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Sample records for cell surface n-linked

  1. Cell surface N-glycans influence the level of functional E-cadherin at the cell–cell border

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    M. Kristen Hall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available E-cadherin is crucial for adhesion of cells to each other and thereby development and maintenance of tissue. While it is has been established that N-glycans inside the cell impact the level of E-cadherin at the cell surface of epithelial-derived cells, it is unclear whether N-glycans outside the cell control the clustering of E-cadherin at the cell–cell border. Here, we demonstrate reduction of N-glycans at the cell surface weakened the recruitment and retention of E-cadherin at the cell–cell border, and consequently reduced the strength of cell–cell interactions. We conclude that N-glycans at the cell surface are tightly linked to the placement of E-cadherin at the cell–cell border and thereby control E-cadherin mediated cell–cell adhesion.

  2. N-linked glycans are required on epithelial Na+ channel subunits for maturation and surface expression.

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    Kashlan, Ossama B; Kinlough, Carol L; Myerburg, Michael M; Shi, Shujie; Chen, Jingxin; Blobner, Brandon M; Buck, Teresa M; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Hughey, Rebecca P; Kleyman, Thomas R

    2018-03-01

    Epithelial Na + channel (ENaC) subunits undergo N-linked glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum where they assemble into an αβγ complex. Six, 13, and 5 consensus sites (Asn-X-Ser/Thr) for N-glycosylation reside in the extracellular domains of the mouse α-, β-, and γ-subunits, respectively. Because the importance of ENaC N-linked glycans has not been fully addressed, we examined the effect of preventing N-glycosylation of specific subunits on channel function, expression, maturation, and folding. Heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes or Fischer rat thyroid cells with αβγ-ENaC lacking N-linked glycans on a single subunit reduced ENaC activity as well as the inhibitory response to extracellular Na + . The lack of N-linked glycans on the β-subunit also precluded channel activation by trypsin. However, channel activation by shear stress was N-linked glycan independent, regardless of which subunit was modified. We also discovered that the lack of N-linked glycans on any one subunit reduced the total and surface levels of cognate subunits. The lack of N-linked glycans on the β-subunit had the largest effect on total levels, with the lack of N-linked glycans on the γ- and α-subunits having intermediate and modest effects, respectively. Finally, channels with wild-type β-subunits were more sensitive to limited trypsin proteolysis than channels lacking N-linked glycans on the β-subunit. Our results indicate that N-linked glycans on each subunit are required for proper folding, maturation, surface expression, and function of the channel.

  3. Surface characteristics determining the cell compatibility of ionically cross-linked alginate gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida-Sano, Ikuko; Hirakawa, Makoto; Matsumoto, Hiroki; Kamada, Mitsuki; Ogawa, Sakito; Satoh, Nao; Namiki, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated differences in the characteristics determining the suitability of five types of ion (Fe 3+ , Al 3+ , Ca 2+ , Ba 2+ and Sr 2+ )-cross-linked alginate films as culture substrates for cells. Human dermal fibroblasts were cultured on each alginate film to examine the cell affinity of the alginates. Since cell behavior on the surface of a material is dependent on the proteins adsorbed to it, we investigated the protein adsorption ability and surface features (wettability, morphology and charge) related to the protein adsorption abilities of alginate films. We observed that ferric, aluminum and barium ion-cross-linked alginate films supported better cell growth and adsorbed higher amounts of serum proteins than other types. Surface wettability analysis demonstrated that ferric and aluminum ion-cross-linked alginates had moderate hydrophilic surfaces, while other types showed highly hydrophilic surfaces. The roughness was exhibited only on barium ion-cross-linked alginate surface. Surface charge measurements revealed that alginate films had negatively charged surfaces, and showed little difference among the five types of gel. These results indicate that the critical factors of ionically cross-linked alginate films determining the protein adsorption ability required for their cell compatibility may be surface wettability and morphology. (paper)

  4. Concise Review: Cell Surface N-Linked Glycoproteins as Potential Stem Cell Markers and Drug Targets.

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    Boheler, Kenneth R; Gundry, Rebekah L

    2017-01-01

    Stem cells and their derivatives hold great promise to advance regenerative medicine. Critical to the progression of this field is the identification and utilization of antibody-accessible cell-surface proteins for immunophenotyping and cell sorting-techniques essential for assessment and isolation of defined cell populations with known functional and therapeutic properties. Beyond their utility for cell identification and selection, cell-surface proteins are also major targets for pharmacological intervention. Although comprehensive cell-surface protein maps are highly valuable, they have been difficult to define until recently. In this review, we discuss the application of a contemporary targeted chemoproteomic-based technique for defining the cell-surface proteomes of stem and progenitor cells. In applying this approach to pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), these studies have improved the biological understanding of these cells, led to the enhanced use and development of antibodies suitable for immunophenotyping and sorting, and contributed to the repurposing of existing drugs without the need for high-throughput screening. The utility of this latter approach was first demonstrated with human PSCs (hPSCs) through the identification of small molecules that are selectively toxic to hPSCs and have the potential for eliminating confounding and tumorigenic cells in hPSC-derived progeny destined for research and transplantation. Overall, the cutting-edge technologies reviewed here will accelerate the development of novel cell-surface protein targets for immunophenotyping, new reagents to improve the isolation of therapeutically qualified cells, and pharmacological studies to advance the treatment of intractable diseases amenable to cell-replacement therapies. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:131-138. © 2016 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  5. Modulation and modeling of monoclonal antibody N-linked glycosylation in mammalian cell perfusion reactors.

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    Karst, Daniel J; Scibona, Ernesto; Serra, Elisa; Bielser, Jean-Marc; Souquet, Jonathan; Stettler, Matthieu; Broly, Hervé; Soos, Miroslav; Morbidelli, Massimo; Villiger, Thomas K

    2017-09-01

    Mammalian cell perfusion cultures are gaining renewed interest as an alternative to traditional fed-batch processes for the production of therapeutic proteins, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAb). The steady state operation at high viable cell density allows the continuous delivery of antibody product with increased space-time yield and reduced in-process variability of critical product quality attributes (CQA). In particular, the production of a confined mAb N-linked glycosylation pattern has the potential to increase therapeutic efficacy and bioactivity. In this study, we show that accurate control of flow rates, media composition and cell density of a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell perfusion bioreactor allowed the production of a constant glycosylation profile for over 20 days. Steady state was reached after an initial transition phase of 6 days required for the stabilization of extra- and intracellular processes. The possibility to modulate the glycosylation profile was further investigated in a Design of Experiment (DoE), at different viable cell density and media supplement concentrations. This strategy was implemented in a sequential screening approach, where various steady states were achieved sequentially during one culture. It was found that, whereas high ammonia levels reached at high viable cell densities (VCD) values inhibited the processing to complex glycan structures, the supplementation of either galactose, or manganese as well as their synergy significantly increased the proportion of complex forms. The obtained experimental data set was used to compare the reliability of a statistical response surface model (RSM) to a mechanistic model of N-linked glycosylation. The latter outperformed the response surface predictions with respect to its capability and reliability in predicting the system behavior (i.e., glycosylation pattern) outside the experimental space covered by the DoE design used for the model parameter estimation. Therefore, we can

  6. MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging of N-Linked Glycans in Cancer Tissues.

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    Drake, R R; Powers, T W; Jones, E E; Bruner, E; Mehta, A S; Angel, P M

    2017-01-01

    Glycosylated proteins account for a majority of the posttranslation modifications of cell surface, secreted, and circulating proteins. Within the tumor microenvironment, the presence of immune cells, extracellular matrix proteins, cell surface receptors, and interactions between stroma and tumor cells are all processes mediated by glycan binding and recognition reactions. Changes in glycosylation during tumorigenesis are well documented to occur and affect all of these associated adhesion and regulatory functions. A MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) workflow for profiling N-linked glycan distributions in fresh/frozen tissues and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues has recently been developed. The key to the approach is the application of a molecular coating of peptide-N-glycosidase to tissues, an enzyme that cleaves asparagine-linked glycans from their protein carrier. The released N-linked glycans can then be analyzed by MALDI-IMS directly on tissue. Generally 40 or more individual glycan structures are routinely detected, and when combined with histopathology localizations, tumor-specific glycans are readily grouped relative to nontumor regions and other structural features. This technique is a recent development and new approach in glycobiology and mass spectrometry imaging research methodology; thus, potential uses such as tumor-specific glycan biomarker panels and other applications are discussed. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Contribution of N-linked glycans on HSV-2 gB to cell–cell fusion and viral entry

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    Luo, Sukun [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Kai [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); He, Siyi; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Mudan; Huang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Du, Tao [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zheng, Chunfu [Soochow University, Institutes of Biology and Medical Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Yalan [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hu, Qinxue, E-mail: qhu@wh.iov.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George' s University of London, London SW17 0RE (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    HSV-2 is the major cause of genital herpes and its infection increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition and transmission. HSV-2 glycoprotein B together with glycoproteins D, H and L are indispensable for viral entry, of which gB, as a class III fusogen, plays an essential role. HSV-2 gB has seven potential N-linked glycosylation (N-CHO) sites, but their significance has yet to be determined. For the first time, we systematically analyzed the contributions of N-linked glycans on gB to cell–cell fusion and viral entry. Our results demonstrated that, of the seven potential N-CHO sites on gB, mutation at N390, N483 or N668 decreased cell–cell fusion and viral entry, while mutation at N133 mainly affected protein expression and the production of infectious virus particles by blocking the transport of gB from the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi. Our findings highlight the significance of N-linked glycans on HSV-2 gB expression and function. - Highlights: • N-linked glycan at N133 is important for gB intracellular trafficking and maturation. • N-linked glycans at N390, N483 and N668 on gB are necessary for optimal cell–cell fusion. • N-linked glycans at N390, N483 and N668 on gB are necessary for optimal viral entry.

  8. Contribution of N-linked glycans on HSV-2 gB to cell–cell fusion and viral entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Sukun; Hu, Kai; He, Siyi; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Mudan; Huang, Xin; Du, Tao; Zheng, Chunfu; Liu, Yalan; Hu, Qinxue

    2015-01-01

    HSV-2 is the major cause of genital herpes and its infection increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition and transmission. HSV-2 glycoprotein B together with glycoproteins D, H and L are indispensable for viral entry, of which gB, as a class III fusogen, plays an essential role. HSV-2 gB has seven potential N-linked glycosylation (N-CHO) sites, but their significance has yet to be determined. For the first time, we systematically analyzed the contributions of N-linked glycans on gB to cell–cell fusion and viral entry. Our results demonstrated that, of the seven potential N-CHO sites on gB, mutation at N390, N483 or N668 decreased cell–cell fusion and viral entry, while mutation at N133 mainly affected protein expression and the production of infectious virus particles by blocking the transport of gB from the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi. Our findings highlight the significance of N-linked glycans on HSV-2 gB expression and function. - Highlights: • N-linked glycan at N133 is important for gB intracellular trafficking and maturation. • N-linked glycans at N390, N483 and N668 on gB are necessary for optimal cell–cell fusion. • N-linked glycans at N390, N483 and N668 on gB are necessary for optimal viral entry

  9. Link-N: The missing link towards intervertebral disc repair is species-specific.

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    Frances C Bach

    Full Text Available Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD is a frequent cause for back pain in humans and dogs. Link-N stabilizes proteoglycan aggregates in cartilaginous tissues and exerts growth factor-like effects. The human variant of Link-N facilitates IVD regeneration in several species in vitro by inducing Smad1 signaling, but it is not clear whether this is species specific. Dogs with IVD disease could possibly benefit from Link-N treatment, but Link-N has not been tested on canine IVD cells. If Link-N appears to be effective in canines, this would facilitate translation of Link-N into the clinic using the dog as an in vivo large animal model for human IVD degeneration.This study's objective was to determine the effect of the human and canine variant of Link-N and short (s Link-N on canine chondrocyte-like cells (CLCs and compare this to those on already studied species, i.e. human and bovine CLCs. Extracellular matrix (ECM production was determined by measuring glycosaminoglycan (GAG content and histological evaluation. Additionally, the micro-aggregates' DNA content was measured. Phosphorylated (p Smad1 and -2 levels were determined using ELISA.Human (sLink-N induced GAG deposition in human and bovine CLCs, as expected. In contrast, canine (sLink-N did not affect ECM production in human CLCs, while it mainly induced collagen type I and II deposition in bovine CLCs. In canine CLCs, both canine and human (sLink-N induced negligible GAG deposition. Surprisingly, human and canine (sLink-N did not induce Smad signaling in human and bovine CLCs. Human and canine (sLink-N only mildly increased pSmad1 and Smad2 levels in canine CLCs.Human and canine (sLink-N exerted species-specific effects on CLCs from early degenerated IVDs. Both variants, however, lacked the potency as canine IVD regeneration agent. While these studies demonstrate the challenges of translational studies in large animal models, (sLink-N still holds a regenerative potential for humans.

  10. Self-generated covalent cross-links in the cell-surface adhesins of Gram-positive bacteria.

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    Baker, Edward N; Squire, Christopher J; Young, Paul G

    2015-10-01

    The ability of bacteria to adhere to other cells or to surfaces depends on long, thin adhesive structures that are anchored to their cell walls. These structures include extended protein oligomers known as pili and single, multi-domain polypeptides, mostly based on multiple tandem Ig-like domains. Recent structural studies have revealed the widespread presence of covalent cross-links, not previously seen within proteins, which stabilize these domains. The cross-links discovered so far are either isopeptide bonds that link lysine side chains to the side chains of asparagine or aspartic acid residues or ester bonds between threonine and glutamine side chains. These bonds appear to be formed by spontaneous intramolecular reactions as the proteins fold and are strategically placed so as to impart considerable mechanical strength. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  11. Preparation of protein- and cell-resistant surfaces by hyperthermal hydrogen induced cross-linking of poly(ethylene oxide).

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    Bonduelle, Colin V; Lau, Woon M; Gillies, Elizabeth R

    2011-05-01

    The functionalization of surfaces with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) is an effective means of imparting resistance to the adsorption of proteins and the attachment and growth of cells, properties that are critical for many biomedical applications. In this work, a new hyperthermal hydrogen induced cross-linking (HHIC) method was explored as a simple one-step approach for attaching PEO to surfaces through the selective cleavage of C-H bonds and subsequent cross-linking of the resulting carbon radicals. In order to study the effects of the process on the polymer, PEO-coated silicon wafers were prepared and the effects of different treatment times were investigated. Subsequently, using an optimized treatment time and a modified butyl polymer with increased affinity for PEO, the technique was applied to butyl rubber surfaces. All of the treated surfaces exhibited significantly reduced protein adsorption and cell growth relative to control surfaces and compared favorably with surfaces that were functionalized with PEO using conventional chemical methods. Thus HHIC is a simple and effective means of attaching PEO to non-functional polymer surfaces.

  12. Cell surface response of chemically transformed, malignant mouse embryonal fibroblasts and human colon cancer cells to the maturation-promoting agent, N,N-dimethylformamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The lactoperoxidase/ 125 I radioiodination procedure was used to probe the cell surface of normal, nontransformed AKR-2B mouse embryo fibroblasts and malignant, permanently methylcholanthrene-transformed AKR-2B (AKR-MCA) cells to establish the relationship between cell surface changes and transformation/differentiation in this call system. AKR-MCA cells displayed surface alterations secondary to N,N-dimethylformamide (DFM)-promoted differentiation. Growth of AKR-MCA cells in DMF virtually eliminated the 85,000 and 63,000 molecular weight surface proteins susceptible to radioiodination and increased surface material of ∼200,000 molecular weight. Thus, surface profiles of DFM-treated AKR-MCA cells were essentially identical to those of nontransformed AKR-2B cells. Experimentation was extended to a cultured human colon cancer cell line (HCT MOSER). HCT MOSER cells exposed to DMF manifested marked, reversible morphological and surface changes which occurred as a function of time of growth in DMF and DMF concentration. Interestingly, material reactive with anti-fibronectin was found on the surfaces and in the culture medium of DFM-treated HCT MOSER cells

  13. Efficient adhesion-based plasma membrane isolation for cell surface N-glycan analysis.

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    Mun, Ji-Young; Lee, Kyung Jin; Seo, Hoon; Sung, Min-Sun; Cho, Yee Sook; Lee, Seung-Goo; Kwon, Ohsuk; Oh, Doo-Byoung

    2013-08-06

    Glycans, which decorate cell surfaces, play crucial roles in various physiological events involving cell surface recognition. Despite the importance of surface glycans, most analyses have been performed using total cells or whole membranes rather than plasma membranes due to difficulties related to isolation. In the present study, we employed an adhesion-based method for plasma membrane isolation to analyze N-glycans on cell surfaces. Cells were attached to polylysine-coated glass plates and then ruptured by hypotonic pressure. After washing to remove intracellular organelles, only a plasma membrane fraction remained attached to the plates, as confirmed by fluorescence imaging using organelle-specific probes. The plate was directly treated with trypsin to digest and detach the glycoproteins from the plasma membrane. From the resulting glycopeptides, N-glycans were released and analyzed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and HPLC. When N-glycan profiles obtained by this method were compared to those by other methods, the amount of high-mannose type glycans mainly contaminated from the endoplasmic reticulum was dramatically reduced, which enabled the efficient detection of complex type glycans present on the cell surface. Moreover, this method was successfully used to analyze the increase of high-mannose glycans on the surface as induced by a mannosidase inhibitor treatment.

  14. Mapping N-linked Glycosylation Sites in the Secretome and Whole Cells of Aspergillus niger Using Hydrazide Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry

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    Wang, Lu; Aryal, Uma K.; Dai, Ziyu; Mason, Alisa C.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Tian, Zhixin; Zhou, Jianying; Su, Dian; Weitz, Karl K.; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Scott E.; Qian, Weijun

    2012-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is known to play an essential role in both cellular functions and the secretory pathways; however, little information is available on the dynamics of glycosylated N-linked glycosites of fungi. Herein we present the first extensive mapping of glycosylated N-linked glycosites in industrial strain Aspergillus niger by applying an optimized solid phase enrichment of glycopeptide protocol using hydrazide modified magnetic beads. The enrichment protocol was initially optimized using mouse plasma and A. niger secretome samples, which was then applied to profile N-linked glycosites from both the secretome and whole cell lysates of A. niger. A total of 847 unique N-linked glycosites and 330 N-linked glycoproteins were confidently identified by LC-MS/MS. Based on gene ontology analysis, the identified N-linked glycoproteins in the whole cell lysate were primarily localized in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosome, and storage vacuoles. The identified N-linked glycoproteins are involved in a wide range of biological processes including gene regulation and signal transduction, protein folding and assembly, protein modification and carbohydrate metabolism. The extensive coverage of glycosylated N-linked glycosites along with identification of partial N-linked glycosylation in those enzymes involving in different biochemical pathways provide useful information for functional studies of N-linked glycosylation and their biotechnological applications in A. niger.

  15. Role of Site-Specific N-Glycans Expressed on GluA2 in the Regulation of Cell Surface Expression of AMPA-Type Glutamate Receptors.

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    Yusuke Takeuchi

    Full Text Available The AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR, which is a tetrameric complex composed of four subunits (GluA1-4 with several combinations, mediates the majority of rapid excitatory synaptic transmissions in the nervous system. Cell surface expression levels of AMPAR modulate synaptic plasticity, which is considered one of the molecular bases for learning and memory formation. To date, a unique trisaccharide (HSO3-3GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc, human natural killer-1 (HNK-1 carbohydrate, was found expressed specifically on N-linked glycans of GluA2 and regulated the cell surface expression of AMPAR and the spine maturation process. However, evidence that the HNK-1 epitope on N-glycans of GluA2 directly affects these phenomena is lacking. Moreover, it is thought that other N-glycans on GluA2 also have potential roles in the regulation of AMPAR functions. In the present study, using a series of mutants lacking potential N-glycosylation sites (N256, N370, N406, and N413 within GluA2, we demonstrated that the mutant lacking the N-glycan at N370 strongly suppressed the intracellular trafficking of GluA2 from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER in HEK293 cells. Cell surface expression of GluA1, which is a major subunit of AMPAR in neurons, was also suppressed by co-expression of the GluA2 N370S mutant. The N370S mutant and wild-type GluA2 were co-immunoprecipitated with GluA1, suggesting that N370S was properly associated with GluA1. Moreover, we found that N413 was the main potential site of the HNK-1 epitope that promoted the interaction of GluA2 with N-cadherin, resulting in enhanced cell surface expression of GluA2. The HNK-1 epitope on N-glycan at the N413 of GluA2 was also involved in the cell surface expression of GluA1. Thus, our data suggested that site-specific N-glycans on GluA2 regulate the intracellular trafficking and cell surface expression of AMPAR.

  16. Characterization of a bombesin receptor on Swiss mouse 3T3 cells by affinity cross-linking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnett-Smith, J.; Zachary, I.; Rozengurt, E.

    1988-01-01

    We have previously identified by chemical cross-linking a cell surface protein in Swiss 3T3 cells of apparent Mr 75,000-85,000, which may represent a major component of the receptor for peptides of the bombesin family in these cells. Because bombesin-like peptides may interact with other cell surface molecules, it was important to establish the correlation between receptor binding and functions of this complex and further characterize the Mr 75,000-85,000 cross-linked protein. Detailed time courses carried out at different temperatures demonstrated that the Mr 75,000-85,000 affinity-labelled band was the earliest cross-linked complex detected in Swiss 3T3 cells incubated with 125I-labelled gastrin-releasing peptide (125I-GRP). Furthermore, the ability of various nonradioactive bombesin agonists and antagonists to block the formation of the Mr 75,000-85,000 cross-linked complex correlated extremely well (r = 0.994) with the relative capacity of these peptides to inhibit 125I-GRP specific binding. Pretreatment with unlabelled GRP for up to 6 h caused only a slight decrease in both specific 125I-GRP binding and the affinity labelling of the Mr 75,000-85,000 protein. We also show that the cross-linked complex is a glycoprotein. First, solubilized affinity labelled Mr 75,000-85,000 complex applied to wheat germ lectin-sepharose columns was eluted by addition of 0.3 M N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Second, treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase F reduced the apparent molecular weight of the affinity-labelled band from 75,000-85,000 to 43,000, indicating the presence of N-linked oligosaccharide groups

  17. N-Acetylglucosamine Functions in Cell Signaling

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    James B. Konopka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The amino sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc is well known for the important structural roles that it plays at the cell surface. It is a key component of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan, fungal cell wall chitin, and the extracellular matrix of animal cells. Interestingly, recent studies have also identified new roles for GlcNAc in cell signaling. For example, GlcNAc stimulates the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans to undergo changes in morphogenesis and expression of virulence genes. Pathogenic E. coli responds to GlcNAc by altering the expression of fimbriae and CURLI fibers that promote biofilm formation and GlcNAc stimulates soil bacteria to undergo changes in morphogenesis and production of antibiotics. Studies with animal cells have revealed that GlcNAc influences cell signaling through the posttranslational modification of proteins by glycosylation. O-linked attachment of GlcNAc to Ser and Thr residues regulates a variety of intracellular proteins, including transcription factors such as NFκB, c-myc, and p53. In addition, the specificity of Notch family receptors for different ligands is altered by GlcNAc attachment to fucose residues in the extracellular domain. GlcNAc also impacts signal transduction by altering the degree of branching of N-linked glycans, which influences cell surface signaling proteins. These emerging roles of GlcNAc as an activator and mediator of cellular signaling in fungi, animals, and bacteria will be the focus of this paper.

  18. Two DD-carboxypeptidases from Mycobacterium smegmatis affect cell surface properties through regulation of peptidoglycan cross-linking and glycopeptidolipids.

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    Pandey, Satya Deo; Pal, Shilpa; Kumar N, Ganesh; Bansal, Ankita; Mallick, Sathi; Ghosh, Anindya S

    2018-05-07

    During the peptidoglycan (PG) maturation of mycobacteria, the glycan strands are interlinked by both 3-3 (between two meso-DAP) and 4-3 cross-links (between D-ala and meso-DAP), though there is a predominance (60-80%) of 3-3 cross-links. The DD-CPases act on pentapeptides to generate tetrapeptides that are used by LD-transpeptidases as substrates to form 3-3 cross-links. Therefore, DD-CPases play a crucial role in mycobacterial PG cross-link formation. However, the physiology of DD-CPases in mycobacteria is relatively unexplored. Here, we deleted two DD-CPase genes, msmeg_2433 , and msmeg_2432 , both individually and in combination, from Mycobacterium smegmatis mc 2 155. Though the single DD-CPase deletions had no significant impact on the mycobacterial physiology, many interesting functional alterations were observed in the double deletion mutant, viz. , a predominance in PG cross-link formation was shifted from 3-3 cross-links to 4-3, cell surface glycopeptidolipid (GPL) expression was reduced and susceptibility towards β-lactams and anti-tubercular agents was enhanced. Moreover, the existence of the double mutant within murine macrophages was better as compared to the parent. Interestingly, the complementation with any one of the DD-CPase genes could restore the wild-type phenotype. In a nutshell, we infer that the altered ratio of 4-3: 3-3 PG cross-links might have influenced the expression of surface GPLs, colony morphology, biofilm formation,, drug susceptibility and subsistence of the cells within macrophages. Importance The glycan strands in mycobacterial peptidoglycan (PG) are interlinked by both 3-3 and 4-3 cross-links. The DD-CPases generate tetrapeptides by acting on the pentapeptides, and LD-transpeptidases use tetrapeptides as substrates to form 3-3 cross-links. Here, we showed that simultaneous deletions of two DD-CPases alter the nature of PG cross-linking from 3-3 cross-links to 4-3 cross-links. The deletions subsequently decrease the expression

  19. Surface modification of parylene-N films for the culture of osteoblast-like cells (MG-63)

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    Liaqat, Usman [Graduate Program of Nano Science and Technology, Yonsei University, 50-Yonsei Ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Hyuk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 50-Yonsei Ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Hwal [Graduate Program of Nano Science and Technology, Yonsei University, 50-Yonsei Ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Medical Engineering, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, 50-Yonsei Ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Misu [Division of Life Sciences, College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 406-772 (Korea, Republic of); Pyun, Jae-Chul, E-mail: jcpyun@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 50-Yonsei Ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) was cultured on differently modified surfaces of parylene films. • Proliferation of MG-63 was observed to be far increased on UV-treated parylene-N film. • The influences of UV-treatment were found out on cell viability, proliferation rate and cell cycle. • The influence was estimated to be negligible on the protein synthesis, cell differentiation. • The UV-treated parylene-N was demonstrated to be effectively used for the culture of MG-63. - Abstract: The influence of microenvironments on the culture of osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) has been investigated using parylene films with different surfaces, such as parylene-N film, UV-modified parylene-N film, functional parylene film with amine groups (parylene-A), and UV-modified parylene-A film. In this work, parylene-N film was found to induce dramatic changes in cell adhesion and cell viability before and after UV-treatment with respect to the culture of osteoblast-like cells (MG-63). The influences of such a chemical environment on cell culture were investigated in relation to the cell proliferation (viability and proliferation rate) and the cell physiology (cell cycle, protein synthesis, and differentiation) of cells grown on parylene-N film, UV-modified parylene-N film, parylene-A film, and UV-modified parylene-A film in comparison with cells grown on a polystyrene surface.

  20. General N-and O-Linked Glycosylation of Lipoproteins in Mycoplasmas and Role of Exogenous Oligosaccharide.

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    Daubenspeck, James M; Jordan, David S; Simmons, Warren; Renfrow, Matthew B; Dybvig, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a cell wall, flagella, fimbria, and other extracellular appendages and the possession of only a single membrane render the mycoplasmas structurally simplistic and ideal model organisms for the study of glycoconjugates. Most species have genomes of about 800 kb and code for few proteins predicted to have a role in glycobiology. The murine pathogens Mycoplasma arthritidis and Mycoplasma pulmonis have only a single gene annotated as coding for a glycosyltransferase but synthesize glycolipid, polysaccharide and glycoproteins. Previously, it was shown that M. arthritidis glycosylated surface lipoproteins through O-linkage. In the current study, O-linked glycoproteins were similarly found in M. pulmonis and both species of mycoplasma were found to also possess N-linked glycans at residues of asparagine and glutamine. Protein glycosylation occurred at numerous sites on surface-exposed lipoproteins with no apparent amino acid sequence specificity. The lipoproteins of Mycoplasma pneumoniae also are glycosylated. Glycosylation was dependent on the glycosidic linkages from host oligosaccharides. As far as we are aware, N-linked glycoproteins have not been previously described in Gram-positive bacteria, the organisms to which the mycoplasmas are phylogenetically related. The findings indicate that the mycoplasma cell surface is heavily glycosylated with implications for the modulation of mycoplasma-host interactions.

  1. Quantitative N-linked Glycoproteomics of Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury Reveals Early Remodeling in the Extracellular Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Benjamin L; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Edwards, Alistair V G

    2011-01-01

    , while dimethyl labeling confirmed 46 of these and revealed an additional 62 significant changes. These were mainly from predicted extracellular matrix and basement membrane proteins that are implicated in cardiac remodeling. Analysis of N-glycans released from myocardial proteins suggest...... that the observed changes were not due to significant alterations in N-glycan structures. Altered proteins included the collagen-laminin-integrin complexes and collagen assembly enzymes, cadherins, mast cell proteases, proliferation-associated secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, and microfibril......Extracellular and cell surface proteins are generally modified with N-linked glycans and glycopeptide enrichment is an attractive tool to analyze these proteins. The role of N-linked glycoproteins in cardiovascular disease, particularly ischemia and reperfusion injury, is poorly understood...

  2. Cdc42/N-WASP signaling links actin dynamics to pancreatic β cell delamination and differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Gokul; Lieven, Oliver; Mamidi, Anant; Öhlin, Zarah Löf; Johansson, Jenny Kristina; Li, Wan-Chun; Lommel, Silvia; Greiner, Thomas Uwe; Semb, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Delamination plays a pivotal role during normal development and cancer. Previous work has demonstrated that delamination and epithelial cell movement within the plane of an epithelium are associated with a change in cellular phenotype. However, how this positional change is linked to differentiation remains unknown. Using the developing mouse pancreas as a model system, we show that β cell delamination and differentiation are two independent events, which are controlled by Cdc42/N-WASP signaling. Specifically, we show that expression of constitutively active Cdc42 in β cells inhibits β cell delamination and differentiation. These processes are normally associated with junctional actin and cell-cell junction disassembly and the expression of fate-determining transcription factors, such as Isl1 and MafA. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that genetic ablation of N-WASP in β cells expressing constitutively active Cdc42 partially restores both delamination and β cell differentiation. These findings elucidate how junctional actin dynamics via Cdc42/N-WASP signaling cell-autonomously control not only epithelial delamination but also cell differentiation during mammalian organogenesis. PMID:24449844

  3. Surface and protein analyses of normal human cell attachment on PIII-modified chitosan membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saranwong, N.; Inthanon, K.; Wongkham, W.; Wanichapichart, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Yu, L.D.

    2012-01-01

    Surface of chitosan membrane was modified with argon (Ar) and nitrogen (N) plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) for human skin fibroblasts F1544 cell attachment. The modified surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cell attachment patterns were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to quantify levels of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The results showed that Ar PIII had an enhancement effect on the cell attachment while N-PIII had an inhibition effect. Filopodial analysis revealed more microfilament cytoplasmic spreading on the edge of cells attached on the Ar-treated membranes than N-treated membranes. Higher level FAK was found in Ar-treated membranes than that in N-treated membranes.

  4. Characterization of N-Glycan Structures on the Surface of Mature Dengue 2 Virus Derived from Insect Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Lei

    Full Text Available DENV envelope glycoprotein (E is responsible for interacting with host cell receptors and is the main target for the development of a dengue vaccine based on an induction of neutralizing antibodies. It is well known that DENV E glycoprotein has two potential N-linked glycosylation sites at Asn67 and Asn153. The N-glycans of E glycoprotein have been shown to influence the proper folding of the protein, its cellular localization, its interactions with receptors and its immunogenicity. However, the precise structures of the N-glycans that are attached to E glycoprotein remain elusive, although the crystal structure of DENV E has been determined. This study characterized the structures of envelope protein N-linked glycans on mature DENV-2 particles derived from insect cells via an integrated method that used both lectin microarray and MALDI-TOF-MS. By combining these methods, a high heterogeneity of DENV N-glycans was found. Five types of N-glycan were identified on DENV-2, including mannose, GalNAc, GlcNAc, fucose and sialic acid; high mannose-type N-linked oligosaccharides and the galactosylation of N-glycans were the major structures that were found. Furthermore, a complex between a glycan on DENV and the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD of DC-SIGN was mimicked with computational docking experiments. For the first time, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of the N-linked glycan profile of whole DENV-2 particles derived from insect cells.

  5. Cell surface carbohydrates as prognostic markers in human carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Tumour development is usually associated with changes in cell surface carbohydrates. These are often divided into changes related to terminal carbohydrate structures, which include incomplete synthesis and modification of normally existing carbohydrates, and changes in the carbohydrate core...... structure. The latter includes chain elongation of both glycolipids and proteins, increased branching of carbohydrates in N-linked glycoproteins, and blocked synthesis of carbohydrates in O-linked mucin-like glycoproteins. In mature organisms, expression of distinct carbohydrates is restricted to specific...... cell types; within a given tissue, variation in expression may be related to cell maturation. Tumour-associated carbohydrate structures often reflect a certain stage of cellular development; most of these moieties are structures normally found in other adult or embryonic tissues. There is no unique...

  6. Functional Role of N-Linked Glycosylation in Pseudorabies Virus Glycoprotein gH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallbracht, Melina; Rehwaldt, Sascha; Klupp, Barbara G; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2018-05-01

    Many viral envelope proteins are modified by asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation, which can influence their structure, physicochemical properties, intracellular transport, and function. Here, we systematically analyzed the functional relevance of N-linked glycans in the alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PrV) glycoprotein H (gH), which is an essential component of the conserved core herpesvirus fusion machinery. Upon gD-mediated receptor binding, the heterodimeric complex of gH and gL activates gB to mediate fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane for viral entry. gH contains five potential N-linked glycosylation sites at positions 77, 162, 542, 604, and 627, which were inactivated by conservative mutations (asparagine to glutamine) singly or in combination. The mutated proteins were tested for correct expression and fusion activity. Additionally, the mutated gH genes were inserted into the PrV genome for analysis of function during virus infection. Our results demonstrate that all five sites are glycosylated. Inactivation of the PrV-specific N77 or the conserved N627 resulted in significantly reduced in vitro fusion activity, delayed penetration kinetics, and smaller virus plaques. Moreover, substitution of N627 greatly affected transport of gH in transfected cells, resulting in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention and reduced surface expression. In contrast, mutation of N604, which is conserved in the Varicellovirus genus, resulted in enhanced in vitro fusion activity and viral cell-to-cell spread. These results demonstrate a role of the N-glycans in proper localization and function of PrV gH. However, even simultaneous inactivation of all five N-glycosylation sites of gH did not severely inhibit formation of infectious virus particles. IMPORTANCE Herpesvirus infection requires fusion of the viral envelope with cellular membranes, which involves the conserved fusion machinery consisting of gB and the heterodimeric gH/gL complex. The bona fide

  7. N-Linked Glycosylation is an Important Parameter for Optimal Selection of Cell Lines Producing Biopharmaceutical Human IgG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, Patrick H. C.; Gerritsen, Jolanda; Perdok, Gerrard; Valbjorn, Jesper; Vink, Tom; van de Winkel, Jan G. J.; Parren, Paul W. H. I.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the variations in N-linked glycosylation of human IgG molecules derived from 105 different stable cell lines each expressing one of the six different antibodies. Antibody expression was based on glutamine synthetase selection technology in suspension growing CHO-KISV cells. The glycans

  8. The Recognition of N-Glycans by the Lectin ArtinM Mediates Cell Death of a Human Myeloid Leukemia Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernanda Caroline; Soares, Sandro Gomes; Tamarozzi, Mirela Barros; Rego, Eduardo Magalhães; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina

    2011-01-01

    ArtinM, a d-mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit), interacts with N-glycosylated receptors on the surface of several cells of hematopoietic origin, triggering cell migration, degranulation, and cytokine release. Because malignant transformation is often associated with altered expression of cell surface glycans, we evaluated the interaction of ArtinM with human myelocytic leukemia cells and investigated cellular responses to lectin binding. The intensity of ArtinM binding varied across 3 leukemia cell lines: NB4>K562>U937. The binding, which was directly related to cell growth suppression, was inhibited in the presence of Manα1-3(Manα1-6)Manβ1, and was reverted in underglycosylated NB4 cells. ArtinM interaction with NB4 cells induced cell death (IC50 = 10 µg/mL), as indicated by cell surface exposure of phosphatidylserine and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential unassociated with caspase activation or DNA fragmentation. Moreover, ArtinM treatment of NB4 cells strongly induced reactive oxygen species generation and autophagy, as indicated by the detection of acidic vesicular organelles in the treated cells. NB4 cell death was attributed to ArtinM recognition of the trimannosyl core of N-glycans containing a ß1,6-GlcNAc branch linked to α1,6-mannose. This modification correlated with higher levels of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V transcripts in NB4 cells than in K562 or U937 cells. Our results provide new insights into the potential of N-glycans containing a β1,6-GlcNAc branch linked to α1,6-mannose as a novel target for anti-leukemia treatment. PMID:22132163

  9. The recognition of N-glycans by the lectin ArtinM mediates cell death of a human myeloid leukemia cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Caroline Carvalho

    Full Text Available ArtinM, a D-mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit, interacts with N-glycosylated receptors on the surface of several cells of hematopoietic origin, triggering cell migration, degranulation, and cytokine release. Because malignant transformation is often associated with altered expression of cell surface glycans, we evaluated the interaction of ArtinM with human myelocytic leukemia cells and investigated cellular responses to lectin binding. The intensity of ArtinM binding varied across 3 leukemia cell lines: NB4>K562>U937. The binding, which was directly related to cell growth suppression, was inhibited in the presence of Manα1-3(Manα1-6Manβ1, and was reverted in underglycosylated NB4 cells. ArtinM interaction with NB4 cells induced cell death (IC(50 = 10 µg/mL, as indicated by cell surface exposure of phosphatidylserine and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential unassociated with caspase activation or DNA fragmentation. Moreover, ArtinM treatment of NB4 cells strongly induced reactive oxygen species generation and autophagy, as indicated by the detection of acidic vesicular organelles in the treated cells. NB4 cell death was attributed to ArtinM recognition of the trimannosyl core of N-glycans containing a ß1,6-GlcNAc branch linked to α1,6-mannose. This modification correlated with higher levels of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V transcripts in NB4 cells than in K562 or U937 cells. Our results provide new insights into the potential of N-glycans containing a β1,6-GlcNAc branch linked to α1,6-mannose as a novel target for anti-leukemia treatment.

  10. Designer Self-Assembling Peptide Nanofiber Scaffolds Containing Link Protein N-Terminal Peptide Induce Chondrogenesis of Rabbit Bone Marrow Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baichuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Designer self-assembling peptide nanofiber hydrogel scaffolds have been considered as promising biomaterials for tissue engineering because of their excellent biocompatibility and biofunctionality. Our previous studies have shown that a novel designer functionalized self-assembling peptide nanofiber hydrogel scaffold (RLN/RADA16, LN-NS containing N-terminal peptide sequence of link protein (link N can promote nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs adhesion and three-dimensional (3D migration and stimulate biosynthesis of type II collagen and aggrecan by NPCs in vitro. The present study has extended these investigations to determine the effects of this functionalized LN-NS on bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs, a potential cell source for NP regeneration. Although the functionalized LN-NS cannot promote BMSCs proliferation, it significantly promotes BMSCs adhesion compared with that of the pure RADA16 hydrogel scaffold. Moreover, the functionalized LN-NS remarkably stimulates biosynthesis and deposition of type II collagen and aggrecan. These data demonstrate that the functionalized peptide nanofiber hydrogel scaffold containing link N peptide as a potential matrix substrate will be very useful in the NP tissue regeneration.

  11. Comprehensive functional analysis of N-linked glycans on Ebola virus GP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennemann, Nicholas J; Rhein, Bethany A; Ndungo, Esther; Chandran, Kartik; Qiu, Xiangguo; Maury, Wendy

    2014-01-28

    Ebola virus (EBOV) entry requires the virion surface-associated glycoprotein (GP) that is composed of a trimer of heterodimers (GP1/GP2). The GP1 subunit contains two heavily glycosylated domains, the glycan cap and the mucin-like domain (MLD). The glycan cap contains only N-linked glycans, whereas the MLD contains both N- and O-linked glycans. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed on EBOV GP1 to systematically disrupt N-linked glycan sites to gain an understanding of their role in GP structure and function. All 15 N-glycosylation sites of EBOV GP1 could be removed without compromising the expression of GP. The loss of these 15 glycosylation sites significantly enhanced pseudovirion transduction in Vero cells, which correlated with an increase in protease sensitivity. Interestingly, exposing the receptor-binding domain (RBD) by removing the glycan shield did not allow interaction with the endosomal receptor, NPC1, indicating that the glycan cap/MLD domains mask RBD residues required for binding. The effects of the loss of GP1 N-linked glycans on Ca(2+)-dependent (C-type) lectin (CLEC)-dependent transduction were complex, and the effect was unique for each of the CLECs tested. Surprisingly, EBOV entry into murine peritoneal macrophages was independent of GP1 N-glycans, suggesting that CLEC-GP1 N-glycan interactions are not required for entry into this important primary cell. Finally, the removal of all GP1 N-glycans outside the MLD enhanced antiserum and antibody sensitivity. In total, our results provide evidence that the conserved N-linked glycans on the EBOV GP1 core protect GP from antibody neutralization despite the negative impact the glycans have on viral entry efficiency. Filovirus outbreaks occur sporadically throughout central Africa, causing high fatality rates among the general public and health care workers. These unpredictable hemorrhagic fever outbreaks are caused by multiple species of Ebola viruses, as well as Marburg virus. While filovirus

  12. O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine Transiently Elevates in HeLa Cells during Mitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Fisi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc is a dynamic post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. O-GlcNAc modification influences many cellular mechanisms, including carbohydrate metabolism, signal transduction and protein degradation. Multiple studies also showed that cell cycle might be modulated by O-GlcNAc. Although the role of O-GlcNAc in the regulation of some cell cycle processes such as mitotic spindle organization or histone phosphorylation is well established, the general behaviour of O-GlcNAc regulation during cell cycle is still controversial. In this study, we analysed the dynamic changes of overall O-GlcNAc levels in HeLa cells using double thymidine block. O-GlcNAc levels in G1, S, G2 and M phase were measured. We observed that O-GlcNAc levels are significantly increased during mitosis in comparison to the other cell cycle phases. However, this change could only be detected when mitotic cells were enriched by harvesting round shaped cells from the G2/M fraction of the synchronized cells. Our data verify that O-GlcNAc is elevated during mitosis, but also emphasize that O-GlcNAc levels can significantly change in a short period of time. Thus, selection and collection of cells at specific cell-cycle checkpoints is a challenging, but necessary requirement for O-GlcNAc studies.

  13. N-Linked Deglycosylated Melanopsin Retains Its Responsiveness to Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenkrug, J.; Falktoft, B.; Georg, B.

    2009-01-01

    sites. Immunoblotting for membrane-bound melanopsin from the PC12 cells transfected to express wild-type melanopsin disclosed two immunoreactive bands of 62 and 49 kDa. Removal of N-linked glycosylation by tunicamycin or PNGase F changed the 62 kDa band to a 55 kDa band, while the 49 kDa band......-glycosidase and neuraminidase converted the 55 kDa band to a 49 kDa band. Finally, neither in vivo N-linked deglycosylation nor mutations of the two N-linked glycosylation sites significantly affected melanopsin function measured by Fos induction after light stimulation. In conclusion, we have shown that heterologously...

  14. The infection of chicken tracheal epithelial cells with a H6N1 avian influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-I Shen

    Full Text Available Sialic acids (SAs linked to galactose (Gal in α2,3- and α2,6-configurations are the receptors for avian and human influenza viruses, respectively. We demonstrate that chicken tracheal ciliated cells express α2,3-linked SA, while goblet cells mainly express α2,6-linked SA. In addition, the plant lectin MAL-II, but not MAA/MAL-I, is bound to the surface of goblet cells, suggesting that SA2,3-linked oligosaccharides with Galβ1-3GalNAc subterminal residues are specifically present on the goblet cells. Moreover, both α2,3- and α2,6-linked SAs are detected on single tracheal basal cells. At a low multiplicity of infection (MOI avian influenza virus H6N1 is exclusively detected in the ciliated cells, suggesting that the ciliated cell is the major target cell of the H6N1 virus. At a MOI of 1, ciliated, goblet and basal cells are all permissive to the AIV infection. This result clearly elucidates the receptor distribution for the avian influenza virus among chicken tracheal epithelial cells and illustrates a primary cell model for evaluating the cell tropisms of respiratory viruses in poultry.

  15. N-linked (N-) glycoproteomics of urinary exosomes. [Corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, Mayank; Joenväära, Sakari; Musante, Luca; Peltoniemi, Hannu; Holthofer, Harry; Renkonen, Risto

    2015-02-01

    Epithelial cells lining the urinary tract secrete urinary exosomes (40-100 nm) that can be targeted to specific cells modulating their functionality. One potential targeting mechanism is adhesion between vesicle surface glycoproteins and target cells. This makes the glycopeptide analysis of exosomes important. Exosomes reflect the physiological state of the parent cells; therefore, they are a good source of biomarkers for urological and other diseases. Moreover, the urine collection is easy and noninvasive and urinary exosomes give information about renal and systemic organ systems. Accordingly, multiple studies on proteomic characterization of urinary exosomes in health and disease have been published. However, no systematic analysis of their glycoproteomic profile has been carried out to date, whereas a conserved glycan signature has been found for exosomes from urine and other sources including T cell lines and human milk. Here, we have enriched and identified the N-glycopeptides from these vesicles. These enriched N-glycopeptides were solved for their peptide sequence, glycan composition, structure, and glycosylation site using collision-induced dissociation MS/MS (CID-tandem MS) data interpreted by a publicly available software GlycopeptideId. Released glycans from the same sample was also analyzed with MALDI-MS. We have identified the N-glycoproteome of urinary exosomes. In total 126 N-glycopeptides from 51 N-glycosylation sites belonging to 37 glycoproteins were found in our results. The peptide sequences of these N-glycopeptides were identified unambiguously and their glycan composition (for 125 N-glycopeptides) and structures (for 87 N-glycopeptides) were proposed. A corresponding glycomic analysis with released N-glycans was also performed. We identified 66 unique nonmodified N-glycan compositions and in addition 13 sulfated/phosphorylated glycans were also found. This is the first systematic analysis of N-glycoproteome of urinary exosomes. © 2015 by The

  16. Cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell adhesion are linked by syndecan-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakideeri Karat, Sandeep Gopal; Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Pocock, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell-cell junctions that employ microfilaments are sites of tension. They are important for tissue repair, morphogenetic movements and can be emblematic of matrix contraction in fibrotic disease and the stroma of solid tumors. One cell surface receptor, syndecan...... calcium. While it is known that cell-ECM and cell-cell junctions may be linked, possible roles for syndecans in this process are not understood. Here we show that wild type primary fibroblasts and those lacking syndecan-4 utilize different cadherins in their adherens junctions and that tension is a major...... factor in this differential response. This corresponds to the reduced ability of fibroblasts lacking syndecan-4 to exert tension on the ECM and we now show that this may extend to reduced tension in cell-cell adhesion....

  17. Activation of protein kinase A and clustering of cell surface receptors by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine are independent of genomic DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zheng; Wang Guliang; Yang Jun; Guo Lei; Yu Yingnian

    2003-07-25

    Alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) induces cellular stress leading to chromosomal aberrations, mutations and cell death. Previous reports from our laboratory have shown that low concentration of MNNG induces untargeted mutation (UTM), which occurs on intact DNA in mammalian cells through changes in gene expression profile. It also causes the activation of cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) and up-regulation of POL-{beta}, which is demonstrated to play a role in DNA repair system. In order to find out the possible initial signal involved in UTM, we try to investigate whether the activation of PKA-CREB signal pathway is closely related to DNA damage. Our data shows that the treatment of low concentration MNNG (0.2 {mu}M) activates PKA-CREB pathway in a comparable level both in a nuclear and enucleated cell system. And similar to the cell response caused by UV, the clustering of cell surface receptors of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}) was also observed in cells exposed to MNNG. It was further demonstrated that the clustering of the surface receptors is independent of the genomic DNA damage, as this phenomenon was also observed in enucleated cells. These observations indicate that the initiation of signal cascades induced by low concentration of MNNG might be associated with its interaction with cell surface receptors and/or direct activation of related signal proteins but not its DNA damaging property.

  18. SiN sub x passivation of silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives were to perform surface characterization of high efficiency n+/p and p+/n silicon cells, to relate surface density to substrate dopant concentration, and to identify dominant current loss mechanisms in high efficiency cells. The approach was to measure density of states on homogeneously doped substrates with high frequency C-V and Al/SiN sub x/Si structures; to investigate density of states and photoresponse of high efficiency N+/P and P+/N cells; and to conduct I-V-T studies to identify current loss nechanisms in high efficiency cells. Results are given in tables and graphs.

  19. The N-Linked Outer Chain Mannans and the Dfg5p and Dcw1p Endo-α-1,6-Mannanases Are Needed for Incorporation of Candida albicans Glycoproteins into the Cell Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Jie; Chinnici, Jennifer L.; Maddi, Abhiram

    2015-01-01

    A biochemical pathway for the incorporation of cell wall protein into the cell wall of Neurospora crassa was recently proposed. In this pathway, the DFG-5 and DCW-1 endo-α-1,6-mannanases function to covalently cross-link cell wall protein-associated N-linked galactomannans, which are structurally related to the yeast outer chain mannans, into the cell wall glucan-chitin matrix. In this report, we demonstrate that the mannosyltransferase enzyme Och1p, which is needed for the synthesis of the N-linked outer chain mannan, is essential for the incorporation of cell wall glycoproteins into the Candida albicans cell wall. Using endoglycosidases, we show that C. albicans cell wall proteins are cross-linked into the cell wall via their N-linked outer chain mannans. We further demonstrate that the Dfg5p and Dcw1p α-1,6-mannanases are needed for the incorporation of cell wall glycoproteins into the C. albicans cell wall. Our results support the hypothesis that the Dfg5p and Dcw1p α-1,6-mannanases incorporate cell wall glycoproteins into the C. albicans cell wall by cross-linking outer chain mannans into the cell wall glucan-chitin matrix. PMID:26048011

  20. Novel polyfucosylated N-linked glycopeptides with blood group A, H, X and Y determinants from human small intestinal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Finne, J.; Breimer, M.E.; Hansson, G.C.; Karlsson, K.-A.; Leffler, H.; Halbeek, H. van

    1989-01-01

    A novel type of N-linked glycopeptides representing a major part of the glycans in human small intestinal epithelial cells from blood group A and O individuals were isolated by gel filtrations and affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose and Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin I-Sepharose.

  1. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Processing of N-linked carbohydrate is not required for surface expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Cowell, G M

    1986-01-01

    Castanospermine, an inhibitor of glucosidase I, the initial enzyme in the trimming of N-linked carbohydrate, was used to study the importance of carbohydrate processing in the biosynthesis of microvillar enzymes in organ-cultured pig intestinal explants. For aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), aminop......Castanospermine, an inhibitor of glucosidase I, the initial enzyme in the trimming of N-linked carbohydrate, was used to study the importance of carbohydrate processing in the biosynthesis of microvillar enzymes in organ-cultured pig intestinal explants. For aminopeptidase N (EC 3...

  2. A numerical model of p-n junctions bordering on surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altermatt, P.P.; Aberle, A.G.; Jianhua Zhao; Aihua Wang; Heiser, G. [University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). Centre for Photovolatic Engineering

    2002-10-01

    Many solar cell structures contain regions where the emitter p-n junction borders on the surface. If the surface is not well passivated, a large amount of recombination occurs in such regions. This type of recombination is influenced by the electrostatics of both the p-n junction and the surface, and hence it is different from the commonly described recombination phenomena occurring in the p-n junction within the bulk. We developed a two-dimensional model for the recombination mechanisms occurring in emitter p-n junctions bordering on surfaces. The model is validated by reproducing the experimental I-V curves of specially designed silicon solar cells. It is shown under which circumstances a poor surface passivation, near where the p-n junction borders on the surface, reduces the fill factor and the open-circuit voltage. The model can be applied to many other types of solar cells. (author)

  3. Decreased N-TAF1 expression in X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism patient-specific neural stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Ito

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder involving a progressive loss of striatal medium spiny neurons. The mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration are not known, in part because there have been few cellular models available for studying the disease. The XDP haplotype consists of multiple sequence variations in a region of the X chromosome containing TAF1, a large gene with at least 38 exons, and a multiple transcript system (MTS composed of five unconventional exons. A previous study identified an XDP-specific insertion of a SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA-type retrotransposon in intron 32 of TAF1, as well as a neural-specific TAF1 isoform, N-TAF1, which showed decreased expression in post-mortem XDP brain compared with control tissue. Here, we generated XDP patient and control fibroblasts and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs in order to further probe cellular defects associated with this disease. As initial validation of the model, we compared expression of TAF1 and MTS transcripts in XDP versus control fibroblasts and iPSC-derived neural stem cells (NSCs. Compared with control cells, XDP fibroblasts exhibited decreased expression of TAF1 transcript fragments derived from exons 32-36, a region spanning the SVA insertion site. N-TAF1, which incorporates an alternative exon (exon 34′, was not expressed in fibroblasts, but was detectable in iPSC-differentiated NSCs at levels that were ∼threefold lower in XDP cells than in controls. These results support the previous findings that N-TAF1 expression is impaired in XDP, but additionally indicate that this aberrant transcription might occur in neural cells at relatively early stages of development that precede neurodegeneration.

  4. Glycoprotein on cell surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, T.

    1975-01-01

    There are conjugated polysaccharides in cell membranes and outside of animal cells, and they play important role in the control of cell behavior. In this paper, the studies on the glycoprotein on cell surfaces are reported. It was found that the glycoprotein on cell surfaces have both N-glycoside type and O-glycoside type saccharic chains. Therefore it can be concluded that the basic structure of the saccharic chains in the glycoprotein on cell surfaces is similar to that of blood serum and body fluid. The main glycoprotein in the membranes of red blood corpuscles has been studied most in detail, and it also has both types of saccharic chains. The glycoprotein in liver cell membranes was found to have only the saccharic chains of acid type and to be in different pattern from that in endoplasmic reticula and nuclear membranes, which also has the saccharic chains of neutral type. The structure of the saccharic chains of H-2 antigen, i.e. the peculiar glycoprotein on the surfaces of lymph system cells, has been studied, and it is similar to the saccharic chains of glycoprotein in blood serum. The saccharic chain structures of H-2 antigen and TL antigen are different. TL, H-2 (D), Lna and H-2 (K) are the glycoprotein on cell surfaces, and are independent molecules. The analysis of the saccharic chain patterns on cell surfaces was carried out, and it was shown that the acid type saccharic chains were similar to those of ordinary glycoprotein, because the enzyme of pneumococci hydrolyzed most of the acid type saccharic chains. The change of the saccharic chain patterns of glycoprotein on cell surfaces owing to canceration and multiplication is complex matter. (Kako, I.)

  5. Is the surface oxygen exchange rate linked to bulk ion diffusivity in mixed conducting Ruddlesden-Popper phases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkiewicz, Alex C; Tamimi, Mazin A; Huq, Ashfia; McIntosh, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The possible link between oxygen surface exchange rate and bulk oxygen anion diffusivity in mixed ionic and electronic conducting oxides is a topic of great interest and debate. While a large body of experimental evidence and theoretical analyses support a link, observed differences between bulk and surface composition of these materials are hard to reconcile with this observation. This is further compounded by potential problems with simultaneous measurement of both parameters. Here we utilize separate techniques, in situ neutron diffraction and pulsed isotopic surface exchange, to examine bulk ion mobility and surface oxygen exchange rates of three Ruddlesden-Popper phases, general form A(n-1)A(2)'B(n)O(3n+1), A(n-1)A(2)'B(n)X(3n+1); LaSrCo(0.5)Fe(0.5)O(4-δ) (n = 1), La(0.3)Sr(2.7)CoFeO(7-δ) (n = 2) and LaSr3Co(1.5)Fe(1.5)O(10-δ) (n = 3). These measurements are complemented by surface composition determination via high sensitivity-low energy ion scattering. We observe a correlation between bulk ion mobility and surface exchange rate between materials. The surface exchange rates vary by more than one order of magnitude with high anion mobility in the bulk of an oxygen vacancy-rich n = 2 Ruddlesden-Popper material correlating with rapid oxygen exchange. This is in contrast with the similar surface exchange rates which we may expect due to similar surface compositions across all three samples. We conclude that experimental limitations lead to inherent convolution of surface and bulk rates, and that surface exchange steps are not likely to be rate limiting in oxygen incorporation.

  6. Application of various surface passivation layers in solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Youn; Lee, Soo Hong

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we have used different techniques for surface passivation: conventional thermal oxidation (CTO), rapid thermal oxidation (RTO), and plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The surface passivation qualities of eight different single and combined double layers have been investigated both on phosphorus non-diffused p-type Float Zone (FZ) silicon wafers and on diffused emitters (100 Ω/□ and 40 Ω/□). CTO/SiN 1 passivates very well not only on a non-diffused surface (τ eff = 1361 μs) but also on an emitter (τ eff = 414 μs). However, we concluded that RTO/SiN 1 and RTO/SiN 2 stacks were more suitable than CTO/SiN stacks for surface passivation in solar cells since those stacks had relatively good passivation qualities and suitable optical reflections. RTO/SiN 1 for rear-surface passivation and RTO/SiN 2 for front-surface passivation were applied to the fabrication of solar cells. We achieved efficiencies of 18.5 % and 18.8 % on 0.5 Ω-cm (FZ) silicon with planar and textured front surfaces, respectively. An excellent open circuit voltage (V oc ) of 675.6 mV was obtained for the planar cell.

  7. Tracking cell surface mobility of GPCRs using α-bungarotoxin-linked fluorophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Saad; Wilkins, Megan E; Thomas, Philip; Smart, Trevor G

    2013-01-01

    GABA(B) receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by GABA, the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Cell surface mobility of GABA(B) receptors is a key determinant of the efficacy of slow and prolonged synaptic inhibition initiated by GABA. Therefore, experimentally monitoring receptor mobility and how this can be regulated is of primary importance for understanding the roles of GABA(B) receptors in the brain, and how they may be therapeutically exploited. Unusually for a GPCR, heterodimerization between the R1 and R2 subunits is required for the cell surface expression and signaling by prototypical GABA(B) receptors. Here, we describe a minimal epitope-tagging method, based on the incorporation of an α-bungarotoxin binding site (BBS) into the GABA(B) receptor, to study receptor internalization in live cells using a range of imaging approaches. We demonstrate how this technique can be adapted by modifying the BBS to monitor the simultaneous movement of both R1 and R2 subunits, revealing that GABA(B) receptors are internalized as heteromers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of protein glycosylation on the expression of muscarinic receptors of N4TG1 neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A.; Chiang, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) are glycoproteins. Experiments were conducted to determine whether active glycosylation of proteins in N4TG1 neuroblastoma cells could affect the expression of muscarinic receptors on the cell surface. The binding of radioactive N-methylscopolamine, a membrane impermeable ligand, to intact cells was used as a measure of mAChR. In the presence of the inhibitors of glycosylation, such as tunicamycin, monensin and amphomycin, N-linked glycosylation of proteins in the N4TG1 cells was inhibited, as measured by the incorporation of radioactive glucosamine or mannose in proteins. At the concentrations of tunicamycin and monensin used, the glycosylation of proteins after 3 hours were drastically reduced, but the number of mAChR in the cells was not altered. The apparent lack of effect within a short incubation period could be attributed to the presence of preformed oligosaccharide dolichol readily available for N-glycosylation. However, after 24 hours, tunicamycin (0.05 μg/ml) caused a decrease in the number of mAChR by 17% without having any effect on protein synthesis. Therefore, de novo glycosylation of proteins may be required for the expression of mAChR receptors in the N4TG1 neuroblastoma cell surface

  9. An efficient delivery of DAMPs on the cell surface by the unconventional secretion pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Wang, Lan; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Dongmei; Min, Zhihui; Xie, Jianhui; Yu, Min; Gu, Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Hsp60 transported to cell surface through the classical secretory pathway was modified with N-glycosylation. → HSAPB-N18 could efficiently deliver Hsp60 to the cell surface via the unconventional secretory pathway. → Cell surface Hsp60 delivered by HASPB-N18 has a proper conformation. → HASPB-N18 is an efficient delivery signal for other DAMP molecules such as Hsp70 and HMGB1. -- Abstract: Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are signals released from dying cells evoking the immune system response in several inflammatory disorders. In normal situations, many of DAMPs are nuclear or cytosolic proteins with defined intracellular function, but they could be found on the cell surface following tissue injury. The biological function of the translocated DAMPs is still not well known and an efficient delivery of these molecules on the cell surface is required to clarify their biological effects. In this study, we demonstrated that an unclassical secretory signal peptide, N-terminal 18 amino acids of HASPB (HASPB-N18), could efficiently deliver Hsp60, Hsp70, and HMGB1 on the cell surface. Furthermore, the delivery of these molecules on the cell surface by HASPB-N18 is not limited to a special cell line because several cell lines could use this delivery signal to deliver these molecules on the cell surface. Moreover, we demonstrated that Hsp60 on the cell surface delivered by HASPB-N18 could be recognized by a soluble form of LOX-1, which implies that DAMPs on the cell surface delivered by HASPB-N18 have a proper conformation during transport. Therefore, delivery of DAMPs by HASPB-N18 is a reliable model to further understand the biological significance of DAMPs on the cell surface.

  10. Surface proteins and the formation of biofilms by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Joon; Chang, James; Rimal, Binayak; Yang, Hao; Schaefer, Jacob

    2018-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus biofilms pose a serious clinical threat as reservoirs for persistent infections. Despite this clinical significance, the composition and mechanism of formation of S. aureus biofilms are unknown. To address these problems, we used solid-state NMR to examine S. aureus (SA113), a strong biofilm-forming strain. We labeled whole cells and cell walls of planktonic cells, young biofilms formed for 12-24h after stationary phase, and more mature biofilms formed for up to 60h after stationary phase. All samples were labeled either by (i) [ 15 N]glycine and l-[1- 13 C]threonine, or in separate experiments, by (ii) l-[2- 13 C, 15 N]leucine. We then measured 13 C- 15 N direct bonds by C{N} rotational-echo double resonance (REDOR). The increase in peptidoglycan stems that have bridges connected to a surface protein was determined directly by a cell-wall double difference (biofilm REDOR difference minus planktonic REDOR difference). This procedure eliminates errors arising from differences in 15 N isotopic enrichments and from the routing of 13 C label from threonine degradation to glycine. For both planktonic cells and the mature biofilm, 20% of pentaglycyl bridges are not cross-linked and are potential surface-protein attachment sites. None of these sites has a surface protein attached in the planktonic cells, but one-fourth have a surface protein attached in the mature biofilm. Moreover, the leucine-label shows that the concentration of β-strands in leucine-rich regions doubles in the mature biofilm. Thus, a primary event in establishing a S. aureus biofilm is extensive decoration of the cell surface with surface proteins that are linked covalently to the cell wall and promote cell-cell adhesion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Perturbation of N-linked oligosaccharide structure results in an altered incorporation of [3H]palmitate into specific proteins in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellner, R.B.; Ghosh, P.C.; Roecklein, B.; Wu, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Increased [ 3 H]palmitate incorporation into specific cellular proteins has been reported to occur in Chinese hamster ovary and yeast mutant cells. In this paper we report studies concerning the relationship between N-linked oligosaccharide structure and [ 3 H]palmitate incorporation into proteins of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We have compared the incorporation of [ 3 H]palmitate into proteins of wild-type and four different mutant CHO cell lines defective in various steps of N-linked protein glycosylation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoretic analysis showed that three of the mutants exhibited increased [ 3 H]palmitate incorporation into several CHO cellular proteins (approximately 30,000-38,000 molecular weight) as compared to the wild-type cells. One of the affected mutants which accumulates the Man5Gn2Asn intermediate structure was examined in detail. In agreement with earlier reports, virtually all of the [ 3 H] palmitate-labeled proteins of both wild-type and mutant cell lines are membrane-bound. Pretreatment of the mutant cell line with tunicamycin blocked the increased [ 3 H]palmitate incorporation into the two specific proteins (both of approximately 30,000 molecular weight) observed in untreated cells; the decreased incorporation of [ 3 H]palmitate into the 30,000 molecular weight species was accompanied by a concomitant increase in the incorporation of [ 3 H]palmitate into two proteins of approximately 20,000 molecular weight. Pretreatment of wild-type cells with tunicamycin also caused increased [ 3 H]palmitate incorporation into the 20,000 molecular weight species

  12. Adhesion to the host cell surface is sufficient to mediate Listeria monocytogenes entry into epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Fabian E.; Rengarajan, Michelle; Chavez, Natalie; Radhakrishnan, Prathima; Gloerich, Martijn; Bianchini, Julie; Siemers, Kathleen; Luckett, William S.; Lauer, Peter; Nelson, W. James; Theriot, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is the first physiological barrier breached by the Gram-positive facultative pathogen Listeria monocytogenes during an in vivo infection. Listeria monocytogenes binds to the epithelial host cell receptor E-cadherin, which mediates a physical link between the bacterium and filamentous actin (F-actin). However, the importance of anchoring the bacterium to F-actin through E-cadherin for bacterial invasion has not been tested directly in epithelial cells. Here we demonstrate that depleting αE-catenin, which indirectly links E-cadherin to F-actin, did not decrease L. monocytogenes invasion of epithelial cells in tissue culture. Instead, invasion increased due to increased bacterial adhesion to epithelial monolayers with compromised cell–cell junctions. Furthermore, expression of a mutant E-cadherin lacking the intracellular domain was sufficient for efficient L. monocytogenes invasion of epithelial cells. Importantly, direct biotin-mediated binding of bacteria to surface lipids in the plasma membrane of host epithelial cells was sufficient for uptake. Our results indicate that the only requirement for L. monocytogenes invasion of epithelial cells is adhesion to the host cell surface, and that E-cadherin–mediated coupling of the bacterium to F-actin is not required. PMID:28877987

  13. N-Annulated perylene substituted zinc–porphyrins with different linking modes and electron acceptors for dye sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Jie

    2016-05-03

    Three new N-annulated perylene (NP) substituted porphyrin dyes WW-7-WW-9 with different linking modes and accepting groups were synthesized and applied in Co(ii)/(iii) based dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The bay-linked porphyrins WW-7 and WW-8 exhibited moderate power conversion efficiency (PCE = 4.4% and 4.8%, respectively), while the peri-linked porphyrin dye WW-9 showed a PCE up to 9.2% which is slightly lower than that of our reference dye WW-6. Detailed physical measurements (optical and electrochemical), DFT calculations, and photovoltaic characterizations were performed to understand how the structural changes affect their light-harvesting ability, molecular orbital profile, energy level alignment, and eventually the photovoltaic performance. It turned out that the lower efficiencies of the cells based on WW-7 and WW-8 could be ascribed to the weak π-conjugation between the bay-substituted NP and phenylethynyl substituted porphyrin unit. The introduction of a benzothiadiazole acceptor at the anchoring group has induced a significant red shift of the IPCE action spectra of WW-8 and WW-9, by about 90 nm and 50 nm as compared to that of WW-7 and WW-6, respectively. However, less efficient electron injection was observed. Our studies gave some insight into the important role of electronic interactions between different components when one designs a dye for high-efficiency DSCs. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  14. N-Annulated perylene substituted zinc–porphyrins with different linking modes and electron acceptors for dye sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Jie; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Qi, Qingbiao; Dong, Shaoqiang; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Peng; Wu, Jishan

    2016-01-01

    Three new N-annulated perylene (NP) substituted porphyrin dyes WW-7-WW-9 with different linking modes and accepting groups were synthesized and applied in Co(ii)/(iii) based dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The bay-linked porphyrins WW-7 and WW-8 exhibited moderate power conversion efficiency (PCE = 4.4% and 4.8%, respectively), while the peri-linked porphyrin dye WW-9 showed a PCE up to 9.2% which is slightly lower than that of our reference dye WW-6. Detailed physical measurements (optical and electrochemical), DFT calculations, and photovoltaic characterizations were performed to understand how the structural changes affect their light-harvesting ability, molecular orbital profile, energy level alignment, and eventually the photovoltaic performance. It turned out that the lower efficiencies of the cells based on WW-7 and WW-8 could be ascribed to the weak π-conjugation between the bay-substituted NP and phenylethynyl substituted porphyrin unit. The introduction of a benzothiadiazole acceptor at the anchoring group has induced a significant red shift of the IPCE action spectra of WW-8 and WW-9, by about 90 nm and 50 nm as compared to that of WW-7 and WW-6, respectively. However, less efficient electron injection was observed. Our studies gave some insight into the important role of electronic interactions between different components when one designs a dye for high-efficiency DSCs. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  15. N-Annulated Perylene as a Donor in Cyclopentadithiophene Based Sensitizers: The Effect of Linking Mode

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Jie; Wang, Xingzhu; Fan, Li; Li, Gongqiang; Qi, Qingbiao; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Tam, Teck Lip Dexter; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Qing; Wu, Jishan

    2015-01-01

    Two types of cyclopentadithiophene dyes with different linking modes with an N-annulated perylene (NP) donor were designed and synthesized. These new dyes were applied in Co(II)/(III) based dye-sensitized solar cells and an efficiency up to 7.8% could be obtained for peri-NP linked CPD-1. The effect of the linking mode on the material properties and device performance was discussed.

  16. N-Annulated Perylene as a Donor in Cyclopentadithiophene Based Sensitizers: The Effect of Linking Mode

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Jie

    2015-11-24

    Two types of cyclopentadithiophene dyes with different linking modes with an N-annulated perylene (NP) donor were designed and synthesized. These new dyes were applied in Co(II)/(III) based dye-sensitized solar cells and an efficiency up to 7.8% could be obtained for peri-NP linked CPD-1. The effect of the linking mode on the material properties and device performance was discussed.

  17. Viability and proliferation of endothelial cells upon exposure to GaN nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniste, Tudor; Tiginyanu, Ion; Horvath, Tibor; Raevschi, Simion; Cebotari, Serghei; Lux, Marco; Haverich, Axel; Hilfiker, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing and promising field of interest in medicine; however, nanoparticle-cell interactions are not yet fully understood. The goal of this work was to examine the interaction between endothelial cells and gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductor nanoparticles. Cellular viability, adhesion, proliferation, and uptake of nanoparticles by endothelial cells were investigated. The effect of free GaN nanoparticles versus the effect of growing endothelial cells on GaN functionalized surfaces was examined. To functionalize surfaces with GaN, GaN nanoparticles were synthesized on a sacrificial layer of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles using hydride vapor phase epitaxy. The uptake of GaN nanoparticles by porcine endothelial cells was strongly dependent upon whether they were fixed to the substrate surface or free floating in the medium. The endothelial cells grown on surfaces functionalized with GaN nanoparticles demonstrated excellent adhesion and proliferation, suggesting good biocompatibility of the nanostructured GaN.

  18. Variation in N-linked carbohydrate chains in different batches of two chimeric monoclonal IgG1 antibodies produced by different murine SP2/0 transfectoma cell subclones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwerff, A A; Stroop, C J; Murray, B; Holtorf, A P; Pluschke, G; Van Oostrum, J; Kamerling, J P; Vliegenthart, J F

    1995-06-01

    Two chimeric human/murine monoclonal antibodies were constructed by substitution of the murine constant regions with human gamma 1 and kappa constant regions for heavy and light chains, respectively. The chimeric human/murine molecules are anti-idiotypic antibodies, meaning that they were directed against the antigen binding site in the variable region of another antibody. Antibody batches were produced under identical production conditions, using two selected SP2/0 myeloma cell subclones, which produce chimeric antibodies with different variable regions, but identical constant regions. Several samples were collected during the production of the antibodies in hollow-fibre reactors. The heavy chain, but not the light chain, of the two different chimeric IgG1 antibodies is glycosylated. Structural analysis of the enzymically released N-linked carbohydrate chains by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, as well as by chromatographic profiling, demonstrated that the collection of N-glycans comprises a small amount of monoantennary, and for the greater part diantennary structures. The N-glycans are completely (alpha 1-->6)-fucosylated at the innermost GlcNAc residue. The antennae of the neutral diantennary N-glycans are built up from GlcNAc beta 1-->2, Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc beta 1-->2 or Gal alpha 1-->3G alpha 1 beta 1-->4GlcNAc beta 1-->2 elements, whereas the antennae of the neutral monoantennary carbohydrate chains have only (beta 1-->2)-linked GlcNAc residues. Galactosylation of the GlcNAc beta 1-->2Man alpha 1-->6 branch occurs four times more frequently than that of the GlcNAc beta 1-->2Man alpha 1-->3 branch, independently of the production batch. A small amount of the diantennary N-glycans are mono- or disialylated, carrying N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) or N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), exclusively (alpha 2-->6)-linked to beta Gal. Analysis of the different production batches demonstrates that the structures of the N-linked carbohydrate chains are identical in the two

  19. Surface etching technologies for monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Muzhi

    With more than 200 GW of accumulated installations in 2015, photovoltaics (PV) has become an important green energy harvesting method. The PV market is dominated by solar cells made from crystalline silicon wafers. The engineering of the wafer surfaces is critical to the solar cell cost reduction and performance enhancement. Therefore, this thesis focuses on the development of surface etching technologies for monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells. It aims to develop a more efficient alkaline texturing method and more effective surface cleaning processes. Firstly, a rapid, isopropanol alcohol free texturing method is successfully demonstrated to shorten the process time and reduce the consumption of chemicals. This method utilizes the special chemical properties of triethylamine, which can form Si-N bonds with wafer surface atoms. Secondly, a room-temperature anisotropic emitter etch-back process is developed to improve the n+ emitter passivation. Using this method, 19.0% efficient screen-printed aluminium back surface field solar cells are developed that show an efficiency gain of 0.15% (absolute) compared with conventionally made solar cells. Finally, state-of-the-art silicon surface passivation results are achieved using hydrogen plasma etching as a dry alternative to the classical hydrofluoric acid wet-chemical process. The effective native oxide removal and the hydrogenation of the silicon surface are shown to be the reasons for the excellent level of surface passivation achieved with this novel method.

  20. Surface modification of electrospun PLGA scaffold with collagen for bioengineered skin substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, A.R., E-mail: sadeghi_av@ymail.com [Materials Research Group, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nokhasteh, S. [Materials Research Group, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Molavi, A.M. [Materials Research Group, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Materials Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorsand-Ghayeni, M. [Materials Research Group, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naderi-Meshkin, H. [Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research Department, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdizadeh, A. [Nanotechnology Institute, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-01

    In skin tissue engineering, surface feature of the scaffolds plays an important role in cell adhesion and proliferation. In this study, non-woven fibrous substrate based on poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (75/25) were hydrolyzed in various concentrations of NaOH (0.05 N, 0.1 N, 0.3 N) to increase carboxyl and hydroxyl groups on the fiber surfaces. These functional groups were activated by EDC/NHS to create chemical bonding with collagen. To improve bioactivity, the activated substrates were coated with a collagen solution (2 mg/ml) and cross-linking was carried out using the EDC/NHS in MES buffer. The effectiveness of the method was evaluated by contact angle measurements, porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), tensile and degradation tests as well as in vitro cell attachment and cytotoxicity assays. Cell culture results of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and keratinocytes cell line (HaCat) revealed that the cells could attach to the scaffold. Further investigation with MTT assay showed that the cell proliferation of HaCat significantly increases with collagen coating. It seems that sufficient stability of collagen on the surface due to proper chemical bonding and cross-linking has increased the bioactivity of surface remarkably which can be promising for bioengineered skin applications. - Highlights: • Surface activation was carried out by hydrolysis of PLGA fibers. • To improve bioactivity, the activated samples were coated with a collagen solution. • Functional groups were activated by EDC/NHS to create chemical bonding with collagen. • Cross-linking of collagen was carried out using EDC/NHS in MES buffer. • The coated samples exhibited better adhesion and proliferation of epidermal cells.

  1. Surface modification of electrospun PLGA scaffold with collagen for bioengineered skin substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, A.R.; Nokhasteh, S.; Molavi, A.M.; Khorsand-Ghayeni, M.; Naderi-Meshkin, H.; Mahdizadeh, A.

    2016-01-01

    In skin tissue engineering, surface feature of the scaffolds plays an important role in cell adhesion and proliferation. In this study, non-woven fibrous substrate based on poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (75/25) were hydrolyzed in various concentrations of NaOH (0.05 N, 0.1 N, 0.3 N) to increase carboxyl and hydroxyl groups on the fiber surfaces. These functional groups were activated by EDC/NHS to create chemical bonding with collagen. To improve bioactivity, the activated substrates were coated with a collagen solution (2 mg/ml) and cross-linking was carried out using the EDC/NHS in MES buffer. The effectiveness of the method was evaluated by contact angle measurements, porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), tensile and degradation tests as well as in vitro cell attachment and cytotoxicity assays. Cell culture results of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and keratinocytes cell line (HaCat) revealed that the cells could attach to the scaffold. Further investigation with MTT assay showed that the cell proliferation of HaCat significantly increases with collagen coating. It seems that sufficient stability of collagen on the surface due to proper chemical bonding and cross-linking has increased the bioactivity of surface remarkably which can be promising for bioengineered skin applications. - Highlights: • Surface activation was carried out by hydrolysis of PLGA fibers. • To improve bioactivity, the activated samples were coated with a collagen solution. • Functional groups were activated by EDC/NHS to create chemical bonding with collagen. • Cross-linking of collagen was carried out using EDC/NHS in MES buffer. • The coated samples exhibited better adhesion and proliferation of epidermal cells.

  2. Metabolic behavior of cell surface biotinylated proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, J.F.; Lee, E.

    1989-01-01

    The turnover of proteins on the surface of cultured mammalian cells was measured by a new approach. Reactive free amino or sulfhydryl groups on surface-accessible proteins were derivatized with biotinyl reagents and the proteins solubilized from culture dishes with detergent. Solubilized, biotinylated proteins were then adsorbed onto streptavidin-agarose, released with sodium dodecyl sulfate and mercaptoethanol, and separated on polyacrylamide gels. Biotin-epsilon-aminocaproic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (BNHS) or N-biotinoyl-N'-(maleimidohexanoyl)hydrazine (BM) were the derivatizing agents. Only 10-12 bands were adsorbed onto streptavidin-agarose from undervatized cells or from derivatized cells treated with free avidin at 4 degrees C. Two-dimensional isoelectric focusing-sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis resolved greater than 100 BNHS-derivatized proteins and greater than 40 BM-derivatized proteins. There appeared to be little overlap between the two groups of derivatized proteins. Short-term pulse-chase studies showed an accumulation of label into both groups of biotinylated proteins up until 1-2 h of chase and a rapid decrease over the next 1-5 h. Delayed appearance of labeled protein at the cell surface was attributed to transit time from site of synthesis. The unexpected and unexplained rapid disappearance of pulse-labeled proteins from the cell surface was invariant for all two-dimensionally resolved proteins and was sensitive to temperature reduction to 18 degrees C. Long-term pulse-chase experiments beginning 4-8 h after the initiation of chase showed the disappearance of derivatized proteins to be a simple first-order process having a half-life of 115 h in the case of BNHS-derivatized proteins and 30 h in the case of BM-derivatized proteins

  3. Characterization, cell-surface expression and ligand-binding properties of different truncated N-terminal extracellular domains of the ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit GluR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlhinney, R A; Molnár, E

    1996-04-01

    To identify the location of the first transmembrane segment of the GluR1 glutamate receptor subunit artificial stop codons have been introduced into the N-terminal domain at amino acid positions 442, 510, and 563, namely just before and spanning the proposed first two transmembrane regions. The resultant truncated N-terminal fragments of GluR1, termed NT1, NT2, and NT3 respectively were expressed in Cos-7 cells and their cellular distribution and cell-surface expression analysed using an N-terminal antibody to GluR1. All of the fragments were fully glycosylated and were found to be associated with cell membranes but none was secreted. Differential extraction of the cell membranes indicated that both NT1 and NT2 behave as peripheral membrane proteins. In contrast NT3, like the full subunit, has integral membrane protein properties. Furthermore only NT3 is expressed at the cell surface as determined by immunofluorescence and cell-surface biotinylation. Protease protection assays indicated that only NT3 had a cytoplasmic tail. Binding studies using the selective ligand [(3)H]alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate ([(3)H]AMPA) demonstrated that NT3 does not bind ligand. Together these results indicate that the first transmembrane domain of the GluR1 subunit lies between residues 509 and 562, that the N-terminal domain alone cannot form a functional ligand-binding site and that this domain can be targeted to the cell surface provided that it has a transmembrane-spanning region.

  4. The cell surface expressed nucleolin is a glycoprotein that triggers calcium entry into mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losfeld, Marie-Estelle; Khoury, Diala El; Mariot, Pascal; Carpentier, Mathieu; Krust, Bernard; Briand, Jean-Paul; Mazurier, Joel; Hovanessian, Ara G.; Legrand, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Nucleolin is an ubiquitous nucleolar phosphoprotein involved in fundamental aspects of transcription regulation, cell proliferation and growth. It has also been described as a shuttling molecule between nucleus, cytosol and the cell surface. Several studies have demonstrated that surface nucleolin serves as a receptor for various extracellular ligands implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, mitogenesis and angiogenesis. Previously, we reported that nucleolin in the extranuclear cell compartment is a glycoprotein containing N- and O-glycans. In the present study, we show that glycosylation is an essential requirement for surface nucleolin expression, since it is prevented when cells are cultured in the presence of tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-glycosylation. Accordingly, surface but not nuclear nucleolin is radioactively labeled upon metabolic labeling of cells with [ 3 H]glucosamine. Besides its well-demonstrated role in the internalization of specific ligands, here we show that ligand binding to surface nucleolin could also induce Ca 2+ entry into cells. Indeed, by flow cytometry, microscopy and patch-clamp experiments, we show that the HB-19 pseudopeptide, which binds specifically surface nucleolin, triggers rapid and intense membrane Ca 2+ fluxes in various types of cells. The use of several drugs then indicated that Store-Operated Ca 2+ Entry (SOCE)-like channels are involved in the generation of these fluxes. Taken together, our findings suggest that binding of an extracellular ligand to surface nucleolin could be involved in the activation of signaling pathways by promoting Ca 2+ entry into cells

  5. Investigation of back surface fields effect on bifacial solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepeai, Suhaila; Sulaiman, M. Y.; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    2012-11-01

    A bifacial solar cell, in contrast with a conventional monofacial solar cell, produces photo-generated current from both front and back sides. Bifacial solar cell is an attractive candidate for enhancing photovoltaic (PV) market competitiveness as well as supporting the current efforts to increase efficiency and lower material costs. This paper reports on the fabrication of bifacial solar cells using phosphorus-oxytrichloride (POCl3) emitter formation on p-type, nanotextured silicon (Si) wafer. Backside surface field was formed through Al-diffusion using conventional screen-printing process. Bifacial solar cells with a structure of n+pp+ with and without back surface field (BSF) were fabricated in which silicon nitride (SiN) anti reflection and passivation films were coated on both sides, followed by screen printing of Argentum (Ag) and Argentum/Aluminum (Ag/Al) on front and back contacts, respectively. Bifacial solar cells without BSF exhibited open circuit voltage (VOC) of 535 mV for front and 480 mV for back surface. With Al-alloyed BSF bifacial solar cells, the VOC improved to 580 mV for the front surface and 560 mV for the back surface. Simulation of bifacial solar cells using PC1D and AFORS software demonstrated good agreement with experimental results. Simulations showed that best bifacial solar cells are achieved through a combination of high lifetime wafer, low recombination back surface field, reduced contact resistance, and superior surface passivation.

  6. Interactions between endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and titanium implant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebart, Thomas; Schnell, Anne; Walter, Christian; Kämmerer, Peer W; Pabst, Andreas; Lehmann, Karl M; Ziebart, Johanna; Klein, Marc O; Al-Nawas, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cells play an important role in peri-implant angiogenesis during early bone formation. Therefore, interactions between endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and titanium dental implant surfaces are of crucial interest. The aim of our in vitro study was to investigate the reactions of EPCs in contact with different commercially available implant surfaces. EPCs from buffy coats were isolated by Ficoll density gradient separation. After cell differentiation, EPC were cultured for a period of 7 days on different titanium surfaces. The test surfaces varied in roughness and hydrophilicity: acid-etched (A), sand-blasted-blasted and acid-etched (SLA), hydrophilic A (modA), and hydrophilic SLA (modSLA). Plastic and fibronectin-coated plastic surfaces served as controls. Cell numbers and morphology were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and expressions of iNOS and eNOS were investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell numbers were higher in the control groups compared to the cells of titanium surfaces. Initially, hydrophilic titanium surfaces (modA and modSLA) showed lower cell numbers than hydrophobic surfaces (A and SLA). After 7 days smoother surfaces (A and modA) showed increased cell numbers compared to rougher surfaces (SLA and modSLA). Cell morphology of A, modA, and control surfaces was characterized by a multitude of pseudopodia and planar cell soma architecture. SLA and modSLA promoted small and plump cell soma with little quantity of pseudopodia. The lowest VEGF level was measured on A, the highest on modSLA. The highest eNOS and iNOS expressions were found on modA surfaces. The results of this study demonstrate that biological behaviors of EPCs can be influenced by different surfaces. The modSLA surface promotes an undifferentiated phenotype of EPCs that has the ability to secrete growth factors in great quantities. In

  7. Cytokine and surface receptor diversity of NK cells in resistant C3H/HeN and susceptible BALB/c mice with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Moser, Claus; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether NK cells from resistant C3H/HeN mice and susceptible BALB/c mice showed different release of cytokines and expression of surface molecules during chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection using alginate-embedded P. aeruginosa mimicking...... the infection in cystic fibrosis. Lung cell suspensions were depleted of lymphocytes by magnetic cell sorting. The concentrations of IFN-gamma, IL-1beta and GM-CSF were estimated by ELISA at day 1 and 2 after infection. Non-infected mice were used as controls. Flow cytometry was used to estimate the surface...... expression of the LFA-1 and Fc receptors on NK cells. At day 2, IFN-gamma levels increased in C3H/HeN mice but decreased in BALB/c mice. The GM-CSF levels increased only in the C3H/HeN mice at day 1 and 2. Surface expression of LFA-1 on the NK cells was higher in C3H/HeN mice at day 1 and 2. In contrast...

  8. Role of cell surface carbohydrate on herpes virus type I (HSV-1) entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massare, M.J.; Blough, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    The role of cell surface glycopeptides (GP) or oligosaccharides (OS) on HSV-1 (strain HF) attachment was studied by isolating those macromolecules by proteolytic digestion of uninfected cells and/or hydrazinolysis of whole cells or plasma membrane fractions. Variable amounts of GP or OS were mixed with 100-200 pfu of [ 3 H]-HSV incubated for 45 min at 20 0 C, and infectivity determined. GP were fractionated by lectin affinity-, ion exchange- and molecular sieve column chromatography. A GP fraction containing 13 μg reducing sugar/ml inhibited plaque formation by 80%. σ-elimination or the removal of NeuNAc had no affect. OS obtained by hydrazinolysis, inhibited plaque formation by 86-100% at concentrations of 14-20 μg reducing sugars/ml. Only complex OS, obtained by treating delipidated, whose cells with endoglycosidase D, blocked attachment; whereas high mannose fractions had no effect. These OS failed to inhibit fusion suggesting that N-linked complex OS are part of the receptor site(s)

  9. ''Cube-on-hexagon'' orientation relationship for Fe on GaN(0001): The missing link in bcc/hcp epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Cunxu; Brandt, Oliver; Laehnemann, Jonas; Jahn, Uwe; Jenichen, Bernd; Schoenherr, Hans-Peter; Erwin, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate, experimentally and theoretically, the epitaxy of body-centered-cubic Fe on hexagonal GaN. For growth on the Ga-polar GaN(0001) surface we find the well-known Pitsch-Schrader orientation relationship between Fe and GaN. On the N-polar GaN(0001) surface we observe coexistence between the familiar Burgers orientation and a new orientation in which the Fe(001) plane is parallel to GaN(0001). This 'cube-on-hexagon' orientation constitutes the high-symmetry link required for constructing a symmetry diagram for bcc/hcp systems in which all orientation relationships are connected by simple rotations.

  10. Surface Passivation and Antireflection Behavior of ALD on n-Type Silicon for Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing-Song Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic layer deposition, a method of excellent step coverage and conformal deposition, was used to deposit TiO2 thin films for the surface passivation and antireflection coating of silicon solar cells. TiO2 thin films deposited at different temperatures (200°C, 300°C, 400°C, and 500°C on FZ n-type silicon wafers are in the thickness of 66.4 nm ± 1.1 nm and in the form of self-limiting growth. For the properties of surface passivation, Si surface is effectively passivated by the 200°C deposition TiO2 thin film. Its effective minority carrier lifetime, measured by the photoconductance decay method, is improved 133% at the injection level of  cm−3. Depending on different deposition parameters and annealing processes, we can control the crystallinity of TiO2 and find low-temperature TiO2 phase (anatase better passivation performance than the high-temperature one (rutile, which is consistent with the results of work function measured by Kelvin probe. In addition, TiO2 thin films on polished Si wafer serve as good ARC layers with refractive index between 2.13 and 2.44 at 632.8 nm. Weighted average reflectance at AM1.5G reduces more than half after the deposition of TiO2. Finally, surface passivation and antireflection properties of TiO2 are stable after the cofire process of conventional crystalline Si solar cells.

  11. Cytokine and surface receptor diversity of NK cells in resistant C3H/HeN and susceptible BALB/c mice with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Moser, Claus; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether NK cells from resistant C3H/HeN mice and susceptible BALB/c mice showed different release of cytokines and expression of surface molecules during chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection using alginate-embedded P. aeruginosa mimicking...... expression of the LFA-1 and Fc receptors on NK cells. At day 2, IFN-gamma levels increased in C3H/HeN mice but decreased in BALB/c mice. The GM-CSF levels increased only in the C3H/HeN mice at day 1 and 2. Surface expression of LFA-1 on the NK cells was higher in C3H/HeN mice at day 1 and 2. In contrast...

  12. CELLISA: reporter cell-based immunization and screening of hybridomas specific for cell surface antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter; Mesci, Aruz; Carlyle, James R

    2011-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for cell surface antigens are an invaluable tool to study immune receptor expression and function. Here, we outline a generalized reporter cell-based approach to the generation and high-throughput screening of mAbs specific for cell surface antigens. Termed CELLISA, this technology hinges upon the capture of hybridoma supernatants in mAb arrays that facilitate ligation of an antigen of interest displayed on BWZ reporter cells in the form of a CD3ζ-fusion chimeric antigen receptor (zCAR); in turn, specific mAb-mediated cross-linking of zCAR on BWZ cells results in the production of β-galactosidase enzyme (β-gal), which can be assayed colorimetrically. Importantly, the BWZ reporter cells bearing the zCAR of interest may be used for immunization as well as screening. In addition, serial immunizations employing additional zCAR- or native antigen-bearing cell lines can be used to increase the frequency of the desired antigen-specific hybridomas. Finally, the use of a cohort of epitope-tagged zCAR (e.g., zCAR(FLAG)) variants allows visualization of the cell surface antigen prior to immunization, and coimmunization using these variants can be used to enhance the immunogenicity of the target antigen. Employing the CELLISA strategy, we herein describe the generation of mAb directed against an uncharacterized natural killer cell receptor protein.

  13. Cell surface acid-base properties of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus: Influences of nitrogen source, growth phase and N:P ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxia; Alessi, D. S.; Owttrim, G. W.; Kenney, J. P. L.; Zhou, Qixing; Lalonde, S. V.; Konhauser, K. O.

    2016-08-01

    The distribution of many trace metals in the oceans is controlled by biological uptake. Recently, Liu et al. (2015) demonstrated the propensity for a marine cyanobacterium to adsorb cadmium from seawater, suggesting that cell surface reactivity might also play an important role in the cycling of metals in the oceans. However, it remains unclear how variations in cyanobacterial growth rates and nutrient supply might affect the chemical properties of their cellular surfaces. In this study we used potentiometric titrations and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry to profile the key metabolic changes and surface chemical responses of a Synechococcus strain, PCC 7002, during different growth regimes. This included testing various nitrogen (N) to phosphorous (P) ratios (both nitrogen and phosphorous dependent), nitrogen sources (nitrate, ammonium and urea) and growth stages (exponential, stationary, and death phase). FT-IR spectroscopy showed that varying the growth substrates on which Synechococcus cells were cultured resulted in differences in either the type or abundance of cellular exudates produced or a change in the cell wall components. Potentiometric titration data were modeled using three distinct proton binding sites, with resulting pKa values for cells of the various growth conditions in the ranges of 4.96-5.51 (pKa1), 6.67-7.42 (pKa2) and 8.13-9.95 (pKa3). According to previous spectroscopic studies, these pKa ranges are consistent with carboxyl, phosphoryl, and amine groups, respectively. Comparisons between the titration data (for the cell surface) and FT-IR spectra (for the average cellular changes) generally indicate (1) that the nitrogen source is a greater determinant of ligand concentration than growth phase, and (2) that phosphorus limitation has a greater impact on Synechococcus cellular and extracellular properties than does nitrogen limitation. Taken together, these techniques indicate that nutritional quality during cell growth can

  14. High Performance of PEDOT:PSS/n-Si Solar Cells Based on Textured Surface with AgNWs Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangyu; Zhang, Pengbo; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Jilei; Li, Gaofei; Fang, Xiaohong; Yang, Liyou; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid heterojunction solar cells (HHSCs) have gained extensive research and attention due to simple device structure and low-cost technological processes. Here, HHSCs are presented based on a highly transparent conductive polymer poly(3,4ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS) directly spin-coated on an n-type crystalline silicon with microscale surface textures, which are prepared by traditional chemical etching. We have studied interface properties between PEDOT:PSS and textured n-Si by varying coating conditions. Final power conversion efficiency (PCE) could arrive at 8.54% by these simple solution-based fabrication processes. The high conversion efficiency is attributed to the fully conformal contact between PEDOT:PSS film and textured silicon. Furthermore, the reflectance of the PEDOT:PSS layer on textured surface is analyzed by changing film thickness. In order to improve the performance of the device, silver nanowires were employed as electrodes because of its better optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. The highest PCE of 11.07% was achieved which displayed a 29.6% enhancement compared with traditional silver electrodes. These findings imply that the combination of PEDOT:PSS film and silver nanowire transparent electrodes pave a promising way for realizing high-efficiency and low-cost solar cells.

  15. Regulation of CD93 cell surface expression by protein kinase C isoenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikewaki, Nobunao; Kulski, Jerzy K; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2006-01-01

    Human CD93, also known as complement protein 1, q subcomponent, receptor (C1qRp), is selectively expressed by cells with a myeloid lineage, endothelial cells, platelets, and microglia and was originally reported to be involved in the complement protein 1, q subcomponent (C1q)-mediated enhancement of phagocytosis. The intracellular molecular events responsible for the regulation of its expression on the cell surface, however, have not been determined. In this study, the effect of protein kinases in the regulation of CD93 expression on the cell surface of a human monocyte-like cell line (U937), a human NK-like cell line (KHYG-1), and a human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (HUV-EC-C) was investigated using four types of protein kinase inhibitors, the classical protein kinase C (cPKC) inhibitor Go6976, the novel PKC (nPKC) inhibitor Rottlerin, the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 and the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor herbimycin A at their optimum concentrations for 24 hr. CD93 expression was analyzed using flow cytometry and glutaraldehyde-fixed cellular enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) techniques utilizing a CD93 monoclonal antibody (mAb), mNI-11, that was originally established in our laboratory as a CD93 detection probe. The nPKC inhibitor Rottlerin strongly down-regulated CD93 expression on the U937 cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the other inhibitors had little or no effect. CD93 expression was down-regulated by Go6976, but not by Rottlerin, in the KHYG-1 cells and by both Rottlerin and Go6976 in the HUV-EC-C cells. The PKC stimulator, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), strongly up-regulated CD93 expression on the cell surface of all three cell-lines and induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) production by the U937 cells and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by the KHYG-1 cells. In addition, both Go6976 and Rottlerin inhibited the up-regulation of CD93 expression induced by PMA and IL-8 or IFN-gamma production in the respective cell

  16. HCV E2 glycoprotein: mutagenesis of N-linked glycosylation sites and its effects on E2 expression and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater-Handshy, Tiffany; Droll, Deborah A.; Fan Xiaofeng; Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.; Chambers, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    An expression system for analysis of the synthesis and processing of the E2 glycoprotein of a hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1a strain was developed in transiently transfected cells. E2 proteins representing the entire length of the protein, including the transmembrane segment (E2) as well as two truncated versions (E2 660 and E2 715 ), were characterized for acquisition of N-linked glycans and transport to the media of transfected cells. To investigate the utilization of the 10 potential N-linked glycosylation sites on this E2 protein, a series of mutations consisting of single or multiple (two, three, four or eight) ablations of asparagine residues in the background of the E2 660 construct were analyzed. E2 660 proteins harboring single or multiple site mutations were produced at levels similar to that of wild-type protein, but secretion of the single mutants was mildly diminished, and elimination of two or more sites dramatically reduced delivery of the protein to the media. Similar results were obtained in Huh-7 cells with respect to intracellular synthesis and secretion of the mutant proteins. Analysis of oligosaccharide composition using endoglycosidase digestion revealed that all of the glycan residues on the intracellular forms of E2 660 , E2 715 , and E2 contained N-linked glycans modified into high-mannose carbohydrates, in contrast to the secreted forms, which were endo H resistant. The parental E2 660 protein could be readily detected in Huh-7 cells using anti-polyhistidine or antibody to recombinant E2. In contrast, E2 660 lacking the eight N-linked glycans was expressed but not detectable with anti-E2 antibody, and proteins lacking four glycans exhibited reduced reactivity. These experiments provide direct evidence that the presence of multiple N-linked glycans is required for the proper folding of the E2 protein in the ER and secretory pathway as well as for formation of its antigenic structure

  17. Cell surface glycopeptides from human intestinal epithelial cell lines derived from normal colon and colon adenocarcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youakim, A.; Herscovics, A.

    1985-01-01

    The cell surface glycopeptides from an epithelial cell line (CCL 239) derived from normal human colon were compared with those from three cell lines (HCT-8R, HCT-15, and CaCo-2) derived independently from human colonic adenocarcinomas. Cells were incubated with D-[2- 3 H]mannose or L-[5,6- 3 H]fucose for 24 h and treated with trypsin to release cell surface components which were then digested exhaustively with Pronase and fractionated on Bio-Gel P-6 before and after treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. The most noticeable difference between the labeled glycopeptides from the tumor and CCL 239 cells was the presence in the former of an endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H-resistant high molecular weight glycopeptide fraction which was eluted in the void volume of Bio-Gel P-6. This fraction was obtained with both labeled mannose and fucose as precursors. However, acid hydrolysis of this fraction obtained after incubation with [2- 3 H]mannose revealed that as much as 60-90% of the radioactivity was recovered as fucose. Analysis of the total glycopeptides (cell surface and cell pellet) obtained after incubation with [2- 3 H]mannose showed that from 40-45% of the radioactivity in the tumor cells and less than 10% of the radioactivity in the CCL 239 cells was recovered as fucose. After incubation of the HCT-8R cells with D-[1,6- 3 H]glucosamine and L-[1- 14 C]fucose, strong acid hydrolysis of the labeled glycopeptide fraction excluded from Bio-Gel P-6 produced 3 H-labeled N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine

  18. Biosynthesis of ascites sialoglycoprotein-1, the major O-linked glycoprotein of 13762 rat mammary adenocarcinoma ascites cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielman, J.

    1987-01-01

    The present studies were undertaken to determine the timing of the major events in biosynthesis, and to characterize the contributions of chain initiation and elongation in maturation of the glycoprotein. Initiation of the earliest O-linked chains was detected by analysis of conversion of 3 H-thr to 3 H 2-aminobutyrate following mild alkaline borohydride elimination of O-linked sugars from peanut lectin-precipitated ASGP-1. Initiation was detected within 5 min of translation; amino sugar analysis of GlcNH 2 -labeled, trypsinized cells also showed that GalNAc was added as late as 5 min prior to arrival of ASGP-1 at the cell surface. Thus initiation occurs throughout biosynthesis. Maturation of the glycoprotein from a lightly-glycosylated immature form to the heavily-glycosylated mature from involved both continued initiation of new chains and chain elongation, and occurred with a half-time of about 30 min. Analysis of labeled ASGP-1 released from the cell surface by trypsinization showed that although some newly-synthesized ASGP-1 reached the cell surface within 70-80 min of protein synthesis, the half-time for appearance of mature glycoprotein was in excess of 4 hr, indicating that most molecules reside in an intracellular compartment(s) for a considerable time

  19. Saccharomyces cerevisiae KTR4, KTR5 and KTR7 encode mannosyltransferases differentially involved in the N- and O-linked glycosylation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Nahúm V; López-Ramírez, Luz A; Díaz-Jiménez, Diana F; Mellado-Mojica, Erika; Martínez-Duncker, Iván; López, Mercedes G; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2017-10-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model to understand basic aspects of protein glycosylation pathways. Although these metabolic routes have been thoroughly studied, there are still knowledge gaps; among them, the role of the MNT1/KRE2 gene family. This family is composed of nine members, with only six functionally characterized. The enzymes Ktr1, Ktr3, and Mnt1/Kre2 have overlapping activities in both O-linked and N-linked glycan synthesis; while Ktr2 and Yur1 participate exclusively in the elongation of the N-linked glycan outer chain. KTR6 encodes for a phosphomannosyltransferase that synthesizes the cell wall phosphomannan. Here, we aimed to establish the functional role of KTR4, KTR5 and KTR7 in the protein glycosylation pathways, by using heterologous complementation in Candida albicans null mutants lacking members of the MNT1/KRE2 gene family. The three S. cerevisiae genes restored defects in the C. albicans N-linked glycosylation pathway. KTR5 and KTR7 partially complemented a C. albicans null mutant with defects in the synthesis of O-linked glycans, and only KTR4 fully elongated the O-linked glycans like wild-type cells. Therefore, our results suggest that the three genes have a redundant activity in the S. cerevisiae N-linked glycosylation pathway, but KTR4 plays a major role in O-linked glycan synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Combined embedding of N-doping and CaCO{sub 3} surface modification in the TiO{sub 2} photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Su Kyung; Yun, Tae Kwan [Department of Chemistry, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jae Young, E-mail: jybae@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Won, Yong Sun, E-mail: yswon@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    A successive embedding of N-doping and CaCO{sub 3} surface modification was carried out in the TiO{sub 2} photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The combined effect was revealed with the great increase of the open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}), short-circuit current (J{sub sc}), and photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) of the prepared cells; the efficiency (η) was improved from 5.42% of a commercial TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode to 7.47% of an unmodified N-doped electrode, and to 9.03% of a N-doped and CaCO{sub 3} surface modified electrode. An enhanced photoresponse in N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles generate more photo-excited electrons in adsorbed dye, as supported by measured UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra and incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE). A successive CaCO{sub 3} surface modification then form a barrier on the surface of N-doped TiO{sub 2} particles, suppressing charge recombination of photo-generated electrons from N-doped TiO{sub 2} to dye or electrolyte, and thus extending their life time in the electrode, as supported by electron impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Furthermore, the higher basicity of the CaCO{sub 3} modified TiO{sub 2} facilitates the dye adsorption, as supported by the direct measurement of the amount of adsorbed dye.

  1. Removal of N-linked glycosylations at acidic pH by PNGase a facilitates hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry analysis of N-Linked glycoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Comamala, Gerard; Trelle, Morten Beck

    2016-01-01

    for analysis of the conformational dynamics of N-linked glycoproteins that utilizes the enzyme PNGase A for deglycosylation of labeled peptic N-linked glycopeptides at HDX quench conditions, i.e., acidic pH and low temperature. PNGase A-based deglycosylation is thus performed after labeling (post...

  2. Interfacing nanostructures to biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2012-09-04

    Disclosed herein are methods and materials by which nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, nanorods, etc. are bound to lectins and/or polysaccharides and prepared for administration to cells. Also disclosed are complexes comprising glycosylated nanostructures, which bind selectively to cells expressing glycosylated surface molecules recognized by the lectin. Exemplified is a complex comprising a carbon nanotube functionalized with a lipid-like alkane, linked to a polymer bearing repeated .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine sugar groups. This complex is shown to selectively adhere to the surface of living cells, without toxicity. In the exemplified embodiment, adherence is mediated by a multivalent lectin, which binds both to the cells and the .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine groups on the nanostructure.

  3. The Fusarium oxysporum gnt2, encoding a putative N-acetylglucosamine transferase, is involved in cell wall architecture and virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loida López-Fernández

    Full Text Available With the aim to decipher the molecular dialogue and cross talk between Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersci and its host during infection and to understand the molecular bases that govern fungal pathogenicity, we analysed genes presumably encoding N-acetylglucosaminyl transferases, involved in glycosylation of glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglycans or small molecule acceptors in other microorganisms. In silico analysis revealed the existence of seven putative N-glycosyl transferase encoding genes (named gnt in F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici genome. gnt2 deletion mutants showed a dramatic reduction in virulence on both plant and animal hosts. Δgnt2 mutants had αalterations in cell wall properties related to terminal αor β-linked N-acetyl glucosamine. Mutant conidia and germlings also showed differences in structure and physicochemical surface properties. Conidial and hyphal aggregation differed between the mutant and wild type strains, in a pH independent manner. Transmission electron micrographs of germlings showed strong cell-to-cell adherence and the presence of an extracellular chemical matrix. Δgnt2 cell walls presented a significant reduction in N-linked oligosaccharides, suggesting the involvement of Gnt2 in N-glycosylation of cell wall proteins. Gnt2 was localized in Golgi-like sub-cellular compartments as determined by fluorescence microscopy of GFP::Gnt2 fusion protein after treatment with the antibiotic brefeldin A or by staining with fluorescent sphingolipid BODIPY-TR ceramide. Furthermore, density gradient ultracentrifugation allowed co-localization of GFP::Gnt2 fusion protein and Vps10p in subcellular fractions enriched in Golgi specific enzymatic activities. Our results suggest that N-acetylglucosaminyl transferases are key components for cell wall structure and influence interactions of F. oxysporum with both plant and animal hosts during pathogenicity.

  4. The Fusarium oxysporum gnt2, Encoding a Putative N-Acetylglucosamine Transferase, Is Involved in Cell Wall Architecture and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, Loida; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen; Pareja-Jaime, Yolanda; Prieto, Alicia; Khraiwesh, Husam; Roncero, M. Isabel G.

    2013-01-01

    With the aim to decipher the molecular dialogue and cross talk between Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersci and its host during infection and to understand the molecular bases that govern fungal pathogenicity, we analysed genes presumably encoding N-acetylglucosaminyl transferases, involved in glycosylation of glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglycans or small molecule acceptors in other microorganisms. In silico analysis revealed the existence of seven putative N-glycosyl transferase encoding genes (named gnt) in F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici genome. gnt2 deletion mutants showed a dramatic reduction in virulence on both plant and animal hosts. Δgnt2 mutants had αalterations in cell wall properties related to terminal αor β-linked N-acetyl glucosamine. Mutant conidia and germlings also showed differences in structure and physicochemical surface properties. Conidial and hyphal aggregation differed between the mutant and wild type strains, in a pH independent manner. Transmission electron micrographs of germlings showed strong cell-to-cell adherence and the presence of an extracellular chemical matrix. Δgnt2 cell walls presented a significant reduction in N-linked oligosaccharides, suggesting the involvement of Gnt2 in N-glycosylation of cell wall proteins. Gnt2 was localized in Golgi-like sub-cellular compartments as determined by fluorescence microscopy of GFP::Gnt2 fusion protein after treatment with the antibiotic brefeldin A or by staining with fluorescent sphingolipid BODIPY-TR ceramide. Furthermore, density gradient ultracentrifugation allowed co-localization of GFP::Gnt2 fusion protein and Vps10p in subcellular fractions enriched in Golgi specific enzymatic activities. Our results suggest that N-acetylglucosaminyl transferases are key components for cell wall structure and influence interactions of F. oxysporum with both plant and animal hosts during pathogenicity. PMID:24416097

  5. Dynamic O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification of proteins affects stress responses and survival of mesothelial cells exposed to peritoneal dialysis fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Rebecca; Bender, Thorsten O; Vychytil, Andreas; Bialas, Katarzyna; Aufricht, Christoph; Kratochwill, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    The ability of cells to respond and survive stressful conditions is determined, in part, by the attachment of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to proteins (O-GlcNAcylation), a post-translational modification dependent on glucose and glutamine. This study investigates the role of dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of mesothelial cell proteins in cell survival during exposure to glucose-based peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF). Immortalized human mesothelial cells and primary mesothelial cells, cultured from human omentum or clinical effluent of PD patients, were assessed for O-GlcNAcylation under normal conditions or after exposure to PDF. The dynamic status of O-GlcNAcylation and effects on cellular survival were investigated by chemical modulation with 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) to decrease or O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene)amino N-phenyl carbamate (PUGNAc) to increase O-GlcNAc levels. Viability was decreased by reducing O-GlcNAc levels by DON, which also led to suppressed expression of the cytoprotective heat shock protein 72. In contrast, increasing O-GlcNAc levels by PUGNAc or alanyl-glutamine led to significantly improved cell survival paralleled by higher heat shock protein 72 levels during PDF treatment. Addition of alanyl-glutamine increased O-GlcNAcylation and partly counteracted its inhibition by DON, also leading to improved cell survival. Immunofluorescent analysis of clinical samples showed that the O-GlcNAc signal primarily originates from mesothelial cells. In conclusion, this study identified O-GlcNAcylation in mesothelial cells as a potentially important molecular mechanism after exposure to PDF. Modulating O-GlcNAc levels by clinically feasible interventions might evolve as a novel therapeutic target for the preservation of peritoneal membrane integrity in PD. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. Lithium polymer cell assembled by in situ chemical cross-linking of ionic liquid electrolyte with phosphazene-based cross-linking agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ji-Ae; Kang, Yongku; Kim, Dong-Won

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ionic liquid-based cross-linked gel polymer electrolytes were synthesized and their electrochemical properties were investigated. ► Lithium polymer cells with in situ cross-linked gel polymer electrolytes exhibited reversible cycling behavior with good capacity retention. ► The use of ionic liquid-based cross-linked gel polymer electrolytes significantly improved the thermal stability of the cells. -- Abstract: Ionic liquid-based cross-linked gel polymer electrolytes were prepared with a phosphazene-based cross-linking agent, and their electrochemical properties were investigated. Lithium polymer cells composed of lithium anode and LiCoO 2 cathode were assembled with ionic liquid-based cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte and their cycling performance was evaluated. The interfacial adhesion between the electrodes and the electrolyte by in situ chemical cross-linking resulted in stable capacity retention of the cell. A reduction in the ionic mobility in both the electrolyte and the electrode adversely affected discharge capacity and high rate performance of the cell. DSC studies demonstrated that the use of ionic liquid-based cross-linked gel polymer electrolytes provided a significant improvement in the thermal stability of the cell

  7. Single-cell analysis reveals a link between CD3- and CD59-mediated signaling pathways in Jurkat T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipp, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Elevation of intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) is a key signal during T cell activation and is commonly used as a read-out parameter for stimulation of T cell signaling. Upon T cell stimulation a variety of calcium signals is produced by individual cells of the T cell population and the type of calcium signal strongly influences cell fate decisions. The heterogeneous nature of T cells is masked in ensemble measurements, which highlights the need for single-cell measurements. In this study we used single-cell calcium measurements in Jurkat cells to investigate signaling pathways, which are triggered by different proteins, namely CD3 and CD59. By application of an automated cluster algorithm the presented assay provides unbiased analysis of a large data set of individual calcium time traces generated by the whole cell population. By using this method we could demonstrate that the Jurkat population generates heterogeneous calcium signals in a stimulus-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data revealed the existence of a link between CD3- and CD59-mediated signaling pathways. Single-cell calcium measurements in Jurkat cells expressing different levels of the T cell receptor (TCR) complex indicated that CD59-mediated calcium signaling is critically dependent on TCR surface expression levels. In addition, triggering CD59-mediated calcium signaling resulted in down-regulation of TCR surface expression levels, which is known to happen upon direct TCR triggering too. Moreover, by using siRNA-mediated protein knock-downs and protein knock-out Jurkat mutants we could show that CD3- and CD59-mediated calcium signaling require identical key proteins. We therefore explored by which mechanism CD59-mediated signaling couples into TCR-mediated signaling. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments and live-cell protein-protein interaction assays provided no evidence of a direct physical interaction between CD3- and CD59-mediated signaling pathways

  8. Highly multiplexed and quantitative cell-surface protein profiling using genetically barcoded antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Samuel B; Hu, Amy; Mou, Yun; Martinko, Alexander J; Julien, Olivier; Hornsby, Michael; Ploder, Lynda; Adams, Jarrett J; Geng, Huimin; Müschen, Markus; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Moffat, Jason; Wells, James A

    2018-03-13

    Human cells express thousands of different surface proteins that can be used for cell classification, or to distinguish healthy and disease conditions. A method capable of profiling a substantial fraction of the surface proteome simultaneously and inexpensively would enable more accurate and complete classification of cell states. We present a highly multiplexed and quantitative surface proteomic method using genetically barcoded antibodies called phage-antibody next-generation sequencing (PhaNGS). Using 144 preselected antibodies displayed on filamentous phage (Fab-phage) against 44 receptor targets, we assess changes in B cell surface proteins after the development of drug resistance in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and in adaptation to oncogene expression in a Myc-inducible Burkitt lymphoma model. We further show PhaNGS can be applied at the single-cell level. Our results reveal that a common set of proteins including FLT3, NCR3LG1, and ROR1 dominate the response to similar oncogenic perturbations in B cells. Linking high-affinity, selective, genetically encoded binders to NGS enables direct and highly multiplexed protein detection, comparable to RNA-sequencing for mRNA. PhaNGS has the potential to profile a substantial fraction of the surface proteome simultaneously and inexpensively to enable more accurate and complete classification of cell states. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  9. HEK293T cell lines defective for O-linked glycosylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Termini

    Full Text Available Here we describe derivatives of the HEK293T cell line that are defective in their ability to generate mucin-type O-linked glycosylation. Using CRISPR/Cas9 and a single-cell GFP-sorting procedure, the UDP-galactose-4-epimerase (GALE, galactokinase 1 (GALK1, and galactokinase 2 (GALK2 genes were knocked out individually and in combinations with greater than 90% of recovered clones having the desired mutations. Although HEK293T cells are tetraploid, we found this approach to be an efficient method to target and disrupt all 4 copies of the target gene. Deficient glycosylation in the GALE knockout cell line could be rescued by the addition of galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc to the cell culture media. However, when key enzymes of the galactose/GalNAc salvage pathways were disrupted in tandem (GALE+GALK1 or GALE+GALK2, O-glycosylation was eliminated and could not be rescued by the addition of either galactose plus GalNAc or UDP-galactose plus UDP-GalNAc. GALK1 and GALK2 are key enzymes of the galactose/GalNAc salvage pathways. Mass spectrometry was performed on whole cell lysate of the knockout cell lines to verify the glycosylation phenotype. As expected, the GALE knockout was almost completely devoid of all O-glycosylation, with minimal glycosylation as a result of functional salvage pathways. However, the GALE+GALK1 and GALE+GALK2 knockout lines were devoid of all O-glycans. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the disruption of GALE, GALK1, and GALE+GALK2 had little effect on the N-glycome. But when GALE was knocked out in tandem with GALK1, N-glycans were exclusively of the high mannose type. Due to the well-characterized nature of these five knockout cell lines, they will likely prove useful for a wide variety of applications.

  10. Identification of an N-linked glycan in the V1-loop of HIV-1 gp120 influencing neutralization by anti-V3 antibodies and soluble CD4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, G J; Hemming, A; Bolmstedt, A

    1994-01-01

    Glycosylation is necessary for HIV-1 gp120 to attain a functional conformation, and individual N-linked glycans of gp120 are important, but not essential, for replication of HIV-1 in cell culture. We have constructed a mutant HIV-1 infectious clone lacking a signal for N-linked glycosylation...... in the V1-loop of HIV-1 gp120. Lack of an N-linked glycan was verified by a mobility enhancement of mutant gp120 in SDS-gel electrophoresis. The mutated virus showed no differences in either gp120 content per infectious unit or infectivity, indicating that the N-linked glycan was neither essential nor...... affecting viral infectivity in cell culture. We found that the mutated virus lacking an N-linked glycan in the V1-loop of gp120 was more resistant to neutralization by monoclonal antibodies to the V3-loop and neutralization by soluble recombinant CD4 (sCD4). Both viruses were equally well neutralized by Con...

  11. SO(N) reformulated link invariants from topological strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borhade, Pravina; Ramadevi, P.

    2005-01-01

    Large N duality conjecture between U(N) Chern-Simons gauge theory on S 3 and A-model topological string theory on the resolved conifold was verified at the level of partition function and Wilson loop observables. As a consequence, the conjectured form for the expectation value of the topological operators in A-model string theory led to a reformulation of link invariants in U(N) Chern-Simons theory giving new polynomial invariants whose integer coefficients could be given a topological meaning. We show that the A-model topological operator involving SO(N) holonomy leads to a reformulation of link invariants in SO(N) Chern-Simons theory. Surprisingly, the SO(N) reformulated invariants also has a similar form with integer coefficients. The topological meaning of the integer coefficients needs to be explored from the duality conjecture relating SO(N) Chern-Simons theory to A-model closed string theory on orientifold of the resolved conifold background

  12. The Effect of Ag and Ag+N Ion Implantation on Cell Attachment Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urkac, Emel Sokullu; Oztarhan, Ahmet; Gurhan, Ismet Deliloglu; Iz, Sultan Gulce; Tihminlioglu, Funda; Oks, Efim; Nikolaev, Alexey; Ila, Daryush

    2009-01-01

    Implanted biomedical prosthetic devices are intended to perform safely, reliably and effectively in the human body thus the materials used for orthopedic devices should have good biocompatibility. Ultra High Molecular Weight Poly Ethylene (UHMWPE) has been commonly used for total hip joint replacement because of its very good properties. In this work, UHMWPE samples were Ag and Ag+N ion implanted by using the Metal-Vapor Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion implantation technique. Samples were implanted with a fluency of 1017 ion/cm2 and extraction voltage of 30 kV. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was used for surface studies. RBS showed the presence of Ag and N on the surface. Cell attachment properties investigated with model cell lines (L929 mouse fibroblasts) to demonstrate that the effect of Ag and Ag+N ion implantation can favorably influence the surface of UHMWPE for biomedical applications. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to demonstrate the cell attachment on the surface. Study has shown that Ag+N ion implantation represents more effective cell attachment properties on the UHMWPE surfaces.

  13. Flagellin based biomimetic coatings: From cell-repellent surfaces to highly adhesive coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Boglarka; Patko, Daniel; Szekacs, Inna; Orgovan, Norbert; Kurunczi, Sandor; Sulyok, Attila; Khanh, Nguyen Quoc; Toth, Balazs; Vonderviszt, Ferenc; Horvath, Robert

    2016-09-15

    Biomimetic coatings with cell-adhesion-regulating functionalities are intensively researched today. For example, cell-based biosensing for drug development, biomedical implants, and tissue engineering require that the surface adhesion of living cells is well controlled. Recently, we have shown that the bacterial flagellar protein, flagellin, adsorbs through its terminal segments to hydrophobic surfaces, forming an oriented monolayer and exposing its variable D3 domain to the solution. Here, we hypothesized that this nanostructured layer is highly cell-repellent since it mimics the surface of the flagellar filaments. Moreover, we proposed flagellin as a carrier molecule to display the cell-adhesive RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptide sequence and induce cell adhesion on the coated surface. The D3 domain of flagellin was replaced with one or more RGD motifs linked by various oligopeptides modulating flexibility and accessibility of the inserted segment. The obtained flagellin variants were applied to create surface coatings inducing cell adhesion and spreading to different levels, while wild-type flagellin was shown to form a surface layer with strong anti-adhesive properties. As reference surfaces synthetic polymers were applied which have anti-adhesive (PLL-g-PEG poly(l-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol)) or adhesion inducing properties (RGD-functionalized PLL-g-PEG). Quantitative adhesion data was obtained by employing optical biochips and microscopy. Cell-adhesion-regulating coatings can be simply formed on hydrophobic surfaces by using the developed flagellin-based constructs. The developed novel RGD-displaying flagellin variants can be easily obtained by bacterial production and can serve as alternatives to create cell-adhesion-regulating biomimetic coatings. In the present work, we show for the first time that. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. DNA-cell conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2016-05-03

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  15. DNA-cell conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2018-05-15

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  16. The extracellular protein factor Epf from Streptococcus pyogenes is a cell surface adhesin that binds to cells through an N-terminal domain containing a carbohydrate-binding module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Christian; Siemens, Nikolai; Oehmcke, Sonja; Radjainia, Mazdak; Law, Ruby H P; Whisstock, James C; Baker, Edward N; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2012-11-02

    Streptococcus pyogenes is an exclusively human pathogen. Streptococcal attachment to and entry into epithelial cells is a prerequisite for a successful infection of the human host and requires adhesins. Here, we demonstrate that the multidomain protein Epf from S. pyogenes serotype M49 is a streptococcal adhesin. An epf-deficient mutant showed significantly decreased adhesion to and internalization into human keratinocytes. Cell adhesion is mediated by the N-terminal domain of Epf (EpfN) and increased by the human plasma protein plasminogen. The crystal structure of EpfN, solved at 1.6 Å resolution, shows that it consists of two subdomains: a carbohydrate-binding module and a fibronectin type III domain. Both fold types commonly participate in ligand receptor and protein-protein interactions. EpfN is followed by 18 repeats of a domain classified as DUF1542 (domain of unknown function 1542) and a C-terminal cell wall sorting signal. The DUF1542 repeats are not involved in adhesion, but biophysical studies show they are predominantly α-helical and form a fiber-like stalk of tandem DUF1542 domains. Epf thus conforms with the widespread family of adhesins known as MSCRAMMs (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules), in which a cell wall-attached stalk enables long range interactions via its adhesive N-terminal domain.

  17. Surface grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) onto poly(acrylamide-co-vinyl amine) cross-linked films under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y; Sefton, M V

    1998-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was grafted onto poly(acrylamide-co-vinyl amine) (poly(AM-co-VA)) film using tresylated PEG (TPEG) at 37 degrees C in aqueous buffers (pH 7.4) with a view to surface-modifying microencapsulated mammalian cells. Poly(AM-co-VA) film was synthesized by Hofmann degradation of a cross-linked poly(acrylamide) film. Conversion to vinyl amine on the surface of the film was approximately 50%, but bulk conversion was not observed; surface specificity was thought to be the result of cleavage of aminated polymer chains at the surface due to chain scission. Reaction between primary amine and TPEG gave a graft yield of 2 mol% (based on XPS) with respect to available surface amine groups, equivalent to 54 mol% ethylene oxide based on monomer units. Physical adsorption of non-activated polymer was done under identical conditions as a control and the difference in oxygen content was significant compared to TPEG. The type of buffer agent and buffer concentration did not influence graft yields. This graft reaction, which was completed in as little as 2 h was considered to be mild enough to be used for a surface modification of microcapsules containing cells without affecting their viability. Such a surface modification technique may prove to be a useful means of enhancing the biocompatibility of microcapsules (or any tissue engineering construct) even after cell encapsulation or seeding.

  18. Radiation cross-linked collagen/dextran dermal scaffolds: effects of dextran on cross-linking and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqing; Zhang, Xiangmei; Xu, Ling; Wei, Shicheng; Zhai, Maolin

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation effectively cross-links collagen into network with enhanced anti-degradability and biocompatibility, while radiation-cross-linked collagen scaffold lacks flexibility, satisfactory surface appearance, and performs poor in cell penetration and ingrowth. To make the radiation-cross-linked collagen scaffold to serve as an ideal artificial dermis, dextran was incorporated into collagen. Scaffolds with the collagen/dextran (Col/Dex) ratios of 10/0, 7/3, and 5/5 were fabricated via (60)Co γ-irradiation cross-linking, followed by lyophilization. The morphology, microstructure, physicochemical, and biological properties were investigated. Compared with pure collagen, scaffolds with dextran demonstrated more porous appearance, enhanced hydrophilicity while the cross-linking density was lower with the consequence of larger pore size, higher water uptake, as well as reduced stiffness. Accelerated degradation was observed when dextran was incorporated in both the in vitro and in vivo assays, which led to earlier integration with cell and host tissue. The effect of dextran on degradation was ascribed to the decreased cross-linking density, looser microstructure, more porous and hydrophilic surface. Considering the better appearance, softness, moderate degradation rate due to controllable cross-linking degree and good biocompatibility as well, radiation-cross-linked collagen/dextran scaffolds are expected to serve as promising artificial dermal substitutes.

  19. Dolichol related intermediates involved in N-linked gloycoprotein synthesis in Drosophila Kc cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagami, H.; Chap, R.; Rivero, M.; Lennarz, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to study the regulation of the biosynthesis of dolichyl phosphate (Dol-P) in embryonic cells. Using embryonic Drosophila Kc cells which are known to lack the squalene-cholesterol branch of polyisoprenoid biosynthetic pathway, the authors labeled the cells in suspension culture for 4 hrs with [5- 3 H]mevalonic acid. After harvesting the cells, the incorporated radioactive lipids were extracted with CHCl 3 /CH 3 OH (2/1). Analysis of the extract by a combination of several methods consisting of ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, gel filtration on Fractogel TSK-HW 40, and silica gel thin layer chromatography revealed that the extract contained coenzyme Q, farnesol, dolichol (Dol), Dol-P, and dolichol-linked sugar (Dol-P-Sugar). In a pulse-chase experiment the metabolism of these intermediates was measured for various times up to 30 hrs. The amount of radioactivity in Dol slightly increased with the chase time, while that in Dol-P decreased. The amount of radioactive Dol-P-Sugar remained unchanged. These results suggest that the de novo end product in dolichol biosynthesis is Dol-P and that the level of Dol-P can be controlled by varying the rate of de novo biosynthesis and by dephosphorylation. The authors are now investigating the effect of ecdysone, the molting hormone, on the level of these intermediates and on incorporation of sugars into glycoproteins

  20. High-frequency detection of cell activity of Physarum polycephalum by a planar open gate AlGaN/GaN HEMT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, Hartmut; Lippelt, Thomas; Warnke, Christian; Dadgar, Armin; Krost, Alois; Hauser, Marcus J B

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of cells of the slime mould Physarum polycephalum are investigated with a planar AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) without any gate metallization. The source–drain contacts are used in a two-electrode arrangement whereas the free gate surface area is occupied by the Physarum cell. In order to understand the measured signals, basic properties of the interface between the cell and the HEMT surface were analysed by impedance spectroscopy. At high frequencies the interface impedance is governed by the conductance of the cell due to a direct current through the HEMT/cell interface. The locomotive dynamics of Physarum were recorded by the source–drain impedance at 10 kHz in combination with simultaneous video imaging that monitored the degree of occupancy of the HEMT surface by the cell. A precise correlation was found between the impedance and the coverage of the HEMT surface by the cell. It is observed that the entire region between the contacts is sensitive to the cell activity. Well-resolved cellular oscillations were observed for all measured parameters. Their periods corresponded to the typical periods of the intracellular shuttle streaming of protoplasma in Physarum. This demonstrates that high-frequency impedance measurements with AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures are well suited for the analysis of both the static parts of single Physarum cells as well as of their dynamic behaviour, such as their expansion and motility. (paper)

  1. SAR11 bacteria linked to ocean anoxia and nitrogen loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsementzi, Despina; Wu, Jieying; Deutsch, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the SAR11 clade constitute up to one half of all microbial cells in the oxygen-rich surface ocean. SAR11 bacteria are also abundant in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), where oxygen falls below detection and anaerobic microbes have vital roles in converting bioavailable nitrogen to N2 gas...... activity. These results link SAR11 to pathways of ocean nitrogen loss, redefining the ecological niche of Earth’s most abundant organismal group....

  2. Simulation and Optimization of Silicon Solar Cell Back Surface Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad TOBBECHE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, TCAD Silvaco (Technology Computer Aided Design software has been used to study the Back Surface Field (BSF effect of a p+ silicon layer for a n+pp+ silicon solar cell. To study this effect, the J-V characteristics and the external quantum efficiency (EQE are simulated under AM 1.5 illumination for two types of cells. The first solar cell is without BSF (n+p structure while the second one is with BSF (n+pp+ structure. The creation of the BSF on the rear face of the cell results in efficiency h of up to 16.06% with a short-circuit current density Jsc = 30.54 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage Voc = 0.631 V, a fill factor FF = 0.832 and a clear improvement of the spectral response obtained in the long wavelengths range. An electric field and a barrier of potential are created by the BSF and located at the junction p+/p with a maximum of 5800 V/cm and 0.15 V, respectively. The optimization of the BSF layer shows that the cell performance improves with the p+ thickness between 0.35 – 0.39 µm, the p+ doping dose is about 2 × 1014 cm-2, the maximum efficiency up to 16.19 %. The cell efficiency is more sensitive to the value of the back surface recombination velocity above a value of 103 cm/s in n+p than n+pp+ solar cell.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9565

  3. O-Linked β-N-Acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) in Primary and Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Clones and Effect of N-Acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase Silencing on Cell Phenotype and Transcriptome*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehezkel, Galit; Cohen, Liz; Kliger, Adi; Manor, Esther; Khalaila, Isam

    2012-01-01

    O-Linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) glycosylation is a regulatory post-translational modification occurring on the serine or threonine residues of nucleocytoplasmic proteins. O-GlcNAcylation is dynamically regulated by O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), which are responsible for O-GlcNAc addition and removal, respectively. Although O-GlcNAcylation was found to play a significant role in several pathologies such as type II diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases, the role of O-GlcNAcylation in the etiology and progression of cancer remains vague. Here, we followed O-GlcNAcylation and its catalytic machinery in metastatic clones of human colorectal cancer and the effect of OGA knockdown on cellular phenotype and on the transcriptome. The colorectal cancer SW620 metastatic clone exhibited increased O-GlcNAcylation and decreased OGA expression compared with its primary clone, SW480. O-GlcNAcylation elevation in SW620 cells, through RNA interference of OGA, resulted in phenotypic alterations that included acquisition of a fibroblast-like morphology, which coincides with epithelial metastatic progression and growth retardation. Microarray analysis revealed that OGA silencing altered the expression of about 1300 genes, mostly involved in cell movement and growth, and specifically affected metabolic pathways of lipids and carbohydrates. These findings support the involvement of O-GlcNAcylation in various aspects of tumor cell physiology and suggest that this modification may serve as a link between metabolic changes and cancer. PMID:22730328

  4. Neuronal cells on GaN-based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, H.; Charpentier, M.; Mueller, M.; Garke, B.; Veit, P.; Hempel, T.; Diez, A.; Reiher, A.; Dadgar, A.; Christen, J.; Krost, A. [Inst. of Experimental Physics, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg (Germany); Voigt, T. [Inst. of Physiology, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Magdeburg (Germany); Deliano, M.; Ohl, F. [Leibniz Institute of Neurobiology, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Group-III-nitride-based devices can be used for recording electrical activities of cell signals using the main advantage of high chemical and physiological stability. However, for the application of these materials in neural tissue their biocompatibility should be proofed. We have investigated the interactions between group-III-semiconductors and (1) dissociated neuron networks of embryonic rat cerebral cortex, and (2) neurons within the primary auditory cortex of Mongolian gerbils (rodents). The neuron networks were cultured within more than two days on the surfaces of GaN, AlGaN, AlN and GaO/GaN layers and were analyzed using optical and electron microscopy. In addition, pieces of nitrides were implanted into the cortex of living gerbils and remained there for several months. The reactions of the ambient neuron tissue were investigated by histological methods. Furthermore, the impact of the neuron cell cultures on the substrate surfaces were analyzed using atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. All investigations showed the stability and the non-toxic behavior of the pure GaN layers whereas the Al-containing layers were somewhat affected.

  5. Surface passivation of InP solar cells with InAlAs layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj K.; Flood, Dennis J.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    The efficiency of indium phosphide solar cells is limited by high values of surface recombination. The effect of a lattice-matched In(0.52)Al(0.48)As window layer material for InP solar cells, using the numerical code PC-1D is investigated. It was found that the use of InAlAs layer significantly enhances the p(+)n cell efficiency, while no appreciable improvement is seen for n(+)p cells. The conduction band energy discontinuity at the heterojunction helps in improving the surface recombination. An optimally designed InP cell efficiency improves from 15.4 percent to 23 percent AMO for a 10 nm thick InAlAs layer. The efficiency improvement reduces with increase in InAlAs layer thickness, due to light absorption in the window layer.

  6. Wear of cross-linked polyethylene against itself: a material suitable for surface replacement of the finger joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibly, T F; Unsworth, A

    1991-05-01

    Cross-linking of polyethylene (XLPE) has dramatically improved its properties in industrial applications, and it may also have some application in the field of human joint replacement. Additionally it has the advantage of permitting a lower molecular weight base material to be used, so that components may be injection moulded rather than machined. This study therefore investigates the wear resistance of medical grade cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), cross-linked by a silane-grafting process, with a molecular weight between cross links of 5430 g mol(-1). This first report investigates the wear resistance of XLPE against itself, because for certain joints, such as the metacarpo-phalangeal joint, the material may have a high enough wear resistance to allow both bearing surfaces to be made from it. Tests were carried out both on a reciprocating pin and plate machine with pins loaded at 10 and 40 N and also on a new finger joint simulator, which simulates the loads applied to and the movements of, the metacarpo-phalangeal joint. An average wear rate of 1.8 x 10(-6) mm3 N-1 m-1 was found (range 0.9-2.75 x 10(-6) mm3 N-1 m-1). This is about six times greater than the wear rate of non-cross-linked ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) against stainless steel, but for applications with low loading, such as the metacarpo-phalangeal joint, this material is shown to have adequate wear resistance. The coefficient of friction was 0.1, which is similar to that of UHMWPE on stainless steel.

  7. Syndecans as cell surface receptors: Unique structure equates with functional diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Youngsil; Chung, Heesung; Jung, Heyjung

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of functions for syndecan cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been proposed over the last decade. Moreover, aberrant syndecan regulation has been found to play a critical role in multiple pathologies, including cancers, as well as wound healing and inflammation....... As receptors, they have much in common with other molecules on the cell surface. Syndecans are type I transmembrane molecules with cytoplasmic domains that link to the actin cytoskeleton and can interact with a number of regulators. However, they are also highly complex by virtue of their external...... glycosaminoglycan chains, especially heparan sulfate. This heterodisperse polysaccharide has the potential to interact with many ligands from diverse protein families. Here, we relate the structural features of syndecans to some of their known functions....

  8. Physiology of B cells in mice with X-linked immunodeficiency (xid). III. Disappearance of xid B cells in double bone marrow chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprent, J.; Bruce, J.

    1984-01-01

    Evidence is presented that B cells from mice with X-linked immunodeficiency (xid) differentiate at a slower rate than normal B cells. This conclusion stems from studies in which (B6 X CBA/J)F1 mice were heavily irradiated (1,000 rads) and reconstituted with a mixture of T-depleted marrow cells taken from (a) nondefective B6 mice (H-2b) and (b) xid CBA/N or nondefective CBA/Ca mice (both H-2k). With transfer of CBA/Ca plus B6 marrow cells, the irradiated recipients become repopulated with B cells derived from both parental marrow sources; except for an early imbalance (probably reflecting Hh resistance), the degree of chimerism remained relatively stable over a period of more than 6 months. Very different results occurred with transfer of a mixture of xid CBA/N and normal B6 marrow. Within the first 2 months after marrow reconstitution, a low but significant proportion of the B cells in both spleen and lymph nodes were of CBA/N origin. Thereafter the proportion of these cells fell progressively, and by 6-9 months virtually all of the B cells were of B6 origin. This gradual decline in CBA/N-derived cells did not apply to other cell types, i.e., T cells or pluripotential stem cells. Analogous results were obtained with transfer of CBA/N vs. CBA/Ca marrow cells into sublethally irradiated (750 rads) (CBA/N X DBA/2)F1 male vs. female mice. For example, CBA/N-marrow derived B cells differentiated effectively and survived for long periods in F1 male mice (xid----xid) but not in F1 female mice (xid----normal). The finding that xid B cells eventually disappear in the presence of normal B cells strengthens the view that xid B cells are an abnormal population not represented in normal mice

  9. Cell surface clustering of Cadherin adhesion complex induced by antibody coated beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cadherin receptors mediate cell-cell adhesion, signal transduction and assembly of cytoskeletons. How a single transmembrane molecule Cadherin can be involved in multiple functions through modulating its binding activities with many membrane adhesion molecules and cytoskeletal components is an unanswered question which can be elucidated by clues from bead experiments. Human lung cells expressing N-Cadherin were examined. After co-incubation with anti-N-Cadherin monoclonal antibody coated beads, cell surface clustering of N-Cadherin was induced. Immunofluorescent detection demonstrated that in addition to Cadherin, β-Catenin, α-Catenin, α-Actinin and Actin fluorescence also aggregated respectively at the membrane site of bead attachment. Myosin heavy chain (MHC), another major component of Actin cytoskeleton, did not aggregate at the membrane site of bead attachment. Adhesion unrelated protein Con A and polylysine conjugated beads did not induce the clustering of adhesion molecules. It is indicated that the Cadherin/Catenins/α-Actinin/Actin complex is formed at Cadherin mediated cell adherens junction; occupancy and cell surface clustering of Cadherin is crucial for the formation of Cadherin adhesion protein complexes.

  10. Active screen plasma nitriding enhances cell attachment to polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaklamani, Georgia; Bowen, James; Mehrban, Nazia; Dong, Hanshan; Grover, Liam M.; Stamboulis, Artemis

    2013-01-01

    Active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) is a well-established technique used for the surface modification of materials, the result of which is often a product with enhanced functional performance. Here we report the modification of the chemical and mechanical properties of ultra-high molecular weight poly(ethylene) (UHMWPE) using 80:20 (v/v) N 2 /H 2 ASPN, followed by growth of 3T3 fibroblasts on the treated and untreated polymer surfaces. ASPN-treated UHMWPE showed extensive fibroblast attachment within 3 h of seeding, whereas fibroblasts did not successfully attach to untreated UHMWPE. Fibroblast-coated surfaces were maintained for up to 28 days, monitoring their metabolic activity and morphology throughout. The chemical properties of the ASPN-treated UHMWPE surface were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, revealing the presence of C-N, C=N, and C≡N chemical bonds. The elastic modulus, surface topography, and adhesion properties of the ASPN-treated UHMWPE surface were studied over 28 days during sample storage under ambient conditions and during immersion in two commonly used cell culture media.

  11. SMAD4 regulates cell motility through transcription of N-cadherin in human pancreatic ductal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya'an Kang

    Full Text Available Expression of the cellular adhesion protein N-cadherin is a critical event during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. The SMAD4 protein has been identified as a mediator of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β superfamily signaling, which regulates EMT, but the mechanisms linking TGF-β signaling to N-cadherin expression remain unclear. When the TGF-β pathway is activated, SMAD proteins, including the common mediator SMAD4, are subsequently translocated into the nucleus, where they influence gene transcription via SMAD binding elements (SBEs. Here we describe a mechanism for control of CDH2, the gene encoding N-cadherin, through the canonical TGFβ-SMAD4 pathway. We first identified four previously undescribed SBEs within the CDH2 promoter. Using telomerase immortalized human pancreatic ductal epithelium, we found that TGF-β stimulation prompted specific SMAD4 binding to all four SBEs. Luciferase reporter and SMAD4-knockdown experiments demonstrated that specific SMAD4 binding to the SBE located at -3790 bp to -3795 bp within the promoter region of CDH2 was necessary for TGF-β-stimulated transcription. Expression of N-cadherin on the surface of epithelial cells facilitates motility and invasion, and we demonstrated that knockdown of SMAD4 causes decreased N-cadherin expression, which results in diminished migration and invasion of human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. Similar reduction of cell motility was produced after CDH2 knockdown. Together, these findings suggest that SMAD4 is critical for the TGF-β-driven upregulation of N-cadherin and the resultant invasive phenotype of human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells during EMT.

  12. Summary of theoretical and experimental investigation of grating type, silicon photovoltaic cells. [using p-n junctions on light receiving surface of base crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. Y.; Loferski, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental aspects are summarized for single crystal, silicon photovoltaic devices made by forming a grating pattern of p/n junctions on the light receiving surface of the base crystal. Based on the general semiconductor equations, a mathematical description is presented for the photovoltaic properties of such grating-like structures in a two dimensional form. The resulting second order elliptical equation is solved by computer modeling to give solutions for various, reasonable, initial values of bulk resistivity, excess carrier concentration, and surface recombination velocity. The validity of the computer model is established by comparison with p/n devices produced by alloying an aluminum grating pattern into the surface of n-type silicon wafers. Current voltage characteristics and spectral response curves are presented for cells of this type constructed on wafers of different resistivities and orientations.

  13. The Extracellular Protein Factor Epf from Streptococcus pyogenes Is a Cell Surface Adhesin That Binds to Cells through an N-terminal Domain Containing a Carbohydrate-binding Module*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Christian; Siemens, Nikolai; Oehmcke, Sonja; Radjainia, Mazdak; Law, Ruby H. P.; Whisstock, James C.; Baker, Edward N.; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is an exclusively human pathogen. Streptococcal attachment to and entry into epithelial cells is a prerequisite for a successful infection of the human host and requires adhesins. Here, we demonstrate that the multidomain protein Epf from S. pyogenes serotype M49 is a streptococcal adhesin. An epf-deficient mutant showed significantly decreased adhesion to and internalization into human keratinocytes. Cell adhesion is mediated by the N-terminal domain of Epf (EpfN) and increased by the human plasma protein plasminogen. The crystal structure of EpfN, solved at 1.6 Å resolution, shows that it consists of two subdomains: a carbohydrate-binding module and a fibronectin type III domain. Both fold types commonly participate in ligand receptor and protein-protein interactions. EpfN is followed by 18 repeats of a domain classified as DUF1542 (domain of unknown function 1542) and a C-terminal cell wall sorting signal. The DUF1542 repeats are not involved in adhesion, but biophysical studies show they are predominantly α-helical and form a fiber-like stalk of tandem DUF1542 domains. Epf thus conforms with the widespread family of adhesins known as MSCRAMMs (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules), in which a cell wall-attached stalk enables long range interactions via its adhesive N-terminal domain. PMID:22977243

  14. Functionalized PDMS with versatile and scalable surface roughness gradients for cell culture

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu

    2015-07-21

    This manuscript describes a simple and versatile approach to engineering surface roughness gradients via combination of microfluidics and photo-polymerization. Through UV-mediated polymerization, N-isopropylacrylamide with concentration gradients are successfully grafted onto PDMS surface, leading to diverse roughness degrees on the obtained PDMS substrate. Furthermore, the extent of surface roughness can be controllably regulated via tuning the flow rate ratio between the monomer solution and deionized water. Average roughness ranging from 8.050 nm to 151.68 nm has well been achieved in this work. Such PDMS samples are also demonstrated to be capable of working as supporting substrates for controlling cell adhesion or detachment. Due to the different degrees of surface roughness on a single substrate, our method provides an effective approach for designing advanced surafecs for cell culture. Finally, the thermosensitive property of N-isopropylacrylamide makes our sample furnish as another means for controlling the cell detachment from the substrates with correspondence to the surrounding temperature.

  15. Functionalized PDMS with versatile and scalable surface roughness gradients for cell culture

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu; Gao, Xinghua; Wang, Cong; Ye, Ziran; Gao, Yibo; Xie, Jiao; Wu, Xiaoxiao; Wen, Weijia

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes a simple and versatile approach to engineering surface roughness gradients via combination of microfluidics and photo-polymerization. Through UV-mediated polymerization, N-isopropylacrylamide with concentration gradients are successfully grafted onto PDMS surface, leading to diverse roughness degrees on the obtained PDMS substrate. Furthermore, the extent of surface roughness can be controllably regulated via tuning the flow rate ratio between the monomer solution and deionized water. Average roughness ranging from 8.050 nm to 151.68 nm has well been achieved in this work. Such PDMS samples are also demonstrated to be capable of working as supporting substrates for controlling cell adhesion or detachment. Due to the different degrees of surface roughness on a single substrate, our method provides an effective approach for designing advanced surafecs for cell culture. Finally, the thermosensitive property of N-isopropylacrylamide makes our sample furnish as another means for controlling the cell detachment from the substrates with correspondence to the surrounding temperature.

  16. Lipid-linked cell wall precursors regulate membrane association of bacterial actin MreB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirner, Kathrin; Eun, Ye-Jin; Dion, Mike; Luo, Yun; Helmann, John D; Garner, Ethan C; Walker, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial actin homolog MreB, which is crucial for rod shape determination, forms filaments that rotate around the cell width on the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane. What determines filament association with the membranes or with other cell wall elongation proteins is not known. Using specific chemical and genetic perturbations while following MreB filament motion, we find that MreB membrane association is an actively regulated process that depends on the presence of lipid-linked peptidoglycan precursors. When precursors are depleted, MreB filaments disassemble into the cytoplasm, and peptidoglycan synthesis becomes disorganized. In cells that lack wall teichoic acids but continue to make peptidoglycan, dynamic MreB filaments are observed, although their presence is not sufficient to establish a rod shape. We propose that the cell regulates MreB filament association with the membrane, allowing rapid and reversible inactivation of cell wall enzyme complexes in response to the inhibition of cell wall synthesis.

  17. An N-terminal Retention Module Anchors the Giant Adhesin LapA of Pseudomonas fluorescens at the Cell Surface: A Novel Sub-family of Type I Secretion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T Jarrod; Font, Maria E; Kelly, Carolyn M; Sondermann, Holger; O'Toole, George A

    2018-02-05

    LapA of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 belongs to a diverse family of cell surface associated bacterial adhesins that are secreted via the type-1 secretion system (T1SS). We previously reported that the periplasmic protease LapG cleaves the N-terminus of LapA at a canonical dialanine motif to release the adhesin from the cell surface under conditions unfavorable to biofilm formation, thus decreasing biofilm formation. Here, we characterize LapA as the first type 1 secreted substrate that does not follow the "one-step" rule of T1SS. Rather, a novel N-terminal element, called the retention module (RM), localizes LapA at the cell surface as a secretion intermediate. Our genetic, biochemical, and molecular modeling analysis support a model wherein LapA is tethered to the cell surface through its T1SS outer membrane TolC-like pore, LapE, until LapG cleaves LapA in the periplasm. We further demonstrate this unusual retention strategy is likely conserved among LapA-like proteins, and reveals a new subclass of T1SS ABC transporters involved in transporting this group of surface-associated, LapA-like adhesins. These studies demonstrate a novel cell surface retention strategy used throughout the Proteobacteria and highlight a previously unappreciated flexibility of function for T1SS. Importance. Bacteria have evolved multiple secretion strategies to interact with their environment. For many bacteria, the secretion of cell surface associated adhesins is key for initiating contact with a preferred substratum to facilitate biofilm formation. Our work demonstrates that P. fluorescens uses a previously unrecognized secretion strategy to retain the giant adhesin LapA at its cell surface. Further, we identify likely LapA-like adhesins in various pathogenic and commensal Proteobacteria and provide phylogenetic evidence that these adhesins are secreted by a new subclass of T1SS ABC transporters. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Fibrillar Structure and Charge Determine the Interaction of Polyglutamine Protein Aggregates with the Cell Surface*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, R. Sean; Lauckner, Jane E.; Sourigues, Yannick; Pearce, Margaret M.; Bousset, Luc; Melki, Ronald; Kopito, Ron R.

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of most neurodegenerative diseases, including transmissible diseases like prion encephalopathy, inherited disorders like Huntington disease, and sporadic diseases like Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, is intimately linked to the formation of fibrillar protein aggregates. It is becoming increasingly appreciated that prion-like intercellular transmission of protein aggregates can contribute to the stereotypical spread of disease pathology within the brain, but the mechanisms underlying the binding and uptake of protein aggregates by mammalian cells are largely uninvestigated. We have investigated the properties of polyglutamine (polyQ) aggregates that endow them with the ability to bind to mammalian cells in culture and the properties of the cell surface that facilitate such uptake. Binding and internalization of polyQ aggregates are common features of mammalian cells and depend upon both trypsin-sensitive and trypsin-resistant saturable sites on the cell surface, suggesting the involvement of cell surface proteins in this process. polyQ aggregate binding depends upon the presence of a fibrillar amyloid-like structure and does not depend upon electrostatic interaction of fibrils with the cell surface. Sequences in the huntingtin protein that flank the amyloid-forming polyQ tract also influence the extent to which aggregates are able to bind to cell surfaces. PMID:22753412

  19. Structural characteristics of surface-functionalized nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon films and effective adjustment to cell attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ai-Ping; Liu Min; Yu Jian-Can; Qian Guo-Dong; Tang Wei-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) films prepared by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology are functionalized with various chemical molecules including dopamine (DA), 3-Aminobenzeneboronic acid (APBA), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and the impacts of surface functionalities on the surface morphologies, compositions, microstructures, and cell compatibility of the DLC:N films are systematically investigated. We demonstrate that the surface groups of DLC:N have a significant effect on the surface and structural properties of the film. The activity of PC12 cells depends on the particular type of surface functional groups of DLC:N films regardless of surface roughness and wettability. Our research offers a novel way for designing functionalized carbon films as tailorable substrates for biosensors and biomedical engineering applications. (paper)

  20. Photovoltaic characteristics of porous silicon /(n+ - p) silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhafarov, T.D.; Aslanov, S.S.; Ragimov, S.H.; Sadigov, M.S.; Nabiyeva, A.F.; Yuksel, Aydin S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : The purpose of this work is to improve the photovoltaic parameters of the screen-printed silicon solar cells by formation the nano-porous silicon film on the frontal surface of the cell. The photovoltaic characteristics of two type silicon solar cells with and without porous silicon layer were measured and compared. A remarkable increment of short-circuit current density and the efficiency by 48 percent and 20 percent, respectively, have been achieved for PS/(n + - pSi) solar cell comparing to (n + - p)Si solar cell without PS layer

  1. Regulation of cytokine receptors by Golgi N-glycan processing and endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Emily A; Le Roy, Christine; Di Guglielmo, Gianni M; Pawling, Judy; Cheung, Pam; Granovsky, Maria; Nabi, Ivan R; Wrana, Jeffrey L; Dennis, James W

    2004-10-01

    The Golgi enzyme beta1,6 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (Mgat5) is up-regulated in carcinomas and promotes the substitution of N-glycan with poly N-acetyllactosamine, the preferred ligand for galectin-3 (Gal-3). Here, we report that expression of Mgat5 sensitized mouse cells to multiple cytokines. Gal-3 cross-linked Mgat5-modified N-glycans on epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta receptors at the cell surface and delayed their removal by constitutive endocytosis. Mgat5 expression in mammary carcinoma was rate limiting for cytokine signaling and consequently for epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. Mgat5 also promoted cytokine-mediated leukocyte signaling, phagocytosis, and extravasation in vivo. Thus, conditional regulation of N-glycan processing drives synchronous modification of cytokine receptors, which balances their surface retention against loss via endocytosis.

  2. Tumor cell surface proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, S.J.; Braslawsky, G.R.; Flynn, K.; Foote, L.J.; Friedman, E.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Huang, A.H.L.; Lankford, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    Cell surface proteins mediate interaction between cells and their environment. Unique tumor cell surface proteins are being identified and quantified in several tumor systems to address the following questions: (i) how do tumor-specific proteins arise during cell transformation; (ii) can these proteins be used as markers of tumor cell distribution in vivo; (iii) can cytotoxic drugs be targeted specifically to tumor cells using antibody; and (iv) can solid state radioimmunoassay of these proteins provide a means to quantify transformation frequencies. A tumor surface protein of 180,000 M/sub r/ (TSP-180) has been identified on cells of several lung carcinomas of BALB/c mice. TSP-180 was not detected on normal lung tissue, embryonic tissue, or other epithelial or sarcoma tumors, but it was found on lung carcinomas of other strains of mice. Considerable amino acid sequence homology exists among TSP-180's from several cell sources, indicating that TSP-180 synthesis is directed by normal cellular genes although it is not expressed in normal cells. The regulation of synthesis of TSP-180 and its relationship to normal cell surface proteins are being studied. Monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to TSP-180 have been developed. The antibodies have been used in immunoaffinity chromatography to isolate TSP-180 from tumor cell sources. This purified tumor antigen was used to immunize rats. Antibody produced by these animals reacted at different sites (epitopes) on the TSP-180 molecule than did the original MoAb. These sera and MoAb from these animals are being used to identify normal cell components related to the TSP-180 molecule

  3. Strong, weak, and missing links in a microbial community of the N.W. Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettarel, Y; Dolan, J R; Hornak, K; Lemée, R; Masin, M; Pedrotti, M-L; Rochelle-Newall, E; Simek, K; Sime-Ngando, T

    2002-12-01

    Planktonic microbial communities often appear stable over periods of days and thus tight links are assumed to exist between different functional groups (i.e. producers and consumers). We examined these links by characterizing short-term temporal correspondences in the concentrations and activities of microbial groups sampled from 1 m depth, at a coastal site of the N.W. Mediterranean Sea, in September 2001 every 3 h for 3 days. We estimated the abundance and activity rates of the autotrophic prokaryote Synechococcus, heterotrophic bacteria, viruses, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, as well as dissolved organic carbon concentrations. We found that Synechococcus, heterotrophic bacteria, and viruses displayed distinct patterns. Synechococcus abundance was greatest at midnight and lowest at 21:00 and showed the common pattern of an early evening maximum in dividing cells. In contrast, viral concentrations were minimal at midnight and maximal at 18:00. Viral infection of heterotrophic bacteria was rare (0.5-2.5%) and appeared to peak at 03:00. Heterotrophic bacteria, as % eubacteria-positive cells, peaked at midday, appearing loosely related to relative changes in dissolved organic carbon concentration. Bacterial production as assessed by leucine incorporation showed no consistent temporal pattern but could be related to shifts in the grazing rates of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and viral infection rates. Estimates of virus-induced mortality of heterotrophic bacteria, based on infection frequencies, were only about 10% of cell production. Overall, the dynamics of viruses appeared more closely related to Synechococcus than to heterotrophic bacteria. Thus, we found weak links between dissolved organic carbon concentration, or grazing, and bacterial activity, a possibly strong link between Synechococcus and viruses, and a missing link between light and viruses.

  4. Screening for Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Modified Cell Wall Proteins in Pichia pastoris and Their Recombinant Expression on the Cell Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liang, Shuli; Zhou, Xinying; Jin, Zi; Jiang, Fengchun; Han, Shuangyan; Zheng, Suiping

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoproteins have various intrinsic functions in yeasts and different uses in vitro. In the present study, the genome of Pichia pastoris GS115 was screened for potential GPI-modified cell wall proteins. Fifty putative GPI-anchored proteins were selected on the basis of (i) the presence of a C-terminal GPI attachment signal sequence, (ii) the presence of an N-terminal signal sequence for secretion, and (iii) the absence of transmembrane domains in mature protein. The predicted GPI-anchored proteins were fused to an alpha-factor secretion signal as a substitute for their own N-terminal signal peptides and tagged with the chimeric reporters FLAG tag and mature Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB). The expression of fusion proteins on the cell surface of P. pastoris GS115 was determined by whole-cell flow cytometry and immunoblotting analysis of the cell wall extracts obtained by β-1,3-glucanase digestion. CALB displayed on the cell surface of P. pastoris GS115 with the predicted GPI-anchored proteins was examined on the basis of potential hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate. Finally, 13 proteins were confirmed to be GPI-modified cell wall proteins in P. pastoris GS115, which can be used to display heterologous proteins on the yeast cell surface. PMID:23835174

  5. The study of poly-Si n+pp+ solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboud, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    The electrical and optical properties such as (activation energy, optical energy gap, and gap state density) of the polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) have been studied. A comparative study between the chemical and mechanical polishing to clean and polish the poly-Si surface were done through the measurement of the reflectivity of these surfaces. A group of solar cells of type n + pp + were prepared, using p-type poly-Si wafers (SISLO). Solar cells were also prepared using single silicon (Sing-Si) with and, without (BSF) to study the effect of (BSF) on Sing-Si cell and a comparative study between poly-Si cell and Sing-Si cell under the same conditions. 2 tabs.; 45 figs.; 49 refs

  6. Cells behaviors and genotoxicity on topological surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, N.; Yang, M.K.; Bi, S.X.; Chen, L.; Zhu, Z.Y.; Gao, Y.T.; Du, Z.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate different cells behaviors and genotoxicity, which were driven by specific microenvironments, three patterned surfaces (pillars, wide grooves and narrow grooves) and one smooth surface were prepared by template-based technique. Vinculin is a membrane-cytoskeletal protein in focal adhesion plaques and associates with cell–cell and cell–matrix junctions, which can promote cell adhesion and spreading. The immunofluorescence staining of vinculin revealed that the narrow grooves patterned substrate was favorable for L929 cell adhesion. For cell multiplication, the narrow grooves surface was fitted for the proliferation of L929, L02 and MSC cells, the pillars surface was only in favor of L929 cells to proliferate during 7 days of cell cultivation. Cell genetic toxicity was evaluated by cellular micronuclei test (MNT). The results indicated that topological surfaces were more suitable for L929 cells to proliferate and maintain the stability of genome. On the contrary, the narrow grooves surface induced higher micronuclei ratio of L02 and MSC cells than other surfaces. With the comprehensive results of cell multiplication and MNT, it was concluded that the wide grooves surface was best fitted for L02 cells to proliferate and have less DNA damages, and the smooth surface was optimum for the research of MSC cells in vitro. - Highlights: • Different cells behaviors on microstructure surfaces were discussed in this paper. • The expression of cell protein of Vinculin was studied in this research. • Cellular micronuclei test was applied to evaluate cells' genotoxicity. • Cell genotoxicity was first studied in the research field of topological surfaces

  7. Antigen-primed helper T cell function in CBA/N mice is radiosensitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, N.E.; Campbell, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    CBA/N mice have an X-linked immunodeficiency that includes a deficient humoral response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). In order to study the cellular mechanisms of this deficiency we have examined helper T cell function to SRBC in an adoptive transfer system by using 2 different sources of helper T cells. When thymocytes were used as the source of helper T cell precursors in an adoptive transfer system, CBA/N thymocytes were as effective as CBA/Ca thymocytes in inducing CBA/Ca bone marrow cells to develop into both direct and indirect anti-SRBC plaque-forming cells (PFC). However, when SRBC-primed, irradiated recipient mice were used as the source of helper T cells, primed and irradiated CBA/N recipiets developed significantly fewer direct and indirect anti-SRBC PFC than similarly treated CBA/CA recipients when reconstituted with CBA/Ca bone marrow cells and challenged with SRBC. We conclude that antigen-primed helper T cell function in CBA/N mice is radiosensitive. Possible reasons for this are evaluated and discussed

  8. Biomineralisation with Saos-2 bone cells on TiSiN sputtered Ti alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V V, Anusha Thampi; Bendavid, Avi; Martin, P J; Vaithilingam, Vijay; Bean, Penelope A; Evans, Margaret D M; Subramanian, B

    2017-07-01

    Surface modifications of metallic implants are important in order to protect the underlying metals from the harsh corrosive environment inside the human body and to minimize the losses caused by wear. Recently, researches are carried out in developing bioactive surfaces on metallic implants, which supports the growth and proliferation of cells on to these surfaces. Titanium silicon nitride (TiSiN) hard nanocomposites thin films were fabricated on Ti alloys (Ti-6Al-4V) by pulsed direct current (DC) reactive magnetron sputtering. The films were characterized for its microstructural and electrochemical behavior. The higher charge transfer resistance (Rct) and positive shift in Ecorr value of TiSiN/Ti alloys than the bare Ti-alloys indicates a better corrosion resistance offered by the TiSiN thin films to the underlying substrates. The biological response to TiSiN/Ti alloys and control bare Ti-alloys was measured in vitro using cell-based assays with two main outcomes. Firstly, neither the Ti alloy nor the TiSiN thin film was cytotoxic to cells. Secondly, the TiSiN thin film promoted differentiation of human bone cells above the bare control Ti alloy as measured by alkaline phosphatase and calcium production. TiSiN thin films provide better corrosion resistance and protect the underlying metal from the corrosive environment. The thin film surface is both biocompatible and bioactive as indicated from the cytotoxicity and biomineralization studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Surfaceome and Proteosurfaceome in Parietal Monoderm Bacteria: Focus on Protein Cell-Surface Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaël Desvaux

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The cell envelope of parietal monoderm bacteria (archetypal Gram-positive bacteria is formed of a cytoplasmic membrane (CM and a cell wall (CW. While the CM is composed of phospholipids, the CW is composed at least of peptidoglycan (PG covalently linked to other biopolymers, such as teichoic acids, polysaccharides, and/or polyglutamate. Considering the CW is a porous structure with low selective permeability contrary to the CM, the bacterial cell surface hugs the molecular figure of the CW components as a well of the external side of the CM. While the surfaceome corresponds to the totality of the molecules found at the bacterial cell surface, the proteinaceous complement of the surfaceome is the proteosurfaceome. Once translocated across the CM, secreted proteins can either be released in the extracellular milieu or exposed at the cell surface by associating to the CM or the CW. Following the gene ontology (GO for cellular components, cell-surface proteins at the CM can either be integral (GO: 0031226, i.e., the integral membrane proteins, or anchored to the membrane (GO: 0046658, i.e., the lipoproteins. At the CW (GO: 0009275, cell-surface proteins can be covalently bound, i.e., the LPXTG-proteins, or bound through weak interactions to the PG or wall polysaccharides, i.e., the cell wall binding proteins. Besides monopolypeptides, some proteins can associate to each other to form supramolecular protein structures of high molecular weight, namely the S-layer, pili, flagella, and cellulosomes. After reviewing the cell envelope components and the different molecular mechanisms involved in protein attachment to the cell envelope, perspectives in investigating the proteosurfaceome in parietal monoderm bacteria are further discussed.

  10. Identification of a regulatory T cell specific cell surface molecule that mediates suppressive signals and induces Foxp3 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wan, Qi; Kozhaya, Lina; Fujii, Hodaka; Unutmaz, Derya

    2008-07-16

    Regulatory T (T(reg)) cells control immune activation and maintain tolerance. How T(regs) mediate their suppressive function is unclear. Here we identified a cell surface molecule, called GARP, (or LRRC32), which within T cells is specifically expressed in T(regs) activated through the T cell receptor (TCR). Ectopic expression of GARP in human naïve T (T(N)) cells inhibited their proliferation and cytokine secretion upon TCR activation. Remarkably, GARP over-expression in T(N) cells induced expression of T(reg) master transcription factor Foxp3 and endowed them with a partial suppressive function. The extracellular but not the cytoplasmic region of GARP, was necessary for these functions. Silencing Foxp3 in human T(reg) cells reduced expression of GARP and attenuated their suppressive function. However, GARP function was not affected when Foxp3 was downregulated in GARP-overexpressing cells, while silencing GARP in Foxp3-overexpressing cells reduced their suppressive activity. These findings reveal a novel cell surface molecule-mediated regulatory mechanism, with implications for modulating aberrant immune responses.

  11. Identification of a regulatory T cell specific cell surface molecule that mediates suppressive signals and induces Foxp3 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T (T(reg cells control immune activation and maintain tolerance. How T(regs mediate their suppressive function is unclear. Here we identified a cell surface molecule, called GARP, (or LRRC32, which within T cells is specifically expressed in T(regs activated through the T cell receptor (TCR. Ectopic expression of GARP in human naïve T (T(N cells inhibited their proliferation and cytokine secretion upon TCR activation. Remarkably, GARP over-expression in T(N cells induced expression of T(reg master transcription factor Foxp3 and endowed them with a partial suppressive function. The extracellular but not the cytoplasmic region of GARP, was necessary for these functions. Silencing Foxp3 in human T(reg cells reduced expression of GARP and attenuated their suppressive function. However, GARP function was not affected when Foxp3 was downregulated in GARP-overexpressing cells, while silencing GARP in Foxp3-overexpressing cells reduced their suppressive activity. These findings reveal a novel cell surface molecule-mediated regulatory mechanism, with implications for modulating aberrant immune responses.

  12. ABI domain-containing proteins contribute to surface protein display and cell division in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Matthew B; Wojcik, Brandon M; DeDent, Andrea C; Missiakas, Dominique M; Schneewind, Olaf

    2010-10-01

    The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus requires cell wall anchored surface proteins to cause disease. During cell division, surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides are secreted into the cross-wall, a layer of newly synthesized peptidoglycan between separating daughter cells. The molecular determinants for the trafficking of surface proteins are, however, still unknown. We screened mutants with non-redundant transposon insertions by fluorescence-activated cell sorting for reduced deposition of protein A (SpA) into the staphylococcal envelope. Three mutants, each of which harboured transposon insertions in genes for transmembrane proteins, displayed greatly reduced envelope abundance of SpA and surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides. Characterization of the corresponding mutations identified three transmembrane proteins with abortive infectivity (ABI) domains, elements first described in lactococci for their role in phage exclusion. Mutations in genes for ABI domain proteins, designated spdA, spdB and spdC (surface protein display), diminish the expression of surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides, but not of precursor proteins with conventional signal peptides. spdA, spdB and spdC mutants display an increase in the thickness of cross-walls and in the relative abundance of staphylococci with cross-walls, suggesting that spd mutations may represent a possible link between staphylococcal cell division and protein secretion. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Linking numbers and variational method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, I.; Yahikozawa, S.

    1989-09-01

    The ordinary and generalized linking numbers for two surfaces of dimension p and n-p-1 in an n dimensional manifold are derived. We use a variational method based on the properties of topological quantum field theory in order to derive them. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs

  14. The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is distinct from the N-CAM related group of surface antigens BSP-2 and D2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faissner, A; Kruse, J; Goridis, C

    1984-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 and the group of N-CAM related molecules, BSP-2 and D2 antigen, are immunochemically distinct molecular species. The two groups of surface molecules are also functionally distinct entities, since inhibition of Ca2+-independent adhesion among early post-natal m...

  15. Síndrome linfoproliferativo ligado al cromosoma X, infección por el virus EBV y defectos en la regulación de la citotoxicidad linfocitaria X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome, EBV infection and impaired regulation of cell-mediated cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Malbrán

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La deficiencia del gen SH2D1A que codifica para la proteína reguladora SAP trae aparejada la activación incontrolada de la vía de activación linfocitaria señalizada por SLAM (molécula señaladora de la activación linfocitaria. Es una inmunodeficiencia ligada al cromosoma X (XLP que se pone en evidencia cuando los pacientes portadores de mutaciones en el gen se enfrentan con el virus de Epstein Barr, desarrollando una mononucleosis infecciosa fulminante. Algunos pacientes desarrollan un síndrome linfoproliferativo fatal; los que sobreviven pueden presentar hipogammaglobulinemia severa y mayor frecuencia de neoplasia hematológica que la población normal. En esta revisión se discuten los mecanismos inmuno-regulatorios involucrados en el desarrollo de la patología mencionada, así como la participación de diferentes células efectoras de la respuesta inmune (linfocitos CD8 citotóxicos, células NK.Mutations in SH2D1A, a gene that codifies for the regulatory protein SAP, result in uncontrolled activation of the SLAM (signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule pathway. This X-linked immunodeficiency becomes evident when the patients are infected with Epstein Barr virus (EBV and develop a fulminant form of infectious mononucleosis leading to a lymphoproliferative syndrome that is often fatal (X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome, XLP. In those who survive, hypogammaglobulinemia and oncohematologic diseases are frequently observed. In this revision, the immuno-regulatory mechanisms involved in XLP immunopathology and the role of different effector cells (CD8 T lymphocytes, NK cells are discussed.

  16. Design and Simulation of InGaN p-n Junction Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mesrane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The tunability of the InGaN band gap energy over a wide range provides a good spectral match to sunlight, making it a suitable material for photovoltaic solar cells. The main objective of this work is to design and simulate the optimal InGaN single-junction solar cell. For more accurate results and best configuration, the optical properties and the physical models such as the Fermi-Dirac statistics, Auger and Shockley-Read-Hall recombination, and the doping and temperature-dependent mobility model were taken into account in simulations. The single-junction In0.622Ga0.378N (Eg = 1.39 eV solar cell is the optimal structure found. It exhibits, under normalized conditions (AM1.5G, 0.1 W/cm2, and 300 K, the following electrical parameters: Jsc=32.6791 mA/cm2, Voc=0.94091 volts, FF = 86.2343%, and η=26.5056%. It was noticed that the minority carrier lifetime and the surface recombination velocity have an important effect on the solar cell performance. Furthermore, the investigation results show that the In0.622Ga0.378N solar cell efficiency was inversely proportional with the temperature.

  17. Surface modification of amorphous nanosilica particles suppresses nanosilica-induced cytotoxicity, ROS generation, and DNA damage in various mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Matsuyama, Keigo; Nakazato, Yasutaro; Tochigi, Saeko; Hirai, Toshiro; Kondoh, Sayuri; Nagano, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► There is increasing concern regarding the potential health risks of nanomaterials. ► We evaluated the effect of surface properties of nanomaterials on cellular responses. ► We showed that the surface properties play an important in determining its safety. ► These data provide useful information for producing safer nanomaterials. -- Abstract: Recently, nanomaterials have been utilized in various fields. In particular, amorphous nanosilica particles are increasingly being used in a range of applications, including cosmetics, food technology, and medical diagnostics. However, there is concern that the unique characteristics of nanomaterials might induce undesirable effects. The roles played by the physical characteristics of nanomaterials in cellular responses have not yet been elucidated precisely. Here, by using nanosilica particles (nSPs) with a diameter of 70 nm whose surface was either unmodified (nSP70) or modified with amine (nSP70-N) or carboxyl groups (nSP70-C), we examined the relationship between the surface properties of nSPs and cellular responses such as cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and DNA damage. To compare the cytotoxicity of nSP70, nSP70-N, or nSP70-C, we examined in vitro cell viability after nSP treatment. Although the susceptibility of each cell line to the nSPs was different, nSP70-C and nSP70-N showed lower cytotoxicity than nSP70 in all cell lines. Furthermore, the generation of ROS and induction of DNA damage in nSP70-C- and nSP70-N-treated cells were lower than those in nSP70-treated cells. These results suggest that the surface properties of nSP70 play an important role in determining its safety, and surface modification of nSP70 with amine or carboxyl groups may be useful for the development of safer nSPs. We hope that our results will contribute to the development of safer nanomaterials.

  18. Efficiency enhancement of InP nanowire solar cells by surface cleaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, Y.; Wang, J.; Plissard, S.R.; Cavalli, A.; Vu, T.T.T.; Veldhoven, van P.J.; Gao, L.; Trainor, M.J.; Verheijen, M.A.; Haverkort, J.E.M.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an efficiency enhancement of an InP nanowire (NW) axial p–n junction solar cell by cleaning the NW surface. NW arrays were grown with in situ HCl etching on an InP substrate patterned by nanoimprint lithography, and the NWs surfaces were cleaned after growth by piranha etching. We

  19. Cell adhesion on Ti surface with controlled roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgos-Asperilla, Laura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the in situ interaction between Saos-2 osteoblast cells and a smooth Ti surface was examined over time. The adhesion kinetics and mechanisms of cellular proliferation were monitored by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The rate of Saos-2 attachment on Ti surfaces, obtained from the measurements performed with the QCM, is a first-order reaction, with k=2.10−3 min−1. The impedance measurements indicate that in the absence of cells, the Ti resistance diminishes over time (7 days, due to the presence of amino acids and proteins from the culture medium that have been a dsorbed, while in the presence of osteoblasts, this decrease is much greater because of the compounds generated by the cells that accelerate the dissolution of Ti.En este trabajo, se ha estudiado la interacción in situ entre células osteoblásticas Saos-2 y una superficie de Ti de rugosidad controlada a lo largo del tiempo. El estudio de la cinética y los mecanismos de proliferación celular de adhesión se ha realizado a través de la microbalanza de cristal de cuarzo (QCM y espectroscopía de impedancia electroquímica (EIS. La velocidad de adhesión de los osteoblastos sobre la superficie de Ti obtenida a través de medidas con la QCM, sigue una reacción de primer orden, con k=2×10−3 min−1. Los ensayos de impedancia indican que, en ausencia de las células, la resistencia del Ti disminuye con el tiempo (7 días, debido a la presencia de aminoácidos y proteínas del medio de cultivo que se han adsorbido, mientras que en presencia de células, esta disminución es mucho mayor debido a los productos metabólicos generados por las células que aceleran la disolución del Ti.

  20. InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum well heterostructures for solar cells grown by MOVPE: case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhtarova, Anna; Valdueza-Felip, Sirona; Durand, Christophe; Pan, Qing; Monroy, Eva; Eymery, Joel [CEA-CNRS-UJF Group ' ' Nanophysique et semi-conducteurs' ' , CEA/INAC/SP2M, Grenoble (France); Grenet, Louis [CEA-LITEN, Grenoble (France); Peyrade, David [Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microelectronique (LTM/CNRS), Grenoble (France); Bougerol, Catherine [CEA-CNRS-UJF Group ' ' Nanophysique et semi-conducteurs' ' , Institut Neel-CNRS, Grenoble (France); Chikhaoui, Walf [CEA-LETI, Grenoble (France)

    2013-03-15

    We investigate the influence of growth temperature, p -doping with bis-cyclopentadienyl magnesium (Cp{sub 2}Mg) and number N of multi-quantum wells on the surface morphology, the electrical and optical properties of InGaN-based solar cells grown by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy. Atomic force microscopy measurements show no influence of multiple-quantum well number on the surface morphology, but a smoothing with the increase of the Cp{sub 2}Mg flow. Electrochemical capacitance-voltage profiling exhibits an increase of the N{sub a}-N{sub d} concentration when increasing the Cp{sub 2}Mg flow from 250 to 700 sccm. X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy measurements confirm completely strained quantum wells with similar superlattice period for N=5 to 30. Finally, first solar cells have been demonstrated with a maximum external quantum efficiency of 38% at 380 nm wavelength for N=30. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Organic Electrochemical Transistors for the Detection of Cell Surface Glycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lizhen; Fu, Ying; Wang, Naixiang; Yang, Anneng; Li, Yuanzhe; Wu, Jie; Ju, Huangxian; Yan, Feng

    2018-05-23

    Cell surface glycans play critical roles in diverse biological processes, such as cell-cell communication, immunity, infection, development, and differentiation. Their expressions are closely related to cancer growth and metastasis. This work demonstrates an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT)-based biosensor for the detection of glycan expression on living cancer cells. Herein, mannose on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) as the target glycan model, poly dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride-multiwall carbon nanotubes (PDDA-MWCNTs) as the loading interface, concanavalin A (Con A) with active mannose binding sites, aptamer and horseradish peroxidase co-immobilized gold nanoparticles (HRP-aptamer-Au NPs) as specific nanoprobes are used to fabricate the OECT biosensor. In this strategy, PDDA-MWCNT interfaces can enhance the loading of Con A, and the target cells can be captured through Con A via active mannose binding sites. Thus, the expression of cell surface can be reflected by the amount of cells captured on the gate. Specific nanoprobes are introduced to the captured cells to produce an OECT signal because of the reduction of hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by HRP conjugated on Au nanoparticles, while the aptamer on nanoprobes can selectively recognize the MCF-7 cells. It is reasonable that more target cells are captured on the gate electrode, more HRP-nanoprobes are loaded thus a larger signal response. The device shows an obvious response to MCF-7 cells down to 10 cells/μL and can be used to selectively monitor the change of mannose expression on cell surfaces upon a treatment with the N-glycan inhibitor. The OECT-based biosensor is promising for the analysis of glycan expressions on the surfaces of different types of cells.

  2. Effects of Titanium Surface Microtopography and Simvastatin on Growth and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Estrogen-Deprived Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpornmaeklong, Premjit; Pripatnanont, Prisana; Chookiatsiri, Chonticha; Tangtrakulwanich, Boonsin

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of titanium surface topography and simvastatin on growth and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) in estrogen-deprived (ED) cell culture. Human BMSCs were seeded on cell culture plates, smooth-surface titanium (Ti) disks, and sandblasted with large grits and acid etched (SLA)-surface Ti disks; and subsequently cultured in regular (fetal bovine serum [FBS]), ED, and ED-with 100 nM simvastatin (ED-SIM) culture media for 14 to 21 days. Live/dead cell staining, scanning electron microscope examination, and cell viability assay were performed to determine cell attachment, morphology, and growth. Expression levels of osteoblast-associated genes, Runx2 and bone sialoprotein and levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium content, and osteocalcin in culture media were measured to determine osteoblastic differentiation. Expression levels of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were investigated to examine stimulating effects of simvastatin (n = 4 to 5, mean ± SD). In vitro mineralization was verified by calcein staining. Human BMSCs exhibited different attachment and shapes on smooth and SLA titanium surfaces. Estrogen-deprived cell culture decreased cell attachment and growth, particularly on the SLA titanium surface, but cells were able to grow to reach confluence on day 21 in the ED-osteogenic (OS) culture medium. Promoting effects of the SLA titanium surface in ED-OS were significantly decreased. Simvastatin significantly increased osteogenic differentiation of human BMSCs on the SLA titanium surface in the ED-OS medium, and the promoting effects of simvastatin corresponded with the increasing of BMP-2 gene expression on the SLA titanium surface in ED-OS-SIM culture medium. The ED cell culture model provided a well-defined platform for investigating the effects of hormones and growth factors on cells and titanium surface interaction. Titanium, the SLA surface, and simvastatin

  3. Multiparametric classification links tumor microenvironments with tumor cell phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Gligorijevic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While it has been established that a number of microenvironment components can affect the likelihood of metastasis, the link between microenvironment and tumor cell phenotypes is poorly understood. Here we have examined microenvironment control over two different tumor cell motility phenotypes required for metastasis. By high-resolution multiphoton microscopy of mammary carcinoma in mice, we detected two phenotypes of motile tumor cells, different in locomotion speed. Only slower tumor cells exhibited protrusions with molecular, morphological, and functional characteristics associated with invadopodia. Each region in the primary tumor exhibited either fast- or slow-locomotion. To understand how the tumor microenvironment controls invadopodium formation and tumor cell locomotion, we systematically analyzed components of the microenvironment previously associated with cell invasion and migration. No single microenvironmental property was able to predict the locations of tumor cell phenotypes in the tumor if used in isolation or combined linearly. To solve this, we utilized the support vector machine (SVM algorithm to classify phenotypes in a nonlinear fashion. This approach identified conditions that promoted either motility phenotype. We then demonstrated that varying one of the conditions may change tumor cell behavior only in a context-dependent manner. In addition, to establish the link between phenotypes and cell fates, we photoconverted and monitored the fate of tumor cells in different microenvironments, finding that only tumor cells in the invadopodium-rich microenvironments degraded extracellular matrix (ECM and disseminated. The number of invadopodia positively correlated with degradation, while the inhibiting metalloproteases eliminated degradation and lung metastasis, consistent with a direct link among invadopodia, ECM degradation, and metastasis. We have detected and characterized two phenotypes of motile tumor cells in vivo, which

  4. Biomimetic honeycomb-patterned surface as the tunable cell adhesion scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuangshuang; Lu, Xuemin; Hu, Ying; Lu, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the typically adhesive behaviors of fish skin and Parthenocissus tricuspidata, two different decorations of polystyrene honeycomb membrane (PSHCM) prepared by the breath figure approach were carried out with poly(N-(3-Sulfopropyl)-N-(methacryloxyethyl)-N,N-dimethylammonium betaine)(polySBMA) to explore controllable bioadhesive surfaces. Casting and dip-coating were employed to graft polySBMA onto the plasma treated PSHCM. The polySBMA casted PSHCM showed a uniform covering layer on the PSHCM similar to the mucus layer of fish skin, presenting excellent antifouling properties. On the contrary, a dip-coated one showed the polySBMA aggregating on the honeycomb pore walls forming a large number of sucking disks such as the adhesive disks of the tendrils of P. tricuspidata, which remarkably boosts cell adhesion on substrates. Thus, bioadhesion could be regulated as desired by tuning the distribution of zwitterionic polymer on the honeycomb surface. The results may provide a new approach for the design of biomaterial surfaces.

  5. Bacterial whole-cell biocatalysts by surface display of enzymes: toward industrial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüürmann, Jan; Quehl, Paul; Festel, Gunter; Jose, Joachim

    2014-10-01

    Despite the first report on the bacterial display of a recombinant peptide appeared almost 30 years ago, industrial application of cells with surface-displayed enzymes is still limited. To display an enzyme on the surface of a living cell bears several advantages. First of all, neither the substrate nor the product of the enzymatic reaction needs to cross a membrane barrier. Second, the enzyme being linked to the cell can be separated from the reaction mixture and hence the product by simple centrifugation. Transfer to a new substrate preparation results in multiple cycles of enzymatic conversion. Finally, the anchoring in a matrix, in this case, the cell envelope stabilizes the enzyme and makes it less accessible to proteolytic degradation and material adsorption resulting in continuous higher activities. These advantages in common need to balance some disadvantages before this application can be taken into account for industrial processes, e.g., the exclusion of the enzyme from the cellular metabolome and hence from redox factors or other co-factors that need to be supplied. Therefore, this digest describes the different systems in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that have been used for the surface display of enzymes so far and focuses on examples among these which are suitable for industrial purposes or for the production of valuable resources, not least in order to encourage a broader application of whole-cell biocatalysts with surface-displayed enzymes.

  6. Surface modification of closed plastic bags for adherent cell cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, K.; Dohse, A.; Thomas, M.; Pohl, S.; Meyring, W.; Dittmar, K. E. J.; Lindenmeier, W.; Klages, C.-P.

    2011-07-01

    In modern medicine human mesenchymal stem cells are becoming increasingly important. However, a successful cultivation of this type of cells is only possible under very specific conditions. Of great importance, for instance, are the absence of contaminants such as foreign microbiological organisms, i.e., sterility, and the chemical functionalization of the ground on which the cells are grown. As cultivation of these cells makes high demands, a new procedure for cell cultivation has been developed in which closed plastic bags are used. For adherent cell growth chemical functional groups have to be introduced on the inner surface of the plastic bag. This can be achieved by a new, atmospheric-pressure plasma-based method presented in this paper. The method which was developed jointly by the Fraunhofer IST and the Helmholtz HZI can be implemented in automated equipment as is also shown in this contribution. Plasma process gases used include helium or helium-based gas mixtures (He + N2 + H2) and vapors of suitable film-forming agents or precursors such as APTMS, DACH, and TMOS in helium. The effect of plasma treatment is investigated by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy as well as surface tension determination based on contact angle measurements and XPS. Plasma treatment in nominally pure helium increases the surface tension of the polymer foil due to the presence of oxygen traces in the gas and oxygen diffusing through the gas-permeable foil, respectively, reacting with surface radical centers formed during contact with the discharge. Primary amino groups are obtained on the inner surface by treatment in mixtures with nitrogen and hydrogen albeit their amount is comparably small due to diffusion of oxygen through the gas-permeable bag, interfering with the plasma-amination process. Surface modifications introducing amino groups on the inner surface turned out to be most efficient in the promotion of cell growth.

  7. The interaction between LYVE-1 with hyaluronan on the cell surface may play a role in the diversity of adhesion to cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan; Liu, Hua; He, Yiqing; Liu, Yiwen; Yang, Cuixia; Zhou, Muqing; Wang, Wenjuan; Cui, Lian; Hu, Jiajie; Gao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA), a simple disaccharide unit, can polymerize and is considered a primary component of the extracellular matrix, which has a wide range of biological functions. In recent years, HA was found on the surface of tumor cells. According to previous reports, differing HA content on the cell surface of tumor cells is closely related to lymph node metastases, but the mechanisms mediating this process remained unclear. This research intended to study the surface content of HA on tumor cells and analyze cell adhesive changes caused by the interaction between HA and its lymphatic endothelial receptor (LYVE-1). We screened and observed high HA content on HS-578T breast cells and low HA content on MCF-7 breast cells through particle exclusion, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry experiments. The expression of LYVE-1, the lymph-vessel specific HA receptor, was consistent with our previous report and enhanced the adhesion of HA(high)-HS-578T cells to COS-7(LYVE-1(+)) through HA in cell static adhesion and dynamic parallel plate flow chamber experiments. MCF-7 breast cells contain little HA on the surface; however, our results showed little adhesion difference between MCF-7 cells and COS-7(LYVE-1(+)) and COS-7(LYVE-1(-)) cells. Similar results were observed concerning the adhesion of HS-578T cells or MCF-7 cells to SVEC4-10 cells. Furthermore, we observed for the first time that the cell surface HA content of high transfer tumor cells was rich, and we visualized the cross-linking of HA cable structures, which may activate LYVE-1 on lymphatic endothelial cells, promoting tumor adhesion. In summary, high-low cell surface HA content of tumor cells through the interaction with LYVE-1 leads to adhesion differences.

  8. BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial cell death pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Neitemeier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ferroptosis has been defined as an oxidative and iron-dependent pathway of regulated cell death that is distinct from caspase-dependent apoptosis and established pathways of death receptor-mediated regulated necrosis. While emerging evidence linked features of ferroptosis induced e.g. by erastin-mediated inhibition of the Xc- system or inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4 to an increasing number of oxidative cell death paradigms in cancer cells, neurons or kidney cells, the biochemical pathways of oxidative cell death remained largely unclear. In particular, the role of mitochondrial damage in paradigms of ferroptosis needs further investigation.In the present study, we find that erastin-induced ferroptosis in neuronal cells was accompanied by BID transactivation to mitochondria, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced ATP levels. These hallmarks of mitochondrial demise are also established features of oxytosis, a paradigm of cell death induced by Xc- inhibition by millimolar concentrations of glutamate. Bid knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 approaches preserved mitochondrial integrity and function, and mediated neuroprotective effects against both, ferroptosis and oxytosis. Furthermore, the BID-inhibitor BI-6c9 inhibited erastin-induced ferroptosis, and, in turn, the ferroptosis inhibitors ferrostatin-1 and liproxstatin-1 prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in the paradigm of oxytosis. These findings show that mitochondrial transactivation of BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial damage as the final execution step in this paradigm of oxidative cell death. Keywords: Ferroptosis, BID, Mitochondria, CRISPR, Oxytosis, Neuronal death

  9. Saccharomyces boulardii expresses neuraminidase activity selective for α2,3-linked sialic acid that decreases Helicobacter pylori adhesion to host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakarya, Serhan; Gunay, Necati

    2014-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major causative agent of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease and is an established risk factor for gastric malignancy. Antibiotic combination therapy can eradicate H. pylori. As these same regimens can evoke adverse effects and resistance, new alternative therapies or adjunctive treatments are needed. A probiotic approach may provide a novel strategy for H. pylori treatment. In the current study, two probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus reuteri, and a probiotic yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii, were evaluated for their ability to influence H. pylori viability, adherence to gastric and duodenal cells, as well as the effect of S. boulardii on cell surface expression of sialic acid. Our results indicate that S. boulardii contains neuraminidase activity selective for α(2-3)-linked sialic acid. This neuraminidase activity removes surface α(2-3)-linked sialic acid, the ligand for the sialic acid-binding H. pylori adhesin, which in turn, inhibits H. pylori adherence to duodenal epithelial cells. © 2014 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Colibactin Genotoxin Generates DNA Interstrand Cross-Links in Infected Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Bossuet-Greif

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Colibactins are hybrid polyketide-nonribosomal peptides produced by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and other Enterobacteriaceae harboring the pks genomic island. These genotoxic metabolites are produced by pks-encoded peptide-polyketide synthases as inactive prodrugs called precolibactins, which are then converted to colibactins by deacylation for DNA-damaging effects. Colibactins are bona fide virulence factors and are suspected of promoting colorectal carcinogenesis when produced by intestinal E. coli. Natural active colibactins have not been isolated, and how they induce DNA damage in the eukaryotic host cell is poorly characterized. Here, we show that DNA strands are cross-linked covalently when exposed to enterobacteria producing colibactins. DNA cross-linking is abrogated in a clbP mutant unable to deacetylate precolibactins or by adding the colibactin self-resistance protein ClbS, confirming the involvement of the mature forms of colibactins. A similar DNA-damaging mechanism is observed in cellulo, where interstrand cross-links are detected in the genomic DNA of cultured human cells exposed to colibactin-producing bacteria. The intoxicated cells exhibit replication stress, activation of ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related kinase (ATR, and recruitment of the DNA cross-link repair Fanconi anemia protein D2 (FANCD2 protein. In contrast, inhibition of ATR or knockdown of FANCD2 reduces the survival of cells exposed to colibactin-producing bacteria. These findings demonstrate that DNA interstrand cross-linking is the critical mechanism of colibactin-induced DNA damage in infected cells.

  11. CD24 cross-linking induces apoptosis in, and inhibits migration of, MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Bin; Bae, Ji-Yeon; Jee, Hyeon-Gun; Noh, Dong-Young; Ko, Eunyoung; Han, Wonshik; Lee, Jeong Eon; Lee, Kyung-Min; Shin, Incheol; Kim, Sangmin; Lee, Jong Won; Cho, Jihyoung

    2008-01-01

    The biological effects of CD24 (FL-80) cross-linking on breast cancer cells have not yet been established. We examined the impact of CD24 cross-linking on human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with anti-rabbit polyclonal IgG or anti-human CD24 rabbit polyclonal antibodies to induce cross-linking, and then growth was studied. Changes in cell characteristics such as cell cycle modulation, cell death, survival in three-dimensional cultures, adhesion, and migration ability were assayed after CD24 cross-linking in MCF-7. Expression of CD24 was analyzed by flow cytometry in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells where 2% and 66% expression frequencies were observed, respectively. CD24 cross-linking resulted in time-dependent proliferation reduction in MCF-7 cells, but no reduction in MDA-MB-231 cells. MCF-7 cell survival was reduced by 15% in three-dimensional culture after CD24 cross-linking. Increased MCF-7 cell apoptosis was observed after CD24 cross-linking, but no cell cycle arrest was observed in that condition. The migration capacity of MCF-7 cells was diminished by 30% after CD24 cross-linking. Our results showed that CD24 cross-linking induced apoptosis and inhibited migration in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We conclude that CD24 may be considered as a novel therapeutic target for breast cancer

  12. Interfacing biomembrane mimetic polymer surfaces with living cells - Surface modification for reliable bioartificial liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Takami, Utae; Sawada, Shin-ichi; Akiyoshi, Kazunari

    2008-01-01

    The surface design used for reducing nonspecific biofouling is one of the most important issues for the fabrication of medical devices. We present here a newly synthesized a carbohydrate-immobilized phosphorylcholine polymer for surface modification of medical devices to control the interface with living cells. A random copolymer composed of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), n-butyl methacrylate (BMA), and 2-lactobionamidoethyl methacrylate (LAMA) was synthesized by conventional radical polymerization. The monomer feeding ratio in the copolymer was adjusted to 24/75/1 (MPC/BMA/LAMA). The copolymer (PMBL1.0) could be coated by solvent evaporation from an ethanol solution. Cells of the human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2) having asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPRs) were seeded on PMBL1.0 or poly(BMA) (PBMA)-coated PET plates. On PBMA, many adherent cells were observed and were well spread with monolayer adhesion. HepG2 adhesion was observed on PMBL1.0 because the cell has ASGPRs. Furthermore, some of the cells adhering to PMBL1.0 had a spheroid formation and similarly shaped spheroids were scattered on the surface. According to confocal laser microscopic observation after 96 h cultivation, it was found that albumin production preferentially occurred in the center of the spheroid. The albumin production of the cells that adhered to PBMA was sparse. The amount of albumin production per unit cell that adhered to PMBL1.0 was determined by ELISA and was significantly higher than that which adhered to PBMA. Long-term cultivation of HepG2 was also performed using hollow fiber mini-modules coated with PMBL1.0. The concentration of albumin produced from HepG2 increased continuously for one month. In the mini-module, the function of HepG2 was effectively preserved for that period. On the hollow fiber membrane, spheroid formation of HepG2 cells was also observed. In conclusion, PMBL1.0 can provide a suitable surface for the cultivation of

  13. Cell Surface Glycosylation Is Required for Efficient Mating of Haloferax volcanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarden Shalev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Halophilic archaea use a fusion-based mating system for lateral gene transfer across cells, yet the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Previous work implied that cell fusion involves cell–cell recognition since fusion occurs more efficiently between cells from the same species. Long believed to be restricted only to Eukarya, it is now known that cells of all three domains of life perform N-glycosylation, the covalent attachment of glycans to select target asparagine residues in proteins, and that this post-translational modification is common for archaeal cell surface proteins. Here, we show that differences in glycosylation of the Haloferax volcanii surface-layer glycoprotein, brought about either by changing medium salinity or by knocking out key glycosylation genes, reduced mating success. Thus, different glycosylation patterns are likely to underlie mating preference in halophilic archaea, contributing to speciation processes.

  14. Analysis and metabolic engineering of lipid-linked oligosaccharides in glycosylation-deficient CHO cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Meredith B.; Tomiya, Noboru; Betenbaugh, Michael J.; Krag, Sharon S.

    2010-01-01

    Glycosylation-deficient Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines can be used to expand our understanding of N-glycosylation pathways and to study Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation, diseases caused by defects in the synthesis of N-glycans. The mammalian N-glycosylation pathway involves the step-wise assembly of sugars onto a dolichol phosphate (P-Dol) carrier, forming a lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO), followed by the transfer of the completed oligosaccharide onto the protein of interest. In order to better understand how deficiencies in this pathway affect the availability of the completed LLO donor for use in N-glycosylation, we used a non-radioactive, HPLC-based assay to examine the intermediates in the LLO synthesis pathway for CHO-K1 cells and for three different glycosylation-deficient CHO cell lines. B4-2-1 cells, which have a mutation in the dolichol phosphate-mannose synthase (DPM2) gene, accumulated LLO with the structure Man 5 GlcNAc 2 -P-P-Dol, while MI8-5 cells, which lack glucosyltransferase I (ALG6) activity, accumulated Man 9 GlcNAc 2 -P-P-Dol. CHO-K1 and MI5-4 cells both produced primarily the complete LLO, Glc 3 Man 9 GlcNAc 2 -P-P-Dol, though the relative quantity was lower in MI5-4. MI5-4 cells have reduced hexokinase activity which could affect the availability of many of the substrates required for LLO synthesis and, consequently, impair production of the final LLO donor. Increasing hexokinase activity by overexpressing hexokinase II in MI5-4 caused a decrease in the relative quantities of the incomplete LLO intermediates from Man 5 GlcNAc 2 -PP-Dol through Glc 1 Man 9 GlcNAc 2 -PP-Dol, and an increase in the relative quantity of the final LLO donor, Glc 3 Man 9 GlcNAc 2 -P-P-Dol. This study suggests that metabolic engineering may be a useful strategy for improving LLO availability for use in N-glycosylation.

  15. Analysis and metabolic engineering of lipid-linked oligosaccharides in glycosylation-deficient CHO cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Meredith B., E-mail: mbauman7@jhu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Maryland Hall 221, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tomiya, Noboru, E-mail: ntomiya1@jhu.edu [Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Mudd Hall 104A, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Betenbaugh, Michael J., E-mail: beten@jhu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Maryland Hall 221, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Krag, Sharon S., E-mail: skrag@jhsph.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2010-04-23

    Glycosylation-deficient Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines can be used to expand our understanding of N-glycosylation pathways and to study Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation, diseases caused by defects in the synthesis of N-glycans. The mammalian N-glycosylation pathway involves the step-wise assembly of sugars onto a dolichol phosphate (P-Dol) carrier, forming a lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO), followed by the transfer of the completed oligosaccharide onto the protein of interest. In order to better understand how deficiencies in this pathway affect the availability of the completed LLO donor for use in N-glycosylation, we used a non-radioactive, HPLC-based assay to examine the intermediates in the LLO synthesis pathway for CHO-K1 cells and for three different glycosylation-deficient CHO cell lines. B4-2-1 cells, which have a mutation in the dolichol phosphate-mannose synthase (DPM2) gene, accumulated LLO with the structure Man{sub 5}GlcNAc{sub 2}-P-P-Dol, while MI8-5 cells, which lack glucosyltransferase I (ALG6) activity, accumulated Man{sub 9}GlcNAc{sub 2}-P-P-Dol. CHO-K1 and MI5-4 cells both produced primarily the complete LLO, Glc{sub 3}Man{sub 9}GlcNAc{sub 2}-P-P-Dol, though the relative quantity was lower in MI5-4. MI5-4 cells have reduced hexokinase activity which could affect the availability of many of the substrates required for LLO synthesis and, consequently, impair production of the final LLO donor. Increasing hexokinase activity by overexpressing hexokinase II in MI5-4 caused a decrease in the relative quantities of the incomplete LLO intermediates from Man{sub 5}GlcNAc{sub 2}-PP-Dol through Glc{sub 1}Man{sub 9}GlcNAc{sub 2}-PP-Dol, and an increase in the relative quantity of the final LLO donor, Glc{sub 3}Man{sub 9}GlcNAc{sub 2}-P-P-Dol. This study suggests that metabolic engineering may be a useful strategy for improving LLO availability for use in N-glycosylation.

  16. Inverse dynamic analysis of general n-link robot manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yih, T.C.; Wang, T.Y.; Burks, B.L.; Babcock, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a generalized matrix approach is derived to analyze the dynamic forces and moments (torques) required by the joint actuators. This method is general enough to solve the problems of any n-link open-chain robot manipulators with joint combinations of R(revolute), P(prismatic), and S(spherical). On the other hand, the proposed matrix solution is applicable to both nonredundant and redundant robotic systems. The matrix notation is formulated based on the Newton-Euler equations under the condition of quasi-static equilibrium. The 4 x 4 homogeneous cylindrical coordinates-Bryant angles (C-B) notation is applied to model the robotic systems. Displacements, velocities, and accelerations of each joint and link center of gravity (CG) are calculated through kinematic analysis. The resultant external forces and moments exerted on the CG of each link are considered as known inputs. Subsequently, a 6n x 6n displacement coefficient matrix and a 6n x 1 external force/moment vector can be established. At last, the joint forces and moments needed for the joint actuators to control the robotic system are determined through matrix inversion. Numerical examples will be illustrated for the nonredundant industrial robots: Bendix AA/CNC (RRP/RRR) and Unimate 2000 spherical (SP/RRR) robots; and the redundant light duty utility arm (LDUA), modified LDUA, and tank waste retrieval manipulator system

  17. Characterization of solid UV cross-linked PEGDA for biological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, David

    2013-10-20

    This paper reports on solid UV cross-linked Poly(ethylene)-glycol-diacrylate (PEGDA) as a material for microfluidic devices for biological applications. We have evaluated biocompatibility of PEGDA through two separate means: 1) by examining cell viability and attachment on cross-linked PEGDA surfaces for cell culture applications, and 2) by determining if cross-linked PEGDA inhibits the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) processes for on-chip PCR. Through these studies a correlation has been found between degree of curing and cell viability, attachment, as well as on PCR outcome.

  18. Curcumin induced nanoscale CD44 molecular redistribution and antigen-antibody interaction on HepG2 cell surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Mu [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, 601 Huangpu Road West, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ruan Yuxia [Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, 601 Huangpu Road West, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Xing Xiaobo; Chen Qian; Peng, Yuan [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, 601 Huangpu Road West, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Cai Jiye, E-mail: tjycai@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, 601 Huangpu Road West, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2011-07-04

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > In this study, we investigate the changes of CD44 expression and distribution on HepG2 cells after curcumin treatment. > We find curcumin is able to change the morphology and ultrastructure of HepG2 cells. > Curcumin can reduce the expression of CD44 molecules and induce the nanoscale molecular redistribution on cell surface. > The binding force between CD44-modified AFM tip and the HepG2 cell surface decreases after curcumin-treatment. - Abstract: The cell surface glycoprotein CD44 was implicated in the progression, metastasis and apoptosis of certain human tumors. In this study, we used atomic force microscope (AFM) to monitor the effect of curcumin on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell surface nanoscale structure. High-resolution imaging revealed that cell morphology and ultrastructure changed a lot after being treated with curcumin. The membrane average roughness increased (10.88 {+-} 4.62 nm to 129.70 {+-} 43.72 nm) and the expression of CD44 decreased (99.79 {+-} 0.16% to 75.14 {+-} 8.37%). Laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) imaging showed that CD44 molecules were located on the cell membrane. The florescence intensity in control group was weaker than that in curcumin treated cells. Most of the binding forces between CD44 antibodies and untreated HepG2 cell membrane were around 120-220 pN. After being incubated with curcumin, the major forces focused on 70-150 pN (10 {mu}M curcumin-treated) and 50-120 pN (20 {mu}M curcumin-treated). These results suggested that, as result of nanoscale molecular redistribution, changes of the cell surface were in response to external treatment of curcumin. The combination of AFM and LSCM could be a powerful method to detect the distribution of cell surface molecules and interactions between molecules and their ligands.

  19. Curcumin induced nanoscale CD44 molecular redistribution and antigen-antibody interaction on HepG2 cell surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mu; Ruan Yuxia; Xing Xiaobo; Chen Qian; Peng, Yuan; Cai Jiye

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → In this study, we investigate the changes of CD44 expression and distribution on HepG2 cells after curcumin treatment. → We find curcumin is able to change the morphology and ultrastructure of HepG2 cells. → Curcumin can reduce the expression of CD44 molecules and induce the nanoscale molecular redistribution on cell surface. → The binding force between CD44-modified AFM tip and the HepG2 cell surface decreases after curcumin-treatment. - Abstract: The cell surface glycoprotein CD44 was implicated in the progression, metastasis and apoptosis of certain human tumors. In this study, we used atomic force microscope (AFM) to monitor the effect of curcumin on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell surface nanoscale structure. High-resolution imaging revealed that cell morphology and ultrastructure changed a lot after being treated with curcumin. The membrane average roughness increased (10.88 ± 4.62 nm to 129.70 ± 43.72 nm) and the expression of CD44 decreased (99.79 ± 0.16% to 75.14 ± 8.37%). Laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) imaging showed that CD44 molecules were located on the cell membrane. The florescence intensity in control group was weaker than that in curcumin treated cells. Most of the binding forces between CD44 antibodies and untreated HepG2 cell membrane were around 120-220 pN. After being incubated with curcumin, the major forces focused on 70-150 pN (10 μM curcumin-treated) and 50-120 pN (20 μM curcumin-treated). These results suggested that, as result of nanoscale molecular redistribution, changes of the cell surface were in response to external treatment of curcumin. The combination of AFM and LSCM could be a powerful method to detect the distribution of cell surface molecules and interactions between molecules and their ligands.

  20. Structural characteristics of surface-functionalized nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon films and effective adjustment to cell attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Min; Yu, Jian-Can; Qian, Guo-Dong; Tang, Wei-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) films prepared by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology are functionalized with various chemical molecules including dopamine (DA), 3-Aminobenzeneboronic acid (APBA), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and the impacts of surface functionalities on the surface morphologies, compositions, microstructures, and cell compatibility of the DLC:N films are systematically investigated. We demonstrate that the surface groups of DLC:N have a significant effect on the surface and structural properties of the film. The activity of PC12 cells depends on the particular type of surface functional groups of DLC:N films regardless of surface roughness and wettability. Our research offers a novel way for designing functionalized carbon films as tailorable substrates for biosensors and biomedical engineering applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51272237, 51272231, and 51010002) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant Nos. 2012M520063, 2013T60587, and Bsh1201016).

  1. The effects of different cross-linking conditions on collagen-based nanocomposite scaffolds—an in vitro evaluation using mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchý, Tomáš; Šupová, Monika; Sucharda, Zbyněk; Rýglová, Šárka; Žaloudková, Margit; Sauerová, Pavla; Kalbáčová, Marie Hubálek; Verdánová, Martina; Sedláček, Radek

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposite scaffolds which aimed to imitate a bone extracellular matrix were prepared for bone surgery applications. The scaffolds consisted of polylactide electrospun nano/sub-micron fibres, a natural collagen matrix supplemented with sodium hyaluronate and natural calcium phosphate nano-particles (bioapatite). The mechanical properties of the scaffolds were improved by means of three different cross-linking agents: N-(3-dimethylamino propyl)-N’-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide in an ethanol solution (EDC/NHS/EtOH), EDC/NHS in a phosphate buffer saline solution (EDC/NHS/PBS) and genipin. The effect of the various cross-linking conditions on the pore size, structure and mechanical properties of the scaffolds were subsequently studied. In addition, the mass loss, the swelling ratio and the pH of the scaffolds were determined following their immersion in a cell culture medium. Furthermore, the metabolic activity of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultivated in scaffold infusions for 2 and 7 days was assessed. Finally, studies were conducted of cell adhesion, proliferation and penetration into the scaffolds. With regard to the structural stability of the tested scaffolds, it was determined that EDC/NHS/PBS and genipin formed the most effectively cross-linked materials. Moreover, it was discovered that the genipin cross-linked scaffold also provided the best conditions for hMSC cultivation. In addition, the infusions from all the scaffolds were found to be non-cytotoxic. Thus, the genipin and EDC/NHS/PBS cross-linked scaffolds can be considered to be promising biomaterials for further in vivo testing and bone surgery applications. (paper)

  2. BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial cell death pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitemeier, Sandra; Jelinek, Anja; Laino, Vincenzo; Hoffmann, Lena; Eisenbach, Ina; Eying, Roman; Ganjam, Goutham K; Dolga, Amalia M; Oppermann, Sina; Culmsee, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    Ferroptosis has been defined as an oxidative and iron-dependent pathway of regulated cell death that is distinct from caspase-dependent apoptosis and established pathways of death receptor-mediated regulated necrosis. While emerging evidence linked features of ferroptosis induced e.g. by erastin-mediated inhibition of the X c - system or inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) to an increasing number of oxidative cell death paradigms in cancer cells, neurons or kidney cells, the biochemical pathways of oxidative cell death remained largely unclear. In particular, the role of mitochondrial damage in paradigms of ferroptosis needs further investigation. In the present study, we find that erastin-induced ferroptosis in neuronal cells was accompanied by BID transactivation to mitochondria, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced ATP levels. These hallmarks of mitochondrial demise are also established features of oxytosis, a paradigm of cell death induced by X c - inhibition by millimolar concentrations of glutamate. Bid knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 approaches preserved mitochondrial integrity and function, and mediated neuroprotective effects against both, ferroptosis and oxytosis. Furthermore, the BID-inhibitor BI-6c9 inhibited erastin-induced ferroptosis, and, in turn, the ferroptosis inhibitors ferrostatin-1 and liproxstatin-1 prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in the paradigm of oxytosis. These findings show that mitochondrial transactivation of BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial damage as the final execution step in this paradigm of oxidative cell death. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sulfated N-linked carbohydrate chains in porcine thyroglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Kamerling, J.P.; Rijkse, I.; Maas, A.A.M.; Kuik, J.A. van

    1988-01-01

    N-linked carbohydrate chains of porcine thyroglobulin were released by the hydrazinolysis procedure. The resulting mixture of oligosaccharide-alditols was fractionated by high-voltage paper electrophoresis, the acidic fractions were further separated by high-performance liquid chromatography on

  4. Effect of Surface Morphology and Dispersion Media on the Properties of PEDOT:PSS/n-Si Hybrid Solar Cell Containing Functionalized Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Van Trinh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results on the effect of surface morphology and dispersion media on the properties of PEDOT:PSS/n-Si hybrid solar cell containing functionalized graphene (Gr. The hybrid solar cells based on SiNWs showed higher power conversion efficiency (PCE compared to the planar based cells due to suppressing the carrier recombination and improving carrier transport efficiency. The PCE of hybrid solar cells could be improved by adding Gr into PEDOT:PSS. Different solvents including deionized (DI water, ethylene glycol (EG, and isopropyl alcohol (IPA were used as media for Gr dispersion. The best performance was obtained for the cell containing Gr dispersed in EG with a measured PCE of 7.33% and nearly 13% and 16% enhancement in comparison with the cells using Gr dispersed in IPA and DI water, respectively. The increase in PCE is attributed to improving the carrier-mobility, electrical conductivity, PEDOT crystallinity, and ordering.

  5. Cell behaviour on chemically microstructured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnani, Agnese; Priamo, Alfredo; Pasqui, Daniela; Barbucci, Rolando

    2003-01-01

    Micropatterned surfaces with different chemical topographies were synthesised in order to investigate the influence of surface chemistry and topography on cell behaviour. The microstructured materials were synthesised by photoimmobilising natural Hyaluronan (Hyal) and its sulphated derivative (HyalS), both adequately functionalised with a photorective moiety, on glass substrates. Four different grating patterns (10, 25, 50 and 100 μm) were used to pattern the hyaluronan. The micropatterned samples were analysed by Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy to investigate the chemistry and the topography of the surfaces. The spectroscopic and microscopic analysis of the microstructured surfaces revealed that the photoimmobilisation process was successful, demonstrating that the photomask patterns were well reproduced on the sample surface. The influence of chemical topographies on the cell behaviour was then analysed. Human and 3T3 fibroblasts, bovine aortic and human (HGTFN line) endothelial cells were used and their behaviour on the micropatterned surfaces was analysed in terms of adhesion, proliferation, locomotion and orientation. Both chemical and topographical controls were found to be important for cell guidance. By decreasing the stripe dimensions, a more fusiform shape of cell was observed. At the same time, the cell locomotion and orientation parallel to the structure increased. However, differences in cell behaviour were detected according to both cell type and micropattern dimensions

  6. Structure Activity Relationships of N-linked and Diglycosylated Glucosamine-Based Antitumor Glycerolipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makanjuola Ogunsina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 1-O-Hexadecyl-2-O-methyl-3-O-(2'-amino-2'-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (1 was previously reported to show potent in vitro antitumor activity on a range of cancer cell lines derived from breast, pancreas and prostate cancer. This compound was not toxic to mice and was inactive against breast tumor xenografts in mice. This inactivity was attributed to hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkage by glycosidases. Here three N-linked (glycosylamide analogs 2–4, one triazole-linked analog 5 of 1 as well as two diglycosylated analogs 6 and 7 with different stereochemistry at the C2-position of the glycerol moiety were synthesized and their antitumor activity against breast (JIMT-1, BT-474, MDA-MB-231, pancreas (MiaPaCa2 and prostrate (DU145, PC3 cancer cell lines was determined. The diglycosylated analogs 1-O-hexadecyl-2(R-, 3-O-di-(2'-amino-2'-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (7 and the 1:1 diastereomeric mixture of 1-O-hexadecyl-2(R/S, 3-O-di-(2'-amino-2'-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (6 showed the most potent cytotoxic activity at CC50 values of 17.5 µM against PC3 cell lines. The replacement of the O-glycosidic linkage by a glycosylamide or a glycosyltriazole linkage showed little or no activity at highest concentration tested (30 µM, whereas the replacement of the glycerol moiety by triazole resulted in CC50 values in the range of 20 to 30 µM. In conclusion, the replacement of the O-glycosidic linkage by an N-glycosidic linkage or triazole-linkage resulted in about a two to three fold loss in activity, whereas the replacement of the methoxy group on the glycerol backbone by a second glucosamine moiety did not improve the activity. The stereochemistry at the C2-position of the glycero backbone has minimal effect on the anticancer activities of these diglycosylated analogs.

  7. Cross-linked glucose oxidase clusters for biofuel cell anode catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudzik, Jonathan; Audette, Gerald F; Chang, Wen-Chi; Kannan, A M; Filipek, Slawomir; Viswanathan, Sowmya; Li, Pingzuo; Renugopalakrishnan, V

    2013-01-01

    The efficient localization of increased levels of active enzymes onto conducting scaffolds is important for the development of enzyme-based biofuel cells. Cross-linked enzyme clusters (CEC) of glucose oxidase (GOx) constrained to functionalized carbon nanotubes (CEC-CNTs) were generated in order to evaluate the potential of using CECs for developing GOx-based bioanodes functioning via direct electron transfer from the GOx active site to the CNT scaffold. CEC-CNTs generated from several weight-to-weight ratios of GOx:CNT were examined for comparable catalytic activity to free GOx into the solution, with CEC-CNTs generated from a 100% GOx solution displaying the greatest enzymatic activity. Scanning transmission electron microscopic analysis of CEC-CNTs generated from 100% GOx to CNT (wt/wt) ratios revealed that CEC clusters of ∼78 µm 2 localized to the CNT surface. Electrochemical analysis indicates that the enzyme is engaged in direct electron transfer, and biofuel cells generated using GOx CEC-CNT bioanodes were observed to have a peak power density of ∼180 µW cm −2 . These data indicate that the generation of nano-to-micro-sized active enzyme clusters is an attractive option for the design of enzyme-specific biofuel cell powered implantable devices. (paper)

  8. Evidence on a link between the intensity of Schumann resonance and global surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sekiguchi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A correlation is investigated between the intensity of the global electromagnetic oscillations (Schumann resonance with the planetary surface temperature. The electromagnetic signal was monitored at Moshiri (Japan, and temperature data were taken from surface meteorological observations. The series covers the period from November 1998 to May 2002. The Schumann resonance intensity is found to vary coherently with the global ground temperature in the latitude interval from 45° S to 45° N: the relevant cross-correlation coefficient reaches the value of 0.9. It slightly increases when the high-latitude temperature is incorporated. Correspondence among the data decreases when we reduce the latitude interval, which indicates the important role of the middle-latitude lightning in the Schumann resonance oscillations. We apply the principal component (or singular spectral analysis to the electromagnetic and temperature records to extract annual, semiannual, and interannual variations. The principal component analysis (PCA clarifies the links between electromagnetic records and meteorological data.

  9. Adaptive antibody diversification through N-linked glycosylation of the immunoglobulin variable region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bovenkamp, Fleur S; Derksen, Ninotska I L; Ooijevaar-de Heer, Pleuni; van Schie, Karin A; Kruithof, Simone; Berkowska, Magdalena A; van der Schoot, C Ellen; IJspeert, Hanna; van der Burg, Mirjam; Gils, Ann; Hafkenscheid, Lise; Toes, René E M; Rombouts, Yoann; Plomp, Rosina; Wuhrer, Manfred; van Ham, S Marieke; Vidarsson, Gestur; Rispens, Theo

    2018-02-20

    A hallmark of B-cell immunity is the generation of a diverse repertoire of antibodies from a limited set of germline V(D)J genes. This repertoire is usually defined in terms of amino acid composition. However, variable domains may also acquire N -linked glycans, a process conditional on the introduction of consensus amino acid motifs ( N -glycosylation sites) during somatic hypermutation. High levels of variable domain glycans have been associated with autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis, as well as certain follicular lymphomas. However, the role of these glycans in the humoral immune response remains poorly understood. Interestingly, studies have reported both positive and negative effects on antibody affinity. Our aim was to elucidate the role of variable domain glycans during antigen-specific antibody responses. By analyzing B-cell repertoires by next-generation sequencing, we demonstrate that N -glycosylation sites are introduced at positions in which glycans can affect antigen binding as a result of a specific clustering of progenitor glycosylation sites in the germline sequences of variable domain genes. By analyzing multiple human monoclonal and polyclonal (auto)antibody responses, we subsequently show that this process is subject to selection during antigen-specific antibody responses, skewed toward IgG4, and positively contributes to antigen binding. Together, these results highlight a physiological role for variable domain glycosylation as an additional layer of antibody diversification that modulates antigen binding.

  10. On-surface construction of low-dimensional nanostructures with terminal alkynes: Linking strategies and controlling methodologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Liu; Qi-Wei Chen; Kai Wu

    2017-01-01

    Bottom-up approach to constructing low-dimensional nanostructures on surfaces with terminal alkynes has drawn great interest because of its potential applications in fabricating advanced functional nanomaterials.The diversity of the achieved products manifests rich chemistry of terminal alkynes and hence careful linking strategies and proper controlling methodologies are required for selective preparations of high-quality target nanoarchitectures.This review summarizes various on-surface linking strategies for terminal alkynes,including non-bonding interactions as well as organometallic and covalent bonds,and presents examples to show effective control of surface assemblies and reactions of terminal alkynes by variations of the precursor structures,substrates and activation modes.Systematic studies of the on-surface linkage of terminal alkynes may help efficient and predictable preparations of surface nanomaterials and further understanding of surface chemistry.

  11. The effect of cell surface components on adhesion ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak-Berecka, Magdalena; Waśko, Adam; Paduch, Roman; Skrzypek, Tomasz; Sroka-Bartnicka, Anna

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the cell envelope components and surface properties of two phenotypes of Lactobacillus rhamnosus isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract. The ability of the bacteria to adhere to human intestinal cells and to aggregate with other bacteria was determined. L. rhamnosus strains E/N and PEN differed with regard to the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and specific surface proteins. Transmission electron microscopy showed differences in the structure of the outer cell surface of the strains tested. Bacterial surface properties were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fatty acid methyl esters and hydrophobicity assays. Aggregation capacity and adhesion of the tested strains to the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29 was determined. The results indicated a high adhesion and aggregation ability of L. rhamnosus PEN, which possessed specific surface proteins, had a unique fatty acid content, and did not synthesize EPS. Adherence of L. rhamnosus was dependent on specific interactions and was promoted by surface proteins (42-114 kDa) and specific fatty acids. Polysaccharides likely hindered bacterial adhesion and aggregation by masking protein receptors. This study provides information on the cell envelope constituents of lactobacilli that influence bacterial aggregation and adhesion to intestinal cells. This knowledge will help to understand better their specific contribution in commensal-host interactions and adaptation to this ecological niche.

  12. Rab14 and its exchange factor FAM116 link endocytic recycling and adherens junction stability in migrating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Andrea; Yoshimura, Shin-ichiro; Nunes Bastos, Ricardo; Langemeyer, Lars; Gerondopoulos, Andreas; Rigden, Daniel J; Barr, Francis A

    2012-05-15

    Rab GTPases define the vesicle trafficking pathways underpinning cell polarization and migration. Here, we find that Rab4, Rab11, and Rab14 and the candidate Rab GDP-GTP exchange factors (GEFs) FAM116A and AVL9 are required for cell migration. Rab14 and its GEF FAM116A localize to and act on an intermediate compartment of the transferrin-recycling pathway prior to Rab11 and after Rab5 and Rab4. This Rab14 intermediate recycling compartment has specific functions in migrating cells discrete from early and recycling endosomes. Rab14-depleted cells show increased N-cadherin levels at junctional complexes and cannot resolve cell-cell junctions. This is due to decreased shedding of cell-surface N-cadherin by the ADAM family protease ADAM10/Kuzbanian. In FAM116A- and Rab14-depleted cells, ADAM10 accumulates in a transferrin-positive endocytic compartment, and the cell-surface level of ADAM10 is correspondingly reduced. FAM116 and Rab14 therefore define an endocytic recycling pathway needed for ADAM protease trafficking and regulation of cell-cell junctions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Specific cell-derived microvesicles: Linking endothelial function to carotid artery intima-media thickness in low cardiovascular risk menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Virginia M; Lahr, Brian D; Bailey, Kent R; Hodis, Howard N; Mulvagh, Sharon L; Jayachandran, Muthuvel

    2016-03-01

    Decreases in endothelial function measured by reactive hyperemic index (RHI) correlated with increases in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in recently menopausal women with a low risk cardiovascular profile. Factors linking this association are unknown. Assess, longitudinally, markers of platelet activation and cell-derived, blood-borne microvesicles (MV) in relationship to RHI and CIMT in asymptomatic, low risk menopausal women. RHI by digital pulse tonometry (n = 93), CIMT by ultrasound (n = 113), measures of platelet activation and specific cell-derived, blood-borne MV were evaluated in women throughout the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) at Mayo Clinic. CIMT, but not RHI, increased significantly over 4 years. The average change in CIMT correlated significantly with the average follow-up values of MV positive for common leukocyte antigen [CD45; ρ = 0.285 (P = 0.002)] and VCAM-1 [ρ = 0.270 (P = 0.0040)]. Using principal components analysis (PC) on the aggregate set of average follow-up measures, the first derived PC representing numbers of MV positive for markers of vascular endothelium, inflammatory cells (leukocyte and monocytes), pro-coagulant (tissue factor), and cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) associated with changes in RHI and CIMT. Changes in RHI associated with another PC defined by measures of platelet activation (dense granular ATP secretion, surface expression of P-selectin and fibrinogen receptors). MV derived from activated endothelial and inflammatory cells, and those expressing cell adhesion and pro-coagulant molecules may reflect early vascular dysfunction in low risk menopausal women. Assays of MV as non-conventional measures to assess cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic women remain to be developed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Moderate mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition induces autophagy in HTR8/SVneo cells via O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuxia; Na, Quan; Song, Weiwei

    2017-10-01

    Autophagy, a highly regulated process with a dual role (pro-survival or pro-death), has been implicated in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism whereby mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling regulates autophagy by modulating protein O-GlcNAcylation in human trophoblasts. HTR8/SVneo cells were incubated in serum-free medium for different time intervals or treated with varying doses of Torin1. Protein expression and cell apoptosis were detected by immunoblotting and flow cytometry, respectively. Short-term serum starvation or slight suppression of mTOR signaling promoted autophagy and decreased apoptosis in HTR8/SVneo cells. Conversely, prolonged serum starvation or excessive inhibition of mTOR reduced autophagy and enhanced cell apoptosis. Both serum starvation and mTOR signaling suppression reduced protein O-GlcNAcylation. Upregulation and downregulation of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) levels attenuated and augmented autophagy, respectively. Moderate mTOR inhibition-induced autophagy was blocked by upregulation of protein O-GlcNAcylation. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation studies revealed that Beclin1 and synaptosome associated protein 29 (SNAP29) could be O-GlcNAcylated, and that slight mTOR inhibition resulted in decreased O-GlcNAc modification of Beclin1 and SNAP29. Notably, we observed an inverse correlation between phosphorylation (Ser15) and O-GlcNAcylation of Beclin1. mTOR signaling inhibition played dual roles in regulating autophagy and apoptosis in HTR8/SVneo cells. Moderate mTOR suppression might induce autophagy via modulating O-GlcNAcylation of Beclin1 and SNAP29. Moreover, the negative interplay between Beclin1 O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation (Ser15) may be involved in autophagy regulation by mTOR signaling. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Functional antigen binding by the defective B cells of CBA/N mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snippe, H; Merchant, B; Lizzio, E F; Inman, J K

    1982-01-01

    CBA/N mice have an X-linked B cell defect which prevents them from responding to nonmitogenic thymic independent (TI-2) antigens such as dinitrophenylated DNP-Ficoll (1,2). The F1 male progeny of CBA/N female mice express the same defect. Spleen cell suspensions from such defective mice (CBA/N X C3H/HeN F1 males) could not respond to DNP-Ficoll following in vitro immunization and subsequent transfer into irradiated, syngeneic, F1 male recipients as expected. In contrast, normal CBA/N X C3H/HeN F1 female spleen cells could respond and effect a "rescue"; they mounted strong plaque-forming cell responses 7 days after in vitro exposure to DNP-Ficoll and subsequent transfer into irradiated F1 male recipients. Defective F1 male spleen cells, however, could bind significant quantities of 125I-DNP-Ficoll after in vitro exposure. Extensive washing of these spleen cells could not reverse this binding. Such DNP-Ficoll-exposed and washed F1 male spleen cells could, after transfer, aid normal untreated F1 female cells in their rescue function. The defective F1 male spleen cells could convey immunogenic quantities of DNP-Ficoll to the "rescuing" F1 female cells. Mitomycin treatment of F1 male cells did not interfere with their conveyor function. Goat anti-mouse mu serum impeded the passive antigen conveyor function of defective F1 male cells as did prior exposure to high concentrations of free DNP hapten. Our data support the view that the B cell defect of CBA/N X C3H/HeN F1 male mice does not relate to antigen binding, but rather to an inability to be effectively triggered by certain cell-bound polymeric antigens.

  16. Angular dependent XPS study of surface band bending on Ga-polar n-GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Liu, Tong; Zhao, Yanfei; Zhu, Yafeng; Huang, Zengli; Li, Fangsen; Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Liqun; Zhang, Shuming; Dingsun, An; Yang, Hui

    2018-05-01

    Surface band bending and composition of Ga-polar n-GaN with different surface treatments were characterized by using angular dependent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Upward surface band bending of varying degree was observed distinctly upon to the treatment methods. Besides the nitrogen vacancies, we found that surface states of oxygen-containing absorbates (O-H component) also contribute to the surface band bending, which lead the Fermi level pined at a level further closer to the conduction band edge on n-GaN surface. The n-GaN surface with lower surface band bending exhibits better linear electrical properties for Ti/GaN Ohmic contacts. Moreover, the density of positively charged surface states could be derived from the values of surface band bending.

  17. Multi-scale cell/surface interaction on modified titanium aluminum vanadium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbo

    This dissertation presents a series of experimental studies of the effects of multi-scale cell/surface interactions on modified Ti-6Al-4V surfaces. These include laser-grooved surfaces; porous structures and RGD-coated laser-grooved surfaces. A nano-second DPSS UV lasers with a Gaussian pulse energy profile was used to introduce the desired micro-groove geometries onto Ti-6Al-4V surfaces. This was done without inducing micro-cracks or significant changes in surface chemistry within the heat affected zones. The desired 8-12 mum groove depths and widths were achieved by the control of pulse frequency, scan speed, and the lens focal length that controls spot size. The interactions between human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells and laser-grooved Ti-6Al-4V surfaces were investigated after 48 hours of cell culture. The cell behavior, including cell spreading, alignment and adhesion, was elucidated using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), immuno-fluorescence staining and enzymatic detachment. Contact guidance was shown to increase as grooved spacing decreased. For the range of micro-groove geometries studied, micro-grooves with groove spacings of 20 mum provided the best combination of cell orientation and adhesion. Short-term adhesion experiments (15 mins to 1 day) also revealed that there is a positive correlation between cell orientation and cell adhesion. Contact guidance on the micro-grooved surfaces is shown to be enhanced by nano- and micro-scale asperities that provide sites for the attachment of lamellopodia during cell locomotion and spreading. Contact guidance is also promoted by the geometrical confinement provided by laser grooves. An experimental study of initial cell spreading and ingrowth into Ti-6Al-4V porous structures was also carried out on porous structures with different pore sizes and geometries. A combination of SEM, the tetrazolium salt (MTT) colorimetric assay and enzymatic detachment were used to study cell spreading and adhesion. The extent of cell

  18. Glycosylation Alters Dimerization Properties of a Cell-surface Signaling Protein, Carcinoembryonic Antigen-related Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (CEACAM1)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, You; Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Moremen, Kelley W.; Prestegard, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (C?/Au: EACAM1) is a cell-surface signaling molecule involved in cell adhesion, proliferation, and immune response. It is also implicated in cancer angiogenesis, progression, and metastasis. This diverse set of effects likely arises as a result of the numerous homophilic and heterophilic interactions that CEACAM1 can have with itself and other molecules. Its N-terminal Ig variable (IgV) domain has been suggested to be a principal player in these interactions. Previous crystal structures of the β-sandwich-like IgV domain have been produced using Escherichia coli-expressed material, which lacks native glycosylation. These have led to distinctly different proposals for dimer interfaces, one involving interactions of ABED β-strands and the other involving GFCC′C″ β-strands, with the former burying one prominent glycosylation site. These structures raise questions as to which form may exist in solution and what the effect of glycosylation may have on this form. Here, we use NMR cross-correlation measurements to examine the effect of glycosylation on CEACAM1-IgV dimerization and use residual dipolar coupling (RDC) measurements to characterize the solution structure of the non-glycosylated form. Our findings demonstrate that even addition of a single N-linked GlcNAc at potential glycosylation sites inhibits dimer formation. Surprisingly, RDC data collected on E. coli expressed material in solution indicate that a dimer using the non-glycosylated GFCC′C″ interface is preferred even in the absence of glycosylation. The results open new questions about what other factors may facilitate dimerization of CEACAM1 in vivo, and what roles glycosylation may play in heterophylic interactions. PMID:27471271

  19. On the link between ExB sheared flows and rational surfaces in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, C.; Erents, K.; Matthews, G.

    2000-11-01

    Experimental evidence of flattening in plasma profiles has been observed in the edge region of the JET tokamak. This observation has been interpreted in terms of the influence of rational surfaces on plasma profiles. In the framework of this interpretation, significant ExB sheared flows linked to rational surfaces have been identified. These ExB sheared flows are close to the critical value to trigger the transition to improved confinement regimes. These results can explain the link between the magnetic topology and the generation of transport barriers reported in fusion devices. (author)

  20. Cell behavior on microparticles with different surface morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Sha; Fu Xiaobing

    2010-01-01

    Microparticles can serve as substrates for cell amplification and deliver the cell aggregation to the site of the defect for tissue regeneration. To develop favorable microparticles for cell delivery application, we fabricated and evaluated three types of microparticles that differ in surface properties. The microparticles with varied surface morphology (smooth, pitted and multicavity) were created from chemically crosslinked gelatin particles that underwent various drying treatments. Three types of microparticles were characterized and assessed in terms of the cell behavior of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts seeded on them. The cells could attach, spread and proliferate on all types of microparticles but spread and populated more slowly on the microparticles with smooth surfaces than on those with pitted or multicavity surfaces. Microparticles with a multicavity surface demonstrated the highest cell attachment and growth rate. Furthermore, cells tested on microparticles with a multicavity surface exhibited better morphology and induced the earlier formation of extracellular-based cell-microparticle aggregation than those on microparticles with other surface morphology (smooth and pitted). Thus, microparticles with a multicavity surface show promise for attachment and proliferation of cells in tissue engineering.

  1. Productive infection of human skeletal muscle cells by pandemic and seasonal influenza A(H1N1 viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Desdouits

    Full Text Available Besides the classical respiratory and systemic symptoms, unusual complications of influenza A infection in humans involve the skeletal muscles. Numerous cases of acute myopathy and/or rhabdomyolysis have been reported, particularly following the outbreak of pandemic influenza A(H1N1 in 2009. The pathogenesis of these influenza-associated myopathies (IAM remains unkown, although the direct infection of muscle cells is suspected. Here, we studied the susceptibility of cultured human primary muscle cells to a 2009 pandemic and a 2008 seasonal influenza A(H1N1 isolate. Using cells from different donors, we found that differentiated muscle cells (i. e. myotubes were highly susceptible to infection by both influenza A(H1N1 isolates, whereas undifferentiated cells (i. e. myoblasts were partially resistant. The receptors for influenza viruses, α2-6 and α2-3 linked sialic acids, were detected on the surface of myotubes and myoblasts. Time line of viral nucleoprotein (NP expression and nuclear export showed that the first steps of the viral replication cycle could take place in muscle cells. Infected myotubes and myoblasts exhibited budding virions and nuclear inclusions as observed by transmission electron microscopy and correlative light and electron microscopy. Myotubes, but not myoblasts, yielded infectious virus progeny that could further infect naive muscle cells after proteolytic treatment. Infection led to a cytopathic effect with the lysis of muscle cells, as characterized by the release of lactate dehydrogenase. The secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by muscle cells was not affected following infection. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis of a direct muscle infection causing rhabdomyolysis in IAM patients.

  2. Surface donor states distribution post SiN passivation of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Nitin, E-mail: nitin@unik.no [Carinthian Tech Research CTR AG, Europastraße 4/1, Technologiepark Villach, A- 9524 Villach/St. Magdalen (Austria); Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO7034 (Norway); Fjeldly, Tor A. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO7034 (Norway)

    2014-07-21

    In this paper, we present a physics based analytical model to describe the effect of SiN passivation on two-dimensional electron gas density and surface barrier height in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. The model is based on an extraction technique to calculate surface donor density and surface donor level at the SiN/AlGaN interface. The model is in good agreement with the experimental results and promises to become a useful tool in advanced design and characterization of GaN based heterostructures.

  3. Surface display of the receptor-binding region of the Lactobacillus brevis S-layer protein in Lactococcus lactis provides nonadhesive lactococci with the ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Lindholm, Agneta; Palva, Airi

    2003-04-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is a promising lactic acid bacterium for use as a probiotic dietary adjunct and a vaccine vector. The N-terminal region of the S-layer protein (SlpA) of L. brevis ATCC 8287 was recently shown to mediate adhesion to various human cell lines in vitro. In this study, a surface display cassette was constructed on the basis of this SlpA receptor-binding domain, a proteinase spacer, and an autolysin anchor. The cassette was expressed under control of the nisA promoter in Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. Western blot assay of lactococcal cell wall extracts with anti-SlpA antibodies confirmed that the SlpA adhesion domain of the fusion protein was expressed and located within the cell wall layer. Whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence microscopy verified that the SlpA adhesion-mediating region was accessible on the lactococcal cell surface. In vitro adhesion assays with the human intestinal epithelial cell line Intestine 407 indicated that the recombinant lactococcal cells had gained an ability to adhere to Intestine 407 cells significantly greater than that of wild-type L. lactis NZ9000. Serum inhibition assay further confirmed that adhesion of recombinant lactococci to Intestine 407 cells was indeed mediated by the N terminus-encoding part of the slpA gene. The ability of the receptor-binding region of SlpA to adhere to fibronectin was also confirmed with this lactococcal surface display system. These results show that, with the aid of the receptor-binding region of the L. brevis SlpA protein, the ability to adhere to gut epithelial cells can indeed be transferred to another, nonadhesive, lactic acid bacterium.

  4. A Combined Omics Approach to Generate the Surface Atlas of Human Naive CD4+ T Cells during Early T-Cell Receptor Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graessel, Anke; Hauck, Stefanie M; von Toerne, Christine; Kloppmann, Edda; Goldberg, Tatyana; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schindler, Michael; Knapp, Bettina; Krause, Linda; Dietz, Katharina; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B; Suttner, Kathrin

    2015-08-01

    Naive CD4(+) T cells are the common precursors of multiple effector and memory T-cell subsets and possess a high plasticity in terms of differentiation potential. This stem-cell-like character is important for cell therapies aiming at regeneration of specific immunity. Cell surface proteins are crucial for recognition and response to signals mediated by other cells or environmental changes. Knowledge of cell surface proteins of human naive CD4(+) T cells and their changes during the early phase of T-cell activation is urgently needed for a guided differentiation of naive T cells and may support the selection of pluripotent cells for cell therapy. Periodate oxidation and aniline-catalyzed oxime ligation technology was applied with subsequent quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem MS to generate a data set describing the surface proteome of primary human naive CD4(+) T cells and to monitor dynamic changes during the early phase of activation. This led to the identification of 173 N-glycosylated surface proteins. To independently confirm the proteomic data set and to analyze the cell surface by an alternative technique a systematic phenotypic expression analysis of surface antigens via flow cytometry was performed. This screening expanded the previous data set, resulting in 229 surface proteins, which were expressed on naive unstimulated and activated CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, we generated a surface expression atlas based on transcriptome data, experimental annotation, and predicted subcellular localization, and correlated the proteomics result with this transcriptional data set. This extensive surface atlas provides an overall naive CD4(+) T cell surface resource and will enable future studies aiming at a deeper understanding of mechanisms of T-cell biology allowing the identification of novel immune targets usable for the development of therapeutic treatments. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Influence of intermediate layers on the surface condition of laser crystallized silicon thin films and solar cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höger, Ingmar, E-mail: ingmar.hoeger@ipht-jena.de; Gawlik, Annett; Brückner, Uwe; Andrä, Gudrun [Leibniz-Institut für Photonische Technologien, PF 100239, 07702 Jena (Germany); Himmerlich, Marcel; Krischok, Stefan [Institut für Mikro-und Nanotechnologien, Technische Universität Ilmenau, PF 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2016-01-28

    The intermediate layer (IL) between glass substrate and silicon plays a significant role in the optimization of multicrystalline liquid phase crystallized silicon thin film solar cells on glass. This study deals with the influence of the IL on the surface condition and the required chemical surface treatment of the crystallized silicon (mc-Si), which is of particular interest for a-Si:H heterojunction thin film solar cells. Two types of IL were investigated: sputtered silicon nitride (SiN) and a layer stack consisting of silicon nitride and silicon oxide (SiN/SiO). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements revealed the formation of silicon oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) or silicon oxide (SiO{sub 2}) layers at the surface of the mc-Si after liquid phase crystallization on SiN or SiN/SiO, respectively. We propose that SiO{sub x}N{sub y} formation is governed by dissolving nitrogen from the SiN layer in the silicon melt, which segregates at the crystallization front during crystallization. This process is successfully hindered, when additional SiO layers are introduced into the IL. In order to achieve solar cell open circuit voltages above 500 mV, a removal of the formed SiO{sub x}N{sub y} top layer is required using sophisticated cleaning of the crystallized silicon prior to a-Si:H deposition. However, solar cells crystallized on SiN/SiO yield high open circuit voltage even when a simple wet chemical surface treatment is applied. The implementation of SiN/SiO intermediate layers facilitates the production of mesa type solar cells with open circuit voltages above 600 mV and a power conversion efficiency of 10%.

  6. Cross-linking of cell surface amyloid precursor protein leads to increased β-amyloid peptide production in hippocampal neurons: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, Roger; Pozueta, Julio; Shelanski, Michael

    2012-08-01

    The accumulation of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is thought to play a causative role in triggering synaptic dysfunction in neurons, leading to their eventual demise through apoptosis. Aβ is produced and secreted upon sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretases and γ-secretases. However, while Aβ levels have been shown to be increased in the brains of AD patients, little is known about how the cleavage of APP and the subsequent generation of Aβ is influenced, or whether the cleavage process changes over time. It has been proposed that Aβ can bind APP and promote amyloidogenic processing of APP, further enhancing Aβ production. Proof of this idea has remained elusive because a clear mechanism has not been identified, and the promiscuous nature of Aβ binding complicates the task of demonstrating the idea. To work around these problems, we used an antibody-mediated approach to bind and cross-link cell-surface APP in cultured rat primary hippocampal neurons. Here we show that cross-linking of APP is sufficient to raise the levels of Aβ in viable neurons with a concomitant increase in the levels of the β-secretase BACE1. This appears to occur as a result of a sorting defect that stems from the caspase-3-mediated inactivation of a key sorting adaptor protein, namely GGA3, which prevents the lysosomal degradation of BACE1. Together, our data suggest the occurrence of a positive pathogenic feedback loop involving Aβ and APP in affected neurons possibly allowing Aβ to spread to nearby healthy neurons.

  7. Conflación semántica sobre Linked Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, JA.; Vilches-Blázquez, LM.

    2011-01-01

    Últimamente se está produciendo un gran apogeo en la publicación de información de muchas áreas temáticas en la Web de los Datos Enlazados (Linked Data). La información publicada en formato RDF tiene asociada un modelo conceptual (ontología) por el que se rige. El número de conjuntos de datos publicados y ontologías asociadas empieza a ser numeroso en distintas áreas, aunque las consultas de forma general han de realizarse de manera individualizada. En este artículo, mediante la conflación se...

  8. Preparation of hydrophilic monolithic capillary column by in situ photo-polymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone and acrylamide for highly selective and sensitive enrichment of N-linked glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Yuan, Huiming; Qu, Yanyan; Liang, Yu; Jiang, Bo; Wu, Qi; Deng, Nan; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel kind of amide functionalized hydrophilic monolith was synthesized by the in situ photo-polymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NVP), acrylamide (AM), and N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) in a UV transparent capillary, and successfully applied for hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) based enrichment of N-linked glycopeptides. With 2 μg of the tryptic digests of IgG as the sample, after enrichment, 18 glycopeptides could be identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis. Furthermore, with the mixture of BSA and IgG digests (10,000:1, m/m) as the sample, 6 N-linked glycopeptides were unambiguously identified after enrichment, indicating the high selectivity and good specificity of such material. Moreover, such a monolithic capillary column was also applied for the N-glycosylation sites profiling of 6 μg protein digests from HeLa cells and 1 μL human serum. In total, 530 and 262 unique N-glycosylated peptides were identified, respectively, corresponding to 282 and 124N-glycoproteins, demonstrating its great potential for the large scale glycoproteomics analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation resistance and comparative performance of ITO/InP and n/p InP homojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C.K.; Hart, R.E. Jr.; Coutts, T.J.

    1988-09-01

    The radiation resistance of ITO/InP cells processed by DC magnetron sputtering is compared to that of standard n/p InP and GaAs homojunction cells. After 20 MeV proton irradiations, it is found that the radiation resistance of the present ITO/InP cell is comparable to that of the n/p homojunction InP cell and that both InP cell types have radiation resistance significantly greater than GaAs. The relatively lower radiation resistance, observed at higher fluence, for the InP cell with the deepest junction depth, is attributed to losses in the cells emitter region. Diode parameters obtained from I sub sc - V sub oc plots, data from surface Raman spectroscopy, and determinations of surface conductivity types are used to investigate the configuration of the ITO/InP cells. It is concluded that thesee latter cells are n/p homojunctions, the n-region consisting of a disordered layer at the oxide semiconductor

  10. Electronic structure and optical properties of N vacancy and O filling on n-GaN (0001) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feifei; Liu, Lei; Xia, Sihao; Diao, Yu; Feng, Shu

    2018-06-01

    In the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiment, we observed that the valence band spectrum of the n-GaN (0001) surface appeared a bump near 1.9 eV after Ar etching and the N/Ga ratio became smaller, while the bump disappeared upon exposure to air. In order to analyze this phenomenon theoretically, we mainly study the electronic structure and optical properties of n-GaN (0001) surface with N vacancy and filled with O atom based on the first principles of density functional theory. The results suggest that the n-GaN (0001) surface exhibits semi-metallic property. The introduction of N vacancy reduces the n-type conductivity, whereas the filling of O atom enhances conductivity. The density of state near -1.9eV shows a good agreement between the clean n-type surface and the O-atom-filled surface, while the N vacancy surface has a higher density of states, which is similar to the experimentally observed phenomenon. It is also found that the existence of N vacancy reduces the photoemission properties of the n-GaN (0001) surface and the filling of O atom alleviates the defect caused by vacancy. This study shows that N vacancy increases the doping difficulty of n-type GaN films, however, the filling of O atom may compensate for the diminished photoelectric properties induced by N vacancy and be conducive to prepare high-performance optoelectronic devices with the contact of n-GaN and metal.

  11. EMA: a developmentally regulated cell-surface glycoprotein of CNS neurons that is concentrated at the leading edge of growth cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, N L; Parkinson, D; Wayne, D B; Heuser, J E; Pearlman, A L

    1992-08-01

    To identify cell-surface molecules that mediate interactions between neurons and their environment during neural development, we used monoclonal antibody techniques to define a developmentally regulated antigen in the central nervous system of the mouse. The antibody we produced (2A1) immunolabels cells throughout the central nervous system; we analyzed its distribution in the developing cerebral cortex, where it is expressed on cells very soon after they complete mitosis and leave the periventricular proliferative zone. Expression continues into adult life. The antibody also labels the epithelium of the choroid plexus and the renal proximal tubules, but does not label neurons of the peripheral nervous system in the dorsal root ganglia. In dissociated cell culture of embryonic cerebral cortex, 2A1 labels the surface of neurons but not glia. Immunolabeling of neurons in tissue culture is particularly prominent on the edge of growth cones, including filopodia and the leading edge of lamellipodia, when observed with either immunofluorescence or freeze-etch immunoelectron microscopy. Immunopurification with 2A1 of a CHAPS-extracted membrane preparation from brains of neonatal mice produces a broad (32-36 kD) electrophoretic band and a less prominent 70 kD band that are sensitive to N-glycosidase but not endoglycosidase H. Thus the 2A1 antibody recognizes a developmentally regulated, neuronal cell surface glycoprotein (or glycoproteins) with complex N-linked oligosaccharide side chains. We have termed the glycoprotein antigen EMA because of its prominence on the edge membrane of growth cones. EMA is similar to the M6 antigen (Lagenaur et al: J. Neurobiol. 23:71-88, 1992) in apparent molecular weight, distribution in tissue sections, and immunoreactivity on Western blots, suggesting that the two antigens are similar or identical. Expression of EMA is a very early manifestation of neuronal differentiation; its distribution on growth cones suggests a role in mediating the

  12. Influenza H5N1 virus infection of polarized human alveolar epithelial cells and lung microvascular endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Kit M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 virus is entrenched in poultry in Asia and Africa and continues to infect humans zoonotically causing acute respiratory disease syndrome and death. There is evidence that the virus may sometimes spread beyond respiratory tract to cause disseminated infection. The primary target cell for HPAI H5N1 virus in human lung is the alveolar epithelial cell. Alveolar epithelium and its adjacent lung microvascular endothelium form host barriers to the initiation of infection and dissemination of influenza H5N1 infection in humans. These are polarized cells and the polarity of influenza virus entry and egress as well as the secretion of cytokines and chemokines from the virus infected cells are likely to be central to the pathogenesis of human H5N1 disease. Aim To study influenza A (H5N1 virus replication and host innate immune responses in polarized primary human alveolar epithelial cells and lung microvascular endothelial cells and its relevance to the pathogenesis of human H5N1 disease. Methods We use an in vitro model of polarized primary human alveolar epithelial cells and lung microvascular endothelial cells grown in transwell culture inserts to compare infection with influenza A subtype H1N1 and H5N1 viruses via the apical or basolateral surfaces. Results We demonstrate that both influenza H1N1 and H5N1 viruses efficiently infect alveolar epithelial cells from both apical and basolateral surface of the epithelium but release of newly formed virus is mainly from the apical side of the epithelium. In contrast, influenza H5N1 virus, but not H1N1 virus, efficiently infected polarized microvascular endothelial cells from both apical and basolateral aspects. This provides a mechanistic explanation for how H5N1 virus may infect the lung from systemic circulation. Epidemiological evidence has implicated ingestion of virus-contaminated foods as the source of infection in some instances and our

  13. Biomolecular strategies for cell surface engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John Tanner

    Islet transplantation has emerged as a promising cell-based therapy for the treatment of diabetes, but its clinical efficacy remains limited by deleterious host responses that underlie islet destruction. In this dissertation, we describe the assembly of ultrathin conformal coatings that confer molecular-level control over the composition and biophysicochemical properties of the islet surface with implications for improving islet engraftment. Significantly, this work provides novel biomolecular strategies for cell surface engineering with broad biomedical and biotechnological applications in cell-based therapeutics and beyond. Encapsulation of cells and tissue offers a rational approach for attenuating deleterious host responses towards transplanted cells, but a need exists to develop cell encapsulation strategies that minimize transplant volume. Towards this end, we endeavored to generate nanothin films of diverse architecture with tunable properties on the extracellular surface of individual pancreatic islets through a process of layer-by-layer (LbL) self assembly. We first describe the formation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-rich conformal coatings on islets via LbL self assembly of poly(L-lysine)-g-PEG(biotin) and streptavidin. Multilayer thin films conformed to the geometrically and chemically heterogeneous islet surface, and could be assembled without loss of islet viability or function. Significantly, coated islets performed comparably to untreated controls in a murine model of allogenic intraportal islet transplantation, and, to our knowledge, this is the first study to report in vivo survival and function of nanoencapsulated cells or cell aggregates. Based on these findings, we next postulated that structurally similar PLL-g-PEG copolymers comprised of shorter PEG grafts might be used to initiate and propagate the assembly of polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films on pancreatic islets, while simultaneously preserving islet viability. Through control of PLL

  14. A nucleation theory of cell surface capping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutsias, E.A.; Wester, M.J.; Perelson, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a new theory of cell surface capping based on the principles of nucleation. When antibody interacts with cell surface molecules, the molecules initially form small aggregates called patches that later coalesce into a large aggregate called a cap. While a cap can form by patches being pulled together by action of the cell''s cytoskeleton, in the case of some molecules, disruption of the cytoskeleton does not prevent cap formation. Diffusion of large aggregates on a cell surface is slow, and thus we propose that a cap can form solely through the diffusion of small aggregates containing just one or a few cell surface molecules. Here we consider the extreme case in which single molecules are mobile, but aggregates of all larger sizes are immobile. We show that a set of patches in equilibrium with a open-quotes seaclose quotes of free cell surface molecules can undergo a nucleation-type phase transition in which the largest patch will bind free cell surface molecules, deplete the concentration of such molecules in the open-quotes seaclose quotes and thus cause the other patches to shrink in size. We therefore show that a cap can form without patches having to move, collide with each other, and aggregate

  15. BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial cell death pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neitemeier, Sandra; Jelinek, Anja; Laino, Vincenzo; Hoffmann, Lena; Eisenbach, Ina; Eying, Roman; Ganjam, Goutham K; Dolga, Amalia M; Oppermann, Sina; Culmsee, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Ferroptosis has been defined as an oxidative and iron-dependent pathway of regulated cell death that is distinct from caspase-dependent apoptosis and established pathways of death receptor-mediated regulated necrosis. While emerging evidence linked features of ferroptosis induced e.g. by

  16. A multifunctional mannosyltransferase family in Candida albicans determines cell wall mannan structure and host-fungus interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Montes, Héctor M; Bates, Steven; Netea, Mihai G; Castillo, Luis; Brand, Alexandra; Buurman, Ed T; Díaz-Jiménez, Diana F; Jan Kullberg, Bart; Brown, Alistair J P; Odds, Frank C; Gow, Neil A R

    2010-04-16

    The cell wall proteins of fungi are modified by N- and O-linked mannosylation and phosphomannosylation, resulting in changes to the physical and immunological properties of the cell. Glycosylation of cell wall proteins involves the activities of families of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi-located glycosyl transferases whose activities are difficult to infer through bioinformatics. The Candida albicans MNT1/KRE2 mannosyl transferase family is represented by five members. We showed previously that Mnt1 and Mnt2 are involved in O-linked mannosylation and are required for virulence. Here, the role of C. albicans MNT3, MNT4, and MNT5 was determined by generating single and multiple MnTDelta null mutants and by functional complementation experiments in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. CaMnt3, CaMnt4, and CaMnt5 did not participate in O-linked mannosylation, but CaMnt3 and CaMnt5 had redundant activities in phosphomannosylation and were responsible for attachment of approximately half of the phosphomannan attached to N-linked mannans. CaMnt4 and CaMnt5 participated in N-mannan branching. Deletion of CaMNT3, CaMNT4, and CaMNT5 affected the growth rate and virulence of C. albicans, affected the recognition of the yeast by human monocytes and cytokine stimulation, and led to increased cell wall chitin content and exposure of beta-glucan at the cell wall surface. Therefore, the MNT1/KRE2 gene family participates in three types of protein mannosylation in C. albicans, and these modifications play vital roles in fungal cell wall structure and cell surface recognition by the innate immune system.

  17. Internalisation of uncross-linked rituximab is not essential for the induction of caspase-independent killing in Burkitt lymphoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turzanski, Julie; Daniels, Ian; Haynes, Andrew P

    2008-08-01

    Characterising the mechanisms underpinning caspase-independent programmed cell death (CI-PCD) induction by uncross-linked rituximab in B-cells may positively impact upon the treatment of disease states in which the classical apoptotic pathway is disabled. The necessity of rituximab internalisation for CI-PCD induction was investigated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy in human BL cell lines with (e.g. Mutu I) and without (Mutu III) susceptibility to rituximab-induced killing. Flow cytometry demonstrated small, significant and similar amounts of rituximab internalisation by Mutu I cells after 1, 2, 4 and 24 h (p internalisation (p = 0.02, n = 5 and p = 0.0002, n = 6, respectively) in Mutu I cells, but confocal microscopy showed no correlation between internalised rituximab and phosphatidylserine exposure. We conclude that rituximab internalisation is not essential for CI-PCD induction in BL cell lines.

  18. Cell Adhesion on Surface-Functionalized Magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Victoria; Schilling, Achim; Mainka, Astrid; Hennig, Diana; Gerum, Richard; Kelch, Marie-Luise; Keim, Simon; Fabry, Ben; Virtanen, Sannakaisa

    2016-05-18

    The biocompatibility of commercially pure magnesium-based (cp Mg) biodegradable implants is compromised of strong hydrogen evolution and surface alkalization due to high initial corrosion rates of cp Mg in the physiological environment. To mitigate this problem, the addition of corrosion-retarding alloying elements or coating of implant surfaces has been suggested. In the following work, we explored the effect of organic coatings on long-term cell growth. cp Mg was coated with aminopropyltriehtoxysilane + vitamin C (AV), carbonyldiimidazole (CDI), or stearic acid (SA). All three coatings have been previously suggested to reduce initial corrosion and to enhance protein adsorption and hence cell adhesion on magnesium surfaces. Endothelial cells (DH1+/+) and osteosarcoma cells (MG63) were cultured on coated samples for up to 20 days. To quantify Mg corrosion, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was measured after 1, 3, and 5 days of cell culture. We also investigated the speed of initial cell spreading after seeding using fluorescently labeled fibroblasts (NIH/3T3). Hydrogen evolution after contact with cell culture medium was markedly decreased on AV- and SA-coated Mg compared to uncoated Mg. These coatings also showed improved cell adhesion and spreading after 24 h of culture comparable to tissue-treated plastic surfaces. On AV-coated cp Mg, a confluent layer of endothelial cells formed after 5 days and remained intact for up to 20 days. Together, these data demonstrate that surface coating with AV is a viable strategy for improving long-term biocompatibility of cp Mg-based implants. EIS measurements confirmed that the presence of a confluent cell layer increased the corrosion resistance.

  19. Microarc-oxidized titanium surfaces functionalized with microRNA-21-loaded chitosan/hyaluronic acid nanoparticles promote the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongshan; Wu, Guangsheng; Feng, Zhihong; Bai, Shizhu; Dong, Yan; Wu, Guofeng; Zhao, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants have been widely used for the replacement of missing teeth in the clinic, but further improvements are needed to meet the clinical demands for faster and tighter osseointegration. In this study, we fabricated safe and biocompatible chitosan (CS)/hyaluronic acid (HA) nanoparticles to deliver microRNA-21 (miR-21) and thereby accelerate osteogenesis in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs). The CS/HA/miR-21 nanoparticles were cross-linked with 0.2% gel solution onto microarc oxidation (MAO)-treated titanium (Ti) surfaces to fabricate the miR-21-functionalized MAO Ti surface, resulting in the development of a novel coating for reverse transfection. To characterize the CS/HA/miR-21 nanoparticles, their particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology, and gel retardation ability were sequentially investigated. Their biological effects, such as cell viability, cytotoxicity, and expression of osteogenic genes by hBMMSCs on the miR-21-functionalized MAO Ti surfaces, were evaluated. Finally, we explored appropriate CS/HA/miR-21 nanoparticles with a CS/HA ratio of 4:1 and N/P ratio 20:1 for transfection, which presented good spherical morphology, an average diameter of 160.4±10.75 nm, and a positive zeta potential. The miR-21-functionalized MAO Ti surfaces demonstrated cell viability, cytotoxicity, and cell spreading comparable to those exhibited by naked MAO Ti surfaces and led to significantly higher expression of osteogenic genes. This novel miR-21-functionalized Ti implant may be used in the clinic to allow more effective and robust osseointegration.

  20. Defectively N-glycosylated and non-O-glycosylated aminopeptidase N (CD13) is normally expressed at the cell surface and has full enzymatic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norén, K; Hansen, Gert Helge; Clausen, H

    1997-01-01

    In order to study the effects of the absence of O-glycosylation and modifications of N-glycosylation on a class II membrane protein, pig and human aminopeptidase N (CD13) were stably expressed in the ldl(D) cell line. This cell line carries a UDP-Gal/UDP-GalNAc-epimerase deficiency which blocks...... the conversion of glucose into galactose derivatives. Thus it is possible in the ldl(D) cell line to selectively block O-glycosylation by the omission of N-acetylgalactoseamine from the culture medium and to alter N-glycosylation by the omission of galactose. In this way selectively altered glycosylated forms...

  1. The Cell Surface Markers Expression in Postmenopausal Women and Relation to Obesity and Bone Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváthová, Mira; Ilavská, Silvia; Štefíková, Kornélia; Szabová, Michaela; Krivošíková, Zora; Jahnová, Eva; Tulinská, Jana; Spustová, Viera; Gajdoš, Martin

    2017-07-11

    The age-related changes and hormonal deprivation in postmenopausal women are associated with the immune response alteration. The excessive fat accumulation, local and systemic inflammation may lead to dysregulation in immune function and relevant health problems, including obesity and osteoporosis. We analyzed the expression of cell surface markers in the venous blood specimens, stained with fluorophores-conjugated monoclonal antibodies and analysed by multicolour flow cytometry. The significant changes of cytotoxic, naive, and memory T-lymphocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) were in postmenopausal women versus fertile women. Body mass index (BMI) affected markedly the cell surface expression of CD265/RANK. Osteoporosis is linked to reduced percentage of plasmacytoid DCs, and elevated natural Treg cells ( p < 0.05). The confounding factors such as women age, BMI, bone mineral density (BMD), waist size and tissue fat affect the expression of RANK on myeloid DCs and CD40L on T-lymphocytes that might be the immunophenotypic modulators after menopause.

  2. The Cell Surface Markers Expression in Postmenopausal Women and Relation to Obesity and Bone Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Horváthová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The age-related changes and hormonal deprivation in postmenopausal women are associated with the immune response alteration. The excessive fat accumulation, local and systemic inflammation may lead to dysregulation in immune function and relevant health problems, including obesity and osteoporosis. We analyzed the expression of cell surface markers in the venous blood specimens, stained with fluorophores-conjugated monoclonal antibodies and analysed by multicolour flow cytometry. The significant changes of cytotoxic, naive, and memory T-lymphocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs were in postmenopausal women versus fertile women. Body mass index (BMI affected markedly the cell surface expression of CD265/RANK. Osteoporosis is linked to reduced percentage of plasmacytoid DCs, and elevated natural Treg cells (p < 0.05. The confounding factors such as women age, BMI, bone mineral density (BMD, waist size and tissue fat affect the expression of RANK on myeloid DCs and CD40L on T-lymphocytes that might be the immunophenotypic modulators after menopause.

  3. Selective cell-surface labeling of the molecular motor protein prestin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, Ryan M.; Silberg, Jonathan J.; Pereira, Fred A.; Raphael, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Trafficking to the plasma membrane is required for prestin function. → Biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) was fused to prestin through a transmembrane domain. → BAP-prestin can be metabolically labeled with biotin in HEK293 cells. → Biotin-BAP-prestin allows for selective imaging of fully trafficked prestin. → The biotin-BAP-prestin displays voltage-sensitive activity. -- Abstract: Prestin, a multipass transmembrane protein whose N- and C-termini are localized to the cytoplasm, must be trafficked to the plasma membrane to fulfill its cellular function as a molecular motor. One challenge in studying prestin sequence-function relationships within living cells is separating the effects of amino acid substitutions on prestin trafficking, plasma membrane localization and function. To develop an approach for directly assessing prestin levels at the plasma membrane, we have investigated whether fusion of prestin to a single pass transmembrane protein results in a functional fusion protein with a surface-exposed N-terminal tag that can be detected in living cells. We find that fusion of the biotin-acceptor peptide (BAP) and transmembrane domain of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) to the N-terminus of prestin-GFP yields a membrane protein that can be metabolically-labeled with biotin, trafficked to the plasma membrane, and selectively detected at the plasma membrane using fluorescently-tagged streptavidin. Furthermore, we show that the addition of a surface detectable tag and a single-pass transmembrane domain to prestin does not disrupt its voltage-sensitive activity.

  4. Identification of an N-linked glycan in the V1-loop of HIV-1 gp120 influencing neutralization by anti-V3 antibodies and soluble CD4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, G J; Hemming, A; Bolmstedt, A

    1994-01-01

    affecting viral infectivity in cell culture. We found that the mutated virus lacking an N-linked glycan in the V1-loop of gp120 was more resistant to neutralization by monoclonal antibodies to the V3-loop and neutralization by soluble recombinant CD4 (sCD4). Both viruses were equally well neutralized by Con...... in the V1-loop of HIV-1 gp120. Lack of an N-linked glycan was verified by a mobility enhancement of mutant gp120 in SDS-gel electrophoresis. The mutated virus showed no differences in either gp120 content per infectious unit or infectivity, indicating that the N-linked glycan was neither essential nor...

  5. Lacking deoxygenation-linked interaction between cytoplasmic domain of band 3 and HbF from fetal red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Several of the red blood cell's metabolic and membrane functions display dependence on haemoglobin oxygenation. In adult human red cells, the increased glycolytic rate at low O2 tension results from binding of deoxygenated HbA at negatively charged, N-terminal, cytoplasmic domain of the memb......Aim: Several of the red blood cell's metabolic and membrane functions display dependence on haemoglobin oxygenation. In adult human red cells, the increased glycolytic rate at low O2 tension results from binding of deoxygenated HbA at negatively charged, N-terminal, cytoplasmic domain...... of the membrane protein band 3, which liberates glycolytic enzymes from this site. This study aims to investigate the role of fetal HbF (that has lower anion-binding capacity than HbA) in fetal red cells (that are subjected to low O2 tensions), and to elucidate possible linkage (e.g. via the major red cell...... membrane organising centre, band 3) between the individual oxygenation-linked reactions encountered in red cells. Methods: The interaction between band 3 and Hb is analysed in terms of the effects, measured under different conditions, of a 10-mer peptide that corresponds to the N-terminus of human band 3...

  6. Cell surface acid-base properties of Escherichia coli and Bacillus brevis and variation as a function of growth phase, nitrogen source and C:N ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yongsuk; Brown, Derick G

    2006-07-01

    Potentiometric titration has been conducted to systematically examine the acid-base properties of the cell surfaces of Escherichia coli K-12 and Bacillus brevis as a function of growth phase, nitrogen source (ammonium or nitrate), and carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio of the growth substrate. The two bacterial species revealed four distinct proton binding sites, with pK(a) values in the range of 3.08-4.05 (pK(1)), 4.62-5.57 (pK(2)), 6.47-7.30 (pK(3)), and 9.68-10.89 (pK(4)) corresponding to phosphoric/carboxylic, carboxylic, phosphoric, and hydroxyl/amine groups, respectively. Two general observations in the data are that for B. brevis the first site concentration (N(1)), corresponding to phosphoric/carboxylic groups (pK(1)), varied as a function of nitrogen source, while for E. coli the fourth site concentration (N(4)), corresponding to hydroxyl/amine groups (pK(4)), varied as a function of C:N ratio. Correspondingly, it was found that N(1) was the highest of the four site concentrations for B. brevis and N(4) was the highest for E. coli. The concentrations of the remaining sites showed little variation. Finally, comparison between the titration data and a number of cell surface compositional studies in the literature indicates one distinct difference between the two bacteria is that pK(4) of the Gram-negative E. coli can be attributed to hydroxyl groups while that of the Gram-positive B. brevis can be attributed to amine groups.

  7. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis regulates T cell effector function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zehntner, Simone P; Bourbonnière, Lyne; Moore, Craig S

    2007-01-01

    To understand how the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic signals influences effector function in the immune system, we studied the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), an endogenous regulator of cellular apoptosis. Real-time PCR showed increased XIAP expression in blood of mice with exper......To understand how the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic signals influences effector function in the immune system, we studied the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), an endogenous regulator of cellular apoptosis. Real-time PCR showed increased XIAP expression in blood of mice...... dramatically reduced within the CNS. Flow cytometry showed an 88-93% reduction in T cells. The proportion of TUNEL(+) apoptotic CD4(+) T cells in the CNS was increased from Neurons...... and oligodendrocytes were not affected; neither did apoptosis increase in liver, where XIAP knockdown also occurred. ASO-XIAP increased susceptibility of T cells to activation-induced apoptosis in vitro. Our results identify XIAP as a critical controller of apoptotic susceptibility of effector T cell function...

  8. Genetic and proteomic evidences support the localization of yeast enolase in the cell surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Villar, Elena; Monteoliva, Lucía; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2006-01-01

    Although enolase, other glycolytic enzymes, and a variety of cytoplasmic proteins lacking an N-terminal secretion signal have been widely described as located at the cell surface in yeast and in mammalian cells, their presence in this external location is still controversial. Here, we report that...

  9. Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Is a Novel Molecular Mechanism Linking Folate Availability and Cell Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elena; Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Folate deficiency has been linked to a wide range of disorders, including cancer, neural tube defects, and fetal growth restriction. Folate regulates cellular function mediated by its involvement in the synthesis of nucleotides, which are needed for DNA synthesis, and its function as a methyl donor, which is critical for DNA methylation. Here we review current data showing that folate sensing by mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) constitutes a novel and distinct pathway by which folate modulates cell functions such as nutrient transport, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial respiration. The mTOR signaling pathway responds to growth factors and changes in nutrient availability to control cell growth, proliferation, and metabolism. mTOR exists in 2 complexes, mTOR complex (mTORC) 1 and mTORC2, which have distinct upstream regulators and downstream targets. Folate deficiency in pregnant mice caused a marked inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling in multiple maternal and fetal tissues, downregulation of placental amino acid transporters, and fetal growth restriction. In addition, folate deficiency in primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells resulted in inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling and decreased the activity of key amino acid transporters. Folate sensing by mTOR in PHT cells is independent of the accumulation of homocysteine and requires the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT; solute carrier 46A1). Furthermore, mTORC1 and mTORC2 regulate trophoblast folate uptake by modulating the cell surface expression of folate receptor α and the reduced folate carrier. These findings, which provide a novel link between folate availability and cell function, growth, and proliferation, may have broad biological significance given the critical role of folate in normal cell function and the multiple diseases that have been associated with decreased or excessive folate availability. Low maternal folate concentrations are linked to restricted fetal growth, and we

  10. A surface plasmon resonance biosensor for direct detection of the rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A surface plasmon resonance biosensor chip was constructed for detection of rabies virus. For the construction of the biosensor chip, N protein specific antibody and N protein specific antibody combined with G protein specific antibody of rabies virus were linked on two different flow cells on one CM5 chip, respectively. The chip was tested for the detection of rabies virus antigens using the crude extract of rabies virus from infected BHK cell strain culture. Tenfold serial dilutions of SRV9 strain virus-infected cell cultures were tested by the biosensor chip to establish the detection limit. The limit detection was approximately 70 pg/ml of nucleoprotein and glycoprotein. The biosensor chip developed in this study was employed for the detection of rabies virus in five suspect infectious specimens of brain tissue from guinea pigs; the results were compared by fluorescent antibody test. Surface plasmon resonance biosensor chip could be a useful automatic tool for prompt detection of rabies virus infection.

  11. Restricted processing of CD16a/Fc γ receptor IIIa N-glycans from primary human NK cells impacts structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kashyap R; Roberts, Jacob T; Subedi, Ganesh P; Barb, Adam W

    2018-03-09

    CD16a/Fc γ receptor IIIa is the most abundant antibody Fc receptor expressed on human natural killer (NK) cells and activates a protective cytotoxic response following engagement with antibody clustered on the surface of a pathogen or diseased tissue. Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with greater Fc-mediated affinity for CD16a show superior therapeutic outcome; however, one significant factor that promotes antibody-CD16a interactions, the asparagine-linked carbohydrates ( N -glycans), remains undefined. Here, we purified CD16a from the primary NK cells of three donors and identified a large proportion of hybrid (22%) and oligomannose N -glycans (23%). These proportions indicated restricted N -glycan processing and were unlike those of the recombinant CD16a forms, which have predominantly complex-type N -glycans (82%). Tethering recombinant CD16a to the membrane by including the transmembrane and intracellular domains and via coexpression with the Fc ϵ receptor γ-chain in HEK293F cells was expected to produce N -glycoforms similar to NK cell-derived CD16a but yielded N -glycoforms different from NK cell-derived CD16a and recombinant soluble CD16a. Of note, these differences in CD16a N -glycan composition affected antibody binding: CD16a with oligomannose N -glycans bound IgG1 Fc with 12-fold greater affinity than did CD16a having primarily complex-type and highly branched N -glycans. The changes in binding activity mirrored changes in NMR spectra of the two CD16a glycoforms, indicating that CD16a glycan composition also affects the glycoprotein's structure. These results indicated that CD16a from primary human NK cells is compositionally, and likely also functionally, distinct from commonly used recombinant forms. Furthermore, our study provides critical evidence that cell lineage determines CD16a N -glycan composition and antibody-binding affinity. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. The role of c-Src in the invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells induced by association of cell surface GRP78 with activated α2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Song; Li, Hongdan; Wang, Qingjun; Su, Chang; Wang, Guan; Song, Huijuan; Zhao, Liang; Luan, Zhidong; Su, Rongjian

    2015-01-01

    Emerging data have suggested that cell surface GRP78 is a multifunctional receptor and has been linked to proliferative and antiapoptotic signaling cascades. Activated α 2− macroglobin (α 2 M*) is a natural circulating ligand of cell surface GRP78. Association of cell surface GRP78 with α 2 M* is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis in human cancers. The invasion and metastasis of HCC cells were examined using transwell and wound healing assay; Cell surface expression of GRP78 was detected by in cell western assay. Translocation of GRP78 from cytosol to cell surface was observed by transfection of GRP78-EGFP plus TRIRC-WGA staining. The levels of Src, phosphor-Src, FAK, phospho-FAK, EGFR, phospho-EGFR, phospho-Cortactin, phospho-Paxillin were determined by western blot. Cell surface expression of GRP78 in HCC tissue samples was observed by immunofluorescence. The distribution of Paxillin and Cortactin in HCC cells was also observed by immunofluorescence. The interaction between GRP78 and Src were detected by far-western blot, co-immunoprecipitation and GST pulldown. GRP78 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. In the current study, we showed that association of cell surface GRP78 with α 2 M* stimulated the invasion and metastasis of HCC. Cell surface GRP78 could interact directly with c-Src, promoted the phosphorylation of c-Src at Y416. Inhibition of the tyrosine kinase activity of c-Src with PP2 reverted the stimulatory effect caused by association of cell surface GRP78 with α 2 M*. Moreover, association of cell surface GRP78 with α 2 M* facilitates the interaction between EGFR and c-Src and consequently phosphorylated EGFR at Y1101 and Y845, promoting the invasion and metastasis of HCCs. However, inhibition of the tyrosine kinase of c-Src do not affect the interaction between EGFR and Src. c-Src plays a critical role in the invasion and metastasis of HCC induced by association of cell surface GRP78 with α 2 M*. Cell surface GRP

  13. Surface-Exposed Lipoproteins: An Emerging Secretion Phenomenon in Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marlena M; Bernstein, Harris D

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are hydrophilic proteins that are anchored to a cell membrane by N-terminally linked fatty acids. It is widely believed that nearly all lipoproteins produced by Gram-negative bacteria are either retained in the inner membrane (IM) or transferred to the inner leaflet of the outer membrane (OM). Lipoproteins that are exposed on the cell surface have also been reported but are generally considered to be rare. Results from a variety of recent studies, however, now suggest that the prevalence of surface-exposed lipoproteins has been underestimated. In this review we describe the evidence that the surface exposure of lipoproteins in Gram-negative bacteria is a widespread phenomenon and discuss possible mechanisms by which these proteins might be transported across the OM. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Basic Surface Properties of Mononuclear Cells from Didelphis marsupialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacife Valéria Pereira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrostatic surface charge and surface tension of mononuclear cells/monocytes obtained from young and adult marsupials (Didelphis marsupialis were investigated by using cationized ferritin and colloidal iron hydroxyde, whole cell electrophoresis, and measurements of contact angles. Anionic sites were found distributed throughout the entire investigated cell surfaces. The results revealed that the anionic character of the cells is given by electrostatic charges corresponding to -18.8 mV (cells from young animals and -29.3 mV (cells from adult animals. The surface electrostatic charge decreased from 10 to 65.2% after treatment of the cells with each one of trypsin, neuraminidase and phospholipase C. The hydrophobic nature of the mononuclear cell surfaces studied by using the contact angle method revealed that both young and adult cells possess cell surfaces of high hidrofilicity since the angles formed with drops of saline water were 42.5°and 40.8°, respectively. Treatment of the cells with trypsin or neuraminidase rendered their surfaces more hydrophobic, suggesting that sialic acid-containing glycoproteins are responsible for most of the hydrophilicity observed in the mononuclear cell surfaces from D. marsupialis.

  15. Lactoperoxidase catalyzed radioiodination of cell surface immunoglobulin: incorporated radioactivity may not reflect relative cell surface Ig density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, R.L.; Yuen, C.C.; Mage, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Rabbit and mouse splenic lymphocytes were radioiodinated by the lactoperoxidase technique, extracted with non-ionic detergent, immunoprecipitated with high titered rabbit anti-kappa antisera, and compared by SDS-PAGE. Mouse sIg peaks were reproducibly larger in size than rabbit sIg peaks (often greater than 10 times). Neither differences in incorporation of label into the rabbit cell surface, nor differences in average sIg density explain this result. Total TCA-precipitable radioactivity was similar in each species. Estimation of the relative amounts of sIg in the mouse and rabbit showed similar average sIg densities. Differences in detergent solubility, proteolytic lability, or antisera used also do not adequately account for this difference. Thus, these data indicate that radioactivity incorporated after lactoperoxidase catalyzed cell surface radioiodination may not reflect cell surface Ig density. Conclusions about cell surface density based upon relative incorporation of radioactivity should be confirmed by other approaches

  16. Multijunction Solar Cell Technology for Mars Surface Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Paul M.; Mardesich, Nick; Ewell, Richard C.; Mueller, Robert L.; Endicter, Scott; Aiken, Daniel; Edmondson, Kenneth; Fetze, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Solar cells used for Mars surface applications have been commercial space qualified AM0 optimized devices. Due to the Martian atmosphere, these cells are not optimized for the Mars surface and as a result operate at a reduced efficiency. A multi-year program, MOST (Mars Optimized Solar Cell Technology), managed by JPL and funded by NASA Code S, was initiated in 2004, to develop tools to modify commercial AM0 cells for the Mars surface solar spectrum and to fabricate Mars optimized devices for verification. This effort required defining the surface incident spectrum, developing an appropriate laboratory solar simulator measurement capability, and to develop and test commercial cells modified for the Mars surface spectrum. This paper discusses the program, including results for the initial modified cells. Simulated Mars surface measurements of MER cells and Phoenix Lander cells (2007 launch) are provided to characterize the performance loss for those missions. In addition, the performance of the MER rover solar arrays is updated to reflect their more than two (2) year operation.

  17. Surface cell immobilization within perfluoroalkoxy microchannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovič, Gorazd; Krivec, Matic [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vesel, Alenka [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Marinšek, Marjan [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Žnidaršič-Plazl, Polona, E-mail: polona.znidarsic@fkkt.uni-lj.si [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A very efficient approach for immobilization of cells into microreactors is presented. • It is applicable to various materials, including PFA and cyclic olefin (co)polymers. • It was used to immobilize different prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes. • Cells were immobilized on the surface in high density and showed good stability. • Mechanisms of APTES interactions with target materials are proposed. - Abstract: Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) is one of the most promising materials for the fabrication of cheap, solvent resistant and reusable microfluidic chips, which have been recently recognized as effective tools for biocatalytic process development. The application of biocatalysts significantly depends on efficient immobilization of enzymes or cells within the reactor enabling long-term biocatalyst use. Functionalization of PFA microchannels by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (ATPES) and glutaraldehyde was used for rapid preparation of microbioreactors with surface-immobilized cells. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to accurately monitor individual treatment steps and to select conditions for cell immobilization. The optimized protocol for Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilization on PFA microchannel walls comprised ethanol surface pretreatment, 4 h contacting with 10% APTES aqueous solution, 10 min treatment with 1% glutaraldehyde and 20 min contacting with cells in deionized water. The same protocol enabled also immobilization of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis cells on PFA surface in high densities. Furthermore, the developed procedure has been proved to be very efficient also for surface immobilization of tested cells on other materials that are used for microreactor fabrication, including glass, polystyrene, poly (methyl methacrylate), polycarbonate, and two olefin-based polymers, namely Zeonor{sup ®} and Topas{sup ®}.

  18. Nucleolin: acharan sulfate–binding protein on the surface of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Eun Ji; ten Dam, Gerdy B.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Toida, Toshihiko; Linhardt, Robert J.; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2005-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are complex polysaccharides that participate in the regulation of physiological processes through the interactions with a wide variety of proteins. Acharan sulfate (AS), isolated from the giant African snail Achatina fulica, primarily consists of the repeating disaccharide structure α-D-N-acetylglucosaminyl (1→4) 2-sulfoiduronic acid. Exogenous AS was injected subcutaneously near the tumor tissue in C57BL/6 mice that had been implanted with Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLCs). The location of AS in the tumor was assessed by staining of sectioned tissues with alcian blue and periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) reagent. In vitro assays indicated binding of cells to 50 μg/ml AS (or heparin) after a 5-h incubation. Immunofluorescence assays, using anti-AS antibody, detected AS at the cell surface. The outer-surface of LLCs were next biotinylated to identify the AS-binding proteins. Biotinylated cells were lysed, and the lysates were fractionated on the AS affinity column using a stepwise salt gradient (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, and 2.0 M). The fractions were analyzed by SDS–PAGE with silver staining and western blotting. We focused on the proteins with high affinity for AS (eluting at 1 M NaCl) and detected only two bands by western blotting. ESI Q-TOF MS analysis of one of these bands, molecular weight ~110 kDa, showed it to be nucleolin. A phosphorylated form of nucleolin on the surface of cells acts as a cell surface receptor for a variety of ligands, including growth factors (i.e., basic fibroblast growth factor) and chemokines (i.e., midkine). These results show that nucleolin is one of several AS-binding proteins and suggest that AS might demonstrate its tumor growth inhibitory activity by binding the nucleolin receptor protein on the surface of cancer cells. PMID:15329357

  19. Reprocessing and Recycling of Highly Cross-Linked Ion-Conducting Networks through Transalkylation Exchanges of C-N Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadia, Mona M; Mudraboyina, Bhanu P; Serghei, Anatoli; Montarnal, Damien; Drockenmuller, Eric

    2015-05-13

    Exploiting exchangeable covalent bonds as dynamic cross-links recently afforded a new class of polymer materials coined as vitrimers. These permanent networks are insoluble and infusible, but the network topology can be reshuffled at high temperatures, thus enabling glasslike plastic deformation and reprocessing without depolymerization. We disclose herein the development of functional and high-value ion-conducting vitrimers that take inspiration from poly(ionic liquid)s. Tunable networks with high ionic content are obtained by the solvent- and catalyst-free polyaddition of an α-azide-ω-alkyne monomer and simultaneous alkylation of the resulting poly(1,2,3-triazole)s with a series of difunctional cross-linking agents. Temperature-induced transalkylation exchanges of C-N bonds between 1,2,3-triazolium cross-links and halide-functionalized dangling chains enable recycling and reprocessing of these highly cross-linked permanent networks. They can also be recycled by depolymerization with specific solvents able to displace the transalkylation equilibrium, and they display a great potential for applications that require solid electrolytes with excellent mechanical performances and facile processing such as supercapacitors, batteries, fuel cells, and separation membranes.

  20. Surface passivation of n-type doped black silicon by atomic-layer-deposited SiO2/Al2O3 stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Loo, B. W. H.; Ingenito, A.; Verheijen, M. A.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2017-06-01

    Black silicon (b-Si) nanotextures can significantly enhance the light absorption of crystalline silicon solar cells. Nevertheless, for a successful application of b-Si textures in industrially relevant solar cell architectures, it is imperative that charge-carrier recombination at particularly highly n-type doped black Si surfaces is further suppressed. In this work, this issue is addressed through systematically studying lowly and highly doped b-Si surfaces, which are passivated by atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 films or SiO2/Al2O3 stacks. In lowly doped b-Si textures, a very low surface recombination prefactor of 16 fA/cm2 was found after surface passivation by Al2O3. The excellent passivation was achieved after a dedicated wet-chemical treatment prior to surface passivation, which removed structural defects which resided below the b-Si surface. On highly n-type doped b-Si, the SiO2/Al2O3 stacks result in a considerable improvement in surface passivation compared to the Al2O3 single layers. The atomic-layer-deposited SiO2/Al2O3 stacks therefore provide a low-temperature, industrially viable passivation method, enabling the application of highly n- type doped b-Si nanotextures in industrial silicon solar cells.

  1. The role of DNA polymerase ζ in translesion synthesis across bulky DNA adducts and cross-links in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Tetsuya, E-mail: suzukite@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Division of Genetics and Mutagenesis, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Grúz, Petr; Honma, Masamitsu [Division of Genetics and Mutagenesis, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Adachi, Noritaka [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0027 (Japan); Nohmi, Takehiko [Division of Genetics and Mutagenesis, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Human cells knockout (KO) and expressing catalytically dead (CD) variant of DNA polymerase ζ (Pol ζ) have been established by gene targeting techniques with Nalm-6 cells. • Both Pol ζ KO and CD cells displayed prolonged cell cycle and higher incidence of micronucleus formation than the wild-type cells in the absence of exogenous genotoxic treatments. • Pol ζ protects human cells from genotoxic stresses that induce bulky DNA lesions and cross-links. • Pol ζ plays quite limited roles in protection against strand-breaks in DNA. - Abstract: Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) is a cellular defense mechanism against genotoxins. Defects or mutations in specialized DNA polymerases (Pols) involved in TLS are believed to result in hypersensitivity to various genotoxic stresses. Here, DNA polymerase ζ (Pol ζ)-deficient (KO: knockout) and Pol ζ catalytically dead (CD) human cells were established and their sensitivity towards cytotoxic activities of various genotoxins was examined. The CD cells were engineered by altering the DNA sequence encoding two amino acids essential for the catalytic activity of Pol ζ, i.e., D2781 and D2783, to alanines. Both Pol ζ KO and CD cells displayed a prolonged cell cycle and higher incidence of micronuclei formation than the wild-type (WT) cells in the absence of exogenous genotoxic treatments, and the order of abnormality was CD > KO > WT cells. Both KO and CD cells exhibited higher sensitivity towards the killing effects of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide, mitomycin C, potassium bromate, N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, and ultraviolet C irradiation than WT cells, and there were no differences between the sensitivities of KO and CD cells. Interestingly, neither KO nor CD cells were sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. Since KO and CD cells displayed similar sensitivities to the genotoxins, we employed only KO cells to further examine their sensitivity to other genotoxic agents. KO cells were

  2. The role of DNA polymerase ζ in translesion synthesis across bulky DNA adducts and cross-links in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tetsuya; Grúz, Petr; Honma, Masamitsu; Adachi, Noritaka; Nohmi, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Human cells knockout (KO) and expressing catalytically dead (CD) variant of DNA polymerase ζ (Pol ζ) have been established by gene targeting techniques with Nalm-6 cells. • Both Pol ζ KO and CD cells displayed prolonged cell cycle and higher incidence of micronucleus formation than the wild-type cells in the absence of exogenous genotoxic treatments. • Pol ζ protects human cells from genotoxic stresses that induce bulky DNA lesions and cross-links. • Pol ζ plays quite limited roles in protection against strand-breaks in DNA. - Abstract: Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) is a cellular defense mechanism against genotoxins. Defects or mutations in specialized DNA polymerases (Pols) involved in TLS are believed to result in hypersensitivity to various genotoxic stresses. Here, DNA polymerase ζ (Pol ζ)-deficient (KO: knockout) and Pol ζ catalytically dead (CD) human cells were established and their sensitivity towards cytotoxic activities of various genotoxins was examined. The CD cells were engineered by altering the DNA sequence encoding two amino acids essential for the catalytic activity of Pol ζ, i.e., D2781 and D2783, to alanines. Both Pol ζ KO and CD cells displayed a prolonged cell cycle and higher incidence of micronuclei formation than the wild-type (WT) cells in the absence of exogenous genotoxic treatments, and the order of abnormality was CD > KO > WT cells. Both KO and CD cells exhibited higher sensitivity towards the killing effects of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide, mitomycin C, potassium bromate, N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, and ultraviolet C irradiation than WT cells, and there were no differences between the sensitivities of KO and CD cells. Interestingly, neither KO nor CD cells were sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. Since KO and CD cells displayed similar sensitivities to the genotoxins, we employed only KO cells to further examine their sensitivity to other genotoxic agents. KO cells were

  3. In-cell thermodynamics and a new role for protein surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Austin E; Zhou, Larry Z; Gorensek, Annelise H; Senske, Michael; Pielak, Gary J

    2016-02-16

    There is abundant, physiologically relevant knowledge about protein cores; they are hydrophobic, exquisitely well packed, and nearly all hydrogen bonds are satisfied. An equivalent understanding of protein surfaces has remained elusive because proteins are almost exclusively studied in vitro in simple aqueous solutions. Here, we establish the essential physiological roles played by protein surfaces by measuring the equilibrium thermodynamics and kinetics of protein folding in the complex environment of living Escherichia coli cells, and under physiologically relevant in vitro conditions. Fluorine NMR data on the 7-kDa globular N-terminal SH3 domain of Drosophila signal transduction protein drk (SH3) show that charge-charge interactions are fundamental to protein stability and folding kinetics in cells. Our results contradict predictions from accepted theories of macromolecular crowding and show that cosolutes commonly used to mimic the cellular interior do not yield physiologically relevant information. As such, we provide the foundation for a complete picture of protein chemistry in cells.

  4. Multiple repair pathways mediate tolerance to chemotherapeutic cross-linking agents in vertebrate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, Kuniharu; Hochegger, Helfrid; Saberi, Alihossein; Fukushima, Toru; Kikuchi, Koji; Yoshimura, Michio; Orelli, Brian J; Bishop, Douglas K; Hirano, Seiki; Ohzeki, Mioko; Ishiai, Masamichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Takata, Minoru; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Buerstedde, Jean-Marie; Yamazoe, Mitsuyoshi; Kawamoto, Takuo; Araki, Kasumi; Takahashi, Jun A; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Takeda, Shunichi; Sonoda, Eiichiro

    2005-12-15

    Cross-linking agents that induce DNA interstrand cross-links (ICL) are widely used in anticancer chemotherapy. Yeast genetic studies show that nucleotide excision repair (NER), Rad6/Rad18-dependent postreplication repair, homologous recombination, and cell cycle checkpoint pathway are involved in ICL repair. To study the contribution of DNA damage response pathways in tolerance to cross-linking agents in vertebrates, we made a panel of gene-disrupted clones from chicken DT40 cells, each defective in a particular DNA repair or checkpoint pathway, and measured the sensitivities to cross-linking agents, including cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin), mitomycin C, and melphalan. We found that cells harboring defects in translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), Fanconi anemia complementation groups (FANC), or homologous recombination displayed marked hypersensitivity to all the cross-linking agents, whereas NER seemed to play only a minor role. This effect of replication-dependent repair pathways is distinctively different from the situation in yeast, where NER seems to play a major role in dealing with ICL. Cells deficient in Rev3, the catalytic subunit of TLS polymerase Polzeta, showed the highest sensitivity to cisplatin followed by fanc-c. Furthermore, epistasis analysis revealed that these two mutants work in the same pathway. Our genetic comprehensive study reveals a critical role for DNA repair pathways that release DNA replication block at ICLs in cellular tolerance to cross-linking agents and could be directly exploited in designing an effective chemotherapy.

  5. Industrial n-type solar cells with >20% cell efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romijn, I.G.; Anker, J.; Burgers, A.R.; Gutjahr, A.; Koppes, M.; Kossen, E.J.; Lamers, M.W.P.E.; Heurtault, Benoit; Saynova-Oosterling, D.S.; Tool, C.J.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    To realize high efficiencies at low costs, ECN has developed the n-Pasha solar cell concept. The n-Pasha cell concept is a bifacial solar cell concept on n-Cz base material, with which average efficiencies of above 20% have been demonstrated. In this paper recent developments at ECN to improve the cost of ownership (lower Euro/Wp) of the n-Pasha cell concept are discussed. Two main drivers for the manufacturing costs of n-type solar cells are addressed: the n-type Cz silicon material and the silver consumption. We show that a large resistivity range between 2 and 8 cm can be tolerated for high cell efficiency, and that the costs due to the silver metallization can be significantly reduced while increasing the solar cell efficiency. Combining the improved efficiency and cost reduction makes the n-Pasha cell concept a very cost effective solution to manufacture high efficient solar cells and modules.

  6. Response surface optimization for the transesterification of karanja oil using immobilized whole cells of Rhizopus oryzae in n-hexane system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, Devanesan; Rajendran, Aravindan; Thangavelu, Viruthagiri [Annamalai University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Biochemical Engineering Laboratory, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2012-03-15

    Non-edible oils represent one of the most viable alternative feed stocks for the production of large volumes of biodiesel at cheaper cost in tropical countries. The objective of the present study is to investigate the ability of the immobilized whole cells of Rhizopus oryzae MTCC 262 to catalyze the biodiesel production from karanja oil in n-hexane system. Response surface methodology was employed to evaluate the effects of synthesis parameters, such as molar ratio of oil to alcohol, reaction temperature and reaction time on percentage biodiesel (methyl esters) yield. Transesterification was performed in shake flasks containing immobilized cells in the reaction mixture with 10% oil weight of n-hexane. The quadratic effects of molar ratio of oil to alcohol and reaction time proved to be the significant at 1% and 5% levels, respectively. The optimum synthesis conditions were found to be: molar ratio of oil to alcohol 1:2.73, reaction temperature 41.39 C and reaction time 73.97 h. Biodiesel yield (methyl ester) was 75.98 (wt.%) under the optimal conditions and the subsequent verification experiments with biodiesel yield of 78.0 (wt.%) confirmed the validity of the proposed model. (orig.)

  7. Cross-Linked ZnO Nanowalls Immobilized onto Bamboo Surface and Their Use as Recyclable Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunde Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel recyclable photocatalyst was fabricated by hydrothermal method to immobilize the cross-linked ZnO nanowalls on the bamboo surface. The resultant samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR techniques. FTIR spectra demonstrated that the cross-linked wurtzite ZnO nanowalls and bamboo surface were interconnected with each other by hydrogen bonds. Meanwhile, the cross-linked ZnO nanowalls modified bamboo (CZNB presented a superior photocatalytic ability and could be recycled at least 3 times with a photocatalytic efficiency up to 70%. The current research provides a new opportunity for the development of a portable and recycled biomass-based photocatalysts which can be an efficiently degraded pollutant solution and reused several times.

  8. Cell Surface Proteome of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Identified by Label-Free Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Niehage

    Full Text Available Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are promising tools for regenerative medicine. They can be isolated from different sources based on their plastic-adherence property. The identification of reliable cell surface markers thus becomes the Holy Grail for their prospective isolation. Here, we determine the cell surface proteomes of human dental pulp-derived MSCs isolated from single donors after culture expansion in low (2% or high (10% serum-containing media. Cell surface proteins were tagged on intact cells using cell impermeable, cleavable sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin, which allows their enrichment by streptavidin pull-down. For the proteomic analyses, we first compared label-free methods to analyze cell surface proteomes i.e. composition, enrichment and proteomic differences, and we developed a new mathematical model to determine cell surface protein enrichment using a combinatorial gene ontology query. Using this workflow, we identified 101 cluster of differentiation (CD markers and 286 non-CD cell surface proteins. Based on this proteome profiling, we identified 14 cell surface proteins, which varied consistently in abundance when cells were cultured under low or high serum conditions. Collectively, our analytical methods provide a basis for identifying the cell surface proteome of dental pulp stem cells isolated from single donors and its evolution during culture or differentiation. Our data provide a comprehensive cell surface proteome for the precise identification of dental pulp-derived MSC populations and their isolation for potential therapeutic intervention.

  9. Association of Sendai virion envelope and a mouse surface membrane polypeptide on newly infected cells: lack of association with H-2K/D or alteration of viral immunogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarling, D.A.; Miskimen, J.A.; Fan, D.P; Fujimoto, E.K.; Smith, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    The reagent N-succinimidyl 4-azidophenyl-1,3'-dithiopropionate (SADP) was synthesized and then coupled to purified Sendai virions by the amino-reactive end of the SADP molecule. This SADP-coupled virus was fused into the membranes of surface radioiodinated P815 cells, and target structures were allowed to form. Next, the photosensitive group on SADP was activated with ultraviolet light to covalently couple the viral proteins to any neighboring cell surface proteins. The cellular neighbors were isolated from detergent extracts of membrane proteins after immunoprecipitation with antibody specific for Sendai virion proteins. The covalent cross-links between the nonradioactive Sendai proteins and the radioiodinated cellular polypeptide neighbors were broken, and the host cell polypeptides were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and detected by autoradiography. One of these neighboring cellular proteins had an apparent m.w. of 17,000, and none was found with the characteristic size and tryptic map of either the H-2K or D gene products. Thus, the H-2K or D proteins are unlikely to be SADP- detectable neighbors of Sendai viral antigens recognized by CTL. In further experiments, the complexes of Sendai virion proteins crosslinked to cellular polypeptide neighbors were isolated from the membrane of newly infected cells and were shown to be able to stimulate CTL in vitro with approximately the same efficiency as uncross-linked Sendai virion proteins. Thus, Sendai viral proteins in the membrane of newly infected cells do not appear to be in highly immunogenic complexes with either H-2K/D or any other cellular proteins

  10. Immobilization of cross linked Col-I–OPN bone matrix protein on aminolysed PCL surfaces enhances initial biocompatibility of human adipogenic mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Hee; Jyoti, Md. Anirban; Song, Ho-Yeon, E-mail: songmic@sch.ac.kr

    2014-06-01

    In bone tissue engineering surface modification is considered as one of the important ways of fabricating successful biocompatible material. Addition of biologically active functionality on the surfaces has been tried for improving the overall biocompatibility of the system. In this study poly-ε-caprolactone film surfaces have been modified through aminolysis and immobilization process. Collagen type I (COL-I) and osteopontin (OPN), which play an important role in osteogenesis, was immobilized onto PCL films followed by aminolysis treatment using 1,6-hexanediamine. Characterization of animolysed and immobilized surfaces were done by a number techniques using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR, XPS, ninhydrin staining, SDS-PAGE and confocal microscopy and compared between the modified and un-modified surfaces. Results of the successive experiments showed that aminolysis treatment was homogeneously achieved which helped to entrap or immobilize Col-I–OPN proteins on surfaces of PCL film. In vitro studies with human adipogenic mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSC) also confirmed the attachment and proliferation of cells was better in modified PCL surfaces than the unmodified surfaces. SEM, confocal microscopy and MTT assay showed a significant increase in cell spreading, attachment and proliferations on the biofunctionalized surfaces compared to the unmodified PCL surfaces at all-time points indicating the success of surface biofunctionalization.

  11. Proline-linked nitrosoureas as prolidase-convertible prodrugs in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawski, Krzysztof; Bielawska, Anna; Słodownik, Tomasz; Bołkun-Skórnicka, Urszula; Muszyńska, Anna

    2008-01-01

    A number of novel proline-linked nitrosoureas (1-4) were synthesized and examined for cytotoxicity and influence on DNA and collagen biosynthesis in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of these compounds employing a MTT assay and inhibition of [(3)H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells demonstrated that compound 2, the most active of the series, proved to be only slightly less potent than carmustine. It has also been found that carmustine did not inhibit MCF&-7 cells prolidase activity, while compounds 1-4 significantly increased its activity, when used at 50-250 microM concentrations. Proline-linked nitrosoureas (1-4) also had lower ability to inhibit collagen biosynthesis in MCF-7 cells, compared to carmustine. The expression of beta(1)-integrin receptor and phosphorylated MAPK, ERK(1) and ERK(2) was significantly decreased in MCF-7 cells incubated for 24 h with 60 microM of compounds 2 and 4 compared to the control, untreated cells, whereas under the same conditions carmustine did not evoke any changes in expression of all these signaling proteins, as shown by Western immunoblot analysis. These results indicate the proline-linked nitrosoureas (1-4), represent multifunctional inhibitors of breast cancer cell growth and metabolism.

  12. Roles for SH2 and SH3 domains in Lyn kinase association with activated FcepsilonRI in RBL mast cells revealed by patterned surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Stephanie; Wagenknecht-Wiesner, Alice; Veatch, Sarah L; Holowka, David; Baird, Barbara

    2009-10-01

    In mast cells, antigen-mediated cross-linking of IgE bound to its high-affinity surface receptor, FcepsilonRI, initiates a signaling cascade that culminates in degranulation and release of allergic mediators. Antigen-patterned surfaces, in which the antigen is deposited in micron-sized features on a silicon substrate, were used to examine the spatial relationship between clustered IgE-FcepsilonRI complexes and Lyn, the signal-initiating tyrosine kinase. RBL mast cells expressing wild-type Lyn-EGFP showed co-redistribution of this protein with clustered IgE receptors on antigen-patterned surfaces, whereas Lyn-EGFP containing an inhibitory point mutation in its SH2 domain did not significantly accumulate with the patterned antigen, and Lyn-EGFP with an inhibitory point mutation in its SH3 domain exhibited reduced interactions. Our results using antigen-patterned surfaces and quantitative cross-correlation image analysis reveal that both the SH2 and SH3 domains contribute to interactions between Lyn kinase and cross-linked IgE receptors in stimulated mast cells.

  13. Location of DNA-protein cross-links in mammalian cell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleinick, N.L.

    1985-01-01

    DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs) occur in 1-3% of the bulk DNA of unirradiated cells, and dose-dependent increases in DPCs with γ- or UV-radiation can be detected by filter-binding. DPCs may contribute to cell lethality, since their formation is prevented by radical scavengers. Since the environment of DNA varies within eukaryotic nuclei, we have probed the composition and sub-nuclear location of DPCs. Both before and after irradiation, the major proteins cross-linked to DNA have molecular weights similar to known proteins of the nuclear matrix. The DNA cross-linked to protein is enriched in sequences which hybridize to mRNA or rRNA transcripts; such sequences are also found preferentially in preparations of nuclear matrix. When histone-depleted, matrix-associated DNA is separated from the DNA of the supercoiled ''loops'' by digestion with EcoRI and assayed for DPCs by filter binding, the frequency of DPCs is greater in the matrix. During repair of DPCs, protein-associated DNA becomes depleted in actively transcribing DNA, followed by reconstitution of the active-gene-enriched nuclear matrix. These data are consistent with known properties of the matrix and suggest the hypothesis that in intact cells, radiation-induced DPCs are primarily a product of matrix-associated DNA sequences and matrix protein

  14. Photo-induced surface modification to improve the performance of lead sulfide quantum dot solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsani, Srikanth Reddy; Rath, Arup Kumar

    2018-07-15

    The solution-processed quantum dot (QD) solar cell technology has seen significant advancements in recent past to emerge as a potential contender for the next generation photovoltaic technology. In the development of high performance QD solar cell, the surface ligand chemistry has played the important role in controlling the doping type and doping density of QD solids. For instance, lead sulfide (PbS) QDs which is at the forefront of QD solar cell technology, can be made n-type or p-type respectively by using iodine or thiol as the surfactant. The advancements in surface ligand chemistry enable the formation of p-n homojunction of PbS QDs layers to attain high solar cell performances. It is shown here, however, that poor Fermi level alignment of thiol passivated p-type PbS QD hole transport layer with the n-type PbS QD light absorbing layer has rendered the photovoltaic devices from realizing their full potential. Here we develop a control surface oxidation technique using facile ultraviolet ozone treatment to increase the p-doping density in a controlled fashion for the thiol passivated PbS QD layer. This subtle surface modification tunes the Fermi energy level of the hole transport layer to deeper values to facilitate the carrier extraction and voltage generation in photovoltaic devices. In photovoltaic devices, the ultraviolet ozone treatment resulted in the average gain of 18% in the power conversion efficiency with the highest recorded efficiency of 8.98%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Energetics of Mg incorporation at GaN(0001) and GaN(0001¯) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Selloni, Annabella; Myers, T. H.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2006-04-01

    By using density functional calculations in the generalized gradient approximation, we investigate the energetics of Mg adsorption and incorporation at GaN(0001) and GaN(0001¯) surfaces under various Ga and Mg coverage conditions as well as in presence of light or electron beam-induced electronic excitation. We find significant differences in Mg incorporation between Ga- and N-polar surfaces. Mg incorporation is easier at the Ga-polar surface, but high Mg coverages are found to cause important distortions which locally change the polarity from Ga to N polar. At the N-rich and moderately Ga-rich GaN(0001) surface, 0.25 ML of Mg substituting Ga in the top bilayer strongly reduce the surface diffusion barriers of Ga and N adatoms, in agreement with the surfactant effect observed in experiments. As the Mg coverage exceeds 0.5 ML, partial incorporation in the subsurface region (second bilayer) becomes favorable. A surface structure with 0.5 ML of incorporated Mg in the top bilayer and 0.25 ML in the second bilayer is found to be stable over a wide range of Ga chemical potential. At the Ga bilayer-terminated GaN(0001) surface, corresponding to Ga-rich conditions, configurations where Mg is incorporated in the interface region between the metallic Ga bilayer and the underlying GaN bilayer appear to be favored. At the N-polar surface, Mg is not incorporated under N-rich or moderately Ga-rich conditions, whereas incorporation in the adlayer may take place under Ga-rich conditions. In the presence of light or electron beam induced excitation, energy differences between Mg incorporated at the surface and in deeper layers are reduced so that the tendency toward surface segregation is also reduced.

  16. The Role of Conserved N-Linked Glycans on Ebola Virus Glycoprotein 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennemann, Nicholas J; Walkner, Madeline; Berkebile, Abigail R; Patel, Neil; Maury, Wendy

    2015-10-01

    N-linked glycosylation is a common posttranslational modification found on viral glycoproteins (GPs) and involved in promoting expression, cellular attachment, protection from proteases, and antibody evasion. The GP subunit GP2 of filoviruses contains 2 completely conserved N-linked glycosylation sites (NGSs) at N563 and N618, suggesting that they have been maintained through selective pressures. We assessed mutants lacking these glycans for expression and function to understand the role of these sites during Ebola virus entry. Elimination of either GP2 glycan individually had a modest effect on GP expression and no impact on antibody neutralization of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotyped with Ebola virus GP. However, loss of the N563 glycan enhanced entry by 2-fold and eliminated GP detection by a well-characterized monoclonal antibody KZ52. Loss of both sites dramatically decreased GP expression and abolished entry. Surprisingly, a GP that retained a single NGS at N563, eliminating the remaining 16 NGSs from GP1 and GP2, had detectable expression, a modest increase in entry, and pronounced sensitivity to antibody neutralization. Our findings support the importance of the GP2 glycans in GP expression/structure, transduction efficiency, and antibody neutralization, particularly when N-linked glycans are also removed from GP1. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cell surface of sea urchin micromeres and primary mesenchyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSimone, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The cell surface and extracellular matrix (ECM) of the sea urchin embryo were studied during the early morphogenetic events involved in the differentiation of the micromere cell lineage. Sixteen-cell and early cleavage stage blastomeres were isolated and the protein composition of their cell surfaces examined by 125 I-labelling followed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Micromere-specific cell surface proteins are reported for Arbacia punctulata, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Cell surface glycoproteins were characterized on the basis of lectin binding specificity with a novel lectin affinity transfer technique. Using this procedure, cell-type specific surface proteins, which are also lectin-binding specific, can be detected. In addition, fluorescein conjugated lectins were microinjected into the blastocoels of living S. drobachiensis and Lytechinus pictus embryos and the patterns of lectin bindings observed by fluorescence microscopy. The evidence presented in this thesis suggests that the differentiation of the primary mesenchyme cells is correlated with changes in the molecular composition of the cell-surface and the ECM

  18. Characterization and molecular features of the cell surface receptor for human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, S.; Tojo, A.; Kitamura, T.; Urabe, A.; Miyazono, K.; Takaku, F.

    1990-01-01

    The receptors for human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on the surfaces of normal and leukemic myeloid cells were characterized using 125I-labeled bacterially synthesized GM-CSF. The binding was rapid, specific, time dependent, and saturable. Scatchard analysis of the 125I-GM-CSF binding to peripheral blood neutrophils indicated the presence of a single class of binding site (Kd = 99 +/- 21 pM; 2,304 +/- 953 sites/cell). However, for peripheral blood monocytes and two GM-CSF-responsive myeloid cell lines (U-937 and TF-1), the Scatchard plots were biphasic curvilinear, which were best fit by curves derived from two binding site model: one with high affinity (Kd1 = 10-40 pM) and the other with low affinity (Kd2 = 0.9-2.0 nM). For U-937 cells, the number of high-affinity receptors was 1,058 +/- 402 sites/cell and that of low-affinity receptors was estimated to be 10,834 +/- 2,396 sites/cell. Cross-linking studies yielded three major bands with molecular masses of 150 kDa, 115 kDa, and 95 kDa, which were displaced by an excess amount of unlabeled GM-CSF, suggesting 135-kDa, 100-kDa, and 80-kDa species for the individual components of the human GM-CSF receptor. These bands comigrated for different cell types including peripheral blood neutrophils, U-937 cells and TF-1 cells. In experiments using U-937 cells, only the latter two bands appeared to be labeled in a dose-dependent manner in a low-affinity state. These results suggest that the human GM-CSF receptor possibly forms a multichain complex

  19. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J.; Rhodes, Ryan G.; Nakayama, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:19966289

  20. Osteoblast cell response to surface-modified carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Faming; Weidmann, Arne; Nebe, J. Barbara; Burkel, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the interaction of cells with modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for their potential biomedical applications, the MWCNTs were chemically modified with carboxylic acid groups (–COOH), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer and biomimetic apatite on their surfaces. Additionally, human osteoblast MG-63 cells were cultured in the presence of the surface-modified MWCNTs. The metabolic activities of osteoblastic cells, cell proliferation properties, as well as cell morphology were studied. The surface modification of MWCNTs with biomimetic apatite exhibited a significant increase in the cell viability of osteoblasts, up to 67.23%. In the proliferation phases, there were many more cells in the biomimetic apatite-modified MWCNT samples than in the MWCNTs–COOH. There were no obvious changes in cell morphology in osteoblastic MG-63 cells cultured in the presence of these chemically-modified MWCNTs. The surface modification of MWCNTs with apatite achieves an effective enhancement of their biocompatibility.

  1. Gallium adsorption on (0001) GaN surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelmann, Christoph; Brault, Julien; Mula, Guido; Daudin, Bruno; Lymperakis, Liverios; Neugebauer, Joerg

    2003-01-01

    We study the adsorption behavior of Ga on (0001) GaN surfaces combining experimental specular reflection high-energy electron diffraction with theoretical investigations in the framework of a kinetic model for adsorption and ab initio calculations of energy parameters. Based on the experimental results we find that for substrate temperatures and Ga fluxes typically used in molecular-beam epitaxy of GaN, finite equilibrium Ga surface coverages can be obtained. The measurement of a Ga/GaN adsorption isotherm allows the quantification of the equilibrium Ga surface coverage as a function of the impinging Ga flux. In particular, we show that a large range of Ga fluxes exists, where 2.5±0.2 monolayers (in terms of the GaN surface site density) of Ga are adsorbed on the GaN surface. We further demonstrate that the structure of this adsorbed Ga film is in good agreement with the laterally contracted Ga bilayer model predicted to be most stable for strongly Ga-rich surfaces [Northrup et al., Phys. Rev. B 61, 9932 (2000)]. For lower Ga fluxes, a discontinuous transition to Ga monolayer equilibrium coverage is found, followed by a continuous decrease towards zero coverage; for higher Ga fluxes, Ga droplet formation is found, similar to what has been observed during Ga-rich GaN growth. The boundary fluxes limiting the region of 2.5 monolayers equilibrium Ga adsorption have been measured as a function of the GaN substrate temperature giving rise to a Ga/GaN adsorption phase diagram. The temperature dependence is discussed within an ab initio based growth model for adsorption taking into account the nucleation of Ga clusters. This model consistently explains recent contradictory results of the activation energy describing the critical Ga flux for the onset of Ga droplet formation during Ga-rich GaN growth [Heying et al., J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1855 (2000); Adelmann et al., J. Appl. Phys. 91, 9638 (2002).

  2. Glial cell adhesion and protein adsorption on SAM coated semiconductor and glass surfaces of a microfluidic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Cox, Jimmy D.; Follstaedt, Susan C.; Curry, Mark S.; Skirboll, Steven K.; Gourley, Paul L.

    2001-05-01

    The development of microsystems that merge biological materials with microfabricated structures is highly dependent on the successful interfacial interactions between these innately incompatible materials. Surface passivation of semiconductor and glass surfaces with thin organic films can attenuate the adhesion of proteins and cells that lead to biofilm formation and biofouling of fluidic structures. We have examined the adhesion of glial cells and serum albumin proteins to microfabricated glass and semiconductor surfaces coated with self-assembled monolayers of octadecyltrimethoxysilane and N-(triethoxysilylpropyl)-O- polyethylene oxide urethane, to evaluate the biocompatibility and surface passivation those coatings provide.

  3. Surface complexation of neptunium (V) onto whole cells and cell componets of Shewanella alga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Donald Timothy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Deo, Randhir P [ASU; Rittmann, Bruce E [ASU; Songkasiri, Warinthorn [UNAFFILIATED

    2008-01-01

    We systematically quantified surface complexation of neptunium(V) onto whole cells of Shewanella alga strain BrY and onto cell wall and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of S. alga. We first performed acid and base titrations and used the mathematical model FITEQL with constant-capacitance surface-complexation to determine the concentrations and deprotonation constants of specific surface functional groups. Deprotonation constants most likely corresponded to a carboxyl site associated with amino acids (pK{sub a} {approx} 2.4), a carboxyl group not associated with amino acids (pK{sub a} {approx} 5), a phosphoryl site (pK{sub a} {approx} 7.2), and an amine site (pK{sub a} > 10). We then carried out batch sorption experiments with Np(V) and each of the S. alga components at different pHs. Results show that solution pH influenced the speciation of Np(V) and each of the surface functional groups. We used the speciation sub-model of the biogeochemical model CCBATCH to compute the stability constants for Np(V) complexation to each surface functional group. The stability constants were similar for each functional group on S. alga bacterial whole cells, cell walls, and EPS, and they explain the complicated sorption patterns when they are combined with the aqueous-phase speciation of Np(V). For pH < 8, NpO{sub 2}{sup +} was the dominant form of Np(V), and its log K values for the low-pK{sub a} carboxyl, other carboxyl, and phosphoryl groups were 1.75, 1.75, and 2.5 to 3.1, respectively. For pH greater than 8, the key surface ligand was amine >XNH3+, which complexed with NpO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 5-}. The log K for NpO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 5-} complexed onto the amine groups was 3.1 to 3.6. All of the log K values are similar to those of Np(V) complexes with aqueous carboxyl and N-containing carboxyl ligands. These results point towards the important role of surface complexation in defining key actinide-microbiological interactions in the subsurface.

  4. Response of cells on surface-induced nanopatterns: fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Hwei Ling; Kuan, Yujun; Kukula, Hildegard; Tamada, Kaoru; Knoll, Wolfgang; Moeller, Martin; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2007-05-01

    Ultrathin films of a poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyrindine) diblock copolymer (PS-b-P2VP) and poly(styrene)-block-poly(4-vinylpyrindine) diblock copolymer (PS-b-P4VP) were used to form surface-induced nanopattern (SINPAT) on mica. Surface interaction controlled microphase separation led to the formation of chemically heterogeneous surface nanopatterns on dry ultrathin films. Two distinct nanopatterned surfaces, namely, wormlike and dotlike patterns, were used to investigate the influence of topography in the nanometer range on cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration. Atomic force microscopy was used to confirm that SINPAT was stable under cell culture conditions. Fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells were cultured on the nanopatterned surfaces. Phase contrast and confocal laser microscopy showed that fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells preferred the densely spaced wormlike patterns. Atomic force microscopy showed that the cells remodelled the extracellular matrix differently as they migrate over the two distinctly different nanopatterns.

  5. Surface characterization of self-assembled N-Cu nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristina, Lucila J.; Moreno-Lopez, Juan C. [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces, Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, (S3000GLN) Santa Fe (Argentina); Sferco, Silvano J. [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces, Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, (S3000GLN) Santa Fe (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Bioquimica y Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Ciudad Universitaria, C.C. 242, (S3000ZAA) Santa Fe (Argentina); Passeggi, Mario C.G.; Vidal, Ricardo A. [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces, Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, (S3000GLN) Santa Fe (Argentina); Ferron, Julio, E-mail: jferron@intec.unl.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces, Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, (S3000GLN) Santa Fe (Argentina); Departamento de Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829,(S3000AOM) Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2012-01-01

    We report on the process of low energy N{sub 2}{sup +} implantation and annealing of a Cu(0 0 1) surface. Through AES we study the N diffusion process as a function of the substrate temperature. With STM and LEIS we characterize the surface morphology and the electronic structure is analyzed with ARUPS. Under annealing (500 < T < 700 K) N migrates to the surface and reacts forming a Cu{sub x}N compound that decomposes at temperatures above 700 K. LEIS measurements show that N locates on the four-fold hollow sites of the Cu(0 0 1) surface in a c(2 Multiplication-Sign 2) arrangement. Finally, a gap along the [0 0 1] azimuthal direction is determined by ARUPS. DFT calculations provide support to our conclusions.

  6. Influence of Different Surface Modifications on the Photovoltaic Performance and Dark Current of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Weiwei; DAI Songyuan; HU Linhua; ZHANG Changneng; XIAO Shangfeng; LUO Xiangdong; JING Weiping; WANG Kongjia

    2007-01-01

    The TiO2 nanoporous film photoelectrode, as a crucial component of dye-sensitized solar cells, has been investigated. The photovoltaic properties and the dark current were studied by two surface modification methods. One was to apply a compact layer between the conductive glass substrate and nanoporous TiO2 film. Another was to produce TiO2 nanoparticles among the microstructure by TiCU treatment. A suitable concentration and number of times for TiCU treatment were found in our experiment. The dark current is suppressed by surface modifications, leading to a significant improvement in the solar cells performance. An excessive concentration of TiCU will produce more surface states and introduce a larger dark current reversely. The dye is also regarded as a source of charge recombination in dark to some extent, due to an amount of surface protonations introduced by the interfacial link in the conductive glass substrate/dye interface and dye/TiO2 interface.

  7. Pheochromocytoma (PC12 Cell Response on Mechanobactericidal Titanium Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason V. Wandiyanto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Titanium is a biocompatible material that is frequently used for making implantable medical devices. Nanoengineering of the surface is the common method for increasing material biocompatibility, and while the nanostructured materials are well-known to represent attractive substrata for eukaryotic cells, very little information has been documented about the interaction between mammalian cells and bactericidal nanostructured surfaces. In this study, we investigated the effect of bactericidal titanium nanostructures on PC12 cell attachment and differentiation—a cell line which has become a widely used in vitro model to study neuronal differentiation. The effects of the nanostructures on the cells were then compared to effects observed when the cells were placed in contact with non-structured titanium. It was found that bactericidal nanostructured surfaces enhanced the attachment of neuron-like cells. In addition, the PC12 cells were able to differentiate on nanostructured surfaces, while the cells on non-structured surfaces were not able to do so. These promising results demonstrate the potential application of bactericidal nanostructured surfaces in biomedical applications such as cochlear and neuronal implants.

  8. Antiferromagnetic MnN layer on the MnGa(001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Sánchez, J., E-mail: guerrero@cnyn.unam.mx; Takeuchi, Noboru

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • A ferromagnetic Gallium terminated surface is stable before N incorporation. • After N incorporation, an antiferromagnetic MnN layer becomes stable in a wide range of chemical potential. • Spin density distribution shows an antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (MnN/MnGa) arrangement at the surface. - Abstract: Spin polarized first principles total energy calculations have been applied to study the stability and magnetic properties of the MnGa(001) surface and the formation of a topmost MnN layer with the deposit of nitrogen. Before nitrogen adsorption, surface formation energies show a stable gallium terminated ferromagnetic surface. After incorporation of nitrogen atoms, the antiferromagnetic manganese terminated surface becomes stable due to the formation of a MnN layer (Mn-N bonding at the surface). Spin density distribution shows a ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic arrangement in the first surface layers. This thermodynamically stable structure may be exploited to growth MnGa/MnN magnetic heterostructures as well as to look for exchange biased systems.

  9. A Brief Survey of Media Access Control, Data Link Layer, and Protocol Technologies for Lunar Surface Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallett, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper surveys and describes some of the existing media access control and data link layer technologies for possible application in lunar surface communications and the advanced wideband Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DSCDMA) conceptual systems utilizing phased-array technology that will evolve in the next decade. Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are standard Media Access Control (MAC) techniques that can be incorporated into lunar surface communications architectures. Another novel hybrid technique that is recently being developed for use with smart antenna technology combines the advantages of CDMA with those of TDMA. The relatively new and sundry wireless LAN data link layer protocols that are continually under development offer distinct advantages for lunar surface applications over the legacy protocols which are not wireless. Also several communication transport and routing protocols can be chosen with characteristics commensurate with smart antenna systems to provide spacecraft communications for links exhibiting high capacity on the surface of the Moon. The proper choices depend on the specific communication requirements.

  10. Display of a β-mannanase and a chitosanase on the cell surface of Lactobacillus plantarum towards the development of whole-cell biocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang-Minh; Mathiesen, Geir; Stelzer, Elena Maria; Pham, Mai Lan; Kuczkowska, Katarzyna; Mackenzie, Alasdair; Agger, Jane W; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Yamabhai, Montarop; Peterbauer, Clemens K; Haltrich, Dietmar; Nguyen, Thu-Ha

    2016-10-04

    Lactobacillus plantarum is considered as a potential cell factory because of its GRAS (generally recognized as safe) status and long history of use in food applications. Its possible applications include in situ delivery of proteins to a host, based on its ability to persist at mucosal surfaces of the human intestine, and the production of food-related enzymes. By displaying different enzymes on the surface of L. plantarum cells these could be used as whole-cell biocatalysts for the production of oligosaccharides. In this present study, we aimed to express and display a mannanase and a chitosanase on the cell surface of L. plantarum. ManB, a mannanase from Bacillus licheniformis DSM13, and CsnA, a chitosanase from Bacillus subtilis ATCC 23857 were fused to different anchoring motifs of L. plantarum for covalent attachment to the cell surface, either via an N-terminal lipoprotein anchor (Lp_1261) or a C-terminal cell wall anchor (Lp_2578), and the resulting fusion proteins were expressed in L. plantarum WCFS1. The localization of the recombinant proteins on the bacterial cell surface was confirmed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. The highest mannanase and chitosanase activities obtained for displaying L. plantarum cells were 890 U and 1360 U g dry cell weight, respectively. In reactions with chitosan and galactomannans, L. plantarum CsnA- and ManB-displaying cells produced chito- and manno-oligosaccharides, respectively, as analyzed by high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Surface-displayed ManB is able to break down galactomannan (LBG) into smaller manno-oligosaccharides, which can support growth of L. plantarum. This study shows that mannanolytic and chitinolytic enzymes can be anchored to the cell surface of L. plantarum in active forms. L. plantarum chitosanase- and mannanase-displaying cells should be of interest for the production of potentially 'prebiotic' oligosaccharides. This approach

  11. In vivo stem cell tracking with imageable nanoparticles that bind bioorthogonal chemical receptors on the stem cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmin; Yoon, Hwa In; Na, Jin Hee; Jeon, Sangmin; Lim, Seungho; Koo, Heebeom; Han, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sun-Woong; Park, Soon-Jung; Moon, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jae Hyung; Cho, Yong Woo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Sang Kyoon; Lee, Taekwan; Kim, Dongkyu; Lee, Seulki; Pomper, Martin G; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2017-09-01

    It is urgently necessary to develop reliable non-invasive stem cell imaging technology for tracking the in vivo fate of transplanted stem cells in living subjects. Herein, we developed a simple and well controlled stem cell imaging method through a combination of metabolic glycoengineering and bioorthogonal copper-free click chemistry. Firstly, the exogenous chemical receptors containing azide (-N 3 ) groups were generated on the surfaces of stem cells through metabolic glycoengineering using metabolic precursor, tetra-acetylated N-azidoacetyl-d-mannosamine(Ac 4 ManNAz). Next, bicyclo[6.1.0]nonyne-modified glycol chitosan nanoparticles (BCN-CNPs) were prepared as imageable nanoparticles to deliver different imaging agents. Cy5.5, iron oxide nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles were conjugated or encapsulated to BCN-CNPs for optical, MR and CT imaging, respectively. These imageable nanoparticles bound chemical receptors on the Ac 4 ManNAz-treated stem cell surface specifically via bioorthogonal copper-free click chemistry. Then they were rapidly taken up by the cell membrane turn-over mechanism resulting in higher endocytic capacity compared non-specific uptake of nanoparticles. During in vivo animal test, BCN-CNP-Cy5.5-labeled stem cells could be continuously tracked by non-invasive optical imaging over 15 days. Furthermore, BCN-CNP-IRON- and BCN-CNP-GOLD-labeled stem cells could be efficiently visualized using in vivo MR and CT imaging demonstrating utility of our stem cell labeling method using chemical receptors. These results conclude that our method based on metabolic glycoengineering and bioorthogonal copper-free click chemistry can stably label stem cells with diverse imageable nanoparticles representing great potential as new stem cell imaging technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface Morphology Evolution Mechanisms of InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Wells with Mixture N2/H2-Grown GaN Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaorun; Lu, Taiping; Zhu, Yadan; Zhao, Guangzhou; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Zhigang; Yang, Yongzhen; Chen, Yongkang; Xu, Bingshe

    2017-12-01

    Surface morphology evolution mechanisms of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) during GaN barrier growth with different hydrogen (H 2 ) percentages have been systematically studied. Ga surface-diffusion rate, stress relaxation, and H 2 etching effect are found to be the main affecting factors of the surface evolution. As the percentage of H 2 increases from 0 to 6.25%, Ga surface-diffusion rate and the etch effect are gradually enhanced, which is beneficial to obtaining a smooth surface with low pits density. As the H 2 proportion further increases, stress relaxation and H 2 over- etching effect begin to be the dominant factors, which degrade surface quality. Furthermore, the effects of surface evolution on the interface and optical properties of InGaN/GaN MQWs are also profoundly discussed. The comprehensive study on the surface evolution mechanisms herein provides both technical and theoretical support for the fabrication of high-quality InGaN/GaN heterostructures.

  13. Progress in low-cost n-type silicon solar cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geerligs, L.J.; Romijn, G.; Burgers, A.R.; Guillevin, N.; Weeber, A.W.; Bultman, J.H. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Wang, Hongfang; Lang, Fang; Zhao, Wenchao; Li, Gaofei; Hu, Zhiyan; Xiong, Jingfeng [Yingli Green Energy Holding Co., LTD, Baoding (China); Vlooswijk, A. [Tempress Systems, Vaassen (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    This article will review our recent progress in development of high-efficiency cells on n-type monocrystalline Si wafers. With boron-doped front emitter, phosphorous BSF, and screen-printed metallisation, at this moment such cells reach an efficiency of over 19%. We describe recent results of processing with reduced front contact area, and improved BSF and improved rear surface passivation, which are key parameters that limit the cell efficiency. The improved processing leads to an efficiency of 20%. The cell process has also been adopted for fabrication of metal-wrap-through back-contact cells. Without the improved contact recombination and BSF, an MWT cell efficiency of 19.7% is reached, 0.3% higher than the corresponding 'standard' (non-back-contact) cells.

  14. A Simple Hydrophilic Treatment of SU-8 Surfaces for Cell Culturing and Cell Patterning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Stangegaard, Michael; Dufva, Hans Martin

    2005-01-01

    SU-8, an epoxy-based photoresist, widely used in constitution different mTAS systems, is incompatible with mammalian cell adhesion and culture in its native form. Here, we demonstrate a simple, cheap and robust two-step method to render a SU-8 surface hydrophilic and compatible with cell culture........ The contact angle of SU-8 surface was significantly reduced from 90° to 25° after the surface modification. The treated SU-8 surfaces provided a cell culture environment that was comparable with cell culture flask surface in terms of generation time and morphology....

  15. Study of surface leakage current of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, YongHe; Zhang, Kai; Cao, MengYi; Zhao, ShengLei; Zhang, JinCheng; Hao, Yue; Ma, XiaoHua

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-dependent surface current measurements were performed to analyze the mechanism of surface conductance of AlGaN/GaN channel high-electron-mobility transistors by utilizing process-optimized double gate structures. Different temperatures and electric field dependence have been found in surface current measurements. At low electric field, the mechanism of surface conductance is considered to be two-dimensional variable range hopping. At elevated electric field, the Frenkel–Poole trap assisted emission governs the main surface electrons transportation. The extracted energy barrier height of electrons emitting from trapped state near Fermi energy level into a threading dislocations-related continuum state is 0.38 eV. SiN passivation reduces the surface leakage current by two order of magnitude and nearly 4 orders of magnitude at low and high electric fields, respectively. SiN also suppresses the Frenkel–Poole conductance at high temperature by improving the surface states of AlGaN/GaN. A surface treatment process has been introduced to further suppress the surface leakage current at high temperature and high field, which results in a decrease in surface current of almost 3 orders of magnitude at 476 K

  16. Isthmin targets cell-surface GRP78 and triggers apoptosis via induction of mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Zhang, Y; Yu, V C; Chong, Y-S; Yoshioka, T; Ge, R

    2014-05-01

    Isthmin (ISM) is a secreted 60-kDa protein that potently induces endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis. It suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis in mice when stably overexpressed in cancer cells. Although αvβ5 integrin serves as a low-affinity receptor for ISM, the mechanism by which ISM mediates antiangiogenesis and apoptosis in ECs remain to be fully resolved. In this work, we report the identification of cell-surface glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) as a high-affinity receptor for ISM (Kd=8.6 nM). We demonstrated that ISM-GRP78 interaction triggers apoptosis not only in activated ECs but also in cancer cells expressing high level of cell-surface GRP78. Normal cells and benign tumor cells tend to express low level of cell-surface GRP78 and are resistant to ISM-induced apoptosis. Upon binding to GRP78, ISM is internalized into ECs through clathrin-dependent endocytosis that is essential for its proapoptotic activity. Once inside the cell, ISM co-targets with GRP78 to mitochondria where it interacts with ADP/ATP carriers on the inner membrane and blocks ATP transport from mitochondria to cytosol, thereby causing apoptosis. Hence, ISM is a novel proapoptotic ligand that targets cell-surface GRP78 to trigger apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction. The restricted and high-level expression of cell-surface GRP78 on cancer cells and cancer ECs make them uniquely susceptible to ISM-targeted apoptosis. Indeed, systemic delivery of recombinant ISM potently suppressed subcutaneous 4T1 breast carcinoma and B16 melanoma growth in mice by eliciting apoptosis selectively in the cancer cells and cancer ECs. Together, this work reveals a novel ISM-GRP78 apoptosis pathway and demonstrates the potential of ISM as a cancer-specific and dual-targeting anticancer agent.

  17. Isthmin targets cell-surface GRP78 and triggers apoptosis via induction of mitochondrial dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Zhang, Y; Yu, V C; Chong, Y-S; Yoshioka, T; Ge, R

    2014-01-01

    Isthmin (ISM) is a secreted 60-kDa protein that potently induces endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis. It suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis in mice when stably overexpressed in cancer cells. Although αvβ5 integrin serves as a low-affinity receptor for ISM, the mechanism by which ISM mediates antiangiogenesis and apoptosis in ECs remain to be fully resolved. In this work, we report the identification of cell-surface glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) as a high-affinity receptor for ISM (Kd=8.6 nM). We demonstrated that ISM-GRP78 interaction triggers apoptosis not only in activated ECs but also in cancer cells expressing high level of cell-surface GRP78. Normal cells and benign tumor cells tend to express low level of cell-surface GRP78 and are resistant to ISM-induced apoptosis. Upon binding to GRP78, ISM is internalized into ECs through clathrin-dependent endocytosis that is essential for its proapoptotic activity. Once inside the cell, ISM co-targets with GRP78 to mitochondria where it interacts with ADP/ATP carriers on the inner membrane and blocks ATP transport from mitochondria to cytosol, thereby causing apoptosis. Hence, ISM is a novel proapoptotic ligand that targets cell-surface GRP78 to trigger apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction. The restricted and high-level expression of cell-surface GRP78 on cancer cells and cancer ECs make them uniquely susceptible to ISM-targeted apoptosis. Indeed, systemic delivery of recombinant ISM potently suppressed subcutaneous 4T1 breast carcinoma and B16 melanoma growth in mice by eliciting apoptosis selectively in the cancer cells and cancer ECs. Together, this work reveals a novel ISM-GRP78 apoptosis pathway and demonstrates the potential of ISM as a cancer-specific and dual-targeting anticancer agent. PMID:24464222

  18. Role of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein (SIBLING), bone sialoprotein (BSP) in bone development and remodeling.

    OpenAIRE

    Malaval, L.; Aubin, J.; Vico, L.

    2009-01-01

    14 pages; International audience; Members of the “small, integrin binding ligand, N-linked glycoprotein” (SIBLING) family, which have both mineral binding and cell binding (integrins) abilities, appear as potent regulators of bone mineralisation and remodeling. Among these, osteopontin (OPN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) are highly expressed in early bone. Gene knockout of OPN results in increased mineralisation and a resorption defect making mutant mice unable to respond to such challenges as ...

  19. MEMS-based dynamic cell-to-cell culture platforms using electrochemical surface modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jiyoung; Lin, Liwei; Yoon, Sang-Hee; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2011-01-01

    MEMS-based biological platforms with the capability of both spatial placements and time releases of living cells for cell-to-cell culture experiments have been designed and demonstrated utilizing electrochemical surface modification effects. The spatial placement is accomplished by electrochemical surface modification of substrate surfaces to be either adhesive or non-adhesive for living cells. The time control is achieved by the electrical activation of the selective indium tin oxide co-culture electrode to allow the migration of living cells onto the electrode to start the cell-to-cell culture studies. Prototype devices have a three-electrode design with an electrode size of 50 × 50 µm 2 and the separation gaps of 2 µm between them. An electrical voltage of −1.5 V has been used to activate the electrodes independently and sequentially to demonstrate the dynamic cell-to-cell culture experiments of NIH 3T3 fibroblast and Madin Darby canine kidney cells. As such, this MEMS platform could be a basic yet versatile tool to characterize transient cell-to-cell interactions

  20. Surface state of GaN after rapid-thermal-annealing using AlN cap-layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Zammar, G., E-mail: georgio.elzammar@univ-tours.fr [Université François Rabelais, Tours, GREMAN, CNRS UMR 7347, 10 rue Thalès de Milet CS 97155, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); Khalfaoui, W. [Université François Rabelais, Tours, GREMAN, CNRS UMR 7347, 10 rue Thalès de Milet CS 97155, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); Oheix, T. [Université François Rabelais, Tours, GREMAN, CNRS UMR 7347, 10 rue Thalès de Milet CS 97155, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); STMicroelectronics, 10 rue Thalès de Milet CS 97155, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); Yvon, A.; Collard, E. [STMicroelectronics, 10 rue Thalès de Milet CS 97155, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); Cayrel, F.; Alquier, D. [Université François Rabelais, Tours, GREMAN, CNRS UMR 7347, 10 rue Thalès de Milet CS 97155, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Surface state of a crack-free AlN cap-layer reactive sputtered on GaN and annealed at high temperature showing a smooth, pit-free surface. - Highlights: • We deposit a crystalline AlN layer by reactive magnetron sputtering on GaN. • We show the effect of deposition parameters of AlN by reactive magnetron sputtering on the quality of the grown layer. • We demonstrate the efficiency of double cap-layer for GaN protection during high temperature thermal treatments. • We show an efficient selective etch of AlN without damaging GaN surface. - Abstract: Critical issues need to be overcome to produce high performance Schottky diodes on gallium nitride (GaN). To activate dopant, high temperature thermal treatments are required but damage GaN surface where hexagonal pits appear and prevent any device processing. In this paper, we investigated the efficiency of cap-layers on GaN during thermal treatments to avoid degradation. Aluminum nitride (AlN) and silicon oxide (SiO{sub x}) were grown on GaN by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, respectively. AlN growth parameters were studied to understand their effect on the grown layers and their protection efficiency. Focused ion beam was used to measure AlN layer thickness. Crystalline quality and exact composition were verified using X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Two types of rapid thermal annealing at high temperatures were investigated. Surface roughness and pits density were evaluated using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Cap-layers wet etching was processed in H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} at 120 °C for AlN and in HF (10%) for SiO{sub x}. This work reveals effective protection of GaN during thermal treatments at temperatures as high as 1150 °C. Low surface roughness was obtained. Furthermore, no hexagonal pit was observed on the surface.

  1. Improving the Efficiency Enhancement of Photonic Crystal Based InGaN Solar Cell by Using a GaN Cap Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Gundogdu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied a high indium content (0.8 InGaN based solar cell design where the active InGaN layer is sandwiched between a GaN cap layer and a GaN spacer layer. The incorporation of the sacrificial cap layer allows for the etching of the front surface without removing the active InGaN resulting in a 50% enhancement of the short-circuit current density for a 15 nm-thick InGaN layer.

  2. Urokinase links plasminogen activation and cell adhesion by cleavage of the RGD motif in vitronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzi, Valentina; Sarra Ferraris, Gian Maria; Madsen, Jeppe B; Lupia, Michela; Andreasen, Peter A; Sidenius, Nicolai

    2016-07-01

    Components of the plasminogen activation system including urokinase (uPA), its inhibitor (PAI-1) and its cell surface receptor (uPAR) have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes related to tissue homoeostasis. Firstly, the binding of uPA to uPAR favours extracellular proteolysis by enhancing cell surface plasminogen activation. Secondly, it promotes cell adhesion and signalling through binding of the provisional matrix protein vitronectin. We now report that uPA and plasmin induces a potent negative feedback on cell adhesion through specific cleavage of the RGD motif in vitronectin. Cleavage of vitronectin by uPA displays a remarkable receptor dependence and requires concomitant binding of both uPA and vitronectin to uPAR Moreover, we show that PAI-1 counteracts the negative feedback and behaves as a proteolysis-triggered stabilizer of uPAR-mediated cell adhesion to vitronectin. These findings identify a novel and highly specific function for the plasminogen activation system in the regulation of cell adhesion to vitronectin. The cleavage of vitronectin by uPA and plasmin results in the release of N-terminal vitronectin fragments that can be detected in vivo, underscoring the potential physiological relevance of the process. © 2016 The Authors.

  3. Changes in cell surface structure by viral transformation studied by binding of lectins differing in sugar specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, M; Kurokawa, T; Takeuchi, M; Sugino, Y

    1975-10-01

    Changes in cell surface structure by viral transformation were studied by examining changes in the binding of various lectins differing in carbohydrate specificities. Binding of lectins was assayed directly using cells grown in coverslips. The following 125I-lectins were used: Concanavalin-A (specific for glucose and mannose), wheat germ agglutinin (specific for N-acetylglucosamine), castor bean agglutinin (specific for galactose), Wistaria floribunda agglutinin (specific for N-acetylgalactosamine), and soybean agglutinin (specific for N-acetyl-galactosamine). Cells for a clone, SS7, transformed by bovine adenovirus type-3, were found to bind 5 to 6 times more Wistaria floribunda agglutinin than the normal counterpart cells (clone C31, from C3H mouse kidney). In contrast, the binding of soybean agglutinin, which has a sugar specificity similar to Wistaria floribunda agglutinin, to normal and transformed cells was similar. The binding of wheat germ agglutinin and castor bean agglutinin, respectively, to normal and transformed cells was also similar. However, normal cells bound twice as much concanavalin-A as transformed cells. Only half as much Wistaria floribunda agglutinin was bound to transformed cells when they had been dispersed with EDTA. These changes in the number of lectin binding sites on transformation are thought to reflect alteration of the cell surface structure. The amount of lectins bound per cell decreased with increase in cell density, especially in the case of binding of Wistaria floribunda agglutinin to normal cells.

  4. Osteoblastic response to pectin nanocoating on titanium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurzawska, Katarzyna, E-mail: kagu@sund.ku.dk [Research Center for Ageing and Osteoporosis, Departments of Medicine and Diagnostics, Copenhagen University Hospital Glostrup, Ndr. Ringvej 57, 2600 Glostrup (Denmark); Institute of Odontology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Nørre Allé 20, 2200 Copenhagen N (Denmark); Svava, Rikke [Department of Plant Environment Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Copenhagen Center for Glycomics, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen N (Denmark); Yihua, Yu; Haugshøj, Kenneth Brian [Microtechnology and Surface Analysis, Danish Technological Institute, Gregersensvej 8, 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Dirscherl, Kai [Dansk Fundamental Metrologi A/S, Matematiktorvet 307, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Levery, Steven B. [Copenhagen Center for Glycomics, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen N (Denmark); Byg, Inge [Department of Plant Environment Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Damager, Iben [Novozymes A/S, Krogshoejvej 36, 2880 Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Nielsen, Martin W. [Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Matematiktorvet, Building 301, Kgs. Lyngby DK-2800 (Denmark); Jørgensen, Bodil [Department of Plant Environment Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Jørgensen, Niklas Rye [Research Center for Ageing and Osteoporosis, Departments of Medicine and Diagnostics, Copenhagen University Hospital Glostrup, Ndr. Ringvej 57, 2600 Glostrup (Denmark); and others

    2014-10-01

    Osseointegration of titanium implants can be improved by organic and inorganic nanocoating of the surface. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of organic nanocoating of titanium surface with unmodified and modified pectin Rhamnogalacturonan-Is (RG-Is) isolated from potato and apple with respect to surface properties and osteogenic response in osteoblastic cells. Nanocoatings on titanium surfaces were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effect of coated RG-Is on cell adhesion, cell viability, bone matrix formation and mineralization was tested using SaOS-2 cells. Nanocoating with pectin RG-Is affected surface properties and in consequence changed the environment for cellular response. The cells cultured on surfaces coated with RG-Is from potato with high content of linear 1.4-linked galactose produced higher level of mineralized matrix compared with control surfaces and surfaces coated with RG-I with low content of linear 1.4-linked galactose. The study showed that the pectin RG-Is nanocoating not only changed chemical and physical titanium surface properties, but also specific coating with RG-Is containing high amount of galactan increased mineralized matrix formation of osteoblastic cells in vitro. - Highlights: • Surface nanocoating with plant-derived Rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) is proposed. • Titanium surface became more hydrophilic after RG-Is nanocoating. • RG-Is with high galactose content resulted in high level of mineralized matrix. • RG-I is a new candidate for improvement of bone healing and osseointegration.

  5. New Monoclonal Antibodies to Defined Cell Surface Proteins on Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Carmel M; Chy, Hun S; Zhou, Qi; Blumenfeld, Shiri; Lambshead, Jack W; Liu, Xiaodong; Kie, Joshua; Capaldo, Bianca D; Chung, Tung-Liang; Adams, Timothy E; Phan, Tram; Bentley, John D; McKinstry, William J; Oliva, Karen; McMurrick, Paul J; Wang, Yu-Chieh; Rossello, Fernando J; Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Chen, Di; Jarde, Thierry; Clark, Amander T; Abud, Helen E; Visvader, Jane E; Nefzger, Christian M; Polo, Jose M; Loring, Jeanne F; Laslett, Andrew L

    2017-03-01

    The study and application of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) will be enhanced by the availability of well-characterized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) detecting cell-surface epitopes. Here, we report generation of seven new mAbs that detect cell surface proteins present on live and fixed human ES cells (hESCs) and human iPS cells (hiPSCs), confirming our previous prediction that these proteins were present on the cell surface of hPSCs. The mAbs all show a high correlation with POU5F1 (OCT4) expression and other hPSC surface markers (TRA-160 and SSEA-4) in hPSC cultures and detect rare OCT4 positive cells in differentiated cell cultures. These mAbs are immunoreactive to cell surface protein epitopes on both primed and naive state hPSCs, providing useful research tools to investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying human pluripotency and states of cellular reprogramming. In addition, we report that subsets of the seven new mAbs are also immunoreactive to human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), normal human breast subsets and both normal and tumorigenic colorectal cell populations. The mAbs reported here should accelerate the investigation of the nature of pluripotency, and enable development of robust cell separation and tracing technologies to enrich or deplete for hPSCs and other human stem and somatic cell types. Stem Cells 2017;35:626-640. © 2016 The Authors Stem Cells published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  6. Micromechanical and surface adhesive properties of single saccharomyces cerevisiae cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzi, Bahman; Cetinkaya, Cetin

    2017-09-01

    The adhesion and mechanical properties of a biological cell (e.g. cell membrane elasticity and adhesiveness) are often strong indicators for the state of its health. Many existing techniques for determining mechanical properties of cells require direct physical contact with a single cell or a group of cells. Physical contact with the cell can trigger complex mechanotransduction mechanisms, leading to cellular responses, and consequently interfering with measurement accuracy. In the current work, based on ultrasonic excitation and interferometric (optical) motion detection, a non-contact method for characterizing the adhesion and mechanical properties of single cells is presented. It is experimentally demonstrated that the rocking (rigid body) motion and internal vibrational resonance frequencies of a single saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) (baker’s yeast) cell can be acquired with the current approach, and the Young’s modulus and surface tension of the cell membrane as well as surface adhesion energy can be extracted from the values of these acquired resonance frequencies. The detected resonance frequency ranges for single SC cells include a rocking (rigid body) frequency of 330  ±  70 kHz and two breathing resonance frequencies of 1.53  ±  0.12 and 2.02  ±  0.31 MHz. Based on these values, the average work-of-adhesion of SC cells on a silicon substrate in aqueous medium is extracted, for the first time, as WASC-Si=16.2+/- 3.8 mJ {{m}-2} . Similarly, the surface tension and the Young’s modulus of the SC cell wall are predicted as {{σ }SC}=0.16+/- 0.02 N {{m}-1} and {{E}SC}= 9.20  ±  2.80 MPa, respectively. These results are compared to those reported in the literature by utilizing various methods, and good agreements are found. The current approach eliminates the measurement inaccuracies associated with the physical contact. Exciting and detecting cell dynamics at micro-second time-scales is significantly faster than the

  7. Signal peptide cleavage is essential for surface expression of a regulatory T cell surface protein, leucine rich repeat containing 32 (LRRC32).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derek V; Somani, Ally-Khan; Young, Andrew B; Massari, Jessica V; Ohtola, Jennifer; Sugiyama, Hideaki; Garaczi, Edina; Babineau, Denise; Cooper, Kevin D; McCormick, Thomas S

    2011-05-26

    Elevated numbers of regulatory T cells (T(regs)) have been implicated in certain cancers. Depletion of T(regs) has been shown to increase anti-tumor immunity. T(regs) also play a critical role in the suppression of autoimmune responses. The study of T(regs) has been hampered by a lack of adequate surface markers. Leucine Rich Repeat Containing 32 (LRRC32), also known as Glycoprotein A Repetitions Predominant (GARP), has been postulated as a novel surface marker of activated T(regs). However, there is limited information regarding the processing of LRRC32 or the regulatory phenotype and functional activity of T(regs) expressing LRRC32. Using naturally-occurring freshly isolated T(regs), we demonstrate that low levels of LRRC32 are present intracellularly prior to activation and that freshly isolated LRRC32+ T(regs) are distinct from LRRC32- T(regs) with respect to the expression of surface CD62L. Using LRRC32 transfectants of HEK cells, we demonstrate that the N-terminus of LRRC32 is cleaved prior to expression of the protein at the cell surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate using a construct containing a deleted putative signal peptide region that the presence of a signal peptide region is critical to cell surface expression of LRRC32. Finally, mixed lymphocyte assays demonstrate that LRRC32+ T(regs) are more potent suppressors than LRRC32- T(regs). A cleaved signal peptide site in LRRC32 is necessary for surface localization of native LRRC32 following activation of naturally-occurring freshly-isolated regulatory T cells. LRRC32 expression appears to alter the surface expression of activation markers of T cells such as CD62L. LRRC32 surface expression may be useful as a marker that selects for more potent T(reg) populations. In summary, understanding the processing and expression of LRRC32 may provide insight into the mechanism of action of T(regs) and the refinement of immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at targeting these cells.

  8. Signal peptide cleavage is essential for surface expression of a regulatory T cell surface protein, leucine rich repeat containing 32 (LRRC32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyama Hideaki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs have been implicated in certain cancers. Depletion of Tregs has been shown to increase anti-tumor immunity. Tregs also play a critical role in the suppression of autoimmune responses. The study of Tregs has been hampered by a lack of adequate surface markers. Leucine Rich Repeat Containing 32 (LRRC32, also known as Glycoprotein A Repetitions Predominant (GARP, has been postulated as a novel surface marker of activated Tregs. However, there is limited information regarding the processing of LRRC32 or the regulatory phenotype and functional activity of Tregs expressing LRRC32. Results Using naturally-occurring freshly isolated Tregs, we demonstrate that low levels of LRRC32 are present intracellularly prior to activation and that freshly isolated LRRC32+ Tregs are distinct from LRRC32- Tregs with respect to the expression of surface CD62L. Using LRRC32 transfectants of HEK cells, we demonstrate that the N-terminus of LRRC32 is cleaved prior to expression of the protein at the cell surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate using a construct containing a deleted putative signal peptide region that the presence of a signal peptide region is critical to cell surface expression of LRRC32. Finally, mixed lymphocyte assays demonstrate that LRRC32+ Tregs are more potent suppressors than LRRC32- Tregs. Conclusions A cleaved signal peptide site in LRRC32 is necessary for surface localization of native LRRC32 following activation of naturally-occurring freshly-isolated regulatory T cells. LRRC32 expression appears to alter the surface expression of activation markers of T cells such as CD62L. LRRC32 surface expression may be useful as a marker that selects for more potent Treg populations. In summary, understanding the processing and expression of LRRC32 may provide insight into the mechanism of action of Tregs and the refinement of immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at targeting these cells.

  9. Surface-modified gold nanorods for specific cell targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chan-Ung; Arai, Yoshie; Kim, Insun; Jang, Wonhee; Lee, Seonghyun; Hafner, Jason H.; Jeoung, Eunhee; Jung, Deokho; Kwon, Youngeun

    2012-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have unique properties that make them highly attractive materials for developing functional reagents for various biomedical applications including photothermal therapy, targeted drug delivery, and molecular imaging. For in vivo applications, GNPs need to be prepared with very little or negligible cytotoxicitiy. Most GNPs are, however, prepared using growth-directing surfactants such as cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which are known to have considerable cytotoxicity. In this paper, we describe an approach to remove CTAB to a non-toxic concentration. We optimized the conditions for surface modification with methoxypolyethylene glycol thiol (mPEG), which replaced CTAB and formed a protective layer on the surface of gold nanorods (GNRs). The cytotoxicities of pristine and surface-modified GNRs were measured in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human cell lines derived from hepatic carcinoma cells, embryonic kidney cells, and thyroid papillary carcinoma cells. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that treating cells with GNRs did not significantly affect cell viability except for thyroid papillary carcinoma cells. Thyroid cancer cells were more susceptible to residual CTAB, so CTAB had to be further removed by dialysis in order to use GNRs for thyroid cell targeting. PEGylated GNRs are further modified to present monoclonal antibodies that recognize a specific surface marker, Na-I symporter, for thyroid cells. Antibody-conjugated GNRs specifically targeted human thyroid cells in vitro.

  10. Effects of tunicamycin, mannosamine, and other inhibitors of glycoprotein processing on skeletal alkaline phosphatase in human osteoblast-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, J R; Magnusson, P

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal alkaline phosphatase (sALP) is a glycoprotein- approximately 20% carbohydrate by weight, with five presumptive sites for N-linked glycosylation, as well as a carboxy-terminal site for attachment of the glycolipid structure (glycosylphosphatidylinositol, GPI), which anchors sALP to the outer surface of osteoblasts. The current studies were intended to characterize the effects of inhibiting glycosylation and glycosyl-processing on the synthesis, plasma membrane attachment, cellular-extracellular distribution, and reaction kinetics of sALP in human osteosarcoma (SaOS-2) cells. sALP synthesis, glycosylation, and GPI-anchor attachment were assessed as total protein synthesis/immunospecific sALP synthesis, sialic acid content (i.e., wheat germ agglutinin precipitation), and insolubility (i.e., temperature-dependent phase-separation), respectively. sALP reaction kinetics were characterized by analysis of dose-dependent initial velocity data, with a phosphoryl substrate. The results of these studies revealed that the inhibition of either N-linked glycosylation or oligosaccharide synthesis for GPI-anchor addition could affect the synthesis and the distribution of sALP, but not the kinetics of the phosphatase reaction. Tunicamycin-which blocks N-linked glycosylation by inhibiting core oligosaccharide synthesis-decreased cell layer protein and the total amount of sALP in the cells, while increasing the relative level of sALP in the cell-conditioned culture medium (CM, i.e., the amount of sALP released). These effects were attributed to dose- and time-dependent decreases in sALP synthesis and N-linked glycosylation, and an increase in apoptotic cell death (P sALP specific activity, in the cells and in the CM; and (3) increases in the percentages of both anchorless and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-soluble sALP in the medium, but not in the cells (P sALP to the outside of the plasma membrane surface. Neither mannosammine nor tunicamycin had any effect on the reaction

  11. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of amniotic membranes affects their nanofibrous structures and limbal epithelial cell culture characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jui-Yang; Ma, David Hui-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Given that the cells can sense nanometer dimensions, the chemical cross-linking-mediated alteration in fibrillar structure of collagenous tissue scaffolds is critical to determining their cell culture performances. This article explores, for the first time, the effect of nanofibrous structure of glutaraldehyde (GTA) cross-linked amniotic membrane (AM) on limbal epithelial cell (LEC) cultivation. Results of ninhydrin assays demonstrated that the amount of new cross-links formed between the collagen chains is significantly increased with increasing the cross-linking time from 1 to 24 hours. By transmission electron microscopy, the AM treated with GTA for a longer duration exhibited a greater extent of molecular aggregation, thereby leading to a considerable increase in nanofiber diameter and resistance against collagenase degradation. In vitro biocompatibility studies showed that the samples cross-linked with GTA for 24 hours are not well-tolerated by the human corneal epithelial cell cultures. When the treatment duration is less than 6 hours, the biological tissues cross-linked with GTA for a longer time may cause slight reductions in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt, and anti-inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, significant collagen molecular aggregation also enhances the stemness gene expression, indicating a high ability of these AM matrices to preserve the progenitors of LECs in vitro. It is concluded that GTA cross-linking of collagenous tissue materials may affect their nanofibrous structures and corneal epithelial stem cell culture characteristics. The AM treated with GTA for 6 hours holds promise for use as a niche for the expansion and transplantation of limbal epithelial progenitor cells.

  12. Binding of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator to its cell surface receptor is inhibited by low doses of suramin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Rønne, E; Danø, K

    1993-01-01

    micrograms/ml when using U937 cells and a ligand concentration of 0.3 nM. This concentration of the drug is well below the serum levels found in suramin-treated patients. Inhibition of binding was also demonstrated at the molecular level, using chemical cross-linking or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...... to the anti-invasive properties of suramin by destroying the cellular potential for localized plasminogen activation and proteolytic matrix degradation....

  13. Effect of n-HA with different surface-modified on the properties of n-HA/PLGA composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Liuyun, E-mail: jlytxg@163.com [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Xiong Chengdong; Chen Dongliang [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Jiang Lixin [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Graduated School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Pang Xiubing [Zhejiang Apeloa Medical Technology Co. Ltd, Jinhua 322118 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The bend strength of n-HA/PLGA composite with the unmodified n-HA becomes lower than that of PLGA. However, when n-HA was modified by different methods, the bend strength of g-n-HA/PLGA composites gets a little increase than PLGA, and the g3-n-HA/PLGA shows the highest bend strength at 3% g3-n-HA loading amount in weight, reached 162 MPa, which was 24.4% higher than that of pure PLGA. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new surface modification method for n-HA of combining stearic acid with surface-grafting L-lactic was adopted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three different surface modification methods for n-HA were compared in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The new surface modification method was the most ideal method in this study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The g3-n-HA/PLGA composite had the highest bending strength, which would be potential to be used as bone fracture internal fixation materials. - Abstract: Three different surface modification methods for nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) of stearic acid, grafted with L-lactide, combining stearic acid and surface-grafting L-lactic were adopted, respectively. The surface modification reaction and the effect of different methods were evaluated by Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that n-HA surfaces were all successful modified, and the modification method of combining stearic acid and surface-grafting L-lactic had the greatest grafting amount and the best dispersion among the three modification methods. Then, the n-HA with three different surface modification and unmodified n-HA were introduced into PLGA, respectively, and a serials of n-HA/PLGA composites with 3% n-HA amount in weight were prepared by solution mixing, and the properties of n-HA/PLGA composites were also investigated by electromechanical universal tester and scanning electron

  14. Analysis of reverse gate leakage mechanism of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with N2 plasma surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zhang, Zongjing; Luo, Weijun

    2018-06-01

    The mechanism of reverse gate leakage current of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with two different surface treatment methods are studied by using C-V, temperature dependent I-V and theoretical analysis. At the lower reverse bias region (VR >- 3.5 V), the dominant leakage current mechanism of the device with N2 plasma surface treatment is the Poole-Frenkel emission current (PF), and Trap-Assisted Tunneling current (TAT) is the principal leakage current of the device which treated by HCl:H2O solution. At the higher reverse bias region (VR current of the device with N2 plasma surface treatment is one order of magnitude smaller than the device which treated by HCl:H2O solution. This is due to the recovery of Ga-N bond in N2 plasma surface treatment together with the reduction of the shallow traps in post-gate annealing (PGA) process. The measured results agree well with the theoretical calculations and demonstrate N2 plasma surface treatment can reduce the reverse leakage current of the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs.

  15. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of thermoresponsive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) thin films for cell sheet engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bora; Jiao, Alex; Yu, Seungjung; You, Jae Bem; Kim, Deok-Ho; Im, Sung Gap

    2013-08-01

    Poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) is a thermoresponsive polymer known to be nontoxic, water soluble and biocompatible. Here, PNVCL homopolymer was successfully synthesized for the first time by use of a one-step vapor-phase process, termed initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed that radical polymerization took place from N-vinylcaprolactam monomers without damaging the functional caprolactam ring. A sharp lower critical solution temperature transition was observed at 31°C from the iCVD poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) film. The thermoresponsive PNVCL surface exhibited a hydrophilic/hydrophobic alteration with external temperature change, which enabled the thermally modulated attachment and detachment of cells. The conformal coverage of PNVCL film on various substrates with complex topography, including fabrics and nanopatterns, was successfully demonstrated, which can further be utilized to fabricate cell sheets with aligned cell morphology. The advantage of this system is that cells cultured on such thermoresponsive surfaces could be recovered as an intact cell sheet by simply lowering the temperature, eliminating the need for conventional enzymatic treatments. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid chemical de-N-glycosylation and derivatization for liquid chromatography of immunoglobulin N-linked glycans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Kameyama

    Full Text Available Glycan analysis may result in exploitation of glycan biomarkers and evaluation of heterogeneity of glycosylation of biopharmaceuticals. For N-linked glycan analysis, we investigated alkaline hydrolysis of the asparagine glycosyl carboxamide of glycoproteins as a deglycosylation reaction. By adding hydroxylamine into alkaline de-N-glycosylation, we suppressed the degradation of released glycans and obtained a mixture of oximes, free glycans, and glycosylamines. The reaction was completed within 1 h, and the mixture containing oximes was easily tagged with 2-aminobenzamide by reductive amination. Here, we demonstrated N-linked glycan analysis using this method for a monoclonal antibody, and examined whether this method could liberate glycans without degradation from apo-transferrin containing NeuAc and NeuGc and horseradish peroxidase containing Fuc α1-3 GlcNAc at the reducing end. Furthermore, we compared glycan recoveries between conventional enzymatic glycan release and this method. Increasing the reaction temperature and reaction duration led to degradation, whereas decreasing these parameters resulted in lower release. Considering this balance, we proposed to carry out the reaction at 80°C for 1 h for asialo glycoproteins from mammals and at 50°C for 1 h for sialoglycoproteins.

  17. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of amniotic membranes affects their nanofibrous structures and limbal epithelial cell culture characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai JY

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jui-Yang Lai,1–3 David Hui-Kang Ma4,5 1Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, 2Biomedical Engineering Research Center, 3Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Limbal Stem Cell Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 5Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Abstract: Given that the cells can sense nanometer dimensions, the chemical cross-linking-mediated alteration in fibrillar structure of collagenous tissue scaffolds is critical to determining their cell culture performances. This article explores, for the first time, the effect of nanofibrous structure of glutaraldehyde (GTA cross-linked amniotic membrane (AM on limbal epithelial cell (LEC cultivation. Results of ninhydrin assays demonstrated that the amount of new cross-links formed between the collagen chains is significantly increased with increasing the cross-linking time from 1 to 24 hours. By transmission electron microscopy, the AM treated with GTA for a longer duration exhibited a greater extent of molecular aggregation, thereby leading to a considerable increase in nanofiber diameter and resistance against collagenase degradation. In vitro biocompatibility studies showed that the samples cross-linked with GTA for 24 hours are not well-tolerated by the human corneal epithelial cell cultures. When the treatment duration is less than 6 hours, the biological tissues cross-linked with GTA for a longer time may cause slight reductions in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt, and anti-inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, significant collagen molecular aggregation also enhances the stemness gene expression, indicating a high ability of these AM matrices to preserve the progenitors of LECs in vitro. It is concluded that GTA cross-linking of collagenous tissue materials may affect their nanofibrous

  18. Effects of cell culture conditions on antibody N-linked glycosylation--what affects high mannose 5 glycoform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacis, Efren; Yu, Marcella; Autsen, Jennifer; Bayer, Robert; Li, Feng

    2011-10-01

    The glycosylation profile of therapeutic antibodies is routinely analyzed throughout development to monitor the impact of process parameters and to ensure consistency, efficacy, and safety for clinical and commercial batches of therapeutic products. In this study, unusually high levels of the mannose-5 (Man5) glycoform were observed during the early development of a therapeutic antibody produced from a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, model cell line A. Follow up studies indicated that the antibody Man5 level was increased throughout the course of cell culture production as a result of increasing cell culture medium osmolality levels and extending culture duration. With model cell line A, Man5 glycosylation increased more than twofold from 12% to 28% in the fed-batch process through a combination of high basal and feed media osmolality and increased run duration. The osmolality and culture duration effects were also observed for four other CHO antibody producing cell lines by adding NaCl in both basal and feed media and extending the culture duration of the cell culture process. Moreover, reduction of Man5 level from model cell line A was achieved by supplementing MnCl2 at appropriate concentrations. To further understand the role of glycosyltransferases in Man5 level, N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I GnT-I mRNA levels at different osmolality conditions were measured. It has been hypothesized that specific enzyme activity in the glycosylation pathway could have been altered in this fed-batch process. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Differential dependence on N-glycosylation of anthrax toxin receptors CMG2 and TEM8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Friebe

    Full Text Available ANTXR 1 and 2, also known as TEM8 and CMG2, are two type I membrane proteins, which have been extensively studied for their role as anthrax toxin receptors, but with a still elusive physiological function. Here we have analyzed the importance of N-glycosylation on folding, trafficking and ligand binding of these closely related proteins. We find that TEM8 has a stringent dependence on N-glycosylation. The presence of at least one glycan on each of its two extracellular domains, the vWA and Ig-like domains, is indeed necessary for efficient trafficking to the cell surface. In the absence of any N-linked glycans, TEM8 fails to fold correctly and is recognized by the ER quality control machinery. Expression of N-glycosylation mutants reveals that CMG2 is less vulnerable to sugar loss. The absence of N-linked glycans in one of the extracellular domains indeed has little impact on folding, trafficking or receptor function of the wild type protein expressed in tissue culture cells. N-glycans do, however, seem required in primary fibroblasts from human patients. Here, the presence of N-linked sugars increases the tolerance to mutations in cmg2 causing the rare genetic disease Hyaline Fibromatosis Syndrome. It thus appears that CMG2 glycosylation provides a buffer towards genetic variation by promoting folding of the protein in the ER lumen.

  20. Functional dynamics of cell surface membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Noritaka; Osawa, Masanori; Takeuchi, Koh; Imai, Shunsuke; Stampoulis, Pavlos; Kofuku, Yutaka; Ueda, Takumi; Shimada, Ichio

    2014-04-01

    Cell surface receptors are integral membrane proteins that receive external stimuli, and transmit signals across plasma membranes. In the conventional view of receptor activation, ligand binding to the extracellular side of the receptor induces conformational changes, which convert the structure of the receptor into an active conformation. However, recent NMR studies of cell surface membrane proteins have revealed that their structures are more dynamic than previously envisioned, and they fluctuate between multiple conformations in an equilibrium on various timescales. In addition, NMR analyses, along with biochemical and cell biological experiments indicated that such dynamical properties are critical for the proper functions of the receptors. In this review, we will describe several NMR studies that revealed direct linkage between the structural dynamics and the functions of the cell surface membrane proteins, such as G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), ion channels, membrane transporters, and cell adhesion molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical deamidation: a common pitfall in large-scale N-linked glycoproteomic mass spectrometry-based analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giuseppe; Melo-Braga, Marcella Nunes; Engholm-Keller, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    for false positives. The confusion arises since the protein N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) reaction used to separate N-glycans from formerly glycosylated peptides catalyses the cleavage and deamidates the asparagine residue. This is typically viewed as beneficial since it acts to highlight the modification site......-linked consensus sites based on common N-linked glycoproteomics strategies without proper control experiments. Beside showing the spontaneous deamidation we provide alternative methods for validation that should be used in such experiments....

  2. Tropism and Infectivity of Influenza Virus, Including Highly Pathogenic Avian H5N1 Virus, in Ferret Tracheal Differentiated Primary Epithelial Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hui; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Maines, Taronna R.; Belser, Jessica A.; Gustin, Kortney M.; Pekosz, Andrew; Zaki, Sherif R.; Katz, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropism and adaptation of influenza viruses to new hosts is partly dependent on the distribution of the sialic acid (SA) receptors to which the viral hemagglutinin (HA) binds. Ferrets have been established as a valuable in vivo model of influenza virus pathogenesis and transmission because of similarities to humans in the distribution of HA receptors and in clinical signs of infection. In this study, we developed a ferret tracheal differentiated primary epithelial cell culture model that consisted of a layered epithelium structure with ciliated and nonciliated cells on its apical surface. We found that human-like (α2,6-linked) receptors predominated on ciliated cells, whereas avian-like (α2,3-linked) receptors, which were less abundant, were presented on nonciliated cells. When we compared the tropism and infectivity of three human (H1 and H3) and two avian (H1 and H5) influenza viruses, we observed that the human influenza viruses primarily infected ciliated cells and replicated efficiently, whereas a highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus (A/Vietnam/1203/2004) replicated efficiently within nonciliated cells despite a low initial infection rate. Furthermore, compared to other influenza viruses tested, VN/1203 virus replicated more efficiently in cells isolated from the lower trachea and at a higher temperature (37°C) compared to a lower temperature (33°C). VN/1203 virus infection also induced higher levels of immune mediator genes and cell death, and virus was recovered from the basolateral side of the cell monolayer. This ferret tracheal differentiated primary epithelial cell culture system provides a valuable in vitro model for studying cellular tropism, infectivity, and the pathogenesis of influenza viruses. PMID:23255802

  3. Cellular Repair of DNA–DNA Cross-Links Induced by 1,2,3,4-Diepoxybutane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa N. Chesner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Xenobiotic-induced interstrand DNA–DNA cross-links (ICL interfere with transcription and replication and can be converted to toxic DNA double strand breaks. In this work, we investigated cellular responses to 1,4-bis-(guan-7-yl-2,3-butanediol (bis-N7G-BD cross-links induced by 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB. High pressure liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS assays were used to quantify the formation and repair of bis-N7G-BD cross-links in wild-type Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 and the corresponding isogenic clones V-H1 and V-H4, deficient in the XPD and FANCA genes, respectively. Both V-H1 and V-H4 cells exhibited enhanced sensitivity to DEB-induced cell death and elevated bis-N7G-BD cross-links. However, relatively modest increases of bis-N7G-BD adduct levels in V-H4 clones did not correlate with their hypersensitivity to DEB. Further, bis-N7G-BD levels were not elevated in DEB-treated human clones with defects in the XPA or FANCD2 genes. Comet assays and γ-H2AX focus analyses conducted with hamster cells revealed that ICL removal was associated with chromosomal double strand break formation, and that these breaks persisted in V-H4 cells as compared to control cells. Our findings suggest that ICL repair in cells with defects in the Fanconi anemia repair pathway is associated with aberrant re-joining of repair-induced double strand breaks, potentially resulting in lethal chromosome rearrangements.

  4. Cell wall O-glycoproteins and N-glycoproteins: biosynthesis and some functional aspects.

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    Eric eNguema-Ona

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell wall O-glycoproteins and N-glycoproteins are two types of glycomolecules whose glycans are structurally complex. They are both assembled and modified within the endomembrane system, i.e., the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and the Golgi apparatus, before their transport to their final locations within or outside the cell. In contrast to extensin, the O-glycan chains of arabinogalactan proteins are highly heterogeneous consisting mostly of (i a short oligo-arabinoside chain of three to four residues, and (ii a larger -1,3-linked galactan backbone with -1,6-linked side chains containing galactose, arabinose and, often, fucose, rhamnose or glucuronic acid. The fine structure of arabinogalactan chains varies between, and within plant species, and is important for the functional activities of the glycoproteins. With regards to N-glycans, ER-synthesizing events are highly conserved in all eukaryotes studied so far since they are essential for efficient protein folding. In contrast, evolutionary adaptation of N-glycan processing in the Golgi apparatus has given rise to a variety of organism-specific complex structures. Therefore, plant complex-type N-glycans contain specific glyco-epitopes such as core 1,2-xylose, core 1,3-fucose residues and Lewisa substitutions on the terminal position of the antenna. Like O-glycans, N-glycans of proteins are essential for their stability and function. Mutants affected in the glycan metabolic pathways have provided valuable information on the role of N-/O-glycoproteins in the control of growth, morphogenesis and adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. With regards to O-glycoproteins only extensin and arabinogalactan proteins are considered herein. The biosynthesis of these glycoproteins and functional aspects are presented and discussed in this review.

  5. Ontogeny of thymic independent antibody responses in vitro in normal mice and mice with an x-linked B cell defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosier, D.E.; Mond, J.J.; Goldings, E.A.

    1977-12-01

    The primary in vitro antibody response of neonatal spleen cells to three thymic independent antigens has been examined. The time of onset of responsiveness to TNP-Brucella abortus and TNP-lipopolysaccharide was significantly earlier than the onset of responsiveness to TNP-Ficoll. This ontologic sequence was not affected by T cell depletion or antigen presentation on adult macrophages. In neonatal mice bearing the X-linked CBA/N defect, the response to TNP-Brucella abortus and TNP-lipopolysaccharide was much delayed and no response to TNP-Ficoll developed. We conclude that different thymic independent antigens address different subpopulations of B cells, one of which appears earlier in ontogeny than the other.

  6. Ontogeny of thymic independent antibody responses in vitro in normal mice and mice with an x-linked B cell defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosier, D.E.; Mond, J.J.; Goldings, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    The primary in vitro antibody response of neonatal spleen cells to three thymic independent antigens has been examined. The time of onset of responsiveness to TNP-Brucella abortus and TNP-lipopolysaccharide was significantly earlier than the onset of responsiveness to TNP-Ficoll. This ontologic sequence was not affected by T cell depletion or antigen presentation on adult macrophages. In neonatal mice bearing the X-linked CBA/N defect, the response to TNP-Brucella abortus and TNP-lipopolysaccharide was much delayed and no response to TNP-Ficoll developed. We conclude that different thymic independent antigens address different subpopulations of B cells, one of which appears earlier in ontogeny than the other

  7. AquaDiva: Understanding the Link between the Surface and Subsurface Biogeosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbore, S.; Küsel, K.; Totsche, K. U.; Schwab, V.; Herrmann, M.; Nowak, M. E.; Gleixner, G.

    2017-12-01

    In the collaborative research project AquaDiva, we combine hydrogeochemical, metagemonic and biogeochemical tools to understand how the complex interactions between geologic setting and surface land use influence the function and biodiversity of the subsurface, especially ground water ecosystems. At the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory in central Germany, we investigate soil and seepage waters in recharge areas and aquifers in a fractured limestone setting characterized by a dynamic water infiltration regime. Within the Exploratory, we have so far identified three distinct biogeochemical zones in which land use and lithologic differences combine to give rise to surprisingly different biotic communities and hydrogeochemical properties with different degrees of connection to the surface. Here we will focus on how we have combined carbon isotopic, organic biomarkers such as phospholipid fatty acids, and `omics' approaches to determine (i) how deep soil-borne microorganisms can be traced into the subsurface, and (ii) which energy sources sustain microbial life in oligotrophic limestone aquifers. With increasing travel distance to the surface, there is a decline in the abundance of microbes, with less than 5% of the taxa identified overlapping with those identified in the soils. Dissolved organic matter also is altered as it passes through soils, demonstrating an overall increase in molecular weight and a change in molecular makeup as well as radiocarbon content. Using the radiocarbon signature (corrected for the influence of carbonate dissolution), as a way to identify if organic C is being supplied recently by plants, atmosphere sources of energy for communities within the aquifer differ for the identified biogeochemical zones and include (i) dominance of inputs of fresh organic carbon from the surface feeding heterotrophy in oxygenic environments; (ii) CO2 fixation linked to nitrogen and sulfur cycling in anoxic environments and (iii) rock-derived organic matter

  8. The Evidence of Non n-glycan Linked Mannose in Exochitinase 42kDa, from Trichoderma harzianum BIO10671 Glycosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muskhazli, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitinase 42 kDa produced by Trichoderma harzianum has been proven as a prime compound to be excreted onto the hyphae of the pathogen causing localised cell wall lysis at the point of interaction. Later it will initiate the process of the host cell becomes empty of cytoplasm, disintegrates and shows a rapid collapse. This study investigates the existence of N-glycan linked mannose in chitinase 42 kDa produced by the Malaysian T. harzianum strain BIO10671. The chitinase 42 kDa from T. harzianum BIO10671 was initially purified using anion exchange chromatography prior to a series of experiments such as immunoblotting against the chitinase 42 kDa antibody, lectin staining for detecting any terminal linked mannose, and galactofuranose detection to determine the presence of galatofuranase components in glycoproteins. The enzyme purification harvested about 12-fold of chitinase 42 kDa from T. harzianum BIO10671 with strong indication of the chitinase 42 kDa presence on SDS-Page. This was confirmed by immunoblotting with a strong response around 42 kDa after overnight incubation in chitinase 42 kDa antibody suggesting that the gene for chitinase 42 kDa was greatly expressed in this strain. There are no intervation of galatofuranose on any of the terminal mannose in chitinase 42 kDa as shown by negative results on samples treated with or without endoglycosidase-H and lectin staining. Therefore, it can be concludeed that glycosylation occurred in the chitinase 42 kDa from T. harzianum 42 kDa was not in the form of N-glycan linked mannose as expected.

  9. Effects of surface condition on the work function and valence-band position of ZnSnN2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, Amanda M.; Tolstova, Yulia; Lewis, Nathan S.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2017-12-01

    ZnSnN2 is an emerging wide band gap earth-abundant semiconductor with potential applications in photonic devices such as solar cells, LEDs, and optical sensors. We report the characterization by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of reactively radio-frequency sputtered II-IV-nitride ZnSnN2 thin films. For samples transferred in high vacuum, the ZnSnN2 surface work function was 4.0 ± 0.1 eV below the vacuum level, with a valence-band onset of 1.2 ± 0.1 eV below the Fermi level. The resulting band diagram indicates that the degenerate bulk Fermi level position in ZnSnN2 shifts to mid-gap at the surface due to band bending that results from equilibration with delocalized surface states within the gap. Brief (< 10 s) exposures to air, a nitrogen-plasma treatment, or argon-ion sputtering caused significant chemical changes at the surface, both in surface composition and interfacial energetics. The relative band positioning of the n-type semiconductor against standard redox potentials indicated that ZnSnN2 has an appropriate energy band alignment for use as a photoanode to effect the oxygen-evolution reaction.

  10. Record high efficiency of screen-printed silicon aluminum back surface field solar cell: 20.29%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hyung; Park, Chang Sub; Doo Lee, Jae; Youb Lim, Jong; Yeon, Je Min; Kim, Il Hwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Cho, Young Hyun

    2017-08-01

    We have achieved a record high cell efficiency of 20.29% for an industrial 6-in. p-type monocrystalline silicon solar cell with a full-area aluminum back surface field (Al-BSF) by simply modifying the cell structure and optimizing the process with the existing cell production line. The cell efficiency was independently confirmed by the Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS). To increase the cell efficiency, for example, in four busbars, double printing, a lightly doped emitter with a sheet resistance of 90 to 100 Ω/□, and front surface passivation by using silicon oxynitride (SiON) on top of a silicon nitride (SiN x ) antireflection layer were adopted. To optimize front side processing, PC1D simulation was carried out prior to cell fabrication. The resulting efficiency gain is 0.64% compared with that in the reference cells with three busbars, a single antireflection coating layer, and a low-sheet-resistance emitter.

  11. Cross-Linking Mast Cell Specific Gangliosides Stimulates the Release of Newly Formed Lipid Mediators and Newly Synthesized Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edismauro Garcia Freitas Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are immunoregulatory cells that participate in inflammatory processes. Cross-linking mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides by mAbAA4 results in partial activation of mast cells without the release of preformed mediators. The present study examines the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators following ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking the gangliosides with mAbAA4 released the newly formed lipid mediators, prostaglandins D2 and E2, without release of leukotrienes B4 and C4. The effect of cross-linking these gangliosides on the activation of enzymes in the arachidonate cascade was then investigated. Ganglioside cross-linking resulted in phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2. Translocation of 5-lipoxygenase from the cytosol to the nucleus was not induced by ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking of GD1b derived gangliosides also resulted in the release of the newly synthesized mediators, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, and TNF-α. The effect of cross-linking the gangliosides on the MAP kinase pathway was then investigated. Cross-linking the gangliosides induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 as well as activating both NFκB and NFAT in a Syk-dependent manner. Therefore, cross-linking the mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides results in the activation of signaling pathways that culminate with the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators.

  12. Physical and electrical characterizations of AlGaN/GaN MOS gate stacks with AlGaN surface oxidation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takahiro; Watanabe, Kenta; Nozaki, Mikito; Shih, Hong-An; Nakazawa, Satoshi; Anda, Yoshiharu; Ueda, Tetsuzo; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2018-06-01

    The impacts of inserting ultrathin oxides into insulator/AlGaN interfaces on their electrical properties were investigated to develop advanced AlGaN/GaN metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) gate stacks. For this purpose, the initial thermal oxidation of AlGaN surfaces in oxygen ambient was systematically studied by synchrotron radiation X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SR-XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our physical characterizations revealed that, when compared with GaN surfaces, aluminum addition promotes the initial oxidation of AlGaN surfaces at temperatures of around 400 °C, followed by smaller grain growth above 850 °C. Electrical measurements of AlGaN/GaN MOS capacitors also showed that, although excessive oxidation treatment of AlGaN surfaces over around 700 °C has an adverse effect, interface passivation with the initial oxidation of the AlGaN surfaces at temperatures ranging from 400 to 500 °C was proven to be beneficial for fabricating high-quality AlGaN/GaN MOS gate stacks.

  13. Control of cell behavior on PTFE surface using ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akane; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Meguro, Takashi; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki

    2009-01-01

    A polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface is smooth and biologically inert, so that cells cannot attach to it. Ion beam irradiation of the PTFE surface forms micropores and a melted layer, and the surface is finally covered with a large number of small protrusions. Recently, we found that cells could adhere to this irradiated PTFE surface and spread over the surface. Because of their peculiar attachment behavior, these surfaces can be used as biological tools. However, the factors regulating cell adhesion are still unclear, although some new functional groups formed by irradiation seem to contribute to this adhesion. To control cell behavior on PTFE surfaces, we must determine the effects of the outermost irradiated surface on cell adhesion. In this study, we removed the thin melted surface layer by postirradiation annealing and investigated cell behavior on the surface. On the surface irradiated with 3 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 , cells spread only on the remaining parts of the melted layer. From these results, it is clear that the melted layer had a capacity for cell attachment. When the surface covered with protrusions was irradiated with a fluence of 1 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 , the distribution of cells changed after the annealing process from 'sheet shaped' into multicellular aggregates with diameters of around 50 μm. These results indicate that we can control cell behavior on PTFE surfaces covered with protrusions using irradiation and subsequent annealing. Multicellular spheroids can be fabricated for tissue engineering using this surface.

  14. Biomimetic hydrogels gate transport of calcium ions across cell culture inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotanen, Christian N; Wilson, A Nolan; Wilson, Ann M; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    Control of the in vitro spatiotemporal availability of calcium ions is one means by which the microenvironments of hematopoietic stem cells grown in culture may be reproduced. The effects of cross-linking density on the diffusivity of calcium ions through cell culture compatible poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [poly(HEMA)]-based bioactive hydrogels possessing 1.0 mol% 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), 5 mol% N,N-(dimethylamino)ethylmethacrylate (DMAEMA) and ca. 17 mol% n-butyl acrylate (n-BA) have been investigated to determine if varying cross-link density is a viable approach to controlling transport of calcium across hydrogel membranes. Cross-linking density was varied by changing the composition of cross-linker, tetraethyleneglycol diacrylate (TEGDA). The hydrogel membranes were formed by sandwich casting onto the external surface of track-etched polycarbonate membranes (T = 10 μm, φ = 0.4 μm pores) of cell culture inserts, polymerized in place by UV light irradiation and immersed in buffered (0.025 HEPES, pH 7.4) 0.10 M calcium chloride solution. The transport of calcium ions across the hydrogel membrane was monitored using a calcium ion selective electrode set within the insert. Degree of hydration (21.6 ± 1.0%) and void fraction were found to be constant across all cross-linking densities. Diffusion coefficients, determined using time-lag analysis, were shown to be strongly dependent on and to exponentially decrease with increasing cross-linking density. Compared to that found in buffer (2.0-2.5 × 10⁻⁶ cm²/s), diffusion coefficients ranged from 1.40 × 10⁻⁶ cm²/s to 1.80 × 10⁻⁷ cm²/s and tortuosity values ranged from 1.7 to 10.0 for the 1 and 12 mol% TEGDA cross-linked hydrogels respectively. Changes in tortuosity arising from variations in cross-link density were found to be the primary modality for controlling diffusivity through novel n-BA containing poly(HEMA)-based bioactive hydrogels.

  15. Exploring the Leishmania Hydrophilic Acylated Surface Protein B (HASPB) Export Pathway by Live Cell Imaging Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Lorna; Price, Helen; O'Toole, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania major is a human-infective protozoan parasite transmitted by the bite of the female phlebotomine sand fly. The L. major hydrophilic acylated surface protein B (HASPB) is only expressed in infective parasite stages suggesting a role in parasite virulence. HASPB is a "nonclassically" secreted protein that lacks a conventional signal peptide, reaching the cell surface by an alternative route to the classical ER-Golgi pathway. Instead HASPB trafficking to and exposure on the parasite plasma membrane requires dual N-terminal acylation. Here, we use live cell imaging methods to further explore this pathway allowing visualization of key events in real time at the individual cell level. These methods include live cell imaging using fluorescent reporters to determine the subcellular localization of wild type and acylation site mutation HASPB18-GFP fusion proteins, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to analyze the dynamics of HASPB in live cells, and live antibody staining to detect surface exposure of HASPB by confocal microscopy.

  16. Cell surface localization of the 78 kD glucose regulated protein (GRP 78) induced by thapsigargin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpino, A; Piselli, P; Vismara, D; Vendetti, S; Colizzi, V

    1998-01-01

    In the present study it was found that the synthesis of the 78 kD glucose-regulated protein (GRP 78 or BIP) is vigorously induced in human rabdomiosarcoma cells (TE 671/RD) following both short-term (1 h) and prolonged (18 h) exposure to 100 nM thapsigargin (Tg). Flow cytometric analysis with a specific anti-GRP 78 polyclonal antibody showed that Tg-treated cells express the GRP 78 on the plasma membrane. Cell surface localization of the Tg-induced GRP 78 was confirmed by biotinylation of membrane-exposed proteins and subsequent isolation of the biotin-labelled proteins by streptavidin/agarose affinity chromatography. It was found that a fraction of the Tg-induced GRP 78 is present among the biotin-labelled, surface-exposed, proteins. Conversely, the GRP 78 immunoprecipitated from unfractionated lysates of Tg-treated and biotin-reacted cells was found to be biotinylated. This is the first report demonstrating surface expression of GRP 78 in cells exposed to a specific GRP 78-inducing stimulus.

  17. Electron-beam induced current characterization of back-surface field solar cells using a chopped scanning electron microscope beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, K. L.; Cheng, L.-J.

    1984-01-01

    A chopped electron beam induced current (EBIC) technique for the chacterization of back-surface field (BSF) solar cells is presented. It is shown that the effective recombination velocity of the low-high junction forming the back-surface field of BSF cells, in addition to the diffusion length and the surface recombination velocity of the surface perpendicular to both the p-n and low-high junctions, can be determined from the data provided by a single EBIC scan. The method for doing so is described and illustrated. Certain experimental considerations taken to enhance the quality of the EBIC data are also discussed.

  18. N-wasp is essential for the negative regulation of B cell receptor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaohong Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Negative regulation of receptor signaling is essential for controlling cell activation and differentiation. In B-lymphocytes, the down-regulation of B-cell antigen receptor (BCR signaling is critical for suppressing the activation of self-reactive B cells; however, the mechanism underlying the negative regulation of signaling remains elusive. Using genetically manipulated mouse models and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP, which is coexpressed with WASP in all immune cells, is a critical negative regulator of B-cell signaling. B-cell-specific N-WASP gene deletion causes enhanced and prolonged BCR signaling and elevated levels of autoantibodies in the mouse serum. The increased signaling in N-WASP knockout B cells is concurrent with increased accumulation of F-actin at the B-cell surface, enhanced B-cell spreading on the antigen-presenting membrane, delayed B-cell contraction, inhibition in the merger of signaling active BCR microclusters into signaling inactive central clusters, and a blockage of BCR internalization. Upon BCR activation, WASP is activated first, followed by N-WASP in mouse and human primary B cells. The activation of N-WASP is suppressed by Bruton's tyrosine kinase-induced WASP activation, and is restored by the activation of SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase that inhibits WASP activation. Our results reveal a new mechanism for the negative regulation of BCR signaling and broadly suggest an actin-mediated mechanism for signaling down-regulation.

  19. Nanosized TiN-SBR hybrid coating of stainless steel as bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Masanobu; Myung, Seung-Taek; Asaishi, Ryo; Sun, Yang-Kook; Yashiro, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    In attempt to improve interfacial electrical conductivity of stainless steel for bipolar plates of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, TiN nanoparticles were electrophoretically deposited on the surface of stainless steel with elastic styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) particles. From transmission electron microscopic observation, it was found that the TiN nanoparticles (ca. 50 nm) surrounded the spherical SBR particles (ca. 300-600 nm), forming agglomerates. They were well adhered on the surface of the type 310S stainless steel. With help of elasticity of SBR, the agglomerates were well fitted into the interfacial gap between gas diffusion layer (GDL) and stainless steel bipolar plate, and the interfacial contact resistance (ICR), simultaneously, was successfully reduced. A single cell using the TiN nanoparticles-coated bipolar plates, consequently, showed comparable cell performance with the graphite employing cell at a current density of 0.5 A cm -2 (12.5 A). Inexpensive TiN nanoparticle-coated type 310S stainless steel bipolar plates would become a possible alternate for the expensive graphite bipolar plates as use in fuel cell applications

  20. A novel thromboxane A2 receptor N42S variant results in reduced surface expression and platelet dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Shaista P; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Jones, Matthew L; Dawood, Ban; Murden, Sherina; Cunningham, Margaret R; Mumford, Andrew D; Wilde, Jonathan T; Watson, Steve P; Mundell, Stuart J; Lowe, Gillian C

    2014-05-05

    A small number of thromboxane receptor variants have been described in patients with a bleeding history that result in platelet dysfunction. We have identified a patient with a history of significant bleeding, who expresses a novel heterozygous thromboxane receptor variant that predicts an asparagine to serine substitution (N42S). This asparagine is conserved across all class A GPCRs, suggesting a vital role for receptor structure and function.We investigated the functional consequences of the TP receptor heterozygous N42S substitution by performing platelet function studies on platelet-rich plasma taken from the patient and healthy controls. We investigated the N42S mutation by expressing the wild-type (WT) and mutant receptor in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Aggregation studies showed an ablation of arachidonic acid responses in the patient, whilst there was right-ward shift of the U46619 concentration response curve (CRC). Thromboxane generation was unaffected. Calcium mobilisation studies in cells lines showed a rightward shift of the U46619 CRC in N42S-expressing cells compared to WT. Radioligand binding studies revealed a reduction in BMax in platelets taken from the patient and in N42S-expressing cells, whilst cell studies confirmed poor surface expression. We have identified a novel thromboxane receptor variant, N42S, which results in platelet dysfunction due to reduced surface expression. It is associated with a significant bleeding history in the patient in whom it was identified. This is the first description of a naturally occurring variant that results in the substitution of this highly conserved residue and confirms the importance of this residue for correct GPCR function.

  1. Cancer cell uptake behavior of Au nanoring and its localized surface plasmon resonance induced cell inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Che-Kuan; Tu, Yi-Chou; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chu, Chih-Ken; Chen, Shih-Yang; Chi, Ting-Ta; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, Chih-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Au nanorings (NRIs), which have the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelength around 1058 nm, either with or without linked antibodies, are applied to SAS oral cancer cells for cell inactivation through the LSPR-induced photothermal effect when they are illuminated by a laser of 1065 nm in wavelength. Different incubation times of cells with Au NRIs are considered for observing the variations of cell uptake efficiency of Au NRI and the threshold laser intensity for cell inactivation. In each case of incubation time, the cell sample is washed for evaluating the total Au NRI number per cell adsorbed and internalized by the cells based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement. Also, the Au NRIs remaining on cell membrane are etched with KI/I 2 solution to evaluate the internalized Au NRI number per cell. The threshold laser intensities for cell inactivation before washout, after washout, and after KI/I 2 etching are calibrated from the circular area sizes of inactivated cells around the illuminated laser spot center with various laser power levels. By using Au NRIs with antibodies, the internalized Au NRI number per cell increases monotonically with incubation time up to 24 h. However, the number of Au NRI remaining on cell membrane reaches a maximum at 12 h in incubation time. The cell uptake behavior of an Au NRI without antibodies is similar to that with antibodies except that the uptake NRI number is significantly smaller and the incubation time for the maximum NRI number remaining on cell membrane is delayed to 20 h. By comparing the threshold laser intensities before and after KI/I 2 etching, it is found that the Au NRIs remaining on cell membrane cause more effective cancer cell inactivation, when compared with the internalized Au NRIs. (paper)

  2. A novel function of N-linked glycoproteins, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein and hemopexin: Implications for small molecule compound-mediated neuroprotection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Kanno

    Full Text Available Therapeutic agents to the central nervous system (CNS need to be efficiently delivered to the target site of action at appropriate therapeutic levels. However, a limited number of effective drugs for the treatment of neurological diseases has been developed thus far. Further, the pharmacological mechanisms by which such therapeutic agents can protect neurons from cell death have not been fully understood. We have previously reported the novel small-molecule compound, 2-[mesityl(methylamino]-N-[4-(pyridin-2-yl-1H-imidazol-2-yl] acetamide trihydrochloride (WN1316, as a unique neuroprotectant against oxidative injury and a highly promising remedy for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. One of the remarkable characteristics of WN1316 is that its efficacious doses in ALS mouse models are much less than those against oxidative injury in cultured human neuronal cells. It is also noted that the WN1316 cytoprotective activity observed in cultured cells is totally dependent upon the addition of fetal bovine serum in culture medium. These findings led us to postulate some serum factors being tightly linked to the WN1316 efficacy. In this study, we sieved through fetal bovine serum proteins and identified two N-linked glycoproteins, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG and hemopexin (HPX, requisites to exert the WN1316 cytoprotective activity against oxidative injury in neuronal cells in vitro. Notably, the removal of glycan chains from these molecules did not affect the WN1316 cytoprotective activity. Thus, two glycoproteins, AHSG and HPX, represent a pivotal glycoprotein of the cytoprotective activity for WN1316, showing a concrete evidence for the novel glycan-independent function of serum glycoproteins in neuroprotective drug efficacy.

  3. Link Adaptation for Mitigating Earth-To-Space Propagation Effects on the NASA SCaN Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcoyne, Deirdre K.; Headley, William C.; Leffke, Zach J.; Rowe, Sonya A.; Mortensen, Dale J.; Reinhart, Richard C.; McGwier, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    In Earth-to-Space communications, well-known propagation effects such as path loss and atmospheric loss can lead to fluctuations in the strength of the communications link between a satellite and its ground station. Additionally, the typically unconsidered effect of shadowing due to the geometry of the satellite and its solar panels can also lead to link degradation. As a result of these anticipated channel impairments, NASA's communication links have been traditionally designed to handle the worst-case impact of these effects through high link margins and static, lower rate, modulation formats. The work presented in this paper aims to relax these constraints by providing an improved trade-off between data rate and link margin through utilizing link adaptation. More specifically, this work provides a simulation study on the propagation effects impacting NASA's SCaN Testbed flight software-defined radio (SDR) as well as proposes a link adaptation algorithm that varies the modulation format of a communications link as its signal-to-noise ratio fluctuates. Ultimately, the models developed in this work will be utilized to conduct real-time flight experiments on-board the NASA SCaN Testbed.

  4. N-sulfation of heparan sulfate is critical for syndecan-4-mediated podocyte cell-matrix interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugar, T.; Wassenhove-McCarthy, D.J.; Orr, A.W.; Green, J.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; McCarthy, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that podocytes unable to assemble heparan sulfate on cell surface proteoglycan core proteins have compromised cell-matrix interactions. This report further explores the role of N-sulfation of intact heparan chains in podocyte-matrix interactions. For the purposes of this

  5. The use of cross-linked chitosan beads for nutrients (nitrate and orthophosphate) removal from a mixture of P-PO4, N-NO2 and N-NO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwiak, Tomasz; Filipkowska, Urszula; Szymczyk, Paula; Kuczajowska-Zadrożna, Małgorzata; Mielcarek, Artur

    2017-11-01

    A hydrogel chitosan sorbent ionically cross-linked with sodium citrate and covalently cross-linked with epichlorohydrin was used to remove nutrients from an equimolar mixture of P-PO 4 , N-NO 2 and N-NO 3 . The scope of the study included, among other things, determination of the influence of pH on nutrient sorption effectiveness, nutrient sorption kinetics as well as determination of the maximum sorption capacity of cross-linked chitosan sorbents regarding P-PO 4 (H 2 PO 4 - , HPO 4 2- ), N-NO 2 (HNO 2 , NO 2 - ), and N-NO 3 (NO 3 - ). The effect of the type of the cross-linking agent on the affinity of the modified chitosan to each nutrient was studied as well. The kinetics of nutrient sorption on the tested chitosan sorbents was best described with the pseudo-second order model. The model of intramolecular diffusion showed that P-PO 4 , N-NO 2 and N-NO3 sorption on cross-linked hydrogel chitosan beads proceeded in two phases. The best sorbent of nutrients turned out to be chitosan cross-linked covalently with epichlorohydrin; with P-PO 4 , N-NO 2 and N-NO 3 sorption capacity reaching: 1.23, 0.94 and 0.76mmol/g, respectively (total of 2.92mmol/g). For comparison, the sorption capacity of chitosan cross-linked ionically with sodium citrate was: 0.43, 0.39 and 0.39mmol/g for P-PO 4 , N-NO 2 and N-NO 3 , respectively (total of 1.21mmol/g). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Targeted inactivation of integrin-linked kinase in hair follicle stem cells reveals an important modulatory role in skin repair after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakrieko, Kerry-Ann; Rudkouskaya, Alena; Irvine, Timothy S; D'Souza, Sudhir J A; Dagnino, Lina

    2011-07-15

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is key for normal epidermal morphogenesis, but little is known about its role in hair follicle stem cells and epidermal regeneration. Hair follicle stem cells are important contributors to newly formed epidermis following injury. We inactivated the Ilk gene in the keratin 15--expressing stem cell population of the mouse hair follicle bulge. Loss of ILK expression in these cells resulted in impaired cutaneous wound healing, with substantially decreased wound closure rates. ILK-deficient stem cells produced very few descendants that moved toward the epidermal surface and into the advancing epithelium that covers the wound. Furthermore, those few mutant cells that homed in the regenerated epidermis exhibited a reduced residence time. Paradoxically, ILK-deficient bulge stem cells responded to anagen growth signals and contributed to newly regenerated hair follicles during this phase of hair follicle growth. Thus ILK plays an important modulatory role in the normal contribution of hair follicle stem cell progeny to the regenerating epidermis following injury.

  7. Dopant Adsorption and Incorporation at Irradiated GaN Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Selloni, Annabella; Myers, Thomas; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2006-03-01

    Mg and O are two of the common dopants in GaN, but, in spite of extensive investigation, the atomic scale understanding of their adsorption and incorporation is still incomplete. In particular, high-energy electron irradiation, such as occurring during RHEED, has been reported to have an important effect on the incorporation of these impurities, but no study has addressed the detailed mechanisms of this effect yet. Here we use DFT calculations to study the adsorption and incorporation of Mg and O at the Ga- and N-polar GaN surfaces under various Ga, Mg and O coverage conditions as well as in presence of light or electron beam-induced electronic excitation. We find that the adsorption and incorporation of the two impurities have opposite surface polarity dependence: substitutional Mg prefers to incorporate at the GaN(0001) surface, while O prefers to adsorb and incorporate at the N-polar surface. In addition, our results indicate that in presence of light irradiation the tendency of Mg to surface-segregate is reduced. The O adsorption energy on the N-polar surface is also significantly reduced, consistent with the experimental observation of a much smaller concentration of oxygen in the irradiated samples.

  8. Electrochemical behavior and biological response of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on cp-Ti after N-ions implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizwan, M.; Ahmad, A. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, 54890 Lahore (Pakistan); Deen, K.M. [Corrosion Control Research Cell, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, CEET, University of the Punjab, 54590 Lahore (Pakistan); Haider, W., E-mail: haiderw@utpa.edu [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Texas Pan American, Edinburg, TX 78539 (United States)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Nitrogen ions of known dosage were implanted on cp-Ti. • Increase in surface roughness with increase in ions dose was confirmed by AFM. • TiN{sub 0.3} and Ti{sub 3}N{sub 2−x} nitride phases were formed and validated by XRD. • The ions implantation reduced the corrosion rate and stabilized the passive film. • Surface roughness greatly affected the morphology and growth of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. - Abstract: Titanium and its alloys are most widely used as implant materials due to their excellent biocompatibility, mechanical properties and chemical stability. In this study Nitrogen ions of known dosage were implanted over cp-Ti by Pelletron accelerator with beam energy of 0.25 MeV.The atomic force microscopy of bare and nitrogen implanted specimens confirmed increase in surface roughness with increase in nitrogen ions concentration. X-ray diffraction patterns of ions implanted surfaces validated the formation of TiN{sub 0.3} and Ti{sub 3}N{sub 2-x}nitride phases. The tendency to form passive film and electrochemical behavior of these surfaces in ringer lactate (RL) solution was evaluated by Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy respectively. It is proved that nitrogen ions implantation was beneficial to reduce corrosion rate and stabilizing passive film by increasing charge transfer resistance in RL. It was concluded that morphology and proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on nitrogen ions implanted surfaces strongly depends on surface roughness and nitride phases.

  9. Surface deformation during an action potential in pearled cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussel, Matan; Fillafer, Christian; Ben-Porath, Gal; Schneider, Matthias F.

    2017-11-01

    Electric pulses in biological cells (action potentials) have been reported to be accompanied by a propagating cell-surface deformation with a nanoscale amplitude. Typically, this cell surface is covered by external layers of polymer material (extracellular matrix, cell wall material, etc.). It was recently demonstrated in excitable plant cells (Chara braunii) that the rigid external layer (cell wall) hinders the underlying deformation. When the cell membrane was separated from the cell wall by osmosis, a mechanical deformation, in the micrometer range, was observed upon excitation of the cell. The underlying mechanism of this mechanical pulse has, to date, remained elusive. Herein we report that Chara cells can undergo a pearling instability, and when the pearled fragments were excited even larger and more regular cell shape changes were observed (˜10 -100 μ m in amplitude). These transient cellular deformations were captured by a curvature model that is based on three parameters: surface tension, bending rigidity, and pressure difference across the surface. In this paper these parameters are extracted by curve-fitting to the experimental cellular shapes at rest and during excitation. This is a necessary step to identify the mechanical parameters that change during an action potential.

  10. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Nanoparticles as Optical Labels for Imaging Cell Surface Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaughlin, Christina M.

    Assaying the expression of cell surface proteins has widespread application for characterizing cell type, developmental stage, and monitoring disease transformation. Immunophenotyping is conducted by treating cells with labelled targeting moieties that have high affinity for relevant surface protein(s). The sensitivity and specificity of immunophenotyping is defined by the choice of contrast agent and therefore, the number of resolvable signals that can be used to simultaneously label cells. Narrow band width surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles are proposed as optical labels for multiplexed immunophenotying. Two types of surface coatings were investigated to passivate the gold nanoparticles, incorporate SERS functionality, and to facilitate attachment of targeting antibodies. Thiolated poly(ethylene glycol) forms dative bonds with the gold surface and is compatible with multiple physisorbed Raman-active reporter molecules. Ternary lipid bilayers are used to encapsulate the gold nanoparticles particles, and incorporate three different classes of Raman reporters. TEM, UV-Visible absorbance spectroscopy, DLS, and electrophoretic light scattering were used characterize the particle coating. Colourimetric protein assay, and secondary antibody labelling were used to quantify the antibody conjugation. Three different in vitromodels were used to investigate the binding efficacy and specificity of SERS labels for their biomarker targets. Primary human CLL cells, LY10 B lymphoma, and A549 adenocarcinoma lines were targeted. Dark field imaging was used to visualize the colocalization of SERS labels with cells, and evidence of receptor clustering was obtained based on colour shifts of the particles' Rayleigh scattering. Widefield, and spatially-resolved Raman spectra were used to detect labels singly, and in combination from labelled cells. Fluorescence flow cytometry was used to test the particles' binding specificity, and SERS from labelled cells was also

  11. Human and pneumococcal cell surface glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) proteins are both ligands of human C1q protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrasse, Rémi; Tacnet-Delorme, Pascale; Moriscot, Christine; Pérard, Julien; Schoehn, Guy; Vernet, Thierry; Thielens, Nicole M; Di Guilmi, Anne Marie; Frachet, Philippe

    2012-12-14

    C1q, a key component of the classical complement pathway, is a major player in the response to microbial infection and has been shown to detect noxious altered-self substances such as apoptotic cells. In this work, using complementary experimental approaches, we identified the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as a C1q partner when exposed at the surface of human pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae and human apoptotic cells. The membrane-associated GAPDH on HeLa cells bound the globular regions of C1q as demonstrated by pulldown and cell surface co-localization experiments. Pneumococcal strains deficient in surface-exposed GAPDH harbored a decreased level of C1q recognition when compared with the wild-type strains. Both recombinant human and pneumococcal GAPDHs interacted avidly with C1q as measured by surface plasmon resonance experiments (K(D) = 0.34-2.17 nm). In addition, GAPDH-C1q complexes were observed by transmission electron microscopy after cross-linking. The purified pneumococcal GAPDH protein activated C1 in an in vitro assay unlike the human form. Deposition of C1q, C3b, and C4b from human serum at the surface of pneumococcal cells was dependent on the presence of surface-exposed GAPDH. This ability of C1q to sense both human and bacterial GAPDHs sheds new insights on the role of this important defense collagen molecule in modulating the immune response.

  12. Human and Pneumococcal Cell Surface Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) Proteins Are Both Ligands of Human C1q Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrasse, Rémi; Tacnet-Delorme, Pascale; Moriscot, Christine; Pérard, Julien; Schoehn, Guy; Vernet, Thierry; Thielens, Nicole M.; Di Guilmi, Anne Marie; Frachet, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    C1q, a key component of the classical complement pathway, is a major player in the response to microbial infection and has been shown to detect noxious altered-self substances such as apoptotic cells. In this work, using complementary experimental approaches, we identified the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as a C1q partner when exposed at the surface of human pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae and human apoptotic cells. The membrane-associated GAPDH on HeLa cells bound the globular regions of C1q as demonstrated by pulldown and cell surface co-localization experiments. Pneumococcal strains deficient in surface-exposed GAPDH harbored a decreased level of C1q recognition when compared with the wild-type strains. Both recombinant human and pneumococcal GAPDHs interacted avidly with C1q as measured by surface plasmon resonance experiments (KD = 0.34–2.17 nm). In addition, GAPDH-C1q complexes were observed by transmission electron microscopy after cross-linking. The purified pneumococcal GAPDH protein activated C1 in an in vitro assay unlike the human form. Deposition of C1q, C3b, and C4b from human serum at the surface of pneumococcal cells was dependent on the presence of surface-exposed GAPDH. This ability of C1q to sense both human and bacterial GAPDHs sheds new insights on the role of this important defense collagen molecule in modulating the immune response. PMID:23086952

  13. Engineering of silicon surfaces at the micro- and nanoscales for cell adhesion and migration control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Costa V

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vicente Torres-Costa1, Gonzalo Martínez-Muñoz2, Vanessa Sánchez-Vaquero3, Álvaro Muñoz-Noval1, Laura González-Méndez3, Esther Punzón-Quijorna1,4, Darío Gallach-Pérez1, Miguel Manso-Silván1, Aurelio Climent-Font1,4, Josefa P García-Ruiz3, Raúl J Martín-Palma11Department of Applied Physics, 2Department of Computer Science, 3Department of Molecular Biology, 4Centre for Micro Analysis of Materials, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, SpainAbstract: The engineering of surface patterns is a powerful tool for analyzing cellular communication factors involved in the processes of adhesion, migration, and expansion, which can have a notable impact on therapeutic applications including tissue engineering. In this regard, the main objective of this research was to fabricate patterned and textured surfaces at micron- and nanoscale levels, respectively, with very different chemical and topographic characteristics to control cell–substrate interactions. For this task, one-dimensional (1-D and two-dimensional (2-D patterns combining silicon and nanostructured porous silicon were engineered by ion beam irradiation and subsequent electrochemical etch. The experimental results show that under the influence of chemical and morphological stimuli, human mesenchymal stem cells polarize and move directionally toward or away from the particular stimulus. Furthermore, a computational model was developed aiming at understanding cell behavior by reproducing the surface distribution and migration of human mesenchymal stem cells observed experimentally.Keywords: surface patterns, silicon, hMSCs, ion-beam patterning

  14. Surface Map Traffic Intent Displays and Net-Centric Data-link Communications for NextGen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kevin J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Jones, Denise R.; Allamandola, Angela S.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.

    2009-01-01

    By 2025, U.S. air traffic is predicted to increase three fold and may strain the current air traffic management system, which may not be able to accommodate this growth. In response to this challenge, a revolutionary new concept has been proposed for U.S. aviation operations, termed the Next Generation Air Transportation System or "NextGen". Many key capabilities are being identified to enable NextGen, including the use of data-link communications. Because NextGen represents a radically different approach to air traffic management and requires a dramatic shift in the tasks, roles, and responsibilities for the flight deck, there are numerous research issues and challenges that must be overcome to ensure a safe, sustainable air transportation system. Flight deck display and crew-vehicle interaction concepts are being developed that proactively investigate and overcome potential technology and safety barriers that might otherwise constrain the full realization of NextGen. The paper describes simulation research, conducted at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center, examining data-link communications and traffic intent data during envisioned four-dimensional trajectory (4DT)-based and equivalent visual (EV) surface operations. Overall, the results suggest that controller pilot data-link communications (CPDLC) with the use of mandatory pilot read-back of all clearances significantly enhanced situation awareness for 4DT and EV surface operations. The depiction of graphical traffic state and intent information on the surface map display further enhanced off-nominal detection and pilot qualitative reports of safety and awareness.

  15. Effect of surface organic coatings of cellulose nanocrystals on the viability of mammalian cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimenez AS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambar S Jimenez,1 Francesca Jaramillo,1 Usha D Hemraz,2 Yaman Boluk,3 Karina Ckless,1 Rajesh Sunasee1 1Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Plattsburgh, Plattsburgh, NY, USA; 2National Research Council, Montreal, QC, Canada, 3Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta and National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs have emerged as promising candidates for a number of bio-applications. Surface modification of CNCs continues to gain significant research interest as it imparts new properties to the surface of the nanocrystals for the design of multifunctional CNCs-based materials. A small chemical surface modification can potentially lead to drastic behavioral changes of cell-material interactions thereby affecting the intended bio-application. In this work, unmodified CNCs were covalently decorated with four different organic moieties such as a diaminobutane fragment, a cyclic oligosaccharide (β-cyclodextrin, a thermoresponsive polymer (poly[N-isopropylacrylamide], and a cationic aminomethacrylamide-based polymer using different synthetic covalent methods. The effect of surface coatings of CNCs and the respective dose-response of the above organic moieties on the cell viability were evaluated on mammalian cell cultures (J774A.1 and MFC-7, using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Overall, the results indicated that cells exposed to surface-coated CNCs for 24 h did not display major changes in cell viability, membrane permeability as well as cell morphology. However, with longer exposure, all these parameters were somewhat affected, which appears not to be correlated with either anionic or cationic surface coatings of CNCs used in this study. Keywords: cellulose nanocrystals, surface coating, cell viability, MTT, LDH

  16. Functional Divergence in the Role of N-Linked Glycosylation in Smoothened Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Marada

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR Smoothened (Smo is the requisite signal transducer of the evolutionarily conserved Hedgehog (Hh pathway. Although aspects of Smo signaling are conserved from Drosophila to vertebrates, significant differences have evolved. These include changes in its active sub-cellular localization, and the ability of vertebrate Smo to induce distinct G protein-dependent and independent signals in response to ligand. Whereas the canonical Smo signal to Gli transcriptional effectors occurs in a G protein-independent manner, its non-canonical signal employs Gαi. Whether vertebrate Smo can selectively bias its signal between these routes is not yet known. N-linked glycosylation is a post-translational modification that can influence GPCR trafficking, ligand responsiveness and signal output. Smo proteins in Drosophila and vertebrate systems harbor N-linked glycans, but their role in Smo signaling has not been established. Herein, we present a comprehensive analysis of Drosophila and murine Smo glycosylation that supports a functional divergence in the contribution of N-linked glycans to signaling. Of the seven predicted glycan acceptor sites in Drosophila Smo, one is essential. Loss of N-glycosylation at this site disrupted Smo trafficking and attenuated its signaling capability. In stark contrast, we found that all four predicted N-glycosylation sites on murine Smo were dispensable for proper trafficking, agonist binding and canonical signal induction. However, the under-glycosylated protein was compromised in its ability to induce a non-canonical signal through Gαi, providing for the first time evidence that Smo can bias its signal and that a post-translational modification can impact this process. As such, we postulate a profound shift in N-glycan function from affecting Smo ER exit in flies to influencing its signal output in mice.

  17. Characterization of as-grown and adsorbate-covered N-polar InN surfaces using in situ photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhardt, Anja; Himmerlich, Marcel; Krischok, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The surface electronic properties and adsorption behaviour of as-grown and oxidized N-polar InN films are characterized by photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, UPS). The epitaxial growth of the InN layers was performed by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on GaN/6H-SiC(000-1). After growth and in situ characterization the InN surfaces were exposed to molecular oxygen to evaluate the adsorption behaviour of O 2 on N-polar InN and to study its impact on the surface electronic properties of the III-nitride material. The results are compared with studies on In-polar InN on GaN/sapphire templates. The as-grown N-polar InN surface exhibits a pronounced surface state at a binding energy of ∝1.6 eV. The valence band minimum lies about 0.8-1.0 eV below the surface Fermi level. Additionally, the XPS core level binding energies for InN(000-1) are reduced compared to InN(0001) films, indicating different surface band bending for clean N-polar and In-polar InN, respectively. The interaction of molecular oxygen with the InN(000-1) surface leads to a downward band bending by 0.1 eV compared to the initial state. Additional adsorption of species from the residual gas of the UHV chamber increases the surface downward band bending. Furthermore two pronounced oxygen related states with an energy distance of ∝5 eV could be detected in the valence band region. The adsorbed oxygen results in an additional component in the N1s core level spectra, which is interpreted as formation of NO x bonds. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Impute DC link (IDCL) cell based power converters and control thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Prasai, Anish; Hernendez, Jorge; Moghe, Rohit; Iyer, Amrit; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad

    2016-04-26

    Power flow controllers based on Imputed DC Link (IDCL) cells are provided. The IDCL cell is a self-contained power electronic building block (PEBB). The IDCL cell may be stacked in series and parallel to achieve power flow control at higher voltage and current levels. Each IDCL cell may comprise a gate drive, a voltage sharing module, and a thermal management component in order to facilitate easy integration of the cell into a variety of applications. By providing direct AC conversion, the IDCL cell based AC/AC converters reduce device count, eliminate the use of electrolytic capacitors that have life and reliability issues, and improve system efficiency compared with similarly rated back-to-back inverter system.

  19. Enhanced compatibility of chemically modified titanium surface with periodontal ligament cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, T.; Hidaka, T.; Aita, H.; Endo, K.; Furuichi, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cell-adhesive molecules were covalently immobilized on a Ti surface. ► Immobilized cell-adhesive molecules maintained native function on the Ti surface. ► Immobilized collagen enhanced adhesion of periodontal ligament cells to the Ti. - Abstract: A simple chemical modification method was developed to immobilize cell-adhesive molecules on a titanium surface to improve its compatibility with human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs).The polished titanium disk was immersed in 1% (v/v) p-vinylbenzoic acid solution for 2 h to introduce carboxyl groups onto the surface. After rinsing with distilled deionized water, the titanium disk was dipped into 1.47% 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide solution containing 0.1 mg/ml Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS), human plasma fibronectin (pFN), or type I collagen from calf skin (Col) to covalently immobilize the cell-adhesive molecules on the titanium surface via formation of peptide bonds. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that cell-adhesive molecules were successfully immobilized on the titanium surfaces. The Col-immobilized titanium surface revealed higher values regarding nano rough characteristics than the as-polished titanium surface under scanning probe microscopy. The number of HPDLCs attached to both the pFN- and Col-immobilized titanium surfaces was twice that attached to the as-polished titanium surfaces. The cells were larger with the cellular processes that stretched to a greater extent on the pFN- and Col-immobilized titanium surfaces than on the as-polished titanium surface (p < 0.05). HPDLCs on the Col-immobilized titanium surfaces showed more extensive expression of vinculin at the tips of cell projections and more contiguously along the cell outline than on the as-polished, GRGDS-immobilized and pFN-immobilized titanium surfaces. It was concluded that cell-adhesive molecules successfully immobilized on the titanium surface and improved the compatibility of the surface

  20. Evaluating links between deformation, topography and surface temperature at volcanic domes: Results from a multi-sensor study at Volcán de Colima, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Jacqueline T.; Milillo, Pietro; Varley, Nick; Perissin, Daniele; Pantaleo, Michele; Walter, Thomas R.

    2017-12-01

    Dome building activity is common at many volcanoes and due to the gravitational instability, a dome represents one of the most hazardous volcanic phenomena. Shallow volcanic processes as well as rheological and structural changes of the dome affecting the fluid transport have been linked to transitions in eruptive activity. Also, hydrothermal alteration may affect the structural integrity of the dome, increasing the potential for collapse. However, mapping the deformation and details of fluid escape at the summit of steep sloped volcanoes and integrating these with other types of data is challenging due to difficult access and poor coverage. Here we present for the first time the near-vertical and near-horizontal surface deformation field of a quiescent summit dome and the relationships with degassing and topographic patterns. Our results are derived from high resolution satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) time series based on a year of TerraSAR-X SpotLight acquisitions and Structure from Motion (SfM) processing of overflight infrared data at Volcán de Colima, Mexico. The identified deformation is dominated by localized heterogeneous subsidence of the summit dome exceeding rates of 15 cm/yr, and strongly decreasing over the year 2012, up to the renewal of explosive and extrusive activity in early 2013. We tentatively attribute the deformation to the degassing, cooling and contraction of the dome and shallow conduit material. We also find that the results strongly differ depending on the chosen InSAR time series method, which potentially overprints the true physical complexities of small scale, shallow deformation processes. The combined interpretation of the deformation and infrared data reveals a complex spatial relationship between the degassing pathways and the deformation. While we observe no deformation across the crater rim fumaroles, discontinuities in the deformation field are more commonly observed around the dome rim fumaroles and occasionally on the

  1. Amperometric L-glutamate biosensor based on bacterial cell-surface displayed glutamate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bo; Zhang, Shu; Lang, Qiaolin; Song, Jianxia; Han, Lihui; Liu, Aihua

    2015-07-16

    A novel L-glutamate biosensor was fabricated using bacteria surface-displayed glutamate dehydrogenase (Gldh-bacteria). Here the cofactor NADP(+)-specific dependent Gldh was expressed on the surface of Escherichia coli using N-terminal region of ice nucleation protein (INP) as the anchoring motif. The cell fractionation assay and SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the majority of INP-Gldh fusion proteins were located on the surface of cells. The biosensor was fabricated by successively casting polyethyleneimine (PEI)-dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), Gldh-bacteria and Nafion onto the glassy carbon electrode (Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE). The MWNTs could not only significantly lower the oxidation overpotential towards NAPDH, which was the product of NADP(+) involving in the oxidation of glutamate by Gldh, but also enhanced the current response. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the current-time curve of the Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE was performed at +0.52 V (vs. SCE) by amperometry varying glutamate concentration. The current response was linear with glutamate concentration in two ranges (10 μM-1 mM and 2-10 mM). The low limit of detection was estimated to be 2 μM glutamate (S/N=3). Moreover, the proposed biosensor is stable, specific, reproducible and simple, which can be applied to real samples detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased numbers of spleen colony forming units in B cell deficient CBA/N mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Krupienicz, A.; Scher, I.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of exogenous and endogenous spleen colonies was studied in immune-defective mice expressing the CBA/N X-linked xid gene. Bone marrow and spleen cells of immune deficient mice formed increased numbers of eight-day exogenous spleen colonies when transferred to either normal or B cell deficient lethally irradiated recipients. Moreover, defective mice showed increased formation of five-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from transient endogenous colony forming units; T-CFU) and of ten-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from CFU-S). Among the possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effects, the most probable appears the one in which decreased numbers of B cell precursors stimulate stem cell pools through a feedback mechanism. (orig.) [de

  3. N-acetylglucosamine affects Cryptococcus neoformans cell-wall composition and melanin architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Emma; Chrissian, Christine; Cordero, Radames J B; Liporagi-Lopes, Livia; Stark, Ruth E; Casadevall, Arturo

    2017-11-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental fungus that belongs to the phylum Basidiomycetes and is a major pathogen in immunocompromised patients. The ability of C. neoformans to produce melanin pigments represents its second most important virulence factor, after the presence of a polysaccharide capsule. Both the capsule and melanin are closely associated with the fungal cell wall, a complex structure that is essential for maintaining cell morphology and viability under conditions of stress. The amino sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is a key constituent of the cell-wall chitin and is used for both N-linked glycosylation and GPI anchor synthesis. Recent studies have suggested additional roles for GlcNAc as an activator and mediator of cellular signalling in fungal and plant cells. Furthermore, chitin and chitosan polysaccharides interact with melanin pigments in the cell wall and have been found to be essential for melanization. Despite the importance of melanin, its molecular structure remains unresolved; however, we previously obtained critical insights using advanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and imaging techniques. In this study, we investigated the effect of GlcNAc supplementation on cryptococcal cell-wall composition and melanization. C. neoformans was able to metabolize GlcNAc as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen, indicating a capacity to use a component of a highly abundant polymer in the biospherenutritionally. C. neoformans cells grown with GlcNAc manifested changes in the chitosan cell-wall content, cell-wall thickness and capsule size. Supplementing cultures with isotopically 15 N-labelled GlcNAc demonstrated that the exogenous monomer serves as a building block for chitin/chitosan and is incorporated into the cell wall. The altered chitin-to-chitosan ratio had no negative effects on the mother-daughter cell separation; growth with GlcNAc affected the fungal cell-wall scaffold, resulting in increased melanin deposition and assembly. In

  4. Cell surface alteration in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed cells from patients with extreme insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorden, D.L.; Robert, A.; Moncada, V.Y.; Taylor, S.I.; Muehlhauser, J.C.; Carpentier, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    An abnormality was detected in the morphology of the cell surface of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphocytes of patients with genetic forms of insulin resistance. In cells from two patients with leprechaunism and two patients with type A extreme insulin resistance, scanning electron microscopy demonstrated a decrease in the percentage of the cell surface occupied by microvilli in cells from the patients with leprechaunism and type A insulin resistance compared with control cells. When cells from a healthy control subject and one of the patients with leprechaunism (Lep/Ark-1) were incubated with 125 I-labeled insulin, there was a decrease in the percentage of 125 I-insulin associated with microvilli on the cell surface. Thus, the decreased localization of insulin receptors with the microvillous region of the cell surface was in proportion to the decrease in microvilli

  5. Covalently Cross-Linked Sulfone Polybenzimidazole Membranes with Poly(Vinylbenzyl Chloride) for Fuel Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Aili, David; Li, Qingfeng

    2013-01-01

    Covalently cross-linked polymer membranes were fabricated from poly(aryl sulfone benzimidazole) (SO(2) PBI) and poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) (PVBCl) as electrolytes for high-temperature proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. The cross-linking imparted organo insolubility and chemical stability against...

  6. Surface functionalization of a polymeric lipid bilayer for coupling a model biological membrane with molecules, cells, and microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morigaki, Kenichi; Mizutani, Kazuyuki; Saito, Makoto; Okazaki, Takashi; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Tatsu, Yoshiro; Imaishi, Hiromasa

    2013-02-26

    We describe a stable and functional model biological membrane based on a polymerized lipid bilayer with a chemically modified surface. A polymerized lipid bilayer was formed from a mixture of two diacetylene-containing phospholipids, 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DiynePC) and 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DiynePE). DiynePC formed a stable bilayer structure, whereas the ethanolamine headgroup of DiynePE enabled functional molecules to be grafted onto the membrane surface. Copolymerization of DiynePC and DiynePE resulted in a robust bilayer. Functionalization of the polymeric bilayer provided a route to a robust and biomimetic surface that can be linked with biomolecules, cells, and three-dimensional (3D) microstructures. Biotin and peptides were grafted onto the polymeric bilayer for attaching streptavidin and cultured mammalian cells by molecular recognition, respectively. Nonspecific adsorption of proteins and cells on polymeric bilayers was minimum. DiynePE was also used to attach a microstructure made of an elastomer (polydimethylsiloxan: PDMS) onto the membrane, forming a confined aqueous solution between the two surfaces. The microcompartment enabled us to assay the activity of a membrane-bound enzyme (cyochrome P450). Natural (fluid) lipid bilayers were incorporated together with membrane-bound proteins by lithographically polymerizing DiynePC/DiynePE bilayers. The hybrid membrane of functionalized polymeric bilayers and fluid bilayers offers a novel platform for a wide range of biomedical applications including biosensor, bioassay, cell culture, and cell-based assay.

  7. N-linked oligosaccharides are responsible for rat striatal dopamine D2 receptor heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clagett-Dame, M.; McKelvy, J.F. (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL (USA))

    1989-10-01

    The glycoprotein nature of the binding subunit of the dopamine D2 receptor in rat striatum has been examined by photoaffinity labeling receptor preparations with N-(p-azido-m-(125I)iodophenethyl)spiperone followed by treatment of crude membrane receptor or receptor fractions isolated from sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gels with endo- and exoglycosidases. The major photoaffinity labeled protein migrates as a heterogeneous species on 10% SDS polyacrylamide gels and ranges from 130,000 to 75,000 relative molecular mass (Mr). This heterogeneity can be explained by glycosylation of the receptor by complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides. Three fractions of labeled receptor were isolated from SDS polyacrylamide gels over a range of 130,000 to 75,000 Mr; after digestion with peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase, all fractions yielded a single peptide approximately 40,000 Mr. Treatment of photoaffinity labeled membranes with alpha-mannosidase was without effect. The dopamine D2 receptor appears to contain substantial amounts of sialic acid as treatment of photoaffinity labeled membranes with neuraminidase increased the receptor mobility on SDS polyacrylamide gels to a species of 50,000-54,000 Mr. Treatment of the receptor with neuraminidase followed by endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase did not change the electrophoretic migration pattern from that seen after neuraminidase treatment alone, suggesting that the binding peptide contains no serine- or threonine-linked oligosaccharides. A smaller binding peptide of approximately 31,000 Mr is also apparent in crude photoaffinity labeled membranes. This material also contains N-linked oligosaccharide.

  8. N-linked oligosaccharides are responsible for rat striatal dopamine D2 receptor heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clagett-Dame, M.; McKelvy, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The glycoprotein nature of the binding subunit of the dopamine D2 receptor in rat striatum has been examined by photoaffinity labeling receptor preparations with N-(p-azido-m-[125I]iodophenethyl)spiperone followed by treatment of crude membrane receptor or receptor fractions isolated from sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gels with endo- and exoglycosidases. The major photoaffinity labeled protein migrates as a heterogeneous species on 10% SDS polyacrylamide gels and ranges from 130,000 to 75,000 relative molecular mass (Mr). This heterogeneity can be explained by glycosylation of the receptor by complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides. Three fractions of labeled receptor were isolated from SDS polyacrylamide gels over a range of 130,000 to 75,000 Mr; after digestion with peptide-N4-[N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl] asparagine amidase, all fractions yielded a single peptide approximately 40,000 Mr. Treatment of photoaffinity labeled membranes with alpha-mannosidase was without effect. The dopamine D2 receptor appears to contain substantial amounts of sialic acid as treatment of photoaffinity labeled membranes with neuraminidase increased the receptor mobility on SDS polyacrylamide gels to a species of 50,000-54,000 Mr. Treatment of the receptor with neuraminidase followed by endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase did not change the electrophoretic migration pattern from that seen after neuraminidase treatment alone, suggesting that the binding peptide contains no serine- or threonine-linked oligosaccharides. A smaller binding peptide of approximately 31,000 Mr is also apparent in crude photoaffinity labeled membranes. This material also contains N-linked oligosaccharide

  9. Cell surface engineering of industrial microorganisms for biorefining applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-11-15

    In order to decrease carbon emissions and negative environmental impacts of various pollutants, biofuel/biochemical production should be promoted for replacing fossil-based industrial processes. Utilization of abundant lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock has recently become an attractive option. In this review, we focus on recent efforts of cell surface display using industrial microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and yeast. Cell surface display is used primarily for endowing cellulolytic activity on the host cells, and enables direct fermentation to generate useful fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. Cell surface display systems are systematically summarized, and the drawbacks/perspectives as well as successful application of surface display for industrial biotechnology are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dose-dependent utilisation of casein-linked lysinoalanine, N(epsilon)-fructoselysine and N(epsilon)-carboxymethyllysine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, Veronika; Wenzel, Elisabeth; Weiss, Carola; Clawin-Rädecker, Ingrid; Grübel, Nadine; Erbersdobler, Helmut F

    2006-09-01

    During the heat treatment of protein-containing foods, the amino acid lysine is most prone to undergo chemical reactions in the course of amino acid cross-linking or Maillard reactions. Among the reaction products formed, lysinoalanine (LAL), N(epsilon)-fructoselysine (FL) and N(epsilon)-carboxymethyllysine (CML) are those which serve as sensitive markers for the heat treatment applied. From a nutritional perspective, these compounds are ingested with the diet in considerable amounts but information about their metabolic transit and putative in vivo effects is scarce. In the present study, casein-linked LAL, FL and CML were administered to rats in two different doses for 10 days. Quantitation of LAL, FL and CML in plasma, tissue and faeces samples revealed that the kidneys are the predominant sites of accumulation and excretion. The maximum percent of dietary LAL, FL and CML excreted in the urine was 5.6, 5.2 and 29%, whereas the respective recoveries in the kidneys were 0.02, 26 and 1.4%. The plasma and tissue analyses revealed that the endogenous load of either compound is increased by its dietary intake. But the dose-dependent utilisation of dietary protein-linked LAL, FL and CML in rats has been demonstrated for the first time to vary substantially from each other.

  11. Surface acoustic wave actuated cell sorting (SAWACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, T; Braunmüller, S; Schmid, L; Wixforth, A; Weitz, D A

    2010-03-21

    We describe a novel microfluidic cell sorter which operates in continuous flow at high sorting rates. The device is based on a surface acoustic wave cell-sorting scheme and combines many advantages of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and fluorescence activated droplet sorting (FADS) in microfluidic channels. It is fully integrated on a PDMS device, and allows fast electronic control of cell diversion. We direct cells by acoustic streaming excited by a surface acoustic wave which deflects the fluid independently of the contrast in material properties of deflected objects and the continuous phase; thus the device underlying principle works without additional enhancement of the sorting by prior labelling of the cells with responsive markers such as magnetic or polarizable beads. Single cells are sorted directly from bulk media at rates as fast as several kHz without prior encapsulation into liquid droplet compartments as in traditional FACS. We have successfully directed HaCaT cells (human keratinocytes), fibroblasts from mice and MV3 melanoma cells. The low shear forces of this sorting method ensure that cells survive after sorting.

  12. Clinical and Immunological Features of Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome in the Era of Neuronal Cell Surface Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armangué, Thaís; Sabater, Lidia; Torres-Vega, Estefanía; Martínez-Hernández, Eugenia; Ariño, Helena; Petit-Pedrol, Mar; Planagumà, Jesús; Bataller, Luis; Dalmau, Josep; Graus, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Most studies on opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) in adults are based on small case series before the era of neuronal cell surface antibody discovery. To report the clinical and immunological features of idiopathic OMS (I-OMS) and paraneoplastic OMS (P-OMS), the occurrence of antibodies to cell surface antigens, and the discovery of a novel cell surface epitope. Retrospective cohort study and laboratory investigations of 114 adult patients with OMS at a center for autoimmune neurological disorders done between January 2013 and September 2015. Review of clinical records. Immunohistochemistry on rat brain and cultured neurons as well as cell-based assays were used to identify known autoantibodies. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to characterize novel antigens. Of the 114 patients (62 [54%] female; median age, 45 years; interquartile range, 32-60 years), 45 (39%) had P-OMS and 69 (61%) had I-OMS. In patients with P-OMS, the associated tumors included lung cancer (n = 19), breast cancer (n = 10), other cancers (n = 5), and ovarian teratoma (n = 8); 3 additional patients without detectable cancer were considered to have P-OMS because they had positive results for onconeuronal antibodies. Patients with I-OMS, compared with those who had P-OMS, were younger (median age, 38 [interquartile range, 31-50] vs 54 [interquartile range, 45-65] years; P OMS with lung cancer (21% vs 5% in patients with OMS without lung cancer; P = .02); however, a similar frequency of glycine receptor antibodies was found in patients with lung cancer without OMS (13 of 65 patients [20%]). A novel cell surface epitope, human natural killer 1 (HNK-1), was the target of the antibodies in 3 patients with lung cancer and P-OMS. Patients with I-OMS responded better to treatment and had fewer relapses than those with P-OMS. Older age and encephalopathy, significantly associated with P-OMS, are clinical clues suggesting an underlying tumor. Glycine receptor antibodies occur

  13. Fc-receptors and surface immunoglobulins in cells of the hairy cell leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieber, E.P.; Linke, R.P.; Riethmueller, G.; Heyden, H.W. von; Waller, H.D.

    1976-01-01

    Using 125 I-labelled aggregated IgG in a quantitative assay a strong expression of Fc-receptors was found on the leukemic cells of a patient with hairy cell leukemia. The Fc-receptor activity on these cells was much higher than that on monocytes and B-lymphocytes from normal blood. Surface immunoglobulins were detected by radioautography using radioactively labelled (Fab') 2 -fragments of monospecific antibodies directed against immunoglobulin heavy chains. Prior to radioautography the cells were stained for the tartrate resistant acid phosphatase. It is found that all cells containing this enzyme bore delta-chains on their surface. On more than 90% of these cells a simultaneous expression of μ-chains was detected. γ-chains could only be demonstrated on cells which were negative for the tartrate resistant acid phosphatase; part of these cells, however, were hairy cells by morphological criteria. (orig.) [de

  14. Fc-receptors and surface immunoglobulins in cells of the hairy cell leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieber, E P; Linke, R P; Riethmueller, G [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Experimentelle Chirurgie und Immunologie; Heyden, H.W. von; Waller, H D [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Innere Medizin 2

    1976-01-01

    Using /sup 125/I-labelled aggregated IgG in a quantitative assay a strong expression of Fc-receptors was found on the leukemic cells of a patient with hairy cell leukemia. The Fc-receptor activity on these cells was much higher than that on monocytes and B-lymphocytes from normal blood. Surface immunoglobulins were detected by radioautography using radioactively labelled (Fab')/sub 2/-fragments of monospecific antibodies directed against immunoglobulin heavy chains. Prior to radioautography the cells were stained for the tartrate resistant acid phosphatase. It is found that all cells containing this enzyme bore delta-chains on their surface. On more than 90% of these cells a simultaneous expression of ..mu..-chains was detected. ..gamma..-chains could only be demonstrated on cells which were negative for the tartrate resistant acid phosphatase; part of these cells, however, were hairy cells by morphological criteria.

  15. O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine modification of mammalian Notch receptors by an atypical O-GlcNAc transferase Eogt1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaidani, Yuta [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Ichiyanagi, Naoki [Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Saito, Chika; Nomura, Tomoko [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Ito, Makiko [Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Nishio, Yosuke [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Nadano, Daita; Matsuda, Tsukasa [Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Furukawa, Koichi [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Okajima, Tetsuya, E-mail: tokajima@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We characterized A130022J15Rik (Eogt1)-a mouse gene homologous to Drosophila Eogt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eogt1 encodes EGF domain O-GlcNAc transferase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of Eogt1 in Drosophila rescued the cell-adhesion defect in the Eogt mutant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer O-GlcNAcylation reaction in the secretory pathway is conserved through evolution. -- Abstract: O-linked-{beta}-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification is a unique cytoplasmic and nuclear protein modification that is common in nearly all eukaryotes, including filamentous fungi, plants, and animals. We had recently reported that epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeats of Notch and Dumpy are O-GlcNAcylated by an atypical O-GlcNAc transferase, EOGT, in Drosophila. However, no study has yet shown whether O-GlcNAcylation of extracellular proteins is limited to insects such as Drosophila or whether it occurs in other organisms, including mammals. Here, we report the characterization of A130022J15Rik, a mouse gene homolog of Drosophila Eogt (Eogt 1). Enzymatic analysis revealed that Eogt1 has a substrate specificity similar to that of Drosophila EOGT, wherein the Thr residue located between the fifth and sixth conserved cysteines of the folded EGF-like domains is modified. This observation is supported by the fact that the expression of Eogt1 in Drosophila rescued the cell-adhesion defect caused by Eogt downregulation. In HEK293T cells, Eogt1 expression promoted modification of Notch1 EGF repeats by O-GlcNAc, which was further modified, at least in part, by galactose to generate a novel O-linked-N-acetyllactosamine structure. These results suggest that Eogt1 encodes EGF domain O-GlcNAc transferase and that O-GlcNAcylation reaction in the secretory pathway is a fundamental biochemical process conserved through evolution.

  16. O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine modification of mammalian Notch receptors by an atypical O-GlcNAc transferase Eogt1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaidani, Yuta; Ichiyanagi, Naoki; Saito, Chika; Nomura, Tomoko; Ito, Makiko; Nishio, Yosuke; Nadano, Daita; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Furukawa, Koichi; Okajima, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We characterized A130022J15Rik (Eogt1)—a mouse gene homologous to Drosophila Eogt. ► Eogt1 encodes EGF domain O-GlcNAc transferase. ► Expression of Eogt1 in Drosophila rescued the cell-adhesion defect in the Eogt mutant. ► O-GlcNAcylation reaction in the secretory pathway is conserved through evolution. -- Abstract: O-linked-β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification is a unique cytoplasmic and nuclear protein modification that is common in nearly all eukaryotes, including filamentous fungi, plants, and animals. We had recently reported that epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeats of Notch and Dumpy are O-GlcNAcylated by an atypical O-GlcNAc transferase, EOGT, in Drosophila. However, no study has yet shown whether O-GlcNAcylation of extracellular proteins is limited to insects such as Drosophila or whether it occurs in other organisms, including mammals. Here, we report the characterization of A130022J15Rik, a mouse gene homolog of Drosophila Eogt (Eogt 1). Enzymatic analysis revealed that Eogt1 has a substrate specificity similar to that of Drosophila EOGT, wherein the Thr residue located between the fifth and sixth conserved cysteines of the folded EGF-like domains is modified. This observation is supported by the fact that the expression of Eogt1 in Drosophila rescued the cell-adhesion defect caused by Eogt downregulation. In HEK293T cells, Eogt1 expression promoted modification of Notch1 EGF repeats by O-GlcNAc, which was further modified, at least in part, by galactose to generate a novel O-linked-N-acetyllactosamine structure. These results suggest that Eogt1 encodes EGF domain O-GlcNAc transferase and that O-GlcNAcylation reaction in the secretory pathway is a fundamental biochemical process conserved through evolution.

  17. Role of Protein Kinase C in Endothelin Converting Enzyme-1 trafficking and shedding from endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuruppu, Sanjaya, E-mail: Sanjaya.Kuruppu@med.monash.edu.au [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia); Tochon-Danguy, Natalie; Ian Smith, A. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia)

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} PKC activation increases the trafficking of ECE-1 to the cell surface. {yields} This in turn leads to an increase in the amount of ECE-1 shed. {yields} Only the catalytically active C-terminal region is shed from the cell surface. -- Abstract: This study aimed to determine the consequences of Protein Kinase C (PKC) mediated Endothelin Converting Enzyme-1 (ECE-1) phosphorylation and its relationship to ECE-1 expression and shedding. The proteins on the surface of EA.hy926 cells were labelled with EZ-Link NHS-SS-Biotin both prior to (control) and following stimulation by 2 {mu}M phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) which activates PKC. The biotinylated proteins were isolated using neutravidin beads, resolved by gel electrophoresis and analysed by western blotting using anti-ECE-1 antibodies. Significant increase in ECE-1 expression at the cell surface was observed following stimulation by PMA, compared to unstimulated control cells (170 {+-} 32.3% of control, n = 5). The ECE-1 activity (expressed as {mu}M substrate cleaved/min) was determined by monitoring the cleavage of a quenched fluorescent substrate. The specificity of cleavage was confirmed using the ECE-1 inhibitor (CGS35066). The stimulation of cells by PMA (1 {mu}M, 6 h) significantly increased the ECE-1 activity (0.28 {+-} 0.02; n = 3) compared to the control (0.07 {+-} 0.02; n = 3). This increase was prevented by prior incubation with the PKC inhibitor bisindolymaleimide (BIM; 2 {mu}M for 1 h; 0.10 {+-} 0.01; n = 3). Treatment with PMA also increased the activity of ECE-1 in the media (0.18 {+-} 0.01; n = 3) compared to control (0.08 {+-} 0.01; n = 3). In addition, this study confirmed by western immunoblotting that only the extracellular region of ECE-1 is released from the cell surface. These data indicate for the first time that PKC activation induces the trafficking and shedding of ECE to and from the cell surface, respectively.

  18. In vitro study of 3D PLGA/n-HAp/β-TCP composite scaffolds with etched oxygen plasma surface modification in bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Hee-Sang [Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61452 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sang-Chul [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sunchon National University, 255 Jungang-ro, Sunchon 57922 (Korea, Republic of); Kook, Min-Suk [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Hoon, E-mail: kim5055@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61452 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • PLGA and PLGA/n-HAp/β-TCP scaffolds were successfully fabricated by 3D printing. • Oxygen plasma etching increases the wettability and surface roughness. • Bioceramics and oxygen plasma etching and could be used to improve the cell affinity. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds have many advantageous properties for bone tissue engineering application, due to its controllable properties such as pore size, structural shape and interconnectivity. In this study, effects on oxygen plasma surface modification and adding of nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on the 3D PLGA/n-HAp/β-TCP scaffolds for improving preosteoblast cell (MC3T3-E1) adhesion, proliferation and differentiation were investigated. The 3D PLGA/n-HAp/β-TCP scaffolds were fabricated by 3D Bio-Extruder equipment. The 3D scaffolds were prepared with 0°/90° architecture and pore size of approximately 300 μm. In addition 3D scaffolds surface were etched by oxygen plasma to enhance the hydrophilic property and surface roughness. After oxygen plasma treatment, the surface chemistry and morphology were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. And also hydrophilic property was measured by contact angle. The MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and differentiation were investigated by MTT assay and ALP activity. In present work, the 3D PLGA/HAp/beta-TCP composite scaffold with suitable structure for the growth of osteoblast cells was successfully fabricated by 3D rapid prototyping technique. The surface hydrophilicity and roughness of 3D scaffold increased by oxygen plasma treatment had a positive effect on cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Furthermore, the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cell was significantly enhanced by adding of n-HAp and β-TCP on 3D PLGA scaffold. As a result, combination of bioceramics and oxygen plasma treatment showed a synergistic effect on

  19. Calcium-loaded 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid blocks cell-to-cell diffusion of carboxyfluorescein in staminal hairs of Setcreasea purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, E B

    1990-08-01

    The effect of microinjected calcium-loaded 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (CaBAPTA) on cell-to-cell diffusion of carboxyfluorescein (CF) was examined in staminal hairs of S. purpurea Boom. The CaBAPTA was microinjected into the cytoplasm of the staminal hairs either with CF or prior to a subsequent microinjection of CF. The cell-to-cell diffusion of CF along the hair was monitored using enhanced-fluorescence video microscopy. Cytoplasmic streaming stopped in cells treated with CaBAPTA, indicating that intracellular Ca(2+) had increased. Cell-to-cell diffusion of CF was blocked in cells treated with Ca-BAPTA. An inhibition of cytoplasmic streaming and cell-to-cell diffusion was observed in the cells adjoining the CaBAPTA-microinjected cell, indicating that the Ca-BAPTA appeared to pass through plasmodesmata. While cytoplasmic streaming resumed 5-10 min after CaBAPTA treatment, cell-to-cell diffusion did not resume until 30-120 min later. These data support an involvement of calcium in the regulation of cell-to-cell communication in plants.

  20. Development and Application of a Flow Reactor Cell for Studies of Surface Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algrim, L. B.; Pagonis, D.; Price, D.; Day, D. A.; De Gouw, J. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    We have designed, constructed, characterized, and employed a flow reactor cell that can be used to investigate the interaction of gaseous species such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxidants, acids, and water vapor with authentic and model surfaces that are present in indoor and outdoor environments. The 3.9 L rectangular cell is made of FEP-coated aluminum and has one open face that can be sealed to the surface of interest. An internal plunger is raised (lowered) to expose (cover) the surface while various probe chemicals are added to the flow. To date we have exposed painted surfaces to O3, OH radicals (made from reaction of O3 with tetramethylethene and from photolysis of methyl nitrate/NO mixtures), and NO3 radicals (made from thermal decomposition N2O5) and analyzed the emitted oxidation products with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) equipped with an iodide reagent ion source. Further studies have included the reaction of oxidants with surfaces coated with organic films such as squalene and polyethylene glycol, as well as uptake of ketones and acids from the gas-phase to painted surfaces. The cell was also recently deployed at the University of Colorado-Boulder Art Museum during spring of 2017 to investigate the oxidation products released from the museum walls and floors. Results from all of these studies will be presented.

  1. Cell Surface Enzymatic Engineering-Based Approaches to Improve Cellular Therapies

    KAUST Repository

    AbuElela, Ayman; Sakashita, Kosuke; Merzaban, Jasmeen

    2014-01-01

    The cell surface represents the interface between the cell and its environment. As such, the cell surface controls cell–cell interactions and functions such as adhesion and migration, and will transfer external cues to regulate processes

  2. Lattice Gas Model Based Optimization of Plasma-Surface Processes for GaN-Based Compound Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonokawa, Kiyohide; Suzuki, Takuma; Kitamori, Kazutaka; Sawada, Takayuki

    2001-10-01

    Progress of the epitaxial growth technique for GaN-based compounds makes these materials attractive for applications in high temperature/high-power electronic devices as well as in short-wavelength optoelectronic devices. For MBE growth of GaN epilayer, atomic nitrogen is usually supplied from ECR-plasma while atomic Ga is supplied from conventional K-cell. To grow high-quality epilayer, fundamental knowledge of the detailed atomic process, such as adsorption, surface migration, incorporation, desorption and so forth, is required. We have studied the influence of growth conditions on the flatness of the growth front surface and the growth rate using Monte Carlo simulation based on the lattice gas model. Under the fixed Ga flux condition, the lower the nitrogen flux and/or the higher the growth temperature, the better the flatness of the front surface at the sacrifice of the growth rate of the epilayer. When the nitrogen flux is increased, the growth rate reaches saturation value determined from the Ga flux. At a fixed growth temperature, increasing of nitrogen to Ga flux ratio results in rough surface owing to 3-dimensional island formation. Other characteristics of MBE-GaN growth using ECR-plasma can be well reproduced.

  3. Dictyostelium discoideum: mutants in the biosynthesis of the lipid-linked precursor of N-linked oligosaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeze, H.; Willies, L.; Hamilton, S.

    1986-01-01

    The lysosomal enzymes of Dictyostelium discoideum share highly immunogenic oligosaccharides which contain multiple Man-6-SO 4 residues. Two mutant strains which lack the shared antigenic determinant were analyzed in an attempt to identify the primary defect in each. [ 3 H]Man labelled N-linked oligosaccharides of secreted glycoproteins were released by Endo/PNGaseF digestion and analyzed. Both of the mutant strains produced smaller, less sulfated oligosaccharides compared to the wild-type, yet both still contained considerable amounts of Man-6-SO 4 . The size of the precursor lipid-linked oligosaccharide from the wild-type is consistent with a Glc 3 Man 9 GlcNAc 2 structure, while those from both of the mutants have an oligosaccharide the size of Man 5 GlcNAc 2 . The authors conclude that both of the mutants are defective in the biosynthesis of the precursor oligosaccharide. Both oligosaccharides from the mutants contain a tri-mannosyl core and are not glucosylated. Two of the five Man residues are released by a 1,2 specific α mannosidase. Based on the size and mannosidase digestions the authors conclude that 4/5 of the Man residues on the α1,6 branch of the β-linked Man residues are missing. Thus, these residues must be required to define the shared antigenic determinant

  4. Amperometric L-glutamate biosensor based on bacterial cell-surface displayed glutamate dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Bo [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Shu [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology of Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, 238 Songling Road, Qingdao 266100 (China); Lang, Qiaolin [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Song, Jianxia; Han, Lihui [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology of Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, 238 Songling Road, Qingdao 266100 (China); Liu, Aihua, E-mail: liuah@qibebt.ac.cn [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-07-16

    Highlights: • E. coli surface-dispalyed Gldh exhibiting excellent enzyme activity and stability. • Sensitive amperometric biosensor for glutamate using Gldh-bacteria and MWNTs. • The glutamate biosensor exhibited high specificity and stability. - Abstract: A novel L-glutamate biosensor was fabricated using bacteria surface-displayed glutamate dehydrogenase (Gldh-bacteria). Here the cofactor NADP{sup +}-specific dependent Gldh was expressed on the surface of Escherichia coli using N-terminal region of ice nucleation protein (INP) as the anchoring motif. The cell fractionation assay and SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the majority of INP-Gldh fusion proteins were located on the surface of cells. The biosensor was fabricated by successively casting polyethyleneimine (PEI)-dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), Gldh-bacteria and Nafion onto the glassy carbon electrode (Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE). The MWNTs could not only significantly lower the oxidation overpotential towards NAPDH, which was the product of NADP{sup +} involving in the oxidation of glutamate by Gldh, but also enhanced the current response. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the current–time curve of the Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE was performed at +0.52 V (vs. SCE) by amperometry varying glutamate concentration. The current response was linear with glutamate concentration in two ranges (10 μM–1 mM and 2–10 mM). The low limit of detection was estimated to be 2 μM glutamate (S/N = 3). Moreover, the proposed biosensor is stable, specific, reproducible and simple, which can be applied to real samples detection.

  5. Dynamics of 103K/N and 184M/V HIV-1 drug resistant populations: relative comparison in plasma virus RNA versus CD45RO+T cell proviral DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Martin Roelsgaard; Tolstrup, M; Bertelsen, L

    2007-01-01

    on real-time PCR and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS). RESULTS: The 103N and 184V mutations were not detected in patients with stable low viremia. Patients previously exposed to mono or dual therapy often carried minor viral populations of either one or both mutations in plasma. The viral......BACKGROUND: Viral populations defined by 103K/N and 184M/V as linked or single mutations in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase gene were investigated in plasma samples and compared with previous findings in the CD45RO(+)T cell compartment. OBJECTIVE: To develop an ARMS assay for plasma virions...... an unequal distribution of linked-mutation populations in plasma and CD45RO(+)T cells. Furthermore, the linked 103N-184V mutation may be more fit than the single 184V mutation and this linked population emerges rapidly under inadequate drug pressure. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jul...

  6. Studies of cell biomechanics with surface micro-/nano-technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dong; Zhang Wei; Jiang Xingyu

    2011-01-01

    We report the recent progress in our studies of cell biology using micro-/nano-technology. Cells have a size of several to tens of microns, which makes them easily manipulated by micro-/nano-technology. The shape of the cell influences the alignment of the actin cytoskeleton, which bears the main forces of the cell, maintains the shape,and mediates a series of biochemical reactions. We invented a stretching device and studied the real-time actin filament dynamics under stretch. We found that one stretch cycle shortened the actin filaments and promoted their reassemble process. Cell migration is a complex mechanical process. We found that cell geometry determines the cell polarity and migration direction. We fabricated three-dimensional surfaces to mimic the topography in vivo, and further built a cell culture model by integrating the three-dimensional surface, microfluidics, cell patterning,and coculturing of multiple cell types. We also investigated the neuronal guidance by surface patterning. (authors)

  7. Rapid agonist-induced loss of sup 125 I-. beta. -endorphin opioid receptor sites in NG108-15, but not SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, R.I.; Lameh, J.; Sadee, W. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The authors have measured {mu} and {delta} opioid receptor sites on intact SK-N-SH and NG108-15 neuroblastoma cells, respectively, in culture. Use of {sup 125}I-{beta}-endorphin ({beta}E) as a tracer, together with {beta}E(6-31) to block high-affinity non-opioid binding in both cell lines, permitted the measurement of cell surface {mu} and {delta} opioid receptor sites. Labeling was at {delta} sites in NG108-15 cells and predominantly at {mu} sites in SK-N-SH cells. Pretreatment with the {mu} and {delta} agonist, DADLE, caused a rapid loss of cell surface {delta} receptor sites in NG108-15 cells, but failed to reduce significantly {mu} receptor density in SK-N-SH cells.

  8. Dependence of open-circuit voltage of SnO2-nSi solar cells; SnO2-nSi taiyo denchi no sanka ondo menhoi izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinoda, S; Shimizu, A; Yano, K; Kasuga, M [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    Although metal(or semiconductor)-semiconductor solar cells, SnO2-nSi solar cell for example, are superior in cost and efficiency, its barrier height and open-circuit voltage V(oc) are lower than those of p-n junctions. To improve these defects, study was made on the dependence of V(oc) on oxidation temperature and surface orientation using various solar cells prepared from (100)Si and (111)Si under various oxidation conditions. As a result, the density of surface states increases with a decrease in oxidation temperature of Si substrates, resulting in an increase in diode factor and V(oc). In this case, since oxide films are extremely thin and contribution of non-terminated bonds is large in the initial oxidation stage, the quantity of dangling bonds is larger in (100) plane than (111) plane, resulting in an increase in diode factor and V(oc). Since the surface energy level (the degree of electrons dominated by acceptor-like surface state from this level to the top of a valence band) of (100) Si is lower than that of (111) Si, the effective barrier height and V(oc) increase. 28 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Adhesion defective BHK cell mutant has cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan of altered properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Austria, R; Woods, A

    1988-01-01

    In the light of accumulating data that implicate cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) with a role in cell interactions with extracellular matrix molecules such as fibronectin, we have compared the properties of these molecules in wild-type BHK cells and an adhesion-defective ricin......-resistant mutant (RicR14). Our results showed that the mutant, unlike BHK cells, cannot form focal adhesions when adherent to planar substrates in the presence of serum. Furthermore, while both cell lines possess similar amounts of cell surface HSPG with hydrophobic properties, that of RicR14 cells had decreased...... sulfation, reduced affinity for fibronectin and decreased half-life on the cell surface when compared to the normal counterpart. Our conclusions based on this data are that these altered properties may, in part, account for the adhesion defect in the ricin-resistant mutant. Whether this results from...

  10. Surface topography of hairy cell leukemia cells compared to other leukemias as seen by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polliack, Aaron; Tadmor, Tamar

    2011-06-01

    This short review deals with the ultrastructural surface architecture of hairy cell leukemia (HCL) compared to other leukemic cells, as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The development of improved techniques for preparing blood cells for SEM in the 1970s readily enabled these features to be visualized more accurately. This review returns us to the earlier history of SEM, when the surface topography of normal and neoplastic cells was visualized and reported for the first time, in an era before the emergence and use of monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry, now used routinely to define cells by their immunophenotype. Surface microvilli are characteristic for normal and leukemic lymphoid cells, myelo-monocytic cells lack microvilli and show surface ruffles, while leukemic plasma and myeloma cells and megakaryocytes display large surface blebs. HCL cell surfaces are complex and typically 'hybrid' in nature, displaying both lymphoid and monocytic features with florid ruffles of varying sizes interspersed with clumps of short microvilli cytoplasm. The surface features of other leukemic cells and photomicrographs of immuno-SEM labeling of cells employing antibodies and colloidal gold, reported more than 20 years ago, are shown.

  11. Yeast cell surface display for lipase whole cell catalyst and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yun; Zhang, Rui; Lian, Zhongshuai; Wang, Shihui; Wright, Aaron T.

    2014-08-01

    The cell surface display technique allows for the expression of target proteins or peptides on the microbial cell surface by fusing an appropriate protein as an anchoring motif. Yeast display systems, such as Pichia pastoris, Yarowia lipolytica and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are ideal, alternative and extensive display systems with the advantage of simple genetic manipulation and post-translational modification of expressed heterologous proteins. Engineered yeasts show high performance characteristics and variant utilizations. Herein, we comprehensively summarize the variant factors affecting lipase whole cell catalyst activity and display efficiency, including the structure and size of target proteins, screening anchor proteins, type and chain length of linkers, and the appropriate matching rules among the above-mentioned display units. Furthermore, we also address novel approaches to enhance stability and activity of recombinant lipases, such as VHb gene co-expression, multi-enzyme co-display technique, and the micro-environmental interference and self-assembly techniques. Finally, we represent the variety of applications of whole cell surface displayed lipases on yeast cells in non-aqueous phases, including synthesis of esters, PUFA enrichment, resolution of chiral drugs, organic synthesis and biofuels. We demonstrate that the lipase surface display technique is a powerful tool for functionalizing yeasts to serve as whole cell catalysts, and increasing interest is providing an impetus for broad application of this technique.

  12. Quantitative evaluation of Candia antarctica lipase B displayed on the cell surface of a Pichia pastoris based on an FS anchor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xing-xiang; Wang, Bei-bei; Sun, Yu-fei; Lin, Ying; Han, Shuang-yan; Zheng, Sui-ping; Cui, Tang-bing

    2013-03-01

    A new approach is described to quantify the number of enzyme molecules, such as Candia antarctica lipase B, that are displayed on the cell surface of Pichia pastoris. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) were fused and displayed on the surface of P. pastoris by linking to the anchor flocculation functional domain of FLO1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, flow cytometry, and fluorescence spectrophotometry were used to monitor the fluorescence intensity of fused EGFP. Combined with the corresponding protein concentration detected in the medium, a standard curve describing the relationship between the fusion protein concentration and fluorescence intensity were obtained and could be used to number CALB displayed on the cell surface. The results showed that approx. 10(4) molecules of CALB molecules were immobilized on the single P. pastoris cell wall based on FS anchor system.

  13. Phenotypic and functional characterization of earthworm coelomocyte subsets: Linking light scatter-based cell typing and imaging of the sorted populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Péter; Hayashi, Yuya; Bodó, Kornélia; Ernszt, Dávid; Somogyi, Ildikó; Steib, Anita; Orbán, József; Pollák, Edit; Nyitrai, Miklós; Németh, Péter; Molnár, László

    2016-12-01

    Flow cytometry is a common approach to study invertebrate immune cells including earthworm coelomocytes. However, the link between light-scatter- and microscopy-based phenotyping remains obscured. Here we show, by means of light scatter-based cell sorting, both subpopulations (amoebocytes and eleocytes) can be physically isolated with good sort efficiency and purity confirmed by downstream morphological and cytochemical applications. Immunocytochemical analysis using anti-EFCC monoclonal antibodies combined with phalloidin staining has revealed antigenically distinct, sorted subsets. Screening of lectin binding capacity indicated wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) as the strongest reactor to amoebocytes. This is further evidenced by WGA inhibition assays that suggest high abundance of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine in amoebocytes. Post-sort phagocytosis assays confirmed the functional differences between amoebocytes and eleocytes, with the former being in favor of bacterial engulfment. This study has proved successful in linking flow cytometry and microscopy analysis and provides further experimental evidence of phenotypic and functional heterogeneity in earthworm coelomocyte subsets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Interaction of progenitor bone cells with different surface modifications of titanium implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng, E-mail: wencchen@fcu.edu.tw [Advanced Medical Devices and Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, College of Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ya-Shun [Advanced Medical Devices and Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, College of Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Ko, Chia-Ling [Advanced Medical Devices and Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, College of Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Dental Medical Devices and Materials Research Center, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yi; Kuo, Tzu-Huang; Kuo, Hsien-Nan [Medical Device Development Division, Metal Industries Research and Development Centre, Kaohsiung 82151, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-01

    Changes in the physical and chemical properties of Ti surfaces can be attributed to cell performance, which improves surface biocompatibility. The cell proliferation, mineralization ability, and gene expression of progenitor bone cells (D1 cell) were compared on five different Ti surfaces, namely, mechanical grinding (M), electrochemical modification through potentiostatic anodization (ECH), sandblasting and acid etching (SLA), sandblasting, hydrogen peroxide treatment, and heating (SAOH), and sandblasting, alkali heating, and etching (SMART). SAOH treatment produced the most hydrophilic surface, whereas SLA produced the most hydrophobic surface. Cell activity indicated that SLA and SMART produced significantly rougher surfaces and promoted D1 cell attachment within 1 day of culturing, whereas SAOH treatment produced moderate roughness (Ra = 1.26 μm) and accelerated the D1 cell proliferation up to 7 days after culturing. The ECH surface significantly promoted alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and osteocalcin (OCN) secretion in the D1 cells compared with the other surface groups. The ECH and SMART-treated Ti surfaces resulted in maximum ALP and OCN expressions during the D1 cell culture. SLA, SAOH, and SMART substrate surfaces were rougher and exhibited better cell metabolic responses during the early stage of cell attachment, proliferation, and morphologic expressions within 1 day of D1 cell culture. The D1 cells cultured on the ECH and SMART substrates exhibited higher differentiation, and higher ALP and OCN expressions after 10 days of culture. Thus, the ECH and SMART treatments promote better ability of cell mineralization in vitro, which demonstrate their great potential for clinical use. - Highlights: • Progenitor bone cells onto Ti with different modifications are characterized. • Surface roughness and hydrophilicity encourage early stage cell attachment. • Composition and surface treatments are more vital in bone cell mineralization.

  15. Interaction of progenitor bone cells with different surface modifications of titanium implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Ya-Shun; Ko, Chia-Ling; Lin, Yi; Kuo, Tzu-Huang; Kuo, Hsien-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the physical and chemical properties of Ti surfaces can be attributed to cell performance, which improves surface biocompatibility. The cell proliferation, mineralization ability, and gene expression of progenitor bone cells (D1 cell) were compared on five different Ti surfaces, namely, mechanical grinding (M), electrochemical modification through potentiostatic anodization (ECH), sandblasting and acid etching (SLA), sandblasting, hydrogen peroxide treatment, and heating (SAOH), and sandblasting, alkali heating, and etching (SMART). SAOH treatment produced the most hydrophilic surface, whereas SLA produced the most hydrophobic surface. Cell activity indicated that SLA and SMART produced significantly rougher surfaces and promoted D1 cell attachment within 1 day of culturing, whereas SAOH treatment produced moderate roughness (Ra = 1.26 μm) and accelerated the D1 cell proliferation up to 7 days after culturing. The ECH surface significantly promoted alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and osteocalcin (OCN) secretion in the D1 cells compared with the other surface groups. The ECH and SMART-treated Ti surfaces resulted in maximum ALP and OCN expressions during the D1 cell culture. SLA, SAOH, and SMART substrate surfaces were rougher and exhibited better cell metabolic responses during the early stage of cell attachment, proliferation, and morphologic expressions within 1 day of D1 cell culture. The D1 cells cultured on the ECH and SMART substrates exhibited higher differentiation, and higher ALP and OCN expressions after 10 days of culture. Thus, the ECH and SMART treatments promote better ability of cell mineralization in vitro, which demonstrate their great potential for clinical use. - Highlights: • Progenitor bone cells onto Ti with different modifications are characterized. • Surface roughness and hydrophilicity encourage early stage cell attachment. • Composition and surface treatments are more vital in bone cell mineralization.

  16. Modelling global nitrogen export to ground and surface water from natural ecosystems: impact of N deposition, climate, and CO2 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakhekke, Maarten; Rebel, Karin; Dekker, Stefan; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc; Smith, Ben; Wassen, Martin

    2015-04-01

    For large regions in the world strong increases in atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are predicted as a result of emissions from fossil fuel combustion and food production. This will cause many previously N limited ecosystems to become N saturated, leading to increased export to ground and surface water and negative impacts on the environment and human health. However, precise N export fluxes are difficult to predict. Due to its strong link to carbon, N in vegetation and soil is also determined by productivity, as affected by rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature, and denitrification. Furthermore, the N concentration of water delivered to streams depends strongly on local hydrological conditions. We aim to study how N delivery to ground and surface water is affected by changes in environmental factors. To this end we are developing a global dynamic modelling system that integrates representations of N cycling in vegetation and soil, and N delivery to ground and surface water. This will be achieved by coupling the dynamic global vegetation model LPJ-GUESS, which includes representations of N cycling, as well as croplands and pasture, to the global water balance model PCR-GLOBWB, which simulates surface runoff, interflow, groundwater recharge, and baseflow. This coupling will allow us to trace N across different systems and estimate the input of N into the riverine system which can be used as input for river biogeochemical models. We will present large scale estimates of N leaching and transport to ground and surface water for natural ecosystems in different biomes, based on a loose coupling of the two models. Furthermore, by means of a factorial model experiment we will explore how these fluxes are influenced by N deposition, temperature, and CO2 concentration.

  17. Synthesis of an endothelial cell mimicking surface containing thrombomodulin and endothelial protein C receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kador, Karl Erich

    Synthetic materials for use in blood contacting applications have been studied for many years with limited success. One of the main areas of need for these materials is the design of synthetic vascular grafts for use in the hundreds of thousands of patients who have coronary artery bypass grafting, many without suitable veins for autologous grafts. The design of these grafts is constrained by two common modes of failure, the formation of intimal hyperplasia (IH) and thrombosis. IH formation has been previously linked to a mismatching of the mechanical properties of the graft and has been overcome by creating grafts using materials whose compliance mimics that of the native artery. Several techniques and surface modification have been designed to limit thrombosis on the surface of synthetic materials. One which has shown the greatest promise is the immobilization of Thrombomodulin (TM), a protein found on the endothelial cell membrane lining native blood vessels involved in the activation of the anticoagulant Protein C (PC). While TM immobilization has been shown to arrest thrombin formation and limit fibrous formations in in-vitro and in-vivo experiments, it has shown to be transport limiting under arterial flow. On the endothelial cell surface, TM is co-localized with Endothelial Protein C Receptor (EPCR), which increases PC transport onto the cell surface and increases PC activation via TM between 20-100 fold. This dissertation will describe the chemical modification of medical grade polyurethane (PU), whose compliance has been shown to match that of native arteries. This modification will enable the immobilization of two proteins on an enzymatically relevant scale estimated at less than 10 nm. This dissertation will further describe the immobilization of the proteins TM and EPCR, and analyze the ability of a surface co-immobilized with these proteins to activate the anticoagulant PC. Finally, it will compare the ability of this co-immobilized surface to delay

  18. Electrostatic behavior of the charge-regulated bacterial cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yongsuk; Brown, Derick G

    2008-05-06

    The electrostatic behavior of the charge-regulated surfaces of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus brevis was studied using numerical modeling in conjunction with potentiometric titration and electrophoretic mobility data as a function of solution pH and electrolyte composition. Assuming a polyelectrolytic polymeric bacterial cell surface, these experimental and numerical analyses were used to determine the effective site numbers of cell surface acid-base functional groups and Ca(2+) sorption coefficients. Using effective site concentrations determined from 1:1 electrolyte (NaCl) experimental data, the charge-regulation model was able to replicate the effects of 2:1 electrolyte (CaCl(2)), both alone and as a mixture with NaCl, on the measured zeta potential using a single Ca(2+) surface binding constant for each of the bacterial species. This knowledge is vital for understanding how cells respond to changes in solution pH and electrolyte composition as well as how they interact with other surfaces. The latter is especially important due to the widespread use of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory in the interpretation of bacterial adhesion. As surface charge and surface potential both vary on a charge-regulated surface, accurate modeling of bacterial interactions with surfaces ultimately requires use of an electrostatic model that accounts for the charge-regulated nature of the cell surface.

  19. Surface sensitization mechanism on negative electron affinity p-GaN nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Yu; Liu, Lei; Xia, Sihao; Feng, Shu; Lu, Feifei

    2018-03-01

    The surface sensitization is the key to prepare negative electron affinity photocathode. The thesis emphasizes on the study of surface sensitization mechanism of p-type doping GaN nanowires utilizing first principles based on density function theory. The adsorption energy, work function, dipole moment, geometry structure, electronic structure and optical properties of Mg-doped GaN nanowires surfaces with various coverages of Cs atoms are investigated. The GaN nanowire with Mg doped in core position is taken as the sensitization base. At the initial stage of sensitization, the best adsorption site for Cs atom on GaN nanowire surface is BN, the bridge site of two adjacent N atoms. Surface sensitization generates a p-type internal surface with an n-type surface state, introducing a band bending region which can help reduce surface barrier and work function. With increasing Cs coverage, work functions decrease monotonously and the "Cs-kill" phenomenon disappears. For Cs coverage of 0.75 ML and 1 ML, the corresponding sensitization systems reach negative electron affinity state. Through surface sensitization, the absorption curves are red shifted and the absorption coefficient is cut down. All theoretical calculations can guide the design of negative electron affinity Mg doped GaN nanowires photocathode.

  20. The therapeutic CD38 monoclonal antibody daratumumab induces programmed cell death via fcg receptor-mediated cross-linking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overdijk, Marije B.; Jansen, J. H. Marco; Nederend, Maaike

    2016-01-01

    RIIb as well as activating FcgRs induce DARA cross-linking-mediated PCD. In conclusion, our in vitro and in vivo data show that FcgRmediated cross-linking of DARA induces PCD of CD38-expressing multiple myeloma tumor cells, which potentially contributes to the depth of response observed in DARA......Emerging evidence suggests that FcgR-mediated cross-linking of tumor-bound mAbs may induce signaling in tumor cells that contributes to their therapeutic activity. In this study, we show that daratumumab (DARA), a therapeutic human CD38 mAb with a broad-spectrum killing activity, is able to induce...... programmed cell death (PCD) of CD38+ multiple myeloma tumor cell lines when cross-linked in vitro by secondary Abs or via an FcgR. By comparing DARA efficacy in a syngeneic in vivo tumor model using FcRg-chain knockout or NOTAM mice carrying a signaling-inactive FcRg-chain, we found that the inhibitory Fcg...

  1. Architecture and Biosynthesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlean, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The wall gives a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell its osmotic integrity; defines cell shape during budding growth, mating, sporulation, and pseudohypha formation; and presents adhesive glycoproteins to other yeast cells. The wall consists of β1,3- and β1,6-glucans, a small amount of chitin, and many different proteins that may bear N- and O-linked glycans and a glycolipid anchor. These components become cross-linked in various ways to form higher-order complexes. Wall composition and degree of cross-linking vary during growth and development and change in response to cell wall stress. This article reviews wall biogenesis in vegetative cells, covering the structure of wall components and how they are cross-linked; the biosynthesis of N- and O-linked glycans, glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchors, β1,3- and β1,6-linked glucans, and chitin; the reactions that cross-link wall components; and the possible functions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic cell wall proteins. PMID:23135325

  2. Enumeration of n-fold tanget hyperplanes to a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainsencher, I.

    1993-08-01

    For each 1 ≤ n ≤ 6 we present formulas for the number of n-nodal curves in an n-dimensional linear systems on a smooth, projective surface. The method yields in particular the numbers of rational curves in the system of hyperplane sections of a generic K3-surface imbedded in P n by a complete system of curves of genus n as well as the number 17,601,000 of rational (singular) plane quintic curves in a generic quintic threefold. (author). 23 refs

  3. N-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids shift estrogen signaling to inhibit human breast cancer cell growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Cao

    Full Text Available Although evidence has shown the regulating effect of n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA on cell signaling transduction, it remains unknown whether n-3 PUFA treatment modulates estrogen signaling. The current study showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 shifted the pro-survival and proliferative effect of estrogen to a pro-apoptotic effect in human breast cancer (BCa MCF-7 and T47D cells. 17 β-estradiol (E2 enhanced the inhibitory effect of n-3 PUFAs on BCa cell growth. The IC50 of DHA or EPA in MCF-7 cells decreased when combined with E2 (10 nM treatment (from 173 µM for DHA only to 113 µM for DHA+E2, and from 187 µm for EPA only to 130 µm for EPA+E2. E2 also augmented apoptosis in n-3 PUFA-treated BCa cells. In contrast, in cells treated with stearic acid (SA, C18:0 as well as cells not treated with fatty acid, E2 promoted breast cancer cell growth. Classical (nuclear estrogen receptors may not be involved in the pro-apoptotic effects of E2 on the n-3 PUFA-treated BCa cells because ERα agonist failed to elicit, and ERα knockdown failed to block E2 pro-apoptotic effects. Subsequent studies reveal that G protein coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1 may mediate the pro-apoptotic effect of estrogen. N-3 PUFA treatment initiated the pro-apoptotic signaling of estrogen by increasing GPER1-cAMP-PKA signaling response, and blunting EGFR, Erk 1/2, and AKT activity. These findings may not only provide the evidence to link n-3 PUFAs biologic effects and the pro-apoptotic signaling of estrogen in breast cancer cells, but also shed new insight into the potential application of n-3 PUFAs in BCa treatment.

  4. Nature in corrosion-erosion surface for [TiN/TiAlN]n nanometric multilayers growth on AISI 1045 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caicedo, J.C., E-mail: jcaicedoangulo@gmail.com [Thin Films Group Universidad del Valle, Ciudad Universitaria Melendez, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Advanced Materials for Micro and NanoTechnology Research Group Universidad Autonoma de Occidente (Colombia); Cabrera, G. [Thin Films Group Universidad del Valle, Ciudad Universitaria Melendez, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Caicedo, H.H. [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Amaya, C. [Thin Films Group Universidad del Valle, Ciudad Universitaria Melendez, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Hard Coating Laboratory CDT-ASTIN SENA, Cali (Colombia); Aperador, W. [Ingenieria Mecatronica, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Bogota (Colombia)

    2012-04-30

    The aim of this work is to characterize the electrochemical behavior of [TiN/TiAlN]n multilayer coatings under corrosion-erosion condition. The multilayers with bilayer numbers (n) of 2, 6, 12, and 24 and/or bilayer period ({Lambda}) of 1500 nm, 500 nm, 250 nm, 150 nm and 125 nm were deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on Si (100) and AISI 1045 steel substrates. Both, the TiN and the TiAlN structures for multilayer coatings were evaluated via X-ray diffraction analysis. Mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated via nanoindentation measurements and scratch test respectively. Silica particles were used as abrasive material on corrosion-erosion test in 0.5 M of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at impact angles of 30 Degree-Sign and 90 Degree-Sign over surface. The electrochemical characterization was carried out using polarization resistance technique (Tafel), in order to observe changes in corrosion rate as a function of the bilayer number (n) or the bilayer period ({Lambda}) and the impact angle. Corrosion rate values of 9115 {mu}m y for uncoated steel substrate and 2615 {mu}m y for substrate coated with n = 24 ({Lambda} = 125 nm) under an impact angle of 30 Degree-Sign were found. On the other hand, for an impact angle of 90 Degree-Sign the corrosion rate exhibited 16401 {mu}m y for uncoated steel substrate and 5331 {mu}m y for substrate coated with n = 24 ({Lambda} = 125 nm). This behavior was correlated with the curves of mass loss for both coated samples and the surface damage was analyzed via scanning electron microscopy images for the two different impact angles. These results indicate that TiN/TiAlN multilayer coatings deposited on AISI 1045 steel represent a practical solution for applications in corrosive-erosive environments. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of superficial phenomenon that occurs in surface of multilayer films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Innovative multilayer system [TiN/TiAlN]n electrochemical

  5. Nature in corrosion–erosion surface for [TiN/TiAlN]n nanometric multilayers growth on AISI 1045 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caicedo, J.C.; Cabrera, G.; Caicedo, H.H.; Amaya, C.; Aperador, W.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize the electrochemical behavior of [TiN/TiAlN]n multilayer coatings under corrosion–erosion condition. The multilayers with bilayer numbers (n) of 2, 6, 12, and 24 and/or bilayer period (Λ) of 1500 nm, 500 nm, 250 nm, 150 nm and 125 nm were deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on Si (100) and AISI 1045 steel substrates. Both, the TiN and the TiAlN structures for multilayer coatings were evaluated via X-ray diffraction analysis. Mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated via nanoindentation measurements and scratch test respectively. Silica particles were used as abrasive material on corrosion–erosion test in 0.5 M of H 2 SO 4 solution at impact angles of 30° and 90° over surface. The electrochemical characterization was carried out using polarization resistance technique (Tafel), in order to observe changes in corrosion rate as a function of the bilayer number (n) or the bilayer period (Λ) and the impact angle. Corrosion rate values of 9115 μm y for uncoated steel substrate and 2615 μm y for substrate coated with n = 24 (Λ = 125 nm) under an impact angle of 30° were found. On the other hand, for an impact angle of 90° the corrosion rate exhibited 16401 μm y for uncoated steel substrate and 5331 μm y for substrate coated with n = 24 (Λ = 125 nm). This behavior was correlated with the curves of mass loss for both coated samples and the surface damage was analyzed via scanning electron microscopy images for the two different impact angles. These results indicate that TiN/TiAlN multilayer coatings deposited on AISI 1045 steel represent a practical solution for applications in corrosive–erosive environments. - Highlights: ► Determination of superficial phenomenon that occurs in surface of multilayer films. ► Innovative multilayer system [TiN/TiAlN]n electrochemical response. ► Improvement of surface mechanical properties and response to surface corrosion attack. ► Nature of [TiN/TiAlN]n

  6. Cell patterning without chemical surface modification: Cell cell interactions between printed bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) on a homogeneous cell-adherent hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. Y.; Barron, J. A.; Ringeisen, B. R.

    2006-10-01

    Cell printing offers the unique ability to directly deposit one or multiple cell types directly onto a surface without the need to chemically pre-treat the surface with lithographic methods. We utilize biological laser printing (BioLP ™) to form patterns of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) onto a homogeneous cell adherent hydrogel surface. These normal cells are shown to retain near-100% viability post-printing. In order to determine whether BAECs encountered shear and/or heat stress during printing, immunocytochemical staining experiments were performed to detect potential expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) by the deposited cells. Printed BAECs expressed HSP at levels similar to negative control cells, indicating that the BioLP process does not expose cells to damaging levels of stress. However, HSP expression was slightly higher at the highest laser energy studied, suggesting more stress was present under these extreme conditions. Printed BAECs also showed preferential asymmetric growth and migration towards each other and away from the originally printed pattern, demonstrating a retained ability for the cells to communicate post-printing.

  7. Sb₂S₃ surface modification induced remarkable enhancement of TiO₂ core/shell nanowries solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiuqing, E-mail: xqmeng@semi.ac.cn [Research Center for Light Emitting Diodes (LED), Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Wang, Xiaozhou; Zhong, Mianzeng; Wu, Fengmin; Fang, Yunzhang [Research Center for Light Emitting Diodes (LED), Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China)

    2013-05-01

    This study presents the fabrication of a novel dye-sensitized solar cell with Sb₂S₃-modified TiO₂ nanowire (NW) arrays/TiO₂ nanoparticles (NP) (TiO₂(NWs)/TiO₂(NPs)/Sb₂S₃) as the anodes and N719 dye as the sensitizer. A solar conversion efficiency of 4.91% at 1 sun illumination was achieved for the composite cell, which is markedly higher than the efficiency rates obtained using TiO₂ and TiO₂(NWs)/Sb₂S₃/TiO₂(NPs) NW cells, calculated at 2.36% and 3.11%, respectively. The improved efficiency results from the large surface area of the NPs, as well as the expansion of the light absorption region and high absorption coefficient by Sb₂S₃ surface modification. - Graphical abstract: A novel TiO₂(NWs)/TiO₂(NPs)/Sb₂S₃ dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is fabricated, a solar conversion efficiency of 4.91 % at 1 sun illumination is achieved. Highlights: • We fabricate sandwich structured TiO₂ dye-sensitized solar cells. • The anode of the solar cells consist of Sb₂S₃ modified TiO₂ nanowire arrays/TiO₂ nanopartices. • A solar conversion efficiency of 4.91% at 1 sun illumination is achieved. • The high efficiency results from large surface area and expanded light adsorption of the anode.

  8. Generation of functional scFv intrabody to abate the expression of CD147 surface molecule of 293A cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of intracellular antibodies (intrabodies has become a broadly applicable technology for generation of phenotypic knockouts in vivo. The method uses surface depletion of cellular membrane proteins to examine their biological function. In this study, we used this strategy to block the transport of cell surface molecule CD147 to the cell membrane. Phage display technology was introduced to generate the functional antibody fragment to CD147, and we subsequently constructed a CD147-specific scFv that was expressed intracellularly and retained in the endoplasmic reticulum by adenoviral gene transfer. Results The recombinant antibody fragments, Fab and scFv, of the murine monoclonal antibody (clone M6-1B9 reacted specifically to CD147 by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA using a recombinant CD147-BCCP as a target. This indicated that the Fab- and scFv-M6-1B9 displaying on phage surfaces were correctly folded and functionally active. We subsequently constructed a CD147-specific scFv, scFv-M6-1B9-intrabody, in 293A cells. The expression of CD147 on 293A cell surface was monitored at 36 h after transduction by flow cytometry and demonstrated remarkable reduction. Colocalization of scFv-M6-1B9 intrabody with CD147 in the ER network was depicted using a 3D deconvolution microscopy system. Conclusion The results suggest that our approach can generate antibody fragments suitable for decreasing the expression of CD147 on 293A cells. This study represents a step toward understanding the role of the cell surface protein, CD147.

  9. Chemical and Enzymatic Strategies for Bacterial and Mammalian Cell Surface Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaobao; Yin, Juan; Chen Guanbang, Ashley; Liu, Chuan-Fa

    2018-06-07

    The cell surface serves important functions such as the regulation of cell-cell and cell-environment interactions. The understanding and manipulation of the cell surface is important for a wide range of fundamental studies of cellular behavior and for biotechnological and medical applications. With the rapid advance of biology, chemistry and materials science, many strategies have been developed for the functionalization of bacterial and mammalian cell surfaces. Here, we review the recent development of chemical and enzymatic approaches to cell surface engineering with particular emphasis on discussing the advantages and limitations of each of these strategies. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Interaction of Uranium with Bacterial Cell Surfaces: Inferences from Phosphatase-Mediated Uranium Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sayali; Misra, Chitra Seetharam; Gupta, Alka; Ballal, Anand

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Deinococcus radiodurans and Escherichia coli expressing either PhoN, a periplasmic acid phosphatase, or PhoK, an extracellular alkaline phosphatase, were evaluated for uranium (U) bioprecipitation under two specific geochemical conditions (GCs): (i) a carbonate-deficient condition at near-neutral pH (GC1), and (ii) a carbonate-abundant condition at alkaline pH (GC2). Transmission electron microscopy revealed that recombinant cells expressing PhoN/PhoK formed cell-associated uranyl phosphate precipitate under GC1, whereas the same cells displayed extracellular precipitation under GC2. These results implied that the cell-bound or extracellular location of the precipitate was governed by the uranyl species prevalent at that particular GC, rather than the location of phosphatase. MINTEQ modeling predicted the formation of predominantly positively charged uranium hydroxide ions under GC1 and negatively charged uranyl carbonate-hydroxide complexes under GC2. Both microbes adsorbed 6- to 10-fold more U under GC1 than under GC2, suggesting that higher biosorption of U to the bacterial cell surface under GC1 may lead to cell-associated U precipitation. In contrast, at alkaline pH and in the presence of excess carbonate under GC2, poor biosorption of negatively charged uranyl carbonate complexes on the cell surface might have resulted in extracellular precipitation. The toxicity of U observed under GC1 being higher than that under GC2 could also be attributed to the preferential adsorption of U on cell surfaces under GC1. This work provides a vivid description of the interaction of U complexes with bacterial cells. The findings have implications for the toxicity of various U species and for developing biological aqueous effluent waste treatment strategies. IMPORTANCE The present study provides illustrative insights into the interaction of uranium (U) complexes with recombinant bacterial cells overexpressing phosphatases. This work demonstrates the effects of aqueous

  11. Analysis of the photo voltage decay /PVD/ method for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in P-N junction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Roos, O.

    1981-01-01

    The photo voltage decay (PVD) method for the measurement of minority carrier lifetimes in P-N junction solar cells with cell thickness comparable to or even less than the minority carrier diffusion length is examined. The method involves the generation of free carriers in the quasi-neutral bulk material by flashes of light and the monitoring of the subsequent decay of the induced open-circuit voltages as the carriers recombine, which is dependent on minority carrier recombination lifetime. It is shown that the voltage versus time curve for an ordinary solar cell (N(+)-P junction) is proportional to the inverse minority carrier lifetime plus a factor expressing the ratio of diffusion length to cell thickness. In the case of an ideal back-surface-field cell (N(+)-P-P(+) junction) however, the slope is directly proportional to the inverse minority carrier lifetime. It is noted that since most BSF cells are not ideal, possessing a sizable back surface recombination velocity, the PVD measurements must be treated with caution and supplemented with other nonstationary methods.

  12. Interacción entre proteínas y glicanos en la regulación fisiológica de las células T How do protein-glycan interactions regulate T-cell physiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta A. Toscano

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Las interacciones entre proteínas y glicanos juegan un papel fundamental en numerosos eventos de la regulación de la fisiología del sistema inmune, como maduración tímica, activación, migración y apoptosis de células T. Los carbohidratos son capaces de modular la fisiología linfocitaria a través de la interacción específica con lectinas endógenas como selectinas y galectinas. Estas lectinas endógenas son capaces de reconocer estructuras sacarídicas localizadas en glicoproteínas de la superficie celular y regular procesos tan diversos como proliferación, diferenciación y ciclo celular. Existen diversos niveles de control de la interacción entre lectinas y azúcares; en primer lugar podemos mencionar la expresión regulada de estas lectinas durante el desarrollo de una respuesta inmune, y en segundo lugar la regulación espacio-temporal de la actividad de glicosiltranferasas y glicosidasas cuya función es crear y modificar los azúcares específicos para estas lectinas. Existen evidencias de que la expresión y actividad de estas enzimas se regulan en forma positiva o negativa durante diferentes eventos del desarrollo, ejecución y finalización de la respuesta inmune. En este artículo se analizarán los mecanismos a través de los cuales las interacciones entre lectinas con sus carbohidratos específicos modulan en forma específica diversos procesos fisiológicos, como maduración de timocitos, migración linfocitaria, activación y diferenciación de células T y apoptosis.Recent evidence indicates that protein-glycan interactions play a critical role in different events associated with the physiology of T-cell responses including thymocyte maturation, T-cell activation, lymphocyte migration and T-cell apoptosis. Glycans decorating T-cell surface glycoproteins can modulate T-cell physiology by specifically interacting with endogenous lectins including selectins and galectins. These endogenous lectins are capable of

  13. Nanoscale crystallinity modulates cell proliferation on plasma sprayed surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Alan M. [School of Applied Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield HD1 3DH (United Kingdom); Paxton, Jennifer Z.; Hung, Yi-Pei; Hadley, Martin J.; Bowen, James; Williams, Richard L. [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Grover, Liam M., E-mail: l.m.grover@bham.ac.uk [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    Calcium phosphate coatings have been applied to the surface of metallic prostheses to mediate hard and soft tissue attachment for more than 40 years. Most coatings are formed of high purity hydroxyapatite, and coating methods are often designed to produce highly crystalline surfaces. It is likely however, that coatings of lower crystallinity can facilitate more rapid tissue attachment since the surface will exhibit a higher specific surface area and will be considerably more reactive than a comparable highly crystalline surface. Here we test this hypothesis by growing a population of MC3T3 osteoblast-like cells on the surface of two types of hip prosthesis with similar composition, but with differing crystallinity. The surfaces with lower crystallinity facilitated more rapid cell attachment and increased proliferation rate, despite having a less heterogeneous surface topography. This work highlights that the influence of the crystallinity of HA at the nano-scale is dominant over macro-scale topography for cell adhesion and growth. Furthermore, crystallinity could be easily adjusted by without compromising coating purity. These findings could facilitate designing novel coated calcium phosphate surfaces that more rapidly bond tissue following implantation. - Highlights: • Crystallinity of HA at the nano-scale was dominant over macro-scale topography. • Lower crystallinity caused rapid cell attachment and proliferation rate. • Crystallinity could be easily adjusted by without compromising coating purity.

  14. Nanoscale crystallinity modulates cell proliferation on plasma sprayed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Alan M.; Paxton, Jennifer Z.; Hung, Yi-Pei; Hadley, Martin J.; Bowen, James; Williams, Richard L.; Grover, Liam M.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium phosphate coatings have been applied to the surface of metallic prostheses to mediate hard and soft tissue attachment for more than 40 years. Most coatings are formed of high purity hydroxyapatite, and coating methods are often designed to produce highly crystalline surfaces. It is likely however, that coatings of lower crystallinity can facilitate more rapid tissue attachment since the surface will exhibit a higher specific surface area and will be considerably more reactive than a comparable highly crystalline surface. Here we test this hypothesis by growing a population of MC3T3 osteoblast-like cells on the surface of two types of hip prosthesis with similar composition, but with differing crystallinity. The surfaces with lower crystallinity facilitated more rapid cell attachment and increased proliferation rate, despite having a less heterogeneous surface topography. This work highlights that the influence of the crystallinity of HA at the nano-scale is dominant over macro-scale topography for cell adhesion and growth. Furthermore, crystallinity could be easily adjusted by without compromising coating purity. These findings could facilitate designing novel coated calcium phosphate surfaces that more rapidly bond tissue following implantation. - Highlights: • Crystallinity of HA at the nano-scale was dominant over macro-scale topography. • Lower crystallinity caused rapid cell attachment and proliferation rate. • Crystallinity could be easily adjusted by without compromising coating purity

  15. Assessing the Nano-Dynamics of the Cell Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Chil Man [Dept. of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York, Buffalo (United States); Park, Ik Keun [Mechanical Engineering, Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bulter, Peter J. [Dept. of Bioengineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park (United States)

    2012-06-15

    It is important to know the mechanism of cell membrane fluctuation because it can be readout for the nanomechanical interaction between cytoskeleton and plasma membrane. Traditional techniques, however, have drawbacks such as probe contact with the cell surface, complicate analysis, and limit spatial and temporal resolution. In this study, we developed a new system for non-contact measurement of nano-scale localized-cell surface dynamics using modified-scanning ion-conductance microscopy. With 2 nm resolution, we determined that endothelial cells have local membrane fluctuations of -20 nm, actin depolymerization causes increase in fluctuation amplitude, and ATP depletion abolishes all membrane fluctuations.

  16. Stem cell responses to plasma surface modified electrospun polyurethane scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandén, Carl; Hellström Erkenstam, Nina; Padel, Thomas; Wittgenstein, Julia; Liu, Johan; Kuhn, H Georg

    2014-07-01

    The topographical effects from functional materials on stem cell behavior are currently of interest in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Here we investigate the influence of argon, oxygen, and hydrogen plasma surface modification of electrospun polyurethane fibers on human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and rat postnatal neural stem cell (NSC) responses. The plasma gases were found to induce three combinations of fiber surface functionalities and roughness textures. On randomly oriented fibers, plasma treatments lead to substantially increased hESC attachment and proliferation as compared to native fibers. Argon plasma was found to induce the most optimal combination of surface functionality and roughness for cell expansion. Contact guided migration of cells and alignment of cell processes were observed on aligned fibers. Neuronal differentiation around 5% was found for all samples and was not significantly affected by the induced variations of surface functional group distribution or individual fiber topography. In this study the influence of argon, oxygen, and hydrogen plasma surface modification of electrospun polyurethane fibers on human embryonic stem cell and rat postnatal neural stem cell (NSC) responses is studied with the goal of clarifying the potential effects of functional materials on stem cell behavior, a topic of substantial interest in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modified n-HA/PA66 scaffolds with chitosan coating for bone tissue engineering: cell stimulation and drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qin; Li, Junfeng; Niu, Lulu; Zuo, Yi; Li, Jidong; Li, Yubao

    2017-09-01

    The dipping-drying procedure and cross-linking method were used to make drug-loaded chitosan (CS) coating on nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 (nHA/PA66) composite porous scaffold, endowing the scaffold controlled drug release functionality. The prefabricated scaffold was immersed into an aqueous drug/CS solution in a vacuum condition and then crosslinked by vanillin. The structure, porosity, composition, compressive strength, swelling ratio, drug release and cytocompatibility of the pristine and coating scaffolds were investigated. After coating, the scaffold porosity and pore interconnection were slightly decreased. Cytocompatibility performance was observed through an in vitro experiment based on cell attachment and the MTT assay by MG63 cells which revealed positive cell viability and increasing proliferation over the 11-day period in vitro. The drug could effectively release from the coated scaffold in a controlled fashion and the release rate was sustained for a long period and highly dependent on coating swelling, suggesting the possibility of a controlled drug release. Our results demonstrate that the scaffold with drug-loaded crosslinked CS coating can be used as a simple technique to render the surfaces of synthetic scaffolds active, thus enabling them to be a promising high performance biomaterial in bone tissue engineering.

  18. Cell Surface Enzymatic Engineering-Based Approaches to Improve Cellular Therapies

    KAUST Repository

    AbuElela, Ayman

    2014-06-06

    The cell surface represents the interface between the cell and its environment. As such, the cell surface controls cell–cell interactions and functions such as adhesion and migration, and will transfer external cues to regulate processes such as survival, death, and differentiation. Redefining the cell surface by temporarily (or permanently) modifying the molecular landscape of the plasma membrane affects the way in which the cell interacts with its environment and influences the information that is relayed into the cell along downstream signaling pathways. This chapter outlines the role of key enzymes, the glycosyltransferases, in posttranslationally modifying proteins and lipids to fine-tune cells, ability to migrate. These enzymes are critical in controlling the formation of a platform structure, sialyl Lewis x (sLex), on circulating cells that plays a central role in the recognition and recruitment by selectin counter receptors on endothelial cells that line blood vessels of tissues throughout the body. By developing methods to manipulate the activity of these enzymes and hence the cell surface structures that result, treatments can be envisioned that direct the migration of therapeutic cells to specific locations throughout the body and also to inhibit metastasis of detrimental cells such as circulating tumor cells.

  19. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy on GaN and InGaN surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, David

    2009-01-01

    Optelectronic devices based on gallium nitride (GaN) and indium gallium nitride (InGaN) are in the focus of research since more than 20 years and still have great potential for optical applications. In the first part of this work non-polar surfaces of GaN are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). In SEM and AFM, the (1 anti 100)- and especially the (anti 2110)-plane are quite corrugated. For the first time, the (anti 2110)-plane of GaN is atomically resolved in STM. In the second part InGaN quantum dot layers are investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and STM. The STMmeasurements show the dependency of surface morphology on growth conditions in the metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Nucleation, a new MOVPE-strategy, is based on phase separations on surfaces. It is shown that locally varying density of states and bandgaps can be detected by STS, that means bandgap histograms and 2D-bandgap-mapping. (orig.)

  20. InN/GaN quantum dot superlattices: Charge-carrier states and surface electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanouni, F.; Brezini, A.; Djenane, M.; Zou, Q.

    2018-03-01

    We have theoretically investigated the electron energy spectra and surface states energy in the three dimensionally ordered quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs) made of InN and GaN semiconductors. The QDSL is assumed in this model to be a matrix of GaN containing cubic dots of InN of the same size and uniformly distributed. For the miniband’s structure calculation, the resolution of the effective mass Schrödinger equation is done by decoupling it in the three directions within the framework of Kronig-Penney model. We found that the electrons minibands in infinite ODSLs are clearly different from those in the conventional quantum-well superlattices. The electrons localization and charge-carrier states are very dependent on the quasicrystallographic directions, the size and the shape of the dots which play a role of the artificial atoms in such QD supracrystal. The energy spectrum of the electron states localized at the surface of InN/GaN QDSL is represented by Kronig-Penney like-model, calculated via direct matching procedure. The calculation results show that the substrate breaks symmetrical shape of QDSL on which some localized electronic surface states can be produced in minigap regions. Furthermore, we have noticed that the surface states degeneracy is achieved in like very thin bands located in the minigaps, identified by different quantum numbers nx, ny, nz. Moreover, the surface energy bands split due to the reduction of the symmetry of the QDSL in z-direction.

  1. SO(N) WZNW models on higher-genus Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimohammadi, M.; Arfaei, H.; Bonn Univ.

    1993-08-01

    With the help of the string functions and fusion rules of SO(2N) 1 , we show that the results on SU(N) 1 correlators on higher-genus Riemann surfaces (HGRS) can be extended to the SO(2N) 1 and other level-one simply-laced WZNW models. Using modular invariance and factorization properties of Green functions we find multipoint correlators of primary and descendant fields of SO(2N+1) 1 WZNW models on higher genus Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  2. Study of the role of the covalently linked cell wall protein (Ccw14p) and yeast glycoprotein (Ygp1p) within biofilm formation in a flor yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-García, J; Coi, A L; Zara, G; García-Martínez, T; Mauricio, J C; Budroni, M

    2018-03-01

    Flor yeasts are Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains noted by their ability to create a type of biofilm in the air-liquid interface of some wines, known as 'flor' or 'velum', for which certain proteins play an essential role. Following a proteomic study of a flor yeast strain, we deleted the CCW14 (covalently linked cell wall protein) and YGP1 (yeast glycoprotein) genes-codifying for two cell surface glycoproteins-in a haploid flor yeast strain and we reported that both influence the weight of the biofilm as well as cell adherence (CCW14).

  3. Nanoscale imaging of surface piezoresponse on GaN epitaxial layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoica, T.; Calarco, R.; Meijers, R.; Lueth, H.

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces of GaN films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) with implemented piezoelectric force microscopy technique. A model of PFM based on the surface depletion region in GaN films is discussed. The local piezoelectric effect of the low frequency regime was found to be in phase with the applied voltage on large domains, corresponding to a Ga-face of the GaN layer. Low piezoresponse is obtained within the inter-domain regions. The use of frequencies near a resonance frequency enhances very much the resolution of piezo-imaging, but only for very low scanning speed the piezo-imaging can follow the local piezoelectric effect. An inversion of the PFM image contrast is obtained for frequencies higher than the resonance frequencies. The effect of a chemical surface treatment on the topography and the piezoresponse of the GaN films was also investigated. Textured surfaces with very small domains were observed after the chemical treatment. For this kind of surfaces, piezo-induced torsion rather than bending of the AFM cantilever dominates the contrast of the PFM images. A small memory effect was observed, and explained by surface charging and confinement of the piezoelectric effect within the carrier depletion region at the GaN surface

  4. The structurally effect of surface coated rhamnogalacturonan I on response of the osteoblast-like cell line SaOS-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svava, Rikke; Gurzawska, Katarzyna; Yihau, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Osseointegration is important when implants are inserted into the bone and can be improved by biochemical surface coating of the implant. In this paper enzymatically modified rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) from apple and lupin was used for biochemical coating of aminated surfaces and the importance...... remove small fragments of galacturonic acid (GalA) and binding studies showed that the purity of the RG-I molecules was important for the quality of the coating. The structure of RG-I and osteoblast-like cells' viability were positively correlated so that high content of 1,4-linked galactose (Gal...

  5. Surface photovoltage spectroscopy of real n-type GaAs(110) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dessouki, M.S.; El-Guiziri, S.B.; Gobrial, F.Z.

    1989-10-01

    N-type GaAs single crystals cut parallel to the (110) plane and doped with phosphorus by ion beam implantation were used in the present study. Temperature dependence of the bulk electrical conductivity showed two distinct activated regions with activation energies Et 1 =0.75±0.04eV, and Et 2 =0.12±0.04eV. The first activation energy is probably that of deep phosphorous impurities, while the second was related to long range disorder in the sample near room temperature. Surface photovoltage studies at room temperature were carried out at atmospheric pressure and in vacuum for etched and unetched samples. For n-type GaAs etched surface, the experimentally observed surface states were not found to change their positions by changing the pressure. But in the case of etched samples the surface states showed some redistribution under vacuum. The time constants for the initial rise and fall of CPD by illumination and after switching it off, τ 1 and τ 2 , respectively, were found to depend on the illumination intensity and photon energy. Their values range between 4 and 15 s. (author). 31 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  6. Carrier population control and surface passivation in solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cuevas, Andres

    2018-05-02

    Controlling the concentration of charge carriers near the surface is essential for solar cells. It permits to form regions with selective conductivity for either electrons or holes and it also helps to reduce the rate at which they recombine. Chemical passivation of the surfaces is equally important, and it can be combined with population control to implement carrier-selective, passivating contacts for solar cells. This paper discusses different approaches to suppress surface recombination and to manipulate the concentration of carriers by means of doping, work function and charge. It also describes some of the many surface-passivating contacts that are being developed for silicon solar cells, restricted to experiments performed by the authors.

  7. Nanolayer surface passivation schemes for silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, G.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with nanolayer surface passivation schemes and corresponding deposition processes, for envisaged applications in crystalline silicon solar cells. Surface passivation, i.e. the reduction of electronic recombination processes at semiconductor surfaces, is essential for

  8. Identification and characterization of the surface proteins of Clostridium difficile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dailey, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    Several clostridial proteins were detected on the clostridial cell surface by sensitive radioiodination techniques. Two major proteins and six minor proteins comprised the radioiodinated proteins on the clostridial cell surface. Cellular fractionation of surface radiolabeled C. difficile determined that the radioiodinated proteins were found in the cell wall fraction of C. difficile and surprisingly were also present in the clostridial membrane. Furthermore, an interesting phenomenon of disulfide-crosslinking of the cell surface proteins of C. difficile was observed. Disulfide-linked protein complexes were found in both the membrane and cell wall fractions. In addition, the cell surface proteins of C. difficile were found to be released into the culture medium. In attempts to further characterize the clostridial proteins recombinant DNA techniques were employed. In addition, the role of the clostridial cell surface proteins in the interactions of C. difficile with human PMNs was also investigated

  9. Do Fanconi anemia genes control cell response to cross-linking agents by modulating cytochrome P-450 reductase activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, FAE; Youssoufian, H

    2000-01-01

    The Fanconi anemia (FA) genes play an important role in maintaining chromosomal stability and the defense of mammalian cells against cross-linking agents, such as cisplatin and mitomycin C (MMC). Cells derived from FA patients display a characteristic hypersensitivity toward cross-linking agents.

  10. Influence of surfaces modified with biomimetic extracellular matrices on adhesion and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells and osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rong; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2015-02-01

    Preparation of surfaces modified with biomimetic extracellular matrices (ECMs) is important for investigation of the interaction between ECMs and cells. In the present study, surfaces modified with ECMs from normal somatic cells, stem cells and tumor cells were prepared by cell culture method. The ECMs derived from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), dermal fibroblasts (FBs), osteoblasts (OBs) and MG63 osteosarcoma cells were deposited on the surfaces of cell-culture polystyrene plates (TCPS). The ECMs from different cell types had different compositions. The effects of the ECM-deposited surfaces on the adhesion, spreading and proliferation of MSCs and MG63 human osteosarcoma cells were dependent on the type of both ECMs and cells. The surfaces deposited with ECMs from MSCs, FBs and OBs promoted cell adhesion more strongly than surfaces deposited with ECMs from MG63 cells and TCPS. Compared to TCPS, the ECM-deposited surfaces promoted proliferation of MSCs while they inhibited the proliferation of MG63 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Protein O-linked ß-N-acetylglucosamine: A novel effector of cardiomyocyte metabolism and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darley-Usmar, Victor M.; Ball, Lauren E.; Chatham, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins by the O-linked attachment of the monosaccharide ß-N-acetyl-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is emerging as an important mechanism for the regulation of numerous biological processes critical for normal cell function. Active synthesis of O-GlcNAc is essential for cell viability and acute activation of pathways resulting in increased protein O-GlcNAc levels improves the tolerance of cells to a wide range of stress stimuli. Conversely sustained increases in O-GlcNAc levels have been implicated in numerous chronic disease states, especially as a pathogenic contributor to diabetic complications. There has been increasing interest in the role of O-GlcNAc in the heart and vascular system and acute activation of O-GlcNAc levels have been shown to reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury attenuate vascular injury responses as well mediate some of the detrimental effects of diabetes and hypertension on cardiac and vascular function. Here we provide an overview of our current understanding of pathways regulating protein O-GlcNAcylation, summarize the different methodologies for identifying and characterizing O-GlcNAcylated proteins and subsequently focus on two emerging areas: 1) the role of O-GlcNAc as a potential regulator of cardiac metabolism and 2) the cross talk between O-GlcNAc and reactive oxygen species. PMID:21878340

  12. N-terminal peptides from unprocessed prion proteins enter cells by macropinocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magzoub, Mazin; Sandgren, Staffan; Lundberg, Pontus; Oglecka, Kamila; Lilja, Johanna; Wittrup, Anders; Goeran Eriksson, L.E.; Langel, Ulo; Belting, Mattias; Graeslund, Astrid

    2006-01-01

    A peptide derived from the N-terminus of the unprocessed bovine prion protein (bPrPp), incorporating the hydrophobic signal sequence (residues 1-24) and a basic domain (KKRPKP, residues 25-30), internalizes into mammalian cells, even when coupled to a sizeable cargo, and therefore functions as a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP). Confocal microscopy and co-localization studies indicate that the internalization of bPrPp is mainly through macropinocytosis, a fluid-phase endocytosis process, initiated by binding to cell-surface proteoglycans. Electron microscopy studies show internalized bPrPp-DNA-gold complexes residing in endosomal vesicles. bPrPp induces expression of a complexed luciferase-encoding DNA plasmid, demonstrating the peptide's ability to transport the cargo across the endosomal membrane and into the cytosol and nucleus. The novel CPP activity of the unprocessed N-terminal domain of PrP could be important for the retrotranslocation of partly processed PrP and for PrP trafficking inside or between cells, with implications for the infectivity associated with prion diseases

  13. A cell-based model system links chromothripsis with hyperploidy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardin, Balca R; Drainas, Alexandros P; Waszak, Sebastian M

    2015-01-01

    A remarkable observation emerging from recent cancer genome analyses is the identification of chromothripsis as a one-off genomic catastrophe, resulting in massive somatic DNA structural rearrangements (SRs). Largely due to lack of suitable model systems, the mechanistic basis of chromothripsis h...... in hyperploid cells. Analysis of primary medulloblastoma cancer genomes verified the link between hyperploidy and chromothripsis in vivo. CAST provides the foundation for mechanistic dissection of complex DNA rearrangement processes....

  14. Radioimmunoassay to quantitatively measure cell surface immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishman, E.C.; Jewell, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay techniques developed to quantitatively measure the presence of immunoglobulins on the surface of cells, is described. The amount of immunoglobulins found on different tumor cells varied from 200 to 1140 ng/10 6 cells. Determination of immunoglobulins on the peripheral lymphocytes obtained from different cancer patients varied between 340 to 1040 ng/10 6 cells. Cultured tumor cells, on the other hand, were found to contain negligible quantities of human IgG [pt

  15. Polymer microfilters with nanostructured surfaces for the culture of circulating cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarova, Olga V.; Adams, Daniel L.; Divan, Ralu; Rosenmann, Daniel; Zhu, Peixuan; Li, Shuhong; Amstutz, Platte; Tang, Cha-Mei

    2016-01-01

    There is a critical need to improve the accuracy of drug screening and testing through the development of in vitro culture systems that more effectively mimic the in vivo environment. Surface topographical features on the nanoscale level, in short nanotopography, effect the cell growth patterns, and hence affect cell function in culture. We report the preliminary results on the fabrication, and subsequent cellular growth, of nanoscale surface topography on polymer microfilters using cell lines as a precursor to circulating tumor cells (CTCs). To create various nanoscale features on the microfilter surface, we used reactive ion etching (RIE) with and without an etching mask. An anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane fabricated directly on the polymer surface served as an etching mask. Polymer filters with a variety of modified surfaces were used to compare the effects on the culture of cancer cell lines in blank culture wells, with untreated microfilters or with RIE-treated microfilters. We then report the differences of cell shape, phenotype and growth patterns of bladder and glioblastoma cancer cell lines after isolation on the various types of material modifications. Our data suggest that RIE modified polymer filters can isolate model cell lines while retaining ell viability, and that the RIE filter modification allows T24 monolayering cells to proliferate as a structured cluster. - Highlights: • Surface topographical effects the growth patterns and cell function of cancer cells • Nanoscale surface topography on polymer filters for circulating tumor cell culture • Membrane fabricated directly on polymer surfaces utilized for polymer etching • Nanotopography alters cell shape, phenotype and growth patterns of cancer cells • Nanoscale surface topography dictates monolayering or 3D structured cell culture

  16. Polymer microfilters with nanostructured surfaces for the culture of circulating cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarova, Olga V. [Creatv MicroTech, Inc., 2242 West Harrison St., Chicago 60612, IL (United States); Adams, Daniel L., E-mail: dan@creatvmicrotech.com [Creatv MicroTech, Inc., 1 Deer Park Drive, Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852 (United States); Divan, Ralu; Rosenmann, Daniel [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave., Argonne 60439, IL (United States); Zhu, Peixuan; Li, Shuhong; Amstutz, Platte; Tang, Cha-Mei [Creatv MicroTech, Inc., 11609 Lake Potomac Drive, Potomac 20854, MD (United States)

    2016-09-01

    There is a critical need to improve the accuracy of drug screening and testing through the development of in vitro culture systems that more effectively mimic the in vivo environment. Surface topographical features on the nanoscale level, in short nanotopography, effect the cell growth patterns, and hence affect cell function in culture. We report the preliminary results on the fabrication, and subsequent cellular growth, of nanoscale surface topography on polymer microfilters using cell lines as a precursor to circulating tumor cells (CTCs). To create various nanoscale features on the microfilter surface, we used reactive ion etching (RIE) with and without an etching mask. An anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane fabricated directly on the polymer surface served as an etching mask. Polymer filters with a variety of modified surfaces were used to compare the effects on the culture of cancer cell lines in blank culture wells, with untreated microfilters or with RIE-treated microfilters. We then report the differences of cell shape, phenotype and growth patterns of bladder and glioblastoma cancer cell lines after isolation on the various types of material modifications. Our data suggest that RIE modified polymer filters can isolate model cell lines while retaining ell viability, and that the RIE filter modification allows T24 monolayering cells to proliferate as a structured cluster. - Highlights: • Surface topographical effects the growth patterns and cell function of cancer cells • Nanoscale surface topography on polymer filters for circulating tumor cell culture • Membrane fabricated directly on polymer surfaces utilized for polymer etching • Nanotopography alters cell shape, phenotype and growth patterns of cancer cells • Nanoscale surface topography dictates monolayering or 3D structured cell culture.

  17. Surface free energy predominates in cell adhesion to hydroxyapatite through wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Miho; Hori, Naoko; Ando, Hiroshi; Namba, Saki; Toyama, Takeshi; Nishimiya, Nobuyuki; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2016-05-01

    The initial adhesion of cells to biomaterials is critical in the regulation of subsequent cell behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate a mechanism through which the surface wettability of biomaterials can be improved and determine the effects of biomaterial surface characteristics on cellular behaviors. We investigated the surface characteristics of various types of hydroxyapatite after sintering in different atmospheres and examined the effects of various surface characteristics on cell adhesion to study cell-biomaterial interactions. Sintering atmosphere affects the polarization capacity of hydroxyapatite by changing hydroxide ion content and grain size. Compared with hydroxyapatite sintered in air, hydroxyapatite sintered in saturated water vapor had a higher polarization capacity that increased surface free energy and improved wettability, which in turn accelerated cell adhesion. We determined the optimal conditions of hydroxyapatite polarization for the improvement of surface wettability and acceleration of cell adhesion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Surface ozone concentrations in Europe: Links with the regional-scale atmospheric circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T. D.; Kelly, P. M.; Low, P. S.; Pierce, C. E.

    1992-06-01

    Daily surface ozone observations from 1978 (1976 for some analyses) to 1988 for Bottesford (United Kingdom), Cabauw, Kloosterburen (The Netherlands), Hohenpeissenberg, Neuglobsow, Hamburg, and Arkona (Germany) are used to analyze links between surface ozone variations and the atmospheric circulation. A daily Europe-wide synoptic classification highlights marked differences between surface ozone/meteorology relationships in summer and winter. These relationships are characterized by correlations between daily surface ozone concentrations at each station and a local subregional surface pressure gradient (a wind speed index). Although there are geographical variations, which are explicable in terms of regional climatology, there are distinct annual cycles. In summer, the surface ozone/wind speed relationship exhibits the expected negative sign; however, in winter, the relationship is, in the main, strongly positive, especially at those stations which are more influenced by the vigorous westerlies. Spring and autumn exhibit negative, positive, or transitional (between summer and winter) behavior, depending on geographical position. It is suggested that these relationships reflect the importance of vertical exchange from the free troposphere to the surface in the nonsummer months. Composite surface pressure patterns and surface pressure anomaly (from the long-term mean) patterns associated with high surface ozone concentrations on daily and seasonal time scales are consistent with the surface ozone/wind speed relationships. Moreover, they demonstrate that high surface ozone concentrations, in a climatological time frame, can be associated with mean surface pressure patterns which have a synoptic reality and are robust. Such an approach may be useful in interpreting past variations in surface ozone and may help to isolate the effect of human activity. It is also possible that assessments can be made of the effect of projected future changes in the atmospheric circulation

  19. Remote Control of Tissue Interactions via Engineered Photo-switchable Cell Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Pulsipher, Abigail; Dutta, Debjit; Lamb, Brian M.; Yousaf, Muhammad N.

    2014-09-01

    We report a general cell surface molecular engineering strategy via liposome fusion delivery to create a dual photo-active and bio-orthogonal cell surface for remote controlled spatial and temporal manipulation of microtissue assembly and disassembly. Cell surface tailoring of chemoselective functional groups was achieved by a liposome fusion delivery method and quantified by flow cytometry and characterized by a new cell surface lipid pull down mass spectrometry strategy. Dynamic co-culture spheroid tissue assembly in solution and co-culture tissue multilayer assembly on materials was demonstrated by an intercellular photo-oxime ligation that could be remotely cleaved and disassembled on demand. Spatial and temporal control of microtissue structures containing multiple cell types was demonstrated by the generation of patterned multilayers for controlling stem cell differentiation. Remote control of cell interactions via cell surface engineering that allows for real-time manipulation of tissue dynamics may provide tools with the scope to answer fundamental questions of cell communication and initiate new biotechnologies ranging from imaging probes to drug delivery vehicles to regenerative medicine, inexpensive bioreactor technology and tissue engineering therapies.

  20. N/P GaAs concentrator solar cells with an improved grid and bushbar contact design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desalvo, G.C.; Mueller, E.H.; Barnett, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The major requirements for a solar cell used in space applications are high efficiency at AMO irradiance and resistance to high energy radiation. Gallium arsenide, with a band gap of 1.43 eV, is one of the most efficient sunlight to electricity converters (25%) when the the simple diode model is used to calculate efficiencies at AMO irradiance, GaAs solar cells are more radiation resistant than silicon solar cells and the N/P GaAs device has been reported to be more radiation resistant than similar P/N solar cells. This higher resistance is probably due to the fact that only 37% of the current is generated in the top N layer of the N/P cell compared to 69% in the top layer of a P/N solar cell. This top layer of the cell is most affected by radiation. It has also been theoretically calculated that the optimized N/P device will prove to have a higher efficiency than a similar P/N device. The use of a GaP window layer on a GaAs solar cell will avoid many of the inherent problems normally associated with a GaAlAs window while still proving good passivation of the GaAs surface. An optimized circular grid design for solar cell concentrators has been shown which incorporates a multi-layer metallization scheme. This multi-layer design allows for a greater current carrying capacity for a unit area of shading, which results in a better output efficiency

  1. Genetic analysis of the SARS-coronavirus spike glycoprotein functional domains involved in cell-surface expression and cell-to-cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Chad M.; Melancon, Jeffrey M.; Chouljenko, Vladimir N.; Colgrove, Robin; Farzan, Michael; Knipe, David M.; Kousoulas, K.G.

    2005-01-01

    The SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the etiological agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein mediates membrane fusion events during virus entry and virus-induced cell-to-cell fusion. To delineate functional domains of the SARS-CoV S glycoprotein, single point mutations, cluster-to-lysine and cluster-to-alanine mutations, as well as carboxyl-terminal truncations were investigated in transient expression experiments. Mutagenesis of either the coiled-coil domain of the S glycoprotein amino terminal heptad repeat, the predicted fusion peptide, or an adjacent but distinct region, severely compromised S-mediated cell-to-cell fusion, while intracellular transport and cell-surface expression were not adversely affected. Surprisingly, a carboxyl-terminal truncation of 17 amino acids substantially increased S glycoprotein-mediated cell-to-cell fusion suggesting that the terminal 17 amino acids regulated the S fusogenic properties. In contrast, truncation of 26 or 39 amino acids eliminating either one or both of the two endodomain cysteine-rich motifs, respectively, inhibited cell fusion in comparison to the wild-type S. The 17 and 26 amino-acid deletions did not adversely affect S cell-surface expression, while the 39 amino-acid truncation inhibited S cell-surface expression suggesting that the membrane proximal cysteine-rich motif plays an essential role in S cell-surface expression. Mutagenesis of the acidic amino-acid cluster in the carboxyl terminus of the S glycoprotein as well as modification of a predicted phosphorylation site within the acidic cluster revealed that this amino-acid motif may play a functional role in the retention of S at cell surfaces. This genetic analysis reveals that the SARS-CoV S glycoprotein contains extracellular domains that regulate cell fusion as well as distinct endodomains that function in intracellular transport, cell-surface expression, and cell fusion

  2. Efficiency improvements by Metal Wrap Through technology for n-type Si solar cells and modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenchao, Zhao; Jianming, Wang; Yanlong, Shen; Ziqian, Wang; Yingle, Chen; Shuquan, Tian; Zhiliang, Wan; Bo, Yu; Gaofei, Li; Zhiyan, Hu; Jingfeng, Xiong [Yingli Green Energy Holding Co., Ltd, 3399 North Chaoyang Avenue, Baoding (China); Guillevin, N.; Heurtault, B.; Aken, B.B. van; Bennett, I.J.; Geerligs, L.J.; Weeber, A.W.; Bultman, J.H. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    N-type Metal Wrap Through (n-MWT) is presented as an industrially promising back-contact technology to reach high performance of silicon solar cells and modules. It can combine benefits from both n-type base and MWT metallization. In this paper, the efficiency improvements of commercial industrial n-type bifacial Si solar cells (239 cm{sup 2}) and modules (60 cells) by the integration of the MWT technique are described. For the cell, after the optimization of integration, over 0.3% absolute efficiency gain was achieved over the similar non-MWT technology, and Voc gain and Isc gain up to 0.9% and 3.5%, respectively. These gains are mainly attributed to reduced shading loss and surface recombination. Besides the front pattern optimization, a 0.1m{Omega} reduction of Rs in via part will induce further 0.06% absolute efficiency improvement. For the module part, a power output of n-MWT module up to 279W was achieved, corresponding to a module efficiency of about 17.7%.

  3. Data of continuous harvest of stem cells via partial detachment from thermoresponsive nanobrush surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chen Yeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains two figures and one table supporting the research article entitled: “Continuous harvest of stem cells via partial detachment from thermoresponsive nanobrush surface” [1]. The table shows coating conditions of three copolymers, poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid grafted with oligovitronectin, poly(styrene-co-N-isopropylacrylamide and poly(styrene-co-polyethylene glycol methacrylate to prepare thermoresponsive surface. XPS spectra show the nitrogen peak of the polystyrene surface coated with poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid grafted with oligovitronectin. The surface coating density analyzed from sorption of poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid grafted with oligovitronectin by UV–vis spectroscopy is also presented.

  4. Data of continuous harvest of stem cells via partial detachment from thermoresponsive nanobrush surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chin-Chen; Muduli, Saradaprasan; Peng, I-Chia; Lu, Yi-Tung; Ling, Qing-Dong; Alarfaj, Abdullah A.; Munusamy, Murugan A.; Kumar, S. Suresh; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Chen, Da-Chung; Lee, Hsin-chung; Chang, Yung; Higuchi, Akon

    2016-01-01

    This data article contains two figures and one table supporting the research article entitled: “Continuous harvest of stem cells via partial detachment from thermoresponsive nanobrush surface” [1]. The table shows coating conditions of three copolymers, poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) grafted with oligovitronectin, poly(styrene-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) and poly(styrene-co-polyethylene glycol methacrylate) to prepare thermoresponsive surface. XPS spectra show the nitrogen peak of the polystyrene surface coated with poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) grafted with oligovitronectin. The surface coating density analyzed from sorption of poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) grafted with oligovitronectin by UV–vis spectroscopy is also presented. PMID:26909373

  5. Microarray of neuroblastoma cells on the selectively functionalized nanocrystalline diamond thin film surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young-Sang; Son, Hyeong-Guk; Kim, Dae-Hoon; Oh, Hong-Gi; Lee, Da-Som; Kim, Min-Hye; Lim, Ki-Moo; Song, Kwang-Soup

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) surface is functionalized with F or O. • The cell adhesion and growth are evaluated on the functionalized NCD surface. • The cell adhesion and growth depend on the wettability of the surface. • Cell patterning was achieved by using of hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. • Neuroblastoma cells were arrayed on the micro-patterned NCD surface. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) film surfaces were modified with fluorine or oxygen by plasma treatment in an O_2 or C_3F_8 gas environment in order to induce wettability. The oxygenated-NCD (O-NCD) film surface was hydrophilic and the fluorinated-NCD (F-NCD) surface was hydrophobic. The efficiency of early cell adhesion, which is dependent on the wettability of the cell culture plate and necessary for the growth and proliferation of cells, was 89.62 ± 3.92% on the O-NCD film and 7.78 ± 0.77% on the F-NCD film surface after 3 h of cell culture. The wettability of the NCD film surface was artificially modified using a metal mask and plasma treatment to fabricate a micro-pattern. Four types of micro-patterns were fabricated (line, circle, mesh, and word) on the NCD film surface. We precisely arrayed the neuroblastoma cells on the micro-patterned NCD film surfaces by controlling the surface wettability and cell seeding density. The neuroblastoma cells adhered and proliferated along the O-NCD film surface.

  6. Microarray of neuroblastoma cells on the selectively functionalized nanocrystalline diamond thin film surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young-Sang; Son, Hyeong-Guk; Kim, Dae-Hoon; Oh, Hong-Gi; Lee, Da-Som; Kim, Min-Hye; Lim, Ki-Moo; Song, Kwang-Soup, E-mail: kssong10@kumoh.ac.kr

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) surface is functionalized with F or O. • The cell adhesion and growth are evaluated on the functionalized NCD surface. • The cell adhesion and growth depend on the wettability of the surface. • Cell patterning was achieved by using of hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. • Neuroblastoma cells were arrayed on the micro-patterned NCD surface. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) film surfaces were modified with fluorine or oxygen by plasma treatment in an O{sub 2} or C{sub 3}F{sub 8} gas environment in order to induce wettability. The oxygenated-NCD (O-NCD) film surface was hydrophilic and the fluorinated-NCD (F-NCD) surface was hydrophobic. The efficiency of early cell adhesion, which is dependent on the wettability of the cell culture plate and necessary for the growth and proliferation of cells, was 89.62 ± 3.92% on the O-NCD film and 7.78 ± 0.77% on the F-NCD film surface after 3 h of cell culture. The wettability of the NCD film surface was artificially modified using a metal mask and plasma treatment to fabricate a micro-pattern. Four types of micro-patterns were fabricated (line, circle, mesh, and word) on the NCD film surface. We precisely arrayed the neuroblastoma cells on the micro-patterned NCD film surfaces by controlling the surface wettability and cell seeding density. The neuroblastoma cells adhered and proliferated along the O-NCD film surface.

  7. Investigation of surface related leakage current in AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, J.K., E-mail: janeshkaushik@sspl.drdo.in [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Delhi 110054 (India); Balakrishnan, V.R.; Mongia, D.; Kumar, U.; Dayal, S. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Delhi 110054 (India); Panwar, B.S. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Muralidharan, R. [Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560012 (India)

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the study of surface-related mechanisms to explain the high reverse leakage current observed in the in-house fabricated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} passivated AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors. We propose that the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/AlGaN interface in the un-gated regions provides an additional leakage path between the gate and source/drain and may constitute a large component of reverse current. This surface related leakage component of current exhibits both temperature and electric field dependence and its Arrhenius behavior has been experimentally verified using Conductance Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy and temperature dependent reverse leakage current measurements. A thin interfacial amorphous semiconductor layer formed due to inter diffusion at Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/AlGaN interface has been presumed as the source for this surface related leakage. We, therefore, conclude that optimum Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} deposition conditions and careful surface preparation prior to passivation can limit the extent of surface leakage and can thus vastly improve the device performance. - Highlights: • Enhanced leakage in AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors after passivation • Experimental evidence of the presence of extrinsic traps at Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/AlGaN interface • Electron hopping in shallower extended defects and band tail traps at the interface. • Reduction in current collapse due to the virtual gate inhibition by this conduction • However, limitation on the operating voltages due to decrease in breakdown voltage.

  8. Endothelial cell behaviour on gas-plasma-treated PLA surfaces: the roles of surface chemistry and roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amita; Shah, Sarita; Mani, Gopinath; Wenke, Joseph; Agrawal, Mauli

    2011-04-01

    Glow-discharge gas-plasma (GP) treatment has been shown to induce surface modifications such that cell adhesion and growth are enhanced. However, it is not known which gas used in GP treatment is optimal for endothelial cell function. Polylactic acid (PLA) films treated oxygen, argon, or nitrogen GP were characterized using contact angles, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, optical profilometry, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. All three GP treatments decreased the carbon atomic concentration and surface roughness and increased the oxygen atomic concentration. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured on the PLA films for up to 7 days. Based on proliferation and live/dead assays, surface chemistry was shown to have the greatest effect on the attachment, proliferation, and viability of these cells, while roughness did not have a significant influence. Of the different gases, endothelial cell viability, attachment and proliferation were most significantly increased on PLA surfaces treated with oxygen and argon gas plasma. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Analytical modeling of AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures including effects of distributed surface donor states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Nitin, E-mail: nitin@unik.no [Carinthian Tech Research CTR AG, Europastraße 4/1, Technologiepark Villach, A-9524 Villach/St. Magdalen (Austria); Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO7034 (Norway); Fjeldly, Tor A. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO7034 (Norway)

    2014-07-14

    In this paper, a physics based analytical model is presented for calculation of the two-dimensional electron gas density and the bare surface barrier height of AlGaN/AlN/GaN material stacks. The presented model is based on the concept of distributed surface donor states and the self-consistent solution of Poisson equation at the different material interfaces. The model shows good agreement with the reported experimental data and can be used for the design and characterization of advanced GaN devices for power and radio frequency applications.

  10. Reduction of N-linked xylose and fucose by expression of rat beta1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III in tobacco BY-2 cells depends on Golgi enzyme localization domain and genetic elements used for expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karg, Saskia R; Frey, Alexander D; Kallio, Pauli T

    2010-03-01

    Plant-specific N-glycosylation, such as the introduction of core alpha1,3-fucose and beta1,2-xylose residues, is a major obstacle to the utilization of plant cell- or plant-derived recombinant therapeutic proteins. The beta1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnTIII) introduces a bisecting GlcNAc residue into N-glycans, which exerts a high level of substrate mediated control over subsequent modifications, for example inhibiting mammalian core fucosylation. Based on similar findings in plants, we used Nicotianatabacum BY-2 cells to study the effects of localization and expression levels of GnTIII in the remodeling of the plant N-glycosylation pathway. The N-glycans produced by the cells expressing GnTIII were partially bisected and practically devoid of the paucimannosidic type which is typical for N-glycans produced by wildtype BY-2 suspension cultured cells. The proportion of human-compatible N-glycans devoid of fucose and xylose could be increased from an average of 4% on secreted protein from wildtype cells to as high as 59% in cells expressing chimeric GnTIII, named GnTIII(A.th.) replacing its native localization domain with the cytoplasmic tail, transmembrane, and stem region of Arabidopsis thaliana mannosidase II. The changes in N-glycosylation observed were dependent on the catalytic activity of GnTIII, as the expression of catalytically inactive GnTIII mutants did not show a significant effect on N-glycosylation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modification of surface/neuron interfaces for neural cell-type specific responses: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Cen; Kong, Xiangdong; Lee, In-Seop

    2016-01-01

    Surface/neuron interfaces have played an important role in neural repair including neural prostheses and tissue engineered scaffolds. This comprehensive literature review covers recent studies on the modification of surface/neuron interfaces. These interfaces are identified in cases both where the surfaces of substrates or scaffolds were in direct contact with cells and where the surfaces were modified to facilitate cell adhesion and controlling cell-type specific responses. Different sources of cells for neural repair are described, such as pheochromocytoma neuronal-like cell, neural stem cell (NSC), embryonic stem cell (ESC), mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS). Commonly modified methods are discussed including patterned surfaces at micro- or nano-scale, surface modification with conducting coatings, and functionalized surfaces with immobilized bioactive molecules. These approaches to control cell-type specific responses have enormous potential implications in neural repair. (paper)

  12. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on High Surface Area Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavuluri Srinivasu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High surface area nanocrystalline zinc oxide material is fabricated using mesoporous nanostructured carbon as a sacrificial template through combustion process. The resulting material is characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, HR-SEM, and HR-TEM. The nitrogen adsorption measurement indicates that the materials possess BET specific surface area ca. 30 m2/g. Electron microscopy images prove that the zinc oxide spher