA-{beta}-lactamase fusion that displays {beta}-lactamase on the cell surface. Bilayer crosslinking and coating the bacteria with a polymeric matrix is accomplished by treating the cells first with either glutaraldehyde or polyglutaraldehyde, followed by secondary crosslinking with polyacrylamide hydrazide. These treatments resulted in a 5- to 25-fold reduction of the thermal inactivation rate constant at 55 C of surface anchored {beta}-lactamase and completely prevented the deterioration of the cells for at least a week of storage at 4 C. The stabilization procedure developed paves the way to scalable biotechnological applications of E. coli displaying surface anchored proteins as whole-cell biocatalysts and adsorbents.

  16. Cell-Surface Protein Profiling Identifies Distinctive Markers of Progenitor Cells in Human Skeletal Muscle

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    Akiyoshi Uezumi


    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle contains two distinct stem/progenitor populations. One is the satellite cell, which acts as a muscle stem cell, and the other is the mesenchymal progenitor, which contributes to muscle pathogeneses such as fat infiltration and fibrosis. Detailed and accurate characterization of these progenitors in humans remains elusive. Here, we performed comprehensive cell-surface protein profiling of the two progenitor populations residing in human skeletal muscle and identified three previously unrecognized markers: CD82 and CD318 for satellite cells and CD201 for mesenchymal progenitors. These markers distinguish myogenic and mesenchymal progenitors, and enable efficient isolation of the two types of progenitors. Functional study revealed that CD82 ensures expansion and preservation of myogenic progenitors by suppressing excessive differentiation, and CD201 signaling favors adipogenesis of mesenchymal progenitors. Thus, cell-surface proteins identified here are not only useful markers but also functionally important molecules, and provide valuable insight into human muscle biology and diseases.

  17. ProtEx: a novel technology to display exogenous proteins on the cell surface for immunomodulation. (United States)

    Singh, Narendra P; Yolcu, Esma S; Askenasy, Nadir; Shirwan, Haval


    Gene therapy as an immunomodulatory approach has the potential to treat various inherited and acquired immune-based human diseases. However, its clinical application has several challenges, varying from the efficiency of gene transfer, control of gene expression, cell and tissue targeting, and safety concerns associated with the introduction of exogenous DNA into cells/tissues. Gene therapy is also a time- and labor-intensive procedure. As an alternative, we recently developed a novel technology, ProtEx, that allows for rapid, efficient, and durable display of exogenous proteins on the surface of cells, tissues, and organs without detectable toxicity. This technology exploits the strong binding affinity (Kd = 10(-15) M) of streptavidin with biotin and involves generation of chimeric molecules composed of the extracellular portions of immunological proteins of interest and a modified form of streptavidin, biotinylation of biological surfaces, and decoration of the modified surface with chimeric proteins. Biotin persists on the cell surface for weeks both in vitro and in vivo, thereby providing a platform to display exogenous proteins with extended cell surface kinetics. Two chimeric proteins, rat FasL (SA-FasL) and human CD80 (CD80-SA), were generated and tested for cell surface display and immunomodulatory functions. SA-FasL and CD80-SA molecules persisted on the surface of various cell types for extended periods, varying from days to weeks in vitro and in vivo. The cell surface kinetics, however, were protein and cell type dependent. SA-FasL showed potent apoptotic activity against Fas+ cells as a soluble protein or displayed on the cell surface and effectively blocked alloreactive responses. The display of CD80-SA on the surface of tumor cells, however, converted them into antigen-presenting cells for effective stimulation of autologous and allogeneic T-cell responses. ProtEx technology, therefore, represents a practical and effective alternative to DNA

  18. Cell surface expression of glycosylated, nonglycosylated, and truncated forms of a cytoplasmic protein pyruvate kinase. (United States)

    Hiebert, S W; Lamb, R A


    The soluble cytoplasmic protein pyruvate kinase (PK) has been expressed at the cell surface in a membrane-anchored form (APK). The hybrid protein contains the NH2-terminal signal/anchor domain of a class II integral membrane protein (hemagglutinin/neuraminidase, of the paramyxovirus SV5) fused to the PK NH2 terminus. APK contains a cryptic site that is used for N-linked glycosylation but elimination of this site by site-specific mutagenesis does not prevent cell surface localization. Truncated forms of the APK molecule, with up to 80% of the PK region of APK removed, can also be expressed at the cell surface. These data suggest that neither the complete PK molecule nor its glycosylation are necessary for intracellular transport of PK to the cell surface, and it is possible that specific signals may not be needed in the ectodomain of this hybrid protein to specify cell surface localization.

  19. Facile Discovery of Cell-Surface Protein Targets of Cancer Cell Aptamers. (United States)

    Bing, Tao; Shangguan, Dihua; Wang, Yinsheng


    Cancer biomarker discovery constitutes a frontier in cancer research. In recent years, cell-binding aptamers have become useful molecular probes for biomarker discovery. However, there are few successful examples, and the critical barrier resides in the identification of the cell-surface protein targets for the aptamers, where only a limited number of aptamer targets have been identified so far. Herein, we developed a universal SILAC-based quantitative proteomic method for target discovery of cell-binding aptamers. The method allowed for distinguishing specific aptamer-binding proteins from nonspecific proteins based on abundance ratios of proteins bound to aptamer-carrying bait and control bait. In addition, we employed fluorescently labeled aptamers for monitoring and optimizing the binding conditions. We were able to identify and validate selectin L and integrin α4 as the protein targets for two previously reported aptamers, Sgc-3b and Sgc-4e, respectively. This strategy should be generally applicable for the discovery of protein targets for other cell-binding aptamers, which will promote the applications of these aptamers.

  20. Selective labelling of cell-surface proteins using CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes. (United States)

    Hagner-McWhirter, Asa; Winkvist, Maria; Bourin, Stephanie; Marouga, Rita


    Surface proteins are central to the cell's ability to react to its environment and to interact with neighboring cells. They are known to be inducers of almost all intracellular signaling. Moreover, they play an important role in environmental adaptation and drug treatment, and are often involved in disease pathogenesis and pathology (1). Protein-protein interactions are intrinsic to signaling pathways, and to gain more insight in these complex biological processes, sensitive and reliable methods are needed for studying cell surface proteins. Two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis is used extensively for detection of biomarkers and other targets in complex protein samples to study differential changes. Cell surface proteins, partly due to their low abundance (1 2% of cellular proteins), are difficult to detect in a 2-D gel without fractionation or some other type of enrichment. They are also often poorly represented in 2-D gels due to their hydrophobic nature and high molecular weight (2). In this study, we present a new protocol for intact cells using CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes for specific labeling and detection of this important group of proteins. The results showed specific labeling of a large number of cell surface proteins with minimal labeling of intracellular proteins. This protocol is rapid, simple to use, and all three CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes (Cy 2, Cy 3 and Cy 5) can be used to label cell-surface proteins. These features allow for multiplexing using the 2-D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) with Ettan DIGE technology and analysis of protein expression changes using DeCyder 2-D Differential Analysis Software. The level of cell-surface proteins was followed during serum starvation of CHO cells for various lengths of time (see Table 1). Small changes in abundance were detected with high accuracy, and results are supported by defined statistical methods.

  1. Isolation of cell surface proteins for mass spectrometry-based proteomics. (United States)

    Elschenbroich, Sarah; Kim, Yunee; Medin, Jeffrey A; Kislinger, Thomas


    Defining the cell surface proteome has profound importance for understanding cell differentiation and cell-cell interactions, as well as numerous pathogenic abnormalities. Owing to their hydrophobic nature, plasma membrane proteins that reside on the cell surface pose analytical challenges and, despite efforts to overcome difficulties, remain under-represented in proteomic studies. Limitations in the classically employed ultracentrifugation-based approaches have led to the invention of more elaborate techniques for the purification of cell surface proteins. Three of these methods--cell surface coating with cationic colloidal silica beads, biotinylation and chemical capture of surface glycoproteins--allow for marked enrichment of this subcellular proteome, with each approach offering unique advantages and characteristics for different experiments. In this article, we introduce the principles of each purification method and discuss applications from the recent literature.

  2. In-cell thermodynamics and a new role for protein surfaces. (United States)

    Smith, Austin E; Zhou, Larry Z; Gorensek, Annelise H; Senske, Michael; Pielak, Gary J


    There is abundant, physiologically relevant knowledge about protein cores; they are hydrophobic, exquisitely well packed, and nearly all hydrogen bonds are satisfied. An equivalent understanding of protein surfaces has remained elusive because proteins are almost exclusively studied in vitro in simple aqueous solutions. Here, we establish the essential physiological roles played by protein surfaces by measuring the equilibrium thermodynamics and kinetics of protein folding in the complex environment of living Escherichia coli cells, and under physiologically relevant in vitro conditions. Fluorine NMR data on the 7-kDa globular N-terminal SH3 domain of Drosophila signal transduction protein drk (SH3) show that charge-charge interactions are fundamental to protein stability and folding kinetics in cells. Our results contradict predictions from accepted theories of macromolecular crowding and show that cosolutes commonly used to mimic the cellular interior do not yield physiologically relevant information. As such, we provide the foundation for a complete picture of protein chemistry in cells.

  3. Survey of surface proteins from the pathogenic Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain 7448 using a biotin cell surface labeling approach.

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    Luciano Antonio Reolon

    Full Text Available The characterization of the repertoire of proteins exposed on the cell surface by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae, the etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs, is critical to understand physiological processes associated with bacterial infection capacity, survival and pathogenesis. Previous in silico studies predicted that about a third of the genes in the M. hyopneumoniae genome code for surface proteins, but so far, just a few of them have experimental confirmation of their expression and surface localization. In this work, M. hyopneumoniae surface proteins were labeled in intact cells with biotin, and affinity-captured biotin-labeled proteins were identified by a gel-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach. A total of 20 gel slices were separately analyzed by mass spectrometry, resulting in 165 protein identifications corresponding to 59 different protein species. The identified surface exposed proteins better defined the set of M. hyopneumoniae proteins exposed to the host and added confidence to in silico predictions. Several proteins potentially related to pathogenesis, were identified, including known adhesins and also hypothetical proteins with adhesin-like topologies, consisting of a transmembrane helix and a large tail exposed at the cell surface. The results provided a better picture of the M. hyopneumoniae cell surface that will help in the understanding of processes important for bacterial pathogenesis. Considering the experimental demonstration of surface exposure, adhesion-like topology predictions and absence of orthologs in the closely related, non-pathogenic species Mycoplasma flocculare, several proteins could be proposed as potential targets for the development of drugs, vaccines and/or immunodiagnostic tests for enzootic pneumonia.

  4. Scanning the cell surface proteome of cancer cells and identification of metastasis-associated proteins using a subtractive immunization strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Nicolaj; Ditzel, Henrik J


    characterization of the identified proteins. The strategy is based on subtractive immunization of mice, and we used the two isogenic cell lines, NM-2C5 and M-4A4, derived from the MDA-MB-435 cancer cell line, as a model system. Although the two cell lines are equally tumorigenic, only M-4A4 has metastatic...... of the immune system itself to scan the cell surface proteome for differentially expressed proteins. The subtractive immunization strategy should be broadly applicable as a quantitative and comparative proteomic approach for screening the cell surface and also allow generation of mAbs to study these cell...

  5. Antibody-protein A conjugated quantum dots for multiplexed imaging of surface receptors in living cells. (United States)

    Jin, Takashi; Tiwari, Dhermendra K; Tanaka, Shin-Ichi; Inouye, Yasushi; Yoshizawa, Keiko; Watanabe, Tomonobu M


    To use quantum dots (QDs) as fluorescent probes for receptor imaging, QD surface should be modified with biomolecules such as antibodies, peptides, carbohydrates, and small-molecule ligands for receptors. Among these QDs, antibody conjugated QDs are the most promising fluorescent probes. There are many kinds of coupling reactions that can be used for preparing antibody conjugated QDs. Most of the antibody coupling reactions, however, are non-selective and time-consuming. In this paper, we report a facile method for preparing antibody conjugated QDs for surface receptor imaging. We used ProteinA as an adaptor protein for binding of antibody to QDs. By using ProteinA conjugated QDs, various types of antibodies are easily attached to the surface of the QDs via non-covalent binding between the F(c) (fragment crystallization) region of antibody and ProteinA. To show the utility of ProteinA conjugated QDs, HER2 (anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) in KPL-4 human breast cancer cells were stained by using anti-HER2 antibody conjugated ProteinA-QDs. In addition, multiplexed imaging of HER2 and CXCR4 (chemokine receptor) in the KPL-4 cells was performed. The result showed that CXCR4 receptors coexist with HER2 receptors in the membrane surface of KPL-4 cells. ProteinA mediated antibody conjugation to QDs is very useful to prepare fluorescent probes for multiplexed imaging of surface receptors in living cells.

  6. Pooled protein immunization for identification of cell surface antigens in Streptococcus sanguinis.

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    Xiuchun Ge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Available bacterial genomes provide opportunities for screening vaccines by reverse vaccinology. Efficient identification of surface antigens is required to reduce time and animal cost in this technology. We developed an approach to identify surface antigens rapidly in Streptococcus sanguinis, a common infective endocarditis causative species. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We applied bioinformatics for antigen prediction and pooled antigens for immunization. Forty-seven surface-exposed proteins including 28 lipoproteins and 19 cell wall-anchored proteins were chosen based on computer algorithms and comparative genomic analyses. Eight proteins among these candidates and 2 other proteins were pooled together to immunize rabbits. The antiserum reacted strongly with each protein and with S. sanguinis whole cells. Affinity chromatography was used to purify the antibodies to 9 of the antigen pool components. Competitive ELISA and FACS results indicated that these 9 proteins were exposed on S. sanguinis cell surfaces. The purified antibodies had demonstrable opsonic activity. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that immunization with pooled proteins, in combination with affinity purification, and comprehensive immunological assays may facilitate cell surface antigen identification to combat infectious diseases.

  7. Selective radiolabeling of cell surface proteins to a high specific activity

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    Thompson, J.A.; Lau, A.L.; Cunningham, D.D.


    A procedure was developed for selective radiolabeling of membrane proteins on cells to higher specific activities than possible with available techniques. Cell surface amino groups were derivatized with /sup 125/I-(hydroxyphenyl)propionyl groups via /sup 125/I-sulfosuccinimidyl (hydroxyphenyl)propionate (/sup 125/II-sulfo-SHPP). This reagent preferentially labeled membrane proteins exposed at the cell surface of erythrocytes as assessed by the degree of radiolabel incorporation into erythrocyte ghost proteins and hemoglobin. Comparison with the lactoperoxidase-(/sup 125/I)iodide labeling technique revealed that /sup 125/I-sulfo-SHPP labeled cell surface proteins to a much higher specific activity and hemoglobin to a much lower specific activity. Additionally, this reagent was used for selective radiolabeling of membrane proteins on the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane by blocking exofacial amino groups with uniodinated sulfo-SHPP, lysing the cells, and then incubating them with /sup 125/I-sulfo-SHPP. Exclusive labeling of either side of the plasma membrane was demonstrated by the labeling of some marker proteins with well-defined spacial orientations on erythroctyes. Transmembrane proteins such as the epidermal growth factor receptor on cultured cells could also be labeled differentially from either side of the plasma membrane.

  8. Proteomic analysis of cell surface-associated proteins from probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian; Madsen, Søren M; Glenting, Jacob;


    In the present study, we used a proteomic approach to identify surface-associated proteins from the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum 299v. Proteins were extracted from the cell surface using a mild wash in phosphate buffer and analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel...... of probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract. The results provide the basis for future studies on the molecular mechanisms of probiotics....

  9. A comparison of surface proteins in embryonal carcinoma cells and their differentiated derivatives. (United States)

    Keil-Dlouha, V; Paulin, D; Bagilet, L K; Keil, B


    Surface proteins from five cell lines (three embryonal carcinoma cell lines (F9, PCC4 and PCC3), teratocarcinoma-derived endodermal cells (PYS) and fibroblasts (line 3/A/1-D-3 differentiated from PCC3) were compared by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after selective iodination with 125I in the presence of lactoperoxidase. The labeled proteins were solubilized either in Nonidet P40/urea/ampholyte/mercaptoethanol solution or in Nonidet P40 only. In total, about thirty major 125I-labeled surface proteins were identified by their isoelectric point and molecular weight. 14 proteins are present in all five cell types, although their quantity or accessibility for labeling differs between differentiated and undifferentiated cells. Three proteins (200, 160 and 150 kilodaltons) are present in undifferentiated cells only. Two of them (160 and 150 kilodaltons) were solubilized by Nonidet P40/urea/ampholyte/mercaptoethanol, but not by Nonidet P40. One protein (50 kilodaltons) was found in nullipotent F9 cells only. About 14--15 proteins (including fibronectin) were released by Nonidet P40/urea/ampholyte/mercaptoethanol but not by Nonidet P40. They are presumably bound to submembrane or cytoskeleton structures by non-covalent bonds.

  10. Surface proteins in normal and transformed rat liver epithelial cells in culture. (United States)

    Bannikov, G. A.; Saint Vincent, L.; Montesano, R.


    The pattern of surface proteins of different types of normal and transformed rat liver cells have been studied in culture by means of lactoperoxidase-catalysed iodination procedures, followed by SDS-gel electrophoresis. The cells examined were primary cultures of epithelial liver cells, long-term cultures of epithelial liver cells, in vitro transformed epithelial liver cell lines and liver tumour-cell lines; mesenchymal cells from liver and skin were also examined. The principal surface proteins of primary cultures of epithelial cells from adult or neonatal rats had components with mol. wts of 140,000-160,000, 100,000 and 40,000-70,000. A band that had the same position as fibronectin from mesenchymal cells was also present and this band, as well as other iodinated components, were less sensitive to trypsin than fibroblastic fibronectin. A similar pattern of iodinated proteins was seen in long-term cultures of epithelial liver cells, with a great reduction in the number and intensity of the bands in the mol. wt region below 100,000. Almost all the in vitro transformed and tumour epithelial cell lines contain a protein with a mol. wt 135,000 as one of the major iodinated bands, and in contrast to the observation in transformed fibroblasts, the fibronectin was retained by most of these transformed cell lines. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7053205

  11. Tumor suppressor protein SMAR1 modulates the roughness of cell surface: combined AFM and SEM study

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    Mamgain Hitesh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imaging tools such as scanning electron microscope (SEM and atomic force microscope (AFM can be used to produce high-resolution topographic images of biomedical specimens and hence are well suited for imaging alterations in cell morphology. We have studied the correlation of SMAR1 expression with cell surface smoothness in cell lines as well as in different grades of human breast cancer and mouse tumor sections. Methods We validated knockdown and overexpression of SMAR1 using RT-PCR as well as Western blotting in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293, human breast cancer (MCF-7 and mouse melanoma (B16F1 cell lines. The samples were then processed for cell surface roughness studies using atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The same samples were used for microarray analysis as well. Tumors sections from control and SMAR1 treated mice as well as tissues sections from different grades of human breast cancer on poly L-lysine coated slides were used for AFM and SEM studies. Results Tumor sections from mice injected with melanoma cells showed pronounced surface roughness. In contrast, tumor sections obtained from nude mice that were first injected with melanoma cells followed by repeated injections of SMAR1-P44 peptide, exhibited relatively smoother surface profile. Interestingly, human breast cancer tissue sections that showed reduced SMAR1 expression exhibited increased surface roughness compared to the adjacent normal breast tissue. Our AFM data establishes that treatment of cells with SMAR1-P44 results into increase in cytoskeletal volume that is supported by comparative gene expression data showing an increase in the expression of specific cytoskeletal proteins compared to the control cells. Altogether, these findings indicate that tumor suppressor function of SMAR1 might be exhibited through smoothening of cell surface by regulating expression of cell surface proteins. Conclusion Tumor suppressor

  12. Chemical surface modification of parylene C for enhanced protein immobilization and cell proliferation. (United States)

    Zhang, Changhong; Thompson, Mark E; Markland, Frank S; Swenson, Steve


    To introduce the adhesion site of proteins and/or cells on parylene C (PC)-coated medical devices that can be used as implantable biosensors or drug delivery capsules, the PC surfaces were initially modified by the Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction to generate active chlorines. These chlorines were then employed to initiate the atom transfer radical polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate (TBA) and form a polymer brush layer of polyTBA on PC; the acrylate groups in the polymer brushes were hydrolyzed to carboxylic acid groups and further activated into succinimidyl ester groups via the 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide coupling reaction. The PC surface grafted with polymer brushes and activated by succinimide showed efficient attachment of proteins, including gelatin, contortrostatin (CN) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), all at high density on the PC surface. The CN density on the surface was evaluated for both monolayer and polymer brush-based coatings. Based on fluorescence measurements, the polymer brush gives a 60-fold higher surface protein density than the monolayer-based system. Gelatin was used as a model protein and covalently coated onto the modified PC surface for cell culture study. Substrates with gelatin coating showed a significantly higher cell attachment and proliferation in 7 days cultures as compared to the uncoated substrates. In addition, a conventional photolithography technique was coupled with the surface chemistry to successfully pattern the BSA labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate on the modified PC surfaces.

  13. Protein overexport in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant is not due to facilitated release of cell-surface proteins. (United States)

    Alexieva, K I; Venkov, P V


    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain MW11 is a temperature-sensitive mutant which exports twenty times more proteins at 37 degrees C than parental or wild-type strains do. To understand the mechanism underlying the protein overexport in the mutant the possibility of an altered cell-wall structure leading to facilitated release of cell-surface proteins was studied. Data on calcofluor white and zymolyase sensitivities, resistance to killer 1 toxin and determination of exported acid phosphatase and invertase did not provide evidence for alterations in the cell-wall structure that could explain the protein overexport phenotype. The results were obtained in experiments when transcription of mutated gene was discontinued which permits the full expression of the protein overexport phenotype.

  14. Corynebacterium diphtheriae invasion-associated protein (DIP1281 is involved in cell surface organization, adhesion and internalization in epithelial cells

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    Rheinlaender Johannes


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causative agent of diphtheria, is well-investigated in respect to toxin production, while little is known about C. diphtheriae factors crucial for colonization of the host. In this study, we investigated the function of surface-associated protein DIP1281, previously annotated as hypothetical invasion-associated protein. Results Microscopic inspection of DIP1281 mutant strains revealed an increased size of the single cells in combination with an altered less club-like shape and formation of chains of cells rather than the typical V-like division forms or palisades of growing C. diphtheriae cells. Cell viability was not impaired. Immuno-fluorescence microscopy, SDS-PAGE and 2-D PAGE of surface proteins revealed clear differences of wild-type and mutant protein patterns, which were verified by atomic force microscopy. DIP1281 mutant cells were not only altered in shape and surface structure but completely lack the ability to adhere to host cells and consequently invade these. Conclusions Our data indicate that DIP1281 is predominantly involved in the organization of the outer surface protein layer rather than in the separation of the peptidoglycan cell wall of dividing bacteria. The adhesion- and invasion-negative phenotype of corresponding mutant strains is an effect of rearrangements of the outer surface.

  15. Heterologous protein display on the cell surface of lactic acid bacteria mediated by the s-layer protein

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    Han Lanlan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have revealed that the C-terminal region of the S-layer protein from Lactobacillus is responsible for the cell wall anchoring, which provide an approach for targeting heterologous proteins to the cell wall of lactic acid bacteria (LAB. In this study, we developed a new surface display system in lactic acid bacteria with the C-terminal region of S-layer protein SlpB of Lactobacillus crispatus K2-4-3 isolated from chicken intestine. Results Multiple sequence alignment revealed that the C-terminal region (LcsB of Lb. crispatus K2-4-3 SlpB had a high similarity with the cell wall binding domains SA and CbsA of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lb. crispatus. To evaluate the potential application as an anchoring protein, the green fluorescent protein (GFP or beta-galactosidase (Gal was fused to the N-terminus of the LcsB region, and the fused proteins were successfully produced in Escherichia coli, respectively. After mixing them with the non-genetically modified lactic acid bacteria cells, the fused GFP-LcsB and Gal-LcsB were functionally associated with the cell surface of various lactic acid bacteria tested. In addition, the binding capacity could be improved by SDS pretreatment. Moreover, both of the fused proteins could simultaneously bind to the surface of a single cell. Furthermore, when the fused DNA fragment of gfp:lcsB was inserted into the Lactococcus lactis expression vector pSec:Leiss:Nuc, the GFP could not be secreted into the medium under the control of the nisA promoter. Western blot, in-gel fluorescence assay, immunofluorescence microscopy and SDS sensitivity analysis confirmed that the GFP was successfully expressed onto the cell surface of L. lactis with the aid of the LcsB anchor. Conclusion The LcsB region can be used as a functional scaffold to target the heterologous proteins to the cell surfaces of lactic acid bacteria in vitro and in vivo, and has also the potential for biotechnological

  16. Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of Theileria annulata schizont surface proteins.

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    Olga Wiens

    Full Text Available The invasion of Theileria sporozoites into bovine leukocytes is rapidly followed by the destruction of the surrounding host cell membrane, allowing the parasite to establish its niche within the host cell cytoplasm. Theileria infection induces host cell transformation, characterised by increased host cell proliferation and invasiveness, and the activation of anti-apoptotic genes. This process is strictly dependent on the presence of a viable parasite. Several host cell kinases, including PI3-K, JNK, CK2 and Src-family kinases, are constitutively activated in Theileria-infected cells and contribute to the transformed phenotype. Although a number of host cell molecules, including IkB kinase and polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1, are recruited to the schizont surface, very little is known about the schizont molecules involved in host-parasite interactions. In this study we used immunofluorescence to detect phosphorylated threonine (p-Thr, serine (p-Ser and threonine-proline (p-Thr-Pro epitopes on the schizont during host cell cycle progression, revealing extensive schizont phosphorylation during host cell interphase. Furthermore, we established a quick protocol to isolate schizonts from infected macrophages following synchronisation in S-phase or mitosis, and used mass spectrometry to detect phosphorylated schizont proteins. In total, 65 phosphorylated Theileria proteins were detected, 15 of which are potentially secreted or expressed on the surface of the schizont and thus may be targets for host cell kinases. In particular, we describe the cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of two T. annulata surface proteins, TaSP and p104, both of which are highly phosphorylated during host cell S-phase. TaSP and p104 are involved in mediating interactions between the parasite and the host cell cytoskeleton, which is crucial for the persistence of the parasite within the dividing host cell and the maintenance of the transformed state.

  17. Isolation of two biologically active cell surface proteins from Brucella abortus by chromatofocusing

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    Tabatabai, L.B.; Deyoe, B.L.


    Brucella abortus contains a group of immunogenic cell surface proteins which have potential value as a vaccine or as a diagnostic reagent for the prevention and diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. Under nondenaturing conditions, these proteins range in molecular weight from 10,000-124,000, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on TSK 3000sw. By analytical isoelectrofocusing, 6 major protein bands could be distinguished with pI's ranging from 4.0 to 6.0 and 3 additional major proteins with pI's of 7.5, 9.5, and 10. By chromatofocusing on Polybuffer Exchanger 94 with a pH gradient from 6-4, two of the six proteins from pI 4-6 were separated, a pI 4.9 and a pI 4.7 protein; a third fraction contained the high pI proteins. The former two proteins were homogeneous by analytical isoelectrofocusing, and a molecular weight of 54,000 daltons was found for both protein species by HPLC on TSK 3000sw. The pI 4-6 and not the pI 9.5 and 10 proteins, could be radiolabeled when intact cells were radioiodinated with diazotized (/sup 125/I)-iodosulfanilic acid. Biological activity of the proteins as assessed in lemmings indicated that immunization with the pI 4.7 and 4.9 proteins afforded better protection against experimental brucellosis than immunization with the high pI proteins. These results support our view that a single surface protein may be sufficient for the prevention of experimental brucellosis.

  18. Predicting Cell Association of Surface-Modified Nanoparticles Using Protein Corona Structure - Activity Relationships (PCSAR). (United States)

    Kamath, Padmaja; Fernandez, Alberto; Giralt, Francesc; Rallo, Robert


    Nanoparticles are likely to interact in real-case application scenarios with mixtures of proteins and biomolecules that will absorb onto their surface forming the so-called protein corona. Information related to the composition of the protein corona and net cell association was collected from literature for a library of surface-modified gold and silver nanoparticles. For each protein in the corona, sequence information was extracted and used to calculate physicochemical properties and statistical descriptors. Data cleaning and preprocessing techniques including statistical analysis and feature selection methods were applied to remove highly correlated, redundant and non-significant features. A weighting technique was applied to construct specific signatures that represent the corona composition for each nanoparticle. Using this basic set of protein descriptors, a new Protein Corona Structure-Activity Relationship (PCSAR) that relates net cell association with the physicochemical descriptors of the proteins that form the corona was developed and validated. The features that resulted from the feature selection were in line with already published literature, and the computational model constructed on these features had a good accuracy (R(2)LOO=0.76 and R(2)LMO(25%)=0.72) and stability, with the advantage that the fingerprints based on physicochemical descriptors were independent of the specific proteins that form the corona.

  19. Dynamics of putative raft-associated proteins at the cell surface. (United States)

    Kenworthy, Anne K; Nichols, Benjamin J; Remmert, Catha L; Hendrix, Glenn M; Kumar, Mukesh; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer


    Lipid rafts are conceptualized as membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipid that serve as platforms for protein segregation and signaling. The properties of these domains in vivo are unclear. Here, we use fluorescence recovery after photobleaching to test if raft association affects a protein's ability to laterally diffuse large distances across the cell surface. The diffusion coefficients (D) of several types of putative raft and nonraft proteins were systematically measured under steady-state conditions and in response to raft perturbations. Raft proteins diffused freely over large distances (> 4 microm), exhibiting Ds that varied 10-fold. This finding indicates that raft proteins do not undergo long-range diffusion as part of discrete, stable raft domains. Perturbations reported to affect lipid rafts in model membrane systems or by biochemical fractionation (cholesterol depletion, decreased temperature, and cholesterol loading) had similar effects on the diffusional mobility of raft and nonraft proteins. Thus, raft association is not the dominant factor in determining long-range protein mobility at the cell surface.

  20. Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi surface proteins as determinants in establishing host cell interactions

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    Virginia L Schmit


    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi infection causes Lyme borreliosis in humans, a condition which can involve a systemic spread of the organism to colonize various tissues and organs. If the infection is left untreated by antimicrobials, it can lead to manifestations including, arthritis, carditis, and/or neurological problems. Identification and characterization of B. burgdorferi outer membrane proteins that facilitate cellular attachment and invasion to establish infection continue to be investigated. In this study, we sought to further define putative cell binding properties of surface-exposed B. burgdorferi proteins by observing whether cellular adherence could be blocked by antibodies. B. burgdorferi mixed separately with monoclonal antibodies against outer surface protein (Osp A, OspC, decorin-binding protein (Dbp A, BBA64, and RevA antigens were incubated with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC and human neuroglial cells (H4. B. burgdorferi treated with anti-OspA, -DbpA, and –BBA64 monoclonal antibodies showed a significant decrease in cellular association compared to controls, whereas B. burgdorferi treated with anti-OspC and anti-RevA showed no reduction in cellular attachment. Additionally, temporal transcriptional analyses revealed upregulated expression of bba64, ospA, and dbpA during coincubation with cells. Together, the data provide evidence that OspA, DbpA, and BBA64 function in host cell adherence and infection mechanisms.

  1. Role of the retinoblastoma protein in cell cycle arrest mediated by a novel cell surface proliferation inhibitor (United States)

    Enebo, D. J.; Fattaey, H. K.; Moos, P. J.; Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)


    A novel cell regulatory sialoglycopeptide (CeReS-18), purified from the cell surface of bovine cerebral cortex cells has been shown to be a potent and reversible inhibitor of proliferation of a wide array of fibroblasts as well as epithelial-like cells and nontransformed and transformed cells. To investigate the possible mechanisms by which CeReS-18 exerts its inhibitory action, the effect of the inhibitor on the posttranslational regulation of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (RB), a tumor suppressor gene, has been examined. It is shown that CeReS-18 mediated cell cycle arrest of both human diploid fibroblasts (HSBP) and mouse fibroblasts (Swiss 3T3) results in the maintenance of the RB protein in the hypophosphorylated state, consistent with a late G1 arrest site. Although their normal nontransformed counterparts are sensitive to cell cycle arrest mediated by CeReS-18, cell lines lacking a functional RB protein, through either genetic mutation or DNA tumor virus oncoprotein interaction, are less sensitive. The refractory nature of these cells is shown to be independent of specific surface receptors for the inhibitor, and another tumor suppressor gene (p53) does not appear to be involved in the CeReS-18 inhibition of cell proliferation. The requirement for a functional RB protein product, in order for CeReS-18 to mediate cell cycle arrest, is discussed in light of regulatory events associated with density-dependent growth inhibition.

  2. Class I major histocompatibility proteins as cell surface receptors for simian virus 40. (United States)

    Atwood, W J; Norkin, L C


    Class I major histocompatibility complex proteins appear to be the major cell surface receptors for simian virus 40 (SV40), as implied by the following observations. Adsorption of SV40 to LLC-MK2 rhesus monkey kidney cells specifically inhibited binding of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against class I human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. Conversely, pretreatment of LLC-MK2 cells with anti-HLA MAbs inhibited infection by SV40. The ability of anti-HLA to inhibit infection was greatly reduced when the order of addition of the anti-HLA and the virus was reversed. Infection was also inhibited by preincubating SV40 with purified soluble class I protein. Finally, human lymphoblastoid cells of the Daudi line, which do not express class I major histocompatibility complex proteins, were infected at relatively low levels with SV40 virions. In a control experiment, we found that pretreatment of cells with a MAb specific for the leukocytic-function-associated antigen LFA-3 actually enhanced infection. This finding may also support the premise that class I major histocompatibility complex proteins are receptors for SV40.

  3. Streptococcal collagen-like surface protein 1 promotes adhesion to the respiratory epithelial cell

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    Chang Cherng-Shyang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collagen-like surface proteins Scl1 and Scl2 on Streptococcus pyogenes contain contiguous Gly-X-X triplet amino acid motifs, the characteristic structure of human collagen. Although the potential role of Scl1 in adhesion has been studied, the conclusions may be affected by the use of different S. pyogenes strains and their carriages of various adhesins. To explore the bona fide nature of Scl1 in adherence to human epithelial cells without the potential interference of other streptococcal surface factors, we constructed a scl1 isogenic mutant from the Scl2-defective S. pyogenes strain and a Scl1-expressed Escherichia coli. Results Loss of Scl1 in a Scl2-defective S. pyogenes strain dramatically decreased the adhesion of bacteria to HEp-2 human epithelial cells. Expression of Scl1 on the surface of the heterologous bacteria E. coli significantly increased adhesion to HEp-2. The increase in adhesion was nullified when Scl1-expressed E. coli was pre-incubated with proteases or antibodies against recombinant Scl1 (rScl1 protein. Treatment of HEp-2 cells with rScl protein or pronase drastically reduced the binding capability of Scl1-expressed E. coli. These findings suggest that the adhesion is mediated through Scl1 on bacterial surface and protein receptor(s on epithelial cells. Further blocking of potential integrins revealed significant contributions of α2 and β1 integrins in Scl1-mediated binding to epithelial cells. Conclusions Together, these results underscore the importance of Scl1 in the virulence of S. pyogenes and implicate Scl1 as an adhesin during pathogenesis of streptococcal infection.

  4. Developmentally regulated epitopes of cell surface arabinogalactan proteins and their relation to root tissue pattern formation. (United States)

    Knox, J P; Linstead, P J; Peart, J; Cooper, C; Roberts, K


    Two polymorphic forms of an extracellular arabinogalactan protein (AGP1 and AGP2), obtained from the conditioned media of two carrot suspension-cultured cell lines, have been identified in terms of binding of the anti-plasma membrane antibodies JIM4 and MAC207. AGP1 and AGP2 have been used as immunogens to generate further anti-AGP monoclonal antibodies. JIM14 identified an epitope carried by AGP2 and also by glycoproteins of low molecular weight localized to the plant cell wall. In addition, further antibodies (JIM13 and JIM15) identified carbohydrate epitopes of the AGPs that also occur on plasma membrane glycoproteins and are expressed by patterns of cells that reflect cell position at the carrot root apex. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that JIM13 recognized the surface of cells forming the epidermis and cells marking the region and axis of the future xylem. JIM15 recognized a pattern of cells directly complementary to the JIM13 pattern. The panel of anti-AGP monoclonal antibodies now available indicates groups of cells within the root meristem that may reflect an early pre-pattern of the tissues of the mature root structure and suggests extensive modulation of cell surface AGPs during cell development and the positioning of cells within the apex.

  5. Mammalian carboxylesterase (CES) releases GPI-anchored proteins from the cell surface upon lipid raft fluidization. (United States)

    Orihashi, Kaoru; Tojo, Hiromasa; Okawa, Katsuya; Tashima, Yuko; Morita, Takashi; Kondoh, Gen


    Mammalian carboxylesterase (CES) is well known as a biotransformation enzyme for prodrugs and xenobiotics. Here, we purified CES as a GPI-anchored protein (GPI-AP)-releasing factor (GPIase) that releases such protein from the cell surface. All five isoforms of CES showed this activity to various degrees. When the serine residue of the catalytic triad for esterase was replaced by alanine, esterase activity was completely disrupted, while full GPIase activity remained, suggesting that these two activities are exhibited via different mechanisms. CES6, a new class of mammalian CES, exhibited the highest GPIase activity and released specific GPI-APs from the cell surface after lipid raft fluidization. The released product contained a GPI component, indicating that GPI-AP was released by cleavage in GPI. These results revealed for the first time that CES recognizes and catalyzes macromolecule GPI-AP as well as small molecules.

  6. Microarray analysis of genes associated with cell surface NIS protein levels in breast cancer

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    Richardson Andrea L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Na+/I- symporter (NIS-mediated iodide uptake allows radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer. NIS is also expressed in breast tumors, raising potential for radionuclide therapy of breast cancer. However, NIS expression in most breast cancers is low and may not be sufficient for radionuclide therapy. We aimed to identify biomarkers associated with NIS expression such that mechanisms underlying NIS modulation in human breast tumors may be elucidated. Methods Published oligonucleotide microarray data within the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus database were analyzed to identify gene expression tightly correlated with NIS mRNA level among human breast tumors. NIS immunostaining was performed in a tissue microarray composed of 28 human breast tumors which had corresponding oligonucleotide microarray data available for each tumor such that gene expression associated with cell surface NIS protein level could be identified. Results and Discussion NIS mRNA levels do not vary among breast tumors or when compared to normal breast tissues when detected by Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray platforms. Cell surface NIS protein levels are much more variable than their corresponding NIS mRNA levels. Despite a limited number of breast tumors examined, our analysis identified cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase as a biomarker that is highly associated with cell surface NIS protein levels in the ER-positive breast cancer subtype. Conclusions Further investigation on genes associated with cell surface NIS protein levels within each breast cancer molecular subtype may lead to novel targets for selectively increasing NIS expression/function in a subset of breast cancers patients.

  7. Restoration of proper trafficking to the cell surface for membrane proteins harboring cysteine mutations.

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    Angelica Lopez-Rodriguez

    Full Text Available A common phenotype for many genetic diseases is that the cell is unable to deliver full-length membrane proteins to the cell surface. For some forms of autism, hereditary spherocytosis and color blindness, the culprits are single point mutations to cysteine. We have studied two inheritable cysteine mutants of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels that produce achromatopsia, a common form of severe color blindness. By taking advantage of the reactivity of cysteine's sulfhydryl group, we modified these mutants with chemical reagents that attach moieties with similar chemistries to the wild-type amino acids' side chains. We show that these modifications restored proper delivery to the cell membrane. Once there, the channels exhibited normal functional properties. This strategy might provide a unique opportunity to assess the chemical nature of membrane protein traffic problems.

  8. Merozoite surface proteins in red blood cell invasion, immunity and vaccines against malaria (United States)

    Beeson, James G.; Drew, Damien R.; Boyle, Michelle J.; Feng, Gaoqian; Fowkes, Freya J.I.; Richards, Jack S.


    Malaria accounts for an enormous burden of disease globally, with Plasmodium falciparum accounting for the majority of malaria, and P. vivax being a second important cause, especially in Asia, the Americas and the Pacific. During infection with Plasmodium spp., the merozoite form of the parasite invades red blood cells and replicates inside them. It is during the blood-stage of infection that malaria disease occurs and, therefore, understanding merozoite invasion, host immune responses to merozoite surface antigens, and targeting merozoite surface proteins and invasion ligands by novel vaccines and therapeutics have been important areas of research. Merozoite invasion involves multiple interactions and events, and substantial processing of merozoite surface proteins occurs before, during and after invasion. The merozoite surface is highly complex, presenting a multitude of antigens to the immune system. This complexity has proved challenging to our efforts to understand merozoite invasion and malaria immunity, and to developing merozoite antigens as malaria vaccines. In recent years, there has been major progress in this field, and several merozoite surface proteins show strong potential as malaria vaccines. Our current knowledge on this topic is reviewed, highlighting recent advances and research priorities. PMID:26833236

  9. Cell wall trapping of autocrine peptides for human G-protein-coupled receptors on the yeast cell surface.

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    Jun Ishii

    Full Text Available G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs regulate a wide variety of physiological processes and are important pharmaceutical targets for drug discovery. Here, we describe a unique concept based on yeast cell-surface display technology to selectively track eligible peptides with agonistic activity for human GPCRs (Cell Wall Trapping of Autocrine Peptides (CWTrAP strategy. In our strategy, individual recombinant yeast cells are able to report autocrine-positive activity for human GPCRs by expressing a candidate peptide fused to an anchoring motif. Following expression and activation, yeast cells trap autocrine peptides onto their cell walls. Because captured peptides are incapable of diffusion, they have no impact on surrounding yeast cells that express the target human GPCR and non-signaling peptides. Therefore, individual yeast cells can assemble the autonomous signaling complex and allow single-cell screening of a yeast population. Our strategy may be applied to identify eligible peptides with agonistic activity for target human GPCRs.

  10. Protein adsorption onto Fe3O4 nanoparticles with opposite surface charge and its impact on cell uptake


    Catalayud, M. P.; Sanz, B; Raffa, V.; Riggio, C.; Ibarra, M. R.; Goya, G. F.


    Nanoparticles (NPs) engineered for biomedical applications are meant to be in contact with protein-rich physiological fluids. These proteins are usually adsorbed onto the NP surface, forming a swaddling layer called protein corona that influences cell internalization. We present a study on protein adsorption onto different magnetic NPs (MNPs) when immersed in cell culture medium, and how these changes affect the cellular uptake. Two colloids with magnetite cores of 25 nm, same hydrodynamic si...

  11. Heat shock protein 70 and glycoprotein 96 are differentially expressed on the surface of malignant and nonmalignant breast cells. (United States)

    Melendez, Karla; Wallen, Erik S; Edwards, Bruce S; Mobarak, Charlotte D; Bear, David G; Moseley, Pope L


    Heat shock proteins (HSPs), which are important for a number of different intracellular functions, are occasionally found on the surface of cells. The function of heat shock protein on the cell surface is not understood, although it has been shown to be greater in some tumor cells and some virally infected cells. Surface expression of both glycoprotein 96 (gp96) and Hsp70 occurs on tumor cells, and this expression correlates with natural killer cell killing of the cells. We examined the surface expression of gp96 and Hsp70 on human breast cell lines MCF7, MCF10A, AU565, and HS578, and in primary human mammary epithelial cells by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The nonmalignant cell lines HS578, MCF10A, and HMEC showed no surface expression of gp96, whereas malignant cell lines MCF7 and AU565 were positive for gp96 surface expression. All of the breast cell lines examined showed Hsp70 surface expression. These results also confirm previous studies, demonstrating that Hsp70 is on the plasma membrane of tumor cell lines. Given the involvement of heat shock proteins, gp96 and Hsp70, in innate and adaptive immunity, these observations may be important in the immune response to tumor cells.

  12. The Biological Function of the Prion Protein: A Cell Surface Scaffold of Signaling Modules (United States)

    Linden, Rafael


    The prion glycoprotein (PrPC) is mostly located at the cell surface, tethered to the plasma membrane through a glycosyl-phosphatydil inositol (GPI) anchor. Misfolding of PrPC is associated with the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), whereas its normal conformer serves as a receptor for oligomers of the β-amyloid peptide, which play a major role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). PrPC is highly expressed in both the nervous and immune systems, as well as in other organs, but its functions are controversial. Extensive experimental work disclosed multiple physiological roles of PrPC at the molecular, cellular and systemic levels, affecting the homeostasis of copper, neuroprotection, stem cell renewal and memory mechanisms, among others. Often each such process has been heralded as the bona fide function of PrPC, despite restricted attention paid to a selected phenotypic trait, associated with either modulation of gene expression or to the engagement of PrPC with a single ligand. In contrast, the GPI-anchored prion protein was shown to bind several extracellular and transmembrane ligands, which are required to endow that protein with the ability to play various roles in transmembrane signal transduction. In addition, differing sets of those ligands are available in cell type- and context-dependent scenarios. To account for such properties, we proposed that PrPC serves as a dynamic platform for the assembly of signaling modules at the cell surface, with widespread consequences for both physiology and behavior. The current review advances the hypothesis that the biological function of the prion protein is that of a cell surface scaffold protein, based on the striking similarities of its functional properties with those of scaffold proteins involved in the organization of intracellular signal transduction pathways. Those properties are: the ability to recruit spatially restricted sets of binding molecules involved in specific signaling

  13. A Gravity-Responsive Time-Keeping Protein of the Plant and Animal Cell Surface (United States)

    Morre, D. James


    The hypothesis under investigation was that a ubiquinol (NADH) oxidase protein of the cell surface with protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity (= NOX protein) is a plant and animal time-keeping ultradian (period of less than 24 h) driver of both cell enlargement and the biological clock that responds to gravity. Despite considerable work in a large number of laboratories spanning several decades, this is, to my knowledge, our work is the first demonstration of a time-keeping biochemical reaction that is both gravity-responsive and growth-related and that has been shown to determine circadian periodicity. As such, the NOX protein may represent both the long-sought biological gravity receptor and the core oscillator of the cellular biological clock. Completed studies have resulted in 12 publications and two issued NASA-owned patents of the clock activity. The gravity response and autoentrainment were characterized in cultured mammalian cells and in two plant systems together with entrainment by light and small molecules (melatonin). The molecular basis of the oscillatory behavior was investigated using spectroscopic methods (Fourier transform infrared and circular dichroism) and high resolution electron microscopy. We have also applied these findings to an understanding of the response to hypergravity. Statistical methods for analysis of time series phenomena were developed (Foster et al., 2003).

  14. Cell-surface protein-protein interaction analysis with time-resolved FRET and snap-tag technologies: application to G protein-coupled receptor oligomerization. (United States)

    Comps-Agrar, Laëtitia; Maurel, Damien; Rondard, Philippe; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Trinquet, Eric; Prézeau, Laurent


    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key players in cell-cell communication, the dysregulation of which has often deleterious effects leading to pathologies such as psychiatric and neurological diseases. Consequently, GPCRs represent excellent drug targets, and as such are the object of intense research in drug discovery for therapeutic application. Recently, the GPCR field has been revolutionized by the demonstration that GPCRs are part of large protein complexes that control their pharmacology, activity, and signaling. Moreover, in these complexes, one GPCR can either associate with itself, forming homodimers or homooligomers, or with other receptor types, forming heterodimeric or heterooligomeric receptor entities that display new receptor features. These features include alterations in ligand cooperativity and selectivity, the activation of novel signaling pathways, and novel processes of desensitization. Thus, it has become necessary to identify GPCR-associated protein complexes of interest at the cell surface, and to determine the state of oligomerization of these receptors and their interactions with their partner proteins. This is essential to understand the function of GPCRs in their native environment, as well as ways to either modulate or control receptor activity with appropriate pharmacological tools, and to develop new therapeutic strategies. This requires the development of technologies to precisely address protein-protein interactions between oligomers at the cell surface. In collaboration with Cisbio Bioassay, we have developed such a technology, which combines TR-FRET detection with a new labeling method called SnapTag. This technology has allowed us to address the oligomeric state of many GPCRs.

  15. Selective cell-surface labeling of the molecular motor protein prestin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, Ryan M. [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Silberg, Jonathan J., E-mail: [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Pereira, Fred A. [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Huffington Center on Aging, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Raphael, Robert M., E-mail: [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States)


    Highlights: {yields} Trafficking to the plasma membrane is required for prestin function. {yields} Biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) was fused to prestin through a transmembrane domain. {yields} BAP-prestin can be metabolically labeled with biotin in HEK293 cells. {yields} Biotin-BAP-prestin allows for selective imaging of fully trafficked prestin. {yields} The biotin-BAP-prestin displays voltage-sensitive activity. -- Abstract: Prestin, a multipass transmembrane protein whose N- and C-termini are localized to the cytoplasm, must be trafficked to the plasma membrane to fulfill its cellular function as a molecular motor. One challenge in studying prestin sequence-function relationships within living cells is separating the effects of amino acid substitutions on prestin trafficking, plasma membrane localization and function. To develop an approach for directly assessing prestin levels at the plasma membrane, we have investigated whether fusion of prestin to a single pass transmembrane protein results in a functional fusion protein with a surface-exposed N-terminal tag that can be detected in living cells. We find that fusion of the biotin-acceptor peptide (BAP) and transmembrane domain of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) to the N-terminus of prestin-GFP yields a membrane protein that can be metabolically-labeled with biotin, trafficked to the plasma membrane, and selectively detected at the plasma membrane using fluorescently-tagged streptavidin. Furthermore, we show that the addition of a surface detectable tag and a single-pass transmembrane domain to prestin does not disrupt its voltage-sensitive activity.

  16. The surface-anchored NanA protein promotes pneumococcal brain endothelial cell invasion. (United States)

    Uchiyama, Satoshi; Carlin, Aaron F; Khosravi, Arya; Weiman, Shannon; Banerjee, Anirban; Quach, Darin; Hightower, George; Mitchell, Tim J; Doran, Kelly S; Nizet, Victor


    In humans, Streptococcus pneumoniae (SPN) is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, a disease with high attributable mortality and frequent permanent neurological sequelae. The molecular mechanisms underlying the central nervous system tropism of SPN are incompletely understood, but include a primary interaction of the pathogen with the blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium. All SPN strains possess a gene encoding the surface-anchored sialidase (neuraminidase) NanA, which cleaves sialic acid on host cells and proteins. Here, we use an isogenic SPN NanA-deficient mutant and heterologous expression of the protein to show that NanA is both necessary and sufficient to promote SPN adherence to and invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs). NanA-mediated hBMEC invasion depends only partially on sialidase activity, whereas the N-terminal lectinlike domain of the protein plays a critical role. NanA promotes SPN-BBB interaction in a murine infection model, identifying the protein as proximal mediator of CNS entry by the pathogen.

  17. Cell-Surface Receptors Transactivation Mediated by G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cattaneo


    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are seven transmembrane-spanning proteins belonging to a large family of cell-surface receptors involved in many intracellular signaling cascades. Despite GPCRs lack intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, tyrosine phosphorylation of a tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK occurs in response to binding of specific agonists of several such receptors, triggering intracellular mitogenic cascades. This suggests that the notion that GPCRs are associated with the regulation of post-mitotic cell functions is no longer believable. Crosstalk between GPCR and RTK may occur by different molecular mechanism such as the activation of metalloproteases, which can induce the metalloprotease-dependent release of RTK ligands, or in a ligand-independent manner involving membrane associated non-receptor tyrosine kinases, such as c-Src. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are also implicated as signaling intermediates in RTKs transactivation. Intracellular concentration of ROS increases transiently in cells stimulated with GPCR agonists and their deliberated and regulated generation is mainly catalyzed by enzymes that belong to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase family. Oxidation and/or reduction of cysteine sulfhydryl groups of phosphatases tightly controls the activity of RTKs and ROS-mediated inhibition of cellular phosphatases results in an equilibrium shift from the non-phosphorylated to the phosphorylated state of RTKs. Many GPCR agonists activate phospholipase C, which catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bis-phosphate to produce inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglicerol. The consequent mobilization of Ca2+ from endoplasmic reticulum leads to the activation of protein kinase C (PKC isoforms. PKCα mediates feedback inhibition of RTK transactivation during GPCR stimulation. Recent data have expanded the coverage of transactivation to include Serine/Threonine kinase receptors and Toll-like receptors

  18. Nanometer polymer surface features: the influence on surface energy, protein adsorption and endothelial cell adhesion (United States)

    Carpenter, Joseph; Khang, Dongwoo; Webster, Thomas J.


    Current small diameter (collagen type IV) adsorption. Furthermore, this study provided evidence that the vertical dimension of nanometer surface features, rather than the lateral dimension, is largely responsible for these increases. In this manner, this study provides key design parameters that may promote vascular graft efficacy.

  19. PSC: protein surface classification. (United States)

    Tseng, Yan Yuan; Li, Wen-Hsiung


    We recently proposed to classify proteins by their functional surfaces. Using the structural attributes of functional surfaces, we inferred the pairwise relationships of proteins and constructed an expandable database of protein surface classification (PSC). As the functional surface(s) of a protein is the local region where the protein performs its function, our classification may reflect the functional relationships among proteins. Currently, PSC contains a library of 1974 surface types that include 25,857 functional surfaces identified from 24,170 bound structures. The search tool in PSC empowers users to explore related surfaces that share similar local structures and core functions. Each functional surface is characterized by structural attributes, which are geometric, physicochemical or evolutionary features. The attributes have been normalized as descriptors and integrated to produce a profile for each functional surface in PSC. In addition, binding ligands are recorded for comparisons among homologs. PSC allows users to exploit related binding surfaces to reveal the changes in functionally important residues on homologs that have led to functional divergence during evolution. The substitutions at the key residues of a spatial pattern may determine the functional evolution of a protein. In PSC (, a pool of changes in residues on similar functional surfaces is provided.

  20. The role of Listeria monocytogenes cell wall surface anchor protein LapB in virulence, adherence, and intracellular replication (United States)

    Lmof2365_2117 is a Listeria monocytogenes putative cell wall surface anchor protein with a conserved domain found in collagen binding proteins. We constructed a deletion mutation in lmof2365_2117 in serotype 4b strain F2365, evaluated its virulence, and determined its ability to adhere and invade co...

  1. Glioblastoma Inhibition by Cell Surface Immunoglobulin Protein EWI-2, In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Kolesnikova


    Full Text Available EWI-2, a cell surface IgSF protein, is highly expressed in normal human brain but is considerably diminished in glioblastoma tumors and cell lines. Moreover, loss of EWI-2 expression correlated with a shorter survival time in human glioma patients, suggesting that EWI-2 might be a natural inhibitor of glioblastoma. In support of this idea, EWI-2 expression significantly impaired both ectopic and orthotopic tumor growth in nude mice in vivo. In vitro assays provided clues regarding EWI-2 functions. Expression of EWI-2 in T98G and/or U87-MG malignant glioblastoma cell lines failed to alter two-dimensional cell proliferation but inhibited glioblastoma colony formation in soft agar and caused diminished cell motility and invasion. At the biochemical level, EWI-2 markedly affects the organization of four molecules (tetraspanin proteins CD9 and CD81 and matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MT1-MMP, which play key roles in the biology of astrocytes and gliomas. EWI-2 causes CD9 and CD81 to become more associated with each other, whereas CD81 and other tetraspanins become less associated with MMP-2 and MT1-MMP. We propose that EWI-2 inhibition of glioblastoma growth in vivo is at least partly explained by the capability of EWI-2 to inhibit growth and/or invasion in vitro. Underlying these functional effects, EWI-2 causes a substantial molecular reorganization of multiple molecules (CD81, CD9, MMP-2, and MT1-MMP known to affect proliferation and/or invasion of astrocytes and/or glioblastomas.

  2. ProFASTA: a pipeline web server for fungal protein scanning with integration of cell surface prediction software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, P.W.J.; Brandt, B.W.


    Surface proteins, such as those located in the cell wall of fungi, play an important role in the interaction with the surrounding environment. For instance, they mediate primary host-pathogen interactions and are crucial to the establishment of biofilms and fungal infections. Surface localization of

  3. Structural insights into alginate binding by bacterial cell-surface protein. (United States)

    Temtrirath, Kanate; Murata, Kousaku; Hashimoto, Wataru


    A gram-negative Sphingomonas sp. strain A1 inducibly forms a mouth-like pit on the cell surface in the presence of alginate and directly incorporates polymers into the cytoplasm via the pit and ABC transporter. Among the bacterial proteins involved in import of alginate, a cell-surface EfeO-like Algp7 shows an ability to bind alginate, suggesting its contribution to accumulate alginate in the pit. Here, we show identification of its positively charged cluster involved in alginate binding using X-ray crystallography, docking simulation, and site-directed mutagenesis. The tertiary structure of Algp7 was determined at a high resolution (1.99Å) by molecular replacement, although no alginates were included in the structure. Thus, an in silico model of Algp7/oligoalginate was constructed by docking simulation using atomic coordinates of Algp7 and alginate oligosaccharides, where some charged residues were found to be potential candidates for alginate binding. Site-directed mutagenesis was conducted and five purified mutants K68A, K69A, E194A, N221A, and K68A/K69A were subjected to a binding assay. UV absorption difference spectroscopy along with differential scanning fluorimetry analysis indicated that K68A/K69A exhibited a significant reduction in binding affinity with alginate than wild-type Algp7. Based on these data, Lys68/Lys69 residues of Algp7 probably play an important role in binding alginate.

  4. Transfer of Fas (CD95 protein from the cell surface to the surface of polystyrene beads coated with anti-Fas antibody clone CH-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sawai


    Full Text Available Mouse monoclonal anti-Fas (CD95 antibody clone CH-11 has been widely used in research on apoptosis. CH-11 has the ability to bind to Fas protein on cell surface and induce apoptosis. Here, we used polystyrene beads coated with CH-11 to investigate the role of lipid rafts in Fas-mediated apoptosis in SKW6.4 cells. Unexpectedly, by treatment of the cells with CH-11-coated beads Fas protein was detached from cell surface and transferred to the surface of CH-11-coated beads. Western blot analysis showed that Fas protein containing both extracellular and intracellular domains was attached to the beads. Fas protein was not transferred from the cells to the surface of the beads coated with other anti-Fas antibodies or Fas ligand. Similar phenomenon was observed in Jurkat T cells. Furthermore, CH-11-induced apoptosis was suppressed by pretreatment with CH-11-coated beads in Jurkat cells. These results suggest that CH-11 might possess distinct properties on Fas protein compared with other anti-Fas antibodies or Fas ligand, and also suggest that caution should be needed to use polystyrene beads coated with antibodies such as CH-11.

  5. QID74 Cell wall protein of Trichoderma harzianum is involved in cell protection and adherence to hydrophobic surfaces. (United States)

    Rosado, Iván V; Rey, Manuel; Codón, Antonio C; Govantes, Javier; Moreno-Mateos, Miguel A; Benítez, Tahía


    Trichoderma is widely used as biocontrol agent against phytopathogenic fungi, and as biofertilizer because of its ability to establish mycorriza-like association with plants. The key factor to the ecological success of this genus is the combination of very active mycoparasitic mechanisms plus effective defense strategies induced in plants. This work, different from most of the studies carried out that address the attacking mechanisms, focuses on elucidating how Trichoderma is able to tolerate hostile conditions. A gene from Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413, qid74, was strongly expressed during starvation of carbon or nitrogen sources; it encoded a cell wall protein of 74kDa that plays a significant role in mycelium protection. qid74 was originally isolated and characterized, in a previous work, by a differential hybridization approach under simulated mycoparasitism conditions. Heterologous expression of Qid74 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated that the protein, located in the cell wall, interfered with mating and sporulation but not with cell integrity. The qid74 gene was disrupted by homologous recombination and it was overexpressed by isolating transformants selected for the amdS gene that carried several copies of qid74 gene under the control of the pki promoter. Disruptants and transformants showed similar growth rate and viability when they were cultivated in different media, temperatures and osmolarities, or were subjected to different abiotic stress conditions. However, disruptants produced about 70% mass yield under any condition and were substantially more sensitive than the wild type to cell wall degradation by different lytic preparations. Transformants had similar mass yield and were more resistant to lytic enzymes but more sensitive to copper sulfate than the wild type. When experiments of adherence to hydrophobic surfaces were carried out, the disruptants had a reduced capacity to adhere, whereas that capacity in the overproducer transformants was

  6. Quantitative analysis of cell surface membrane proteins using membrane-impermeable chemical probe coupled with 18O labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haizhen; Brown, Roslyn N.; Qian, Weijun; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Moore, Ronald J.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Shi, Liang; Romine, Margaret F.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.


    We report a mass spectrometry-based strategy for quantitative analysis of cell surface membrane proteome changes. The strategy includes enrichment of surface membrane proteins using a membrane-impermeable chemical probe followed by stable isotope 18O labeling and LC-MS analysis. We applied this strategy for enriching membrane proteins expressed by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a gram-negative bacterium with known metal-reduction capability via extracellular electron transfer between outer membrane proteins and environmental electron receptors. LC/MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of about 79% membrane proteins among all proteins identified from the enriched sample. To illustrate the quantification of membrane proteome changes, enriched membrane protein samples from wild-type and mutant cells (generated from deletion of a type II secretion protein, GspD) were further labeled with 16O and 18O at the peptide level prior to LC-MS analysis. A chemical-probe-labeled pure protein has also been used as an internal standard for normalization purpose. The quantitative data revealed reduced abundances of many outer membrane proteins such as OmcA and MtrC in ΔgspD mutant cells, which agreed well with previously published studies.

  7. Quantitative analysis of cell surface membrane proteins using membrane-impermeable chemical probe coupled with 18O labeling (United States)

    Zhang, Haizhen; Brown, Roslyn N.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Moore, Ronald J.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Shi, Liang; Romine, Margaret F; Fredrickson, James K.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.


    We report a mass spectrometry-based strategy for quantitative analysis of cell surface membrane proteome changes. The strategy includes enrichment of surface membrane proteins using a membrane-impermeable chemical probe followed by stable isotope 18O labeling and LC-MS analysis. We applied this strategy for enriching membrane proteins expressed by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a gram-negative bacterium with known metal-reduction capability via extracellular electron transfer between outer membrane proteins and extracellular electron receptors. LC/MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of about 400 proteins with 79% of them being predicted to be membrane localized. Quantitative aspects of the membrane enrichment were shown by peptide level 16O and 18O labeling of proteins from wild-type and mutant cells (generated from deletion of a type II secretion protein, GspD) prior to LC-MS analysis. Using a chemical probe labeled pure protein as an internal standard for normalization, the quantitative data revealed reduced abundances in ΔgspD mutant cells of many outer membrane proteins including the outer membrane c-cype cytochromes OmcA and MtrC, in agreement with previously investigation demonstrating that these proteins are substrates of the type II secretion system. PMID:20380418

  8. Quantitative analysis of cell surface membrane proteins using membrane-impermeable chemical probe coupled with 18O labeling. (United States)

    Zhang, Haizhen; Brown, Roslyn N; Qian, Wei-Jun; Monroe, Matthew E; Purvine, Samuel O; Moore, Ronald J; Gritsenko, Marina A; Shi, Liang; Romine, Margaret F; Fredrickson, James K; Pasa-Tolić, Ljiljana; Smith, Richard D; Lipton, Mary S


    We report a mass spectrometry-based strategy for quantitative analysis of cell surface membrane proteome changes. The strategy includes enrichment of surface membrane proteins using a membrane-impermeable chemical probe followed by stable isotope (18)O labeling and LC-MS analysis. We applied this strategy for enriching membrane proteins expressed by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a Gram-negative bacterium with known metal-reduction capability via extracellular electron transfer between outer membrane proteins and extracellular electron receptors. LC/MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of about 400 proteins with 79% of them being predicted to be membrane localized. Quantitative aspects of the membrane enrichment were shown by peptide level (16)O and (18)O labeling of proteins from wild-type and mutant cells (generated from deletion of a type II secretion protein, GspD) prior to LC-MS analysis. Using a chemical probe labeled pure protein as an internal standard for normalization, the quantitative data revealed reduced abundances in Delta gspD mutant cells of many outer membrane proteins including the outer membrane c-type cytochromes OmcA and MtrC, in agreement with a previous report that these proteins are substrates of the type II secretion system.

  9. Is there an optimal topographical surface in nano-scale affecting protein adsorption and cell behaviors? Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Huajie, E-mail:; Sun Yuanyuan; Cao Ying, E-mail:; Wang Kui; Yang Lin [Henan Normal University, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science (China); Zhang Yidong; Zheng Zhi [Xuchang University, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials (China)


    Although nano-structured surfaces exhibit superior biological activities to the smooth or micro-structured surfaces, whether there is an optimal topographical surface in nano-scale affecting protein adsorption and cell behaviors is still controversial. In this study, porous aluminum oxide membranes with different pore sizes ranging from 25 to 120 nm were prepared by the anodic oxidation technique. The surface morphology, topography and wettability were analyzed by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and water contact angle measurement, respectively. The results indicated that the synergistic action of the nano-topography structure and hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties resulted in a highest protein adsorption on the aluminum oxide membrane with 80 nm pore size. Additionally, the morphological, metabolic and cell counting methods showed that cells had different sensitivity to porous aluminum oxide membranes with different surface features. Furthermore, this sensitivity was cell type dependent. The optimal pore size of aluminum oxide membranes for cell growth was 80 nm for PC12 cells and 50 nm for NIH 3T3 cells.

  10. Variation of expression defects in cell surface 190-kDa protein antigen of Streptococcus mutans. (United States)

    Lapirattanakul, Jinthana; Nomura, Ryota; Matsumoto-Nakano, Michiyo; Srisatjaluk, Ratchapin; Ooshima, Takashi; Nakano, Kazuhiko


    Streptococcus mutans, which consists of four serotypes, c, e, f, and k, possesses a 190-kDa cell surface protein antigen (PA) for initial tooth adhesion. We used Western blot analysis to determine PA expression in 750 S. mutans isolates from 150 subjects and found a significantly higher prevalence of the isolates with PA expression defects in serotypes f and k compared to serotypes c and e. Moreover, the defect patterns could be classified into three types; no PA expression on whole bacterial cells and in their supernatant samples (Type N1), PA expression mainly seen in supernatant samples (Type N2), and only low expression of PA in the samples of whole bacterial cells (Type W). The underlying reasons for the defects were mutations in the gene encoding PA as well as in the transcriptional processing of this gene for Type N1, defects in the sortase gene for Type N2, and low mRNA expression of PA for Type W. Since cellular hydrophobicity and phagocytosis susceptibility of the PA-defective isolates were significantly lower than those of the normal expression isolates, the potential implication of such defective isolates in systemic diseases involving bacteremia other than dental caries was suggested. Additionally, multilocus sequence typing was utilized to characterize S. mutans clones that represented a proportion of isolates with PA defects of 65-100%. Therefore, we described the molecular basis for variation defects in PA expression of S. mutans. Furthermore, we also emphasized the strong association between PA expression defects and serotypes f and k as well as the clonal relationships among these isolates.

  11. Production, secretion, and cell surface display of recombinant Sporosarcina ureae S-layer fusion proteins in Bacillus megaterium. (United States)

    Knobloch, Denise; Ostermann, Kai; Rödel, Gerhard


    Monomolecular crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) have broad application potential in nanobiotechnology due to their ability to generate functional supramolecular structures. Here, we report that Bacillus megaterium is an excellent host organism for the heterologous expression and efficient secretion of hemagglutinin (HA) epitope-tagged versions of the S-layer protein SslA from Sporosarcina ureae ATCC 13881. Three chimeric proteins were constructed, comprising the precursor, C-terminally truncated, and N- and C-terminally truncated forms of the S-layer SslA protein tagged with the human influenza hemagglutinin epitope. For secretion of fusion proteins, the open reading frames were cloned into the Escherichia coli-Bacillus megaterium shuttle vector pHIS1525. After transformation of the respective plasmids into Bacillus megaterium protoplasts, the recombinant genes were successfully expressed and the proteins were secreted into the growth medium. The isolated S-layer proteins are able to assemble in vitro into highly ordered, crystalline, sheetlike structures with the fused HA tag accessible to antibody. We further show by fluorescent labeling that the secreted S-layer fusion proteins are also clustered on the cell envelope of Bacillus megaterium, indicating that the cell surface can serve in vivo as a nucleation point for crystallization. Thus, this system can be used as a display system that allows the dense and periodic presentation of S-layer proteins or the fused tags.

  12. Identification of the essential EPE1 gene involved in retention of secreted proteins on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. (United States)

    Alexieva, K I; Klis, F; Wedler, H; Wambutt, R; Venkov, P


    Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells secrete extracellularly low amounts of a few proteins. The reasons for retardation of secreted proteins on the cell surface remain obscure. We describe here a mutant able to export enhanced amount of proteins. Classical genetic methods, nucleic acids manipulations and cloning procedures were used to isolate and characterize the mutant and to clone and sequence the corresponding wild type gene. The isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant MW11, is temperature sensitive and exports on average twenty-fold more proteins at 37 degrees C than parental wild type strain (80 micrograms of proteins/1 x 10(8) mutant cells, SEM +/- 5, n22; versus 3 micrograms of proteins/1 x 10(8) parental cells, SEM +/- 1, n22). Protein overexport in the mutant requires a functional SEC1 pathway and is independent of cell lysis. Cloning and sequencing of the corresponding wild type gene identified an open reading frame of 786 bp coding for a hydrophilic protein with predicted molecular mass of 30 kDa and cytosolic localization. The newly identified gene, designated EPE1, is an essential gene. Its DNA and amino acids sequence showed no homology with other yeast genes and proteins. It is concluded that the function of unknown yet genes, such as EPE1 is needed for retention of secreted proteins on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

  13. Ebola virus glycoproteins induce global surface protein down-modulation and loss of cell adherence. (United States)

    Simmons, Graham; Wool-Lewis, Rouven J; Baribaud, Frédéric; Netter, Robert C; Bates, Paul


    The Ebola virus envelope glycoprotein (GP) derived from the pathogenic Zaire subtype mediates cell rounding and detachment from the extracellular matrix in 293T cells. In this study we provide evidence that GPs from the other pathogenic subtypes, Sudan and Côte d'Ivoire, as well as from Reston, a strain thought to be nonpathogenic in humans, also induced cell rounding, albeit at lower levels than Zaire GP. Sequential removal of regions of potential O-linked glycosylation at the C terminus of GP1 led to a step-wise reduction in cell detachment without obviously affecting GP function, suggesting that such modifications are involved in inducing the detachment phenotype. While causing cell rounding and detachment in 293T cells, Ebola virus GP did not cause an increase in cell death. Indeed, following transient expression of GP, cells were able to readhere and continue to divide. Also, the rounding effect was not limited to 293T cells. Replication-deficient adenovirus vectors expressing Ebola virus GP induced the loss of cell adhesion in a range of cell lines and primary cell types, including those with proposed relevance to Ebola virus infection in vivo, such as endothelial cells and macrophages. In both transfected 293T and adenovirus-infected Vero cells, a reduction in cell surface expression of adhesion molecules such as integrin beta1 concurrent with the loss of cell adhesion was observed. A number of other cell surface molecules, however, including major histocompatibility complex class I and the epidermal growth factor receptor, were also down-modulated, suggesting a global mechanism for surface molecule down-regulation.

  14. Cell Surface Display and Characterization of Rhizopus oryzae Lipase in Pichia pastoris Using Sed1p as an Anchor Protein. (United States)

    Li, Wenqian; Shi, Hao; Ding, Huaihai; Wang, Liangliang; Zhang, Yu; Li, Xun; Wang, Fei


    It has been investigated to conduct the surface displaying of lipase from Rhizopus oryzae onto the cells of Pichia pastoris yeast using Sed1p as an anchor protein. A yeast cell surface display plasmid pPICZαA-rol-histag-sed1p was constructed by fusing rol and sed1p gene fragments into the plasmid pPICZαA, followed by introducing recombinant plasmid into P. pastoris cells. Surface display levels were monitored by Western Blot and immunofluorescence microscopy. The activity of displaying lipase obtained from recombinant mutS reached at 60 U/g-dry cell. In addition, the displaying lipase was stable in broad ranges of temperatures and pH, with the optimum temperature at 40 °C and pH 7.5. These results indicate that the P. pastoris displaying lipase may have potential in whole-cell biocatalyst.

  15. Stop codons in the hepatitis B surface proteins are enriched during antiviral therapy and are associated with host cell apoptosis. (United States)

    Colledge, Danielle; Soppe, Sally; Yuen, Lilly; Selleck, Lucy; Walsh, Renae; Locarnini, Stephen; Warner, Nadia


    Premature stop codons in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface protein can be associated with nucleos(t)ide analogue resistance due to overlap of the HBV surface and polymerase genes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the replication of three common surface stop codon variants on the hepatocyte. Cell lines were transfected with infectious HBV clones encoding surface stop codons rtM204I/sW196*, rtA181T/sW172*, rtV191I/sW182*, and a panel of substitutions in the surface proteins. HBsAg was measured by Western blotting. Proliferation and apoptosis were measured using flow cytometry. All three surface stop codon variants were defective in HBsAg secretion. Cells transfected with these variants were less proliferative and had higher levels of apoptosis than those transfected with variants that did not encode surface stop codons. The most cytopathic variant was rtM204I/sW196*. Replication of HBV encoding surface stop codons was toxic to the cell and promoted apoptosis, exacerbating disease progression.

  16. Atomic force microscopy recognition of protein A on Staphylococcus aureus cell surfaces by labelling with IgG–Au conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Tatlybaeva


    Full Text Available The labelling of functional molecules on the surface of bacterial cells is one way to recognize the bacteria. In this work, we have developed a method for the selective labelling of protein A on the cell surfaces of Staphylococcus aureus by using nanosized immunogold conjugates as cell-surface markers for atomic force microscopy (AFM. The use of 30-nm size Au nanoparticles conjugated with immunoglobulin G (IgG allowed the visualization, localization and distribution of protein A–IgG complexes on the surface of S. aureus. The selectivity of the labelling method was confirmed in mixtures of S. aureus with Bacillus licheniformis cells, which differed by size and shape and had no IgG receptors on the surface. A preferential binding of the IgG–Au conjugates to S. aureus was obtained. Thus, this novel approach allows the identification of protein A and other IgG receptor-bearing bacteria, which is useful for AFM indication of pathogenic microorganisms in poly-component associations.

  17. Live-cell FRET imaging reveals clustering of the prion protein at the cell surface induced by infectious prions. (United States)

    Tavares, Evandro; Macedo, Joana A; Paulo, Pedro M R; Tavares, Catarina; Lopes, Carlos; Melo, Eduardo P


    Prion diseases are associated to the conversion of the prion protein into a misfolded pathological isoform. The mechanism of propagation of protein misfolding by protein templating remains largely unknown. Neuroblastoma cells were transfected with constructs of the prion protein fused to both CFP-GPI-anchored and to YFP-GPI-anchored and directed to its cell membrane location. Live-cell FRET imaging between the prion protein fused to CFP or YFP was measured giving consistent values of 10±2%. This result was confirmed by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and indicates intermolecular interactions between neighbor prion proteins. In particular, considering that a maximum FRET efficiency of 17±2% was determined from a positive control consisting of a fusion CFP-YFP-GPI-anchored. A stable cell clone expressing the two fusions containing the prion protein was also selected to minimize cell-to-cell variability. In both, stable and transiently transfected cells, the FRET efficiency consistently increased in the presence of infectious prions - from 4±1% to 7±1% in the stable clone and from 10±2% to 16±1% in transiently transfected cells. These results clearly reflect an increased clustering of the prion protein on the membrane in the presence of infectious prions, which was not observed in negative control using constructs without the prion protein and upon addition of non-infected brain. Our data corroborates the recent view that the primary site for prion conversion is the cell membrane. Since our fluorescent cell clone is not susceptible to propagate infectivity, we hypothesize that the initial event of prion infectivity might be the clustering of the GPI-anchored prion protein.

  18. The effect of surface charge of functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles on protein adsorption and cell uptake. (United States)

    Calatayud, M Pilar; Sanz, Beatriz; Raffa, Vittoria; Riggio, Cristina; Ibarra, M Ricardo; Goya, Gerardo F


    Nanoparticles engineered for biomedical applications are meant to be in contact with protein-rich physiological fluids. These proteins are usually adsorbed onto the nanoparticle's surface, forming a swaddling layer that has been described as a 'protein corona', the nature of which is expected to influence not only the physicochemical properties of the particles but also the internalization into a given cell type. We have investigated the process of protein adsorption onto different magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) when immersed in cell culture medium, and how these changes affect the cellular uptake. The role of the MNPs surface charge has been assessed by synthesizing two colloids with the same hydrodynamic size and opposite surface charge: magnetite (Fe3O4) cores of 25-30 nm were in situ functionalized with (a) positive polyethyleneimine (PEI-MNPs) and (b) negative poly(acrylic acid) (PAA-MNPs). After few minutes of incubation in cell culture medium the wrapping of the MNPs by protein adsorption resulted in a 5-fold increase of the hydrodynamic size. After 24 h of incubation large MNP-protein aggregates with hydrodynamic sizes of ≈1500 nm (PAA-MNPs) and ≈3000 nm (PEI-MNPs) were observed, each one containing an estimated number of magnetic cores between 450 and 1000. These results are consistent with the formation of large protein-MNPs aggregate units having a 'plum pudding' structure of MNPs embedded into a protein network that results in a negative surface charge, irrespective of the MNP-core charge. In spite of the similar negative ζ-potential for both MNPs within cell culture, we demonstrated that PEI-MNPs are incorporated in much larger amounts than the PAA-MNPs units. Quantitative analysis showed that SH-SY5Y cells can incorporate 100% of the added PEI-MNPs up to ≈100 pg/cell, whereas for PAA-MNPs the uptake was less than 50%. The final cellular distribution showed also notable differences regarding partial attachment to the cell membrane. These results

  19. Investigating the link between molecular subtypes of glioblastoma, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and CD133 cell surface protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Zarkoob

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we use genetic data to provide a three-faceted analysis on the links between molecular subclasses of glioblastoma, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT and CD133 cell surface protein. The contribution of this paper is three-fold: First, we use a newly identified signature for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human mammary epithelial cells, and demonstrate that genes in this signature have significant overlap with genes differentially expressed in all known GBM subtypes. However, the overlap between genes up regulated in the mesenchymal subtype of GBM and in the EMT signature was more significant than other GBM subtypes. Second, we provide evidence that there is a negative correlation between the genetic signature of EMT and that of CD133 cell surface protein, a putative marker for neural stem cells. Third, we study the correlation between GBM molecular subtypes and the genetic signature of CD133 cell surface protein. We demonstrate that the mesenchymal and neural subtypes of GBM have the strongest correlations with the CD133 genetic signature. While the mesenchymal subtype of GBM displays similarity with the signatures of both EMT and CD133, it also exhibits some differences with each of these signatures that are partly due to the fact that the signatures of EMT and CD133 are inversely related to each other. Taken together these data shed light on the role of the mesenchymal transition and neural stem cells, and their mutual interaction, in molecular subtypes of glioblastoma multiforme.

  20. AMP-activated protein kinase downregulates Kv7.1 cell surface expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin N; Krzystanek, Katarzyna; Jespersen, Thomas;


    in response to polarization of the epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line and that this was mediated by activation of protein kinase C (PKC). In this study, the pathway downstream of PKC, which leads to internalization of Kv7.1 upon cell polarization, is elucidated. We show by confocal...... microscopy that Kv7.1 is endocytosed upon initiation of the polarization process and sent for degradation by the lysosomal pathway. The internalization could be mimicked by pharmacological activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) using three different AMPK activators. We demonstrate...

  1. Evaluation of the effects of Streptococcus mutans chaperones and protein secretion machinery components on cell surface protein biogenesis, competence, and mutacin production. (United States)

    Crowley, P J; Brady, L J


    The respective contributions of components of the protein translocation/maturation machinery to cell surface biogenesis in Streptococcus mutans are not fully understood. Here we used a genetic approach to characterize the effects of deletion of genes encoding the ribosome-associated chaperone RopA (Trigger Factor), the surface-localized foldase PrsA, and the membrane-localized chaperone insertases YidC1 and YidC2, both singly and in combination, on bacterial growth, chain length, self-aggregation, cell surface hydrophobicity, autolysis, and antigenicity of surface proteins P1 (AgI/II, PAc), WapA, GbpC, and GtfD. The single and double deletion mutants, as well as additional mutant strains lacking components of the signal recognition particle pathway, were also evaluated for their effects on mutacin production and genetic competence.

  2. Intentional formation of a protein corona on nanoparticles: Serum concentration affects protein corona mass, surface charge, and nanoparticle-cell interaction. (United States)

    Gräfe, Christine; Weidner, Andreas; Lühe, Moritz V D; Bergemann, Christian; Schacher, Felix H; Clement, Joachim H; Dutz, Silvio


    The protein corona, which immediately is formed after contact of nanoparticles and biological systems, plays a crucial role for the biological fate of nanoparticles. In the here presented study we describe a strategy to control the amount of corona proteins which bind on particle surface and the impact of such a protein corona on particle-cell interactions. For corona formation, polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) were incubated in a medium consisting of fetal calf serum (FCS) and cell culture medium. To modulate the amount of proteins bind to particles, the composition of the incubation medium was varied with regard to the FCS content. The protein corona mass was estimated and the size distribution of the participating proteins was determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Additionally, the zeta potential of incubated particles was measured. Human blood-brain barrier-representing cell line HBMEC was used for in vitro incubation experiments. To investigate the consequences of the FCS dependent protein corona formation on the interaction of MNP and cells flow cytometry and laser scanning microscopy were used. Zeta potential as well as SDS-PAGE clearly reveal an increase in the amount of corona proteins on MNP with increasing amount of FCS in incubation medium. For MNP incubated with lower FCS concentrations especially medium-sized proteins of molecular weights between 30kDa and 100kDa could be found within the protein corona, whereas for MNP incubated within higher FCS concentrations the fraction of corona proteins of 30kDa and less increased. The presence of the protein corona reduces the interaction of PEI-coated MNP with HBMEC cells within a 30min-incubation.

  3. A tyrosine-rich cell surface protein in the diatom Amphora coffeaeformis identified through transcriptome analysis and genetic transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias T Buhmann

    Full Text Available Diatoms are single-celled eukaryotic microalgae that are ubiquitously found in almost all aquatic ecosystems, and are characterized by their intricately structured SiO2 (silica-based cell walls. Diatoms with a benthic life style are capable of attaching to any natural or man-made submerged surface, thus contributing substantially to both microbial biofilm communities and economic losses through biofouling. Surface attachment of diatoms is mediated by a carbohydrate- and protein- based glue, yet no protein involved in diatom underwater adhesion has been identified so far. In the present work, we have generated a normalized transcriptome database from the model adhesion diatom Amphora coffeaeformis. Using an unconventional bioinformatics analysis we have identified five proteins that exhibit unique amino acid sequences resembling the amino acid composition of the tyrosine-rich adhesion proteins from mussel footpads. Establishing the first method for the molecular genetic transformation of A. coffeaeformis has enabled investigations into the function of one of these proteins, AC3362, through expression as YFP fusion protein. Biochemical analysis and imaging by fluorescence microscopy revealed that AC3362 is not involved in adhesion, but rather plays a role in biosynthesis and/or structural stability of the cell wall. The methods established in the present study have paved the way for further molecular studies on the mechanisms of underwater adhesion and biological silica formation in the diatom A. coffeaeformis.

  4. Protein adsorption onto Fe3O4 nanoparticles with opposite surface charge and its impact on cell uptake

    CERN Document Server

    Catalayud, M P; Raffa, V; Riggio, C; Ibarra, M R; Goya, G F


    Nanoparticles (NPs) engineered for biomedical applications are meant to be in contact with protein-rich physiological fluids. These proteins are usually adsorbed onto the NP surface, forming a swaddling layer called protein corona that influences cell internalization. We present a study on protein adsorption onto different magnetic NPs (MNPs) when immersed in cell culture medium, and how these changes affect the cellular uptake. Two colloids with magnetite cores of 25 nm, same hydrodynamic size and opposite surface charge were in situ coated with (a) positive polyethyleneimine (PEI-MNPs) and (b) negative poly(acrylic acid) (PAA-MNPs). After few minutes of incubation in cell culture medium the wrapping of the MNPs by protein adsorption resulted in a 5-fold size increase. After 24 h of incubation large MNP-protein aggregates with hydrodynamic sizes 1500 to 3000 nm (PAA-MNPs and PEI-MNPs respectively) were observed. Each cluster contained an estimated number of magnetic cores between 450 and 1000, indicating the...

  5. Fludarabine and cladribine induce changes in surface proteins on human B-lymphoid cell lines involved with apoptosis, cell survival, and antitumor immunity. (United States)

    Kohnke, Philippa L; Mactier, Swetlana; Almazi, Juhura G; Crossett, Ben; Christopherson, Richard I


    Fludarabine and cladribine are purine analogues used to treat hematological malignancies. Alone or in combination with therapeutic antibodies, they are effective in treating patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, the mechanisms of action of these drugs are not well understood. Plasma membrane proteins perform a variety of essential functions that can be affected by malignancy and perturbed by chemotherapy. Analysis of surface proteins may contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms of action of purine analogues and identify biomarkers for targeted therapy. The surface of human cells is rich in N-linked glycoproteins, enabling use of a hydrazide-coupling technique to enrich for glycoproteins, with iTRAQ labeling for quantitative comparison. A number of plasma membrane proteins on human leukemia and lymphoma cells were affected by treatment with a purine analogue, including decreases in CD22 (an adhesion and signaling molecule) and increases in CD205 (a "damaged cell marker") and CD80 and CD50 (T-cell interaction molecules). Purine analogues may affect B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and costimulatory molecules, leading to multiple signals for apoptosis and cell clearance. Fludarabine and cladribine induce differential effects, with some cell survival proteins (ECE-1 and CD100) more abundant after fludarabine treatment. Cell surface proteins induced by fludarabine and cladribine may be targets for therapeutic antibodies.

  6. Identification of cell surface receptors for murine macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha. (United States)

    Oh, K O; Zhou, Z; Kim, K K; Samanta, H; Fraser, M; Kim, Y J; Broxmeyer, H E; Kwon, B S


    We have produced recombinant proteins for a cytokine, L2G25BP (macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha) (MIP-1 alpha). By using the recombinant protein (rMIP-1 alpha), receptors for MIP-1 alpha were identified on Con A-stimulated and unstimulated CTLL-R8, a T cell line, and LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7, a macrophage cell line. The 125I-rMIP-1 alpha binds to the receptor in a specific and saturable manner. Scatchard analysis indicated a single class of high affinity receptor, with a Kd of approximately 1.5 x 10(-9) M and approximately 1200 binding sites/Con A-stimulated CTLL-R8 cell and a Kd of 0.9 x 10(-9) M and approximately 380 binding sites/RAW 264.7 cell. 125I-rMIP-1 alpha binding was inhibited by unlabeled rMIP-1 alpha in a dose-dependent manner, but not by IL-1 alpha or IL-2. rMIP-1 alpha inhibited the proliferation of unstimulated CTLL-R8 cells. Rabbit anti-rMIP-1 alpha antibodies blocked the growth-inhibitory effect of the rMIP-1 alpha on CTLL-R8 cells.

  7. Are the surface layer homology domains essential for cell surface display and glycosylation of the S-layer protein from Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051T? (United States)

    Janesch, Bettina; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina


    Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T) cells are decorated with a two-dimensional (2D) crystalline array comprised of the glycosylated S-layer protein SpaA. At its N terminus, SpaA possesses three consecutive surface layer (S-layer) homology (SLH) domains containing the amino acid motif TRAE, known to play a key role in cell wall binding, as well as the TVEE and TRAQ variations thereof. SpaA is predicted to be anchored to the cell wall by interaction of the SLH domains with a peptidoglycan (PG)-associated, nonclassical, pyruvylated secondary cell wall polymer (SCWP). In this study, we have analyzed the role of the three predicted binding motifs within the SLH domains by mutating them into TAAA motifs, either individually, pairwise, or all of them. Effects were visualized in vivo by homologous expression of chimeras made of the mutated S-layer proteins and enhanced green fluorescent protein and in an in vitro binding assay using His-tagged SpaA variants and native PG-containing cell wall sacculi that either contained SCWP or were deprived of it. Experimental data indicated that (i) the TRAE, TVEE, and TRAQ motifs are critical for the binding function of SLH domains, (ii) two functional motifs are sufficient for cell wall binding, regardless of the domain location, (iii) SLH domains have a dual-recognition function for the SCWP and the PG, and (iv) cell wall anchoring is not necessary for SpaA glycosylation. Additionally, we showed that the SLH domains of SpaA are sufficient for in vivo cell surface display of foreign proteins at the cell surface of P. alvei.

  8. Efficient Isolation and Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Cancer Cell Plasma Membrane Proteins for Identification of Metastasis-Associated Cell Surface Markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Jensen, Ole N


    proteins were isolated by centrifugation/ultracentrifugation steps, followed by membrane separation using a Percoll/sucrose density gradient. The gradient fractions containing the cell surface membrane proteins were identified by enzymatic assays. Stable isotope labeling of the proteome of the metastatic...... cell line by SILAC followed by mass spectrometry analysis enabled identification and quantification of proteins that were differentially expressed in the two cell lines. Dual stable isotopic labels ((13)C-arginine and (13)C-lysine) instead of a single label ((13)C-arginine) increased the percentage...... of proteins that could be quantified from 40 to 93%. Repeated LC-MS/MS analyses (3-4 times) of each sample increased the number of identified proteins by 60%. The use of Percoll/sucrose density separation allowed subfractionation of membranes leading to enrichment of membrane proteins (66%) and reduction from...

  9. Anchorless surface associated glycolytic enzymes from Lactobacillus plantarum 299v bind to epithelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins. (United States)

    Glenting, Jacob; Beck, Hans Christian; Vrang, Astrid; Riemann, Holger; Ravn, Peter; Hansen, Anne Maria; Antonsson, Martin; Ahrné, Siv; Israelsen, Hans; Madsen, Søren


    An important criterion for the selection of a probiotic bacterial strain is its ability to adhere to the mucosal surface. Adhesion is usually mediated by proteins or other components located on the outer cell surface of the bacterium. In the present study we characterized the adhesive properties of two classical intracellular enzymes glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and enolase (ENO) isolated from the outer cell surface of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum 299v. None of the genes encoded signal peptides or cell surface anchoring motifs that could explain their extracellular location on the bacterial surface. The presence of the glycolytic enzymes on the outer surface was verified by western blotting using polyclonal antibodies raised against the specific enzymes. GAPDH and ENO showed a highly specific binding to plasminogen and fibronectin whereas GAPDH but not ENO showed weak binding to mucin. Furthermore, a pH dependent and specific binding of GAPDH and ENO to intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells at pH 5 but not at pH 7 was demonstrated. The results showed that these glycolytic enzymes could play a role in the adhesion of the probiotic bacterium L. plantarum 299v to the gastrointestinal tract of the host. Finally, a number of probiotic as well non-probiotic Lactobacillus strains were analyzed for the presence of GAPDH and ENO on the outer surface, but no correlation between the extracellular location of these enzymes and the probiotic status of the applied strains was demonstrated.

  10. CD133 protein N-glycosylation processing contributes to cell surface recognition of the primitive cell marker AC133 epitope. (United States)

    Mak, Anthony B; Blakely, Kim M; Williams, Rashida A; Penttilä, Pier-Andrée; Shukalyuk, Andrey I; Osman, Khan T; Kasimer, Dahlia; Ketela, Troy; Moffat, Jason


    The AC133 epitope expressed on the CD133 glycoprotein has been widely used as a cell surface marker of numerous stem cell and cancer stem cell types. It has been recently proposed that posttranslational modification and regulation of CD133 may govern cell surface AC133 recognition. Therefore, we performed a large scale pooled RNA interference (RNAi) screen to identify genes involved in cell surface AC133 expression. Gene hits could be validated at a rate of 70.5% in a secondary assay using an orthogonal RNAi system, demonstrating that our primary RNAi screen served as a powerful genetic screening approach. Within the list of hits from the primary screen, genes involved in N-glycan biosynthesis were significantly enriched as determined by Ingenuity Canonical Pathway analyses. Indeed, inhibiting biosynthesis of the N-glycan precursor using the small molecule tunicamycin or inhibiting its transfer to CD133 by generating N-glycan-deficient CD133 mutants resulted in undetectable cell surface AC133. Among the screen hits involved in N-glycosylation were genes involved in complex N-glycan processing, including the poorly characterized MGAT4C, which we demonstrate to be a positive regulator of cell surface AC133 expression. Our study identifies a set of genes involved in CD133 N-glycosylation as a direct contributing factor to cell surface AC133 recognition and provides biochemical evidence for the function and structure of CD133 N-glycans.

  11. Structural basis for hemoglobin capture by Staphylococcus aureus cell-surface protein, IsdH. (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, Kaavya; Jacques, David A; Pishchany, Gleb; Caradoc-Davies, Tom; Spirig, Thomas; Malmirchegini, G Reza; Langley, David B; Dickson, Claire F; Mackay, Joel P; Clubb, Robert T; Skaar, Eric P; Guss, J Mitchell; Gell, David A


    Pathogens must steal iron from their hosts to establish infection. In mammals, hemoglobin (Hb) represents the largest reservoir of iron, and pathogens express Hb-binding proteins to access this source. Here, we show how one of the commonest and most significant human pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, captures Hb as the first step of an iron-scavenging pathway. The x-ray crystal structure of Hb bound to a domain from the Isd (iron-regulated surface determinant) protein, IsdH, is the first structure of a Hb capture complex to be determined. Surface mutations in Hb that reduce binding to the Hb-receptor limit the capacity of S. aureus to utilize Hb as an iron source, suggesting that Hb sequence is a factor in host susceptibility to infection. The demonstration that pathogens make highly specific recognition complexes with Hb raises the possibility of developing inhibitors of Hb binding as antibacterial agents.

  12. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote cell surface proteins by two complementary methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queiroz, Rayner M L; Charneau, Sébastien; Motta, Flávia N;


    Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan that causes Chagas' disease, a neglected infectious illness that affects millions of people, mostly in Latin America. Here, the cell surface subproteome of the T. cruzi epimastigote life form was characterized. In order to prepare samples enriched in epimastigote...

  13. A bioactive elastin-like recombinamer reduces unspecific protein adsorption and enhances cell response on titanium surfaces. (United States)

    Salvagni, Emiliano; Berguig, Geoffrey; Engel, Elisabeth; Rodriguez-Cabello, J Carlos; Coullerez, Geraldine; Textor, Marcus; Planell, Josep A; Gil, F Javier; Aparicio, Conrado


    We present the immobilization on synthetic substrates of elastin-like recombinamers (ELR) that combine a bioactive motif for cell adhesion with protein antifouling properties. Physical adsorption of the recombinamers and covalent-grafting through organosilane chemistry were investigated. The biochemically-modified surfaces were thoroughly characterized and tested for protein absorption in serum by fluorescence-labelling, XPS, Ellipsometry, and OWLS. The ELR were successfully grafted and stable, even upon mechanical stresses; being the covalent bonding favourable over physical adsorption. The coated metal surfaces exhibited excellent reduction of serum protein adsorption (9 ng/cm(2)) compared to the bare metal surface (310 ng/cm(2)). Non-specific protein adsorption may mask the introduced bioactive motifs; therefore, the bioactivated surfaces should display serum-protein antifouling properties. Finally, improved hMSCs response was assessed on the bioactivated substrates. In summary, the coatings simultaneously displayed anti-fouling and bioactive properties. These studies investigated key factors to enhance tissue material interactions fundamental for the design of bioactive devices and future biomedical applications.

  14. Developmental expression of a cell surface protein involved in sea urchin skeleton formation. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus; Lytechinus pictus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farach, M.C.; Valdizan, M.; Park, H.R.; Decker, G.L.; Lennarz, W.J.


    The authors have previously used a monoclonal antibody (1223) to identify a 130 Kd cell surface protein involved in skeleton formation is sea urchin embryos. In the current study the authors have examined the expression of the 1223 antigen over the course of development of embryos of two species, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus pictus. The 130 Kd protein is detected in S. purp eggs on immunoblots. Labeling with (/sup 3/H) leucine and immunoaffinity chromatography show that it also is synthesized shortly after fertilization. Immunofluroescence reveals that at this early stage the 1223 antigen is uniformly distributed on all of the cells. Synthesis decreases to a minimum by the time of hatching (18 h), as does the total amount of antigen present in the embryo. A second period of synthesis commences at the mesenchyme blastula stage, when the spicule-forming primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) have appeared. During this later stage, synthesis and cell surface expression are restricted to the PMCs. In contrast to S. purp., in L. pictus the 130 Kd protein does not appear until the PMCs are formed. Hybrid embryos demonstrate a pattern of expression of the maternal species. These results suggest that early expression of 1223 antigen in S. purp. is due to utilization of maternal transcripts present in the egg. In both species later expression in PMCs appears to be the result of cell-type specific synthesis, perhaps encoded by embryonic transcripts.

  15. Signal peptide cleavage is essential for surface expression of a regulatory T cell surface protein, leucine rich repeat containing 32 (LRRC32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyama Hideaki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs have been implicated in certain cancers. Depletion of Tregs has been shown to increase anti-tumor immunity. Tregs also play a critical role in the suppression of autoimmune responses. The study of Tregs has been hampered by a lack of adequate surface markers. Leucine Rich Repeat Containing 32 (LRRC32, also known as Glycoprotein A Repetitions Predominant (GARP, has been postulated as a novel surface marker of activated Tregs. However, there is limited information regarding the processing of LRRC32 or the regulatory phenotype and functional activity of Tregs expressing LRRC32. Results Using naturally-occurring freshly isolated Tregs, we demonstrate that low levels of LRRC32 are present intracellularly prior to activation and that freshly isolated LRRC32+ Tregs are distinct from LRRC32- Tregs with respect to the expression of surface CD62L. Using LRRC32 transfectants of HEK cells, we demonstrate that the N-terminus of LRRC32 is cleaved prior to expression of the protein at the cell surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate using a construct containing a deleted putative signal peptide region that the presence of a signal peptide region is critical to cell surface expression of LRRC32. Finally, mixed lymphocyte assays demonstrate that LRRC32+ Tregs are more potent suppressors than LRRC32- Tregs. Conclusions A cleaved signal peptide site in LRRC32 is necessary for surface localization of native LRRC32 following activation of naturally-occurring freshly-isolated regulatory T cells. LRRC32 expression appears to alter the surface expression of activation markers of T cells such as CD62L. LRRC32 surface expression may be useful as a marker that selects for more potent Treg populations. In summary, understanding the processing and expression of LRRC32 may provide insight into the mechanism of action of Tregs and the refinement of immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at targeting these cells.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴绍熙; 郭宁如; 侯幼红


    This paper presented the effects of systemic fluconazole therapy via intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administrations on the adhesion of Candida albicans (C. albicans) to the huccal epithelial ceils (BEC) from five treated patients with three candidosis, one mucornlycosis and one sporotrichosis and at the same time,an analysis of the cell surface proteins involving candidal adherent receptor in the BEC of the patients in the course of 7 days were exposed to 3H-leucine radiolabaled C. atbicans for in vitro eandidal adherent assay,and the BEC from first intake day and the last intake day of the patients were extracted by dithiothreitol(DTT)-iodoacetamide treatment for SDS-PAGE. These results indicate that the systemic iluconazole therapy resuks in the inhibitory effect of candldal adhesion to BEC of treated patients to prevent them from oral candidosis for a prolonged time, which is based on the absent surface protein (35KDa) of the BEC.

  17. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies recognizing 130 kDa surface proteins on human embryonic stem cells and cancer cell lines. (United States)

    Kim, Jum-Ji; Choi, Hong Seo; Lee, Mi-Young; Ryu, Chun Jeih


    To study cell surface proteins expressed on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), we generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against undifferentiated hESCs by a decoy immunization strategy in a previous study. Two of the MAbs, 63-B6 and 246-D7, bound to human pluripotent stem cells but not to human primary cells such as human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and human lung fibroblasts. They did not bind to either mouse embryonic stem cells or mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The two MAbs had similar binding profiles for many various cancer cells, with few exceptions. Expression of antigens recognized by the two MAbs was rapidly decreased during embryoid body formation of hESCs and gradually increased after initial decrease. The MAbs recognized approximately 130 kDa proteins on the surface of hESCs. Cloning and sequence analysis of antibody genes showed that although the MAbs had exactly the same light chain sequences, they had different heavy chain sequences. Taken together, the results suggest that the two MAbs may recognize two different epitopes of the same or different 130 kDa surface proteins involved in regulating the early differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells and cancer cells.

  18. Crystal structure of bacterial cell-surface alginate-binding protein with an M75 peptidase motif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Yukie; Ochiai, Akihito [Laboratory of Basic and Applied Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Mikami, Bunzo [Laboratory of Applied Structural Biology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hashimoto, Wataru [Laboratory of Basic and Applied Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Murata, Kousaku, E-mail: [Laboratory of Basic and Applied Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)


    Research highlights: {yields} Bacterial alginate-binding Algp7 is similar to component EfeO of Fe{sup 2+} transporter. {yields} We determined the crystal structure of Algp7 with a metal-binding motif. {yields} Algp7 consists of two helical bundles formed through duplication of a single bundle. {yields} A deep cleft involved in alginate binding locates around the metal-binding site. {yields} Algp7 may function as a Fe{sup 2+}-chelated alginate-binding protein. -- Abstract: A gram-negative Sphingomonas sp. A1 directly incorporates alginate polysaccharide into the cytoplasm via the cell-surface pit and ABC transporter. A cell-surface alginate-binding protein, Algp7, functions as a concentrator of the polysaccharide in the pit. Based on the primary structure and genetic organization in the bacterial genome, Algp7 was found to be homologous to an M75 peptidase motif-containing EfeO, a component of a ferrous ion transporter. Despite the presence of an M75 peptidase motif with high similarity, the Algp7 protein purified from recombinant Escherichia coli cells was inert on insulin B chain and N-benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-p-nitroanilide, both of which are substrates for a typical M75 peptidase, imelysin, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The X-ray crystallographic structure of Algp7 was determined at 2.10 A resolution by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction. Although a metal-binding motif, HxxE, conserved in zinc ion-dependent M75 peptidases is also found in Algp7, the crystal structure of Algp7 contains no metal even at the motif. The protein consists of two structurally similar up-and-down helical bundles as the basic scaffold. A deep cleft between the bundles is sufficiently large to accommodate macromolecules such as alginate polysaccharide. This is the first structural report on a bacterial cell-surface alginate-binding protein with an M75 peptidase motif.

  19. Interaction of Gram-negative bacteria with cationic proteins: Dependence on the surface characteristics of the bacterial cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella R Prokhorenko


    Full Text Available Isabella R Prokhorenko1, Svetlana V Zubova1, Alexandr Yu Ivanov2, Sergey V Grachev31Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Basic Biological Problems; 2Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia; 3I.M. Sechenov’s Moscow Medical Academy, Moscow, Russia Abstract: Gram-negative bacteria can enter the bloodstream and interact with serum cationic proteins. The character of interaction will depend on the surface characteristics of bacterial cells, which are determined by bacterial chemotype and density of lipopolysaccharide (LPS packing in the cell wall. It was shown that the lysozyme treatment resulted in the increase sensitivity to hypotonic shock. Signifi cant differences to this effect were found between Escherichia coli strain D21 and D21f2 under treatment with physiological protein concentration. On the basis of electrokinetic measurements and studies of the interaction of cells with lysozyme, the hypothesis was formed that the cell wall of the E. coli strain D21f2 contains more LPS and has a higher density of their packing than the cell wall of the E. coli D21 cells. The effect of lysozyme and lactoferrin on the viability of E. coli cells of two different strains was examined. Lysozyme was found to more effectively inhibit the growth of the E. coli D21 bacteria, and lactoferrin suppressed mainly the growth of the E. coli D21f2 bacteria. These results indicate that the differences in LPS core structure of bacterial R-chemotype, which determines surface charge and density of LPS packing, plays an essential role in the mechanisms of interaction of the cationic proteins with the cell wall.Keywords: lipopolysaccharide, Escherichia coli, chemotype, lysozyme, lactoferrin, colony-forming units

  20. Relevance of glycosylation of S-layer proteins for cell surface properties. (United States)

    Schuster, Bernhard; Sleytr, Uwe B


    Elucidating the building principles and intrinsic features modulating certain water-associated processes (e.g., surface roughness in the nanometer scale, surface hydration and accompanied antifouling property, etc.) of surface structures from (micro)organisms is nowadays a highly challenging task in fields like microbiology, biomimetic engineering and (bio)material sciences. Here, we show for the first time the recrystallization of the wild-type S-layer glycoprotein wtSgsE from Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a and its recombinantly produced non-glycosylated form, rSgsE, on gold sensor surfaces. Whereas the proteinaceous lattice of the S-layer proteins is forming a rigid layer on the sensor surface, the glycan chains are developing an overall soft, highly dissipative film. Interestingly, to the wtSgsE lattice almost twice the amount of water is bound and/or coupled in comparison with the non-glycosylated rSgsE with the preferred region being the extending glycan residues. The present results are discussed in terms of the effect of the glycan residues on the recrystallization, the adjoining hydration layer, and the nanoscale roughness and fluidic behavior. The latter features may turn out to be one of the most general ones among bacterial and archaeal S-layer lattices.

  1. Laser- and UV-assisted modification of polystyrene surfaces for control of protein adsorption and cell adhesion (United States)

    Pfleging, Wilhelm; Torge, Maika; Bruns, Michael; Trouillet, Vanessa; Welle, Alexander; Wilson, Sandra


    An appropriate choice of laser and process parameters enables new approaches for the fabrication of polymeric lab-on-chip devices with integrated functionalities. We will present our current research results in laser-assisted modification of polystyrene (PS) with respect to the fabrication of polymer devices for cell culture applications. For this purpose laser micro-patterning of PS and subsequent surface functionalization was investigated as function of laser and process parameters. A high power ArF-excimer laser radiation source with a pulse length of 19 ns as well as a high repetition ArF-excimer laser source with a pulse length of 5 ns were used in order to study the influence of laser pulse length on laser-induced surface oxidation. The change in surface chemistry was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The difference between laser-assisted modification versus UV-lamp assisted modification was investigated. A photolytic activation of specific areas of the polymer surface and subsequent oxidization in oxygen or ambient air leads to a chemically modified polymer surface bearing carboxylic acid groups well-suited for controlled competitive protein adsorption or protein immobilization. Finally, distinct areas for cell growth and adhesion are obtained.

  2. Membrane labeling of coral gastrodermal cells by biotinylation: the proteomic identification of surface proteins involving cnidaria-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis.

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    Hsing-Hui Li

    Full Text Available The cellular and molecular-scale processes underlying the stability of coral-Symbiodinium endosymbioses remain unclear despite decades of investigation. As the coral gastroderm is the only tissue layer characterized by this unique symbiotic association, the membranes of these symbiotic gastrodermal cells (SGCs may play important roles in the initiation and maintenance of the endosymbiosis. In order to elucidate the interactions between the endosymbiotic dinoflagellates and their coral hosts, a thorough characterization of SGC membranes is therefore required. Cell surface proteins of isolated SGCs were biotinylated herein by a cell impermeant agent, biotin-XX sulfosuccinimidyl ester. The in situ distribution of these biotinylated proteins was uncovered by both fluorescence and transmission electron microscopic imaging of proteins bound to Alexa Fluor® 488-conjugated streptavidin. The identity of these proteins was then determined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Nineteen (19 proteins were identified, and they are known to be involved in the molecular chaperone/stress response, cytoskeletal remodeling, and energy metabolism. These results not only reveal the molecular characters of the host SGC membrane, but also provide critical insight into understanding the possible role of host membranes in this ecologically important endosymbiotic association.

  3. Use of colloidal silica-beads for the isolation of cell-surface proteins for mass spectrometry-based proteomics. (United States)

    Kim, Yunee; Elschenbroich, Sarah; Sharma, Parveen; Sepiashvili, Lusia; Gramolini, Anthony O; Kislinger, Thomas


    Chaney and Jacobson first introduced the colloidal silica-bead protocol for the coating of cellular plasma membranes in the early 1980s. Since then, this method has been successfully incorporated into a wide range of in vitro and in vivo applications for the isolation of cell-surface proteins. The principle is simple - cationic colloidal silica microbeads are introduced to a suspension or monolayer of cells in culture. Electrostatic interactions between the beads and the negatively charged plasma membrane, followed by cross-linking to the membrane with an anionic polymer, ensure attachment and maintain the native protein conformation. Cells are subsequently ruptured, and segregation of the resulting plasma membrane sheets from the remaining- cell constituents is achieved by ultracentrifugation through density gradients. The resulting membrane-bead pellet is treated with various detergents or chaotropic agents (i.e., urea) to elute bound proteins. If proteomic profiling by mass spectrometry is desired, proteins are denatured, carbamidomethylated, and digested into peptides prior to chromatography.

  4. Silkworm apolipophorin protein inhibits hemolysin gene expression of Staphylococcus aureus via binding to cell surface lipoteichoic acids. (United States)

    Omae, Yosuke; Hanada, Yuichi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara


    We previously reported that a silkworm hemolymph protein, apolipophorin (ApoLp), binds to the cell surface of Staphylococcus aureus and inhibits expression of the saePQRS operon encoding a two-component system, SaeRS, and hemolysin genes. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory mechanism of ApoLp on S. aureus hemolysin gene expression. ApoLp bound to lipoteichoic acids (LTA), an S. aureus cell surface component. The addition of purified LTA to liquid medium abolished the inhibitory effect of ApoLp against S. aureus hemolysin production. In an S. aureus knockdown mutant of ltaS encoding LTA synthetase, the inhibitory effects of ApoLp on saeQ expression and hemolysin production were attenuated. Furthermore, the addition of anti-LTA monoclonal antibody to liquid medium decreased the expression of S. aureus saeQ and hemolysin genes. In S. aureus strains expressing SaeS mutant proteins with a shortened extracellular domain, ApoLp did not decrease saeQ expression. These findings suggest that ApoLp binds to LTA on the S. aureus cell surface and inhibits S. aureus hemolysin gene expression via a two-component regulatory system, SaeRS.

  5. A novel surface protein of Trichomonas vaginalis is regulated independently by low iron and contact with vaginal epithelial cells

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    Chang T-H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichomonosis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is the number one, non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD that affects more than 250 million people worldwide. Immunoglobulin A (IgA has been implicated in resistance to mucosal infections by pathogens. No reports are available of IgA-reactive proteins and the role, if any, of this class of antibody in the control of this STD. The availability of an IgA monoclonal antibody (mAb immunoreactive to trichomonads by whole cell (WC-ELISA prompted us to characterize the IgA-reactive protein of T. vaginalis. Results An IgA mAb called 6B8 was isolated from a library of mAbs reactive to surface proteins of T. vaginalis. The 6B8 mAb recognized a 44-kDa protein (TV44 by immunoblot analysis, and a full-length cDNA clone encoded a protein of 438 amino acids. Southern analysis revealed the gene (tv44 of T. vaginalis to be single copy. The tv44 gene was down-regulated at both the transcriptional and translational levels in iron-depleted trichomonads as well as in parasites after contact with immortalized MS-74 vaginal epithelial cells (VECs. Immunofluorescence on non-permeabilized organisms confirmed surface localization of TV44, and the intensity of fluorescence was reduced after parasite adherence to VECs. Lastly, an identical protein and gene were present in Tritrichomonas foetus and Trichomonas tenax. Conclusion This is the first report of a T. vaginalis gene (tv44 encoding a surface protein (TV44 reactive with an IgA mAb, and both gene and protein were conserved in human and bovine trichomonads. Further, TV44 is independently down-regulated in expression and surface placement by iron and contact with VECs. TV44 is another member of T. vaginalis genes that are regulated by at least two independent signaling mechanisms involving iron and contact with VECs.

  6. Efficient cell surface display of Lip2 lipase using C-domains of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell wall proteins of Yarrowia lipolytica. (United States)

    Yuzbasheva, Evgeniya Y; Yuzbashev, Tigran V; Laptev, Ivan A; Konstantinova, Tatiana K; Sineoky, Sergey P


    The cell surface display of enzymes is of great interest because of its simplified purification stage and the possibility for recycling in industrial processes. In this study, we have focused on the cell wall immobilization of Yarrowia lipolytica Lip2 protein--an enzyme that has a wide technological application. By genome analysis of Y. lipolytica in addition to already characterized Ylcwp1, we identified five putative open reading frames encoding glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. Lip2 translation fusion with the carboxyl termini of these proteins revealed that all proteins were capable of immobilizing lipase in active form on the cell surface. The highest level of cell-bound lipase activity was achieved using C-domains encoded by YlCWP1, YlCWP3 (YALI0D27214g) and YlCWP6 (YALI0F18282g) comprising 16,173 ± 1,800, 18,785 ± 1,130 and 17,700 ± 2,101 U/g dry cells, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, these results significantly exceed the highest cell-bound lipase activity previously reported for engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris strains. Furthermore, the lyophilized biomass retained the activity and was robust to collecting/resuspending procedures. Nevertheless, in most cases, a substantial amount of lipase activity was also found in the growth medium. Further work will be necessary to better understand the nature of this phenomenon.

  7. Correlation of cell surface proteins of distinct Beauveria bassiana cell types and adaption to varied environment and interaction with the host insect. (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Jiang, Hongyan; Zhao, Xin; Lu, Zhuoyue; Luo, Zhibing; Li, Xuebing; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yongjun


    The insect fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana produces a number of distinct cell types that include aerial conidia, blastospores and haemolymph-derived cells, termed hyphal bodies, to adapt varied environment niches and within the host insect. These cells display distinct biochemical properties and surface structures, and a highly ordered outermost brush-like structure uniquely present on hyphal bodies, but not on any in vitro cells. Here, we found that the outermost structure on the hyphal bodies mainly consisted of proteins associated to structural wall components in that most of it could be removed by dithiothreitol (DTT) or proteinase K. DTT-treatment also caused delayed germination, decreased tolerance to ultraviolet irradiation and virulence of conidia or blastospores, with decreased adherence and alternated carbohydrate epitopes, suggesting involvement in fungal development, stress responses and virulence. To characterize these cell surface molecules, proteins were released from the living cells using DTT, and identified and quantitated using label-free quantitative mass spectrometry. Thereafter, a series of bioinformatics programs were used to predict cell surface-associated proteins (CSAPs), and 96, 166 and 54 CSAPs were predicted from the identified protein pools of conidia, blastospores and hyphal bodies, respectively, which were involved in utilization of carbohydrate, nitrogen, and lipid, detoxification, pathogen-host interaction, and likely other cellular processes. Thirteen, sixty-nine and six CSAPs were exclusive in conidia, blastospores and hyphal bodies, respectively, which were verified by eGFP-tagged proteins at their N-terminus. Our data provide a crucial cue to understand mechanism of B. bassiana to adapt to varied environment and interaction with insect host.

  8. Quantitative proteomic view on secreted, cell surface-associated, and cytoplasmic proteins of the methicillin-resistant human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus under iron-limited conditions. (United States)

    Hempel, Kristina; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Moche, Martin; Hecker, Michael; Becher, Dörte


    Staphylococcus aureus is capable of colonizing and infecting humans by its arsenal of surface-exposed and secreted proteins. Iron-limited conditions in mammalian body fluids serve as a major environmental signal to bacteria to express virulence determinants. Here we present a comprehensive, gel-free, and GeLC-MS/MS-based quantitative proteome profiling of S. aureus under this infection-relevant situation. (14)N(15)N metabolic labeling and three complementing approaches were combined for relative quantitative analyses of surface-associated proteins. The surface-exposed and secreted proteome profiling approaches comprise trypsin shaving, biotinylation, and precipitation of the supernatant. By analysis of the outer subproteomic and cytoplasmic protein fraction, 1210 proteins could be identified including 221 surface-associated proteins. Thus, access was enabled to 70% of the predicted cell wall-associated proteins, 80% of the predicted sortase substrates, two/thirds of lipoproteins and more than 50% of secreted and cytoplasmic proteins. For iron-deficiency, 158 surface-associated proteins were quantified. Twenty-nine proteins were found in altered amounts showing particularly surface-exposed proteins strongly induced, such as the iron-regulated surface determinant proteins IsdA, IsdB, IsdC and IsdD as well as lipid-anchored iron compound-binding proteins. The work presents a crucial subject for understanding S. aureus pathophysiology by the use of methods that allow quantitative surface proteome profiling.

  9. Cell wall protein and glycoprotein constituents of Aspergillus fumigatus that bind to polystyrene may be responsible for the cell surface hydrophobicity of the mycelium. (United States)

    Peñalver, M C; Casanova, M; Martínez, J P; Gil, M L


    Cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of Aspergillus fumigatus grown both in complex medium (yeast extract/peptone/dextrose; YPD) and minimal (Vogel's N) medium was monitored by assessing attachment of polystyrene microspheres to the cell surface. It was found that mature mycelium was hydrophobic. Treatment of intact mycelium with beta-mercaptoethanol (beta ME) abolished binding of the microspheres to hyphal elements, and coating of the microspheres with beta ME extracts from mycelium inhibited their attachment to intact mycelial cells. A. fumigatus mycelium was tagged in vivo with biotin and treated with beta ME. The beta ME extracts were analysed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting with both peroxidase-conjugated-ExtrAvidin and concanavalin A (ConA). This procedure allowed identification of cell wall surface proteins and glycoproteins. Rabbit polyclonal antisera were raised against beta ME extracts obtained from cells grown in YPD and Vogel's N media. These antisera defined some major cell-wall-bound antigens. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis of the cell wall material released by beta ME and adsorbed on polystyrene microspheres revealed about 19 protein species with apparent molecular masses ranging from 20 to 70 kDa, and two high-molecular-mass glycoproteins of 115 and 210 kDa. Treatment of cells grown in YPD, but not those grown in Vogel's N medium, with beta ME released a 55 kDa polypeptide able to adsorb to polystyrene microspheres that was detectable with the antisera. The ability to bind to polystyrene particles exhibited by several protein and glycoprotein species released by beta ME treatment suggested that these cell wall moieties possess exposed hydrophobic domains that could be responsible for the CSH of mycelium.

  10. Identification of cell surface-exposed proteins involved in the fimbria-mediated adherence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli to intestinal cells. (United States)

    Izquierdo, Mariana; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando; Nava-Acosta, Raul; Nataro, James P; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Farfan, Mauricio J


    Fimbria-mediated adherence to the intestinal epithelia is a key step in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) pathogenesis. To date, four fimbriae have been described for EAEC; aggregative adherence fimbria II (AAF/II) is the most important adherence factor for EAEC prototype strain 042. Previously, we described results showing that extracellular matrix (ECM) components might be involved in the recognition of AAF/II fimbriae by intestinal cells. In this study, we sought to identify novel potential receptors on intestinal epithelial cells recognized by the AAF/II fimbriae. Purified AafA-dsc protein, the major subunit of AAF/II fimbriae, was incubated with a monolayer of T84 cells, cross-linked to the surface-exposed T84 cell proteins, and immunoprecipitated by using anti-AafA antibodies. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of cellular proteins bound to AafA-dsc protein identified laminin (previously recognized as a potential receptor for AAF/II) and cytokeratin 8 (CK8). Involvement of the major subunit of AAF/II fimbriae (AafA protein) in the binding to recombinant CK8 was confirmed by adherence assays with purified AAF/II fimbriae, AafA-dsc protein, and strain 042. Moreover, HEp-2 cells transfected with CK8 small interfering RNA (siRNA) showed reduced 042 adherence compared with cells transfected with scrambled siRNA as a control. Adherence of 042 to HEp-2 cells preincubated with antibodies against ECM proteins or CK8 was substantially reduced. Altogether, our results supported the idea of a role of CK8 as a potential receptor for EAEC.

  11. A c-di-GMP effector system controls cell adhesion by inside-out signaling and surface protein cleavage.

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    Peter D Newell

    Full Text Available In Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 the availability of inorganic phosphate (Pi is an environmental signal that controls biofilm formation through a cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP signaling pathway. In low Pi conditions, a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase (PDE RapA is expressed, depleting cellular c-di-GMP and causing the loss of a critical outer-membrane adhesin LapA from the cell surface. This response involves an inner membrane protein LapD, which binds c-di-GMP in the cytoplasm and exerts a periplasmic output promoting LapA maintenance on the cell surface. Here we report how LapD differentially controls maintenance and release of LapA: c-di-GMP binding to LapD promotes interaction with and inhibition of the periplasmic protease LapG, which targets the N-terminus of LapA. We identify conserved amino acids in LapA required for cleavage by LapG. Mutating these residues in chromosomal lapA inhibits LapG activity in vivo, leading to retention of the adhesin on the cell surface. Mutations with defined effects on LapD's ability to control LapA localization in vivo show concomitant effects on c-di-GMP-dependent LapG inhibition in vitro. To establish the physiological importance of the LapD-LapG effector system, we track cell attachment and LapA protein localization during Pi starvation. Under this condition, the LapA adhesin is released from the surface of cells and biofilms detach from the substratum. This response requires c-di-GMP depletion by RapA, signaling through LapD, and proteolytic cleavage of LapA by LapG. These data, in combination with the companion study by Navarro et al. presenting a structural analysis of LapD's signaling mechanism, give a detailed description of a complete c-di-GMP control circuit--from environmental signal to molecular output. They describe a novel paradigm in bacterial signal transduction: regulation of a periplasmic enzyme by an inner membrane signaling protein that binds a cytoplasmic second messenger.

  12. The structure and function of the urokinase receptor, a membrane protein governing plasminogen activation on the cell surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Rønne, E; Danø, K


    PA receptor, uPAR, is a cell-surface protein which plays an important role in the localization and regulation of these processes. In the present article a number of established conclusions concerning the structure and function of uPAR are presented, and in addition various models are discussed which might...... explain additional observations for which the mechanisms involved have not yet been clarified experimentally. uPAR is a highly glycosylated, 3-domain protein, anchored in the plasma membrane by a glycolipid moiety. The domain organization is important for efficient ligand-binding, and the NH2-terminal...... to an interplay between uPAR and other, unidentified components. In addition to the function in the regulation of proteolysis, uPAR seems to play a role in internalization processes and in cellular signal transduction and adhesion. A few reagents have been identified which are capable to inhibit the interaction...

  13. Identification and characterization of the surface proteins of Clostridium difficile

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    Dailey, D.C.


    Several clostridial proteins were detected on the clostridial cell surface by sensitive radioiodination techniques. Two major proteins and six minor proteins comprised the radioiodinated proteins on the clostridial cell surface. Cellular fractionation of surface radiolabeled C. difficile determined that the radioiodinated proteins were found in the cell wall fraction of C. difficile and surprisingly were also present in the clostridial membrane. Furthermore, an interesting phenomenon of disulfide-crosslinking of the cell surface proteins of C. difficile was observed. Disulfide-linked protein complexes were found in both the membrane and cell wall fractions. In addition, the cell surface proteins of C. difficile were found to be released into the culture medium. In attempts to further characterize the clostridial proteins recombinant DNA techniques were employed. In addition, the role of the clostridial cell surface proteins in the interactions of C. difficile with human PMNs was also investigated.

  14. BECN1/Beclin 1 sorts cell-surface APP/amyloid β precursor protein for lysosomal degradation. (United States)

    Swaminathan, Gayathri; Zhu, Wan; Plowey, Edward D


    The regulation of plasma membrane (PM)-localized transmembrane protein/receptor trafficking has critical implications for cell signaling, metabolism and survival. In this study, we investigated the role of BECN1 (Beclin 1) in the degradative trafficking of PM-associated APP (amyloid β precursor protein), whose metabolism to amyloid-β, an essential event in Alzheimer disease, is dependent on divergent PM trafficking pathways. We report a novel interaction between PM-associated APP and BECN1 that recruits macroautophagy/endosomal regulatory proteins PIK3C3 and UVRAG. We found that BECN1 promotes surface APP internalization and sorting predominantly to endosomes and endolysosomes. BECN1 also promotes the targeting of a smaller fraction of internalized APP to LC3-positive phagophores, suggesting a role for BECN1-dependent PM macroautophagy in APP degradation. Furthermore, BECN1 facilitates lysosomal degradation of surface APP and reduces the secretion of APP metabolites (soluble ectodomains, sAPP). The association between APP and BECN1 is dependent on the evolutionarily conserved domain (ECD) of BECN1 (amino acids 267-337). Deletion of a BECN1 ECD subregion (amino acids 285-299) did not impair BECN1- PIK3C3 interaction, PtdIns3K function or macroautophagy, but was sufficient to impair the APP-BECN1 interaction and BECN1's effects on surface APP internalization and degradation, resulting in increased secretion of sAPPs. Interestingly, both the BECN1-APP association and BECN1-dependent APP endocytosis and degradative trafficking were negatively regulated by active AKT. Our results further implicate phosphorylation of the BECN1 Ser295 residue in the inhibition of APP degradation by AKT. Our studies reveal a novel function for BECN1 in the sorting of a plasma membrane protein for endolysosomal and macroautophagic degradation.

  15. The stromal cell-surface protease fibroblast activation protein-α localizes to lipid rafts and is recruited to invadopodia. (United States)

    Knopf, Julia D; Tholen, Stefan; Koczorowska, Maria M; De Wever, Olivier; Biniossek, Martin L; Schilling, Oliver


    Fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAPα) is a cell surface protease expressed by cancer-associated fibroblasts in the microenvironment of most solid tumors. As there is increasing evidence for proteases having non-catalytic functions, we determined the FAPα interactome in cancer-associated fibroblasts using the quantitative immunoprecipitation combined with knockdown (QUICK) method. Complex formation with adenosin deaminase, erlin-2, stomatin, prohibitin, Thy-1 membrane glycoprotein, and caveolin-1 was further validated by immunoblotting. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) of the known stoichiometric FAPα binding partner dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPPIV) corroborated the proteomic strategy. Reverse co-IPs validated the FAPα interaction with caveolin-1, erlin-2, and stomatin while co-IP upon RNA-interference mediated knock-down of DPPIV excluded adenosin deaminase as a direct FAPα interaction partner. Many newly identified FAPα interaction partners localize to lipid rafts, including caveolin-1, a widely-used marker for lipid raft localization. We hypothesized that this indicates a recruitment of FAPα to lipid raft structures. In density gradient centrifugation, FAPα co-fractionates with caveolin-1. Immunofluorescence optical sectioning microscopy of FAPα and lipid raft markers further corroborates recruitment of FAPα to lipid rafts and invadopodia. FAPα is therefore an integral component of stromal lipid rafts in solid tumors. In essence, we provide one of the first interactome analyses of a cell surface protease and translate these results into novel biological aspects of a marker protein for cancer-associated fibroblasts.

  16. Surface waves of Min-proteins (United States)

    Fischer-Friedrich, Elisabeth; Nguyen van yen, Romain; Kruse, Karsten


    In the bacterium Escherichia coli, the Min-proteins show pronounced pole-to-pole oscillations. They are functional for suppressing cell division at the cell ends, leaving the center as the only possible site for division. Analyzing different models of Min-protein dynamics in a bacterial geometry, we find waves on the cytoplasmic membrane. Interestingly, the surface wave solutions of different models belong to different symmetry classes. We suggest that experiments on Min-protein surface waves in vitro are helpful in distinguishing between different classes of models of Min-protein dynamics.

  17. Optimization of Single Cell Protein Production by Candida utilis Using Juice Extracted from Pineapple Waste through Response Surface Methodology

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    Rosma, A.


    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was applied to optimize protein content in Candida utilis grown in pineapple waste medium. A three-level full factorial design was used to develop a quantitative interpretation of mathematical models between the two variables studied, inoculum size 2.0-10.0% (v/v and total soluble solids in medium (1-5 Brix at 30 h fermentation time. Yeast cells were harvested, ruptured mechanically and the soluble extract was freeze-dried for determination of protein, vitamin-B, 5'-ribonucleotide and total sugar content. Maximum protein content in the yeast 66.61% (w/w was obtained from the predicted optimum inoculum size of 7.83% (v/v and Brix level of 3.02. Highest level of biomass, vitamin-B, 5'-ribonucleotide and total sugar content within the experimental region increased 216.8%, 17.5%, 38.0% and 60.8% respectively after optimization. A verification experiment, conducted at optimized protein content conditions produced values that were close to the predicted values, indicating the reliability of the model used.

  18. Surface functionalization of nanoporous alumina with bone morphogenetic protein 2 for inducing osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yuanhui; Ju, Yang; Morita, Yasuyuki; Xu, Baiyao [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Song, Guanbin [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)


    Many studies have demonstrated the possibility to regulate cellular behavior by manipulating the specific characteristics of biomaterials including the physical features and chemical properties. To investigate the synergistic effect of chemical factors and surface topography on the growth behavior of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), bone morphorgenic protein 2 (BMP2) was immobilized onto porous alumina substrates with different pore sizes. The BMP2-immobilized alumina substrates were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Growth behavior and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs cultured on the different substrates were investigated. Cell adhesion and morphological changes were observed with SEM, and the results showed that the BMP2-immobilized alumina substrate was able to promote adhesion and spreading of MSCs. MTT assay and immunofluorescence staining of integrin β1 revealed that the BMP2-immobilized alumina substrates were favorable for cell growth. To evaluate the differentiation of MSCs, osteoblastic differentiation markers, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization, were investigated. Compared with those of untreated alumina substrates, significantly higher ALP activities and mineralization were detected in cells cultured on BMP2-immobilized alumina substrates. The results suggested that surface functionalization of nanoporous alumina substrates with BMP2 was beneficial for cell growth and osteogenic differentiation. With the approach of immobilizing growth factors onto material substrates, it provided a new insight to exploit novel biofunctional materials for tissue engineering. - Highlights: • BMP2 was immobilized onto nanoporous alumina substrates with different pore sizes. • BMP2-immobilized substrates were able to promote adhesion and spreading of MSCs. • BMP2-immobilized substrates were favorable for cell growth of MSCs. • BMP2-immobilized substrates promoted osteogenic

  19. Global suppression of mitogen-activated ovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells by surface protein activity from Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae. (United States)

    Shahzad, W; Ajuwape, Adebowale Titilayo Phillip; Rosenbusch, Ricardo Francisco


    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is associated with chronic non-progressive pneumonia of sheep and goats. As with many other mycoplasmas involved in animal diseases, protective immune responses have not been achieved with vaccines, even though antibody responses can be obtained. This study focuses on characterizing the interaction of M. ovipneumoniae with ovine PBMC using carboxy-fluorescein-succinimidyl-ester (CFSE) loading and flow cytometry to measure lymphoid cell division. M. ovipneumoniae induced a strong in vitro polyclonal suppression of CD4(+), CD8(+), and B blood lymphocyte subsets. The suppressive activity could be destroyed by heating to 60 degrees C, and partially impaired by formalin and binary ethyleneimine treatment that abolished its viability. The activity resided on the surface-exposed membrane protein fraction of the mycoplasma, since mild trypsin treatment not affecting viability was shown to reduce suppressive activity. Trypsin-treated mycoplasma regained suppressive activity once the mycoplasma was allowed to re-synthesize its surface proteins. Implications for the design of vaccines against M. ovipneumoniae are discussed.

  20. Enterococcal surface protein Esp is not essential for cell adhesion and intestinal colonization of Enterococcus faecium in mice

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    van Luit-Asbroek Miranda


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterococcus faecium has globally emerged as a cause of hospital-acquired infections with high colonization rates in hospitalized patients. The enterococcal surface protein Esp, identified as a potential virulence factor, is specifically linked to nosocomial clonal lineages that are genetically distinct from indigenous E. faecium strains. To investigate whether Esp facilitates bacterial adherence and intestinal colonization of E. faecium, we used human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2 cells and an experimental colonization model in mice. Results No differences in adherence to Caco-2 cells were found between an Esp expressing strain of E. faecium (E1162 and its isogenic Esp-deficient mutant (E1162Δesp. Mice, kept under ceftriaxone treatment, were inoculated orally with either E1162, E1162Δesp or both strains simultaneously. Both E1162 and E1162Δesp were able to colonize the murine intestines with high and comparable numbers. No differences were found in the contents of cecum and colon. Both E1162 and E1162Δesp were able to translocate to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Conclusion These results suggest that Esp is not essential for Caco-2 cell adherence and intestinal colonization or translocation of E. faecium in mice.

  1. Surface protein composition of Aeromonas hydrophila strains virulent for fish: identification of a surface array protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, J.S.G.; Trust, T.J.


    The surface protein composition of members of a serogroup of Aeromonas hydrophila was examined. Immunoblotting with antiserum raised against formalinized whole cells of A. hydrophila TF7 showed a 52K S-layer protein to be the major surface protein antigen, and impermeant Sulfo-NHS-Biotin cell surface labeling showed that the 52K S-layer protein was the only protein accessible to the Sulfo-NHS-Biotin label and effectively masked underlying outer membrane (OM) proteins. In its native surface conformation the 52K S-layer protein was only weakly reactive with a lactoperoxidase /sup 125/I surface iodination procedure. A UV-induced rough lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutant of TF7 was found to produce an intact S layer, but a deep rough LPS mutant was unable to maintain an array on the cell surface and excreted the S-layer protein into the growth medium, indicating that a minimum LPS oligosaccharide size required for A. hydrophila S-layer anchoring. The native S layer was permeable to /sup 125/I in the lactoperoxidase radiolabeling procedure, and two major OM proteins of molecular weights 30,000 and 48,000 were iodinated. The 48K species was a peptidoglycan-associated, transmembrane protein which exhibited heat-modifiable SDS solubilization behavior characteristic of a porin protein. A 50K major peptidoglycan-associated OM protein which was not radiolabeled exhibited similar SDS heat modification characteristics and possibly represents a second porin protein.

  2. Do malaria ookinete surface proteins P25 and P28 mediate parasite entry into mosquito midgut epithelial cells?

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    Ranford-Cartwright Lisa C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background P25 and P28 are related ookinete surface proteins highly conserved throughout the Plasmodium genus that are under consideration as candidates for inclusion in transmission-blocking vaccines. Previous research using transgenic rodent malaria parasites lacking P25 and P28 has demonstrated that these proteins have multiple partially redundant functions during parasite infection of the mosquito vector, including an undefined role in ookinete traversal of the mosquito midgut epithelium, and it has been suggested that, unlike wild-type parasites, Dko P25/P28 parasites migrate across the midgut epithelium via an intercellular, rather than intracellular, route. Presentation of the hypothesis This paper presents an alternative interpretation for the previous observations of Dko P25/P28 parasites, based upon a recently published model of the route of ookinete invasion across the midgut epithelium. This model claims ookinete invasion is intracellular, with entry occurring through the lateral apical plasma membrane of midgut epithelial cells, and is associated with significant invagination of the midgut epithelium localised at the site of parasite penetration. Following this model, it is hypothesized that: (1 a sub-population of Dko P25/P28 ookinetes invaginate, but do not penetrate, the apical surface of the midgut epithelium and thus remain within the midgut lumen; and (2 another sub-population of Dko P25/P28 parasites successfully enters and migrates across the midgut epithelium via an intracellular route similar to wild-type parasites and subsequently develops into oocysts. Testing the hypothesis These hypotheses are tested by showing how they can account for previously published observations and incorporate them into a coherent and consistent explanatory framework. Based upon these hypotheses, several quantitative predictions are made, which can be experimentally tested, about the relationship between the densities of invading Dko P

  3. An improved system for the surface immobilisation of proteins on Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative cells and spores through a new spore cortex-lytic enzyme anchor. (United States)

    Shao, Xiaohu; Ni, Hong; Lu, Ting; Jiang, Mengtian; Li, Hua; Huang, Xinfeng; Li, Lin


    An improved surface-immobilisation system was engineered to target heterologous proteins onto vegetative cells and spores of Bacillus thuringiensis plasmid-free recipient strain BMB171. The sporulation-dependent spore cortex-lytic enzyme from B. thuringiensis YBT-1520, SceA, was expressed in vegetative cells and used as the surface anchoring motif. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and a Bacillus endo-β-1,3-1,4-glucanase (BglS) were used as the fusion partners to test the binding efficiency and the functional activities of immobilised surface proteins. The surface localisation of the SceA-GFP fusion protein on vegetative cells and spores was confirmed by Western blot, immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The GFP fluorescence intensity from both vegetative cells and spores was measured and compared to a previously characterised surface display system using a peptidoglycan hydrolase anchor (Mbg). Results demonstrated comparable efficiency of SceA- and Mbg-mediated immobilisation on vegetative cells but a more efficient immobilisation on spores using the SceA anchor, suggesting SceA has greater potential for spore-based applications. The SceA protein was then applied to target BglS onto vegetative cells and spores, and the surface immobilisation was verified by the substantial whole-cell enzymatic activity and enhanced whole-spore enzymatic activity compared to vegetative cells. A dually active B. thuringiensis vegetative cell and spore display system could prove especially valuable for the development of regenerable and heat-stable biocatalysts that function under adverse environmental conditions, for example, an effective feed additive for improved digestion and nutrient absorption by livestock.

  4. Hydrophobic patches on protein surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijnzaad, P.


    Hydrophobicity is a prime determinant of the structure and function of proteins. It is the driving force behind the folding of soluble proteins, and when exposed on the surface, it is frequently involved in recognition and binding of ligands and other proteins. The energetic cost of exposing hydroph

  5. A comparative pan-genome perspective of niche-adaptable cell-surface protein phenotypes in Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kant

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a ubiquitously adaptable Gram-positive bacterium and as a typical commensal can be recovered from various microbe-accessible bodily orifices and cavities. Then again, other isolates are food-borne, with some of these having been long associated with naturally fermented cheeses and yogurts. Additionally, because of perceived health benefits to humans and animals, numerous L. rhamnosus strains have been selected for use as so-called probiotics and are often taken in the form of dietary supplements and functional foods. At the genome level, it is anticipated that certain genetic variances will have provided the niche-related phenotypes that augment the flexible adaptiveness of this species, thus enabling its strains to grow and survive in their respective host environments. For this present study, we considered it functionally informative to examine and catalogue the genotype-phenotype variation existing at the cell surface between different L. rhamnosus strains, with the presumption that this might be relatable to habitat preferences and ecological adaptability. Here, we conducted a pan-genomic study involving 13 genomes from L. rhamnosus isolates with various origins. In using a benchmark strain (gut-adapted L. rhamnosus GG for our pan-genome comparison, we had focused our efforts on a detailed examination and description of gene products for certain functionally relevant surface-exposed proteins, each of which in effect might also play a part in niche adaptability among the other strains. Perhaps most significantly of the surface protein loci we had analyzed, it would appear that the spaCBA operon (known to encode SpaCBA-called pili having a mucoadhesive phenotype is a genomic rarity and an uncommon occurrence in L. rhamnosus. However, for any of the so-piliated L. rhamnosus strains, they will likely possess an increased niche-specific fitness, which functionally might presumably be manifested by a protracted transient

  6. Equine herpesvirus type 4 UL56 and UL49.5 proteins downregulate cell surface major histocompatibility complex class I expression independently of each other. (United States)

    Said, Abdelrahman; Azab, Walid; Damiani, Armando; Osterrieder, Nikolaus


    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules are critically important in the host defense against various pathogens through presentation of viral peptides to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), a process resulting in the destruction of virus-infected cells. Herpesviruses interfere with CTL-mediated elimination of infected cells by various mechanisms, including inhibition of peptide transport and loading, perturbation of MHC-I trafficking, and rerouting and proteolysis of cell surface MHC-I. In this study, we show that equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4) modulates MHC-I cell surface expression through two different mechanisms. First, EHV-4 can lead to a significant downregulation of MHC-I expression at the cell surface through the product of ORF1, a protein expressed with early kinetics from a gene that is homologous to herpes simplex virus 1 UL56. The EHV-4 UL56 protein reduces cell surface MHC-I as early as 4 h after infection. Second, EHV-4 can interfere with MHC-I antigen presentation, starting at 6 h after infection, by inhibition of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) through its UL49.5 protein. Although pUL49.5 has no immediate effect on overall surface MHC-I levels in infected cells, it blocks the supply of antigenic peptides to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and transport of peptide-loaded MHC-I to the cell surface. Taken together, our results show that EHV-4 encodes at least two viral immune evasion proteins: pUL56 reduces MHC-I molecules on the cell surface at early times after infection, and pUL49.5 interferes with MHC-I antigen presentation by blocking peptide transport in the ER.

  7. TRAIL protein localization in human primary T cells by 3D microscopy using 3D interactive surface plot: a new method to visualize plasma membrane. (United States)

    Gras, Christophe; Smith, Nikaïa; Sengmanivong, Lucie; Gandini, Mariana; Kubelka, Claire Fernandes; Herbeuval, Jean-Philippe


    The apoptotic ligand TNF-related apoptosis ligand (TRAIL) is expressed on the membrane of immune cells during HIV infection. The intracellular stockade of TRAIL in human primary CD4(+) T cells is not known. Here we investigated whether primary CD4(+) T cells expressed TRAIL in their intracellular compartment and whether TRAIL is relocalized on the plasma membrane under HIV activation. We found that TRAIL protein was stocked in intracellular compartment in non activated CD4(+) T cells and that the total level of TRAIL protein was not increased under HIV-1 stimulation. However, TRAIL was massively relocalized on plasma membrane when cells were cultured with HIV. Using three dimensional (3D) microscopy we localized TRAIL protein in human T cells and developed a new method to visualize plasma membrane without the need of a membrane marker. This method used the 3D interactive surface plot and bright light acquired images.

  8. The cell surface protein Ag43 facilitates phage infection of Escherichia coli in the presence of bile salts and carbohydrates. (United States)

    Gabig, Magdalena; Herman-Antosiewicz, Anna; Kwiatkowska, Marta; Los, Marcin; Thomas, Mark S; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz


    It was found that infection of Escherichia coli by bacteriophage lambda is inhibited in the presence of certain bile salts and carbohydrates when cells are in the "OFF" state for production of the phase-variable cell surface protein antigen 43 (Ag43). The inhibition of phage growth was found to be due to a significant impairment in the process of phage adsorption. Expression of the gene encoding Ag43 (agn43) from a plasmid or inactivation of the oxyR gene (encoding an activator of genes important for defence against oxidative stress) suppressed this inhibition. A mutation, rpoA341, in the gene encoding the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase also facilitated phage adsorption in the presence of bile salts and carbohydrates. The rpoA341 mutation promoted efficient production of Ag43 in a genetic background that would otherwise be in the "OFF" phase for expression of the agn43 gene. Analysis of a reporter gene fusion demonstrated that the promoter for the agn43 gene was more active in the rpoA341 mutant than in the otherwise isogenic rpoA(+) strain. The combined inhibitory action of bile salts and carbohydrates on phage adsorption and the abolition of this inhibition by production of Ag43 was not restricted to lambda, as a similar phenomenon was observed for the coliphages P1 and T4.

  9. One repeat of the cell wall binding domain is sufficient for anchoring the Lactobacillus acidophilus surface layer protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.; Pouwels, P.H.


    The N-terminal repeat (SAC1) of the S-protein of Lactobacillus acidophilus bound efficiently and specifically to cell wall fragments (CWFs) when fused to green fluorescent protein, whereas the C-terminal repeat (SAC2) did not. Treatment of CWFs with hydrofluoric acid, but not phenol, prevented bindi

  10. Epitope Mapping of Antibodies Suggests the Novel Membrane Topology of B-Cell Receptor Associated Protein 31 on the Cell Surface of Embryonic Stem Cells: The Novel Membrane Topology of BAP31.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Tae Kim

    Full Text Available When located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane, B-cell receptor associated protein 31 (BAP31 is involved in the export of secreted proteins from the ER to the plasma membrane. In a previous study, we generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, 297-D4 and 144-A8, that bound to surface molecules on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, but not to surface molecules on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs. Subsequent studies revealed that the mAbs recognized BAP31 on the surface of hESCs. To investigate the membrane topology of BAP31 on the cell surface, we first examined the epitope specificity of 297-D4 and 144-A8, as well as a polyclonal anti-BAP31 antibody (α-BAP31. We generated a series of GST-fused BAP31 mutant proteins in which BAP31 was serially deleted at the C- terminus. GST-fused BAP31 mutant proteins were then screened to identify the epitopes targeted by the antibodies. Both 297-D4 and 144-A8 recognized C-terminal residues 208-217, while α-BAP31 recognized C-terminal residues 165-246, of BAP31 on hESCs, suggesting that the C-terminal domain of BAP31 is exposed on the cell surface. The polyclonal antibody α-BAP31 bound to mESCs, which confirmed that the C-terminal domain of BAP31 is also exposed on the surface of these cells. Our results show for the first time the novel membrane topology of cell surface-expressed BAP31 as the extracellular exposure of the BAP31 C-terminal domain was not predicted from previous studies.

  11. Epitope Mapping of Antibodies Suggests the Novel Membrane Topology of B-Cell Receptor Associated Protein 31 on the Cell Surface of Embryonic Stem Cells: The Novel Membrane Topology of BAP31. (United States)

    Kim, Won-Tae; Choi, Hong Seo; Hwang, Hyo Jeong; Jung, Han-Sung; Ryu, Chun Jeih


    When located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, B-cell receptor associated protein 31 (BAP31) is involved in the export of secreted proteins from the ER to the plasma membrane. In a previous study, we generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), 297-D4 and 144-A8, that bound to surface molecules on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), but not to surface molecules on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Subsequent studies revealed that the mAbs recognized BAP31 on the surface of hESCs. To investigate the membrane topology of BAP31 on the cell surface, we first examined the epitope specificity of 297-D4 and 144-A8, as well as a polyclonal anti-BAP31 antibody (α-BAP31). We generated a series of GST-fused BAP31 mutant proteins in which BAP31 was serially deleted at the C- terminus. GST-fused BAP31 mutant proteins were then screened to identify the epitopes targeted by the antibodies. Both 297-D4 and 144-A8 recognized C-terminal residues 208-217, while α-BAP31 recognized C-terminal residues 165-246, of BAP31 on hESCs, suggesting that the C-terminal domain of BAP31 is exposed on the cell surface. The polyclonal antibody α-BAP31 bound to mESCs, which confirmed that the C-terminal domain of BAP31 is also exposed on the surface of these cells. Our results show for the first time the novel membrane topology of cell surface-expressed BAP31 as the extracellular exposure of the BAP31 C-terminal domain was not predicted from previous studies.

  12. The presence of INA proteins on the surface of single cells of Pseudomonas syringae R10.79 isolated from rain (United States)

    Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Ling, Meilee; Holm, Stine; Finster, Kai; Boesen, Thomas


    One of the important open questions in atmospheric ice nucleation is the impact of bioaerosols on the ice content of mix phase clouds (DeMott and Prenni 2010). Biogenic ice nuclei have a unique capacity of facilitating ice formation at temperatures between -1 and -10 °C. The model biogenic ice nuclei are produced by a few species of plant-surface bacteria, such as Pseudomonas syringae, that are commonly transported through the atmosphere. These bacterial species have highly specialized proteins, the so-called ice nucleation active (INA) proteins, which are exposed at the outer membrane surface of the cell where they promote ice particle formation. The mechanisms behind the onset of INA protein synthesis in single bacterial cells are not well understood. We performed a laboratory study in order to (i) investigate the presence of INA proteins on single bacterial cells and (ii) understand the conditions that induce INA protein production. We previously isolated an INA-positive strain of Pseudomonas syringae from rain samples collected in Denmark. Bacterial cells initiated ice nucleation activity at temperatures ≤-2°C and the cell fragments at temperatures ≤-8°C (Šantl-Temkiv et al 2015). We determined the amino-acid sequence of the INA protein and used the sequence to produce custom-made antibodies (GenScript, Germany). These antibodies were used to specifically stain and visualize the INA protein on the surfaces of single cells, which can then be quantified by a technique called flow cytometry. The synthesis of INA proteins by individual cells was followed during a batch growth experiment. An unusually high proportion of cells that were adapting to the new conditions prior to growth produced INA proteins (~4.4% of all cells). A smaller fraction of actively growing cells was carrying INA proteins (~1.2 % of all cells). The cells that stopped growing due to unfavorable conditions had the lowest fraction of cells carrying INA proteins (~0.5 % of all cells). To

  13. The Acinetobacter baumannii 19606 OmpA protein plays a role in biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces and in the interaction of this pathogen with eukaryotic cells. (United States)

    Gaddy, Jennifer A; Tomaras, Andrew P; Actis, Luis A


    The ability of Acinetobacter baumannii to adhere to and persist on surfaces as biofilms could be central to its pathogenicity. The production of pili and a biofilm-associated protein and the expression of antibiotic resistance are needed for robust biofilm formation on abiotic and biotic surfaces. This multistep process also depends on the expression of transcriptional regulatory functions, some of which could sense nutrients available to cells. This report extends previous observations by showing that although outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of A. baumannii 19606 plays a partial role in the development of robust biofilms on plastic, it is essential for bacterial attachment to Candida albicans filaments and A549 human alveolar epithelial cells. In contrast to abiotic surfaces, the interaction with biotic surfaces is independent of the CsuA/BABCDE-mediated pili. The interaction of A. baumannii 19606 with fungal and epithelial cells also results in their apoptotic death, a response that depends on the direct contact of bacteria with these two types of eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, the bacterial adhesion phenotype correlates with the ability of bacteria to invade A549 epithelial cells. Interestingly, the killing activity of cell-free culture supernatants proved to be protease and temperature sensitive, suggesting that its cytotoxic activity is due to secreted proteins, some of which are different from OmpA.

  14. Human T-cell recognition of synthetic peptides representing conserved and variant sequences from the merozoite surface protein 2 of Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander, T G; Hviid, L; Dodoo, D


    Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2) is a malaria vaccine candidate currently undergoing clinical trials. We analyzed the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) response to synthetic peptides corresponding to conserved and variant regions of the FCQ-27 allelic form of MSP2 in Ghanaian individuals...

  15. Targeting Neuroblastoma Cell Surface Proteins: Recommendations for Homology Modeling of hNET, ALK, and TrkB (United States)

    Haddad, Yazan; Heger, Zbyněk; Adam, Vojtech


    Targeted therapy is a promising approach for treatment of neuroblastoma as evident from the large number of targeting agents employed in clinical practice today. In the absence of known crystal structures, researchers rely on homology modeling to construct template-based theoretical structures for drug design and testing. Here, we discuss three candidate cell surface proteins that are suitable for homology modeling: human norepinephrine transporter (hNET), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 2 (NTRK2 or TrkB). When choosing templates, both sequence identity and structure quality are important for homology modeling and pose the first of many challenges in the modeling process. Homology modeling of hNET can be improved using template models of dopamine and serotonin transporters instead of the leucine transporter (LeuT). The extracellular domains of ALK and TrkB are yet to be exploited by homology modeling. There are several idiosyncrasies that require direct attention throughout the process of model construction, evaluation and refinement. Shifts/gaps in the alignment between the template and target, backbone outliers and side-chain rotamer outliers are among the main sources of physical errors in the structures. Low-conserved regions can be refined with loop modeling method. Residue hydrophobicity, accessibility to bound metals or glycosylation can aid in model refinement. We recommend resolving these idiosyncrasies as part of “good modeling practice” to obtain highest quality model. Decreasing physical errors in protein structures plays major role in the development of targeting agents and understanding of chemical interactions at the molecular level. PMID:28163672

  16. Immobilization of cross linked Col-I–OPN bone matrix protein on aminolysed PCL surfaces enhances initial biocompatibility of human adipogenic mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Hee; Jyoti, Md. Anirban; Song, Ho-Yeon, E-mail:


    In bone tissue engineering surface modification is considered as one of the important ways of fabricating successful biocompatible material. Addition of biologically active functionality on the surfaces has been tried for improving the overall biocompatibility of the system. In this study poly-ε-caprolactone film surfaces have been modified through aminolysis and immobilization process. Collagen type I (COL-I) and osteopontin (OPN), which play an important role in osteogenesis, was immobilized onto PCL films followed by aminolysis treatment using 1,6-hexanediamine. Characterization of animolysed and immobilized surfaces were done by a number techniques using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR, XPS, ninhydrin staining, SDS-PAGE and confocal microscopy and compared between the modified and un-modified surfaces. Results of the successive experiments showed that aminolysis treatment was homogeneously achieved which helped to entrap or immobilize Col-I–OPN proteins on surfaces of PCL film. In vitro studies with human adipogenic mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSC) also confirmed the attachment and proliferation of cells was better in modified PCL surfaces than the unmodified surfaces. SEM, confocal microscopy and MTT assay showed a significant increase in cell spreading, attachment and proliferations on the biofunctionalized surfaces compared to the unmodified PCL surfaces at all-time points indicating the success of surface biofunctionalization.

  17. Enterococcal surface protein Esp is not essential for cell adhesion and intestinal colonization of Enterococcus faecium in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikens, E.; Leendertse, M.; Wijnands, L.M.; van Luit-Asbroek, M.; Bonten, M.J.M.; van der Poll, T.; Willems, R.J.L.


    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecium has globally emerged as a cause of hospital-acquired infections with high colonization rates in hospitalized patients. The enterococcal surface protein Esp, identified as a potential virulence factor, is specifically linked to nosocomial clonal lineages tha


    Synthetic phytochelatins (ECs) composed of (Glu–Cys)nGly are protein analogs of phytochelatin that exhibit improved metal-binding capacity over metallothioneins (MTs). Expression of EC20 on the surface of E. coli using the Lpp-OmpA anchor resulted in i...

  19. [The Role of Membrane-Bound Heat Shock Proteins Hsp90 in Migration of Tumor Cells in vitro and Involvement of Cell Surface Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans in Protein Binding to Plasma Membrane]. (United States)

    Snigireva, A V; Vrublevskaya, V V; Skarga, Y Y; Morenkov, O S


    Heat shock protein Hsp90, detected in the extracellular space and on the membrane of cells, plays an important role in cell motility, migration, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. At present, the functional role and molecular mechanisms of Hsp90 binding to plasma membrane are not elucidated. Using isoform-specific antibodies against Hsp90, Hsp9α and Hsp90β, we showed that membrane-bound Hsp90α and Hsp90β play a significant role in migration of human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) and glioblastoma (A-172) cells in vitro. Disorders of sulfonation of cell heparan sulfates, cleavage of cell heparan. sulfates by heparinase I/III as well as treatment of cells with heparin lead to an abrupt reduction in the expression level of Hsp90 isoforms. Furthermore, heparin significantly inhibits tumor cell migration. The results obtained demonstrate that two isoforms of membrane-bound Hsp90 are involved in migration of tumor cells in vitro and that cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans play a pivotal role in the "anchoring" of Hsp90α and Hsp90β to the plasma membrane.

  20. Apoplastic venom allergen-like proteins of cyst nematodes modulate the activation of basal plant innate immunity by cell surface receptors. (United States)

    Lozano-Torres, Jose L; Wilbers, Ruud H P; Warmerdam, Sonja; Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Diaz-Granados, Amalia; van Schaik, Casper C; Helder, Johannes; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska; Schots, Arjen; Smant, Geert


    Despite causing considerable damage to host tissue during the onset of parasitism, nematodes establish remarkably persistent infections in both animals and plants. It is thought that an elaborate repertoire of effector proteins in nematode secretions suppresses damage-triggered immune responses of the host. However, the nature and mode of action of most immunomodulatory compounds in nematode secretions are not well understood. Here, we show that venom allergen-like proteins of plant-parasitic nematodes selectively suppress host immunity mediated by surface-localized immune receptors. Venom allergen-like proteins are uniquely conserved in secretions of all animal- and plant-parasitic nematodes studied to date, but their role during the onset of parasitism has thus far remained elusive. Knocking-down the expression of the venom allergen-like protein Gr-VAP1 severely hampered the infectivity of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. By contrast, heterologous expression of Gr-VAP1 and two other venom allergen-like proteins from the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in plants resulted in the loss of basal immunity to multiple unrelated pathogens. The modulation of basal immunity by ectopic venom allergen-like proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana involved extracellular protease-based host defenses and non-photochemical quenching in chloroplasts. Non-photochemical quenching regulates the initiation of the defense-related programmed cell death, the onset of which was commonly suppressed by venom allergen-like proteins from G. rostochiensis, H. schachtii, and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Surprisingly, these venom allergen-like proteins only affected the programmed cell death mediated by surface-localized immune receptors. Furthermore, the delivery of venom allergen-like proteins into host tissue coincides with the enzymatic breakdown of plant cell walls by migratory nematodes. We, therefore, conclude that parasitic nematodes most likely utilize

  1. Lactobacillus plantarum gene clusters encoding putative cell-surface protein complexes for carbohydrate utilization are conserved in specific gram-positive bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muscariello Lidia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomes of gram-positive bacteria encode many putative cell-surface proteins, of which the majority has no known function. From the rapidly increasing number of available genome sequences it has become apparent that many cell-surface proteins are conserved, and frequently encoded in gene clusters or operons, suggesting common functions, and interactions of multiple components. Results A novel gene cluster encoding exclusively cell-surface proteins was identified, which is conserved in a subgroup of gram-positive bacteria. Each gene cluster generally has one copy of four new gene families called cscA, cscB, cscC and cscD. Clusters encoding these cell-surface proteins were found only in complete genomes of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei, Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis and Bacillus cereus and in incomplete genomes of L. lactis ssp cremoris, Lactobacillus casei, Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillius brevis, Oenococcus oeni, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Bacillus thuringiensis. These genes are neither present in the genomes of streptococci, staphylococci and clostridia, nor in the Lactobacillus acidophilus group, suggesting a niche-specific distribution, possibly relating to association with plants. All encoded proteins have a signal peptide for secretion by the Sec-dependent pathway, while some have cell-surface anchors, novel WxL domains, and putative domains for sugar binding and degradation. Transcriptome analysis in L. plantarum shows that the cscA-D genes are co-expressed, supporting their operon organization. Many gene clusters are significantly up-regulated in a glucose-grown, ccpA-mutant derivative of L. plantarum, suggesting catabolite control. This is supported by the presence of predicted CRE-sites upstream or inside the up-regulated cscA-D gene clusters. Conclusion We propose that the CscA, CscB, CscC and Csc

  2. The amino-terminal region of the neuraminidase protein from avian H5N1 influenza virus is important for its biosynthetic transport to the host cell surface. (United States)

    Qian, Guomin; Wang, Song; Chi, Xiaojuan; Li, Hua; Wei, Haitao; Zhu, Xiaomei; Chen, Yuhai; Chen, Ji-Long


    Influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) is a major viral envelope glycoprotein, which plays a critical role in viral infection. Although NA functional domains have been determined previously, the precise role of the amino acids located at the N-terminus of avian H5N1 NA for protein expression and intracellular transport to the host plasma membrane is not fully understood. In the present study, a series of N-terminal truncation or deletion mutants of H5N1 NA were generated and their expression and intracellular trafficking were investigated. Protein expression from mutants NAΔ20, NAΔ35, NAΔ40, NAΔ7-20 and NAΔ7-35 was undetectable by immunoblotting and by performing NA activity assays. Mutants NAΔ6, NAΔ11 and NAΔ15-20 showed a marked decreased in protein expression, whereas mutants NAΔ7-15 and NAΔ15 displayed a slight increase in protein expression, compared with that of the native NA protein. These data suggest that amino acid residues 16-20 are vital for NA protein expression, while amino acids 7-15 might suppress NA protein expression. In deletion mutants NAΔ7-15 and NAΔ15 there was an accumulation of NA protein at the juxta-nuclear region, with reduced expression of NA at the cell surface. Although active Cdc42 could promote transport of wild-type NA to the host cell surface, this member of the Rho family of GTPases failed to regulate transport of mutants NAΔ7-15 and NAΔ15. The results of the study reveal that amino acid residues 7-15 of H5N1 NA are critical for its biosynthetic transport to the host cell surface.

  3. Nanoscale organization of {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor-Venus fusion protein domains on the surface of mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vobornik, Dusan; Rouleau, Yanouchka; Haley, Jennifer [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada); Bani-Yaghoub, Mahmud [Institute for Biological Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada); Taylor, Rod [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada); Johnston, Linda J., E-mail: [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada); Pezacki, John Paul, E-mail: [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada)


    Adrenergic receptors are a key component of nanoscale multiprotein complexes that are responsible for controlling the beat rate in a mammalian heart. We demonstrate the ability of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) to visualize {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors ({beta}{sub 2}AR) fused to the GFP analogue Venus at the nanoscale on HEK293 cells. The expression of the {beta}{sub 2}AR-Venus fusion protein was tightly controlled using a tetracycline-induced promoter. Both the size and density of the observed nanoscale domains are dependent on the level of induction and thus the level of protein expression. At concentrations between 100 and 700 ng/ml of inducer doxycycline, the size of domains containing the {beta}{sub 2}AR-Venus fusion protein appears to remain roughly constant, but the number of domains per cell increase. At 700 ng/ml doxycycline the functional receptors are organized into domains with an average diameter of 150 nm with a density similar to that observed for the native protein on primary murine cells. By contrast, larger micron-sized domains of {beta}{sub 2}AR are observed in the membrane of the HEK293 cells that stably overexpress {beta}{sub 2}AR-GFP and {beta}{sub 2}AR-eYFP. We conclude that precise chemical control of gene expression is highly advantageous for the use {beta}{sub 2}AR-Venus fusion proteins as models for {beta}{sub 2}AR function. These observations are critical for designing future cell models and assays based on {beta}{sub 2}AR, since the receptor biology is consistent with a relatively low density of nanoscale receptor domains.

  4. Detailed topology mapping reveals substantial exposure of the "cytoplasmic" C-terminal tail (CTT sequences in HIV-1 Env proteins at the cell surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Steckbeck

    Full Text Available Substantial controversy surrounds the membrane topology of the HIV-1 gp41 C-terminal tail (CTT. While few studies have been designed to directly address the topology of the CTT, results from envelope (Env protein trafficking studies suggest that the CTT sequence is cytoplasmically localized, as interactions with intracellular binding partners are required for proper Env targeting. However, previous studies from our lab demonstrate the exposure of a short CTT sequence, the Kennedy epitope, at the plasma membrane of intact Env-expressing cells, the exposure of which is not observed on viral particles. To address the topology of the entire CTT sequence, we serially replaced CTT sequences with a VSV-G epitope tag sequence and examined reactivity of cell- and virion-surface Env to an anti-VSV-G monoclonal antibody. Our results demonstrate that the majority of the CTT sequence is accessible to antibody binding on the surface of Env expressing cells, and that the CTT-exposed Env constitutes 20-50% of the cell-surface Env. Cell surface CTT exposure was also apparent in virus-infected cells. Passive transfer of Env through cell culture media to Env negative (non-transfected cells was not responsible for the apparent cell surface CTT exposure. In contrast to the cell surface results, CTT-exposed Env was not detected on infectious pseudoviral particles containing VSV-G-substituted Env. Finally, a monoclonal antibody directed to the Kennedy epitope neutralized virus in a temperature-dependent manner in a post-attachment neutralization assay. Collectively, these results suggest that the membrane topology of the HIV gp41 CTT is more complex than the widely accepted intracytoplasmic model.

  5. The interaction of proteins and cells with affinity ligands covalently coupled to silicon surfaces as monitored by ellipsometry. (United States)

    Mandenius, C F; Welin, S; Danielsson, B; Lundström, I; Mosbach, K


    Two methods for the chemical binding of biomolecules to silicon surfaces are described. The first method utilizes an alkyl silane and a nucleophilic reagent to join the biomolecule to the silicon surface; the second method involves crosslinking with glutaraldehyde in order to couple the biomolecule and albumin molecules, which have first been physically adsorbed. The course of binding to the silicon surface has been followed with the aid of ellipsometry. This optical measuring technique estimates the thicknesses of, e.g., organic layers, by measuring the polarization properties of a light beam before and after reflection at surfaces. The method by which the binding of a biomolecule to its corresponding affinity ligand on silicon wafers can be followed with this technique is reported. The systems studied are concanavalin A-Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, immunoglobulin G-Staphylococcus aureus cells, and an NAD-analog-lactate dehydrogenase. With ellipsometry it was possible to assess how the incubation time and the concentration of the cells and the biomolecules added influenced the results. It was found that an increasing time of incubation and higher concentration resulted in a more complete coverage of the silicon wafer surfaces.

  6. Identification of protein phosphatase interacting proteins from normal and UVA-irradiated HaCaT cell lysates by surface plasmon resonance based binding technique using biotin-microcystin-LR as phosphatase capturing molecule. (United States)

    Bécsi, Bálint; Dedinszki, Dóra; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Máthé, Csaba; Vasas, Gábor; Lontay, Beáta; Erdődi, Ferenc


    Identification of the interacting proteins of protein phosphatases is crucial to understand the cellular roles of these enzymes. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), -2A (PP2A), PP4, PP5 and PP6, was biotinylated, immobilized to streptavidin-coupled sensorchip surface and used in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based binding experiments to isolate phosphatase binding proteins. Biotin-MC-LR captured PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1c) stably and the biotin-MC-LR-PP1c complex was able to further interact with the regulatory subunit (MYPT1) of myosin phosphatase. Increased biotin-MC-LR coated sensorchip surface in the Surface Prep unit of Biacore 3000 captured PP1c, PP2Ac and their regulatory proteins including MYPT1, MYPT family TIMAP, inhibitor-2 as well as PP2A-A and -Bα-subunits from normal and UVA-irradiated HaCaT cell lysates as revealed by dot blot analysis of the recovered proteins. Biotin-MC-LR was used for the subcellular localization of protein phosphatases in HaCaT cells by identification of phosphatase-bound biotin-MC-LR with fluorescent streptavidin conjugates. Partial colocalization of the biotin-MC-LR signals with those obtained using anti-PP1c and anti-PP2Ac antibodies was apparent as judged by confocal microscopy. Our results imply that biotin-MC-LR is a suitable capture molecule in SPR for isolation of protein phosphatase interacting proteins from cell lysates in sufficient amounts for immunological detection.

  7. Cell-surface remodelling during mammalian erythropoiesis. (United States)

    Wraith, D C; Chesterton, C J


    Current evidence suggests that the major cell-surface modification occurring during mammalian erythropoiesis could be generated by two separate mechanisms: either selective loss of membrane proteins during enucleation or endocytosis at the subsequent reticulocyte and erythrocyte stages. The former idea was tested by collecting developing rabbit erythroid cells before and after the enucleation step and comparing their cell-surface protein composition via radiolabelling and electrophoresis. Few changes were observed. Our data thus lend support to the endocytosis mechanism.

  8. Expression of the IL-7 receptor alpha-chain is down regulated on the surface of CD4 T-cells by the HIV-1 Tat protein.

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    Denny McLaughlin

    Full Text Available HIV infection elicits defects in CD4 T-cell homeostasis in both a quantitative and qualitative manner. Interleukin-7 (IL-7 is essential to T-cell homeostasis and several groups have shown reduced levels of the IL-7 receptor alpha-chain (CD127 on both CD4 and CD8 T-cells in viremic HIV+ patients. We have shown previously that soluble HIV Tat protein specifically down regulates cell surface expression of CD127 on human CD8 T-cells in a paracrine fashion. The effects of Tat on CD127 expression in CD4 T-cells has yet to be described. To explore this effect, CD4 T-cells were isolated from healthy individuals and expression levels of CD127 were examined on cells incubated in media alone or treated with Tat protein. We show here that, similar to CD8 T-cells, the HIV-1 Tat protein specifically down regulates CD127 on primary human CD4 T-cells and directs the receptor to the proteasome for degradation. Down regulation of CD127 in response to Tat was seen on both memory and naive CD4 T-cell subsets and was blocked using either heparin or anti-Tat antibodies. Tat did not induce apoptosis in cultured primary CD4 T-cells over 72 hours as determined by Annexin V and PI staining. Pre-incubation of CD4 T-cells with HIV-1 Tat protein did however reduce the ability of IL-7 to up regulate Bcl-2 expression. Similar to exogenous Tat, endogenously expressed HIV Tat protein also suppressed CD127 expression on primary CD4 T-cells. In view of the important role IL-7 plays in lymphocyte proliferation, homeostasis and survival, down regulation of CD127 by Tat likely plays a central role in immune dysregulation and CD4 T-cell decline. Understanding this effect could lead to new approaches to mitigate the CD4 T-cell loss evident in HIV infection.

  9. A 38-kilobase pathogenicity island specific for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis encodes cell surface proteins expressed in the host. (United States)

    Stratmann, Janin; Strommenger, Birgit; Goethe, Ralph; Dohmann, Karen; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Stevenson, Karen; Li, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Qing; Kapur, Vivek; Bull, Tim J


    We have used representational difference analysis to identify a novel Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific ABC transporter operon (mpt), which comprises six open reading frames designated mptA to -F and is immediately preceded by two putative Fur boxes. Functional genomics revealed that the mpt operon is flanked on one end by a fep cluster encoding proteins involved in the uptake of Fe(3+) and on the other end by a sid cluster encoding non-ribosome-dependent heterocyclic siderophore synthases. Together these genes form a 38-kb M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific locus flanked by an insertion sequence similar to IS1110. Expression studies using Western blot analyses showed that MptC is present in the envelope fraction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The MptD protein was shown to be surface exposed, using a specific phage (fMptD) isolated from a phage-peptide library, by differential screening of Mycobacterium smegmatis transformants. The phage fMptD-derived peptide could be used in a peptide-mediated capture PCR with milk from infected dairy herds, thereby showing surface-exposed expression of the MptD protein in the host. Together, these data suggest that the 38-kb locus constitutes an M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis pathogenicity island.

  10. Construction of a novel cell-surface display system for heterologous gene expression in Escherichia coli by using an outer membrane protein of Zymomonas mobilis as anchor motif. (United States)

    He, Ming-Xiong; Feng, Hong; Zhang, Yi-Zheng


    A novel bacterial cell-surface display system was developed in Escherichia coli using omp1, a hypothetical outer membrane protein of Zymomonas mobilis. By using this system, we successfully expressed beta-amylase gene of sweet potato in E. coli. The display of enzyme on the membrane surface was also confirmed. The recombinant beta-amylase showed to significantly increase hydrolytic activity toward soluble starch. Our results provide a basis for constructing an engineered Z. mobilis strain directly fermenting raw starch to produce ethanol.

  11. Identification of surface proteins in Enterococcus faecalis V583

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    Eijsink Vincent GH


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surface proteins are a key to a deeper understanding of the behaviour of Gram-positive bacteria interacting with the human gastro-intestinal tract. Such proteins contribute to cell wall synthesis and maintenance and are important for interactions between the bacterial cell and the human host. Since they are exposed and may play roles in pathogenicity, surface proteins are interesting targets for drug design. Results Using methods based on proteolytic "shaving" of bacterial cells and subsequent mass spectrometry-based protein identification, we have identified surface-located proteins in Enterococcus faecalis V583. In total 69 unique proteins were identified, few of which have been identified and characterized previously. 33 of these proteins are predicted to be cytoplasmic, whereas the other 36 are predicted to have surface locations (31 or to be secreted (5. Lipid-anchored proteins were the most dominant among the identified surface proteins. The seemingly most abundant surface proteins included a membrane protein with a potentially shedded extracellular sulfatase domain that could act on the sulfate groups in mucin and a lipid-anchored fumarate reductase that could contribute to generation of reactive oxygen species. Conclusions The present proteome analysis gives an experimental impression of the protein landscape on the cell surface of the pathogenic bacterium E. faecalis. The 36 identified secreted (5 and surface (31 proteins included several proteins involved in cell wall synthesis, pheromone-regulated processes, and transport of solutes, as well as proteins with unknown function. These proteins stand out as interesting targets for further investigation of the interaction between E. faecalis and its environment.

  12. Controlled surface chemistries and quantitative cell response (United States)

    Plant, Anne L.


    Living cells experience a large number of signaling cues from their extracellular matrix. As a result of these inputs, a variety of intracellular signaling pathways are apparently initiated simultaneously. The vast array of alternative responses that result from the integration of these inputs suggests that it may be reasonable to look for cellular response not as an 'on' or 'off' condition but as a distribution of responses. A difficult challenge is to determine whether variations in responses from individual cells arise from the complexity of intracellular signals or are due to variations in the cell culture environment. By controlling surface chemistry so that every cell 'sees' the same chemical and physical environment, we can begin to assess how the distribution of cell response is affected strictly by changes in the chemistry of the cell culture surface. Using the gene for green fluorescent protein linked to the gene for the promoter of the extracellular matrix protein, tenascin, we can easily probe the end product in a signaling pathway that is purported to be linked to surface protein chemistry and to cell shape. Cell response to well-controlled, well-characterized, and highly reproducible surfaces prepared using soft lithography techniques are compared with more conventional ways of preparing extracellular matrix proteins for cell culture. Using fluorescence microscopy and image analysis of populations of cells on these surfaces, we probe quantitatively the relationship between surface chemistry, cell shape and variations in gene expression endpoint.

  13. Generation of human scFvs antibodies recognizing a prion protein epitope expressed on the surface of human lymphoblastoid cells

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    Imperiale Valentina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A hallmark of prion disease is the transformation of normal cellular prion protein (PrPc into an infectious disease-associated isoform, (PrPsc. Anti-prion protein monoclonal antibodies are invaluable for structure-function studies of PrP molecules. Furthermore recent in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that anti-PrP monoclonal antibodies can prevent the incorporation of PrPc into propagating prions. In the present article, we show two new human phage antibodies, isolated on recombinant hamster prion protein (rHaPrP. Results We adopted an antibody phage display strategy to isolate specific human antibodies directed towards rHaPrP which has been used as a bait for panning the synthetic ETH-2 antibody phage library. Two phage antibodies clones named MA3.B4 and MA3.G3 were isolated and characterized under genetic biochemical and immunocytochemical aspects. The clones were found to recognize the prion protein in ELISA studies. In flow-cytometry studies, these human single chain Fragment variable (scFv phage-antibodies show a well defined pattern of reactivity on human lymphoblastoid and myeloid cells. Conclusion Sequence analysis of the gene encoding for the antibody fragments and antigen recognition patterns determined by flow-cytometry analysis indicate that the isolated scFvs recognize novel epitopes in the PrPc molecule. These new anti PrPc human antibodies are unique reagents for prion protein detection and may represent a biologic platform to develop new reagents to treat PrPsc associated disease.

  14. Dynamic Morphological Changes Induced By GM1 and Protein Interactions on the Surface of Cell-Sized Liposomes

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    Masahiro Takagi


    Full Text Available It is important to understand the physicochemical mechanisms that are responsible for the morphological changes in the cell membrane in the presence of various stimuli such as osmotic pressure. Lipid rafts are believed to play a crucial role in various cellular processes. It is well established that Ctb (Cholera toxin B subunit recognizes and binds to GM1 (monosialotetrahexosylganglioside on the cell surface with high specificity and affinity. Taking advantage of Ctb-GM1 interaction, we examined how Ctb and GM1 molecules affect the dynamic movement of liposomes. GM1 a natural ligand for cholera toxin, was incorporated into liposome and the interaction between fluorescent Ctb and the liposome was analyzed. The interaction plays an important role in determining the various surface interaction phenomena. Incorporation of GM1 into membrane leads to an increase of the line tension leading to either rupture of liposome membrane or change in the morphology of the membrane. This change in morphology was found to be GM1 concentration specific. The interaction between Ctb-GM1 leads to fast and easy rupture or to morphological changes of the liposome. The interactions of Ctb and the glycosyl chain are believed to affect the surface and the curvature of the membrane. Thus, the results are highly beneficial in the study of signal transduction processes.

  15. The lipid transfer proteins (LTP) essentially concentrate in the skin of Rosaceae fruits as cell surface exposed allergens. (United States)

    Borges, J-P; Jauneau, A; Brulé, C; Culerrier, R; Barre, A; Didier, A; Rougé, P


    The localization and distribution of non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTP) allergens in the skin and pulp of Rosaceae fruits (apple, peach, apricot, plum) has been investigated. nsLTP essentially concentrate in the pericarp of the fruits whereas the pulp contains lower amounts of allergens. Immunolocalization showed they are primarily located in the cytosol but are subsequently excreted and finally accumulate at the plasmalemma-cell wall interface and in the cell wall. However, high discrepancies were observed in the content of allergens among, e.g. different cultivars of apple. As a consequence, the consumption of peeled-off fruits is recommended to reduce the risk of severe allergic reactions (anaphylactic shock) in individuals sensitized to Rosaceae fruits.

  16. Presence of antibodies against a cell-surface protein, cross-reactive with DNA, in systemic lupus erythrematosus: a marker of the disease

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    Jacob, L.; Lety, M.A.; Choquette, D.; Viard, J.P.; Jacob, F.; Louvard, D.; Bach, J.F.


    Antibodies against a cell-surface protein, cross-reactive with double-stranded DNA, were detected in the serum of 25 patients with active human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), defined on the basis of the revised American Rheumatism Association classification. Among these sera, two did not display anti-DNA antibodies, as shown by Farr assay, solid-phase radioimmunoassay, and Crithidia luciliae test. Five other SLE patients were consecutively studied in active and remission states. Antibodies against the protein were detected in the serum of the 5 SLE patients when they were in active phase but not in the serum of the same patients in inactive phase of the disease. The anti-protein antibodies were not found in the serum of 10 inactive SLE patients or in the sera of 10 normal human controls, 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 5 patients with scleroderma, and 4 patients with primary sicca syndrome. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that antibodies against this cell-surface protein could provide a better diagnosis marker and activity index than anti-DNA antibodies in SLE.

  17. The cell surface of Trypanosoma cruzi

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    Wanderley de Souza


    Full Text Available The cell surface of trypanosomatids is formed by the plasma membrane and a layer of sub-pellicular microtubules which are connected to the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane is composed by proteins, lipids and carbohydrates which form the glycocalix. In this paper we will review briefly aspects related to the organization of the cell surface of Trypanosoma cruzi.

  18. Native immunogold labeling of cell surface proteins and viral glycoproteins for cryo-electron microscopy and cryo-electron tomography applications. (United States)

    Yi, Hong; Strauss, Joshua D; Ke, Zunlong; Alonas, Eric; Dillard, Rebecca S; Hampton, Cheri M; Lamb, Kristen M; Hammonds, Jason E; Santangelo, Philip J; Spearman, Paul W; Wright, Elizabeth R


    Numerous methods have been developed for immunogold labeling of thick, cryo-preserved biological specimens. However, most of the methods are permutations of chemical fixation and sample sectioning, which select and isolate the immunolabeled region of interest. We describe a method for combining immunogold labeling with cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) of the surface proteins of intact mammalian cells or the surface glycoproteins of assembling and budding viruses in the context of virus-infected mammalian cells cultured on EM grids. In this method, the cells were maintained in culture media at physiologically relevant temperatures while sequentially incubated with the primary and secondary antibodies. Subsequently, the immunogold-labeled specimens were vitrified and observed under cryo-conditions in the transmission electron microscope. Cryo-EM and cryo-ET examination of the immunogold-labeled cells revealed the association of immunogold particles with the target antigens. Additionally, the cellular structure was unaltered by pre-immunolabeling chemical fixation and retained well-preserved plasma membranes, cytoskeletal elements, and macromolecular complexes. We think this technique will be of interest to cell biologists for cryo-EM and conventional studies of native cells and pathogen-infected cells.

  19. Biophysically inspired model for functionalized nanocarrier adhesion to cell surface: roles of protein expression and mechanical factors (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, N.; Tourdot, Richard W.; Eckmann, David M.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi


    In order to achieve selective targeting of affinity-ligand coated nanoparticles to the target tissue, it is essential to understand the key mechanisms that govern their capture by the target cell. Next-generation pharmacokinetic (PK) models that systematically account for proteomic and mechanical factors can accelerate the design, validation and translation of targeted nanocarriers (NCs) in the clinic. Towards this objective, we have developed a computational model to delineate the roles played by target protein expression and mechanical factors of the target cell membrane in determining the avidity of functionalized NCs to live cells. Model results show quantitative agreement with in vivo experiments when specific and non-specific contributions to NC binding are taken into account. The specific contributions are accounted for through extensive simulations of multivalent receptor-ligand interactions, membrane mechanics and entropic factors such as membrane undulations and receptor translation. The computed NC avidity is strongly dependent on ligand density, receptor expression, bending mechanics of the target cell membrane, as well as entropic factors associated with the membrane and the receptor motion. Our computational model can predict the in vivo targeting levels of the intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1)-coated NCs targeted to the lung, heart, kidney, liver and spleen of mouse, when the contributions due to endothelial capture are accounted for. The effect of other cells (such as monocytes, etc.) do not improve the model predictions at steady state. We demonstrate the predictive utility of our model by predicting partitioning coefficients of functionalized NCs in mice and human tissues and report the statistical accuracy of our model predictions under different scenarios.

  20. Functions of proteoglycans at the cell surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höök, M; Woods, A; Johansson, S;


    Proteoglycans (primarily heparan sulphate proteoglycans) are found at the surface of most adherent eukaryotic cells. Earlier studies suggest that these molecules can be associated with the cell surface principally by two different mechanisms. Proteoglycans may occur as membrane......-intercalated glycoproteins, where the core protein of the proteoglycan is anchored in the lipid interior of the plasma membrane, or they may be bound via the polysaccharide components of the molecule to specific anchoring proteins present at the cell surface. A number of functions have been proposed for cell surface......-associated proteoglycans, including: regulation of cell-substrate adhesion; regulation of cell proliferation; participation in the binding and uptake of extracellular components; and participation in the regulation of extracellular matrix formation. Evidence is discussed suggesting that the cell-associated heparan...

  1. The cell surface proteome of Entamoeba histolytica. (United States)

    Biller, Laura; Matthiesen, Jenny; Kühne, Vera; Lotter, Hannelore; Handal, Ghassan; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Saito-Nakano, Yumiko; Schümann, Michael; Roeder, Thomas; Tannich, Egbert; Krause, Eberhard; Bruchhaus, Iris


    Surface molecules are of major importance for host-parasite interactions. During Entamoeba histolytica infections, these interactions are predicted to be of prime importance for tissue invasion, induction of colitis and liver abscess formation. To date, however, little is known about the molecules involved in these processes, with only about 20 proteins or protein families found exposed on the E. histolytica surface. We have therefore analyzed the complete surface proteome of E. histolytica. Using cell surface biotinylation and mass spectrometry, 693 putative surface-associated proteins were identified. In silico analysis predicted that ∼26% of these proteins are membrane-associated, as they contain transmembrane domains and/or signal sequences, as well as sites of palmitoylation, myristoylation, or prenylation. An additional 25% of the identified proteins likely represent nonclassical secreted proteins. Surprisingly, no membrane-association sites could be predicted for the remaining 49% of the identified proteins. To verify surface localization, 23 proteins were randomly selected and analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Of these 23 proteins, 20 (87%) showed definite surface localization. These findings indicate that a far greater number of E. histolytica proteins than previously supposed are surface-associated, a phenomenon that may be based on the high membrane turnover of E. histolytica.

  2. Surface-layer (S-layer) proteins sap and EA1 govern the binding of the S-layer-associated protein BslO at the cell septa of Bacillus anthracis. (United States)

    Kern, Valerie J; Kern, Justin W; Theriot, Julie A; Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique


    The Gram-positive pathogen Bacillus anthracis contains 24 genes whose products harbor the structurally conserved surface-layer (S-layer) homology (SLH) domain. Proteins endowed with the SLH domain associate with the secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP) following secretion. Two such proteins, Sap and EA1, have the unique ability to self-assemble into a paracrystalline layer on the surface of bacilli and form S layers. Other SLH domain proteins can also be found within the S layer and have been designated Bacillus S-layer-associated protein (BSLs). While both S-layer proteins and BSLs bind the same SCWP, their deposition on the cell surface is not random. For example, BslO is targeted to septal peptidoglycan zones, where it catalyzes the separation of daughter cells. Here we show that an insertional lesion in the sap structural gene results in elongated chains of bacilli, as observed with a bslO mutant. The chain length of the sap mutant can be reduced by the addition of purified BslO in the culture medium. This complementation in trans can be explained by an increased deposition of BslO onto the surface of sap mutant bacilli that extends beyond chain septa. Using fluorescence microscopy, we observed that the Sap S layer does not overlap the EA1 S layer and slowly yields to the EA1 S layer in a growth-phase-dependent manner. Although present all over bacilli, Sap S-layer patches are not observed at septa. Thus, we propose that the dynamic Sap/EA1 S-layer coverage of the envelope restricts the deposition of BslO to the SCWP at septal rings.

  3. Generation, modulation and maintenance of the plasma membrane asymmetric phospholipid composition in yeast cells during growth: their relation to surface potential and membrane protein activity. (United States)

    Cerbón, J; Calderón, V


    During growth a cyclic exposure of anionic phospholipids to the external surface of the plasma membrane was found. The surface charge density (sigma) increased gradually reaching a maximum in the first 5 h of growth and returned gradually to their initial value at the end of the logarithmic phase of growth (10-12 h). Phosphatidylinositol, that determines to a large extent the magnitude of the sigma, increased 83% in the yeast cells during the first 4 h of growth and returned gradually to their initial level at 10-12 h. During the stationary phase (12-24 h), both sigma and the anionic/zwitterionic phospholipid ratio, remained without any significant variation. The high-affinity H-linked glutamate transport system that behaves as a sensor of the changes in the membrane surface potential (phi) increased its activity in the first 5 h and then decreased it, following with great accuracy the sigma variations and remained without changes during the stationary phase of growth. The phosphatidylserine (PS) relative concentration in the cells (9.0%) did not significantly change during the whole growth curve, but their asymmetric distribution varied, contributing to the changes in sigma. PS facing the outer membrane surface increased 2.45-times during the first 5 h of growth and then returned to their original value at the end of the log phase (12 h). Phosphatidylcholine (PC) remained constant during the whole growth curve (50%), while phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) decreased 3-fold in the first 4 h and then increased to its original value at 10 h. Interestingly, PE at the outer membrane surface remained constant (3% of the total phospholipids) during the whole growth curve. During growth yeast cells change their phospholipid composition originating altered patterns of the plasma membrane phospholipid composition and IN-OUT distribution. This dynamic asymmetry is involved in the regulation of the surface potential and membrane protein activity.

  4. Allelic diversity of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 entails variant-specific red cell surface epitopes.

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    Inès Vigan-Womas

    Full Text Available The clonally variant Plasmodium falciparum PfEMP1 adhesin is a virulence factor and a prime target of humoral immunity. It is encoded by a repertoire of functionally differentiated var genes, which display architectural diversity and allelic polymorphism. Their serological relationship is key to understanding the evolutionary constraints on this gene family and rational vaccine design. Here, we investigated the Palo Alto/VarO and IT4/R29 and 3D7/PF13_003 parasites lines. VarO and R29 form rosettes with uninfected erythrocytes, a phenotype associated with severe malaria. They express an allelic Cys2/group A NTS-DBL1α(1 PfEMP1 domain implicated in rosetting, whose 3D7 ortholog is encoded by PF13_0003. Using these three recombinant NTS-DBL1α(1 domains, we elicited antibodies in mice that were used to develop monovariant cultures by panning selection. The 3D7/PF13_0003 parasites formed rosettes, revealing a correlation between sequence identity and virulence phenotype. The antibodies cross-reacted with the allelic domains in ELISA but only minimally with the Cys4/group B/C PFL1955w NTS-DBL1α. By contrast, they were variant-specific in surface seroreactivity of the monovariant-infected red cells by FACS analysis and in rosette-disruption assays. Thus, while ELISA can differentiate serogroups, surface reactivity assays define the more restrictive serotypes. Irrespective of cumulated exposure to infection, antibodies acquired by humans living in a malaria-endemic area also displayed a variant-specific surface reactivity. Although seroprevalence exceeded 90% for each rosetting line, the kinetics of acquisition of surface-reactive antibodies differed in the younger age groups. These data indicate that humans acquire an antibody repertoire to non-overlapping serotypes within a serogroup, consistent with an antibody-driven diversification pressure at the population level. In addition, the data provide important information for vaccine design, as

  5. Decorating microbes : surface display of proteins on Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bloois, Edwin; Winter, Remko T.; Kolmar, Harald; Fraaije, Marco W.


    Bacterial surface display entails the presentation of recombinant proteins or peptides on the surface of bacterial cells. Escherichia coil is the most frequently used bacterial host for surface display and, as such, a variety of E. coil display systems have been described that primarily promote the

  6. Genetic Variations in the Human G Protein-coupled Receptor Class C, Group 6, Member A (GPRC6A) Control Cell Surface Expression and Function. (United States)

    Jørgensen, Stine; Have, Christian Theil; Underwood, Christina Rye; Johansen, Lars Dan; Wellendorph, Petrine; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Jørgensen, Christinna V; Quan, Shi; Rui, Gao; Inoue, Asuka; Linneberg, Allan; Grarup, Niels; Jun, Wang; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans


    GPRC6A is a G protein-coupled receptor activated by l-amino acids, which, based on analyses of knock-out mice, has been suggested to have physiological functions in metabolism and testicular function. The human ortholog is, however, mostly retained intracellularly in contrast to the cell surface-expressed murine and goldfish orthologs. The latter orthologs are Gq-coupled and lead to intracellular accumulation of inositol phosphates and calcium release. In the present study we cloned the bonobo chimpanzee GPRC6A receptor, which is 99% identical to the human receptor, and show that it is cell surface-expressed and functional. By analyses of chimeric human/mouse and human/bonobo receptors, bonobo receptor mutants, and the single nucleotide polymorphism database at NCBI, we identify an insertion/deletion variation in the third intracellular loop responsible for the intracellular retention and lack of function of the human ortholog. Genetic analyses of the 1000 genome database and the Inter99 cohort of 6,000 Danes establish the distribution of genotypes among ethnic groups, showing that the cell surface-expressed and functional variant is much more prevalent in the African population than in European and Asian populations and that this variant is partly linked with a stop codon early in the receptor sequence (rs6907580, amino acid position 57). In conclusion, our data solve a more than decade-old question of why the cloned human GPRC6A receptor is not cell surface-expressed and functional and provide a genetic framework to study human phenotypic traits in large genome sequencing projects linked with physiological measurement and biomarkers.

  7. The Cell Surface Estrogen Receptor, G Protein- Coupled Receptor 30 (GPR30, is Markedly Down Regulated During Breast Tumorigenesis

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    Indira Poola


    Full Text Available Background: GPR30 is a cell surface estrogen receptor that has been shown to mediate a number of non-genomic rapid effects of estrogen and appear to balance the signaling of estrogen and growth factors. In addition, progestins appear to use GPR30 for their actions. Therefore, GPR30 could play a critical role in hormonal regulation of breast epithelial cell integrity. Deregulation of the events mediated by GPR30 could contribute to tumorigenesis.Methods: To understand the role of GPR30 in the deregulation of estrogen signaling processes during breast carcinogenesis, we have undertaken this study to investigate its expression at mRNA levels in tumor tissues and their matched normal tissues. We compared its expression at mRNA levels by RT quantitative real-time PCR relative to GAPDH in ERα”—positive (n = 54 and ERα”—negative (n = 45 breast cancer tissues to their matched normal tissues.Results: We report here, for the first time, that GPR30 mRNA levels were significantly down-regulated in cancer tissues in comparison with their matched normal tissues (p 0.0001 by two sided paired t-test. The GPR30 expression levels were significantly lower in tumor tissues from patients (n = 29 who had lymph node metastasis in comparison with tumors from patients (n = 53 who were negative for lymph node metastasis (two sample t-test, p 0.02, but no association was found with ERα, PR and other tumor characteristics.Conclusions: Down-regulation of GPR30 could contribute to breast tumorigenesis and lymph node metastasis.

  8. Characterization of the banana streak virus capsid protein and mapping of the immunodominant continuous B-cell epitopes to the surface-exposed N terminus. (United States)

    Vo, Jenny N; Campbell, Paul R; Mahfuz, Nur N; Ramli, Ras; Pagendam, Daniel; Barnard, Ross; Geering, Andrew D W


    This study identified the structural proteins of two badnavirus species, Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) and Banana streak OL virus (BSOLV), and mapped the distribution of continuous B-cell epitopes. Two different capsid protein (CP) isoforms of about 44 and 40 kDa (CP1 and CP2) and the virion-associated protein (VAP) were consistently associated with purified virions. For both viral species, the N terminus of CP2 was successfully sequenced by Edman degradation but that of CP1 was chemically blocked. De novo peptide sequencing of tryptic digests suggested that CP1 and CP2 derive from the same region of the P3 polyprotein but differ in the length of either the N or the C terminus. A three-dimensional model of the BSMYV-CP was constructed, which showed that the CP is a multi-domain structure, containing homologues of the retroviral capsid and nucleocapsid proteins, as well as a third, intrinsically disordered protein region at the N terminus, henceforth called the NID domain. Using the Pepscan approach, the immunodominant continuous epitopes were mapped to the NID domain for five different species of banana streak virus. Anti-peptide antibodies raised against these epitopes in BSMYV were successfully used for detection of native virions and denatured CPs in serological assays. Immunoelectron microscopy analysis of the virion surface using the anti-peptide antibodies confirmed that the NID domain is exposed on the surface of virions, and that the difference in mass of the two CP isoforms is due to variation in length of the NID domain.

  9. Surface localization of high-mobility group nucleosome-binding protein 2 on leukemic B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia is related to secondary autoimmune hemolytic anemia. (United States)

    Morande, Pablo E; Borge, Mercedes; Abreu, Cecilia; Galletti, Jeremías; Zanetti, Samanta R; Nannini, Paula; Bezares, Raimundo F; Pantano, Sergio; Dighiero, Guillermo; Oppezzo, Pablo; Gamberale, Romina; Giordano, Mirta


    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the main cause of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA). However, the cellular basis underlying this strong association remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that leukemic B cells from patients with CLL recognize the erythrocyte protein Band 3, a prevalent autoantigen in AHA. Here we show that the major binding site of Band 3 on leukemic cells is an extrinsic protein identified as high-mobility group nucleosome binding protein 2 (HMGN2), a nucleosome-interacting factor which has not been previously reported at the cell surface. T lymphocytes do not express HMGN2 or bind Band 3. Removal of HMGN2 from the cell membrane abrogated the capacity of Band 3-pulsed CLL cells to induce CD4 + T cell proliferation. We conclude that surface HMGN2 in leukemic B cells is involved in Band 3 binding, uptake and presentation to CD4 + T lymphocytes, and as such may favor the initiation of AHA secondary to CLL.

  10. The study of interaction of HIV-1 surface GP120 protein with CD4 cell receptor by EXAFS spectroscopy (United States)

    Lukashev, Vitaly Alexeevich; Bausk, Nikolay Vladimirovich; Mazalov, Lev Nikolaevich; Kaurov, Oleg Alexeevich; Kolobov, Alexandr Alexandrovich; Naumochkin, Andrey Nikolaevich; Kulichkov, Vladimir Anatolevich


    This work is aimed at the study of the interaction between gp120 protein (HIV-1) and peptides, which are similar to CD4 protein receptors from T4 lymphocytes. The preliminary results demonstrated that peptide structural information could be obtained from fluorescent EXAFS.

  11. The Electrophoretic Mobility of Proteins near Surfaces (United States)

    Ramasamy, Perumal; Singh, Avtar; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan


    We have attempted to apply the methods developed for surface DNA electrophoresis (1) for proteomics. Droplets of FITC stained Abumin, Poly- L-Lysine, or Casein purchased from Sigma were deposited on glass cover slips. The droplets were then place in contact with a TBE buffer solution contained in a cell molded from PDMS. Pt electrodes were inserted into the cell and a voltage was a applied. The motion of the protein was then imaged with a Leica Confocal microscope as a function of buffer concentration, distance from the surface, and applied voltage. The mobilities were then compared with those of uncharged one micron florescent Polystyrene beads. References: 1)Henzel WJ, Watanabe C, Stults JT., !0 Protein Identification: The Origins of Peptide Mass Fingerprinting. !1 J. American Society for Mass Spectrometry. 14 (September 2003): 931-942 2)Mathesius U, Imin N, Natera SH, Rolfe BG., !0 Proteomics as a functional genomics tool. !1 Methods of Molecular Biology 236: 395-414. *Work supported in part by the NSF-MRSEC program

  12. Competitive Protein Adsorption - Multilayer Adsorption and Surface Induced Protein Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin


    In this study, competitive adsorption of albumin and IgG (immunoglobulin G) from human serum solutions and protein mixtures onto polymer surfaces is studied by means of radioactive labeling. By using two different radiolabels (125I and 131I), albumin and IgG adsorption to polymer surfaces...... is monitored simultaneously and the influence from the presence of other human serum proteins on albumin and IgG adsorption, as well as their mutual influence during adsorption processes, is investigated. Exploring protein adsorption by combining analysis of competitive adsorption from complex solutions...... of high concentration with investigation of single protein adsorption and interdependent adsorption between two specific proteins enables us to map protein adsorption sequences during competitive protein adsorption. Our study shows that proteins can adsorb in a multilayer fashion onto the polymer surfaces...

  13. Ex vivo cytokine and memory T cell responses to the 42-kDa fragment of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 in vaccinated volunteers. (United States)

    Huaman, Maria Cecilia; Martin, Laura B; Malkin, Elissa; Narum, David L; Miller, Louis H; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Long, Carole A


    A number of blood-stage malaria Ags are under development as vaccine candidates, but knowledge of the cellular responses to these vaccines in humans is limited. We evaluated the nature and specificity of cellular responses in healthy American volunteers vaccinated with a portion of the major merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP1) of Plasmodium falciparum, MSP1(42), formulated on Alhydrogel. Volunteers were vaccinated three times with 80 microg of either MSP1(42)-FVO/Alhydrogel or MSP1(42)-3D7/Alhydrogel. Cells collected 2 wk after the third vaccination produced Th1 cytokines, including IFN-gamma and IL-2 following Ag stimulation, and greater levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13; the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and the molecule CD25 (IL-2Ralpha) were also detected. The volunteers were evaluated for the MSP1(42)-FVO or MSP1(42)-3D7 specificity of their T cell responses. Comparison of their responses to homologous and heterologous Ags showed ex vivo IFN-gamma and IL-5 levels that were significantly higher to homologous rather than to heterologous Ags. The epitopes involved in this stimulation were shown to be present in the dimorphic MSP1(33) portion of the larger MSP1(42)-3D7 polypeptide, and indirect experiment suggests the same for the MSP1(42)-FVO polypeptide. This contrasts with B cell responses, which were primarily directed to the conserved MSP1(19) portion. Furthermore, we explored the maturation of memory T cells and found that 46% of vaccinees showed specific memory T cells defined as CD4(+)CD45RO(+)CD40L(+) after long-term in vitro culture. The identification of human-specific CD4(+) memory T cells provides the foundation for future studies of these cells both after vaccination and in field studies.

  14. A PDZ-Like Motif in the Biliary Transporter ABCB4 Interacts with the Scaffold Protein EBP50 and Regulates ABCB4 Cell Surface Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quitterie Venot

    Full Text Available ABCB4/MDR3, a member of the ABC superfamily, is an ATP-dependent phosphatidylcholine translocator expressed at the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. Defects in the ABCB4 gene are associated with rare biliary diseases. It is essential to understand the mechanisms of its canalicular membrane expression in particular for the development of new therapies. The stability of several ABC transporters is regulated through their binding to PDZ (PSD95/DglA/ZO-1 domain-containing proteins. ABCB4 protein ends by the sequence glutamine-asparagine-leucine (QNL, which shows some similarity to PDZ-binding motifs. The aim of our study was to assess the potential role of the QNL motif on the surface expression of ABCB4 and to determine if PDZ domain-containing proteins are involved. We found that truncation of the QNL motif decreased the stability of ABCB4 in HepG2-transfected cells. The deleted mutant ABCB4-ΔQNL also displayed accelerated endocytosis. EBP50, a PDZ protein highly expressed in the liver, strongly colocalized and coimmunoprecipitated with ABCB4, and this interaction required the QNL motif. Down-regulation of EBP50 by siRNA or by expression of an EBP50 dominant-negative mutant caused a significant decrease in the level of ABCB4 protein expression, and in the amount of ABCB4 localized at the canalicular membrane. Interaction of ABCB4 with EBP50 through its PDZ-like motif plays a critical role in the regulation of ABCB4 expression and stability at the canalicular plasma membrane.

  15. Identification of the major expressed S-layer and cell surface-layer-related proteins in the model methanogenic archaea: Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro and Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A. (United States)

    Rohlin, Lars; Leon, Deborah R; Kim, Unmi; Loo, Joseph A; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R; Gunsalus, Robert P


    Many archaeal cell envelopes contain a protein coat or sheath composed of one or more surface exposed proteins. These surface layer (S-layer) proteins contribute structural integrity and protect the lipid membrane from environmental challenges. To explore the species diversity of these layers in the Methanosarcinaceae, the major S-layer protein in Methanosarcina barkeri strain Fusaro was identified using proteomics. The Mbar_A1758 gene product was present in multiple forms with apparent sizes of 130, 120, and 100 kDa, consistent with post-translational modifications including signal peptide excision and protein glycosylation. A protein with features related to the surface layer proteins found in Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A and Methanosarcina mazei Goel was identified in the M. barkeri genome. These data reveal a distinct conserved protein signature with features and implied cell surface architecture in the Methanosarcinaceae that is absent in other archaea. Paralogous gene expression patterns in two Methanosarcina species revealed abundant expression of a single S-layer paralog in each strain. Respective promoter elements were identified and shown to be conserved in mRNA coding and upstream untranslated regions. Prior M. acetivorans genome annotations assigned S-layer or surface layer associated roles of eighty genes: however, of 68 examined none was significantly expressed relative to the experimentally determined S-layer gene.

  16. In silico Identification and Validation of a Linear and Naturally Immunogenic B-Cell Epitope of the Plasmodium vivax Malaria Vaccine Candidate Merozoite Surface Protein-9 (United States)

    Rodrigues-da-Silva, Rodrigo Nunes; Martins da Silva, João Hermínio; Singh, Balwan; Jiang, Jianlin; Meyer, Esmeralda V. S.; Santos, Fátima; Banic, Dalma Maria; Moreno, Alberto; Galinski, Mary R.; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Lima-Junior, Josué da Costa


    Synthetic peptide vaccines provide the advantages of safety, stability and low cost. The success of this approach is highly dependent on efficient epitope identification and synthetic strategies for efficacious delivery. In malaria, the Merozoite Surface Protein-9 of Plasmodium vivax (PvMSP9) has been considered a vaccine candidate based on the evidence that specific antibodies were able to inhibit merozoite invasion and recombinant proteins were highly immunogenic in mice and humans. However the identities of linear B-cell epitopes within PvMSP9 as targets of functional antibodies remain undefined. We used several publicly-available algorithms for in silico analyses and prediction of relevant B cell epitopes within PMSP9. We show that the tandem repeat sequence EAAPENAEPVHENA (PvMSP9E795-A808) present at the C-terminal region is a promising target for antibodies, given its high combined score to be a linear epitope and located in a putative intrinsically unstructured region of the native protein. To confirm the predictive value of the computational approach, plasma samples from 545 naturally exposed individuals were screened for IgG reactivity against the recombinant PvMSP9-RIRII729-972 and a synthetic peptide representing the predicted B cell epitope PvMSP9E795-A808. 316 individuals (58%) were responders to the full repetitive region PvMSP9-RIRII, of which 177 (56%) also presented total IgG reactivity against the synthetic peptide, confirming it validity as a B cell epitope. The reactivity indexes of anti-PvMSP9-RIRII and anti-PvMSP9E795-A808 antibodies were correlated. Interestingly, a potential role in the acquisition of protective immunity was associated with the linear epitope, since the IgG1 subclass against PvMSP9E795-A808 was the prevalent subclass and this directly correlated with time elapsed since the last malaria episode; however this was not observed in the antibody responses against the full PvMSP9-RIRII. In conclusion, our findings identified and

  17. Surface (S)-layer proteins of Deinococcus radiodurans and their utility as vehicles for surface localization of functional proteins. (United States)

    Misra, Chitra Seetharam; Basu, Bhakti; Apte, Shree Kumar


    The radiation resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans contains two major surface (S)-layer proteins, Hpi and SlpA. The Hpi protein was shown to (a) undergo specific in vivo cleavage, and (b) closely associate with the SlpA protein. Using a non-specific acid phosphatase from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, PhoN as a reporter, the Surface Layer Homology (SLH) domain of SlpA was shown to bind deinococcal peptidoglycan-containing cell wall sacculi. The association of SlpA with Hpi on one side and peptidoglycan on the other, localizes this protein in the 'interstitial' layer of the deinoccocal cell wall. Gene chimeras of hpi-phoN and slh-phoN were constructed to test efficacy of S-layer proteins, as vehicles for cell surface localization in D. radiodurans. The Hpi-PhoN protein localized exclusively in the membrane fraction, and displayed cell-based phosphatase activity in vivo. The SLH-PhoN, which localized to both cytosolic and membrane fractions, displayed in vitro activity but no cell-based in vivo activity. Hpi, therefore, emerged as an efficient surface localizing protein and can be exploited for suitable applications of this superbug.

  18. Neurocognitive derivation of protein surface property from protein aggregate parameters


    Mishra, Hrishikesh; Lahiri, Tapobrata


    Current work targeted to predicate parametric relationship between aggregate and individual property of a protein. In this approach, we considered individual property of a protein as its Surface Roughness Index (SRI) which was shown to have potential to classify SCOP protein families. The bulk property was however considered as Intensity Level based Multi-fractal Dimension (ILMFD) of ordinary microscopic images of heat denatured protein aggregates which was known to have potential to serve as...

  19. Fusion to green fluorescent protein improves expression levels of Theileria parva sporozoite surface antigen p67 in insect cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaba, S.A.; Nene, V.; Musoke, A.J.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.


    East Coast fever (ECF) is a fatal disease of cattle caused by the protozoan parasite Theileria parva. The development of a subunit vaccine, based on the sporozoite-specific surface antigen p67, has been hampered by difficulties in achieving high-level expression of recombinant p67 in a near-authenti

  20. Computational design of protein interactions: designing proteins that neutralize influenza by inhibiting its hemagglutinin surface protein (United States)

    Fleishman, Sarel


    Molecular recognition underlies all life processes. Design of interactions not seen in nature is a test of our understanding of molecular recognition and could unlock the vast potential of subtle control over molecular interaction networks, allowing the design of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for basic and applied research. We developed the first general method for designing protein interactions. The method starts by computing a region of high affinity interactions between dismembered amino acid residues and the target surface and then identifying proteins that can harbor these residues. Designs are tested experimentally for binding the target surface and successful ones are affinity matured using yeast cell surface display. Applied to the conserved stem region of influenza hemagglutinin we designed two unrelated proteins that, following affinity maturation, bound hemagglutinin at subnanomolar dissociation constants. Co-crystal structures of hemagglutinin bound to the two designed binders were within 1Angstrom RMSd of their models, validating the accuracy of the design strategy. One of the designed proteins inhibits the conformational changes that underlie hemagglutinin's cell-invasion functions and blocks virus infectivity in cell culture, suggesting that such proteins may in future serve as diagnostics and antivirals against a wide range of pathogenic influenza strains. We have used this method to obtain experimentally validated binders of several other target proteins, demonstrating the generality of the approach. We discuss the combination of modeling and high-throughput characterization of design variants which has been key to the success of this approach, as well as how we have used the data obtained in this project to enhance our understanding of molecular recognition. References: Science 332:816 JMB, in press Protein Sci 20:753

  1. VASCo: computation and visualization of annotated protein surface contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thallinger Gerhard G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural data from crystallographic analyses contain a vast amount of information on protein-protein contacts. Knowledge on protein-protein interactions is essential for understanding many processes in living cells. The methods to investigate these interactions range from genetics to biophysics, crystallography, bioinformatics and computer modeling. Also crystal contact information can be useful to understand biologically relevant protein oligomerisation as they rely in principle on the same physico-chemical interaction forces. Visualization of crystal and biological contact data including different surface properties can help to analyse protein-protein interactions. Results VASCo is a program package for the calculation of protein surface properties and the visualization of annotated surfaces. Special emphasis is laid on protein-protein interactions, which are calculated based on surface point distances. The same approach is used to compare surfaces of two aligned molecules. Molecular properties such as electrostatic potential or hydrophobicity are mapped onto these surface points. Molecular surfaces and the corresponding properties are calculated using well established programs integrated into the package, as well as using custom developed programs. The modular package can easily be extended to include new properties for annotation. The output of the program is most conveniently displayed in PyMOL using a custom-made plug-in. Conclusion VASCo supplements other available protein contact visualisation tools and provides additional information on biological interactions as well as on crystal contacts. The tool provides a unique feature to compare surfaces of two aligned molecules based on point distances and thereby facilitates the visualization and analysis of surface differences.

  2. A transferrin-like GPI-linked iron-binding protein in detergent-insoluble noncaveolar microdomains at the apical surface of fetal intestinal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; van Deurs, B


    of ultracryosections of mucosal tissue, the protein was localized to the apical surface of the enterocytes, whereas it was absent from the basolateral plasma membrane. Interestingly, it was mainly found in patches of flat or invaginated apical membrane domains rather than at the surface of microvilli. Caveolae were...

  3. Growth of fibroblasts and endothelial cells on wettability gradient surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruardy, TG; Moorlag, HE; Schakenraad, JM; VanderMei, HC; Busscher, HJ


    The growth, spreading, and shape of human skin fibroblasts (PK 84) and human umbilical cord endothelial cells on dichlorodimethylsilane (DDS) and dimethyloctadecylchlorosilane (DOGS) gradient surfaces were investigated in the presence of serum proteins. Gradient surfaces were prepared on glass using

  4. Neurocognitive derivation of protein surface property from protein aggregate parameters (United States)

    Mishra, Hrishikesh; Lahiri, Tapobrata


    Current work targeted to predicate parametric relationship between aggregate and individual property of a protein. In this approach, we considered individual property of a protein as its Surface Roughness Index (SRI) which was shown to have potential to classify SCOP protein families. The bulk property was however considered as Intensity Level based Multi-fractal Dimension (ILMFD) of ordinary microscopic images of heat denatured protein aggregates which was known to have potential to serve as protein marker. The protocol used multiple ILMFD inputs obtained for a protein to produce a set of mapped outputs as possible SRI candidates. The outputs were further clustered and largest cluster centre after normalization was found to be a close approximation of expected SRI that was calculated from known PDB structure. The outcome showed that faster derivation of individual protein’s surface property might be possible using its bulk form, heat denatured aggregates. PMID:21572883

  5. AFCo1, a meningococcal B-derived cochleate adjuvant, strongly enhances antibody and T-cell immunity against Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 4 and 5 (United States)

    Bracho, Gustavo; Zayas, Caridad; Wang, Lina; Coppel, Ross; Pérez, Oliver; Petrovsky, Nikolai


    Background Whilst a large number of malaria antigens are being tested as candidate malaria vaccines, a major barrier to the development of an effective vaccine is the lack of a suitable human adjuvant capable of inducing a strong and long lasting immune response. In this study, the ability of AFCo1, a potent T and B cell adjuvant based on cochleate structures derived from meningococcal B outer membrane proteoliposomes (MBOMP), to boost the immune response against two Plasmodium falciparum antigens, merozoite surface protein 4 (MSP4) and 5 (MSP5), was evaluated. Methods Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), which is able to confer protection against malaria in animal MSP4/5 vaccine challenge models, was used as positive control adjuvant. MSP4 and 5-specific IgG, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), T-cell proliferation, and cytokine production were evaluated in parallel in mice immunized three times intramuscularly with MSP4 or MSP5 incorporated into AFCo1, synthetic cochleate structures, CFA or phosphate buffered saline. Results AFCo1 significantly enhanced the IgG and T-cell response against MSP4 and MSP5, with a potency equivalent to CFA, with the response being characterized by both IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes, increased interferon gamma production and a strong DTH response, consistent with the ability of AFCo1 to induce Th1-like immune responses. Conclusion Given the proven safety of MBOMP, which is already in use in a licensed human vaccine, AFCo1 could assist the development of human malaria vaccines that require a potent and safe adjuvant. PMID:19250541

  6. Human T-cell recognition of synthetic peptides representing conserved and variant sequences from the merozoite surface protein 2 of Plasmodium falciparum. (United States)

    Theander, T G; Hviid, L; Dodoo, D; Afari, E A; Jensen, J B; Rzepczyk, C M


    Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2) is a malaria vaccine candidate currently undergoing clinical trials. We analyzed the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) response to synthetic peptides corresponding to conserved and variant regions of the FCQ-27 allelic form of MSP2 in Ghanaian individuals from an area of hyperendemic malaria transmission and in Danes without exposure to malaria. PBMC from 20-39% of Ghanaians responded to each of the peptides by proliferation and 29-36% had PBMC which produced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in response to peptide stimulation. In Danes, there was no proliferation to two of the peptides and only PBMC from 5% of the individuals proliferated to the other three peptides. IFN-gamma production was not detected to any peptide. In both Danes and Ghanaians in only a few instances was IL-4 detected in the PBMC cultures. Overall PBMC from 79% of the Ghanaians responded by proliferation and/or cytokine secretion to at least one of three peptides tested, whereas responses were only observed in 14% of Danes (P = 0.002). These data suggest that the Ghanaians had expanded peripheral blood T-cell populations recognizing the peptides as a result of natural infection. The findings are encouraging for the development of a vaccine based on these T-epitope containing regions of MSP2, as the peptides were broadly recognized suggesting that they can bind to diverse HLA alleles and also because they include conserved MSP2 sequences. Immunisation with a vaccine construct incorporating the sequences present in these peptides could thus be expected to be immunogenic in a high percentage of individuals and lead to the establishment of memory T-cells, which can be boosted through natural infection.

  7. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase regulates hippocampal neuronal pH by recruiting Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE5 to the cell surface. (United States)

    Jinadasa, Tushare; Szabó, Elöd Z; Numat, Masayuki; Orlowski, John


    Strict regulation of intra- and extracellular pH is an important determinant of nervous system function as many voltage-, ligand-, and H(+)-gated cationic channels are exquisitely sensitive to transient fluctuations in pH elicited by neural activity and pathophysiologic events such as hypoxia-ischemia and seizures. Multiple Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHEs) are implicated in maintenance of neural pH homeostasis. However, aside from the ubiquitous NHE1 isoform, their relative contributions are poorly understood. NHE5 is of particular interest as it is preferentially expressed in brain relative to other tissues. In hippocampal neurons, NHE5 regulates steady-state cytoplasmic pH, but intriguingly the bulk of the transporter is stored in intracellular vesicles. Here, we show that NHE5 is a direct target for phosphorylation by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key sensor and regulator of cellular energy homeostasis in response to metabolic stresses. In NHE5-transfected non-neuronal cells, activation of AMPK by the AMP mimetic AICAR or by antimycin A, which blocks aerobic respiration and causes acidification, increased cell surface accumulation and activity of NHE5, and elevated intracellular pH. These effects were effectively blocked by the AMPK antagonist compound C, the NHE inhibitor HOE694, and mutation of a predicted AMPK recognition motif in the NHE5 C terminus. This regulatory pathway was also functional in primary hippocampal neurons, where AMPK activation of NHE5 protected the cells from sustained antimycin A-induced acidification. These data reveal a unique role for AMPK and NHE5 in regulating the pH homeostasis of hippocampal neurons during metabolic stress.

  8. Pneumocystis carinii major surface glycoprotein induces interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 release from a human alveolar epithelial cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Lundgren, Bettina; Shelhamer, J H


    (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) from an alveolar epithelial cell line (A549). RESULTS: Incubation of A549 cells with MSG in concentrations from 0.4 to 10 microg mL-1 for 24 h caused dose-dependent increases in IL-8 release (3.4-fold above control, P

  9. Interaction of Protein and Cell with Different Chitosan Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Interaction between proteins, cells and biomaterial surfaces is commonly observed and often used to measure biocompatibility of biomaterials.In this investigation, three kinds of biomaterials derived from chitosan were prepared.The surface wettability of these polymers, interaction of protein with material surface, and their effects on cell adhesion and growth were studied.The results show that the surface contact angle and surface charge of biomaterials have a close bearing on protein adsorption as well as cell adhesion and growth, indicating that through different chemical modifications, chitosan can be made into different kinds of biomedical materials to satisfy various needs.

  10. The Escherichia coli subtilase cytotoxin A subunit specifically cleaves cell-surface GRP78 protein and abolishes COOH-terminal-dependent signaling. (United States)

    Ray, Rupa; de Ridder, Gustaaf G; Eu, Jerry P; Paton, Adrienne W; Paton, James C; Pizzo, Salvatore V


    GRP78, a molecular chaperone with critical endoplasmic reticulum functions, is aberrantly expressed on the surface of cancer cells, including prostate and melanoma. Here it functions as a pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic signaling receptor via NH(2)-terminal domain ligation. Auto-antibodies to this domain may appear in cancer patient serum where they are a poor prognostic indicator. Conversely, GRP78 COOH-terminal domain ligation is pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative. There is no method to disrupt cell-surface GRP78 without compromising the total GRP78 pool, making it difficult to study cell-surface GRP78 function. We studied six cell lines representing three cancer types. One cell line per group expresses high levels of cell-surface GRP78, and the other expresses low levels (human hepatoma: Hep3B and HepG2; human prostate cancer: PC3 and 1-LN; murine melanoma: B16F0 and B16F1). We investigated the effect of Escherichia coli subtilase cytoxin catalytic subunit (SubA) on GRP78. We report that SubA specifically cleaves cell-surface GRP78 on HepG2, 1-LN, and B16F1 cells without affecting intracellular GRP78. B16F0 cells (GRP78(low)) have lower amounts of cleaved cell-surface GRP78. SubA has no effect on Hep3B and PC3 cells. The predicted 28-kDa GRP78 COOH-terminal fragment is released into the culture medium by SubA treatment, and COOH-terminal domain signal transduction is abrogated, whereas pro-proliferative signaling mediated through NH(2)-terminal domain ligation is unaffected. These experiments clarify cell-surface GRP78 topology and demonstrate that the COOH-terminal domain is necessary for pro-apoptotic signal transduction occurring upon COOH-terminal antibody ligation. SubA is a powerful tool to specifically probe the functions of cell-surface GRP78.

  11. The Plant Cell Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anne-Mie C.Emons; Kurt V.Fagerstedt


    @@ Multicellular organization and tissue construction has evolved along essentially different lines in plants and animals. Since plants do not run away, but are anchored in the soil, their tissues are more or less firm and stiff. This strength stems from the cell walls, which encase the fragile cytoplasm, and protect it.

  12. Two Domains of Vimentin Are Expressed on the Surface of Lymph Node, Bone and Brain Metastatic Prostate Cancer Lines along with the Putative Stem Cell Marker Proteins CD44 and CD133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, Nicole F. [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Maurer, Jochen [Sanford-Burnham, Medical Research Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Sheng, Huiming [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Division of Immune Regulation, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Bensussan, Armand [INSERM U976, Hôpital Saint Louis, F-75475 Paris (France); Department of Immunology, Dermatology and Oncology, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMRS976 F-75475 Paris (France); Maricic, Igor; Kumar, Vipin [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Laboratory of Autoimmunity, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Braciak, Todd A., E-mail: [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Division of Immune Regulation, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)


    Vimentin was originally identified as an intermediate filament protein present only as an intracellular component in many cell types. However, this protein has now been detected on the surface of a number of different cancer cell types in a punctate distribution pattern. Increased vimentin expression has been indicated as an important step in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) required for the metastasis of prostate cancer. Here, using two vimentin-specific monoclonal antibodies (SC5 and V9 directed against the coil one rod domain and the C-terminus of the vimentin protein, respectively), we examined whether either of these domains would be displayed on the surface of three commonly studied prostate cancer cell lines isolated from different sites of metastases. Confocal analysis of LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines (derived from lymph node, bone or brain prostate metastases, respectively) demonstrated that both domains of vimentin are present on the surface of these metastatic cancer cell types. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that vimentin expression was readily detected along with CD44 expression but only a small subpopulation of prostate cancer cells expressed vimentin and the putative stem cell marker CD133 along with CD44. Finally, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) nanoparticles that target vimentin could bind and internalize into tested prostate cancer cell lines. These results demonstrate that at least two domains of vimentin are present on the surface of metastatic prostate cancer cells and suggest that vimentin could provide a useful target for nanoparticle- or antibody- cancer therapeutic agents directed against highly invasive cancer and/or stem cells.

  13. Cell wall proteins: a new insight through proteomics. (United States)

    Jamet, Elisabeth; Canut, Hervé; Boudart, Georges; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F


    Cell wall proteins are essential constituents of plant cell walls; they are involved in modifications of cell wall components, wall structure, signaling and interactions with plasma membrane proteins at the cell surface. The application of proteomic approaches to the cell wall compartment raises important questions: are there technical problems specific to cell wall proteomics? What kinds of proteins can be found in Arabidopsis walls? Are some of them unexpected? What sort of post-translational modifications have been characterized in cell wall proteins to date? The purpose of this review is to discuss the experimental results obtained to date using proteomics, as well as some of the new questions challenging future research.

  14. Immunization of Mice with a TolA-Like Surface Protein of Trypanosoma cruzi Generates CD4+ T-Cell-Dependent Parasiticidal Activity



    The gene family encoding a trypomastigote-specific protein restricted to the part of the flagellum in contact with the cell body of the trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi has been isolated, characterized, and expressed in a baculovirus expression system. The gene family contains three tandemly repeated members that have 97 to 100% sequence identity. The predicted protein encoded by the gene family has both significant amino acid sequence identity and other physical and biological featur...

  15. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell-surface glycoprotein apa as a potential adhesin to colonize target cells via the innate immune system pulmonary C-type lectin surfactant protein A. (United States)

    Ragas, Aude; Roussel, Lucie; Puzo, Germain; Rivière, Michel


    Tuberculosis is still a major health problem, and understanding the mechanism by which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) invades and colonizes its host target cells remains an important issue for the control of infection. The innate immune system C-type lectins (C-TLs), including the human pulmonary surfactant protein A (PSP-A), have been recently identified as determinant players in the early recognition of the invading pathogen and in mounting the host defense response. Although the antigenic lipoglycan mannosylated lipoarabinomannan is currently considered to be the major C-TL target on the mycobacterial surface, the recognition by some C-TLs of the only mycobacterial species composing the "Mtb complex" indicates that mannosylated lipoarabinomannan cannot account alone for this specificity. Thus, we searched for the mycobacterial molecules targeted by human PSP-A, focusing our attention on the Mtb surface glycoproteins. We developed an original functional proteomic approach based on a lectin blot assay using crude human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as a source of physiological PSP-A. Combined with selective cell-surface protein extraction and mass spectrometry peptide mapping, this strategy allowed us to identify the Apa (alanine- and proline-rich antigenic) glycoprotein as new potential target for PSP-A. This result was supported by direct binding of PSP-A to purified Apa. Moreover, EDTA addition or deglycosylation of purified Apa samples completely abolished the interaction, demonstrating that the interaction is calcium- and mannose-dependent, as expected. Finally, we provide convincing evidence that Apa, formerly considered as mainly secreted, is associated with the cell wall for a sufficiently long time to aid in the attachment of PSP-A. Because, to date, Apa seems to be restricted to the Mtb complex strains, we propose that it may account for the selective recognition of those strains by PSP-A and other immune system C-TLs containing homologous functional

  16. Identification of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Surface Proteins by Shotgun Proteomics (United States)

    Walters, Matthew S.; Mobley, Harry L.T.


    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) cause the majority of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in humans. In the process of identifying candidate antigens for a vaccine, two methods for the identification of the UPEC surface proteome during growth in human urine were investigated. The first approach utilized a protease to ‘shave’ surface-exposed peptides from the bacterial cell surface and identify them by mass spectrometry. Although this approach has been successfully applied to a Gram-positive pathogen, the adaptation to Gram-negative UPEC resulted in cytoplasmic protein contamination. In a more direct approach, whole-cell bacteria were labeled with a biotin tag to indicate surface-exposed peptides and two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2-DLC-MS/MS) was used to identify proteins isolated from the outer membrane. This method discovered 25 predicted outer membrane proteins expressed by UPEC while growing in human urine. Nine of the 25 predicted outer membrane proteins were part of iron transport systems or putative iron-regulated virulence proteins, indicating the importance of iron acquisition during growth in urine. One of the iron transport proteins identified, Hma, appears to be a promising vaccine candidate is being further investigated. The method described here presents a system to rapidly identify the outer membrane proteome of bacteria, which may prove valuable in vaccine development. PMID:19426766

  17. Immunization of mice with a TolA-like surface protein of Trypanosoma cruzi generates CD4(+) T-cell-dependent parasiticidal activity. (United States)

    Quanquin, N M; Galaviz, C; Fouts, D L; Wrightsman, R A; Manning, J E


    The gene family encoding a trypomastigote-specific protein restricted to the part of the flagellum in contact with the cell body of the trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi has been isolated, characterized, and expressed in a baculovirus expression system. The gene family contains three tandemly repeated members that have 97 to 100% sequence identity. The predicted protein encoded by the gene family has both significant amino acid sequence identity and other physical and biological features in common with the TolA proteins of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Based on these similarities, we have designated this gene family tolT. Immunization of mice with recombinant TolT generates a population of CD4(+) T lymphocytes that recognize T. cruzi-infected macrophages, resulting in the production of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), which leads to NO production and a 50 to 60% reduction in parasite numbers compared to that seen with infected macrophages incubated with naive T cells. This population of T cells also produces both IFN-gamma and interleukin 2 (IL-2) but not IL-4 or IL-5 when incubated with spleen cells stimulated with TolT antigen, indicating that they are of the T-helper 1 type. T cells from mice chronically infected with T. cruzi also produce significant levels of IFN-gamma when cocultured with macrophages and either TolT protein or paraflagellar rod protein, indicating that both of these flagellar proteins produce positive T-cell responses in mice chronically infected with T. cruzi.

  18. Immunization of Mice with a TolA-Like Surface Protein of Trypanosoma cruzi Generates CD4+ T-Cell-Dependent Parasiticidal Activity (United States)

    Quanquin, Natalie M.; Galaviz, Charles; Fouts, David L.; Wrightsman, Ruth A.; Manning, Jerry E.


    The gene family encoding a trypomastigote-specific protein restricted to the part of the flagellum in contact with the cell body of the trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi has been isolated, characterized, and expressed in a baculovirus expression system. The gene family contains three tandemly repeated members that have 97 to 100% sequence identity. The predicted protein encoded by the gene family has both significant amino acid sequence identity and other physical and biological features in common with the TolA proteins of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Based on these similarities, we have designated this gene family tolT. Immunization of mice with recombinant TolT generates a population of CD4+ T lymphocytes that recognize T. cruzi-infected macrophages, resulting in the production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), which leads to NO production and a 50 to 60% reduction in parasite numbers compared to that seen with infected macrophages incubated with naive T cells. This population of T cells also produces both IFN-γ and interleukin 2 (IL-2) but not IL-4 or IL-5 when incubated with spleen cells stimulated with TolT antigen, indicating that they are of the T-helper 1 type. T cells from mice chronically infected with T. cruzi also produce significant levels of IFN-γ when cocultured with macrophages and either TolT protein or paraflagellar rod protein, indicating that both of these flagellar proteins produce positive T-cell responses in mice chronically infected with T. cruzi. PMID:10456906

  19. Cell polarity proteins and spermatogenesis. (United States)

    Gao, Ying; Xiao, Xiang; Lui, Wing-Yee; Lee, Will M; Mruk, Dolores; Cheng, C Yan


    When the cross-section of a seminiferous tubule from an adult rat testes is examined microscopically, Sertoli cells and germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium are notably polarized cells. For instance, Sertoli cell nuclei are found near the basement membrane. On the other hand, tight junction (TJ), basal ectoplasmic specialization (basal ES, a testis-specific actin-rich anchoring junction), gap junction (GJ) and desmosome that constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB) are also located near the basement membrane. The BTB, in turn, divides the epithelium into the basal and the adluminal (apical) compartments. Within the epithelium, undifferentiated spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocytes restrictively reside in the basal compartment whereas spermatocytes and post-meiotic spermatids reside in the adluminal compartment. Furthermore, the heads of elongating/elongated spermatids point toward the basement membrane with their elongating tails toward the tubule lumen. However, the involvement of polarity proteins in this unique cellular organization, in particular the underlying molecular mechanism(s) by which polarity proteins confer cellular polarity in the seminiferous epithelium is virtually unknown until recent years. Herein, we discuss latest findings regarding the role of different polarity protein complexes or modules and how these protein complexes are working in concert to modulate Sertoli cell and spermatid polarity. These findings also illustrate polarity proteins exert their effects through the actin-based cytoskeleton mediated by actin binding and regulatory proteins, which in turn modulate adhesion protein complexes at the cell-cell interface since TJ, basal ES and GJ utilize F-actin for attachment. We also propose a hypothetical model which illustrates the antagonistic effects of these polarity proteins. This in turn provides a unique mechanism to modulate junction remodeling in the testis to support germ cell transport across the epithelium in

  20. Spinocerebellar ataxia-13 Kv3.3 potassium channels: arginine-to-histidine mutations affect both functional and protein expression on the cell surface. (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Zhu, Jing; Thornhill, William B


    The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv3.3 is the causative gene of SCA13 (spinocerebellar ataxia type 13), an autosomal dominant neurological disorder. The four dominant mutations identified to date cause Kv3.3 channels to be non-functional or have altered gating properties in Xenopus oocytes. In the present paper, we report that SCA13 mutations affect functional as well as protein expression of Kv3.3 channels in a mammalian cell line. The reduced protein level of SCA13 mutants is caused by a shorter protein half-life, and blocking the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway increases the total protein of SCA13 mutants more than wild-type. SCA13 mutated amino acids are highly conserved, and the side chains of these residues play a critical role in the stable expression of Kv3.3 proteins. In addition, we show that mutant Kv3.3 protein levels could be partially rescued by treatment with the chemical chaperone TMAO (trimethylamine N-oxide) and to a lesser extent with co-expression of Kv3.1b. Thus our results suggest that amino acid side chains of SCA13 positions affect the protein half-life and/or function of Kv3.3, and the adverse effect on protein expression cannot be fully rescued.

  1. Pneumocystis carinii major surface glycoprotein induces interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 release from a human alveolar epithelial cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Lundgren, Bettina; Shelhamer, J H;


    (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) from an alveolar epithelial cell line (A549). RESULTS: Incubation of A549 cells with MSG in concentrations from 0.4 to 10 microg mL-1 for 24 h caused dose-dependent increases in IL-8 release (3.4-fold above control, P ..., suggesting that MSG stimulates A549 cells in part through carbohydrate moieties. Dexamethasone significantly inhibited MSG-induced IL-8 release in concentrations of 10-6-10-8 mol L-1 compared with control experiments (P

  2. Nanofabrication of Nonfouling Surfaces for Micropatterning of Cell and Microtissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori Otsuka


    Full Text Available Surface engineering techniques for cellular micropatterning are emerging as important tools to clarify the effects of the microenvironment on cellular behavior, as cells usually integrate and respond the microscale environment, such as chemical and mechanical properties of the surrounding fluid and extracellular matrix, soluble protein factors, small signal molecules, and contacts with neighboring cells. Furthermore, recent progress in cellular micropatterning has contributed to the development of cell-based biosensors for the functional characterization and detection of drugs, pathogens, toxicants, and odorants. In this regards, the ability to control shape and spreading of attached cells and cell-cell contacts through the form and dimension of the cell-adhesive patches with high precision is important. Commitment of stem cells to different specific lineages depends strongly on cell shape, implying that controlled microenvironments through engineered surfaces may not only be a valuable approach towards fundamental cell-biological studies, but also of great importance for the design of cell culture substrates for tissue engineering. To develop this kind of cellular microarray composed of a cell-resistant surface and cell attachment region, micropatterning a protein-repellent surface is important because cellular adhesion and proliferation are regulated by protein adsorption. The focus of this review is on the surface engineering aspects of biologically motivated micropatterning of two-dimensional surfaces with the aim to provide an introductory overview described in the literature. In particular, the importance of non-fouling surface chemistries is discussed.

  3. Functional characterization and localization of a Bacillus subtilis sortase and its substrate and use of this sortase system to covalently anchor a heterologous protein to the B. subtilis cell wall for surface display. (United States)

    Liew, Pei Xiong; Wang, Christopher L C; Wong, Sui-Lam


    Sortases catalyze the covalent anchoring of proteins to the cell surface on Gram-positive bacteria. Bioinformatic analysis suggests the presence of structural genes encoding sortases and their substrates in the Bacillus subtilis genome. In this study, a β-lactamase reporter was fused to the cell wall anchoring domain from a putative sortase substrate, YhcR. Covalent anchoring of this fusion protein to the cell wall was confirmed by using the eight-protease-deficient B. subtilis strain WB800 as the host. Inactivation of yhcS abolished the cell wall anchoring reaction. The amounts of fusion protein anchored to the cell wall were proportional to the levels of YhcS. These data demonstrate that YhcS and YhcR are the sortase and sortase substrate, respectively, in B. subtilis. Furthermore, yhcS is not essential for the survival of B. subtilis under the cultivation condition tested. YhcR fusions were distributed helically in the lateral cell wall. Interestingly, when viewed with an epifluorescence microscope, YhcS also appeared to form short helical arcs. This is the first report to illustrate such distribution of sortases in a rod-shaped bacterium. Models for the spatial distribution of both the sortase and its substrate are discussed. The amount of the reporters displayed on the surface was unambiguously quantified via a unique strategy. Under optimal conditions with the overproduction of YhcS, 47,300 YhcR fusions could be displayed per cell. Displayed reporters were biologically functional and surface accessible. Characterization of the sortase-substrate system allowed the successful development of a YhcR-based covalent surface display system. This system may have various biotechnological applications.

  4. Role of adaptor proteins and clathrin in the trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the cell surface. (United States)

    Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Duangtum, Natapol; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai


    Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) plays an important role in acid-base homeostasis by mediating chloride/bicarbornate (Cl-/HCO3-) exchange at the basolateral membrane of α-intercalated cells in the distal nephron. Impaired intracellular trafficking of kAE1 caused by mutations of SLC4A1 encoding kAE1 results in kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). However, it is not known how the intracellular sorting and trafficking of kAE1 from trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the basolateral membrane occurs. Here, we studied the role of basolateral-related sorting proteins, including the mu1 subunit of adaptor protein (AP) complexes, clathrin and protein kinase D, on kAE1 trafficking in polarized and non-polarized kidney cells. By using RNA interference, co-immunoprecipitation, yellow fluorescent protein-based protein fragment complementation assays and immunofluorescence staining, we demonstrated that AP-1 mu1A, AP-3 mu1, AP-4 mu1 and clathrin (but not AP-1 mu1B, PKD1 or PKD2) play crucial roles in intracellular sorting and trafficking of kAE1. We also demonstrated colocalization of kAE1 and basolateral-related sorting proteins in human kidney tissues by double immunofluorescence staining. These findings indicate that AP-1 mu1A, AP-3 mu1, AP-4 mu1 and clathrin are required for kAE1 sorting and trafficking from TGN to the basolateral membrane of acid-secreting α-intercalated cells.

  5. Surface-associated proteins of Staphylococcus aureus: their possible roles in virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J. Foster (Timothy); D. McDevitt


    textabstractA class of proteins that are associated with the cell surface of Gram-positive bacteria has been recognised. Common structural features which are implicated in the proper secretion and attachment of these proteins to the cell surface occur in the C-termini. N-terminal domains interact wi

  6. Protein-mediated surface structuring in biomembranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggio B.


    Full Text Available The lipids and proteins of biomembranes exhibit highly dissimilar conformations, geometrical shapes, amphipathicity, and thermodynamic properties which constrain their two-dimensional molecular packing, electrostatics, and interaction preferences. This causes inevitable development of large local tensions that frequently relax into phase or compositional immiscibility along lateral and transverse planes of the membrane. On the other hand, these effects constitute the very codes that mediate molecular and structural changes determining and controlling the possibilities for enzymatic activity, apposition and recombination in biomembranes. The presence of proteins constitutes a major perturbing factor for the membrane sculpturing both in terms of its surface topography and dynamics. We will focus on some results from our group within this context and summarize some recent evidence for the active involvement of extrinsic (myelin basic protein, integral (Folch-Lees proteolipid protein and amphitropic (c-Fos and c-Jun proteins, as well as a membrane-active amphitropic phosphohydrolytic enzyme (neutral sphingomyelinase, in the process of lateral segregation and dynamics of phase domains, sculpturing of the surface topography, and the bi-directional modulation of the membrane biochemical reactivity.

  7. Relevant uses of surface proteins – display on self‐organized biological structures


    Jahns, Anika C.; Rehm, Bernd H. A.


    Summary Proteins are often found attached to surfaces of self‐assembling biological units such as whole microbial cells or subcellular structures, e.g. intracellular inclusions. In the last two decades surface proteins were identified that could serve as anchors for the display of foreign protein functions. Extensive protein engineering based on structure–function data enabled efficient display of technically and/or medically relevant protein functions. Small size, diversity of the anchor pro...

  8. A functional glycoprotein competitive recognition and signal amplification strategy for carbohydrate-protein interaction profiling and cell surface carbohydrate expression evaluation. (United States)

    Wang, Yangzhong; Chen, Zhuhai; Liu, Yang; Li, Jinghong


    A simple and sensitive carbohydrate biosensor has been suggested as a potential tool for accurate analysis of cell surface carbohydrate expression as well as carbohydrate-based therapeutics for a variety of diseases and infections. In this work, a sensitive biosensor for carbohydrate-lectin profiling and in situ cell surface carbohydrate expression was designed by taking advantage of a functional glycoprotein of glucose oxidase acting as both a multivalent recognition unit and a signal amplification probe. Combining the gold nanoparticle catalyzed luminol electrogenerated chemiluminescence and nanocarrier for active biomolecules, the number of cell surface carbohydrate groups could be conveniently read out. The apparent dissociation constant between GOx@Au probes and Con A was detected to be 1.64 nM and was approximately 5 orders of magnitude smaller than that of mannose and Con A, which would arise from the multivalent effect between the probe and Con A. Both glycoproteins and gold nanoparticles contribute to the high affinity between carbohydrates and lectin. The as-proposed biosensor exhibits excellent analytical performance towards the cytosensing of K562 cells with a detection limit of 18 cells, and the mannose moieties on a single K562 cell were determined to be 1.8 × 10(10). The biosensor can also act as a useful tool for antibacterial drug screening and mechanism investigation. This strategy integrates the excellent biocompatibility and multivalent recognition of glycoproteins as well as the significant enzymatic catalysis and gold nanoparticle signal amplification, and avoids the cell pretreatment and labelling process. This would contribute to the glycomic analysis and the understanding of complex native glycan-related biological processes.

  9. Organising Atoms, Clusters and Proteins on Surfaces (United States)

    Palmer, Richard E.


    This talk will discuss new developments in the creation of nanoscale surface features and their applications in biomedicine. Electron-surface interactions and plasma methods play a crucial role in both the production and analysis of these ``atomic architectures.'' At the extreme limit, electron injection from the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) enables bond-selective manipulation of individual polyatomic molecules [1]. On a more practical level, the controlled deposition of size-selected clusters [2], generated by magnetron sputtering and gas condensation followed by mass selection, represents a surprisingly efficient route to the fabrication of surface features of size 1-10 nm, the size scale of biological molecules such as proteins. STM and AFM measurements show the clusters can act as binding sites for individual protein molecules. For example, the pinning of size-selected AuN clusters (N = 1--2000) to the (hydrophobic) graphite surface presents bindings site for sulphur atoms and thus for the cysteine residues in protein molecules. Systematic studies of different proteins [3] provide ``ground rules'' for residue-specific protein immobilisation by clusters and have led to the development of a novel biochip for protein screening by a spin-off company. The 3D atomic structure of the clusters is highly relevant to such applications. We show that measurement of the scattered electron beam intensity - specifically, the high angle annular dark field (HAADF) signal - in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) allows us (a) to count the number of atoms in a cluster on the surface and (b) to determine a 3D atom-density map of the cluster when an aberration-corrected STEM is used [4]. 1. P.A. Sloan and R.E. Palmer, Nature 434 367 (2005). 2. S. Pratontep, P. Preece, C. Xirouchaki, R.E. Palmer, C.F. Sanz-Navarro, S.D. Kenny and R. Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 055503 (2003). 3. R.E. Palmer, S. Pratontep and H.-G. Boyen, Nature Materials 2 443 (2003

  10. Combination of pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA with whole cell pertussis vaccine increases protection against pneumococcal challenge in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leonor S Oliveira

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of respiratory acute infections around the world. In Latin America, approximately 20,000 children under 5 years of age die of pneumococcal diseases annually. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA is among the best-characterized pneumococcal antigens that confer protection in animal models of pneumococcal infections and, as such, is a good alternative for the currently available conjugated vaccines. Efficient immune responses directed to PspA in animal models have already been described. Nevertheless, few low cost adjuvants for a subunit pneumococcal vaccine have been proposed to date. Here, we have tested the adjuvant properties of the whole cell Bordetella pertussis vaccine (wP that is currently part of the DTP (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine administrated to children in several countries, as an adjuvant to PspA. Nasal immunization of BALB/c mice with a combination of PspA5 and wP or wP(low--a new generation vaccine that contains low levels of B. pertussis LPS--conferred protection against a respiratory lethal challenge with S. pneumoniae. Both PspA5-wP and PspA5-wP(low vaccines induced high levels of systemic and mucosal antibodies against PspA5, with similar profile, indicating no essential requirement for B. pertussis LPS in the adjuvant properties of wP. Accordingly, nasal immunization of C3H/HeJ mice with PspA5-wP conferred protection against the pneumococcal challenge, thus ruling out a role for TLR4 responses in the adjuvant activity and the protection mechanisms triggered by the vaccines. The high levels of anti-PspA5 antibodies correlated with increased cross-reactivity against PspAs from different clades and also reflected in cross-protection. In addition, passive immunization experiments indicated that antibodies played an important role in protection in this model. Finally, subcutaneous immunization with a combination of PspA5 with DTP(low protected mice against challenge with two

  11. Genetic Variations in the Human G Protein-coupled Receptor Class C, Group 6, Member A (GPRC6A) Control Cell Surface Expression and Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Stine; Have, Christian Theil; Underwood, Christina Rye


    -expressed and functional. By analyses of chimeric human/mouse and human/bonobo receptors, bonobo receptor mutants, and the single nucleotide polymorphism database at NCBI, we identify an insertion/deletion variation in the third intracellular loop responsible for the intracellular retention and lack of function...... of the human ortholog. Genetic analyses of the 1000 genome database and the Inter99 cohort of 6,000 Danes establish the distribution of genotypes among ethnic groups, showing that the cell surface-expressed and functional variant is much more prevalent in the African population than in European and Asian...... populations and that this variant is partly linked with a stop codon early in the receptor sequence (rs6907580, amino acid position 57). In conclusion, our data solve a more than decade-old question of why the cloned human GPRC6A receptor is not cell surface-expressed and functional and provide a genetic...

  12. [Surface proteins of bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium]. (United States)

    Dylus, Ewa; Buda, Barbara; Górska-Frączek, Sabina; Brzozowska, Ewa; Gamian, Andrzej


    Beneficial effects due to the presence of probiotic bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium in the human intestinal tract are still an interesting object of study. So far activities have been confirmed of bifidobacteria in stimulation of the host immune system, stimulation of tumor cell apoptosis, improvement of bowel motility, alleviation of symptoms of lactose intolerance, cholesterol lowering capacity, prevention and treatment of diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome, alleviation of allergy or atopic dermatitis, maintenance of homeostasis of the intestine, and stimulation of the development of normal intestinal microflora in infants. A multitude of therapeutic properties encourages researchers to investigate the possibility of using the potential of Bifidobacterium in the prevention and treatment of other conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and depression. Although it is known that the beneficial effects are due to intestinal mucosal colonization by these bacteria, the cell components responsible for the colonization are still not determined. In addition to the beneficial effects of probiotic administration, there were also negative effects including sepsis. Therefore research has been directed to identify specific components of Bifidobacterium responsible for probiotic effects. Currently researchers are focused on identifying, isolating and evaluating the properties of surface proteins that are probably involved in the adhesion of bacterial cells to the intestinal epithelium, improving colonization. This paper is an overview of current knowledge on Bifidobacterium surface proteins. The ways of transport and anchoring proteins in Gram-positive bacterial cells, the assembly of cell wall, and a description of the genus Bifidobacterium are presented.

  13. Engineering novel cell surface chemistry for selective tumor cell targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertozzi, C.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)


    A common feature of many different cancers is the high expression level of the two monosaccharides sialic acid and fucose within the context of cell-surface associated glycoconjugates. A correlation has been made between hypersialylation and/or hyperfucosylation and the highly metastatic phenotype. Thus, a targeting strategy based on sialic acid or fucose expression would be a powerful tool for the development of new cancer cell-selective therapies and diagnostic agents. We have discovered that ketone groups can be incorporated metabolically into cell-surface associated sialic acids. The ketone is can be covalently ligated with hydrazide functionalized proteins or small molecules under physiological conditions. Thus, we have discovered a mechanism to selectively target hydrazide conjugates to highly sialylated cells such as cancer cells. Applications of this technology to the generation of novel cancer cell-selective toxins and MRI contrast reagents will be discussed, in addition to progress towards the use of cell surface fucose residues as vehicles for ketone expression.

  14. Super-Resolution Imaging and Quantitative Analysis of Membrane Protein/Lipid Raft Clustering Mediated by Cell-Surface Self-Assembly of Hybrid Nanoconjugates. (United States)

    Hartley, Jonathan M; Chu, Te-Wei; Peterson, Eric M; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Jiyuan; Harris, Joel; Kopeček, Jindřich


    Super-resolution imaging was used to quantify organizational changes in the plasma membrane after treatment with hybrid nanoconjugates. The nanoconjugates crosslinked CD20 on the surface of malignant B cells, thereby inducing apoptosis. Super-resolution images were analyzed by using pair-correlation analysis to determine cluster size and to count the average number of molecules in the clusters. The role of lipid rafts was investigated by pre-treating cells with a cholesterol chelator and actin destabilizer to prevent lipid raft formation. Lipid raft cluster size correlated with apoptosis induction after treatment with the nanoconjugates. Lipid raft clusters had radii of ∼ 200 nm in cells treated with the hybrid nanoconjugates. Super-resolution images provided precise molecule location coordinates that could be used to determine density of bound conjugates, cluster size, and number of molecules per cluster.

  15. Bacterial cell surface structures in Yersinia enterocolitica. (United States)

    Białas, Nataniel; Kasperkiewicz, Katarzyna; Radziejewska-Lebrecht, Joanna; Skurnik, Mikael


    Yersinia enterocolitica is a widespread member of the family of Enterobacteriaceae that contains both non-virulent and virulent isolates. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, especially belonging to serotypes O:3, O:5,27, O:8 and O:9 are etiologic agents of yersiniosis in animals and humans. Y. enterocolitica cell surface structures that play a significant role in virulence have been subject to many investigations. These include outer membrane (OM) glycolipids such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) and several cell surface adhesion proteins present only in virulent Y. enterocolitica, i.e., Inv, YadA and Ail. While the yadA gene is located on the Yersinia virulence plasmid the Ail, Inv, LPS and ECA are chromosomally encoded. These structures ensure the correct architecture of the OM, provide adhesive properties as well as resistance to antimicrobial peptides and to host innate immune response mechanisms.

  16. Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) prevents ROS-induced cell death by assembling a hexokinase II-Src complex on the mitochondrial surface. (United States)

    Pantic, B; Trevisan, E; Citta, A; Rigobello, M P; Marin, O; Bernardi, P; Salvatori, S; Rasola, A


    The biological functions of myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK), a serine/threonine kinase whose gene mutations cause myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), remain poorly understood. Several DMPK isoforms exist, and the long ones (DMPK-A/B/C/D) are associated with the mitochondria, where they exert unknown activities. We have studied the isoform A of DMPK, which we have found to be prevalently associated to the outer mitochondrial membrane. The kinase activity of mitochondrial DMPK protects cells from oxidative stress and from the ensuing opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP), which would otherwise irreversibly commit cells to death. We observe that DMPK (i) increases the mitochondrial localization of hexokinase II (HK II), (ii) forms a multimeric complex with HK II and with the active form of the tyrosine kinase Src, binding its SH3 domain and (iii) it is tyrosine-phosphorylated by Src. Both interaction among these proteins and tyrosine phosphorylation of DMPK are increased under oxidative stress, and Src inhibition selectively enhances death in DMPK-expressing cells after HK II detachment from the mitochondria. Down-modulation of DMPK abolishes the appearance of muscle markers in in vitro myogenesis, which is rescued by oxidant scavenging. Our data indicate that, together with HK II and Src, mitochondrial DMPK is part of a multimolecular complex endowed with antioxidant and pro-survival properties that could be relevant during the function and differentiation of muscle fibers.

  17. G-protein-mediated interconversions of cell-surface cAMP receptors and their involvement in excitation and desensitization of guanylate cyclase in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Haastert, P.J.; de Wit, R.J.; Janssens, P.M.; Kesbeke, F.; DeGoede, J.


    In Dictyostelium discoideum cells, extracellular cAMP induces the rapid (within 2 s) activation of guanylate cyclase, which is followed by complete desensitization after about 10 s. cAMP binding to these cells is heterogeneous, showing a subclass of fast dissociating sites coupled to adenylate cyclase (A-sites) and a subclass of slowly dissociating sites coupled to guanylate cyclase (B-sites). The kinetics of the B-sites were further investigated on a seconds time scale. Statistical analysis of the association of (/sup 3/H)cAMP to the B-sites and dissociation of the complex revealed that the receptor can exist in three states which interconvert according to the following scheme. cAMP binds to the BF-state (off-rate 2.5 s) which rapidly (t1/2 = 3 s) converts to the BS-state (off-rate 15 s) and subsequently (without a detectable delay) into the BSS-state (off-rate 150 s). In membranes, both the BS- and BSS-states are converted to the BF-state by GTP and GDP, suggesting the involvement of a G-protein. Densensitized cells show a 80% reduction of the formation of the BSS-state, but no reduction of the BF- or BS-state. These data are combined into a model in which the transitions of the B-sites are mediated by a G-protein; activation of the G-protein and guanylate cyclase is associated with the transition of the BS- to the BSS-state of the receptor, whereas desensitization is associated with the inhibition of this transition.

  18. Biological properties of Lactobacillus surface proteins 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Buda


    Full Text Available Lactobacillus, a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, includes many strains of probiotic microflora. Probiotics, by definition, are living microorganisms that exert beneficial effects on the host organism. The morphology and physiology of the Lactobacillus bacterial genus are described. The structure of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria is discussed. The surface S-layer of Lactobacillus composed of proteins (SLP with low molecular mass is presented. Cell surface proteins participating in the regulation of growth and survival of the intestinal epithelium cells are characterized. The influence of stress factors such as increased temperature, pH, and enzymes of gastric and pancreatic juice on SLP expression is described. The ability of binding of heavy metal ions by S-layer proteins is discussed. The characteristics of these structures, including the ability to adhere to epithelial cells, and the inhibition of invasion of pathogenic microflora of type Shigella, Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Clostridium and their toxins, are presented. 

  19. Reprogramming cells with synthetic proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Yang


    Full Text Available Conversion of one cell type into another cell type by forcibly expressing specific cocktails of transcription factors (TFs has demonstrated that cell fates are not fixed and that cellular differentiation can be a two-way street with many intersections. These experiments also illustrated the sweeping potential of TFs to "read" genetically hardwired regulatory information even in cells where they are not normally expressed and to access and open up tightly packed chromatin to execute gene expression programs. Cellular reprogramming enables the modeling of diseases in a dish, to test the efficacy and toxicity of drugs in patient-derived cells and ultimately, could enable cell-based therapies to cure degenerative diseases. Yet, producing terminally differentiated cells that fully resemble their in vivocounterparts in sufficient quantities is still an unmet clinical need. While efforts are being made to reprogram cells nongenetically by using drug-like molecules, defined TF cocktails still dominate reprogramming protocols. Therefore, the optimization of TFs by protein engineering has emerged as a strategy to enhance reprogramming to produce functional, stable and safe cells for regenerative biomedicine. Engineering approaches focused on Oct4, MyoD, Sox17, Nanog and Mef2c and range from chimeric TFs with added transactivation domains, designer transcription activator-like effectors to activate endogenous TFs to reprogramming TFs with rationally engineered DNA recognition principles. Possibly, applying the complete toolkit of protein design to cellular reprogramming can help to remove the hurdles that, thus far, impeded the clinical use of cells derived from reprogramming technologies.

  20. Protein adsorption on materials surfaces with nano-topography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Protein adsorption behavior on the surfaces of biomedical materials is highly related to the biocompatibility of the materials. In the past, numerous research reports were mainly focused on the effect of chemical components of a material's surface on protein adsorption. The effect of surface topography on protein adsorption, the topic of this review, has recently receuvedkeen interest. The influence of surface nano-topographic factors, including roughness, curvature and geometry, on protein adsorption as well as the protein adsorption behavior, such as the amount of protein adsorbed, the activity and morphology of adsorbed protein, is introduced.

  1. Mapping the energy and diffusion landscapes of membrane proteins at the cell surface using high-density single-molecule imaging and Bayesian inference: application to the multi-scale dynamics of glycine receptors in the neuronal membrane

    CERN Document Server

    Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Salvatico, Charlotte; Renner, Marianne; Specht, Christian G; Triller, Antoine; Dahan, Maxime


    Protein mobility is conventionally analyzed in terms of an effective diffusion. Yet, this description often fails to properly distinguish and evaluate the physical parameters (such as the membrane friction) and the biochemical interactions governing the motion. Here, we present a method combining high-density single-molecule imaging and statistical inference to separately map the diffusion and energy landscapes of membrane proteins across the cell surface at ~100 nm resolution (with acquisition of a few minutes). When applying these analytical tools to glycine neurotransmitter receptors (GlyRs) at inhibitory synapses, we find that gephyrin scaffolds act as shallow energy traps (~3 kBT) for GlyRs, with a depth modulated by the biochemical properties of the receptor-gephyrin interaction loop. In turn, the inferred maps can be used to simulate the dynamics of proteins in the membrane, from the level of individual receptors to that of the population, and thereby, to model the stochastic fluctuations of physiologi...

  2. A computational analysis of non-genomic plasma membrane progestin binding proteins: signaling through ion channel-linked cell surface receptors. (United States)

    Morrill, Gene A; Kostellow, Adele B; Gupta, Raj K


    A number of plasma membrane progestin receptors linked to non-genomic events have been identified. These include: (1) α1-subunit of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (ATP1A1), (2) progestin binding PAQR proteins, (3) membrane progestin receptor alpha (mPRα), (4) progesterone receptor MAPR proteins and (5) the association of nuclear receptor (PRB) with the plasma membrane. This study compares: the pore-lining regions (ion channels), transmembrane (TM) helices, caveolin binding (CB) motifs and leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) of putative progesterone receptors. ATP1A1 contains 10 TM helices (TM-2, 4, 5, 6 and 8 are pores) and 4 CB motifs; whereas PAQR5, PAQR6, PAQR7, PAQRB8 and fish mPRα each contain 8 TM helices (TM-3 is a pore) and 2-4 CB motifs. MAPR proteins contain a single TM helix but lack pore-lining regions and CB motifs. PRB contains one or more TM helices in the steroid binding region, one of which is a pore. ATP1A1, PAQR5/7/8, mPRα, and MAPR-1 contain highly conserved leucine-rich repeats (LRR, common to plant membrane proteins) that are ligand binding sites for ouabain-like steroids associated with LRR kinases. LRR domains are within or overlap TM helices predicted to be ion channels (pore-lining regions), with the variable LRR sequence either at the C-terminus (PAQR and MAPR-1) or within an external loop (ATP1A1). Since ouabain-like steroids are produced by animal cells, our findings suggest that ATP1A1, PAQR5/7/8 and mPRα represent ion channel-linked receptors that respond physiologically to ouabain-like steroids (not progestin) similar to those known to regulate developmental and defense-related processes in plants.

  3. Analysis of cell surface antigens by Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojanovic, I.; Schasfoort, R.B.M.; Terstappen, L.W.M.M.


    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is most commonly used to measure bio-molecular interactions. SPR is used significantly less frequent for measuring whole cell interactions. Here we introduce a method to measure whole cells label free using the specific binding of cell surface antigens expressed on th

  4. Expression of a hydrophilic surface protein in infective stages of Leishmania major. (United States)

    Flinn, H M; Rangarajan, D; Smith, D F


    A family of differentially expressed genes from Leishmania major contains one sequence (Gene B) that encodes a novel, hydrophilic protein found on the surface of infective parasite stages. The 177-residue, acidic Gene B protein is characterised by an amino acid repetitive element, comprising 45% of the total molecule, that is related to the cell-wall binding domain of protein A from Staphylococcus aureus. No identifiable signal peptide, membrane-spanning domain or consensus for glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor attachment to the cell surface is found elsewhere in the deduced protein sequence. In vitro, the Gene B protein fractionates with the parasite cell surface glycoconjugates, lipophosphoglycan and the glycoinositolphospholipids. This protein is the first characterised surface peptide marker for infective stages of the Leishmania life cycle.

  5. Protein surface patterning using nanoscale PEG hydrogels. (United States)

    Hong, Ye; Krsko, Peter; Libera, Matthew


    We have used focused electron-beam cross-linking to create nanosized hydrogels and thus present a new method with which to bring the attractive biocompatibility associated with macroscopic hydrogels into the submicron length-scale regime. Using amine-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) thin films on silicon substrates, we generate nanohydrogels with lateral dimensions of order 200 nm which can swell by a factor of at least five, depending on the radiative dose. With the focused electron beam, high-density arrays of such nanohydrogels can be flexibly patterned onto silicon surfaces. Significantly, the amine groups remain functional after e-beam exposure, and we show that they can be used to covalently bind proteins and other molecules. We use bovine serum albumin to amplify the number of amine groups, and we further demonstrate that different proteins can be covalently bound to different hydrogel pads on the same substrate to create multifunctional surfaces useful in emerging bio/proteomic and sensor technologies.

  6. Surface-associated proteins of Staphylococcus aureus: their possible roles in virulence


    Foster, Timothy; McDevitt, D


    textabstractA class of proteins that are associated with the cell surface of Gram-positive bacteria has been recognised. Common structural features which are implicated in the proper secretion and attachment of these proteins to the cell surface occur in the C-termini. N-terminal domains interact with the host by binding to soluble host proteins, to matrix proteins or to host cells. They probably have important roles in pathogenicity by allowing bacteria to avoid host defences and by acting a...

  7. Zinc-dependent mechanical properties of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-forming surface protein SasG. (United States)

    Formosa-Dague, Cécile; Speziale, Pietro; Foster, Timothy J; Geoghegan, Joan A; Dufrêne, Yves F


    Staphylococcus aureus surface protein SasG promotes cell-cell adhesion during the accumulation phase of biofilm formation, but the molecular basis of this interaction remains poorly understood. Here, we unravel the mechanical properties of SasG on the surface of living bacteria, that is, in its native cellular environment. Nanoscale multiparametric imaging of living bacteria reveals that Zn(2+) strongly increases cell wall rigidity and activates the adhesive function of SasG. Single-cell force measurements show that SasG mediates cell-cell adhesion via specific Zn(2+)-dependent homophilic bonds between β-sheet-rich G5-E domains on neighboring cells. The force required to unfold individual domains is remarkably strong, up to ∼500 pN, thus explaining how SasG can withstand physiological shear forces. We also observe that SasG forms homophilic bonds with the structurally related accumulation-associated protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis, suggesting the possibility of multispecies biofilms during host colonization and infection. Collectively, our findings support a model in which zinc plays a dual role in activating cell-cell adhesion: adsorption of zinc ions to the bacterial cell surface increases cell wall cohesion and favors the projection of elongated SasG proteins away from the cell surface, thereby enabling zinc-dependent homophilic bonds between opposing cells. This work demonstrates an unexpected relationship between mechanics and adhesion in a staphylococcal surface protein, which may represent a general mechanism among bacterial pathogens for activating cell association.

  8. Acyl-CoA binding protein is an essential protein in mammalian cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faergeman, Nils J; Knudsen, Jens; Færgeman, Nils J.


    In the present work, small interference RNA was used to knock-down acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) in HeLa, HepG2 and Chang cells. Transfection with ACBP-specific siRNA stopped growth, detached cells from the growth surface and blocked thymidine and acetate incorporation. The results show...... that depletion of ACBP in mammalian cells results in lethality, suggesting that ACBP is an essential protein....

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis surface proteins: a view from the genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirt, R. P.; Noel, C. J.; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas


    Surface proteins of mucosal microbial pathogens play multiple and essential roles in initiating and sustaining the colonization of the heavily defended mucosa. The protist Trichomonas vaginalis is one of the most common human sexually transmitted pathogens that colonize the urogenital mucosa....... However, little is known about its surface proteins. The recently completed draft genome sequence of T. vaginalis provides an invaluable resource to guide molecular and cellular characterization of surface proteins and to investigate their role in pathogenicity. Here, we review the existing data on T....... vaginalis surface proteins and summarize some of the main findings from the recent in silico characterization of its candidate surface proteins....

  10. Cell surface engineering of yeast for applications in white biotechnology. (United States)

    Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi


    Cell surface engineering is a promising strategy for the molecular breeding of whole-cell biocatalysts. By using this strategy, yeasts can be constructed by the cell surface display of functional proteins; these yeasts are referred to as arming yeasts. Because reactions using arming yeasts as whole-cell biocatalysts occur on the cell surface, materials that cannot enter the cell can be used as reaction substrates. Numerous arming yeasts have therefore been constructed for a wide range of uses such as biofuel production, synthesis of valuable chemicals, adsorption or degradation of environmental pollutants, recovery of rare metal ions, and biosensors. Here, we review the science of yeast cell surface modification as well as current applications and future opportunities.

  11. Surface-tethered polymers to influence protein adsorption and microbial adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, Willem


    In various applications it is desired that biological cells or protein molecules are immobilized at surfaces. Examples are enzymes or cells in bioreactors and biosensors, immuno-proteins in solid-state diagnostics and proteinaceous farmacons in drug delivery systems. In order to retain biological ac

  12. Biomaterial surface proteomic signature determines interaction with epithelial cells. (United States)

    Abdallah, Mohamed-Nur; Tran, Simon D; Abughanam, Ghada; Laurenti, Marco; Zuanazzi, David; Mezour, Mohamed A; Xiao, Yizhi; Cerruti, Marta; Siqueira, Walter L; Tamimi, Faleh


    Cells interact with biomaterials indirectly through extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins adsorbed onto their surface. Accordingly, it could be hypothesized that the surface proteomic signature of a biomaterial might determine its interaction with cells. Here, we present a surface proteomic approach to test this hypothesis in the specific case of biomaterial-epithelial cell interactions. In particular, we determined the surface proteomic signature of different biomaterials exposed to the ECM of epithelial cells (basal lamina). We revealed that the biomaterial surface chemistry determines the surface proteomic profile, and subsequently the interaction with epithelial cells. In addition, we found that biomaterials with surface chemistries closer to that of percutaneous tissues, such as aminated PMMA and aminated PDLLA, promoted higher selective adsorption of key basal lamina proteins (laminins, nidogen-1) and subsequently improved their interactions with epithelial cells. These findings suggest that mimicking the surface chemistry of natural percutaneous tissues can improve biomaterial-epithelial integration, and thus provide a rationale for the design of improved biomaterial surfaces for skin regeneration and percutaneous medical devices.

  13. Surface Display of Domain Ⅲ of Japanese Encephalitis Virus E Protein on Salmonella Typhimurium by Using an Ice Nucleation Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-lin Dou; Tao Jing; Jing-jing Fan; Zhi-ming Yuan


    A bacterial cell surface display technique based on an ice nucleation protein has been employed for the development of live vaccine against viral infection.Due to its ubiquitous ability to invade host cells,Salmonella typhimurium might be a good candidate for displaying viral antigens.We demonstrated the surface display of domain III of Japanese encephalitis virus E protein and the enhanced green fluorescent protein on S.typhimurium BRD509 using the ice nucleation protein.The effects of the motif in the ice nucleation protein on the effective display of integral protein were also investigated.The results showed that display motifs in the protein can target integral foreign protein on the surface of S.typhimurium BRD509.Moreover,recombinant strains with surface displayed viral proteins retained their invasiveness,suggesting that the recombinant S.typhimurium can be used as live vaccine vector for eliciting complete immunogenicity.The data may yield better understanding of the mechanism by which ice nucleation protein displays foreign proteins in the Salmonella strain.

  14. Investigation of the Cell Surface Proteome of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimin Xiong


    Full Text Available The present study examined the cell surface proteome of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC compared to human fibroblasts. Cell surface proteins were prelabelled with CyDye before processing to extract the membrane lysates, which were separated using 2D electrophoresis. Selected differentially expressed protein “spots” were identified using Mass spectrometry. Four proteins were selected for validation: CD73, CD90, Annexin A2, and sphingosine kinase 1 previously associated with mesenchymal stem cells. Flow cytometric analysis found that CD73 and CD90 were highly expressed by human PDLSC and gingival fibroblasts but not by keratinocytes, indicating that these antigens could be used as potential markers for distinguishing between mesenchymal cells and epithelial cell populations. Annexin A2 was also found to be expressed at low copy number on the cell surface of human PDLSC and gingival fibroblasts, while human keratinocytes lacked any cell surface expression of Annexin A2. In contrast, sphingosine kinase 1 expression was detected in all the cell types examined using immunocytochemical analysis. These proteomic studies form the foundation to further define the cell surface protein expression profile of PDLSC in order to better characterise this cell population and help develop novel strategies for the purification of this stem cell population.

  15. Surface proteins of bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Dylus


    Full Text Available Beneficial effects due to the presence of probiotic bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium in the human intestinal tract are still an interesting object of study. So far activities have been confirmed of bifidobacteria in stimulation of the host immune system, stimulation of tumor cell apoptosis, improvement of bowel motility, alleviation of symptoms of lactose intolerance, cholesterol lowering capacity, prevention and treatment of diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome, alleviation of allergy or atopic dermatitis, maintenance of homeostasis of the intestine, and stimulation of the development of normal intestinal microflora in infants. A multitude of therapeutic properties encourages researchers to investigate the possibility of using the potential of Bifidobacterium in the prevention and treatment of other conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and depression. Although it is known that the beneficial effects are due to intestinal mucosal colonization by these bacteria, the cell components responsible for the colonization are still not determined. In addition to the beneficial effects of probiotic administration, there were also negative effects including sepsis. Therefore research has been directed to identify specific components of Bifidobacterium responsible for probiotic effects. Currently researchers are focused on identifying, isolating and evaluating the properties of surface proteins that are probably involved in the adhesion of bacterial cells to the intestinal epithelium, improving colonization. This paper is an overview of current knowledge on Bifidobacterium surface proteins. The ways of transport and anchoring proteins in Gram-positive bacterial cells, the assembly of cell wall, and a description of the genus Bifidobacterium are presented.

  16. A comparison between protein profiles of B cell subpopulations and mantle cell lymphoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehtiö Janne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background B-cell lymphomas are thought to reflect different stages of B-cell maturation. Based on cytogenetics and molecular markers, mantle cell lymphoma (MCL is presumed to derive predominantly from naïve, pre-germinal centre (pre-GC B lymphocytes. The aim of this study was to develop a method to investigate the similarity between MCL cells and different B-cell compartments on a protein expression level. Methods Subpopulations of B cells representing the germinal centre (GC, the pre-GC mantle zone and the post-GC marginal zone were isolated from tonsils using automated magnetic cell sorting (AutoMACS of cells based on their expression of CD27 and IgD. Protein profiling of the B cell subsets, of cell lines representing different lymphomas and of primary MCL samples was performed using top-down proteomics profiling by surface-enhanced laser detection/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS. Results Quantitative MS data of significant protein peaks (p-value Conclusion AutoMACS sorting generates sufficient purity to enable a comparison between protein profiles of B cell subpopulations and malignant B lymphocytes applying SELDI-TOF-MS. Further validation with an increased number of patient samples and identification of differentially expressed proteins would enable a search for possible treatment targets that are expressed during the early development of MCL.

  17. Lack of Fas/CD95 surface expression in highly proliferative leukemic cell lines correlates with loss of CtBP/BARS and redirection of the protein toward giant lysosomal structures. (United States)

    Monleón, Inmaculada; Iturralde, María; Martínez-Lorenzo, María José; Monteagudo, Luis; Lasierra, Pilar; Larrad, Luis; Piñeiro, Andrés; Naval, Javier; Alava, María Angeles; Anel, Alberto


    Fas/CD95 is a type-I membrane glycoprotein, which inducesapoptotic cell death when ligated by its physiological ligand. We generated previously hyperproliferative sublines derived from the human T-cell leukemia Jurkat, Jurkat-ws and Jurkat-hp, which lost Fas/CD95 surface expression. We have now observed that the total amount of Fas protein is similar in the sublines and in the parental cells, indicating that in the sublines Fas remains in an intracellular compartment. We have found that the protein is directed toward lysosomes in the sublines, where it is degraded. This defect in the secretory pathway correlates with loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids from cellular lipids, and with the lack of expression of endophilin-I and CtBP/BARS, enzymes that regulate vesicle fission by catalyzing the acylation of arachidonate into lysophosphatidic acid. In addition, great multillamer bodies, which contained acid phosphatase activity, absent in the parental Jurkat cells, were observed by transmission electron microscopy in the sublines.

  18. Unique cellular events occurring during the initial interaction of macrophages with matrix-retained or methylated aggregated low density lipoprotein (LDL). Prolonged cell-surface contact during which ldl-cholesteryl ester hydrolysis exceeds ldl protein degradation. (United States)

    Buton, X; Mamdouh, Z; Ghosh, R; Du, H; Kuriakose, G; Beatini, N; Grabowski, G A; Maxfield, F R; Tabas, I


    A critical event in atherogenesis is the interaction of arterial wall macrophages with subendothelial lipoproteins. Although most studies have investigated this interaction by incubating cultured macrophages with monomeric lipoproteins dissolved in media, arterial wall macrophages encounter lipoproteins that are mostly bound to subendothelial extracellular matrix, and these lipoproteins are often aggregated or fused. Herein, we utilize a specialized cell-culture system to study the initial interaction of macrophages with aggregated low density lipoprotein (LDL) bound to extracellular matrix. The aggregated LDL remains extracellular for a relatively prolonged period of time and becomes lodged in invaginations in the surface of the macrophages. As expected, the degradation of the protein moiety of the LDL was very slow. Remarkably, however, hydrolysis of the cholesteryl ester (CE) moiety of the LDL was 3-7-fold higher than that of the protein moiety, in stark contrast to the situation with receptor-mediated endocytosis of acetyl-LDL. Similar results were obtained using another experimental system in which the degradation of aggregated LDL protein was delayed by LDL methylation rather than by retention on matrix. Additional experiments indicated the following properties of this interaction: (a) LDL-CE hydrolysis is catalyzed by lysosomal acid lipase; (b) neither scavenger receptors nor the LDL receptor appear necessary for the excess LDL-CE hydrolysis; and (c) LDL-CE hydrolysis in this system is resistant to cellular potassium depletion, which further distinguishes this process from receptor-mediated endocytosis. In summary, experimental systems specifically designed to mimic the in vivo interaction of arterial wall macrophages with subendothelial lipoproteins have demonstrated an initial period of prolonged cell-surface contact in which CE hydrolysis exceeds protein degradation.

  19. G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling in Stem Cells and Cancer


    Lynch, Jennifer R.; Jenny Yingzi Wang


    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large superfamily of cell-surface signaling proteins that bind extracellular ligands and transduce signals into cells via heterotrimeric G proteins. GPCRs are highly tractable drug targets. Aberrant expression of GPCRs and G proteins has been observed in various cancers and their importance in cancer stem cells has begun to be appreciated. We have recently reported essential roles for G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) and G protein subunit Gαq in ...

  20. Isolation of plant cell wall proteins


    Jamet, Elisabeth; Boudart, Georges; Borderies, Gisèle; Charmont, Stéphane; Lafitte, Claude; Rossignol, Michel; Canut, Hervé; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F


    The quality of a proteomic analysis of a cell compartment strongly depends on the reliability of the isolation procedure for the cell compartment of interest. Plant cell walls possess specific drawbacks: (i) the lack of a surrounding membrane may result in the loss of cell wall proteins (CWP) during the isolation procedure; (ii) polysaccharide networks of cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectins form potential traps for contaminants such as intracellular proteins; (iii) the presence of proteins ...

  1. Surface proteins of Staphylococcus aureus play an important role in experimental skin infection. (United States)

    Kwiecinski, Jakub; Jin, Tao; Josefsson, Elisabet


    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of skin infections that range from mild diseases up to life-threatening conditions. Mechanisms of S. aureus virulence in those infections remain poorly studied. To investigate the impact of S. aureus surface proteins on skin infection, we used mouse models of skin abscess formation and skin necrosis, induced by a subcutaneous injection of bacteria. In the skin abscess model, a sortase-deficient S. aureus strain lacking all of its cell-wall anchored proteins was less virulent than its wild-type strain. Also, strains specifically lacking protein A, fibronecting binding proteins, clumping factor A or surface protein SasF were impaired in their virulence. When a model of dermonecrosis was studied, the S. aureus surface proteins could not be shown to be involved. In summary, surface proteins play an important role in virulence of S. aureus skin abscess infections, but not in formation of skin necrosis.

  2. Identification and characterization of a cell surface scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein of Sciaenops ocellatus: bacterial interaction and its dependence on the conserved structural features of the SRCR domain. (United States)

    Qiu, Reng; Sun, Bo-Guang; Li, Jun; Liu, Xiao; Sun, Li


    The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) proteins are secreted or membrane-bound receptors with one or multiple SRCR domains. Members of the SRCR superfamily are known to have diverse functions that include pathogen recognition and immunoregulation. In teleost, although protein sequences with SRCR structure have been identified in some species, very little functional investigation has been carried out. In this study, we identified and characterized a teleost SRCR protein from red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. The protein was named S. ocellatus SRCR1 (SoSRCRP1). SoSRCRP1 is 410-residue in length and was predicted to be a transmembrane protein, with the extracellular region containing a collagen triple helix repeat and a SRCR domain. The SRCR domain has six conserved cysteines, of which, C338 and C399, C351 and C409, and C379 and C389 were predicted to form three disulfide bonds. SoSRCRP1 expression was detected mainly in immune-relevant tissues and upregulated by bacterial and viral infection. In head kidney leukocytes, bacterial infection stimulated the expression of SoSRCRP1, and the expressed SoSRCRP1 was localized on cell surface. Recombinant SoSRCRP1 (rSoSRCRP1) corresponding to the SRCR domain was purified from Escherichia coli and found to be able to bind Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. To examine the structure-function relationship of SoSRCRP1, the mutant proteins SoSRCRP1M1, SoSRCRP1M2, SoSRCRP1M3, and SoSRCRP1M4 were created, which bear C351S and C409S, C338S, C379S, and R325A mutations respectively. Compared to rSoSRCRP1, all mutants were significantly reduced in the ability of bacterial interaction, with the highest reduction observed with SoSRCRP1M4. Taken together, these results indicate that SoSRCRP1 is a cell surface-localized SRCR protein that binds bacterial ligands in a manner that depends on the conserved structural features of the SRCR domain.

  3. CD44 is the principal cell surface receptor for hyaluronate. (United States)

    Aruffo, A; Stamenkovic, I; Melnick, M; Underhill, C B; Seed, B


    CD44 is a broadly distributed cell surface protein thought to mediate cell attachment to extracelular matrix components or specific cell surface ligands. We have created soluble CD44-immunoglobulin fusion proteins and characterized their reactivity with tissue sections and lymph node high endothelial cells in primary culture. The CD44 target on high endothelial cells is sensitive to enzymes that degrade hyaluronate, and binding of soluble CD44 is blocked by low concentrations of hyaluronate or high concentrations of chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfates. A mouse anti-hamster hyaluonate receptor antibody reacts with COS cells expressing hamster CD44 cDNA. In sections of all tissues examined, including lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, predigestion with hyaluronidase eliminated CD44 binding.

  4. Detecting protein-protein interactions in living cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschalk, Marie; Bach, Anders; Hansen, Jakob Lerche


    to the endogenous C-terminal peptide of the NMDA receptor, as evaluated by a cell-free protein-protein interaction assay. However, it is important to address both membrane permeability and effect in living cells. Therefore a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assay was established, where the C...

  5. Attachment of human primary osteoblast cells to modified polyethylene surfaces. (United States)

    Poulsson, Alexandra H C; Mitchell, Stephen A; Davidson, Marcus R; Johnstone, Alan J; Emmison, Neil; Bradley, Robert H


    Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has a long history of use in medical devices, primarily for articulating surfaces due to its inherent low surface energy which limits tissue integration. To widen the applications of UHMWPE, the surface energy can be increased. The increase in surface energy would improve the adsorption of proteins and attachment of cells to allow tissue integration, thereby allowing UHMWPE to potentially be used for a wider range of implants. The attachment and function of human primary osteoblast-like (HOB) cells to surfaces of UHMWPE with various levels of incorporated surface oxygen have been investigated. The surface modification of the UHMWPE was produced by exposure to a UV/ozone treatment. The resulting surface chemistry was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the topography and surface structure were probed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which showed an increase in surface oxygen from 11 to 26 atom % with no significant change to the surface topography. The absolute root mean square roughness of both untreated and UV/ozone-treated surfaces was within 350-450 nm, and the water contact angles decreased with increasing oxygen incorporation, i.e., showing an increase in surface hydrophilicity. Cell attachment and functionality were assessed over a 21 day period for each cell-surface combination studied; these were performed using SEM and the alamarBlue assay to study cell attachment and proliferation and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis to confirm extracellular mineral deposits, and total protein assay to examine the intra- and extracellular protein expressed by the cells. HOB cells cultured for 21 days on the modified UHMWPE surfaces with 19 and 26 atom % oxygen incorporated showed significantly higher cell densities compared to cells cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) from day 3 onward. This indicated that the cells attached and proliferated more

  6. Pre-absorbed immunoproteomics: a novel method for the detection of Streptococcus suis surface proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2 is a zoonotic pathogen that can cause infections in pigs and humans. Bacterial surface proteins are often investigated as potential vaccine candidates and biomarkers of virulence. In this study, a novel method for identifying bacterial surface proteins is presented, which combines immunoproteomic and immunoserologic techniques. Critical to the success of this new method is an improved procedure for generating two-dimensional electrophoresis gel profiles of S. suis proteins. The S. suis surface proteins identified in this study include muramidase-released protein precursor (MRP and an ABC transporter protein, while MRP is thought to be one of the main virulence factors in SS2 located on the bacterial surface. Herein, we demonstrate that the ABC transporter protein can bind to HEp-2 cells, which strongly suggests that this protein is located on the bacterial cell surface and may be involved in pathogenesis. An immunofluorescence assay confirmed that the ABC transporter is localized to the bacterial outer surface. This new method may prove to be a useful tool for identifying surface proteins, and aid in the development of new vaccine subunits and disease diagnostics.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-li Liu; Zhao-qiang Wu; Dan Li; Hong Chen


    The present work aimed to study the interaction between plasma proteins and PVP-modified surfaces under more complex protein conditions.In the competitive adsorption of fibrinogen (Fg) and human serum albumin (HSA),the modified surfaces showed preferential adsorption of HSA.In 100% plasma,the amount of Fg adsorbed onto PVP-modified surfaces was as low as 10 ng/cm2,suggesting the excellent protein resistance properties of the modified surfaces.In addition,immunoblots of proteins eluted from the modified surfaces after plasma contact confirmed that PVP-modified surfaces can repel most plasma proteins,especially proteins that play important roles in the process of blood coagulation.

  8. High resolution imaging of surface patterns of single bacterial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greif, Dominik; Wesner, Daniel [Experimental Biophysics and Applied Nanoscience, Bielefeld University, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Regtmeier, Jan, E-mail: [Experimental Biophysics and Applied Nanoscience, Bielefeld University, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Anselmetti, Dario [Experimental Biophysics and Applied Nanoscience, Bielefeld University, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany)


    We systematically studied the origin of surface patterns observed on single Sinorhizobium meliloti bacterial cells by comparing the complementary techniques atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Conditions ranged from living bacteria in liquid to fixed bacteria in high vacuum. Stepwise, we applied different sample modifications (fixation, drying, metal coating, etc.) and characterized the observed surface patterns. A detailed analysis revealed that the surface structure with wrinkled protrusions in SEM images were not generated de novo but most likely evolved from similar and naturally present structures on the surface of living bacteria. The influence of osmotic stress to the surface structure of living cells was evaluated and also the contribution of exopolysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by imaging two mutant strains of the bacterium under native conditions. AFM images of living bacteria in culture medium exhibited surface structures of the size of single proteins emphasizing the usefulness of AFM for high resolution cell imaging.

  9. Development of exosome surface display technology in living human cells. (United States)

    Stickney, Zachary; Losacco, Joseph; McDevitt, Sophie; Zhang, Zhiwen; Lu, Biao


    Surface display technology is an emerging key player in presenting functional proteins for targeted drug delivery and therapy. Although a number of technologies exist, a desirable mammalian surface display system is lacking. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that facilitate cell-cell communication and can be engineered as nano-shuttles for cell-specific delivery. In this study, we report the development of a novel exosome surface display technology by exploiting mammalian cell secreted nano-vesicles and their trans-membrane protein tetraspanins. By constructing a set of fluorescent reporters for both the inner and outer surface display on exosomes at two selected sites of tetraspanins, we demonstrated the successful exosomal display via gene transfection and monitoring fluorescence in vivo. We subsequently validated our system by demonstrating the expected intracellular partitioning of reporter protein into sub-cellular compartments and secretion of exosomes from human HEK293 cells. Lastly, we established the stable engineered cells to harness the ability of this robust system for continuous production, secretion, and uptake of displayed exosomes with minimal impact on human cell biology. In sum, our work paved the way for potential applications of exosome, including exosome tracking and imaging, targeted drug delivery, as well as exosome-mediated vaccine and therapy.

  10. Programming Surface Chemistry with Engineered Cells. (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihua; Heyde, Keith C; Scott, Felicia Y; Paek, Sung-Ho; Ruder, Warren C


    We have developed synthetic gene networks that enable engineered cells to selectively program surface chemistry. E. coli were engineered to upregulate biotin synthase, and therefore biotin synthesis, upon biochemical induction. Additionally, two different functionalized surfaces were developed that utilized binding between biotin and streptavidin to regulate enzyme assembly on programmable surfaces. When combined, the interactions between engineered cells and surfaces demonstrated that synthetic biology can be used to engineer cells that selectively control and modify molecular assembly by exploiting surface chemistry. Our system is highly modular and has the potential to influence fields ranging from tissue engineering to drug development and delivery.

  11. Fate of the surface protein gp70 during entry of retrovirus into mouse fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, K.B.


    The kinetics of the viral surface protein gp70 and the viral core proteins p30 and p15C were followed during retrovirus entry into mouse fibroblasts. All three proteins were internalized, but whereas essentially all the gp70 was degraded, approximately one-third of the core proteins remained stable in the cells. These diverging routes of the different proteins are in agreement with the proposed route, that retrovirus enters the cells by endocytosis followed by a membrane fusion between the virus membrane and the vesicle membrane.

  12. Conserved Pro-Glu (PE) and Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) Protein Domains Target LipY Lipases of Pathogenic Mycobacteria to the Cell Surface via the ESX-5 Pathway* (United States)

    Daleke, Maria H.; Cascioferro, Alessandro; de Punder, Karin; Ummels, Roy; Abdallah, Abdallah M.; van der Wel, Nicole; Peters, Peter J.; Luirink, Joen; Manganelli, Riccardo; Bitter, Wilbert


    The type VII secretion system ESX-5 is a major pathway for export of PE and PPE proteins in pathogenic mycobacteria. These mycobacteria-specific protein families are characterized by conserved N-terminal domains of 100 and 180 amino acids, which contain the proline-glutamic acid (PE) and proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) motifs after which they are named. Here we investigated secretion of the triacylglycerol lipase LipY, which in fast-growing mycobacteria contains a signal sequence, but in slow-growing species appears to have replaced the signal peptide with a PE or PPE domain. Selected LipY homologues were expressed in wild-type Mycobacterium marinum and its corresponding ESX-5 mutant, and localization of the proteins was investigated by immunoblotting and electron microscopy. Our study shows that Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE-LipY (LipYtub) and M. marinum PPE-LipY (LipYmar) are both secreted to the bacterial surface in an ESX-5-dependent fashion. After transport, the PE/PPE domains are removed by proteolytic cleavage. In contrast, Mycobacterium gilvum LipY, which has a signal sequence, is not transported to the cell surface. Furthermore, we show that LipYtub and LipYmar require their respective PE and PPE domains for ESX-5-dependent secretion. The role of the PE domain in ESX-5 secretion was confirmed in a whole cell lipase assay, in which wild-type bacteria expressing full-length LipYtub, but not LipYtub lacking its PE domain, were shown to hydrolyze extracellular lipids. In conclusion, both PE and PPE domains contain a signal required for secretion of LipY by the ESX-5 system, and these domains are proteolytically removed upon translocation. PMID:21471225

  13. A novel dual promoter DNA vaccine induces CD8+ response against Toxoplasma gondii sporozoite specific surface protein “SporoSAG” through non-apoptotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Gülçe İz


    The results of this study reveal the ability of SporoSAG protein to induce CD8+ T lymphocyte response for the first time. Overall, SporoSAG protein can be included to multivalant vaccine formulations in future studies to increase the protection in infections acquired through T. gondii oocysts.

  14. Adsorption of HP Lattice Proteins on Patterned Surfaces (United States)

    Wilson, Matthew; Shi, Guangjie; Landau, David P.; Li, Ying Wai; Wuest, Thomas


    The HP lattice model[2] is a course-grained, yet useful tool for modeling protein sequences where amino acids are treated as either hydrophobic (H) or polar (P) monomers. With the use of Wang-Landau sampling and an efficient set of Monte-Carlo moves[3], HP lattice proteins adsorbed on patterned surfaces are studied. Each substrate is modeled as a periodically bounded pattern of lattice sites that interact with either H or P monomers in the lattice protein, where the energy contributions of the surface are determined by assigned coupling strengths. By analyzing energy degeneracies, along with the thermodynamic and structural quantities of the protein, both the protein folding and surface adsorption can be observed. The adsorption behavior of the lattice proteins on patterned surfaces will be compared to those interacting with uniform surfaces. Research supported by NSF.

  15. Structures of multidomain proteins adsorbed on hydrophobic interaction chromatography surfaces. (United States)

    Gospodarek, Adrian M; Sun, Weitong; O'Connell, John P; Fernandez, Erik J


    In hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC), interactions between buried hydrophobic residues and HIC surfaces can cause conformational changes that interfere with separations and cause yield losses. This paper extends our previous investigations of protein unfolding in HIC chromatography by identifying protein structures on HIC surfaces under denaturing conditions and relating them to solution behavior. The thermal unfolding of three model multidomain proteins on three HIC surfaces of differing hydrophobicities was investigated with hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HXMS). The data were analyzed to obtain unfolding rates and Gibbs free energies for unfolding of adsorbed proteins. The melting temperatures of the proteins were lowered, but by different amounts, on the different surfaces. In addition, the structures of the proteins on the chromatographic surfaces were similar to the partially unfolded structures produced in the absence of a surface by temperature as well as by chemical denaturants. Finally, it was found that patterns of residue exposure to solvent on different surfaces at different temperatures can be largely superimposed. These findings suggest that protein unfolding on various HIC surfaces might be quantitatively related to protein unfolding in solution and that details of surface unfolding behavior might be generalized.

  16. Cell attachment on ion implanted titanium surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Sreejith


    Full Text Available Purpose: Of outmost importance for the successful use of an implant is a good adhesion of the surrounding tissue to the biomaterial. In addition to the surface composition of the implant, the surface topography also influences the properties of the adherent cells. In the present investigation, ion implanted and untreated surfaces were compared for cell adhesion and spreading.Design/methodology/approach: The surface topography of the surfaces were analyzed using AFM and the cell studies with SEM.Findings: The results of our present investigation is indicative of the fact that ion implanted titanium surface offer better cell binding affinity compared to untreated/polished surface.Practical implications: Success of non-biodegradable implants will first and foremost depend on biocompatibility, followed by the capacity of the surface topography of the implants to evince desired cell matrix, surface cell matrix interactions. In the present study, the cell growth on ion implanted Ti material is analyzed and discussed.Originality/value: In this paper, we have utilized ion implantation technique, which will produce nano-texturing of the surface without producing any detrimental effects to both the dimensions and properties of the implants.

  17. Versatile protein tagging in cells with split fluorescent protein


    Kamiyama, Daichi; Sekine, Sayaka; Barsi-Rhyne, Benjamin; Hu, Jeffrey; Chen, Baohui; Gilbert, Luke A.; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Leonetti, Manuel D.; Marshall, Wallace F.; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Huang, Bo


    In addition to the popular method of fluorescent protein fusion, live cell protein imaging has now seen more and more application of epitope tags. The small size of these tags may reduce functional perturbation and enable signal amplification. To address their background issue, we adapt self-complementing split fluorescent proteins as epitope tags for live cell protein labelling. The two tags, GFP11 and sfCherry11 are derived from the eleventh β-strand of super-folder GFP and sfCherry, respec...

  18. Expanding the diversity of unnatural cell surface sialic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luchansky, Sarah J.; Goon, Scarlett; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.


    Novel chemical reactivity can be introduced onto cell surfaces through metabolic oligosaccharide engineering. This technique exploits the substrate promiscuity of cellular biosynthetic enzymes to deliver unnatural monosaccharides bearing bioorthogonal functional groups into cellular glycans. For example, derivatives of N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) are converted by the cellular biosynthetic machinery into the corresponding sialic acids and subsequently delivered to the cell surface in the form of sialoglycoconjugates. Analogs of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) are also metabolized and incorporated into cell surface glycans, likely through the sialic acid and GalNAc salvage pathways, respectively. Furthermore, GlcNAc analogs can be incorporated into nucleocytoplasmic proteins in place of {beta}-O-GlcNAc residues. These pathways have been exploited to integrate unique electrophiles such as ketones and azides into the target glycoconjugate class. These functional groups can be further elaborated in a chemoselective fashion by condensation with hydrazides and by Staudinger ligation, respectively, thereby introducing detectable probes onto the cell. In conclusion, sialic acid derivatives are efficient vehicles for delivery of bulky functional groups to cell surfaces and masking of their hydroxyl groups improves their cellular uptake and utilization. Furthermore, the successful introduction of photoactivatable aryl azides into cell surface glycans opens up new avenues for studying sialic acid-binding proteins and elucidating the role of sialic acid in essential processes such as signaling and cell adhesion.

  19. Surface passivation for single-molecule protein studies. (United States)

    Chandradoss, Stanley D; Haagsma, Anna C; Lee, Young Kwang; Hwang, Jae-Ho; Nam, Jwa-Min; Joo, Chirlmin


    Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy has proven to be instrumental in understanding a wide range of biological phenomena at the nanoscale. Important examples of what this technique can yield to biological sciences are the mechanistic insights on protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions. When interactions of proteins are probed at the single-molecule level, the proteins or their substrates are often immobilized on a glass surface, which allows for a long-term observation. This immobilization scheme may introduce unwanted surface artifacts. Therefore, it is essential to passivate the glass surface to make it inert. Surface coating using polyethylene glycol (PEG) stands out for its high performance in preventing proteins from non-specifically interacting with a glass surface. However, the polymer coating procedure is difficult, due to the complication arising from a series of surface treatments and the stringent requirement that a surface needs to be free of any fluorescent molecules at the end of the procedure. Here, we provide a robust protocol with step-by-step instructions. It covers surface cleaning including piranha etching, surface functionalization with amine groups, and finally PEG coating. To obtain a high density of a PEG layer, we introduce a new strategy of treating the surface with PEG molecules over two rounds, which remarkably improves the quality of passivation. We provide representative results as well as practical advice for each critical step so that anyone can achieve the high quality surface passivation.

  20. Iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) proteins of Staphylococcus lugdunensis. (United States)

    Zapotoczna, Marta; Heilbronner, Simon; Speziale, Pietro; Foster, Timothy J


    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is the only coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species with a locus encoding iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) proteins. In Staphylococcus aureus, the Isd proteins capture heme from hemoglobin and transfer it across the wall to a membrane-bound transporter, which delivers it into the cytoplasm, where heme oxygenases release iron. The Isd proteins of S. lugdunensis are expressed under iron-restricted conditions. We propose that S. lugdunensis IsdB and IsdC proteins perform the same functions as those of S. aureus. S. lugdunensis IsdB is the only hemoglobin receptor within the isd locus. It specifically binds human hemoglobin with a dissociation constant (K(d)) of 23 nM and transfers heme on IsdC. IsdB expression promotes bacterial growth in an iron-limited medium containing human hemoglobin but not mouse hemoglobin. This correlates with weak binding of IsdB to mouse hemoglobin in vitro. Unlike IsdB and IsdC, the proteins IsdJ and IsdK are not sorted to the cell wall in S. lugdunensis. In contrast, IsdJ expressed in S. aureus and Lactococcus lactis is anchored to peptidoglycan, suggesting that S. lugdunensis sortases may differ in signal recognition or could be defective. IsdJ and IsdK are present in the culture supernatant, suggesting that they could acquire heme from the external milieu. The IsdA protein of S. aureus protects bacteria from bactericidal lipids due to its hydrophilic C-terminal domain. IsdJ has a similar region and protected S. aureus and L. lactis as efficiently as IsdA but, possibly due to its location, was less effective in its natural host.

  1. Recent Insights into Cell Surface Heparan Sulphate Proteoglycans and Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, John R; Multhaupt, Hinke; Sanderson, Ralph D


    A small group of cell surface receptors are proteoglycans, possessing a core protein with one or more covalently attached glycosaminoglycan chains. They are virtually ubiquitous and their chains are major sites at which protein ligands of many types interact. These proteoglycans can signal and re...... or fragmented proteoglycans into exosomes that can be paracrine effectors or biomarkers, and lateral interactions between some proteoglycans and calcium channels that impact the actin cytoskeleton....

  2. Deciphering fine molecular details of proteins' structure and function with a Protein Surface Topography (PST) method. (United States)

    Koromyslova, Anna D; Chugunov, Anton O; Efremov, Roman G


    Molecular surfaces are the key players in biomolecular recognition and interactions. Nowadays, it is trivial to visualize a molecular surface and surface-distributed properties in three-dimensional space. However, such a representation trends to be biased and ambiguous in case of thorough analysis. We present a new method to create 2D spherical projection maps of entire protein surfaces and manipulate with them--protein surface topography (PST). It permits visualization and thoughtful analysis of surface properties. PST helps to easily portray conformational transitions, analyze proteins' properties and their dynamic behavior, improve docking performance, and reveal common patterns and dissimilarities in molecular surfaces of related bioactive peptides. This paper describes basic usage of PST with an example of small G-proteins conformational transitions, mapping of caspase-1 intersubunit interface, and intrinsic "complementarity" in the conotoxin-acetylcholine binding protein complex. We suggest that PST is a beneficial approach for structure-function studies of bioactive peptides and small proteins.

  3. Hydrophobic patches on the surfaces of protein structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijnzaad, P.; Berendsen, H.J.C.; Argos, P.


    A survey of hydrophobic patches on the surface of 112 soluble, monomeric proteins is presented, The largest patch on each individual protein averages around 400 Angstrom(2) but can range from 200 to 1,200 Angstrom(2). These areas are not correlated to the sizes of the proteins and only weakly to the

  4. Surface modification of diamond-like carbon films with protein via polydopamine inspired coatings (United States)

    Tao, Caihong; Yang, Shengrong; Zhang, Junyan; Wang, Jinqing


    In this paper, we report a facile two-step approach to immobilize proteins onto DLC surfaces. The first step was a simple immersion of DLC in a solution of dopamine. Polydopamine was deposited on DLC as a stable anchor to present protein molecules. Then the protein ad-layer was deposited on it. The chemical components of the modified DLC surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The biocompatibility of it was evaluated in vitro by the tetrazolium salt method. And it was indicated that the BSA modified surface had good haemocompatibility properties, and was cytocompatible to PC-12 cells.

  5. Surface modification of diamond-like carbon films with protein via polydopamine inspired coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Caihong [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianshui Middle Road 18th, Lanzhou 730000 (China); China and Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Yang Shengrong [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianshui Middle Road 18th, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang Junyan, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianshui Middle Road 18th, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang Jinqing [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianshui Middle Road 18th, Lanzhou 730000 (China)


    In this paper, we report a facile two-step approach to immobilize proteins onto DLC surfaces. The first step was a simple immersion of DLC in a solution of dopamine. Polydopamine was deposited on DLC as a stable anchor to present protein molecules. Then the protein ad-layer was deposited on it. The chemical components of the modified DLC surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The biocompatibility of it was evaluated in vitro by the tetrazolium salt method. And it was indicated that the BSA modified surface had good haemocompatibility properties, and was cytocompatible to PC-12 cells.

  6. Nanoparticles-cell association predicted by protein corona fingerprints (United States)

    Palchetti, S.; Digiacomo, L.; Pozzi, D.; Peruzzi, G.; Micarelli, E.; Mahmoudi, M.; Caracciolo, G.


    In a physiological environment (e.g., blood and interstitial fluids) nanoparticles (NPs) will bind proteins shaping a ``protein corona'' layer. The long-lived protein layer tightly bound to the NP surface is referred to as the hard corona (HC) and encodes information that controls NP bioactivity (e.g. cellular association, cellular signaling pathways, biodistribution, and toxicity). Decrypting this complex code has become a priority to predict the NP biological outcomes. Here, we use a library of 16 lipid NPs of varying size (Ø ~ 100-250 nm) and surface chemistry (unmodified and PEGylated) to investigate the relationships between NP physicochemical properties (nanoparticle size, aggregation state and surface charge), protein corona fingerprints (PCFs), and NP-cell association. We found out that none of the NPs' physicochemical properties alone was exclusively able to account for association with human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). For the entire library of NPs, a total of 436 distinct serum proteins were detected. We developed a predictive-validation modeling that provides a means of assessing the relative significance of the identified corona proteins. Interestingly, a minor fraction of the HC, which consists of only 8 PCFs were identified as main promoters of NP association with HeLa cells. Remarkably, identified PCFs have several receptors with high level of expression on the plasma membrane of HeLa cells.In a physiological environment (e.g., blood and interstitial fluids) nanoparticles (NPs) will bind proteins shaping a ``protein corona'' layer. The long-lived protein layer tightly bound to the NP surface is referred to as the hard corona (HC) and encodes information that controls NP bioactivity (e.g. cellular association, cellular signaling pathways, biodistribution, and toxicity). Decrypting this complex code has become a priority to predict the NP biological outcomes. Here, we use a library of 16 lipid NPs of varying size (Ø ~ 100-250 nm) and surface

  7. Surface proteome analysis and characterization of surface cell antigen (Sca or autotransporter family of Rickettsia typhi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandra T Sears

    Full Text Available Surface proteins of the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine or endemic typhus fever, comprise an important interface for host-pathogen interactions including adherence, invasion and survival in the host cytoplasm. In this report, we present analyses of the surface exposed proteins of R. typhi based on a suite of predictive algorithms complemented by experimental surface-labeling with thiol-cleavable sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin and identification of labeled peptides by LC MS/MS. Further, we focus on proteins belonging to the surface cell antigen (Sca autotransporter (AT family which are known to be involved in rickettsial infection of mammalian cells. Each species of Rickettsia has a different complement of sca genes in various states; R. typhi, has genes sca1 thru sca5. In silico analyses indicate divergence of the Sca paralogs across the four Rickettsia groups and concur with previous evidence of positive selection. Transcripts for each sca were detected during infection of L929 cells and four of the five Sca proteins were detected in the surface proteome analysis. We observed that each R. typhi Sca protein is expressed during in vitro infections and selected Sca proteins were expressed during in vivo infections. Using biotin-affinity pull down assays, negative staining electron microscopy, and flow cytometry, we demonstrate that the Sca proteins in R. typhi are localized to the surface of the bacteria. All Scas were detected during infection of L929 cells by immunogold electron microscopy. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrate that Scas 1-3 and 5 are expressed in the spleens of infected Sprague-Dawley rats and Scas 3, 4 and 5 are expressed in cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis. Sca proteins may be crucial in the recognition and invasion of different host cell types. In short, continuous expression of all Scas may ensure that rickettsiae are primed i to infect mammalian cells should the flea bite a host, ii to remain

  8. Cell surface profiling using high-throughput flow cytometry : a platform for biomarker discovery and analysis of cellular heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gedye, Craig A; Hussain, Ali; Paterson, Joshua; Smrke, Alannah; Saini, Harleen; Sirskyj, Danylo; Pereira, Keira; Lobo, Nazleen; Stewart, Jocelyn; Go, Christopher; Ho, Jenny; Medrano, Mauricio; Hyatt, Elzbieta; Yuan, Julie; Lauriault, Stevan; Meyer, Mona; Kondratyev, Maria; van den Beucken, Twan; Jewett, Michael; Dirks, Peter; Guidos, Cynthia J; Danska, Jayne; Wang, Jean; Wouters, Bradly; Neel, Benjamin; Rottapel, Robert; Ailles, Laurie E


    Cell surface proteins have a wide range of biological functions, and are often used as lineage-specific markers. Antibodies that recognize cell surface antigens are widely used as research tools, diagnostic markers, and even therapeutic agents. The ability to obtain broad cell surface protein profil

  9. A cell cycle and nutritional checkpoint controlling bacterial surface adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aretha Fiebig


    Full Text Available In natural environments, bacteria often adhere to surfaces where they form complex multicellular communities. Surface adherence is determined by the biochemical composition of the cell envelope. We describe a novel regulatory mechanism by which the bacterium, Caulobacter crescentus, integrates cell cycle and nutritional signals to control development of an adhesive envelope structure known as the holdfast. Specifically, we have discovered a 68-residue protein inhibitor of holdfast development (HfiA that directly targets a conserved glycolipid glycosyltransferase required for holdfast production (HfsJ. Multiple cell cycle regulators associate with the hfiA and hfsJ promoters and control their expression, temporally constraining holdfast development to the late stages of G1. HfiA further functions as part of a 'nutritional override' system that decouples holdfast development from the cell cycle in response to nutritional cues. This control mechanism can limit surface adhesion in nutritionally sub-optimal environments without affecting cell cycle progression. We conclude that post-translational regulation of cell envelope enzymes by small proteins like HfiA may provide a general means to modulate the surface properties of bacterial cells.

  10. Isolation of plant cell wall proteins. (United States)

    Jamet, Elisabeth; Boudart, Georges; Borderies, Giséle; Charmont, Stephane; Lafitte, Claude; Rossignol, Michel; Canut, Herve; Pont-Lezica, Rafael


    The quality of a proteomic analysis of a cell compartment strongly depends on the reliability of the isolation procedure for the cell compartment of interest. Plant cell walls possess specific drawbacks: (1) the lack of a surrounding membrane may result in the loss of cell wall proteins (CWP) during the isolation procedure; (2) polysaccharide networks of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins form potential traps for contaminants such as intracellular proteins; (3) the presence of proteins interacting in many different ways with the polysaccharide matrix require different procedures to elute them from the cell wall. Three categories of CWP are distinguished: labile proteins that have little or no interactions with cell wall components, weakly bound proteins extractable with salts, and strongly bound proteins. Two alternative protocols are decribed for cell wall proteomics: (1) nondestructive techniques allowing the extraction of labile or weakly bound CWP without damaging the plasma membrane; (2) destructive techniques to isolate cell walls from which weakly or strongly bound CWP can be extracted. These protocols give very low levels of contamination by intracellular proteins. Their application should lead to a realistic view of the cell wall proteome at least for labile and weakly bound CWP extractable by salts.

  11. Yeast cell surface display for lipase whole cell catalyst and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yun; Zhang, Rui; Lian, Zhongshuai; Wang, Shihui; Wright, Aaron T.


    The cell surface display technique allows for the expression of target proteins or peptides on the microbial cell surface by fusing an appropriate protein as an anchoring motif. Yeast display systems, such as Pichia pastoris, Yarowia lipolytica and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are ideal, alternative and extensive display systems with the advantage of simple genetic manipulation and post-translational modification of expressed heterologous proteins. Engineered yeasts show high performance characteristics and variant utilizations. Herein, we comprehensively summarize the variant factors affecting lipase whole cell catalyst activity and display efficiency, including the structure and size of target proteins, screening anchor proteins, type and chain length of linkers, and the appropriate matching rules among the above-mentioned display units. Furthermore, we also address novel approaches to enhance stability and activity of recombinant lipases, such as VHb gene co-expression, multi-enzyme co-display technique, and the micro-environmental interference and self-assembly techniques. Finally, we represent the variety of applications of whole cell surface displayed lipases on yeast cells in non-aqueous phases, including synthesis of esters, PUFA enrichment, resolution of chiral drugs, organic synthesis and biofuels. We demonstrate that the lipase surface display technique is a powerful tool for functionalizing yeasts to serve as whole cell catalysts, and increasing interest is providing an impetus for broad application of this technique.

  12. Competitive protein adsorption to polymer surface from human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Jensen, Karin Bagger Stibius; Larsen, Niels Bent;


    Surface modification by "soft" plasma polymerisation to obtain a hydrophilic and non-fouling polymer surface has been validated using radioactive labelling. Adsorption to unmodified and modified polymer surfaces, from both single protein and human serum solutions, has been investigated. By using ...

  13. Identification of Posttranslational Modification-Dependent Protein Interactions Using Yeast Surface Displayed Human Proteome Libraries. (United States)

    Bidlingmaier, Scott; Liu, Bin


    The identification of proteins that interact specifically with posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation is often necessary to understand cellular signaling pathways. Numerous methods for identifying proteins that interact with posttranslational modifications have been utilized, including affinity-based purification and analysis, protein microarrays, phage display, and tethered catalysis. Although these techniques have been used successfully, each has limitations. Recently, yeast surface-displayed human proteome libraries have been utilized to identify protein fragments with affinity for various target molecules, including phosphorylated peptides. When coupled with fluorescently activated cell sorting and high throughput methods for the analysis of selection outputs, yeast surface-displayed human proteome libraries can rapidly and efficiently identify protein fragments with affinity for any soluble ligand that can be fluorescently detected, including posttranslational modifications. In this review we compare the use of yeast surface display libraries to other methods for the identification of interactions between proteins and posttranslational modifications and discuss future applications of the technology.

  14. Dynamics of Agglutinin-Like Sequence (ALS) Protein Localization on the Surface of Candida Albicans (United States)

    Coleman, David Andrew


    The ALS gene family encodes large cell-surface glycoproteins associated with "C. albicans" pathogenesis. Als proteins are thought to act as adhesin molecules binding to host tissues. Wide variation in expression levels among the ALS genes exists and is related to cell morphology and environmental conditions. "ALS1," "ALS3," and "ALS4" are three of…

  15. Loss of retinoschisin (RS1) cell surface protein in maturing mouse rod photoreceptors elevates the luminance threshold for light-driven translocation of transducin but not arrestin. (United States)

    Ziccardi, Lucia; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Bush, Ronald A; Sieving, Paul A


    Loss of retinoschisin (RS1) in Rs1 knock-out (Rs1-KO) retina produces a post-photoreceptor phenotype similar to X-linked retinoschisis in young males. However, Rs1 is expressed strongly in photoreceptors, and Rs1-KO mice have early reduction in the electroretinogram a-wave. We examined light-activated transducin and arrestin translocation in young Rs1-KO mice as a marker for functional abnormalities in maturing rod photoreceptors. We found a progressive reduction in luminance threshold for transducin translocation in wild-type (WT) retinas between postnatal days P18 and P60. At P21, the threshold in Rs1-KO retinas was 10-fold higher than WT, but it decreased to translocation and re-translocation of transducin in the dark were not affected. Rs1-KO rod outer segment (ROS) length was significantly shorter than WT at P21 but was comparable with WT at P60. These findings suggested a delay in the structural and functional maturation of Rs1-KO ROS. Consistent with this, transcription factors CRX and NRL, which are fundamental to maturation of rod protein expression, were reduced in ROS of Rs1-KO mice at P21 but not at P60. Expression of transducin was 15-30% lower in P21 Rs1-KO ROS and transducin GTPase hydrolysis was nearly twofold faster, reflecting a 1.7- to 2.5-fold increase in RGS9 (regulator of G-protein signaling) level. Transduction protein expression and activity levels were similar to WT at P60. Transducin translocation threshold elevation indicates photoreceptor functional abnormalities in young Rs1-KO mice. Rapid reduction in threshold coupled with age-related changes in transduction protein levels and transcription factor expression are consistent with delayed maturation of Rs1-KO photoreceptors.

  16. Nanostructuring of Solar Cell Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    Solar energy is by far the most abundant renewable energy source available, but the levelized cost of solar energy is still not competitive with that of fossil fuels. Therefore there is a need to improve the power conversion effciency of solar cells without adding to the production cost. The main...... objective of this PhD thesis is to develop nanostructured silicon (Si) solar cells with higher power conversion efficiency using only scalable and cost-efficient production methods. The nanostructures, known as 'black silicon', are fabricated by single-step, maskless reactive ion etching and used as front...... and characterized for comparison. Power conversion eciency of 16.5% was obtained for this batch of RIE-textured Si solar cells. The eciency of the KOH-textured reference cell was 17.8%. Quantum Efficiency measurements and carrier loss analysis show that the lower eciency of the RIE-textured cells is primarily due...

  17. Lacritin and other autophagy associated proteins in ocular surface health. (United States)

    Karnati, Roy; Talla, Venu; Peterson, Katherine; Laurie, Gordon W


    Advantage may be taken of macroautophagy ('autophagy') to promote ocular health. Autophagy continually captures aged or damaged cellular material for lysosomal degradation and recyling. When autophagic flux is chronically elevated, or alternatively deficient, health suffers. Chronic elevation of flux and stress are the consequence of inflammatory cytokines or of dry eye tears but not normal tears invitro. Exogenous tear protein lacritin transiently accelerates flux to restore homeostasis invitro and corneal health invivo, and yet the monomeric active form of lacritin appears to be selectively deficient in dry eye. Tissue transglutaminase-dependent cross-linking of monomer decreases monomer quantity and monomer affinity for coreceptor syndecan-1 thereby abrogating activity. Tissue transglutaminase is elevated in dry eye. Mutation of arylsulfatase A, arylsulfatase B, ceroid-lipofuscinosis neuronal 3, mucolipin, or Niemann-Pick disease type C1 respectively underlie several diseases of apparently insufficient autophagic flux that affect the eye, including: metachromatic leukodystrophy, mucopolysaccharidosis type VI, juvenile-onset Batten disease, mucolipidosis IV, and Niemann-Pick type C associated with myelin sheath destruction of corneal sensory and ciliary nerves and of the optic nerve; corneal clouding, ocular hypertension, glaucoma and optic nerve atrophy; accumulation of 'ceroid-lipofuscin' in surface conjunctival cells, and in ganglion and neuronal cells; decreased visual acuity and retinal dystrophy; and neurodegeneration. For some, enzyme or gene replacement, or substrate reduction, therapy is proving to be successful. Here we discuss examples of restoring ocular surface homeostasis through alteration of autophagy, with particular attention to lacritin.

  18. Discovery and characterization of a new cell-penetrating protein. (United States)

    Simeon, Rudo L; Chamoun, Ana Maria; McMillin, Thomas; Chen, Zhilei


    We describe a new cell-penetrating protein, B1, capable of delivering conjugated proteins and nucleic acids into mammalian cells. B1 is a 244-amino-acid product of a single-base frameshift in the gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). The molecule has a net positive charge of 43 and a very high charge-to-mass ratio of 1.5. eGFP-fused B1 potently penetrates both adherent and suspension cells with >80% of cells taking up the protein when exposed to concentrations as low as 1 μM. The protein was found to cluster in the paranuclear region of TZM-bl cells. Most importantly, we show that B1 not only facilitates cellular uptake but allows biomolecular cargo to reach sites of biological relevance. For example, baby hamster kidney cells underwent DNA recombination when exposed to B1-tagged Cre recombinase at protein concentrations as low as 2.5 μM, indicating potent nuclear delivery of functional protein cargos. Additionally, B1 delivers noncovalently conjugated RNA and DNA across the cell membrane to cytosolic and nuclear sites accessible to the cellular translation and transcription machinery, as gauged by detection of encoded reporter functions, with efficiency comparable to commercially available cationic lipid reagents. B1 appears to utilize cell-surface glycans and multiple competing endocytic pathways to enter and traffic through cells. These studies provide both a new tool for intracellular delivery of biomolecules and insights that could aid in the design of more effective cell penetrating proteins.

  19. Cell behaviour on chemically microstructured surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnani, Agnese; Priamo, Alfredo; Pasqui, Daniela; Barbucci, Rolando


    Micropatterned surfaces with different chemical topographies were synthesised in order to investigate the influence of surface chemistry and topography on cell behaviour. The microstructured materials were synthesised by photoimmobilising natural Hyaluronan (Hyal) and its sulphated derivative (HyalS), both adequately functionalised with a photorective moiety, on glass substrates. Four different grating patterns (10, 25, 50 and 100 {mu}m) were used to pattern the hyaluronan. The micropatterned samples were analysed by Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy to investigate the chemistry and the topography of the surfaces. The spectroscopic and microscopic analysis of the microstructured surfaces revealed that the photoimmobilisation process was successful, demonstrating that the photomask patterns were well reproduced on the sample surface. The influence of chemical topographies on the cell behaviour was then analysed. Human and 3T3 fibroblasts, bovine aortic and human (HGTFN line) endothelial cells were used and their behaviour on the micropatterned surfaces was analysed in terms of adhesion, proliferation, locomotion and orientation. Both chemical and topographical controls were found to be important for cell guidance. By decreasing the stripe dimensions, a more fusiform shape of cell was observed. At the same time, the cell locomotion and orientation parallel to the structure increased. However, differences in cell behaviour were detected according to both cell type and micropattern dimensions.

  20. SURF'S UP! – Protein classification by surface comparisons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joanna M Sasin; Adam Godzik; Janusz M Bujnicki


    Large-scale genome sequencing and structural genomics projects generate numerous sequences and structures for ‘hypothetical’ proteins without functional characterizations. Detection of homology to experimentally characterized proteins can provide functional clues, but the accuracy of homology-based predictions is limited by the paucity of tools for quantitative comparison of diverging residues responsible for the functional divergence. SURF’S UP! is a web server for analysis of functional relationships in protein families, as inferred from protein surface maps comparison according to the algorithm. It assigns a numerical score to the similarity between patterns of physicochemical features (charge, hydrophobicity) on compared protein surfaces. It allows recognizing clusters of proteins that have similar surfaces, hence presumably similar functions. The server takes as an input a set of protein coordinates and returns files with ``spherical coordinates” of proteins in a PDB format and their graphical presentation, a matrix with values of mutual similarities between the surfaces, and the unrooted tree that represents the clustering of similar surfaces, calculated by the neighbor-joining method. SURF’S UP! facilitates the comparative analysis of physicochemical features of the surface, which are the key determinants of the protein function. By concentrating on coarse surface features, SURF’S UP! can work with models obtained from comparative modelling. Although it is designed to analyse the conservation among homologs, it can also be used to compare surfaces of non-homologous proteins with different three-dimensional folds, as long as a functionally meaningful structural superposition is supplied by the user. Another valuable characteristic of our method is the lack of initial assumptions about the functional features to be compared. SURF’S UP! is freely available for academic researchers at

  1. The moonlighting protein fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase of Neisseria meningitidis: surface localization and role in host cell adhesion


    Tunio, Sarfraz A; Oldfield, Neil James; Berry, Alan; Ala'Aldeen, Dlawer AA; Wooldridge, Karl G.; Turner, David PJ


    Abstract Fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolases (FBA) are cytoplasmic glycolytic enzymes, which despite lacking identifiable secretion signals, have also been found localized to the surface of several bacteria where they bind host molecules and exhibit non-glycolytic functions. Neisseria meningitidis is an obligate human nasopharyngeal commensal, which has the capacity to cause life-threatening meningitis and septicemia. Recombinant native N. meningitidis FBA was purified and used in...

  2. The Assessment of Cytokine and Antibody Responses to Recombinant 31kDa Brucella Cell-Surface Protein in Brucella Abortus Infected Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Khoramabadi


    Conclusion: These findings suggest that specific humoral and cell-mediated responses to BCSP31 is formed during murine host infection with B. abortus. Based on these findings, rBCSP31 can be used in further design of immunogenic strategies for vaccination against brucellosis.

  3. Cell surface differences of Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria lovaniensis exposed with surface markers. (United States)

    González-Robles, Arturo; Castañón, Guadalupe; Cristóbal-Ramos, Ana Ruth; Hernández-Ramírez, Verónica Ivonne; Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo


    Differences in the distribution of diverse cell surface coat markers were found between Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria lovaniensis. The presence of carbohydrate-containing components in the cell coat of the two species was detected by selective staining with ruthenium red and alcian blue. Using both markers, N. fowleri presented a thicker deposit than N. lovaniensis. The existence of exposed mannose or glucose residues was revealed by discriminatory agglutination with the plant lectin Concanavalin A. These sugar residues were also visualized at the cell surface of these parasites either by transmission electron microscopy or by fluorescein-tagged Concanavalin A. Using this lectin cap formation was induced only in N. fowleri. The anionic sites on the cell surface detected by means of cationized ferritin were more apparent in N. fowleri. Biotinylation assays confirmed that even though the two amoebae species have some analogous plasma membrane proteins, there is a clear difference in their composition.

  4. Thermodynamics of protein destabilization in live cells. (United States)

    Danielsson, Jens; Mu, Xin; Lang, Lisa; Wang, Huabing; Binolfi, Andres; Theillet, François-Xavier; Bekei, Beata; Logan, Derek T; Selenko, Philipp; Wennerström, Håkan; Oliveberg, Mikael


    Although protein folding and stability have been well explored under simplified conditions in vitro, it is yet unclear how these basic self-organization events are modulated by the crowded interior of live cells. To find out, we use here in-cell NMR to follow at atomic resolution the thermal unfolding of a β-barrel protein inside mammalian and bacterial cells. Challenging the view from in vitro crowding effects, we find that the cells destabilize the protein at 37 °C but with a conspicuous twist: While the melting temperature goes down the cold unfolding moves into the physiological regime, coupled to an augmented heat-capacity change. The effect seems induced by transient, sequence-specific, interactions with the cellular components, acting preferentially on the unfolded ensemble. This points to a model where the in vivo influence on protein behavior is case specific, determined by the individual protein's interplay with the functionally optimized "interaction landscape" of the cellular interior.

  5. Hydration dynamics near a model protein surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Daniela; Hura, Greg; Head-Gordon, Teresa


    The evolution of water dynamics from dilute to very high concentration solutions of a prototypical hydrophobic amino acid with its polar backbone, N-acetyl-leucine-methylamide (NALMA), is studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation for both the completely deuterated and completely hydrogenated leucine monomer. We observe several unexpected features in the dynamics of these biological solutions under ambient conditions. The NALMA dynamics shows evidence of de Gennes narrowing, an indication of coherent long timescale structural relaxation dynamics. The translational water dynamics are analyzed in a first approximation with a jump diffusion model. At the highest solute concentrations, the hydration water dynamics is significantly suppressed and characterized by a long residential time and a slow diffusion coefficient. The analysis of the more dilute concentration solutions takes into account the results of the 2.0M solution as a model of the first hydration shell. Subtracting the first hydration layer based on the 2.0M spectra, the translational diffusion dynamics is still suppressed, although the rotational relaxation time and residential time are converged to bulk-water values. Molecular dynamics analysis shows spatially heterogeneous dynamics at high concentration that becomes homogeneous at more dilute concentrations. We discuss the hydration dynamics results of this model protein system in the context of glassy systems, protein function, and protein-protein interfaces.

  6. Enhanced microcontact printing of proteins on nanoporous silica surface. (United States)

    Blinka, Ellen; Loeffler, Kathryn; Hu, Ye; Gopal, Ashwini; Hoshino, Kazunori; Lin, Kevin; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Zhang, John X J


    We demonstrate porous silica surface modification, combined with microcontact printing, as an effective method for enhanced protein patterning and adsorption on arbitrary surfaces. Compared to conventional chemical treatments, this approach offers scalability and long-term device stability without requiring complex chemical activation. Two chemical surface treatments using functionalization with the commonly used 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde (GA) were compared with the nanoporous silica surface on the basis of protein adsorption. The deposited thickness and uniformity of porous silica films were evaluated for fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled rabbit immunoglobulin G (R-IgG) protein printed onto the substrates via patterned polydimethlysiloxane (PDMS) stamps. A more complete transfer of proteins was observed on porous silica substrates compared to chemically functionalized substrates. A comparison of different pore sizes (4-6 nm) and porous silica thicknesses (96-200 nm) indicates that porous silica with 4 nm diameter, 57% porosity and a thickness of 96 nm provided a suitable environment for complete transfer of R-IgG proteins. Both fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used for protein layer characterizations. A porous silica layer is biocompatible, providing a favorable transfer medium with minimal damage to the proteins. A patterned immunoassay microchip was developed to demonstrate the retained protein function after printing on nanoporous surfaces, which enables printable and robust immunoassay detection for point-of-care applications.

  7. Enhanced microcontact printing of proteins on nanoporous silica surface (United States)

    Blinka, Ellen; Loeffler, Kathryn; Hu, Ye; Gopal, Ashwini; Hoshino, Kazunori; Lin, Kevin; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Zhang, John X. J.


    We demonstrate porous silica surface modification, combined with microcontact printing, as an effective method for enhanced protein patterning and adsorption on arbitrary surfaces. Compared to conventional chemical treatments, this approach offers scalability and long-term device stability without requiring complex chemical activation. Two chemical surface treatments using functionalization with the commonly used 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde (GA) were compared with the nanoporous silica surface on the basis of protein adsorption. The deposited thickness and uniformity of porous silica films were evaluated for fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled rabbit immunoglobulin G (R-IgG) protein printed onto the substrates via patterned polydimethlysiloxane (PDMS) stamps. A more complete transfer of proteins was observed on porous silica substrates compared to chemically functionalized substrates. A comparison of different pore sizes (4-6 nm) and porous silica thicknesses (96-200 nm) indicates that porous silica with 4 nm diameter, 57% porosity and a thickness of 96 nm provided a suitable environment for complete transfer of R-IgG proteins. Both fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used for protein layer characterizations. A porous silica layer is biocompatible, providing a favorable transfer medium with minimal damage to the proteins. A patterned immunoassay microchip was developed to demonstrate the retained protein function after printing on nanoporous surfaces, which enables printable and robust immunoassay detection for point-of-care applications.

  8. Identification and characterization of the surface-layer protein of Clostridium tetani. (United States)

    Qazi, Omar; Brailsford, Alan; Wright, Anne; Faraar, Jeremy; Campbell, Jim; Fairweather, Neil


    Many bacterial species produce a paracrystalline layer, the surface layer, which completely surrounds the exterior of the cell. In some bacteria, the surface layer is implicated in pathogenesis. Two proteins present in cell wall extracts from Clostridium tetani have been investigated and identified one of these has been unambiguously as the surface-layer protein (SLP). The gene, slpA, has been located in the genome of C. tetani E88 that encodes the SLP. The molecular mass of the protein as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is considerably larger than that predicted from the gene; however the protein does not appear to be glycosylated. Furthermore, analysis of five C. tetani strains, including three recent clinical isolates, shows considerable variation in the sizes of the SLP.

  9. Surface Grafted Glycopolymer Brushes to Enhance Selective Adhesion of HepG2 Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernyy, Sergey; Jensen, Bettina Elisabeth Brøgger; Shimizu, Kyoko;


    of the cell periphery. On the other hand the cells on bare glass substrate display spheroid morphology. Further analysis using ToF-SIMS imaging shows that the HepG2 cells on glycopolymer surfaces is enriched with protein fragment along the cell periphery which is absent in the case of cells on bare glass...

  10. A coarse grain model for protein-surface interactions (United States)

    Wei, Shuai; Knotts, Thomas A.


    The interaction of proteins with surfaces is important in numerous applications in many fields—such as biotechnology, proteomics, sensors, and medicine—but fundamental understanding of how protein stability and structure are affected by surfaces remains incomplete. Over the last several years, molecular simulation using coarse grain models has yielded significant insights, but the formalisms used to represent the surface interactions have been rudimentary. We present a new model for protein surface interactions that incorporates the chemical specificity of both the surface and the residues comprising the protein in the context of a one-bead-per-residue, coarse grain approach that maintains computational efficiency. The model is parameterized against experimental adsorption energies for multiple model peptides on different types of surfaces. The validity of the model is established by its ability to quantitatively and qualitatively predict the free energy of adsorption and structural changes for multiple biologically-relevant proteins on different surfaces. The validation, done with proteins not used in parameterization, shows that the model produces remarkable agreement between simulation and experiment.

  11. A Cell Lysis and Protein Purification - Single Molecule Assay Devices for Evaluation of Genetically Engineered Proteins (United States)

    Nakyama, Tetsuya; Tabata, Kazuhito; Noji, Hiroyuki; Yokokawa, Ryuji

    We have developed two devices applicable to evaluate genetically engineered proteins in single molecule assay: on-chip cell lysis device, and protein purification - assay device. A motor protein, F1-ATPase expressed in E.coli, was focused in this report as a target protein. Cell lysis was simply performed by applying pulse voltage between Au electrodes patterned by photolithography, and its efficiency was determined by absorptiometry. The subsequent processes, purification and assay of extracted proteins, were demonstrated in order to detect F1-ATPase and to evaluate its activity. The specific bonding between his-tag in F1-ATPase and Ni-NTA coated on a glass surface was utilized for the purification process. After immobilization of F1-ATPase, avidin-coated microspheres and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) solution were infused sequentially to assay the protein. Microsphere rotation was realized by activity of F1-ATPase corresponding to ATP hydrolysis. Results show that the cell lysis device, at the optimum condition, extracts enough amount of protein for single molecule assay. Once cell lysate was injected to the purification - assay device, proteins were diffused in the lateral direction in a Y-shape microchannel. The gradient of protein concentratioin provides an optimal concentration for the assay i.e. the highest density of rotating beads. Density of rotating beads is also affected by the initial concentration of protein injected to the device. The optimum concentration was achieved by our cell lysis device not by the conventional method by ultrasonic wave. Rotation speed was analyzed for several microspheres assayed in the purification - assay device, and the results were compatible to that of conventional assay in which F1-ATPase was purified in bulk scale. In conclusion, we have demonstrated on-chip cell lysis and assay appropriate for the sequential analysis without any pretreatment. On-chip devices replacing conventional bioanalytical methods will be

  12. Computational prediction and experimental assessment of secreted/surface proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Vizcaíno


    Full Text Available The mycobacterial cell envelope has been implicated in the pathogenicity of tuberculosis and therefore has been a prime target for the identification and characterization of surface proteins with potential application in drug and vaccine development. In this study, the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was screened using Machine Learning tools that included feature-based predictors, general localizers and transmembrane topology predictors to identify proteins that are potentially secreted to the surface of M. tuberculosis, or to the extracellular milieu through different secretory pathways. The subcellular localization of a set of 8 hypothetically secreted/surface candidate proteins was experimentally assessed by cellular fractionation and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM to determine the reliability of the computational methodology proposed here, using 4 secreted/surface proteins with experimental confirmation as positive controls and 2 cytoplasmic proteins as negative controls. Subcellular fractionation and IEM studies provided evidence that the candidate proteins Rv0403c, Rv3630, Rv1022, Rv0835, Rv0361 and Rv0178 are secreted either to the mycobacterial surface or to the extracellular milieu. Surface localization was also confirmed for the positive controls, whereas negative controls were located on the cytoplasm. Based on statistical learning methods, we obtained computational subcellular localization predictions that were experimentally assessed and allowed us to construct a computational protocol with experimental support that allowed us to identify a new set of secreted/surface proteins as potential vaccine candidates.

  13. Impact of protein modification on the protein corona on nanoparticles and nanoparticle-cell interactions. (United States)

    Treuel, Lennart; Brandholt, Stefan; Maffre, Pauline; Wiegele, Sarah; Shang, Li; Nienhaus, G Ulrich


    Recent studies have firmly established that cellular uptake of nanoparticles is strongly affected by the presence and the physicochemical properties of a protein adsorption layer around these nanoparticles. Here, we have modified human serum albumin (HSA), a serum protein often used in model studies of protein adsorption onto nanoparticles, to alter its surface charge distribution and investigated the consequences for protein corona formation around small (radius ∼5 nm), dihydrolipoic acid-coated quantum dots (DHLA-QDs) by using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. HSA modified by succinic anhydride (HSAsuc) to generate additional carboxyl groups on the protein surface showed a 3-fold decreased binding affinity toward the nanoparticles. A 1000-fold enhanced affinity was observed for HSA modified by ethylenediamine (HSAam) to increase the number of amino functions on the protein surface. Remarkably, HSAsuc formed a much thicker protein adsorption layer (8.1 nm) than native HSA (3.3 nm), indicating that it binds in a distinctly different orientation on the nanoparticle, whereas the HSAam corona (4.6 nm) is only slightly thicker. Notably, protein binding to DHLA-QDs was found to be entirely reversible, independent of the modification. We have also measured the extent and kinetics of internalization of these nanoparticles without and with adsorbed native and modified HSA by HeLa cells. Pronounced variations were observed, indicating that even small physicochemical changes of the protein corona may affect biological responses.

  14. Natural acquired inhibitory antibodies to Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP-II) equally block erythrocyte binding of homologous and heterologous expressed PvDBP-II on the surface of COS-7 cells. (United States)

    Valizadeh, Vahideh; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Mehrizi, Akram A; Mirkazemi, Sedigheh; Djadid, Navid D


    The binding domain of Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP-II) is a promising blood-stage vaccine candidate for vivax malaria. For the development of a successful vivax malaria vaccine based on DBP-II, the antigenic diversity and also naturally occurring functional antibodies to different PvDBP-II variant types in the various populations must be determined. However, similar to other blood-stage antigens, allelic variation within the PvDBP-II is a fundamental challenge for the development of a broadly efficient vaccine. The present study was performed to define whether the polymorphisms in PvDBP-II influence the nature of functional inhibitory activity of naturally acquired or induced anti-DBP-II antibodies in mice. In this investigation, five genetically distinct variants of PvDBP-II were transiently expressed on the COS-7 cell surface. Erythrocyte-binding inhibition assay (EBIA) was performed using human sera infected with corresponding and non-corresponding P. vivax variants as well as by the use of mice sera immunized with different expressed recombinant PvDBP-IIs. EBIA results showed that the inhibitory percentage varied between 50 and 63 % by using sera from infected individuals, and in case of mouse antisera, inhibition was in the range of 76-86 %. Interestingly, no significant difference was detected in red blood cell binding inhibition when different PvDBP-II variants on the COS-7 cell surfaces were incubated with heterologous and homologous sera infected with PvDBP-II variants. This suggests that the detected polymorphisms in all five forms of PvDBP-II may not affect functional activity of anti-DBP-II antibodies. In conclusion, our results revealed that there are functional cross-reactive antibody responses to heterologous PvDBP-II variants that might provide a broader inhibitory response against all, or at least the majority of strains compared to single allele of this protein that should be considered in development of PvDBP-II-based vaccine.

  15. Arginine Inhibits Adsorption of Proteins on Polystyrene Surface (United States)

    Shikiya, Yui; Tomita, Shunsuke; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro


    Nonspecific adsorption of protein on solid surfaces causes a reduction of concentration as well as enzyme inactivation during purification and storage. However, there are no versatile inhibitors of the adsorption between proteins and solid surfaces at low concentrations. Therefore, we examined additives for the prevention of protein adsorption on polystyrene particles (PS particles) as a commonly-used material for vessels such as disposable test tubes and microtubes. A protein solution was mixed with PS particles, and then adsorption of protein was monitored by the concentration and activity of protein in the supernatant after centrifugation. Five different proteins bound to PS particles through electrostatic, hydrophobic, and aromatic interactions, causing a decrease in protein concentration and loss of enzyme activity in the supernatant. Among the additives, including arginine hydrochloride (Arg), lysine hydrochloride, guanidine hydrochloride, NaCl, glycine, and glucose, Arg was most effective in preventing the binding of proteins to PS particles as well as activity loss. Moreover, even after the mixing of protein and PS particles, the addition of Arg caused desorption of the bound protein from PS particles. This study demonstrated a new function of Arg, which expands the potential for application of Arg to proteins. PMID:23967100

  16. 细菌S-layer蛋白的研究新进展%Recent Advance in Surface Layer Protein of Bacterial Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董妍玲; 潘学武


    S-layer(Surface layer)是由单分子蛋白质或糖蛋白重复排列形成的二维生物膜结构,是古细菌和细菌中最常见的细胞表面结构之一.S-layer蛋白具有特有的在亚纳米水平上的多孔晶格结构、在体外重新结晶及与外源蛋白融合进行表面展示等特性,在纳米技术和生物技术方面应用广泛.综述了细菌S-layer蛋白的研究及应用进展.

  17. Baculovirus superinfection: a probable restriction factor on the surface display of proteins for library screening. (United States)

    Xu, Xiaodong; Chen, Yuanrong; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Xiaofen; Dong, Beitao; Jones, Ian M; Chen, Hongying


    In addition to the expression of recombinant proteins, baculoviruses have been developed as a platform for the display of complex eukaryotic proteins on the surface of virus particles or infected insect cells. Surface display has been used extensively for antigen presentation and targeted gene delivery but is also a candidate for the display of protein libraries for molecular screening. However, although baculovirus gene libraries can be efficiently expressed and displayed on the surface of insect cells, target gene selection is inefficient probably due to super-infection which gives rise to cells expressing more than one protein. In this report baculovirus superinfection of Sf9 cells has been investigated by the use of two recombinant multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus carrying green or red fluorescent proteins under the control of both early and late promoters (vAcBacGFP and vAcBacDsRed). The reporter gene expression was detected 8 hours after the infection of vAcBacGFP and cells in early and late phases of infection could be distinguished by the fluorescence intensity of the expressed protein. Simultaneous infection with vAcBacGFP and vAcBacDsRed viruses each at 0.5 MOI resulted in 80% of infected cells co-expressing the two fluorescent proteins at 48 hours post infection (hpi), and subsequent infection with the two viruses resulted in similar co-infection rate. Most Sf9 cells were re-infectable within the first several hours post infection, but the re-infection rate then decreased to a very low level by 16 hpi. Our data demonstrate that Sf9 cells were easily super-infectable during baculovirus infection, and super-infection could occur simultaneously at the time of the primary infection or subsequently during secondary infection by progeny viruses. The efficiency of super-infection may explain the difficulties of baculovirus display library screening but would benefit the production of complex proteins requiring co-expression of multiple polypeptides.

  18. Nanoporous titanium surfaces for sustained elution of proteins and antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhossein Ketabchi

    Full Text Available Current medically relevant metals for prosthetic reconstructions enjoy a relatively good success rate, but their performance drops significantly in patients with compromised health status, and post-surgical infections still remain an important challenge. To address these problems, different nanotechnology-based strategies have been exploited to create implantable metals with an enhanced bioactivity and antibacterial capacities. Among these, oxidative nanopatterning has emerged as a very effective approach to engender nanoporous surfaces that stimulate and guide the activity of adhering cells. The resulting nanoporosity is also attractive because it offers nanoconfined volumes that can be exploited to load bioactive compounds and modulate their release over time. Such extended elution is needed since a single exposure to growth factors and/or antibiotics, for instance, may not be adequate to further sustain bone regeneration and/or to counteract bacterial colonization. In this article, we assessed the capacities of nanoporous titanium surfaces generated by oxidative nanopatterning to provide controlled and sustained elution of proteins and antibiotic molecules. To this end, we have selected bovine serum albumin (BSA and vancomycin to reflect commonly used compounds, and investigated their adsorption and elution by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR and ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS spectroscopy. Our results demonstrate that while the elution of albumin is not significantly affected by the nanoporosity, in the case of vancomycin, nanoporous surfaces provided an extended release. These findings were successively correlated to the establishment of interactions with the surface and physical-entrapment effects exerted by the nanopores, ultimately highlighting their synergistic contribution to the release profiles and thus their importance in the design of nanostructured eluting platforms for applications in medicine.

  19. Protein-surface interaction maps for ion-exchange chromatography. (United States)

    Freed, Alexander S; Cramer, Steven M


    In this paper, protein-surface interaction maps were generated by performing coarse-grained protein-surface calculations. This approach allowed for the rapid determination of the protein-surface interaction energies at a range of orientations and distances. Interaction maps of lysozyme indicated that there was a contiguous series of orientations corresponding to several adjacent preferred binding regions on the protein surface. Examination of these orientations provided insight into the residues involved in surface interactions, which qualitatively agreed with the retention data for single-site mutants. Interaction maps of lysozyme single-site mutants were also generated and provided significant insight into why these variants exhibited significant differences in their chromatographic behavior. This approach was also employed to study the binding behavior of CspB and related mutants. The results indicated that, in addition to describing general trends in the data, these maps provided significant insight into retention data of the single-site mutants. In particular, subtle retention trends observed with the K12 and K13 mutants were well-described using this interaction map approach. Finally, the number of interaction points with energies stronger than -2 kcal/mol was shown to be able to semi-quantitatively predict the behavior of most of the mutants. This rapid approach for calculating protein-surface interaction maps is expected to facilitate future method development for separating closely related protein variants in ion-exchange systems.

  20. Exploring the Plant–Microbe Interface by Profiling the Surface-Associated Proteins of Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Abida; Andersen, Birgit; Svensson, Birte


    -associated proteins and xylanolytic activities of two barley cultivars. The surface-associated proteome was dominated by plant proteins with roles in defense and stress-responses, while the relatively less abundant microbial (bacterial and fungal) proteins were involved in cell-wall and polysaccharide degradation...... and included xylanases. The surface-associated proteomes showed elevated xylanolytic activity and contained several xylanases. Integration of proteomics with enzyme assays is a powerful tool for analysis and characterization of the interaction between microbial consortia and plants in their natural environment....

  1. Structure and functions of fungal cell surfaces (United States)

    Nozawa, Y.


    A review with 24 references on the biochemistry, molecular structure, and function of cell surfaces of fungi, especially dermatophytes: the chemistry and structure of the cell wall, the effect of polyene antibiotics on the morphology and function of cytoplasmic membranes, and the chemical structure and function of pigments produced by various fungi are discussed.

  2. Probes for anionic cell surface detection (United States)

    Smith, Bradley D.


    Embodiments of the present invention are generally directed to compositions comprising a class of molecular probes for detecting the presence of anionic cell surfaces. Embodiments include compositions that are enriched for these compositions and preparations, particularly preparations suitable for use as laboratory/clinical reagents and diagnostic indicators, either alone or as part of a kit. An embodiment of the invention provides for a highly selective agent useful in the discernment and identification of dead or dying cells, such as apoptotic cells, in a relatively calcium-free environment. An embodiment of the invention provides a selective agent for the identification of bacteria in a mixed population of bacterial cells and nonbacterial cells.

  3. Nanotomography of Cell Surfaces with Evanescent Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wagner


    Full Text Available The technique of variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM and its application to nanotomography of cell surfaces are described. Present applications include (1 3D imaging of chromosomes in their metaphase to demonstrate axial resolution in the nanometre range, (2 measurements of cell-substrate topology, which upon cholesterol depletion shows some loosening of cell-substrate contacts, and (3 measurements of cell topology upon photodynamic therapy (PDT, which demonstrate cell swelling and maintenance of focal contacts. The potential of the method for in vitro diagnostics, but also some requirements and limitations are discussed.

  4. Shotgun proteomic analytical approach for studying proteins adsorbed onto liposome surface

    KAUST Repository

    Capriotti, Anna Laura


    The knowledge about the interaction between plasma proteins and nanocarriers employed for in vivo delivery is fundamental to understand their biodistribution. Protein adsorption onto nanoparticle surface (protein corona) is strongly affected by vector surface characteristics. In general, the primary interaction is thought to be electrostatic, thus surface charge of carrier is supposed to play a central role in protein adsorption. Because protein corona composition can be critical in modifying the interactive surface that is recognized by cells, characterizing its formation onto lipid particles may serve as a fundamental predictive model for the in vivo efficiency of a lipidic vector. In the present work, protein coronas adsorbed onto three differently charged cationic liposome formulations were compared by a shotgun proteomic approach based on nano-liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. About 130 proteins were identified in each corona, with only small differences between the different cationic liposome formulations. However, this study could be useful for the future controlled design of colloidal drug carriers and possibly in the controlled creation of biocompatible surfaces of other devices that come into contact with proteins into body fluids. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of Rotavirus VP6 Protein Expressed on the Surface of Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Esteban


    Full Text Available Group A rotaviruses are the major etiologic agents of acute gastroenteritis worldwide in children and young animals. Among its structural proteins, VP6 is the most immunogenic and is highly conserved within this group. Lactococcus lactis is a food-grade, Gram-positive, and nonpathogenic lactic acid bacteria that has already been explored as a mucosal delivery system of heterologous antigens. In this work, the nisin-controlled expression system was used to display the VP6 protein at the cell surface of L. lactis. Conditions for optimal gene expression were established by testing different nisin concentrations, cell density at induction, and incubation times after induction. Cytoplasmic and cell wall protein extracts were analyzed by Western blot and surface expression was confirmed by flow cytometry. Both analysis provided evidence that VP6 was efficiently expressed and displayed on the cell surface of L. lactis. Furthermore, the humoral response of mice immunized with recombinant L. lactis was evaluated and the displayed recombinant VP6 protein proved to be immunogenic. In conclusion, this is the first report of displaying VP6 protein on the surface of L. lactis to induce a specific immune response against rotavirus. These results provide the basis for further evaluation of this VP6-displaying L. lactis as a mucosal delivery vector in a mouse model of rotavirus infection.

  6. Interaction of PC-3 cells with fibronectin adsorbed on sulfonated polystyrene surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna M. Kowalczyńska


    Full Text Available The ability of cancer cells to invade neighboring tissues is crucial for cell dissemination and tumor metastasis. It is generally assumed that cell adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins is an important stage of cancer progression. Hence, adhesion of cancer cells under in vitro conditions to proteins adsorbed on a substratum surface has been studied to provide a better understanding of cell-protein interaction mechanisms. A protein, adsorbed in an appropriate conformation on a substratum surface, creates a biologically active layer that regulates such cell functions as adhesion, spreading, proliferation and migration. In our study, we examined the interaction of PC-3 cells under in vitro conditions with fibronectin adsorbed on sulfonated polystyrene surfaces of a defined chemical composition and topography. We investigated cell adhesion to fibronectin and cell spreading. Using automatic, sequential microscopic image registration, we are the first to present observations of the dynamics of PC-3 cell spreading and the cell shape during this process. Our results show that cell adhesion and the shape of spreading cells strongly depend on the time interaction with fibronectin. The analysis of images of cytoskeletal protein distribution in the cell region near the cell-substratum interface revealed that induction of a signal cascade took place, which led to the reorganization of the cytoskeletal proteins and the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 706–718

  7. Interaction of PC-3 cells with fibronectin adsorbed on sulfonated polystyrene surfaces. (United States)

    Stachurska, Anna; Kowalczyńska, Hanna M


    The ability of cancer cells to invade neighboring tissues is crucial for cell dissemination and tumor metastasis. It is generally assumed that cell adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins is an important stage of cancer progression. Hence, adhesion of cancer cells under in vitro conditions to proteins adsorbed on a substratum surface has been studied to provide a better understanding of cell-protein interaction mechanisms. A protein, adsorbed in an appropriate conformation on a substratum surface, creates a biologically active layer that regulates such cell functions as adhesion, spreading, proliferation and migration. In our study, we examined the interaction of PC-3 cells under in vitro conditions with fibronectin adsorbed on sulfonated polystyrene surfaces of a defined chemical composition and topography. We investigated cell adhesion to fibronectin and cell spreading. Using automatic, sequential microscopic image registration, we are the first to present observations of the dynamics of PC-3 cell spreading and the cell shape during this process. Our results show that cell adhesion and the shape of spreading cells strongly depend on the time interaction with fibronectin. The analysis of images of cytoskeletal protein distribution in the cell region near the cell-substratum interface revealed that induction of a signal cascade took place, which led to the reorganization of the cytoskeletal proteins and the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK).

  8. Protein-induced surface structuring in myelin membrane monolayers. (United States)

    Rosetti, Carla M; Maggio, Bruno


    Monolayers prepared from myelin conserve all the compositional complexity of the natural membrane when spread at the air-water interface. They show a complex pressure-dependent surface pattern that, on compression, changes from the coexistence of two liquid phases to a viscous fractal phase embedded in a liquid phase. We dissected the role of major myelin protein components, myelin basic protein (MBP), and Folch-Lees proteolipid protein (PLP) as crucial factors determining the structural dynamics of the interface. By analyzing mixtures of a single protein with the myelin lipids we found that MBP and PLP have different surface pressure-dependent behaviors. MBP stabilizes the segregation of two liquid phases at low pressures and becomes excluded from the film under compression, remaining adjacent to the interface. PLP, on the contrary, organizes a fractal-like pattern at all surface pressures when included in a monolayer of the protein-free myelin lipids but it remains mixed in the MBP-induced liquid phase. The resultant surface topography and dynamics is regulated by combined near to equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium effects. PLP appears to act as a surface skeleton for the whole components whereas MBP couples the structuring to surface pressure-dependent extrusion and adsorption processes.

  9. Sensor for cell signaling proteins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrow, Matthew; Yelton, William Graham


    Thiolated cyclodextrins have been shown to be useful as modifiers of electrode surfaces for application in electrochemical sensing. The adsorption of three different thiolated {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) derivatives onto gold (Au) electrodes was studied by monitoring ferricyanide reduction and ferrocene carboxylic acid (FCA) oxidation at the electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry. Electrodes modified with the {beta}-CD MJF-69 derivative bound FCA within the CD cavity. The monolayer acted as a conducting layer with an increase in the oxidation current. On the other hand, the {beta}-CD layer inhibited the reduction of ferricyanide at the electrode surface since ferricyanide is larger than the cavity of the {beta}-CD derivative and thus unable to form an inclusion complex.

  10. Cell-free synthesis of membrane proteins: tailored cell models out of microsomes. (United States)

    Fenz, Susanne F; Sachse, Rita; Schmidt, Thomas; Kubick, Stefan


    Incorporation of proteins in biomimetic giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) is one of the hallmarks towards cell models in which we strive to obtain a better mechanistic understanding of the manifold cellular processes. The reconstruction of transmembrane proteins, like receptors or channels, into GUVs is a special challenge. This procedure is essential to make these proteins accessible to further functional investigation. Here we describe a strategy combining two approaches: cell-free eukaryotic protein expression for protein integration and GUV formation to prepare biomimetic cell models. The cell-free protein expression system in this study is based on insect lysates, which provide endoplasmic reticulum derived vesicles named microsomes. It enables signal-induced translocation and posttranslational modification of de novo synthesized membrane proteins. Combining these microsomes with synthetic lipids within the electroswelling process allowed for the rapid generation of giant proteo-liposomes of up to 50 μm in diameter. We incorporated various fluorescent protein-labeled membrane proteins into GUVs (the prenylated membrane anchor CAAX, the heparin-binding epithelial growth factor like factor Hb-EGF, the endothelin receptor ETB, the chemokine receptor CXCR4) and thus presented insect microsomes as functional modules for proteo-GUV formation. Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy was applied to detect and further characterize the proteins in the GUV membrane. To extend the options in the tailoring cell models toolbox, we synthesized two different membrane proteins sequentially in the same microsome. Additionally, we introduced biotinylated lipids to specifically immobilize proteo-GUVs on streptavidin-coated surfaces. We envision this achievement as an important first step toward systematic protein studies on technical surfaces.

  11. Bap: a family of surface proteins involved in biofilm formation. (United States)

    Lasa, Iñigo; Penadés, José R


    A group of surface proteins sharing several structural and functional features is emerging as an important element in the biofilm formation process of diverse bacterial species. The first member of this group of proteins was identified in a Staphylococcus aureus mastitis isolate and was named Bap (biofilm-associated protein). As common structural features, Bap-related proteins: (i) are present on the bacterial surface; (ii) show a high molecular weight; (iii) contain a core domain of tandem repeats; (iv) confer upon bacteria the capacity to form a biofilm; (v) play a relevant role in bacterial infectious processes; and (vi) can occasionally be contained in mobile elements. This review summarizes recent studies that have identified and assigned roles to Bap-related proteins in biofilm biology and virulence.

  12. Protein function annotation by local binding site surface similarity. (United States)

    Spitzer, Russell; Cleves, Ann E; Varela, Rocco; Jain, Ajay N


    Hundreds of protein crystal structures exist for proteins whose function cannot be confidently determined from sequence similarity. Surflex-PSIM, a previously reported surface-based protein similarity algorithm, provides an alternative method for hypothesizing function for such proteins. The method now supports fully automatic binding site detection and is fast enough to screen comprehensive databases of protein binding sites. The binding site detection methodology was validated on apo/holo cognate protein pairs, correctly identifying 91% of ligand binding sites in holo structures and 88% in apo structures where corresponding sites existed. For correctly detected apo binding sites, the cognate holo site was the most similar binding site 87% of the time. PSIM was used to screen a set of proteins that had poorly characterized functions at the time of crystallization, but were later biochemically annotated. Using a fully automated protocol, this set of 8 proteins was screened against ∼60,000 ligand binding sites from the PDB. PSIM correctly identified functional matches that predated query protein biochemical annotation for five out of the eight query proteins. A panel of 12 currently unannotated proteins was also screened, resulting in a large number of statistically significant binding site matches, some of which suggest likely functions for the poorly characterized proteins.

  13. Comparison of five methods for direct extraction of surface proteins from Listeria monocytogenes for proteomic analysis by orbitrap mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Tiong, Hung King; Hartson, Steven; Muriana, Peter M


    Extracts of surface proteins, with minimal artifacts from contaminating cytosolic components, are highly desirable for investigating surface factors involved in the attachment and formation of biofilms by bacteria that are problematic in commercial food processing facilities. In this study, we compared the protein profiles of the food pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes, recovered after applying different surface protein extraction methods compiled from the literature: trypsin-enzymatic shaving with BICAM/sucrose or Tris/sucrose buffers (Tryp B+S, Tryp T+S), Tris-buffered urea (UB), lithium chloride (LiCl) and Tris-buffered urea applied with hypotonic-stressed cells (UB-Ghost), and subjected them to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and protein identification. The data indicate that the UB-Ghost extraction method provides a cleaner extract of surface proteins including the predicted (this study and the literature) or validated members (literature) from L. monocytogenes. This was determined by an accumulative lower unique peptide number exhibited by mass spectrometry for total cytoplasmic proteins among different surface extracts, with a majority of proteins demonstrating hydrophilic properties. The extracted proteins were from different functional categories and have associations with the cell surface, intermediary metabolism, information pathways, or functionally unknown proteins as suggested by in silico analyses performed by other groups (Leger and ListiList). The utilization of an optimized method for surface protein extraction should greatly facilitate identification by LC-MS/MS that could be useful to anyone working on molecular proteomics of bacterial surfaces.

  14. Protection Elicited by Nasal Immunization with Recombinant Pneumococcal Surface Protein A (rPspA) Adjuvanted with Whole-Cell Pertussis Vaccine (wP) against Co-Colonization of Mice with Streptococcus pneumoniae (United States)

    Tostes, Rafaella O.; Rodrigues, Tasson C.; da Silva, Josefa B.; Schanoski, Alessandra S.; Oliveira, Maria Leonor S.


    A promising alternative vaccine candidate to reduce the burden of pneumococcal diseases is the protein antigen PspA (Pneumococcal surface protein A). Since concomitant colonization with two or more pneumococcal strains is very common in children, we aimed to determine if immunization with PspA would be able to control co-colonization. We evaluated nasal immunization with recombinant PspA (rPspA) in a model of co-colonization with two strains expressing different PspAs. Mice were immunized intranasally with rPspAs from clades 1 to 4 (rPspA1, rPspA2, rPspA3 or rPspA4) using whole-cell pertussis vaccine (wP) as adjuvant. Mice were then challenged with a mixture of two serotype 6B isolates St491/00 (PspA1) and St472/96 (PspA4). Immunization with rPspA1+wP and rPspA4+wP reduced colonization with both strains and the mixture of rPspA1+rPspA4+wP induced greater reduction than a single antigen. Immunization rPspA1+rPspA4+wP also reduced colonization when challenge experiments were performed with a mixture of isolates of serotypes 6B (PspA3) and 23F (PspA2). Furthermore, none of the tested formulations led to a pronounced increase in colonization of one isolate over the other, showing that the vaccine strategy would not favor replacement. Interestingly, the adjuvant wP by itself already led to some reduction in pneumococcal colonization, indicating the induction of non-specific immune responses. Anti-rPspA IgG was observed in serum, nasal wash (NW) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples, whereas animals inoculated with formulations containing the adjuvant wP (with or without rPspA) showed higher levels of IL-6 and KC in NW and increase in tissue macrophages, B cells and CD4+T cells in BALF. PMID:28103277

  15. Protein Adsorption to Surface Chemistry and Crystal Structure Modification of Titanium Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Jimbo


    Full Text Available Objectives: To observe the early adsorption of extracellular matrix and blood plasma proteins to magnesium-incorporated titanium oxide surfaces, which has shown superior bone response in animal models.Material and Methods: Commercially pure titanium discs were blasted with titanium dioxide (TiO2 particles (control, and for the test group, TiO2 blasted discs were further processed with a micro-arc oxidation method (test. Surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, surface topography by optic interferometry, characterization by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The adsorption of 3 different proteins (fibronectin, albumin, and collagen type I was investigated by an immunoblotting technique.Results: The test surface showed a porous structure, whereas the control surface showed a typical TiO2 blasted structure. XPS data revealed magnesium-incorporation to the anodic oxide film of the surface. There was no difference in surface roughness between the control and test surfaces. For the protein adsorption test, the amount of albumin was significantly higher on the control surface whereas the amount of fibronectin was significantly higher on the test surface. Although there was no significant difference, the test surface had a tendency to adsorb more collagen type I.Conclusions: The magnesium-incorporated anodized surface showed significantly higher fibronectin adsorption and lower albumin adsorption than the blasted surface. These results may be one of the reasons for the excellent bone response previously observed in animal studies.

  16. Surface plasmon resonance imaging for parallelized detection of protein biomarkers (United States)

    Piliarik, Marek; Párová, Lucie; Vaisocherová, Hana; Homola, Jiří


    We report a novel high-throughput surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor for rapid and parallelized detection of protein biomarkers. The biosensor is based on a high-performance SPR imaging sensor with polarization contrast and internal referencing which yields a considerably higher sensitivity and resolution than conventional SPR imaging systems (refractive index resolution 2 × 10-7 RIU). We combined the SPR imaging biosensor with microspotting to create an array of antibodies. DNA-directed protein immobilization was utilized for the spatially resolved attachment of antibodies. Using Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) as model protein biomarker, we demonstrated the potential for simultaneous detection of proteins in up to 100 channels.

  17. Monte Carlo study of the molecular mechanisms of surface-layer protein self-assembly (United States)

    Horejs, Christine; Mitra, Mithun K.; Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe B.; Muthukumar, Murugappan


    The molecular mechanisms guiding the self-assembly of proteins into functional or pathogenic large-scale structures can be only understood by studying the correlation between the structural details of the monomer and the eventual mesoscopic morphologies. Among the myriad structural details of protein monomers and their manifestations in the self-assembled morphologies, we seek to identify the most crucial set of structural features necessary for the spontaneous selection of desired morphologies. Using a combination of the structural information and a Monte Carlo method with a coarse-grained model, we have studied the functional protein self-assembly into S(surface)-layers, which constitute the crystallized outer most cell envelope of a great variety of bacterial cells. We discover that only few and mainly hydrophobic amino acids, located on the surface of the monomer, are responsible for the formation of a highly ordered anisotropic protein lattice. The coarse-grained model presented here reproduces accurately many experimentally observed features including the pore formation, chemical description of the pore structure, location of specific amino acid residues at the protein-protein interfaces, and surface accessibility of specific amino acid residues. In addition to elucidating the molecular mechanisms and explaining experimental findings in the S-layer assembly, the present work offers a tool, which is chemical enough to capture details of primary sequences and coarse-grained enough to explore morphological structures with thousands of protein monomers, to promulgate design rules for spontaneous formation of specific protein assemblies.

  18. Protein adsorption to graphene surfaces controlled by chemical modification of the substrate surfaces. (United States)

    Kamiya, Yasutaka; Yamazaki, Kenji; Ogino, Toshio


    We have investigated effects of the support substrate surfaces on properties of the attached graphene flakes by observing protein adsorption to the graphene surfaces on SiO2/Si substrates that are modified with self-assembled monolayers to control their hydrophilicity. Using atomic force microscopy operated in aqueous environment, we found that high-density clusters of agglomerated avidin molecules form on the graphene flakes in the areas supported by a hydrophobic substrate surface, whereas very low density of large avidin clusters form at the edge of graphene flakes in the area supported by a hydrophilic surface. These results demonstrate that hydrophilicity of the support surface affects hydrophilicity of the graphene surface also in aqueous environment and that surface modification of the support substrate is a useful technique to control protein adsorption phenomena on graphene surfaces for realization of high sensitive graphene biosensors.

  19. Investigation of cellular and protein interactions with model self-assembled monolayer surfaces (United States)

    Tegoulia, Vassiliki Apostolou

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiolates on gold have been used to investigate the effect of substrate surface properties on bacterial and blood cell adhesion in the presence and absence of blood proteins. Protein adsorption and binding strength on SAMs as well as complement activation by these model surfaces were also studied. It is hoped that information gained, regarding factors that influence biological processes, will lead to strategies for designing materials and surfaces that specifically inhibit cell adhesion and protein adsorption. Single component SAMs of the general formula HS(CH2) 10X, where X = CH3, CH2OH. COOH and CH2(OCH 2CH2)3OH, and two component mixed SAMs created from binary solutions of HS(CH2), OCH3 and HS(CH 2)10CH2OH, were used. Adhesion was investigated under well-defined flow conditions. Adhesion was found to be higher for the hydrophobic methyl and minimal for the tri(ethyleneoxide) terminated SAM. Preincubation of the SAMs with fibrinogen led to an increase in cell adhesion for bacteria and a decrease for leukocyte adhesion. The effect of surface chemistry on protein adsorption was studied for three blood proteins, fibrinogen, fibronectin and albumin. Adsorption was found to be higher on the hydrophobic CH3 surface and lower but comparable for the other surfaces while proteins adsorbed strongly on all surfaces. SAMs were also used to evaluate complement activation by foreign surfaces. The hydroxyl rich SAMs were found to activate complement more significantly than the anionic carboxyl and the hydrophobic methyl terminated SAMs. A surface modification was introduced to incorporate a zwitterionic phosphorylcholine (PC) group on a hydroxyl monolayer in an effort to create a biomimetic surface that could minimize cell adhesion and protein adsorption. The good antifouling properties of the phosphorylcholine modified surface led to the synthesis of a novel phosphorylcholine functionalized thiol. Single component and two component

  20. Surface cell immobilization within perfluoroalkoxy microchannels (United States)

    Stojkovič, Gorazd; Krivec, Matic; Vesel, Alenka; Marinšek, Marjan; Žnidaršič-Plazl, Polona


    Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) is one of the most promising materials for the fabrication of cheap, solvent resistant and reusable microfluidic chips, which have been recently recognized as effective tools for biocatalytic process development. The application of biocatalysts significantly depends on efficient immobilization of enzymes or cells within the reactor enabling long-term biocatalyst use. Functionalization of PFA microchannels by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (ATPES) and glutaraldehyde was used for rapid preparation of microbioreactors with surface-immobilized cells. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to accurately monitor individual treatment steps and to select conditions for cell immobilization. The optimized protocol for Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilization on PFA microchannel walls comprised ethanol surface pretreatment, 4 h contacting with 10% APTES aqueous solution, 10 min treatment with 1% glutaraldehyde and 20 min contacting with cells in deionized water. The same protocol enabled also immobilization of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis cells on PFA surface in high densities. Furthermore, the developed procedure has been proved to be very efficient also for surface immobilization of tested cells on other materials that are used for microreactor fabrication, including glass, polystyrene, poly (methyl methacrylate), polycarbonate, and two olefin-based polymers, namely Zeonor® and Topas®.

  1. Live Cell Surface Labeling with Fluorescent Ag Nanocluster Conjugates†


    Yu, Junhua; Choi, Sungmoon; Richards, Chris I.; Antoku, Yasuko; Dickson, Robert M


    DNA-encapsulated silver clusters are readily conjugated to proteins and serve as alternatives to organic dyes and semiconductor quantum dots. Stable and bright on the bulk and single molecule levels, Ag nanocluster fluorescence is readily observed when staining live cell surfaces. Being significantly brighter and more photostable than organics and much smaller than quantum dots with a single point of attachment, these nanomaterials offer promising new approaches for bulk and single molecule b...

  2. Surface cell immobilization within perfluoroalkoxy microchannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovič, Gorazd; Krivec, Matic [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vesel, Alenka [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Marinšek, Marjan [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Žnidaršič-Plazl, Polona, E-mail: [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A very efficient approach for immobilization of cells into microreactors is presented. • It is applicable to various materials, including PFA and cyclic olefin (co)polymers. • It was used to immobilize different prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes. • Cells were immobilized on the surface in high density and showed good stability. • Mechanisms of APTES interactions with target materials are proposed. - Abstract: Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) is one of the most promising materials for the fabrication of cheap, solvent resistant and reusable microfluidic chips, which have been recently recognized as effective tools for biocatalytic process development. The application of biocatalysts significantly depends on efficient immobilization of enzymes or cells within the reactor enabling long-term biocatalyst use. Functionalization of PFA microchannels by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (ATPES) and glutaraldehyde was used for rapid preparation of microbioreactors with surface-immobilized cells. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to accurately monitor individual treatment steps and to select conditions for cell immobilization. The optimized protocol for Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilization on PFA microchannel walls comprised ethanol surface pretreatment, 4 h contacting with 10% APTES aqueous solution, 10 min treatment with 1% glutaraldehyde and 20 min contacting with cells in deionized water. The same protocol enabled also immobilization of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis cells on PFA surface in high densities. Furthermore, the developed procedure has been proved to be very efficient also for surface immobilization of tested cells on other materials that are used for microreactor fabrication, including glass, polystyrene, poly (methyl methacrylate), polycarbonate, and two olefin-based polymers, namely Zeonor{sup ®} and Topas{sup ®}.

  3. Origins of Protein Functions in Cells (United States)

    Seelig, Burchard; Pohorille, Andrzej


    In modern organisms proteins perform a majority of cellular functions, such as chemical catalysis, energy transduction and transport of material across cell walls. Although great strides have been made towards understanding protein evolution, a meaningful extrapolation from contemporary proteins to their earliest ancestors is virtually impossible. In an alternative approach, the origin of water-soluble proteins was probed through the synthesis and in vitro evolution of very large libraries of random amino acid sequences. In combination with computer modeling and simulations, these experiments allow us to address a number of fundamental questions about the origins of proteins. Can functionality emerge from random sequences of proteins? How did the initial repertoire of functional proteins diversify to facilitate new functions? Did this diversification proceed primarily through drawing novel functionalities from random sequences or through evolution of already existing proto-enzymes? Did protein evolution start from a pool of proteins defined by a frozen accident and other collections of proteins could start a different evolutionary pathway? Although we do not have definitive answers to these questions yet, important clues have been uncovered. In one example (Keefe and Szostak, 2001), novel ATP binding proteins were identified that appear to be unrelated in both sequence and structure to any known ATP binding proteins. One of these proteins was subsequently redesigned computationally to bind GTP through introducing several mutations that introduce targeted structural changes to the protein, improve its binding to guanine and prevent water from accessing the active center. This study facilitates further investigations of individual evolutionary steps that lead to a change of function in primordial proteins. In a second study (Seelig and Szostak, 2007), novel enzymes were generated that can join two pieces of RNA in a reaction for which no natural enzymes are known

  4. Lactobacillus acidophilus CP23 with weak immunomodulatory activity lacks anchoring structure for surface layer protein. (United States)

    Yanagihara, Sae; Kato, Shinji; Ashida, Nobuhisa; Yamamoto, Naoyuki


    To determine the reason for the low levels of Surface layer protein A (SlpA) on CP23 cells, which might play a crucial role in the immunomodulatory effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus, the DNA sequence of the slpA gene of CP23 and L-92 strains, including the upstream region, were analyzed. Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in the predicted amino acid sequence of the C-terminus needed for cell anchoring, and only an additional Ala-Val-Ala sequence inserted in the N-terminal region of the mature CP23 protein. Therefore, anchoring of SlpA on the cell wall of CP23 and L-92 was evaluated by a reconstitution assay, which showed that SlpA released by LiCl treatment from both CP23 and L-92 was successfully anchored on LiCl-treated L-92 cells, but not on LiCl-treated CP23 cells. Moreover, quantitative analysis of SlpA protein in the culture medium of CP23 and L-92 by ELISA revealed higher levels of SlpA secretion in CP23 cells than in L-92 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that the lower levels of SlpA on the surface of CP23 cells might be caused by less cell wall capacity for SlpA anchoring, leading to an accumulation of SlpA in the culture medium of CP23 cells. The present study supports the importance of cell surface structure of L. acidophilus L-92 for SlpA anchoring on the cell surface needed for immunomodulatory effect.

  5. Characterization and use of crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (United States)

    Sleytr, Uwe B.; Sára, Margit; Pum, Dietmar; Schuster, Bernhard


    Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) are one of the most common outermost cell envelope components of prokaryotic organisms (archaea and bacteria). S-layers are monomolecular arrays composed of a single protein or glycoprotein species and represent the simplest biological membranes developed during evolution. S-layers as the most abundant of prokaryotic cellular proteins are appealing model systems for studying the structure, synthesis, genetics, assembly and function of proteinaceous supramolecular structures. The wealth of information existing on the general principle of S-layers have revealed a broad application potential. The most relevant features exploited in applied S-layer research are: (i) pores passing through S-layers show identical size and morphology and are in the range of ultrafiltration membranes; (ii) functional groups on the surface and in the pores are aligned in well-defined positions and orientations and accessible for chemical modifications and binding functional molecules in very precise fashion; (iii) isolated S-layer subunits from a variety of organisms are capable of recrystallizing as closed monolayers onto solid supports (e.g., metals, polymers, silicon wafers) at the air-water interface, on lipid films or onto the surface of liposomes; (iv) functional domains can be incorporated in S-layer proteins by genetic engineering. Thus, S-layer technologies particularly provide new approaches for biotechnology, biomimetics, molecular nanotechnology, nanopatterning of surfaces and formation of ordered arrays of metal clusters or nanoparticles as required for nanoelectronics.

  6. Insights into molecular plasticity of choline binding proteins (pneumococcal surface proteins) by SAXS. (United States)

    Buey, Rubén M; Monterroso, Begoña; Menéndez, Margarita; Diakun, Greg; Chacón, Pablo; Hermoso, Juan Antonio; Díaz, J Fernando


    Phosphocholine moieties decorating the pneumococcal surface are used as a docking station for a family of modular proteins, the so-called choline binding proteins or CBPs. Choline recognition is essential for CBPs function and may also be a determinant for their quaternary structure. There is little knowledge about modular arrangement or oligomeric structures in this family. Therefore, we have used the small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique combined with analytical ultracentrifugation in order to model the three-dimensional envelope of two highly different CBPs: the phage encoded Cpl-1 lysozyme and the pneumococcal phosphorylcholine esterase Pce. Both enzymes have an N-terminal catalytic module and a C-terminal choline-binding module (CBM) that attaches them to the bacterial surface and comprises six and ten sequence repeats in Cpl-1 and Pce, respectively. SAXS experiments have shown an inherent conformational plasticity in Cpl-1 that accounts for the different relative position of these regions in the solution and crystal structures. Dimerization of Cpl-1 upon choline binding has been also visualised for the first time, and monomer-monomer interactions take place through the first CBR where a non-canonical choline binding site has now been identified. This mode of association seems to be independent of the absence or presence of the Cpl-1 catalytic module and reveals that the arrangement of the monomers differs from that previously found in the isolated CBM dimer of pneumococcal LytA amidase. In contrast, Pce displays the same modular disposition in the solution and crystal structures, and remains almost invariant upon choline binding. The present results suggest that protein dimerization and duplication of CBRs may be alternative but not equivalent ways of improving cell wall recognition by CBPs, since they provide different interaction geometries for choline residues present in (lipo)teichoic acids.

  7. Ca2+ - or Phorbol Ester - Dependent Effect of ATP on a Subpopulation of cAMP Cell-Surface Receptors in Membranes from D. discoideum. A Role for Protein Kinase C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Wit, René J.W. de; Lookeren Campagne, Michiel M. van


    D. discoideum cells contain surface receptors for the chemoattractant cAMP which are composed of fast and slowly dissociating binding sites with half-lifes of respectively about 1 s and 15 s. In membranes prepared by shearing the cells through a Nucleopore filter, ATP has no effect on cAMP-binding a

  8. Small Molecule-Photoactive Yellow Protein Labeling Technology in Live Cell Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gao


    Full Text Available Characterization of the chemical environment, movement, trafficking and interactions of proteins in live cells is essential to understanding their functions. Labeling protein with functional molecules is a widely used approach in protein research to elucidate the protein location and functions both in vitro and in live cells or in vivo. A peptide or a protein tag fused to the protein of interest and provides the opportunities for an attachment of small molecule probes or other fluorophore to image the dynamics of protein localization. Here we reviewed the recent development of no-wash small molecular probes for photoactive yellow protein (PYP-tag, by the means of utilizing a quenching mechanism based on the intramolecular interactions, or an environmental-sensitive fluorophore. Several fluorogenic probes have been developed, with fast labeling kinetics and cell permeability. This technology allows quick live-cell imaging of cell-surface and intracellular proteins without a wash-out procedure.

  9. Versatile protein tagging in cells with split fluorescent protein (United States)

    Kamiyama, Daichi; Sekine, Sayaka; Barsi-Rhyne, Benjamin; Hu, Jeffrey; Chen, Baohui; Gilbert, Luke A.; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Leonetti, Manuel D.; Marshall, Wallace F.; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Huang, Bo


    In addition to the popular method of fluorescent protein fusion, live cell protein imaging has now seen more and more application of epitope tags. The small size of these tags may reduce functional perturbation and enable signal amplification. To address their background issue, we adapt self-complementing split fluorescent proteins as epitope tags for live cell protein labelling. The two tags, GFP11 and sfCherry11 are derived from the eleventh β-strand of super-folder GFP and sfCherry, respectively. The small size of FP11-tags enables a cost-effective and scalable way to insert them into endogenous genomic loci via CRISPR-mediated homology-directed repair. Tandem arrangement FP11-tags allows proportional enhancement of fluorescence signal in tracking intraflagellar transport particles, or reduction of photobleaching for live microtubule imaging. Finally, we show the utility of tandem GFP11-tag in scaffolding protein oligomerization. These experiments illustrate the versatility of FP11-tag as a labelling tool as well as a multimerization-control tool for both imaging and non-imaging applications. PMID:26988139

  10. Versatile protein tagging in cells with split fluorescent protein. (United States)

    Kamiyama, Daichi; Sekine, Sayaka; Barsi-Rhyne, Benjamin; Hu, Jeffrey; Chen, Baohui; Gilbert, Luke A; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Leonetti, Manuel D; Marshall, Wallace F; Weissman, Jonathan S; Huang, Bo


    In addition to the popular method of fluorescent protein fusion, live cell protein imaging has now seen more and more application of epitope tags. The small size of these tags may reduce functional perturbation and enable signal amplification. To address their background issue, we adapt self-complementing split fluorescent proteins as epitope tags for live cell protein labelling. The two tags, GFP11 and sfCherry11 are derived from the eleventh β-strand of super-folder GFP and sfCherry, respectively. The small size of FP11-tags enables a cost-effective and scalable way to insert them into endogenous genomic loci via CRISPR-mediated homology-directed repair. Tandem arrangement FP11-tags allows proportional enhancement of fluorescence signal in tracking intraflagellar transport particles, or reduction of photobleaching for live microtubule imaging. Finally, we show the utility of tandem GFP11-tag in scaffolding protein oligomerization. These experiments illustrate the versatility of FP11-tag as a labelling tool as well as a multimerization-control tool for both imaging and non-imaging applications.

  11. The irre cell recognition module (IRM) proteins. (United States)

    Fischbach, Karl-Friedrich; Linneweber, Gerit Arne; Andlauer, Till Felix Malte; Hertenstein, Alexander; Bonengel, Bernhard; Chaudhary, Kokil


    One of the most challenging problems in developmental neurosciences is to understand the establishment and maintenance of specific membrane contacts between axonal, dendritic, and glial processes in the neuropils, which eventually secure neuronal connectivity. However, underlying cell recognition events are pivotal in other tissues as well. This brief review focuses on the pleiotropic functions of a small, evolutionarily conserved group of proteins of the immunoglobulin superfamily involved in cell recognition. In Drosophila, this protein family comprises Irregular chiasm C/Roughest (IrreC/Rst), Kin of irre (Kirre), and their interacting protein partners, Sticks and stones (SNS) and Hibris (Hbs). For simplicity, we propose to name this ensemble of proteins the irre cell recognition module (IRM) after the first identified member of this family. Here, we summarize evidence that the IRM proteins function together in various cellular interactions, including myoblast fusion, cell sorting, axonal pathfinding, and target recognition in the optic neuropils of Drosophila. Understanding IRM protein function will help to unravel the epigenetic rules by which the intricate neurite networks in sensory neuropils are formed.

  12. [A Method for Protein Photo-cross-linking in Living Cells Facilitating Analysis of Physiological Interactions of Proteins]. (United States)

    Hino, Nobumasa


    In living cells, most proteins form complexes with other proteins to exert their functions. Since protein functions are regulated in response to changes in the cellular environment, the components of the complexes can vary; therefore, proteins often interact in a weak and transient manner. To capture such labile protein interactions, we have developed a method for photo-cross-linking of proteins directly interacting in mammalian cells; this method involves expansion of the genetic code and site-specific incorporation of photoreactive amino acids into proteins. Upon cross-linking, protein complexes are stabilized by a covalent bond and can be readily isolated from cell extracts without the problems usually associated with simple affinity purification methods such as co-immunoprecipitation. Photo-cross-linkers have another benefit: they react exclusively with molecules within a range defined by the linker length. This property becomes useful for determining the binding interface of two proteins because the linkers can be introduced in a site-directed manner with our method. In this review, we first describe the expansion of the genetic code of mammalian cells for the incorporation of non-natural amino acids into proteins. Then, we introduce our recent applications and developments of the cross-linking method: identification of intracellular binding partners of the signaling protein growth factor receptor binding protein 2; analysis of the binding between membrane proteins on the cell surface; and a novel photoreactive amino acid that enables wide-ranging photo-cross-linking.

  13. Identification of novel surface-exposed proteins of Rickettsia rickettsii by affinity purification and proteomics. (United States)

    Gong, Wenping; Xiong, Xiaolu; Qi, Yong; Jiao, Jun; Duan, Changsong; Wen, Bohai


    Rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, is the most pathogenic member among Rickettsia spp. Surface-exposed proteins (SEPs) of R. rickettsii may play important roles in its pathogenesis or immunity. In this study, R. rickettsii organisms were surface-labeled with sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin and the labeled proteins were affinity-purified with streptavidin. The isolated proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and 10 proteins were identified among 23 protein spots by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Five (OmpA, OmpB, GroEL, GroES, and a DNA-binding protein) of the 10 proteins were previously characterized as surface proteins of R. rickettsii. Another 5 proteins (Adr1, Adr2, OmpW, Porin_4, and TolC) were first recognized as SEPs of R. rickettsii herein. The genes encoding the 5 novel SEPs were expressed in Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 5 recombinant SEPs (rSEPs), which were used to immunize mice. After challenge with viable R. rickettsii cells, the rickettsial load in the spleen, liver, or lung of mice immunized with rAdr2 and in the lungs of mice immunized with other rSEPs excluding rTolC was significantly lower than in mice that were mock-immunized with PBS. The in vitro neutralization test revealed that sera from mice immunized with rAdr1, rAdr2, or rOmpW reduced R. rickettsii adherence to and invasion of vascular endothelial cells. The immuno-electron microscopic assay clearly showed that the novel SEPs were located in the outer and/or inner membrane of R. rickettsii. Altogether, the 5 novel SEPs identified herein might be involved in the interaction of R. rickettsii with vascular endothelial cells, and all of them except TolC were protective antigens.

  14. Identification of novel surface-exposed proteins of Rickettsia rickettsii by affinity purification and proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Gong

    Full Text Available Rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, is the most pathogenic member among Rickettsia spp. Surface-exposed proteins (SEPs of R. rickettsii may play important roles in its pathogenesis or immunity. In this study, R. rickettsii organisms were surface-labeled with sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin and the labeled proteins were affinity-purified with streptavidin. The isolated proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and 10 proteins were identified among 23 protein spots by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Five (OmpA, OmpB, GroEL, GroES, and a DNA-binding protein of the 10 proteins were previously characterized as surface proteins of R. rickettsii. Another 5 proteins (Adr1, Adr2, OmpW, Porin_4, and TolC were first recognized as SEPs of R. rickettsii herein. The genes encoding the 5 novel SEPs were expressed in Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 5 recombinant SEPs (rSEPs, which were used to immunize mice. After challenge with viable R. rickettsii cells, the rickettsial load in the spleen, liver, or lung of mice immunized with rAdr2 and in the lungs of mice immunized with other rSEPs excluding rTolC was significantly lower than in mice that were mock-immunized with PBS. The in vitro neutralization test revealed that sera from mice immunized with rAdr1, rAdr2, or rOmpW reduced R. rickettsii adherence to and invasion of vascular endothelial cells. The immuno-electron microscopic assay clearly showed that the novel SEPs were located in the outer and/or inner membrane of R. rickettsii. Altogether, the 5 novel SEPs identified herein might be involved in the interaction of R. rickettsii with vascular endothelial cells, and all of them except TolC were protective antigens.

  15. Engineering and Characterization of Peptides and Proteins at Surfaces and Interfaces: A Case Study in Surface-Sensitive Vibrational Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Ding, Bei; Jasensky, Joshua; Li, Yaoxin; Chen, Zhan


    labeling method with SFG to probe the detailed local structure and microenvironment of peptides at buried interfaces, (2) systematic research on cell membrane associated peptides and proteins including antimicrobial peptides, cell penetrating peptides, G proteins, and other membrane proteins, discussing the factors that influence interfacial peptide and protein structures such as lipid charge, membrane fluidity, and biomolecule solution concentration, and (3) in-depth discussion on solid surface immobilized antimicrobial peptides and enzymes. The effects of immobilization method, substrate surface, immobilization site on the peptide or protein, and surrounding environment are presented. Several examples leading to high impact new research are also briefly introduced: The orientation change of alamethicin detected while varying the model cell membrane potential demonstrates the feasibility to apply SFG to study ion channel protein gating mechanisms. The elucidation of peptide secondary structures at liquid crystal interfaces shows promising results that liquid crystal can detect and recognize different peptides and proteins. The method of retaining the native structure of surface immobilized peptides or proteins in air demonstrates the feasibility to protect and preserve such structures via the use of hydromimetic functionalities when there is no bulk water. We hope that readers in many different disciplines will benefit from the research progress reported in this Account on SFG studies of interfacial structure-function relationships of peptides and proteins and apply this powerful technique to study interfacial biomolecules in the future.

  16. The ability of IgY to recognize surface proteins of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri A. Gani


    Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus mutans are gram positive bacteria classified into viridians group, and have a role in pathogenesis of dental caries. It’s adhesion to the tooth surface is mediated by cell surface proteins, which interact with specific receptor located in tooth pellicle. Glucan binding protein, Glukosyltransferase, and antigen I/II are basic proteins of S. mutans, which have a role in initiating the interaction. A previous study showed that chicken’s IgY can interfere the interaction. Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the ability of IgY in recognizing the surface molecule of Streptococcus mutans expressed by various serotypes (c, d, e, f and a strain derived from IPB, Bogor. Method: Western blot was used as a method to determine such capability. Result: The result showed that IgY has a potency to recognize antigen I/II, but not the other proteins on the cell surface of all bacteria tested. Conclusion: The ability of IgY to bind the surface protein, antigen I/II, indicates that this avian antibody could be used as a candidate for anti-adhesion in preventing dental caries.

  17. Revealing Surface Waters on an Antifreeze Protein by Fusion Protein Crystallography Combined with Molecular Dynamic Simulations. (United States)

    Sun, Tianjun; Gauthier, Sherry Y; Campbell, Robert L; Davies, Peter L


    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) adsorb to ice through an extensive, flat, relatively hydrophobic surface. It has been suggested that this ice-binding site (IBS) organizes surface waters into an ice-like clathrate arrangement that matches and fuses to the quasi-liquid layer on the ice surface. On cooling, these waters join the ice lattice and freeze the AFP to its ligand. Evidence for the generality of this binding mechanism is limited because AFPs tend to crystallize with their IBS as a preferred protein-protein contact surface, which displaces some bound waters. Type III AFP is a 7 kDa globular protein with an IBS made up two adjacent surfaces. In the crystal structure of the most active isoform (QAE1), the part of the IBS that docks to the primary prism plane of ice is partially exposed to solvent and has clathrate waters present that match this plane of ice. The adjacent IBS, which matches the pyramidal plane of ice, is involved in protein-protein crystal contacts with few surface waters. Here we have changed the protein-protein contacts in the ice-binding region by crystallizing a fusion of QAE1 to maltose-binding protein. In this 1.9 Å structure, the IBS that fits the pyramidal plane of ice is exposed to solvent. By combining crystallography data with MD simulations, the surface waters on both sides of the IBS were revealed and match well with the target ice planes. The waters on the pyramidal plane IBS were loosely constrained, which might explain why other isoforms of type III AFP that lack the prism plane IBS are less active than QAE1. The AFP fusion crystallization method can potentially be used to force the exposure to solvent of the IBS on other AFPs to reveal the locations of key surface waters.

  18. Interaction of Serum Proteins with Surface of Hemodialysis Fiber Membranes (United States)

    Afrin, Rehana; Shirako, Yuji; Kishimoto, Kikuo; Ikai, Atsushi


    The poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)-covered hydrophilic surface of hollow-fiber membranes (fiber membrane, hereafter) for hemodialysis was mechanically probed using modified tips on an atomic force microscope (AFM) with covalent crosslinkers and several types of serum protein. The retraction part of many of the force extension (F-E) curves obtained with AFM tips coated with serum albumin had a long and smooth extension up to 200-300 nm indicating forced elongation of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) chains. When fibrinogen-coated tips were used, long extension F-E curves up to 500 nm with multiple peaks were obtained in addition to smooth curves most likely reflecting the unfolding of fibrinogen molecules. The results indicated that individual polymer chains had a significant affinity toward serum proteins. The adhesion frequency of tips coated with serum proteins was lower on the poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) surface than on the uncoated hydrophobic polysulfone surface.

  19. Surface charge effects in protein adsorption on nanodiamonds. (United States)

    Aramesh, M; Shimoni, O; Ostrikov, K; Prawer, S; Cervenka, J


    Understanding the interaction of proteins with charged diamond nanoparticles is of fundamental importance for diverse biomedical applications. Here we present a thorough study of protein binding, adsorption kinetics and structure on strongly positively (hydrogen-terminated) and negatively (oxygen-terminated) charged nanodiamond particles using a quartz crystal microbalance by dissipation and infrared spectroscopy. By using two model proteins (bovine serum albumin and lysozyme) of different properties (charge, molecular weight and rigidity), the main driving mechanism responsible for the protein binding to the charged nanoparticles was identified. Electrostatic interactions were found to dominate the protein adsorption dynamics, attachment and conformation. We developed a simple electrostatic model that can qualitatively explain the observed adsorption behaviour based on charge-induced pH modifications near the charged nanoparticle surfaces. Under neutral conditions, the local pH around the positively and negatively charged nanodiamonds becomes very high (11-12) and low (1-3) respectively, which has a profound impact on the protein charge, hydration and affinity to the nanodiamonds. Small proteins (lysozyme) were found to form multilayers with significant conformational changes to screen the surface charge, while larger proteins (albumin) formed monolayers with minor conformational changes. The findings of this study provide a step forward toward understanding and eventually predicting nanoparticle interactions with biofluids.

  20. A global optimization algorithm for protein surface alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra Concettina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A relevant problem in drug design is the comparison and recognition of protein binding sites. Binding sites recognition is generally based on geometry often combined with physico-chemical properties of the site since the conformation, size and chemical composition of the protein surface are all relevant for the interaction with a specific ligand. Several matching strategies have been designed for the recognition of protein-ligand binding sites and of protein-protein interfaces but the problem cannot be considered solved. Results In this paper we propose a new method for local structural alignment of protein surfaces based on continuous global optimization techniques. Given the three-dimensional structures of two proteins, the method finds the isometric transformation (rotation plus translation that best superimposes active regions of two structures. We draw our inspiration from the well-known Iterative Closest Point (ICP method for three-dimensional (3D shapes registration. Our main contribution is in the adoption of a controlled random search as a more efficient global optimization approach along with a new dissimilarity measure. The reported computational experience and comparison show viability of the proposed approach. Conclusions Our method performs well to detect similarity in binding sites when this in fact exists. In the future we plan to do a more comprehensive evaluation of the method by considering large datasets of non-redundant proteins and applying a clustering technique to the results of all comparisons to classify binding sites.

  1. Detection of S-nitrosylated protein by surface plasmon resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruirui Wang


    Full Text Available S-Nitrosylation has recently emerged as an important posttranslational modification of proteins and is becoming an intensive field of research in plants. Protein S-nitrosation, a reversible post-translation modification of cysteine, affects many cell signaling pathways and plays critical roles in redox-sensitive cell signaling. Changes in protein function effectively transmit biological signals and thus provide a framework for elucidating signaling networks. This paper presented a new, universal immunosensor for detection of S-nitrosylated proteins. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and atomic force microscope (AFM were used to estimate the formation of self-assembled film. This method was based on the specific binding characteristics of biotin–streptavidin, using Biotin-HPDP labeled protein sulfhydryl group as the substrate to detect proteins. The sensor was used to detect bovine serum albumin (BSA, nitrosylated BSA and denitrosylated BSA. The results showed that 90.61% of nitrosylated BSA were reduced, verifying that protein S-nitrosylation is a reversible and effective post-translation modification. This method was successfully applied to detect S-nitrosylated protein in Feicheng peach. The results showed good repeatability and precision. This method provided a molecular basis for further exploring the mechanism of S-nitrosylation of proteins in plants.

  2. Protein sequences bound to mineral surfaces persist into deep time (United States)

    Demarchi, Beatrice; Hall, Shaun; Roncal-Herrero, Teresa; Freeman, Colin L; Woolley, Jos; Crisp, Molly K; Wilson, Julie; Fotakis, Anna; Fischer, Roman; Kessler, Benedikt M; Rakownikow Jersie-Christensen, Rosa; Olsen, Jesper V; Haile, James; Thomas, Jessica; Marean, Curtis W; Parkington, John; Presslee, Samantha; Lee-Thorp, Julia; Ditchfield, Peter; Hamilton, Jacqueline F; Ward, Martyn W; Wang, Chunting Michelle; Shaw, Marvin D; Harrison, Terry; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; MacPhee, Ross DE; Kwekason, Amandus; Ecker, Michaela; Kolska Horwitz, Liora; Chazan, Michael; Kröger, Roland; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Harding, John H; Cappellini, Enrico; Penkman, Kirsty; Collins, Matthew J


    Proteins persist longer in the fossil record than DNA, but the longevity, survival mechanisms and substrates remain contested. Here, we demonstrate the role of mineral binding in preserving the protein sequence in ostrich (Struthionidae) eggshell, including from the palaeontological sites of Laetoli (3.8 Ma) and Olduvai Gorge (1.3 Ma) in Tanzania. By tracking protein diagenesis back in time we find consistent patterns of preservation, demonstrating authenticity of the surviving sequences. Molecular dynamics simulations of struthiocalcin-1 and -2, the dominant proteins within the eggshell, reveal that distinct domains bind to the mineral surface. It is the domain with the strongest calculated binding energy to the calcite surface that is selectively preserved. Thermal age calculations demonstrate that the Laetoli and Olduvai peptides are 50 times older than any previously authenticated sequence (equivalent to ~16 Ma at a constant 10°C). DOI: PMID:27668515

  3. Comparison of surface and hydrogel-based protein microchips. (United States)

    Zubtsov, D A; Savvateeva, E N; Rubina, A Yu; Pan'kov, S V; Konovalova, E V; Moiseeva, O V; Chechetkin, V R; Zasedatelev, A S


    Protein microchips are designed for high-throughput evaluation of the concentrations and activities of various proteins. The rapid advance in microchip technology and a wide variety of existing techniques pose the problem of unified approach to the assessment and comparison of different platforms. Here we compare the characteristics of protein microchips developed for quantitative immunoassay with those of antibodies immobilized on glass surfaces and in hemispherical gel pads. Spotting concentrations of antibodies used for manufacturing of microchips of both types and concentrations of antigen in analyte solution were identical. We compared the efficiency of antibody immobilization, the intensity of fluorescence signals for both direct and sandwich-type immunoassays, and the reaction-diffusion kinetics of the formation of antibody-antigen complexes for surface and gel-based microchips. Our results demonstrate higher capacity and sensitivity for the hydrogel-based protein microchips, while fluorescence saturation kinetics for the two types of microarrays was comparable.

  4. [Vaccination of mice against murine coccidiosis by ingestion of surface proteins of Eimeria falciformis incorporated in liposomes]. (United States)

    Rhalem, A; Bekhti, K; Bourdieu, C; Luffau, G; Péry, P


    Proteins are released from the surface of sporozoites of Eimeria falciformis during their in vitro incubation in a detergent solution. Some of these proteins reacted with antibodies from infected mice and specifically stimulated the proliferation of mesenteric lymph node cells of these mice. Oral immunization of mice with liposome encapsulated sporozoite surface antigens protected mice against a challenge infection. Two proteins (M.W. 27 and 180 K) induced an antibody synthesis in these vaccinated mice.

  5. Preventing protein adsorption from a range of surfaces using an aqueous fish protein extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Saju; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Meyer, Rikke L.;


    We utilize an aqueous extract of fish proteins (FPs) as a coating for minimizing the adsorption of fibrinogen (Fg) and human serum albumin (HSA). The surfaces include stainless steel (SS), gold (Au), silicon dioxide (SiO2), and poly(styrene) (PS). The adsorption processes (kinetics and adsorbed...... Fg- or HSA-coated surfaces are exposed to the FPs, a significant increase in adsorbed mass occurs because the FPs are highly surface-active displacing Fg. Additionally, fluorescence microscopy confirms that very little Fg adsorbs to the FP-coated surfaces. We propose that FP coatings prevent protein...

  6. Cell adhesion on Ti surface with controlled roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos-Asperilla, L.; Garcia-Alonso, M. C.; Escudero, M. L.; Alonso, C.


    In this report, the in situ interaction between Saos-2 osteoblast cells and a smooth Ti surface was examined over time. The adhesion kinetics and mechanisms of cellular proliferation were monitored by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The rate of Saos-2 attachment on Ti surfaces, obtained from the measurements performed with the QCM, is a first-order reaction, with k=2.10{sup -}3 min{sup -}1. The impedance measurements indicate that in the absence of cells, the Ti resistance diminishes over time (7 days), due to the presence of amino acids and proteins from the culture medium that have been adsorbed, while in the presence of osteoblasts, this decrease is much greater because of the compounds generated by the cells that accelerate the dissolution of Ti. (Author)

  7. Surface manipulation of biomolecules for cell microarray applications. (United States)

    Hook, Andrew L; Thissen, Helmut; Voelcker, Nicolas H


    Many biological events, such as cellular communication, antigen recognition, tissue repair and DNA linear transfer, are intimately associated with biomolecule interactions at the solid-liquid interface. To facilitate the study and use of these biological events for biodevice and biomaterial applications, a sound understanding of how biomolecules behave at interfaces and a concomitant ability to manipulate biomolecules spatially and temporally at surfaces is required. This is particularly true for cell microarray applications, where a range of biological processes must be duly controlled to maximize the efficiency and throughput of these devices. Of particular interest are transfected-cell microarrays (TCMs), which significantly widen the scope of microarray genomic analysis by enabling the high-throughput analysis of gene function within living cells. This article reviews this current research focus, discussing fundamental and applied research into the spatial and temporal surface manipulation of DNA, proteins and other biomolecules and the implications of this work for TCMs.

  8. MC3T3-E1 Cells on Titanium Surfaces with Nanometer Smoothness and Fibronectin Immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohru Hayakawa


    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the viability and total protein contents of osteoblast-like cells on the titanium surface with different surface mechanical treatment, namely, nanometer smoothing (Ra: approximately 2.0 nm and sandblasting (Ra: approximately 1.0 μm, and biochemical treatment, namely, with or without fibronectin immobilization. Fibronectin could be easily immobilized by tresyl chloride-activation technique. MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded on the different titanium surfaces. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. At 1 day of cell culture, there were no significant differences in cell viability among four different titanium surfaces. At 11 days, sandblasted titanium surface with fibronectin immobilization showed the significantly highest cell viability than other titanium surface. No significant differences existed for total protein contents among four different titanium surfaces at 11 days of cell culture. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that smoothness of titanium surface produced more spread cell morphologies, but that fibronectin immobilization did not cause any changes of the morphologies of attached cells. Fibronectin immobilization provided greater amount of the number of attached cells and better arrangement of attached cells. In conclusion, the combination of sandblasting and fibronectin immobilization enhanced the cell viability and fibronectin immobilization providing better arrangements of attached cells.

  9. Rho family proteins in cell adhesion and cell migration. (United States)

    Evers, E E; Zondag, G C; Malliri, A; Price, L S; ten Klooster, J P; van der Kammen, R A; Collard, J G


    Cell migration and the regulation of cadherin-mediated homotypic cell-cell interactions are critical events during development, morphogenesis and wound healing. Aberrations in signalling pathways involved in the regulation of cell migration and cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion contribute to tumour invasion and metastasis. The rho family proteins, including cdc42, rac1 and rhoA, regulate signalling pathways that mediate the distinct actin cytoskeleton changes required for both cellular motility and cell-cell adhesion. Recent studies indicate that rac directly influences rho activity at the GTPase level and that the reciprocal balance between rac and rho activity can determine epithelial or mesenchymal cell morphology and migratory behaviour of epithelial (tumour) cells.

  10. Protein sequences bound to mineral surfaces persist into deep time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demarchi, Beatrice; Hall, Shaun; Roncal-Herrero, Teresa;


    of Laetoli (3.8 Ma) and Olduvai Gorge (1.3 Ma) in Tanzania. By tracking protein diagenesis back in time we find consistent patterns of preservation, demonstrating authenticity of the surviving sequences. Molecular dynamics simulations of struthiocalcin-1 and -2, the dominant proteins within the eggshell......, reveal that distinct domains bind to the mineral surface. It is the domain with the strongest calculated binding energy to the calcite surface that is selectively preserved. Thermal age calculations demonstrate that the Laetoli and Olduvai peptides are 50 times older than any previously authenticated...... sequence (equivalent to ~16 Ma at a constant 10°C)....

  11. Nanoscale mapping and organization analysis of target proteins on cancer cells from B-cell lymphoma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mi [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xiao, Xiubin [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China); Liu, Lianqing, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xi, Ning, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wang, Yuechao; Dong, Zaili [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, Weijing, E-mail: [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China)


    CD20, a membrane protein highly expressed on most B-cell lymphomas, is an effective target demonstrated in clinical practice for treating B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody against CD20. In this work, we applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to map the nanoscale distribution of CD20 molecules on the surface of cancer cells from clinical B-cell NHL patients under the assistance of ROR1 fluorescence recognition (ROR1 is a specific cell surface marker exclusively expressed on cancer cells). First, the ROR1 fluorescence labeling experiments showed that ROR1 was expressed on cancer cells from B-cell lymphoma patients, but not on normal cells from healthy volunteers. Next, under the guidance of ROR1 fluorescence, the rituximab-conjugated AFM tips were moved to cancer cells to image the cellular morphologies and detect the CD20-rituximab interactions on the cell surfaces. The distribution maps of CD20 on cancer cells were constructed by obtaining arrays of (16×16) force curves in local areas (500×500 nm{sup 2}) on the cell surfaces. The experimental results provide a new approach to directly investigate the nanoscale distribution of target protein on single clinical cancer cells. - Highlights: • Cancer cells were recognized from healthy cells by ROR1 fluorescence labeling. • The nanoscale distribution of CD20 on cancer cells was characterized. • The distribution of CD20 was non-uniform on the surface of cancer cells.

  12. The effects of poly(dimethylsiloxane) surface silanization on the mesenchymal stem cell fate. (United States)

    Chuah, Yon Jin; Kuddannaya, Shreyas; Lee, Min Hui Adeline; Zhang, Yilei; Kang, Yuejun


    In recent years, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based microfluidic devices have become very popular for on-chip cell investigation. Maintenance of mammalian cell adhesion on the substrate surface is crucial in determining the cell viability, proliferation and differentiation. However, the inherent hydrophobicity of PDMS is unfavourable for cell culture, causing cells to eventually dislodge from the surface. Although physically adsorbed matrix proteins can promote initial cell adhesion, this effect is usually short-lived. To address this critical issue, in this study, we employed (3-aminopropyl) triethoxy silane (APTES) and cross-linker glutaraldehyde (GA) chemistry to immobilize collagen type 1 (Col1) on PDMS. These modified surfaces are highly efficient to support the adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with no deterioration of their potency. Significant changes of the native PDMS surface properties were observed with the proposed surface functionalization, and MSC adhesion was improved on PDMS surfaces modified with APTES + GA + Protein. Therefore, this covalent surface modification could generate a more biocompatible platform for stabilized cell adhesion. Furthermore, this modification method facilitated long-term cell attachment, which is favourable for successful induction of osteogenesis and cell sheet formation with an increased expression of osteogenic biomarkers and comparable extracellular matrix (ECM) constituent biomarkers, respectively. The surface silanization can be applied to PDMS-based microfluidic systems for long-term study of cellular development. Similar strategies could also be applied to several other substrate materials by appropriate combinations of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and ECM proteins.

  13. Cell surface and transcriptional characterization of human adipose-derived adherent stromal (hADAS) cells. (United States)

    Katz, Adam J; Tholpady, Ashok; Tholpady, Sunil S; Shang, Hulan; Ogle, Roy C


    Adult human subcutaneous adipose tissue contains cells with intriguing multilineage developmental plasticity, much like marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Putative stem or progenitor cells from fat have been given many different names in the literature, reflecting an early and evolving consensus regarding their phenotypic characterization. The study reported here used microarrays to evaluate over 170 genes relating to angiogenesis and extracellular matrix in undifferentiated, early-passage human adipose-derived adherent stromal (hADAS) cells isolated from three separate donors. The hADAS populations unanimously transcribed 66% of the screened genes, and 83% were transcribed by at least two of the three populations. The most highly transcribed genes relate to functional groupings such as cell adhesion, matrix proteins, growth factors and receptors, and proteases. The transcriptome of hADAS cells demonstrated by this work reveals many similarities to published profiles of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In addition, flow analysis of over 24 hADAS cell surface proteins (n = 7 donors) both confirms and expands on the existing literature and reveals strong intergroup correlation, despite an inconsistent nomenclature and the lack of standardized protocols for cell isolation and culture. Finally, based on flow analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction studies, our results suggest that hADAS cells do not express several proteins that are implicated as markers of "stemness" in other stem cell populations, including telomerase, CD133, and the membrane transporter ABCG2.

  14. Relevant uses of surface proteins--display on self-organized biological structures. (United States)

    Jahns, Anika C; Rehm, Bernd H A


    Proteins are often found attached to surfaces of self-assembling biological units such as whole microbial cells or subcellular structures, e.g. intracellular inclusions. In the last two decades surface proteins were identified that could serve as anchors for the display of foreign protein functions. Extensive protein engineering based on structure-function data enabled efficient display of technically and/or medically relevant protein functions. Small size, diversity of the anchor protein as well as support structure, genetic manipulability and controlled cultivation of phages, bacterial cells and yeasts contributed to the establishment of designed and specifically functionalized tools for applications as sensors, catalysis, biomedicine, vaccine development and library-based screening technologies. Traditionally, phage display is employed for library screening but applications in biomedicine and vaccine development are also perceived. For some diagnostic purposes phages are even too small in size so other carrier materials where needed and gave way for cell and yeast display. Only recently, intracellular inclusions such as magnetosomes, polyhydroxyalkanoate granules and lipid bodies were conceived as stable subcellular structures enabling the display of foreign protein functions and showing potential as specific and tailor-made devices for medical and biotechnological applications.

  15. Display of wasp venom allergens on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Jensen, B. M.; Søndergaard, Ib;


    Background: Yeast surface display is a technique, where the proteins of interest are expressed as fusions with yeast surface proteins and thus remain attached to the yeast cell wall after expression. Our purpose was to study whether allergens expressed on the cell surface of baker's yeast...... Saccharomyces cerevisiae preserve their native allergenic properties and whether the yeast native surface glycoproteins interfere with IgE binding. We chose to use the major allergens from the common wasp Vespula vulgaris venom: phospholipase A1, hyaluronidase and antigen 5 as the model. Results: The proteins...... were expressed on the surface as fusions with a-agglutinin complex protein AGA2. The expression was confirmed by fluorescent cytometry (FACS) after staining the cells with antibody against a C-tag attached to the C-terminal end of the allergens. Phospholipase A1 and hyaluronidase retained...

  16. Host cell protein adsorption characteristics during protein A chromatography. (United States)

    Tarrant, Richard D R; Velez-Suberbie, M Lourdes; Tait, Andrew S; Smales, C Mark; Bracewell, Daniel G


    Protein A chromatography is a critical and 'gold-standard' step in the purification of monoclonal antibody (mAb) products. Its ability to remove >98% of impurities in a single step alleviates the burden on subsequent process steps and facilitates the implementation of platform processes, with a minimal number of chromatographic steps. Here, we have evaluated four commercially available protein A chromatography matrices in terms of their ability to remove host cell proteins (HCPs), a complex group of process related impurities that must be removed to minimal levels. SELDI-TOF MS was used as a screening tool to generate an impurity profile fingerprint for each resin and indicated a number of residual impurities present following protein A chromatography, agreeing with HCP ELISA. Although many of these were observed for all matrices there was a significantly elevated level of impurity binding associated with the resin based on controlled pore glass under standard conditions. Use of null cell line supernatant with and without spiked purified mAb demonstrated the interaction of HCPs to be not only with the resin back-bone but also with the bound mAb. A null cell line column overload and sample enrichment method before 2D-PAGE was then used to determine individual components associated with resin back-bone adsorption. The methods shown allow for a critical analysis of HCP removal during protein A chromatography. Taken together they provide the necessary process understanding to allow process engineers to identify rational approaches for the removal of prominent HCPs.

  17. Unique surface adsorption behaviors of serum proteins on chemically uniform and alternating surfaces (United States)

    Song, Sheng

    With increasing interests of studying proteins adsorption on the surfaces with nanoscale features in biomedical field, it is crucial to have fundamental understandings on how the proteins are adsorbed on such a surface and what factors contribute to the driving forces of adsorption. Besides, exploring more available nanoscale templates would greatly offer more possibilities one could design surface bio-detection methods with favorable protein-surface interactions. Thus, to fulfill the purpose, the work in this dissertation has been made into three major sections. First, to probe the intermediate states which possibly exist between stable and unstable phases described in mean-field theory diagram, a solvent vapor annealing method is chosen to slowly induce the copolymer polystyrene-block-polyvinylpyridine (PS-b-PVP)'s both blocks undergoing micro-phase separations from initial spherical nanodomains into terminal cylindrical nanodomains. During this process, real time atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been conducted to capture other six intermediate states with different morphologies on the polymeric film surfaces. Secondly, upon recognizing each intermediate state, the solution of immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) proteins has been deposited on the surface and been rinsed off with buffer solution before the protein-bounded surface is imaged by AFM. It has been found IgG showing a strong adsorption preference on PS over P4VP block. Among all the six intermediate states, the proteins are almost exclusively adsorbed on PS nanodomains regardless the concentration and deposition time. Thirdly, a trinodular shape protein fibrinogen (Fg) is selected for investigating how geometry and surface charge of proteins would interplay with cylindrical nanodomains on a surface developed from Polystyrene -block-Poly-(methyl methacrylate) PS-b-PMMA. Also, Fg adsorptions on chemically homogeneous surfaces are included here to have a better contrast of showing how much difference it can make

  18. Conformal nanopatterning of extracellular matrix proteins onto topographically complex surfaces. (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Jallerat, Quentin; Szymanski, John M; Feinberg, Adam W


    Our Patterning on Topography (PoT) printing technique enables fibronectin, laminin and other proteins to be applied to biomaterial surfaces in complex geometries that are inaccessible using traditional soft lithography techniques. Engineering combinatorial surfaces that integrate topographical and biochemical micropatterns enhances control of the biotic-abiotic interface. Here, we used this method to understand cardiomyocyte response to competing physical and chemical cues in the microenvironment.

  19. Femtosecond fabricated surfaces for cell biology (United States)

    Day, Daniel; Gu, Min


    Microfabrication using femtosecond pulse lasers is enabling access to a range of structures, surfaces and materials that was not previously available for scientific and engineering applications. The ability to produce micrometre sized features directly in polymer and metal substrates is demonstrated with applications in cell biology. The size, shape and aspect ratio of the etched features can be precisely controlled through the manipulation of the fluence of the laser etching process with respect to the properties of the target material. Femtosecond laser etching of poly(methyl methacrylate) and aluminium substrates has enabled the production of micrometre resolution moulds that can be accurately replicated using soft lithography. The moulded surfaces are used in the imaging of T cells and demonstrate the improved ability to observe biological events over time periods greater than 10 h. These results indicate the great potential femtosecond pulse lasers may have in the future manufacturing of microstructured surfaces and devices.

  20. Chemical imaging of protein adsorption and crystallization on a wettability gradient surface. (United States)

    Glassford, Stefanie; Chan, K L Andrew; Byrne, Bernadette; Kazarian, Sergei G


    The use of self-assembled monolayers is an established method to study the effect of surface properties on proteins and other biological materials. The generation of a monolayer with a gradient of chemical properties allows for the study of multiple surface properties simultaneously in a high throughput manner. Typically, in order to detect the presence of proteins or biological material on a surface, the use of additional dyes or tags is required. Here we present a novel method of studying the effect of gradient surface properties on protein adsorption and crystallization in situ through the use of ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging, which removes the need for additional labeling. We describe the successful application of this technique to the measurement of the growth of a gradient monolayer of octyltrichlorosilane across the surface of a silicon ATR element. ATR-FTIR imaging was also used to study the adsorption of lysozyme, as a model protein, onto the modified surface. The sensitivity of measurements obtained with a focal plane array (FPA) detector were improved though the use of pixel averaging which allowed small absorption bands to be detected with minimal effect on the spatial resolution along the gradient. Study of the effect of surface hydrophobicity on both adsorption of lysozyme to the element and lysozyme crystallization revealed that more lysozyme adsorbed to the hydrophobic side of the ATR element and more lysozyme crystals formed in the same region. These findings strongly suggest a correlation exists between surface protein adsorption and protein crystallization. This method could be applied to the study of other proteins and whole cells.

  1. Protein-surface interactions on stimuli-responsive polymeric biomaterials. (United States)

    Cross, Michael C; Toomey, Ryan G; Gallant, Nathan D


    Responsive surfaces: a review of the dependence of protein adsorption on the reversible volume phase transition in stimuli-responsive polymers. Specifically addressed are a widely studied subset: thermoresponsive polymers. Findings are also generalizable to other materials which undergo a similarly reversible volume phase transition. As of 2015, over 100,000 articles have been published on stimuli-responsive polymers and many more on protein-biomaterial interactions. Significantly, fewer than 100 of these have focused specifically on protein interactions with stimuli-responsive polymers. These report a clear trend of increased protein adsorption in the collapsed state compared to the swollen state. This control over protein interactions makes stimuli-responsive polymers highly useful in biomedical applications such as wound repair scaffolds, on-demand drug delivery, and antifouling surfaces. Outstanding questions are whether the protein adsorption is reversible with the volume phase transition and whether there is a time-dependence. A clear understanding of protein interactions with stimuli-responsive polymers will advance theoretical models, experimental results, and biomedical applications.

  2. Surface charge effects in protein adsorption on nanodiamonds (United States)

    Aramesh, M.; Shimoni, O.; Ostrikov, K.; Prawer, S.; Cervenka, J.


    Understanding the interaction of proteins with charged diamond nanoparticles is of fundamental importance for diverse biomedical applications. Here we present a thorough study of protein binding, adsorption kinetics and structure on strongly positively (hydrogen-terminated) and negatively (oxygen-terminated) charged nanodiamond particles using a quartz crystal microbalance by dissipation and infrared spectroscopy. By using two model proteins (bovine serum albumin and lysozyme) of different properties (charge, molecular weight and rigidity), the main driving mechanism responsible for the protein binding to the charged nanoparticles was identified. Electrostatic interactions were found to dominate the protein adsorption dynamics, attachment and conformation. We developed a simple electrostatic model that can qualitatively explain the observed adsorption behaviour based on charge-induced pH modifications near the charged nanoparticle surfaces. Under neutral conditions, the local pH around the positively and negatively charged nanodiamonds becomes very high (11-12) and low (1-3) respectively, which has a profound impact on the protein charge, hydration and affinity to the nanodiamonds. Small proteins (lysozyme) were found to form multilayers with significant conformational changes to screen the surface charge, while larger proteins (albumin) formed monolayers with minor conformational changes. The findings of this study provide a step forward toward understanding and eventually predicting nanoparticle interactions with biofluids.Understanding the interaction of proteins with charged diamond nanoparticles is of fundamental importance for diverse biomedical applications. Here we present a thorough study of protein binding, adsorption kinetics and structure on strongly positively (hydrogen-terminated) and negatively (oxygen-terminated) charged nanodiamond particles using a quartz crystal microbalance by dissipation and infrared spectroscopy. By using two model proteins

  3. Quantifying protein-protein interactions in the ubiquitin pathway by surface plasmon resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Gordon, Colin


    The commercial availability of instruments, such as Biacore, that are capable of monitoring surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has greatly simplified the quantification of protein-protein interactions. Already, this technique has been used for some studies of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Here we...

  4. Cell wall proteins of Sporothrix schenckii as immunoprotective agents. (United States)

    Alba-Fierro, Carlos A; Pérez-Torres, Armando; López-Romero, Everardo; Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra; Ruiz-Baca, Estela


    Sporothrix schenckii is the etiological agent of sporotrichosis, an endemic subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America. Cell wall (CW) proteins located on the cell surface are inducers of cellular and humoral immune responses, potential candidates for diagnosis purposes and to generate vaccines to prevent fungal infections. This mini-review emphasizes the potential use of S. schenckii CW proteins as protective and therapeutic immune response inducers against sporotrichosis. A number of pathogenic fungi display CW components that have been characterized as inducers of protective cellular and humoral immune responses against the whole pathogen from which they were originally purified. The isolation and characterization of immunodominant protein components of the CW of S. schenckii have become relevant because of their potential in the development of protective and therapeutic immune responses against sporotrichosis. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012).

  5. Group B Streptococcus surface proteins as major determinants for meningeal tropism. (United States)

    Tazi, Asmaa; Bellais, Samuel; Tardieux, Isabelle; Dramsi, Shaynoor; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Poyart, Claire


    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS), a normal constituent of the intestinal microbiota is the major cause of human neonatal infections and a worldwide spread 'hypervirulent' clone, GBS ST-17, is strongly associated with neonatal meningitis. Adhesion to epithelial and endothelial cells constitutes a key step of the infectious process. Therefore GBS surface-anchored proteins are obvious potential adhesion mediators of barrier crossing and determinant of hypervirulence. This review addresses the most recent molecular insights gained from studies on GBS surface proteins proven to be involved in the crossing of the brain-blood barrier and emphasizes on the specificity of a hypervirulent clone that displays meningeal tropism.

  6. Quantitative comparison of a human cancer cell surface proteome between interphase and mitosis. (United States)

    Özlü, Nurhan; Qureshi, Mohammad H; Toyoda, Yusuke; Renard, Bernhard Y; Mollaoglu, Gürkan; Özkan, Nazlı E; Bulbul, Selda; Poser, Ina; Timm, Wiebke; Hyman, Anthony A; Mitchison, Timothy J; Steen, Judith A


    The cell surface is the cellular compartment responsible for communication with the environment. The interior of mammalian cells undergoes dramatic reorganization when cells enter mitosis. These changes are triggered by activation of the CDK1 kinase and have been studied extensively. In contrast, very little is known of the cell surface changes during cell division. We undertook a quantitative proteomic comparison of cell surface-exposed proteins in human cancer cells that were tightly synchronized in mitosis or interphase. Six hundred and twenty-eight surface and surface-associated proteins in HeLa cells were identified; of these, 27 were significantly enriched at the cell surface in mitosis and 37 in interphase. Using imaging techniques, we confirmed the mitosis-selective cell surface localization of protocadherin PCDH7, a member of a family with anti-adhesive roles in embryos. We show that PCDH7 is required for development of full mitotic rounding pressure at the onset of mitosis. Our analysis provided basic information on how cell cycle progression affects the cell surface. It also provides potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers for anti-mitotic cancer chemotherapy.

  7. Simultaneous detection of mRNA and protein stem cell markers in live cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Gang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological studies and medical application of stem cells often require the isolation of stem cells from a mixed cell population, including the detection of cancer stem cells in tumor tissue, and isolation of induced pluripotent stem cells after eliciting the expression of specific genes in adult cells. Here we report the detection of Oct-4 mRNA and SSEA-1 protein in live carcinoma stem cells using respectively molecular beacon and dye-labeled antibody, aiming to establish a new method for stem cells detection and isolation. Results Quantification of Oct-4 mRNA and protein in P19 mouse carcinoma stem cells using respectively RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry confirmed that their levels drastically decreased after differentiation. To visualize Oct-4 mRNA in live stem cells, molecular beacons were designed, synthesized and validated, and the detection specificity was confirmed using control studies. We found that the fluorescence signal from Oct-4-targeting molecular beacons provides a clear discrimination between undifferentiated and retinoic acid-induced differentiated cells. Using deconvolution fluorescence microscopy, Oct-4 mRNAs were found to reside on one side of the cytosol. We demonstrated that, using a combination of Oct-4 mRNA-targeting molecular beacon with SSEA-1 antibody in flow cytometric analysis, undifferentiated stem cells can be clearly distinguished from differentiated cells. We revealed that Oct-4 targeting molecular beacons do not seem to affect stem cell biology. Conclusion Molecular beacons have the potential to provide a powerful tool for highly specific detection and isolation of stem cells, including cancer stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells without disturbing cell physiology. It is advantageous to perform simultaneous detection of intracellular (mRNA and cell-surface (protein stem cell markers in flow cytometric analysis, which may lead to high detection sensitivity and efficiency.

  8. Surface energetics and protein-protein interactions: analysis and mechanistic implications (United States)

    Peri, Claudio; Morra, Giulia; Colombo, Giorgio


    Understanding protein-protein interactions (PPI) at the molecular level is a fundamental task in the design of new drugs, the prediction of protein function and the clarification of the mechanisms of (dis)regulation of biochemical pathways. In this study, we use a novel computational approach to investigate the energetics of aminoacid networks located on the surface of proteins, isolated and in complex with their respective partners. Interestingly, the analysis of individual proteins identifies patches of surface residues that, when mapped on the structure of their respective complexes, reveal regions of residue-pair couplings that extend across the binding interfaces, forming continuous motifs. An enhanced effect is visible across the proteins of the dataset forming larger quaternary assemblies. The method indicates the presence of energetic signatures in the isolated proteins that are retained in the bound form, which we hypothesize to determine binding orientation upon complex formation. We propose our method, BLUEPRINT, as a complement to different approaches ranging from the ab-initio characterization of PPIs, to protein-protein docking algorithms, for the physico-chemical and functional investigation of protein-protein interactions.

  9. Interplay of matrix stiffness and protein tethering in stem cell differentiation (United States)

    Wen, Jessica H.; Vincent, Ludovic G.; Fuhrmann, Alexander; Choi, Yu Suk; Hribar, Kolin C.; Taylor-Weiner, Hermes; Chen, Shaochen; Engler, Adam J.


    Stem cells regulate their fate by binding to, and contracting against, the extracellular matrix. Recently, it has been proposed that in addition to matrix stiffness and ligand type, the degree of coupling of fibrous protein to the surface of the underlying substrate, that is, tethering and matrix porosity, also regulates stem cell differentiation. By modulating substrate porosity without altering stiffness in polyacrylamide gels, we show that varying substrate porosity did not significantly change protein tethering, substrate deformations, or the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stromal cells and marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. Varying protein-substrate linker density up to 50-fold changed tethering, but did not affect osteogenesis, adipogenesis, surface-protein unfolding or underlying substrate deformations. Differentiation was also unaffected by the absence of protein tethering. Our findings imply that the stiffness of planar matrices regulates stem cell differentiation independently of protein tethering and porosity.

  10. Sputter deposited bioceramic coatings: surface characterisation and initial protein adsorption studies using surface-MALDI-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, A. R.; Burke, G. A.; Duffy, H.


    Protein adsorption onto calcium phosphate (Ca–P) bioceramics utilised in hard tissue implant applications has been highlighted as one of the key events that influences the subsequent biological response, in vivo. This work reports on the use of surface-matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation...... to a combination of growth factors and lipoproteins present in serum. From the data obtained here it is evident that surface-MALDI-MS has significant utility as a tool for studying the dynamic nature of protein adsorption onto the surfaces of bioceramic coatings, which most likely plays a significant role...

  11. Abseq: Ultrahigh-throughput single cell protein profiling with droplet microfluidic barcoding (United States)

    Shahi, Payam; Kim, Samuel C.; Haliburton, John R.; Gartner, Zev J.; Abate, Adam R.


    Proteins are the primary effectors of cellular function, including cellular metabolism, structural dynamics, and information processing. However, quantitative characterization of proteins at the single-cell level is challenging due to the tiny amount of protein available. Here, we present Abseq, a method to detect and quantitate proteins in single cells at ultrahigh throughput. Like flow and mass cytometry, Abseq uses specific antibodies to detect epitopes of interest; however, unlike these methods, antibodies are labeled with sequence tags that can be read out with microfluidic barcoding and DNA sequencing. We demonstrate this novel approach by characterizing surface proteins of different cell types at the single-cell level and distinguishing between the cells by their protein expression profiles. DNA-tagged antibodies provide multiple advantages for profiling proteins in single cells, including the ability to amplify low-abundance tags to make them detectable with sequencing, to use molecular indices for quantitative results, and essentially limitless multiplexing.

  12. G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling in Stem Cells and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Lynch


    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are a large superfamily of cell-surface signaling proteins that bind extracellular ligands and transduce signals into cells via heterotrimeric G proteins. GPCRs are highly tractable drug targets. Aberrant expression of GPCRs and G proteins has been observed in various cancers and their importance in cancer stem cells has begun to be appreciated. We have recently reported essential roles for G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84 and G protein subunit Gαq in the maintenance of cancer stem cells in acute myeloid leukemia. This review will discuss how GPCRs and G proteins regulate stem cells with a focus on cancer stem cells, as well as their implications for the development of novel targeted cancer therapies.

  13. Hypothetical protein Avin_16040 as the S-layer protein of Azotobacter vinelandii and its involvement in plant root surface attachment. (United States)

    Liew, Pauline Woan Ying; Jong, Bor Chyan; Najimudin, Nazalan


    A proteomic analysis of a soil-dwelling, plant growth-promoting Azotobacter vinelandii strain showed the presence of a protein encoded by the hypothetical Avin_16040 gene when the bacterial cells were attached to the Oryza sativa root surface. An Avin_16040 deletion mutant demonstrated reduced cellular adherence to the root surface, surface hydrophobicity, and biofilm formation compared to those of the wild type. By atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of the cell surface topography, the deletion mutant displayed a cell surface architectural pattern that was different from that of the wild type. Escherichia coli transformed with the wild-type Avin_16040 gene displayed on its cell surface organized motifs which looked like the S-layer monomers of A. vinelandii. The recombinant E. coli also demonstrated enhanced adhesion to the root surface.

  14. Factor H-related proteins determine complement-activating surfaces. (United States)

    Józsi, Mihály; Tortajada, Agustin; Uzonyi, Barbara; Goicoechea de Jorge, Elena; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago


    Complement factor H-related proteins (FHRs) are strongly associated with different diseases involving complement dysregulation, which suggests a major role for these proteins regulating complement activation. Because FHRs are evolutionarily and structurally related to complement inhibitor factor H (FH), the initial assumption was that the FHRs are also negative complement regulators. Whereas weak complement inhibiting activities were originally reported for these molecules, recent developments indicate that FHRs may enhance complement activation, with important implications for the role of these proteins in health and disease. We review these findings here, and propose that FHRs represent a complex set of surface recognition molecules that, by competing with FH, provide improved discrimination of self and non-self surfaces and play a central role in determining appropriate activation of the complement pathway.

  15. Surface-protein interactions on different stainless steel grades: effects of protein adsorption, surface changes and metal release. (United States)

    Hedberg, Y; Wang, X; Hedberg, J; Lundin, M; Blomberg, E; Wallinder, I Odnevall


    Implantation using stainless steels (SS) is an example where an understanding of protein-induced metal release from SS is important when assessing potential toxicological risks. Here, the protein-induced metal release was investigated for austenitic (AISI 304, 310, and 316L), ferritic (AISI 430), and duplex (AISI 2205) grades in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) solution containing either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or lysozyme (LSZ). The results show that both BSA and LSZ induce a significant enrichment of chromium in the surface oxide of all stainless steel grades. Both proteins induced an enhanced extent of released iron, chromium, nickel and manganese, very significant in the case of BSA (up to 40-fold increase), whereas both proteins reduced the corrosion resistance of SS, with the reverse situation for iron metal (reduced corrosion rates and reduced metal release in the presence of proteins). A full monolayer coverage is necessary to induce the effects observed.

  16. Silver nanoparticle protein corona composition in cell culture media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H Shannahan

    Full Text Available The potential applications of nanomaterials as drug delivery systems and in other products continue to expand. Upon introduction into physiological environments and driven by energetics, nanomaterials readily associate proteins forming a protein corona (PC on their surface. This PC influences the nanomaterial's surface characteristics and may impact their interaction with cells. To determine the biological impact of nanomaterial exposure as well as nanotherapeutic applications, it is necessary to understand PC formation. Utilizing a label-free mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach, we examined the composition of the PC for a set of four silver nanoparticles (AgNPs including citrate-stabilized and polyvinlypyrrolidone-stabilized (PVP colloidal silver (20 or 110 nm diameter. To simulate cell culture conditions, AgNPs were incubated for 1 h in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, washed, coronal proteins solubilized, and proteins identified and quantified by label-free LC-MS/MS. To determine which attributes influence PC formation, the AgNPs were characterized in both water and cell culture media with 10% FBS. All AgNPs associated a common subset of 11 proteins including albumin, apolipoproteins, keratins, and other serum proteins. 110 nm citrate- and PVP-stabilized AgNPs were found to bind the greatest number of proteins (79 and 85 respectively compared to 20 nm citrate- and PVP-stabilized AgNPs (45 and 48 respectively, suggesting a difference in PC formation based on surface curvature. While no relationships were found for other protein parameters (isoelectric point or aliphatic index, the PC on 20 nm AgNPs (PVP and citrate consisted of more hydrophobic proteins compared to 110 nm AgNPs implying that this class of proteins are more receptive to curvature-induced folding and crowding in exchange for an increased hydration in the aqueous environment. These observations demonstrate the significance of

  17. Methods To Identify Aptamers against Cell Surface Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Ducongé


    Full Text Available Aptamers are nucleic acid-based ligands identified through a process of molecular evolution named SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment. During the last 10-15 years, numerous aptamers have been developed specifically against targets present on or associated with the surface of human cells or infectious pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi or parasites. Several of the aptamers have been described as potent probes, rivalling antibodies, for use in flow cytometry or microscopy. Some have also been used as drugs by inhibiting or activating functions of their targets in a manner similar to neutralizing or agonistic antibodies. Additionally, it is straightforward to conjugate aptamers to other agents without losing their affinity and they have successfully been used in vitro and in vivo to deliver drugs, siRNA, nanoparticles or contrast agents to target cells. Hence, aptamers identified against cell surface biomarkers represent a promising class of ligands. This review presents the different strategies of SELEX that have been developed to identify aptamers for cell surface-associated proteins as well as some of the methods that are used to study their binding on living cells.

  18. Effects of Proteins from Culture Medium on Surface Property of Silanes- Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen ZP


    Full Text Available Abstract Monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron-oleate and functionalized with silanes bearing various functional groups such as amino group (NH2, short-chain poly(ethylene glycol (PEG, and carboxylic group (COOH. Then, silanes-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (silanes-MNPs were incubated in cell culture medium plus fetal calf serum to investigate the effects of proteins from culture medium on surface property of MNPs. Zeta potential measurements showed that although surface charges of silanes-MNPs were different, they exhibited negative charges at neutral pH and approximate isoelectric points after they were incubated in cell culture medium. The reason was that silanes-MNPs could easily adsorb proteins from culture medium via non-covalent binding, resulting in the formation of protein-silanes-MNPs conjugates. Moreover, silanes-MNPs with various functional groups had different adsorption capacity to proteins, as confirmed by Coomassie blue fast staining method. The in vitro cell experiments showed that protein-silanes-MNPs had higher cellular uptake by cancer cells than silanes-MNPs.

  19. Characteristics of surface layer proteins from two new and native strains of Lactobacillus brevis. (United States)

    Mobarak Qamsari, Elahe; Kasra Kermanshahi, Rouha; Erfan, Mohammad; Ghadam, Parinaz; Sardari, Soroush; Eslami, Neda


    In this work, some important characteristics of surface layer (S-layer) proteins extracted from two new and native Lactobacillus strains, L.brevis KM3 and L.brevis KM7, were investigated. The presence of S-layer on the external surface of L.brevis KM3 was displayed by thin sectioning and negative staining. SDS-PAGE analysis were shown same dominant protein bands approximately around 48kDa for both S-layer proteins. Moreover, the S-layer reappeared when LiCl treated cells were allowed to grow again. Protein secondary structure and thermal behavior were evaluated by using circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. Both S-layer proteins had high content of β-sheet and low amount of α-helix. The thermograms of lyophilized S-layer proteins of L.brevis KM3 and L.brevis KM7 showed one transition peak at 67.9°C and 59.14°C, respectively. To determine monodispersity of extracted S-layer proteins, dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used. The results indicated that the main population of S-layer molecules in two tested lactobacillus strains were composed of monomer with an expected diameter close to 10nm. Furthermore, Zeta potential measurements were showed positive potential for both S-layer proteins, as expected. Our results could be used as the basis for biotechnological applications of these two new S-layer proteins.

  20. Impaired cell surface expression of HLA-B antigens on mesenchymal stem cells and muscle cell progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isa, Adiba; Nehlin, Jan; Sabir, Hardee Jawad;


    HLA class-I expression is weak in embryonic stem cells but increases rapidly during lineage progression. It is unknown whether all three classical HLA class-I antigens follow the same developmental program. In the present study, we investigated allele-specific expression of HLA-A, -B, and -C...... at the mRNA and protein levels on human mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow and adipose tissue as well as striated muscle satellite cells and lymphocytes. Using multicolour flow cytometry, we found high cell surface expression of HLA-A on all stem cells and PBMC examined. Surprisingly, HLA-B was either...... undetectable or very weakly expressed on all stem cells protecting them from complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) using relevant human anti-B and anti-Cw sera. IFNgamma stimulation for 48-72 h was required to induce full HLA-B protein expression. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that IFNgamma induced...

  1. Display of recombinant proteins at the surface of lactic acid bacteria: strategies and applications. (United States)

    Michon, C; Langella, P; Eijsink, V G H; Mathiesen, G; Chatel, J M


    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are promising vectors of choice to deliver active molecules to mucosal tissues. They are recognized as safe by the World Health Organization and some strains have probiotic properties. The wide range of potential applications of LAB-driven mucosal delivery includes control of inflammatory bowel disease, vaccine delivery, and management of auto-immune diseases. Because of this potential, strategies for the display of proteins at the surface of LAB are gaining interest. To display a protein at the surface of LAB, a signal peptide and an anchor domain are necessary. The recombinant protein can be attached to the membrane layer, using a transmembrane anchor or a lipoprotein-anchor, or to the cell wall, by a covalent link using sortase mediated anchoring via the LPXTG motif, or by non-covalent liaisons employing binding domains such as LysM or WxL. Both the stability and functionality of the displayed proteins will be affected by the kind of anchor used. The most commonly surfaced exposed recombinant proteins produced in LAB are antigens and antibodies and the most commonly used LAB are lactococci and lactobacilli. Although it is not necessarily so that surface-display is the preferred localization in all cases, it has been shown that for certain applications, such as delivery of the human papillomavirus E7 antigen, surface-display elicits better biological responses, compared to cytosolic expression or secretion. Recent developments include the display of peptides and proteins targeting host cell receptors, for the purpose of enhancing the interactions between LAB and host. Surface-display technologies have other potential applications, such as degradation of biomass, which is of importance for some potential industrial applications of LAB.

  2. Vaccines based on the cell surface carbohydrates of pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Christopher


    Full Text Available Glycoconjugate vaccines, in which a cell surface carbohydrate from a micro-organism is covalently attached to an appropriate carrier protein are proving to be the most effective means to generate protective immune responses to prevent a wide range of diseases. The technology appears to be generic and applicable to a wide range of pathogens, as long as antibodies against surface carbohydrates help protect against infection. Three such vaccines, against Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis Group C and seven serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae, have already been licensed and many others are in development. This article discusses the rationale for the development and use of glycoconjugate vaccines, the mechanisms by which they elicit T cell-dependent immune responses and the implications of this for vaccine development, the role of physicochemical methods in the characterisation and quality control of these vaccines, and the novel products which are under development.

  3. Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate Mycobacterium tuberculosis–induced CD44 surface expression in monocytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Natarajan Palaniappan; S Anbalagan; Sujatha Narayanan


    CD44, an adhesion molecule, has been reported to be a binding site for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) in macrophages and it also mediates mycobacterial phagocytosis, macrophage recruitment and protective immunity against pulmonary tuberculosis in vivo. However, the signalling pathways that are involved in M. tuberculosis–induced CD44 surface expression in monocytic cells are currently unknown. Exposure of THP-1 human monocytes to M. tuberculosis H37Rv and H37Ra induced distinct, time-dependent, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1, extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3/6, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-jun N-terminal kinases. The strains also differed in their usage of CD14 and human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) receptors in mediating mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain induced lower CD44 surface expression and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels, whereas H37Ra the reverse. Using highly specific inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-jun N-terminal kinase, we report that inhibition of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 and c-jun N-terminal kinases increases, but that inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase decreases M. tuberculosis–induced CD44 surface expression in THP-1 human monocytes.

  4. Surface display of proteins by Gram-negative bacterial autotransporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourez Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Expressing proteins of interest as fusions to proteins of the bacterial envelope is a powerful technique with many biotechnological and medical applications. Autotransporters have recently emerged as a good tool for bacterial surface display. These proteins are composed of an N-terminal signal peptide, followed by a passenger domain and a translocator domain that mediates the outer membrane translocation of the passenger. The natural passenger domain of autotransporters can be replaced by heterologous proteins that become displayed at the bacterial surface by the translocator domain. The simplicity and versatility of this system has made it very attractive and it has been used to display functional enzymes, vaccine antigens as well as polypeptides libraries. The recent advances in the study of the translocation mechanism of autotransporters have raised several controversial issues with implications for their use as display systems. These issues include the requirement for the displayed polypeptides to remain in a translocation-competent state in the periplasm, the requirement for specific signal sequences and "autochaperone" domains, and the influence of the genetic background of the expression host strain. It is therefore important to better understand the mechanism of translocation of autotransporters in order to employ them to their full potential. This review will focus on the recent advances in the study of the translocation mechanism of autotransporters and describe practical considerations regarding their use for bacterial surface display.

  5. Proteinase production in Pseudomonas fluorescens ON2 is affected by carbon sources and allows surface-attached but not planktonic cells to utilize protein for growth in lake water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Mette Haubjerg; Worm, Jakob; Jørgensen, Niels O. G.;


    Proteins may be an important carbon and nitrogen source to bacteria in aquatic habitats, yet knowledge on the actual utilization of this substrate by proteolytic bacteria is scarce. In the present study, Pseudomonas fluorescens ON2 produced an alkaline proteinase (AprX) during growth...... and there was no evidence for cell density-regulated or starvation-induced proteinase production. Proteinase was produced in the absence of an organic nitrogen source, and citrate had a negative while glucose had a positive effect on the production. Hence P. fluorescens ON2 seems to exploit protein sources by expressing...

  6. Baculovirus superinfection: a probable restriction factor on the surface display of proteins for library screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Xu

    Full Text Available In addition to the expression of recombinant proteins, baculoviruses have been developed as a platform for the display of complex eukaryotic proteins on the surface of virus particles or infected insect cells. Surface display has been used extensively for antigen presentation and targeted gene delivery but is also a candidate for the display of protein libraries for molecular screening. However, although baculovirus gene libraries can be efficiently expressed and displayed on the surface of insect cells, target gene selection is inefficient probably due to super-infection which gives rise to cells expressing more than one protein. In this report baculovirus superinfection of Sf9 cells has been investigated by the use of two recombinant multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus carrying green or red fluorescent proteins under the control of both early and late promoters (vAcBacGFP and vAcBacDsRed. The reporter gene expression was detected 8 hours after the infection of vAcBacGFP and cells in early and late phases of infection could be distinguished by the fluorescence intensity of the expressed protein. Simultaneous infection with vAcBacGFP and vAcBacDsRed viruses each at 0.5 MOI resulted in 80% of infected cells co-expressing the two fluorescent proteins at 48 hours post infection (hpi, and subsequent infection with the two viruses resulted in similar co-infection rate. Most Sf9 cells were re-infectable within the first several hours post infection, but the re-infection rate then decreased to a very low level by 16 hpi. Our data demonstrate that Sf9 cells were easily super-infectable during baculovirus infection, and super-infection could occur simultaneously at the time of the primary infection or subsequently during secondary infection by progeny viruses. The efficiency of super-infection may explain the difficulties of baculovirus display library screening but would benefit the production of complex proteins requiring co-expression of multiple

  7. Enhanced cell disruption strategy in the release of recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen from Pichia pastoris using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam Yew


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell disruption strategies by high pressure homogenizer for the release of recombinant Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg from Pichia pastoris expression cells were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM based on the central composite design (CCD. The factors studied include number of passes, biomass concentration and pulse pressure. Polynomial models were used to correlate the above mentioned factors to project the cell disruption capability and specific protein release of HBsAg from P. pastoris cells. Results The proposed cell disruption strategy consisted of a number of passes set at 20 times, biomass concentration of 7.70 g/L of dry cell weight (DCW and pulse pressure at 1,029 bar. The optimized cell disruption strategy was shown to increase cell disruption efficiency by 2-fold and 4-fold for specific protein release of HBsAg when compared to glass bead method yielding 75.68% cell disruption rate (CDR and HBsAg concentration of 29.20 mg/L respectively. Conclusions The model equation generated from RSM on cell disruption of P. pastoris was found adequate to determine the significant factors and its interactions among the process variables and the optimum conditions in releasing HBsAg when validated against a glass bead cell disruption method. The findings from the study can open up a promising strategy for better recovery of HBsAg recombinant protein during downstream processing.

  8. The Mesenchymal Precursor Cell Marker Antibody STRO-1 Binds to Cell Surface Heat Shock Cognate 70. (United States)

    Fitter, Stephen; Gronthos, Stan; Ooi, Soo Siang; Zannettino, Andrew C W


    Since its discovery more than 25 years ago, the STRO-1 antibody has played a fundamental role in defining the hierarchical nature of mesenchymal precursor cells (MPC) and their progeny. STRO-1 antibody binding remains a hallmark of immature pluripotent MPC. Despite the significance of STRO-1 in the MPC field, the identity of the antigen has remained elusive. Using a combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, coupled with Western blotting and Tandem mass spectroscopy, we have identified the STRO-1 antigen as heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70;HSPA8). STRO-1 binds to immune-precipitated HSC70 and siRNA-mediated knock down of HSPA8 reduced STRO-1 binding. STRO-1 surface binding does not correlate with HSC70 expression and sequestration of cholesterol reduces STRO-1 surface binding, suggesting that the plasma membrane lipid composition may be an important determinant in the presentation of HSC70 on the cell surface. HSC70 is present on the surface of STRO-1(+) but not STRO-1(-) cell lines as assessed by cell surface biotinylation and recombinant HSC70 blocks STRO-1 binding to the cell surface. The STRO-1 epitope on HSC70 was mapped to the ATPase domain using a series of deletion mutants in combination with peptide arrays. Deletion of the first four amino acids of the consensus epitope negated STRO-1 binding. Notably, in addition to HSC70, STRO-1 cross-reacts with heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), however all the clonogenic cell activity is restricted to the STRO-1(BRIGHT) /HSP70(-) fraction. These results provide important insight into the properties that define multipotent MPC and provide the impetus to explore the role of cell surface HSC70 in MPC biology. Stem Cells 2016.

  9. Experimental verification of the identity of variant-specific surface proteins in Giardia lamblia trophozoites. (United States)

    Li, Wei; Saraiya, Ashesh A; Wang, Ching C


    The cell membrane of a Giardia lamblia trophozoite is covered with a single species of variant-specific surface protein (VSP) that is replaced by another VSP every 6 to 13 generations of cell growth, possibly for an evasion of host immunity. Experimentally, only six VSP species have been verified to localize to the cell membrane thus far. By assuming that VSP contains multiple CXXC motifs, 219 vsp genes were annotated in GiardiaDB of the WB isolate. By further assuming that VSP possesses both CXXC motifs and a CRGKA tail at the C terminus, Adam et al. (BMC Genomics 11:424, 2010) identified a total of 303 potential vsp genes in Giardia WB. The discrepancies between these two assumed VSP identities have caused some confusion. Here, we used experimental approaches to further verify what is required of the structures of a VSP to localize to the surface of cell membrane. The data led to the following conclusions. (i) The C-terminal CRGKA sequence is not essential for localizing VSPs to the cell membrane. (ii) A "motif 1" of 45 residues, consisting of two CXXCs separated by 12 to 15 amino acid residues, located close to the C terminus and a hydrophobic "motif 2" of 38 residues at the C terminus are both essential and sufficient for localizing the protein to the cell membrane. (ii) An N-terminal sequence upstream from motif 1 is not required for targeting VSPs to the cell membrane. By these criteria, we are able to identify 73 open reading frames as the putative vsp genes in Giardia. IMPORTANCE The intestinal pathogen Giardia lamblia expresses only one variant-specific surface protein (VSP) on the cell membrane surface at a given time, but it changes spontaneously every 6 to 13 generations of growth, presumably for evading the host immunity. Only 6 VSPs have been empirically shown to localize to the cell membrane surface thus far. Here, we used mutations of VSPs and methods of identifying their locations in Giardia cells and found that a "motif 1" of 45 residues

  10. Molecular kinetics of proteins at the surface of porcine sperm before and during fertilization. (United States)

    Tsai, P S; Gadella, B M


    Fertilization is a decisive moment in life and enables the combination of the DNA from two gametes to ultimately form a new organism. The sperm surface, especially the head area, has distinguishable subdomains that are involved in distinct fertilization processes. It is known that the sperm head surface undergoes constant remodelling during epididymal maturation and migration in the male and female genital tract. But intriguingly, the identity, origin and spatial ordering of proteins at the sperm surface that are involved in mammalian fertilization are essentially unknown. This review deals with sperm surface protein modifications that are under somatic cell control. As soon as the sperm is released from the seminiferous tubules it is subjected to these modifications. These surface reorganisations continue until the sperm reside in the fallopian tube where they meet the oocyte and may fertilize it. Most likely, a selective process allows only functionally mature and intact sperm to optimally interact and fertilize the oocyte. Recent data suggest that even the perivitelline fluid is involved in sperm surface remodelling as it contains factors which could facilitate the first penetrating sperm to fertilize the oocyte. In this contribution, the kinetics of proteins at the sperm surface will be overviewed. Better understanding of this would help to design strategies to improve male fertility or to devise novel contraceptives.

  11. Phagocytosis escape by a Staphylococcus aureus protein that connects complement and coagulation proteins at the bacterial surface. (United States)

    Ko, Ya-Ping; Kuipers, Annemarie; Freitag, Claudia M; Jongerius, Ilse; Medina, Eva; van Rooijen, Willemien J; Spaan, András N; van Kessel, Kok P M; Höök, Magnus; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M


    Upon contact with human plasma, bacteria are rapidly recognized by the complement system that labels their surface for uptake and clearance by phagocytic cells. Staphylococcus aureus secretes the 16 kD Extracellular fibrinogen binding protein (Efb) that binds two different plasma proteins using separate domains: the Efb N-terminus binds to fibrinogen, while the C-terminus binds complement C3. In this study, we show that Efb blocks phagocytosis of S. aureus by human neutrophils. In vitro, we demonstrate that Efb blocks phagocytosis in plasma and in human whole blood. Using a mouse peritonitis model we show that Efb effectively blocks phagocytosis in vivo, either as a purified protein or when produced endogenously by S. aureus. Mutational analysis revealed that Efb requires both its fibrinogen and complement binding residues for phagocytic escape. Using confocal and transmission electron microscopy we show that Efb attracts fibrinogen to the surface of complement-labeled S. aureus generating a 'capsule'-like shield. This thick layer of fibrinogen shields both surface-bound C3b and antibodies from recognition by phagocytic receptors. This information is critical for future vaccination attempts, since opsonizing antibodies may not function in the presence of Efb. Altogether we discover that Efb from S. aureus uniquely escapes phagocytosis by forming a bridge between a complement and coagulation protein.

  12. Influence of surface wettability on competitive protein adsorption and initial attachment of osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Jianhua; Liu Baolin [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, 145 West Changle Road, Xi' an 710032 (China); Igarashi, Toshio [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kanagawa Dental College, 82 Inaoka-cho, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 238-8580 (Japan); Okumori, Naoto; Igarashi, Takayasu; Maetani, Takashi [Japan Institute for Advanced Dentistry, 1-8-25 Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0014 (Japan); Yoshinari, Masao, E-mail: [Division of Oral Implants Research and HRC7, Oral Health Science Center, Tokyo Dental College, 1-2-2 Masago, Mihama-ku, Chiba 261-8502 (Japan)


    This study investigated the influence of surface wettability on competitive protein adsorption and the initial attachment of osteoblasts. A thin-film coating of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and subsequent O{sub 2}-plasma treatment was carried out on substrates with a mirror surface in order to create a wide range of wettabilities. The adsorption behavior of fibronectin (Fn) and albumin (Alb) in both individual and competitive mode, and the initial attachment of mouse osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1) over a wide range of wettabilities were investigated. The contact angle of HMDSO coatings without O{sub 2}-plasma treatment against double-distilled water was more than 100{sup 0}, whereas it dramatically decreased after the O{sub 2}-plasma treatment to almost 0{sup 0}, resulting in super-hydrophilicity. Individually, Fn adsorption showed a biphasic inclination, whereas Alb showed greater adsorption to hydrophobic surfaces. In the competitive mode, in a solution containing both Fn and Alb, Fn showed greater adsorption on hydrophilic surfaces, whereas Alb predominantly adsorbed on hydrophobic surfaces. The initial attachment of osteoblastic cells increased with an increase in surface wettability, in particular, on a super-hydrophilic surface, which correlated well with Fn adsorption in the competitive mode. These results suggest that Fn adsorption may be responsible for increasing cell adhesion on hydrophilic surfaces in a body fluid or culture media under physiological conditions.

  13. ErpC, a member of the complement regulator-acquiring family of surface proteins from Borrelia burgdorferi, possesses an architecture previously unseen in this protein family. (United States)

    Caesar, Joseph J E; Johnson, Steven; Kraiczy, Peter; Lea, Susan M


    Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete responsible for Lyme disease, the most commonly occurring vector-borne disease in Europe and North America. The bacterium utilizes a set of proteins, termed complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASPs), to aid evasion of the human complement system by recruiting and presenting complement regulator factor H on its surface in a manner that mimics host cells. Presented here is the atomic resolution structure of a member of this protein family, ErpC. The structure provides new insights into the mechanism of recruitment of factor H and other factor H-related proteins by acting as a molecular mimic of host glycosaminoglycans. It also describes the architecture of other CRASP proteins belonging to the OspE/F-related paralogous protein family and suggests that they have evolved to bind specific complement proteins, aiding survival of the bacterium in different hosts.

  14. Serum antibody responses to Wolbachia surface protein in patients with human lymphatic filariasis. (United States)

    Shiny, Chandanapurath; Krushna, Nagampalli S A; Archana, Bairavasundaram; Farzana, Begum; Narayanan, Rangarajan B


    Wolbachia surface protein (WSP), which is the most abundantly expressed protein of Wolbachia from the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi, was chosen for the present study. B-cell epitope prediction of the WSP protein sequence indicates a high antigenicity, surface probability and hydrophilicity by DNA STAR software analysis. ProPred analysis suggests the presence of HLA class II binding regions in the WSP protein that contribute to T-cell responses and isotype reactivity. In order to validate these findings, the gene coding for endosymbiont WSP was PCR-amplified from the genomic DNA of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi and cloned in T-7 expression vector pRSET-A. Western blot and ELISA at the total IgG level with recombiant WSP indicated a significantly elevated reactivity in CP compared to MF, EN and NEN individuals. Isotype ELISA also suggested an elevated reactivity in CP patients at the IgG1 level. In contrast, WSP-specific IgG4 levels were found to be elevated in MF patients compared to CP and EN. Besides this, WSP-specific IgE levels indicated an elevated reactivity in CP and MF patients compared to normals. Observations from ELISA supported the in silico predictions that indicate the presence of B- and T-cell epitopes. Hence, a combinatorial approach of in silico predictions and wet-lab studies provides interesting insights into the role of Wolbachia proteins in filarial pathogenesis.

  15. Cell surface carbohydrates as prognostic markers in human carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik


    Tumour development is usually associated with changes in cell surface carbohydrates. These are often divided into changes related to terminal carbohydrate structures, which include incomplete synthesis and modification of normally existing carbohydrates, and changes in the carbohydrate core...... structure. The latter includes chain elongation of both glycolipids and proteins, increased branching of carbohydrates in N-linked glycoproteins, and blocked synthesis of carbohydrates in O-linked mucin-like glycoproteins. In mature organisms, expression of distinct carbohydrates is restricted to specific...... cell types; within a given tissue, variation in expression may be related to cell maturation. Tumour-associated carbohydrate structures often reflect a certain stage of cellular development; most of these moieties are structures normally found in other adult or embryonic tissues. There is no unique...

  16. Sputter deposited bioceramic coatings: surface characterisation and initial protein adsorption studies using surface-MALDI-MS. (United States)

    Boyd, A R; Burke, G A; Duffy, H; Holmberg, M; O' Kane, C; Meenan, B J; Kingshott, P


    Protein adsorption onto calcium phosphate (Ca-P) bioceramics utilised in hard tissue implant applications has been highlighted as one of the key events that influences the subsequent biological response, in vivo. This work reports on the use of surface-matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry (Surface-MALDI-MS) as a technique for the direct detection of foetal bovine serum (FBS) proteins adsorbed to hybrid calcium phosphate/titanium dioxide surfaces produced by a novel radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method incorporating in situ annealing between 500°C and 700°C during deposition. XRD and XPS analysis indicated that the coatings produced at 700°C were hybrid in nature, with the presence of Ca-P and titanium dioxide clearly observed in the outer surface layer. In addition to this, the Ca/P ratio was seen to increase with increasing annealing temperature, with values of between 2.0 and 2.26 obtained for the 700°C samples. After exposure to FBS solution, surface-MALDI-MS indicated that there were significant differences in the protein patterns as shown by unique peaks detected at masses below 23.1 kDa for the different surfaces. These adsorbates were assigned to a combination of growth factors and lipoproteins present in serum. From the data obtained here it is evident that surface-MALDI-MS has significant utility as a tool for studying the dynamic nature of protein adsorption onto the surfaces of bioceramic coatings, which most likely plays a significant role in subsequent bioactivity of the materials.

  17. Protein antifouling and fouling-release in perfluoropolyether surfaces (United States)

    Molena, Elena; Credi, Caterina; De Marco, Carmela; Levi, Marinella; Turri, Stefano; Simeone, Giovanni


    Perfluoropolyether polymers have been described as high performance fouling-release materials for marine coatings. Moreover, they have a good potential to be exploited in the biomedical field too. In this article several perfuoropolyether photopolymers were characterized in terms of surface and mechanical properties outlining the relationship between these properties and the polymer molecular structure. In particular the anti-fouling and fouling-release performances, evaluated using Bovine Serum Albumin as testing protein, was correlated to other material properties, like a parameter considering both surface tension components γ and elastic modulus E. A good correlation between the anti-fouling/fouling-release of perfluoropolyethers and (E*γpolar)1/2 can actually be established. Our results show that perfluoropolyether photopolymers are good protein anti-fouling/fouling-release materials.

  18. Surface layer proteins isolated from Clostridium difficile induce clearance responses in macrophages. (United States)

    Collins, Laura E; Lynch, Mark; Marszalowska, Izabela; Kristek, Maja; Rochfort, Keith; O'Connell, Mary; Windle, Henry; Kelleher, Dermot; Loscher, Christine E


    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhoea worldwide, and if the bacterium is not cleared effectively it can pose a risk of recurrent infections and complications such as colitis, sepsis and death. In this study we demonstrate that surface layer proteins from the one of the most frequently acquired strains of C. difficile, activate mechanisms in murine macrophage in vitro that are associated with clearance of bacterial infection. Surface layer proteins (SLPs) isolated from C. difficile induced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and increased macrophage migration and phagocytotic activity in vitro. Furthermore, we also observed up-regulation of a number of cell surface markers on the macrophage, which are important in pathogen recognition and antigen presentation. The effects of SLPs on macrophages were reversed in the presence of a p38 inhibitor, indicating the potential importance of this signalling protein in how SLP activates the immune system. In conclusion this study shows that surface layer proteins from a common strain of C. difficile can activate a clearance response in macrophage and suggests that these proteins are important in clearance of C. difficile infection. Understanding how the immune system clears C. difficile infection could offer important insights for new treatment strategies.

  19. Nucleolin on the cell surface as a new molecular target for gastric cancer treatment. (United States)

    Watanabe, Tatsuro; Hirano, Kazuya; Takahashi, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Kensei; Beppu, Masatoshi; Fujiki, Hirota; Suganuma, Masami


    Nucleolin is an abundant non-ribosomal protein found in nucleolus and a major component of silver-stained nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR), a histopathological marker of cancer which is highly elevated in cancer cells. We recently reported that nucleolin on the cell surface of mouse gastric cancer cells acts as a receptor for tumor necrosis factor-alpha-inducing protein (Tipalpha), a new carcinogenic factor of Helicobacter pylori. In this study, we first examined the localization of nucleolin on cell surface of five gastric cancer cell lines by cell fractionation and flow cytometry: We found that large amounts of nucleolin were present on surface of MKN-45, KATOIII, MKN-74, and AGS cells, with smaller amounts on surface of MKN-1 cells. The membrane fraction of normal epithelial cells of mouse glandular stomach did not contain much nucleolin, suggesting that translocation of nucleolin to the cell surface occurs during carcinogenesis, making for easier binding with Tipalpha. AS1411, a nucleolin targeted DNA aptamer, inhibited growth of gastric cancer cell lines in this order of potency: MKN-45>KATOIII>AGS>MKN-74=MKN-1, associated with induction of S-phase cell cycle arrest. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-AS1411 was more rapidly incorporated into MKN-45 and AGS than into MKN-1 cells, based on varying amounts of cell surface nucleolin. We think that AS1411 first binds to nucleolin on the cell surface and that the binding complex is then incorporated into the cells. All results indicate that nucleolin on the cell surface is a new and promising therapeutic target for treatment of gastric cancer.

  20. Bacterial Cell Surface Adsorption of Rare Earth Elements (United States)

    Jiao, Y.; Park, D.; Reed, D.; Fujita, Y.; Yung, M.; Anderko, A.; Eslamimanesh, A.


    Rare earth elements (REE) play a critical role in many emerging clean energy technologies, including high-power magnets, wind turbines, solar panels, hybrid/electric vehicle batteries and lamp phosphors. In order to sustain demand for such technologies given current domestic REE shortages, there is a need to develop new approaches for ore processing/refining and recycling of REE-containing materials. To this end, we have developed a microbially-mediated bioadsorption strategy with application towards enrichment of REE from complex mixtures. Specifically, the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus was genetically engineered to display lanthanide binding tags (LBTs), short peptides that possess high affinity and specificity for rare earth elements, on its cell surface S-layer protein. Under optimal conditions, LBT-displayed cells adsorbed greater than 5-fold more REE than control cells lacking LBTs. Competition binding experiments with a selection of REEs demonstrated that our engineered cells could facilitate separation of light- from heavy- REE. Importantly, binding of REE onto our engineered strains was much more favorable compared to non-REE metals. Finally, REE bound to the cell surface could be stripped off using citrate, providing an effective and non-toxic REE recovery method. Together, this data highlights the potential of our approach for selective REE enrichment from REE containing mixtures.

  1. OmpA-like protein influences cell shape and adhesive activity of Tannerella forsythia. (United States)

    Abe, T; Murakami, Y; Nagano, K; Hasegawa, Y; Moriguchi, K; Ohno, N; Shimozato, K; Yoshimura, F


    Tannerella forsythia, a gram-negative fusiform rod, is implicated in several types of oral anaerobic infections. Most gram-negative bacteria have OmpA-like proteins that are homologous to the OmpA protein in Escherichia coli. We identified an OmpA-like protein in T. forsythia encoded by the tf1331 gene as one of the major proteins by mass spectrometric analysis. Two-dimensional, diagonal electrophoresis showed that the OmpA-like protein formed a dimeric or trimeric structure via intermolecular disulfide bonds. A biotin labeling experiment revealed that a portion of the protein was exposed on the cell surface, even though T. forsythia possesses an S-layer at the outermost cell surface. Using a tf1331-deletion mutant, we showed that the OmpA-like protein affected cell morphology. The length of the mutant cell was reduced almost by half. Cell swelling was observed in more than 40% of the mutant cells. Moreover, the mutant exhibited decreased adhesion to fibronectin, retarded autoaggregation, and reduced cell surface hydrophobicity. These results suggest that the OmpA-like protein in T. forsythia plays an important role in cellular integrity and adhesive function.

  2. Isolation of recombinant antibodies directed against surface proteins of Clostridium difficile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari Shirvan


    Full Text Available Abstract Clostridium difficile has emerged as an increasingly important nosocomial pathogen and the prime causative agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis in humans. In addition to toxins A and B, immunological studies using antisera from patients infected with C. difficile have shown that a number of other bacterial factors contribute to the pathogenesis, including surface proteins, which are responsible for adhesion, motility and other interactions with the human host. In this study, various clostridial targets, including FliC, FliD and cell wall protein 66, were expressed and purified. Phage antibody display yielded a large panel of specific recombinant antibodies, which were expressed, purified and characterised. Reactions of the recombinant antibodies with their targets were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; and Western blotting suggested that linear rather than conformational epitopes were recognised. Binding of the recombinant antibodies to surface-layer proteins and their components showed strain specificity, with good recognition of proteins from C. difficile 630. However, no reaction was observed for strain R20291—a representative of the 027 ribotype. Binding of the recombinant antibodies to C. difficile M120 extracts indicated that a component of a surface-layer protein of this strain might possess immunoglobulin-binding activities. The recombinant antibodies against FliC and FliD proteins were able to inhibit bacterial motility.

  3. CZTSSe thin film solar cells: Surface treatments (United States)

    Joglekar, Chinmay Sunil

    Chalcopyrite semiconducting materials, specifically CZTS, are a promising alternative to traditional silicon solar cell technology. Because of the high absorption coefficient; films of the order of 1 micrometer thickness are sufficient for the fabrication of solar cells. Liquid based synthesis methods are advantageous because they are easily scalable using the roll to roll manufacturing techniques. Various treatments are explored in this study to enhance the performance of the selenized CZTS film based solar cells. Thiourea can be used as a sulfur source and can be used to tune band gap of CZTSSe. Bromine etching can be used to manipulate the thickness of sintered CZTSSe film. The etching treatment creates recombination centers which lead to poor device performance. Various after treatments were used to improve the performance of the devices. It was observed that the performance of the solar cell devices could not be improved by any of the after treatment steps. Other surface treatment processes are explored including KCN etching and gaseous H2S treatments. Hybrid solar cells which included use of CIGS nanoparticles at the interface between CZTSSe and CdS are also explored.

  4. Improvement in physical and biological properties of chitosan/soy protein films by surface grafted heparin. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Hu, Ling; Li, Chen; Gan, Li; He, Meng; He, Xiaohua; Tian, Weiqun; Li, Mingming; Xu, Li; Li, Yinping; Chen, Yun


    A series of chitosan/soy protein isolate (SPI) composite films (CS-n, n=0, 10 and 30, corresponding to SPI content in the composites) were prepared. Heparin was grafted onto the surface of CS-n to fabricate a series of heparinized films (HCS-n). CS-n and HCS-n were characterized by ATR-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and water contact angle. The surface heparin density was measured by toluidine blue assay. The results showed that heparin has been successfully grafted onto the surface of CS-n. Heparin evenly distributed on the surface of the films and the heparin content increased with the increase of SPI content, and the hydrophilicity of the films was enhanced due to the grafted heparin. The cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility of CS-n and HCS-n were evaluated by cell culture (MTT assay, live/dead assay, cell morphology and cell density observation), platelet adhesion test, plasma recalcification time (PRT) measurement, hemolysis assay and thrombus formation test. HCS-n showed higher cell adhesion rate and improved cytocompatibility compared to the corresponding CS-n. HCS-n also exhibited lower platelet adhesion, longer PRT, higher blood anticoagulant indexes (BCI) and lower hemolysis rate than the corresponding CS-n. The improved cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility of HCS-n would shed light on the potential applications of chitosan/soy protein-based biomaterials that may come into contact with blood.

  5. Structural changes in proteins resulting from homomolecular exchange at solid surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, C.E.; Norde, W.


    The overall protein adsorption process comprises various steps or stages: transport of the protein from the bulk solution into the interfacial region, attachment of the protein at the sorbent surface and relaxation of the protein on the surface, detachment from the surface, and transport back into t

  6. Frequency Selective Surfaces with Nanoparticles Unit Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nga Hung Poon


    Full Text Available The frequency selective surface (FSS is a periodic structure with filtering performance for optical and microwave signals. The general periodic arrays made with patterned metallic elements can act as an aperture or patch on a substrate. In this work, two kinds of materials were used to produce unit cells with various patterns. Gold nanoparticles of 25 nm diameter were used to form periodic monolayer arrays by a confined photocatalytic oxidation-based surface modification method. As the other material, silver gel was used to create multiple layers of silver. Due to the ultra-thin nature of the self-assembled gold nanoparticle monolayer, it is very easy to penetrate the FSS with terahertz radiation. However, the isolated silver islands made from silver gel form thicker multiple layers and contribute to much higher reflectance. This work demonstrated that multiple silver layers are more suitable than gold nanoparticles for use in the fabrication of FSS structures.

  7. Effects of Colistin on Surface Ultrastructure and Nanomechanics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ninell Pollas; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Sullivan, Claretta J.


    in the process of division changed from 1.9 to 0.4 and the length of the cells decreased significantly. Morphologically, it was observed that the bacterial surface changed from a smooth to a wrinkled phenotype after 3 h exposure to colistin. Nanomechanically, in untreated bacteria, the cantilever indented...... proliferation by repressing cell division. We also found that treatment with colistin caused an increase in the rigidity of the bacterial cell wall while morphologically the cell surface changed from smooth to wrinkled, perhaps due to loss of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or surface proteins....


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, L. M.; O' Neill, H.


    The entrapment of proteins using the sol-gel route provides a means to retain its native properties and artifi cially reproduce the molecular crowding and confi nement experienced by proteins in the cell allowing investigation of the physico-chemical and structural properties of biomolecules at the biotic/abiotic interface. The biomolecules are spatially separated and ‘caged’ in the gel structure but solutes can freely permeate the matrix. Thus, properties such as the folding of ensembles of individual molecules can be examined in the absence of aggregation effects that can occur in solution studies. Green fl uorescent protein from Aequorea coerulescens was used as a model protein to examine the unfolding/re-folding properties of protein in silica gels. The recombinant protein was isolated and purifi ed from Escherichia coli extracts by cell lysis, three-phase partitioning, dialysis, and anion exchange chromatography. The purity of the protein was greater than 90% as judged by SDS PAGE gel analysis. Sol-gels were synthesized using tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) in combination with, methyltrimethoxyorthosilane (MTMOS), ethyltrimethoxyorthosilane (ETMOS), 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). The acid induced denaturation and renaturation of GFP was analyzed by UV-visible, fl uorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. No renaturation was observed in gels that were made with TMOS only, and in the presence of APTES, MTMOS, and ETMOS. However, in gels that were made with GPTMS, the CD and UV-visible spectra indicated that the protein had refolded. The fl uorescence emission spectrum indicated that approximately 20% of fl uorescence had returned. This study highlights the importance of the surface chemistry of the silica gels for the refolding properties of the entrapped GFP. Future studies will investigate the effect of surface chemistry on the thermal and solvent stability of the entrapped protein.

  9. Signal transduction in Dictyostelium fgd A mutants with a defective interaction between surface cAMP receptors and a GTP-binding regulatory protein [published erratum appears in J Cell Biol 1988 Dec;107(6 Pt 1):following 2463



    Transmembrane signal transduction was investigated in four Dictyostelium discoideum mutants that belong to the fgd A complementation group. The results show the following. (a) Cell surface cAMP receptors are present in fgd A mutants, but cAMP does not induce any of the intracellular responses, including the activation of adenylate or guanylate cyclase and chemotaxis. (b) cAMP induces down- regulation and the covalent modification (presumably phosphorylation) of the cAMP receptor. (c) The inhi...

  10. Structure of a bacterial cell surface decaheme electron conduit. (United States)

    Clarke, Thomas A; Edwards, Marcus J; Gates, Andrew J; Hall, Andrea; White, Gaye F; Bradley, Justin; Reardon, Catherine L; Shi, Liang; Beliaev, Alexander S; Marshall, Matthew J; Wang, Zheming; Watmough, Nicholas J; Fredrickson, James K; Zachara, John M; Butt, Julea N; Richardson, David J


    Some bacterial species are able to utilize extracellular mineral forms of iron and manganese as respiratory electron acceptors. In Shewanella oneidensis this involves decaheme cytochromes that are located on the bacterial cell surface at the termini of trans-outer-membrane electron transfer conduits. The cell surface cytochromes can potentially play multiple roles in mediating electron transfer directly to insoluble electron sinks, catalyzing electron exchange with flavin electron shuttles or participating in extracellular intercytochrome electron exchange along "nanowire" appendages. We present a 3.2-Å crystal structure of one of these decaheme cytochromes, MtrF, that allows the spatial organization of the 10 hemes to be visualized for the first time. The hemes are organized across four domains in a unique crossed conformation, in which a staggered 65-Å octaheme chain transects the length of the protein and is bisected by a planar 45-Å tetraheme chain that connects two extended Greek key split β-barrel domains. The structure provides molecular insight into how reduction of insoluble substrate (e.g., minerals), soluble substrates (e.g., flavins), and cytochrome redox partners might be possible in tandem at different termini of a trifurcated electron transport chain on the cell surface.

  11. Cytochrome C on a gold surface: investigating structural relaxations and their role in protein-surface electron transfer by molecular dynamics simulations. (United States)

    Siwko, Magdalena E; Corni, Stefano


    Proteins immobilized on inorganic surfaces are important in technological fields such as biosensors, enzymatic biofuel cells and biomolecular electronics. In these frameworks, it has been demonstrated that some proteins are able to keep their functionality, although the latter may be somewhat modified by the interaction with the surface. Cytochrome C, an heme-based electron transfer protein, has been found to be able to exchange electrons with the gold surface on which it is immobilized, but some deviations from the expected electron transfer rates were evidenced [C. A. Bortolotti, et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 2007, 111, 12100-12105]. In this work we have used molecular dynamics simulations of (native and mutated) yeast cytochrome C supported on Au(111) to investigate the microscopic picture behind the experimental behavior of the molecule. In particular, we have focused on the structural re-arrangements due to the interactions with the surface. We found that, despite being secondary-structure preserving, they can profoundly affect protein-surface electronic coupling and, in turn, electron transfer rates, explaining experimental findings. The conformational flexibility of the protein in the region of the protein-surface bond is thus pivotal in determining the resulting ET functionality of the immobilized protein.

  12. The interaction of human endothelial cells with chemical gradient surfaces during exposure to flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruardy, TG; Moorlag, HE; Schakenraad, JM; Van der Meer, J; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Olij, WJV; Anderson, HR


    In this study, the position bound shape, spreading, detachment and migration of adhering HUVEC endothelial cells on dichlorodimethylsilane (DDS) chemical gradient surfaces was investigated during exposure to flow in a parallel plate flow chamber in the presence of` serum proteins. Gradient surfaces

  13. Improved accuracy of cell surface shaving proteomics in Staphylococcus aureus using a false-positive control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solis, Nestor; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Cordwell, Stuart J


    Proteolytic treatment of intact bacterial cells is an ideal means for identifying surface-exposed peptide epitopes and has potential for the discovery of novel vaccine targets. Cell stability during such treatment, however, may become compromised and result in the release of intracellular proteins...... that complicate the final analysis. Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen, causing community and hospital-acquired infections, and is a serious healthcare concern due to the increasing prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistances amongst clinical isolates. We employed a cell surface "shaving" technique...... lysis and were removed from the trypsin-shaved data set. We identified 42 predicted S. aureus COL surface proteins from 260 surface-exposed peptides. Trypsin and proteinase-K digests were highly complementary with ten proteins identified by both, 16 specific to proteinase-K treatment, 13 specific...

  14. Microcontact printing of proteins for cell biology. (United States)

    Shen, Keyue; Qi, Jie; Kam, Lance C


    The ability to pattern proteins and other biomolecules onto substrates is important for capturing the spatial complexity of the extracellular environment. Development of microcontact printing by the Whitesides group ( in the mid-1990s revolutionalized this field by making microelectronics/microfabrication techniques accessible to laboratories focused on the life sciences. Initial implementations of this method used polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps to create patterns of functionalized chemicals on material surfaces. Since then, a range of innovative approaches have been developed to pattern other molecules, including proteins. This video demonstrates the basic process of creating PDMS stamps and uses them to pattern proteins, as these steps are difficult to accurately express in words. We focus on patterning the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin onto glass coverslips as a specific example of patterning. An important component of the microcontact printing process is a topological master, from which the stamps are cast; the raised and lowered regions of the master are mirrored into the stamp and define the final pattern. Typically, a master consists of a silicon wafer coated with photoresist and then patterned by photolithography, as is done here. Creation of masters containing a specific pattern requires specialized equipment, and is best approached in consultation with a fabrication center or facility. However, almost any substrate with topology can be used as a master, such as plastic diffraction gratings (see Reagents for one example), and such serendipitous masters provide readily available, simple patterns. This protocol begins at the point of having a master in hand.

  15. Characterization of the Eimeria maxima sporozoite surface protein IMP1. (United States)

    Jenkins, M C; Fetterer, R; Miska, K; Tuo, W; Kwok, O; Dubey, J P


    The purpose of this study was to characterize Eimeria maxima immune-mapped protein 1 (IMP1) that is hypothesized to play a role in eliciting protective immunity against E. maxima infection in chickens. RT-PCR analysis of RNA from unsporulated and sporulating E. maxima oocysts revealed highest transcription levels at 6-12h of sporulation with a considerable downregulation thereafter. Alignment of IMP1 coding sequence from Houghton, Weybridge, and APU-1 strains of E. maxima revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms that in some instances led to amino acid changes in the encoded protein sequence. The E. maxima (APU-1) IMP1 cDNA sequence was cloned and expressed in 2 different polyHis Escherichia coli expression vectors. Regardless of expression vector, recombinant E. maxima IMP1 (rEmaxIMP1) was fairly unstable in non-denaturing buffer, which is consistent with stability analysis of the primary amino acid sequence. Antisera specific for rEmaxIMP1 identified a single 72 kDa protein or a 61 kDa protein by non-reducing or reducing SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting. Immunofluorescence staining with anti-rEmaxIMP1, revealed intense surface staining of E. maxima sporozoites, with negligible staining of merozoite stages. Immuno-histochemical staining of E. maxima-infected chicken intestinal tissue revealed staining of E. maxima developmental stages in the lamnia propia and crypts at both 24 and 48 h post-infection, and negligible staining thereafter. The expression of IMP1 during early stages of in vivo development and its location on the sporozoite surface may explain in part the immunoprotective effect of this protein against E. maxima infection.

  16. Wettability influences cell behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces with different topographies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenco, B.N.; Marchioli, G.; Song, W; Reis, R.L.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Karperien, H.B.J.; Apeldoorn, van A.A.; Mano, J.F.


    Surface wettability and topography are recognized as critical factors influencing cell behavior on biomaterials. So far only few works have reported cell responses on surfaces exhibiting extreme wettability in combination with surface topography. The goal of this work is to study whether cell behavi

  17. Synthetic protein interactions reveal a functional map of the cell (United States)

    Berry, Lisa K; Ólafsson, Guðjón; Ledesma-Fernández, Elena; Thorpe, Peter H


    To understand the function of eukaryotic cells, it is critical to understand the role of protein-protein interactions and protein localization. Currently, we do not know the importance of global protein localization nor do we understand to what extent the cell is permissive for new protein associations – a key requirement for the evolution of new protein functions. To answer this question, we fused every protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a partner from each of the major cellular compartments and quantitatively assessed the effects upon growth. This analysis reveals that cells have a remarkable and unanticipated tolerance for forced protein associations, even if these associations lead to a proportion of the protein moving compartments within the cell. Furthermore, the interactions that do perturb growth provide a functional map of spatial protein regulation, identifying key regulatory complexes for the normal homeostasis of eukaryotic cells. DOI: PMID:27098839

  18. Effects of surface molecular chirality on adhesion and differentiation of stem cells. (United States)

    Yao, Xiang; Hu, Yiwen; Cao, Bin; Peng, Rong; Ding, Jiandong


    Chirality is one of the most fascinating and ubiquitous cues in nature, especially in life. The effects of chiral surfaces on stem cells have, however, not yet been revealed. Herein we examined the molecular chirality effect on stem cell behaviors. Self assembly monolayers of L- or D-cysteine (Cys) were formed on a glass surface coated with gold. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow of rats exhibited more adhering preference and thus less cell spreading on the L surface than on the d one at the confluent condition. More protein adsorption was observed on the L surface after immersed in cell culture medium with fetal bovine serum. After osteogenic and adipogenic co-induction at the confluent condition, a larger proportion of cells became osteoblasts on the d surface, while the adipogenic fraction on the L surface was found to be higher than on the D surface. In order to interpret how this chirality effect worked, we fabricated Cys microislands of two sizes on the non-fouling poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel to pre-define the spreading areas of single cells. Then the differentiation extents did not exhibit a significant difference between L and D surfaces under a given area of microislands, yet very significant differences of osteogenesis and adipogenesis were found between different areas. So, the molecular chirality influenced stem cells, probably via favored adsorption of natural proteins on the L surface, which led to more cell adhesion; and the larger cell spreading area with higher cell tension in turn favored osteogenesis rather than adipogenesis. As a result, this study reveals the molecular chirality on material surfaces as an indirect regulator of stem cells.

  19. Diversity of T cell epitopes in Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein likely due to protein-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh R Aragam

    Full Text Available Circumsporozoite protein (CS is a leading vaccine antigen for falciparum malaria, but is highly polymorphic in natural parasite populations. The factors driving this diversity are unclear, but non-random assortment of the T cell epitopes TH2 and TH3 has been observed in a Kenyan parasite population. The recent publication of the crystal structure of the variable C terminal region of the protein allows the assessment of the impact of diversity on protein structure and T cell epitope assortment. Using data from the Gambia (55 isolates and Malawi (235 isolates, we evaluated the patterns of diversity within and between epitopes in these two distantly-separated populations. Only non-synonymous mutations were observed with the vast majority in both populations at similar frequencies suggesting strong selection on this region. A non-random pattern of T cell epitope assortment was seen in Malawi and in the Gambia, but structural analysis indicates no intramolecular spatial interactions. Using the information from these parasite populations, structural analysis reveals that polymorphic amino acids within TH2 and TH3 colocalize to one side of the protein, surround, but do not involve, the hydrophobic pocket in CS, and predominately involve charge switches. In addition, free energy analysis suggests residues forming and behind the novel pocket within CS are tightly constrained and well conserved in all alleles. In addition, free energy analysis shows polymorphic residues tend to be populated by energetically unfavorable amino acids. In combination, these findings suggest the diversity of T cell epitopes in CS may be primarily an evolutionary response to intermolecular interactions at the surface of the protein potentially counteracting antibody-mediated immune recognition or evolving host receptor diversity.

  20. Ultrafast Hydration Dynamics Probed by Tryptophan at Protein Surface and Protein-DNA Interface (United States)

    Qin, Yangzhong

    As we all live in a special water planet Earth, the significance of water to life has been universally recognized. The reason why water is so important to life has intrigued many researchers. This dissertation will focus on the ultrafast dynamics of protein surface water and protein-DNA interfacial water which have direct importance to the protein structure and function. Using tryptophan as an intrinsic fluorescence probe, combined with site-directed mutagenesis and ultrafast fluorescence up-conversion spectroscopy, we can achieve single residue spatial resolution and femtosecond temporal resolution. We can also precisely determine the local hydration water dynamics by monitoring the Stokes shift of tryptophan one at a time. Previously, the protein surface hydration has been extensively studied by our group. In this thesis, we will provide more details on the methods we are using to extract the hydration dynamics, and also validate our methods from both experimental and theoretical perspectives. To further interrogate the interfacial water hydration dynamics relative to the protein surface hydration, we studied two DNA polymerases: DNA Polymerase IV (Dpo4) and DNA Polymerase Beta (Pol beta). Both proteins show typical surface hydration pattern with three distinct time components including: (i) the ultrafast sub-picosecond component reflects the bulk type water motion; (ii) a few picoseconds component shows the inner water relaxation mainly corresponding to the local libration and reorientation; (iii) the tens to hundred picoseconds component represents the water-protein coupled motion involving the whole water network reorganization. Dpo4, a loosely DNA binding protein, exhibits very flexible interfacial water which resembles its surface water yet with a significantly reduced ultrafast component. Such dynamic interfacial water not only maintains interfacial flexibility, but also contributes to the low fidelity of the protein. In contrast to the Dpo4, pol beta

  1. A dual tag system for facilitated detection of surface expressed proteins in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmander Johan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery of the autotransporter family has provided a mechanism for surface expression of proteins in laboratory strains of Escherichia coli. We have previously reported the use of the AIDA-I autotransport system to express the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis proteins SefA and H:gm. The SefA protein was successfully exposed to the medium, but the orientation of H:gm in the outer membrane could not be determined due to proteolytic cleavage of the N-terminal detection-tag. The goal of the present work was therefore to construct a vector containing elements that facilitates analysis of surface expression, especially for proteins that are sensitive to proteolysis or otherwise difficult to express. Results The surface expression system pAIDA1 was created with two detection tags flanking the passenger protein. Successful expression of SefA and H:gm on the surface of E. coli was confirmed with fluorescently labeled antibodies specific for the N-terminal His6-tag and the C-terminal Myc-tag. While both tags were detected during SefA expression, only the Myc-tag could be detected for H:gm. The negative signal indicates a proteolytic cleavage of this protein that removes the His6-tag facing the medium. Conclusions Expression levels from pAIDA1 were comparable to or higher than those achieved with the formerly used vector. The presence of the Myc- but not of the His6-tag on the cell surface during H:gm expression allowed us to confirm the hypothesis that this fusion protein was present on the surface and oriented towards the cell exterior. Western blot analysis revealed degradation products of the same molecular weight for SefA and H:gm. The size of these fragments suggests that both fusion proteins have been cleaved at a specific site close to the C-terminal end of the passenger. This proteolysis was concluded to take place either in the outer membrane or in the periplasm. Since H:gm was cleaved to a much greater extent

  2. Knowledge discovery of cell-cell and cell-surface interactions (United States)

    Su, Jing

    High-throughput cell culture is an emerging technology that shows promise as a tool for research in tissue engineering, drug discovery, and medical diagnostics. An important, but overlooked, challenge is the integration of experimental methods with information processing suitable for handling large databases of cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions. In this work the traditional global descriptions of cell behaviors and surface characteristics was shown insufficient for investigating short-distance cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface interactions. Traditional summary metrics cannot distinguish information of cell near neighborhood from the average, global features, thus often is not suitable for studying distance-sensitive cell behaviors. The problem of traditional summary metrics was addressed by introducing individual-cell based local metrics that emphasize cell local environment. An individual-cell based local data analysis method was established. Contact inhibition of cell proliferation was used as a benchmark for the effectiveness of the local metrics and the method. Where global, summary metrics were unsuccessful, the local metrics successfully and quantitatively distinguished the contact inhibition effects of MC3T3-E1 cells on PLGA, PCL, and TCPS surfaces. In order to test the new metrics and analysis method in detail, a model of cell contact inhibition was proposed. Monte Carlo simulation was performed for validating the individual-cell based local data analysis method as well as the cell model itself. The simulation results well matched with the experimental observations. The parameters used in the cell model provided new descriptions of both cell behaviors and surface characteristics. Based on the viewpoint of individual cells, the local metrics and local data analysis method were extended to the investigation of cell-surface interactions, and a new high-throughput screening and knowledge discovery method on combinatorial libraries, local cell

  3. Residual on column host cell protein analysis during lifetime studies of protein A chromatography. (United States)

    Lintern, Katherine; Pathak, Mili; Smales, C Mark; Howland, Kevin; Rathore, Anurag; Bracewell, Daniel G


    Capacity reduction in protein A affinity chromatography with extended cycling during therapeutic antibody manufacture is well documented. Identification of which residual proteins remain from previous cycles during the lifetime of these adsorbent materials is required to understand their role in this ageing process, but represents a significant metrological challenge. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are combined to detect and map this phenomenon of protein carry-over. We show that there is a morphological change at the surface of the agarose resin, revealing deposits on the polymer fibres increasing with cycle number. The amount of residual host cell proteins (HCPs) by LC-MS/MS present on the resin is shown to increase 10-fold between 50 and 100 cycles. During this same period the functional class of the predominant HCPs associated with the resin increased in diversity, with number of proteins identified increasing 5-fold. This ageing is observed in the context of the product quality of the eluate HCP and protein A leachate concentration remaining constant with cycle number.

  4. Degradable polyester scaffolds with controlled surface chemistry combining minimal protein adsorption with specific bioactivation (United States)

    Grafahrend, Dirk; Heffels, Karl-Heinz; Beer, Meike V.; Gasteier, Peter; Möller, Martin; Boehm, Gabriele; Dalton, Paul D.; Groll, Jürgen


    Advanced biomaterials and scaffolds for tissue engineering place high demands on materials and exceed the passive biocompatibility requirements previously considered acceptable for biomedical implants. Together with degradability, the activation of specific cell-material interactions and a three-dimensional environment that mimics the extracellular matrix are core challenges and prerequisites for the organization of living cells to functional tissue. Moreover, although bioactive signalling combined with minimization of non-specific protein adsorption is an advanced modification technique for flat surfaces, it is usually not accomplished for three-dimensional fibrous scaffolds used in tissue engineering. Here, we present a one-step preparation of fully synthetic, bioactive and degradable extracellular matrix-mimetic scaffolds by electrospinning, using poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as the matrix polymer. Addition of a functional, amphiphilic macromolecule based on star-shaped poly(ethylene oxide) transforms current biomedically used degradable polyesters into hydrophilic fibres, which causes the suppression of non-specific protein adsorption on the fibres’ surface. The subsequent covalent attachment of cell-adhesion-mediating peptides to the hydrophilic fibres promotes specific bioactivation and enables adhesion of cells through exclusive recognition of the immobilized binding motifs. This approach permits synthetic materials to directly control cell behaviour, for example, resembling the binding of cells to fibronectin immobilized on collagen fibres in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue.

  5. Heat Shock Protein 96 Induces Maturation of Dendritic Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunxia Cao; Wei Yang; Yonglie Chu; Qingguang Liu; Liang Yu; Cheng'en Pan


    Objective: Heat shock protein (HSP) has the promiscuous abilities to chaperone and present a broad repertoire of tumor antigens to antigen presenting cells including DCs. In this report, we analyzed the modulation of immature DC by HSP 96 (gp96).Method: Murine bone marrow-derived DC was induced by GM-CSF plus IL-4, which aped the immunostimulatory effects of DC.Cocultured DC and gp96-peptide complexes (gp96-PC) or inactivated H22 cells, the expression of MHC class Ⅱ, CD40, CD80 was quantified by flow cytometry. The concentration of IL-12 and TNF- in culture supernatants were determined by ELISA.[51] Cr release assay was used to test specific cytotoxic T cell. Results: Our study demonstrated that the extent of DC maturation induced by gp96-PC, which was reflected in surface density of costimulatory and MHC Ⅱ molecules, was correlated with the secretion of IL-12 and with the T cellactivating potential in vitro. Conclusion: Heat shock protein 96 could be isolated and purified from H22 cells and could induce maturation of dendritic cell. Our findings might be relevance to the use of DC vaccine in therapy of human tumors.

  6. A transducing bacteriophage for Caulobacter crescentus uses the paracrystalline surface layer protein as a receptor.


    P. Edwards; Smit, J


    The bacteriophage phi Cr30, a transducing phage for Caulobacter crescentus strains, required the paracrystalline surface (S) layer for infectivity. Wild-type strains were phage resistant when rsaA, the gene for the 130K S-layer protein, was interrupted with an antibiotic resistance cassette. Strains that had lost the S layer by mutation were phage resistant, as were mutants that produce an S layer but which do not attach the structure to the cell surface. Phage sensitivity was restored to 130...

  7. An efficient delivery of DAMPs on the cell surface by the unconventional secretion pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Wang, Lan; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Dongmei [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical Collage, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Min, Zhihui [Biomedical Research Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Xie, Jianhui [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical Collage, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yu, Min, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical Collage, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Gu, Jianxin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical Collage, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)


    Research highlights: {yields} Hsp60 transported to cell surface through the classical secretory pathway was modified with N-glycosylation. {yields} HSAPB-N18 could efficiently deliver Hsp60 to the cell surface via the unconventional secretory pathway. {yields} Cell surface Hsp60 delivered by HASPB-N18 has a proper conformation. {yields} HASPB-N18 is an efficient delivery signal for other DAMP molecules such as Hsp70 and HMGB1. -- Abstract: Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are signals released from dying cells evoking the immune system response in several inflammatory disorders. In normal situations, many of DAMPs are nuclear or cytosolic proteins with defined intracellular function, but they could be found on the cell surface following tissue injury. The biological function of the translocated DAMPs is still not well known and an efficient delivery of these molecules on the cell surface is required to clarify their biological effects. In this study, we demonstrated that an unclassical secretory signal peptide, N-terminal 18 amino acids of HASPB (HASPB-N18), could efficiently deliver Hsp60, Hsp70, and HMGB1 on the cell surface. Furthermore, the delivery of these molecules on the cell surface by HASPB-N18 is not limited to a special cell line because several cell lines could use this delivery signal to deliver these molecules on the cell surface. Moreover, we demonstrated that Hsp60 on the cell surface delivered by HASPB-N18 could be recognized by a soluble form of LOX-1, which implies that DAMPs on the cell surface delivered by HASPB-N18 have a proper conformation during transport. Therefore, delivery of DAMPs by HASPB-N18 is a reliable model to further understand the biological significance of DAMPs on the cell surface.

  8. Cell-surface metalloprotease ADAM12 is internalized by a clathrin- and Grb2-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorte Stautz; Leyme, Anthony; Grandal, Michael Vibo;


    ADAM12 (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease 12), a member of the ADAMs family of transmembrane proteins, is involved in ectodomain shedding, cell-adhesion and signaling, with important implications in cancer. Therefore, mechanisms that regulate the levels and activity of ADAM12 at the cell-surface ...

  9. Genetic and proteomic evidences support the localization of yeast enolase in the cell surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Villar, Elena; Monteoliva, Lucía; Larsen, Martin Røssel;


    Although enolase, other glycolytic enzymes, and a variety of cytoplasmic proteins lacking an N-terminal secretion signal have been widely described as located at the cell surface in yeast and in mammalian cells, their presence in this external location is still controversial. Here, we report that...

  10. Insights into the role of material surface topography and wettability on cell-material interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papenburg, Bernke J.; Rodrigues, Emillie Dooms; Wessling, Matthias; Stamatialis, Dimitris


    This work investigates the effect of surface topography and biomaterial wettability on protein absorption, cell attachment, proliferation and morphology and reveals important insights in the complexity of cell-material interactions. We use various materials, i.e. poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS), poly

  11. Distribution of Prestin on Outer Hair Cell Basolateral Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ning; ZHAI Suo-qiang; YANG Shi-ming; HAN Dong-yi; ZHAO Hong-bo


    Prestin has been identified as a motor protein responsible for outer hair cell (OHC) electromotility and is expressed on the OHC surface. Previous studies revealed that OHC eleetromotility and its associated nonlinear capacitance were mainly located at the OHC lateral wall and absent at the apical cutieular plate and the basal nucleus region. Immunofluorescent staining for prestin also failed to demonstrate prestin expression at the OHC basal ends in whole-mount preparation of the organ of Corti. However, there lacks a definitive demonstration of the pattern of prestin distribution. The OHC lateral wall has a trilaminate organization and is composed of the plasma membrane, cortical lattice, and subsurface cisternae. In this study, the location of prestin proteins in dissociated OHCs was examined using immunofluorescent staining and confocal microscopy. We found that prestin was uniformly expressed on the basolateral surface, including the basal pole. No staining was seen on the cuticular plate and stereocilia. When co-stained with a membrane marker di-8-ANEPPS, prestin-labeling was found to be in the outer layer of the OHC lateral wall. After separating the plasma membrane from the underlying subsurface eisternae using a hypotonic extracellular solution, prestin-labeling was found to be in the plasma membrane, not the subsurface cisternae. The data show that prestin is expressed in the plasma membrane on the entire OHC basolateral surface.

  12. Murein hydrolase activity of surface layer proteins from Lactobacillus acidophilus against Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Meng, Jun; Gao, Shu-Ming; Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Lu, Rong-Rong


    The aim of this study was to investigate the murein hydrolase activities of the surface layer proteins (SLPs) from two strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus using zymography. The influence of these hydrolase activities on Escherichia coli ATCC 43893 was also evaluated by analysing their growth curve, cell morphology and physiological state. After the incubation of E. coli with SLPs, growth was inhibited, the number of viable cells was significantly reduced, examination by transmission electron microscopy showed that the cell wall was damaged and flow cytometry results indicated that the majority of the cells were sublethally injured. All of these results suggested that the SLPs of both L. acidophilus strains possessed murein hydrolase activities that were sublethal to E. coli cells.

  13. Chemistry and material science at the cell surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weian Zhao


    Full Text Available Cell surfaces are fertile ground for chemists and material scientists to manipulate or augment cell functions and phenotypes. This not only helps to answer basic biology questions but also has diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances in the engineering of the cell surface. In particular, we focus on the potential applications of surface engineered cells for 1 targeting cells to desirable sites in cell therapy, 2 programming assembly of cells for tissue engineering, 3 bioimaging and sensing, and ultimately 4 manipulating cell biology.

  14. Recharging Red Blood Cell Surface by Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Kliche


    Full Text Available Background: Similar as in vascular endothelium the negatively charged glycocalyx of erythrocytes selectively buffers sodium. Loss of glycocalyx (i.e. loss of negative charges leads to increased erythrocyte sodium sensitivity (ESS quantified by a recently developed salt-blood-test (SBT. The hypothesis was tested whether a regular 4-hour hemodialysis (4h-HD alters ESS. Methods: In 38 patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD ESS was measured before and after 4h-HD, together with standard laboratory and clinical parameters (electrolytes, acid-base status, urea, creatinine, hemoglobin, c-reactive protein and blood pressure. Results: Before 4h-HD, 20 patients (out of 38 were classified as “salt sensitive” by SBT. After 4h-HD, this number decreased to 11. Erythrocyte sodium buffering power remained virtually constant in patients with already low ESS before dialysis, whereas in patients with high ESS, 4h-HD improved the initially poor sodium buffering power by about 20%. No significant correlations could be detected between standard blood parameters and the respective ESS values except for plasma sodium concentration which was found increased by 3.1 mM in patients with high salt sensitivity. Conclusions: 4h-HD apparently recharges “run-down” erythrocytes and thus restores erythrocyte sodium buffering capacity. Besides the advantage of efficient sodium buffering in blood, erythrocytes with sufficient amounts of free negative charges at the erythrocyte surface will cause less (mechanical injury to the negatively charged endothelial surface due to efficient repulsive forces between blood and vessel wall. Hemodialysis improves erythrocyte surface properties and thus may prevent early vascular damage in patients suffering from ESRD.

  15. Surface (glyco-)proteins: primary structure and crystallization under microgravity conditions (United States)

    Claus, H.; Akca, E.; Schultz, N.; Karbach, G.; Schlott, B.; Debaerdemaeker, T.; De Clercq, J.-P.; König, H.


    The Archaea comprise microorganisms that live under environmental extremes, like high temperature, low pH value or high salt concentration. Their cells are often covered by a single layer of (glyco)protein subunits (S-layer) in hexagonal arrangement. In order to get further hints about the molecular mechanisms of protein stabilization we compared the primary and secondary structures of archaeal S-layer (glyco)proteins. We found an increase of charged amino acids in the S-layer proteins of the extreme thermophilic species compared to their mesophilic counterparts. Our data and those of other authors suggest that ionic interactions, e.g., salt bridges seem to be played a major role in protein stabilization at high temperatures. Despite the differences in the growth optima and the predominance of some amino acids the primary structures of S-layers revealed also a significant degree of identity between phylogenetically related archaea. These obervations indicate that protein sequences of S-layers have been conserved during the evolution from extremely thermophilic to mesophilic life. To support these findings the three-dimensional structure of the S-layer proteins has to be elucidated. Recently, we described the first successful crystallization of an extreme thermophilic surface(glyco)protein under microgravity conditions.

  16. Molecular cartography of proteins: surface relief analysis of the calf eye lens protein gamma-crystallin. (United States)

    Chirgadze, Y u; Kurochkina, N; Nikonov, S


    Methods of calculating the protein molecular surface and different map representations are described. The maps are obtained by projection of the space-filling molecular model on the surface of the ellipsoid of inertia. A new approach to surface analysis is proposed which is based on the use of three general maps: an identification map with all residues outlined, a surface relief map and a coloured map with a specific colour for each of the surface atoms. Superposition of these maps greatly simplifies molecular surface analysis. The usefulness of such an approach has been demonstrated by the study of the relief of the calf eye lens protein gamma-crystallin II. Protrusions of the relief have been shown to be occupied generally by charged residues, but in some cases by the hydrophobic ones. It is interesting to note that in crystal medium the protruding residues are involved, in the majority of cases, in intermolecular contacts. The protruding regions have been found to be pseudosymmetrical to each other in accordance with the two-fold rotation axis of the molecule. However, the colours of these regions, i.e. the atoms of the corresponding side chains, differ greatly.

  17. Cell membrane modification for rapid display of proteins as a novel means of immunomodulation: FasL-decorated cells prevent islet graft rejection. (United States)

    Yolcu, Esma S; Askenasy, Nadir; Singh, Narendra P; Cherradi, Salah-Eddine Lamhamedi; Shirwan, Haval


    Long-term display of exogenous proteins on the cell surface may have important research and therapeutic implications. We report a novel method for the cell-surface display of proteins that involves generation of a chimeric protein with core streptavidin, biotinylation of cells, and "decoration" with the protein. A chimeric protein with the extracellular portions of FasL (SA-FasL) was efficiently displayed on the cell surface within 2 hr without detectable cellular toxicity. Biotin and SA-FasL persisted on the cell surface for weeks in vitro and in vivo. Immunomodulation with SA-FasL-decorated splenocytes effectively blocked alloreactive responses in naive and presensitized rodents and prevented the rejection of allogeneic pancreatic islets. This approach may serve as an alternative to gene transfer-based expression with broad research and therapeutic applications.

  18. 白杨素对人肝癌BEL-7402细胞表面超微结构和蛋白质磷酸化及相关通路的影响%Influence of chrysin on cell surface ultrastructures, protein phosphorylation and related pathways in human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翔; 陈希; 李常虹; 张丽君; 张页


    BACKGROUND: Chrysin, a dietary flavonoid or natural product, widely distributed in health food and Chinese herbal medicine,has promising cancer-preventive and cancer-therapeutic activities. Some problems remain poorly understood: whether chrysin is beneficial to liver cancer prevention and treatment? What are the underlying mechanisms? Whether chrysin promotes the differentiation of liver cancer stem cells?OBJECTIVE: By using human hepatocellular carcinoma cells as the subject, the study aimed to uncover the subcellular and molecular mechanisms of actions for chrysin.METHODS: The acid phosphatase assay, scanning electron microscopy and immunoblotting were used to investigate the effects of chrysin on the BEL-7402 cells, and to reveal the underlying anticancer mechanisms.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION : Chrysin has potent antiproliferative activity against cultu red BEL-7402 cells, with an IC50 of 24.9 moI/L or 6.3 g/mL. When administered together with LY294002, a specific inhibitor of the PI3K-AKT pathway, chrysin cooperatively and significantly augmented the anticancer effect. However, chrysin alone did not lead to changes in the expression levels of AKT, phosphorylated AKT, and AKT's downstream molecule GSK-3 and phospho-GSK-3, though β-catenin reduced slightly under a higher dosage. In chrysin-treated cells, the density of the microvillus-like protrusions on the cell surfaces was drastically increased; Membrane nanoparticles were emerging from the protrusions. Cells were severely retracted, leaving wide gaps between cultured cells. There were also dying or dead cells that were morphologically different from apoptotic cells.Numerous phospho-Ser/Thr bands were changed in chrysin-treated cells. Chrysin also caused extensive dephosphorylation of tyrosine on proteins, which was also seen in positive control or epirubicin-treated cells. No significant changes were observed in the levels of CDK1, phospho-CDK1/2, CDC25A, CDC25B and CD133. However, dose-dependent induction of

  19. Antigenic protein synthesis of Campylobacter jejuni in contact with chicken cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Bang, Dang D.; Li, Yiping

    to the environment of the avian gastrointestinal tract. Consequently, the most important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized efficiently without causing disease in the birds. Upon co-cultivation with mammalian cells, C. jejuni secrete specific Cia proteins, which are required...... the synthesis of antigenic C. jejuni proteins upon cultivation with chicken cells. Two strains of C. jejuni (the human isolate NCTC11168 and the chicken isolate DVI-SC11) were incubated with primary intestinal chicken cells and subsequently used to raise antisera in rabbits. Negative controls were carried out...... in parallel. These antisera were tested by Western blotting against C. jejuni total protein as well as periplasmic-, surface- and extracellular protein fractions. A unique antibody reaction was discovered to a protein from samples, which had been cultivated with chicken cells. The identity of this protein...

  20. Haematopoietic stem cells require a highly regulated protein synthesis rate. (United States)

    Signer, Robert A J; Magee, Jeffrey A; Salic, Adrian; Morrison, Sean J


    Many aspects of cellular physiology remain unstudied in somatic stem cells, for example, there are almost no data on protein synthesis in any somatic stem cell. Here we set out to compare protein synthesis in haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and restricted haematopoietic progenitors. We found that the amount of protein synthesized per hour in HSCs in vivo was lower than in most other haematopoietic cells, even if we controlled for differences in cell cycle status or forced HSCs to undergo self-renewing divisions. Reduced ribosome function in Rpl24(Bst/+) mice further reduced protein synthesis in HSCs and impaired HSC function. Pten deletion increased protein synthesis in HSCs but also reduced HSC function. Rpl24(Bst/+) cell-autonomously rescued the effects of Pten deletion in HSCs; blocking the increase in protein synthesis, restoring HSC function, and delaying leukaemogenesis. Pten deficiency thus depletes HSCs and promotes leukaemia partly by increasing protein synthesis. Either increased or decreased protein synthesis impairs HSC function.

  1. Surface nanotopography of an anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy enhances cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Her-Hsiung [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Informatics, Asi