Sample records for cell studies based

  1. Murine Stem Cell-Based Retrovirus Production for Marking Primary Mouse Mammary Cells for Metastasis Studies. (United States)

    Beverly, Levi J; Podsypanina, Katrina


    Since the introduction of retroviral vector technology, permanent genetic marking of cells has considerably contributed to the understanding of different physiological and disease processes in vivo. Recent marking strategies aim to elucidate the contribution of cells on the clonal level, and the advent of fluorescent proteins has opened new avenues for the in vivo analysis of gene-marked cells. Gene-modified cells are easily identifiable (e.g., via the introduced fluorescent protein) within whole organ structures, allowing one to measure the contribution of transduced cells to malignant outgrowth. In our laboratory, we use the tetracycline-inducible system to study oncogene cooperation in metastatic progression. We use bicistronic retroviruses expressing the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) and the candidate gene (MIT-gene) or the tTA alone (MIT-Rx) to infect primary mammary cells from mice harboring tetracycline-inducible transgenes. This allows for constitutive expression of the candidate gene and tTA-dependent expression of the inducible oncogene. We also use MIG-based vectors, which allow for constitutive expression of the candidate gene and a green fluorescent protein. Here we describe how to produce retroviral particles carrying both MIT- and MIG-based vectors. Because of the fragility of the retroviral envelope, we do not attempt to concentrate the virus, and we directly use packaging cell media to infect primary epithelial cells (either normal or tumor). Infected cells can be transplanted into recipient mice to investigate metastatic colonization. © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  2. Human cell-based micro electrode array platform for studying neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eYlä-Outinen


    Full Text Available At present, most of the neurotoxicological analyses are based on in vitro and in vivo models utilizing animal cells or animal models. In addition, the used in vitro models are mostly based on molecular biological end-point analyses. Thus, for neurotoxicological screening, human cell-based analysis platforms in which the functional neuronal networks responses for various neurotoxicants can be also detected real-time are highly needed. Microelectrode array (MEA is a method which enables the measurement of functional activity of neuronal cell networks in vitro for long periods of time. Here, we utilize MEA to study the neurotoxicity of methyl mercury chloride (MeHgCl, concentrations 0.5-500 nM to human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived neuronal cell networks exhibiting spontaneous electrical activity. The neuronal cell cultures were matured on MEAs into networks expressing spontaneous spike train-like activity before exposing the cells to MeHgCl for 72 hours. MEA measurements were performed acutely and 24, 48, and 72 hours after the onset of the exposure. Finally, exposed cells were analyzed with traditional molecular biological methods for cell proliferation, cell survival, and gene and protein expression. Our results show that 500 nM MeHgCl decreases the electrical signaling and alters the pharmacologic response of hESC-derived neuronal networks in delayed manner whereas effects can not be detected with qRT-PCR, immunostainings, or proliferation measurements. Thus, we conclude that human cell-based MEA-platform is a sensitive online method for neurotoxicological screening.

  3. Ongoing studies of cell-based therapies for articular cartilage defects in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogura T


    Full Text Available Takahiro Ogura,1 Akihiro Tsuchiya,2 Shuichi Mizuno1 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Funabashi Orthopaedic Hospital Sports Medicine Center, Funabashi, Chiba, Japan Abstract: Recently, cell-based therapies have generated great interest in the repair of articular cartilage defects and degeneration. Surgical treatments for these indications have multiple options, including marrow stimulation, osteochondral autograft transplant, and autologous chondrocyte implantation. The autologous chondrocyte implantation technique has been improved using a cell scaffold and other devices. Meanwhile, advanced cell-based therapies, including cultured stem cell treatment, have been studied in clinical trials. Most studies have been designed and authorized by institutional review boards and/or the regulatory agencies of the investigators’ countries. For cellular products in regenerative medicine, regulations of many countries are amenable to expedited approval. This paper aims to provide an update on ongoing and prospective cell-based therapies, focusing on articular cartilage injury at designated institutions authorized by the Japanese Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Agency. Keywords: autologous chondrocyte implantation, mesenchymal stem cell, knee joint

  4. Novel Modification of HistoGel-Based Cell Block Preparation Method: Improved Sufficiency for Molecular Studies. (United States)

    Rekhtman, Natasha; Buonocore, Darren J; Rudomina, Dorota; Friedlander, Maria; Dsouza, Crisbane; Aggarwal, Gitika; Arcila, Maria; Edelweiss, Marcia; Lin, Oscar


    - Cell block preparation methods vary substantially across institutions and are frequently suboptimal. The growing importance of biomarker testing in the era of targeted therapies makes optimization of cell block preparation critically important. - To develop an improved cell block preparation method. - Ex vivo fine-needle aspirates and scrapes from surgically resected tumors were used to develop an improved HistoGel (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, Massachusetts)-based cell block preparation method. Cellularity yield with the new versus the standard method was assessed in ex vivo split samples and in consecutive clinical fine-needle aspirates processed before (n = 100) and after (n = 100) the new method was implemented in our laboratory. Sufficiency of cell block material for potential molecular studies was estimated by manual cell quantitation. - The key modification in the new method was pretreatment of the pelleted cells with 95% ethanol before the addition of HistoGel (HistoGel + ethanol method). In addition, we optimized the melting conditions of HistoGel and added a dark, inorganic marker to the cell pellets to highlight the desired level of sectioning during microtomy. Cell blocks from ex vivo split samples showed that the HistoGel + ethanol method yielded, on average, an 8.3-fold (range, 1-20) greater cellularity compared with the standard HistoGel-only method. After the switch from the standard HistoGel method to the modified method in our clinical practice, sufficiency of positive fine-needle aspirates for some molecular studies increased from 72% to 97% (P = .002). - We describe a simple and readily adoptable modification of the HistoGel method, which results in substantial improvement in cell capture in cell blocks, leading to significant increase in sufficiency for potential molecular and other ancillary studies.

  5. Study of operating conditions and cell design on the performance of alkaline anion exchange membrane based direct methanol fuel cells (United States)

    Prakash, G. K. Surya; Krause, Frederick C.; Viva, Federico A.; Narayanan, S. R.; Olah, George A.


    Direct methanol fuel cells using an alkaline anion exchange membrane (AAEM) were prepared, studied, and optimized. The effects of fuel composition and electrode materials were investigated. Membrane electrode assemblies fabricated with Tokuyama® AAEM and commercial noble metal catalysts achieved peak power densities between 25 and 168 mW cm-2 depending on the operating temperature, fuel composition, and electrode materials used. Good electrode wettability at the anode was found to be very important for achieving high power densities. The performance of the best AAEM cells was comparable to Nafion®-based cells under similar conditions. Factors limiting the performance of AAEM MEAs were found to be different from those of Nafion® MEAs. Improved electrode kinetics for methanol oxidation in alkaline electrolyte at Pt-Ru are apparent at low current densities. At high current densities, rapid CO2 production converts the hydroxide anions, necessary for methanol oxidation, to bicarbonate and carbonate: consequently, the membrane and interfacial conductivity are drastically reduced. These phenomena necessitate the use of aqueous potassium hydroxide and wettable electrode materials for efficient hydroxide supply to the anode. However, aqueous hydroxide is not needed at the cathode. Compared to AAEM-based fuel cells, methanol fuel cells based on proton-conducting Nafion® retain better performance at high current densities by providing the benefit of carbon dioxide rejection.

  6. Vapor cell based sodium laser guide star mechanism study lab-bench (United States)

    Wang, Hongyan; Li, Lihang; Luo, Ruiyao; Li, Lei; Ning, Yu; Xi, Fengjie; Xu, Xiaojun


    Sodium laser guide star (LGS) is the key for the success of modern adaptive optics (AO) supported large ground based telescopes, however, for many field applications, Sodium LGS's brightness is still a limited factor. Large amounts of theoretical efforts have been paid to optimize Sodium LGS exciting parameters, that is, to fully discover potential of harsh environment surrounding mesospheric extreme thin sodium atoms under resonant excitation, whether quantum or Monte Carlo based. But till to now, only limited proposals are demonstrated with on-sky test due to the high cost and engineering complexities. To bridge the gap between theoretical modeling and on-sky test, we built a magnetic field controllable sodium cell based lab-bench, which includes a small scale sum-frequency single mode 589nm laser, with added amplitude, polarization, and phase modulators. We could perform quantitative resonant fluorescence study under single, multi-frequency, side-band optical re-pumping exciting with different polarization, also we could perform optical field modulation to study Larmor precession which is considered as one of devils of Sodium LGS, and we have the ability to generate beams contain orbital angular moment. Our preliminary sodium cell based optical re-pumping experiments have shown excellent consistence with Bloch equation predicted results, other experimental results will also be presented in the report, and these results will give a direct support that sodium cell based lab-bench study could help a Sodium LGS scientists a lot before their on-sky test.

  7. Paper-based analytical devices for electrochemical study of the breathing process of red blood cells. (United States)

    Lin, Xiang-Yun; Wu, Ling-Ling; Pan, Zhong-Qin; Shi, Chuan-Guo; Bao, Ning; Gu, Hai-Ying


    Herein we utilized the filter paper to physically trap red blood cells (RBC) to observe the breathing process of red blood cells based on the permeability of the filter paper. By integrating double-sided conductive carbon tape as the working electrodes, the device could be applied to monitor electrochemical responses of RBC for up to hundreds of minutes. The differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) peak currents increased under oxygen while decreased under nitrogen, indicating that RBC could take in and release oxygen. Further studies demonstrated that the RBC suspension could more effectively take in oxygen than the solution of hemoglobin and the supernatant of RBC, suggesting the natural advantage of RBC on oxygen transportation. This study implied that simple paper-based analytical devices might be effectively applied in the study of gas-participating reactions and biochemical detections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary Studies on Immobilized Cells-Based Microbial Fuel Cell System on Its Power Generation Performance


    Mohd Hadi Mesran; Syafikah Mamat; Yee Rui Pang; Tan Yi Hong; Muneera Z; Mohd Nazlee Faisal M. Ghazali; Md Abbas Ali; Nik Azmi Nik Mahmood


    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is considered an alternative energy production technology that uses the degradation ability of microbes toward organic matters. The resultant products are electrons that will be transferred to the electrode and flows to cathode of the MFC through an external circuit to produce current. The flow of electrons and protons can be channeled to an external circuit to produce electricity. Although the MFC has many advantages, the power density produced is still low. This ha...

  9. Single cells and intracellular processes studied by a plasmonic-based electrochemical impedance microscopy (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Foley, Kyle; Shan, Xiaonan; Wang, Shaopeng; Eaton, Seron; Nagaraj, Vinay J.; Wiktor, Peter; Patel, Urmez; Tao, Nongjian


    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is a crucial tool for the detection and study of various biological substances, from DNA and proteins to viruses and bacteria. It does not require any labelling species, and methods based on it have been developed to study cellular processes (such as cell spreading, adhesion, invasion, toxicology and mobility). However, data have so far lacked spatial information, which is essential for investigating heterogeneous processes and imaging high-throughput microarrays. Here, we report an electrochemical impedance microscope based on surface plasmon resonance that resolves local impedance with submicrometre spatial resolution. We have used an electrochemical impedance microscope to monitor the dynamics of cellular processes (apoptosis and electroporation of individual cells) with millisecond time resolution. The high spatial and temporal resolution makes it possible to study individual cells, but also resolve subcellular structures and processes without labels, and with excellent detection sensitivity (~2 pS). We also describe a model that simulates cellular and electrochemical impedance microscope images based on local dielectric constant and conductivity.

  10. Fiber-based optical trapping for cell mechanics study and microrheology (United States)

    Ti, Chaoyang; Thomas, Gawain M.; Yu, Xiaokong; Wen, Qi; Tao, Mingjiang; Liu, Yuxiang


    In this work, we developed fiber based optical trapping system and explored its applications in biology and physics. We aim to replace objective lenses with optical fibers, both for optical trapping and particle position detection. Compared with objective lens based counterparts, fiber based optical trapping systems are small, low-cost, integratable, independent of objective lenses, and can work in turbid mediums. These advantages make fiber optical trapping systems ideal for applications in tightly confined spaces as well as integration with various microscopy techniques. We demonstrate the applications of fiber optical trapping systems in both single-cell mechanics and microrheology study of asphalt binders. Fiber optical trapping system is being used to study mechanical properties of viscoelastic hydrogel, as an important extra cellular matrix (ECM) material that is used to understand the force propagation on cell membranes on 2D substrates or in 3D compartments. Moreover, the fiber optical trapping system has also been demonstrated to measure the cellular response to the external mechanical stimuli. Direct measurements of cellular traction forces in 3D compartments are underway. In addition, fiber optical trapping systems are used to measure the microscale viscoelastic properties of asphalt binders, in order to improve the fundamental understanding of the relationship between mechanical and chemical properties of asphalt binders. This fundamental understanding could help targeted asphalt recycling and pavement maintenance. Fiber optical trapping systems are versatile and highly potential tools that can find applications in various areas ranging from mechanobiology to complex fluids.

  11. Subsequent vitiligo after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A nationwide population-based cohort study from Korea. (United States)

    Bae, Jung Min; Choi, Kwang Hyun; Jung, Han Mi; Kim, Sook Young; Kim, Miri; Kim, Gyung Moon; Yu, Dong Soo; Lee, Young Bok


    Subsequent vitiligo after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been described sporadically in case series. To investigate the incidence and risk factors of subsequent vitiligo after HSCT. A nationwide, population-based cohort study was performed using the Korean National Health Insurance Claims Database from 2009 to 2013. All HSCT recipients who had undergone HSCT between 2010 and 2011 and not treatment for vitiligo in 2009 (to exclude preexisting active vitiligo) were included in the HSCT recipient group, and an age- and sex-matched control group without HSCT was also established. A total of 2747 HSCT recipients and 8241 controls were enrolled. Newly acquired vitiligo occurred in 1.06% of HSCT recipients between 2010 and 2013, and there was a significant increase (OR 3.130, 95% CI 1.859-5.271) in cases of vitiligo in HSCT recipients compared with controls (0.34%). Allogeneic HSCT (OR 5.593, 95% CI 1.628-19.213) and bone marrow-sourced stem cells (as compared with peripheral blood-sourced stem cells; OR 2.492, 95% CI 1.114-5.576) were independently associated with the development of vitiligo after HSCT. Medical record review was not available. Vitiligo developed at a significantly increased rate after HSCT compared with controls. Allogeneic HSCT and bone marrow-sourced stem cells were independent risk factors. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Study on Zinc Oxide-Based Electrolytes in Low-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. (United States)

    Xia, Chen; Qiao, Zheng; Feng, Chu; Kim, Jung-Sik; Wang, Baoyuan; Zhu, Bin


    Semiconducting-ionic conductors have been recently described as excellent electrolyte membranes for low-temperature operation solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs). In the present work, two new functional materials based on zinc oxide (ZnO)-a legacy material in semiconductors but exceptionally novel to solid state ionics-are developed as membranes in SOFCs for the first time. The proposed ZnO and ZnO-LCP (La/Pr doped CeO₂) electrolytes are respectively sandwiched between two Ni 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 Li-oxide (NCAL) electrodes to construct fuel cell devices. The assembled ZnO fuel cell demonstrates encouraging power outputs of 158-482 mW cm -2 and high open circuit voltages (OCVs) of 1-1.06 V at 450-550 °C, while the ZnO-LCP cell delivers significantly enhanced performance with maximum power density of 864 mW cm -2 and OCV of 1.07 V at 550 °C. The conductive properties of the materials are investigated. As a consequence, the ZnO electrolyte and ZnO-LCP composite exhibit extraordinary ionic conductivities of 0.09 and 0.156 S cm -1 at 550 °C, respectively, and the proton conductive behavior of ZnO is verified. Furthermore, performance enhancement of the ZnO-LCP cell is studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which is found to be as a result of the significantly reduced grain boundary and electrode polarization resistances. These findings indicate that ZnO is a highly promising alternative semiconducting-ionic membrane to replace the electrolyte materials for advanced LT-SOFCs, which in turn provides a new strategic pathway for the future development of electrolytes.

  13. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Bennett, William R.


    NASAs Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair Lunar Lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced Lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable batteries with extremely high specific energy as compared to state-of-the-art. The specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery-level at 0 degrees Celsius ( C) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation between 0 and 30 C and 200 cycles are targeted. Electrode materials that were considered include layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. Advanced cell chemistry options were evaluated with respect to multiple quantitative and qualitative attributes while considering their projected performance at the end of the available development timeframe. Following a rigorous ranking process, a chemistry that combines a lithiated nickel manganese cobalt oxide Li(LiNMC)O2 cathode with a silicon-based composite anode was selected as the technology that can potentially offer the best combination of safety, specific energy, energy density, and likelihood of success.

  14. Microfluidic Concentric Gradient Generator Design for High-Throughput Cell-Based Studies. (United States)

    Ezra Tsur, Elishai; Zimerman, Michal; Maor, Idan; Elrich, Avner; Nahmias, Yaakov


    Gradients of diffusible signaling molecules play important role in various processes, ranging from cell differentiation to toxicological evaluation. Microfluidic technology provides an accurate control of tempospatial conditions. However, current microfluidic platforms are not designed to handle multiple gradients and cell populations simultaneously. Here, we demonstrate a rapidly adaptable microfluidic design able to expose multiple cell populations to an array of chemical gradients. Our design is based on pressure-equilibrated concentric channels and a pressure-dissipating control layer, facilitating the seeding of multiple cell populations in a single device. The design was numerically evaluated and experimentally validated. The device consists of 8 radiating stimuli channels and 12 circular cell culture channels, creating an array of 96 different continuous gradients that can be simultaneously monitored over time.

  15. On the cells of origin of radiogenic thyroid cancer: New studies based on an old idea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, K.H.; Domann, F.E.; Groch, K.M.


    We have presented evidence that the functional thyroid follicles (follicular units, FU) which are formed in grafts of monodispersed rat thyroid cells, and hence the thyroid tumors which later develop in such grafts, are clonal in origin. Recent studies have been designed to investigate: whether cell number-dependent inhibition of promotion-progression is mediated by remote hormonal feed-back, local cell-cell interactions, or both; the cell population kinetics of the clonogen subpopulation during goitrogenesis and goiter involution; and the effect of prolonged exposure to high levels of TSH (thyrotropin) on the capacity of the clonogens to give rise to functional FU. The results indicate that local cell-cell interactions play an important role in the cell number-dependent suppression of neoplastic promotion-progression. They also show that if sufficient thyroid cells are grafted, the thyroid-pituitary axis can be reestablished in thyroidectomized rats fed normal diets. In such animals given iodine deficient diets, the FU that develop in the thyroid grafts shift their secretory pattern to increase the ratio of T3 (triiodothyronine) to T4 (thyroxine), and thus conserve the available iodine. Finally, the clonogenic subpopulation is conserved during both goitrogenesis and goiter involution. When they are transplanted to thyroidectomized recipients, clonogens from two types of goiters form FU that are morphologically indistinguishable from those that develop in grafts of normal thyroid clonogens. Furthermore, the secretion of T3 and T4 by such grafts is dependent on the grafted clonogen number, and hence FU formation, and not on the total number of thyroid cells transplanted. We conclude that the thyroid clonogens, the presumptive cancer progenitor cells, have many of the characteristics of stem cells.

  16. On the cells of origin of radiogenic thyroid cancer: New studies based on an old idea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, K.H.; Domann, F.E.; Groch, K.M.


    We have presented evidence that the functional thyroid follicles (follicular units, FU) which are formed in grafts of monodispersed rat thyroid cells, and hence the thyroid tumors which later develop in such grafts, are clonal in origin. Recent studies have been designed to investigate: whether cell number-dependent inhibition of promotion-progression is mediated by remote hormonal feed-back, local cell-cell interactions, or both; the cell population kinetics of the clonogen subpopulation during goitrogenesis and goiter involution; and the effect of prolonged exposure to high levels of TSH (thyrotropin) on the capacity of the clonogens to give rise to functional FU. The results indicate that local cell-cell interactions play an important role in the cell number-dependent suppression of neoplastic promotion-progression. They also show that if sufficient thyroid cells are grafted, the thyroid-pituitary axis can be reestablished in thyroidectomized rats fed normal diets. In such animals given iodine deficient diets, the FU that develop in the thyroid grafts shift their secretory pattern to increase the ratio of T3 (triiodothyronine) to T4 (thyroxine), and thus conserve the available iodine. Finally, the clonogenic subpopulation is conserved during both goitrogenesis and goiter involution. When they are transplanted to thyroidectomized recipients, clonogens from two types of goiters form FU that are morphologically indistinguishable from those that develop in grafts of normal thyroid clonogens. Furthermore, the secretion of T3 and T4 by such grafts is dependent on the grafted clonogen number, and hence FU formation, and not on the total number of thyroid cells transplanted. We conclude that the thyroid clonogens, the presumptive cancer progenitor cells, have many of the characteristics of stem cells.

  17. SupT1 Cell Infusion as a Possible Cell-Based Therapy for HIV: Results from a Pilot Study in Hu-PBMC BRGS Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Fior


    Full Text Available In a previous in vitro study, the SupT1 cell line was explored as a decoy target for HIV-1, proposing SupT1 cell infusion as a possible cell-based therapy for HIV. In the present work, the previous in vitro model was translated into an in vivo setting. Specifically, Hu-PBMC BRGS mice were infected with a high input of HIV-1 LAI (100,000 TCID50, and 40 million 30 Gy-irradiated SupT1 cells were infused weekly for 4 weeks as a therapy. Blood samples were taken to monitor CD4+ T cell count and viral load, and mice were monitored daily for signs of illness. At the earliest time point analyzed (Week 1, there was a significantly lower plasma viral load (~10-fold in all animals treated with SupT1 cell infusion, associated with a higher CD4+ T cell count. At later time points, infection proceeded with robust viral replication and evident CD4+ T cell depletion, except in one mouse that showed complete suppression of viral replication and preservation of CD4+ T cell count. No morbidity or mortality was associated with SupT1 cell infusion. The interesting tendencies observed in the generated data suggest that this approach should be further investigated as a possible cell-based HIV therapy.

  18. Rate of Comorbidities in Giant Cell Arteritis: A Population-based Study. (United States)

    Mohammad, Aladdin J; Englund, Martin; Turesson, Carl; Tomasson, Gunnar; Merkel, Peter A


    To compare the rate of occurrence of comorbidities, including severe infections, in a population-based cohort of patients with biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis (GCA) with a reference population in Southern Sweden. The study included a population-based cohort of biopsy-proven GCA cases diagnosed between 1998 and 2010 from the Skåne region in Southern Sweden (population: 1.2 million). For each patient, 4 reference subjects were identified from the general population and matched for age, sex, area of residence, and date of diagnosis of GCA. Using the Skåne Healthcare Register, comorbidities and severe infections (requiring hospitalization) diagnosed after GCA onset were identified. The rate of the first occurrence of each comorbidity was the result of dividing the number of subjects with a given comorbidity by the person-years of followup. The rate ratio (RR; GCA:reference population) was also calculated. There were 768 patients (571 women) with GCA and 3066 reference persons included in the study. The RR were significantly elevated for osteoporosis (2.81, 95% CI 2.33-3.37), followed by venous thromboembolic diseases (2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.40), severe infections (1.85, 95% CI 1.57-2.18), thyroid diseases (1.55, 95% CI 1.25-1.91), cerebrovascular accidents (1.40, 95% CI 1.12-1.74), and diabetes mellitus (1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.56). The RR for ischemic heart disease was elevated, but did not reach statistical significance (1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.44). Patients with GCA have higher rates of selected comorbidities, including severe infections, compared with a reference population. Several of these comorbidities may be related to treatment with glucocorticosteroids, emphasizing the unmet need to find alternative treatments for GCA.

  19. Cell-cycle protein expression in a population-based study of ovarian and endometrial cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley S. Felix


    Full Text Available Aberrant expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK inhibitors is implicated in the carcinogenesis of many cancers, including ovarian and endometrial cancers. We examined associations between CDK inhibitor expression, cancer risk factors, tumor characteristics, and survival outcomes among ovarian and endometrial cancer patients enrolled in a population-based case control study. Expression (negative vs. positive of three CDK inhibitors (p16, p21, p27 and ki67 was examined with immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for associations between biomarkers, risk factors, and tumor characteristics. Survival outcomes were available for ovarian cancer patients and examined using Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards regression. Among ovarian cancer patients (n=175, positive p21 expression was associated with endometrioid tumors (OR=12.22, 95% CI=1.45-102.78 and higher overall survival (log-rank p=0.002. In Cox models adjusted for stage, grade, and histology, the association between p21 expression and overall survival was borderline significant (hazard ratio=0.65, 95% CI=0.42-1.05. Among endometrial cancer patients (n=289, positive p21 expression was inversely associated with age (OR ≥ 65 years of age=0.25, 95% CI=0.07-0.84 and current smoking status (OR: 0.33, 95% CI 0.15, 0.72 compared to negative expression. Our study showed heterogeneity in expression of cell-cycle proteins associated with risk factors and tumor characteristics of gynecologic cancers. Future studies to assess these markers of etiological classification and behavior may be warranted.

  20. Oxidant-antioxidant status in Egyptian children with sickle cell anemia: a single center based study. (United States)

    El-Ghamrawy, Mona Kamal; Hanna, Wagdi Maurice; Abdel-Salam, Amina; El-Sonbaty, Marwa M; Youness, Eman R; Adel, Ahmed


    the present study was conducted to investigate the oxidant-antioxidant status in Egyptian children with sickle cell anemia. the serum levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAO), paraoxonase (PON), vitamin E, nitrite, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in 40 steady state children with homozygous sickle cell anemia (24 males and 16 females) and 20 apparently healthy age- and gender-matched controls. mean serum TAO, PON, vitamin E, and nitrite levels were significantly lower in the group with sickle cell anemia, whereas mean serum MDA was significantly higher in these children compared to controls. No significant differences in mean levels of TAO, PON, nitrite, vitamin E, and MDA were found in sickle cell anemia patients receiving hydroxyurea when compared with those not receiving hydroxyurea. A significant negative correlation between serum nitrite and the occurrence of vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) was observed (r=-0.3, p=0.04). PON level was found to be positively correlated with patients' weight and BMI (r=-0.4, p=0.01; r=-0.7, psickle cell anemia have chronic oxidative stress that may result in increased VOC, and decreased serum nitrite may be associated with increases in VOC frequency. A novel finding in this study is the decrease in PON level in these patients, which is an interesting subject for further research. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Bacterial meningitis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: a population-based prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, K. E. B.; Brouwer, M. C.; van der Ende, A.; van de Beek, D.


    We performed a nationwide prospective cohort study on the epidemiology and clinical features of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. Patients with a medical history of autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) were identified from the cohort performed from March

  2. Iron overload of human colon adenocarcinoma cells studied by synchrotron-based X-ray techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihucz, Victor G.; Meirer, Florian; Polgári, Zsófia; Réti, Andrea; Pepponi, Giancarlo; Ingerle, Dieter; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Streli, Christina


    Fast- and slow-proliferating human adenocarcinoma colorectal cells, HT-29 and HCA-7, respectively, overloaded with transferrin (Tf), Fe(III) citrate, Fe(III) chloride and Fe(II) sulfate were studied by synchrotron radiation total-reflection X-ray spectrometry (TXRF), TXRF-X-ray absorption near edge

  3. Second Primary Malignancies in Mantle Cell Lymphoma: A US Population-based Study. (United States)

    Shah, Binay Kumar; Khanal, Amit


    The risk of second primary malignancy (SPM) in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is not well-known. In this population-based study, we analyzed rates of SPM in adult patients with MCL. We selected adult (≥18 years) patients with MCL as first primary malignancy diagnosed during January 1992 to December 2011 from National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 13 database. We used multiple standardized incidence ratio (MP-SIR) session of SEER(*) stat software to calculate the risk of second primary malignancies. Among 3,149 patients, 261 (8.29%) developed 287 second primary malignancies with observed/expected (O/E) ratio of 1.32 (95% confidence interval (CI=1.17-1.48, p<0.001). The median time to SPM from the time of diagnosis was 47 months (range=6 months to 17.91 years). The significant excess risks were observed for skin, excluding basal and squamous cancer, (N=22, O/E=2.24, CI=1.4-3.39, p<0.001), thyroid malignancy (O/E=3, CI=1.1-6.52, p<0.01), acute myeloid leukemia (O/E=7.74, CI=4.54-13.94, p<0.001), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (O/E=7.27, CI=4.44-11.23, p<0.001) and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (O/E=3.79, CI=2.64-5.27, p<0.001). The risk of malignancies of brain, thyroid, rectum and anal canal were higher within the first two years of diagnosis of MCL. Risk of skin cancer, excluding basal and squamous cancer, was higher after two years of latency. There is significantly higher risk of second primary malignancies in patients with mantle cell lymphoma compared to the general population. Patients may benefit from cancer-specific screening during follow-up. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Chitosan-hyaluronan based 3D co-culture platform for studying the crosstalk of lung cancer cells and mesenchymal stem cells. (United States)

    Han, Hao-Wei; Hsu, Shan-Hui


    The controversial roles of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in lung cancer development are not yet resolved because of the lack of an extracellular environment that mimics the tumor microenvironment. Three-dimensional (3D) culture system is an emerging research tool for biomedical applications such as drug screening. In this study, MSCs and human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells (A549) were co-cultured on a thin biomaterial-based substratum (hyaluronan-grafted chitosan, CS-HA; ∼2μm), and they were self-organized into the 3D tumor co-spheroids with core-shell structure. The gene expression levels of tumorigenicity markers in cancer cells associated with cancer stemness, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) property, and cell mobility were up-regulated for more than twofold in the MSC-tumor co-spheroids, through the promoted expression of certain tumor enhancers and the direct cell-cell interaction. To verify the different extents of tumorigenicity, A549 cells or those co-cultured with MSCs were transplanted into zebrafish embryos for evaluation in vivo. The tumorigenicity obtained from the zebrafish xenotransplantation model was consistent with that observed in vitro. These evidences suggest that the CS-HA substrate-based 3D co-culture platform for cancer cells and MSCs may be a convenient tool for studying the cell-cell interaction in a tumor-like microenvironment and potentially for cancer drug testing. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found in several types of tumor tissues. However, the controversial roles of MSCs in cancer development are still unsolved. Chitosan and hyaluronan are commonly used materials in the biomedical field. In the current study, we co-cultured lung cancer cells and MSCs on the planar hyaluronan-grafted chitosan (CS-HA) hybrid substrates, and discovered that lung cancer cells and MSCs were rapidly self-assembled into 3D tumor spheroids with core-shell structure on the substrates after only two days in culture. Therefore, CS

  5. Based Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective community-based study of pregnant women in rural communi- ties of south central Ethiopia ... pregnancy outcome were stillbirth (19/1000 births), perinatal mortality (45/1000 births) and neonatal mortality (37/1000 live births). Poor birth ..... ated widi maternal under-nutrition and age (teen- agers giving birdi to ...

  6. Fluid-Structure Interactions Analysis of Shear-Induced Modulation of a Mesenchymal Stem Cell: An Image-Based Study. (United States)

    Ghaemi, Roza Vaez; Vahidi, Bahman; Sabour, Mohammad Hossein; Haghighipour, Nooshin; Alihemmati, Zakieh


    Although effects of biochemical modulation of stem cells have been widely investigated, only recent advances have been made in the identification of mechanical conditioning on cell signaling pathways. Experimental investigations quantifying the micromechanical environment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are challenging while computational approaches can predict their behavior due to in vitro stimulations. This study introduces a 3D cell-specific finite element model simulating large deformations of MSCs. Here emphasizing cell mechanical modulation which represents the most challenging multiphysics phenomena in sub-cellular level, we focused on an approach attempting to elicit unique responses of a cell under fluid flow. Fluorescent staining of MSCs was performed in order to visualize the MSC morphology and develop a geometrically accurate model of it based on a confocal 3D image. We developed a 3D model of a cell fixed in a microchannel under fluid flow and then solved the numerical model by fluid-structure interactions method. By imposing flow characteristics representative of vigorous in vitro conditions, the model predicts that the employed external flow induces significant localized effective stress in the nucleo-cytoplasmic interface and average cell deformation of about 40%. Moreover, it can be concluded that a lower strain level is made in the cell by the oscillatory flow as compared with steady flow, while same ranges of effective stress are recorded inside the cell in both conditions. The deeper understanding provided by this study is beneficial for better design of single cell in vitro studies. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. To Stretch the Boundary of Secondary Metabolite Production in Plant Cell-Based Bioprocessing: Anthocyanin as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang


    Full Text Available Plant cells and tissue cultures hold great promise for controlled production of a myriad of useful secondary metabolites on demand. The current yield and productivity cannot fulfill the commercial goal of a plant cell-based bioprocess for the production of most secondary metabolites. In order to stretch the boundary, recent advances, new directions and opportunities in plant cell-based bioprocessing, have been critically examined for the 10 years from 1992 to 2002. A review of the literature indicated that most of the R&D work was devoted predominantly to studies at an empirical level. A rational approach to molecular plant cell bioprocessing based on the fundamental understanding of metabolic pathways and their regulations is urgently required to stimulate further advances; however, the strategies and technical framework are still being developed. It is the aim of this review to take a step forward in framing workable strategies and technologies for molecular plant cell-based bioprocessing. Using anthocyanin biosynthesis as a case study, an integrated postgenomic approach has been proposed. This combines the functional analysis of metabolic pathways for biosynthesis of a particular metabolite from profiling of gene expression and protein expression to metabolic profiling. A global correlation not only can thus be established at the three molecular levels, but also places emphasis on the interactions between primary metabolism and secondary metabolism; between competing and/or complimentary pathways; and between biosynthetic and post-biosynthetic events.

  8. Schiff base polymer based on triphenylamine moieties in the main chain. Characterization and studies in solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez, C.O. [Instituto de Ciencias Químicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Avda. Las Encinas 220, Campus Isla Teja, Valdivia (Chile); Bèrnede, J.C. [L' UNAM, Moltech Anjou, UMR 6200, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, Nantes F-44000 (France); Cattin, L. [L' UNAM, Institut Jean Rouxel (IMN), UMR 6502, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, Nantes F-44000 (France); Makha, M. [L' UNAM, Moltech Anjou, UMR 6200, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, Nantes F-44000 (France); Gatica, N. [Departamento de Polímeros, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Concepción, Avda. Edmundo Larenas 129, Concepción (Chile)


    Polytriphenylamine (PTPA), a Schiff base polymer containing triphenylamine (TPA) segments and whose monomer contains triphenylamine and thiophene end groups, was synthesized. The monomer structure enabled the polymerization to be performed under conditions similar to those of thiophene. Oxidative coupling using FeCl{sub 3} as oxidizing agent in anhydrous CHCl{sub 3} medium was employed for the polymer synthesis. Scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the polymer. PTPA exhibited high thermal stability with a mass loss of 13.3 % at 546.5 °C. The fluorescence spectrum showed emission at 300–550 nm and the optical band gap was found to be 2.6 eV. It was also established that PTPA forms complexes with Lewis acids, e.g. MoO{sub 3} and CuI. Its absorption band widened and extended up to the near-IR. It was seen that PTPA is rich in π-electrons and thus can act as electron donor. The value of the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) was − 5.35 eV indicating its potential application in optoelectronic devices. An attempt was also made to investigate the photovoltaic potential of PTPA. Organic photovoltaic devices with various buffer layer structures, namely ITO/CuI/PTPA/C{sub 60}/BCP/Al, ITO/MoO{sub 3}/PTPA/C{sub 60}/BCP/Al, and ITO/MoO{sub 3}/CuI/PTPA/C{sub 60}/BCP/Al, where ITO stands for indium tin oxide and BCP for bathocuproine, were utilized for the studies. Power conversion efficiency of these devices ranged between 0.21 and 0.43% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm{sup −2}). This result proved that polymers containing TPA in the main chain hold promising properties that would allow their use in photovoltaic devices. - Highlights: • A Schiff base polymer with triphenylamine and thiophene segments was synthesized. • In organic cells, the highest efficiency was obtained in a MoO{sub 3}/CuI double layer. • Polymer exhibited a power conversion efficiency between 0.21 and 0.43 %.

  9. Semantic Mining based on graph theory and ontologies. Case Study: Cell Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Rangel


    Full Text Available In this paper we use concepts from graph theory and cellular biology represented as ontologies, to carry out semantic mining tasks on signaling pathway networks. Specifically, the paper describes the semantic enrichment of signaling pathway networks. A cell signaling network describes the basic cellular activities and their interactions. The main contribution of this paper is in the signaling pathway research area, it proposes a new technique to analyze and understand how changes in these networks may affect the transmission and flow of information, which produce diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Our approach is based on three concepts from graph theory (modularity, clustering and centrality frequently used on social networks analysis. Our approach consists into two phases: the first uses the graph theory concepts to determine the cellular groups in the network, which we will call them communities; the second uses ontologies for the semantic enrichment of the cellular communities. The measures used from the graph theory allow us to determine the set of cells that are close (for example, in a disease, and the main cells in each community. We analyze our approach in two cases: TGF-ß and the Alzheimer Disease.

  10. The study of electrochemical cell taught by problem-based learning (United States)

    Srichaitung, Paisan


    According to the teaching activity of Chemistry, researcher found that students were not able to seek self knowledge even applied knowledge to their everyday life. Therefore, the researcher is interested in creating an activity to have students constructed their knowledge, science process skills, and can apply knowledge in their everyday life. The researcher presented form of teaching activity of electrochemical cell by using problem-based learning for Mathayom five students of Thai Christian School. The teaching activity focused on electron transfer in galvanic cell. In this activity, the researcher assigned students to design the electron transfer in galvanic cell using any solution that could light up the bulb. Then students were separated into a group of two, which were total seven groups. Each group of students searched the information about the electron transfer in galvanic cell from books, internet, or other sources of information. After students received concepts, or knowledge they searched for, Students designed and did the experiment. Finally, the students in each groups had twenty minutes to give a presentation in front of the classroom about the electron transfer in galvanic using any solution to light up the bulb with showing the experiment, and five minutes to answer their classmates' questions. Giving the presentation took four periods with total seven groups. After students finished their presentation, the researcher had students discussed and summarized the teaching activity's main idea of electron transfer in galvanic. Then, researcher observed students' behavior in each group found that 85.7 percentages of total students developed science process skills, and transferred their knowledge through presentation completely. When students done the post test, the researcher found that 92.85 percentages of total students were able to explain the concept of galvanic cell, described the preparation and the selection of experimental equipment. Furthermore

  11. Scaffold-based delivery of autologous mesenchymal stem cells for mandibular distraction osteogenesis: preliminary studies in a porcine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyang Sun

    Full Text Available Bone regeneration through distraction osteogenesis (DO is promising but remarkably slow. To accelerate it, autologous mesenchymal stem cells have been directly injected to the distraction site in a few recent studies. Compared to direct injection, a scaffold-based method can provide earlier cell delivery with potentially better controlled cell distribution and retention. This pilot project investigated a scaffold-based cell-delivery approach in a porcine mandibular DO model.Eleven adolescent domestic pigs were used for two major sets of studies. The in-vitro set established methodologies to: aspirate bone marrow from the tibia; isolate, characterize and expand bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs; enhance BM-MSC osteogenic differentiation using FGF-2; and confirm cell integration with a gelatin-based Gelfoam scaffold. The in-vivo set transplanted autologous stem cells into the mandibular distraction sites using Gelfoam scaffolds; completed a standard DO-course and assessed bone regeneration by macroscopic, radiographic and histological methods. Repeated-measure ANOVAs and t-tests were used for statistical analyses.From aspirated bone marrow, multi-potent, heterogeneous BM-MSCs purified from hematopoietic stem cell contamination were obtained. FGF-2 significantly enhanced pig BM-MSC osteogenic differentiation and proliferation, with 5 ng/ml determined as the optimal dosage. Pig BM-MSCs integrated readily with Gelfoam and maintained viability and proliferative ability. After integration with Gelfoam scaffolds, 2.4-5.8×10(7 autologous BM-MSCs (undifferentiated or differentiated were transplanted to each experimental DO site. Among 8 evaluable DO sites included in the final analyses, the experimental DO sites demonstrated less interfragmentary mobility, more advanced gap obliteration, higher mineral content and faster mineral apposition than the control sites, and all transplanted scaffolds were completely degraded.It is technically

  12. In question: the scientific value of preclinical safety pharmacology and toxicology studies with cell-based therapies. (United States)

    Broichhausen, Christiane; Riquelme, Paloma; Ahrens, Norbert; Wege, Anja K; Koehl, Gudrun E; Schlitt, Hans J; Banas, Bernhard; Fändrich, Fred; Geissler, Edward K; Hutchinson, James A


    A new cell-based medicinal product containing human regulatory macrophages, known as Mreg_UKR, has been developed and conforms to expectations of a therapeutic drug. Here, Mreg_UKR was subjected to pharmacokinetic, safety pharmacology, and toxicological testing, which identified no adverse reactions. These results would normally be interpreted as evidence of the probable clinical safety of Mreg_UKR; however, we contend that, owing to their uncertain biological relevance, our data do not fully support this conclusion. This leads us to question whether there is adequate scientific justification for preclinical safety testing of similar novel cell-based medicinal products using animal models. In earlier work, two patients were treated with regulatory macrophages prior to kidney transplantation. In our opinion, the absence of acute or chronic adverse effects in these cases is the most convincing available evidence of the likely safety of Mreg_UKR in future recipients. On this basis, we consider that safety information from previous clinical investigations of related cell products should carry greater weight than preclinical data when evaluating the safety profile of novel cell-based medicinal products. By extension, we argue that omitting extensive preclinical safety studies before conducting small-scale exploratory clinical investigations of novel cell-based medicinal products data may be justifiable in some instances.

  13. In question: the scientific value of preclinical safety pharmacology and toxicology studies with cell-based therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Broichhausen


    Full Text Available A new cell-based medicinal product containing human regulatory macrophages, known as Mreg_UKR, has been developed and conforms to expectations of a therapeutic drug. Here, Mreg_UKR was subjected to pharmacokinetic, safety pharmacology, and toxicological testing, which identified no adverse reactions. These results would normally be interpreted as evidence of the probable clinical safety of Mreg_UKR; however, we contend that, owing to their uncertain biological relevance, our data do not fully support this conclusion. This leads us to question whether there is adequate scientific justification for preclinical safety testing of similar novel cell-based medicinal products using animal models. In earlier work, two patients were treated with regulatory macrophages prior to kidney transplantation. In our opinion, the absence of acute or chronic adverse effects in these cases is the most convincing available evidence of the likely safety of Mreg_UKR in future recipients. On this basis, we consider that safety information from previous clinical investigations of related cell products should carry greater weight than preclinical data when evaluating the safety profile of novel cell-based medicinal products. By extension, we argue that omitting extensive preclinical safety studies before conducting small-scale exploratory clinical investigations of novel cell-based medicinal products data may be justifiable in some instances.

  14. Compartmental Hollow Fiber Capillary Membrane–Based Bioreactor Technology for In Vitro Studies on Red Blood Cell Lineage Direction of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (United States)

    Housler, Greggory J.; Miki, Toshio; Schmelzer, Eva; Pekor, Christopher; Zhang, Xiaokui; Kang, Lin; Voskinarian-Berse, Vanessa; Abbot, Stewart; Zeilinger, Katrin


    Continuous production of red blood cells (RBCs) in an automated closed culture system using hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) progenitor cell populations is of interest for clinical application because of the high demand for blood transfusions. Previously, we introduced a four-compartment bioreactor that consisted of two bundles of hollow fiber microfiltration membranes for transport of culture medium (forming two medium compartments), interwoven with one bundle of hollow fiber membranes for transport of oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and other gases (forming one gas compartment). Small-scale prototypes were developed of the three-dimensional (3D) perfusion cell culture systems, which enable convection-based mass transfer and integral oxygenation in the cell compartment. CD34+ HSC were isolated from human cord blood units using a magnetic separation procedure. Cells were inoculated into 2- or 8-mL scaled-down versions of the previously designed 800-mL cell compartment devices and perfused with erythrocyte proliferation and differentiation medium. First, using the small-scale 2-mL analytical scale bioreactor, with an initial seeding density of 800,000 cells/mL, we demonstrated approximately 100-fold cell expansion and differentiation after 7 days of culture. An 8-mL laboratory-scale bioreactor was then used to show pseudocontinuous production by intermediately harvesting cells. Subsequently, we were able to use a model to demonstrate semicontinuous production with up to 14,288-fold expansion using seeding densities of 800,000 cells/mL. The down-scaled culture technology allows for expansion of CD34+ cells and stimulating these progenitors towards RBC lineage, expressing approximately 40% CD235+ and enucleation. The 3D perfusion technology provides an innovative tool for studies on RBC production, which is scalable. PMID:21933020

  15. Feasibility study of Zeeman modulation spectrometry with a hollow capillary fiber based gas cell. (United States)

    Hangauer, Andreas; Chen, Jia; Strzoda, Rainer; Amann, Markus-Christian


    For paramagnetic gases (e.g., O2, NO, NO2, OH) Zeeman modulation spectrometry is a method for spectrometric gas sensing with extraordinary selectivity. In this Letter it is combined with a hollow capillary based gas cell, where the gas is filled in long light-guiding capillary that is placed inside a toroidal coil. Over conventional Zeeman spectrometry this has the advantage of lower power consumption at long optical path length, since several loops of the hollow capillary fiber can be placed in the coil. Compared to wavelength modulation spectrometry the advantage is insensitivity to interference by multimode propagation in the fiber and absorption by other nonparamagnetic gases, which should enhance both sensor stability and sensitivity. Experimental and theoretical results are presented, showing the feasibility of the approach.

  16. Tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a population-based study in Iceland. (United States)

    Axelsson, Tomas A; Hrafnkelsson, Jon; Olafsdottir, Elinborg J; Jonasson, Jon G


    The tall cell variant (TCV) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is an aggressive variant of PTC that is believed to have worse outcomes than classical PTC. The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence, survival, and disease recurrence of patients with TCV and compare them with other PTC in a whole population. Information on all thyroid carcinomas diagnosed in Iceland from 1990 to 2009 was obtained from the Icelandic Cancer Registry. PTC diagnosed postmortem was excluded. The date of diagnosis, sex, and age at diagnosis were registered. All histopathology material was re-evaluated, and papillary thyroid tumors classified as either TCV or other types of PTC. Tumors were classified as TCV if >50% of cells were tall (height > twice the width). TNM stage was determined for all the cases. Endpoints were thyroid cancer-specific death and thyroid cancer recurrence. Out of 376 patients diagnosed with PTC in the study period, 49 (13%) were classified as TCV. Patients with TCV were older (66 years vs. 49 years, pIceland with an incidence of 0.5/100,000 for men and 0.7/100,000 for women. Patients diagnosed with TCV have worse five-year disease-specific survival than patients with other PTC. TCV histology is an independent risk factor for disease recurrence but not for disease-specific survival.

  17. Biogas Catalytic Reforming Studies on Nickel-Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Gregory B.; Hjalmarsson, Per; Norrman, Kion


    Heterogeneous catalysis studies were conducted on two crushed solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes in fixed-bed reactors. The baseline anode was Ni/ScYSZ (Ni/scandia and yttria stabilized zirconia), the other was Ni/ScYSZ modified with Pd/doped ceria (Ni/ScYSZ/Pd-CGO). Three main types of experime......Heterogeneous catalysis studies were conducted on two crushed solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes in fixed-bed reactors. The baseline anode was Ni/ScYSZ (Ni/scandia and yttria stabilized zirconia), the other was Ni/ScYSZ modified with Pd/doped ceria (Ni/ScYSZ/Pd-CGO). Three main types......-programmed oxidation and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Results showed thatNi/ScYSZ/Pd-CGO was more active for catalytic dissociation of CH4 at 750°C and subsequent reactivity of deposited carbonaceous species. Sulfur deactivated most catalytic reactions except CO2 dissociation at 750°C. The presence...

  18. A comparison of reference-based algorithms for correcting cell-type heterogeneity in Epigenome-Wide Association Studies. (United States)

    Teschendorff, Andrew E; Breeze, Charles E; Zheng, Shijie C; Beck, Stephan


    Intra-sample cellular heterogeneity presents numerous challenges to the identification of biomarkers in large Epigenome-Wide Association Studies (EWAS). While a number of reference-based deconvolution algorithms have emerged, their potential remains underexplored and a comparative evaluation of these algorithms beyond tissues such as blood is still lacking. Here we present a novel framework for reference-based inference, which leverages cell-type specific DNAse Hypersensitive Site (DHS) information from the NIH Epigenomics Roadmap to construct an improved reference DNA methylation database. We show that this leads to a marginal but statistically significant improvement of cell-count estimates in whole blood as well as in mixtures involving epithelial cell-types. Using this framework we compare a widely used state-of-the-art reference-based algorithm (called constrained projection) to two non-constrained approaches including CIBERSORT and a method based on robust partial correlations. We conclude that the widely-used constrained projection technique may not always be optimal. Instead, we find that the method based on robust partial correlations is generally more robust across a range of different tissue types and for realistic noise levels. We call the combined algorithm which uses DHS data and robust partial correlations for inference, EpiDISH (Epigenetic Dissection of Intra-Sample Heterogeneity). Finally, we demonstrate the added value of EpiDISH in an EWAS of smoking. Estimating cell-type fractions and subsequent inference in EWAS may benefit from the use of non-constrained reference-based cell-type deconvolution methods.

  19. Surgical treatment of renal cell cancer liver metastases: a population-based study. (United States)

    Ruys, Anthony T; Tanis, Pieter J; Nagtegaal, Iris D; Iris, Nagtegaal D; van Duijvendijk, Peter; Verhoef, Cornelis; Porte, Robert J; van Gulik, Thomas M


    To evaluate outcomes of surgical treatment in patients with hepatic metastases from renal-cell carcinoma in the Netherlands, and to identify prognostic factors for survival after resection. Renal-cell carcinoma has an incidence of 2,000 new patients in the Netherlands each year (12.5/100,000 inhabitants). According to literature, half of these patients ultimately develop distant metastases with 20% involvement of the liver. Resection of renal-cell carcinoma liver metastases (RCCLM) is performed in only a minority of patients. Hence, little is known about outcome of resectable RCCLM. Patients were retrieved from local databases of the Netherlands Task Force for Liver Surgery (14 centers) and from the Dutch collective pathology database. Survival and prognostic factors were determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and log rank test. Thirty-three patients were identified who underwent resection (n = 29) or local ablation (n = 4) of RCCLM in the Netherlands between 1990 and 2008. These patients comprise 0.5% to 1% of the total population of patients diagnosed with RCCLM in that period. There was no operative mortality. The overall survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 79, 47, and 43%, respectively. Metachronous metastases (n = 23, P = 0.03) and radical resection (n = 19, P < 0.001) were statistically significant prognosticators of overall survival. Size < 50 mm (n = 18, P = 0,54), solitary metastases (n = 19, P = 0.93), and presence of extrahepatic metastases (n = 11, P = 0.28) did not have a statistically significant impact on survival. The favorable 5-year survival rate of 43% without operative mortality as found in this nationwide study indicates that selected patients with RCCLM can benefit from surgical treatment.

  20. In vivo Biotinylation Based Method for the Study of Protein-Protein Proximity in Eukaryotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Kulyyassov


    time after its interaction with another protein has occurred. This application should be particularly useful for studying multistep intracellular processes, where the proximities between proteins and protein properties typically changed in a sequential manner. Conclusion: This approach has promised in adding temporal dimension in addition to helping reconstruct cell topology in space.

  1. Donor-specific cell-based assays in studying sensitivity to low-dose radiation: a population-based perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora eIl'yasova


    Full Text Available Currently, a linear no-threshold model is used to estimate health risks associated with exposure to low-dose radiation, a prevalent exposure in the general population, because the direct estimation from epidemiological studies suffers from uncertainty. This model has been criticized based on unique biology of low-dose radiation. Whether the departure from linearity is toward increased or decreased risk is intensely debated. We present an approach based on individual radiosensitivity testing and discuss how individual radiosensitivity can be assessed with the goal to develop a quantifiable measure of cellular response that can be conducted via high-throughput population testing.

  2. The cell-based L-glutathione protection assays to study endocytosis and recycling of plasma membrane proteins. (United States)

    Cihil, Kristine M; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka


    Membrane trafficking involves transport of proteins from the plasma membrane to the cell interior (i.e. endocytosis) followed by trafficking to lysosomes for degradation or to the plasma membrane for recycling. The cell based L-glutathione protection assays can be used to study endocytosis and recycling of protein receptors, channels, transporters, and adhesion molecules localized at the cell surface. The endocytic assay requires labeling of cell surface proteins with a cell membrane impermeable biotin containing a disulfide bond and the N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester at 4 ºC - a temperature at which membrane trafficking does not occur. Endocytosis of biotinylated plasma membrane proteins is induced by incubation at 37 ºC. Next, the temperature is decreased again to 4 ºC to stop endocytic trafficking and the disulfide bond in biotin covalently attached to proteins that have remained at the plasma membrane is reduced with L-glutathione. At this point, only proteins that were endocytosed remain protected from L-glutathione and thus remain biotinylated. After cell lysis, biotinylated proteins are isolated with streptavidin agarose, eluted from agarose, and the biotinylated protein of interest is detected by western blotting. During the recycling assay, after biotinylation cells are incubated at 37 °C to load endocytic vesicles with biotinylated proteins and the disulfide bond in biotin covalently attached to proteins remaining at the plasma membrane is reduced with L-glutathione at 4 ºC as in the endocytic assay. Next, cells are incubated again at 37 °C to allow biotinylated proteins from endocytic vesicles to recycle to the plasma membrane. Cells are then incubated at 4 ºC, and the disulfide bond in biotin attached to proteins that recycled to the plasma membranes is reduced with L-glutathione. The biotinylated proteins protected from L-glutathione are those that did not recycle to the plasma membrane.

  3. Survival rate variation with different histological subtypes of poor prognostic male anal squamous cell carcinoma: a population-based study (United States)

    Rai, Kelash; Vikash, Sindhu; Chen, Liaobin; Li, Jingfeng


    Background and objective The prognosis of male anal squamous cell carcinoma (MASCC) and female anal squamous cell carcinoma (FASCC) is variable. The influence of tumor subtype on the survival rate and gender is poorly known. Our study is the largest population-based study and aims to outline the difference in survival between MASCC and FASCC patients. Methods A retrospective population-based study was performed to compare the disease-specific mortalities (DSMs) between genders related to the tumor subtypes. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program database was employed to obtain the data from January 1988 to December 2014. Results A total of 4,516, (3,249 males and 1,267 females), patients with anal squamous cell carcinomas (ASCC) were investigated. The 5-year DSMs were 24.18% and 18.08% for men and women, respectively. The univariate analysis of the male basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) and cloacogenic carcinoma (CC) patients demonstrated higher DSMs (P <0.001). Moreover, in the multivariate analysis, BSCC and CC were associated with soaring DSMs in male patients (P < 0.05). Conclusions In the cohort of BSCC and CC patients, male patients demonstrated a considerable decrease in survival rate compared to females. A more precise classification of ASCC and individualized management for MASCC are warranted. PMID:29137429

  4. Association of thyroid, breast and renal cell cancer: a population-based study of the prevalence of second malignancies. (United States)

    Van Fossen, Victoria L; Wilhelm, Scott M; Eaton, Jennifer L; McHenry, Christopher R


    Analysis of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data has shown that the incidence of thyroid cancer is higher in patients with a preexisting malignancy and that the incidence of other malignancies is higher in patients with thyroid cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of a second malignancy in patients treated for thyroid, breast or renal cell cancer and determine what associations, if any, exist between these cancers. This study utilized the novel data system, Explorys, as its population base. Patient cohorts were constructed using ICD-9 codes, and prevalence rates were obtained for each cancer. Rates of second malignancy were obtained and compared to the baseline prevalence for a particular malignancy. Female thyroid cancer patients had a 0.67- and twofold increase in prevalence of a subsequent breast and renal cell cancer. Female breast and renal cell cancer patients had a twofold and 1.5-fold increase in the prevalence of thyroid cancer, respectively. Male patients with thyroid cancer had a 29- and 4.5-fold increase in prevalence of subsequent breast and renal cell cancer. Male patients with breast and renal cell cancer had an increased prevalence of subsequent thyroid cancer, 19- and threefold, respectively. Our study demonstrated a bidirectional association between thyroid, breast and renal cancer in both male and female patients. This may have important implications for patient follow-up and screening after treatment of a primary cancer.

  5. An iRGD Based Strategy to Study Electrochemically the Species Inside a Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genxi Li


    Full Text Available This paper reports a method for electrical communication between the inner part of cells and an electrode with the help of iRGD peptide. Due to the enhancement of the cell penetration caused by iRGD peptide, DNA molecules, previously modified on a gold electrode surface, can be easily transfected into the cells. At the same time, doxorubicin, an anticancer drug, can also be transfected into cells with high penetration. Consequently, doxorubicin binds to DNA chains through electrostatic interaction, and the redox reaction is transferred out of the cell across the cell membrane. As a result, this work may provide a novel way to get information from inside of cells.

  6. A 2-DE-based proteomic study on the toxicological effects of cisplatin in L02 cells. (United States)

    Liu, Shu; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Xueyi; Ding, Zongli; Gu, Runhuan


    Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of various cancers. In this study, cisplatin-induced effects were characterized in vitro model of human liver cells (L02) using 2-DE-based proteomics. Results indicated that different cisplatin treatments primarily induced disturbances in protein synthesis and oxidative stress via differential mechanisms. Since the experimental concentrations of cisplatin described a hormesis effect in cell proliferation of L02 cells, it was expected to reveal the hormesis effects using proteomic markers. However, only confilin-1 was commonly up-regulated in three concentrations of cisplatin treatments showing a hormesis effects with a U-shape regulation. These results were highly consistent with many other toxico-proteomic studies, indicating that the toxico-proteomic responses based on dose-dependent protein responses were incongruent with the theoretically linear or hormetic concentration-effect relationship. Our findings suggested that a macroscopic hormesis phenomenon on the cell proliferation could not be reflected by proteomic responses induced by cisplatin treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Studies on PVA based nanocomposite Proton Exchange Membrane for Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications (United States)

    Bahavan Palani, P.; Kannan, R.; Rajashabala, S.; Rajendran, S.; Velraj, G.


    Different concentrations of Poly (vinyl alcohol)/Montmorillonite (PVA/MMT) based proton exchange membranes (PEMs) have been prepared by solution casting method. The structural and electrical properties of these composite membranes have been characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) and AC impedance spectroscopic methods. The conductivity of the PEMs has been estimated for the different concentration of MMT. Water/Methanol uptake measurement were also analyzed for the prepared PEMs and presented. The proton conductivity studies were carried out at room temperature with 100% of humidity.

  8. Surgical treatment of renal cell cancer liver metastases: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruys, A.T.; Tanis, P.J.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Duijvendijk, P. van; Verhoef, C.; Porte, R.J.; Gulik, T.M. van


    BACKGROUND: To evaluate outcomes of surgical treatment in patients with hepatic metastases from renal-cell carcinoma in the Netherlands, and to identify prognostic factors for survival after resection. Renal-cell carcinoma has an incidence of 2,000 new patients in the Netherlands each year

  9. Surgical Treatment of Renal Cell Cancer Liver Metastases : A Population-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruys, Anthony T.; Tanis, Pieter J.; Iris, Nagtegaal D.; van Duijvendijk, Peter; Verhoef, Cornelis; Porte, Robert J.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    Background. To evaluate outcomes of surgical treatment in patients with hepatic metastases from renal-cell carcinoma in the Netherlands, and to identify prognostic factors for survival after resection. Renal-cell carcinoma has an incidence of 2,000 new patients in the Netherlands each year

  10. Surgical Treatment of Renal Cell Cancer Liver Metastases: A Population-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T. Ruys (Anthony); P.J. Tanis (Pieter); N.D. Iris (Nagtegaal); P. van Duijvendijk (Peter); C. Verhoef (Kees); R.J. Porte (Robert); T.M. Gulik (Thomas)


    textabstractBackground: To evaluate outcomes of surgical treatment in patients with hepatic metastases from renal-cell carcinoma in the Netherlands, and to identify prognostic factors for survival after resection. Renal-cell carcinoma has an incidence of 2,000 new patients in the Netherlands each

  11. Surgical treatment of renal cell cancer liver metastases: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruys, A.T.; Tanis, P.J.; Iris, N.D.; van Duijvendijk, P.; Verhoef, C.; Porte, R.J.; van Gulik, T.M.


    To evaluate outcomes of surgical treatment in patients with hepatic metastases from renal-cell carcinoma in the Netherlands, and to identify prognostic factors for survival after resection. Renal-cell carcinoma has an incidence of 2,000 new patients in the Netherlands each year (12.5/100,000

  12. Lifestyle intervention using an internet-based curriculum with cell phone reminders for obese Chinese teens: a randomized controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha A Abraham

    Full Text Available Obesity is an increasing public health problem affecting young people. The causes of obesity are multi-factorial among Chinese youth including lack of physical activity and poor eating habits. The use of an internet curriculum and cell phone reminders and texting may be an innovative means of increasing follow up and compliance with obese teens. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of using an adapted internet curriculum and existing nutritional program along with cell phone follow up for obese Chinese teens.This was a randomized controlled study involving obese teens receiving care at a paediatric obesity clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Hong Kong. Forty-eight subjects aged 12 to 18 years were randomized into three groups. The control group received usual care visits with a physician in the obesity clinic every three months. The first intervention (IT group received usual care visits every three months plus a 12-week internet-based curriculum with cell phone calls/texts reminders. The second intervention group received usual care visits every three months plus four nutritional counselling sessions.The use of the internet-based curriculum was shown to be feasible as evidenced by the high recruitment rate, internet log-in rate, compliance with completing the curriculum and responses to phone reminders. No significant differences in weight were found between IT, sLMP and control groups.An internet-based curriculum with cell phone reminders as a supplement to usual care of obesity is feasible. Further study is required to determine whether an internet plus text intervention can be both an effective and a cost-effective adjunct to changing weight in obese youth.Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12002624.

  13. Biophysical study of novel oligoelectrolyte-based nonviral gene delivery systems for mammalian cells. (United States)

    Ficen, Semra Zuhal; Guler, Zeliha; Mitina, Nataliya; Finiuk, Nataliya; Stoika, Rostyslav; Zaichenko, Alexander; Ceylan, Sebnem Ercelen


    Gene therapy is an important treatment for genetic and acquired diseases. The success of gene therapy is largely dependent on the development of suitable vectors for gene transfer. Vectors are needed to overcome cellular barriers and to achieve efficient DNA delivery with low cytotoxicity. In the present study, we synthesized and characterized a novel comb-like oligoelectrolyte nanocarrier, BG-2, as a nonviral gene delivery vector. A novel surface-active oligoelectrolyte of comb-like structure was synthesized via controlled radical copolymerization using oligoperoxide Cu(+2) coordinating complex as a multisite initiator of graft copolymerization. The critical micellar concentration was determined by Nile Red fluorescence. Complex formation of DNA with BG-2 was determined by YOYO-1 fluorescence. The physicochemical properties of DNA in complex with BG-2 have been investigated by electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering and fluorescence spectroscopy. The BG-2/DNA complex was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. Interactions between BG-2/DNA complex and model membranes were also studied. The sensitivity of the DNA molecule, complexed with BG-2, against deoxyribonuclease I and serum nucleases was assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis. BG-2 efficiency in the transfection of HeLa cells was determined by measuring luciferase gene expression using a luminometer and cytotoxicity was also evaluated. BG-2 oligoelectrolyte was successful in overcoming cellular barriers as a result of forming stable and small sized complexes with DNA, interacting with model membranes in a desirable manner and protecting DNA from nuclease. The transfection efficiency was quite high and cytotoxicity was low. BG-2 appears to be a promising nonviral vector with low cytotoxicity and efficient transfection properties. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Parameter study for polymer solar modules based on various cell lengths and light intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slooff, L.H.; Burgers, A.R.; Bende, E.E.; Kroon, J.M. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Veenstra, S.C. [ECN Solar Energy, Solliance, High Tech Campus 5, P63, 5656AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    Polymer solar cells may be applied in portable electronic devices, where light intensity and spectral distribution of the illuminating source can be very different compared to outdoor applications. As the power output of solar cells depends on temperature, light intensity and spectrum, the design of the module must be optimized for the specific illumination conditions in the different applications. The interconnection area between cells in a module must be as narrow as possible to maximize the active area, also called geometrical fill factor, of the module. Laser scribing has the potential to realize this. The optimal width of the interconnection zone depends both on technological limitations, e.g. laser scribe width and the minimal distance between scribes, and electrical limitations like resistive losses. The latter depends on the generated current in the cell and thus also on illumination intensity. Besides that, also the type of junction, i.e. a single or tandem junction, will influence the optimal geometry. In this paper a calculation model is presented that can be used for electrical modeling of polymer cells and modules in order to optimize the performance for the specific illumination conditions.

  15. Cell-Based Therapies for Diabetic Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Bernardi


    Full Text Available In recent years, accumulating experimental evidence supports the notion that diabetic patients may greatly benefit from cell-based therapies, which include the use of adult stem and/or progenitor cells. In particular, mesenchymal stem cells and the circulating pool of endothelial progenitor cells have so far been the most studied populations of cells proposed for the treatment of vascular complications affecting diabetic patients. We review the evidence supporting their use in this setting, the therapeutic benefits that these cells have shown so far as well as the challenges that cell-based therapies in diabetic complications put out.

  16. Meta-Analysis of Cell-based CaRdiac stUdiEs (ACCRUE) in patients with acute myocardial infarction based on individual patient data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Wojakowski, Wojciech; Lemarchand, Patricia


    therapy after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), including individual patient data from 12 randomized trials (ASTAMI, Aalst, BOOST, BONAMI, CADUCEUS, FINCELL, REGENT, REPAIR-AMI, SCAMI, SWISS-AMI, TIME, LATE-TIME; n=1252). METHODS AND RESULTS: The primary end point was freedom from combined major adverse......RATIONALE: The meta-Analysis of Cell-based CaRdiac study is the first prospectively declared collaborative multinational database, including individual data of patients with ischemic heart disease treated with cell therapy. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the safety and efficacy of intracoronary cell...... cardiac and cerebrovascular events (including all-cause death, AMI recurrance, stroke, and target vessel revascularization). The secondary end point was freedom from hard clinical end points (death, AMI recurrence, or stroke), assessed with random-effects meta-analyses and Cox regressions for interactions...

  17. Analytical study of PPV-oligomer- and C-60-based devices for optimising organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geens, W.; Poortmans, J.; Jain, S.C.; Nijs, J.; Mertens, R.; Veenstra, S.C.; Krasnikov, V.V.; Hadziioannou, G


    A blend of a 5-ring n-octyloxy-substituted oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) and C60, sandwiched between two electrodes, has been used as the active layer for an organic solar cell. It delivered external quantum efficiencies up to 60% in the visible and 70% in the UV part of the spectrum. To unambiguously

  18. Pig Models of Neurodegenerative Disorders: Utilization in Cell Replacement-Based Preclinical Safety and Efficacy Studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležalová, D.; Hruška-Plocháň, M.; Bjarkam, C. R.; Sorensen, J. C. H.; Cunningham, M.; Weingarten, D.; Ciacci, J. D.; Juhás, Štefan; Juhásová, Jana; Motlík, Jan; Hefferan, M. P.; Hazel, T.; Johe, K.; Carromeu, C.; Muotri, A.; Bui, J. D.; Strnádel, J.; Marsala, M.


    Roč. 522, č. 12 (2014), s. 2784-2801 ISSN 0021-9967 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01011466; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : pig * neurodegenerative models * stem cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.225, year: 2014

  19. Correcting for cell-type effects in DNA methylation studies: reference-based method outperforms latent variable approaches in empirical studies. (United States)

    Hattab, Mohammad W; Shabalin, Andrey A; Clark, Shaunna L; Zhao, Min; Kumar, Gaurav; Chan, Robin F; Xie, Lin Ying; Jansen, Rick; Han, Laura K M; Magnusson, Patrik K E; van Grootheest, Gerard; Hultman, Christina M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Aberg, Karolina A; van den Oord, Edwin J C G


    Based on an extensive simulation study, McGregor and colleagues recently recommended the use of surrogate variable analysis (SVA) to control for the confounding effects of cell-type heterogeneity in DNA methylation association studies in scenarios where no cell-type proportions are available. As their recommendation was mainly based on simulated data, we sought to replicate findings in two large-scale empirical studies. In our empirical data, SVA did not fully correct for cell-type effects, its performance was somewhat unstable, and it carried a risk of missing true signals caused by removing variation that might be linked to actual disease processes. By contrast, a reference-based correction method performed well and did not show these limitations. A disadvantage of this approach is that if reference methylomes are not (publicly) available, they will need to be generated once for a small set of samples. However, given the notable risk we observed for cell-type confounding, we argue that, to avoid introducing false-positive findings into the literature, it could be well worth making this investment.Please see related Correspondence article: and related Research article:

  20. Carcinogenic effects of oil dispersants: A KEGG pathway-based RNA-seq study of human airway epithelial cells. (United States)

    Liu, Yao-Zhong; Zhang, Lei; Roy-Engel, Astrid M; Saito, Shigeki; Lasky, Joseph A; Wang, Guangdi; Wang, He


    The health impacts of the BP oil spill are yet to be further revealed as the toxicological effects of oil products and dispersants on human respiratory system may be latent and complex, and hence difficult to study and follow up. Here we performed RNA-seq analyses of a system of human airway epithelial cells treated with the BP crude oil and/or dispersants Corexit 9500 and Corexit 9527 that were used to help break up the oil spill. Based on the RNA-seq data, we then systemically analyzed the transcriptomic perturbations of the cells at the KEGG pathway level using two pathway-based analysis tools, GAGE (generally applicable gene set enrichment) and GSNCA (Gene Sets Net Correlations Analysis). Our results suggested a pattern of change towards carcinogenesis for the treated cells marked by upregulation of ribosomal biosynthesis (hsa03008) (p=1.97E-13), protein processing (hsa04141) (p=4.09E-7), Wnt signaling (hsa04310) (p=6.76E-3), neurotrophin signaling (hsa04722) (p=7.73E-3) and insulin signaling (hsa04910) (p=1.16E-2) pathways under the dispersant Corexit 9527 treatment, as identified by GAGE analysis. Furthermore, through GSNCA analysis, we identified gene co-expression changes for several KEGG cancer pathways, including small cell lung cancer pathway (hsa05222, p=9.99E-5), under various treatments of oil/dispersant, especially the mixture of oil and Corexit 9527. Overall, our results suggested carcinogenic effects of dispersants (in particular Corexit 9527) and their mixtures with the BP crude oil, and provided further support for more stringent safety precautions and regulations for operations involving long-term respiratory exposure to oil and dispersants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Patent analysis as a tool for research planning: study on natural based therapeutics against cancer stem cells. (United States)

    Arya, Richa; Bhutkar, Smita; Dhulap, Sivakami; Hirwani, R R


    Medicines developed from traditional systems are well known for their various important pharmaceutical uses. Cancer has been known since ancient times and has been mentioned in the ancient Ayurvedic books. Thus natural based products play a significant role in cancer chemotherapeutics. Further, approximately 70% of anticancer compounds are based on natural products or have been derived from their structural scaffolds. Hence, there is a growing interest for developing medicines from these natural resources. Amongst the methods of treating cancer, therapies targeting cancer stem cell are found to control metastatic tumor which is a newly identified factor associated with relapse. This patent review aims to highlight the use of natural products to treat cancer by targeting the cancer stem cells. The review will also provide insights into the reported mechanisms by which the natural products act in order to suppress or kill cancer stem cells. The analysis has been done using various criteria such as the patenting trend over the years, comparison of active assignee and a comparison of the technical aspects as disclosed in the different patent documents. The analysis further highlights different bioactives, the scaffolds of which could thus be a promising candidate in the development of anti-cancer drugs by targeting the cancer stem cells. The technical aspects covered in this review include: Bioactives and formulations comprising the extracts or bioactives, their mode of action and the type of assay considered to study the efficacy of the natural products. Further the mapping has helped us to identify potential therapeutic areas to evaluate herbs/bioactives and their uses for developing new formulations.

  2. Studies on whole cell fluorescence-based screening for epoxide hydrolases and Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicalho, Beatriz; Chen, Lu S.; Marsaioli, Anita J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail:; Grognux, Johann; Reymond, Jean-Louis [University of Berne (Switzerland). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry


    Biocatalysis reactions were performed on microtiter plates (200 {mu}L) aiming at the utilization of fluorogenic substrates (100 {mu}mol L{sup -1}) for rapid whole cell screening for epoxide hydrolases (EHs) and Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs). A final protocol was achieved for EHs, with 3 new enzymatic sources being detected (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Pichia stipitis, Trichosporom cutaneum). The fluorogenic assay for BVMO did not work as expected. However, an approach to possible variables involved (aeration; pH) provided the first detection of a BVMO activity in T. cutaneum. (author)

  3. Study of the potential energy conversion efficiency of organic solar cells based on donor/acceptor heterojunctions (United States)

    Geens, Wim


    Organic solar cells can offer an appealing alternative for bulk silicon solar cells due to their attractive properties such as flexibility and possibility to apply low-cost manufacturing techniques. The different types of existing organic solar cells reported in the literature have been critically assessed in terms of performance and processability, based on which it was concluded that the concept of the donor/acceptor bulk heterojunction sandwiched between a transparent and a metal electrode has the most potential. In order to gain more insight into the charge transport properties of spin-cast photovoltaic conjugated polymer/fullerene blends, these films were incorporated into field-effect transistors to derive values for the electron and hole mobilities. Model calculations showed that increasing these mobility values in combination with the use of thicker active layers could significantly enhance the short-circuit current density of the bulk heterojunction solar cells. Optimisation of the charge transport is required and was realised in this study by choosing PPV-oligomers and C60 as well-defined building blocks to construct the donor/acceptor networks. First, these materials were spin-cast in single-layer diodes to allow full electrical characterisation, which was then compared with simulation of the devices in dark as well as under illumination. The photovoltaic performance of blended PPV-oligomer/C60 devices remained rather low due to C60-induced shunting paths and high molecular disorder. In a second part, more morphological order was obtained by using vacuum evaporation to deposit the organic materials. Besides structural characterisation of the evaporated films, the electrical behaviour of single-layer devices was investigated and the influence of interfacial layers was addressed. Photovoltaic devices based on evaporated planar heterojunctions reaching a conversion efficiency of 1.9% and exhibiting an open-circuit voltage of over 1 V were realised

  4. Depression and anxiety symptoms are associated with white blood cell count and red cell distribution width: A sex-stratified analysis in a population-based study. (United States)

    Shafiee, Mojtaba; Tayefi, Maryam; Hassanian, Seyed Mahdi; Ghaneifar, Zahra; Parizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Avan, Amir; Rahmani, Farzad; Khorasanchi, Zahra; Azarpajouh, Mahmoud Reza; Safarian, Hamideh; Moohebati, Mohsen; Heidari-Bakavoli, Alireza; Esmaeili, Habibolah; Nematy, Mohsen; Safarian, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Ferns, Gordon A; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid


    Depression and anxiety are two common mood disorders that are both linked to systemic inflammation. Increased white blood cell (WBC) count and red cell distribution width (RDW) are associated with negative clinical outcomes in a wide variety of pathological conditions. WBC is a non-specific inflammatory marker and RDW is also strongly related to other inflammatory markers. Therefore, we proposed that there might be an association between these hematological inflammatory markers and depression/anxiety symptoms. The primary objective of this study was to examine the association between depression/anxiety symptoms and hematological inflammatory markers including WBC and RDW in a large population-based study. Symptoms of depression and anxiety and a complete blood count (CBC) were measured in 9274 participants (40% males and 60% females) aged 35-65 years, enrolled in a population-based cohort (MASHAD) study in north-eastern Iran. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were evaluated using the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. The mean WBC count increased with increasing severity of symptoms of depression and anxiety among men. Male participants with severe depression had significantly higher values of RDW (p<0.001); however, this relationship was less marked among women (p=0.004). In addition, men (but not women) with severe anxiety symptoms had significantly higher values of RDW (p<0.001). Moreover, there was a negative association between red blood cell (RBC) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and symptoms of depression/anxiety. Our results suggest that higher depression and anxiety scores are associated with an enhanced inflammatory state, as assessed by higher hematological inflammatory markers including WBC and RDW, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simulation study of a new InGaN p-layer free Schottky based solar cell (United States)

    Adaine, Abdoulwahab; Ould Saad Hamady, Sidi; Fressengeas, Nicolas


    On the road towards next generation high efficiency solar cells, the ternary Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) alloy is a good passenger since it allows to cover the whole solar spectrum through the change in its Indium composition. The choice of the main structure of the InGaN solar cell is however crucial. Obtaining a high efficiency requires to improve the light absorption and the photogenerated carriers collection that depend on the layers parameters, including the Indium composition, p- and n-doping, device geometry … Unfortunately, one of the main drawbacks of InGaN is linked to its p-type doping, which is very difficult to realize since it involves complex technological processes that are difficult to master and that highly impact the layer quality. In this paper, the InGaN p-n junction (PN) and p-i-n junction (PIN) based solar cells are numerically studied using the most realistic models, and optimized through mathematically rigorous multivariate optimization approaches. This analysis evidences optimal efficiencies of 17.8% and 19.0% for the PN and PIN structures. It also leads to propose, analyze and optimize p-layer free InGaN Schottky-Based Solar Cells (SBSC): the Schottky structure and a new MIN structure for which the optimal efficiencies are shown to be a little higher than for the conventional structures: respectively 18.2% and 19.8%. The tolerance that is allowed on each parameter for each of the proposed cells has been studied. The new MIN structure is shown to exhibit the widest tolerances on the layers thicknesses and dopings. In addition to its being p-layer free, this is another advantage of the MIN structure since it implies its better reliability. Therefore, these new InGaN SBSC are shown to be alternatives to the conventional structures that allow removing the p-type doping of InGaN while giving photovoltaic (PV) performances at least comparable to the standard multilayers PN or PIN structures.

  6. Simulation study of a new InGaN p-layer free Schottky based solar cell

    CERN Document Server

    Adaine, Abdoulwahab; Fressengeas, Nicolas


    On the road towards next generation high efficiency solar cells, the ternary Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) alloy is a good passenger since it allows to cover the whole solar spectrum through the change in its Indium composition. The choice of the main structure of the InGaN solar cell is however crucial. Obtaining a high efficiency requires to improve the light absorption and the photogenerated carriers collection that depend on the layers parameters, including the Indium composition, p-and n-doping, device geometry.. . Unfortunately, one of the main drawbacks of InGaN is linked to its p-type doping, which is very difficult to realize since it involves complex technological processes that are difficult to master and that highly impact the layer quality. In this paper, the InGaN p-n junction (PN) and p-in junction (PIN) based solar cells are numerically studied using the most realistic models, and optimized through mathematically rigorous multivariate optimization approaches. This analysis evidences optimal e...

  7. Study of lipoproteins and arterial intima interaction based on arterial endothelial cells real geometrical structure (United States)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Kirillova, I. V.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Kossovich, E. L.; Zayarsky, D. A.; Fadeev, A. A.


    An original methodology is developed for scanning of the arterial intima morphology using the atomic force microscopy. The probing nanolaboratory NTEGRASpectra (NT-MDT, Russia) was itilized. The pictures of the coronary artery intima topology were obtained with the resolution of 1 nm. The 3D model of the `endothelial cell surface - low density lipoprotein (LDL)' complex was constructed. Using the ANSYS software, the deformation of LDL particle was found as well as the stress distribution at the moment of the macromolecule and endothelial surface collision. The largest normal and tangential stresses are found in the area of LDL interaction with the surface. These stresses are 2.173 and 0.053 kPa, respectively. It was shown that the LDL structure is being highly strained, which leads to the molecule compression and crease. Therefore, one can conclude that at the moment of LDL entering the intercellular hiatus the macromolecule will be suffering the overall deformations and large modification of its structure.

  8. Carbon-based Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven S. C. Chuang


    The direct use of coal in the solid oxide fuel cell to generate electricity is an innovative concept for power generation. The C-fuel cell (carbon-based fuel cell) could offer significant advantages: (1) minimization of NOx emissions due to its operating temperature range of 700-1000 C, (2) high overall efficiency because of the direct conversion of coal to CO{sub 2}, and (3) the production of a nearly pure CO{sub 2} exhaust stream for the direct CO{sub 2} sequestration. The objective of this project is to determine the technical feasibility of using a highly active anode catalyst in a solid oxide fuel for the direct electrochemical oxidation of coal to produce electricity. Results of this study showed that the electric power generation from Ohio No 5 coal (Lower Kittanning) Seam, Mahoning County, is higher than those of coal gas and pure methane on a solid oxide fuel cell assembly with a promoted metal anode catalyst at 950 C. Further study is needed to test the long term activity, selectivity, and stability of anode catalysts.

  9. Cell-Based Therapies Used to Treat Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease: A Systematic Review of Animal Studies and Human Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Oehme


    Full Text Available Low back pain and degenerative disc disease are a significant cause of pain and disability worldwide. Advances in regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies, particularly the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells and intervertebral disc chondrocytes, have led to the publication of numerous studies and clinical trials utilising these biological therapies to treat degenerative spinal conditions, often reporting favourable outcomes. Stem cell mediated disc regeneration may bridge the gap between the two current alternatives for patients with low back pain, often inadequate pain management at one end and invasive surgery at the other. Through cartilage formation and disc regeneration or via modification of pain pathways stem cells are well suited to enhance spinal surgery practice. This paper will systematically review the current status of basic science studies, preclinical and clinical trials utilising cell-based therapies to repair the degenerate intervertebral disc. The mechanism of action of transplanted cells, as well as the limitations of published studies, will be discussed.

  10. A cell-based approach to study changes in the pancreas following nicotine exposure in an animal model of injury. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Parimal; Walker, Azida


    Cigarette smoking is a recognized risk factor for the induction of pancreatic diseases and is suspected to play a major role in the development of pancreatic cancer in smokers. This study was designed to characterize the mechanisms of nicotine-induced injury to the pancreas. AR42Jcells, a stable mutant pancreatic tumor cell line, was chosen for the study because of its stability in culture media and also because of its known secretory capacity, which is like that of a normal pancreatic acinar cell. It is hypothesized that nicotine-induced effects on the pancreas are triggered by oxidative stress induced in pancreatic acinar cell via oxidative stress signaling pathways. The results from our study showed that, in vitro, nicotine induced generation of oxygen free radicals measured as malondialdehyde, an end product of lipid peroxidation. Treatment of AR42J cells with nicotine induced p-ERK 1/2 activation as confirmed by Western blot and immunofluorescence imaging of cytoplasmic localization of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signals. Nicotine enhanced AR42J cell proliferation and cholecystokinin-stimulated amylase release in AR42J cells. These effects of nicotine were confirmed by simultaneous studies conducted on the same cells by hydrogen peroxide, a known oxidative biomarker. Allopurinol, a XOD inhibitor, suppressed these effects induced by nicotine and H(2)O(2) with the exception that cholecystokinin-stimulated amylase release by H(2)O(2) remained unaltered when AR42J cells were preincubated with allopurinol. These results suggest that nicotine-induced effects on pancreatic acinar cells were associated with generation of oxyradical mediated via the XOD pathway. The results have a direct impact on cell proliferation, MAPK signaling, and acinar cell function. We conclude that nicotine induces oxidative stress in pancreatic acinar cells and that these events trigger pathophysiological changes in the pancreas, leading to increased cell proliferation and injury.

  11. Development of a Functional Biomarker for Use in Cell-Based Therapy Studies in Seropositive Rheumatoid Arthritis (United States)

    Shalev-Malul, Gali; Soler, David C.; Ting, Anthony E.; Lehman, Nicholas A.; Barnboym, Emma; McCormick, Thomas S.; Anthony, Donald D.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Caplan, Arnold I.; Singer, Nora G.


    Cell-based therapy has potential therapeutic value in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In RA, reduction of disease activity has been associated with improvement in the function of regulatory T cells (Treg) and attenuated responses of proinflammatory effector T cells (Teff). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and related multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC) have strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties and may be able to “reset” the immune system to a pre-RA state. MAPC are MSC-like cells that are slightly earlier in lineage, have greater expansion capacity, and can be used as “off-the-shelf” therapy. Assessment of cell-based therapy to treat arthritis and related diseases is limited by the lack of available biological correlates that can be measured early on and indicate treatment response. We set out to develop a functional measure that could be used ex vivo as a biomarker of response. We were able to demonstrate that MAPC products could inhibit Teff responses from patients with active RA and that Treg from RA patients suppressed Teff. This assay used ex vivo can be used with MAPC or Treg alone or in combination and reflects the overall level of Teff suppression. Use of a novel functional biomarker as an exploratory endpoint in trials of cell-based therapy should be of value to detect biological outcomes at a point prior to the time that clinical response might be observed. Significance Therapy with mesenchymal stem cells and related multipotent adult progenitor cells is immune modifying in a variety of diseases. There is interest in using cell-based therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to induce tolerance and “reset” the immune system to its pre-RA state. In a clinical trial, it should be known as soon as possible if there is a chance of response. A biomarker has been developed that permits measurement of the effects of cell-based therapy on effector T cell function. PMID:27025689

  12. A rear-end collision risk assessment model based on drivers' collision avoidance process under influences of cell phone use and gender-A driving simulator based study. (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng; Yan, Xuedong; Wu, Jiawei; Radwan, Essam; Zhang, Yuting


    Driver's collision avoidance performance has a direct link to the collision risk and crash severity. Previous studies demonstrated that the distracted driving, such as using a cell phone while driving, disrupted the driver's performance on road. This study aimed to investigate the manner and extent to which cell phone use and driver's gender affected driving performance and collision risk in a rear-end collision avoidance process. Forty-two licensed drivers completed the driving simulation experiment in three phone use conditions: no phone use, hands-free, and hand-held, in which the drivers drove in a car-following situation with potential rear-end collision risks caused by the leading vehicle's sudden deceleration. Based on the experiment data, a rear-end collision risk assessment model was developed to assess the influence of cell phone use and driver's gender. The cell phone use and driver's gender were found to be significant factors that affected the braking performances in the rear-end collision avoidance process, including the brake reaction time, the deceleration adjusting time and the maximum deceleration rate. The minimum headway distance between the leading vehicle and the simulator during the rear-end collision avoidance process was the final output variable, which could be used to measure the rear-end collision risk and judge whether a collision occurred. The results showed that although cell phone use drivers took some compensatory behaviors in the collision avoidance process to reduce the mental workload, the collision risk in cell phone use conditions was still higher than that without the phone use. More importantly, the results proved that the hands-free condition did not eliminate the safety problem associated with distracted driving because it impaired the driving performance in the same way as much as the use of hand-held phones. In addition, the gender effect indicated that although female drivers had longer reaction time than male drivers in

  13. Red cell distribution width in relation to incidence of stroke and carotid atherosclerosis: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Söderholm

    Full Text Available Increased red cell distribution width (RDW has been related to poor prognosis in patients with cardiovascular disease, and is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in the general population. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if RDW is associated with increased incidence of stroke and its subtypes in individuals from the general population.Red cell distribution width was measured in 26,879 participants (16,561 women and 10,318 men aged 45-73 years without history of coronary events or stroke, from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Incidences of total stroke and stroke subtypes over a mean follow-up of 15.2 years were calculated in relation to sex-specific quartiles of RDW. The presence of carotid plaque and intima-media thickness, as assessed by ultrasound, was studied in relation to RDW in a randomly selected subcohort (n = 5,309.Incidences of total stroke (n = 1,869 and cerebral infarction (n = 1,544 were both increased in individuals with high RDW. Hazard ratios (HRs in the highest compared to the lowest quartile were 1.31 for total stroke (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-1.54, p for trend = 0.004 and 1.32 for cerebral infarction (95% CI: 1.10-1.58, p for trend = 0.004 after adjustment for stroke risk factors and hematological parameters. The adjusted HR for intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 230 was 1.44 (95% CI: 0.90-2.30 and the HR for subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 75 was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.43-2.07, in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of RDW. Red cell distribution width was positively associated with intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (p for trend = 0.011.Red cell distribution width in the highest quartile was associated with increased incidence of total stroke and cerebral infarction. There was no significant association between RDW and incidence of intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  14. Induction and repair of DNA base damage studied in X-irradiated CHO cells using the M. luteus extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foehe, C.; Dikomey, E. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Biophysik und Strahlenbiologie


    DNA base damage was measured in Chinese hamster ovary cells X-irradiated under aerobic conditions using an extract of the bacterium Micrococcus luteus. The glycosylases and endonucleases present in this extract recognize damaged bases and convert them into strand breaks (termed endonuclease-sensitive sites, enss). Strand breaks were detected by the alkaline unwinding technique. The induction of enss was measured for X-ray doses ranging up to 45 Gy. The relative frequency of all enss related to all radiation induced strand breaks was 1.7 {+-} 0.4. Repair of enss was studied for a radiation dose of 45 Gy. The number of enss was found to decrease exponentially with time after irradiation with a half-time of {tau}{sub enss} = 37 {+-} 8 min. The repair kinetics that were also measured for all X-ray-induced DNA strand breaks were found to consist of three phases: fast, intermediate and slow. The intermediate phase was fitted under the assumption that this phase results from the information and repair of secondary single-strand breaks generated by enzymatic incision at the sites of base damage repair. (author).

  15. Study on sodium water glass-based anti-reflective film and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Q.Z. [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shi, J.F., E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Wang, L.L.; Li, Y.J.; Zhong, L.W. [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Xu, G., E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China)


    In this paper, anti-reflective (AR) films are prepared from sodium water glass with a simple dip-coating method. The effects of SiO{sub 2}/Na{sub 2}O molar ratio, concentration of water glass, and withdrawal speed on the anti-reflection performance of the AR films are systematically studied. The optimized AR film is further applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The optical properties and surface morphology of AR films are analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope. Transmittance of the glass coated with sodium water glass-based AR film is increased by 3.2% when the SiO{sub 2}/Na{sub 2}O molar ratio, concentration, and withdrawal speed equal to 3.8, 5 wt%, and 80 mm/min, respectively. Under this condition, the thickness of the AR film is 127 nm and the AR film has obvious porous structure. In addition, the power conversion efficiency of DSC coated by AR film is increased from 7.92% to 8.24%, compared with the DSC without AR film. - Highlights: • Anti-reflective films are prepared from sodium water glass. • Transmittance of anti-reflective film is increased by 3.2%. • Efficiency of dye-sensitized cell is improved by anti-reflective film.

  16. Optical Study of Cuprous Oxide and Ferric Oxide Based Materials for Applications in Low Cost Solar Cells (United States)

    Than, Thi Cuc; Bui, Bao Thoa; Wegmuller, Benjamin; Nguyen, Minh Hieu; Hoang Ngoc, Lam Huong; Bui, Van Diep; Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Hoang, Chi Hieu; Nguyen-Tran, Thuat


    One of the interesting forms of cuprous oxide and ferric oxide based materials is CuFeO2 which can be a delafossite-type compound and is a well known p-type semiconductor. This compound makes up an interesting family of materials for technological applications. CuFeO2 thin films recently gained renewed interest for potential applications in solar cell devices especially as absorption layers. One of the interesting facts is that CuFeO2 is made from cheap materials such as copper and iron. In this study, CuFeO2 thin films are intentionally deposited on corning glass and silicon substrates by the radio-frequency and direct current sputtering method with complicated and well developed co-sputtering recipes. The deposition was performed at room temperature which leads to an amorphous phase with extremely low roughness and high density. The films also were annealed at 500°C in 5% H2 in Ar for the passivation. A detailed optical study was performed on these thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry and by ultra-violet visible near infrared spectroscopy. Depending on sputtering conditions, the direct band gap was extrapolated to be from 1.96 eV to 2.2 eV and 2.92 eV to 2.96 eV and the indirect band gap is about 1.22 eV to 1.42 eV. A good electrical conduction is also observed which is suitable for solar cell applications. In future more study on the structural properties will be carried out in order to fully understand these materials.

  17. Sensitivity and directionality of lipid bilayer mechanotransduction studied using a revised, highly durable membrane-based hair cell sensor (United States)

    Tamaddoni, Nima; Freeman, Eric C.; Sarles, Stephen A.


    A bioinspired, membrane-based hair cell sensor consists of a planar lipid bilayer formed between two lipid-coated water droplets that connect to an artificial hair. This assembly enables motion of the hair caused by mechanical stimuli to vibrate the bilayer and produce a capacitive current. In this work, the mechanoelectrical transduction mechanism and sensing performance is experimentally characterized for a more-durable, revised hair cell embodiment that includes a cantilevered hair rooted firmly in the surrounding solid substrate. Specifically, this study demonstrates that the revised membrane-based hair cell sensor produces higher time rates of change in capacitance (0.8-6.0 nF s-1) in response to airflow across the hair compared to the original sensor (45-60 pF s-1) that did not feature a cantilevered hair. The 10-fold to 100-fold increase in the time rate change of capacitance corresponds to greater membrane bending and, thus, higher sensing currents. Membranes in the revised sensor exhibit changes in area due to bending on the order of 0.2-2.0%, versus 0.02% for the original sensor. Experiments also reveal that the bilayer displays highest sensitivity to mechanical perturbations normal to the plane of the bilayer, a membrane can transduce hair motion at frequencies below the hair’s characteristic frequency, and bilayers formed between polymerized hydrogel volumes exhibit a higher sensing currents than those formed between liquid aqueous volumes. Finally, measurements of sensitivity (5-35 pA m-1 s-1) and minimum (4.0-0.6 m s-1) and maximum (28-13 m s-1) sensing thresholds to airflow are performed for the first time, and we observe maximum electrical power (˜65 pW) in the membrane occurs for combinations of slower airflow and higher voltage. These results highlight that along with the dimensions of the hair and the compositions of the aqueous volumes, sensing performance can be tuned with applied voltage.

  18. Graphite-based photovoltaic cells (United States)

    Lagally, Max; Liu, Feng


    The present invention uses lithographically patterned graphite stacks as the basic building elements of an efficient and economical photovoltaic cell. The basic design of the graphite-based photovoltaic cells includes a plurality of spatially separated graphite stacks, each comprising a plurality of vertically stacked, semiconducting graphene sheets (carbon nanoribbons) bridging electrically conductive contacts.

  19. Cell phone based balance trainer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Beom-Chan; Kim, Jeonghee; Chen, Shu; Sienko, Kathleen H


    ..., weight, complexity, calibration procedures, cost, and fragility. We have designed and developed a cell phone based vibrotactile feedback system for potential use in balance rehabilitation training in clinical and home environments...

  20. Study of 6T SRAM cell using High-K gate dielectric based junctionless silicon nanotube FET (United States)

    Tayal, Shubham; Nandi, Ashutosh


    This paper investigates the performance of 6 T SRAM cell using high-K gate dielectric based junctionless silicon nanotube FET (JLSiNTFET). It is observed that the use of high-K gate dielectric enhances the delay performance of the JLSiNTFET based 6 T SRAM cell. Read access time (RAT) and write access time (WAT) improves by ∼18% and ∼20% when TiO2 is used as gate dielectric instead of SiO2. The hold, read, and write SNMs (static noise margin) of the 6 T SRAM cell also improves marginally by the use of high-K gate dielectric. Furthermore, it is also observed that the improvement in hold SNM (HSNM), read SNM (RSNM), and write SNM (WSNM) can be boosted by using higher interfacial layer thickness (TI). However, the improvement in read access times (RAT) & write access time (WAT) degrades at higher TI. Thus, high-K gate dielectrics with high interfacial layer thickness are more suitable for JLSiNT-FET based 6 T SRAM cell.

  1. Chip based electroanalytical systems for cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spegel, C.; Heiskanen, A.; Skjolding, L.H.D.


    ' measurements of processes related to living cells, i.e., systems without lysing the cells. The focus is on chip based amperometric and impedimetric cell analysis systems where measurements utilizing solely carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFME) and other nonchip electrode formats, such as CFME for exocytosis......This review with 239 references has as its aim to give the reader an introduction to the kinds of methods used for developing microchip based electrode systems as well as to cover the existing literature on electroanalytical systems where microchips play a crucial role for 'nondestructive...... studies and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) studies of living cells have been omitted. Included is also a discussion about some future and emerging nano tools and considerations that might have an impact on the future of "nondestructive" chip based electroanalysis of living cells....

  2. Potential paraneoplastic syndromes and selected autoimmune conditions in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer: A population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Miret

    Full Text Available Little is known about the occurrence and distribution of types of paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS in patients with lung cancer. Identification of autoimmune PNS is particularly important for discerning them from immune-related adverse events of novel immunotherapies. We estimated the occurrence of PNS among patients with lung cancer and compared it with that in the general population.In this registry-based cohort study in Denmark, we identified all patients with incident primary lung cancer between 1997 and 2010, and in a general-population comparison cohort matched on calendar time, sex, age, and residence. Among patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC, we estimated prevalence of potential PNS and selected autoimmune conditions and compared their incidence rates with those of equivalent conditions in the general population cohort, using hazard ratios (HRs adjusted for baseline comorbidity.There were 35,319 patients with NSCLC and 6,711 patients with SCLC. The incidence rates per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval of any potential PNS or selected autoimmune disorders were 135.4 (131.9-139.1 among NSCLC patients and 237.3 (224.4-250.5 among SCLC patients. Adjusted HRs for any potential PNS or selected autoimmune disorders were 4.8 (4.7-5.0 for NSCLC and 8.2 (7.6-8.8 for SCLC.Incidence rate of any potential PNS or selected autoimmune disorders among patients with lung cancer was greater than that in the general population and was greater after SCLC than after NSCLC.These results provide context to discerning PNS from adverse effects of novel immunotherapies during the clinical course of NSCLC and SCLC.

  3. Differentiation of Glioma Stem Cells and Progenitor Cells into Local Host Cell-Like Cells: A Study Based on Choroidcarcinoma Differentiation of Choroid Plexus of GFP Transgenic Nude Mouse (United States)

    Wang, Zhimin; Fei, Xifeng; Dai, Xinliang; Chen, Hanchun; Tian, Haiyan; Wang, Aidong; Huang, Qiang


    Abstract The idea of multiple differentiation capacity of glioma stem cells and progentior cells (GSCPs) has been accepted by most of the researchers, but the effect of local environment on the differentiation of GSCPs is unclear. GSCPs SU2 and CM-Dil-stained C6 cells (C6-Dil) were injected into the brain of GFP transgenic nude mice. The xenografts were sectioned. Morphological changes of tumor cells that resided in the choroid plexus, molecular markers expression, and the relationship between the original tumor cells and host cells were studied carefully. The tumorigenicity rate was 40/40 (100%) in all of the inoculated nude mice. Cell morphology and molecular expression of neoplasm settled in the choroid plexus showed that choroidcarcinoma derived from GSCPs was developed. These results showed that GSCPs may have the multiple differentiation capacity, which can be induced by the local environment of host brain as NSCs, and cell fusion may play an important role in the transformation. PMID:26083952

  4. Does postoperative radiation therapy impact survival in non-metastatic sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma? A SEER-based study. (United States)

    Eminaga, Okyaz; Akbarov, Ilgar; Wille, Sebastian; Engelmann, Udo


    The effect of adjuvant radiation therapy on survival in sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (sRCC) with no evidence of distant metastasis remains unclear. Subjects diagnosed with non-metastatic sRCC were identified using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) (2004-2012) database and divided into groups based on their surgical treatment (ST): no surgery or radiation therapy (NSR); partial nephrectomy (PNE); radical nephrectomy with ureterectomy and bladder cuff resection (RNE + UE + BLAD); and radical nephrectomy (RNE). Certain radical nephrectomy cases also received adjuvant external-beam radiation therapy (RNE + RAD). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall survival (OS). A multivariable competing risks regression analysis was used to calculate disease-specific survival (DSS) probability and to determine factors associated with cause-specific mortality (CSM). A total of 408 patients were included in this study. The 5-year OS and predicted DSS were significantly higher in the patients who underwent STs (i.e., PNE, RNE + UE + BLAD, RNE, and RNE + RAD) (20.1-54.0 and 20.1-59.9 %, respectively) than in the NSR group (9.0 and 11.6 %, respectively) (P therapy did not increase OS in non-metastatic sRCC patients.

  5. Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.


    This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

  6. Pathway-based analysis using genome-wide association data from a Korean non-small cell lung cancer study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghoon Lee

    Full Text Available Pathway-based analysis, used in conjunction with genome-wide association study (GWAS techniques, is a powerful tool to detect subtle but systematic patterns in genome that can help elucidate complex diseases, like cancers. Here, we stepped back from genetic polymorphisms at a single locus and examined how multiple association signals can be orchestrated to find pathways related to lung cancer susceptibility. We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array data from 869 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cases from a previous GWAS at the National Cancer Center and 1,533 controls from the Korean Association Resource project for the pathway-based analysis. After mapping single-nucleotide polymorphisms to genes, considering their coding region and regulatory elements (±20 kbp, multivariate logistic regression of additive and dominant genetic models were fitted against disease status, with adjustments for age, gender, and smoking status. Pathway statistics were evaluated using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA and Adaptive Rank Truncated Product (ARTP methods. Among 880 pathways, 11 showed relatively significant statistics compared to our positive controls (PGSEA≤0.025, false discovery rate≤0.25. Candidate pathways were validated using the ARTP method and similarities between pathways were computed against each other. The top-ranked pathways were ABC Transporters (PGSEA<0.001, PARTP = 0.001, VEGF Signaling Pathway (PGSEA<0.001, PARTP = 0.008, G1/S Check Point (PGSEA = 0.004, PARTP = 0.013, and NRAGE Signals Death through JNK (PGSEA = 0.006, PARTP = 0.001. Our results demonstrate that pathway analysis can shed light on post-GWAS research and help identify potential targets for cancer susceptibility.

  7. AlgiMatrix™ Based 3D Cell Culture System as an In-Vitro Tumor Model for Anticancer Studies (United States)

    Godugu, Chandraiah; Patel, Apurva R.; Desai, Utkarsh; Andey, Terrick; Sams, Alexandria; Singh, Mandip


    Background Three-dimensional (3D) in-vitro cultures are recognized for recapitulating the physiological microenvironment and exhibiting high concordance with in-vivo conditions. Taking the advantages of 3D culture, we have developed the in-vitro tumor model for anticancer drug screening. Methods Cancer cells grown in 6 and 96 well AlgiMatrix™ scaffolds resulted in the formation of multicellular spheroids in the size range of 100–300 µm. Spheroids were grown in two weeks in cultures without compromising the growth characteristics. Different marketed anticancer drugs were screened by incubating them for 24 h at 7, 9 and 11 days in 3D cultures and cytotoxicity was measured by AlamarBlue® assay. Effectiveness of anticancer drug treatments were measured based on spheroid number and size distribution. Evaluation of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic markers was done by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. The 3D results were compared with the conventional 2D monolayer cultures. Cellular uptake studies for drug (Doxorubicin) and nanoparticle (NLC) were done using spheroids. Results IC50 values for anticancer drugs were significantly higher in AlgiMatrix™ systems compared to 2D culture models. The cleaved caspase-3 expression was significantly decreased (2.09 and 2.47 folds respectively for 5-Fluorouracil and Camptothecin) in H460 spheroid cultures compared to 2D culture system. The cytotoxicity, spheroid size distribution, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and nanoparticle penetration data suggested that in vitro tumor models show higher resistance to anticancer drugs and supporting the fact that 3D culture is a better model for the cytotoxic evaluation of anticancer drugs in vitro. Conclusion The results from our studies are useful to develop a high throughput in vitro tumor model to study the effect of various anticancer agents and various molecular pathways affected by the anticancer drugs and formulations. PMID:23349734

  8. An electro-optical and electron injection study of benzothiazole-based squaraine dyes as efficient dye-sensitized solar cell materials: a first principles study. (United States)

    Al-Fahdan, Najat Saeed; Asiri, Abdullah M; Irfan, Ahmad; Basaif, Salem A; El-Shishtawy, Reda M


    Squaraine dyes have attracted significant attention in many areas of daily life from biomedical imaging to semiconducting materials. Moreover, these dyes are used as photoactive materials in the field of solar cells. In the present study, we investigated the structural, electronic, photophysical, and charge transport properties of six benzothiazole-based squaraine dyes (Cis-SQ1-Cis-SQ3 and Trans-SQ1-Trans-SQ3). The effect of electron donating (-OCH3) and electron withdrawing (-COOH) groups was investigated intensively. Ground state geometry and frequency calculations were performed by applying density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-31G** level of theory. Absorption spectra were computed in chloroform at the time-dependent DFT/B3LYP/6-31G** level of theory. The driving force of electron injection (ΔG (inject)), relative driving force of electron injection (ΔG r (inject)), electronic coupling constants (|VRP|) and light harvesting efficiency (LHE) of all six compounds were calculated and compared with previously studied sensitizers. The ΔG (inject), ΔG r (inject) and |VRP| of all six compounds revealed that these sensitizers would be efficient dye-sensitized solar cell materials. Cis/Trans-SQ3 exhibited superior LHE as compared to other derivatives. The Cis/Trans geometric effect was studied and discussed with regard to electro-optical and charge transport properties.

  9. An experimental cell-based model for studying the cell biology and molecular pharmacology of 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein in leukotriene biosynthesis. (United States)

    Gerstmeier, Jana; Weinigel, Christina; Barz, Dagmar; Werz, Oliver; Garscha, Ulrike


    Subcellular distribution of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) to the perinuclear region and interaction with the 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP) are assumed as key steps in leukotriene biosynthesis and are prone to FLAP antagonists. FLAP and/or 5-LO were stably expressed in HEK293 cells, 5-LO products were analyzed by HPLC, and 5-LO and FLAP subcellular localization was visualized by immunofluorescence microscopy. 5-LO and FLAP were stably expressed in HEK293 cells, and upon Ca(2+)-ionophore A23187 stimulation exogenous AA was efficiently transformed into the 5-LO products 5-hydro(pero)xyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-H(p)ETE) and the trans-isomers of LTB4. A23187 stimulation caused 5-LO accumulation at the nuclear membrane only when FLAP was co-expressed. Unexpectedly, A23187 stimulation of HEK cells expressing 5-LO and FLAP without exogenous AA failed in 5-LO product synthesis. HEK cells liberated AA in response to A23187, and transfected HEK cells expressing 12-LO generated 12-HETE after A23187 challenge from endogenous AA. FLAP co-expression increased 5-LO product formation in A23187-stimulated cells at low AA concentrations. Only in cells expressing FLAP and 5-LO, the FLAP antagonist MK886 blocked FLAP-mediated increase in 5-LO product formation, and prevented 5-LO nuclear membrane translocation and co-localization with FLAP. The cellular biosynthesis of 5-LO products from endogenously derived substrate requires not only functional 5-LO/FLAP co-localization but also additional prerequisites which are dispensable when exogenous AA is supplied; identification of these determinants is challenging. We present a cell model to study the role of FLAP as 5-LO interacting protein in LT biosynthesis in intact cells and for characterization of putative FLAP antagonists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. CD30 expression in de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a population-based study from British Columbia. (United States)

    Slack, Graham W; Steidl, Christian; Sehn, Laurie H; Gascoyne, Randy D


    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease with variable therapeutic responses and alternative therapies are needed for patients with unfavourable treatment outcomes after standard treatment with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone). One promising candidate is brentuximab vedotin, an antibody-drug conjugate targeting CD30-expressing cells. However, CD30 (TNFRSF8) expression patterns in DLBCL are not well described thus far. Here, we examined CD30 expression in a population-based cohort of immunocompetent patients from British Columbia with de novo DLBCL using immunohistochemistry. 385 cases of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded DLBCL in tissue microarrays were evaluated. 95 cases (25%) harboured CD30+ tumour cells. Using a > 0% cut-off, CD30 expression was predictive of superior 5-year progression-free survival within R-CHOP treated germinal centre B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCL (86% vs. 64%, P = 0·020), which was independent of the International Prognostic Index. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was identified in 11 (3%) cases, all of which were non-GCB (P = 0·001) and almost exclusively positive for CD30 expression (10/11) (P DLBCL and CD30 immunohistochemistry may be a useful prognostic marker in R-CHOP treated GCB-DLBCL. The significant association of CD30 with EBV-positive non-GCB DLBCL suggests a distinct pathobiology for these cases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Impact of Nodal Level Distribution on Survival in Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Population-Based Study. (United States)

    Marchiano, Emily; Patel, Tapan D; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Baredes, Soly; Park, Richard Chan Woo


    Regional lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, decreasing survival by up to 50%. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OC-SCCa) most commonly spreads to levels I, II, and III. Retrospective analysis of a population-based tumor registry. Academic medical center. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was queried for cases of OC-SCCa from 2004 to 2011 (22,973 cases). Resulting data including patient demographics, clinicopathological features, topographical distribution of nodal metastasis, and survival based on lymph node level involvement were analyzed. In total, 8281 patients were identified with OC-SCCa who underwent neck dissection. Level I, closely followed by levels II and III, represented the most commonly involved nodal basins. The 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) for patients with only level I, II, or III was 42.0% compared with 30.6% for the level IV group (P Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma most commonly involves nodal levels I, II, and III. Involvement of nodal level IV or V portends a worse prognosis than patients with only level I to III disease, and multimodality therapy should be considered for these patients. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  12. Sickle cell disease and pregnancy outcomes: a study of the community-based hospital in a tribal block of Gujarat, India. (United States)

    Desai, Gayatri; Anand, Ankit; Shah, Pankaj; Shah, Shobha; Dave, Kapilkumar; Bhatt, Hardik; Desai, Shrey; Modi, Dhiren


    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary blood disorder prevalent in tribal regions of India. SCD can increase complications during pregnancy and in turn negatively influence pregnancy outcomes. This study reports the analysis of tribal maternal admissions in the community-based hospital of SEWA Rural (Kasturba Maternity Hospital) in Jhagadia block, Gujarat. The objective of the study is to compare the pregnancy outcomes among SCD, sickle cell trait and non-SCD admissions. This study also estimated the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for SCD admissions. The data pertains to four and half years from March 2011 to September 2015. The total tribal maternal admissions were 14640, out of which 10519 admissions were deliveries. The admissions were classified as sickle cell disease, sickle cell trait and non-sickle cell disease. The selected pregnancy outcomes and maternal complications were abortion, stillbirth, Caesarean section, haemoglobin levels, blood transfusion, preterm pregnancy, newborn birth weight and other diagnosed morbidities (IUGR, PIH, eclampsia, preterm labour pain). The odds ratios for each risk factor were estimated for sickle cell patients. The odds ratios were adjusted for the respective years. Overall, 1.2% (131 out of 10519) of tribal delivery admissions was sickle cell admissions. Another 15.6% (1645 out of 10519) of tribal delivery admissions have sickle cell trait. The percentage of stillbirth was 9.9% among sickle cell delivery admission compared to 4.2% among non-sickle cell deliveries admissions. Among sickle cell deliveries, 70.2% were low birth weight compared to 43.8% of non-sickle cell patient. Similarly, almost half of the sickle cell deliveries needed the blood transfusion. The 45.0% of sickle cell delivery admissions were pre-term births, compared to 17.3% in non-SCD deliveries. The odds ratio of severe anaemia, stillbirth, blood transfusion, Caesarean section, and low birth weight was significantly higher for sickle cell

  13. Process Development and Basic Studies of Electrochemically Deposited CdTe-Based Solar Cells; Annual Technical Report, Phase II, 16 May 1999-13 May 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaydanov, V.I.; Ohno, T.R. (Colorado School of Mines)


    This project, carried out at the Colorado School of Mines, addresses long-term research and development issues related to polycrystalline thin-film solar cells. Our general research approach is based on combining activities aimed at improving cell performance and stability with activities aimed at increasing our fundamental understanding of the properties of materials making up the cells: CdTe, CdS, multilayer back-contact, and transparent conducting oxide (TCO) from contact. We emphasize the relation between structural and electronic materials properties and various processing procedures, as well as the microscopic mechanisms responsible for the cell performance and its degradation. Section 1 presents studies of degradation under stressing of the cells with differently processed CdTe and different back contents. Section 2 presents studies of deep traps in the electrodeposited (ED) CdTe cells performed in collaboration at NREL. Section 3 reports studies of the spectral dependencies of photocurrent, and their spatial distribution over the cross-section of the ED CdTe cells were performed using near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM). Section 4 discusses the impedance spectroscopy of CdTe and CdS thin films. Section 5 presents studies of band spectrum and electron scattering in transparent conducting oxides. Appendices present data on personnel involved in the studies, laboratory improvements, and publications.

  14. Mortality in cancer patients with a history of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma - a nationwide population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannesdottir Sigrun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is associated with underlying immunosuppression, so it may be a prognostic marker in patients with subsequent cancer. We therefore conducted a nationwide population-based Danish cohort study to evaluate whether a history of cutaneuos SCC has prognostic impact in patients with one of the following index cancers: non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, or cancer of the lung, colon, rectum, breast, or prostate. Methods We used Danish medical databases, which cover the entire Danish population of 5.6 million inhabitants and linked them using the unique personal identification number assigned to all Danish residents. From 1982 through 2003, we identified 745 index cancer patients with and 79,143 without previous cutaneous SCC. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we calculated adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results Overall, previous SCC was associated with an increased mortality of cancer (MRR 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04-1.23. When examining index cancers separately, increased MRRs were found for cancer of the lung (MRR 1.23, 95% CI: 1.05-1.43, colon (MRR 1.13, 95% CI: 0.92-1.40, rectum (MRR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.00-1.67, breast (MRR 1.09, 95% CI: 0.82-1.43, and NHL (MRR 1.09, 95% CI: 0.81-1.47, but not for prostate cancer (MRR 0.99, 95% CI: 0.83-1.18. Conclusions Our results suggest that previous cutaneous SCC is associated with poor prognosis of some cancers. This finding stresses the importance of adherence to the existing recommendations of screening, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer in patients with a history of SCC.

  15. Prognostic Factors and Treatment Results After Bleomycin, Etoposide, and Cisplatin in Germ Cell Cancer: A Population-based Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kier, Maria G; Lauritsen, Jakob; Mortensen, Mette S


    BACKGROUND: First-line treatment for patients with disseminated germ cell cancer (GCC) is bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP). A prognostic classification of patients receiving chemotherapy was published by the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) in 1997, but only...... a small proportion of the patients received BEP. OBJECTIVE: To estimate survival probabilities after BEP, evaluate the IGCCCG prognostic classification, and propose new prognostic factors for outcome. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Of a Danish population-based cohort of GCC patients (1984-2007), 1889...... received first-line BEP, with median follow-up of 15 yr. Covariates evaluated as prognostic factors were age, year of treatment, primary site, non-pulmonary visceral metastases, pulmonary metastases, and tumor markers. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Outcomes measured were 5-yr progression...

  16. Cell-based technologies for Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Santoro Haddad

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Huntington's disease (HD is a fatal genetic disorder, which causes the progressive breakdown of neurons in the human brain. HD deteriorates human physical and mental abilities over time and has no cure. Stem cell-based technologies are promising novel treatments, and in HD, they aim to replace lost neurons and/or to prevent neural cell death. Herein we discuss the use of human fetal tissue (hFT, neural stem cells (NSCs of hFT origin or embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs, in clinical and pre-clinical studies. The in vivo use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, which are derived from non-neural tissues, will also be discussed. All these studies prove the potential of stem cells for transplantation therapy in HD, demonstrating cell grafting and the ability to differentiate into mature neurons, resulting in behavioral improvements. We claim that there are still many problems to overcome before these technologies become available for HD patient treatment, such as: a safety regarding the use of NSCs and pluripotent stem cells, which are potentially teratogenic; b safety regarding the transplantation procedure itself, which represents a risk and needs to be better studied; and finally c technical and ethical issues regarding cells of fetal and embryonic origin.

  17. Cell phone based balance trainer. (United States)

    Lee, Beom-Chan; Kim, Jeonghee; Chen, Shu; Sienko, Kathleen H


    In their current laboratory-based form, existing vibrotactile sensory augmentation technologies that provide cues of body motion are impractical for home-based rehabilitation use due to their size, weight, complexity, calibration procedures, cost, and fragility. We have designed and developed a cell phone based vibrotactile feedback system for potential use in balance rehabilitation training in clinical and home environments. It comprises an iPhone with an embedded tri-axial linear accelerometer, custom software to estimate body tilt, a "tactor bud" accessory that plugs into the headphone jack to provide vibrotactile cues of body tilt, and a battery. Five young healthy subjects (24 ± 2.8 yrs, 3 females and 2 males) and four subjects with vestibular deficits (42.25 ± 13.5 yrs, 2 females and 2 males) participated in a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Healthy subjects used the system with eyes closed during Romberg, semi-tandem Romberg, and tandem Romberg stances. Subjects with vestibular deficits used the system with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions during semi-tandem Romberg stance. Vibrotactile feedback was provided when the subject exceeded either an anterior-posterior (A/P) or a medial-lateral (M/L) body tilt threshold. Subjects were instructed to move away from the vibration. The system was capable of providing real-time vibrotactile cues that informed corrective postural responses. When feedback was available, both healthy subjects and those with vestibular deficits significantly reduced their A/P or M/L RMS sway (depending on the direction of feedback), had significantly smaller elliptical area fits to their sway trajectory, spent a significantly greater mean percentage time within the no feedback zone, and showed a significantly greater A/P or M/L mean power frequency. The results suggest that the real-time feedback provided by this system can be used to reduce body sway. Its advantages over more complex

  18. Cell phone based balance trainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Beom-Chan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In their current laboratory-based form, existing vibrotactile sensory augmentation technologies that provide cues of body motion are impractical for home-based rehabilitation use due to their size, weight, complexity, calibration procedures, cost, and fragility. Methods We have designed and developed a cell phone based vibrotactile feedback system for potential use in balance rehabilitation training in clinical and home environments. It comprises an iPhone with an embedded tri-axial linear accelerometer, custom software to estimate body tilt, a "tactor bud" accessory that plugs into the headphone jack to provide vibrotactile cues of body tilt, and a battery. Five young healthy subjects (24 ± 2.8 yrs, 3 females and 2 males and four subjects with vestibular deficits (42.25 ± 13.5 yrs, 2 females and 2 males participated in a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Healthy subjects used the system with eyes closed during Romberg, semi-tandem Romberg, and tandem Romberg stances. Subjects with vestibular deficits used the system with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions during semi-tandem Romberg stance. Vibrotactile feedback was provided when the subject exceeded either an anterior-posterior (A/P or a medial-lateral (M/L body tilt threshold. Subjects were instructed to move away from the vibration. Results The system was capable of providing real-time vibrotactile cues that informed corrective postural responses. When feedback was available, both healthy subjects and those with vestibular deficits significantly reduced their A/P or M/L RMS sway (depending on the direction of feedback, had significantly smaller elliptical area fits to their sway trajectory, spent a significantly greater mean percentage time within the no feedback zone, and showed a significantly greater A/P or M/L mean power frequency. Conclusion The results suggest that the real-time feedback provided by this system can be used

  19. A feasibility of useful cell-based therapy by bone regeneration with deciduous tooth stem cells, dental pulp stem cells, or bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for clinical study using tissue engineering technology. (United States)

    Yamada, Yoichi; Nakamura, Sayaka; Ito, Kenji; Sugito, Takayuki; Yoshimi, Ryoko; Nagasaka, Tetsuro; Ueda, Minoru


    This study investigated the effect of bone regeneration with dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), deciduous tooth stem cells (DTSCs), or bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) for clinical study on hydroxyapatite-coated osseointegrated dental implants, using tissue engineering technology. In vitro, human DPSCs and DTSCs expressed STRO-1, CD13, CD29, CD 44, CD73, and osteogenic marker genes such as alkaline phosphatase, Runx2, and osteocalcin. In vivo, prepared bone defect model was implanted using graft materials as follows: platelet-rich plasma (PRP), PRP and canine BMMSCs (cBMMSCs), PRP and canine DPSCs (cDPSCs), PRP and puppy DTSCs (pDTSCs), and control (defect only). After 8 weeks, the dental implants were installed, and 16 weeks later the sections were evaluated histologically and histometrically. The cBMMSCs/PRP, cDPSCs/PRP, and pDTSCs/PRP groups had well-formed mature bone and neovascularization. Histometrically, the bone-implant contact was significantly different between the cBMMSCs/PRP, cDPSCs/PRP, pDTSCs/PRP groups, and the control and PRP groups (p < 0.01). These results demonstrated that these stem cells with PRP have the ability to form bone, and this bone formation activity might be useful for osseointegrated hydroxyapatite-coated dental implants with good levels of bone-implant contact.

  20. Development of hematopoietic stem cell based gene therapy for HIV-1 infection: considerations for proof of concept studies and translation to standard medical practice. (United States)

    DiGiusto, David L; Stan, Rodica; Krishnan, Amrita; Li, Haitang; Rossi, John J; Zaia, John A


    Over the past 15 years we have been investigating an alternative approach to treating HIV-1/AIDS, based on the creation of a disease-resistant immune system through transplantation of autologous, gene-modified (HIV-1-resistant) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (GM-HSPC). We propose that the expression of selected RNA-based HIV-1 inhibitors in the CD4+ cells derived from GM-HSPC will protect them from HIV-1 infection and results in a sufficient immune repertoire to control HIV-1 viremia resulting in a functional cure for HIV-1/AIDS. Additionally, it is possible that the subset of protected T cells will also be able to facilitate the immune-based elimination of latently infected cells if they can be activated to express viral antigens. Thus, a single dose of disease resistant GM-HSPC could provide an effective treatment for HIV-1+ patients who require (or desire) an alternative to lifelong antiretroviral chemotherapy. We describe herein the results from several pilot clinical studies in HIV-1 patients and our strategies to develop second generation vectors and clinical strategies for HIV-1+ patients with malignancy who require ablative chemotherapy as part of treatment and others without malignancy. The important issues related to stem cell source, patient selection, conditioning regimen and post-infusion correlative studies become increasingly complex and are discussed herein.

  1. Cell culture arrays using magnetic force-based cell patterning for dynamic single cell analysis. (United States)

    Ino, Kosuke; Okochi, Mina; Konishi, Nao; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Imai, Rentaro; Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Ito, Akira; Honda, Hiroyuki


    In order to understand the behavior of individual cells, single cell analyses have attracted attention since most cell-based assays provide data with values averaged across a large number of cells. Techniques for the manipulation and analysis of single cells are crucial for understanding the behavior of individual cells. In the present study, we have developed single cell culture arrays using magnetic force and a pin holder, which enables the allocation of the magnetically labeled cells on arrays, and have analyzed their dynamics. The pin holder was made from magnetic soft iron and contained more than 6000 pillars on its surface. The pin holder was placed on a magnet to concentrate the magnetic flux density above the pillars. NIH/3T3 fibroblasts that were labeled with magnetite cationic liposomes (MCLs) were seeded into a culture dish, and the dish was placed over the pin holder with the magnet. The magnetically labeled cells were guided on the surface where the pillars were positioned and allocated on the arrays with a high resolution. Single-cell patterning was achieved by adjusting the number of cells seeded, and the target cell was collected by a micromanipulator after removing the pin holder with the magnet. Furthermore, change in the morphology of magnetically patterned cells was analyzed by microscopic observation, and cell spreading on the array was observed with time duration. Magnetic force-based cell patterning on cell culture arrays would be a suitable technique for the analysis of cell behavior in studies of cell-cell variation and cell-cell interactions.

  2. Implementation of a Permeable Membrane Insert-based Infection System to Study the Effects of Secreted Bacterial Toxins on Mammalian Host Cells. (United States)

    Flaherty, Rebecca A; Lee, Shaun W


    Many bacterial pathogens secrete potent toxins to aid in the destruction of host tissue, to initiate signaling changes in host cells or to manipulate immune system responses during the course of infection. Though methods have been developed to successfully purify and produce many of these important virulence factors, there are still many bacterial toxins whose unique structure or extensive post-translational modifications make them difficult to purify and study in in vitro systems. Furthermore, even when pure toxin can be obtained, there are many challenges associated with studying the specific effects of a toxin under relevant physiological conditions. Most in vitro cell culture models designed to assess the effects of secreted bacterial toxins on host cells involve incubating host cells with a one-time dose of toxin. Such methods poorly approximate what host cells actually experience during an infection, where toxin is continually produced by bacterial cells and allowed to accumulate gradually during the course of infection. This protocol describes the design of a permeable membrane insert-based bacterial infection system to study the effects of Streptolysin S, a potent toxin produced by Group A Streptococcus, on human epithelial keratinocytes. This system more closely mimics the natural physiological environment during an infection than methods where pure toxin or bacterial supernatants are directly applied to host cells. Importantly, this method also eliminates the bias of host responses that are due to direct contact between the bacteria and host cells. This system has been utilized to effectively assess the effects of Streptolysin S (SLS) on host membrane integrity, cellular viability, and cellular signaling responses. This technique can be readily applied to the study of other secreted virulence factors on a variety of mammalian host cell types to investigate the specific role of a secreted bacterial factor during the course of infection.

  3. In-cell PCR method for specific genotyping of genomic DNA from one individual in a mixture of cells from two individuals: a model study with specific relevance to prenatal diagnosis based on fetal cells in maternal blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, T Vauvert


    maternal blood samples, the use of such an approach for genotyping by molecular biology techniques in a more routine setting has been hampered by the large contamination of maternal nucleated blood cells in the cell isolates. Therefore, a new method based on in-cell PCR is described, which may overcome...... this problem. Methods and Results: Mixtures of cells from two different individuals were fixed and permeabilized in suspension. After coamplification of a DNA sequence specific for one of the individuals and the DNA sequence to be genotyped, the two PCR products were linked together in the fixed cells positive...... for both DNA sequences by complementary primer tails and further amplification steps. In a model system of mixtures of male and female CD71-positive cells from umbilical cord blood attached to immunomagnetic particles, a Y-chromosome-specific sequence (TSPY) was linked to a polymorphic HLA-DPB1 sequence...

  4. Study on the Production of Biodiesel by Magnetic Cell Biocatalyst Based on Lipase-Producing Bacillus subtilis (United States)

    Ying, Ming; Chen, Guanyi

    Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils by a magnetic cell biocatalyst (MCB) immobilized in hydrophobic magnetic polymicrosphere is studied here. The cells of lipase-producing Bacillus subtilis were encapsulated within the net of hydrophobic carrier with magnetic particles (Fe3O4), and the secreted lipase can be conjugated with carboxyl at the magnetic polymicrosphere surface. Environmental scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and vibrating magnetometer, and so on were used to characterize the MCB. The MCB was proved to be superparamagnetic; and could be recovered by magnetic separation; moreover it could be regenerated under 48 h of cultivation. When methanolysis is carried out using MCB with waste cooking oils under stepwise additions of methanol, the methyl esters in the reaction mixture reaches about 90% after 72h reaction in a solvent-free system. The process presented here is environmentally friendly and simple without purification and immobilized process required by the current lipase-catalyzed process. Therefore, the process is very promising for development of biodiesel fuel industry.


    Daland, Geneva A.; Isaacs, Raphael


    1. The oxygen consumption of blood of normal individuals, when the hemoglobin is saturated with oxygen, is practically zero within the limits of experimental error of the microspirometer used. 2. The oxygen consumed in a microspirometer by the blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia with a high white blood cell count, and of one with leucocytosis from sepsis, was proportional to the number of adult polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the blood. 3. No correlation could be made between the rate of oxygen absorption and the total number of white blood cells in the blood, or the total number of immature cells, or the number of red blood cells, or the amount of oxyhemoglobin. 4. The blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia continued to use oxygen in the microspirometer longer than that of normal individuals, and the hemoglobin, in the leucemic bloods, became desaturated even though exposed to air. 5. In blood in which the bulk. of the cells were immature and the mature cells few, the oxygen consumption was lower than in blood in which the mature cells predominated. The rate of oxygen consumption of the immature cells was relatively low as compared to the mature. 6. The slower rate of oxygen absorption by the immature leucocytes in chronic myelogenous leucemia as compared to the mature cells, places them, in accord with Warburg's reports, in the class of the malignant tissues in this respect rather than in the group of young or embryonic cells. PMID:19869329

  6. Monitoring T-Cell Responses in Translational Studies: Optimization of Dye-Based Proliferation Assay for Evaluation of Antigen-Specific Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Ten Brinke


    Full Text Available Adoptive therapy with regulatory T cells or tolerance-inducing antigen (Ag-presenting cells is innovative and promising therapeutic approach to control undesired and harmful activation of the immune system, as observed in autoimmune diseases, solid organ and bone marrow transplantation. One of the critical issues to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for success or failure of these therapies and define the specificity of the therapy is the evaluation of the Ag-specific T-cell responses. Several efforts have been made to develop suitable and reproducible assays. Here, we focus on dye-based proliferation assays. We highlight with practical examples the fundamental issues to take into consideration for implementation of an effective and sensitive dye-based proliferation assay to monitor Ag-specific responses in patients. The most critical points were used to design a road map to set up and analyze the optimal assay to assess Ag-specific T-cell responses in patients undergoing different treatments. This is the first step to optimize monitoring of tolerance induction, allowing comparison of outcomes of different clinical studies. The road map can also be applied to other therapeutic interventions, not limited to tolerance induction therapies, in which Ag-specific T-cell responses are relevant such as vaccination approaches and cancer immunotherapy.

  7. Novel Fuel Cells for Coal Based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Tao


    The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data required to assess the feasibility of a Direct Coal power plant based upon an Electrochemical Looping (ECL) of Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA-SOFC). The objective of Phase 1 was to experimentally characterize the interaction between the tin anode, coal fuel and cell component electrolyte, the fate of coal contaminants in a molten tin reactor (via chemistry) and their impact upon the YSZ electrolyte (via electrochemistry). The results of this work will provided the basis for further study in Phase 2. The objective of Phase 2 was to extend the study of coal impurities impact on fuel cell components other than electrolyte, more specifically to the anode current collector which is made of an electrically conducting ceramic jacket and broad based coal tin reduction. This work provided a basic proof-of-concept feasibility demonstration of the direct coal concept.

  8. Etiological study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in an endemic region: a population-based case control study in Huaian, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Weimin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous exposure to various environmental carcinogens and genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME are associated with many types of human cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. Huaian, China, is one of the endemic regions of ESCC, but fewer studies have been done in characterizing the risk factors of ESCC in this area. The aims of this study is to evaluate the etiological roles of demographic parameters, environmental and food-borne carcinogens exposure, and XME polymorphisms in formation of ESCC, and to investigate possible gene-gene and gene-environment interactions associated with ESCC in Huaian, China. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted in 107 ESCC newly diagnosed cases and 107 residency- age-, and sex-matched controls in 5 townships of Huaian. In addition to regular epidemiological and food frequency questionnaire analyses, genetic polymorphisms of phase I enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, and phase II enzymes GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX were assessed from genomic DNA using PCR based techniques. Results Consuming acrid food, fatty meat, moldy food, salted and pickled vegetables, eating fast, introverted personality, passive smoking, a family history of cancer, esophageal lesion, and infection with Helicobacter pylori were significant risk factors for ESCC (P GSTT1 null genotype was higher in cases (59.4% compared to controls (47.2% with an odds ratio (OR of 1.68 and 95% confidence interval (CI from 0.96 to 2.97 (P = 0.07, especially in males (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.22–6.25; P = 0.01. No associations were found between polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and EPHX and ESCC (P > 0.05. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that dietary and environmental exposures, some demographic parameters and genetic polymorphism of GSTT1 may play important roles in the development of ESCC in Huaian

  9. Genital squamous cell carcinoma in men treated by photochemotherapy. A cancer registry-based study from 1978 to 1998. (United States)

    Aubin, F; Puzenat, E; Arveux, P; Louvat, P; Quencez, E; Humbert, P


    One single report from the U.S. 16-centre-trial indicated that psoralen and ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) therapy may induce an increased risk of genital tumours in men, and protection of the genital area is, therefore, recommended. To evaluate the relevance of this risk in routine clinical practice. Two groups of patients were included in a 1978-98 retrospective study. Case records of men with genital squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) identified from the Cancer Registry of the Doubs area of France were examined for a history of PUVA therapy, topical tar treatment, psoriasis, human papillomavirus infection or genital dermatitis. In addition, all the dermatologists of the Doubs area (in public and private practice) using PUVA therapy were asked to provide information on the number of patients having received PUVA therapy and whether the genital area was exposed during treatment. Between 1978 and 1998, among the 48 men who had developed a genital SCC in the Doubs area, only one had a history of intensive PUVA therapy. About 150,000 treatments with PUVA therapy had been performed by 15 dermatologists in the Doubs area for 5400 patients since 1978. No case of genital SCC had been reported, despite the fact that the genital area had not been protected during UVA exposure. Although retrospective, our study demonstrates that the occurrence of genital SCC in men treated with PUVA therapy is a very rare event in common dermatological practice.

  10. Cell-based therapy for kidney disease. (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Chul; Ko, In Kap; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J


    The prevalence of renal disease continues to increase worldwide. When normal kidney is injured, the damaged renal tissue undergoes pathological and physiological events that lead to acute and chronic kidney diseases, which frequently progress to end stage renal failure. Current treatment of these renal pathologies includes dialysis, which is incapable of restoring full renal function. To address this issue, cell-based therapy has become a potential therapeutic option to treat renal pathologies. Recent development in cell therapy has demonstrated promising therapeutic outcomes, in terms of restoration of renal structure and function impaired by renal disease. This review focuses on the cell therapy approaches for the treatment of kidney diseases, including various cell sources used, as well recent advances made in preclinical and clinical studies.

  11. Multispectral imaging system based on light-emitting diodes for the detection of melanomas and basal cell carcinomas: a pilot study (United States)

    Delpueyo, Xana; Vilaseca, Meritxell; Royo, Santiago; Ares, Miguel; Rey-Barroso, Laura; Sanabria, Ferran; Puig, Susana; Pellacani, Giovanni; Noguero, Fernando; Solomita, Giuseppe; Bosch, Thierry


    This article proposes a multispectral system that uses the analysis of the spatial distribution of color and spectral features to improve the detection of skin cancer lesions, specifically melanomas and basal cell carcinomas. The system consists of a digital camera and light-emitting diodes of eight different wavelengths (414 to 995 nm). The parameters based on spectral features of the lesions such as reflectance and color, as well as others empirically computed using reflectance values, were calculated pixel-by-pixel from the images obtained. Statistical descriptors were calculated for every segmented lesion [mean (x˜), standard deviation (σ), minimum, and maximum]; descriptors based on the first-order statistics of the histogram [entropy (Ep), energy (En), and third central moment (μ3)] were also obtained. The study analyzed 429 pigmented and nonpigmented lesions: 290 nevi and 139 malignant (95 melanomas and 44 basal cell carcinomas), which were split into training and validation sets. Fifteen parameters were found to provide the best sensitivity (87.2% melanomas and 100% basal cell carcinomas) and specificity (54.5%). The results suggest that the extraction of textural information can contribute to the diagnosis of melanomas and basal cell carcinomas as a supporting tool to dermoscopy and confocal microscopy.

  12. Process Development and Basic Studies of Electrochemically Deposited CdTe-Based Solar Cells: Final Technical Report, 15 May 1998 - 17 August 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaydanov, V. I.; Ohno, T. R.


    This report describes the long-term research and development issues related to polycrystalline thin-film solar cells. Our general research approach is based on combining activities aimed at improvement of cell performance and stability with activities aimed at increasing our fundamental understanding of the properties of materials making up the cells: CdTe, CdS, multi-layer back-contact, and transparent conducting oxide (TCO) front-contact. We emphasize the relation between structural and electronic material properties and various processing procedures, as well as the microscopic mechanisms responsible for the cell performance and its degradation. There is a lack of knowledge and understanding of basic issues behind the CdTe/CdS cell performance and stability, such as the nature and electronic properties of impurities and defects that control the majority-carrier concentration, mechanisms of the dopant compensation, recombination centers, their nature and properties, diffusion, electro migration and transformation of defects under various processing, stress, and operating conditions. We believe that better basic understanding of the specific influence of polycrystallinity, especially for fine-grain materials characteristic of CdTe-based cells, is now one of the most important issues we must address. We need to clarify the role of grain boundaries in forming the film electronic properties, as well as those of the p-n junction. It is important to study and understand the influence of the grain boundaries on the spatial distribution and migration of impurities and electrically active defects. To fulfill these tasks, one needs to develop new methods and techniques (or adjust existing ones) for material characterization, as well as develop more sophisticated approaches to data analysis and modeling.

  13. The Construction of Chimeric T-Cell Receptor with Spacer Base of Modeling Study of VHH and MUC1 Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Pirooznia


    Full Text Available Adaptive cell immunotherapy with the use of chimeric receptors leads to the best and most specific response against tumors. Chimeric receptors consist of a signaling fragment, extracellular spacer, costimulating domain, and an antibody. Antibodies cause immunogenicity; therefore, VHH is a good replacement for ScFv in chimeric receptors. Since peptide sequences have an influence on chimeric receptors, the effect of peptide domains on each other's conformation were investigated. CD3Zeta, CD28, VHH and CD8α, and FcgIIα are used as signaling moieties, costimulating domain, antibody, and spacers, respectively. To investigate the influence of the ligation of spacers on the conformational structure of VHH, models of VHH were constructed. Molecular dynamics simulation was run to study the influence of the presence of spacers on the conformational changes in the binding sites of VHH. Root mean square deviation and root mean square fluctuation of critical segments in the binding site showed no noticeable differences with those in the native VHH. Results from molecular docking revealed that the presence of spacer FcgIIα causes an increasing effect on VHH with MUC1 interaction. Each of the constructs was transformed into the Jurkat E6.1. Expression analysis and evaluation of their functions were examined. The results showed good expression and function.

  14. Cyanidin-Based Novel Organic Sensitizer for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: DFT/TDDFT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Galappaththi


    Full Text Available Cyanidin is widely considered as a potential natural sensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cells due to its promising electron-donating and electron-accepting abilities and cheap availability. We consider modifications of cyanidin structure in order to obtain broader UV-Vis absorption and hence to achieve better performance in DSSC. The modified molecule consists of cyanidin and the benzothiadiazolylbenzoic acid group, where the benzothiadiazolylbenzoic acid group is attached to the cyanidin molecule by replacing one hydroxyl group. The resulting structure was then computationally simulated by using the Spartan’10 software package. The molecular geometries, electronic structures, absorption spectra, and electron injections of the newly designed organic sensitizer were investigated in this work through density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT calculations using the Gaussian’09W software package. Furthermore, TDDFT computational calculations were performed on cyanadin and benzothiadiazolylbenzoic acid separately, as reference. The computational studies on the new sensitizer have shown a reduced HOMO-LUMO gap; bathochromic and hyperchromic shifts of absorption spectra range up to near-infrared region revealing its enhanced ability to sensitize DSSCs.

  15. Combined radio- and chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: systematic review of landmark studies based on acquired citations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten eNieder


    Full Text Available The important role of combined chemoradiation for several groups of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is reflected by the large number of scientific articles published during the last 30 years. Different measures of impact and clinical relevance of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this review, article citation rate was chosen. Highly cited articles were identified through systematic search of the citation database Scopus. Among the 100 most often cited articles, meta-analyses (n=5 achieved a median of 203 citations, guidelines (n=7 97, phase III trials (n=29 168, phase II trials (n=21 135, phase I trials (n=7 88, and others combined 115.5 (p=0.001. Numerous national and international cooperative groups and several single institutions were actively involved in performing often cited, high-impact trials, reflecting the fact that NSCLC is a world-wide challenge that requires research collaboration. Platinum-containing combinations have evolved into a standard of care, typically administered concurrently. The issue of radiotherapy fractionation and total dose has also been studied extensively, yet with less conclusive results. Differences in target volume definition have been addressed. However, it was not possible to test all theoretically possible combinations of radiotherapy regimens, drugs and drug doses (lower radiosensitizing doses compared to higher systemically active doses. That is why current guidelines offer physicians a choice of different, presumably equivalent treatment alternatives. This review identifies open questions and strategies for further research.

  16. Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Acute Spinal Cord Injury in Rats: Comparative Study between Intralesional Injection and Scaffold Based Transplantation. (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Chung; Kim, Young Hoon; Kim, Jang Woon; Ha, Kee Yong


    Experimental stem cell therapy for spinal cord injury (SCI) has been extensively investigated. The selection of effective cell transplantation route is also an important issue. Although various types of scaffold have been widely tried as a carrier of stem cells to the injured spinal cord, there was little comparative study to investigate the efficacy of transplantation comparing with conventional transplantation route. A total of 48 Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to standardized SCI, followed by transplantation of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), either via intralesional injection (IL group), or via the poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffold (IP group) or chitosan scaffold (IC group). Engraftment and differentiation of the transplanted cells, expression of neurotrophic factors in the injured spinal cord, and functional recovery were compared with those of the control group. The mean numbers of engrafted MSCs in the IL, IP, and IC groups were 20.6 ± 0.7, 25.6 ± 1.7 and 26.7 ± 1.8 cells/high power filed (HPF), respectively. Results showed higher success rate of MSCs engraftment in the scaffold groups compared to the IL group. Expression of neuroprotective growth factors in the SCI lesions showed no significant differences between the IL, IP, and IC groups. The mean Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor scales at 6 weeks post-transplantation in the IL, IP, IC, and control groups were 7.9 ± 1.1, 7.9 ± 2.1, 8.7 ± 2.1, and 2.9 ± 1.0, respectively. The functional improvement was most excellent in the IC group. The scaffold based MSC transplantation for acute SCI presented the better cell engraftment and neuroprotective effect compared to the intralesional injection transplantation.

  17. Follow-up study of atypical glandular cells in gynecologic cytology using conventional Pap smears and liquid-based preparations: impact of the Bethesda System 2001. (United States)

    Lee, Chris Yick-Kwong; Ng, Wai-Kuen


    This study evaluated the impact of the Bethesda System (TBS) 2001 in reporting of atypical glandular cells (AGC) when using conventional Pap smears (CS) and liquid-based cytology preparations (LBC). Follow-up information for all atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS)/ AGC cases encountered in Queen Mary Hospital from July 2000 to June 2004 was analyzed. The difference in percentages associated with certain end points when using different reporting systems and preparation methods were compared. The age trends and time interval between cytologic diagnosis and detection of positive end points were studied. More than half of these cases turned out to be "negative." The majority with "negative" end points belonged to the "not otherwise specified" (NOS) groups (including atypical endometrial cells) in TBS 2001. The connotation of "favor neoplastic" carried a high positive predictive value for significant lesions. Most of the significant outcomes were discovered within the subsequent 6 months. A decreased reporting of "AGC, NOS" and an increased reporting of "atypical endocervical cells, NOS" were noted when using LBC. Subcategorization of AGC in TBS 2001 according to cellular origin and risk of malignancy, which is further enhanced by application of LBC, is useful.

  18. Cell-based regenerative strategies for treatment of diabetic skin wounds, a comparative study between human umbilical cord blood-mononuclear cells and calves' blood haemodialysate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala O El-Mesallamy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes-related foot problems are bound to increase. However, medical therapies for wound care are limited; therefore, the need for development of new treatment modalities to improve wound healing in diabetic patients is essential and constitutes an emerging field of investigation. METHODS: Animals were randomly divided into 8 groups (I-VIII (32 rats/group, all were streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetics except groups III and VIII were non-diabetic controls. The study comprised two experiments; the first included 3 groups. Group I injected with mononuclear cells (MNCs derived from human umbilical cord blood (HUCB, group II a diabetic control group (PBS i.v. The second experiment included 5 groups, groups IV, V, and VI received topical HUCB-haemodialysate (HD, calves' blood HD, and solcoseryl, respectively. Group VII was the diabetic control group (topical saline. Standard circular wounds were created on the back of rats. A sample of each type of HD was analyzed using the high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS system. Wound area measurement and photography were carried out every 4 days. Plasma glucose, catalase (CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO and platelets count were assessed. Wound samples were excised for hydroxyproline (HP and histopathological study. RESULTS: Treatment with HUCB MNCs or HUCB-HD resulted in wound contraction, increased CAT, NO, platelets count, body weights, and HP content, and decreased MDA and glucose. CONCLUSION: Systemic administration of HUCB MNCs and topical application of the newly prepared HUCB-HD or calves' blood HD significantly accelerated the rate of diabetic wound healing and would open the possibility of their future use in regenerative medicine.

  19. Cu(II Complexes of Isoniazid Schiff Bases: DNA/BSA Binding and Cytotoxicity Studies on A549 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulipaka Ramadevi


    Full Text Available A series of isonicotinoyl hydrazones have been synthesized via template method and were complexed to Cu(II. The ligands are coordinated to Cu(II ion through the enolic oxygen and azomethine nitrogen resulting in a square planar geometry. The CT-DNA and bovine serum albumin binding propensities of the compounds were determined spectrophotometrically, the results of which indicate good binding propensity of complexes to DNA and BSA with high binding constant values. Furthermore, the compounds have been investigated for their cytotoxicities on A549 human lung cancer cell. Also the mode of cell death was examined employing various staining techniques and was found to be apoptotic.

  20. Pharmacokinetic study of neural stem cell-based cell carrier for oncolytic virotherapy: targeted delivery of the therapeutic payload in an orthotopic brain tumor model. (United States)

    Thaci, B; Ahmed, A U; Ulasov, I V; Tobias, A L; Han, Y; Aboody, K S; Lesniak, M S


    Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising novel therapy for glioblastoma that needs to be optimized before introduced to clinic. The targeting of conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) can be improved by relying on the tumor-tropic properties of neural stem cells (NSCs). Here, we report the characterization of an FDA approved NSC, HB1.F3-CD, as a cell carrier for CRAd-S-pk7, a glioma-tropic oncolytic adenovirus. We show that NSCs replicate and release infectious CRAd-S-pk7 progeny capable of lysing glioma cell lines. Moreover, ex-vivo-loaded NSCs, injected intracranially in nude mice bearing human glioma xenografts (i) retained their tumor tropism, (ii) continued to replicate CRAd-S-pk7 for more than a week after reaching the tumor site and (iii) successfully handed off CRAd-S-pk7 to glioma cells in vivo. Delivery via carrier cells reduced non-specific adenovirus distribution in the mouse brain. Moreover, we assessed biodistribution of loaded NSCs after intracranial injection in animal models semi-permissive to adenovirus replication, the Syrian hamster and cotton rat. NSCs did not migrate to distant organs and high levels of CRAd-S-pk7 DNA were observed only in the injected hemisphere. In conclusion, this optimized carrier system, with high efficiency of adenovirus delivery and minimal systemic toxicity, poses considerable advantages for anti-glioma oncolytic virotherapy.

  1. Carbazole Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Studied from Femtoseconds to Seconds-Effect of Additives in Cobalt- and Iodide-Based Electrolytes. (United States)

    Sobuś, Jan; Kubicki, Jacek; Burdziński, Gotard; Ziółek, Marcin


    Comprehensive studies of all charge-separation processes in efficient carbazole dye-sensitized solar cells are correlated with their photovoltaic parameters. An important role of partial, fast electron recombination from the semiconductor nanoparticles to the oxidized dye is revealed; this takes place on the picosecond and sub-nanosecond timescales. The charge-transfer dynamics in cobalt tris(bipyridyl) based electrolytes and iodide-based electrolyte is observed to depend on potential-determining additives in a similar way. Upon addition of 0.5 M 4-tert-butylpiridine to both types of electrolytes, the stability of the cells is greatly improved; the cell photovoltage increases by 150-200 mV, the electron injection rate decreases about five times (from 5 to 1 ps(-1) ), and fast recombination slows down about two to three times. Dye regeneration proceeds at a rate of about 1 μs(-1) in all electrolytes. Electron recombination from titania to cobalt electrolytes is much faster than that to iodide ones. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A new technique for studying directional cell migration in a hydrogel-based three-dimensional matrix for tissue engineering model systems. (United States)

    Topman, Gil; Shoham, Naama; Sharabani-Yosef, Orna; Lin, Feng-Huei; Gefen, Amit


    Cell migration has a key role in biological processes, e.g. malignancy, wound healing, immune response and morphogenesis. Studying migration and factors that influence it is beneficial, e.g. for developing drugs to suppress metastasis, heal wounds faster or enhance the response to infection. Though the majority of the literature describes two-dimensional (2D) migration studies in culture dishes, a more realistic approach is to study migration in three-dimensional (3D) constructs. However, simple-to-implement, straight-forward standardized quantitative techniques for analysis of migration rates of cell colonies in 3D are still required in the field. Here, we describe a new model system for quantifying directional migration of colonies in a hyaluronic acid (oxi-HA) and adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) hydrogel-based 3D matrix. We further demonstrate that our previously reported image processing technique for measuring migration in 2D (Topman et al., 2011, 2012) is extendable for analyzing the rates of migration of cells that directionally migrate in the hydrogel and are fluorescently stained with a 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) nuclear stain. Together, the present experimental setup and image processing algorithm provide a standard test bench for measuring migration rates in a fully automated, robust assay which is useful for high-throughput screening in large-scale drug evaluations, where effects on migration in a 3D matrix are sought. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Photovoltaic and Impedance Spectroscopy Study of Screen-Printed TiO₂ Based CdS Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells. (United States)

    Atif, M; Farooq, W A; Fatehmulla, Amanullah; Aslam, M; Ali, Syed Mansoor


    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) based on screen-printed TiO₂ were assembled using a screen-printing technique. The CdS quantum dots (QDs) were grown by using the Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. The optical properties were studied by UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy. Photovoltaic characteristics and impedance spectroscopic measurements of CdS QDSSCs were carried out under air mass 1.5 illuminations. The experimental results of capacitance against voltage indicate a trend from positive to negative capacitance because of the injection of electrons from the Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) electrode into TiO₂.

  4. Pharmacokinetic study of neural stem cell-based cell carrier for oncolytic virotherapy: Targeted delivery of the therapeutic payload in an orthotopic brain tumor model


    Thaci, Bart; Ahmed, Atique U.; Ulasov, Ilya V.; Tobias, Alex L.; Han, Yu; Aboody, Karen S.; Lesniak, Maciej S.


    Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising novel therapy for glioblastoma that needs to be optimized before introduced to clinic. The targeting of conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) can be improved by relying on the tumor tropic properties of neural stem cells (NSCs). Here, we report the characterization of an FDA approved NSC, HB1.F3-CD, as a cell carrier for CRAd-S-pk7, a glioma-tropic oncolytic adenovirus. We show that NSCs replicate and release infectious CRAd-S-pk7 progeny capable ...

  5. Assessment of cell proliferation with resazurin-based fluorescent dye. (United States)

    Czekanska, Ewa M


    The Alamar Blue assay is based on enzymatic reduction of indicator dye by viable cells and serves as an effective tool for assessing cell proliferation and as a screening technique. It can be applied in studies concentrating on animal, plant, yeast, and bacteria cells. Among the various methods for cell viability and cytotoxicity, it utilises all features of ideal and reliable test; it is one-step, sensitive, safe, non-toxic for cells, and cost-effective.

  6. A pilot study of SPECT/CT-based mixed-reality navigation towards the sentinel node in patients with melanoma or Merkel cell carcinoma of a lower extremity. (United States)

    van den Berg, Nynke S; Engelen, Thijs; Brouwer, Oscar R; Mathéron, Hanna M; Valdés-Olmos, Renato A; Nieweg, Omgo E; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B


    To explore the feasibility of an intraoperative navigation technology based on preoperatively acquired single photon emission computed tomography combined with computed tomography (SPECT/CT) images during sentinel node (SN) biopsy in patients with melanoma or Merkel cell carcinoma. Patients with a melanoma (n=4) or Merkel cell carcinoma (n=1) of a lower extremity scheduled for wide re-excision of the primary lesion site and SN biopsy were studied. Following a Tc-nanocolloid injection and lymphoscintigraphy, SPECT/CT images were acquired with a reference target (ReTp) fixed on the leg or the iliac spine. Intraoperatively, a sterile ReTp was placed at the same site to enable SPECT/CT-based mixed-reality navigation of a gamma ray detection probe also containing a reference target (ReTgp).The accuracy of the navigation procedure was determined in the coronal plane (x, y-axis) by measuring the discrepancy between standard gamma probe-based SN localization and mixed-reality-based navigation to the SN. To determine the depth accuracy (z-axis), the depth estimation provided by the navigation system was compared to the skin surface-to-node distance measured in the computed tomography component of the SPECT/CT images. In four of five patients, it was possible to navigate towards the preoperatively defined SN. The average navigational error was 8.0 mm in the sagittal direction and 8.5 mm in the coronal direction. Intraoperative sterile ReTp positioning and tissue movement during surgery exerted a distinct influence on the accuracy of navigation. Intraoperative navigation during melanoma or Merkel cell carcinoma surgery is feasible and can provide the surgeon with an interactive 3D roadmap towards the SN or SNs in the groin. However, further technical optimization of the modality is required before this technology can become routine practice.

  7. Thermal annealing study on P3HT: PCBM based bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using impedance spectroscopy (United States)

    Gollu, Sankara Rao; Sharma, Ramakant; G, Srinivas; Gupta, Dipti


    Recently, Thermal annealing is an important process for bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ OSCs) to improve the device efficiency and performance of the organic solar cells. Here in, we have examined the changes in the efficiency and morphology of P3HT: PCBM film according to the thermal annealing temperature to find the changes during the annealing process by measuring the optical absorption, atomic force microscope and X-ray diffraction. We also investigated the effect of different annealing process conditions (without, pre- and post-annealing) on the device performance of the inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells consist the structure of ITO/ ZnO / P3HT: PCBM / MoO3/ Al by measuring AC impedance characteristics. Particularly, the power conversion efficiency (PCE), crystalline nature of the polymer, light absorption and the surface smoothness of P3HT: PCBM films are significantly improved after the annealing process. These results indicated the improvement in terms of PCE, interface smoothness between the P3HT: PCBM and MoO3 layers of the post annealed device originated from the decrease of series resistance between P3HT: PCBM layer and Al electrodes, which could be due to decrease in the effective life time of charge carriers.

  8. Productivity loss due to premature mortality caused by blood cancer: a study based on patients undergoing stem cell transplantation. (United States)

    Ortega-Ortega, Marta; Oliva-Moreno, Juan; Jiménez-Aguilera, Juan de Dios; Romero-Aguilar, Antonio; Espigado-Tocino, Ildefonso


    Stem cell transplantation has been used for many years to treat haematological malignancies that could not be cured by other treatments. Despite this medical breakthrough, mortality rates remain high. Our purpose was to evaluate labour productivity losses associated with premature mortality due to blood cancer in recipients of stem cell transplantations. We collected primary data from the clinical histories of blood cancer patients who had undergone stem cell transplantation between 2006 and 2011 in two Spanish hospitals. We carried out a descriptive analysis and calculated the years of potential life lost and years of potential productive life lost. Labour productivity losses due to premature mortality were estimated using the Human Capital method. An alternative approach, the Friction Cost method, was used as part of the sensitivity analysis. Our findings suggest that, in a population of 179 transplanted and deceased patients, males and people who die between the ages of 30 and 49 years generate higher labour productivity losses. The estimated loss amounts to over €31.4 million using the Human Capital method (€480,152 using the Friction Cost method), which means an average of €185,855 per death. The highest labour productivity losses are produced by leukaemia. However, lymphoma generates the highest loss per death. Further efforts are needed to reduce premature mortality in blood cancer patients undergoing transplantations and reduce economic losses. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative studies on the chemical and cell-based antioxidant activities and antitumor cell proliferation properties of soy milk manufactured by conventional and commercial UHT methods. (United States)

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C; Liu, Zhisheng; Yuan, Shaohong; Zou, Yanping; Tan, Yingying


    The aims of this work were to compare antiproliferation, antioxidant activities and total phytochemicals and individual isoflavone profiles in soy milk processed by various methods including traditional stove cooking, direct steam injection, direct ultrahigh temperature (UHT), indirect UHT, and a two-stage simulated industry method, and a selected commercial soy milk product. Various processing methods significantly affected total saponin, phytic acid, and total phenolic content and individual isoflavone distribution. The laboratory UHT and the two-stage processed soy milk exhibited relatively higher total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, saponin and phytic acid than those processed by the traditional and steam processed methods. Thermal processing caused obvious intertransformation but did not cause severe degradation except for breaking down of aglycons. Thermal processing significantly increased antioxidant capacities of soy milk determined by chemical analyses, but decreased cellular antioxidant capacities as compared to the raw soy milk. The raw and all processed soy milk exhibited antipoliferative activities against human HL-60 leukemia cells, AGS gastric tumor cells, and DU145 prostate cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. The raw soy milk, but not the processed soy milk, exhibited a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect against colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that various thermal processing methods change not only phytochemcials but also potential health-promoting effects of soy milk.

  10. A non-invasive fluorescence-based oxygen sensor and platform for studying cell responses to metabolic agents in real-time (United States)

    Buchapudi, Koutilya Reddy

    A fluorescence-based sensor in a transverse flow/stop measurement platform has been developed to determine real-time changes in oxygen consumption rates for cell metabolic studies. The oxygen sensitive fluorophore platinum octaethylporphyrin was embedded in a cellulose acetate matrix and affixed to a fiber optic bundle, which provided for transmission of the excitation and emission wavelengths of the film. The fiber optic bundle was sealed in a sensor head that can be used in standard 24-well plates common to research labs. The utility of the sensor and sensing platform were determined by measuring the changes in oxygen consumption rates of Candida albicans during 90/30 s flow/stop cycles. Exposure of these cells to metabolic antagonists and an enhancer showed the expected decrease and increase in oxygen consumption rates in real time. The applicability of the platform to biological studies is illustrated by determination of synergistic activities between antifungal drugs and fluoride exposure in Candida albicans. The robustness of the fluorophore film is demonstrated by perfusion with different media and analyte conditions in the absence of cells. For stop cycle time intervals less than 1 minute the sensor exhibited a rapid and fairly linear change in fluorescence intensity to changing oxygen concentrations in the measurement chamber. Flow cycle fluorescence intensities were used as a baseline correction for treating the stop cycle fluorescence peaks.

  11. An oral Salmonella-based vaccine inhibits liver metastases by promoting tumor-specific T cell-mediated immunity in celiac & portal lymph nodes. A preclinical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandrina eVendrell


    Full Text Available Primary tumor excision is one of the therapies of cancer most widely used. However, the risk of metastases development still exists following tumor resection. The liver is a common site of metastatic disease for numerous cancers. Breast cancer is one of the most frequent source of metastases to the liver. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of the orally-administered Salmonella Typhi vaccine strain CVD 915 on the development of liver metastases in a mouse model of breast cancer. To this end, one group of BALB/c mice was immunized with CVD 915 via o.g. while another received PBS as a control. After 24 h, mice were injected with LM3 mammary adenocarcinoma cells into the spleen and subjected to splenectomy. This oral Salmonella-based vaccine produced an antitumor effect, leading to a decrease in the number and volume of liver metastases. Immunization with Salmonella induced an early cellular immune response in mice. This innate stimulation rendered a large production of IFN-γ by intrahepatic immune cells (IHIC detected within 24 h. An antitumor adaptive immunity was found in the liver and celiac & portal lymph nodes (LDLN 21 days after oral bacterial inoculation. The antitumor immune response inside the liver was associated with increased CD4+ and DC cell populations as well as with an inflammatory infiltrate located around liver metastatic nodules. Enlarged levels of inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and TNF were also detected in IHIC. Furthermore, a tumor-specific production of IFN-γ and TNF as well as tumor-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8 T cells (CD8+IFN-γ+ were found in the celiac & portal lymph nodes of Salmonella-treated mice. This study provides first evidence for the involvement of LDLN in the development of an efficient cellular immune response against hepatic tumors, which resulted in the elimination of liver metastases after oral Salmonella-based vaccination.

  12. Perfusion based cell culture chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiskanen, Arto; Emnéus, Jenny; Dufva, Martin


    Performing cell culture in miniaturized perfusion chambers gives possibilities to experiment with cells under near in vivo like conditions. In contrast to traditional batch cultures, miniaturized perfusion systems provide precise control of medium composition, long term unattended cultures...... and tissue like structuring of the cultures. However, as this chapter illustrates, many issues remain to be identified regarding perfusion cell culture such as design, material choice and how to use these systems before they will be widespread amongst biomedical researchers....

  13. Microencapsulating and Banking Living Cells for Cell-Based Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wujie Zhang


    Full Text Available A major challenge to the eventual success of the emerging cell-based medicine such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and cell transplantation is the limited availability of the desired cell sources. This challenge can be addressed by cell microencapsulation to overcome the undesired immune response (i.e., to achieve immunoisolation so that non-autologous cells can be used to treat human diseases, and by cell/tissue preservation to bank living cells for wide distribution to end users so that they are readily available when needed in the future. This review summarizes the status quo of research in both cell microencapsulation and banking the microencapsulated cells. It is concluded with a brief outlook of future research directions in this important field.

  14. [Three-dimensional morphology of C6/36 cells infected by dengue virus: a study based on digital holographic microscopy]. (United States)

    Yu, Jian-Hai; Liu, Xu-Ling; Liu, Yu-Jing; He, Xiao-En; Hui, Yuan; Zhang, Bao; Zhu, Li; Zhao, Wei


    To monitor the 3-dimensional (3D) morphological changes of C6/36 cells during dengue virus (DENV) infection using a live-cell imaging technique based on digital holographic microscopy and provide clues for better understanding the mechanisms of DENV infection. C6/36 cells were seeded in 6-well plates to determine the optimal imaging density under a holographic cell imager, and the morphological changes of the cells were recorded in response to a culture temperature change from 28 degrees celsius; to 37 degrees celsius; C6/36 cells were infected with 4 DENV strains with different serotypes at 28 degrees celsius; and incubated at 37 degrees celsius; for 24 h, and the 3D holograms and relevant morphological parameters were recorded at different time points using HoloMonitor M4 holographic cell imaging and analysis system. The holograms of C6/36 cells inoculated at the optimal density for imaging (4×105 per well) showed unified 3D morphologies of the single cells with minimal dispersions in the cell area, thickness and volume (P0.05). The cell area and volume of the cells infected with the 4 DENV strains all increased and the cell thickness was reduced during incubation. Among the 4 strains, DENV-1 and DENV-2 caused reduced cell thickness while DENV-3 and DENV-4 increased the cell thickness, and the pattern and degree of such changes differ among the 4 strains. Digital holographic microscopy allows monitoring of the complex morphological changes of cells during DENV infection. The 4 DENV strains with different serotypes causes characteristic cell damages during infection.

  15. Tumours of histiocytes and accessory dendritic cells: an immunohistochemical approach to classification from the International Lymphoma Study Group based on 61 cases. (United States)

    Pileri, S A; Grogan, T M; Harris, N L; Banks, P; Campo, E; Chan, J K C; Favera, R D; Delsol, G; De Wolf-Peeters, C; Falini, B; Gascoyne, R D; Gaulard, P; Gatter, K C; Isaacson, P G; Jaffe, E S; Kluin, P; Knowles, D M; Mason, D Y; Mori, S; Müller-Hermelink, H-K; Piris, M A; Ralfkiaer, E; Stein, H; Su, I-J; Warnke, R A; Weiss, L M


    Neoplasms of histiocytes and dendritic cells are rare, and their phenotypic and biological definition is incomplete. Seeking to identify antigens detectable in paraffin-embedded sections that might allow a more complete, rational immunophenotypic classification of histiocytic/dendritic cell neoplasms, the International Lymphoma Study Group (ILSG) stained 61 tumours of suspected histiocytic/dendritic cell type with a panel of 15 antibodies including those reactive with histiocytes (CD68, lysozyme (LYS)), Langerhans cells (CD1a), follicular dendritic cells (FDC: CD21, CD35) and S100 protein. This analysis revealed that 57 cases (93%) fit into four major immunophenotypic groups (one histiocytic and three dendritic cell types) utilizing six markers: CD68, LYS, CD1a, S100, CD21, and CD35. The four (7%) unclassified cases were further classifiable into the above four groups using additional morphological and ultrastructural features. The four groups then included: (i) histiocytic sarcoma (n=18) with the following phenotype: CD68 (100%), LYS (94%), CD1a (0%), S100 (33%), CD21/35 (0%). The median age was 46 years. Presentation was predominantly extranodal (72%) with high mortality (58% dead of disease (DOD)). Three had systemic involvement consistent with 'malignant histiocytosis'; (ii) Langerhans cell tumour (LCT) (n=26) which expressed: CD68 (96%), LYS (42%), CD1a (100%), S100 (100%), CD21/35 (0%). There were two morphological variants: cytologically typical (n=17) designated LCT; and cytologically malignant (n=9) designated Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS). The LCS were often not easily recognized morphologically as LC-derived, but were diagnosed based on CD1a staining. LCT and LCS differed in median age (33 versus 41 years), male:female ratio (3.7:1 versus 1:2), and death rate (31% versus 50% DOD). Four LCT patients had systemic involvement typical of Letterer-Siwe disease; (iii) follicular dendritic cell tumour/sarcoma (FDCT) (n=13) which expressed: CD68 (54%), LYS (8

  16. Effects of total body irradiation-based conditioning allogenic sem cell transplantation for pediatric acute leukemia: A single-institution study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Moo; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jong Hoon [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others


    To evaluate the effects of total body irradiation (TBI), as a conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), in pediatric acute leukemia patients. From January 2001 to December 2011, 28 patients, aged less than 18 years, were treated with TBI-based conditioning for allo-SCT in our institution. Of the 28 patients, 21 patients were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 75%) and 7 were diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 25%). TBI was completed 4 days or 1 day before stem cell infusion. Patients underwent radiation therapy with bilateral parallel opposing fields and 6-MV X-rays. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival outcomes. The 2-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 66% and 56%, respectively (71.4% and 60.0% in AML patients vs. 64.3% and 52.4% in ALL patients, respectively). Treatment related mortality rate were 25%. Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease was a major complication; other complications included endocrine dysfunction and pulmonary complications. Common complications from TBI were nausea (89%) and cataracts (7.1%). The efficacy and toxicity data in this study of TBI-based conditioning to pediatric acute leukemia patients were comparable with previous studies. However, clinicians need to focus on the acute and chronic complications related to allo-SCT.

  17. Density Functional Theory (DFT Study of Coumarin-based Dyes Adsorbed on TiO2 Nanoclusters—Applications to Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai A. Gîrţu


    Full Text Available Coumarin-based dyes have been successfully used in dye-sensitized solar cells, leading to photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of up to about 8%. Given the need to better understand the behavior of the dye adsorbed on the TiO2 nanoparticle, we report results of density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT studies of several coumarin-based dyes, as well as complex systems consisting of the dye bound to a TiO2 cluster. We provide the electronic structure and simulated UV-Vis spectra of the dyes alone and adsorbed to the cluster and discuss the matching with the solar spectrum. We display the energy level diagrams and the electron density of the key molecular orbitals and analyze the electron transfer from the dye to the oxide. Finally, we compare our theoretical results with the experimental data available and discuss the key issues that influence the device performance.

  18. T2*-based MR imaging (gradient echo or susceptibility-weighted imaging) in midline and off-midline intracranial germ cell tumors: a pilot study. (United States)

    Morana, Giovanni; Alves, Cesar Augusto; Tortora, Domenico; Finlay, Jonathan L; Severino, Mariasavina; Nozza, Paolo; Ravegnani, Marcello; Pavanello, Marco; Milanaccio, Claudia; Maghnie, Mohamad; Rossi, Andrea; Garrè, Maria Luisa


    The role of T2*-based MR imaging in intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs) has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) or T2* gradient echo (GRE) features of germinomas and non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs) in midline and off-midline locations. We retrospectively evaluated all consecutive pediatric patients referred to our institution between 2005 and 2016, for newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve intracranial GCT, who underwent MRI, including T2*-based MR imaging (T2* GRE sequences or SWI). Standard pre- and post-contrast T1- and T2-weighted imaging characteristics along with T2*-based MR imaging features of all lesions were evaluated. Diagnosis was performed in accordance with the SIOP CNS GCT protocol criteria. Twenty-four subjects met the inclusion criteria (17 males and 7 females). There were 17 patients with germinomas, including 5 basal ganglia primaries, and 7 patients with secreting NGGCT. All off-midline germinomas presented with SWI or GRE hypointensity; among midline GCT, all NGGCTs showed SWI or GRE hypointensity whereas all but one pure germinoma were isointense or hyperintense to normal parenchyma. A significant difference emerged on T2*-based MR imaging among midline germinomas, NGGCTs, and off-midline germinomas (p < 0.001). Assessment of the SWI or GRE characteristics of intracranial GCT may potentially assist in differentiating pure germinomas from NGGCT and in the characterization of basal ganglia involvement. T2*-based MR imaging is recommended in case of suspected intracranial GCT.

  19. Application of a static fluorescence-based cytometer (the CellScan) in basic cytometric studies, clinical pharmacology, oncology and clinical immunology. (United States)

    Harel, Michal; Gilburd, Boris; Schiffenbauer, Yael S; Shoenfeld, Yehuda


    The CellScan apparatus is a laser scanning cytometer enabling repetitive fluorescence intensity (FI) and polarization (FP) measurements in living cells, as a means of monitoring lymphocyte activation. The CellScan may serve as a tool for diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) as well as other autoimmune diseases by monitoring FP changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) following exposure to autoantigenic stimuli. Changes in FI and FP in atherosclerotic patients' PBLs following exposure to various stimuli have established the role of the immune system in atherosclerotic disease. The CellScan has been evaluated as a diagnostic tool for drug-allergy, based on FP reduction in PBLs following incubation with allergenic drugs. FI and FP changes in cancer cells have been found to be well correlated with the cytotoxic effect of anti-neoplastic drugs. In conclusion, the CellScan has a variety of applications in cell biology, immunology, cancer research and clinical pharmacology.

  20. Prostate-based biofluids for the detection of prostate cancer: A comparative study of the diagnostic performance of cell-sourced RNA biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Roberts


    Conclusion: PEUW contains prostatic material, but has limited diagnostic accuracy when considering cell-derived DNA analysis. PCA3-based markers in ejaculate are comparable to serum PSA and digital rectal examination–urine markers.

  1. Solid Acid Based Fuel Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haile, Sossina M


    ...) without pressurization. In this configuration, the thin-film fuel cell is supported on a porous stainless steel gas diffusion layer and the electrocatalyst and electrolyte layers are spray-deposited...

  2. Compliance to a Cell Phone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment Study: The Effect of Time and Personality Characteristics (United States)

    Courvoisier, Delphine S.; Eid, Michael; Lischetzke, Tanja


    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a method that is now widely used to study behavior and mood in the settings in which they naturally occur. It maximizes ecological validity and avoids the limitations of retrospective self-reports. Compliance patterns across time have not been studied. Consistent compliance patterns could lead to data not…

  3. Stem cell-based tooth and periodontal regeneration. (United States)

    Hu, L; Liu, Y; Wang, S


    Currently regeneration of tooth and periodontal damage still remains great challenge. Stem cell-based tissue engineering raised novel therapeutic strategies for tooth and periodontal repair. Stem cells for tooth and periodontal regeneration include dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), stem cells from the dental apical papilla (SCAPs), and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs), dental epithelial stem cells (DESCs), bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). To date, substantial advances have been made in stem cell-based tooth and periodontal regeneration, including dentin-pulp, whole tooth, bioroot and periodontal regeneration. Translational investigations have been performed such as dental stem cell banking and clinical trials. In this review, we present strategies for stem cell-based tissue engineering for tooth and periodontal repair, and the translational studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of a BGO-Based PET System for Single-Cell Tracking Performance by Simulation and Phantom Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ouyang PhD


    Full Text Available A recent method based on positron emission was reported for tracking moving point sources using the Inveon PET system. However, the effect of scanner background noise was not further explored. Here, we evaluate tracking with the Genisys4, a bismuth germanate-based PET system, which has no significant intrinsic background and may be better suited to tracking lower and/or faster activity sources. Position-dependent sensitivity of the Genisys4 was simulated in Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE using a static 18F point source. Trajectories of helically moving point sources with varying activity and rotation speed were reconstructed from list-mode data as described previously. Simulations showed that the Inveon’s ability to track sources within 2 mm of localization error is limited to objects with a velocity-to-activity ratio < 0.13 mm/decay, compared to < 0.29 mm/decay for the Genisys4. Tracking with the Genisys4 was then validated using a physical phantom of helically moving [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose-in-oil droplets (< 0.24 mm diameter, 139-296 Bq, yielding < 1 mm localization error under the tested conditions, with good agreement between simulated sensitivity and measured activity (Pearson correlation R = .64, P << .05 in a representative example. We have investigated the tracking performance with the Genisys4, and results suggest the feasibility of tracking low activity, point source-like objects with this system.

  5. A lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-based immunoassay for detection of cell surface antigens and its application to the study of MHC class I-binding peptides. (United States)

    Sigal, L J; Berens, S; Wylie, D


    A lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-based immunoassay, referred to as CPEIA (cell panning enzyme immunoassay), has been developed for the detection of cell-surface antigens. CPEIA is similar to a panning assay, in that it is based on the capture of cells bearing an antigen of interest by means of an antibody immobilized to a 96-well microtiter plate. Attachment of the cells is then measured by addition of a substrate for the intracellular enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. The substrate solution also contains the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 to lyse the cells and release LDH, which converts the substrate p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet (INT) from yellow to red. The intensity of the color resulting from the LDH-catalyzed reaction is proportional to the number of cells bound to the plate. The procedure does not require fixation of the cells, centrifugation, and blocking steps, resulting in a more convenient assay. CPEIA has been used for the detection of MHC class I antigens and other molecules on the surfaces of mouse cell lines and concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated T lymphocytes. In addition, the assay has been used to detect peptide binding to Db and Kb MHC class I molecules on the surface of the mutant cell line RMA-S. The half-maximal responses for peptide-MHC class I interactions at different peptide concentrations can be determined with the assay, allowing the apparent dissociation constants to be calculated.

  6. Synthesis of nanostructured oxides based on AlOOH and MgO and study of their cytotoxicity to normal and cancer cells (United States)

    Fomenko, A. N.; Korovin, M. S.; Kazantsev, S. O.


    In the present work, toxicity of nanostructures based on aluminum hydroxide, magnesium oxide, and the influence of their combinations on morphofunctional characteristics of the normal and cancer cell lines was evaluated. Nanostructures were characterized by transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), low temperature nitrogen adsorption, and dynamic light scattering method. It was found that low-dimensional aluminum oxide structures affect cancer cells rather than normal cells. It was established that magnesium oxide nanoparticles and nanostructured aluminum oxyhydroxide are more toxic for cancer cells than these nanostructures in combination in the same concentration. Probably, differences in the proliferative activity for both normal and cancer cells after contacting with synthesized nanostructures are provided by the changed cell microenvironment.

  7. Student Collaboration in a Series of Integrated Experiments to Study Enzyme Reactor Modeling with Immobilized Cell-Based Invertase (United States)

    Taipa, M. A^ngela; Azevedo, Ana M.; Grilo, Anto´nio L.; Couto, Pedro T.; Ferreira, Filipe A. G.; Fortuna, Ana R. M.; Pinto, Ine^s F.; Santos, Rafael M.; Santos, Susana B.


    An integrative laboratory study addressing fundamentals of enzyme catalysis and their application to reactors operation and modeling is presented. Invertase, a ß-fructofuranosidase that catalyses the hydrolysis of sucrose, is used as the model enzyme at optimal conditions (pH 4.5 and 45 °C). The experimental work involves 3 h of laboratory time…

  8. DFT/TD-semiempirical study on the structural and electronic properties and absorption spectra of supramolecular fullerene-porphyrine-metalloporphyrine triads based dye-sensitized solar cells. (United States)

    Rezvani, M; Darvish Ganji, M; Jameh-Bozorghi, S; Niazi, A


    In the present work density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent semiempirical ZNIDO/S (TD-ZNIDO/S) methods have been used to investigate the ground state geometries, electronic structures and excited state properties of triad systems. The influences of the type of metal in the porphyrin ring, change in bridge position and porphyrine-ZnP duplicate on the energies of frontier molecular orbital and UV-Vis spectra has been studied. Geometry optimization, the energy levels and electron density of the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and the Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO), chemical hardness (η), electrophilicity index (ω), electron accepting power (ω+) were calculated using ZINDO/S method to predict which molecule is the most efficient with a great capability to be used as a triad molecule in solar industry. Moreover the light harvesting efficiency (LHE) was calculated by means of the oscillator strengths which are obtained by TD-ZINDO/S calculation. Theoretical studies of the electronic spectra by ZINDO/S method were helpful in interpreting the observed electronic transitions. This aspect was systematically explored in a series of C60-Porphyrine-Metalloporphyrine (C60-P-Mp) triad system with M being Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, and Zn. Generally, transition metal coordination compounds are used as effective sensitizers, due to their intense charge-transfer absorption over the whole visible range and highly efficient metal-to-ligand charge transfer. We aim to optimize the performance of the title solar cells by altering the frontier orbital energy gaps. The results reveal that cell efficiency can be enhanced by metal functionalization of the free base porphyrin. Ti-porphyrin was found to be the most efficient dye sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on C60-P-Mptriad system due to C60-Por-TiP complex has lower chemical hardness, gap energy and chemical potential as well as higher electron accepting power among other complexes. In

  9. Loss mechanisms in organic solar cells based on perylene diimide acceptors studied by time-resolved photoluminescence

    KAUST Repository

    Gerhard, Marina


    In organic photovoltaics (OPV), perylene diimide (PDI) acceptor materials are promising candidates to replace the commonly used, but more expensive fullerene derivatives. The use of alternative acceptor materials however implies new design guidelines for OPV devices. It is therefore important to understand the underlying photophysical processes, which either lead to charge generation or geminate recombination. In this contribution, we investigate radiative losses in a series of OPV materials based on two polymers, P3HT and PTB7, respectively, which were blended with different PDI derivatives. Our time-resolved photoluminescence measurements (TRPL) allow us to identify different loss mechanisms by the decay characteristics of several excitonic species. In particular, we find evidence for unfavorable morphologies in terms of large-scale pure domains, inhibited exciton transport and incomplete charge transfer. Furthermore, in one of the P3HT-blends, an interfacial emissive charge transfer (CT) state with strong trapping character is identified. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  10. Stem cell-based therapy : Improving myocardial cell delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feyen, Dries A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413647838; Gaetani, RG; Doevendans, Pieter A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/164248366; Sluijter, Joost P G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/273307908


    Stem cell-based therapies form an exciting new class of medicine that attempt to provide the body with the building blocks required for the reconstruction of damaged organs. However, delivering cells to the correct location, while preserving their integrity and functional properties, is a complex

  11. Cell-based therapy for myocardial repair in patients with acute myocardial infarction: rationale and study design of the SWiss multicenter Intracoronary Stem cells Study in Acute Myocardial Infarction (SWISS-AMI). (United States)

    Sürder, Daniel; Schwitter, Jürg; Moccetti, Tiziano; Astori, Giuseppe; Rufibach, Kaspar; Plein, Sven; Lo Cicero, Viviana; Soncin, Sabrina; Windecker, Stephan; Moschovitis, Aris; Wahl, Andreas; Erne, Paul; Jamshidi, Peiman; Auf der Maur, Christoph; Manka, Robert; Soldati, Gianni; Bühler, Ines; Wyss, Christophe; Landmesser, Ulf; Lüscher, Thomas F; Corti, Roberto


    Recent studies report that intracoronary administration of autologous bone marrow mononucleated cells (BM-MNCs) may improve remodeling of the left ventricle after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Subgroup analysis suggest that early treatment between days 4 and 7 after AMI is probably most effective; however, the optimal time point of intracoronary cell administration has never been addressed in clinical trials. Furthermore, reliable clinical predictors are lacking for identifying patients who are thought to have most benefit from cellular therapy. In a multicenter trial, 192 patients with AMI successfully treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the infarct-related artery will be randomized in a 1:1:1 pattern to 1 control and 2 BM-MNC treatment groups. The control group will be treated with state-of-the-art medical management. The treatment groups will receive intracoronary administration of autologous BM-MNC at 5 to 7 days or 3 to 4 weeks after the initial event, respectively. Left ventricular function as well as scar size, transmural extension, and regional wall motion score will be assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) studies at baseline and after 4 and 12 months. Fifty milliliters of bone marrow will be harvested by aspiration from the iliac crest and then carried by courier to a centralized cell processing facility. The mononucleated cell fraction will be isolated by density gradient centrifugation, washed, and resuspended in 10 mL of injection medium. The cells will be characterized by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and tested for sterility and potency both "in vitro" and "in vivo." Bone marrow MNC will then be reinfused directly in the infarct-related coronary artery. The primary end point is the change in global left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction by CMR at 4 months as compared to baseline. Comparisons will then be made between each of the prespecified therapy subgroups (early and late after AMI) and the control

  12. Fullerene based organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popescu, Lacramioara Mihaela


    The direct conversion of the sunlight into electricity is the most elegant process to generate environmentally-friendly renewable energy. Plastic solar cells offer the prospect of flexible, lightweight, lower cost of manufacturing, and hopefully an efficient way to produce electricity from sunlight.

  13. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: clinical implications of extranodal versus nodal presentation--a population-based study of 1575 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael B; Pedersen, Niels T; Christensen, Bjarne E


    Differences in genetic origin between nodal and extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) exist. Using population-based data from the registry of the Danish Lymphoma Group, the present study is the first to analyse clinical implications of nodal versus extranodal presentation of DLBCL....... Of 4786 newly diagnosed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients in a 16-year period, 1575 (33%) had DLBCL. The annual incidence rate was 2.9 per 100 000; 40% were extranodal. The clinical profile of patients with extranodal DLBCL was different from the nodal DLBCL patients. Extranodal DLBCL was associated...... with older age and poorer performance score, but also lower tumour burden. In extranodal DLBCL, 51% of the cases were stage I and 36% were stage IV, whereas the patients were relatively equally distributed between the four stages in nodal DLBCL. For stage I patients, extranodal DLBCL was independently...

  14. Imaging stem cell implant for cellular-based therapies. (United States)

    Lee, Zhenghong; Dennis, James E; Gerson, Stanton L


    Stem cell-based cellular therapy represents a promising outlook for regenerative medicine. Imaging techniques provide a means for noninvasive, repeated, and quantitative tracking of stem cell implant or transplant. From initial deposition to the survival, migration and differentiation of the transplant/implanted stem cells, imaging allows monitoring of the infused cells in the same live object over time. The current review briefly summarizes and compares existing imaging methods for cell labeling and imaging in animal models. Several studies performed by our group using different imaging techniques are described, with further discussion on the issues with these current imaging approaches and potential directions for future development in stem cell imaging.

  15. Imaging stem cell differentiation for cell-based tissue repair. (United States)

    Lee, Zhenghong; Dennis, James; Alsberg, Eben; Krebs, Melissa D; Welter, Jean; Caplan, Arnold


    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into a number of tissue lineages and possess great potential in tissue regeneration and cell-based therapy. For bone fracture or cartilage wear and tear, stem cells need to be delivered to the injury site for repair. Assessing engraftment of the delivered cells and their differentiation status is crucial for the optimization of novel cell-based therapy. A longitudinal and quantitative method is needed to track stem cells transplanted/implanted to advance our understanding of their therapeutic effects and facilitate improvements in cell-based therapy. Currently, there are very few effective noninvasive ways to track the differentiation of infused stem cells. A brief review of a few existing approaches, mostly using transgenic animals, is given first, followed by newly developed in vivo imaging strategies that are intended to track implanted MSCs using a reporter gene system. Specifically, marker genes are selected to track whether MSCs differentiate along the osteogenic lineage for bone regeneration or the chondrogenic lineage for cartilage repair. The general strategy is to use the promoter of a differentiation-specific marker gene to drive the expression of an established reporter gene for noninvasive and repeated imaging of stem cell differentiation. The reporter gene system is introduced into MSCs by way of a lenti-viral vector, which allows the use of human cells and thus offers more flexibility than the transgenic animal approach. Imaging osteogenic differentiation of implanted MSCs is used as a demonstration of the proof-of-principle of this differentiation-specific reporter gene approach. This framework can be easily extended to other cell types and for differentiation into any other cell lineage for which a specific marker gene (promoter) can be identified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Male gender is an adverse risk factor only in young patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma - a Swedish population-based study. (United States)

    Hedström, Gustaf; Peterson, Stefan; Berglund, Mattias; Jerkeman, Mats; Enblad, Gunilla


    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous group of B-cell lymphomas. Five clinical adverse risk factors are merged into the International Prognostic Index (IPI), which is the major tool for prognostication. In contrast to Hodgkin's lymphoma, gender is not considered as an adverse risk factor for DLBCL patients. As we clinically had observed a very good survival rate in young female patients we hypothesised that there was a gender difference in survival due to the hormonal status of the patient. We conducted a registry-based retrospective cohort study of all Swedish DLBCL patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2013, to evaluate the impact of gender for survival from DLBCL. In total, 7166 patients were included for further analysis. No survival difference was found between the genders when the entire population was analysed. However, analysis of 880 young patients of pre-menopausal age (i.e. 52 years) revealed that women had a longer survival compared to men of the same age group (p=0.007). This was not found for patients older than menopausal age. In a relative survival multifactorial model adjusted for stage, ECOG performance status, serum lactate dehydrogenase and two or more extranodal sites, male gender was found to be an adverse risk factor for patients younger than 52 years (RR 1.51, 95% CI 1.14-1.88), but not for older patients (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.89-1.10). This is one of the largest population-based studies of DLBCL presented to date. Most interestingly, we found male gender to be a significant adverse risk factor compared to fertile women whereas we found no survival differences between genders in the older sub-population.

  17. Study of Cell Migration in Microfabricated Channels (United States)

    Vargas, Pablo; Terriac, Emmanuel; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria; Piel, Matthieu


    The method described here allows the study of cell migration under confinement in one dimension. It is based on the use of microfabricated channels, which impose a polarized phenotype to cells by physical constraints. Once inside channels, cells have only two possibilities: move forward or backward. This simplified migration in which directionality is restricted facilitates the automatic tracking of cells and the extraction of quantitative parameters to describe cell movement. These parameters include cell velocity, changes in direction, and pauses during motion. Microchannels are also compatible with the use of fluorescent markers and are therefore suitable to study localization of intracellular organelles and structures during cell migration at high resolution. Finally, the surface of the channels can be functionalized with different substrates, allowing the control of the adhesive properties of the channels or the study of haptotaxis. In summary, the system here described is intended to analyze the migration of large cell numbers in conditions in which both the geometry and the biochemical nature of the environment are controlled, facilitating the normalization and reproducibility of independent experiments. PMID:24637569

  18. Study of cell migration in microfabricated channels. (United States)

    Vargas, Pablo; Terriac, Emmanuel; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria; Piel, Matthieu


    The method described here allows the study of cell migration under confinement in one dimension. It is based on the use of microfabricated channels, which impose a polarized phenotype to cells by physical constraints. Once inside channels, cells have only two possibilities: move forward or backward. This simplified migration in which directionality is restricted facilitates the automatic tracking of cells and the extraction of quantitative parameters to describe cell movement. These parameters include cell velocity, changes in direction, and pauses during motion. Microchannels are also compatible with the use of fluorescent markers and are therefore suitable to study localization of intracellular organelles and structures during cell migration at high resolution. Finally, the surface of the channels can be functionalized with different substrates, allowing the control of the adhesive properties of the channels or the study of haptotaxis. In summary, the system here described is intended to analyze the migration of large cell numbers in conditions in which both the geometry and the biochemical nature of the environment are controlled, facilitating the normalization and reproducibility of independent experiments.

  19. Thermoresponsive micropatterned substrates for single cell studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Mandal

    Full Text Available We describe the design of micropatterned surfaces for single cell studies, based on thermoresponsive polymer brushes. We show that brushes made of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide grafted at high surface density display excellent protein and cell anti-adhesive properties. Such brushes are readily patterned at the micron scale via deep UV photolithography. A proper choice of the adhesive pattern shapes, combined with the temperature-dependent swelling properties of PNIPAM, allow us to use the polymer brush as a microactuator which induces cell detachment when the temperature is reduced below [Formula: see text]C.

  20. Stem cell homing-based tissue engineering using bioactive materials (United States)

    Yu, Yinxian; Sun, Binbin; Yi, Chengqing; Mo, Xiumei


    Tissue engineering focuses on repairing tissue and restoring tissue functions by employing three elements: scaffolds, cells and biochemical signals. In tissue engineering, bioactive material scaffolds have been used to cure tissue and organ defects with stem cell-based therapies being one of the best documented approaches. In the review, different biomaterials which are used in several methods to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds were explained and show good properties (biocompatibility, biodegradability, and mechanical properties etc.) for cell migration and infiltration. Stem cell homing is a recruitment process for inducing the migration of the systemically transplanted cells, or host cells, to defect sites. The mechanisms and modes of stem cell homing-based tissue engineering can be divided into two types depending on the source of the stem cells: endogenous and exogenous. Exogenous stem cell-based bioactive scaffolds have the challenge of long-term culturing in vitro and for endogenous stem cells the biochemical signal homing recruitment mechanism is not clear yet. Although the stem cell homing-based bioactive scaffolds are attractive candidates for tissue defect therapies, based on in vitro studies and animal tests, there is still a long way before clinical application.

  1. Genetic changes in oral premalignant lesion, condition, and oral squamous cell carcinoma - A study based on inhibition of G2M phase by colchicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kanwar


    Full Text Available Aims: To assess the percentage of cell arrested in G2M phase by colchicine in the early detection and prognosis of oral cancer, by comparison of oral squamous cell with leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF using flow cytometry analysis. Materials and Methods: Biopsy samples 5 each of clinically diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed case of leukoplakia, OSMF, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC are included in the study. Results: Colchicines significantly inhibited the growth of oral SCC-9 cell line by arresting G2M phase of the cell cycle (94.90%. This cell cycle result indicated that doubling of DNA is a characteristic feature of cancer. Colchicines significantly inhibited the G2M phase of the cell cycle in leukoplakia (33.51% as compared to control (23.60%. Colchicines marginally inhibited the G2M phase of the cell cycle in OSMF (31.83% as compared to control (28.36%. Colchicines significantly inhibited the G2M phase of the cell cycle in SCC (63.05% as compared to control (26.40%. Conclusion: DNA analysis by inhibition of G2M phase of cell cycle using colchicine facilitates early detection and also helps determine the prognosis of leukoplakia, OSMF, and oral cancer.

  2. Studies of Basic Electronic Properties of CdTe-Based Solar Cells and Their Evolution During Processing and Stress; Annual Technical Report, 1 November 2005 - 31 October 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, J.; Seymour, F. H.; Kaydanov, V. I.; Ohno, T. R.


    We describe the results of our continuing study of deep electronic states controlling open-circuit voltage in CdTe/CdS thin-film solar cells (Task 1). The study includes: (1) analysis of factors affecting trap signatures derived from admittance spectroscopy and capacitance transients measurements, such as activation-energy capture cross-sections and trap-density estimates, and (2) comparative studies of cells received from four different sources and prepared with significant variations in cell structure and processing procedures.

  3. No survival improvement for patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma over the past two decades: a population-based study of 1207 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Xu

    Full Text Available Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL is a rare lymphoid malignancy with dismal prognosis. We conducted a large population-based study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER database (1973-2010 to determine the temporal survival trends and prognostic factors of AITL patients. A total of 1207 patients with AITL were included in this study, with a median age at diagnosis of 69 years. At presentation, most patients (79.5% had an advanced-stage disease. Overall survival (OS probabilities at 2, 5 and 10 years were 46.8%, 32.9%, and 21.9% respectively. Two-year, 5-year, and 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS rates were 56.1%, 44.0%, and 35.9% respectively.On multivariate analysis, age older than 70 years, advanced-stage disease and male sex were identified adverse predictors for OS and DSS. We failed to find any survival differences among subgroups diagnosed in the 5 periods studied (1992 to 1998, 1999 to 2001, 2002 to 2004, 2005 to 2007, and 2008 to 2010. The current study represents the largest specific series of patients with AITL and the first investigation on temporal changes in survival of AITL patients. There has been no survival improvement for AITL patients over the past two decades. Further investigations are warranted to develop more effective treatment for AITL.

  4. Cell based therapeutic approach in vascular surgery: application and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocca Aldo


    Full Text Available Multipotent stem cells - such as mesenchymal stem/stromal cells and stem cells derived from different sources like vascular wall are intensely studied to try to rapidly translate their discovered features from bench to bedside. Vascular wall resident stem cells recruitment, differentiation, survival, proliferation, growth factor production, and signaling pathways transduced were analyzed. We studied biological properties of vascular resident stem cells and explored the relationship from several factors as Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs and regulations of biological, translational and clinical features of these cells. In this review we described a translational and clinical approach to Adult Vascular Wall Resident Multipotent Vascular Stem Cells (VW-SCs and reported their involvement in alternative clinical approach as cells based therapy in vascular disease like arterial aneurysms or peripheral arterial obstructive disease.

  5. A cell-based model of Nematostella vectensis gastrulation including bottle cell formation, invagination and zippering. (United States)

    Tamulonis, Carlos; Postma, Marten; Marlow, Heather Q; Magie, Craig R; de Jong, Johann; Kaandorp, Jaap


    The gastrulation of Nematostella vectensis, the starlet sea anemone, is morphologically simple yet involves many conserved cell behaviors such as apical constriction, invagination, bottle cell formation, cell migration and zippering found during gastrulation in a wide range of more morphologically complex animals. In this article we study Nematostella gastrulation using a combination of morphometrics and computational modeling. Through this analysis we frame gastrulation as a non-trivial problem, in which two distinct cell domains must change shape to match each other geometrically, while maintaining the integrity of the embryo. Using a detailed cell-based model capable of representing arbitrary cell-shapes such as bottle cells, as well as filopodia, localized adhesion and constriction, we are able to simulate gastrulation and associate emergent macroscopic changes in embryo shape to individual cell behaviors. We have developed a number of testable hypotheses based on the model. First, we hypothesize that the blastomeres need to be stiffer at their apical ends, relative to the rest of the cell perimeter, in order to be able to hold their wedge shape and the dimensions of the blastula, regardless of whether the blastula is sealed or leaky. We also postulate that bottle cells are a consequence of cell strain and low cell-cell adhesion, and can be produced within an epithelium even without apical constriction. Finally, we postulate that apical constriction, filopodia and de-epithelialization are necessary and sufficient for gastrulation based on parameter variation studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance of Lithium Polymer Cells with Polyacrylonitrile based Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perera, Kumudu; Dissanayake, M.A.K.L.; Skaarup, Steen


    The performance of lithium polymer cells fabricated with Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based electrolytes was studied using cycling voltammetry and continuous charge discharge cycling. The electrolytes consisted of PAN, ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium trifluoromethanesulfo...

  7. Three-dimensional finite element study on stress generation in synchrotron X-ray tomography reconstructed nickel-manganese-cobalt based half cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Linmin; Xiao, Xianghui; Wen, Youhai; Zhang, Jing


    In this study, the stress generation caused by phase transitions and lithium intercalation of nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) based half cell with realistic 3D microstructures has been studied using finite element method. The electrochemical properties and discharged curves under various C rates are studied. The potential drops significantly with the increase of C rates. During the discharge process, for particles isolated from the conductive channels, several particles with no lithium ion intercalation are observed. For particles in the electrochemical network, the lithium ion concentration increases during the discharge process. The stress generation inside NMC particles is calculated coupled with lithium diffusion and phase transitions. The results show the stresses near the concave and convex regions are the highest. The neck regions of the connected particles 2 can break and form several isolated particles. If the isolated particles are not connected with the electrically conductive materials such as carbon and binder, the capacity loses in battery. For isolated particles in the conductive channel, cracks are more likely to form on the surface. Moreover, stresses inside the particles increase dramatically when considering phase transitions. The phase transitions introduce an abrupt volume change and generate the strain mismatch, causing the stress increase.

  8. Factors associated with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) among patients in a population-based study of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in Minnesota. (United States)

    Smith, Angela R; Warlick, Erica D; Roesler, Michelle A; Poynter, Jenny N; Richardson, Michaela; Nguyen, Phuong; Cioc, Adina; Hirsch, Betsy; Ross, Julie A


    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder characterized by dysplastic changes in the bone marrow, ineffective erythropoiesis, and an increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. Treatment planning for patients with MDS is a complex process, and we sought to better characterize hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes and the factors that play into decision-making regarding referral of adults with MDS for definitive therapy with HCT. Patients enrolled in a population-based study of MDS between April 2010 and January 2013 who underwent HCT within the first year after enrollment were included in this analysis. Age- and risk-matched MDS patient controls also enrolled during that time period were used as a comparison. Survival was significantly better in the HCT group (48 vs. 21 %, log-rank p value 0.009). Non-HCT patients were more likely to have comorbidities, and HCT patients were more likely to have a college degree and an income >$80,000. All three of these variables were independently associated with HCT, but none impacted survival. Patients with MDS in our study who underwent HCT had better survival than a comparable group of patients who did not undergo HCT. With refined treatment techniques, more patients may be able to be considered for this therapy. More work needs to be done to determine why education and income appear to impact the decision to pursue HCT, but these factors may impact referral to an academic center where aggressive therapy like HCT is more likely to be considered.

  9. Pipette-based Method to Study Embryoid Body Formation Derived from Mouse and Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Partially Recapitulating Early Embryonic Development Under Simulated Microgravity Conditions (United States)

    Shinde, Vaibhav; Brungs, Sonja; Hescheler, Jürgen; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Sachinidis, Agapios


    The in vitro differentiation of pluripotent stem cells partially recapitulates early in vivo embryonic development. More recently, embryonic development under the influence of microgravity has become a primary focus of space life sciences. In order to integrate the technique of pluripotent stem cell differentiation with simulated microgravity approaches, the 2-D clinostat compatible pipette-based method was experimentally investigated and adapted for investigating stem cell differentiation processes under simulated microgravity conditions. In order to keep residual accelerations as low as possible during clinorotation, while also guaranteeing enough material for further analysis, stem cells were exposed in 1-mL pipettes with a diameter of 3.5 mm. The differentiation of mouse and human pluripotent stem cells inside the pipettes resulted in the formation of embryoid bodies at normal gravity (1 g) after 24 h and 3 days. Differentiation of the mouse pluripotent stem cells on a 2-D pipette-clinostat for 3 days also resulted in the formation of embryoid bodies. Interestingly, the expression of myosin heavy chain was downregulated when cultivation was continued for an additional 7 days at normal gravity. This paper describes the techniques for culturing and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells and exposure to simulated microgravity during culturing or differentiation on a 2-D pipette clinostat. The implementation of these methodologies along with -omics technologies will contribute to understand the mechanisms regulating how microgravity influences early embryonic development.

  10. Machine-vision based optofluidic cell sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew

    In contemporary life science there is an increasing emphasis on sorting rare disease-indicating cells within small dilute quantities such as in the confines of optofluidic lab-on-chip devices. Our approach to this is based on the use of optical forces to isolate red blood cells detected by advanc...... the available light and creating 2D or 3D beam distributions aimed at the positions of the detected cells. Furthermore, the beam shaping freedom provided by GPC can allow optimizations in the beam’s propagation and its interaction with the laser catapulted and sorted cells....

  11. Ni-Based Solid Oxide Cell Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Holtappels, Peter


    This paper is a critical review of the literature on nickel-based electrodes for application in solid oxide cells at temperature from 500 to 1000 _C. The applications may be fuel cells or electrolyser cells. The reviewed literature is that of experimental results on both model electrodes...... and practical composite cermet electrodes. A substantially longer three-phase boundary (TPB) can be obtained per unit area of cell in such a composite of nickel and electrolyte material, provided that two interwoven solid networks of the two solid and one gaseous phases are obtained to provide a three...

  12. The human minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1 as target for stem cell based immunotherapy of cancer : pre-clinical and clinical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hambach, Lothar Wolfgang Heinrich


    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is an established curative treatment for hematopoietic malignancies and an investigative immunotherapeutic approach for solid tumors. The curative effect of allogeneic SCT is based on so called graft versus-tumor (GvT)

  13. Towards 15% energy conversion efficiency: a systematic study of the solution-processed organic tandem solar cells based on commercially available materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ning; Baran, Derya; Forberich, Karen


    in organic tandem solar cells. All the devices are processed under environmental conditions using doctor-blading, which is highly compatible with mass-production coating technologies. Power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of 6–7% are obtained for OPV devices based on different active layers. Optical...

  14. Three-dimensional tissue culture based on magnetic cell levitation. (United States)

    Souza, Glauco R; Molina, Jennifer R; Raphael, Robert M; Ozawa, Michael G; Stark, Daniel J; Levin, Carly S; Bronk, Lawrence F; Ananta, Jeyarama S; Mandelin, Jami; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Bankson, James A; Gelovani, Juri G; Killian, T C; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata


    Cell culture is an essential tool in drug discovery, tissue engineering and stem cell research. Conventional tissue culture produces two-dimensional cell growth with gene expression, signalling and morphology that can be different from those found in vivo, and this compromises its clinical relevance. Here, we report a three-dimensional tissue culture based on magnetic levitation of cells in the presence of a hydrogel consisting of gold, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and filamentous bacteriophage. By spatially controlling the magnetic field, the geometry of the cell mass can be manipulated, and multicellular clustering of different cell types in co-culture can be achieved. Magnetically levitated human glioblastoma cells showed similar protein expression profiles to those observed in human tumour xenografts. Taken together, these results indicate that levitated three-dimensional culture with magnetized phage-based hydrogels more closely recapitulates in vivo protein expression and may be more feasible for long-term multicellular studies.

  15. Cell-based quantification of molecular biomarkers in histopathology specimens. (United States)

    Al-Kofahi, Yousef; Lassoued, Wiem; Grama, Kedar; Nath, Sumit K; Zhu, Jianliang; Oueslati, Ridha; Feldman, Michael; Lee, William M F; Roysam, Badrinath


    To investigate the use of a computer-assisted technology for objective, cell-based quantification of molecular biomarkers in specified cell types in histopathology specimens, with the aim of advancing current visual estimation and pixel-level (rather than cell-based) quantification methods. Tissue specimens were multiplex-immunostained to reveal cell structures, cell type markers, and analytes, and imaged with multispectral microscopy. The image data were processed with novel software that automatically delineates and types each cell in the field, measures morphological features, and quantifies analytes in different subcellular compartments of specified cells.The methodology was validated with the use of cell blocks composed of differentially labelled cultured cells mixed in known proportions, and evaluated on human breast carcinoma specimens for quantifying human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Ki67, phospho-extracellular signal-related kinase, and phospho-S6. Automated cell-level analyses closely matched human assessments, but, predictably, differed from pixel-level analyses of the same images. Our method reveals the type, distribution, morphology and biomarker state of each cell in the field, and allows multiple biomarkers to be quantified over specified cell types, regardless of their abundance. It is ideal for studying specimens from patients in clinical trials of targeted therapeutic agents, for investigating minority stromal cell subpopulations, and for phenotypic characterization to personalize therapy and prognosis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  16. XPG genetic polymorphisms and clinical outcome of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer under platinum-based treatment: a meta-analysis of 12 studies. (United States)

    Xiang, Tianxin; Kang, Xiuhua; Gong, Zhenghua; Bai, Wei; Chen, Chuanhui; Zhang, Wei


    A number of studies on the relationship between xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) polymorphisms and clinical outcomes in non-small cell cancer (NSCLC) have led to inconclusive results. This meta-analysis evaluates the predictive value of XPG polymorphisms on the treatment response rate and overall survival of patients with NSCLC. To measure the correlative strength of the relationship between XPG polymorphisms and outcomes of patients with NSCLC, we searched electronic databases, including PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, to retrieve studies up to August 2016. We also employed pooled odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) corresponding to 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Twelve studies involving 2877 patients with NSCLC were included: 8 studies involving 1473 patients examined the correlation between XPG polymorphisms and tumor response rate and 7 studies involving 2329 patients reported on the correlation of XPG polymorphisms with overall survival. None of the XPG His1104Asp(C>G)/His46His(C>T) polymorphisms exhibited a correlation with treatment response rate or overall survival. However, in a further stratified analysis by ethnicity, carriers of the 1104G allele were associated with good response among Asians in the homozygote model (GG vs. CC: OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.05-2.34, P = 0.027). Meanwhile, further stratified by ethnicity, His46His polymorphism was not associated with RR and OS in any genetic models. No strong evidence was found to support the use of XPG polymorphisms as tumor response and prognostic factors of patients with NSCLC receiving a platinum-based treatment regimen, which is attributed to marginal association. Studies with large-scale and multiple ethnicities need to be conducted to verify the conclusion.

  17. Dosimetric study of a respiratory gating technique based on four-dimensional computed tomography in non-small-cell lung cancer (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Lu, Heming; Shu, Liuyang; Huang, Huixian; Chen, Huasheng; Chen, Jiaxin; Cheng, Jinjian; Pang, Qiang; Peng, Luxing; Gu, Junzhao; Lu, Zhiping


    This study sought to compare the differences in target volumes and dose distributions to the targets and organs at risk (OARs) between a four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT)-based respiratory-gated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan (PlanEOE) and a three-dimensional CT (3DCT)-based IMRT plan (Plan3D) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). For 17 patients with Stages I–III NSCLC, both 4DCT data and conventional 3DCT data were obtained. The Plan3D and PlanEOE were designed based on 3DCT data and 4DCT data, respectively. The displacements of the gross tumor volume (GTV) centroid were 0.13 ± 0.09 cm, 0.15 ± 0.1 cm, and 0.27 ± 0.27 cm in the right–left, anterior–posterior, and superior–inferior directions, respectively. The volume of the GTVEOE was 3.05 ± 5.17 cm3 larger than that of the GTV3D. The volume of the PTV3D was 72.82 ± 48.65 cm3 larger than that of the PTVEOE. There was no significant difference between the PTV3D and PTVEOE for V55.8, V60, V66 and the homogeneity index. The PTV3D had a lower target conformity index than the PTVEOE (P = 0.036). PlanEOE had a significantly lower lung V10, V20, V30, V40 and mean lung dose (MLD) than Plan3D. For the heart, PlanEOE had a significantly lower V30 and mean dose. In conclusion, 4DCT is an appropriate method for assessing the displacement of the GTV centroid in three dimensions. PlanEOE has smaller PTVs and a decreased dose and volume for the normal lung and heart, as compared with Plan3D. PMID:24453355

  18. Cell-Based Genotoxicity Testing (United States)

    Reifferscheid, Georg; Buchinger, Sebastian

    Genotoxicity test systems that are based on bacteria display an important role in the detection and assessment of DNA damaging chemicals. They belong to the basic line of test systems due to their easy realization, rapidness, broad applicability, high sensitivity and good reproducibility. Since the development of the Salmonella microsomal mutagenicity assay by Ames and coworkers in the early 1970s, significant development in bacterial genotoxicity assays was achieved and is still a subject matter of research. The basic principle of the mutagenicity assay is a reversion of a growth inhibited bacterial strain, e.g., due to auxotrophy, back to a fast growing phenotype (regain of prototrophy). Deeper knowledge of the ­mutation events allows a mechanistic understanding of the induced DNA-damage by the utilization of base specific tester strains. Collections of such specific tester strains were extended by genetic engineering. Beside the reversion assays, test systems utilizing the bacterial SOS-response were invented. These methods are based on the fusion of various SOS-responsive promoters with a broad variety of reporter genes facilitating numerous methods of signal detection. A very important aspect of genotoxicity testing is the bioactivation of ­xenobiotics to DNA-damaging compounds. Most widely used is the extracellular metabolic activation by making use of rodent liver homogenates. Again, genetic engineering allows the construction of highly sophisticated bacterial tester strains with significantly enhanced sensitivity due to overexpression of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. This provides mechanistic insights into the toxification and detoxification pathways of xenobiotics and helps explaining the chemical nature of hazardous substances in unknown mixtures. In summary, beginning with "natural" tester strains the rational design of bacteria led to highly specific and sensitive tools for a rapid, reliable and cost effective

  19. Shift in Occupational Risk for Basal Cell Carcinoma from Outdoor to Indoor Workers: A Large Population-based Case-control Register Study from Sweden. (United States)

    Lindelöf, Bernt; Lapins, Jan; Dal, Henrik


    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common form of cancer worldwide. Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, from sunlight and other sources, is the most important risk factor. The aim of this large-scale case-control study was to determine which occupations are associated with increased risk of BCC in Sweden. The case cohort comprised 74,247 patients with BCC and the control cohort comprised 574,055 subjects linked to population-based registers. Compared with the occupational category of farmers, foresters and gardeners we observed elevated risks of BCC for almost all occupational categories studied. Legal workers with odds ratio (OR) 2.69 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.36-3.06), dentists OR 2.69 (95% CI 2.35-3.08) and physicians OR 2.47 (95% CI 2.24-2.74) had the highest risk for both sexes taken together. In conclusion, there appears to have been a change in the risk of BCC from outdoor to indoor occupations in Sweden, possibly related to exposure to UV radiation during leisure activities exceeding occupational sun exposure as the main cause of BCC in Sweden.

  20. A cell nanoinjector based on carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xing; Kis, Andras; Zettl, Alex; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.


    Technologies for introducing molecules into living cells are vital for probing the physical properties and biochemical interactions that govern the cell's behavior. Here we report the development of a nanoscale cell injection system-termed the nanoinjector-that uses carbon nanotubes to deliver cargo into cells. A single multi-walled carbon nanotube attached to an atomic force microscope tip was functionalized with cargo via a disulfide-based linker. Penetration of cell membranes with this 'nanoneedle', followed by reductive cleavage of the disulfide bonds within the cell's interior, resulted in the release of cargo inside the cells. The capability of the nanoinjector was demonstrated by injection of protein-coated quantum dots into live human cells. Single-particle tracking was employed to characterize the diffusion dynamics of injected quantum dots in the cytosol. This new technique causes no discernible membrane or cell damage, and can deliver a discrete number of molecules to the cell's interior without the requirement of a carrier solvent.

  1. Effects of permeability and living space on cell fate and neo-tissue development in hydrogel-based scaffolds: a study with cartilaginous model. (United States)

    Fan, Changjiang; Wang, Dong-An


    One bottleneck in tissue regeneration with hydrogel scaffolds is the limited understanding of the crucial factors for controlling hydrogel's physical microenvironments to regulate cell fate. Here, the effects of permeability and living space of hydrogels on encapsulated cells' behavior were evaluated, respectively. Three model hydrogel-based constructs are fabricated by using photo-crosslinkable hyaluronic acid as precursor and chondrocytes as model cell type. The better permeable hydrogels facilitate better cell viability and rapid proliferation, which lead to increased production of extracellular matrix (ECM), e.g. collagen, glycosaminoglycan. By prolonged culture, nano-sized hydrogel networks inhibit neo-tissue development, and the presence of macro-porous living spaces significantly enhance ECM deposition via forming larger cell clusters and eventually induce formation of scaffold-free neo-tissue islets. The results of this work demonstrate that the manipulation and optimization of hydrogel microenvironments, namely permeability and living space, are crucial to direct cell fate and neo-tissue formation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Generation of a Vero-Based Packaging Cell Line to Produce SV40 Gene Delivery Vectors for Use in Clinical Gene Therapy Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel G. Toscano


    Full Text Available Replication-defective (RD recombinant simian virus 40 (SV40-based gene delivery vectors hold a great potential for clinical applications because of their presumed non-immunogenicity and capacity to induce immune tolerance to the transgene products in humans. However, the clinical use of SV40 vectors has been hampered by the lack of a packaging cell line that produces replication-competent (RC free SV40 particles in the vector production process. To solve this problem, we have adapted the current SV40 vector genome used for the production of vector particles and generated a novel Vero-based packaging cell line named SuperVero that exclusively expresses the SV40 large T antigen. SuperVero cells produce similar numbers of SV40 vector particles compared to the currently used packaging cell lines, albeit in the absence of contaminating RC SV40 particles. Our unique SV40 vector platform named SVac paves the way to clinically test a whole new generation of SV40-based therapeutics for a broad range of important diseases.

  3. Comparison of Numerical and Experimental Studies for Flow-Field Optimization Based on Under-Rib Convection in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Duy Vinh


    Full Text Available The flow-field design based on under-rib convection plays an important role in enhancing the performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs because it ensures the uniform distribution of the reacting gas and the facilitation of water. This research focused on developing suitable configurations of the anode and cathode bipolar plates to enhance the fuel cell performance based on under-rib convection. The work here evaluated the effects of flow-field designs, including a serpentine flow field with sub channel and by pass and a conventional serpentine flow-field on single-cell performance. Both the experiment and computer simulation indicated that the serpentine flow field with sub channel and by pass (SFFSB configuration enables more effective utilization of the electrocatalysts since it improves reactant transformation rate from the channel to the catalyst layer, thereby dramatically improving the fuel cell performance. The simulation and experimental results indicated that the power densities are increased by up to 16.74% and 18.21%, respectively, when applying suitable flow-field configurations to the anode and cathode bipolar plates. The findings in this are the foundation for enhancing efficient PEMFCs based on flow field design.

  4. Solid polymer MEMS-based fuel cells (United States)

    Jankowski, Alan F [Livermore, CA; Morse, Jeffrey D [Pleasant Hill, CA


    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  5. Quantum dot-based cell motility assay. (United States)

    Pellegrino, Teresa; Parak, Wolfgang J; Boudreau, Rosanne; Le Gros, Mark A; Gerion, Daniele; Alivisatos, A Paul; Larabell, Carolyn A


    Motility and migration are measurable characteristics of cells that are classically associated with the invasive potential of cancer cells, but in vitro assays of invasiveness have been less than perfect. We previously developed an assay to monitor cell motility and migration using water-soluble CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals; cells engulf the fluorescent nanocrystals as they crawl across them and leave behind a fluorescent-free trail. We show here that semiconductor nanocrystals can also be used as a sensitive two-dimensional in vitro invasion assay. We used this assay to compare the behavior of seven different adherent human cell lines, including breast epithelial MCF 10A, breast tumor MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435S, MCF 7, colon tumor SW480, lung tumor NCI H1299, and bone tumor Saos-2, and observed two distinct behaviors of cancer cells that can be used to further categorize these cells. Some cancer cell lines demonstrate fibroblastic behaviors and leave long fluorescent-free trails as they migrate across the dish, whereas other cancer cells leave clear zones of varying sizes around their periphery. This assay uses fluorescence detection, requires no processing, and can be used in live cell studies. These features contribute to the increased sensitivity of this assay and make it a powerful new tool for discriminating between non-invasive and invasive cancer cell lines.

  6. Micro-/nanofluidics based cell electroporation. (United States)

    Wang, Shengnian; Lee, L James


    Non-viral gene delivery has been extensively explored as the replacement for viral systems. Among various non-viral approaches, electroporation has gained increasing attention because of its easy operation and no restrictions on probe or cell type. Several effective systems are now available on the market with reasonably good gene delivery performance. To facilitate broader biological and medical applications, micro-/nanofluidics based technologies were introduced in cell electroporation during the past two decades and their advances are summarized in this perspective. Compared to the commercially available bulk electroporation systems, they offer several advantages, namely, (1) sufficiently high pulse strength generated by a very low potential difference, (2) conveniently concentrating, trapping, and regulating the position and concentration of cells and probes, (3) real-time monitoring the intracellular trafficking at single cell level, and (4) flexibility on cells to be transfected (from single cell to large scale cell population). Some of the micro-devices focus on cell lysis or fusion as well as the analysis of cellular properties or intracellular contents, while others are designed for gene transfection. The uptake of small molecules (e.g., dyes), DNA plasmids, interfering RNAs, and nanoparticles has been broadly examined on different types of mammalian cells, yeast, and bacteria. A great deal of progress has been made with a variety of new micro-/nanofluidic designs to address challenges such as electrochemical reactions including water electrolysis, gas bubble formation, waste of expensive reagents, poor cell viability, low transfection efficacy, higher throughput, and control of transfection dosage and uniformity. Future research needs required to advance micro-/nanofluidics based cell electroporation for broad life science and medical applications are discussed.

  7. An in vivo swine study for xeno-grafts of calcium sulfate-based bone grafts with human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). (United States)

    Kuo, Tzong-fu; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Wu, Hong-Da; Poma, Malosi; Wu, Yu-Wei; Yang, Jen-Chang


    The purpose of this in vivo study was to evaluate the effect of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) on various resorbable calcium sulfate/calcium phosphate bone grafts in bone regeneration. Granular particles of calcium sulfate dehydrate (CSD), α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate/amorphous calcium phosphate (α-CSH/ACP), and CSD/β-tricalcium phosphates (β-TCP) were prepared for in vitro dissolution and implantation test. The chemical compositions of specimen residues after dissolution test were characterized by XRD. The ratios of new bone formation for implanted grafts/hDPSCs were evaluated using mandible bony defect model of Lanyu pig. All the graft systems exhibited a similar two-stage dissolution behavior and phase transformation of poor crystalline HAp. Eight weeks post-operation, the addition of hDPSCs to various graft systems showed statistically significant increasing in the ratio of new bone formation (pbone regeneration was rejected. The results suggest that the addition of hDPSCs to calcium sulfate based xenografts could enhance the bone regeneration in the bony defect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Smoking and alcohol drinking in relation to the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A population-based case-control study in China. (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Chen, Xingdong; Zhuang, Maoqiang; Yuan, Ziyu; Nie, Shuping; Lu, Ming; Jin, Li; Ye, Weimin


    Previous results regarding the associations between esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) risk and smoking/alcohol drinking in high-risk areas are inconsistent. We performed a large population-based case-control study from 2010 to 2013 in a high-incidence area of China, and enrolled 1353 ESCC cases and 1961 controls. Data regarding smoking and alcohol drinking were collected via face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Odd ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression models. After adjusting for alcohol drinking and other potential confounders, male heavy smokers (i.e., those who started smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day or 40 pack-years, or started smoking early), showed a moderately increased risk for ESCC; however, current smoking was not associated with an increased risk. Alcohol drinking among males significantly increased the risk for ESCC (OR = 2.20, 95%CI:1.79~2.70). We observed increasing excess ESCC risks with decreasing age at behavior initiation as well as with increasing duration and intensity of alcohol intake, which were particularly evident among current smokers. In contrast, neither smoking nor alcohol drinking was not associated with ESCC risk among females. In conclusion, alcohol drinking shows a monotonic dose-response relationship with ESCC risk among men, and this relationship is particularly evident among smokers.

  9. A follow-up study of atypical squamous cells in gynecologic cytology using conventional papanicolaou smears and liquid-based preparations: the impact of the Bethesda System 2001. (United States)

    Lee, Chris Yick-Kwong; Ng, Wai-Kuen


    We evaluated the impact of the Bethesda System (TBS) 2001 in cytology reporting of atypical squamous cells (ASC) when using conventional Pap smears and liquid-based cytology preparations (LBC). Follow-up information for all ASC cases encountered in Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, China, from July 2000 to June 2004 (using TBS 1991 in the first 2-year period and TBS 2001 in the second) was analyzed. Among 4, 089 ASC cases studied, more than 50% had negative follow-up; this percentage was lower with TBS 2001. The percentage of ASC cases with a low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) end point was higher with TBS 2001, especially after application of LBC. There was also a decreasing trend of having this low-grade CIN end point with advancing age. Most clinically significant outcomes occurred after 6 months and before 1 year post-ASC diagnosis. With TBS 2001, more than 50% of ASC, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) were associated with high-grade CIN on follow-up. TBS 2001 improves the positive predictive value of ASC for clinically significant lesions. Introduction of dichotomous subcategorization of ASC is relevant, with ASC-H associated with a much higher risk of subsequent high-grade squamous lesions.

  10. Stem Cell-based Therapies for Sepsis. (United States)

    Keane, Colm; Jerkic, Mirjana; Laffey, John G


    Sepsis is a life-threatening syndrome resulting in shock and organ dysfunction stemming from a microbial infection. Sepsis has a mortality of 40% and is implicated in half of all in-hospital deaths. The host immune response to microbial infection is critical, with early-phase sepsis characterized by a hyperinflammatory immune response, whereas the later phase of sepsis is often complicated by suppression. Sepsis has no treatment, and management remains supportive.Stem cells constitute exciting potential therapeutic agents for sepsis. In this review, we examine the rationale for stem cells in sepsis, focusing on mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, which currently demonstrate the greatest therapeutic promise. We examine the preclinical evidence base and evaluate potential mechanisms of action of these cells that are important in the setting of sepsis. We discuss early-phase clinical trials and critically appraise translational barriers to the use of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells in patients with sepsis.

  11. Is ultraviolet exposure acquired at work the most important risk factor for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma? Results of the population-based case-control study FB-181. (United States)

    Schmitt, J; Haufe, E; Trautmann, F; Schulze, H-J; Elsner, P; Drexler, H; Bauer, A; Letzel, S; John, S M; Fartasch, M; Brüning, T; Seidler, A; Dugas-Breit, S; Gina, M; Weistenhöfer, W; Bachmann, K; Bruhn, I; Lang, B M; Bonness, S; Allam, J P; Grobe, W; Stange, T; Westerhausen, S; Knuschke, P; Wittlich, M; Diepgen, T L


    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the most frequent types of cancer constituting a significant public health burden. Prevention strategies focus on limiting ultraviolet (UV) exposure during leisure time. However, the relative impact of occupational and nonoccupational UV exposure for SCC occurrence is unclear. To investigate the association between occupational and nonoccupational UV exposure for SCC in a multicentre population-based case-control study hypothesizing that high occupational UV exposure increases the risk of SCC. Consecutive patients with incident SCC (n = 632) were recruited from a German national dermatology network. Population-based controls (n = 996) without history of skin cancer were recruited from corresponding residents' registration offices and propensity score matched to cases. Lifetime UV exposure, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were assessed by trained physicians. Occupational and nonoccupational UV exposure doses were estimated by masked investigators using established reference values. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were assessed using conditional logistic regression adjusting for relevant confounders. Total solar UV exposure was significantly associated with increased SCC. The OR for high (> 90th percentile) vs. low (percentile) and high vs, moderate (40-59th percentile) occupational UV exposure was 1·95 (95% CI 1·19-3·18) and 2·44 (95% CI 1·47-4·06) for SCC. Adjusting for occupational UV exposure, nonoccupational UV exposure was not significantly related to SCC incidence. Dose-response relationships were observed for occupational but not for nonoccupational solar UV exposure. Solar occupational UV exposure is a major determinant of incident SCC. Our findings indicate that prevention strategies should be further expanded to the occupational setting. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Arthroscopic Fixation of Cell Free Polymer-Based Cartilage Implants with a Bioinspired Polymer Surface on the Hip Joint: A Cadaveric Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Lahner


    Full Text Available This study investigates the adhesion capacity of a polyglycolic acid- (PGA- hyaluronan scaffold with a structural modification based on a planar polymer (PM surface in a cadaver cartilage defect model. Two cadaver specimens were used to serially test multiple chondral matrices. In a cadaver hip model, cell free polymer-based cartilage implants with a planar bioinspired PM surface (PGA-PM-scaffolds were implanted arthroscopically on 10 mm × 15 mm full-thickness femoral hip cartilage lesions. Unprocessed cartilage implants without a bioinspired PM surface were used as control group. The cartilage implants were fixed without and with the use of fibrin glue on femoral hip cartilage defects. After 50 movement cycles and removal of the distraction, a rearthroscopy was performed to assess the outline attachment and integrity of the scaffold. The fixation techniques without and with fibrin fixation showed marginal differences for outline attachment, area coverage, scaffold integrity, and endpoint fixation after 50 cycles. The PGA-PM-scaffolds with fibrin fixation achieved a higher score in terms of the attachment, integrity, and endpoint fixation than the PGA-scaffold on the cartilage defect. Relating to the outline attachment, area coverage, scaffold integrity, and endpoint fixation, the fixation with PGA-PM-scaffolds accomplished significantly better results compared to the PGA-scaffolds (P=0.03752, P=0.03078, P=0.00512, P=0.00512. PGA-PM-scaffolds demonstrate increased observed initial fixation strength in cadaver femoral head defects relative to PGA-scaffold, particularly when fibrin glue is used for fixation.

  13. High-ceiling diuretics are associated with an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma in a population-based follow-up study. (United States)

    Ruiter, Rikje; Visser, Loes E; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Rodenburg, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Coebergh, Jan-Willem W; Nijsten, Tamar; Stricker, Bruno H Ch


    In Caucasians, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is among the most frequently diagnosed cancers and its incidence is increasing. Known risk factors for the development of BCC are age, sun exposure, and certain skin characteristics. Despite photosensitizing abilities of diuretic agents, little is known about a possible association with BCC. Data were obtained from the Rotterdam Study; a large prospective population-based follow-up study with coverage of prescription-only drugs from pharmacies. The diagnoses of BCC were obtained through general practitioners, and by linkage with a registry of histo- and cytopathology. Cumulative use of diuretics at the date of diagnosis was categorized into quartiles for users of high-ceiling diuretics, potassium sparing agents and thiazides. The association between these drugs and BCC was assessed by Cox proportional hazard modeling with adjustment for age, gender and potential confounders. Effect modification was tested with interaction terms. Use of high-ceiling diuretics in the highest quartile (>3.7 years cumulative exposure) was associated with an increased hazard of BCC of 62% compared to no use (HR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.4). Patients who used high-ceiling diuretics and had a high tendency of getting sunburned had a higher risk of diagnosis than non-users who do not easily get sunburned. Neither the use of potassium sparing agents, nor the use of thiazides was associated with BCC. In our study, cumulative use of high-ceiling diuretics was associated with an increased risk of diagnosis of BCC. This effect is stronger in patients who easily get sunburned. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Cell-Tracking Studies: Spectrophotometry-Based Method for the Quantification of Cellular Iron Content after Loading with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Böhm


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present a user-friendly tool for quantifying the iron content of superparamagnetic labeled cells before cell tracking by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Iron quantification was evaluated by using Prussian blue staining and spectrophotometry. White blood cells were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO nanoparticles. Labeling was confirmed by light microscopy. Subsequently, the cells were embedded in a phantom and scanned on a 3 T magnetic resonance tomography (MRT whole-body system. Mean peak wavelengths Λpeak was determined at A720nm (range 719–722 nm. Linearity was proven for the measuring range 0.5 to 10 μg Fe/mL (r = .9958; p = 2.2 × 10−12. The limit of detection was 0.01 μg Fe/mL (0.1785 mM, and the limit of quantification was 0.04 μg Fe/mL (0.714 mM. Accuracy was demonstrated by comparison with atomic absorption spectrometry. Precision and robustness were also proven. On T2-weighted images, signal intensity varied according to the iron concentration of SPIO-labeled cells. Absorption spectrophotometry is both a highly sensitive and user-friendly technique that is feasible for quantifying the iron content of magnetically labeled cells. The presented data suggest that spectrophotometry is a promising tool for promoting the implementation of magnetic resonance-based cell tracking in routine clinical applications (from bench to bedside.

  15. Sensitive-cell-based fish chromatophore biosensor (United States)

    Plant, Thomas K.; Chaplen, Frank W.; Jovanovic, Goran; Kolodziej, Wojtek; Trempy, Janine E.; Willard, Corwin; Liburdy, James A.; Pence, Deborah V.; Paul, Brian K.


    A sensitive biosensor (cytosensor) has been developed based on color changes in the toxin-sensitive colored living cells of fish. These chromatophores are highly sensitive to the presence of many known and unknown toxins produced by microbial pathogens and undergo visible color changes in a dose-dependent manner. The chromatophores are immobilized and maintained in a viable state while potential pathogens multiply and fish cell-microbe interactions are monitored. Low power LED lighting is used to illuminate the chromatophores which are magnified using standard optical lenses and imaged onto a CCD array. Reaction to toxins is detected by observing changes is the total area of color in the cells. These fish chromatophores are quite sensitive to cholera toxin, Staphococcus alpha toxin, and Bordatella pertussis toxin. Numerous other toxic chemical and biological agents besides bacterial toxins also cause readily detectable color effects in chromatophores. The ability of the chromatophore cell-based biosensor to distinguish between different bacterial pathogens was examined. Toxin producing strains of Salmonella enteritis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Bacillus cereus induced movement of pigmented organelles in the chromatophore cells and this movement was measured by changes in the optical density over time. Each bacterial pathogen elicited this measurable response in a distinctive and signature fashion. These results suggest a chromatophore cell-based biosensor assay may be applicable for the detection and identification of virulence activities associated with certain air-, food-, and water-borne bacterial pathogens.

  16. LTCC based bioreactors for cell cultivation (United States)

    Bartsch, H.; Welker, T.; Welker, K.; Witte, H.; Müller, J.


    LTCC multilayers offer a wide range of structural options and flexibility of connections not available in standard thin film technology. Therefore they are considered as material base for cell culture reactors. The integration of microfluidic handling systems and features for optical and electrical capturing of indicators for cell culture growth offers the platform for an open system concept. The present paper assesses different approaches for the creation of microfluidic channels in LTCC multilayers. Basic functions required for the fluid management in bioreactors include temperature and flow control. Both features can be realized with integrated heaters and temperature sensors in LTCC multilayers. Technological conditions for the integration of such elements into bioreactors are analysed. The temperature regulation for the system makes use of NTC thermistor sensors which serve as real value input for the control of the heater. It allows the adjustment of the fluid temperature with an accuracy of 0.2 K. The tempered fluid flows through the cell culture chamber. Inside of this chamber a thick film electrode array monitors the impedance as an indicator for the growth process of 3-dimensional cell cultures. At the system output a flow sensor is arranged to monitor the continual flow. For this purpose a calorimetric sensor is implemented, and its crucial design parameters are discussed. Thus, the work presented gives an overview on the current status of LTCC based fluid management for cell culture reactors, which provides a promising base for the automation of cell culture processes.

  17. Study of Fluorescent Imaging of Se (IV) in Living Cells Using a Turn-on Fluorescent Probe Based on a Rhodamine Spirolactame Derivative. (United States)

    Guan, Mingming; Mi, Hongyu; Xu, Hui; Fei, Qiang; Shan, Hongyan; Huan, Yanfu; Lv, Shaowu; Feng, Guodong


    A highly selective fluorescent probe 2-(2-(2-aminoethylamino)ethyl)-3',6'-bis(ethylamino)-2',7'-dimethylspiro[isoindoline-1,9'-xanthen]-3-one (ABDO) for Se (IV) had been synthesized in our earlier report. In this study, this fluorescent sensor is applied on analysis fluorescent imaging of Se (IV) in Hela cells. The experiment conditions, such as the MTT assay, different concentration of saline, incubated time of Hela cells with ABDO and Se (IV), and intracellular action position of Se (IV), are investigated. Through a series of experiments, the fluorescent image of Se (IV) in Hela cells can be observed when the cells cultured by 2 μM ABDO and 2 μM Se (IV) for 210 min. And the intracellular action position of Se (IV) is verified after the co-localization experiments are done. It is mitochondria. These experimental results show that ABDO will be an eagerly anticipated sensor for fluorescent imaging analysis of selenium ion in living cells. Besides, we also can use the complexes of ABDO-Se to observe morphology and distribution of mitochondria in cells like JG-B.

  18. Novel egg white-based 3-D cell culture system. (United States)

    Kaipparettu, Benny Abraham; Kuiatse, Isere; Tak-Yee Chan, Bonita; Benny Kaipparettu, Meju; Lee, Adrian V; Oesterreich, Steffi


    Although three dimensional (3-D) cell culture systems have numerous advantages over traditional monolayer culture, the currently available 3-D cell culture media are cost-prohibitive for regular use by the majority of research laboratories. Here we show a simple system based on avian egg white that supports growth of cells in 3-D, at a significantly decreased cost. Specifically, we show that growth of immortalized human breast epithelial cells (MCF10A) in egg white-based medium results in formation of acini with hollow lumens, apoptotic clearance of the cells in the lumen, and apicobasal polarization comparable to what has been described using established 3-D culture media such as reconstituted basement membrane preparations (BM). There was no significant difference in MCF10A proliferation and acinar size between egg white and BM. We also cultured different established cell lines, oncogene-transformed MCF10A, and mouse mammary epithelial cells in egg white and BM, and observed similar morphology. In summary, our data convincingly argue that egg white can be used as a suitable alternative model for 3-D cell culture studies. We strongly believe that this simple and inexpensive method should allow researchers to perform 3-D cell culture experiments on a regular basis, and result in a dramatic increase of use of the 3-D cell culture in research. Thus, this finding lays the foundation for significantly increased, cost-effective use of 3-D cultures in cell biology.

  19. Stem cell-based therapies for osteoarthritis: challenges and opportunities. (United States)

    Diekman, Brian O; Guilak, Farshid


    Regenerative medicine offers the exciting potential of developing alternatives to total joint replacement for treating osteoarthritis. In this article, we highlight recent work that addresses key challenges of stem cell-based therapies for osteoarthritis and provide examples of innovative ways in which stem cells can aid in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Significant progress has been made in understanding the challenges to successful stem cell therapy, such as the effects of age or disease on stem cell properties, altered stem cell function due to an inflammatory joint environment and phenotypic instability in vivo. Novel scaffold designs have been shown to enhance the mechanical properties of tissue-engineered cartilage and have also improved the integration of newly formed tissue within the joint. Emerging strategies such as injecting stem cells directly into the joint, manipulating endogenous stem cells to enhance regenerative capacity and utilizing stem cells for drug discovery have expanded the potential uses of stem cells in treating osteoarthritis. Several recent studies have greatly advanced the development and preclinical evaluation of potential stem cell-based treatments for osteoarthritis through novel approaches focused on cell therapy, tissue engineering and drug discovery.

  20. Venous thromboembolism in adults screened for sickle cell trait: a population-based cohort study with nested case-control analysis. (United States)

    Little, Iain; Vinogradova, Yana; Orton, Elizabeth; Kai, Joe; Qureshi, Nadeem


    To determine whether sickle cell carriers ('sickle cell trait') have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Cohort study with nested case-control analysis. General population with data from 609 UK general practices in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). All individuals registered with a CPRD general practice between 1998 and 2013, with a medical record of screening for sickle cell between 18 and 75 years of age. Incidence of VTE per 10 000 person-years (PY) among sickle cell carriers and non-carriers; and adjusted OR for VTE among sickle cell carriers compared with non-carriers. We included 30 424 individuals screened for sickle cell, with a follow-up time of 179 503 PY, identifying 55 VTEs in 6758 sickle cell carriers and 125 VTEs in 23 666 non-carriers. VTE incidence among sickle cell carriers (14.9/10 000 PY; 95% CI 11.4 to 19.4) was significantly higher than non-carriers (8.8/10 000 PY; 95% CI 7.4 to 10.4). Restricting analysis to confirmed non-carriers was non-significant, but performed on a small sample. In the case-control analysis (180 cases matched to 1775 controls by age and gender), sickle cell carriers remained at increased risk of VTE after adjusting for body mass index, pregnancy, smoking status and ethnicity (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.69, p=0.006), with the greatest risk for pulmonary embolism (PE) (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.17 to 4.39, p=0.011). Although absolute numbers are small, in a general population screened for sickle cell, carriers have a higher incidence and risk of VTE, particularly PE, than non-carriers. Clinicians should be aware of this elevated risk in the clinical care of sickle cell carriers, or when discussing carrier screening, and explicitly attend to modifiable risk factors for VTE in these individuals. More complete primary care coding of carrier status could improve analysis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  1. Antibody microarrays for label-free cell-based applications. (United States)

    Milgram, Sarah; Bombera, Radoslaw; Livache, Thierry; Roupioz, Yoann


    The recent advances in microtechnologies have shown the interest of developing microarrays dedicated to cell analysis. In this way, miniaturized cell analyzing platforms use several detection techniques requiring specific solid supports for microarray read-out (colorimetric, fluorescent, electrochemical, acoustic, optical…). Real-time and label-free techniques, such as Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi), arouse increasing interest for applications in miniaturized formats. Thus, we focused our study on chemical methods for antibody-based microarray fabrication dedicated to the SPRi analysis of cells or cellular activity. Three different approaches were designed and developed for specific applications. In the first case, a polypyrrole-based chemistry was used to array antibody-microarray for specific capture of whole living cells. In the second case, the polypyrrole-based chemistry was complexified in a three molecular level assembly using DNA and antibody conjugates to allow the specific release of cells after their capture. Finally, in the third case, a thiol-based chemistry was developed for long incubation times of biological samples of high complexity. This last approach was focused on the simultaneous study of both cell type characterization and secretory activity (detection of proteins secreted by cells). This paper describes three original methods allowing a rapid and efficient analysis of cellular sample on-chip using immunoaffinity-based assays. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Data base management study (United States)


    Data base management techniques and applicable equipment are described. Recommendations which will assist potential NASA data users in selecting and using appropriate data base management tools and techniques are presented. Classes of currently available data processing equipment ranging from basic terminals to large minicomputer systems were surveyed as they apply to the needs of potential SEASAT data users. Cost and capabilities projections for this equipment through 1985 were presented. A test of a typical data base management system was described, as well as the results of this test and recommendations to assist potential users in determining when such a system is appropriate for their needs. The representative system tested was UNIVAC's DMS 1100.

  3. Use of prescription drugs and risk of postoperative red blood cell transfusion in breast cancer patients: a Danish population-based cohort study. (United States)

    Thomsen, Anne Marie L; Pedersen, Alma B; Kristensen, Nickolaj R; Møller, Bjarne Kuno; Erikstrup, Christian; Christiansen, Peer M; Nørgaard, Mette; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre


    Several frequently used prescription drugs may affect bleeding risk. We investigated use of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and statins and risk of postoperative red blood cell transfusion in breast cancer patients. Using Danish population-based registries, we identified a cohort of women who underwent surgery for primary breast cancer (n = 22,238) during 2005-2012 and ascertained their use of aspirin, NSAIDs, SSRIs, and statins. For each drug, patients were categorized as users if they filled ≥1 prescription in the 60 days prior to surgery. We calculated the 14-day risk of red blood cell transfusion and relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), comparing users with nonusers for each drug and adjusting for age, cancer stage, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score. In our cohort, 1385 (6.2%) women were aspirin users, 1794 (8.0%) were NSAID users, 1110 (4.9%) were SSRI users, and 2053 (9.1%) were statin users. The overall risk of red blood cell transfusion was 1.3%. The 14-day risk of RBC transfusion was 3.5% among aspirin users versus 1.1% among aspirin nonusers (adjusted RR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.4-2.7), and 1.8% among SSRI users versus 1.2% among SSRI nonusers (adjusted RR = 1.2, 95% CI: 0.7-1.9). Red blood cell transfusion risk was increased among NSAID users, but not in a sensitivity analysis with a 30-day exposure window. Red blood cell transfusion risk was not increased among SSRI and statin users. Primary breast cancer surgery confers a low risk of RBC transfusion. Still, use of aspirin and possibly NSAIDs, but not SSRIs and statins, is associated with increased red blood cell transfusion. This increased risk is not explained by differences in age, stage, or comorbidity level.

  4. Morphology, drug release, antibacterial, cell proliferation, and histology studies of chamomile-loaded wound dressing mats based on electrospun nanofibrous poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/polystyrene blends. (United States)

    Motealleh, Behrooz; Zahedi, Payam; Rezaeian, Iraj; Moghimi, Morvarid; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Zarandi, Mohammad Amin


    For the first time, it has been tried to achieve optimum conditions for electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone)/polystyrene (PCL/PS) nanofibrous samples as active wound dressings containing chamomile via D-optimal design approach. In this work, systematic in vitro and in vivo studies were carried out by drug release rate, antibacterial and antifungal evaluations, cell culture, and rat wound model along with histology observation. The optimized samples were prepared under the following electrospinning conditions: PCL/PS ratio (65/35), PCL concentration 9%(w/v), PS concentration 14%(w/v), distance between the syringe needle tip and the collector 15.5 cm, applied voltage 18 kV, and solution flow rate 0.46 mL h(-1) . The FE-SEM micrographs showed electrospun PCL/PS (65/35) nanofibrous sample containing 15% chamomile had a minimum average diameter (∼175 nm) compared to the neat samples (∼268 nm). The drug released resulted in a gradual and high amount of chamomile from the optimized PCL/PS nanofibrous sample (∼70%) in respect to PCL and PS nanofibers after 48 h. This claim was also confirmed by antibacterial and antifungal evaluations in which an inhibitory zone with a diameter of about 7.6 mm was formed. The rat wound model results also indicated that the samples loaded with 15% chamomile extract were remarkably capable to heal the wounds up to 99 ± 0.5% after 14 days post-treatment periods. The adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells and their viability on the optimized samples were confirmed by MTT analysis. Also, the electrospun nanofibrous mats based on PCL/PS (65/35) showed a high efficiency in the wound closure and healing process compared to the reference sample, PCL/PS nanofibers without chamomile. Finally, the histology analysis revealed that the formation of epithelial tissues, the lack of necrosis and collagen fibers accumulation in the dermis tissues for the above optimized samples. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A novel gelatin-based micro-cavitary hydrogel for potential application in delivery of anchorage dependent cells: A study with vasculogenesis model. (United States)

    Leong, Wenyan; Fan, Changjiang; Wang, Dong-An


    Hydrogels have been widely regarded as promising tissue engineering scaffolds and cell delivery vehicles, however, their inherent submicron- or nano-scale polymer networks severely inhibit the settlement of anchorage dependent cells (ADCs). Here, using endothelial progenitor outgrowth cells (EPOCs) as the typical ADCs, a gelatin-based micro-cavitary gel (namely Gel-MCG) is developed with gelatin-methacrylate and gelatin microspheres as precursor and porogens, respectively, to promote cellular focal adhesion and functions. The introduction of micro-cavitary structures within the Gel-MCG improves its physical properties as well as creates numerous gel-microcavity interfaces within gel-based matrices. Compared with conventional gelatin gel (Gel-G) scaffold, the Gel-MCG provides more suitable microenvironments for EPOCs' attachment, spreading, and proliferation, and then which leads to enhanced endothelial differentiation and vascularization as demonstrated by higher expressions of endothelial markers. The Gel-MCG system shows great potential as vehicle for the delivery of ADCs in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microfluidic-Based Synthesis of Hydrogel Particles for Cell Microencapsulation and Cell-Based Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandi Wan


    Full Text Available Encapsulation of cells in hydrogel particles has been demonstrated as an effective approach to deliver therapeutic agents. The properties of hydrogel particles, such as the chemical composition, size, porosity, and number of cells per particle, affect cellular functions and consequently play important roles for the cell-based drug delivery. Microfluidics has shown unparalleled advantages for the synthesis of polymer particles and been utilized to produce hydrogel particles with a well-defined size, shape and morphology. Most importantly, during the encapsulation process, microfluidics can control the number of cells per particle and the overall encapsulation efficiency. Therefore, microfluidics is becoming the powerful approach for cell microencapsulation and construction of cell-based drug delivery systems. In this article, I summarize and discuss microfluidic approaches that have been developed recently for the synthesis of hydrogel particles and encapsulation of cells. I will start by classifying different types of hydrogel material, including natural biopolymers and synthetic polymers that are used for cell encapsulation, and then focus on the current status and challenges of microfluidic-based approaches. Finally, applications of cell-containing hydrogel particles for cell-based drug delivery, particularly for cancer therapy, are discussed.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interfacial energetics [23], and altering the particle morphology [ 4,25,26]. According to the university. of Notre Dame and NASA demonstrations, the carbon nanotubes could help to make nanoparticle- based solar cells more efficient and practical. The present attained of 10% -11°/o energy conversion efficiency of DSC ...

  8. Parameter Screening in Microfluidics Based Hydrodynamic Single-Cell Trapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Deng


    Full Text Available Microfluidic cell-based arraying technology is widely used in the field of single-cell analysis. However, among developed devices, there is a compromise between cellular loading efficiencies and trapped cell densities, which deserves further analysis and optimization. To address this issue, the cell trapping efficiency of a microfluidic device with two parallel micro channels interconnected with cellular trapping sites was studied in this paper. By regulating channel inlet and outlet status, the microfluidic trapping structure can mimic key functioning units of previously reported devices. Numerical simulations were used to model this cellular trapping structure, quantifying the effects of channel on/off status and trapping structure geometries on the cellular trapping efficiency. Furthermore, the microfluidic device was fabricated based on conventional microfabrication and the cellular trapping efficiency was quantified in experiments. Experimental results showed that, besides geometry parameters, cellular travelling velocities and sizes also affected the single-cell trapping efficiency. By fine tuning parameters, more than 95% of trapping sites were taken by individual cells. This study may lay foundation in further studies of single-cell positioning in microfluidics and push forward the study of single-cell analysis.

  9. Cell-Based Strategies for Meniscus Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Niu


    Full Text Available Meniscus injuries remain a significant challenge due to the poor healing potential of the inner avascular zone. Following a series of studies and clinical trials, tissue engineering is considered a promising prospect for meniscus repair and regeneration. As one of the key factors in tissue engineering, cells are believed to be highly beneficial in generating bionic meniscus structures to replace injured ones in patients. Therefore, cell-based strategies for meniscus tissue engineering play a fundamental role in meniscal regeneration. According to current studies, the main cell-based strategies for meniscus tissue engineering are single cell type strategies; cell coculture strategies also were applied to meniscus tissue engineering. Likewise, on the one side, the zonal recapitulation strategies based on mimicking meniscal differing cells and internal architectures have received wide attentions. On the other side, cell self-assembling strategies without any scaffolds may be a better way to build a bionic meniscus. In this review, we primarily discuss cell seeds for meniscus tissue engineering and their application strategies. We also discuss recent advances and achievements in meniscus repair experiments that further improve our understanding of meniscus tissue engineering.

  10. Studies of Basic Electronic Properties of CdTe-Based Solar Cells and Their Evolution During Processing and Stress: Final Technical Report, 16 October 2001 - 31 August 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaydanov, V. I.; Ohno, T. R.


    This report describes basic issues behind CdTe/CdS cell performance and stability, such as the nature and electronic properties of impurities and defects that control the majority carrier concentration, mechanisms of dopant compensation, recombination processes, their nature and properties, migration and transformation of defects under various processing, stress, and operating conditions. We believe that a better basic understanding of the specific influence of grain boundaries, especially for fine-grain materials such as those making up CdTe-based cells, is now one of the most important issues we must address. We need to clarify the role of grain boundaries in forming the film electronic properties, as well as those of the p-n junction.

  11. Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Subacromial Bursa: Potential for Cell Based Tendon Tissue Engineering (United States)

    Song, Na; Armstrong, April D.; Li, Feng; Ouyang, Hongsheng


    Rotator cuff injuries are a common clinical problem either as a result of overuse or aging. Biological approaches to tendon repair that involve use of scaffolding materials or cell-based approaches are currently being investigated. The cell-based approaches are focused on applying multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) mostly harvested from bone marrow. In the present study, we focused on characterizing cells harvested from tissues associated with rotator cuff tendons based on an assumption that these cells would be more appropriate for tendon repair. We isolated MSCs from bursa tissue associated with rotator cuff tendons and characterized them for multilineage differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Human bursa was obtained from patients undergoing rotator cuff surgery and cells within were isolated using collagenase and dispase digestion. The cells isolated from the tissues were characterized for osteoblastic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, and tenogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that the cells isolated from bursa tissue exhibited MSCs characteristics as evidenced by the expression of putative cell surface markers attributed to MSCs. The cells exhibited high proliferative capacity and differentiated toward cells of mesenchymal lineages with high efficiency. Bursa-derived cells expressed markers of tenocytes when treated with bone morphogenetic protein-12 (BMP-12) and assumed aligned morphology in culture. Bursa cells pretreated with BMP-12 and seeded in ceramic scaffolds formed extensive bone, as well as tendon-like tissue in vivo. Bone formation was demonstrated by histological analysis and immunofluorescence for DMP-1 in tissue sections made from the scaffolds seeded with the cells. Tendon-like tissue formed in vivo consisted of parallel collagen fibres typical of tendon tissues. Bursa-derived cells also formed a fibrocartilagenous tissue in the ceramic scaffolds. Taken together, the results demonstrate a new source of MSCs with a

  12. Routine Imaging for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in First Complete Remission Does Not Improve Post-Treatment Survival: A Danish-Swedish Population-Based Study. (United States)

    El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Jakobsen, Lasse Hjort; Hutchings, Martin; de Nully Brown, Peter; Nilsson-Ehle, Herman; Székely, Elisabeth; Mylam, Karen Juul; Hjalmar, Viktoria; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Bøgsted, Martin; Jerkeman, Mats


    Routine imaging for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in first complete remission (CR) is controversial and plays a limited role in detecting relapse. This population-based study compared the survival of Danish and Swedish patients with DLBCL for whom traditions for routine imaging have been different. Patients from the Danish and Swedish lymphoma registries were included according to the following criteria: newly diagnosed DLBCL from 2007 to 2012, age 18 to 65 years, and CR after R-CHOP/CHOEP. Follow-up for Swedish patients included symptom assessment, clinical examinations, and blood tests at 3- to 4-month intervals for 2 years, with longer intervals later in follow-up. Imaging was only recommended when relapse was clinically suspected. Follow-up for Danish patients was similar but included routine imaging (usually computed tomography every 6 months for 2 years). Danish (n = 525) and Swedish (n = 696) patients with DLBCL had comparable baseline characteristics. Cumulative 2-year progression rate after CR was 6% (95% CI, 4 to 9) for International Prognostic Index (IPI) ≤ 2 versus 21% (95% CI, 13 to 28) for IPI > 2. Age > 60 years (hazard ratio [HR], 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6 to 3.4), elevated lactate dehydrogenase (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4 to 3.8), B symptoms (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.5), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥ 2 (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.0) were associated with worse post-CR survival. Imaging-based follow-up strategy had no impact on survival, neither for all patients nor for IPI-specific subgroups. DLBCL relapse after first CR is infrequent, and the widespread use of routine imaging in Denmark did not translate into better survival. This favors follow-up without routine imaging and, more generally, a shift of focus from relapse detection to improved survivorship. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  13. Performance and stability of low-cost dye-sensitized solar cell based crude and pre-concentrated anthocyanins: Combined experimental and DFT/TDDFT study (United States)

    Chaiamornnugool, Phrompak; Tontapha, Sarawut; Phatchana, Ratchanee; Ratchapolthavisin, Nattawat; Kanokmedhakul, Somdej; Sang-aroon, Wichien; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya


    The low cost DSSCs utilized by crude and pre-concentrated anthocyanins extracted from six anthocyanin-rich samples including mangosteen pericarp, roselle, red cabbage, Thai berry, black rice and blue pea were fabricated. Their photo-to-current conversion efficiencies and stability were examined. Pre-concentrated extracts were obtained by solid phase extraction (SPE) using C18 cartridge. The results obviously showed that all pre-concentrated extracts performed on photovoltaic performances in DSSCs better than crude extracts except for mangosteen pericarp. The DSSC sensitized by pre-concentrated anthocyanin from roselle and red cabbage showed maximum current efficiency η = 0.71% while DSSC sensitized by crude anthocyanin from mangosteen pericarp reached maximum efficiency η = 0.97%. In addition, pre-concentrated extract based cells possess more stability than those of crude extract based cells. This indicates that pre-concentration of anthocyanin via SPE method is very effective for DSSCs based on good photovoltaic performance and stability. The DFT/TDDFT calculations of electronic and photoelectrochemical properties of the major anthocyanins found in the samples are employed to support the experimental results.

  14. An analytical study of the minority carrier distribution and photocurrent of a p-i-n quantum dot solar cell based on the InAs/GaAs system (United States)

    Biswas, Sayantan; Sinha, Amitabha


    An analytical study has been carried out on the InAs/GaAs p+-i-n+ quantum dot solar cell, taking into consideration the contributions of each region of the cell to the total photocurrent. The expressions for the excess minority carrier concentration and photocurrent from the front and the rear regions of the device have been obtained and their variations with different device parameters have been studied. Also, based on the investigations reported by some researchers earlier, the photocurrent contribution from the intrinsic region of the solar has been studied, taking into account the quantum dot ensemble absorption coefficient, which depends significantly on the quantum dot size and size dispersion. It is observed that all the three regions of the cell contribute to the overall internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the cell. The contribution of each region of the solar cell to the total IQE has been shown graphically. From these studies it is observed that the incorporation of the quantum dots in the intrinsic region enhance the photocurrent density and hence the IQE of such solar cell, as it absorbs low energy photons, which are beyond the absorption range of GaAs. Finally, the fill factor of the solar cell has been calculated.

  15. Comorbidity is an independent prognostic factor in patients with advanced-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP : a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Andre; Boslooper, Karin; Hoogendoorn, Mels; Joosten, Peter; Beerden, Tim; Storm, Huib; Kibbelaar, Robby E.; Veldhuis, Gerrit J.; van Kamp, Harmen; van Rees, Bastiaan; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; van Roon, Eric N.

    An observational population-based cohort study was performed to investigate the role of comorbidity on outcome and treatment-related toxicity in patients with newly diagnosed advanced-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin,

  16. Comparison of dynamic monitoring strategies based on CD4 cell counts in virally suppressed, HIV-positive individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries: a prospective, observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caniglia, Ellen C.; Cain, Lauren E.; Sabin, Caroline A.; Robins, James M.; Logan, Roger; Abgrall, Sophie; Mugavero, Michael J.; Hernández-Díaz, Sonia; Meyer, Laurence; Seng, Remonie; Drozd, Daniel R.; Seage, George R.; Bonnet, Fabrice; Dabis, Francois; Moore, Richard D.; Reiss, Peter; van Sighem, Ard; Mathews, William C.; del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago; Deeks, Steven G.; Muga, Roberto; Boswell, Stephen L.; Ferrer, Elena; Eron, Joseph J.; Napravnik, Sonia; Jose, Sophie; Phillips, Andrew; Justice, Amy C.; Tate, Janet P.; Gill, John; Pacheco, Antonio; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Bucher, Heiner C.; Egger, Matthias; Furrer, Hansjakob; Porter, Kholoud; Touloumi, Giota; Crane, Heidi; Miro, Jose M.; Sterne, Jonathan A.; Costagliola, Dominique; Saag, Michael; Hernán, Miguel A.


    Background Clinical guidelines vary with respect to the optimal monitoring frequency of HIV-positive individuals. We compared dynamic monitoring strategies based on time-varying CD4 cell counts in virologically suppressed HIV-positive individuals. Methods In this observational study, we used data

  17. Cell-based meniscal tissue engineering: a case for synoviocytes. (United States)

    Fox, Derek B; Warnock, Jennifer J


    Avascular meniscal injuries are largely incapable of healing; the most common treatment remains partial meniscectomy despite the risk of subsequent osteoarthritis. Meniscal responses to injury are partially mediated through synovial activity and strategies have been investigated to encourage healing through stimulating or transplanting adjacent synovial lining. However, with their potential for chondrogenesis, synovial fibroblast-like stem cells hold promise for meniscal cartilage tissue engineering. Thus, specific purposes of this review were to (1) examine how the synovial intima and synoviomeniscal junction affect current meniscal treatment modalities; and (2) examine the components of tissue engineering (cells, scaffolds, bioactive agents, and bioreactors) in the specific context of how cells of synovial origin may be used for meniscal healing or regeneration. An online bibliographic search through PubMed was performed in March 2010. Studies were subjectively evaluated and reviewed if they addressed the question posed. Fifty-four resources were initially retrieved, which offered information on the chondrogenic potential of synovial-based cells that could prove valuable for meniscal fibrocartilage engineering. Based on the positive effects of adjoining synovium on meniscal healing as used in some current treatment modalities, the chondrogenic potential of fibroblast-like stem cells of synovial origin make this cell source a promising candidate for cell-based tissue engineering strategies. The abundance of autologous synovial lining, its ability to regenerate, and the potential of synovial-derived stem cells to produce a wide spectrum of chondral matrix components make it an ideal candidate for future meniscal engineering investigations.

  18. Potential of Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany E. Marei


    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is one of the major health problems worldwide. The only FDA approved anti-thrombotic drug for acute ischemic stroke is the tissue plasminogen activator. Several studies have been devoted to assessing the therapeutic potential of different types of stem cells such as neural stem cells (NSCs, mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived NSCs as treatments for ischemic stroke. The results of these studies are intriguing but many of them have presented conflicting results. Additionally, the mechanism(s by which engrafted stem/progenitor cells exert their actions are to a large extent unknown. In this review, we will provide a synopsis of different preclinical and clinical studies related to the use of stem cell-based stroke therapy, and explore possible beneficial/detrimental outcomes associated with the use of different types of stem cells. Due to limited/short time window implemented in most of the recorded clinical trials about the use of stem cells as potential therapeutic intervention for stroke, further clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of the intervention in a longer time window after cellular engraftments are still needed.

  19. Novel cell-based odorant sensor elements based on insect odorant receptors. (United States)

    Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Namiki, Shigehiro; Mitsuhashi, Hiroyuki; Kanzaki, Ryohei


    Development of cell-based odorant sensor elements combined not only high degree of sensitivity and selectivity but also long-term stability is crucial for their practical applications. Here we report the development of a novel cell-based odorant sensor element that sensitively and selectively detects odorants and displays increased fluorescent intensities over a long period of time. Our odorant sensor elements, based on Sf21 cell lines expressing insect odorant receptors, are sensitive to the level of several tens of parts per billion in solution, can selectively distinguish between different types of odorants based on the odorant selectivity intrinsic to the expressed receptors, and have response times of approximately 13s. Specifically, with the use of Sf21 cells and insect odorant receptors, we demonstrated that the established cell lines stably expressing insect odorant receptors are able to detect odorants with consistent responsiveness for at least 2 months, thus exceeding the short life-span normally associated with cell-based sensors. We also demonstrated the development of a compact odorant sensor chip by integrating the established insect cell lines into a microfluidic chip. The methodology we established in this study, in conjunction with the large repertoire of insect odorant receptors, will aid in the development of practical cell-based odorant sensors for various applications, including food administration and health management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanical behavior of cells within a cell-based model of wheat leaf growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyana Zubairova


    Full Text Available Understanding the principles and mechanisms of cell growth coordination in plant tissue remains an outstanding challenge for modern developmental biology. Cell-based modeling is a widely used technique for studying the geometric and topological features of plant tissue morphology during growth. We developed a quasi-one-dimensional model of unidirectional growth of a tissue layer in a linear leaf blade that takes cell autonomous growth mode into account. The model allows for fitting of the visible cell length using the experimental cell length distribution along the longitudinal axis of a wheat leaf epidermis. Additionally, it describes changes in turgor and osmotic pressures for each cell in the growing tissue. Our numerical experiments show that the pressures in the cell change over the cell cycle, and in symplastically growing tissue, they vary from cell to cell and strongly depend on the leaf growing zone to which the cells belong. Therefore, we believe that the mechanical signals generated by pressures are important to consider in simulations of tissue growth as possible targets for molecular genetic regulators of individual cell growth.

  1. Toxicity studies using mammalian cells and impedance spectroscopy method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Zhang


    Full Text Available This research presents a study of cell-based Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS sensors employed for testing toxicants in real-time. Mammalian cells are exposed to toxicants and information about cell viability are obtained from impedance measurements. The toxicants used are nicotine, phenol, ammonia and aldicarb. Two different adherent mammalian cells lines and cell culturewares were used to optimize the toxicity study. The cell lines used in this study were: bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC and rat fat pad endothelial cells (RFPEC. The BAECs generated higher impedance values and formed cell monolayers at a faster rate compared to RFPECs. The two cell culturewares used in this study were simple open cell-culture wells and enclosed cell culturewares with microfluidic perfusion barriers. Experimental results indicated that the open wells are not suited for toxicity experiments. The turbulent flow created by pipetting media and toxicants in open cell culture wells disrupts the formation of the cell monolayer. When enclosed culture chambers were used, the flow of the cell culture medium and toxicant solutions were laminar on the cell monolayer. Both finite element simulations and experimental results showed that enclosed perfusion chamber have better performance due to the laminar flow of the solutions. The enclosed perfusion chamber also significantly shortens the response time of the cells when exposed to toxicants compared to the open cell culture wells. The experimental results demonstrated that ECIS biosensors seeded with BAECs inside enclosed cell culture chambers successfully assesses the effect of toxicants on mammalian cells in real-time.

  2. Evaluation of a cell phone-based physical activity diary. (United States)

    Sternfeld, Barbara; Jiang, Sheng-Fang; Picchi, Teresa; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Ainsworth, Barbara; Quesenberry, Charles P


    Physical activity (PA) diaries reduce the recall error inherent in self-reported PA but are burdensome. The purpose of this study was to compare a cell phone-based diary with a paper diary and examine the reliability and validity of the cell phone diary. In a pilot study, 25 women and 23 men, age 45-65 yr, completed cell phone and paper PA diaries 4 d·wk(-1) for three consecutive weeks and a user satisfaction survey. In the subsequent validation study, 623 middle-age participants (52.5% women) were asked to complete the cell phone diary and wear an accelerometer for two 7-d periods, approximately 6 months apart. They also completed two PA questionnaires. Fitness, body mass index, and percent body fat were obtained as indirect validation criteria. Estimates of PA from the cell phone and paper diaries were similar (mean within person difference = -43.8 MET·min·d(-1) of total PA, SD = 360, P = 0.49, 7.4 min·d(-1) of moderate-vigorous PA, SD = 66, P = 0.53). Users preferred the cell phone diary over the paper diary (59.6% vs 35.4%). In the subsequent study, intraclass correlations for the cell phone diary ranged from 0.55 for light PA to 0.63 for vigorous PA. Although PA estimates from the cell phone diary were generally significantly higher than those from the accelerometer and the questionnaires, correlations for moderate and vigorous PA were moderate (ρ = 0.25-0.59 with the questionnaires and 0.27-0.35 with the accelerometer). The correlations between the cell phone diary and the indirect validation criteria were generally in the expected direction and of moderate magnitude. A cell phone-based PA diary is equivalent to a paper diary, acceptable to users, and a relatively reliable and valid approach to self-reported PA.

  3. Cell-based therapy for kidney disease


    Chung, Hyun Chul; Ko, In Kap; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J.


    The prevalence of renal disease continues to increase worldwide. When normal kidney is injured, the damaged renal tissue undergoes pathological and physiological events that lead to acute and chronic kidney diseases, which frequently progress to end stage renal failure. Current treatment of these renal pathologies includes dialysis, which is incapable of restoring full renal function. To address this issue, cell-based therapy has become a potential therapeutic option to treat renal pathologie...

  4. Implication for functions of the ectopic adipocyte copper amine oxidase (AOC3 from purified enzyme and cell-based kinetic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam H Shen

    Full Text Available AOC3 is highly expressed in adipocytes and smooth muscle cells, but its function in these cells is currently unknown. The in vivo substrate(s of AOC3 is/are also unknown, but could provide an invaluable clue to the enzyme's function. Expression of untagged, soluble human AOC3 in insect cells provides a relatively simple means of obtaining pure enzyme. Characterization of enzyme indicates a 6% titer for the active site 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone (TPQ cofactor and corrected k(cat values as high as 7 s(-1. Substrate kinetic profiling shows that the enzyme accepts a variety of primary amines with different chemical features, including nonphysiological branched-chain and aliphatic amines, with measured k(cat/K(m values between 10(2 and 10(4 M(-1 s(-1. K(m(O(2 approximates the partial pressure of oxygen found in the interstitial space. Comparison of the properties of purified murine to human enzyme indicates k(cat/K(m values that are within 3 to 4-fold, with the exception of methylamine and aminoacetone that are ca. 10-fold more active with human AOC3. With drug development efforts investigating AOC3 as an anti-inflammatory target, these studies suggest that caution is called for when screening the efficacy of inhibitors designed against human enzymes in non-transgenic mouse models. Differentiated murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes show a uniform distribution of AOC3 on the cell surface and whole cell K(m values that are reasonably close to values measured using purified enzymes. The latter studies support a relevance of the kinetic parameters measured with isolated AOC3 variants to adipocyte function. From our studies, a number of possible substrates with relatively high k(cat/K(m have been discovered, including dopamine and cysteamine, which may implicate a role for adipocyte AOC3 in insulin-signaling and fatty acid metabolism, respectively. Finally, the demonstrated AOC3 turnover of primary amines that are non-native to human tissue suggests

  5. Optimal Live Cell Tracking for Cell Cycle Study Using Time-Lapse Fluorescent Microscopy Images (United States)

    Li, Fuhai; Zhou, Xiaobo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    Cell cycle study using time-lapse fluorescent microscopy images is important for understanding the mechanisms of cell division and screening of anti-cancer drugs. Cell tracking is necessary for quantifying cell behaviors. However, the complex behaviors and similarity of individual cells in a dense population make the cell population tracking challenging. To deal with these challenges, we propose a novel tracking algorithm, in which the local neighboring information is introduced to distinguish the nearby cells with similar morphology, and the Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filter is employed to compensate for cell migrations. Based on a similarity metric, integrating the local neighboring information, migration prediction, shape and intensity, the integer programming is used to achieve the most stable association between cells in two consecutive frames. We evaluated the proposed method on the high content screening assays of HeLa cancer cell populations, and achieved 92% average tracking accuracy.

  6. Fruit based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (United States)

    Ung, M. C.; Sipaut, C. S.; Dayou, J.; Liow, K. S.; Kulip, J.; Mansa, R. F.


    Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) was first discovered in 1991 by O’regan and Gratzel. This new type of solar cell was reported to have lower production cost with efficiency as high as 12% which is comparable to conventional silicon solar cell. Initially, it uses ruthenium dye as light sensitizer for the operation. However, DSSC with ruthenium dyes are facing environment friendly issues due to the toxic chemicals and costly purification in processing ruthenium dye. Regardless of the poor performance in DSSC, natural dyes which are easy to prepare, cheap and environmental friendly still appear to be an alternative as dye sensitizer. In this study, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using anthocyanin source dyes extracted from several local fruits. All the extracts absorb a wide range of the visible light and ultraviolet spectrum. Therefore, all of the natural dyes show light absorption properties which is important for a dye sensitizer. A DSSC is comprised of conductive substrate, nanoporous semiconductor TiO2 layer, dye sensitizer, electrolyte with redox couple and a counter electrode with catalyst. In this study, the effect of different light source and different counter electrode are been investigated. However, it is vital to know that further research need to do more on the locally Borneo sourced dyes to evaluate and enhance their performance in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell.

  7. Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab (United States)

    Mengel, C. E.


    Blood samples from Spacelab crewmembers were studied for possible environment effects on red cell components. Analysis involved peroxidation of red cell lipids, enzymes of red cell metabolism, and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid and adenosine triphosphate. Results show that there is no evidence of lipid peroxidation, that biochemical effect known to be associated with irreversible red cell damage. Changes observed in glycolytic intermediates and enzymes cannot be directly implicated as indicating evidence of red cell damage.

  8. A large-scale (19)F MRI-based cell migration assay to optimize cell therapy. (United States)

    Bonetto, F; Srinivas, M; Weigelin, B; Cruz, L J; Heerschap, A; Friedl, P; Figdor, C G; de Vries, I J M


    Adoptive transfer of cells for therapeutic purposes requires efficient and precise delivery to the target organ whilst preserving cell function. Therefore, therapeutically applied cells need to migrate and integrate within their target tissues after delivery, e.g. dendritic cells (DCs) need to migrate to lymph nodes to elicit an antigen-specific immune response. Previous studies have shown that inappropriate cell delivery can hinder DC migration and result in insufficient immune induction. As migration can be extremely difficult to study quantitatively in vivo, we propose an in vitro assay that reproduces key in vivo conditions to optimize cell delivery and migration in vivo. Using DC migration along a chemokine gradient, we describe here a novel (19)F MR-based, large-scale, quantitative assay to measure cell migration in a three-dimensional collagen scaffold. Unlike conventional migration assays, this set-up is amenable to both large and small cell numbers, as well as opaque tissue samples and the inclusion of chemokines or other factors. We labeled primary human DCs with a (19)F label suitable for clinical use; (0.5-15) × 10(6) cells in the scaffolds were imaged sequentially, and migration was assessed using two independent methods. We found no migration with larger numbers of cells, but up to 3% with less than one million cells. Hence, we show that the cell density in cell bolus injections has a decisive impact on migration, and this may explain the limited migration observed using large cell numbers in the clinic. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Stem Cell-Based Cell Carrier for Targeted Oncolytic Virotherapy: Translational Opportunity and Open Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Kim


    Full Text Available Oncolytic virotherapy for cancer is an innovative therapeutic option where the ability of a virus to promote cell lysis is harnessed and reprogrammed to selectively destroy cancer cells. Such treatment modalities exhibited antitumor activity in preclinical and clinical settings and appear to be well tolerated when tested in clinical trials. However, the clinical success of oncolytic virotherapy has been significantly hampered due to the inability to target systematic metastasis. This is partly due to the inability of the therapeutic virus to survive in the patient circulation, in order to target tumors at distant sites. An early study from various laboratories demonstrated that cells infected with oncolytic virus can protect the therapeutic payload form the host immune system as well as function as factories for virus production and enhance the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic virus. While a variety of cell lineages possessed potential as cell carriers, copious investigation has established stem cells as a very attractive cell carrier system in oncolytic virotherapy. The ideal cell carrier desire to be susceptible to viral infection as well as support viral infection, maintain immunosuppressive properties to shield the loaded viruses from the host immune system, and most importantly possess an intrinsic tumor homing ability to deliver loaded viruses directly to the site of the metastasis—all qualities stem cells exhibit. In this review, we summarize the recent work in the development of stem cell-based carrier for oncolytic virotherapy, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of cell carriers, especially focusing on why stem cells have emerged as the leading candidate, and finally propose a future direction for stem cell-based targeted oncolytic virotherapy that involves its establishment as a viable treatment option for cancer patients in the clinical setting.

  10. High-throughput physically based approach for mammalian cell encapsulation (United States)

    Yu, Jiashing; Wu, Po-Chen; Huang, Chi-Hui; Yang, Chung-Yao; Cheng, Chao-Min


    Herein, we wish to tear down the traditional boundaries between physics and life sciences by demonstrating a physically based, flow-focusing method to encapsulate mammalian cells into alginate-based microspheres in a very short period of time. We paid particular attention to the physical properties of the alginate solution as it was critical to create a physiologically relevant environment within the alginate microspheres. The cells we cultured when re-culturing them on Petri dishes could still be maintained for at least 4 days after microsphere encapsulation. We believe that this study would provide interesting insight in biophysics, polymer physics, and applied physics.

  11. Silicon Based Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jackie Vincent

    The purpose of this project has been to investigate and fabricate small scale Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (μDMFC). They are investigated as a possible alternative for Zinc-air batteries in small size consumer devices such as hearing aids. In such devices the conventional rechargeable batteries...... such as lithium-ion batteries have insufficiently low energy density. Methanol is a promising fuel for such devices due to the high energy density and ease of refueling compared to charging batteries, making μDMFC a suitable replacement energy source. In this Ph.D. dissertation, silicon micro fabrication...... techniques where utilized to build μDMFCs with the purpose of engineering the structures, both on the micro and nano scales in order to realize a high level of control over the membrane and catalyst components. The work presents four different monolithic fuel cell designs. The primary design is based...

  12. Synthesis, characterization of 1,2,4-triazole Schiff base derived 3d-metal complexes: Induces cytotoxicity in HepG2, MCF-7 cell line, BSA binding fluorescence and DFT study. (United States)

    Tyagi, Prateek; Tyagi, Monika; Agrawal, Swati; Chandra, Sulekh; Ojha, Himanshu; Pathak, Mallika


    Two novel Schiff base ligands H2L1 and H2L2 have been synthesized by condensation reaction of amine derivative of 1,2,4-triazole moiety with 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde. Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) of the synthesized Schiff bases were prepared by using a molar ratio of ligand:metal as 1:1. The structure of the Schiff bases and synthesized metal complexes were established by 1H NMR, UV-Vis, IR, Mass spectrometry and molar conductivity. The thermal stability of the complexes was study by TGA. Fluorescence quenching mechanism of metal complexes 1-4 show that Zn(II) and Cu(II) complex binds more strongly to BSA. In DFT studies the geometries of Schiff bases and metal complexes were fully optimized with respect to the energy using the 6-31+g(d,p) basis set. The spectral data shows that the ligands behaves as binegative tridentate. On the basis of the spectral studies, TGA and DFT data an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Co(II), Ni(II), square planar for Cu(II) and tetrahedral for Zn(II) complexes. The anticancer activity were screened against human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (Hep-G2). Result indicates that metal complexes shows increase cytotoxicity in proliferation to cell lines as compared to free ligand. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Migration of dendritic cell based cancer vaccines: in vivo veritas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Gosse J.; de Vries, I. Jolanda M.; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; Figdor, Carl G.


    Ex vivo generated cancer vaccines based on dendritic cells (DCs) are currently applied in the clinic. The migration of DCs from the tissues to the lymph nodes is tightly controlled and involves many different mediators and their receptors. A recent study demonstrated that the rate of migration of

  14. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Prostate Cancer (United States)


    graft versus host disease, inflammatory bowel disease and myocardial infarction in clinical trials. These clinical studies have documented that... myocardial infarction in clinical trials. Conclusions These results document two things. First, the therapeutic agent loaded into hbMSCs must...Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: John Isaacs; Jeffrey Karp

  15. Gene-based outcome prediction in multiple cohorts of pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Children's Oncology Group study (United States)


    Background Continuous complete clinical remission in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is now approaching 80% due to the implementation of aggressive chemotherapy protocols but patients that relapse continue to have a poor prognosis. Such patients could benefit from augmented therapy if their clinical outcome could be more accurately predicted at the time of diagnosis. Gene expression profiling offers the potential to identify additional prognostic markers but has had limited success in generating robust signatures that predict outcome across multiple patient cohorts. This study aimed to identify robust gene classifiers that could be used for the accurate prediction of relapse in independent cohorts and across different experimental platforms. Results Using HG-U133Plus2 microarrays we modeled a five-gene classifier (5-GC) that accurately predicted clinical outcome in a cohort of 50 T-ALL patients. The 5-GC was further tested against three independent cohorts of T-ALL patients, using either qRT-PCR or microarray gene expression, and could predict patients with significantly adverse clinical outcome in each. The 5-GC featured the interleukin-7 receptor (IL-7R), low-expression of which was independently predictive of relapse in T-ALL patients. In T-ALL cell lines, low IL-7R expression was correlated with diminished growth response to IL-7 and enhanced glucocorticoid resistance. Analysis of biological pathways identified the NF-κB and Wnt pathways, and the cell adhesion receptor family (particularly integrins) as being predictive of relapse. Outcome modeling using genes from these pathways identified patients with significantly worse relapse-free survival in each T-ALL cohort. Conclusions We have used two different approaches to identify, for the first time, robust gene signatures that can successfully discriminate relapse and CCR patients at the time of diagnosis across multiple patient cohorts and platforms. Such genes and pathways represent markers for

  16. Graphene-Based Materials for Stem Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyung Kim


    Full Text Available Although graphene and its derivatives have been proven to be suitable for several biomedical applications such as for cancer therapy and biosensing, the use of graphene for stem cell research is a relatively new area that has only recently started to be investigated. For stem cell applications, graphene has been utilized by itself or in combination with other types of materials such as nanoparticles, nanofibers, and polymer scaffolds to take advantage of the several unique properties of graphene, such as the flexibility in size, shape, hydrophilicity, as well as its excellent biocompatibility. In this review, we will highlight a number of previous studies that have investigated the potential of graphene or its derivatives for stem cell applications, with a particular focus on guiding stem cell differentiation into specific lineages (e.g., osteogenesis, neurogenesis, and oligodendrogenesis, promoting stem cell growth, stem cell delivery/transplantation, and effective monitoring of their differentiation. We hope that this review promotes and accelerates the use of graphene-based materials for regenerative therapies, especially for stem cell-based approaches to cure various incurable diseases/disorders such as neurological diseases (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, stroke, spinal cord injuries, bone/cartilage defects, and cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Tumours of histiocytes and accessory dendritic cells : an immunohistochemical approach to classification from the International Lymphoma Study Group based on 61 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pileri, SA; Grogan, TM; Harris, NL; Banks, P; Campo, E; Chan, JKC; Favera, RD; Delsol, G; De Wolf-Peeters, C; Falini, B; Gascoyne, RD; Gaulard, P; Gatter, KC; Isaacson, PG; Jaffe, ES; Kluin, P; Knowles, DM; Mason, DY; Mori, S; Muller-Hermelink, HK; Piris, MA; Ralfkiaer, E; Stein, H; Su, IJ; Warnke, RA; Weiss, LM

    Neoplasms of histiocytes and dendritic cells are rare, and their phenotypic and biological definition is incomplete. Seeking to identify antigens detectable in paraffin-embedded sections that might allow a more complete, rational immunophenotypic classification of histiocytic/dendritic cell

  18. An Open-Circuit Voltage and Power Conversion Efficiency Study of Fullerene Ternary Organic Solar Cells Based on Oligomer/Oligomer and Oligomer/Polymer. (United States)

    Zhang, Guichuan; Zhou, Cheng; Sun, Chen; Jia, Xiaoe; Xu, Baomin; Ying, Lei; Huang, Fei; Cao, Yong


    Variations in the open-circuit voltage (V oc ) of ternary organic solar cells are systematically investigated. The initial study of these devices consists of two electron-donating oligomers, S2 (two units) and S7 (seven units), and the electron-accepting [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC 71 BM) and reveals that the V oc is continuously tunable due to the changing energy of the charge transfer state (E ct ) of the active layers. Further investigation suggests that V oc is also continuously tunable upon change in E ct in a ternary blend system that consists of S2 and its corresponding polymer (P11):PC 71 BM. It is interesting to note that higher power conversion efficiencies can be obtained for both S2:S7:PC 71 BM and S2:P11:PC 71 BM ternary systems compared with their binary systems, which can be ascribed to an improved V oc due to the higher E ct and an improved fill factor due to the improved film morphology upon the incorporation of S2. These findings provide a new guideline for the future design of conjugated polymers for achieving higher performance of ternary organic solar cells. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Sickle cell trait is not associated with chronic kidney disease in adult Congolese patients: a clinic-based, cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Mukendi, K; Lepira, F B; Makulo, J R; Sumaili, K E; Kayembe, P K; Nseka, M N


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the determinants of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with special emphasis on sickle cell trait (SCT). Three hundred and fifty-nine patients (171 men and 188 women), aged 18 years or older, with reduced kidney function (eGFR 0.05) in patients with and without CKD, respectively. In multivariate analysis, sickle cell trait was not significantly (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.559-1.839; p = 0.235) associated with CKD; the main determinants were dipstick proteinuria (OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.094-3.168; p = 0.02), the metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.033-2.965; p = 0.03), haemoblobin ≥ 12 g/dl (OR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.210-0.625; p = 0.001), and personal history of hypertension (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.202-3.892; p = 0.01) and of diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.150-4.454; p = 0.001). SCT was not an independent determinant of CKD in the present case series. Traditional risk factors emerged as the main determinants of CKD.

  20. Cell-Based Therapy for Silicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquéias Lopes-Pacheco


    Full Text Available Silicosis is the most common pneumoconiosis globally, with higher prevalence and incidence in developing countries. To date, there is no effective treatment to halt or reverse the disease progression caused by silica-induced lung injury. Significant advances have to be made in order to reduce morbidity and mortality related to silicosis. In this review, we have highlighted the main mechanisms of action that cause lung damage by silica particles and summarized the data concerning the therapeutic promise of cell-based therapy for silicosis.

  1. Cell-Based Therapy for Silicosis (United States)

    Lopes-Pacheco, Miquéias; Bandeira, Elga; Morales, Marcelo M.


    Silicosis is the most common pneumoconiosis globally, with higher prevalence and incidence in developing countries. To date, there is no effective treatment to halt or reverse the disease progression caused by silica-induced lung injury. Significant advances have to be made in order to reduce morbidity and mortality related to silicosis. In this review, we have highlighted the main mechanisms of action that cause lung damage by silica particles and summarized the data concerning the therapeutic promise of cell-based therapy for silicosis. PMID:27066079

  2. Optimizing cell viability in droplet-based cell deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Jan; Willem Visser, Claas; Henke, Sieger; Leijten, Jeroen; Saris, Daniël B F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241604443; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Karperien, Marcel


    Biofabrication commonly involves the use of liquid droplets to transport cells to the printed structure. However, the viability of the cells after impact is poorly controlled and understood, hampering applications including cell spraying, inkjet bioprinting, and laser-assisted cell transfer. Here,

  3. Review of clinical studies on dendritic cell-based vaccination of patients with malignant melanoma: assessment of correlation between clinical response and vaccine parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Noerregaard, Lotte; Hansen, Troels Holz; Andersen, Mads Hald


    which in the disseminated stage have a very poor prognosis and only limited treatment options with moderate effectiveness. Herein we describe the results of a focused search of recently published clinical studies on dendritic cell vaccination in melanoma and review different vaccine parameters which...... are frequently claimed to have a possible influence on clinical response. These parameters include performance status, type of antigen, DC maturation status, route of vaccine administration, use of adjuvant, and vaccine induced immune response. In total, 38 articles found through Medline search, have been...... = 0.09), and use of autologous antigen preparation (p = 0.12). The categorisation of SD in the response group is debatable. Nevertheless, when the SD group were analysed separately we found that SD was significantly associated with use of peptide antigens (p = 0.0004), use of adjuvant (p = 0...

  4. Studying cell cycle checkpoints using Drosophila cultured cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siudeja, Katarzyna; de Jong, Jannie; Sibon, Ody


    Drosophila cell lines are valuable tools to study a number of cellular processes, including DNA damage responses and cell cycle checkpoint control. Using an in vitro system instead of a whole organism has two main advantages: it saves time and simple and effective molecular techniques are available.

  5. Microfabricated Electrochemical Cell-Based Biosensors for Analysis of Living Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang


    Full Text Available Cellular biochemical parameters can be used to reveal the physiological and functional information of various cells. Due to demonstrated high accuracy and non-invasiveness, electrochemical detection methods have been used for cell-based investigation. When combined with improved biosensor design and advanced measurement systems, the on-line biochemical analysis of living cells in vitro has been applied for biological mechanism study, drug screening and even environmental monitoring. In recent decades, new types of miniaturized electrochemical biosensor are emerging with the development of microfabrication technology. This review aims to give an overview of the microfabricated electrochemical cell-based biosensors, such as microelectrode arrays (MEA, the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS technique, and the light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS. The details in their working principles, measurement systems, and applications in cell monitoring are covered. Driven by the need for high throughput and multi-parameter detection proposed by biomedicine, the development trends of electrochemical cell-based biosensors are also introduced, including newly developed integrated biosensors, and the application of nanotechnology and microfluidic technology.

  6. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak


    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  7. Ionic conductivity studies of epoxidized poly (methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber based gel polymer electrolyte for dye sensitized polymer solar cell (United States)

    Nazir, K.; Aziz, A. F.; Yahya, M. Z. A.; Ali, A. M. M.


    The epoxidized 30% PMMA grafted natural rubber (EMG30) was prepared using performic epoxidation method. 1HNMR studies confirm the appearance of epoxy group at 2.71 ppm in MG30 structure. The highest epoxidation content in EMG30 was used as a polymer host in gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) system. GPE film was prepared using 62.3 mol % EMG30, lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3) and ethylene carbonate (EC). The conductivity of these polymer electrolytes was studied by AC impedance spectroscopy. The highest value was achieved up to 4.83 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 50 wt. % of EC in EMG30-LiCF3SO3 system. The increase in conductivity is associated to the increase of the segmental chain flexibility of the plasticized film indeed increases of the amorphous domain and was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies. These results show that this GPE system is a suitable candidate for use as an electrolyte in dye-sensitized polymer solar cell.

  8. The influence of methanol on the chemical state of PtRu anodes in a high-temperature direct methanol fuel cell studied in situ by synchrotron-based near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (United States)

    Saveleva, Viktoriia A.; Daletou, Maria K.; Savinova, Elena R.


    Synchrotron radiation-based near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) has recently become a powerful tool for the investigation of interfacial phenomena in electrochemical power sources such as batteries and fuel cells. Here we present an in situ NAP-XPS study of the anode of a high-temperature direct methanol fuel cell with a phosphoric acid-doped hydrocarbon membrane, which reveals an enhanced flooding of the Pt3Ru anode with phosphoric acid in the presence of methanol. An analysis of the electrode surface composition depending on the cell voltage and on the presence of methanol reveals the strong influence of the latter on the extent of Pt oxidation and on the transformation of Ru into Ru (IV) hydroxide.

  9. Atomic force microscopy study of the antigen-antibody binding force on patient cancer cells based on ROR1 fluorescence recognition. (United States)

    Li, Mi; Xiao, Xiubin; Liu, Lianqing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao; Dong, Zaili; Zhang, Weijing


    Knowledge of drug-target interaction is critical to our understanding of drug action and can help design better drugs. Due to the lack of adequate single-molecule techniques, the information of individual interactions between ligand-receptors is scarce until the advent of atomic force microscopy (AFM) that can be used to directly measure the individual ligand-receptor forces under near-physiological conditions by linking ligands onto the surface of the AFM tip and then obtaining force curves on cells. Most of the current AFM single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments were performed on cells grown in vitro (cell lines) that are quite different from the human cells in vivo. From the view of clinical practice, investigating the drug-target interactions directly on the patient cancer cells will bring more valuable knowledge that may potentially serve as an important parameter in personalized treatment. Here, we demonstrate the capability of AFM to measure the binding force between target (CD20) and drug (rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody targeted drug) directly on lymphoma patient cancer cells under the assistance of ROR1 fluorescence recognition. ROR1 is a receptor expressed on some B-cell lymphomas but not on normal cells. First, B-cell lymphoma Raji cells (a cell line) were used for ROR1 fluorescence labeling and subsequent measurement of CD20-rituximab binding force. The results showed that Raji cells expressed ROR1, and the labeling of ROR1 did not influence the measurement of CD20-rituximab binding force. Then the established experimental procedures were performed on the pathological samples prepared from the bone marrow of a follicular lymphoma patient. Cancer cells were recognized by ROR1 fluorescence. Under the guidance of fluorescence, with the use of a rituximab-conjugated tip, the cellular topography was visualized by using AFM imaging and the CD20-Rituximab binding force was measured by single-molecule force spectroscopy. Copyright © 2013

  10. Spatial organization of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro--results from a new individual cell-based model with podia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Therapeutic application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC requires their extensive in vitro expansion. MSC in culture typically grow to confluence within a few weeks. They show spindle-shaped fibroblastoid morphology and align to each other in characteristic spatial patterns at high cell density. We present an individual cell-based model (IBM that is able to quantitatively describe the spatio-temporal organization of MSC in culture. Our model substantially improves on previous models by explicitly representing cell podia and their dynamics. It employs podia-generated forces for cell movement and adjusts cell behavior in response to cell density. At the same time, it is simple enough to simulate thousands of cells with reasonable computational effort. Experimental sheep MSC cultures were monitored under standard conditions. Automated image analysis was used to determine the location and orientation of individual cells. Our simulations quantitatively reproduced the observed growth dynamics and cell-cell alignment assuming cell density-dependent proliferation, migration, and morphology. In addition to cell growth on plain substrates our model captured cell alignment on micro-structured surfaces. We propose a specific surface micro-structure that according to our simulations can substantially enlarge cell culture harvest. The 'tool box' of cell migratory behavior newly introduced in this study significantly enhances the bandwidth of IBM. Our approach is capable of accommodating individual cell behavior and collective cell dynamics of a variety of cell types and tissues in computational systems biology.

  11. Comparing human T cell and NK cell responses in viral-based malaria vaccine trials. (United States)

    Berthoud, Tamara K; Fletcher, Helen; Porter, David; Thompson, Fiona; Hill, Adrian V S; Todryk, Stephen M


    Vaccination with viral-based vaccines continues to hold promise for the prevention of malaria. Whilst antigen-specific T cell responses are considered a major aim of such an approach, a role for induced NK cells as anti-malarial effector cells, or in shaping T cell responses, has received less attention. In this study naïve human volunteers were vaccinated in a prime-boost vaccination regimen comprising recombinant viral vectors fowlpox (FP9) and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) encoding liver-stage antigens, or a virosome vaccine. Significant T cell responses specific for the vectored vaccine antigens were demonstrated by IFNgamma ELISPOT and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) for IFNgamma and IL-2, the ICS being associated with increased time to parasitaemia following subsequent challenge. Numbers of CD56(bright) lymphocytes increased significantly following vaccination, as did CD3(+) CD56(+) lymphocytes, whilst CD56(dim) cells did not. No such increases were seen with the virosome vaccine. There was no significant correlation of these CD56(+) populations with the antigen-specific T cell responses nor time to parasitaemia. To investigate pathways of immune activation that could contribute to these lymphocyte responses, viral vectors were shown in vitro to efficiently infect APCs but not lymphocytes, and stimulated inflammatory cytokines such as type I interferons. In conclusion, measuring antigen-specific T cells is more meaningful than NK cells in these vaccination regimens.

  12. Neuroendocrine Merkel cell carcinoma is associated with mutations in key DNA repair, epigenetic and apoptosis pathways: a case-based study using targeted massively parallel sequencing. (United States)

    Graves, Christian A; Jones, Ashley; Reynolds, Justin; Stuart, Jeremy; Pirisi, Lucia; Botrous, Peter; Wells, James


    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare neuroendocrine carcinoma with a poorly understood molecular etiology. We implemented a comprehensive deep sequencing approach to identify mutations in the tumor DNA from a cohort of patients treated at our institution over the past 15 years. Our results indicate mutations that may constitute therapeutic targets in MCC. Five patients were treated for MCC within the study interval. Patients with adequate tissue (n = 4), positive neuroendocrine differentiation (chromogranin, synaptophysin, and cytokeratin 20), and histopathological confirmation of MCC were included in the study. DNA was extracted from archival tumor tissue samples and analyzed by massively parallel sequencing using a targeted, multiplex PCR approach followed by semiconductor sequencing. We demonstrate high-penetrance nonsense mutations in PDE4DIP (n = 4) as well as various missense mutations in the DNA damage response (PRKDC, AURKB, ERCC5, ATR, and ATRX) and epigenetic modulating enzymes (MLL3). We describe several mutations in potential disease-relevant genes and pathways. These targets should be evaluated in a larger cohort to determine their role in the molecular pathogenesis of MCC. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Polarization-based non-staining cell detection. (United States)

    Zhang, M; Ihida-Stansbury, K; Van der Spiegel, J; Engheta, N


    Polarization is an important characteristic of electromagnetic waves, which can not be detected by either the human visual system or traditional image sensors. Motivated by various animal species with polarization vision as well as by the prospect of improving the image quality of the imaging systems, we are exploring the potential of polarization for microscope imaging. The most powerful techniques for molecule monitoring requires complex preprocessing for labeling the sample with different dyes. In this paper, we propose a cell detection method using polarization imaging without any need for staining target cell samples with any chemical dye. The motivation for this work is to develop an optical imaging technique that is simple and that can be used on live cells. The polarization sensitivity of cell samples is studied in this paper. A definition for the quantity called "polarization deviation" is proposed in order to identify clearer the difference between target cells and the background. Based on the polarization deviation detection method, a three-parameter polarization imaging method is employed to further simplify the image capture procedure for the proposed label-free cell detection. A color imaging methodology based on the well-known color space is utilized in order to represent the captured polarization information using computer graphics.

  14. In-silico study of small cell lung cancer based on protein structure and function: A new approach to mimic biological system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Sood


    Full Text Available Lung cancer being the most common disease worldwide that leads to a number of deaths. A huge amount of effort has been done in screening trials for early diagnose treatment which increases the disease-free survival rate. Based on the expression of protein of mouse double minute 2 and tumor protein 53 complex, we have identified the antagonist for this complex that would facilitate the treatment for specific lung cancer. It is a complex disease that involves vast investigation for the characterization of a lung cancer and thus, computational study is being developed to mimic the in vivo system. In this work, a computational process was employed for the identification of these proteins, with a short and simple method to discover protein-protein interactions. Moreover, these proteins have more similarities in their function with the known cancer proteins as compared to those identified from the protein expression specific profiles. A new method that utilizes experimental information to improve the extent of numerical calculations based on free energy profiles from molecular dynamics simulation. The experimental information guides the simulation along relevant pathways and decreases overall computational time. This method introduces umbrella sampling simulations. A new technique umbrella sampling is described where the high efficacy100 of this technique enables uniform sampling with several degrees of freedom. Here, we review the protein interactions techniques and we focus on main concepts in the molecular of in-silico study in lung cancer. This study recruiting new methods proved the efficiency and showed good results.

  15. Transfer between hospitals as a predictor of delay in diagnosis and treatment of patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer - a register based cohort-study. (United States)

    Iachina, Maria; Jakobsen, Erik; Fallesen, Anne Kudsk; Green, Anders


    Lung cancer is the second most frequent cancer diagnosis in Denmark. Although improved during the last decade, the prognosis of lung cancer is still poor with an overall 5-year survival rate of approximately 12%. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer has been suggested as a potential cause of the poor prognosis and as consequence, fast track cancer care pathways were implemented describing maximum acceptable time thresholds from referral to treatment. In Denmark, patients with lung cancer are often transferred between hospitals with diagnostic facilities to hospitals with treatment facilities during the care pathway. We wanted to investigate whether this organizational set-up influenced the time that patients wait for the diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, the objective of this study was to uncover the impact of transfer between hospitals on the delay in the diagnosis and treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). We performed a historical prospective cohort study using data from the Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR). All patients diagnosed with primary NSCLC from January 1st 2008 to December 31st 2012 were included. Patients with unresolved pathology and incomplete data on the dates of referral, diagnosis and treatment were excluded. A total of 11 273 patients were included for further analyses. Transfer patients waited longer for treatment after the diagnosis, (Hazard ratio (HR) 0.81 (0.68-0.96)) and in total time from referral to treatment (HR 0.84 (0.77-0.92)), than no-transfer patients. Transfer patients had lower odds of being diagnosed (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.82 (0.74-0.94) and treated (OR 0.66 (0.61-0.72) within the acceptable time thresholds described in the care pathway. Fast track cancer care pathways were implemented to unify and accelerate the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. We found that the transfer between hospitals during the care pathway might cause delay from diagnosis to treatment as well as in the total time from referral to

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW: Stem cells engineering for cell-based therapy (United States)

    Taupin, Philippe


    Stem cells carry the promise to cure a broad range of diseases and injuries, from diabetes, heart and muscular diseases, to neurological diseases, disorders and injuries. Significant progresses have been made in stem cell research over the past decade; the derivation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from human tissues, the development of cloning technology by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and the confirmation that neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian brain and that neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in the adult central nervous system (CNS), including that of humans. Despite these advances, there may be decades before stem cell research will translate into therapy. Stem cell research is also subject to ethical and political debates, controversies and legislation, which slow its progress. Cell engineering has proven successful in bringing genetic research to therapy. In this review, I will review, in two examples, how investigators are applying cell engineering to stem cell biology to circumvent stem cells' ethical and political constraints and bolster stem cell research and therapy.

  17. Stem cells engineering for cell-based therapy. (United States)

    Taupin, Philippe


    Stem cells carry the promise to cure a broad range of diseases and injuries, from diabetes, heart and muscular diseases, to neurological diseases, disorders and injuries. Significant progresses have been made in stem cell research over the past decade; the derivation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from human tissues, the development of cloning technology by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and the confirmation that neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian brain and that neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in the adult central nervous system (CNS), including that of humans. Despite these advances, there may be decades before stem cell research will translate into therapy. Stem cell research is also subject to ethical and political debates, controversies and legislation, which slow its progress. Cell engineering has proven successful in bringing genetic research to therapy. In this review, I will review, in two examples, how investigators are applying cell engineering to stem cell biology to circumvent stem cells' ethical and political constraints and bolster stem cell research and therapy.

  18. Serum levels of chemical elements in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Anyang, China: a case-control study based on machine learning methods. (United States)

    Lin, Tong; Liu, Tiebing; Lin, Yucheng; Zhang, Chaoting; Yan, Lailai; Chen, Zhongxue; He, Zhonghu; Wang, Jingyu


    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant form of esophageal carcinoma with extremely aggressive nature and low survival rate. The risk factors for ESCC in the high-incidence areas of China remain unclear. We used machine learning methods to investigate whether there was an association between the alterations of serum levels of certain chemical elements and ESCC. Primary healthcare unit in Anyang city, Henan Province of China. 100 patients with ESCC and 100 healthy controls matched for age, sex and region were included. Primary outcome was the classification accuracy. Secondary outcome was the p Value of the t-test or rank-sum test. Both traditional statistical methods of t-test and rank-sum test and fashionable machine learning approaches were employed. Random Forest achieves the best accuracy of 98.38% on the original feature vectors (without dimensionality reduction), and support vector machine outperforms other classifiers by yielding accuracy of 96.56% on embedding spaces (with dimensionality reduction). All six classifiers can achieve accuracies more than 90% based on the single most important element Sr. The other two elements with distinctive difference are S and P, providing accuracies around 80%. More than half of chemical elements were found to be significantly different between patients with ESCC and the controls. These results suggest clear differences between patients with ESCC and controls, implying some potential promising applications in diagnosis, prognosis, pharmacy and nutrition of ESCC. However, the results should be interpreted with caution due to the retrospective design nature, limited sample size and the lack of several potential confounding factors (including obesity, nutritional status, and fruit and vegetable consumption and potential regional carcinogen contacts). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  19. Relationship between cell-mediated immunity to Varicella-Zoster virus and aging in subjects from the community-based Shozu Herpes Zoster study. (United States)

    Shirane, Risako; Tang, Huamin; Hayashi, Kenichi; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Mori, Yasuko


    Age-related declines in cell-mediated immunity (CMI) are associated with the incidence and severity of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection. However, the level of Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV)-specific CMI associated with disease onset is unclear. This study aimed to examine factors associated with VZV-specific CMI, as measured by an interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay, in a Japanese cohort. The study enrolled 365 subjects aged 60 years and over, all of whom were taking part in the Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) study and had undergone four sets of blood and intradermal reaction tests during a 3 year follow-up period. The VZV-specific immunity profile of each subject was assessed, and linear mixed effects models were constructed to analyze IFN-γ ELISPOT results in association with a combination of factors. The model that best explained the IFN-γ ELISPOT results was selected using the Akaike Information Criteria. The best-fit model consisted of age group as the only explanatory fixed-effect variable. The model showed that VZV-specific CMI, quantified as numbers of spots on the ELISPOT assay, among subjects aged 70-79 was on average 10.30 points lower than that among subjects aged 60-69. There was no statistically significant difference between subjects aged 70-79 and those aged 80-89. Age was the only factor significantly associated with the level of VZV-specific CMI, as measured by the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. These results may represent an important step towards quantifying the relationship between VZV-specific CMI and the onset of HZ. J. Med. Virol. 89:313-317, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Evidence based demonstration of the concept of 'field cancerization' by p53 expression in mirror image biopsies of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma - an immunohistochemical study. (United States)

    Hande, Alka H; Mohite, Deepali P; Chaudhary, Minal S; Patel, Mimansha; Agarwal, Priyanka; Bohra, Shruti


    The main rationale for treatment failure and death of the patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is loco-regional recurrence, development of second primary tumor (SPT) and metastasis, which could be well explained by concept of field cancerization. Identification of patients at high risk for development of SPT is an important part of research for cancer management. This study was designed keeping this aspect in mind and utilizing the increased expression of p53 as an indicator of existence of altered fields in mirror image biopsies of OSCC patients. Forty clinically diagnosed oral cancer patients were included in the study. Biopsy tissue samples from clinically diagnosed oral cancer patients (Group A) and the mirror image, clinically normal looking mucosa at corresponding contralateral anatomical site (Group B) were studied for histopathological evaluation and p53 immunoexpression. Tissue alterations were observed in Groups A and B. There was statistically significant (chi-square value - 126.6, p=0.0001) difference in grades of epithelial dysplasia and p53 immunoexpression in Group B. Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient shows non-significant positive correlation between epithelial dysplasia and p53 (r=0.28, p=0.05) in Group B. Evidence of presence of field cancerization, evaluated by histopathological alterations and enhanced p53 expression was observed in mirror image biopsies of OSCC patients. This could predict the altered state of oral mucosa secondary to carcinogen exposure. The realization of a genetically altered field as a cancer risk factor provides a new paradigm. It would be prudent to keep these patients under close observation and to advice them chemotherapeutic regimes.

  1. Sensitizers for Aqueous-Based Solar Cells. (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ting; Lin, Ryan Yeh-Yung; Lin, Jiann T


    Aqueous dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are attractive due to their sustainability, the use of water as a safe solvent for the redox mediators, and their possible applications in photoelectrochemical water splitting. However, the higher tendency of dye leaching by water and the lower wettability of dye molecules are two major obstacles that need to be tackled for future applications of aqueous DSSCs. Sensitizers designed for aqueous DSSCs are discussed based on their functions, such as modification of the molecular skeleton and the anchoring group for better stability against dye leaching by water, and the incorporation of hydrophilic entities into the dye molecule or the addition of a surfactant to the system to increase the wettability of the dye for more facile dye regeneration. Surface treatment of the photoanode to deter dye leaching or improve the wettability of the dye molecule is also discussed. Redox mediators designed for aqueous DSSCs are also discussed. The review also includes quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells, with a focus on improvements in QD loading and suppression of interfacial charge recombination at the photoanode. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Influence of nanotopography on periodontal ligament stem cell functions and cell sheet based periodontal regeneration. (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Li, Bei; Zhao, Lingzhou; Jin, Yan


    Periodontal regeneration is an important part of regenerative medicine, with great clinical significance; however, the effects of nanotopography on the functions of periodontal ligament (PDL) stem cells (PDLSCs) and on PDLSC sheet based periodontal regeneration have never been explored. Titania nanotubes (NTs) layered on titanium (Ti) provide a good platform to study this. In the current study, the influence of NTs of different tube size on the functions of PDLSCs was observed. Afterward, an ectopic implantation model using a Ti/cell sheets/hydroxyapatite (HA) complex was applied to study the effect of the NTs on cell sheet based periodontal regeneration. The NTs were able to enhance the initial PDLSC adhesion and spread, as well as collagen secretion. With the Ti/cell sheets/HA complex model, it was demonstrated that the PDLSC sheets were capable of regenerating the PDL tissue, when combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) sheets and HA, without the need for extra soluble chemical cues. Simultaneously, the NTs improved the periodontal regeneration result of the ectopically implanted Ti/cell sheets/HA complex, giving rise to functionally aligned collagen fiber bundles. Specifically, much denser collagen fibers, with abundant blood vessels as well as cementum-like tissue on the Ti surface, which well-resembled the structure of natural PDL, were observed in the NT5 and NT10 sample groups. Our study provides the first evidence that the nanotopographical cues obviously influence the functions of PDLSCs and improve the PDLSC sheet based periodontal regeneration size dependently, which provides new insight to the periodontal regeneration. The Ti/cell sheets/HA complex may constitute a good model to predict the effect of biomaterials on periodontal regeneration.

  3. Study of wurtzite and zincblende GaN/InN based solar cells alloys: First-principles investigation within the improved modified Becke-Johnson potential

    KAUST Repository

    Ul Haq, Bakhtiar


    Wurtzite GaInN alloys with flexible energy gaps are pronounced for their potential applications in optoelectronics and solar cell technology. Recently the unwanted built-in fields caused by spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric effects in wurtzite (WZ) GaInN, has turned the focus towards zinc-blende (ZB) GaInN alloys. To comprehend merits and demerits of GaInN alloys in WZ and ZB structures, we performed a comparative study of the structural, electronic and optical properties of Ga1-xInxN alloys with different In concentration using first-principles methodology with density function theory with generalized gradient approximations (GGA) and modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential. Investigations pertaining to total energy of GaInN for the both phases, demonstrate a marginal difference, reflecting nearly equivalent stability of the ZB-GaInN to WZ-GaInN. The larger ionic radii of indium (In), result in larger values of lattice parameters of Ga1-xInxN with higher In concentration. For In deficient Ga1-xInxN, at first, the formation enthalpies increase rapidly as the In content approaches to 45% in WZ and 47% in ZB, and then decreases with the further increase in In concentration. ZB-Ga1-xInxN alloys exhibit comparatively narrower energy gaps than WZ, and get smaller with increase in In contents. The smaller values of effective masses of free carriers, in WZ phase, than ZB phase, reflect higher carrier mobility and electrical conductivity of WZ-Ga1-xInxN. Moreover wide energy gap of WZ-Ga1-xInxN results in large values of the absorption coefficients comparatively and smaller static refractive indices compared to ZB-Ga1-xInxN. Comparable electronic and optical characteristics of the ZB-Ga1-xInxN to WZ-Ga1-xInxN endorses it a material of choice for optoelectronics and solar cell applications besides the WZ-Ga1-xInxN. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Studying cell biology in the skin. (United States)

    Morrow, Angel; Lechler, Terry


    Advances in cell biology have often been driven by studies in diverse organisms and cell types. Although there are technical reasons for why different cell types are used, there are also important physiological reasons. For example, ultrastructural studies of vesicle transport were aided by the use of professional secretory cell types. The use of tissues/primary cells has the advantage not only of using cells that are adapted to the use of certain cell biological machinery, but also of highlighting the physiological roles of this machinery. Here we discuss advantages of the skin as a model system. We discuss both advances in cell biology that used the skin as a driving force and future prospects for use of the skin to understand basic cell biology. A unique combination of characteristics and tools makes the skin a useful in vivo model system for many cell biologists. © 2015 Morrow and Lechler. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (

  5. Alginate-based microencapsulation of retinal pigment epithelial cell line for cell therapy. (United States)

    Wikström, Jonna; Elomaa, Matti; Syväjärvi, Heli; Kuokkanen, Johanna; Yliperttula, Marjo; Honkakoski, Paavo; Urtti, Arto


    The goals of this study were to evaluate human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) for cell encapsulation and to optimize the alginate-based microencapsulation. We used immortalized ARPE-19 cells and the transfected sub-line that expresses secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter enzyme. Alginate was cross-linked with different divalent cations (Ca(2+), Ba(2+), Sr(2+) and combination of Ca(2+) and Ba(2+)), coated first with poly-l-lysine (PLL), and then with alginate. Microcapsules with different pore sizes and stability were generated. The pore size of the microcapsules was assessed by the release of encapsulated fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextrans. The viability of the cells in the microcapsules was studied in vitro by assessing the secretion rates of SEAP and oxygen consumption by the cells. The best microcapsule morphology, durability and cellular viability were obtained with alginate microcapsules that were cross-linked with Ca(2+) and Ba(2+) ions and then coated with PLL and alginate. Based on FITC-dextran release these microcapsules have porous wall that enables the rapid contents release. The ARPE-19 cells maintained viability in the Ca(2+) and Ba(2+) cross-linked microcapsules for at least 110 days. The alginate microcapsules cross-linked with Ca(2+) and Ba(2+) have sufficiently large pore size for prolonged cell viability and for the release of secreted SEAP model protein (Mw 50 kDa; radius of gyration of 3 nm). ARPE-19 cells show long-term viability and protein secretion within alginate microcapsules cross-linked with Ca(2+) and Ba(2+). This combination may be useful in cell therapy.

  6. Stem cells in dentistry: A study regarding awareness of stem cells among dental professionals. (United States)

    Chitroda, Parita K; Katti, Girish; Attar, Nikhat M; Shahbaz, Syed; Sreenivasarao, G; Patil, Ambika


    Dental stem cell, a type of adult stem cell, exhibits multipotent differentiation capacity and is drawing worldwide attention because of its numerous applications. The advances in applications of dental stem cells seem to be unsurpassed in the near future, for which specialized skills and knowledge in this arena are of prime significance. Hence, there is a need to acquire more knowledge about dental stem cells to obtain maximum benefits from it in the coming years. Dental stem cells in India are still at the budding stage, and there seems to be limited awareness regarding dental stem cells. This study aimed to assess the awareness of stem cells among the dental professionals. The present study was a questionnaire-based study of dental professionals (MDS, BDS, postgraduates, and interns) of three different institutions. Results showed that 95.2% of dental professionals are aware of the terminology dental stem cells and 53.9% of them are aware of various applications of dental stem cells. Chi-square test showed a significant correlation between the sources of information, source of dental stem cells, and clinical applications in relation to the academic qualification of the dental professionals. This study revealed a good level of awareness among the dental professionals, and it also showed the need to spread more knowledge about the advances in applications, storage, banking, and guidelines related to dental stem cells.

  7. Effect of full flavor and denicotinized cigarettes exposure on the brain microvascular endothelium: a microarray-based gene expression study using a human immortalized BBB endothelial cell line. (United States)

    Naik, Pooja; Sajja, Ravi K; Prasad, Shikha; Cucullo, Luca


    Tobacco smoke (TS) toxicity to the brain microvasculature is still an understudied area till date. NF-E2 related factor (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor responsible for activating the antioxidant response element (ARE) genes following an oxidative insult. Till date, several studies targeting the blood brain barrier (BBB) have shown some protective role of Nrf2 in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, however, its functional role in chronic smokers subjected to a life-long oxidative stress has never been addressed. This is of crucial importance since smokers have a much higher risk for cerebrovascular stroke and tobacco smoke exposure has been clearly shown to enhance BBB damage following an ischemia/reperfusion injury. Thus, the goal of our study was to investigate the defense pathways activated at the BBB endothelial level by TS exposure. Specifically we focused on Nrf2 and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B signaling response (NF-κβ) as the central protective mechanisms related to oxidative insult. With the exception of Nicotine, both full flavor (3R4F) and decotinized (ULN) cigarettes activated Nrf2 and NFκβ pathways in hCMEC/D3 endothelial cells. Several detoxification and anti-oxidant genes including downstream products were also activated including NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 (NQO-1), heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX-1), catalytic and modifier subunits of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), solute carrier-SLC7A11). Gene expression levels of cytochrome P450s (CYP2S1 and CYP51A1) and efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multi-drug resistance protein-4 (MRP4) were also enhanced. Increase of P-gp functional activity and depletion of GSH were also observed. Strikingly, toxicity of denicotinized ("reduced exposure") cigarettes was equivalent to 3R4F (or worse). This study provides a detailed analysis of Nrf2-related cytoprotective mechanisms activated in response to 3R4F and ULN-derived TS exposure correlating the results with their

  8. Targeting Colorectal Cancer Proliferation, Stemness and Metastatic Potential Using Brassicaceae Extracts Enriched in Isothiocyanates: A 3D Cell Model-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucília P. Pereira


    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC recurrence is often attributable to circulating tumor cells and/or cancer stem cells (CSCs that resist to conventional therapies and foster tumor progression. Isothiocyanates (ITCs derived from Brassicaceae vegetables have demonstrated anticancer effects in CRC, however little is known about their effect in CSCs and tumor initiation properties. Here we examined the effect of ITCs-enriched Brassicaceae extracts derived from watercress and broccoli in cell proliferation, CSC phenotype and metastasis using a previously developed three-dimensional HT29 cell model with CSC-like traits. Both extracts were phytochemically characterized and their antiproliferative effect in HT29 monolayers was explored. Next, we performed cell proliferation assays and flow cytometry analysis in HT29 spheroids treated with watercress and broccoli extracts and respective main ITCs, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC and sulforaphane (SFN. Soft agar assays and relative quantitative expression analysis of stemness markers and Wnt/β-catenin signaling players were performed to evaluate the effect of these phytochemicals in stemness and metastasis. Our results showed that both Brassicaceae extracts and ITCs exert antiproliferative effects in HT29 spheroids, arresting cell cycle at G2/M, possibly due to ITC-induced DNA damage. Colony formation and expression of LGR5 and CD133 cancer stemness markers were significantly reduced. Only watercress extract and PEITC decreased ALDH1 activity in a dose-dependent manner, as well as β-catenin expression. Our research provides new insights on CRC therapy using ITC-enriched Brassicaceae extracts, specially watercress extract, to target CSCs and circulating tumor cells by impairing cell proliferation, ALDH1-mediated chemo-resistance, anoikis evasion, self-renewal and metastatic potential.

  9. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Polymer–electrolyte fuel cells; fuel cell-based automobiles; fuel cell vehicles; internal-combustion engine vehicles; direct methanol fuel cells. 1. Introduction. In the late 1890s, at the dawn of the automobile era, steam, gasoline and electric vehicles all competed to become the dominant automobile technology. By the.

  10. Clinical responses in patients with advanced colorectal cancer to a dendritic cell based vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Stefan K; Fischer, Anders; Myschetzky, Peter S


    Patients with disseminated colorectal cancer have a poor prognosis. Preliminary studies have shown encouraging results from vaccines based on dendritic cells. The aim of this phase II study was to evaluate the effect of treating patients with advanced colorectal cancer with a cancer vaccine based...... on dendritic cells pulsed with an allogenic tumor cell lysate. Twenty patients with advanced colorectal cancer were consecutively enrolled. Dendritic cells (DC) were generated from autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells and pulsed with allogenic tumor cell lysate containing high levels of cancer...

  11. Capillary-based micro-battery cell for in situ X-ray powder diffraction studies of working batteries: a study of the initial intercalation and deintercalation of lithium into graphite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Rune; Norby, Poul


    to obtain diffraction from a single electrode at a time, which facilitates detailed structural and microstructural studies of the electrode materials. The micro-battery cell is potentially also applicable for in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy and smallangle X-ray scattering experiments. The in situ XRPD...

  12. Neural Cell Chip Based Electrochemical Detection of Nanotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Kafi


    Full Text Available Development of a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective method for toxicity assessment of commonly used nanoparticles is urgently needed for the sustainable development of nanotechnology. A neural cell with high sensitivity and conductivity has become a potential candidate for a cell chip to investigate toxicity of environmental influences. A neural cell immobilized on a conductive surface has become a potential tool for the assessment of nanotoxicity based on electrochemical methods. The effective electrochemical monitoring largely depends on the adequate attachment of a neural cell on the chip surfaces. Recently, establishment of integrin receptor specific ligand molecules arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD or its several modifications RGD-Multi Armed Peptide terminated with cysteine (RGD-MAP-C, C(RGD4 ensure farm attachment of neural cell on the electrode surfaces either in their two dimensional (dot or three dimensional (rod or pillar like nano-scale arrangement. A three dimensional RGD modified electrode surface has been proven to be more suitable for cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation as well as electrochemical measurement. This review discusses fabrication as well as electrochemical measurements of neural cell chip with particular emphasis on their use for nanotoxicity assessments sequentially since inception to date. Successful monitoring of quantum dot (QD, graphene oxide (GO and cosmetic compound toxicity using the newly developed neural cell chip were discussed here as a case study. This review recommended that a neural cell chip established on a nanostructured ligand modified conductive surface can be a potential tool for the toxicity assessments of newly developed nanomaterials prior to their use on biology or biomedical technologies.

  13. Diffusion Based Chemical Extraction from Cell Suspensions in Microchannels (United States)

    Longmire, Ellen; Mata, Clara; Fleming, Katie; Hubel, Allison


    Diffusion-based extraction of the cryoprotective agent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) from blood suspensions offers distinct advantages over centrifugation, the conventional method of DMSO removal, most importantly, potential reductions in cell losses. To demonstrate diffusion-based extraction, laminar flows of two parallel streams, a cell suspension containing DMSO and a wash stream, were characterized experimentally. The streams entered a rectangular channel (500 μm x 25 mm x 125 mm) through opposing ports, and the transport of DMSO across the depth was studied as a function of cell suspension flow rate fraction and Peclet number (Pe). Visualization and concentration measurements were performed in the range 1000 < Pe < 10000 (1 < Re < 10). Measured concentration values in the outlet cell and wash streams matched closely with predictions from continuum simulations. Further, for appropriate suspension flow rates and flow rate fractions, cell recovery rates were very high, ˜95%. The results suggest that diffusion methods are viable for processing of clinical-scale suspension volumes.

  14. Yeast cell-based analysis of human lactate dehydrogenase isoforms. (United States)

    Mohamed, Lulu Ahmed; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki; Gao, Xiao-Dong; Nakanishi, Hideki


    Human lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) has attracted attention as a potential target for cancer therapy and contraception. In this study, we reconstituted human lactic acid fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with the goal of constructing a yeast cell-based LDH assay system. pdc null mutant yeast (mutated in the endogenous pyruvate decarboxylase genes) are unable to perform alcoholic fermentation; when grown in the presence of an electron transport chain inhibitor, pdc null strains exhibit a growth defect. We found that introduction of the human gene encoding LDHA complemented the pdc growth defect; this complementation depended on LDHA catalytic activity. Similarly, introduction of the human LDHC complemented the pdc growth defect, even though LDHC did not generate lactate at the levels seen with LDHA. In contrast, the human LDHB did not complement the yeast pdc null mutant, although LDHB did generate lactate in yeast cells. Expression of LDHB as a red fluorescent protein (RFP) fusion yielded blebs in yeast, whereas LDHA-RFP and LDHC-RFP fusion proteins exhibited cytosolic distribution. Thus, LDHB exhibits several unique features when expressed in yeast cells. Because yeast cells are amenable to genetic analysis and cell-based high-throughput screening, our pdc/LDH strains are expected to be of use for versatile analyses of human LDH. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Dendritic cell-based vaccine efficacy: aiming for hot spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Andrea Pizzurro


    Full Text Available Many approaches for cancer immunotherapy have targeted dendritic cells (DC, directly or indirectly, for the induction of antitumor immune responses. DC-based vaccines have been developed using a wide variety of ex vivo DC culture conditions, antigen source and loading strategies, maturation agents and routes of vaccination. Adjuvants are used to activate innate immune cells at the vaccine injection site, to promote antigen transport to the draining lymph nodes (LNs and to model adaptive immune responses. Despite years of effort, the effective induction of strong and durable antitumor T cell responses in vaccinated patients remains a challenge. The study of vaccine interactions with other immune cells in the LNs and, more recently, in the injection site has opened new doors for understanding antitumor effector T cell licensing and function. In this review, we will briefly discuss the relevant sites and up-to-date facts regarding possible targets for antitumor vaccine refinement. We will focus on the processes taking place at the injection site, adjuvant combinations and their role in DC-based vaccines LN homing and modeling vaccine-induced immune responses capable of controlling tumor growth and generating immune memory.

  16. An electromagnetic cell-stretching device for mechanotransduction studies of olfactory ensheathing cells. (United States)

    Harshad, Kamble; Jun, Myeongjun; Park, Sungsu; Barton, Matthew J; Vadivelu, Raja K; St John, James; Nguyen, Nam-Trung


    Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are primary candidates for cell transplantation therapy to repair spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the post transplantation survival of these cells remains a major hurdle for a success using this therapy. Mechanical stimuli may contribute to the maintenance of these cells and thus, mechanotransduction studies of OECs may serve as a key benefit to identify strategies for improvement in cell transplantation. We developed an electromagnetic cell stretching device based on a single sided uniaxial stretching approach to apply tensile strain to OECs in culture. This paper reports the design, simulation and characterisation of the stretching device with preliminary experimental observations of OECs in vitro. The strain field of the deformable membrane was investigated both experimentally and numerically. Heterogeneity of the device provided an ideal platform for establishing strain requirement for the OEC culture. The cell stretching system developed may serve as a tool in exploring the mechanobiology of OECs for future SCI transplantation research.

  17. Comparative studies of upconversion luminescence characteristics and cell bioimaging based on one-step synthesized upconversion nanoparticles capped with different functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Ming-Kiu [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Chan, Chi-Fai; Wong, Ka-Leung [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong); Hao, Jianhua, E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)


    Herein, three types of upconverting NaGdF{sub 4}:Yb/Er nanoparticles (UCNPs) have been synthesized via one-step hydrothermal synthesis with polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyethylenimine (PEI) and 6-aminocapronic acid (6AA) functionalization. To evident the presence of these groups, FTIR spectra and ζ-potentials were measured to support the successful capping of PEG, PEI and 6AA on the UCNPs. The regular morphology and cubic phase of these functionalized UCNPs were attributed to the capping effect of the surfactants. Tunable upconversion luminescence (UCL) from red to green were observed under 980 nm laser excitation and the UCL tuning was attributed to the presence of various surface ligands. Moreover, surface group dependent UCL bioimaging was performed in HeLa cells. The enhanced UCL bioimaging demonstrated by PEI functionalized UCNPs evident high cell uptake. The significant cell uptake is explained by the electrostatic attraction between the amino groups (–NH{sub 2}) and the cell membrane. Moreover, the functionalized UCNPs demonstrated low cytotoxicity in MTT assay. Additional, paramagnetic property was presented by these UCNPs under magnetic field. - Highlights: • Tunable upconversion emission by capped functional groups under fixed composition. • Surface dependent upconversion luminescence bioimaging in HeLa cells. • Low cytotoxicity. • Additional paramagnetic property due to Gd{sup 3+} ions.

  18. Improved survival of multiple myeloma patients with late relapse after high-dose treatment and stem cell support, a population-based study of 348 patients in Denmark in 1994-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette Juul; Klausen, Tobias W; Andersen, Niels F


    To analyse if patients with early relapse after high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell support (HDT) benefit from new treatment strategies in a population-based setting.......To analyse if patients with early relapse after high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell support (HDT) benefit from new treatment strategies in a population-based setting....

  19. Gene co-expression analysis identifies brain regions and cell types involved in migraine pathophysiology: a GWAS-based study using the Allen Human Brain Atlas. (United States)

    Eising, Else; Huisman, Sjoerd M H; Mahfouz, Ahmed; Vijfhuizen, Lisanne S; Anttila, Verneri; Winsvold, Bendik S; Kurth, Tobias; Ikram, M Arfan; Freilinger, Tobias; Kaprio, Jaakko; Boomsma, Dorret I; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta R; Zwart, John-Anker; Quaye, Lydia; Strachan, David P; Kubisch, Christian; Dichgans, Martin; Davey Smith, George; Stefansson, Kari; Palotie, Aarno; Chasman, Daniel I; Ferrari, Michel D; Terwindt, Gisela M; de Vries, Boukje; Nyholt, Dale R; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Reinders, Marcel J T


    Migraine is a common disabling neurovascular brain disorder typically characterised by attacks of severe headache and associated with autonomic and neurological symptoms. Migraine is caused by an interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over a dozen genetic loci associated with migraine. Here, we integrated migraine GWAS data with high-resolution spatial gene expression data of normal adult brains from the Allen Human Brain Atlas to identify specific brain regions and molecular pathways that are possibly involved in migraine pathophysiology. To this end, we used two complementary methods. In GWAS data from 23,285 migraine cases and 95,425 controls, we first studied modules of co-expressed genes that were calculated based on human brain expression data for enrichment of genes that showed association with migraine. Enrichment of a migraine GWAS signal was found for five modules that suggest involvement in migraine pathophysiology of: (i) neurotransmission, protein catabolism and mitochondria in the cortex; (ii) transcription regulation in the cortex and cerebellum; and (iii) oligodendrocytes and mitochondria in subcortical areas. Second, we used the high-confidence genes from the migraine GWAS as a basis to construct local migraine-related co-expression gene networks. Signatures of all brain regions and pathways that were prominent in the first method also surfaced in the second method, thus providing support that these brain regions and pathways are indeed involved in migraine pathophysiology.

  20. Estudo clínico-epidemiológico do carcinoma epidermóide da base da língua Clinical and epidemiological study of the squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Souza Amorim Filho


    que todos I, II e IV eram tabagistas e ou etilistas, unanimidade não encontrada nos casos III, IVa, IVb e IVc (23,1%, 53,8% e 23,1% respectivamente. Quanto ao parâmetro T, 241 (83,1% eram T3 e T4 e 49(16,9% eram T1 e T2. Quanto ao N, 61(21,6% eram N0, 39(13,4% N1, 125(43,0% N2 e 65(22,4% N3, sendo o nível II (69,0% o mais acometido, seguido do nível III - 57 casos (13,5%, do I - 49 casos (11,6%, do IV - 25 casos (15,9%. CONCLUSÕES: O carcinoma espinocelular de base de língua é mais freqüente no homem branco da 5ª a 6ª década, tendo como fatores de risco o álcool e o fumo, sendo predominante o emprego do tabagismo nas mulheres. O tempo de queixa foi referido nos 6 meses iniciais, com predomínio dos estádios III e IV, sendo que os casos I e II eram todos etilistas e/ou tabagistas.INTRODUCTION: The asymptomatic evolution and early dissemination of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the base of the tongue justify this report. AIM: clinical and epidemiological study of patients with SCC of the base of the tongue. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 290 patients with SCC of the base of the tongue (1977 to 2000, being 259 men (89,3% and 31 women (10,7% - relation 8:1; concerning race, 237 white (81,7%, 51 black (17,6% and 2 yellow (0,7% - relation 5:1. About age, the prevalence of 6th decade (41,0% followed by 5th to 7th (22,7%, 8th (3,4% and 9th (1,7%. These parameters were related to occupation, habits (tobacco and alcohol, TNM staging. For statistical analysis, were employed non-parametric tests: Wilcoxon, Kruskal Wallis, Kappa and McNemar. RESULTS: patients from industries (36,6%, trading, and high level education (34,5%, agriculture (7,9% retired (7,3% - with predominance of 30 to 59 years (61,1% and time of complaint of 180 days (62,0%, the main symptom was odinophagia (37,2%, metastatic lymphonode (21,8%, disphagia (14,5%, tongue lesion (9,0%, hoarseness (6,9%, and others (10,2%. About habits, alcohol and tobacco (83,8%, tobacco alone (10

  1. Single-cell Transcriptome Study as Big Data (United States)

    Yu, Pingjian; Lin, Wei


    The rapid growth of single-cell RNA-seq studies (scRNA-seq) demands efficient data storage, processing, and analysis. Big-data technology provides a framework that facilitates the comprehensive discovery of biological signals from inter-institutional scRNA-seq datasets. The strategies to solve the stochastic and heterogeneous single-cell transcriptome signal are discussed in this article. After extensively reviewing the available big-data applications of next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based studies, we propose a workflow that accounts for the unique characteristics of scRNA-seq data and primary objectives of single-cell studies. PMID:26876720

  2. Transient Studies of a Sodium Sulfur Cell (United States)

    Caprio, Sarah

    Modern grids will include input from fossil-fueled power generation facilities as well as renewable energy sources, and these are expected to work together actively. One major problem with this integrated power production is that most renewable energy sources are intermittent and variable, and thus introduce a very challenging situation with regard to grid stability and reliability. Also, fossil-fueled power generation facilities have load cycles based on expected usage. A non-reliable power source cannot feasibly be used to supply the grid with proper amounts of energy needed in peak times. A solution to this dilemma is power storage. The sodium-sulfur battery has high potential for electrical storage at the grid level due to its high energy density, low cost of the reactants, and high open-circuit voltage. However, the use of sodium-sulfur batteries at the grid level requires high current density operation that can cause cell deterioration, leading to lower sulfur utilization and lower energy efficiency. In addition, it can result in undesired thermal runaway leading to potentially hazardous situations. A rigorous, dynamic model of a sodium-sulfur battery can be used to study these phenomena, design the battery for optimal transient performance, and develop mitigation strategies. Most literature on sodium-sulfur batteries is concerned the dynamics of the sulfur electrode (a sodium-polysulfide melt). There is limited data in the open literature for dynamics of an entire cell. With this motivation, a first-principles dynamic model of a sodium-sulfur cell (with beta"-alumina electrolyte) has been developed. The state of discharge (SOD) of a sodium-sulfur cell significantly affects the heat generation rate, rates of electrochemical reactions, and internal resistance. To capture these phenomena correctly, a fully coupled thermal-electrochemical model has been developed. The thermal model considers heat generation due to Ohmic loss, Peltier heat, and heat due to the

  3. Role of heterogeneous cell population on modulation of dendritic cell phenotype and activation of CD8 T cells for use in cell-based immunotherapies. (United States)

    Frizzell, Hannah; Park, Jaehyung; Comandante Lou, Natacha; Woodrow, Kim A


    Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapies have much utility in their ability to prime antigen-specific adaptive immune responses. However, there does not yet exist a consensus standard to how DCs should be primed. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of heterogeneous co-cultures, composed of both CD11c+ (DCs) and CD11c- cells, in combination with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) stimulation on DC phenotype and function. Upon DC priming in different co-culture ratios, we observed reduced expression of MHCII and CD86 and increased antigen uptake among CD11c+ cells in a CD11c- dependent manner. DCs from all culture conditions were induced to mature by MPLA treatment, as determined by secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12 and TNF-α. Antigen-specific stimulation of CD4+ T cells was not modulated by co-culture composition, in terms of proliferation nor levels of IFN-γ. However, the presence of CD11c- cells enhanced cross-presentation to CD8+ T cells compared to purified CD11c+ cells, resulting in increased cell proliferation along with higher IFN-γ production. These findings demonstrate the impact of cell populations present during DC priming, and point to the use of heterogeneous cultures of DCs and innate immune cells to enhance cell-mediated immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Improved Electrodes and Electrolytes for Dye-Based Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry R. Allcock; Thomas E. Mallouk; Mark W. Horn


    The most important factor in limiting the stability of dye-sensitized solar cells is the use of volatile liquid solvents in the electrolytes, which causes leakage during extended operation especially at elevated temperatures. This, together with the necessary complex sealing of the cells, seriously hampers the industrial-scale manufacturing and commercialization feasibilities of DSSCs. The objective of this program was to bring about a significant improvement in the performance and longevity of dye-based solar cells leading to commercialization. This had been studied in two ways first through development of low volatility solid, gel or liquid electrolytes, second through design and fabrication of TiO2 sculptured thin film electrodes.

  5. Comparison of dynamic monitoring strategies based on CD4 cell counts in virally suppressed, HIV-positive individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries: a prospective, observational study. (United States)

    Caniglia, Ellen C; Cain, Lauren E; Sabin, Caroline A; Robins, James M; Logan, Roger; Abgrall, Sophie; Mugavero, Michael J; Hernández-Díaz, Sonia; Meyer, Laurence; Seng, Remonie; Drozd, Daniel R; Seage, George R; Bonnet, Fabrice; Dabis, Francois; Moore, Richard D; Reiss, Peter; van Sighem, Ard; Mathews, William C; Del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago; Deeks, Steven G; Muga, Roberto; Boswell, Stephen L; Ferrer, Elena; Eron, Joseph J; Napravnik, Sonia; Jose, Sophie; Phillips, Andrew; Justice, Amy C; Tate, Janet P; Gill, John; Pacheco, Antonio; Veloso, Valdilea G; Bucher, Heiner C; Egger, Matthias; Furrer, Hansjakob; Porter, Kholoud; Touloumi, Giota; Crane, Heidi; Miro, Jose M; Sterne, Jonathan A; Costagliola, Dominique; Saag, Michael; Hernán, Miguel A


    Clinical guidelines vary with respect to the optimal monitoring frequency of HIV-positive individuals. We compared dynamic monitoring strategies based on time-varying CD4 cell counts in virologically suppressed HIV-positive individuals. In this observational study, we used data from prospective studies of HIV-positive individuals in Europe (France, Greece, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, and the UK) and North and South America (Brazil, Canada, and the USA) in The HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration and The Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems. We compared three monitoring strategies that differ in the threshold used to measure CD4 cell count and HIV RNA viral load every 3-6 months (when below the threshold) or every 9-12 months (when above the threshold). The strategies were defined by the threshold CD4 counts of 200 cells per μL, 350 cells per μL, and 500 cells per μL. Using inverse probability weighting to adjust for baseline and time-varying confounders, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of death and of AIDS-defining illness or death, risk ratios of virological failure, and mean differences in CD4 cell count. 47 635 individuals initiated an antiretroviral therapy regimen between Jan 1, 2000, and Jan 9, 2015, and met the eligibility criteria for inclusion in our study. During follow-up, CD4 cell count was measured on average every 4·0 months and viral load every 3·8 months. 464 individuals died (107 in threshold 200 strategy, 157 in threshold 350, and 200 in threshold 500) and 1091 had AIDS-defining illnesses or died (267 in threshold 200 strategy, 365 in threshold 350, and 459 in threshold 500). Compared with threshold 500, the mortality HR was 1·05 (95% CI 0·86-1·29) for threshold 200 and 1·02 (0·91·1·14) for threshold 350. Corresponding estimates for death or AIDS-defining illness were 1·08 (0·95-1·22) for threshold 200 and 1·03 (0·96-1·12) for threshold 350. Compared with threshold 500, the 24 month risk ratios of

  6. Diffraction pattern study for cell type identification. (United States)

    Mihailescu, M; Costescu, J


    This paper presents our study regarding diffracted intensity distribution in Fresnel and Fraunhofer approximation from different cell types. Starting from experimental information obtained through digital holographic microscopy, we modeled the cell shapes as oblate spheroids and built their phase-only transmission functions. In Fresnel approximation, the experimental and numerical diffraction patterns from mature and immature red blood cells have complementary central intensity values at different distances. The Fraunhofer diffraction patterns of deformed red blood cells were processed in the reciprocal space where, the isoamplitude curves were formed independently for each degree of cell deformation present within every sample; the values on each separate isoamplitude curve are proportional with the percentage of the respective cell type within the sample.

  7. Cell Monitoring and Manipulation Systems (CMMSs based on Glass Cell-Culture Chips (GC3s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M. Buehler


    Full Text Available We developed different types of glass cell-culture chips (GC3s for culturing cells for microscopic observation in open media-containing troughs or in microfluidic structures. Platinum sensor and manipulation structures were used to monitor physiological parameters and to allocate and permeabilize cells. Electro-thermal micro pumps distributed chemical compounds in the microfluidic systems. The integrated temperature sensors showed a linear, Pt1000-like behavior. Cell adhesion and proliferation were monitored using interdigitated electrode structures (IDESs. The cell-doubling times of primary murine embryonic neuronal cells (PNCs were determined based on the IDES capacitance-peak shifts. The electrical activity of PNC networks was detected using multi-electrode arrays (MEAs. During seeding, the cells were dielectrophoretically allocated to individual MEAs to improve network structures. MEA pads with diameters of 15, 20, 25, and 35 µm were tested. After 3 weeks, the magnitudes of the determined action potentials were highest for pads of 25 µm in diameter and did not differ when the inter-pad distances were 100 or 170 µm. Using 25-µm diameter circular oxygen electrodes, the signal currents in the cell-culture media were found to range from approximately −0.08 nA (0% O2 to −2.35 nA (21% O2. It was observed that 60-nm thick silicon nitride-sensor layers were stable potentiometric pH sensors under cell-culture conditions for periods of days. Their sensitivity between pH 5 and 9 was as high as 45 mV per pH step. We concluded that sensorized GC3s are potential animal replacement systems for purposes such as toxicity pre-screening. For example, the effect of mefloquine, a medication used to treat malaria, on the electrical activity of neuronal cells was determined in this study using a GC3 system.

  8. Comparative study about Al-doped zinc oxide thin films deposited by Pulsed Electron Deposition and Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering as Transparent Conductive Oxide for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattini, F., E-mail: [IMEM-CNR, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Annoni, F.; Bissoli, F.; Bronzoni, M. [IMEM-CNR, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Garcia, J.P. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft Product and Process Design Institute, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands); Gilioli, E.; Rampino, S. [IMEM-CNR, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy)


    In this study, a comparison between Al-doped ZnO (AZO) as Transparent Conductive Oxide for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based solar cells grown by Pulsed Electron Deposition (PED) and Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering (RFMS) was performed. PED yielded polycrystalline [002] mono-oriented thin films with low electrical resistivity and high optical transparency with heater temperatures ranging from room temperature (RT) to 250 °C. The electrical resistivity of these films can be tuned by varying the heater temperature, reaching a minimum value of 3.5 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm at 150 °C and an average transmittance over 90% in the visible range. An AZO film grown at RT was deposited by PED on an actual Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based solar cell, resulting to an efficiency value of 15.2% on the best device. This result clearly shows that PED is a suitable technique for growing ZnO-based thin films for devices/applications where low deposition temperature is required. On the other hand, an optimized AZO thin film front contact for thin film solar cells was studied and fabricated via RFMS. The parameters of this technique were tweaked to obtain highly conductive and transparent AZO thin films. The lowest resistivity value of 3.7 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm and an average transmittance of 86% in the 400-1100 nm wavelength range was obtained with a heater temperature of 250 °C. A thick sputtered AZO film was deposited at RT onto an identical cell used for PED-grown AZO, reaching the highest conversion efficiency value of 14.7%. In both cases, neither antireflection coatings nor pure ZnO layer was used. - Highlights: • Pulsed Electron Deposition (PED) lets high quality films grow at low temperature. • Al:ZnO (AZO) thin films grown by PED present high optical and electrical quality. • AZO electrical resistivity can be tuned from 10{sup −4} to 10{sup −2} Ωcm in proper condition. • Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based simplified solar cells achieved efficiency of 15.2% for PED-grown AZO.

  9. Synthesis and anti-mitotic activity of 6,7-dihydro-4H-isothiazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-5-ones: In vivo and cell-based studies. (United States)

    Semenov, Victor V; Lichitsky, Boris V; Komogortsev, Andrey N; Dudinov, Arkady A; Krayushkin, Mikhail M; Konyushkin, Leonid D; Atamanenko, Olga P; Karmanova, Irina B; Strelenko, Yuri A; Shor, Boris; Semenova, Marina N; Kiselyov, Alex S


    A series of 3,7-diaryl-6,7-dihydroisothiazolo [4,5-b]pyridin-5(4H)-ones 8 and 9 was synthesized by multicomponent condensation of 3-aryl-5-isothiazolecarboxylic acid esters 4a-f with aromatic (or thienyl) aldehydes 7 and Meldrum's acid in an acidic medium. The targeted compounds were evaluated for their antimitotic microtubule destabilizing activity using in vivo phenotypic sea urchin embryo model and in vitro human cancer cell-based assays. Selected dihydroisothiazolopyridinones altered sea urchin egg cleavage in 2-10 nM concentrations together with significant cytotoxicity against cancer cells including chemoresistant cell lines (IC50 in submicromolar - low nanomolar concentration range). Both approaches confirmed antimitotic microtubule destabilizing mechanism of action of the izothiazole derivatives. Structure-activity relationship study determined the importance of p-methoxybenzene A-ring for the antiproliferative effect. The most potent compound 9b containing p-methoxybenzene A-ring and thiophene B-ring caused mitotic arrest and disintegration of cell microtubules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Progenitor cell-based treatment of glial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldman, Steven A


    -based neurodegenerative conditions may now be compelling targets for cell-based therapy. As such, glial cell-based therapies may offer potential benefit to a broader range of diseases than ever before contemplated, including disorders such as Huntington's disease and the motor neuron degeneration of amyotrophic lateral...... sclerosis, which have traditionally been considered neuronal in nature....

  11. Studies of innate immune systems against human cells. (United States)

    Sakai, Rieko; Kitano, Etsuko; Maeda, Akira; Lo, Pei-Chi; Eguchi, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Masahito; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Okuyama, Hiroomi; Miyagawa, Shuji


    Pigs are frequently used as animal models for experiments in the surgical field, including allo- and xeno-transplantation. Regeneration studies, including studies dealing with human- and monkey-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), have gradually progressed, with pigs sometimes being used as the scaffold. However, the immunological response of pigs against humans, especially innate immunities, remain unclear. This study reports on a comprehensive study of pig innate immunity against humans. Hemolytic complement activity of pig serum was measured using a microtitration technique. The pig natural anti-human antibody (Ab) was examined using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The reaction of pig natural killer (NK) cells and monocytes/macrophages against human cells was also assessed. Most of the pig complement titers were measured based on methods used in human complement assays. The alternative pathway for pig complement reacts with human cells, indicating that pig complement can react with human cells. Pig serum contains relatively high levels of natural antibodies, IgM and IgG, to human PBMC. Furthermore, the killing of NK cells- and monocyte/macrophage-mediated human cells was clearly confirmed. The collective findings indicate that the pig innate immunological systems, not only serum but also cellular factors, are able to recognize and injure human cells. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. The NANIVID: a new device for cancer cell migration studies (United States)

    Raja, Waseem K.; Cady, Nathaniel C.; Castracane, James; Gligorijevic, Bojana; van Rheenen, Jacobus W.; Condeelis, John S.


    Cancerous tumors are dynamic microenvironments that require unique analytical tools for their study. Better understanding of tumor microenvironments may reveal mechanisms behind tumor progression and generate new strategies for diagnostic marker development, which can be used routinely in histopathological analysis. Previous studies have shown that cell invasion and intravasation are related to metastatic potential and have linked these activities to gene expression patterns seen in migratory and invasive tumor cells in vivo. Existing analytical methods for tumor microenvironments include collection of tumor cells through a catheter needle loaded with a chemical or protein attractant (chemoattractant). This method has some limitations and restrictions, including time constraints of cell collection, long term anesthetization, and in vivo imaging inside the catheter. In this study, a novel implantable device was designed to replace the catheter-based method. The 1.5mm x 0.5mm x 0.24mm device is designed to controllably release chemoattractants for stimulation of tumor cell migration and subsequent cell capture. Devices were fabricated using standard microfabrication techniques and have been shown to mediate controlled release of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Optically transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes have been incorporated into the device for impedance-based measurement of cell density and have been shown to be compatible with in vivo multi-photon imaging of cell migration.

  13. Fabric-based alkaline direct formate microfluidic fuel cells. (United States)

    Domalaon, Kryls; Tang, Catherine; Mendez, Alex; Bernal, Franky; Purohit, Krutarth; Pham, Linda; Haan, John; Gomez, Frank A


    Fabric-based microfluidic fuel cells (MFCs) serve as a novel, cost-efficient alternative to traditional FCs and batteries, since fluids naturally travel across fabric via capillary action, eliminating the need for an external pump and lowering production and operation costs. Building on previous research with Y-shaped paper-based MFCs, fabric-based MFCs mitigate fragility and durability issues caused by long periods of fuel immersion. In this study, we describe a microfluidic fabric-based direct formate fuel cell, with 5 M potassium formate and 30% hydrogen peroxide as the anode fuel and cathode oxidant, respectively. Using a two-strip, stacked design, the optimized parameters include the type of encasement, the barrier, and the fabric type. Surface contact of the fabric and laminate sheet expedited flow and respective chemical reactions. The maximum current (22.83 mA/cm 2 ) and power (4.40 mW/cm 2 ) densities achieved with a 65% cotton/35% polyester blend material are a respective 8.7% and 32% higher than previous studies with Y-shaped paper-based MFCs. In series configuration, the MFCs generate sufficient energy to power a handheld calculator, a thermometer, and a spectrum of light-emitting diodes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Dendritic cell based tumor vaccination in prostate and renal cell cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Draube, Andreas; Klein-González, Nela; Mattheus, Stefanie; Brillant, Corinne; Hellmich, Martin; Engert, Andreas; von Bergwelt-Baildon, Michael


    .... Prostate and renal cell cancer (RCC) have been extensively studied for DC-based immunotherapeutic interventions and were therefore chosen to address the above question by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis...

  15. A ReaxFF-based molecular dynamics study of the mechanisms of interactions between reactive oxygen plasma species and the Candida albicans cell wall (United States)

    Zhao, T.; Shi, L.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zou, L.; Zhang, L.


    Atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas have attracted significant attention and have been widely used to inactivate pathogens, yet the mechanisms underlying the interactions between plasma-generated species and bio-organisms have not been elucidated clearly. In this paper, reactive molecular dynamics simulations are employed to investigate the mechanisms of interactions between reactive oxygen plasma species (O, OH, and O2) and β-1,6-glucan (a model for the C. albicans cell wall) from a microscopic point of view. Our simulations show that O and OH species can break structurally important C-C and C-O bonds, while O2 molecules exhibit only weak, non-bonded interactions with β-1,6-glucan. Hydrogen abstraction from hydroxyl or CH groups occurs first in all bond cleavage mechanisms. This is followed by a cascade of bond cleavage and double bond formation events. These lead to the destruction of the fungal cell wall. O and OH have similar effects related to their bond cleavage mechanisms. Our simulation results provide fundamental insights into the mechanisms underlying the interactions between reactive oxygen plasma species and the fungal cell wall of C. albicans at the atomic level.

  16. Synchrotron-based X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy in Conjunction with Nanoindentation to Study Molecular-Scale Interactions of Phenol–Formaldehyde in Wood Cell Walls (United States)

    Joseph E. Jakes; Christopher G. Hunt; Daniel J. Yelle; Linda Lorenz; Kolby Hirth; Sophie-Charlotte Gleber; Stefan Vogt; Warren Grigsby; Charles R. Frihart


    Understanding and controlling molecular-scale interactions between adhesives and wood polymers are critical to accelerate the development of improved adhesives for advanced wood-based materials. The submicrometer resolution of synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) was found capable of mapping and quantifying infiltration of Br-labeled phenol−...

  17. Cell Based Therapies: At Crossroads to find the right Cell source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Development of newer Cell Based therapies for various diseases and disorders which have limited therapeutic options, is on the rise with clinical trials on cell based therapies being registered all over the world every now and then. However a dilemma arises when it comes to the choosing the ideal source of Stem cells for therapy. Clinical applications of Hematopoietic Stem cells Transplantation (HSCT in the form of Bone Marrow Transplantation has been in practice since the 1950s (1 for malignant and non malignant haematological disorders and even for auto-immune disorders (since 1977 (2, with several reports on successful outcomes after HSCT. The dilemma in HSCT is whether to use allogeneic or autologous sources. While allogeneic sources have the advantage of the graft being devoid of cancer cells, as they are from a healthy donor, they have the risk of life-long Immunosuppression. Autologous Source is advantageous as it needs no immunosuppression but the risk of relapse is high. In adult stem cells, there have been several studies which have demonstrated the various levels of safety and efficacy of both Allogeneic and autologous adult cell sources for application in diseases of the cornea, Spinal Cord, Heart, Liver etc. Each time, a study is published, the patients and the physicians are thrown into a state of perplexity on which source of cell could offer the best possible solution to the various diseases. Next hopping onto Human Embryonic Stem cells, though they were discovered in 1998, the first Human Embryonic Stem cell trial was approved by the FDA in January 2009 but it could hit the road only in October 2010 (3. The trial was for spinal cord injury and a year later, the trial came to a halt in November 2011 when the company, which was financing and pursuing the trial, announced the discontinuation of the trial due to financial reasons (4. However it is worthwhile to note that it was the financial compulsion which led to the

  18. Delivery Strategies for Stem Cell-Based Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. Glotzbach


    Full Text Available Before stem cell-based therapies can become a clinical reality, technologies for cell delivery must be developed that can control differentiation and pluripotency, maintain a hospitable environment for cell survival and function, and provide a structural framework for regenerative healing of the target tissue. Insights gained from developmental and stem cell biology should guide the design of devices and techniques to facilitate stem cell-based therapies. Several strategies have been developed for surgical delivery of stem cells, including synthetic and biologic matrices for cell seeding, complex biochemical delivery devices for maintenance and modulation of stem cell properties, and smart constructs with the ability to adapt to the dynamic in vivo environment after implantation. In aggregate, surgical delivery of complex stem cell-seeded constructs has the potential to revolutionize surgical therapies for a wide range of diseases in order to provide a more regenerative platform for tissue and organ healing.

  19. Cellular Silica Encapsulation for Development of Robust Cell Based Biosensors (United States)

    Johnston, Robert; Rogelj, Snezna; Harper, Jason; Tartis, Michaelann


    In order to detect chemical and biological threats both on the battlefield and in civilian life, development of portable, robust detection systems capable of real-time identification of the chemical and biological agents are needed. Living cell-based sensors have proven effective as sensitive, specific, near real-time detectors; however, living cell-based sensors require frequent cell replenishment due to cell sensitivity to the ex-vivo environment, which limits sensor stability. Incorporation of living cells within a biocompatible matrix that provides mechanical protection and maintains access to the external environment may facilitate the development of long-term stable cell-based biosensors. We are exploring the use of a novel Chemical Vapor into Liquid (CViL) deposition process for whole cell encapsulation in silica. In CViL, the high vapor pressure of common silica alkoxides is utilized to deliver silica into an aqueous medium, creating a silica sol. Mixing of cells with the resulting silica sol facilitates encapsulation of cells in silica while minimizing cell contact with the cytotoxic products of silica generating reactions. Using fluorescence microscopy analysis with multiple silica specific markers, encapsulation of multiple eukaryotic cell types (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Jurkat, HeLa, and U87 cells) with CViL generated silica is shown, providing a foundation for development of long -term stable cell-based biosensors with diverse sensing capabilities.

  20. Comprehensive study of efficient dye-sensitized solar cells based on the binary ionic liquid electrolyte by modifying with additives and iodine (United States)

    Mo, Ao-qiang; Cao, Da-peng; Wang, Wu-yang; Li, Xue-yan; Mi, Bao-xiu; Gao, Zhi-qiang; Liang, Zhong-cheng


    The photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is enhanced by modifying the binary room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolyte with additives and iodine. The average photoelectric conversion efficiency ( PCE) of 6.39% is achieved. Through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry scans and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency ( IPCE) data, the working principles are analyzed. The enhancement is mainly attributed to the improvement of short circuit current which is caused by the reduction of overall internal resistance of the devices. Durability tests are measured at room temperature, and the long-term stability performance can be maintained.

  1. Stem cell-based photodynamic therapy. (United States)

    Shrestha, Tej B; Seo, Gwi M; Basel, Matthew T; Kalita, Mausam; Wang, Hongwang; Villanueva, David; Pyle, Marla; Balivada, Sivasai; Rachakatla, Raja Shekar; Shinogle, Heather; Thapa, Prem S; Moore, David; Troyer, Deryl L; Bossmann, Stefan H


    We have transfected murine neural stem cells (NSCs) and rat umbilical cord matrix-derived stem cells (RUCMSCs) with a plasmid expressing gaussia luciferase (gLuc). These cells are engineered to secrete the luciferase. We have used gLuc containing supernatant from culturing the NSCs to perform in vitro photodynamic therapy of murine melanoma cells (B16F10), and RUCMSCs to perform in vivo PDT of lung melanomas in C57BL/6 mice. The treatment system was comprised of aminolevulic acid as a prodrug for the synthesis of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX, gaussia luciferase, and its' substrate coelenterazine. A significant reduction of the number of live melanoma cells in vitro and a borderline significant retardation of tumour growth in vivo was observed after coelenterazine-mediated PDT.

  2. Organic Based Solar Cells with Morphology Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    The field of organic solar cells has in the last years gone through an impressive development with efficiencies reported up to 12 %. For organic solar cells to take the leap from primarily being a laboratory scale technology to being utilized as renewable energy source, several issues need...... Microscopy and as solar cells in a blend with PCBM. It was concluded that these particles did not show a potential large enough for continuous work due to a high material loss and low efficiency when applied in solar cells. The second method to achieve was preparation of pre-arranged morphology organic...... nanoparticles consisting of a blend of donor and acceptor in an aqueous dispersion, thereby addressing two of the issues remaining in the field of organic solar cells. This approach was used on six different polymers, which all had the ability to prepare aqueous nanoparticle inks. The morphology...

  3. Development of a Drosophila cell-based error correction assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D. Salemi


    Full Text Available Accurate transmission of the genome through cell division requires microtubules from opposing spindle poles to interact with protein super-structures called kinetochores that assemble on each sister chromatid. Most kinetochores establish erroneous attachments that are destabilized through a process called error correction. Failure to correct improper kinetochore-microtubule (kt-MT interactions before anaphase onset results in chromosomal instability (CIN, which has been implicated in tumorigenesis and tumor adaptation. Thus, it is important to characterize the molecular basis of error correction to better comprehend how CIN occurs and how it can be modulated. An error correction assay has been previously developed in cultured mammalian cells in which incorrect kt-MT attachments are created through the induction of monopolar spindle assembly via chemical inhibition of kinesin-5. Error correction is then monitored following inhibitor wash out. Implementing the error correction assay in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells would be valuable because kt-MT attachments are easily visualized and the cells are highly amenable to RNAi and high-throughput screening. However, Drosophila kinesin-5 (Klp61F is unaffected by available small molecule inhibitors. To overcome this limitation, we have rendered S2 cells susceptible to kinesin-5 inhibitors by functionally replacing Klp61F with human kinesin-5 (Eg5. Eg5 expression rescued the assembly of monopolar spindles typically caused by Klp61F depletion. Eg5-mediated bipoles collapsed into monopoles due to the activity of kinesin-14 (Ncd when treated with the kinesin-5 inhibitor S-trityl-L-cysteine (STLC. Furthermore, bipolar spindles reassembled and error correction was observed after STLC wash out. Importantly, error correction in Eg5-expressing S2 cells was dependent on the well-established error correction kinase Aurora B. This system provides a powerful new cell-based platform for studying error correction and

  4. Density Functional Study on A-Units Based on Thieno[3,4- c]pyrrole-4,6-dione for Organic Solar Cells (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoqin; Shen, Wei; Fu, Zhiyong; Liu, Xiaorui; Li, Ming


    The use of polymer donor materials has allowed great progress in organic solar cells. To search for potential donor materials, we have designed a series of donor-acceptor (D-A)-type alternating polymers composed of dithieno[3,2- b:2',3'- d]pyrrole (DTP) electron-rich units and thieno[3,4- c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD) electron-deficient units. Their electronic and optical properties have been investigated using density functional theory and Marcus theory. The calculation results demonstrate that introduction of cyclic compounds (furyl, thienyl, and phenyl) into electron-deficient units of the molecules can result in lower highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) levels and reorganization energies compared with the experimental molecule ( X 0 ). To investigate the effects of electron-withdrawing units, three electron-withdrawing substituents (-OCH3, -F, and -CN) were introduced into the thienyl. The results indicated that the polymer X 2-3 will show the best performance among the designed polymers, offering low-lying HOMO energy level (-5.47 eV), narrow energy gap (1.97 eV), and high hole mobility (7.45 × 10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1). This work may provide a guideline for the design of efficient D-A polymers for organic solar cells with enhanced performance.

  5. Study of Solar Cells Operation under the Influence of Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOBLE Dorel Anton


    Full Text Available The paper is focused on an experimental study on the functioning of photovoltaic cells at high temperatures. Having regard to that systems based on the semiconductors components, at high temperatures,above normal operating current appear a current in addition, due to the phenomenon of intrinsic thermal generation, charge carries, it is possible destructive phenomena appears. The work wishes to reveal howthe operation of photovoltaic cells at high temperatures influence the operating parameters of their.

  6. Generating parabiotic zebrafish embryos for cell migration and homing studies. (United States)

    Demy, Doris Lou; Ranta, Zachary; Giorgi, Jean-Michel; Gonzalez, Magali; Herbomel, Philippe; Kissa, Karima


    Parabiosis, the surgical generation of conjoined organisms sharing a common bloodstream, has been a powerful tool for studying hematopoietic cell migration and interaction with stromal niches in rodent and avian systems. We describe a technique to generate parabiotic zebrafish embryos based on blastula fusion. This procedure permits the in vivo visualization of hematopoietic cell migration and homing to niches and peripheral tissues in zebrafish parabiotes of different genetic backgrounds.

  7. Non-genetic engineering of cells for drug delivery and cell-based therapy. (United States)

    Wang, Qun; Cheng, Hao; Peng, Haisheng; Zhou, Hao; Li, Peter Y; Langer, Robert


    Cell-based therapy is a promising modality to address many unmet medical needs. In addition to genetic engineering, material-based, biochemical, and physical science-based approaches have emerged as novel approaches to modify cells. Non-genetic engineering of cells has been applied in delivering therapeutics to tissues, homing of cells to the bone marrow or inflammatory tissues, cancer imaging, immunotherapy, and remotely controlling cellular functions. This new strategy has unique advantages in disease therapy and is complementary to existing gene-based cell engineering approaches. A better understanding of cellular systems and different engineering methods will allow us to better exploit engineered cells in biomedicine. Here, we review non-genetic cell engineering techniques and applications of engineered cells, discuss the pros and cons of different methods, and provide our perspectives on future research directions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Living cell study at the single-molecule and single-cell levels by atomic force microscopy. (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xuejie; Xia, Tie; Fang, Xiaohong


    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been emerging as a multifunctional molecular tool in nanobiology and nanomedicine. This review summarizes the recent advances in AFM study of living mammalian cells at the single-molecule and single-cell levels. Besides nanoscale imaging of cell membrane structure, AFM-based force measurements on living cells are mainly discussed. These include the development and application of single-molecule force spectroscopy to investigate ligand-receptor binding strength and dissociation dynamics, and the characterization of cell mechanical properties in a physiological environment. Molecular manipulation of cells by AFM to change the cellular process is also described. Living-cell AFM study offers a new approach to understand the molecular mechanisms of cell function, disease development and drug effect, as well as to develop new strategies to achieve single-cell-based diagnosis.

  9. Dendritic Cell Regulation by Cannabinoid-Based Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Svensson


    Full Text Available Cannabinoid pharmacology has made important advances in recent years after the cannabinoid system was discovered. Studies in experimental models and in humans have produced promising results using cannabinoid-based drugs for the treatment of obesity and cancer, as well as neuroinflammatory and chronic inflammatory diseases. Moreover, as we discuss here, additional studies also indicates that these drugs have immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties including modulation of immune cell function. Thus, manipulation of the endocannabinoid system in vivo may provide novel therapeutic strategies against inflammatory disorders. At least two types of cannabinoid receptors, cannabinoid 1 and cannabinoid 2 receptors are expressed on immune cells such as dendritic cells (DC. Dendritic cells are recognized for their critical role in initiating and maintaining immune responses. Therefore, DC are potential targets for cannabinoid-mediated modulation. Here, we review the effects of cannabinoids on DC and provide some perspective concerning the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for the treatment of human diseases involving aberrant inflammatory processes.

  10. Electrochemical balancing of lithium-ion cells by nickel-based cells (United States)

    Schmid, Alexander U.; Eringer, Ludwig; Lambidis, Ioannis; Birke, Kai Peter


    This paper presents a topology to passively balance two types of lithium-ion cells without using additional active electrical components or employing any algorithm based balancing management systems. We connect nickel-metal hydride or nickel-zinc cells in parallel to lithium-ion cells. The hydrogen/oxygen recombination process of the nickel-based cells can be used to balance lithium-ion cells. Two serially connected lithium iron phosphate cells, combined each with two serially connected nickel-zinc cells, show a successful balancing of 8% of the lithium iron phosphate cell's initial capacity. A lithium titanate cell connected in parallel to two nickel-metal hydride cells can be fully charged without suffering from over-voltage effects by constant current charging.

  11. The meanings of consent to the donation of cord blood stem cells: perspectives from an interview-based study of a public cord blood bank in England. (United States)

    Busby, Helen


    This paper explores the perspectives of women who have agreed that their umbilical cord blood may be collected for a public 'cord blood bank', for use in transplant medicine or research. Drawing on interview data from 27 mothers who agreed to the collection and use of their umbilical cord blood, these choices and the informed consent process are explored. It is shown that the needs of sick children requiring transplants are prominent in narrative accounts of cord blood banking, together with high expectations for future applications of stem cells. Given this dynamic, a concern arises that the complex and multiple uses of tissues and related data might be oversimplified in the consent process. In conclusion, the positive finding of a commitment to mutuality in cord blood banking among these women is underlined, and its implications for the wider debate on cord blood banking are discussed.

  12. Molecular Imaging: A Useful Tool for the Development of Natural Killer Cell-Based Immunotherapies. (United States)

    Gangadaran, Prakash; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol


    Molecular imaging is a relatively new discipline that allows visualization, characterization, and measurement of the biological processes in living subjects, including humans, at a cellular and molecular level. The interaction between cancer cells and natural killer (NK) cells is complex and incompletely understood. Despite our limited knowledge, progress in the search for immune cell therapies against cancer could be significantly improved by dynamic and non-invasive visualization and tracking of immune cells and by visualization of the response of cancer cells to therapies in preclinical and clinical studies. Molecular imaging is an essential tool for these studies, and a multimodal molecular imaging approach can be applied to monitor immune cells in vivo, for instance, to visualize therapeutic effects. In this review, we discuss the usefulness of NK cells in cancer therapies and the preclinical and clinical usefulness of molecular imaging in NK cell-based therapies. Furthermore, we discuss different molecular imaging modalities for use with NK cell-based therapies, and their preclinical and clinical applications in animal and human subjects. Molecular imaging has contributed to the development of NK cell-based therapies against cancers in animal models and to the refinement of current cell-based cancer immunotherapies. Developing sensitive and reproducible non-invasive molecular imaging technologies for in vivo NK cell monitoring and for real-time assessment of therapeutic effects will accelerate the development of NK cell therapies.

  13. Molecular Imaging: A Useful Tool for the Development of Natural Killer Cell-Based Immunotherapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Gangadaran


    Full Text Available Molecular imaging is a relatively new discipline that allows visualization, characterization, and measurement of the biological processes in living subjects, including humans, at a cellular and molecular level. The interaction between cancer cells and natural killer (NK cells is complex and incompletely understood. Despite our limited knowledge, progress in the search for immune cell therapies against cancer could be significantly improved by dynamic and non-invasive visualization and tracking of immune cells and by visualization of the response of cancer cells to therapies in preclinical and clinical studies. Molecular imaging is an essential tool for these studies, and a multimodal molecular imaging approach can be applied to monitor immune cells in vivo, for instance, to visualize therapeutic effects. In this review, we discuss the usefulness of NK cells in cancer therapies and the preclinical and clinical usefulness of molecular imaging in NK cell-based therapies. Furthermore, we discuss different molecular imaging modalities for use with NK cell-based therapies, and their preclinical and clinical applications in animal and human subjects. Molecular imaging has contributed to the development of NK cell-based therapies against cancers in animal models and to the refinement of current cell-based cancer immunotherapies. Developing sensitive and reproducible non-invasive molecular imaging technologies for in vivo NK cell monitoring and for real-time assessment of therapeutic effects will accelerate the development of NK cell therapies.

  14. Mammalian synthetic biology for studying the cell. (United States)

    Mathur, Melina; Xiang, Joy S; Smolke, Christina D


    Synthetic biology is advancing the design of genetic devices that enable the study of cellular and molecular biology in mammalian cells. These genetic devices use diverse regulatory mechanisms to both examine cellular processes and achieve precise and dynamic control of cellular phenotype. Synthetic biology tools provide novel functionality to complement the examination of natural cell systems, including engineered molecules with specific activities and model systems that mimic complex regulatory processes. Continued development of quantitative standards and computational tools will expand capacities to probe cellular mechanisms with genetic devices to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the cell. In this study, we review synthetic biology tools that are being applied to effectively investigate diverse cellular processes, regulatory networks, and multicellular interactions. We also discuss current challenges and future developments in the field that may transform the types of investigation possible in cell biology. © 2017 Mathur et al.

  15. An indicator cell assay for blood-based diagnostics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Danziger

    Full Text Available We have established proof of principle for the Indicator Cell Assay Platform™ (iCAP™, a broadly applicable tool for blood-based diagnostics that uses specifically-selected, standardized cells as biosensors, relying on their innate ability to integrate and respond to diverse signals present in patients' blood. To develop an assay, indicator cells are exposed in vitro to serum from case or control subjects and their global differential response patterns are used to train reliable, disease classifiers based on a small number of features. In a feasibility study, the iCAP detected pre-symptomatic disease in a murine model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS with 94% accuracy (p-Value = 3.81E-6 and correctly identified samples from a murine Huntington's disease model as non-carriers of ALS. Beyond the mouse model, in a preliminary human disease study, the iCAP detected early stage Alzheimer's disease with 72% cross-validated accuracy (p-Value = 3.10E-3. For both assays, iCAP features were enriched for disease-related genes, supporting the assay's relevance for disease research.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conventional inorganic photovoltaic devices. With low-cost ... cells in use today are made of crystalline silicon (c-. SI}. The cost ... the recombination loss process well known in solid-state .... porous structure and photoelectrochemical properties ...

  17. Stem Cell-Based Dental Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Zivkovic


    Full Text Available The development of biological and biomaterial sciences profiled tissue engineering as a new and powerful tool for biological replacement of organs. The combination of stem cells and suitable scaffolds is widely used in experiments today, in order to achieve partial or whole organ regeneration. This review focuses on the use of tissue engineering strategies in tooth regeneration, using stem cells and stem cells/scaffold constructs. Although whole tooth regeneration is still not possible, there are promising results. However, to achieve this goal, it is important to understand and further explore the mechanisms underlying tooth development. Only then will we be able to mimic the natural processes with the use of stem cells and tissue engineering techniques.

  18. Eliminating acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells from human testicular cell cultures: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadri-Ardekani, Hooman; Homburg, Christa H.; van Capel, Toni M. M.; van den Berg, Henk; van der Veen, Fulco; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; van Pelt, Ans M. M.; Repping, Sjoerd


    To study whether acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells survive in a human testicular cell culture system. Experimental laboratory study. Reproductive biology laboratory, academic medical center. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells from three patients and testicular cells from three other patients.

  19. Mammalian synthetic biology for studying the cell


    Mathur, Melina; Xiang, Joy S.; Smolke, Christina D.


    Synthetic biology is advancing the design of genetic devices that enable the study of cellular and molecular biology in mammalian cells. These genetic devices use diverse regulatory mechanisms to both examine cellular processes and achieve precise and dynamic control of cellular phenotype. Synthetic biology tools provide novel functionality to complement the examination of natural cell systems, including engineered molecules with specific activities and model systems that mimic complex regula...

  20. A multi-agent based cell controller


    Paulo Leitão; Francisco José de Oliveira Restivo; Goran Putnik


    This paper discusses the opportunity to use multi-agents technology in automation and distributed manufacturing systems and the expected improvements. To support the discussion, it is described a manufacturing cell control application developed using the multi-agent technology, and the results are compared with other control application developed in the past by some of the authors, using a traditional approach, for the same flexible manufacturing cell.

  1. Human Neural Cell-Based Biosensor (United States)


    Orlando R, Stice SL. Membrane proteomic signatures of karyotypically normal and abnormal human embryonic stem cell lines and derivatives. Proteomics. 2011...format (96-,384-well) assays, 2) grow as adherent monolayers, and 3) possess a stable karyotype for multiple (>10) passages with a doubling time of ~36...derived neural progenitor cell line working stock has been amplified, characterized for karyotype and evaluated for the expression of neural progenitor

  2. Si based nanostructures for solar cells


    Garozzo, Cristina Annamaria


    Photovoltaic technology has received increased attention as one of the most promising approach to carbon-free energy production. Bulk silicon cells, which convert between 14 and 17% of incident light into electricity, make up 90% of the solar cell market. Silicon is widely used because it is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust, and because the electronics industry has already developed infrastructure to process it. Yet the pricey and complicated manufacturing makes these pho...

  3. Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy in ovarian cancer. (United States)

    Coosemans, An; Vergote, Ignace; Van Gool, Stefaan W


    Worldwide, 80% of patients with ovarian cancer die of the disease. New treatments for this aggressive disease are therefore being intensively searched. Although dendritic cell-based vaccines against gynecological malignancies are in their infancy, this immunotherapeutic approach holds much promise. Here, we present our view on an optimal dendritic cell-based immunotherapeutic strategy against ovarian cancer.

  4. A feasibility study on direct methanol fuel cells for laptop computers based on a cost comparison with lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Wee, Jung-Ho

    This paper compares the total cost of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and lithium (Li)-ion battery systems when applied as the power supply for laptop computers in the Korean environment. The average power output and operational time of the laptop computers were assumed to be 20 W and 3000 h, respectively. Considering the status of their technologies and with certain conditions assumed, the total costs were calculated to be US140 for the Li-ion battery and US362 for DMFC. The manufacturing costs of the DMFC and Li-ion battery systems were calculated to be 16.65 W -1 and 0.77 W h -1, and the energy consumption costs to be 0.00051 W h -1 and 0.00032 W h -1, respectively. The higher fuel consumption cost of the DMFC system was due to the methanol (MeOH) crossover loss. Therefore, the requirements for DMFCs to be able to compete with Li-ion batteries in terms of energy cost include reducing the crossover level to at an order magnitude of -9 and the MeOH price to under 0.5 kg -1. Under these conditions, if the DMFC manufacturing cost could be reduced to 6.30 W -1, then the DMFC system would become at least as competitive as the Li-ion battery system for powering laptop computers in Korea.

  5. Computational cell model based on autonomous cell movement regulated by cell-cell signalling successfully recapitulates the "inside and outside" pattern of cell sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajioka Itsuki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of multicellular organisms proceeds from a single fertilized egg as the combined effect of countless numbers of cellular interactions among highly dynamic cells. Since at least a reminiscent pattern of morphogenesis can be recapitulated in a reproducible manner in reaggregation cultures of dissociated embryonic cells, which is known as cell sorting, the cells themselves must possess some autonomous cell behaviors that assure specific and reproducible self-organization. Understanding of this self-organized dynamics of heterogeneous cell population seems to require some novel approaches so that the approaches bridge a gap between molecular events and morphogenesis in developmental and cell biology. A conceptual cell model in a computer may answer that purpose. We constructed a dynamical cell model based on autonomous cell behaviors, including cell shape, growth, division, adhesion, transformation, and motility as well as cell-cell signaling. The model gives some insights about what cellular behaviors make an appropriate global pattern of the cell population. Results We applied the model to "inside and outside" pattern of cell-sorting, in which two different embryonic cell types within a randomly mixed aggregate are sorted so that one cell type tends to gather in the central region of the aggregate and the other cell type surrounds the first cell type. Our model can modify the above cell behaviors by varying parameters related to them. We explored various parameter sets with which the "inside and outside" pattern could be achieved. The simulation results suggested that direction of cell movement responding to its neighborhood and the cell's mobility are important for this specific rearrangement. Conclusion We constructed an in silico cell model that mimics autonomous cell behaviors and applied it to cell sorting, which is a simple and appropriate phenomenon exhibiting self-organization of cell population. The model

  6. Preconditioning of mesenchymal stromal cells toward nucleus pulposus-like cells by microcryogels-based 3D cell culture and syringe-based pressure loading system. (United States)

    Zeng, Yang; Feng, Siyu; Liu, Wei; Fu, Qinyouen; Li, Yaqian; Li, Xiaokang; Chen, Chun; Huang, Chenyu; Ge, Zigang; Du, Yanan


    To precondition mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) with mechanical stimulation may enhance cell survival and functions following implantation in load bearing environment such as nucleus pulposus (NP) in intervertebral disc (IVD). In this study, preconditioning of MSCs toward NP-like cells was achieved in previously developed poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) microcryogels (PMs) within a syringe-based three-dimensional (3D) culture system which provided a facile and cost-effective pressure loading approach. PMs loaded with alginate and MSCs could be incubated in a sealable syringe which could be air-compressed to apply pressure loading through a programmable syringe pump. Expression levels of chondrogenic marker genes SOX9, COL II, and ACAN were significantly upregulated in MSCs when pressure loading of 0.2 MPa or 0.8 MPa was implemented. Expression levels of COL I and COL X were downregulated when pressure loading was applied. In a nude mouse model, MSCs loaded in PMs mechanically stimulated for three days were subcutaneously injected using the same culture syringe. Three weeks postinjection, more proteoglycans (PGs) were deposited and more SOX9 and COL II but less COL I and COL X were stained in 0.2 MPa group. Furthermore, injectable MSCs-loaded PMs were utilized in an ex vivo rabbit IVD organ culture model that demonstrated the leak-proof function and enhanced cell retention of PMs assisted cell delivery to a load bearing environment for potential NP regeneration. This microcryogels-based 3D cell culture and syringe-based pressure loading system represents a novel method for 3D cell culture with mechanical stimulation for better function. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 507-520, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Magnetic cell labeling of primary and stem cell-derived pig hepatocytes for MRI-based cell tracking of hepatocyte transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwayne R Roach

    Full Text Available Pig hepatocytes are an important investigational tool for optimizing hepatocyte transplantation schemes in both allogeneic and xenogeneic transplant scenarios. MRI can be used to serially monitor the transplanted cells, but only if the hepatocytes can be labeled with a magnetic particle. In this work, we describe culture conditions for magnetic cell labeling of cells from two different pig hepatocyte cell sources; primary pig hepatocytes (ppHEP and stem cell-derived hepatocytes (PICM-19FF. The magnetic particle is a micron-sized iron oxide particle (MPIO that has been extensively studied for magnetic cell labeling for MRI-based cell tracking. ppHEP could endocytose MPIO with labeling percentages as high as 70%, achieving iron content as high as ~55 pg/cell, with >75% viability. PICM-19FF had labeling >97%, achieving iron content ~38 pg/cell, with viability >99%. Extensive morphological and functional assays indicated that magnetic cell labeling was benign to the cells. The results encourage the use of MRI-based cell tracking for the development and clinical use of hepatocyte transplantation methodologies. Further, these results generally highlight the importance of functional cell assays in the evaluation of contrast agent biocompatibility.

  8. Magnetic cell labeling of primary and stem cell-derived pig hepatocytes for MRI-based cell tracking of hepatocyte transplantation. (United States)

    Roach, Dwayne R; Garrett, Wesley M; Welch, Glenn; Caperna, Thomas J; Talbot, Neil C; Shapiro, Erik M


    Pig hepatocytes are an important investigational tool for optimizing hepatocyte transplantation schemes in both allogeneic and xenogeneic transplant scenarios. MRI can be used to serially monitor the transplanted cells, but only if the hepatocytes can be labeled with a magnetic particle. In this work, we describe culture conditions for magnetic cell labeling of cells from two different pig hepatocyte cell sources; primary pig hepatocytes (ppHEP) and stem cell-derived hepatocytes (PICM-19FF). The magnetic particle is a micron-sized iron oxide particle (MPIO) that has been extensively studied for magnetic cell labeling for MRI-based cell tracking. ppHEP could endocytose MPIO with labeling percentages as high as 70%, achieving iron content as high as ~55 pg/cell, with >75% viability. PICM-19FF had labeling >97%, achieving iron content ~38 pg/cell, with viability >99%. Extensive morphological and functional assays indicated that magnetic cell labeling was benign to the cells. The results encourage the use of MRI-based cell tracking for the development and clinical use of hepatocyte transplantation methodologies. Further, these results generally highlight the importance of functional cell assays in the evaluation of contrast agent biocompatibility.

  9. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on purple corn sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phinjaturus, Kawin [Materials Science and Nanotechnology Program, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Maiaugree, Wasan [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Suriharn, Bhalang [Department of Plant Science and Agricultural Resources, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Pimanpaeng, Samuk; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center (INRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Swatsitang, Ekaphan, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center (INRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Nanotec-KKU Center of Excellence on Advanced Nanomaterials for Energy Production and Storage, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Extract from husk, cob and silk of purple corn was used as a photosensitizer in DSSC. • Effect of solvents i.e. acetone, ethanol and DI water on DSSC efficiency was studied. • The highest efficiency of 1.06% was obtained in DSSC based on acetone extraction. - Abstract: Natural dye extracted from husk, cob and silk of purple corn, were used for the first time as photosensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dye sensitized solar cells fabrication process has been optimized in terms of solvent extraction. The resulting maximal efficiency of 1.06% was obtained from purple corn husk extracted by acetone. The ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) were employed to characterize the natural dye and the DSSCs.

  10. Break-in and Performance Issues on a single cell PBI-based PEM Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen; Jespersen, Jesper Lebæk

    of the fuel cell, even though break-in of a fuel cell implemented in a commercial application would most likely not be feasible. In the present work a commercially available PBI-based high temperature MEA is subject to a break-in procedure, as specified by the manufacturer. The cell was operated at 160 °C......Depending on the application in question and the load cycle of operation, fuel cell degradation can be a serious problem. Fuel cell degradation of PBI-based MEA's and fuel cells in general is quite complex. The rate of degradation depends on several parameters, where the operating temperature...... and the current drawn from the fuel cell are of great importance. One must therefore choose the point of operation carefully in order for the fuel cell to fulfil the requirements for lifetime perform-ance of the system. Break-in of fuel cells is often done in scientific experiments to improve the performance...

  11. Uncertainties of yeast-based biofuel cell operational characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babanova, S.; Mitov, M.; Mandjukov, P. [Department of Chemistry, South-West University, 66 Ivan Mihailov str., 2700 Blagoevgrad (Bulgaria); Hubenova, Y. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Plovdiv University, 24 Tsar Asen str., 4000 Plovdiv (Bulgaria)


    The commonly used parameters characterizing fuel cells and in particular microbial fuel cells (MFCs) electrical performance are open circuit voltage (OCV), maximum power, and short circuit current. These characteristics are usually obtained from polarization and power curves. In the present study, the expanded uncertainties of operational characteristics for yeast-based fuel cell were evaluated and the main sources of uncertainty were determined. Two approaches were used: the uncertainty budget building for sources uncertainty estimation and a statistical treatment of identical MFCs results - for operational characteristics uncertainty calculation. It was found that in this particular bioelectrochemical system the major factor contributing to operational characteristics uncertainties was the electrodes' resistance. The operational characteristics uncertainties were decreased from 19 to 13% for OCV, from 42 to 14% for maximal power, and from 46 to 13% for short circuit current with the usage of electrodes with resistance in the interval 6-7 {omega}. The described approaches can be used for operational characteristics expanded uncertainties calculation of all types of fuel cells using data from polarization measurements. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Carboplatin plus weekly nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel in elderly patients with previously untreated advanced squamous non-small-cell lung cancer selected based on Mini Nutritional Assessment short-form scores: a multicenter phase 2 study. (United States)

    Shiroyama, Takayuki; Tamiya, Motohiro; Minami, Seigo; Takata, So; Masuhiro, Kentaro; Futami-Nishijima, Yu; Uenami, Takeshi; Mori, Masahide; Koba, Taro; Matsuki, Takanori; Takimoto, Takayuki; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Okamoto, Norio; Komuta, Kiyoshi; Hirashima, Tomonori; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Kijima, Takashi


    This multicenter, single-arm, open-label, phase 2 study assessed the efficacy and safety of carboplatin plus weekly nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel in elderly patients with previously untreated advanced squamous non-small-cell lung cancer, selected based on the Mini Nutritional Assessment short-form scores (MNA-SF). Patients received carboplatin (area under the curve: 6) on Day 1, and nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (100 mg/m2) on Days 1, 8, and 15, every 28 days for ≤4 cycles. Eligibility criteria included an MNA-SF score of ≥8 points. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate. Thirty patients with a median age of 76 (range 70-83) years were enrolled. The objective response rate was 50.0% (95% confidence interval: 31.3-68.7%), which met the primary objective of this study. The disease control rate was 73.3% (95% CI: 54.1-87.7%). At a median follow-up of 15.0 months, the median progression-free and overall survival was 7.1 and 19.1 months, respectively. The most common treatment-related adverse event of Grade ≥3 was neutropenia (66.7%). Non-hematological adverse events of Grade ≥3 were minor. Well-nourished patients, based on the MNA-SF, experienced fewer adverse events of Grade ≥3 compared to patients at risk of malnutrition. All treatment-related adverse events were tolerable and reversible. There were no treatment-related deaths. Carboplatin plus weekly nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel is effective and well tolerated as a first-line treatment for elderly patients with advanced squamous non-small-cell lung cancer. Eligibility based on MNA-SF screening may be useful in determining acceptable toxicity.

  13. A millifluidic study of cell-to-cell heterogeneity in growth-rate and cell-division capability in populations of isogenic cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima P Damodaran

    Full Text Available To address possible cell-to-cell heterogeneity in growth dynamics of isogenic cell populations of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we developed a millifluidic drop-based device that not only allows the analysis of populations grown from single cells over periods of a week, but is also able to sort and collect drops of interest, containing viable and healthy cells, which can be used for further experimentation. In this study, we used isogenic algal cells that were first synchronized in mixotrophic growth conditions. We show that these synchronized cells, when placed in droplets and kept in mixotrophic growth conditions, exhibit mostly homogeneous growth statistics, but with two distinct subpopulations: a major population with a short doubling-time (fast-growers and a significant subpopulation of slowly dividing cells (slow-growers. These observations suggest that algal cells from an isogenic population may be present in either of two states, a state of restricted division and a state of active division. When isogenic cells were allowed to propagate for about 1000 generations on solid agar plates, they displayed an increased heterogeneity in their growth dynamics. Although we could still identify the original populations of slow- and fast-growers, drops inoculated with a single progenitor cell now displayed a wider diversity of doubling-times. Moreover, populations dividing with the same growth-rate often reached different cell numbers in stationary phase, suggesting that the progenitor cells differed in the number of cell divisions they could undertake. We discuss possible explanations for these cell-to-cell heterogeneities in growth dynamics, such as mutations, differential aging or stochastic variations in metabolites and macromolecules yielding molecular switches, in the light of single-cell heterogeneities that have been reported among isogenic populations of other eu- and prokaryotes.

  14. Graphene-based wideband metamaterial absorber for solar cells application (United States)

    Rufangura, Patrick; Sabah, Cumali


    A wideband metamaterial (MTM) absorber based on a concentric ring resonator is discussed at visible frequencies. The proposed structure offers a wideband absorption response, where absorption of >70% is gained for the frequency ranging from 537.91 to 635.73 THz. The analysis is conducted on the components of the proposed structure to understand the origin of wideband absorption. Furthermore, a graphene monolayer sheet is integrated to the proposed MTM absorber to optimize its absorptivity, where the studies show enhancement of the absorptivity of the proposed structure up to 26% from its initial absorptivity. MTM absorbers of this kind have potential applications in solar cells.

  15. Surge of immune cell formation at birth differs by mode of delivery and infant characteristics-A population-based cohort study. (United States)

    Schlinzig, Titus; Johansson, Stefan; Stephansson, Olof; Hammarström, Lennart; Zetterström, Rolf H; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Cnattingius, Sven; Norman, Mikael


    Birth by cesarean section is associated with increased risks of immune disorders. We tested whether establishment of immune function at birth relates to mode of delivery, taking other maternal and infant characteristics into account. Using a prospectively collected database, we retrieved information on maternal and infant characteristics of 6,014 singleton infants delivered from February to April 2014 in Stockholm, Sweden, with gestational age ≥35 weeks, Apgar scores ≥7, and without congenital malformations or any neonatal morbidity. We linked our data to blood levels of T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) and κ-deleting recombination excision circles (KREC), determined as part of a neonatal screening program for immune-deficiencies, and representing quantities of newly formed T- and B-lymphocytes. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for participants having TREC and KREC levels in the lowest quintile. Multivariate models were adjusted for postnatal age at blood sampling, and included perinatal (mode of delivery, infant sex, gestational age, and birth weight for gestational age), and maternal characteristics (age, parity, BMI, smoking, diabetes, and hypertensive disease). Low TREC was associated with cesarean section before labor (adjusted OR:1.32 [95% CI 1.08-1.62]), male infant sex (aOR:1.60 [1.41-1.83]), preterm birth at 35-36 weeks of gestation (aOR:1.89 [1.21-2.96]) and small for gestational age (aOR:1.67 [1.00-2.79]). Low KREC was associated with male sex (aOR:1.32 [1.15-1.50]), postterm birth at ≥42 weeks (aOR:1.43 [1.13-1.82]) and small for gestational age (aOR:2.89 [1.78-4.69]). Maternal characteristics showed no consistent associations with neonatal levels of either TREC or KREC. Cesarean section before labor was associated with lower T-lymphocyte formation, irrespective of maternal characteristics, pregnancy, and neonatal risk factors. The significance of a reduced birth

  16. Operational Energy Base Camp Studies (United States)


    criteria for expeditionary military equipment sets. Following the criteria, the paper examines solar panels, wind turbines , and rechargeable batteries...Applications: Solar, Wind, Biomass, Geothermal, Hydrokinetic Energy, Biofuels and Synfuels, Fuel Cells, Microgrids, Smart Meters, and Energy Efficiency

  17. Multiplexed Cell-Based Sensors for Assessing the Impact of Engineered Systems and Methods on Cell Health. (United States)

    Varma, Sarvesh; Fendyur, Anna; Box, Andrew; Voldman, Joel


    Bioinstrumentation engineers have long been creating platforms to study cell health and disease. It becomes necessary to ensure that such cell-probing tools do not themselves harm cells through complex stressors resulting from their design or operational conditions. Here, we present multiplexed cell-based sensors to simultaneously quantify stress induced by diverse mechanisms such as shear stress, DNA damage, and heat shock. Our sensors do not require additional reagents and can be conveniently quantified by flow cytometry and real-time imaging. Successful adaptation of our sensors by external users enabled systematic assessment of multiple flow sorters, alongside their operational parameters using the same cells and preparation. Our results provide insight into "gentle" and stressful sorting parameters that had not been quantified previously. Overall, this work presents a facile and quantitative approach to investigate multifactorial cell-stress emergent from diverse bioinstrumentation, which can be utilized to discover design and operation conditions ideal for cell health.

  18. Classification of human natural killer cells based on migration behavior and cytotoxic response. (United States)

    Vanherberghen, Bruno; Olofsson, Per E; Forslund, Elin; Sternberg-Simon, Michal; Khorshidi, Mohammad Ali; Pacouret, Simon; Guldevall, Karolin; Enqvist, Monika; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Mehr, Ramit; Önfelt, Björn


    Despite intense scrutiny of the molecular interactions between natural killer (NK) and target cells, few studies have been devoted to dissection of the basic functional heterogeneity in individual NK cell behavior. Using a microchip-based, time-lapse imaging approach allowing the entire contact history of each NK cell to be recorded, in the present study, we were able to quantify how the cytotoxic response varied between individual NK cells. Strikingly, approximately half of the NK cells did not kill any target cells at all, whereas a minority of NK cells was responsible for a majority of the target cell deaths. These dynamic cytotoxicity data allowed categorization of NK cells into 5 distinct classes. A small but particularly active subclass of NK cells killed several target cells in a consecutive fashion. These "serial killers" delivered their lytic hits faster and induced faster target cell death than other NK cells. Fast, necrotic target cell death was correlated with the amount of perforin released by the NK cells. Our data are consistent with a model in which a small fraction of NK cells drives tumor elimination and inflammation.

  19. Evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations based on mutation specific immunohistochemistry in non-small cell lung cancer: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali Jain


    Interpretation & conclusions: In this preliminary study from India mutation specific IHC was used for assessment of mutation status of EGFR. Although the number tested was small, a good concordance was observed between molecular EGFR mutation and IHC expression. IHC methodology is a potentially useful tool to guide clinicians for personalized treatment in lung ADC, especially where facilities for molecular analysis are not readily available and for use in small biopsies where material is scant for molecular tests.

  20. Effect of full flavor and denicotinized cigarettes exposure on the brain microvascular endothelium: a microarray-based gene expression study using a human immortalized BBB endothelial cell line


    Naik, Pooja; Sajja, Ravi K; Prasad, Shikha; Cucullo, Luca


    Background Tobacco smoke (TS) toxicity to the brain microvasculature is still an understudied area till date. NF-E2 related factor (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor responsible for activating the antioxidant response element (ARE) genes following an oxidative insult. Till date, several studies targeting the blood brain barrier (BBB) have shown some protective role of Nrf2 in ischemia?reperfusion (IR) injury, however, its functional role in chronic smokers subjected to a life-long oxidative...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Vieira Macedo Grinet


    Full Text Available Carbohydrates are vast constituents of cell surfaces and in many systems where cell adhesion plays a critical role, carbohydrate binding proteins have been shown to bind to cell surface carbohydrates and participate in cell-cell interactions. Jurkat cells are suspension cells that grow in clumps and have 20.7 (± 2.2 hours of population doubling time (PDT. In this experiment, Jurkat cells are studied to compare the effects of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA lectin, and Maackia amurensis (MAA lectin, for clumping and spheroid formation studies, as well as carbohydrate analog solutions in ethanol (C2H6O Ac4ManNAc, and Ac5ManNTGc for concentration effect studies.

  2. An Imaging Flow Cytometry-based approach to analyse the fission yeast cell cycle in fixed cells. (United States)

    Patterson, James O; Swaffer, Matthew; Filby, Andrew


    Fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) is an excellent model organism for studying eukaryotic cell division because many of the underlying principles and key regulators of cell cycle biology are conserved from yeast to humans. As such it can be employed as tool for understanding complex human diseases that arise from dis-regulation in cell cycle controls, including cancers. Conventional Flow Cytometry (CFC) is a high-throughput, multi-parameter, fluorescence-based single cell analysis technology. It is widely used for studying the mammalian cell cycle both in the context of the normal and disease states by measuring changes in DNA content during the transition through G1, S and G2/M using fluorescent DNA-binding dyes. Unfortunately analysis of the fission yeast cell cycle by CFC is not straightforward because, unlike mammalian cells, cytokinesis occurs after S-phase meaning that bi-nucleated G1 cells have the same DNA content as mono-nucleated G2 cells and cannot be distinguished using total integrated fluorescence (pulse area). It has been elegantly shown that the width of the DNA pulse can be used to distinguish G2 cells with a single 2C foci versus G1 cells with two 1C foci, however the accuracy of this measurement is dependent on the orientation of the cell as it traverses the laser beam. To this end we sought to improve the accuracy of the fission yeast cell cycle analysis and have developed an Imaging Flow Cytometry (IFC)-based method that is able to preserve the high throughput, objective analysis afforded by CFC in combination with the spatial and morphometric information provide by microscopy. We have been able to derive an analysis framework for subdividing the yeast cell cycle that is based on intensiometric and morphometric measurements and is thus robust against orientation-based miss-classification. In addition we can employ image-based metrics to define populations of septated/bi-nucleated cells and measure cellular dimensions. To our knowledge

  3. Evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations based on mutation specific immunohistochemistry in non-small cell lung cancer: A preliminary study. (United States)

    Jain, Deepali; Iqbal, Sobuhi; Walia, Ritika; Malik, Prabhat; Cyriac, Sunu; Mathur, Sandeep R; Sharma, Mehar C; Madan, Karan; Mohan, Anant; Bhalla, Ashu; Pathy, Sushmita; Kumar, Lalit; Guleria, Randeep


    Studies have shown that immunohistochemical (IHC) staining using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation specific antibodies, is an easy and cost-effective, screening method compared with molecular techniques. The purpose of present study was to assess the percentage positivity of IHC using EGFR mutation specific antibodies in lung biopsy samples from patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma (ADC). Two hundred and six biopsies of primary lung ADC were subjected to EGFR mutation specific antibodies against del E746-A750 and L858R. Detection of EGFR mutation done by high resolution melting analysis (HRM) was used as gold standard. A concordance was established between molecular and IHC results. Frequency of IHC positivity was assessed. Of the 206 patients, 129 were male and 77 were female patients, with a mean age of 54.1 yr. Fifty five (26.6%) patients (36 men; 19 women) showed positivity for IHC of del E746-A750 (33) and L858R (22). HRM results were available in 14 patients which showed EGFR mutations in correspondence with del E746-750 or L858R in 64.2 per cent cases. Positive cases on HRM were further confirmed by DNA sequencing and fragment analysis. Three patients showed exon[20] variation. Two cases were negative for mutation. The genotype of del E746-750 mutation was more common than L858R. A concordance was established between molecular mutation and IHC in 85.7 per cent cases. In this preliminary study from India mutation specific IHC was used for assessment of mutation status of EGFR. Although the number tested was small, a good concordance was observed between molecular EGFR mutation and IHC expression. IHC methodology is a potentially useful tool to guide clinicians for personalized treatment in lung ADC, especially where facilities for molecular analysis are not readily available and for use in small biopsies where material is scant for molecular tests.

  4. Discrimination Between Cervical Cancer Cells and Normal Cervical Cells Based on Longitudinal Elasticity Using Atomic Force Microscopy (United States)

    Zhao, Xueqin; Zhong, Yunxin; Ye, Ting; Wang, Dajing; Mao, Bingwei


    The mechanical properties of cells are considered promising biomarkers for the early diagnosis of cancer. Recently, atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanoindentation technology has been utilized for the examination of cell cortex mechanics in order to distinguish malignant cells from normal cells. However, few attempts to evaluate the biomechanical properties of cells have focused on the quantification of the non-homogeneous longitudinal elasticity of cellular structures. In the present study, we applied a variation of the method of Carl and Schillers to investigate the differences between longitudinal elasticity of human cervical squamous carcinoma cells (CaSki) and normal cervical epithelial cells (CRL2614) using AFM. The results reveal a three-layer heterogeneous structure in the probing volume of both cell types studied. CaSki cells exhibited a lower whole-cell stiffness and a softer nuclei zone compared to the normal counterpart cells. Moreover, a better differentiated cytoskeleton was found in the inner cytoplasm/nuclei zone of the normal CRL2614 cells, whereas a deeper cytoskeletal distribution was observed in the probing volume of the cancerous counterparts. The sensitive cortical panel of CaSki cells, with a modulus of 0.35~0.47 kPa, was located at 237~225 nm; in normal cells, the elasticity was 1.20~1.32 kPa at 113~128 nm. The present improved method may be validated using the conventional Hertz-Sneddon method, which is widely reported in the literature. In conclusion, our results enable the quantification of the heterogeneous longitudinal elasticity of cancer cells, in particular the correlation with the corresponding depth. Preliminary results indicate that our method may potentially be applied to improve the detection of cancerous cells and provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease.

  5. MEMS-based platforms for mechanical manipulation and characterization of cells (United States)

    Pan, Peng; Wang, Wenhui; Ru, Changhai; Sun, Yu; Liu, Xinyu


    Mechanical manipulation and characterization of single cells are important experimental techniques in biological and medical research. Because of the microscale sizes and highly fragile structures of cells, conventional cell manipulation and characterization techniques are not accurate and/or efficient enough or even cannot meet the more and more demanding needs in different types of cell-based studies. To this end, novel microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based technologies have been developed to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and consistency of various cell manipulation and characterization tasks, and enable new types of cell research. This article summarizes existing MEMS-based platforms developed for cell mechanical manipulation and characterization, highlights their specific design considerations making them suitable for their designated tasks, and discuss their advantages and limitations. In closing, an outlook into future trends is also provided.

  6. Cell cycle population effects in perturbation studies. (United States)

    O'Duibhir, Eoghan; Lijnzaad, Philip; Benschop, Joris J; Lenstra, Tineke L; van Leenen, Dik; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; Margaritis, Thanasis; Brok, Mariel O; Kemmeren, Patrick; Holstege, Frank C P


    Growth condition perturbation or gene function disruption are commonly used strategies to study cellular systems. Although it is widely appreciated that such experiments may involve indirect effects, these frequently remain uncharacterized. Here, analysis of functionally unrelated Saccharyomyces cerevisiae deletion strains reveals a common gene expression signature. One property shared by these strains is slower growth, with increased presence of the signature in more slowly growing strains. The slow growth signature is highly similar to the environmental stress response (ESR), an expression response common to diverse environmental perturbations. Both environmental and genetic perturbations result in growth rate changes. These are accompanied by a change in the distribution of cells over different cell cycle phases. Rather than representing a direct expression response in single cells, both the slow growth signature and ESR mainly reflect a redistribution of cells over different cell cycle phases, primarily characterized by an increase in the G1 population. The findings have implications for any study of perturbation that is accompanied by growth rate changes. Strategies to counter these effects are presented and discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  7. Aptamer based electrochemical sensor for detection of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells (United States)

    Sharma, Rachna; Varun Agrawal, Ved; Sharma, Pradeep; Varshney, R.; Sinha, R. K.; Malhotra, B. D.


    We report results of the studies relating to development of an aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor for detection of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The aminated 85-mer DNA aptamer probe specific for the A549 cells has been covalently immobilized onto silane self assembled monolayer (SAM) onto ITO surface using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinker. The results of cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry studies reveal that the aptamer functionalized bioelectrode can specifically detect lung cancer cells in the concentration range of 103 to 107 cells/ml with detection limit of 103 cells/ml within 60 s. The specificity studies of the bioelectrode have been carried out with control KB cells. No significant change in response is observed for control KB cells as compared to that of the A549 target cells.

  8. Video Field Studies with your Cell Phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Fraser, Euan


    is monumental, that equipment is difficult to handle etc. This tutorial presents a lightweight entry into video field studies, using cheap devices like cell phones and portable webcams for informal shooting and simple computer handling for editing. E.g. how far can you get with an iPhone or a video capable i...

  9. Interactions of polysaccharide-based tissue adhesives with clinically relevant fibroblast and macrophage cell lines. (United States)

    Bhatia, Sujata K; Arthur, Samuel D; Chenault, H Keith; Kodokian, George K


    The effects of polysaccharide-based tissue adhesives on cell survival and inflammatory cell activation were determined using in vitro mouse cell cultures. Cytotoxicity of tissue adhesives was evaluated by placing adhesives in direct contact with 3T3 fibroblast cells. Polysaccharide-based tissue adhesives composed of dextran aldehyde and star PEG amine were non-cytotoxic to fibroblasts; in contrast, a commercial adhesive composed of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate was highly cytotoxic to fibroblasts. The inflammatory potential of tissue adhesives was evaluated by exposing J774 macrophage cells to adhesives, and measuring TNF-alpha release from macrophages. Polysaccharide-based tissue adhesives did not elicit inflammatory TNF-alpha release from macrophages. These results suggest that polysaccharide-based tissue adhesives are non-cytotoxic and non-inflammatory; the results are therefore significant in the design of in vitro cell culture systems to study biomaterials.

  10. Generation of dendritic cell-based vaccine using high hydrostatic pressure for non-small cell lung cancer immunotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Hradilova

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure (HHP induces immunogenic death of tumor cells which confer protective anti-tumor immunity in vivo. Moreover, DC pulsed with HHP-treated tumor cells induced therapeutic effect in mouse cancer model. In this study, we tested the immunogenicity, stability and T cell stimulatory activity of human monocyte-derived dendritic cell (DC-based HHP lung cancer vaccine generated in GMP compliant serum free medium using HHP 250 MPa. DC pulsed with HHP-killed lung cancer cells and poly(I:C enhanced DC maturation, chemotactic migration and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines after 24h. Moreover, DC-based HHP lung cancer vaccine showed functional plasticity after transfer into serum-containing media and stimulation with LPS or CD40L after additional 24h. LPS and CD40L stimulation further differentially enhanced the expression of costimulatory molecules and production of IL-12p70. DC-based HHP lung cancer vaccine decreased the number of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells and stimulated IFN-γ-producing tumor antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Tumor antigen specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses were detected in NSCLC patient's against a selected tumor antigens expressed by lung cancer cell lines used for the vaccine generation. We also showed for the first time that protein antigen from HHP-killed lung cancer cells is processed and presented by DC to CD8+ T cells. Our results represent important preclinical data for ongoing NSCLC Phase I/II clinical trial using DC-based active cellular immunotherapy (DCVAC/LuCa in combination with chemotherapy and immune enhancers.

  11. Village electrification technologies - an evaluation of photovoltaic cells and compact fluorescent lamps and their applicability in rural villages based on a Tanzanian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Monica E-mail:; Ilskog, Elisabeth E-mail:; Katyega, Maneno E-mail:; Kjellstroem, B. E-mail:


    Electrification of remote sites in developing countries is often realised trough diesel generator sets and an electric distribution network. This was also the technology used in the village Urambo, where the first rural electrification co-operative in Tanzania was started in 1994. Climate change however calls for decreased fossil fuel combustion worldwide and new technologies have been further developed since the erection of the diesel generator sets in Urambo. It is therefore not obvious that electrification of other rural areas shall follow the Urambo example. In this article, the situation for 250 electricity consumers in Urambo will be demonstrated and the implications for them of introducing new technologies will be evaluated. Technology options regarded in the study are individual photovoltaic (PV) power systems and either incandescent lamps, tube lights or compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) supplied by diesel generation. The different options have been evaluated with respect to consumer costs and environmental impact. The results of the comparison show that PV generation is able to compete with diesel generation if combined with incandescent lamps, but not when tube lights or CFLs are used in the conventional supply system. It should be noted, however, that while the diesel option offer financially more attractive solutions, individual PV systems do not result in any CO{sub 2} emissions. Furthermore, PV systems normally have a higher reliability. However, since the diesel option is not only cheaper but also offers a wider range of energy services and facilitates, future connection to the national electric grid, the conclusion is that this is preferable before individual PV systems for communities similar to Urambo, if the consumers shall pay the full cost of the service.

  12. Stem cell based anti-HIV Gene therapy (United States)

    Kitchen, Scott G.; Shimizu, Saki; An, Dong Sung


    Human stem cell-based therapeutic intervention strategies for treating HIV infection have recently undergone a renaissance as a major focus of investigation. Unlike most conventional antiviral therapies, genetically engineered hematopoietic stem cells possess the capacity for prolonged self-renewal that would continuously produce protected immune cells to fight against HIV. A successful strategy therefore has the potential to stably control and ultimately eradicate HIV from patients by a single or minimal treatment. Recent progress in the development of new technologies and clinical trials sets the stage for the current generation of gene therapy approaches to combat HIV infection. In this review, we will discuss two major approaches that are currently underway in the development of stem cell-based gene therapy to target HIV: One that focuses on the protection of cells from productive infection with HIV, and the other that focuses on targeting immune cells to directly combat HIV infection. PMID:21247612

  13. Synthesis of stochastic open cell Ni-based foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queheillalt, Douglas T.; Katsumura, Yasushi; Wadley, Haydn N.G


    Open cell, stochastic Ni-based foams have been synthesized on carbon foam templates by transient liquid phase bonding nickel based superalloy (Ni-21Cr-9Mo-4Nb) and Ni-25Cr-10P powders. The mechanical properties of these Ni-based foams were similar to those of other lower temperature metal foams of similar topology.

  14. High Content Image Based Analysis Identifies Cell Cycle Inhibitors as Regulators of Ebola Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Bavari


    Full Text Available Viruses modulate a number of host biological responses including the cell cycle to favor their replication. In this study, we developed a high-content imaging (HCI assay to measure DNA content and identify different phases of the cell cycle. We then investigated the potential effects of cell cycle arrest on Ebola virus (EBOV infection. Cells arrested in G1 phase by serum starvation or G1/S phase using aphidicolin or G2/M phase using nocodazole showed much reduced EBOV infection compared to the untreated control. Release of cells from serum starvation or aphidicolin block resulted in a time-dependent increase in the percentage of EBOV infected cells. The effect of EBOV infection on cell cycle progression was found to be cell-type dependent. Infection of asynchronous MCF-10A cells with EBOV resulted in a reduced number of cells in G2/M phase with concomitant increase of cells in G1 phase. However, these effects were not observed in HeLa or A549 cells. Together, our studies suggest that EBOV requires actively proliferating cells for efficient replication. Furthermore, multiplexing of HCI based assays to detect viral infection, cell cycle status and other phenotypic changes in a single cell population will provide useful information during screening campaigns using siRNA and small molecule therapeutics.

  15. Stem-Cell Based Therapies for Epidermolysis Bullosa (United States)


    100) (Life Technologies), B27 supplement (50) (Life Technologies), 50 μg/mL ascorbic acid , 0.05 % bovine serum albumin (BSA), 50U/mLpenicillin...EB), a group of rare inherited skin blistering diseases. To accomplish this goal, we are proposing to develop stem-cell based therapies for EB using...autologous induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from skin cells harvested from the same EB patient. During the second year of funding, we

  16. Electrocatalytic studies of iridium based clusters for the oxygen reduction and hydrogen oxidation reactions in 0.5 M H2SO4, in the presence of fuel cell contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe-Godinez, J.; Jimenez-Sandoval, O.; Borja-Arco, E.; Altamirano-Gutierrez, A. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Inst. Politecnico Nacional, Queretaro (Mexico); Castellanos, R.H. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)


    The development of a cost effective cathode catalyst which is tolerant to CH3OH is a priority for the development of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Ruthenium (Ru) and osmium nanoclusters are among the most promising alternatives to platinum (Pt) for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, iridium (Ir) is one of the most stable Pt group metals in acid media. Although it has a lower activity towards the ORR and hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) than platinum, its activity towards CH3OH is also lower than that of Pt. The synthetic procedure in this study was based on the pyrolysis of Ir4(CO)12 at 190 degrees C, under neutral (N2) and reductive atmospheres (H2) for 5 hours. The new materials were structurally characterized by FT-IR and micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and electrochemistry by the rotating disk electrode (RDE) technique in a 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte, at room temperature. This paper reported on the the electrokinetic parameters, such as the Tafel slope, the interchange current density and the transfer coefficient. It was concluded that the new materials are good candidates for their use as both anodes and cathodes as commercial platinum catalysts in PEMFC. All the new electrocatalysts performed the HOR, even in the presence of carbon monoxide, which is a clear advantage over Pt catalysts. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Advanced Cell Development and Degradation Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; R. C. O' Brien; K. G. Condie; M. Sohal; G. K. Housley; J. J. Hartvigsen; D. Larsen; G. Tao; B. Yildiz; V. Sharma; P. Singh; N. Petigny; T. L. Cable


    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cells for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. From 2003 – 2009, this work was sponsored by the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). Starting in 2010, the HTE research program has been sponsored by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program. HTSE research priorities in FY10 are centered on understanding and reducing cell and stack performance degradation to an acceptable level to advance the technology readiness level of HTSE and to justify further large-scale demonstration activities. This report provides a summary of our FY10 experimental program, which has been focused on advanced cell and stack development and degradation studies. Advanced cell and stack development activities are under way at five technology partners: MSRI, Versa Power, Ceramatec, NASA Glenn, and St. Gobain. Performance evaluation of the advanced technology cells and stacks has been performed by the technology partners, by MIT and the University of Connecticut and at the INL HTE Laboratory. Summaries of these development activities and test results are presented.

  18. Natural killer cell dysfunction in hepatocellular carcinoma and NK cell-based immunotherapy (United States)

    Sun, Cheng; Sun, Hao-yu; Xiao, Wei-hua; Zhang, Cai; Tian, Zhi-gang


    The mechanisms linking hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain largely unknown. Natural killer (NK) cells account for 25%–50% of the total number of liver lymphocytes, suggesting that NK cells play an important role in liver immunity. The number of NK cells in the blood and tumor tissues of HCC patients is positively correlated with their survival and prognosis. Furthermore, a group of NK cell-associated genes in HCC tissues is positively associated with the prolonged survival. These facts suggest that NK cells and HCC progression are strongly associated. In this review, we describe the abnormal NK cells and their functional impairment in patients with chronic HBV and HCV infection, which contribute to the progression of HCC. Then, we summarize the association of NK cells with HCC based on the abnormalities in the numbers and phenotypes of blood and liver NK cells in HCC patients. In particular, the exhaustion of NK cells that represents lower cytotoxicity and impaired cytokine production may serve as a predictor for the occurrence of HCC. Finally, we present the current achievements in NK cell immunotherapy conducted in mouse models of liver cancer and in clinical trials, highlighting how chemoimmunotherapy, NK cell transfer, gene therapy, cytokine therapy and mAb therapy improve NK cell function in HCC treatment. It is conceivable that NK cell-based anti-HCC therapeutic strategies alone or in combination with other therapies will be great promise for HCC treatment. PMID:26073325

  19. Production Process for Stem Cell Based Therapeutic Implants: Expansion of the Production Cell Line and Cultivation of Encapsulated Cells (United States)

    Weber, C.; Pohl, S.; Poertner, R.; Pino-Grace, Pablo; Freimark, D.; Wallrapp, C.; Geigle, P.; Czermak, P.

    Cell based therapy promises the treatment of many diseases like diabetes mellitus, Parkinson disease or stroke. Microencapsulation of the cells protects them against host-vs-graft reactions and thus enables the usage of allogenic cell lines for the manufacturing of cell therapeutic implants. The production process of such implants consists mainly of the three steps expansion of the cells, encapsulation of the cells, and cultivation of the encapsulated cells in order to increase their vitality and thus quality. This chapter deals with the development of fixed-bed bioreactor-based cultivation procedures used in the first and third step of production. The bioreactor system for the expansion of the stem cell line (hMSC-TERT) is based on non-porous glass spheres, which support cell growth and harvesting with high yield and vitality. The cultivation process for the spherical cell based implants leads to an increase of vitality and additionally enables the application of a medium-based differentiation protocol.

  20. Cell-nanofiber-based cartilage tissue engineering using improved cell seeding, growth factor, and bioreactor technologies. (United States)

    Li, Wan-Ju; Jiang, Yi Jen; Tuan, Rocky S


    Biodegradable nanofibrous scaffolds serving as an extracellular matrix substitute have been shown to be applicable for cartilage tissue engineering. However, a key challenge in using nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering is that the small pore size limits the infiltration of cells, which may result in uneven cell distribution throughout the scaffold. This study describes an effective method of chondrocyte loading into nanofibrous scaffolds, which combines cell seeding, mixing, and centrifugation to form homogeneous, packed cell-nanofiber composites (CNCs). When the effects of different growth factors are compared, CNCs cultured in medium containing a combination of insulin-like growth factor-1 and transforming growth factor-beta1 express the highest mRNA levels of collagen type II and aggrecan. Radiolabeling analyses confirm the effect on collagen and sulfated-glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) production. Histology reveals chondrocytes with typical morphology embedded in lacuna-like space throughout the entire structure of the CNC. Upon culturing using a rotary wall vessel bioreactor, CNCs develop into a smooth, glossy cartilage-like tissue, compared to a rough-surface tissue when maintained in a static environment. Bioreactor-grown cartilage constructs produce more total collagen and sGAG, resulting in greater gain in net tissue weight, as well as express cartilage-associated genes, including collagen types II and IX, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, and aggrecan. In addition, dynamic culture enhances the mechanical property of the engineered cartilage. Taken together, these results indicate the applicability of nanofibrous scaffolds, combined with efficient cell loading and bioreactor technology, for cell-based cartilage tissue engineering.

  1. Visualizing cell-cycle kinetics after hypoxia/reoxygenation in HeLa cells expressing fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci). (United States)

    Goto, Tatsuaki; Kaida, Atsushi; Miura, Masahiko


    Hypoxia induces G1 arrest in many cancer cell types. Tumor cells are often exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation, especially under acute hypoxic conditions in vivo. In this study, we investigated cell-cycle kinetics and clonogenic survival after hypoxia/reoxygenation in HeLa cells expressing fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci). Hypoxic treatment halted cell-cycle progression during mid-S to G2 phase, as determined by the cell cycle-regulated E3 ligase activities of SCF(Skp2) and APC/C(Cdh1), which are regulators of the Fucci probes; however, the DNA content of the arrested cells was equivalent to that in G1 phase. After reoxygenation, time-lapse imaging and DNA content analysis revealed that all cells reached G2 phase, and that Fucci fluorescence was distinctly separated into two fractions 24h after reoxygenation: red cells that released from G2 arrest after repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) exhibited higher clonogenic survival, whereas most cells that stayed green contained many DSBs and exhibited lower survival. We conclude that hypoxia disrupts coordination of DNA synthesis and E3 ligase activities associated with cell-cycle progression, and that DSB repair could greatly influence cell-cycle kinetics and clonogenic survival after hypoxia/reoxygenation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Foam Based Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Reversible Alkaline Electrolysis Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    Alkaline electrolysis cells operated at 250 °C and 40 bar have shown to be able to convert electrical energy into hydrogen at very high efficiencies and power densities. Foam based gas diffusion electrodes and an immobilized electrolyte allow for reversible operation as electrolysis cell or fuel...

  3. Virtual microstructural leaf tissue generation based on cell growth modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abera, M.K.; Retta, M.A.; Verboven, P.; Nicolai, B.M.; Berghuijs, H.; Struik, P.


    A cell growth algorithm for virtual leaf tissue generation is presented based on the biomechanics of plant cells in tissues. The algorithm can account for typical differences in epidermal layers, palisade mesophyll layer and spongy mesophyll layer which have characteristic differences in the

  4. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fuel cell-based automobiles have gained attention in the last few years due to growing public concern about urban air pollution and consequent environmental ... it appears that direct conversion fuel cells using probably hydrogen, but possibly methanol, are the only realistic contenders for road transportation applications.

  5. Targeted cellular ablation based on the morphology of malignant cells (United States)

    Ivey, Jill W.; Latouche, Eduardo L.; Sano, Michael B.; Rossmeisl, John H.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Verbridge, Scott S.


    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is especially challenging due to a shortage of methods to preferentially target diffuse infiltrative cells, and therapy-resistant glioma stem cell populations. Here we report a physical treatment method based on electrical disruption of cells, whose action depends strongly on cellular morphology. Interestingly, numerical modeling suggests that while outer lipid bilayer disruption induced by long pulses (~100 μs) is enhanced for larger cells, short pulses (~1 μs) preferentially result in high fields within the cell interior, which scale in magnitude with nucleus size. Because enlarged nuclei represent a reliable indicator of malignancy, this suggested a means of preferentially targeting malignant cells. While we demonstrate killing of both normal and malignant cells using pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to treat spontaneous canine GBM, we proposed that properly tuned PEFs might provide targeted ablation based on nuclear size. Using 3D hydrogel models of normal and malignant brain tissues, which permit high-resolution interrogation during treatment testing, we confirmed that PEFs could be tuned to preferentially kill cancerous cells. Finally, we estimated the nuclear envelope electric potential disruption needed for cell death from PEFs. Our results may be useful in safely targeting the therapy-resistant cell niches that cause recurrence of GBM tumors.

  6. Cell phone–based health education messaging improves health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SMS), provides new and innovative opportunities for disease prevention and health education. Objective: To explore the use of cell phone–based health education SMS to improve the health literacy of community residents in China. Methods: ...

  7. AAV-based dual-reporter circuit for monitoring cell signaling in living human cells. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwen; Stickney, Zachary; Duong, Natalie; Curley, Kevin; Lu, Biao


    High-throughput methods based on molecular reporters have greatly advanced our knowledge of cell signaling in mammalian cells. However, their ability to monitor various types of cells is markedly limited by the inefficiency of reporter gene delivery. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are efficient tools widely used for delivering and expressing transgenes in diverse animal cells in vitro and in vivo. Here we present the design, construction and validation of a novel AAV-based dual-reporter circuit that can be used to monitor and quantify cell signaling in living human cells. We first design and construct the AAV-based reporter system. We then validate the versatility and specificity of this system in monitoring and quantifying two important cell signaling pathways, inflammation (NFκB) and cell growth and differentiation (AP-1), in cultured HEK293 and MCF-7 cells. Our results demonstrate that the AAV reporter system is both specific and versatile, and it can be used in two common experimental protocols including transfection with plasmid DNA and transduction with packaged viruses. Importantly, this system is efficient, with a high signal-to-background noise ratio, and can be easily adapted to monitor other common signaling pathways. The AAV-based system extends the dual-reporter technology to more cell types, allowing for cost-effective and high throughput applications.

  8. Predicting efficiency of solar cells based on transparent conducting electrodes (United States)

    Kumar, Ankush


    Efficiency of a solar cell is directly correlated with the performance of its transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) which dictates its two core processes, viz., absorption and collection efficiencies. Emerging designs of a TCE involve active networks of carbon nanotubes, silver nanowires and various template-based techniques providing diverse structures; here, voids are transparent for optical transmittance while the conducting network acts as a charge collector. However, it is still not well understood as to which kind of network structure leads to an optimum solar cell performance; therefore, mostly an arbitrary network is chosen as a solar cell electrode. Herein, we propose a new generic approach for understanding the role of TCEs in determining the solar cell efficiency based on analysis of shadowing and recombination losses. A random network of wires encloses void regions of different sizes and shapes which permit light transmission; two terms, void fraction and equivalent radius, are defined to represent the TCE transmittance and wire spacings, respectively. The approach has been applied to various literature examples and their solar cell performance has been compared. To obtain high-efficiency solar cells, optimum density of the wires and their aspect ratio as well as active layer thickness are calculated. Our findings show that a TCE well suitable for one solar cell may not be suitable for another. For high diffusion length based solar cells, the void fraction of the network should be low while for low diffusion length based solar cells, the equivalent radius should be lower. The network with less wire spacing compared to the diffusion length behaves similar to continuous film based TCEs (such as indium tin oxide). The present work will be useful for architectural as well as material engineering of transparent electrodes for improvisation of solar cell performance.

  9. Organization and polarity of actin filament networks in cells: implications for the mechanism of myosin-based cell motility. (United States)

    Cramer, L P


    Force arising from myosin activity drives a number of different types of motility in eukaryotic cells. Outside of muscle tissue, the precise mechanism of myosin-based cell motility is for the most part theoretical. A large part of the problem is that, aside from cell surface features such as lamellipodia and microvilli, relatively little is known about the structural organization of potential actin substrates for myosin in non-muscle motile cells. Several groups [Cramer, Siebert and Mitchison (1997) J. Cell Biol. 136, 1287-1305; Guild, Connelly, Shaw and Tilney (1997) J. Cell Biol. 138, 783-797; Svitkina, Verkhovsky, McQuade and Borisy (1997) J. Cell Biol. 139, 397-415] have begun to address this issue by determining actin organization throughout entire non-muscle motile cells. These studies reveal that a single motile cell comprises up to four distinct structural groups of actin organization, distinguished by differences in actin filament polarity: alternating, uniform, mixed or graded. The relative abundance and spatial location in cells of a particular actin organization varies with cell type. The existence in non-muscle motile cells of alternating-polarity actin filament bundles, the organization of muscle sarcomeres, provides direct structural evidence that some forms of motility in non-muscle cells are based on sarcomeric contraction, a recurring theory in the literature since the early days of muscle research. In this scenario, as in muscle sarcomeres, myosin generates isometric force, which is ideally suited to driving symmetrical types of motility, e.g. healing of circular wounds in coherent groups of cells. In contrast, uniform-polarity actin filament bundles and oriented meshworks in cells allow oriented movement of myosin, potentially over relatively long distances. In this simple 'transport-based' scenario, the direction in which myosin generates force is inherently polarized, and is well placed for driving asymmetrical or polarized types of motility

  10. Challenges of stem cell-based pulp and dentin regeneration: a clinical perspective. (United States)

    Huang, George T-J; Al-Habib, Mey; Gauthier, Philippe


    There are two types of approaches to regenerate tissues: cell-based and cell-free. The former approach is to introduce exogenous cells into the host to regenerate tissues, and the latter is to use materials other than cells in an attempt to regenerate tissues. There has been a significant advancement in stem cell-based pulp and dentin regeneration research in the past few years. Studies in small and large animals have demonstrated that pulp/dentin-like tissues can be regenerated partially or completely in the root canal space with apical openings of 0.7-3.0 mm using dental pulp stem cells, including stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) and subpopulations of pulp stem cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ADMSCs) have also been shown to regenerate pulp-like tissue. In contrast, the cell-free approach has not produced convincing evidence on pulp regeneration. However, one crucial concept has not been considered nor defined in the field of pulp/dentin regeneration and that is the critical size defect of dentin and pulp. Without such consideration and definition, it is difficult to predict or anticipate the extent of cell-free pulp regeneration that would occur. By reasoning, cell-free therapy is unlikely to regenerate an organ/tissue after total loss. Similarly, after a total loss of pulp, it is unlikely to regenerate without using exogenously introduced cells. A cell homing approach may provide a limited amount of tissue regeneration. Although stem cell-based pulp/dentin regeneration has shown great promise, clinical trials are difficult to launch at present. This article will address several issues that challenge and hinder the clinical applications of pulp/dentin regeneration which need to be overcome before stem cell-based pulp/dentin regeneration can occur in the clinic.

  11. Real-world hospital costs for nonchemotherapy drugs and nondrug care associated with platinum-based doublets in the first-line setting for advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer in Chinese patients: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen JH


    Full Text Available Jianhua Chen,1 Shengqi Wu,2 Chenping Hu,3 Yicheng Yang,4 Narayan Rajan,5 Yun Chen,4 Canjuan Yang,6 Jianfeng Li,6 Wendong Chen7 1Department of Medical Oncology, 2Department of Research and Education, Hunan Province Tumor Hospital, 3Department of Respiratory, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 4Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Shanghai Branch, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 5Global Health Outcomes Research, Eli Lilly and Co, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 6Division of Health Outcome Research, Normin Health Changsha Representative Office, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China; 7Normin Health, Toronto, ON, Canada Objective: The objective of this study was to compare hospital costs per treatment cycle (HCTC for nonchemotherapy drugs and nondrug care associated with platinum-based doublets in the first-line setting for advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (AdvNS-NSCLC in Chinese patients. Methods: Patients receiving platinum-based doublets in the first-line setting for AdvNS-NSCLC from 2010 to 2012 in two Chinese tertiary hospitals were identified to create the retrospective study cohort. Propensity score methods were used to create matched treatment groups for head-to-head comparisons on HCTC between pemetrexed–platinum and other platinum-based doublets. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to rank studied platinum-based doublets for their associations with the log10 scale of HCTC for nonchemotherapy drugs and nondrug care. Results: Propensity score methods created matched treatment groups for pemetrexed–platinum versus docetaxel–platinum (61 pairs, paclitaxel–platinum (39 pairs, gemcitabine–platinum (93 pairs, and vinorelbine–platinum (73 pairs, respectively. Even though the log10 scale of HCTC for nonchemotherapy drugs and nondrug care associated with pemetrexed–platinum was ranked lowest in all patients (coefficient –0.174, P=0.015, which included patients experiencing

  12. The Fountain of Stem Cell-Based Youth? Online Portrayals of Anti-Aging Stem Cell Technologies. (United States)

    Rachul, Christen M; Percec, Ivona; Caulfield, Timothy


    The hype surrounding stem cell science has created a market opportunity for the cosmetic industry. Cosmetic and anti-aging products and treatments that make claims regarding stem cell technology are increasingly popular, despite a lack of evidence for safety and efficacy of such products. This study explores how stem cell-based products and services are portrayed to the public through online sources, in order to gain insight into the key messages available to consumers. A content analysis of 100 web pages was conducted to examine the portrayals of stem cell-based cosmetic and anti-aging products and treatments. A qualitative discourse analysis of one web page further examined how language contributes to the portrayals of these products and treatments to public audiences. The majority of web pages portrayed stem cell-based products as ready for public use. Very few web pages substantiated claims with scientific evidence, and even fewer mentioned any risks or limitations associated with stem cell science. The discourse analysis revealed that the framing and use of metaphor obscures the certainty of the efficacy of and length of time for stem cell-based anti-aging technology to be publicly available. This study highlights the need to educate patients and the public on the current limits of stem cell applications in this context. In addition, generating scientific evidence for stem cell-based anti-aging and aesthetic applications is needed for optimizing benefits and minimizing adverse effects for the public. Having more evidence on efficacy and risks will help to protect patients who are eagerly seeking out these treatments. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission:

  13. Stem Cell--Based Therapies for HIV/AIDS


    Pernet, Olivier; Yadav, Swati Seth; An, Dong Sung


    One of the current focuses in HIV/AIDS research is to develop a novel therapeutic strategy that can provide a life-long remission of HIV/AIDS without daily drug treatment and ultimately a cure for HIV/AIDS. Hematopoietic stem cell based anti-HIV gene therapy aims to reconstitute patient immune system by transplantation of genetically engineered hematopoietic stem cells with anti-HIV genes. Hematopoietic stem cells can self renew, proliferate and differentiate into mature immune cells. In theo...

  14. Studying cell-cell communication in co-culture


    Bogdanowicz, Danielle R.; Lu, Helen H.


    Heterotypic and homotypic cellular interactions are essential for biological function, and co-culture models are versatile tools for investigating these cellular interactions in vitro. Physiologically relevant co-culture models have been used to elucidate the effects of cell-cell physical contact and/or secreted factors, as well as the influence of substrate geometry and interaction scale on cell response. Identifying the relative contribution of each cell population to co-culture is often ex...

  15. "Footprint-free" human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived astrocytes for in vivo cell-based therapy. (United States)

    Mormone, Elisabetta; D'Sousa, Sunita; Alexeeva, Vera; Bederson, Maria M; Germano, Isabelle M


    The generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) from somatic cells has enabled the possibility to provide patient-specific hiPSC for cell-based therapy, drug discovery, and other translational applications. Two major obstacles in using hiPSC for clinical application reside in the risk of genomic modification when they are derived with viral transgenes and risk of teratoma formation if undifferentiated cells are engrafted. In this study, we report the generation of "footprint-free" hiPSC-derived astrocytes. These are efficiently generated, have anatomical and physiological characteristics of fully differentiated astrocytes, maintain homing characteristics typical of stem cells, and do not give rise to teratomas when engrafted in the brain. Astrocytes can be obtained in sufficient numbers, aliquoted, frozen, thawed, and used when needed. Our results show the feasibility of differentiating astrocytes from "footprint-free" iPSC. These are suitable for clinical cell-based therapies as they can be induced from patients' specific cells, do not require viral vectors, and are fully differentiated. "Footprint-free" hiPSC-derived astrocytes represent a new potential source for therapeutic use for cell-based therapy, including treatment of high-grade human gliomas, and drug discovery.

  16. Cell-based delivery of glucagon-like peptide-1 using encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallrapp, Christine; Thoenes, Eric; Thürmer, Frank


    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) CellBeads are cell-based implants for the sustained local delivery of bioactive factors. They consist of GLP-1 secreting mesenchymal stem cells encapsulated in a spherically shaped immuno-isolating alginate matrix. A highly standardized and reproducible encapsulation...... and quality control is performed in compliance with good manufacturing practice and fulfils all regulatory requirements for human clinical use. GLP-1 CellBeads combine the neuro- and cardioprotective properties of both GLP-1 and mesenchymal stem cells. First promising results were obtained from preclinical...... method is described for the manufacturing of homogeneous CellBeads. Viability and sustained secretion was shown for the recombinant GLP-1 and the cell endogenous bioactive factors like vascular endothelial growth factor, neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Manufacturing...

  17. Non-cancer-related mortality after cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: a study-level meta-analysis of 16 randomized trials. (United States)

    Petrelli, Fausto; Barni, Sandro


    Adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with increased overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but is associated with high-grade toxicity. The effect of cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy on non-lung cancer-related mortality is not well investigated. We conducted a systematic review and a study-level meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in order to determine the overall risk of non-lung cancer-related mortality associated with adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy in NSCLC. PubMed was searched to identify relevant studies. Eligible publications included prospective RCTs in which cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy plus local therapy was compared with local therapy alone in NSCLC. Summary incidence rates, relative risks (RRs), and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. Primary endpoint was non-lung cancer-related mortality risk (due to cardiovascular, respiratory or second malignancy deaths for example), and secondary endpoints were chemotherapy-related, second primary tumor-related, cardiovascular-related, and unknown cause mortalities. A total of 6,430 patients with NSCLC from 16 RCTs were included in the analysis. Compared with no chemotherapy, the use of cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with an increased risk of non-lung cancer-related death, with an RR of 1.30 (95 % CI 1.1-1.53; P = 0.002; incidence, 9.3 vs. 7.2 %; absolute difference 2 %). Cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy was also associated with a greater risk of chemotherapy-related mortality (RR 2.16, 95 % CI 1.15-4.06; P = 0.02). Second primary tumor-related mortality and cardiovascular-related mortality were similar. In this meta-analysis of RCTs in NSCLC, cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with a 30 % increase in non-lung cancer-related mortality compared with local therapy alone.

  18. Impact of treatment with bevacizumab beyond disease progression: a randomized phase II study of docetaxel with or without bevacizumab after platinum-based chemotherapy plus bevacizumab in patients with advanced nonsquamous non–small cell lung cancer (WJOG 5910L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeda Masayuki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bevacizumab, a humanized antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, shows clinical activity against human cancer, with its addition to standard chemotherapy having been found to improve outcome in patients with advanced nonsquamous non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. However, there have been no evidence-based studies to support the continued use of bevacizumab beyond disease progression in such patients treated with the drug in first-line therapy. We have now designed a randomized phase II trial to examine the clinical benefit and safety of continued bevacizumab treatment in patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC whose disease has progressed after first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus a platinum-based doublet. Methods/Design WJOG 5910L was designed as a multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase II trial by the West Japan Oncology Group of docetaxel (arm A versus docetaxel plus bevacizumab (arm B in patients with recurrent or metatstatic nonsquamous NSCLC whose disease has progressed after first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus a platinum-based doublet. Patients in arm A will receive docetaxel at 60 mg/m2 and those in arm B will receive docetaxel at 60 mg/m2 plus bevacizumab at 15 mg/kg, with each drug administered on day 1 every 21 days until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint of the study is progression-free survival, with secondary endpoints including response rate, overall survival, and safety, for patients treated in either arm. Trial registration UMIN (University Hospital Medical Information Network in Japan 000004715

  19. Studying the Nucleated Mammalian Cell Membrane by Single Molecule Approaches (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Wu, Jiazhen; Gao, Jing; Liu, Shuheng; Jiang, Junguang; Jiang, Shibo; Wang, Hongda


    The cell membrane plays a key role in compartmentalization, nutrient transportation and signal transduction, while the pattern of protein distribution at both cytoplasmic and ectoplasmic sides of the cell membrane remains elusive. Using a combination of single-molecule techniques, including atomic force microscopy (AFM), single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), to study the structure of nucleated cell membranes, we found that (1) proteins at the ectoplasmic side of the cell membrane form a dense protein layer (4 nm) on top of a lipid bilayer; (2) proteins aggregate to form islands evenly dispersed at the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane with a height of about 10–12 nm; (3) cholesterol-enriched domains exist within the cell membrane; (4) carbohydrates stay in microdomains at the ectoplasmic side; and (5) exposed amino groups are asymmetrically distributed on both sides. Based on these observations, we proposed a Protein Layer-Lipid-Protein Island (PLLPI) model, to provide a better understanding of cell membrane structure, membrane trafficking and viral fusion mechanisms. PMID:24806512

  20. Prospective study of sickle cell trait and venous thromboembolism incidence. (United States)

    Folsom, A R; Tang, W; Roetker, N S; Kshirsagar, A V; Derebail, V K; Lutsey, P L; Naik, R; Pankow, J S; Grove, M L; Basu, S; Key, N S; Cushman, M


    Sickle cell trait may increase risk of venous thromboembolism, but this is not fully established. We sought to determine the association of sickle cell trait with deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Middle-aged African Americans participating in a prospective, population-based cohort investigation, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, were followed from 1987 through 2011 for incident hospitalized pulmonary embolism (n = 111) or isolated deep vein thrombosis (n = 138), verified by physician review of medical records. Sickle cell trait (heterozygosity for hemoglobin S, n = 268) was compared with no sickle cell trait (n = 3748). Over a median of 22 years of follow-up, 249 participants had an incident venous thromboembolism. The hazard ratio of venous thromboembolism was 1.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-2.36) for participants with vs. without sickle cell trait, after adjustment for age, sex, ancestry, hormone replacement therapy (women), body mass index, diabetes, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. This hazard ratio was 2.05 (95% CI 1.12-3.76) for pulmonary embolism and 1.15 (95% CI 0.58-2.27) for deep vein thrombosis without pulmonary embolism. Sickle cell trait in African Americans carries a 2-fold increased risk of pulmonary embolism but does not elevate deep vein thrombosis risk. Because neonatal screening for sickle hemoglobin is being conducted in the United States, consideration should be paid to the increased pulmonary embolism risk of individuals with sickle cell trait. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  1. Stem cell-based therapies for HIV/AIDS. (United States)

    Pernet, Olivier; Yadav, Swati Seth; An, Dong Sung


    One of the current focuses in HIV/AIDS research is to develop a novel therapeutic strategy that can provide a life-long remission of HIV/AIDS without daily drug treatment and, ultimately, a cure for HIV/AIDS. Hematopoietic stem cell-based anti-HIV gene therapy aims to reconstitute the patient immune system by transplantation of genetically engineered hematopoietic stem cells with anti-HIV genes. Hematopoietic stem cells can self-renew, proliferate and differentiate into mature immune cells. In theory, anti-HIV gene-modified hematopoietic stem cells can continuously provide HIV-resistant immune cells throughout the life of a patient. Therefore, hematopoietic stem cell-based anti-HIV gene therapy has a great potential to provide a life-long remission of HIV/AIDS by a single treatment. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the recent progress of developing anti-HIV genes, genetic modification of hematopoietic stem progenitor cells, engraftment and reconstitution of anti-HIV gene-modified immune cells, HIV inhibition in in vitro and in vivo animal models, and in human clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transplantation of neural stem cells, Schwann cells and olfactory ensheathing cells for spinal cord injury : A Web of Science-based literature analysis. (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Yin, Fei; Guo, Li; Zhao, Dongxu; Gong, Gu; Gao, Lei; Zhu, Qingsan


    To identify global research trends in transplantation of neural stem cells, Schwann cells and olfactory ensheathing cells for spinal cord injury. We performed a bibliometric analysis of studies on transplantation of neural stem cells, Schwann cells and olfactory ensheathing cells for spinal cord injury published from 2002 to 2011 and retrieved from the Web of Science, using the key words spinal cord injury along with either neural stem cell, Schwann cell or olfactory ensheathing cell. (a) peer-reviewed published articles on neural stem cells, Schwann cells or olfactory ensheathing cells for spinal cord injury indexed in the Web of Science; (b) original research articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, proceedings papers, book chapters, editorial materials and news items; and (c) published between 2002 and 2011. (a) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; (b) documents that were not published in the public domain; and (c) corrected papers. (1) Annual publication output, distribution by journal, distribution by institution and top-cited articles on neural stem cells; (2) annual publication output, distribution by journal, distribution by institution and top-cited articles on Schwann cells; (3) annual publication output, distribution by journal, distribution by institution and top-cited articles on olfactory ensheathing cells. This analysis, based on articles indexed in the Web of Science, identified several research trends among studies published over the past 10 years in transplantation of neural stem cells, Schwann cells and olfactory ensheathing cells for spinal cord injury. The number of publications increased over the 10-year period examined. Most papers appeared in journals with a focus on neurology, such as Journal of Neurotrauma, Experimental Neurology and Glia. Research institutes publishing on the use of neural stem cells to repair spinal cord injury were mostly in the USA and Canada. Those publishing on the use of Schwann cells were

  3. Grid-cell based assessment of soil erosion potential for identification of critical erosion prone areas using USLE, GIS and remote sensing: A case study in the Kapgari watershed, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjeet Singh


    Full Text Available Estimation of soil erosion is of paramount importance due to its serious environmental and societal concern. Soil erosion would have impact on fertility of agricultural land and quality of water. The major objective of this study was to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of annual soil erosion on the grid-cell basis in a small agricultural watershed of eastern India. The study watershed has a drainage area of 973 ha and is subdivided into three sub-watersheds namely: KGSW1, KGSW2 and KGSW3, based on the land topography and drainage network. Average annual soil erosion was estimated on 100 m×100 m grid-cells by integrating universal soil loss equation (USLE model with GIS for subsequent identification of critical erosion prone areas. It was found that 82.63% area of the total watershed falls under slight-erosion-class (0–5 t-ha−1-yr−1, 6.87% area lies under the moderate-erosion-class (5–10 t-ha−1-yr−1, 5.96% area is under high-erosion-class (10–20 t-ha−1-yr−1, 3.3% area of watershed lies under the very-high-erosion-class (20–40 t-ha−1-yr−1 and 1.24% area falls under “severe-erosion-class” (40–80 t-ha−1-yr−1. The study revealed that the sub-watershed KGSW3 is critical due to the presence of the highest number of critical erosion prone grid-cells. The sediment delivery ratio (SDR was also estimated to analyze the contribution of sediment yield at the sub-watershed level. Lowest SDR for the whole watershed as compared to sub-watersheds indicates that most of the eroded soil got deposited in rice crop check-basins before reaching the outlet. The reported results can be used for prioritizing critical erosion prone areas and for determining appropriate soil erosion prevention and control measures.

  4. Studying Sensing-Based Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun


    Recent sensing-based systems involve a multitude of users, devices, and places. These types of systems challenge existing approaches for conducting valid system evaluations. Here, the author discusses such evaluation challenges and revisits existing system evaluation methodologies....

  5. Nanomembrane-Based, Thermal-Transport Biosensor for Living Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami T.


    Knowledge of materials\\' thermal-transport properties, conductivity and diffusivity, is crucial for several applications within areas of biology, material science and engineering. Specifically, a microsized, flexible, biologically integrated thermal transport sensor is beneficial to a plethora of applications, ranging across plants physiological ecology and thermal imaging and treatment of cancerous cells, to thermal dissipation in flexible semiconductors and thermoelectrics. Living cells pose extra challenges, due to their small volumes and irregular curvilinear shapes. Here a novel approach of simultaneously measuring thermal conductivity and diffusivity of different materials and its applicability to single cells is demonstrated. This technique is based on increasing phonon-boundary-scattering rate in nanomembranes, having extremely low flexural rigidities, to induce a considerable spectral dependence of the bandgap-emission over excitation-laser intensity. It is demonstrated that once in contact with organic or inorganic materials, the nanomembranes\\' emission spectrally shift based on the material\\'s thermal diffusivity and conductivity. This NM-based technique is further applied to differentiate between different types and subtypes of cancer cells, based on their thermal-transport properties. It is anticipated that this novel technique to enable an efficient single-cell thermal targeting, allow better modeling of cellular thermal distribution and enable novel diagnostic techniques based on variations of single-cell thermal-transport properties.

  6. Performance of conversion efficiency of a crystalline silicon solar cell with base doping density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Sahin

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate theoretically the electrical parameters of a crystalline silicon solar cell in steady state. Based on a one-dimensional modeling of the cell, the short circuit current density, the open circuit voltage, the shunt and series resistances and the conversion efficiency are calculated, taking into account the base doping density. Either the I-V characteristic, series resistance, shunt resistance and conversion efficiency are determined and studied versus base doping density. The effects applied of base doping density on these parameters have been studied. The aim of this work is to show how short circuit current density, open circuit voltage and parasitic resistances are related to the base doping density and to exhibit the role played by those parasitic resistances on the conversion efficiency of the crystalline silicon solar. Keywords: Crystalline silicon solar cell, Base doping density, Series resistance, Shunt resistance, Conversion efficiency

  7. Agent-Based Computational Modeling of Cell Culture ... (United States)

    Quantitative characterization of cellular dose in vitro is needed for alignment of doses in vitro and in vivo. We used the agent-based software, CompuCell3D (CC3D), to provide a stochastic description of cell growth in culture. The model was configured so that isolated cells assumed a “fried egg shape” but became increasingly cuboidal with increasing confluency. The surface area presented by each cell to the overlying medium varies from cell-to-cell and is a determinant of diffusional flux of toxicant from the medium into the cell. Thus, dose varies among cells for a given concentration of toxicant in the medium. Computer code describing diffusion of H2O2 from medium into each cell and clearance of H2O2 was calibrated against H2O2 time-course data (25, 50, or 75 uM H2O2 for 60 min) obtained with the Amplex Red assay for the medium and the H2O2-sensitive fluorescent reporter, HyPer, for cytosol. Cellular H2O2 concentrations peaked at about 5 min and were near baseline by 10 min. The model predicted a skewed distribution of surface areas, with between cell variation usually 2 fold or less. Predicted variability in cellular dose was in rough agreement with the variation in the HyPer data. These results are preliminary, as the model was not calibrated to the morphology of a specific cell type. Future work will involve morphology model calibration against human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. Our results show, however, the potential of agent-based modeling

  8. The influence of printing parameters on cell survival rate and printability in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology. (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Yang; Mao, Shuangshuang; Sun, Wei; Yao, Rui


    Three-dimensional (3D) cell printing technology has provided a versatile methodology to fabricate cell-laden tissue-like constructs and in vitro tissue/pathological models for tissue engineering, drug testing and screening applications. However, it still remains a challenge to print bioinks with high viscoelasticity to achieve long-term stable structure and maintain high cell survival rate after printing at the same time. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of 3D cell printing parameters, i.e. composition and concentration of bioink, holding temperature and holding time, on the printability and cell survival rate in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology. Rheological measurements were utilized to characterize the viscoelasticity of gelatin-based bioinks. Results demonstrated that the bioink viscoelasticity was increased when increasing the bioink concentration, increasing holding time and decreasing holding temperature below gelation temperature. The decline of cell survival rate after 3D cell printing process was observed when increasing the viscoelasticity of the gelatin-based bioinks. However, different process parameter combinations would result in the similar rheological characteristics and thus showed similar cell survival rate after 3D bioprinting process. On the other hand, bioink viscoelasticity should also reach a certain point to ensure good printability and shape fidelity. At last, we proposed a protocol for 3D bioprinting of temperature-sensitive gelatin-based hydrogel bioinks with both high cell survival rate and good printability. This research would be useful for biofabrication researchers to adjust the 3D bioprinting process parameters quickly and as a referable template for designing new bioinks.

  9. energy efficiency of a photovoltaic cell based thin films czts by scaps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mebarkia C, Dib D, Zerfaoui H, Belghith R


    May 1, 2016 ... ZnSe.)/CZTS)on the electrical characteristics of a solar cell based CZTS. Using SCAPS 1D software to simulate the physical characteristics (current density Jsc short circuit, open circuit voltage VCO, form factor FF and the conversion efficiency of the solar cell studied (η). 2. SOLAR CELLBASED ON CZTS.

  10. Primary culture of glial cells from mouse sympathetic cervical ganglion: a valuable tool for studying glial cell biology. (United States)

    de Almeida-Leite, Camila Megale; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves


    Central nervous system glial cells as astrocytes and microglia have been investigated in vitro and many intracellular pathways have been clarified upon various stimuli. Peripheral glial cells, however, are not as deeply investigated in vitro despite its importance role in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Based on our previous experience of culturing neuronal cells, our objective was to standardize and morphologically characterize a primary culture of mouse superior cervical ganglion glial cells in order to obtain a useful tool to study peripheral glial cell biology. Superior cervical ganglia from neonatal C57BL6 mice were enzymatically and mechanically dissociated and cells were plated on diluted Matrigel coated wells in a final concentration of 10,000cells/well. Five to 8 days post plating, glial cell cultures were fixed for morphological and immunocytochemical characterization. Glial cells showed a flat and irregular shape, two or three long cytoplasm processes, and round, oval or long shaped nuclei, with regular outline. Cell proliferation and mitosis were detected both qualitative and quantitatively. Glial cells were able to maintain their phenotype in our culture model including immunoreactivity against glial cell marker GFAP. This is the first description of immunocytochemical characterization of mouse sympathetic cervical ganglion glial cells in primary culture. This work discusses the uses and limitations of our model as a tool to study many aspects of peripheral glial cell biology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. a Study of High Efficiency Thin Thermophotovoltaic Solar Cells. (United States)

    Vera, Eduardo Sobrino


    High conversion efficiency of solar energy into electrical energy is possible if the incident radiation is first absorbed by an intermediate absorber and then re-emitted onto a photovoltaic (PV) solar cell. This mode of operation is known as solar thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. This thesis explores the limits on performance of TPV systems based on germanium in which the source temperature and the opto-electronic structure of the germanium PV cell are varied and optimized with respect to overall radiant energy conversion efficiency. The principal characteristic of the optimized high efficiency TPV germanium cells is that they are thin p-n junction solar cells which incorporate minority carrier mirrors (MCM) and optical mirrors (OM) at the front and back surfaces of the device examined. In this study, the role of MCM and OM is studied theoretically by solving the minority carrier diffusion equation in the n- and p-type quasineutral regions of the cell with the appropriate boundary conditions at the end of these regions and an appropriate minority carrier generation function. The high theoretical efficiency calculated for these thin structures derives from the simultaneous use of optical and electronic reflection. The calculations presented here determine the theoretical upper limit to TPV conversion efficiency and show the dependence of this limit on cell geometry, resistivity, surface recombination and input density. In addition, TPV systems based on more than one PV cell, each utilizing a different photovoltaically active semiconductor are also considered. A number of possible TPV systems are treated within this theoretical framework. When blackbody thermal radiation sources having temperatures in the range 1500-2000 C are considered, the upper limit efficiency is found to be about 22% for an optimum design germanium cell 90 microns thick and about 26% for a two-junction silicon-germanium tandem cell arrangement 50 and 90 microns thick, respectively

  12. Cell-based therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Scolding, Neil J; Pasquini, Marcelo; Reingold, Stephen C; Cohen, Jeffrey A


    The availability of multiple disease-modifying medications with regulatory approval to treat multiple sclerosis illustrates the substantial progress made in therapy of the disease. However, all are only partially effective in preventing inflammatory tissue damage in the central nervous system and none directly promotes repair. Cell-based therapies, including immunoablation followed by autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, mesenchymal and related stem cell transplantation, pharmacologic manipulation of endogenous stem cells to enhance their reparative capabilities, and transplantation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, have generated substantial interest as novel therapeutic strategies for immune modulation, neuroprotection, or repair of the damaged central nervous system in multiple sclerosis. Each approach has potential advantages but also safety concerns and unresolved questions. Moreover, clinical trials of cell-based therapies present several unique methodological and ethical issues. We summarize here the status of cell-based therapies to treat multiple sclerosis and make consensus recommendations for future research and clinical trials. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  13. Micro-patterned porous substrates for cell-based assays. (United States)

    Evenou, Fanny; Di Meglio, Jean-Marc; Ladoux, Benoit; Hersen, Pascal


    In the search for new therapeutic chemicals, lab-on-a-chip systems have recently emerged as innovative and efficient tools for cell-based assays and high throughput screening. Here, we describe a novel, versatile and simple device for cell-based assays at the bench-top. We created spatial variations of porosity on the surface of a membrane filter by microcontact printing with a biocompatible polymer (PDMS). We called such systems Micro-Printed Membranes (μPM). Active compounds dispensed on the porous areas, where the membrane pores are not clogged by the polymer, can cross the membrane and reach cells growing on the opposite side. Only cells immediately below those porous areas could be stimulated by chemicals. We performed proof-of-principle experiments using Hoechst nuclear staining, calcein-AM cell viability assay and destabilization of the cytoskeleton organisation by cytochalasin B. Resulting fluorescent staining properly matched the drops positioning and no cross-contaminations were observed between adjacent tests. This well-less cell-based screening system is highly flexible by design and it enables multiple compounds to be tested on the same cell tissue. Only low sample volumes in the microlitre range are required. Moreover, chemicals can be delivered sequentially and removed at any time while cells can be monitored in real time. This allows the design of complex, sequential and combinatorial drug assays. μPMs appear as ideal systems for cell-based assays. We anticipate that this lab-on-chip device will be adapted for both manual and automated high content screening experiments.

  14. Integrated enzyme-based biofuel cells-a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willner, I.; Yan, Y.M.; Willner, B.; Tel-Vered, R. [Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel)


    Enzyme-based biofuel cells provide versatile means to generate electrical power from biomass or biofuel substrates, and to use biological fluids as fuel-sources for the electrical activation of implantable electronic medical devices, or prosthetic aids. This review addresses recent advances for assembling biofuel cells based on integrated, electrically contacted thin film-modified enzyme electrodes. Different methods to electrically communicate the enzymes associated with the anodes/cathodes of the biofuel cell elements are presented. These include: (i) The reconstitution of apo-enzymes on relay-cofactor monolayers assembled on electrodes, or the crosslinking of cofactor-enzyme affinity complexes assembled on electrodes. (ii) The immobilisation of enzymes in redox-active hydrogels associated with electrodes. (iii) The use of nano-elements, such as carbon nanotubes, for the electrical contacting of the enzyme electrodes comprising the biofuel cells. All three methods are implemented for the electrical contacting of oxidases and dehydrogenases with electrodes acting as anodes of biofuel cells, and for the electrical wiring of bilirubin oxidase, cytochrome oxidase, and laccase with electrodes, that yield the cathode units of the biofuel cells. Different methods to control the biofuel cells, operation by external stimuli are discussed, including the application of external magnetic fields, and the electrochemical switching of the biofuel cell operation. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Characterization of Platinum Electrodes and In-situ Cell Confluency Measurement Based on Current Changes of Cell-Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Fhong SOON


    Full Text Available This study aimed at the development of a biosensor to examine the growth confluency of human derived keratinocytes (HaCaT cell lines in-situ. The biosensor consists of a sputter- coated glass substrate with platinum patterns. Cells were grown on the conductive substrates and the confluency of the cells were monitored in-situ based on the conductivity changes of the substrates. Characterization of the cell proliferation and confluency were interrogated using electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS techniques and current change of cells using a pico-ammeter. The investigation was followed by the electrical characterization of the platinum electrode (PE using a two probe I-V measurement system. The surface morphology of platinum electrodes were studied using an atomic force microscopy (AFM and the HaCaT cell morphology was studied using Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM. The microscopy results showed that the cells coupled and proliferated on the platinum electrodes. For monitoring the conductivity and impedance changes of the cell-electrode in-situ, the cover of a Petri dish was inserted with pogo pins to be in contact with the platinum electrodes. The impedance was sampled using the ECIS technique at a twenty-four hour interval. In our findings, the cell proliferation rate can be measured by observing the changes in capacitance or impedance measured at low ac frequencies ranged from 10 - 1 kHz. In good agreement, the current measured at micro-ampere range by the biosensor decreased as the cell coverage area increased over the time. Thus, the percent of cell confluence was shown inversely proportional to the current changes.

  16. Materials development and interface studies of inverted organic solar cells (United States)

    Jeng, Lim Fang

    This thesis presents a detailed study on organic solar cells with an inverted architecture. Inverted organic solar cells (IOSC) were utilized because it can significantly improve the device lifetime while maintaining comparable device performance. Three major aspects of inverted organic solar cell devices were studied: (1) Processability; (2) Practicality and; (3) Stability. Firstly, the long-standing processability issue of inferior wettability of PEDOT:PSS on glass/ITO substrate was overcome by modifying the hole transport layer with a novel fluorosurfactant. Secondly, the light-soaking issue, which severely hinders the device practicality, was overcome by using chemical bath deposited fluorinated titanium dioxide (F-TiOx) electron transport layer as a key alternative to conventional sol-gel TiOx. Finally, with incorporation of various donor-acceptor materials other than the commonly used poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT), a systematic degradation study and the light-soaking characteristics of low-bandgap benzodithiophene-thienothiophene based co-polymer and diketopyrrolopyrrole based small molecules were conducted on the modified IOSC devices. Ultimately, a solution-processed, light-soaking free, stable and high efficiency inverted organic solar cell was successfully achieved and reported in this thesis.

  17. Importance of helper T-cell activation in dendritic cell-based anticancer immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreibelt, Gerty; Bol, Kalijn F.; Aarntzen, Erik H. J. G.; Gerritsen, Winald R.; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; Figdor, Carl G.; de Vries, I. Jolanda M.


    Dendritic cell-based anticancer immunotherapy is feasible, safe and results in the induction of tumor-specific immune responses, at least in a fraction of vaccinated patients. The concomitant activation of cytotoxic and helper T cells, by loading DCs with peptides or electroporating them with the

  18. Microchip-based cell lysis and DNA extraction from sperm cells for application to forensic analysis. (United States)

    Bienvenue, Joan M; Duncalf, Natalie; Marchiarullo, Daniel; Ferrance, Jerome P; Landers, James P


    The current backlog of casework is among the most significant challenges facing crime laboratories at this time. While the development of next-generation microchip-based technology for expedited forensic casework analysis offers one solution to this problem, this will require the adaptation of manual, large-volume, benchtop chemistry to small volume microfluidic devices. Analysis of evidentiary materials from rape kits where semen or sperm cells are commonly found represents a unique set of challenges for on-chip cell lysis and DNA extraction that must be addressed for successful application. The work presented here details the development of a microdevice capable of DNA extraction directly from sperm cells for application to the analysis of sexual assault evidence. A variety of chemical lysing agents are assessed for inclusion in the extraction protocol and a method for DNA purification from sperm cells is described. Suitability of the extracted DNA for short tandem repeat (STR) analysis is assessed and genetic profiles shown. Finally, on-chip cell lysis methods are evaluated, with results from fluorescence visualization of cell rupture and DNA extraction from an integrated cell lysis and purification with subsequent STR amplification presented. A method for on-chip cell lysis and DNA purification is described, with considerations toward inclusion in an integrated microdevice capable of both differential cell sorting and DNA extraction. The results of this work demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating microchip-based cell lysis and DNA extraction into forensic casework analysis.

  19. Graphene for improved femtosecond laser based pluripotent stem cell transfection. (United States)

    Mthunzi, Patience; He, Kuang; Ngcobo, Sandile; Khanyile, Thulile; Warner, Jamie H


    Pluripotent stem cells are hugely attractive in the tissue engineering research field as they can self-renew and be selectively differentiated into various cell types. For stem cell and tissue engineering research it is important to develop new, biocompatible scaffold materials and graphene has emerged as a promising material in this area as it does not compromise cell proliferation and accelerates specific cell differentiation. Previous studies have shown a non-invasive optical technique for mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell differentiation and transfection using femtosecond (fs) laser pulses. To investigate cellular responses to the influence of graphene and laser irradiation, here we present for the first time a study of mES cell fs laser transfection on graphene coated substrates. First we studied the impact of graphene on Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO-K1) cell viability and cell cytotoxicity in the absence of laser exposure. These were tested via evaluating the mitochondrial activity through adenosine triphosphates (ATP) luminescence and breakages on the cell plasma membrane assessed using cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) screening. Secondly, the effects of fs laser irradiation on cell viability and cytotoxicity at 1064 and 532 nm for cells plated and grown on graphene and pure glass were assessed. Finally, optical transfection of CHO-K1 and mES cells was performed on graphene coated versus plain glass substrates. Our results show graphene stimulated cell viability whilst triggering a mild release of intracellular LDH. We also observed that compared to pure glass substrates; laser irradiation at 1064 nm on graphene plates was less cytotoxic. Finally, in mES cells efficient optical transfection at 1064 (82%) and 532 (25%) nm was obtained due to the presence of a graphene support as compared to pristine glass. Here we hypothesize an up-regulation of cell adhesion promoting peptides or laminin-related receptors of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in cell samples

  20. Mammary-Stem-Cell-Based Somatic Mouse Models Reveal Breast Cancer Drivers Causing Cell Fate Dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang


    Full Text Available Cancer genomics has provided an unprecedented opportunity for understanding genetic causes of human cancer. However, distinguishing which mutations are functionally relevant to cancer pathogenesis remains a major challenge. We describe here a mammary stem cell (MaSC organoid-based approach for rapid generation of somatic genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs. By using RNAi and CRISPR-mediated genome engineering in MaSC-GEMMs, we have discovered that inactivation of Ptpn22 or Mll3, two genes mutated in human breast cancer, greatly accelerated PI3K-driven mammary tumorigenesis. Using these tumor models, we have also identified genetic alterations promoting tumor metastasis and causing resistance to PI3K-targeted therapy. Both Ptpn22 and Mll3 inactivation resulted in disruption of mammary gland differentiation and an increase in stem cell activity. Mechanistically, Mll3 deletion enhanced stem cell activity through activation of the HIF pathway. Thus, our study has established a robust in vivo platform for functional cancer genomics and has discovered functional breast cancer mutations.

  1. A study on the measurement of the nucleated red blood cell (nRBC count based on birth weight and its correlation with perinatal prognosis in infants with very low birth weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hwan Kil


    Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of this study was conducted to investigate the mean nRBC count in very low births weight infants (VLBWIs and to determine the usefulness of the nRBC as an independent prognostic factors of perinatal complications in VLBWIs. Methods : This study was conducted on 112 VLBWIs who were hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of the author's hospital within the period from March 2003 to and May 2008. Based on the infants’ nucleated red blood cells (nRBC counts at birth, on the third day after birth, on the seventh day after birth, in the second week after birth, and in the fourth week after birth in the medical records, the correlation between nRBC or absolute nRBC counts with birth weight, gestational age, and other perinatal outcomes were retrospectively investigated, Results : In VLBWIs, their mean nRBC and absolute nRBC counts were showing a gradual decrease after birth, and they were consisteantly kept at low values since one week after and inversely proportional to the birth weights. The mean nRBC counts based on the stage after birth showed a significant correlation with perinatal death, necrotizing enterocolitis, and severe intraventricular hemorrhage. Conclusion : The increase in the nRBC count showed a significant correlation with having a severe intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, and perinatal death in VLBWIs. If an increase or no decrease in the nRBC count after birth is observed, newborninfant care precautions should be required.

  2. Impact of implementation choices on quantitative predictions of cell-based computational models (United States)

    Kursawe, Jochen; Baker, Ruth E.; Fletcher, Alexander G.


    'Cell-based' models provide a powerful computational tool for studying the mechanisms underlying the growth and dynamics of biological tissues in health and disease. An increasing amount of quantitative data with cellular resolution has paved the way for the quantitative parameterisation and validation of such models. However, the numerical implementation of cell-based models remains challenging, and little work has been done to understand to what extent implementation choices may influence model predictions. Here, we consider the numerical implementation of a popular class of cell-based models called vertex models, which are often used to study epithelial tissues. In two-dimensional vertex models, a tissue is approximated as a tessellation of polygons and the vertices of these polygons move due to mechanical forces originating from the cells. Such models have been used extensively to study the mechanical regulation of tissue topology in the literature. Here, we analyse how the model predictions may be affected by numerical parameters, such as the size of the time step, and non-physical model parameters, such as length thresholds for cell rearrangement. We find that vertex positions and summary statistics are sensitive to several of these implementation parameters. For example, the predicted tissue size decreases with decreasing cell cycle durations, and cell rearrangement may be suppressed by large time steps. These findings are counter-intuitive and illustrate that model predictions need to be thoroughly analysed and implementation details carefully considered when applying cell-based computational models in a quantitative setting.

  3. Encapsulating Non-Human Primate Multipotent Stromal Cells in Alginate via High Voltage for Cell-Based Therapies and Cryopreservation (United States)

    Gryshkov, Oleksandr; Pogozhykh, Denys; Hofmann, Nicola; Pogozhykh, Olena; Mueller, Thomas; Glasmacher, Birgit


    Alginate cell-based therapy requires further development focused on clinical application. To assess engraftment, risk of mutations and therapeutic benefit studies should be performed in an appropriate non-human primate model, such as the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In this work we encapsulated amnion derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) from Callithrix jacchus in defined size alginate beads using a high voltage technique. Our results indicate that i) alginate-cell mixing procedure and cell concentration do not affect the diameter of alginate beads, ii) encapsulation of high cell numbers (up to 10×106 cells/ml) can be performed in alginate beads utilizing high voltage and iii) high voltage (15–30 kV) does not alter the viability, proliferation and differentiation capacity of MSCs post-encapsulation compared with alginate encapsulated cells produced by the traditional air-flow method. The consistent results were obtained over the period of 7 days of encapsulated MSCs culture and after cryopreservation utilizing a slow cooling procedure (1 K/min). The results of this work show that high voltage encapsulation can further be maximized to develop cell-based therapies with alginate beads in a non-human primate model towards human application. PMID:25259731

  4. Optimization of Cell Adhesion on Mg Based Implant Materials by Pre-Incubation under Cell Culture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine Willumeit


    Full Text Available Magnesium based implants could revolutionize applications where orthopedic implants such as nails, screws or bone plates are used because they are load bearing and degrade over time. This prevents a second surgery to remove conventional implants. To improve the biocompatibility we studied here if and for how long a pre-incubation of the material under cell culture conditions is favorable for cell attachment and proliferation. For two materials, Mg and Mg10Gd1Nd, we could show that 6 h pre-incubation are already enough to form a natural protective layer suitable for cell culture.

  5. A polynomial based model for cell fate prediction in human diseases. (United States)

    Ma, Lichun; Zheng, Jie


    Cell fate regulation directly affects tissue homeostasis and human health. Research on cell fate decision sheds light on key regulators, facilitates understanding the mechanisms, and suggests novel strategies to treat human diseases that are related to abnormal cell development. In this study, we proposed a polynomial based model to predict cell fate. This model was derived from Taylor series. As a case study, gene expression data of pancreatic cells were adopted to test and verify the model. As numerous features (genes) are available, we employed two kinds of feature selection methods, i.e. correlation based and apoptosis pathway based. Then polynomials of different degrees were used to refine the cell fate prediction function. 10-fold cross-validation was carried out to evaluate the performance of our model. In addition, we analyzed the stability of the resultant cell fate prediction model by evaluating the ranges of the parameters, as well as assessing the variances of the predicted values at randomly selected points. Results show that, within both the two considered gene selection methods, the prediction accuracies of polynomials of different degrees show little differences. Interestingly, the linear polynomial (degree 1 polynomial) is more stable than others. When comparing the linear polynomials based on the two gene selection methods, it shows that although the accuracy of the linear polynomial that uses correlation analysis outcomes is a little higher (achieves 86.62%), the one within genes of the apoptosis pathway is much more stable. Considering both the prediction accuracy and the stability of polynomial models of different degrees, the linear model is a preferred choice for cell fate prediction with gene expression data of pancreatic cells. The presented cell fate prediction model can be extended to other cells, which may be important for basic research as well as clinical study of cell development related diseases.





    We studied the conductive glass and/or the semiconductor surface treatments with aluminum ions as a technique to enhance the characteristics of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on Al-doped ZnO. The aluminum ions were deposited on the surfaces using aluminum isopropoxide as precursor, by an easy and efficient method. We measured the characteristics of the dye sensitized solar cells based on pre- and/or post-treated electrodes. Our study showed a clear enhancement of cells efficiencies ...

  7. Nanomechanics of Cells and Biomaterials Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy. (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Jason I; Revenko, Irène; Rodriguez, Brian J


    The behavior and mechanical properties of cells are strongly dependent on the biochemical and biomechanical properties of their microenvironment. Thus, understanding the mechanical properties of cells, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials is key to understanding cell function and to develop new materials with tailored mechanical properties for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has emerged as an indispensable technique for measuring the mechanical properties of biomaterials and cells with high spatial resolution and force sensitivity within physiologically relevant environments and timescales in the kPa to GPa elastic modulus range. The growing interest in this field of bionanomechanics has been accompanied by an expanding array of models to describe the complexity of indentation of hierarchical biological samples. Furthermore, the integration of AFM with optical microscopy techniques has further opened the door to a wide range of mechanotransduction studies. In recent years, new multidimensional and multiharmonic AFM approaches for mapping mechanical properties have been developed, which allow the rapid determination of, for example, cell elasticity. This Progress Report provides an introduction and practical guide to making AFM-based nanomechanical measurements of cells and surfaces for tissue engineering applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Zinc-secreting Paneth cells studied by ZP fluorescence. (United States)

    Giblin, Leonard J; Chang, Christopher J; Bentley, Anthony F; Frederickson, Cathleen; Lippard, Stephen J; Frederickson, Christopher J


    We have used a new family of zinc-specific-responsive fluorescent dyes (ZPs) to study the sequestration and secretion of zinc from Paneth cells, which are located in the bases of the crypts of Lieberkühn within the rat small intestine. Vivid ZP fluorescence zinc staining of Paneth cell secretory granules is seen in both cryostat sections and isolated crypts, providing firm evidence for a pool of labile (rapidly exchangeable) zinc within these cells. We further demonstrate that this ionic zinc pool is secreted under physiological conditions. In vivo stimulation of the small intestine by IP injection of the secretagogue pilocarpine results in discrete zinc staining within the lumens of subsequently isolated crypts, concomitant with a decrease in the zinc staining of Paneth cell granules located within the same crypts. In contrast, the secretion of zinc into the lumens of isolated crypts stimulated in vitro with either carbachol or LPS (lipopolysaccharide) is not observed. However, a distinct change in Paneth cell morphology, suggesting attempted secretion, is seen in response to the direct application of cholinergics but not LPS. These findings suggest that zinc is coreleased with other Paneth cell anti-microbials, and that the intact intestine is necessary for secretion into the crypt lumen.

  9. Impact of Base Station Cooperation on Cell Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Dexter Garcia


    Full Text Available Base station cooperation (BSC has been identified as a key radio access technology for next-generation cellular networks such as LTE-Advanced. BSC impacts cell planning, which is the methodical selection of base station (BS sites, and BS equipment configuration for cost-effective cellular networks. In this paper, the impact of BSC on cell plan parameters (coverage, traffic, handover, and cost, as well as additional cell planning steps required for BSC are discussed. Results show that BSC maximizes its gains over noncooperation (NC in a network wherein interference from cooperating BSs is the main limitation. Locations exist where NC may produce higher throughputs, therefore dynamic or semistatic switching between BSC and NC, called fractional BSC, is recommended. Because of interference from noncooperating BSs, the gains of BSC over NC are upper bounded, and diminishes at greater intersite distances because of noise. This encourages smaller cell sizes, higher transmit powers, and dynamic clustering of cooperative BSs.

  10. Methods and practices to diversify cell-based products. (United States)

    Vertès, Alain A


    Medicinal signaling cell (MSC)-based products represent emerging treatments in various therapeutic areas including cardiometabolic, inflammation, autoimmunity, orthopedics, wound healing and oncology. Exploring innovation beyond minimally manipulated plastic-adherent ex vivo expanded allogeneic MSCs enables product delineation. Product delineation is on the critical path to maximize clinical benefits and market access. An innovation framework is presented here along various innovation dimensions comprising composition-of-matter by means of positive cell surface markers, formulation varying for example the cell dose or the preservation mode and medium, manufacturing to adapt the secretome of MSCs to the condition of interest, the mode of delivery and corresponding delivery devices, as well as molecular engineering and biomarkers. The rationale of the innovation space thus described applies generally to all cell-based therapies.

  11. Stem cell based therapies for spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Muheremu, Aikeremujiang; Peng, Jiang; Ao, Qiang


    Treatment of spinal cord injury has always been a challenge for clinical practitioners and scientists. The development in stem cell based therapies has brought new hopes to patients with spinal cord injuries. In the last a few decades, a variety of stem cells have been used to treat spinal cord injury in animal experiments and some clinical trials. However, there are many technical and ethical challenges to overcome before this novel therapeutic method can be widely applied in clinical practice. With further research in pluripotent stem cells and combined application of genetic and tissue engineering techniques, stem cell based therapies are bond to play increasingly important role in the management of spinal cord injuries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cell-Based Microarrays for In Vitro Toxicology (United States)

    Wegener, Joachim


    DNA/RNA and protein microarrays have proven their outstanding bioanalytical performance throughout the past decades, given the unprecedented level of parallelization by which molecular recognition assays can be performed and analyzed. Cell microarrays (CMAs) make use of similar construction principles. They are applied to profile a given cell population with respect to the expression of specific molecular markers and also to measure functional cell responses to drugs and chemicals. This review focuses on the use of cell-based microarrays for assessing the cytotoxicity of drugs, toxins, or chemicals in general. It also summarizes CMA construction principles with respect to the cell types that are used for such microarrays, the readout parameters to assess toxicity, and the various formats that have been established and applied. The review ends with a critical comparison of CMAs and well-established microtiter plate (MTP) approaches.

  13. Automated migration analysis based on cell texture: method & reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chittenden Thomas W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper, we present and validate a way to measure automatically the extent of cell migration based on automated examination of a series of digital photographs. It was designed specifically to identify the impact of Second Hand Smoke (SHS on endothelial cell migration but has broader applications. The analysis has two stages: (1 preprocessing of image texture, and (2 migration analysis. Results The output is a graphic overlay that indicates the front lines of cell migration superimposed on each original image, with automated reporting of the distance traversed vs. time. Expert preference compares to manual placement of leading edge shows complete equivalence of automated vs. manual leading edge definition for cell migration measurement. Conclusion Our method is indistinguishable from careful manual determinations of cell front lines, with the advantages of full automation, objectivity, and speed.

  14. Cell phone-based health education messaging improves health literacy. (United States)

    Zhuang, Runsen; Xiang, Yueying; Han, Tieguang; Yang, Guo-An; Zhang, Yuan


    The ubiquity of cell phones, which allow for short message service (SMS), provides new and innovative opportunities for disease prevention and health education. To explore the use of cell phone-based health education SMS to improve the health literacy of community residents in China. A multi-stage random sampling method was used to select representative study communities and participants ≥ 18 years old. Intervention participants were sent health education SMSs once a week for 1 year and controls were sent conventional, basic health education measures. Health literacy levels of the residents before and after the intervention were evaluated between intervention and control groups. Public health literacy scores increased 1.5 points, from 61.8 to 63.3, after SMS intervention for 1 year (Pliteracy scores was greater for the intervention than control group (22.03% to 30.93% vs. 22.07% to 20.82%). With health literacy as a cost-effective index, the cost-effectiveness per intervention was 0.54. SMS may be a useful tool for improving health literacy.

  15. Graphene-Based Transparent Electrodes for Hybrid Solar Cells


    Pengfei eLi; Caiyun eChen; Jie eZhang; Shaojuan eLi; Baoquan eSun; Qiaoliang eBao


    The graphene-based transparent and conductive films were demonstrated to be cost-effective electrodes working in organic-inorganic hybrid Schottky solar cells. Large area graphene films were produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on copper foils and transferred onto glass as transparent electrodes. The hybrid solar cell devices consist of solution processed poly (3, 4-ethlenedioxythiophene): poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) which is sandwiched between silicon wafer and graphene elect...

  16. CELL-SELEX: Novel Perspectives of Aptamer-Based Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans P. Wendel


    Full Text Available Aptamers, single stranded DNA or RNA molecules, generated by a method called SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment have been widely used in various biomedical applications. The newly developed Cell-SELEX (cell based-SELEX targeting whole living cells has raised great expectations for cancer biology, -therapy and regenerative medicine. Combining nanobiotechnology with aptamers, this technology opens the way to more sophisticated applications in molecular diagnosis. This paper gives a review of recent developments in SELEX technologies and new applications of aptamers.

  17. Engineering model system study for a regenerative fuel cell: Study report (United States)

    Chang, B. J.; Schubert, F. H.; Kovach, A. J.; Wynveen, R. A.


    Key design issues of the regenerative fuel cell system concept were studied and a design definition of an alkaline electrolyte based engineering model system or low Earth orbit missions was completed. Definition of key design issues for a regenerative fuel cell system include gaseous reactant storage, shared heat exchangers and high pressure pumps. A power flow diagram for the 75 kW initial space station and the impact of different regenerative fuel cell modular sizes on the total 5 year to orbit weight and volume are determined. System characteristics, an isometric drawing, component sizes and mass and energy balances are determined for the 10 kW engineering model system. An open loop regenerative fuel cell concept is considered for integration of the energy storage system with the life support system of the space station. Technical problems and their solutions, pacing technologies and required developments and demonstrations for the regenerative fuel cell system are defined.

  18. Engineering model system study for a regenerative fuel cell: Study report (United States)

    Chang, B. J.; Schubert, F. H.; Kovach, A. J.; Wynveen, R. A.


    Key design issues of the regenerative fuel cell system concept were studied and a design definition of an alkaline electrolyte based engineering model system or low Earth orbit missions was completed. Definition of key design issues for a regenerative fuel cell system include gaseous reactant storage, shared heat exchangers and high pressure pumps. A power flow diagram for the 75 kW initial space station and the impact of different regenerative fuel cell modular sizes on the total 5 year to orbit weight and volume are determined. System characteristics, an isometric drawing, component sizes and mass and energy balances are determined for the 10 kW engineering model system. An open loop regenerative fuel cell concept is considered for integration of the energy storage system with the life support system of the space station. Technical problems and their solutions, pacing technologies and required developments and demonstrations for the regenerative fuel cell system are defined.

  19. IR spectroscopic characteristics of cell cycle and cell death probed by synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform IR spectromicroscopy (United States)

    Holman, H. Y.; Martin, M. C.; Blakely, E. A.; Bjornstad, K.; McKinney, W. R.


    Synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform IR (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy allows the study of individual living cells with a high signal to noise ratio. Here we report the use of the SR-FTIR technique to investigate changes in IR spectral features from individual human lung fibroblast (IMR-90) cells in vitro at different points in their cell cycle. Clear changes are observed in the spectral regions corresponding to proteins, DNA, and RNA as a cell changes from the G(1)-phase to the S-phase and finally into mitosis. These spectral changes include markers for the changing secondary structure of proteins in the cell, as well as variations in DNA/RNA content and packing as the cell cycle progresses. We also observe spectral features that indicate that occasional cells are undergoing various steps in the process of cell death. The dying or dead cell has a shift in the protein amide I and II bands corresponding to changing protein morphologies, and a significant increase in the intensity of an ester carbonyl C===O peak at 1743 cm(-1) is observed. Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biopolymers (Biospectroscopy) 57: 329-335, 2000.

  20. Cell-Based Multi-Parametric Model of Cleft Progression during Submandibular Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis (United States)

    Ray, Shayoni; Yuan, Daniel; Dhulekar, Nimit; Oztan, Basak; Yener, Bülent; Larsen, Melinda


    Cleft formation during submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis is the critical step initiating the growth and development of the complex adult organ. Previous experimental studies indicated requirements for several epithelial cellular processes, such as proliferation, migration, cell-cell adhesion, cell-extracellular matrix (matrix) adhesion, and cellular contraction in cleft formation; however, the relative contribution of each of these processes is not fully understood since it is not possible to experimentally manipulate each factor independently. We present here a comprehensive analysis of several cellular parameters regulating cleft progression during branching morphogenesis in the epithelial tissue of an early embryonic salivary gland at a local scale using an on lattice Monte-Carlo simulation model, the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model. We utilized measurements from time-lapse images of mouse submandibular gland organ explants to construct a temporally and spatially relevant cell-based 2D model. Our model simulates the effect of cellular proliferation, actomyosin contractility, cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions on cleft progression, and it was used to test specific hypotheses regarding the function of these parameters in branching morphogenesis. We use innovative features capturing several aspects of cleft morphology and quantitatively analyze clefts formed during functional modification of the cellular parameters. Our simulations predict that a low epithelial mitosis rate and moderate level of actomyosin contractility in the cleft cells promote cleft progression. Raising or lowering levels of contractility and mitosis rate resulted in non-progressive clefts. We also show that lowered cell-cell adhesion in the cleft region and increased cleft cell-matrix adhesions are required for cleft progression. Using a classifier-based analysis, the relative importance of these four contributing cellular factors for effective cleft progression was determined

  1. Graphene-based transparent electrodes for hybrid solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei eLi


    Full Text Available The graphene-based transparent and conductive films were demonstrated to be cost-effective electrodes working in organic-inorganic hybrid Schottky solar cells. Large area graphene films were produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD on copper foils and transferred onto glass as transparent electrodes. The hybrid solar cell devices consist of solution processed poly (3, 4-ethlenedioxythiophene: poly (styrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS which is sandwiched between silicon wafer and graphene electrode. The solar cells based on graphene electrodes, especially those doped with HNO3, has comparable performance to the reference devices using commercial indium tin oxide (ITO. Our work suggests that graphene-based transparent electrode is a promising candidate to replace ITO.

  2. Understanding development and stem cells using single cell-based analyses of gene expression. (United States)

    Kumar, Pavithra; Tan, Yuqi; Cahan, Patrick


    In recent years, genome-wide profiling approaches have begun to uncover the molecular programs that drive developmental processes. In particular, technical advances that enable genome-wide profiling of thousands of individual cells have provided the tantalizing prospect of cataloging cell type diversity and developmental dynamics in a quantitative and comprehensive manner. Here, we review how single-cell RNA sequencing has provided key insights into mammalian developmental and stem cell biology, emphasizing the analytical approaches that are specific to studying gene expression in single cells. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. [Descriptive study on basal cell eyelid carcinoma]. (United States)

    Pfeiffer, M J; Pfeiffer, N; Valor, C


    To describe a series of cases of basal cell carcinomas of the eyelid. A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted by reviewing the medical outcome, histopathological history, and photographic images of 200 patients with basal cell eyelid carcinomas. All were treated in the Herzog Carl Theodor Eye Hospital in Munich, Germany, between 2000 and 2013. In the present study, it was found that females are more affected than males. The mean age of presentation of the tumor occurred at the age of 70 years. In 50% of the cases the tumor was found on the lower lid, especially medially from the center of the lid. The lid margin was involved in 47% of all tumors. The mean diameter was 9.2mm. The recurrence rate after surgery with histologically clear resection margins was 5%. There was a significant relationship between tumor diameter and age. As tumors where located farther away from medial and closer to the lid margin, they became larger. There is a predominance of women affected by this tumor. This may be related to the fact that the sample was taken from those attending an oculoplastic surgery clinic, where there are generally more women than men attending. The formation of basal cell carcinomas increases with age. The infrequent involvement of the upper lid could be explained by the protection of the the eyebrow. The frequent involvement of the lower lid may be due to the light reflection (total reflection) by the cornea on the lower lid margin. Also chemical and physical effects of the tears may be more harmful on the lower lid. Patients tend to ask for medical help when they are females, younger, when the tumor is closer to the medial canthus or when the tumor is away from the lid margin. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantum dots-based multiplexed immunohistochemistry of protein expression in human prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Shi


    Full Text Available Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs are bright fluorescent nanoparticles that have been successfully used for the detection of biomarker expression in cells. The objective of the present study is to use this technology in a multiplexing manner to determine at a single cell level the expression of a cell-specific bio-marker, prostate-specific antigen (PSA expressed by human prostate cancer LNCaP and ARCaP cell lines. Here we compared the sensitivity of immunohistochemistry (IHC and QD-based detection of AR and PSA expression in these cell lines. Further, we conducted multiplexing QD-based detection of PSA and androgen receptor (AR expression in LNCaP cells subjecting to androgen (R1881 stimulation. The involvement of AR in PSA regulation in LNCaP cells, at a single cell level, was confirmed by the co-incubation of LNCaP cells in the presence of both R1881 and its receptor antagonist, bicalutamide (Casodex. We showed here the superior quality of QDs, in comparison to IHC, for the detection of AR and PSA in cultured LNCaP and ARCaP cells. Multiplexing QDs technique can be used to detect simultaneously AR and PSA expression induced by R1881 which promoted AR translocation from its cytosolic to the nuclear compartment.We observed AR antagonist, bicalutamide, inhibited AR nuclear translocation and PSA, but not AR expression in LNCaP cells.

  5. Microcarrier-based expansion of adult murine side population stem cells.

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    Christina A Pacak

    Full Text Available The lack of reliable methods to efficiently isolate and propagate stem cell populations is a significant obstacle to the advancement of cell-based therapies for human diseases. One isolation technique is based on efflux of the fluorophore Hoechst 33342. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS, a sub-population containing adult stem cells has been identified in a multitude of tissues in every mammalian species examined. These rare cells are referred to as the 'side population' or SP due to a distinctive FACS profile that results from weak staining by Hoechst dye. Although the SP contains multi-potent cells capable of differentiating toward hematopoietic and mesenchymal lineages; there is currently no method to efficiently expand them. Here, we describe a spinner-flask culture system containing C2C12 myoblasts attached to spherical microcarriers that act to support the growth of non-adherent, post-natal murine skeletal muscle and bone marrow SP cells. Using FACS and hemocytometry, we show expansion of unfractionated EGFP⁺ SP cells over 6 wks. A significant number of these cells retain characteristics of freshly-isolated, unfractionated SP cells with respect to protein expression and dye efflux capacity. Expansion of the SP will permit further study of these heterogeneous cells and determine their therapeutic potential for regenerative and reparative therapies.

  6. Cryopreservation of GABAergic Neuronal Precursors for Cell-Based Therapy.

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    Daniel Rodríguez-Martínez

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation protocols are essential for stem cells storage in order to apply them in the clinic. Here we describe a new standardized cryopreservation protocol for GABAergic neural precursors derived from the medial glanglionic eminence (MGE, a promising source of GABAergic neuronal progenitors for cell therapy against interneuron-related pathologies. We used 10% Me2SO as cryoprotectant and assessed the effects of cell culture amplification and cellular organization, as in toto explants, neurospheres, or individualized cells, on post-thaw cell viability and retrieval. We confirmed that in toto cryopreservation of MGE explants is an optimal preservation system to keep intact the interneuron precursor properties for cell transplantation, together with a high cell viability (>80% and yield (>70%. Post-thaw proliferation and self-renewal of the cryopreserved precursors were tested in vitro. In addition, their migration capacity, acquisition of mature neuronal morphology, and potency to differentiate into multiple interneuron subtypes were also confirmed in vivo after transplantation. The results show that the cryopreserved precursor features remained intact and were similar to those immediately transplanted after their dissection from the MGE. We hope this protocol will facilitate the generation of biobanks to obtain a permanent and reliable source of GABAergic precursors for clinical application in cell-based therapies against interneuronopathies.

  7. Cryopreservation of GABAergic Neuronal Precursors for Cell-Based Therapy (United States)


    Cryopreservation protocols are essential for stem cells storage in order to apply them in the clinic. Here we describe a new standardized cryopreservation protocol for GABAergic neural precursors derived from the medial glanglionic eminence (MGE), a promising source of GABAergic neuronal progenitors for cell therapy against interneuron-related pathologies. We used 10% Me2SO as cryoprotectant and assessed the effects of cell culture amplification and cellular organization, as in toto explants, neurospheres, or individualized cells, on post-thaw cell viability and retrieval. We confirmed that in toto cryopreservation of MGE explants is an optimal preservation system to keep intact the interneuron precursor properties for cell transplantation, together with a high cell viability (>80%) and yield (>70%). Post-thaw proliferation and self-renewal of the cryopreserved precursors were tested in vitro. In addition, their migration capacity, acquisition of mature neuronal morphology, and potency to differentiate into multiple interneuron subtypes were also confirmed in vivo after transplantation. The results show that the cryopreserved precursor features remained intact and were similar to those immediately transplanted after their dissection from the MGE. We hope this protocol will facilitate the generation of biobanks to obtain a permanent and reliable source of GABAergic precursors for clinical application in cell-based therapies against interneuronopathies. PMID:28122047

  8. Perovskite-Based Solar Cells: Materials, Methods, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhou


    Full Text Available A novel all-solid-state, hybrid solar cell based on organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbX3 materials has attracted great attention from the researchers all over the world and is considered to be one of the top 10 scientific breakthroughs in 2013. The perovskite materials can be used not only as light-absorbing layer, but also as an electron/hole transport layer due to the advantages of its high extinction coefficient, high charge mobility, long carrier lifetime, and long carrier diffusion distance. The photoelectric power conversion efficiency of the perovskite solar cells has increased from 3.8% in 2009 to 22.1% in 2016, making perovskite solar cells the best potential candidate for the new generation of solar cells to replace traditional silicon solar cells in the future. In this paper, we introduce the development and mechanism of perovskite solar cells, describe the specific function of each layer, and focus on the improvement in the function of such layers and its influence on the cell performance. Next, the synthesis methods of the perovskite light-absorbing layer and the performance characteristics are discussed. Finally, the challenges and prospects for the development of perovskite solar cells are also briefly presented.

  9. Silicon-based microfabricated microbial fuel cell toxicity sensor. (United States)

    Dávila, D; Esquivel, J P; Sabaté, N; Mas, J


    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been used for several years as biosensors for measuring environmental parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand and water toxicity. The present study is focused on the detection of toxic matter using a novel silicon-based MFC. Like other existing toxicity sensors based on MFCs, this device is capable of detecting the variation on the current produced by the cell when toxic compounds are present in the medium. The MFC approach presented in this work aims to obtain a simple, compact and planar device for its further application as a biosensor in the design and fabrication of equipment for toxicity monitoring. It consists on a proton exchange membrane placed between two microfabricated silicon plates that act as current collectors. An array of square 80 μm × 80 μm vertical channels, 300 μm deep, have been defined trough the plates over an area of 6 mm × 6 mm. The final testing assembly incorporates two perspex pieces positioned onto the plates as reservoirs with a working volume of 144 μL per compartment. The operation of the microdevice as a direct electron transfer MFC has been validated by comparing its performance against a larger scale MFC, run under the same conditions. The device has been tested as a toxicity sensor by setting it at a fixed current while monitoring changes in the output power. A drop in the power production is observed when a toxic compound is added to the anode compartment. The compact design of the device makes it suitable for its incorporation into measurement equipment either as an individual device or as an array of sensors for high throughput processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cell adhesion monitoring of human induced pluripotent stem cell based on intrinsic molecular charges (United States)

    Sugimoto, Haruyo; Sakata, Toshiya


    We have shown a simple way for real-time, quantitative, non-invasive, and non-label monitoring of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell adhesion by use of a biologically coupled-gate field effect transistor (bio-FET), which is based on detection of molecular charges at cell membrane. The electrical behavior revealed quantitatively the electrical contacts of integrin-receptor at the cell membrane with RGDS peptide immobilized at the gate sensing surface, because that binding site was based on cationic α chain of integrin. The platform based on the bio-FET would provide substantial information to evaluate cell/material bio-interface and elucidate biding mechanism of adhesion molecules, which could not be interpreted by microscopic observation.

  11. Low-Dose Cyclophosphamide Synergizes with Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy in Antitumor Activity

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    Joris D. Veltman


    Full Text Available Clinical immunotherapy trials like dendritic cell-based vaccinations are hampered by the tumor's offensive repertoire that suppresses the incoming effector cells. Regulatory T cells are instrumental in suppressing the function of cytotoxic T cells. We studied the effect of low-dose cyclophosphamide on the suppressive function of regulatory T cells and investigated if the success rate of dendritic cell immunotherapy could be improved. For this, mesothelioma tumor-bearing mice were treated with dendritic cell-based immunotherapy alone or in combination with low-dose of cyclophosphamide. Proportions of regulatory T cells and the cytotoxic T cell functions at different stages of disease were analyzed. We found that low-dose cyclophosphamide induced beneficial immunomodulatory effects by preventing the induction of Tregs, and as a consequence, cytotoxic T cell function was no longer affected. Addition of cyclophosphamide improved immunotherapy leading to an increased median and overall survival. Future studies are needed to address the usefulness of this combination treatment for mesothelioma patients.

  12. Substrate Curvature Regulates Cell Migration -A Computational Study (United States)

    He, Xiuxiu; Jiang, Yi

    Cell migration in host microenvironment is essential to cancer etiology, progression and metastasis. Cellular processes of adhesion, cytoskeletal polymerization, contraction, and matrix remodeling act in concert to regulate cell migration, while local extracellular matrix architecture modulate these processes. In this work we study how stromal microenvironment with native and cell-derived curvature at micron-meter scale regulate cell motility pattern. We developed a 3D model of single cell migration on a curved substrate. Mathematical analysis of cell morphological adaption to the cell-substrate interface shows that cell migration on convex surfaces deforms more than on concave surfaces. Both analytical and simulation results show that curved surfaces regulate the cell motile force for cell's protruding front through force balance with focal adhesion and cell contraction. We also found that cell migration on concave substrates is more persistent. These results offer a novel biomechanical explanation to substrate curvature regulation of cell migration. NIH 1U01CA143069.

  13. Advances in clinical NK cell studies: Donor selection, manufacturing and quality control. (United States)

    Koehl, U; Kalberer, C; Spanholtz, J; Lee, D A; Miller, J S; Cooley, S; Lowdell, M; Uharek, L; Klingemann, H; Curti, A; Leung, W; Alici, E


    Natural killer (NK) cells are increasingly used in clinical studies in order to treat patients with various malignancies. The following review summarizes platform lectures and 2013-2015 consortium meetings on manufacturing and clinical use of NK cells in Europe and United States. A broad overview of recent pre-clinical and clinical results in NK cell therapies is provided based on unstimulated, cytokine-activated, as well as genetically engineered NK cells using chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). Differences in donor selection, manufacturing and quality control of NK cells for cancer immunotherapies are described and basic recommendations are outlined for harmonization in future NK cell studies.

  14. Exosome-Based Cell-Cell Communication in the Tumor Microenvironment

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    Joana Maia


    Full Text Available Tumors are not isolated entities, but complex systemic networks involving cell-cell communication between transformed and non-transformed cells. The milieu created by tumor-associated cells may either support or halt tumor progression. In addition to cell-cell contact, cells communicate through secreted factors via a highly complex system involving characteristics such as ligand concentration, receptor expression and integration of diverse signaling pathways. Of these, extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, are emerging as novel cell-cell communication mediators in physiological and pathological scenarios. Exosomes, membrane vesicles of endocytic origin released by all cells (both healthy and diseased, ranging in size from 30 to 150 nm, transport all the main biomolecules, including lipids, proteins, DNAs, messenger RNAs and microRNA, and perform intercellular transfer of components, locally and systemically. By acting not only in tumor cells, but also in tumor-associated cells such as fibroblasts, endothelium, leukocytes and progenitor cells, tumor- and non-tumor cells-derived exosomes have emerged as new players in tumor growth and invasion, tumor-associated angiogenesis, tissue inflammation and immunologic remodeling. In addition, due to their property of carrying molecules from their cell of origin to the peripheral circulation, exosomes have been increasingly studied as sources of tumor biomarkers in liquid biopsies. Here we review the current literature on the participation of exosomes in the communication between tumor and tumor-associated cells, highlighting the role of this process in the setup of tumor microenvironments that modulate tumor initiation and metastasis.

  15. Usage of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Cell-based Therapy: Advantages and Disadvantages. (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jung; Park, Jeong-Soo


    The use of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in cell-based therapy has attracted extensive interest in the field of regenerative medicine, and it shows applications to numerous incurable diseases. hMSCs show several superior properties for therapeutic use compared to other types of stem cells. Different cell types are discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages, with focus on the characteristics of hMSCs. hMSCs can proliferate readily and produce differentiated cells that can substitute for the targeted affected tissue. To maximize the therapeutic effects of hMSCs, a substantial number of these cells are essential, requiring extensive ex vivo cell expansion. However, hMSCs have a limited lifespan in an in vitro culture condition. The senescence of hMSCs is a double-edged sword from the viewpoint of clinical applications. Although their limited cell proliferation potency protects them from malignant transformation after transplantation, senescence can alter various cell functions including proliferation, differentiation, and migration, that are essential for their therapeutic efficacy. Numerous trials to overcome the limited lifespan of mesenchymal stem cells are discussed.

  16. Usage of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Cell-based Therapy: Advantages and Disadvantages (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jung; Park, Jeong-Soo


    ABSTRACT The use of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in cell-based therapy has attracted extensive interest in the field of regenerative medicine, and it shows applications to numerous incurable diseases. hMSCs show several superior properties for therapeutic use compared to other types of stem cells. Different cell types are discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages, with focus on the characteristics of hMSCs. hMSCs can proliferate readily and produce differentiated cells that can substitute for the targeted affected tissue. To maximize the therapeutic effects of hMSCs, a substantial number of these cells are essential, requiring extensive ex vivo cell expansion. However, hMSCs have a limited lifespan in an in vitro culture condition. The senescence of hMSCs is a double-edged sword from the viewpoint of clinical applications. Although their limited cell proliferation potency protects them from malignant transformation after transplantation, senescence can alter various cell functions including proliferation, differentiation, and migration, that are essential for their therapeutic efficacy. Numerous trials to overcome the limited lifespan of mesenchymal stem cells are discussed. PMID:28484739

  17. Systems biology. Conditional density-based analysis of T cell signaling in single-cell data. (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Smita; Spitzer, Matthew H; Mingueneau, Michael; Bendall, Sean C; Litvin, Oren; Stone, Erica; Pe'er, Dana; Nolan, Garry P


    Cellular circuits sense the environment, process signals, and compute decisions using networks of interacting proteins. To model such a system, the abundance of each activated protein species can be described as a stochastic function of the abundance of other proteins. High-dimensional single-cell technologies, such as mass cytometry, offer an opportunity to characterize signaling circuit-wide. However, the challenge of developing and applying computational approaches to interpret such complex data remains. Here, we developed computational methods, based on established statistical concepts, to characterize signaling network relationships by quantifying the strengths of network edges and deriving signaling response functions. In comparing signaling between naïve and antigen-exposed CD4(+) T lymphocytes, we find that although these two cell subtypes had similarly wired networks, naïve cells transmitted more information along a key signaling cascade than did antigen-exposed cells. We validated our characterization on mice lacking the extracellular-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) ERK2, which showed stronger influence of pERK on pS6 (phosphorylated-ribosomal protein S6), in naïve cells as compared with antigen-exposed cells, as predicted. We demonstrate that by using cell-to-cell variation inherent in single-cell data, we can derive response functions underlying molecular circuits and drive the understanding of how cells process signals. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available We studied the conductive glass and/or the semiconductor surface treatments with aluminum ions as a technique to enhance the characteristics of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs based on Al-doped ZnO. The aluminum ions were deposited on the surfaces using aluminum isopropoxide as precursor, by an easy and efficient method. We measured the characteristics of the dye sensitized solar cells based on pre- and/or post-treated electrodes. Our study showed a clear enhancement of cells efficiencies for the DSSCs based on Al(III pre-treated electrodes (i.e. a percentage increase of almost 18 % and also a smaller improvement in the efficiencies of DSSCs based on Al(III post-treated photoelectrodes (i.e. a percentage increase of almost 10 %, giving a overall enhance of about 21 % reported to the untreated photoelectrode based DSSC.

  19. Stem Cell Based Gene Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Heon Kim


    Full Text Available Current prostate cancer treatment, especially hormone refractory cancer, may create profound iatrogenic outcomes because of the adverse effects of cytotoxic agents. Suicide gene therapy has been investigated for the substitute modality for current chemotherapy because it enables the treatment targeting the cancer cells. However the classic suicide gene therapy has several profound side effects, including immune-compromised due to viral vector. Recently, stem cells have been regarded as a new upgraded cellular vehicle or vector because of its homing effects. Suicide gene therapy using genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells or neural stem cells has the advantage of being safe, because prodrug administration not only eliminates tumor cells but consequently kills the more resistant therapeutic stem cells as well. The attractiveness of prodrug cancer gene therapy by stem cells targeted to tumors lies in activating the prodrug directly within the tumor mass, thus avoiding systemic toxicity. Therapeutic achievements using stem cells in prostate cancer include the cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine prodrug system, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir, carboxyl esterase/CPT11, and interferon-beta. The aim of this study is to review the stem cell therapy in prostate cancer including its proven mechanisms and also limitations.

  20. ZnO-based nanocrystalline powders with applications in hybrid photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damonte, L.C. [Dto. De Fisica, UNLP, IFLP-CCT-CONICET, C.C.67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Dto. De Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain); Donderis, V. [Dto. De Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain); Ferrari, S.; Meyer, M. [Dto. De Fisica, UNLP, IFLP-CCT-CONICET, C.C.67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Orozco, J. [Dto. de Ingenieria Mecanica y Materiales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain); Hernandez-Fenollosa, M.A. [Dto. De Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain)


    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the development of hybrid photovoltaic cells consisting of new materials, such as devices based on the combination of a wide gap semiconductor and an organic dye (dye-sensitized solar cells, DSSC). In this paper we obtain nano-zinc oxide particles whose optical and electrical properties have been modified by the presence of small amounts of Al or In acting as dopants. The aim of this study is to improve the compatibility of each of the compounds present in the photovoltaic solar cell. The knowledge gained will provide input to guide the processes in the manufacture of hybrid solar cells. (author)

  1. Glucose-based Biofuel Cells: Nanotechnology as a Vital Science in Biofuel Cells Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Aghahosseini


    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has opened up new opportunities for the design of nanoscale electronic devices suitable for developing high-performance biofuel cells. Glucose-based biofuel cells as green energy sources can be a powerful tool in the service of small-scale power source technology as it provides a latent potential to supply power for various implantable medical electronic devices. By using physiologically produced glucose as a fuel, the living battery can recharge for continuous production of electricity. This review article presents how nanoscience, engineering and medicine are combined to assist in the development of renewable glucose-based biofuel cell systems. Here, we review recent advances and applications in both abiotic and enzymatic glucose biofuel cells with emphasis on their “implantable” and “implanted” types. Also the challenges facing the design and application of glucose-based biofuel cells to convert them to promising replacement candidates for non-rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are discussed. Nanotechnology could make glucose-based biofuel cells cheaper, lighter and more efficient and hence it can be a part of the solutions to these challenges.

  2. Neural cell image segmentation method based on support vector machine (United States)

    Niu, Shiwei; Ren, Kan


    In the analysis of neural cell images gained by optical microscope, accurate and rapid segmentation is the foundation of nerve cell detection system. In this paper, a modified image segmentation method based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) is proposed to reduce the adverse impact caused by low contrast ratio between objects and background, adherent and clustered cells' interference etc. Firstly, Morphological Filtering and OTSU Method are applied to preprocess images for extracting the neural cells roughly. Secondly, the Stellate Vector, Circularity and Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) features are computed to train SVM model. Finally, the incremental learning SVM classifier is used to classify the preprocessed images, and the initial recognition areas identified by the SVM classifier are added to the library as the positive samples for training SVM model. Experiment results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve much better segmented results than the classic segmentation algorithms.

  3. Recent advances in Carbon Nanotube based Enzymatic Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge eCosnier


    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent trends in the field of enzymatic fuel cells. Thanks to the high specificity of enzymes, biofuel cells can generate electrical energy by oxidation of a targeted fuel (sugars, alcohols or hydrogen at the anode and reduction of oxidants (O2, H2O2 at the cathode in complex media. The combination of carbon nanotubes, enzymes and redox mediators was widely exploited to develop biofuel cells since the electrons, involved in the bio-electrocatalytic processes, can be efficiently transferred from or to an external circuit. Original approaches to construct electron transfer based CNT-bioelectrodes and impressive biofuel cell performances are reported as well as biomedical applications.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Click Chemistry Mediated Activity-Based Protein Profiling in Cell Lysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinliang Yang


    Full Text Available Activity-based protein profiling uses chemical probes that covalently attach to active enzyme targets. Probes with conventional tags have disadvantages, such as limited cell permeability or steric hindrance around the reactive group. A tandem labeling strategy with click chemistry is now widely used to study enzyme targets in situ and in vivo. Herein, the probes are reacted in live cells, whereas the ensuing detection by click chemistry takes place in cell lysates. We here make a comparison of the efficiency of the activity-based tandem labeling strategy by using Cu(I-catalyzed and strain-promoted click chemistry, different ligands and different lysis conditions.

  5. A semi-stochastic cell-based formalism to model the dynamics of migration of cells in colonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermolen, F.J.; Gefen, A.


    We consider the movement and viability of individual cells in cell colonies. Cell movement is assumed to take place as a result of sensing the strain energy density as a mechanical stimulus. The model is based on tracking the displacement and viability of each individual cell in a cell colony.

  6. Monitoring Ecological Impacts of Environmental Surface Waters using Cell-based Metabolomics (United States)

    Optimized cell-based metabolomics has been used to study the impacts of contaminants in surface waters on human and fish metabolomes. This method has proven to be resource- and time-effective, as well as sustainable for long term and large scale studies. In the current study, cel...

  7. Novel Acoustic Wave Microsystems for Biophysical Studies of Cells (United States)

    Senveli, Sukru Ufuk

    Single cell analysis is an important topic for understanding of diseases. In this understanding, biomechanics approach serves as an important tool as it relates and connects the mechanical properties of biological cells with diseases such as cancer. In this context, analysis methods based on ultrasonics are promising owing to their non-invasive nature and ease of use. However, there is a lack of miniature systems that provide accurate ultrasonic measurements on single cancer cells for diagnostic purposes. The platform presented in this study exploits high frequency acoustic interaction and uses direct coupling of Rayleigh type SAWs with various samples placed inside microcavities to analyze their structural properties. The samples used are aqueous glycerin solutions and polystyrene microbeads for demonstrating proper system operation, and lead up to biological cells. The microcavity is instrumental in trapping a predetermined volume of sample inside and facilitating the interaction of the surface waves with the sample in question via a resonance condition. Ultimately, the resultant SAW reaching the output transducer incurs a phase delay due to its interaction with the sample in the microcavity. The system operates in a different manner compared to similar systems as a result of multiple wave reflections in the small volume and coupling back to the piezoelectric substrate. The proposed microsystem was first analyzed using finite element methods. Liquid and solid media were modeled by considering frequency dependent characteristics. Similarly, mechanical behavior of cells with respect to different conditions is considered, and biological cells are modeled accordingly. Prototype devices were fabricated on quartz and lithium niobate in a cleanroom environment. Process steps were optimized separately for devices with microcavities. Precise fabrication, alignment, and bonding of PDMS microchannels were carried out. Soft microprobes were fabricated out of SU-8, a

  8. Synthetic Cell-Based Sensors with Programmed Selectivity and Sensitivity. (United States)

    Bernard, Elvis; Wang, Baojun


    Bacteria live in an ever changing environment and, to adapt their physiology, they have to sense the changes. Our current understanding of the mechanisms and elements involved in the detection and processing of these environmental signals grant us access to an array of genetic components able to process such information. As engineers can use different electronic components to build a circuit, we can rewire the cellular components to create digital logic and analogue gene circuits that will program cell behaviour in a designed manner in response to a specific stimulus. Here we present the methods and protocols for designing and implementing synthetic cell-based biosensors that use engineered genetic logic and analogue amplifying circuits to significantly increase selectivity and sensitivity, for example, for heavy metal ions in an aqueous environment. The approach is modular and can be readily applied to improving the sensing limit and performance of a range of microbial cell-based sensors to meet their real world detection requirement.

  9. Potential for Stem Cell-Based Periodontal Therapy (United States)

    Bassir, Seyed Hossein; Wisitrasameewong, Wichaya; Raanan, Justin; Ghaffarigarakani, Sasan; Chung, Jamie; Freire, Marcelo; Andrada, Luciano C.; Intini, Giuseppe


    Periodontal diseases are highly prevalent and are linked to several systemic diseases. The goal of periodontal treatment is to halt the progression of the disease and regenerate the damaged tissue. However, achieving complete and functional periodontal regeneration is challenging because the periodontium is a complex apparatus composed of different tissues, including bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament. Stem cell-based regenerative therapy may represent an effective therapeutic tool for periodontal regeneration due to their plasticity and ability to differentiate into different cell lineages. This review presents and critically analyzes the available information on stem cell-based therapy for the regeneration of periodontal tissues and suggests new avenues for the development of more effective therapeutic protocols. PMID:26058394

  10. Mesiodens: A Hospital Based Study. (United States)

    Limbu, Senchhema; Dikshit, Parajeeta; Gupta, Sujaya


     Background: A mesiodens, is the most frequent supernumerary tooth present in the maxillary central incisor region. This study is conducted to know the radiographic characteristics and management of mesiodens in children visiting hospital. A cross-sectional retrospective data collection was done from hospital dental records of children who visited the institution from December 2015-December 2016. Radiographic characteristic of mesiodens including the number, shape, position, direction of crown and complication caused by mesiodens were recorded. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS v.20.0. Out of 1871 dental records, it was found that 40 children had 53 mesiodens, with male female ratio of 3:1 and most of them were discovered at 8 years. Majority of mesiodens, 54.7% were erupted, conical, palatally placed with 77.3% vertically directed crown.Complications associated with it were crowding followed by diastema and delayed eruption. Among 40 children, one had three mesiodens, eleven had two mesiodens and rest had one each. Radiographically fully formed tooth was seen in 29 mesiodens. Immature apex was seen in 38 central incisors associated with mesiodens. Management undertaken was simple/surgical extraction and only few cases were kept for periodic observation. Periodic radiographs act as an important tool for clinicians in detecting and managing mesiodens.

  11. Dendritic-cell-based immunotherapy evokes potent anti-tumor immune responses in CD105+ human renal cancer stem cells. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Weng, De-Sheng; Pan, Ke; Zhou, Zi-Qi; Pan, Qiu-Zhong; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Tang, Yan; Jiang, Shan-Shan; Chen, Chang-Long; Li, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Chang, Alfred E; Wicha, Max S; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Li, Qiao; Xia, Jian-Chuan


    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation, progression, and resistance to therapeutic agents; they are usually less sensitive to conventional cancer therapies, and could cause tumor relapse. An ideal therapeutic strategy would therefore be to selectively target and destroy CSCs, thereby preventing tumor relapse. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with antigen derived from CD105+ human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) CSCs against renal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We identified "stem-like" characteristics of CD105+ cells in two human RCC cell lines: A498 and SK-RC-39. Loading with cell lysates did not change the characteristics of the DCs. However, DCs loaded with lysates derived from CD105+ CSCs induced more functionally specific active T cells and specific antibodies against CSCs, and clearly depressed the tumor growth in mice. Our results could form the basis for a novel strategy to improve the efficacy of DC-based immunotherapy for human RCC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. IAP-Based Cell Sorting Results in Homogeneous Transplantable Dopaminergic Precursor Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lehnen


    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC-derived mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA neurons can relieve motor deficits in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD. Clinical translation of differentiation protocols requires standardization of production procedures, and surface-marker-based cell sorting is considered instrumental for reproducible generation of defined cell products. Here, we demonstrate that integrin-associated protein (IAP is a cell surface marker suitable for enrichment of hPSC-derived mesDA progenitor cells. Immunomagnetically sorted IAP+ mesDA progenitors showed increased expression of ventral midbrain floor plate markers, lacked expression of pluripotency markers, and differentiated into mature dopaminergic (DA neurons in vitro. Intrastriatal transplantation of IAP+ cells sorted at day 16 of differentiation in a rat model of PD resulted in functional recovery. Grafts from sorted IAP+ mesDA progenitors were more homogeneous in size and DA neuron density. Thus, we suggest IAP-based sorting for reproducible prospective enrichment of mesDA progenitor cells in clinical cell replacement strategies.

  13. Cell-nanofiber-based Cartilage Tissue Engineering using Improved Cell Seeding, Growth Factor, and Bioreactor Technologies




    Biodegradable nanofibrous scaffolds serving as an extracellular matrix substitute have been shown to be applicable for cartilage tissue engineering. However, a key challenge in using nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering is that the small pore size limits the infiltration of cells, which may result in uneven cell distribution throughout the scaffold. This study describes an effective method of chondrocyte loading into nanofibrous scaffolds, which combines cell seeding, mixing, and cent...

  14. Electron trapping in higher adduct fullerene-based solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenes, Martijn; Shelton, Steven; Sieval, Alexander; Kronholm, David F.; Hummelen, Jan C. (Kees); Blom, Paul W.M.


    Here, the performance of bulk-heterojunction solar cells based on a series of bisadduct analogues of commonly used derivatives of C(60) and C(70), such PCBMs and their thienyl versions, is investigated. Due to their highest lowest unoccupied molecular orbital an increase in open-circuit voltage and

  15. Suprahyoid approach to base-of-tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    otolaryngologist. Management of base-of-tongue squamous cell carcinoma is controversial.3,4 Traditional therapeutic options include surgery alone, radiotherapy alone (external beam with or without brachytherapy) or multimodality treatment. Aggressive chemoradiation protocols are not commonly used in developing ...

  16. Cell phone–based health education messaging improves health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To explore the use of cell phone–based health education SMS to improve the health literacy of community residents in China. ... Intervention participants were sent health education SMSs once a week for 1 year and controls were sent conventional, ..... Nutrition Education and Promote Better Dietary Choices.

  17. Polymer solar cells based on MEH-PPV and PCBM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, FL; Johansson, M; Andersson, MR; Hummelen, JC; Inganas, O; Inganäs, O.


    Polymer solar cells based on poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene(MEH-PPV) and fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) Were fabricated by spin-coating. The improved performance has been achieved by blend polymer MEH-PPV with PCBM in a ratio of

  18. Foam Based Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Reversible Alkaline Electrolysis Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    Alkaline electrolysis cells operated at 250 °C and 40 bar have shown to be able to convert electrical energy into chemical energy in the form of hydrogen at very high efficiencies and power densities. Foam based gas diffusion electrodes and a liquid immobilized electrolyte allow the operation...

  19. Global Regulatory Differences for Gene- and Cell-Based Therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppens, Delphi G M; De Bruin, Marie L; Leufkens, Hubert G M


    Gene- and cell-based therapies (GCTs) offer potential new treatment options for unmet medical needs. However, the use of conventional regulatory requirements for medicinal products to approve GCTs may impede patient access and therapeutic innovation. Furthermore, requirements differ between juris...

  20. FPGA based Control of a Production Cell System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, M.A.; van Zuijlen, Jasper J.P.; Broenink, Johannes F.

    Most motion control systems for mechatronic systems are implemented on digital computers. In this paper we present an FPGA based solution implemented on a low cost Xilinx Spartan III FPGA. A Production Cell setup with multiple parallel operating units is chosen as a test case. The embedded control

  1. Extracellular matrix elasticity and topography: material-based cues that affect cell function via conserved mechanisms. (United States)

    Janson, Isaac A; Putnam, Andrew J


    Chemical, mechanical, and topographic extracellular matrix (ECM) cues have been extensively studied for their influence on cell behavior. These ECM cues alter cell adhesion, cell shape, and cell migration and activate signal transduction pathways to influence gene expression, proliferation, and differentiation. ECM elasticity and topography, in particular, have emerged as material properties of intense focus based on strong evidence these physical cues can partially dictate stem cell differentiation. Cells generate forces to pull on their adhesive contacts, and these tractional forces appear to be a common element of cells' responses to both elasticity and topography. This review focuses on recently published work that links ECM topography and mechanics and their influence on differentiation and other cell behaviors. We also highlight signaling pathways typically implicated in mechanotransduction that are (or may be) shared by cells subjected to topographic cues. Finally, we conclude with a brief discussion of the potential implications of these commonalities for cell based therapies and biomaterial design. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Modeling cell adhesion and proliferation: a cellular-automata based approach. (United States)

    Vivas, J; Garzón-Alvarado, D; Cerrolaza, M

    Cell adhesion is a process that involves the interaction between the cell membrane and another surface, either a cell or a substrate. Unlike experimental tests, computer models can simulate processes and study the result of experiments in a shorter time and lower costs. One of the tools used to simulate biological processes is the cellular automata, which is a dynamic system that is discrete both in space and time. This work describes a computer model based on cellular automata for the adhesion process and cell proliferation to predict the behavior of a cell population in suspension and adhered to a substrate. The values of the simulated system were obtained through experimental tests on fibroblast monolayer cultures. The results allow us to estimate the cells settling time in culture as well as the adhesion and proliferation time. The change in the cells morphology as the adhesion over the contact surface progress was also observed. The formation of the initial link between cell and the substrate of the adhesion was observed after 100 min where the cell on the substrate retains its spherical morphology during the simulation. The cellular automata model developed is, however, a simplified representation of the steps in the adhesion process and the subsequent proliferation. A combined framework of experimental and computational simulation based on cellular automata was proposed to represent the fibroblast adhesion on substrates and changes in a macro-scale observed in the cell during the adhesion process. The approach showed to be simple and efficient.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family which has potential economically. This plant has been reported to contain toxic compounds such as curcin and phorbol ester and its derivatives. These compounds may become a problem if J. curcas will be explored as a source of biofuel. In order to provide safety plants, the research on the study of phytochemical and initiation of cell and organ culture have been carried out. J curcas which has been collected from different regions in Indonesia showed to contain relatively the same profile of chemical contents. Dominant compounds that were detected by GCMS are hidrocarbon such as 2-heptenal, decadienal, hexsadecane, pentadecane, cyclooctane etc, fatty acid such as oktadecanoate acid, etthyl linoleate, ethyl stearate, heksadecanoate acid and steroid such as stigmasterol, fucosterol, sitosterol. No phorbol ester and its derivatives have been detected yet by the GCMS method. Callus and suspension cultures of J. curcas have been established to be used for further investigation.

  4. Subungual squamous cell carcinoma: A case study. (United States)

    Neill, Cory J


    The purpose of this case study is to describe a dosimetric delivery of radiation to a superficial disease process involving the skin and bone of the distal finger. A 76-year-old male patient presented with a subungual squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the left distal index finger with bony involvement. The patient refused conventional surgical treatment but agreed to external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). There is a gap in the current literature describing how to successfully immobilize fingers and which EBRT modality is dosimetrically advantageous in treating them. The construction of a simple immobilization method with the patient in a reproducible position is described. The use of photons and electrons were compared ultimately showing photons to be dosimetrically advantageous. Long-term efficacy of the treatment was not evaluated because of patient noncompliance. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Amorphous and crystalline silicon based heterojunction solar cells (United States)

    Schüttauf, J. A.


    saturation by H, whereas the decrease at higher temperatures is caused by H effusion. For intrinsic/n-type a-Si:H layer stacks, a record minority carrier lifetime of 13.3 ms is obtained. In contrast, for intrinsic/p-type a-Si:H layer stacks, a deterioration in passivation is observed over the whole temperature range, due to the asymmetric Fermi-level dependent defect formation enthalpy in n- and p-type a-Si:H. Comparing the lifetime values and trends for the different layer stacks to the performance of the corresponding cells, it is observed that the intrinsic/p-layer stack is limiting device performance. Based on these findings, the solar cells were prepared in a modified order, reaching an efficiency of 16.7% (VOC = 681 mV), versus 15.8% (VOC = 659 mV) in the ‘standard’ order. Finally, transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layers are studied for application into solar cells. It is observed that both types of TCO deposition have no significant influence on the passivation properties of standard a-Si:H layer stacks forming the emitter structure in the used SHJ cells. On flat wafers, a conversion efficiency of 16.7% has been obtained when ITO is used as TCO, versus an efficiency of 16.3% for ZnO:Al; slightly lower due to increased electrical losses.

  6. Proliferation of canine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells on different nanomaterial based thin film scaffolds. (United States)

    Das, Kinsuk; Mili, Bhabesh; A P, Madhusoodan; Saxena, Abhishek Chandra; Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Praveen; Verma, Med Ram; Sarkar, Mihir; Bag, Sadhan


    Stem cell niche research uses nanotechnologies to mimic the extra-cellular microenvironment to promote proliferation and differentiation. The aim of designing different scaffolds is to simulate the best structural and environmental pattern for extracellular matrix. This experiment was designed to st