WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell storage life

  1. Storage Life of an Aluminised HE Composition .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Narang

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Most high explosive compositions are organic in nature and they tend to undergo slow decomposition during storage under different environmental conditions. The decomposition degrade the molecular stability of the explosive, thereby resulting in reduced performance and service life. The knowledge of decomposition behaviour of the explosive mass determines the storage life of the composition. Hence, change in the chemical stability, sensitivity, mechanical strength and performance are of utmost importance in the prediction of storage life of explosive/ammunitions systems. This paper presents the results on the rate of gas evolution, change in sensitivity, and thermal stability and weight loss of high explosive compositions, viz., Dentex and TNT when exposed to elevated temperature. Based on the collected data, a tentative storage life for the aluminised (Dentex composition has been computed to be 15 years. The data has been compared with TNT, a standard explosive for assessing the storage life.

  2. Environmental performance of electricity storage systems for grid applications, a life cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Large energy storage systems: environmental performance under different scenarios. • ReCiPe midpoint and endpoint impact assessment results are analyzed. • Energy storage systems can replace peak power generation units. • Energy storage systems and renewable energy have the best environmental scores. • Environmental performance of storage systems is application dependent. - Abstract: In this paper, the environmental performance of electricity storage technologies for grid applications is assessed. Using a life cycle assessment methodology we analyze the impacts of the construction, disposal/end of life, and usage of each of the systems. Pumped hydro and compressed air storage are studied as mechanical storage, and advanced lead acid, sodium sulfur, lithium-ion and nickel–sodium-chloride batteries are addressed as electrochemical storage systems. Hydrogen production from electrolysis and subsequent usage in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are also analyzed. The selected electricity storage systems mimic real world installations in terms of capacity, power rating, life time, technology and application. The functional unit is one kW h of energy delivered back to the grid, from the storage system. The environmental impacts assessed are climate change, human toxicity, particulate matter formation, and fossil resource depletion. Different electricity mixes are used in order to exemplify scenarios where the selected technologies meet specific applications. Results indicate that the performance of the storage systems is tied to the electricity feedstocks used during use stage. Renewable energy sources have lower impacts throughout the use stage of the storage technologies. Using the Belgium electricity mix of 2011 as benchmark, the sodium sulfur battery is shown to be the best performer for all the impacts analyzed. Pumped hydro storage follows in second place. Regarding infrastructure and end of life, results indicate that battery systems

  3. Cell biology of fat storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-08-15

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development.

  4. Cell biology of fat storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-08-15

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development. PMID:27528697

  5. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell systems for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Reid, M. A.; Martin, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the results of a preliminary design study of a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for application to future low-earth orbit space missions. The high energy density storage system is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte cell technology and incorporates dedicated fuel cell and electrolysis cell modules. In addition to providing energy storage, the system can provide hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. During the daylight portion of the orbit the electrolysis module uses power provided by the solar array to generate H2 and O2 from the product water produced by the fuel cell module. The fuel cell module supplies electrical power during the dark period of the orbit.

  6. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  7. Hydrogen storage and integrated fuel cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karl J.

    2010-08-24

    Hydrogen is stored in materials that absorb and desorb hydrogen with temperature dependent rates. A housing is provided that allows for the storage of one or more types of hydrogen-storage materials in close thermal proximity to a fuel cell stack. This arrangement, which includes alternating fuel cell stack and hydrogen-storage units, allows for close thermal matching of the hydrogen storage material and the fuel cell stack. Also, the present invention allows for tailoring of the hydrogen delivery by mixing different materials in one unit. Thermal insulation alternatively allows for a highly efficient unit. Individual power modules including one fuel cell stack surrounded by a pair of hydrogen-storage units allows for distribution of power throughout a vehicle or other electric power consuming devices.

  8. Shelf life assessment of Malaysian Pangasius sutchi during cold storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K A Abbas; S M Sapuan; A S Mokhtar

    2006-10-01

    The findings of the present work yield useful information about the Malaysian Pangasius sutchi concerning the marketing sector from the point of view of shelf life and storage temperature in the range of 0 to 10°C. A fresh batch of typical samples, were stored similarly in four chillers of different temperatures for a period of 28 days. During the course of storage, the samples were periodically subjected to pH and sensory tests performed by trained panelists. Experimental observations were analysed and regressed to develop three correlations. The first one was between the sensory tests and the storage time and temperatures, while the second one related pH values to storage time and temperatures. Finally, a correlation between sensorial and pH values was developed as well. The first correlation is presented in tabular form to yield a simple guide to fish retailers, by which quality and shelf life of the displayed fish commodity may be estimated.

  9. Storage temperature: A factor of shelf life of dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Memiši Nurgin R.; Vesković-Moračanin Slavica M.; Škrinjar Marija M.; Iličić Mirela D.; Ač Mira Đ.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was designed to monitor the durability of certain dairy products stored at proper temperatures (8°C) and elevated temperatures (14°C) within their shelf life. Samples of fermented milk products were tested during 25 days, samples of cheese spread products over 80 days, while soft white cheese samples were analyzed during a storage period of 100 days. In the defined study periods, depending on the type of product, pH and aw value of the product...

  10. Application of Cloud Storage on BIM Life-cycle Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieyun Ding

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Because of its high information intensity, strong consistency and convenient visualization features, building information modelling (BIM has received widespread attention in the fields of construction and project management. However, due to large amounts of information, high integration, the need for resource sharing between various departments, the long time-span of the BIM application, challenges relating to data interoperability, security and cost all slow down the adoption of BIM. This paper constructs a BIM cloud storage concept system using cloud storage, an advanced computer technology, to solve the problem of mass data processing, information security, and cost problems in the existing application of BIM to full life-cycle management. This system takes full advantage of the cloud storage technique. Achievements are reached in four areas of BIM information management, involving security and licensing management, file management, work process management and collaborative management. The system expands the time and space scales, improves the level of participation, and reduces the cost of BIM. The construction of the BIM cloud storage system is one of the most important directions of the development of BIM, which benefits the promotion and further development of BIM to better serve construction and engineering project management.

  11. Lithium Ion Cell Development for Photovoltaic Energy Storage Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babinec, Susan [A123 Systems, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2012-02-08

    The overall project goal is to reduce the cost of home and neighborhood photovoltaic storage systems by reducing the single largest cost component the energy storage cells. Solar power is accepted as an environmentally advantaged renewable power source. Its deployment in small communities and integrated into the grid, requires a safe, reliable and low cost energy storage system. The incumbent technology of lead acid cells is large, toxic to produce and dispose of, and offer limited life even with significant maintenance. The ideal PV storage battery would have the safety and low cost of lead acid but the performance of lithium ion chemistry. Present lithium ion batteries have the desired performance but cost and safety remain the two key implementation barriers. The purpose of this project is to develop new lithium ion cells that can meet PVES cost and safety requirements using A123Systems phosphate-based cathode chemistries in commercial PHEV cell formats. The cost target is a cell design for a home or neighborhood scale at <$25/kWh. This DOE program is the continuation and expansion of an initial MPSC (Michigan Public Service Commission) program towards this goal. This program further pushes the initial limits of some aspects of the original program even lower cost anode and cathode actives implemented at even higher electrode loadings, and as well explores new avenues of cost reduction via new materials specifically our higher voltage cathode. The challenge in our materials development is to achieve parity in the performance metrics of cycle life and high temperature storage, and to produce quality materials at the production scale. Our new cathode material, M1X, has a higher voltage and so requires electrolyte reformulation to meet the high temperature storage requirements. The challenge of thick electrode systems is to maintain adequate adhesion and cycle life. The composite separator has been proven in systems having standard loading electrodes; the challenge

  12. Shelf life and storage stability of spray-dried bovine colostrum powders under different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huaning; Zheng, Yuanrong; Li, Yunfei

    2015-02-01

    Spray dried bovine colostrum (SDBC) powders were packaged in aluminium-laminated polyethylene (ALPE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) pouches and then stored under different conditions (25 °C and 50 % relative humidity (RH), 4 °C and 40-70 % RH, 50 °C and 20-50 % RH). The shelf life of SDBC powder was evaluated as 425.5 and 86.5 days in ALPE and PET pouches under 25 °C and 50 % RH, respectively. The storage stability of SDBC powder in terms of quality parameters including thiobarbituric acid (TBA), hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), colour change, moisture content and IgG concentration was studied in both packaging materials under different storage conditions. Results showed that ALPE pouches were more suitable for packaging SDBC powder than PET pouches and storage condition of 4 °C and 40-70 % RH was relative suitable for keeping quality of SDBC powder. The glass transition concept was helpful for evaluating the chemical stability of SDBC powder during storage. PMID:25694704

  13. Fuel Cells and Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammells, Anthony F.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cells and major features and types of batteries used for electrical energy storage. Includes two tables presenting comparison of major battery features and summary of major material problems in the sodium-sulfur and lithium-alloy metal sulfide batteries. (JN)

  14. Determination of the Shelf-Life of Stuffed Rainbow Trout During Cold Storage

    OpenAIRE

    BAYGAR, Taçnur; ERKAN, Nuray; METİN, Sühendan; ÖZDEN, Özkan; VARLIK, Candan

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the shelf-life of stuffed Rainbow trout during cold storage. The fish were placed on polystyrene plates, wrapped in aluminium foil and stored in the refrigerator. Sensory, pH and Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N) analyses were carried out during the storage. The shelf-life of stuffed rainbow trout during cold storage was determined to be 5 days.

  15. Storage temperature: A factor of shelf life of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memiši Nurgin R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was designed to monitor the durability of certain dairy products stored at proper temperatures (8°C and elevated temperatures (14°C within their shelf life. Samples of fermented milk products were tested during 25 days, samples of cheese spread products over 80 days, while soft white cheese samples were analyzed during a storage period of 100 days. In the defined study periods, depending on the type of product, pH and aw value of the product, as well as sensory analysis (odor, taste, color and consistency, along with microbiological safety, were investigated. The investigations were performed in accordance with national legislation. The results indicate that the products stored at 14°C showed significant acidity (lower pH value, changed sensory properties, and had an increased number of aerobic bacteria. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009: Improvement and development of hygienic and technological procedures in production of foodstuffs of animal origin with the aim of producing high-quality and safe products competitive on the global market

  16. Microbial Life in an Underground Gas Storage Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombach, Petra; van Almsick, Tobias; Richnow, Hans H.; Zenner, Matthias; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    While underground gas storage is technically well established for decades, the presence and activity of microorganisms in underground gas reservoirs have still hardly been explored today. Microbial life in underground gas reservoirs is controlled by moderate to high temperatures, elevated pressures, the availability of essential inorganic nutrients, and the availability of appropriate chemical energy sources. Microbial activity may affect the geochemical conditions and the gas composition in an underground reservoir by selective removal of anorganic and organic components from the stored gas and the formation water as well as by generation of metabolic products. From an economic point of view, microbial activities can lead to a loss of stored gas accompanied by a pressure decline in the reservoir, damage of technical equipment by biocorrosion, clogging processes through precipitates and biomass accumulation, and reservoir souring due to a deterioration of the gas quality. We present here results from molecular and cultivation-based methods to characterize microbial communities inhabiting a porous rock gas storage reservoir located in Southern Germany. Four reservoir water samples were obtained from three different geological horizons characterized by an ambient reservoir temperature of about 45 °C and an ambient reservoir pressure of about 92 bar at the time of sampling. A complementary water sample was taken at a water production well completed in a respective horizon but located outside the gas storage reservoir. Microbial community analysis by Illumina Sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of phylogenetically diverse microbial communities of high compositional heterogeneity. In three out of four samples originating from the reservoir, the majority of bacterial sequences affiliated with members of the genera Eubacterium, Acetobacterium and Sporobacterium within Clostridiales, known for their fermenting capabilities. In

  17. Flood inundation extent in storage cell mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.; Farahi; Saeed; Reza; Khodashenas; B.; Ghahraman; K.; Esmaeeli

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of floodplain processes in general and floodplains flooding in particular are vital issues for river engineers and managers. Insufficient observations of flood inundation extent and the infrequent nature of flood inundation necessitate some sort of predictive tools. In this paper flood inundation extent has been simulated by HEC-RAS software in two storage cell and normal modes and capabilities and limitations of the two models have been determined by comparing simulated and observed flood inundation extent which occurred in the study area on Feb 4th, 2004.

  18. Flood inundation extent in storage cell mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Farahi; Saeed Reza Khodashenas; B.Ghahraman; K.Esmaeeli

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of floodplaln processes In general and floodplains flooding in particular are vital issues for river engineers and managers.Insufficient observations of flood inundation extent and the infrequent nature of flood inundation necessitate some sort of predictive tools.In this paper flood in-undation extent has been simulated by HEC-RAS software in two storage cell and normal modes and capabilities and limitations of the two models have been determined by comparing simulated and ob-served flood inundation extent which occurred in the study area on Feb 4th, 2004.

  19. Storage life of silicone rubber sealing ring used in solid rocket motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Weikai; He Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    It is urgent to carry out detailed research on storage performance of rubber sealing ring to get the criterion for its storage life. This paper acquires material ageing regularity by theoretical analysis and experimental confirmation. On this condition, failure mode and failure criterion of typ-ical sealing structure is studied, and the failure mechanism is found. Thus by analyzing the stress distribution, the relationship between ageing state and sealing condition is established. Rationaliza-tion proposal is put forward and storage life of sealing ring is evaluated. The research mentioned-above has special reference to the design of sealing structures and can provide reference for prolong-ing their service life.

  20. Storage life of silicone rubber sealing ring used in solid rocket motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Weikai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is urgent to carry out detailed research on storage performance of rubber sealing ring to get the criterion for its storage life. This paper acquires material ageing regularity by theoretical analysis and experimental confirmation. On this condition, failure mode and failure criterion of typical sealing structure is studied, and the failure mechanism is found. Thus by analyzing the stress distribution, the relationship between ageing state and sealing condition is established. Rationalization proposal is put forward and storage life of sealing ring is evaluated. The research mentioned-above has special reference to the design of sealing structures and can provide reference for prolonging their service life.

  1. Discussion on Failure Sensitive Parameters of an EED Life Performance in Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Nan; JIANG Min-rong

    2005-01-01

    An issue to distinguish sensitive parameters of storage life prior to the failure of a bridgewire electro-explosive device (EED) is studied. The degradations of bridgewire resistance, 50% firing current, ignition delay time, bridgewire molten time and powder color with the storage time were measured under a simulating accelerated life test of high-temperature and high-humidity. The most sensitive parameter suitable to evaluate the EED storage life is discussed. It is concluded that the standard deviation of resistance change is the most sensitive degradation variable, and the next is bridgewire molten time, 50% firing current and ignition delay time. The mean of resistance is an insensitive degradation parameter.

  2. RSPF-based Prognosis Framework for Estimation of Remaining Useful Life in Energy Storage Devices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a case study where a RSPF-based prognosis framework is applied to estimate the remaining useful life of an energy storage device (Li-Ion...

  3. Considerations for Disposition of Dry Cask Storage System Materials at End of Storage System Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry cask storage systems are deployed at nuclear power plants for used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage when spent fuel pools reach their storage capacity and/or the plants are decommissioned. An important waste and materials disposition consideration arising from the increasing use of these systems is the management of the dry cask storage systems' materials after the UNF proceeds to disposition. Thermal analyses of repository design concepts currently under consideration internationally indicate that waste package sizes for the geologic media under consideration may be significantly smaller than the canisters being used for on-site dry storage by the nuclear utilities. Therefore, at some point along the UNF disposition pathway, there could be a need to repackage fuel assemblies already loaded into the dry storage canisters currently in use. In the United States, there are already over 1650 of these dry storage canisters deployed and approximately 200 canisters per year are being loaded at the current fleet of commercial nuclear power plants. There is about 10 cubic meters of material from each dry storage canister system that will need to be dispositioned. The concrete horizontal storage modules or vertical storage overpacks will need to be reused, re-purposed, recycled, or disposed of in some manner. The empty metal storage canister/cask would also have to be cleaned, and decontaminated for possible reuse or recycling or disposed of, likely as low-level radioactive waste. These material disposition options can have impacts of the overall used fuel management system costs. This paper will identify and explore some of the technical and interface considerations associated with managing the dry cask storage system materials. (authors)

  4. Fuel cell systems for first lunar outpost -- Reactant storage options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1995-06-01

    A Lunar Surface Power Working Group was formed to review candidate systems for providing power to the First Lunar Outpost habitat. The working group met for five days in the fall of 1992 and concluded that the most attractive candidate included a photovoltaic unit, a fuel cell, a regenerator to recycle the reactants, and storage of oxygen and hydrogen gases. Most of the volume (97%) and weight (64%) are taken up by the reactants and their storage tanks. The large volume is difficult to accommodate, and therefore, the working group explored ways of reducing the volume. An alternative approach to providing separate high pressure storage tanks is to use two of the descent stage propellant storage tanks, which would have to be wrapped with graphite fibers to increase their pressure capability. This saves 90% of the volume required for storage of fuel cell reactants. Another approach is to use the descent storage propellant tanks for storage of the fuel cell reactants as cryogenic liquids, but this requires a gas liquefaction system, increases the solar array by 40%, and increases the heat rejection rate by 170% compared with storage of reactants as high pressure gases. For a high power system (>20 kW) the larger energy storage requirement would probably favor the cryogenic storage option.

  5. A Study on the Storage Reliability of LSINS Based on Step-stress Accelerated Life Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the step-stress accelerated life test and the laser strap-down inertial navigation system, this paper studies the accelerated life model and the test method, provides the likelihood function, the likelihood equation and the two-order derivative when the stress level is k, evaluates the effectiveness of the method with the simulation test model established by MATLAB, applies the research findings in the storage reliability study of the XX laser strap-down inertial navigation system, and puts forward an effective evaluation method of the storage life of the inertial navigation system.

  6. [Promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, A G; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B

    2013-10-01

    The current article is dedicated to promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage. The following new technical approaches are presented: (1) erythrocytes storage in strict anaerobic argon-hydrogen environment, (2) lyophilization of erythrocyte suspension by its atomization in nitrogen gas, (3) lyophilization of erythrocytes by directional freezing under the influence of radio frequency radiation, (4) automated pharming of antigen free packed red blood cells from progenitor cell directly at the battlefield. PMID:24611298

  7. [Promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, A G; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B

    2013-10-01

    The current article is dedicated to promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage. The following new technical approaches are presented: (1) erythrocytes storage in strict anaerobic argon-hydrogen environment, (2) lyophilization of erythrocyte suspension by its atomization in nitrogen gas, (3) lyophilization of erythrocytes by directional freezing under the influence of radio frequency radiation, (4) automated pharming of antigen free packed red blood cells from progenitor cell directly at the battlefield.

  8. Improved thermal storage material for portable life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The availability of thermal storage materials that have heat absorption capabilities substantially greater than water-ice in the same temperature range would permit significant improvements in performance of projected portable thermal storage cooling systems. A method for providing increased heat absorption by the combined use of the heat of solution of certain salts and the heat of fusion of water-ice was investigated. This work has indicated that a 30 percent solution of potassium bifluoride (KHF2) in water can absorb approximately 52 percent more heat than an equal weight of water-ice, and approximately 79 percent more heat than an equal volume of water-ice. The thermal storage material can be regenerated easily by freezing, however, a lower temperature must be used, 261 K as compared to 273 K for water-ice. This work was conducted by the United Aircraft Research Laboratories as part of a program at Hamilton Standard Division of United Aircraft Corporation under contract to NASA Ames Research Center.

  9. Storage life of parachutes -- long time material degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericksen, R.H.; Whinery, L.D.

    1995-04-01

    This study considers the long-time storage of single-use nylon and Kevlar{reg_sign} parachutes. The authors present data from a 29-year-old nylon parachute, and nylon and Kevlar{reg_sign} test samples stored 14 years under ambient conditions in the absence of sunlight. They compare the results with existing predictions of parachute material degradation and other aging data. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses were preformed on Nylon and Kevlar{reg_sign} fabrics that were degraded by elevated temperature aging. The results suggest that this technique should be further examined as a {open_quotes}non-destructive{close_quotes} method of detecting degradation.

  10. Suitability of Dukat strawberries for studying effects on shelf life of irradiation combined with cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new Dukat variety of strawberries was used to study the effect of irradiation combined with cold storage on their shelf life and chemical composition. Strawberries, with or without stems, were irradiated with a dose of 2.5 or 3.0 kGy within 6-10 or 20-24 h after harvesting. Results of the sensory evaluation showed that the minimum storage time for the fruits could be extended by a minimum of 9 days. If the time between harvest and irradiation was shorter, better results for storage experiments were obtained. Fruits with stems were more suitable for cold storage after irradiation than those without stems. Irradiation of strawberries did not change the titratable acidity and content of the reducing sugars. Colour intensity and ascorbic acid levels decreased in proportion to the absorbed dose and storage time. (orig.)

  11. Second life battery energy storage system for enhancing renewable energy grid integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Ciobotaru, C.; Saez-de-Ibarra, A.; Martinez-Laserna, E.;

    2015-01-01

    must be explored especially that large battery energy storage systems are still expensive solutions. Thus, in order to make battery investment economic viable, the use of second life batteries is investigated in the present work. This paper proposes a method for determining firstly, the optimal rating...... of a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS) and secondly, to obtain the power exchange and battery state of charge profiles during the operation. These will constitute the cycling patterns for testing batteries and studying the ageing effect of this specific application. Real data from the Spanish...

  12. Second life battery energy storage system for residential demand response service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-de-Ibarra, Andoni; Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Koch-Ciobotaru, Cosmin;

    2015-01-01

    vehicles, during their main first life application, for providing residential demand response service. The paper considers the decayed characteristics of these batteries and optimizes the rating of such a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS) for maximizing the economic benefits of the user......The integration of renewable energies and the usage of battery energy storage systems (BESS) into the residential buildings opens the possibility for minimizing the electricity bill for the end-user. This paper proposes the use of batteries that have already been aged while powering electric...

  13. Advanced Energy Storage Life and Health Prognostics (INL) FY 2012 Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon P. Christophersen

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this work is to develop methodologies that will accurately estimate state-of-health (SOH) and remaining useful life (RUL) of electrochemical energy storage devices using both offline and online (i.e., in-situ) techniques through: · A statistically robust offline battery calendar life estimator tool based on both testing and simulation, and · Novel onboard sensor technology for improved online battery diagnostics and prognostics.

  14. A method for making a storage cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanakhasi, K.; Ivaki, T.

    1983-03-17

    The electrode unit is placed in a tank and water is poured into it until the electrodes are completely submerged. A liquid is poured in from above which is a solution of a synthetic resin of the polyvinylchloride type in a solvent insoluble in water of the tetrahydrofurane type. The solvent spreads along the surface of the water. The resin is removed, hardening and forming a porous layer on the wave shaped coagulated flakes. Then the liquid is poured off, passing through the pores of the resin layer. The water is replaced by an electrolyte. The layer of resin prevent splashing and excess evaporation of the electrolyte. A plug with a catalyst for recombining the gases formed in the storage device may be installed additionally in the storage device.

  15. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.baptista@ist.utl.pt [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley [Intelligent Energy, Charnwood Building, HolywellPark, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3GR (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO{sub 2} emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: > A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. > The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions results. > A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  16. In Vitro Periodontal Ligament Cell Viability in Different Storage Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of periodontal ligament cells of avulsed teeth in three different storage media. Forty-five mature premolars extracted for orthodontic therapeutic purposes were randomly and equally divided into three groups according to the storage medium: milk (control), rice water and egg white. After placing extracted teeth for 30 min in storage media, the scrapings of the periodontal ligament (PDL) were collected in Falcon tubes containing collagenase in 2.5 mL of phosphate buffer saline and were incubated for 30 min and centrifuged for 5 min at 800 rpm. Cell viability was analyzed by Trypan blue exclusion. Rice water had a significantly higher number of viable cells compared to egg white and milk. There was no statistically significant difference between egg white and milk. Rice water may be able to maintain PDL cell viability of avulsed teeth better than egg white or milk. PMID:27652702

  17. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for manned orbital satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.; Gitlow, B.; Sheibley, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the alkaline regenerative fuel cell system represents a highly efficient, lightweight, reliable approach for providing energy storage in an orbiting satellite. In addition to its energy storage function, the system can supply hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. A summary is presented of the results to date obtained in connection with the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, giving particular attention to the requirements of the alkaline regenerative fuel cell and the low-earth mission. Attention is given to system design guidelines, weight considerations, gold-platinum cathode cell performance, matrix development, the electrolyte reservoir plate, and the cyclical load profile tests.

  18. Cold storage and cryopreservation of tick cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lallinger Gertrud

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tick cell lines are now available from fifteen ixodid and argasid species of medical and veterinary importance. However, some tick cell lines can be difficult to cryopreserve, and improved protocols for short- and long-term low temperature storage will greatly enhance their use as tools in tick and tick-borne pathogen research. In the present study, different protocols were evaluated for cold storage and cryopreservation of tick cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis. For short-term cold storage, cells were kept under refrigeration at 6°C for 15, 30 and 45 days. For cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen, use of a sucrose-phosphate-glutamate freezing buffer (SPG as cryoprotectant was compared with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO supplemented with sucrose. Cell viability was determined by the trypan blue exclusion test and cell morphology was evaluated in Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears. Results Cold storage at 6°C for up to 30 days was successful in preserving R. (B. microplus, R. (B. decoloratus, I. ricinus and I. scapularis cell lines; lines from the latter three species could be easily re-cultivated after 45 days under refrigeration. While cell lines from all four tick species cryopreserved with 6% DMSO were successfully resuscitated, the R. (B. decoloratus cells did not survive freezing in SPG and of the other three species, only the R. (B. microplus cells resumed growth during the observation period. Conclusions This constitutes the first report on successful short-term refrigeration of cells derived from R. (B. decoloratus, R. (B. microplus, and I. ricinus, and use of SPG as an alternative to DMSO for cryopreservation, thus making an important contribution to more reliable and convenient tick cell culture maintenance.

  19. Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Storage Technology: Fundamental Research for Optimization of Hydrogen Storage and Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, Bob; Heske, Clemens; Nadavalath, Balakrishnan; Cornelius, Andrew; Hatchett, David; Bae, Chusung; Pang, Tao; Kim, Eunja; Hemmers, Oliver

    2011-03-28

    Design and development of improved low-cost hydrogen fuel cell catalytic materials and high-capacity hydrogenn storage media are paramount to enabling the hydrogen economy. Presently, effective and durable catalysts are mostly precious metals in pure or alloyed form and their high cost inhibits fuel cell applications. Similarly, materials that meet on-board hydrogen storage targets within total mass and volumetric constraints are yet to be found. Both hydrogen storage performance and cost-effective fuel cell designs are intimately linked to the electronic structure, morphology and cost of the chosen materials. The FCAST Project combined theoretical and experimental studies of electronic structure, chemical bonding, and hydrogen adsorption/desorption characteristics of a number of different nanomaterials and metal clusters to develop better fundamental understanding of hydrogen storage in solid state matrices. Additional experimental studies quantified the hydrogen storage properties of synthesized polyaniline(PANI)/Pd composites. Such conducting polymers are especially interesting because of their high intrinsic electron density and the ability to dope the materials with protons, anions, and metal species. Earlier work produced contradictory results: one study reported 7% to 8% hydrogen uptake while a second study reported zero hydrogen uptake. Cost and durability of fuel cell systems are crucial factors in their affordability. Limits on operating temperature, loss of catalytic reactivity and degradation of proton exchange membranes are factors that affect system durability and contribute to operational costs. More cost effective fuel cell components were sought through studies of the physical and chemical nature of catalyst performance, characterization of oxidation and reduction processes on system surfaces. Additional development effort resulted in a new hydrocarbon-based high-performance sulfonated proton exchange membrane (PEM) that can be manufactured at low

  20. Optimization of Storage Temperature for Cultured ARPE-19 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Pasovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The establishment of future retinal pigment epithelium (RPE replacement therapy is partly dependent on the availability of tissue-engineered RPE cells, which may be enhanced by the development of suitable storage methods for RPE. This study investigates the effect of different storage temperatures on the viability, morphology, and phenotype of cultured RPE. Methods. ARPE-19 cells were cultured under standard conditions and stored in HEPES-buffered MEM at nine temperatures (4°C, 8°C, 12°C, 16°C, 20°C, 24°C, 28°C, 32°C, and 37°C for seven days. Viability and phenotype were assessed by a microplate fluorometer and epifluorescence microscopy, while morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Results. The percentage of viable cells preserved after storage was highest in the 16°C group (48.7%±9.8%; P<0.01 compared to 4°C, 8°C, and 24°C–37°C; P<0.05 compared to 12°C. Ultrastructure was best preserved at 12°C, 16°C, and 20°C. Expression of actin, ZO-1, PCNA, caspase-3, and RPE65 was maintained after storage at 16°C compared to control cells that were not stored. Conclusion. Out of nine temperatures tested between 4°C and 37°C, storage at 12°C, 16°C, and 20°C was optimal for maintenance of RPE cell viability, morphology, and phenotype. The preservation of RPE cells is critically dependent on storage temperature.

  1. QUALIY PARAMETERS AND SHELF LIFE OF GAME MEAT DURING FROZEN STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spaziani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of the duration of frozen storage at –20°C on the game meat quality parameters, namely the pH, colour, thawing and cooking losses. The oxidative stability of game meat was evaluated by the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS. Frozen storage duration did not extensively influence either the quality properties, or the oxidative stability of game meat. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the higher amount of a- tocopherol in the muscles of game compared to pellet-fed animals could be mainly responsible for the lower lipid oxidation and longer shelf life.

  2. Hydrogen Storage Needs for Early Motive Fuel Cell Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Ainscough, C.; Simpson, L.; Caton, M.

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) objective for this project is to identify performance needs for onboard energy storage of early motive fuel cell markets by working with end users, manufacturers, and experts. The performance needs analysis is combined with a hydrogen storage technology gap analysis to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program with information about the needs and gaps that can be used to focus research and development activities that are capable of supporting market growth.

  3. Shelf life and sensory assessment of tilapia quenelle during frozen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Calil Angelini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the shelf life and sensory attributes of tilapia quenelle. Treatments consisted of two types of packages - polyethylene zipper (retort pouch (QA and polyethylene waxed paper box (QB - stored at -18ºC for 120 days. Tilapia quenelle was stable for all parameters established by Brazilian legislation. Average values of the evaluated attributes in different packages, during storage, showed no significant difference, except for the "refrigeration" flavor. However, during the storage period, there were significant differences for sensory attributes, as "moist appearance", fish and product aroma, and off flavors of "mud" and "refrigeration". Preserving product quality as for its sensory attributes, during storage, shows that tilapia quenelle is a convenience product and contributes to the increase of fish consumption.

  4. Path dependence of lithium ion cells aging under storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Laisuo; Zhang, Jianbo; Huang, Jun; Ge, Hao; Li, Zhe; Xie, Fengchao; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates path dependence of lithium ion cells that are stored under static and non-static conditions. In the static storage tests, the levels of temperature and state of charge (SOC) are kept constant. The results of 12 tests from a combination of three temperatures and four SOCs show that, as expected, the cell ages faster at higher temperature and higher SOC. However, the cell aging mode, while consistent for all the evaluated temperatures, is different at 95% SOC from that at lower SOCs. In the non-static storage tests, the levels of temperature and SOC vary with time during the test process. The effect of the sequence of stress levels on cell aging is studied statistically using the statistical method of analysis of variation (ANOVA). It is found that cell capacity fade is path independent of both SOC and temperature, while cell resistance increase is path dependent on SOC and path independent of temperature. Finally, rate-based empirical aging models are adopted to fit the cell aging in the static storage tests. The aging model for capacity fade is demonstrated to be applicable to the non-static tests with errors between -3% and +3% for all the tested conditions over 180 days.

  5. Anomalous charge storage exponents of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Pradeep; Dwivedi, Raaz; Kumar, Goutam; Dept of Electrical Engineering, IIT Bombay Team

    2013-03-01

    Organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) devices are increasingly being researched for low cost solar energy conversion. The efficiency of such solar cells is dictated by various recombination processes involved. While it is well known that the ideality factor and hence the charge storage exponents of conventional PN junction diodes are influenced by the recombination processes, the same aspects are not so well understood for organic solar cells. While dark currents of such devices typically show an ideality factor of 1 (after correcting for shunt resistance effects, if any), surprisingly, a wide range of charge storage exponents for such devices are reported in literature alluding to apparent concentration dependence for bi-molecular recombination rates. In this manuscript we critically analyze the role of bi-molecular recombination processes on charge storage exponents of organic solar cells. Our results indicate that the charge storage exponents are fundamentally influenced by the electrostatics and recombination processes and can be correlated to the dark current ideality factors. We believe that our findings are novel, and advance the state-of the art understanding on various recombination processes that dictate the performance limits of organic solar cells. The authors would like to thank the Centre of Excellence in Nanoelectronics (CEN) and the National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE), IIT Bombay for computational and financial support

  6. Effects of Different Concentrations and Applications of Calcium on Storage Life and Physicochemical Characteristics of Papaya (Carica Papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. M. Mahmud

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica Papaya L. fruits index 2 were treated with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% solutions of calcium chloride by dipping and vacuum infiltration (-33 Kpa or untreated (0% as control. Effects of these treatments were evaluated on storage life and postharvest quality characteristics of papaya. After 21 days of storage at 13±1°C, the fruits were removed from storage for physicochemical analysis. Following additional five days holding in the storage condition for fruits used for evaluation of the rate of disease incidence and storage life. Postharvest dip treatments at different concentrations of calcium prolonged storage life, slowed down the ripening processes and maintained the quality of papaya. Whereas, it was effectively greater with calcium infiltration treatments than that for dip treatments. Calcium infiltration extended the storage life and retained the quality as calcium concentrations increased up to 2.5% and then declined. The desired effect was obtained at 2.5% infiltration compared with other treatments. The least disease incidence was found in those fruits infiltrated with 2.5% calcium. Hence, it can be concluded that postharvest infiltration of calcium at 2.5% has the potential to control disease incidence, prolong the storage life and preserve valuable attributes of postharvest papaya, presumably because of its effects on inhibition of ripening and senescence process and loss of the fruit firmness of papaya.

  7. Energy Storage: Batteries and Fuel Cells for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Baumann, Eric D.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Exploration requires safe, human-rated, energy storage technologies with high energy density, high specific energy and the ability to perform in a variety of unique environments. The Exploration Technology Development Program is currently supporting the development of battery and fuel cell systems that address these critical technology areas. Specific technology efforts that advance these systems and optimize their operation in various space environments are addressed in this overview of the Energy Storage Technology Development Project. These technologies will support a new generation of more affordable, more reliable, and more effective space systems.

  8. Effect of Biopreservatives on Storage Life of Papaya (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatema H. Brishti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this experiment the effect on post-harvest preservation of papaya (Carica papaya L. fruit coated with either Aloe gel (AG; 100% or papaya leaf extract with Aloe gel (PLEAG; 1:1 was studied. To evaluate the role of coating on ripening behavior and quality of papaya the uncoated and coated fruits were stored and ripened at room temperature (25 °C-29 °C and 82-84% relative humidity. Physico-chemical properties were analyzed at 4 day intervals during the storage period. The incidence of disease attack was also visually observed. The overall results showed the superiority of AG and PLEAG coating in lengthening the shelf-life of papaya fruit compared to controls which showed significant decay from 6th day onward and complete decay within 12 days of storage. The AG and PLEAG coated fruits maintained their shelf life for 12 days and decayed at 16th day. The coated fruits also maintained their color, flavor and firmness up to 12 days of storage. An increase in ascorbic acid content (120.2 mg/100 g was also found in coated fruits in contrast to the control (59 mg/100 g. Only 27% disease incidence was observed in AG and 13% in PLEAG coated fruits as compared to control (100% during the storage period. The results of this study show that both AG and PLEAG coatings have excellent potential to be used on fresh produce to maintain quality and extend shelf-life.

  9. A high-rate and long cycle life aqueous electrolyte battery for grid-scale energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-10-23

    New types of energy storage are needed in conjunction with the deployment of solar, wind and other volatile renewable energy sources and their integration with the electric grid. No existing energy storage technology can economically provide the power, cycle life and energy efficiency needed to respond to the costly short-term transients that arise from renewables and other aspects of grid operation. Here we demonstrate a new type of safe, fast, inexpensive, long-life aqueous electrolyte battery, which relies on the insertion of potassium ions into a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a novel activated carbon/polypyrrole hybrid anode. The cathode reacts rapidly with very little hysteresis. The hybrid anode uses an electrochemically active additive to tune its potential. This high-rate, high-efficiency cell has a 95% round-trip energy efficiency when cycled at a 5C rate, and a 79% energy efficiency at 50C. It also has zero-capacity loss after 1,000 deep-discharge cycles. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  10. Modified atmosphere packaging extending the storage life of 'douradão' peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Regina Radomille de Santana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 'Douradão' peach is a perishable product and when cold stored is subject to chilling injury. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP and cold storage on quality and storage life of these peaches. Fruits were packed in polypropylene (PP trays and placed inside low density polyethylene (LDPE bags (30, 50, 60, 75 μm thickness with active modified atmosphere (10 kPa CO2 + 1.5kPa O2, balance N2. The control was made with peaches held in nonwrapped PP trays. Fruits were kept at 1 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% relative humidity (RH for 28 days and CO2 and O2 within packages was monitored every two days. After 14, 21 and 28 days, samples were withdrawn from MAP and kept in air at 25 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% RH for ripening. On the day of removal from the cold storage and after 4 days, peaches were evaluated for weight loss, decay incidence, flesh firmness, woolliness incidence, soluble solids content (SSC, titratable acidity (TA and juice content. The results showed that MAP had influence on reducing weight loss and prevented postharvest decay. MAP of 1-2 kPa O2 and 3-6 kPa CO2 at 1 °C (from 50 and 60 μm LDPE films were effective for keeping good quality of 'Douradão' peaches during 28 days of storage, the ripe fruits showed reduced incidence of woolliness, adequate juiciness and flesh firmness. Packages of 30 and 75 μm LDPE films were ineffective for reducing woolliness during cold storage. MAP fruits showed lower SSC and no relevant effect on TA. Control fruits did not present marketable conditions after 14 days of cold storage.

  11. Optimal bidding strategy of battery storage in power markets considering performance based regulation and battery cycle life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Guannan; Chen, Qixin; Kang, Chongqing;

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale battery storage will become an essential part of the future smart grid. This paper investigates the optimal bidding strategy for battery storage in power markets. Battery storage could increase its profitability by providing fast regulation service under a performance-based regulation...... mechanism, which better exploits a battery’s fast ramping capability. However, battery life might be decreased by frequent charge–discharge cycling, especially when providing fast regulation service. It is profitable for battery storage to extend its service life by limiting its operational strategy to some...... degree. Thus, we incorporate a battery cycle life model into a profit maximization model to determine the optimal bids in day-ahead energy, spinning reserve, and regulation markets. Then a decomposed online calculation method to compute cycle life under different operational strategies is proposed...

  12. Quality indicators and shelf life of red octopus (Octopus maya in chilling storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel GULLIAN-KLANIAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are no precedents concerning the quality of Octopus maya during chilled storage. This study evaluated the shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage (4oC and the correlation of the sensory quality index with microbiological counting and the biochemical indicators (hypoxanthine, histamine and volatile amines. A total of 112 whole raw octopi (average weight of 896 g were randomly selected from seven batches and exposed to 4°C for 18, 24, 48, 72, 84, 96, and 100 h. The histamine concentration (91.7%, followed by the counts of psychrotrophic bacteria (5.5% and hypoxanthine (2.2%, were the predictors from the redundancy analysis that better explained the changes taking place during the chilling hours. After 72 h of chilling, the microbial count was determined to be log 4.7 CFU/g, and the octopus samples were classified as B quality (minor sensory quality defects based on the sensory quality scale. Although the samples were not classified as unacceptable at 100 h of refrigeration by the sensory index, the level of histamine reached the defect action level (5 mg/100 g as ruled by the International Food Safety Authorities. The shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage was predicted to be 119 h.

  13. Chitosan-based nanocoatings for hypothermic storage of living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulwan, Maria; Antosiak-Iwańska, Magdalena; Godlewska, Ewa; Granicka, Ludomira; Zapotoczny, Szczepan; Nowakowska, Maria

    2013-11-01

    The formation of ultrathin chitosan-based nanocoating on HL-60 model cells and their protective function in hypothermic storage are presented. HL-60 cells are encapsulated in ultrathin shells by adsorbing cationic and anionic chitosan derivatives in a stepwise, layer-by-layer, procedure carried out in an aqueous medium under mild conditions. The chitosan-based films are also deposited on model lipid bilayer and the interactions are studied using ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy. The cells covered with the chitosan-based films and stored at 4 °C for 24 h express viability comparable to that of the control sample incubated at 37 °C, while the unprotected cells stored under the same conditions do not show viability. It is shown that the chitosan-based shell protects HL-60 cells against damaging effect of hypothermic storage. Such nanocoatings provide protection, mechanical stability, and support the cell membrane, while ensuring penetration of small molecules such as nutrients/gases what is essential for cell viability. PMID:23966342

  14. Long- vs. short-term energy storage technologies analysis : a life-cycle cost study : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M.; Hassenzahl, William V. (, - Advanced Energy Analysis, Piedmont, CA)

    2003-08-01

    This report extends an earlier characterization of long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies to include life-cycle cost analysis. Energy storage technologies were examined for three application categories--bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality--with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. More than 20 different technologies were considered and figures of merit were investigated including capital cost, operation and maintenance, efficiency, parasitic losses, and replacement costs. Results are presented in terms of levelized annual cost, $/kW-yr. The cost of delivered energy, cents/kWh, is also presented for some cases. The major study variable was the duration of storage available for discharge.

  15. Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg;

    2015-01-01

    for long-term to seasonal periods these technologies are either very expensive or provide a very low round-trip efficiency. Here we describe a novel storage method combining recent advances in reversible solid oxide electrochemical cells with sub-surface storage of CO2 and CH4, thereby enabling large......Electricity storage is needed on an unprecedented scale to sustain the ongoing transition of electricity generation from fossil fuels to intermittent renewable energy sources like wind and solar power. Today pumped hydro is the only commercially viable large-scale electricity storage technology......, but unfortunately it is limited to mountainous regions and therefore difficult to expand. Emerging technologies like adiabatic compressed air energy storage (ACAES) or storage using conventional power-to-gas (P2G) technology combined with underground gas storage can be more widely deployed, but unfortunately...

  16. Prediction of Storage Life of Propellants having Different Burning Rates using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Wani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Propellants, visco-elastic in nature, show time and temperature dependent behaviour on deformation. Hence, the time–temperature superposition principle may be applied to the visco-elastic properties of propellants. In the present study, dynamic mechanical analyser (DMA was used to evaluate the dynamic mechanical properties and quantify the storage life of four different propellants based on hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene, aluminium and ammonium perchlorate having different burning rates ranging from 5 mm/s to 25 mm/s. Each sample was given a multi-frequency strain of 0.01 per cent at three discrete frequencies (3.5 Hz, 11 Hz, 35 Hz in the temperature range - 80 °C to + 80 °C. The storage modulus, loss modulus, tan delta and glass transition temperature (Tg for each propellant samples have been evaluated and it is observed that all the propellants have shown time (frequency and temperature dependent behaviour on deformation. A comparison of the log aT versus temperature curves (where aT is horizontal (or time shift factor for all four propellants indicate conformance to the Williams–Landel–Ferry (WLF equation. The master curves of storage modulus (log É versus log ω plots were generated for each propellant. A plot of É versus time for all propellants was generated up to 3 years, 6 years, and 10 years of time, respectively. The drop in the storage modulus below the acceptable limit with time may be used to predict the shelf life of the propellant.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(5, pp.290-294, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.2480

  17. Hydrogen-Oxygen PEM Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to the closed cycle hydrogen-oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell (RFC), recently constructed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is presented. Illustrated with explanatory graphics and figures, this report outlines the engineering motivations for the RFC as a solar energy storage device, the system requirements, layout and hardware detail of the RFC unit at NASA Glenn, the construction history, and test experience accumulated to date with this unit.

  18. Development of Specific Rules for the Application of Life Cycle Assessment to Carbon Capture and Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Gallo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS is a very innovative and promising solution for greenhouse gases (GHG reduction, i.e., capturing carbon dioxide (CO2 at its source and storing it indefinitely to avoid its release to the atmosphere. This paper investigates a set of key issues in the development of specific rules for the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA to CCS. The following LCA-based information are addressed in this work: definition of service type, definition of functional unit, definition of system boundaries, choice of allocation rules, choice of selected Life Cycle Inventory (LCI results or other selected parameters for description of environmental performance. From a communication perspective, the specific rules defined in this study have been developed coherently with the requirements of a type III environment label scheme, the International EPD® System, according to the ISO 14025 standard.

  19. A fuel cell energy storage system concept for the Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlhart, Otto J.; Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Marmolejo, Jose

    1989-01-01

    An update is given on work to design and build a Fuel Cell Energy Storage System (FCESS) bench-tested unit for the Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Fueled by oxygen and hydride-stored hydrogen, the FCESS is being considered as an alternative to the EMU zinc-silver oxide battery. Superior cycle life and quick recharge are the main attributes of FCESS. The design and performance of a nonventing, 28 V, 34 Ahr system with 7 amp rating are discussed.

  20. Vehicular hydrogen storage using lightweight tanks (regenerative fuel cell systems)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitlitsky, F; Myers, B; Weisberg, A H

    1999-06-01

    Energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) have been designed that use lightweight tankage to contain the gases generated by reversible (unitized) regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will leverage work for aerospace applications supported by other sponsors (including BMDO, NASA, and USAF) to develop URFC systems for transportation and utility applications. Lightweight tankage is important for primary fuel cell powered vehicles that use on-board storage of hydrogen. Lightweight pressure vessels with state-of-the-art performance factors were designed, and prototypes are being fabricated to meet the DOE 2000 goals (4000 Wh/kg, 12% hydrogen by weight, 700 Wh/liter, and $20/kWh in high volume production). These pressure vessels use technologies that are easily adopted by industrial partners. Advanced liners provide permeation barriers for gas storage and are mandrels for composite overwrap. URFCs are important to the efficient use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and enabler of renewable energy. H{sub 2}/halogen URFCs may be advantageous for stationary applications whereas H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}/air URFCs are advantageous for vehicular applications. URFC research and development is required to improve performance (efficiency), reduce catalyst loading, understand engineering operation, and integrate systems. LLNL has the experimental equipment and advanced URFC membrane electrode assemblies (some with reduced catalyst loading) for evaluating commercial hardware (not funded by DOE in FY1999).

  1. Adaptive responses of energy storage and fish life histories to climatic gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Henrique C; Shuter, Brian J

    2013-12-21

    Energy storage is a common adaptation of fish living in seasonal environments. For some species, the energy accumulated during the growing season, and stored primarily as lipids, is crucial to preventing starvation mortality over winter. Thus, in order to understand the adaptive responses of fish life history to climate, it is important to determine how energy should be allocated to storage and how it trades off with the other body components that contribute to fitness. In this paper, we extend previous life history theory to include an explicit representation of how the seasonal allocation of energy to storage acts as a constraint on fish growth. We show that a strategy that privileges allocation to structural mass in the first part of the growing season and switches to storage allocation later on, as observed empirically in several fish species, is the strategy that maximizes growth efficiency and hence is expected to be favored by natural selection. Stochastic simulations within this theoretical framework demonstrate that the relative performance of this switching strategy is robust to a wide range of fluctuations in growing season length, and to moderate short-term (i.e., daily) fluctuations in energy intake and/or expenditure within the growing season. We then integrate this switching strategy with a biphasic growth modeling framework to predict typical growth rates of walleye Sander vitreus, a cool water species, and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, a cold water specialist, across a climatic gradient in North America. As predicted, growth rates increased linearly with the duration of the growing season. Regression line intercepts were negative, indicating that growth can only occur when growing season length exceeds a threshold necessary to produce storage for winter survival. The model also reveals important differences between species, showing that observed growth rates of lake trout are systematically higher than those of walleye in relatively colder lakes

  2. Potential of Reversible Solid Oxide Cells as Electricity Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Di Giorgio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy storage (EES systems allow shifting the time of electric power generation from that of consumption, and they are expected to play a major role in future electric grids where the share of intermittent renewable energy systems (RES, and especially solar and wind power plants, is planned to increase. No commercially available technology complies with all the required specifications for an efficient and reliable EES system. Reversible solid oxide cells (ReSOC working in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes could be a cost effective and highly efficient EES, but are not yet ready for the market. In fact, using the system in fuel cell mode produces high temperature heat that can be recovered during electrolysis, when a heat source is necessary. Before ReSOCs can be used as EES systems, many problems have to be solved. This paper presents a new ReSOC concept, where the thermal energy produced during fuel cell mode is stored as sensible or latent heat, respectively, in a high density and high specific heat material and in a phase change material (PCM and used during electrolysis operation. The study of two different storage concepts is performed using a lumped parameters ReSOC stack model coupled with a suitable balance of plant. The optimal roundtrip efficiency calculated for both of the configurations studied is not far from 70% and results from a trade-off between the stack roundtrip efficiency and the energy consumed by the auxiliary power systems.

  3. Oxygen analyzers: failure rates and life spans of galvanic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, R M

    1990-07-01

    Competing technologies exist for measuring oxygen concentrations in breathing circuits. Over a 4-year period, two types of oxygen analyzers were studied prospectively in routine clinical use to determine the incidence and nature of malfunctions. Newer AC-powered galvanic analyzers (North American Dräger O2med) were compared with older, battery-powered polarographic analyzers (Ohmeda 201) by recording all failures and necessary repairs. The AC-powered galvanic analyzer had a significantly lower incidence of failures (0.12 +/- 0.04 failures per machine-month) than the battery-powered polarographic analyzer (4.0 +/- 0.3 failures per machine-month). Disposable capsules containing the active galvanic cells lasted 12 +/- 7 months. Although the galvanic analyzers tended to remain out of service longer, awaiting the arrival of costly parts, the polarographic analyzers were more expensive to keep operating when calculations included the cost of time spent on repairs. Stocking galvanic capsules would have decreased the amount of time the galvanic analyzers were out of service, while increasing costs. In conclusion, galvanic oxygen analyzers appear capable of delivering more reliable service at a lower overall cost. By keeping the galvanic capsules exposed to room air during periods of storage, it should be possible to prolong their life span, further decreasing the cost of using them. In addition, recognizing the aberrations in their performance that warn of the exhaustion of the galvanic cells should permit timely recording and minimize downtime.

  4. A case study of remaining storage life prediction using stochastic filtering with the influence of condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some systems may spend most of their time in storage, but once needed, must be fully functional. Slow degradation occurs when the system is in storage, so to ensure the functionality of these systems, condition monitoring is usually conducted periodically to check the condition of the system. However, taking the condition monitoring data may require putting the system under real testing situation which may accelerate the degradation, and therefore, shorten the storage life of the system. This paper presents a case study of condition-based remaining storage life prediction for gyros in the inertial navigation system on the basis of the condition monitoring data and the influence of the condition monitoring data taking process. A stochastic-filtering-based degradation model is developed to incorporate both into the prediction of the remaining storage life distribution. This makes the predicted remaining storage life depend on not only the condition monitoring data but also the testing process of taking the condition monitoring data, which the existing prognostic techniques and algorithms did not consider. The presented model is fitted to the real condition monitoring data of gyros testing using the maximum likelihood estimation method for parameter estimation. Comparisons are made with the model without considering the process of taking the condition monitoring data, and the results clearly demonstrate the superiority of the newly proposed model

  5. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Shelf-Life and Sensory Scores of Squid Sundae under Accelerated Storage Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of gamma irradiation on the shelf-life and sensory scores of squid Sundae under accelerated storage conditions. Squid Sundae was stored at 37°C for 35 days following gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 10, and 20 kGy. For total viable cell counts, control and gamma-irradiated (GI) (10 kGy) squid Sundae were already spoiled in 4 days, whereas GI (20 kGy) squid Sundae showed complete suppression of bacterial growth during storage. There were no significant changes in pH values compared to the control. The VBN and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) values of GI (20 kGy) squid Sundae were significantly lower than those of the control. In addition, the induction period of GI (20 kGy) squid Sundae as measured by a Rancimat showed a higher level compared to that of the control. In the sensory evaluation, there were no significant changes between the control and GI samples. These results suggest that a dose of 20 kGy is the optimum and effective dose for preservation of squid Sundae. (author)

  6. Pebble Bed Reactor Power Systems for Lunar Outposts: Long Operation Life and End-of Life Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Schriener, Timothy M.

    2010-09-01

    The Pellet Bed Reactor(PeBR) and power system for supporting future lunar outposts offer many desirable design, operation and safety features and address post operation storage of spent nuclear fuel. In addition to its long, full power operation life of 66 year, the PeBR is launched without fuel and loaded after placement below grade on the lunar surface with spherical fuel pellets, designed to fully contain fission products. The fuel pellets(~1.0 cm dia.) are launched separately in subcritical canisters. The post-operation PeBR is stored below grade for > 300 year to allow the radioactivity in the spent fuel to decay to a sufficiently low level. The PeBR power system, designed for avoidance of single point failures in reactor cooling and energy conversion, nominally generates ~100 kWe at a thermal efficiency of ~ 21%. In addition to the sectored reactor core, it uses three Closed Brayton Cycle loops with centrifugal flow turbo-machines for energy conversion and He-Xe(40 g/mol) binary gas mixture working fluid and reactor coolant.

  7. Controlled atmosphere maintains native and cultivated yerba mate quality during shelf life after long-term storage

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Rodrigo Thewes; Auri Brackmann; Erani Eliseu Schultz; Eduardo Perkovski Machado; Vagner Ludwig; Luana Ferreira dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Yerba mate shows social and economic importance for the Southern Latin American countries due to its easy production and large market range. However, there is a problem to harvest the yerba mate at the correct period and to store it until processing and marketing. Thus, the aim of this paper was to evaluate the interaction among the storage in controlled atmosphere, effect of cultivation form and shelf life period on yerba mate quality after long-term controlled atmosphere storage. T...

  8. Effects of packaging techniques, freezing temperature and storage time on beef shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP is well-known as a method to extend the shelf life of a variety of foods including fresh red meat (Luño et al., 2000. Atmospheres combine oxygen (O2, carbon dioxide (CO2, and nitrogen (N2 to maintain the quality of fresh red meat. CO2 is known for its inhibitory effect on microbial growth (Silliker and Wolfe, 1980; nevertheless atmospheres with high levels of CO2 (low O2 can cause meat discoloration (Silliker et al., 1977. In the present research physical characteristics and oxidative stability have been checked on Maremmana crossbreed Longissimus thoracis muscle after packaging under vacuum and in modified atmosphere and then storage at three temperatures for three different times.

  9. Effect of chitosan coating and bamboo FSC (fruit storage chamber) to expand banana shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, Aksarani'Sa; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Larasati, Dwinita; Islamia, Hana Cahya; Martien, Ronny

    2015-09-01

    Chitosan has been widely used as fruit preserver and proven to extend the shelf life of many fruits, such as banana. However, banana producers and many industries in Indonesia still facing storage problems which may lead to mechanical damage of the fruits and ripening acceleration. Therefore, we have designed food storage chamber (FSC) based on bamboo material. Bamboo was selected because of material abundance in Indonesia, economically effective, and not causing an autocatalytic reaction to the ethylene gas produced by the banana. In this research, Cavendish banana that has reached the maturity level of mature green were coated with 1% chitosan and placed inside the FSC. As control treatments, uncoated banana was also placed inside the FSC as well as uncoated banana that were placed at open space. All of the treatments were placed at 25°C temperature and observed for 9 days. Water produced by respiration was reduced by the addition of charcoal inside a fabric pouch. The result showed that treatment using FSC and chitosan can delay ripening process.

  10. A fuel cell energy storage system for Space Station extravehicular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Adlhart, Otto J.; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a fuel cell energy storage system for the Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) is discussed. The ion-exchange membrane fuel cell uses hydrogen stored as a metal hydride. Several features of the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell are examined, including its construction, hydrogen storage, hydride recharge, water heat, water removal, and operational parameters.

  11. High-Cycle-Life Lithium Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, S. P. S.; Carter, B.; Shen, D.; Somoano, R.

    1985-01-01

    Lithium-anode electrochemical cell offers increased number of charge/ discharge cycles. Cell uses components selected for compatibility with electrolyte solvent: These materials are wettable and chemically stable. Low vapor pressure and high electrochemical stability of solvent improve cell packaging, handling, and safety. Cell operates at modest temperatures - less than 100 degrees C - and is well suited to automotive, communications, and other applications.

  12. Key issues and options in accounting for carbon sequestration and temporary storage in life cycle assessment and carbon footprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandao, Miguel; Levasseur, Annie; Kirschbaum, Miko U. F.;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Biological sequestration can increase the carbon stocks of non-atmospheric reservoirs (e.g. land and landbased products). Since this contained carbon is sequestered from, and retained outside, the atmosphere for a period of time, the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is temporarily...... reduced and some radiative forcing is avoided. Carbon removal from the atmosphere and storage in the biosphere or anthroposphere, therefore, has the potential to mitigate climate change, even if the carbon storage and associated benefits might be temporary. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and carbon...... footprinting (CF) are increasingly popular tools for the environmental assessment of products, that take into account their entire life cycle. There have been significant efforts to develop robust methods to account for the benefits, if any, of sequestration and temporary storage and release of biogenic carbon...

  13. Shelf life of donkey milk subjected to different treatment and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Bardasi, Lia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Morbarigazzi, Michele; Federici, Simone; Piva, Silvia; Serraino, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different treatment conditions on microbiological indicators of donkey milk hygiene and their evolution during shelf life at 4 and 12°C from 3 to 30d, simulating a farm-scale pasteurization and packing system. Four treatment conditions were tested: no treatment (raw milk), pasteurization (65°C × 30 min), high-pressure processing (HPP), and pasteurization plus HPP. The microbiological quality of the raw donkey milk investigated was not optimal; our results highlight the importance of raw milk management with the need for animal hygiene management and good dairy farming practices on donkey farms to improve handling procedures. The raw milk treated with HPP alone showed visible alterations with flocks, making the milk unfit for sale. The microbiological risk posed by consumption of raw donkey milk was significantly reduced by heat treatment but farm-scale packing systems cannot guarantee an extended shelf life. In contrast, the pasteurization plus HPP treatment was the most effective method to maintain microbiological milk quality. Microflora growth had little effect on pH in donkey milk: pH values were significantly different only between raw milk and pasteurized and pasteurized plus HPP milk stored at 12°C for 3d. Alkaline phosphatase activity and furosine could be used as indicators of proper pasteurization and thermal processing in donkey milk. Moreover, the presence and growth of Bacillus cereus in the case of thermal abuse hamper the wide-scale marketing of donkey milk due to the potential consequences for sensitive consumers and therefore further tests with time/temperature/high-pressure protocols associated with B. cereus are needed. Finally, our study shows that an HPP treatment of pasteurized milk after packing extends the shelf life of donkey milk and assures its microbial criteria up to 30d if properly stored at 4°C until opening; therefore, combined heat treatment and storage strategies are

  14. Secret Chambers: The Insider Story of Cells and Complex Life

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Pazhoohi

    2014-01-01

    Review of Secret Chambers: The Insider Story of Cells and Complex Life. Martin Brasier. 2012. Oxford University Press, UK. Pp. 320 with 15 black and white illustrations and 8 pages of color plates. £16.99 (hardcover). ISBN 9780199644001.

  15. Research on Using Natural Coating Materials on the Storage Life of Mango Fruit cv. Nam Dok Mai and Technology Dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apiradee MUANGDECH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the suitable type and concentration of 3 natural coating materials, namely, Aloe vera gel, chitosan and carnaubar wax, on postharvest storage life of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Nam Dok Mai. The experiment was divided into 3 treatments to compare the 3 types of coating materials and each appropriate concentration, to find the appropriate combination treatment, and to evaluate the benefit of this technology. The objectives of this research were to compare different concentrations and study the type of natural coating materials. At 20 % Aloe vera jelly, 1 % chitosan and 4 % carnaubar wax gave the longest storage life with good quality at 12 days at a storage temperature of 25 °C and 75±5 % relative humidity (p ≤ 0.05. Further investigation was done by using these optimal concentrations alone or in combination under 2 different conditions, 25 °C with 75±5 % relative humidity and 13 °C with 90±5 % relative humidity. It was found that coating with combination of 20 % Aloe vera jelly and 1 % chitosan gave the best result in alleviating the formation of brown spot and extended the storage life up to 12 days as well as slowing down the weight loss, changes in peel and pulp color, firmness, texture, quality such as concentrate by titratable acidity, total soluble solids and respiratory rate significantly compared to control and other treatment (p ≤ 0.05. The use of the coating materials did not alter the quality of the fruit when ripe. Technology dissemination to farmers and exporters was performed by using the training manuals created by the author. The results of the pre-test and after training post-test showed that farmers and exporters increased their knowledge, attitudes, awareness and skills in the use of the natural coating materials for prolonging storage life of mangos.

  16. Storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Rita

    The increased utilization of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as an alternative to internal combustion engines is expected to increase the demand for hydrogen, which is used as the energy source in these systems. The objective of this work is to develop and test new methods for the storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cells. Six ligand-stabilized hydrides were synthesized and tested as hydrogen storage media for use in portable fuel cells. These novel compounds are more stable than classical hydrides (e.g., NaBH4, LiAlH4) and react to release hydrogen less exothermically upon hydrolysis with water. Three of the compounds produced hydrogen in high yield (88 to 100 percent of the theoretical) and at significantly lower temperatures than those required for the hydrolysis of NaBH4 and LiAlH4. However, a large excess of water and acid were required to completely wet the hydride and keep the pH of the reaction medium neutral. The hydrolysis of the classical hydrides with steam can overcome these limitations. This reaction was studied in a flow reactor and the results indicate that classical hydrides can be hydrolyzed with steam in high yields at low temperatures (110 to 123°C) and in the absence of acid. Although excess steam was required, the pH of the condensed steam was neutral. Consequently, steam could be recycled back to the reactor. Production of hydrogen for large-scale transportation fuel cells is primarily achieved via the steam reforming, partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of natural gas or the steam reforming of methanol. However, in all of these processes CO is a by-product that must be subsequently removed because the Pt-based electrocatalyst used in the fuel cells is poisoned by its presence. The direct cracking of methane over a Ni/SiO2 catalyst can produce CO-free hydrogen. In addition to hydrogen, filamentous carbon is also produced. This material accumulates on the catalyst and eventually deactivates it. The Ni/SiO2 catalyst

  17. Biopolymers and cells on the level of microbial architecture. 2. Parallel life, parallel but not life, nonparallel and not life, but what? What is life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshynets E. V.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A question concerning theoretical limits of what we call life has been raised since the discovery of cell-like bodies of 0.1–0.01 µm size. In connection with that, a conception of life and possibility of its applicability for different spatially localized objects in nature are analyzed.

  18. Zoom on the long life storage facilities; Zoom sur des entrepots au long cours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, D

    1999-03-01

    The law of december 1991 on the radioactive wastes management, imposes to propose for 2006 radioactive waste storage systems. This paper takes stock on the research programs concerning the spent fuel, at the Cea, especially the Precci program. Technical aspects of the underground storage are also included: the heat dissipation of the wastes and material behaviour facing the heat. The radioactive wastes storage requires a strict survey to ensure safety site. Propositions are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  19. Environmental impact of an agro-waste based polygeneration without and with CO2 storage: Life cycle assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2016-09-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the most scientific tool to measure environmental sustainability. Poly-generation is a better option than single-utility generation due to its higher resource utilization efficiency and more flexibility. Also biomass based polygeneration with CO2 capture and storage may be useful being 'net negative' greenhouse gas emission option. But this 'negativity' should be studied and confirmed through LCA. In this paper, cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of a straw based polygeneration without and with CO2 storage is studied. Results show that captured CO2 of this polygeneration should be stored to get a net negative energy system. However, biomass distribution density, ethanol production rate and CO2 transportation distance affect the net GHG emission. For this polygeneration system, exergy based allocation should be preferred. PMID:27336697

  20. Environmental impact of an agro-waste based polygeneration without and with CO2 storage: Life cycle assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2016-09-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the most scientific tool to measure environmental sustainability. Poly-generation is a better option than single-utility generation due to its higher resource utilization efficiency and more flexibility. Also biomass based polygeneration with CO2 capture and storage may be useful being 'net negative' greenhouse gas emission option. But this 'negativity' should be studied and confirmed through LCA. In this paper, cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of a straw based polygeneration without and with CO2 storage is studied. Results show that captured CO2 of this polygeneration should be stored to get a net negative energy system. However, biomass distribution density, ethanol production rate and CO2 transportation distance affect the net GHG emission. For this polygeneration system, exergy based allocation should be preferred.

  1. Shelf life determination of the brined golden mullet Liza aurata during vacuum refrigerated storage using some quality aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Mariyam Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background. Salted fish products are popular in many countries around the world. Salting is one of the oldest techniques for fish preservation, and is essentially intended to increase the shelf-life of the product depressing water activity by means of dehydration and salt uptake by the fish muscle. However, the current demand for salted fish is driven more by the flavour of the product than for preservation purposes. Vacuum-packaging represents a static form of hypobaric storage. It is widely...

  2. Storage of cell samples for ToF-SIMS experiments-How to maintain sample integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaepe, Kaija; Kokesch-Himmelreich, Julia; Rohnke, Marcus; Wagner, Alena-Svenja; Schaaf, Thimo; Henss, Anja; Wenisch, Sabine; Janek, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    In order to obtain comparable and reproducible results from time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) analysis of biological cells, the influence of sample preparation and storage has to be carefully considered. It has been previously shown that the impact of the chosen preparation routine is crucial. In continuation of this work, the impact of storage needs to be addressed, as besides the fact that degradation will unavoidably take place, the effects of different storage procedures in combination with specific sample preparations remain largely unknown. Therefore, this work examines different wet (buffer, water, and alcohol) and dry (air-dried, freeze-dried, and critical-point-dried) storage procedures on human mesenchymal stem cell cultures. All cell samples were analyzed by ToF-SIMS immediately after preparation and after a storage period of 4 weeks. The obtained spectra were compared by principal component analysis with lipid- and amino acid-related signals known from the literature. In all dry storage procedures, notable degradation effects were observed, especially for lipid-, but also for amino acid-signal intensities. This leads to the conclusion that dried samples are to some extent easier to handle, yet the procedure is not the optimal storage solution. Degradation proceeds faster, which is possibly caused by oxidation reactions and cleaving enzymes that might still be active. Just as well, wet stored samples in alcohol struggle with decreased signal intensities from lipids and amino acids after storage. Compared to that, the wet stored samples in a buffered or pure aqueous environment revealed no degradation effects after 4 weeks. However, this storage bears a higher risk of fungi/bacterial contamination, as sterile conditions are typically not maintained. Thus, regular solution change is recommended for optimized storage conditions. Not directly exposing the samples to air, wet storage seems to minimize oxidation effects, and hence

  3. Development of a software interface for optical disk archival storage for a new life sciences flight experiments computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Peter N.

    1989-01-01

    The current Life Sciences Laboratory Equipment (LSLE) microcomputer for life sciences experiment data acquisition is now obsolete. Among the weaknesses of the current microcomputer are small memory size, relatively slow analog data sampling rates, and the lack of a bulk data storage device. While life science investigators normally prefer data to be transmitted to Earth as it is taken, this is not always possible. No down-link exists for experiments performed in the Shuttle middeck region. One important aspect of a replacement microcomputer is provision for in-flight storage of experimental data. The Write Once, Read Many (WORM) optical disk was studied because of its high storage density, data integrity, and the availability of a space-qualified unit. In keeping with the goals for a replacement microcomputer based upon commercially available components and standard interfaces, the system studied includes a Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) for interfacing the WORM drive. The system itself is designed around the STD bus, using readily available boards. Configurations examined were: (1) master processor board and slave processor board with the SCSI interface; (2) master processor with SCSI interface; (3) master processor with SCSI and Direct Memory Access (DMA); (4) master processor controlling a separate STD bus SCSI board; and (5) master processor controlling a separate STD bus SCSI board with DMA.

  4. Spontaneous Packaging and Hypothermic Storage of Mammalian Cells with a Cell-Membrane-Mimetic Polymer Hydrogel in a Microchip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Mawatari, Kazuma; Konno, Tomohiro; Kitamori, Takehiko; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2015-10-21

    Currently, continuous culture/passage and cryopreservation are two major, well-established methods to provide cultivated mammalian cells for experiments in laboratories. Due to the lack of flexibility, however, both laboratory-oriented methods are unable to meet the need for rapidly growing cell-based applications, which require cell supply in a variety of occasions outside of laboratories. Herein, we report spontaneous packaging and hypothermic storage of mammalian cells under refrigerated (4 °C) and ambient conditions (25 °C) using a cell-membrane-mimetic methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer hydrogel incorporated within a glass microchip. Its capability for hypothermic storage of cells was comparatively evaluated over 16 days. The results reveal that the cytocompatible MPC polymer hydrogel, in combination with the microchip structure, enabled hypothermic storage of cells with quite high viability, high intracellular esterase activity, maintained cell membrane integrity, and small morphological change for more than 1 week at 4 °C and at least 4 days at 25 °C. Furthermore, the stored cells could be released from the hydrogel and exhibited the ability to adhere to a surface and achieve confluence under standard cell culture conditions. Both hypothermic storage conditions are ordinary flexible conditions which can be easily established in places outside of laboratories. Therefore, cell packaging and storage using the hydrogel incorporated within the microchip would be a promising miniature and portable solution for flexible supply and delivery of small amounts of cells from bench to bedside.

  5. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, Hassan; Giri, Fouad; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for electric vehicle. The storage system consists of a fuel cell (FC), serving as the main power source, and a supercapacitor (SC), serving as an auxiliary power source. It also contains a power block for energy...

  6. Vesicles generated during storage of red cells are rich in the lipid raft marker stomatin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salzer, U.; Zhu, R.; Luten, M.; Isobe, H.; Pastushenko, V.; Perkmann, T.; Hinterdorfer, P.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The release of vesicles by red blood cells (RBCs) occurs in vivo and in vitro under various conditions. Vesiculation also takes place during RBC storage and results in the accumulation of vesicles in RBC units. The membrane protein composition of the storage-associated vesicles has not b

  7. Storage-induced increase in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in red blood cell components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucukakin, B.; Kocak, Volkan; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    buffy-coat reduced red cells in SAG-M additive solution, by assessing biomarkers of oxidative and inflammatory stress during a storage period of 35 days. Study design and methods. Ten units of RBCs were stored for 35 days. Samples were collected from the units at storage days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35...

  8. Making the case for direct hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, B.D.; Thomas, C.E.; Baum, G.N.; Lomas, F.D. Jr.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Three obstacles to the introduction of direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are often states: (1) inadequate onboard hydrogen storage leading to limited vehicle range; (2) lack of an hydrogen infrastructure, and (3) cost of the entire fuel cell system. This paper will address the first point with analysis of the problem/proposed solutions for the remaining two obstacles addressed in other papers. Results of a recent study conducted by Directed Technologies Inc. will be briefly presented. The study, as part of Ford Motor Company/DOE PEM Fuel Cell Program, examines multiple pure hydrogen onboard storage systems on the basis of weight, volume, cost, and complexity. Compressed gas, liquid, carbon adsorption, and metal hydride storage are all examined with compressed hydrogen storage at 5,000 psia being judged the lowest-risk, highest benefit, near-term option. These results are combined with recent fuel cell vehicle drive cycle simulations to estimate the onboard hydrogen storage requirement for full vehicle range (380 miles on the combined Federal driving schedule). The results indicate that a PNGV-like vehicle using powertrain weights and performance realistically available by the 2004 PNGV target data can achieve approximate fuel economy equivalent to 100 mpg on gasoline (100 mpg{sub eq}) and requires storage of approximately 3.6 kg hydrogen for full vehicle storage quantity allows 5,000 psia onboard storage without altering the vehicle exterior lines or appreciably encroaching on the passenger or trunk compartments.

  9. Electrochemical cells for medium- and large-scale energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Choi, Daiwon; Lu, Xiaochuan; Yang, G.; Sun, C.

    2014-12-12

    This is one of the chapters in the book titled “Advances in batteries for large- and medium-scale energy storage: Applications in power systems and electric vehicles” that will be published by the Woodhead Publishing Limited. The chapter discusses the basic electrochemical fundamentals of electrochemical energy storage devices with a focus on the rechargeable batteries. Several practical secondary battery systems are also discussed as examples

  10. Red cell concentrates of hemochromatosis patients comply with the storage guidelines for transfusion purposes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luten, M.; Roerdinkholder-Stoelwinder, B.; Rombout-Sestrienkova, E.; Grip, W.J. de; Bos, H.J.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Therapeutic phlebotomy is the preferred treatment for iron overload associated with hemochromatosis. In the Netherlands, red blood cell concentrates (RCCs) from hemochromatosis patients are not used for transfusion purposes. In this study, their storage performance was compared with that

  11. Life cycle assessment of primary control provision by battery storage systems and fossil power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Koj, Jan Christian; Stenzel, Peter; Schreiber, Andrea; Hennings, Wilfried; Zapp, Petra; Wrede, Gunnar; Hahndorf, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Increasing renewable energy generation influences the reliability of electric power grids. Thus, there is a demand for new technical units providing ancillary grid services. Intermittent renewable energy sources can be balanced by energy storage devices, especially battery storage systems. By battery systems grid efficiency and reliability as well as power quality can be increased. A further characteristic of battery systems is the ability to respond rapidly and precisely to frequency deviati...

  12. Duration of red blood cell storage and survival of transfused patients (CME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Eloranta, Sandra;

    2010-01-01

    Disquieting reports of increased complication and death rates after transfusions of red blood cells (RBCs) stored for more than 14 days prompted us to perform an observational retrospective cohort study of mortality in relation to storage time.......Disquieting reports of increased complication and death rates after transfusions of red blood cells (RBCs) stored for more than 14 days prompted us to perform an observational retrospective cohort study of mortality in relation to storage time....

  13. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    A. Hajizadeh; Hassanzadeh, F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid ...

  14. Life-history variation in the short-lived herb Rorippa palustris: The role of carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnová, Monika; Klimešová, Jitka

    2009-09-01

    Carbon storage is commonly found among perennials, but only rarely in annuals. However, many short-lived species may behave as annuals or short-lived perennials depending on the date of germination, photoperiod or disturbance. Due to the trade-off between investments into current reproduction vs. survival, these life-history modes presumably differ in carbon allocation. In this study, we aimed to evaluate how carbon storage is affected by germination date and disturbance in an outdoor pot experiment with the short-lived Rorippa palustris. Plants from autumnal and summer cohorts were injured in different ontogenetic stages (vegetative, flowering and fruiting) and the starch content in roots was assessed. Plants from the autumnal cohort invested more carbon into growth and reproduction, whereas plants from the summer cohort invested preferentially into reserves. However, injury changed the allocation pattern: in plants from the autumnal cohort, injury prevented allocation to reproduction and thus injured plants had a larger carbon storage at the end of the season than control plants; injury at the flowering and fruiting stage caused depletion of reserves for regrowth in plants from the summer cohort, resulting in lower starch reserves compared to control plants. We suggest that life-history variation in R. palustris can be caused by changes in its carbon economy: when all resources could not be used for flowering due to weak photoinduction or loss of flowering organs due to injury, part of the resources is stored for over wintering and reproduction in the next year.

  15. Effect of Storage on Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural Contents in Selected Processed Plant Products with Long Shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Joanna; Gujska, Elżbieta; Czarnowska, Marta; Klepacka, Joanna; Nowak, Fabian

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of storage and temperature duration on the stability of acrylamide (AA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in selected foods with long shelf-life. Products were analysed fresh and stored at temperatures of 4 and 25 °C after 6 and 12 months (with the exception of soft bread samples, which were analysed after 15 and 30 days). The AA and HMF contents were determined with RP-HPLC coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). AA and HMF were not stable in many processed plant products with a long shelf-life. The highest AA reduction and the largest increase in HMF content were observed in the samples stored at a higher temperature (25 °C) for 12 months. It was found that an initial water activity of 0.4 is favourable to HMF formation and that AA reduction may be considerably greater in stored products with a low initial water activity. The kind of product and its composition may also have a significant impact on acrylamide content in stored food. In the final period of storage at 25 °C, acrylamide content in 100% cocoa powder, instant baby foods, 20% cocoa powder and instant coffee was 51, 39, 35 and 33% lower than in products before storage, respectively. It was observed that a large quantity of ε-NH2 and SH groups of amino acids in some products can be assumed as the reason for the significant AA degradation. PMID:26768597

  16. Studies and research concerning BNFP: life of project operating expenses for away-from-reactor (AFR) spent fuel storage facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life of Project operating expenses for a licensed Away-From-Reactor (AFR) Spent Fuel Storage Facility are developed in this report. A comprehensive business management structure is established and the functions and responsibilities for the facility organization are described. Contractual provisions for spent fuel storage services are evaluated

  17. Studies and research concerning BNFP: life of project operating expenses for away-from-reactor (AFR) spent fuel storage facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shallo, F. A.

    1979-09-01

    Life of Project operating expenses for a licensed Away-From-Reactor (AFR) Spent Fuel Storage Facility are developed in this report. A comprehensive business management structure is established and the functions and responsibilities for the facility organization are described. Contractual provisions for spent fuel storage services are evaluated.

  18. Shelf-life and colour change kinetics of Aloe vera gel powder under accelerated storage in three different packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, C T; Rao, P Srinivasa

    2013-08-01

    Aloe vera gel powder was produced through dehumidified air drying of Aloe vere gel at optimized conditions of temperature, relative humidity and air velocity of 64 °C, 18% and 0.8 m.s(-1), respectively. The powder was packed in three different packaging materials viz., laminated aluminum foil (AF), biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) and polypropylene (PP). The shelf-life of the powder was predicted on the basis of free flowness of product under accelerated storage condition (38 ± 1 °C, 90 ± 1% relative humidity) and was calculated to be 33.87, 42.58 and 51.05 days in BOPP, PP and AF, respectively. The storage stability of powder in terms of colour change was studied. The magnitude of colour change of Aloe vera gel powder during storage suggests that AF was better than BOPP and PP. The colour change of powder during storage followed first order reaction kinetics with a rate constant of 0.0444 per day for AF, 0.075 per day for BOPP and 0.0498 per day for PP. PMID:24425977

  19. High temperature solid oxide regenerative fuel cell for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.

    1987-01-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system based on high temperature solid oxide fuel cell technology is discussed which has application to darkside energy storage for solar photovoltaics. The forward and reverse operating cycles are described, and heat flow, mass, and energy balance data are presented to characterize the system's performance and the variation of performance with changing reactant storage pressure. The present system weighs less than nickel hydrogen battery systems after 0.7 darkside operation, and it maintains a specific weight advantage over radioisotope generators for discharge periods up to 72 hours.

  20. Cell separator for use in bipolar-stack energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Feikert, John H.; Kachmitter, James L.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    An improved multi-cell electrochemical energy storage device, such as a battery, fuel cell, or double layer capacitor using a cell separator which allows cells to be stacked and interconnected with low electrical resistance and high reliability while maximizing packaging efficiency. By adding repeating cells, higher voltages can be obtained. The cell separator is formed by applying an organic adhesive on opposing surfaces of adjacent carbon electrodes or surfaces of aerogel electrodes of a pair of adjacent cells prior to or after pyrolysis thereof to form carbon aerogel electrodes. The cell separator is electronically conductive, but ionically isolating, preventing an electrolytic conduction path between adjacent cells in the stack.

  1. Refined life-cycle assessment of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenzmann, F.; Kroon, J.; Andriessen, R.;

    2011-01-01

    A refined life-cycle assessment of polymer solar cells is presented with a focus on critical components, i.e. the transparent conductive ITO layer and the encapsulation components. This present analysis gives a comprehensive sketch of the full environmental potential of polymer-OPV in comparison...

  2. Shelf life determination of the brined golden mullet Liza aurata during vacuum refrigerated storage using some quality aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariyam Ali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Salted fish products are popular in many countries around the world. Salting is one of the oldest techniques for fish preservation, and is essentially intended to increase the shelf-life of the product depressing water activity by means of dehydration and salt uptake by the fish muscle. However, the current demand for salted fish is driven more by the flavour of the product than for preservation purposes. Vacuum-packaging represents a static form of hypobaric storage. It is widely used in the food industry because of its effectiveness in reducing oxidative reactions in the product at relatively low cost. Low temperature storage is one of the primary methods to maintain fish quality, based on the reduction in the rates of microbiological, chemical and biochemical changes. Material  and methods. Fresh Golden mullets were rapidly beheaded, scaled, gutted and immediately washed with tap water then, samples were taken to the laboratory in ice box for chemical and microbial analysis of fresh fish, other samples were put in the brine (6 liter water and 2160 g salt was used for brine solution. After 14 days of brining, fish were taken out of brine solution and drained, then they were Vacuum Packed and labelled (each pack contained two fish about 1500 g weight. All the packs were stored in a refrigerator 4°C. Some quality aspects including Total Volatile Nitrogen (TVN, Peroxide Value (PV, Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA, Total Viable Count (TVC, Halophilic Bacteria (HB and presence of Clostridium Botulinum were determined in fresh mullets, fresh brined mullets after 14 days of brining, and in (Vacuum Packed VP samples stored at 4°C at intervals of 30, 60 and 90 days. Results.  TVN increased from ten mg/100 g in fresh brined after 14 days to 30.80 mg/100 g in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage at 4°C, PV increased after brining from 1.50 meq/kg in fresh brined to 28.90 meq/kg in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage at 4

  3. A life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen : a scenario analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Lord, Anna Snider; Borns, David James

    2010-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has an interest in large scale hydrogen geostorage, which would offer substantial buffer capacity to meet possible disruptions in supply. Geostorage options being considered are salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers and potentially hard rock cavrns. DOE has an interest in assessing the geological, geomechanical and economic viability for these types of hydrogen storage options. This study has developed an ecocomic analysis methodology to address costs entailed in developing and operating an underground geologic storage facility. This year the tool was updated specifically to (1) a version that is fully arrayed such that all four types of geologic storage options can be assessed at the same time, (2) incorporate specific scenarios illustrating the model's capability, and (3) incorporate more accurate model input assumptions for the wells and storage site modules. Drawing from the knowledge gained in the underground large scale geostorage options for natural gas and petroleum in the U.S. and from the potential to store relatively large volumes of CO{sub 2} in geological formations, the hydrogen storage assessment modeling will continue to build on these strengths while maintaining modeling transparency such that other modeling efforts may draw from this project.

  4. Combined effect of thermal sterilization and ionizing radiation on storage life of preserved foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect was studied of the binary combination of preservation methods, i.e., of a reduced intensity of thermosterilization and diverse doses of ionizing radiation, on the content of microorganisms in single-component tinned products (tinned beef and gravy, tinned pickled cauliflower) and in tins containing two components (beef with cauliflower) over a period of 115 days of storage at a laboratory temperature of 20 degC ± 2 degC. The experimental results showed that the chosen combined process of preservation guaranteed sufficient storage stability to the products over several months of storage. An ionizing radiation dose of 5 kGy was sufficient for both types of model samples, this both from microbiological, nutritional aspects (some group B vitamins, vitamin C, -SH groups, etc.) and with regard to organoleptic properties (outlook, color, odor, flavor, consistence, juiciness). The problems will further be studied. (author) 2 tabs., 4 figs., 14 refs

  5. Storage life of power switching transistors based on performance degradation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haochun, Qi; Xiaoling, Zhang; Xuesong, Xie; Changzhi, Lü; Chengju, Chen; Li, Zhao

    2014-04-01

    NPN-type small and medium power switching transistors in 3DK series are used to conduct analyses and studies of accelerating degradation. Through three group studies of accelerating degradation in different temperature-humidity constant stresses, the failure sensitive parameters of transistors are identified and the lifetime of samples is extrapolated from the performance degradation data. Average lifetimes in three common distributions are given, when, combined with the Hallberg-Peck temperature-humidity model, the storage lifetime of transistor samples in the natural storage condition is extrapolated between 105-107 h. According to its definition, the accelerating factor is 1462 in 100°C/100% relative humidity (RH) stress condition, and 25°C/25% RH stress condition. Finally, the degradation causes of performance parameters of the test samples are analyzed. The findings can provide certain references for the storage reliability of domestic transistors.

  6. Storage life of power switching transistors based on performance degradation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPN-type small and medium power switching transistors in 3DK series are used to conduct analyses and studies of accelerating degradation. Through three group studies of accelerating degradation in different temperature–humidity constant stresses, the failure sensitive parameters of transistors are identified and the lifetime of samples is extrapolated from the performance degradation data. Average lifetimes in three common distributions are given, when, combined with the Hallberg–Peck temperature–humidity model, the storage lifetime of transistor samples in the natural storage condition is extrapolated between 105–107 h. According to its definition, the accelerating factor is 1462 in 100°C/100% relative humidity (RH) stress condition, and 25°C/25% RH stress condition. Finally, the degradation causes of performance parameters of the test samples are analyzed. The findings can provide certain references for the storage reliability of domestic transistors. (semiconductor devices)

  7. A method for making electrodes for an alkaline storage cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, K.; Khirosava, N.; Khokasono, K.

    1983-07-21

    A strip like porous base with nonporous edges is used to make the cadmium electrodes for a nickel cadmium storage battery. An anode active mass is applied to both sides of the base and then is electrochemically formed. Then the strip is rlled, regulating the thickness of the mass and roasting the edge at high pressure. The strip is cut into measured length electrodes.

  8. A lattice for a lead storage battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, S.; Fukunaga, K.; Kumano, Y.

    1983-07-13

    Lattices for a lead storage cell are made of a lead alloy which contains (in percent by mass): 0.05 to 0.3 strontium; 0.02 to 0.1 aluminum; 0.05 to 3.0 tin and 0.01 to 3.0 cadmium. The storage cell has low autodischarge and a long service life.

  9. Nitric oxide scavenging by red blood cell microparticles and cell-free hemoglobin as a mechanism for the red cell storage lesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Donadee (Chenell); N.J.H. Raat (Nicolaas); T. Kanias (Tamir); J. Tejero (Jesús); J.S. Lee (Janet); E.E. Kelley (Eric); X. Zhao (Xuejun); C. Liu (Chen); H. Reynolds (Hannah); I. Azarov (Ivan); S. Frizzell (Sheila); E.M. Meyer (Michael); A.D. Donnenberg (Albert); L. Qu (Lirong); D. Triulzi (Darrel); D.B. Kim-Shapiro (Daniel); M.T. Gladwin (Mark)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBacground-: Intravascular red cell hemolysis impairs nitric oxide (NO)-redox homeostasis, producing endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and vasculopathy. Red blood cell storage under standard conditions results in reduced integrity of the erythrocyte membrane, with formation of

  10. Quantifying yeast chronological life span by outgrowth of aged cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Christopher; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2009-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be an important model organism in the field of aging research. The replicative and chronological life spans are two established paradigms used to study aging in yeast. Replicative aging is defined as the number of daughter cells a single yeast mother cell produces before senescence; chronological aging is defined by the length of time cells can survive in a non-dividing, quiescence-like state. We have developed a high-throughput method for quantitative measurement of chronological life span. This method involves aging the cells in a defined medium under agitation and at constant temperature. At each age-point, a sub-population of cells is removed from the aging culture and inoculated into rich growth medium. A high-resolution growth curve is then obtained for this sub-population of aged cells using a Bioscreen C MBR machine. An algorithm is then applied to determine the relative proportion of viable cells in each sub-population based on the growth kinetics at each age-point. This method requires substantially less time and resources compared to other chronological lifespan assays while maintaining reproducibility and precision. The high-throughput nature of this assay should allow for large-scale genetic and chemical screens to identify novel longevity modifiers for further testing in more complex organisms. PMID:19421136

  11. Effects of Different Concentrations and Applications of Calcium on Storage Life and Physicochemical Characteristics of Papaya (Carica Papaya L.)

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. M. Mahmud; A. Al Eryani-Raqeeb; Syed Omar, S. R.; A. R. Mohamed Zaki; Al E. Abdul-Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Papaya (Carica Papaya L.) fruits index 2 were treated with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% solutions of calcium chloride by dipping and vacuum infiltration (-33 Kpa) or untreated (0%) as control. Effects of these treatments were evaluated on storage life and postharvest quality characteristics of papaya. After 21 days of storage at 13±1°C, the fruits were removed from storage for physicochemical analysis. Following additional five days holding in the storage condition for fruits used for evaluation o...

  12. Selection efficiency for raspberry postharvest shelf life affected by storage temperature and harvest season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved postharvest quality is an important goal for fresh-market raspberry breeding programs. To determine if warm or cold storage following harvest would better facilitate the breeding selection process for the assessment of postharvest decay and bleed, pesticide-free fruit from cultivars and bre...

  13. Comparative life cycle assessment of biomass co-firing plants with carbon capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, Wouter; Meerman, Hans; Talaei, Alireza; Ramírez, Andrea; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    Combining co-firing biomass and carbon capture and storage (CCS) in power plants offers attractive potential for net removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of co-firing biomass (wood pellets and straw pellets) on the emission profile of power plants with carbo

  14. Effects of somatic cell count on quality and shelf-life of pasteurized fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y; Ryan, C; Barbano, D M; Galton, D M; Rudan, M A; Boor, K J

    2000-02-01

    Milk was collected from eight Holstein cows four times before and four times after intramammary infection with Streptococcus agalactiae. Postinfection milk had significantly higher somatic cell count (SCC) (849,000 cells/ml) than preinfection milk (45,000 cells/ml). High SCC raw milk had more lipolysis and proteolysis than low SCC raw milk. Pasteurized, homogenized, 2% fat milks from pre- and postinfection periods were stored at 5 degrees C and analyzed for lipolysis, proteolysis, microbial quality, and sensory attributes at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d post processing. During refrigerated storage, the average rates of free fatty acid increase (i.e., lipolysis) and casein hydrolysis in high SCC milk were, respectively, three and two times faster than those in low SCC milk. In general, standard plate counts, coliform counts, and psychrotrophic bacterial counts of both the high and low SCC milks remained low (<100,000 cfu/ ml) during 5 degrees C storage. Low SCC milk maintained high organoleptic quality for the entire 21-d shelf-life period. However, for high SCC milk, between 14 and 21 d, sensory defects were detected, which resulted in low overall quality ratings. The sensory defects mainly included rancidity and bitterness and were consistent with higher levels of lipolysis and proteolysis. Hence, mastitis adversely affected the quality of pasteurized fluid milk. It is recommended that the fluid milk industry consider implementation of premium quality payment programs for low SCC milks.

  15. Performance characteristics of lithium primary cells after controlled storage. [on-orbit for energy power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, F.; Shen, D. H.; Halpert, G.; Ang, V.; Donley, S.

    1991-01-01

    A program was initiated to investigate the effects of storage on the performance of lithium primary cells. Two types of liquid cathode cells were chosen to investigate these effects. The cell types included Li-SOCl2/BCX cells, Li-SO2 cells from two different manufacturers, and a small sample size of 8-year-old Li-SO2 cells. The following measurements are performed at each test interval: open circuit voltage, resistance and weight, microcalorimetry, ac impedance, capacity, and voltage delay. The authors examine the performance characteristics of these cells after one year of controlled storage at two temperatures (10 and 30 C). The Li-SO2 cells experienced little to no voltage and capacity degradation after one year storage. The Li-SOCl2/BCX cells exhibited significant voltage and capacity degradation after 30 C storage. Predischarging shortly prior to use appears to be an effective method of reducing the initial voltage drop. Studies are in progress to correlate ac impedance and microcalorimetry measurements with capacity losses and voltage delay.

  16. Analysis of DC/DC Converter Efficiency for Energy Storage System Based on Bidirectional Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are fluctuating depending on the availability of the energy source. For this reason, energy storage is becoming more important and bidirectional fuel cells represent an attractive technology. Fuel cells require highcurrent low-voltage dc-dc or dc-ac converters as power in...

  17. EFFECT OF IRRADIATION AND PACKAGING MATERIALS TYPES ON SHELF-LIFE AND QUALITY ATTRIBUTES OF MINCED MEAT DURING COLD STORAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minced meat is considered one of the most meat products that exposed to contamination which led to many changes in its quality and reduced its shelf-life.Therefore, this investigation was carried out to extend the shelf-life of minced meat for consumption and maintaining its quality during cold storage by using irradiation with various doses (3, 6 and 9 kGy) and different packing materials. The results indicated that irradiation,especially at 3 and 6 kGy, had no effect on chemical composition and some physical properties of minced meat. On the other hand, pH values of all irradiated samples were slightly decreased with decreasing irradiation doses.Irradiation at the highest dose used, i.e. 9 kGy, slightly increased total volatile nitrogen (TVN) of minced meat. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of irradiated samples was tended to increase with increasing irradiation dose from 3 to 9 kGy either directly after irradiation or during storage.Regardless of irradiation effect on TVN and TBA values at zero time, there were no marked differences in TVN and TBA values of irradiated minced meat according to differentiate packaging materials (PE, PA/PE and PET/Al/PE). During cold storage, the TVN and TBA values of all minced meat samples either non-irradiated or irradiated were progressively increased as the time of cold storage increased. The higher increasing rate in TVN and TBA of irradiated samples was recorded for samples packaged in PE (one layer) followed by PA/PE (two layers) and finally PET/Al/PE (three layers) at the same irradiation dose. Irradiation of minced meat with 3 kGy reduced the counts of total bacteria, coliform bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts and molds counts as well as eliminating Salmonella spp. Irradiation doses of 6 and 9 kGy completely eliminated coliform bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts and molds. Also, type of packaging materials which used had no effect on counts of all studied microorganisms. Irradiation of minced meat with

  18. Multilevel Cell Storage and Resistance Variability in Resistive Random Access Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelis, D. I.; Karakizis, P. N.; Dragatogiannis, D. A.; Charitidis, C. A.

    2016-06-01

    Multilevel per cell (MLC) storage in resistive random access memory (ReRAM) is attractive in achieving high-density and low-cost memory and will be required in future. In this chapter, MLC storage and resistance variability and reliability of multilevel in ReRAM are discussed. Different MLC operation schemes with their physical mechanisms and a comprehensive analysis of resistance variability have been provided. Various factors that can induce variability and their effect on the resistance margin between the multiple resistance levels are assessed. The reliability characteristics and the impact on MLC storage have also been assessed.

  19. A low cost, high energy density and long cycle life potassium-sulfur battery for grid-scale energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Bowden, Mark E.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2015-08-15

    Alkali metal-sulfur batteries are attractive for energy storage applications because of their high energy density. Among the batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries typically use liquid in the battery electrolyte, which causes problems in both performance and safety. Sodium-sulfur batteries can use a solid electrolyte such as beta alumina but this requires a high operating temperature. Here we report a novel potassium-sulfur battery with K+-conducting beta-alumina as the electrolyte. Our studies indicate that liquid potassium exhibits much better wettability on the surface of beta-alumina compared to liquid sodium at lower temperatures. Based on this observation, we develop a potassium-sulfur battery that can operate at as low as 150°C with excellent performance. In particular, the battery shows excellent cycle life with negligible capacity fade in 1000 cycles because of the dense ceramic membrane. This study demonstrates a new battery with a high energy density, long cycle life, low cost and high safety, which is ideal for grid-scale energy storage.

  20. Quality changes of pomegranate arils throughout shelf life affected by deficit irrigation and pre-processing storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Estévez, María E; Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Artés, Francisco; Aguayo, Encarna; Martínez-Hernández, Ginés Benito; Galindo, Alejandro; Gómez, Perla A

    2016-10-15

    This study investigated the influence of sustained deficit irrigation (SDI, 78% less water supply than the reference evapotranspiration, ET0) compared to a control (100% ET0) on the physicochemical and sensory qualities and health-promoting compounds of pomegranate arils stored for 14days at 5°C. Prior to processing, the fruits were stored for 0, 30, 60 or 90days at 5°C. The effect of the pre-processing storage duration was also examined. Physicochemical and sensory qualities were kept during the storage period. Arils from SDI fruit had lower punicalagin-α and ellagic acid losses than the control (13% vs 50%). However, the anthocyanin content decreased during the shelf-life (72%) regardless of the treatment. The ascorbic acid slight decreased. Arils from SDI experienced glucose/fructose ratio loss (19%) lower than that of the control (35%). In general, arils from SDI showed better quality and health attributes during the shelf-life than did the control samples. PMID:27173567

  1. Advanced, Long-Life Cryocooler Technology for Zero-Boil-Off Cryogen Storage Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-life, high-capacity cryocoolers are a critical need for future space systems utilizing stored cryogens. The cooling requirements for planetary and...

  2. Quality and shelf life of cooked buffalo tripe rolls at refrigerated storage under vacuum packaging condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandh, M Anna; Venkatachalapathy, R T; Radha, K; Lakshmanan, V

    2014-07-01

    Cooked buffalo tripe rolls prepared from a combination of buffalo tripe and buffalo meat by using mincing and blade tenderization process were stored at 4 ± 1 °C in polyethylene teraphthalate laminated with polythene (PET/PE) pouches under vacuum packaging condition. The samples were evaluated for physico-chemical parameters, microbial quality and sensory attributes at regular intervals of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Significant changes were seen in physico-chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of BTRs during storage at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1 °C) under vacuum packaging condition. All microbial counts were well within the acceptable limits and the products did not show any signs of spoilage. Thus, BTRs prepared by mincing or BT can be best stored up to 28 days at 4 ± 1 °C under vacuum packaging. PMID:24966432

  3. Life and stability testing of packaged low-cost energy storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frysinger, G.R.

    1980-07-01

    A low-cost laminated plastic film which is used to contain a Glauber's salt-based phase change thermal energy storage material in sausage-like containers called Chubs is discussed. The results of tests performed on the Chub packages themselves and on the thermal energy storage capacity of the packaged phase change material are described. From the test results, a set of specifications have been drawn up for a film material which will satisfactorily contain the phase change material under anticipated operating conditions. Calorimetric testing of the phase change material with thermal cycling indicates that a design capacity of 45 to 50 Btu/lb for a ..delta..T of 30/sup 0/F can be used for the packaged material.

  4. Experimentally decoupling reproductive investment from energy storage to test the functional basis of a life-history trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Robert M; Lovern, Matthew B; Calsbeek, Ryan

    2014-07-01

    The ubiquitous life-history trade-off between reproduction and survival has long been hypothesized to reflect underlying energy-allocation trade-offs between reproductive investment and processes related to self-maintenance. Although recent work has questioned whether energy-allocation models provide sufficient explanations for the survival cost of reproduction, direct tests of this hypothesis are rare, especially in wild populations. This hypothesis was tested in a wild population of brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) using a two-step experiment. First, stepwise variation in reproductive investment was created using unilateral and bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) along with intact (SHAM) control. Next, this manipulation was decoupled from its downstream effects on energy storage by surgically ablating the abdominal fat stores from half of the females in each reproductive treatment. As predicted, unilateral OVX (intermediate reproductive investment) induced levels of growth, body condition, fat storage and breeding-season survival that were intermediate between the high levels of bilateral OVX (no reproductive investment) and the low levels of SHAM (full reproductive investment). Ablation of abdominal fat bodies had a strong and persistent effect on energy stores, but it did not influence post-breeding survival in any of the three reproductive treatments. This suggests that the energetic savings of reduced reproductive investment do not directly enhance post-breeding survival, with the caveat that only one aspect of energy storage was manipulated and OVX itself had no overall effect on post-breeding survival. This study supports the emerging view that simple energy-allocation models may often be insufficient as explanations for the life-history trade-off between reproduction and survival.

  5. Influence of short anoxia treatment and maturity on quality and storage life of tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojević Mirjana V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of short anoxia treatment on physical, chemical and sensory attributes of mature green and pink red tomatoes during storage was investigated. Matured green and pink red fruits were kept for 24 hrs under humidified pure N2, while the control was not treated. Subsequently, the fruits were stored at 12°C and 20°C for 14 days. Quality parameters including weight loss, firmness, total soluble solids, colour, sensory and decay were analyzed. Generally, weight loss increased after 14 days of storage and depending on anoxia treatment, maturity and storage temperature. Tomato fruit treated with anoxia and kept at 12°C showed a minimal deterioration of the quality attributes and could be stored for longer periods compared to those stored at 20°C. Results for TSS were higher in tomato fruit treated with anoxia. However, pink red fruit stored at 20°C showed lower TSS than untreated fruit. Untreated and anoxia-pretreated mature green tomatoes showed higher sourness and off-flavour scores than those stored at 20°C. However, mature green and pink red tomatoes kept at 20°C showed higher acceptance (% than those stored at 12°C. Therefore, combined effect of anoxia and low temperature could have delayed the ripening of the tomatoes.

  6. The Impact of Microbially Influenced Corrosion on Spent Nuclear Fuel and Storage Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. H. Wolfram; R. E. Mizia; R. Jex; L. Nelson; K. M. Garcia

    1996-10-01

    A study was performed to evaluate if microbial activity could be considered a threat to spent nuclear fuel integrity. The existing data regarding the impact of microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) on spent nuclear fuel storage does not allow a clear assessment to be made. In order to identify what further data are needed, a literature survey on MIC was accomplished with emphasis on materials used in nuclear fuel fabrication, e.g., A1, 304 SS, and zirconium. In addition, a survey was done at Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and the INEL on the condition of their wet storage facilities. The topics discussed were the SNF path forward, the types of fuel, ramifications of damaged fuel, involvement of microbial processes, dry storage scenarios, ability to identify microbial activity, definitions of water quality, and the use of biocides. Information was also obtained at international meetings in the area of biological mediated problems in spent fuel and high level wastes. Topics dis cussed included receiving foreign reactor research fuels into existing pools, synergism between different microbes and other forms of corrosion, and cross contamination.

  7. The Impact of Microbially Influenced Corrosion on Spent Nuclear Fuel and Storage Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was performed to evaluate if microbial activity could be considered a threat to spent nuclear fuel integrity. The existing data regarding the impact of microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) on spent nuclear fuel storage does not allow a clear assessment to be made. In order to identify what further data are needed, a literature survey on MIC was accomplished with emphasis on materials used in nuclear fuel fabrication, e.g., A1, 304 SS, and zirconium. In addition, a survey was done at Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and the INEL on the condition of their wet storage facilities. The topics discussed were the SNF path forward, the types of fuel, ramifications of damaged fuel, involvement of microbial processes, dry storage scenarios, ability to identify microbial activity, definitions of water quality, and the use of biocides. Information was also obtained at international meetings in the area of biological mediated problems in spent fuel and high level wastes. Topics dis cussed included receiving foreign reactor research fuels into existing pools, synergism between different microbes and other forms of corrosion, and cross contamination

  8. Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D; Morse, T; Patel, P; Patel, S; Bondar, J; Taylor, L

    1980-12-01

    The results of several life-cycle energy analyses of prospective electric vehicle batteries are presented. The batteries analyzed were: Nickel-zinc; Lead-acid; Nickel-iron; Zinc-chlorine; Sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte); Sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte); Lithium-metal sulfide; and Aluminum-air. A life-cycle energy analysis consists of evaluating the energy use of all phases of the battery's life, including the energy to build it, operate it, and any credits that may result from recycling of the materials in it. The analysis is based on the determination of three major energy components in the battery life cycle: Investment energy, i.e., The energy used to produce raw materials and to manufacture the battery; operational energy i.e., The energy consumed by the battery during its operational life. In the case of an electric vehicle battery, this energy is the energy required (as delivered to the vehicle's charging circuit) to power the vehicle for 100,000 miles; and recycling credit, i.e., The energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life-cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. The analysis of the life-cycle energy requirements consists of identifying the materials from which each battery is made, evaluating the energy needed to produce these materials, evaluating the operational energy requirements, and evaluating the amount of materials that could be recycled and the energy that would be saved through recycling. Detailed descriptions of battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling, and the operational energy for an electric vehicle, and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.

  9. A Look into the Cell: Honey Storage in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Michael; Neumann, Peter; Dietemann, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees, Apis species, obtain carbohydrates from nectar and honeydew. These resources are ripened into honey in wax cells that are capped for long-term storage. These stores are used to overcome dearth periods when foraging is not possible. Despite the economic and ecological importance of honey, little is known about the processes of its production by workers. Here, we monitored the usage of storage cells and the ripening process of honey in free-flying A. mellifera colonies. We provided the colonies with solutions of different sugar concentrations to reflect the natural influx of nectar with varying quality. Since the amount of carbohydrates in a solution affects its density, we used computer tomography to measure the sugar concentration of cell content over time. The data show the occurrence of two cohorts of cells with different provisioning and ripening dynamics. The relocation of the content of many cells before final storage was part of the ripening process, because sugar concentration of the content removed was lower than that of content deposited. The results confirm the mixing of solutions of different concentrations in cells and show that honey is an inhomogeneous matrix. The last stage of ripening occurred when cell capping had already started, indicating a race against water absorption. The storage and ripening processes as well as resource use were context dependent because their dynamics changed with sugar concentration of the food. Our results support hypotheses regarding honey production proposed in earlier studies and provide new insights into the mechanisms involved. PMID:27560969

  10. A Look into the Cell: Honey Storage in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Michael; Neumann, Peter; Dietemann, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees, Apis species, obtain carbohydrates from nectar and honeydew. These resources are ripened into honey in wax cells that are capped for long-term storage. These stores are used to overcome dearth periods when foraging is not possible. Despite the economic and ecological importance of honey, little is known about the processes of its production by workers. Here, we monitored the usage of storage cells and the ripening process of honey in free-flying A. mellifera colonies. We provided the colonies with solutions of different sugar concentrations to reflect the natural influx of nectar with varying quality. Since the amount of carbohydrates in a solution affects its density, we used computer tomography to measure the sugar concentration of cell content over time. The data show the occurrence of two cohorts of cells with different provisioning and ripening dynamics. The relocation of the content of many cells before final storage was part of the ripening process, because sugar concentration of the content removed was lower than that of content deposited. The results confirm the mixing of solutions of different concentrations in cells and show that honey is an inhomogeneous matrix. The last stage of ripening occurred when cell capping had already started, indicating a race against water absorption. The storage and ripening processes as well as resource use were context dependent because their dynamics changed with sugar concentration of the food. Our results support hypotheses regarding honey production proposed in earlier studies and provide new insights into the mechanisms involved. PMID:27560969

  11. Chitosan extends the shelf-life of filleted tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) during refrigerated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rong; Liu, Qi; Yin, Bangzhong; Wu, Biao

    2012-09-01

    Shelf-life extension of aquatic products is of significant economical importance. To determine the potential effect of chitosan on the shelf-life of filleted tilapia, this study analyzed the bacterial community diversity in fresh and spoiled tilapia fillets stored at (4 ± 1)°C and examined the antimicrobial activity of chitosan against relevant bacteria isolates. Results showed that Pseudomonas (20%) and Aeromonas (16%) were abundant in fresh tilapia fillets, whereas Pseudomonas (52%), Aeromonas (32%) and Staphylococcus (12%) were dominant in the spoiled samples. Chitosan showed wide-spectrum antibacterial activity against bacteria isolated from tilapia and 5.0 g L-1 chitosan was selected for application in preservation. We further determined the shelf-life of chitosan-treated, filleted tilapia stored at (4 ± 1)°C based on microbiological, biochemical and sensory analyses. Results showed that the shelf-life of chitosan-treated, filleted tilapia was extended to 12 d, whereas that of untreated, control samples was 6 d. These indicate that chitosan, as a natural preservative, has great application potential in the shelf-life extension of tilapia fillets.

  12. Chitosan Extends the Shelf-life of Filleted Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) During Refrigerated Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Rong; LIU Qi; YIN Bangzhong; WU Biao

    2012-01-01

    Shelf-life extension of aquatic products is of significant economical importance.To determine the potential effect of chitosan on the shelf-life of filleted tilapia,this study analyzed the bacterial community diversity in fresh and spoiled tilapia fillets stored at(4±1)℃ and examined the antimicrobial activity of chitosan against relevant bacteria isolates.Results showed that Pseudomonas(20%)and Aeromonas(16%)were abundant in fresh tilapia fillets,whereas Pseudomonas(52%),Aeromonas(32%)and Staphylococcus(12%)were dominant in the spoiled samples.Chitosan showed wide-spectrum antibacterial activity against bacteria isolated from tilapia and 5.0 g L-1 chitosan was selected for application in preservation.We further determined the shelf-life of chitosan-treated,filleted tilapia stored at(4±1)℃ based on microbiological,biochemical and sensory analyses.Results showed that the shelf-life of chitosan-treated,filleted tilapia was extended to 12 d,whereas that of untreated,control samples was 6 d.These indicate that chitosan,as a natural preservative,has great application potential in the shelf-life extension oftilapia fillets.

  13. Quality and shelf life of cooked buffalo tripe rolls at refrigerated storage under vacuum packaging condition

    OpenAIRE

    Anandh, M. Anna; Venkatachalapathy, R. T.; Radha, K.; Lakshmanan, V.

    2012-01-01

    Cooked buffalo tripe rolls prepared from a combination of buffalo tripe and buffalo meat by using mincing and blade tenderization process were stored at 4 ± 1 °C in polyethylene teraphthalate laminated with polythene (PET/PE) pouches under vacuum packaging condition. The samples were evaluated for physico-chemical parameters, microbial quality and sensory attributes at regular intervals of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Significant changes were seen in physico-chemical, microbial and se...

  14. Colour change of apple as a result of storage, shelf-life, and bruising

    OpenAIRE

    Rybczyński R.; Dobrzański B.

    2002-01-01

    Two apple cultivars (Champion and Jonagold) were used to determine the colour of fruit skin in display conditions. The apples were stored for five months and then kept at shelflife conditions for an additional 15 days. The colour of each apple was measured at six points around the fruit from blush to ground colour. The measurements were performed with the Braive 6016 colorimeter according to the L*a*b* system. After storage, the colour of the apples was found to be stable, however, some chan...

  15. Effect of Biopreservatives on Storage Life of Papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Fatema H. Brishti; Jawadul Misir; Ayesha Sarker

    2013-01-01

    In this experiment the effect on post-harvest preservation of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit coated with either Aloe gel (AG; 100%) or papaya leaf extract with Aloe gel (PLEAG; 1:1) was studied. To evaluate the role of coating on ripening behavior and quality of papaya the uncoated and coated fruits were stored and ripened at room temperature (25 °C-29 °C) and 82-84% relative humidity. Physico-chemical properties were analyzed at 4 day intervals during the storage period. The incidence of ...

  16. Erythropoietin reduces storage lesions and decreases apoptosis indices in blood bank red blood cells

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Andrés Penuela; Fernando Palomino; Lina Andrea Gómez

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Recent evidence shows a selective destruction of the youngest circulating red blood cells (neocytolysis) trigged by a drop in erythropoietin levels. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin beta on the red blood cell storage lesion and apoptosis indices under blood bank conditions. Methods: Each one of ten red blood cell units preserved in additive solution 5 was divided in two volumes of 100 mL and assigned to one...

  17. Energy Storage via Polyvinylidene Fluoride Dielectric on the Counterelectrode of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuezhen; Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Hongrui

    2014-02-15

    To study the fundamental energy storage mechanism of photovoltaically self-charging cells (PSCs) without involving light-responsive semiconductor materials such as Si powder and ZnO nanowires, we fabricate a two-electrode PSC with the dual functions of photocurrent output and energy storage by introducing a PVDF film dielectric on the counterelectrode of a dye-sensitized solar cell. A layer of ultrathin Au film used as a quasi-electrode establishes a shared interface for the I(-)/I3(-) redox reaction and for the contact between the electrolyte and the dielectric for the energy storage, and prohibits recombination during the discharging period because of its discontinuity. PSCs with a 10-nm-thick PVDF provide a steady photocurrent output and achieve a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 3.38%, and simultaneously offer energy storage with a charge density of 1.67 C g(-1). Using this quasi-electrode design, optimized energy storage structures may be used in PSCs for high energy storage density.

  18. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hajizadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid power system is simulated in MATLAB/ SIMIULINK environment and different operating conditions have been considered to evaluate the response of power management strategy.

  19. Reversible energy storage on a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerpa Unda, Jesus Enrique

    2011-02-18

    A new concept of energy storage based on hydrogen which operates reversibly near ambient conditions and without important energy losses is investigated. This concept involves the hybridization between a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a supercapacitor. The main idea consists in the electrochemical splitting of hydrogen at a PEM fuel cell-type electrode into protons and electrons and then in the storage of these two species separately in the electrical double layer of a supercapacitor-type electrode which is made of electrically conductive large-surface area carbon materials. The investigation of this concept was performed first using a two-electrode fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device. A three-electrode hybrid cell was used to explore the application of this concept as a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a PEM fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. (orig.)

  20. High Performance Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) for Space Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Thomas I.; Billings, Keith J.; Kisor, Adam; Bennett, William R.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Burke, Kenneth; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative fuel cells provide a pathway to energy storage system development that are game changers for NASA missions. The fuel cell/ electrolysis MEA performance requirements 0.92 V/ 1.44 V at 200 mA/cm2 can be met. Fuel Cell MEAs have been incorporated into advanced NFT stacks. Electrolyzer stack development in progress. Fuel Cell MEA performance is a strong function of membrane selection, membrane selection will be driven by durability requirements. Electrolyzer MEA performance is catalysts driven, catalyst selection will be driven by durability requirements. Round Trip Efficiency, based on a cell performance, is approximately 65%.

  1. Comparative life cycle assessment of battery storage systems for stationary applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Mitavachan; Derendorf, Karen; Vogt, Thomas

    2015-04-21

    This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of cumulative energy demand (CED) and global warming potential (GWP) of four stationary battery technologies: lithium-ion, lead-acid, sodium-sulfur, and vanadium-redox-flow. The analyses were carried out for a complete utilization of their cycle life and for six different stationary applications. Due to its lower CED and GWP impacts, a qualitative analysis of lithium-ion was carried out to assess the impacts of its process chains on 17 midpoint impact categories using ReCiPe-2008 methodology. It was found that in general the use stage of batteries dominates their life cycle impacts significantly. It is therefore misleading to compare the environmental performance of batteries only on a mass or capacity basis at the manufacturing outlet ("cradle-to-gate analyses") while neglecting their use stage impacts, especially when they have different characteristic parameters. Furthermore, the relative ranking of batteries does not show a significant dependency on the investigated stationary application scenarios in most cases. Based on the results obtained, the authors go on to recommend the deployment of batteries with higher round-trip efficiency, such as lithium-ion, for stationary grid operation in the first instance. PMID:25798660

  2. Comparative life cycle assessment of battery storage systems for stationary applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Mitavachan; Derendorf, Karen; Vogt, Thomas

    2015-04-21

    This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of cumulative energy demand (CED) and global warming potential (GWP) of four stationary battery technologies: lithium-ion, lead-acid, sodium-sulfur, and vanadium-redox-flow. The analyses were carried out for a complete utilization of their cycle life and for six different stationary applications. Due to its lower CED and GWP impacts, a qualitative analysis of lithium-ion was carried out to assess the impacts of its process chains on 17 midpoint impact categories using ReCiPe-2008 methodology. It was found that in general the use stage of batteries dominates their life cycle impacts significantly. It is therefore misleading to compare the environmental performance of batteries only on a mass or capacity basis at the manufacturing outlet ("cradle-to-gate analyses") while neglecting their use stage impacts, especially when they have different characteristic parameters. Furthermore, the relative ranking of batteries does not show a significant dependency on the investigated stationary application scenarios in most cases. Based on the results obtained, the authors go on to recommend the deployment of batteries with higher round-trip efficiency, such as lithium-ion, for stationary grid operation in the first instance.

  3. Improvement Shelf-Life Extension of Apple by Pre storage Thermal Treatment, CaCl2 and Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of physical and chemical methods to extend the shelf life of apple fruits by control the blue mold disease causing by Penicillium expansum. Apple fruits are subjected to different temperatures between 38, and 50 degree C for 24 hr. and stored at 0 degree C for 4 months. Increasing in temperature caused decreasing in firmness and blue mold incidence percentage (%) caused by P. expansum. At 50 degree C the treated apple fruits gave sharp softness and inhibition of blue mold incidence (%) caused by P. expansum exposing for 4 days and cold storage at 0 degree C for 4 months and 5 days at 20 degree C. Dipping apple fruits in CaCl2 at 2% and 4% decreased blue mold incidence (%) caused by P. expansum and increased apple fruits firmness at 2 and 4 months storage periods. Also, CaCl2 treatments gave insignificant change in total soluble solid (TSS%) and in titratable acidity (TA%) of apple fruits. Gamma irradiation doses above 1 kGy significantly decreased firmness of apple fruits with the decrement being higher at higher doses.

  4. Effect of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat bread after storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo, Maria; Svanberg, Ulf; Ahrné, Lilia

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat (ratio 40:10:50) reference bread during storage. Added hydrocolloids were carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and high methoxyl pectin (HM pectin) at a 3% level (w/w) and/or the emulsifiers diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM), lecithin (LC), and monoglycerides (MG) at a 0.3% level (w/w). After 4 days of storage, composite breads with MG had comparatively lower crumb moisture while crumb density was similar in all breads. The reference bread crumb firmness was 33.4 N, which was reduced with an addition of DATEM (23.0 N), MG (29.8 N), CMC (24.6 N) or HM pectin (22.4 N). However, the CMC/DATEM, CMC/LC, and HM pectin/DATEM combinations further reduced crumb firmness to cassava-maize-wheat breads. PMID:27386112

  5. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Garbe, James C.

    2016-06-28

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  6. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfer, Martha R; Garbe, James C

    2015-02-24

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  7. Role of Nuclear Based Techniques in Development and Characterization of Materials for Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today various materials for fuel cell applications are urgently needed, including potential electrodes for the molten carbonate fuel cells. Identification of appropriate storage concepts are also urgently needed in order to initiate necessary steps for implementation of such technologies in daily life. Recent progress in nuclear analyses and observation/imaging techniques can significantly contribute to a successful achievement of ongoing research challenges. Primary importance is given to areas of characterization and in-situ testing of materials and/or components of hydrogen storage and fuel cell systems. Dedicated attention is addressed to issues related to hydrogen storage concepts, such as metal hydrides and other systems (e.g. fullerene structures) as well as their stability and the changes induced by hydrogen sorption process. In total 14 papers report on various scientific and research issues related to hydrogen storage and conversion technologies. Based on presented results, it can be concluded that nuclear- based techniques, specifically those involving neutrons, X rays and particle beams, play very important roles in ongoing research activities among many IAEA Member States. A short overview of individual reports is summarized below. The presented papers give an overview of typical applications of such techniques and their experimental setups based either on X ray or neutron sources, which can be used effectively to study specific properties of materials for hydrogen storage as well as microstructural features and hydrogen interaction with solid matter. The papers presented by Canadian, Dutch, Italian and Norwegian groups, report on research results related to application of thermal neutron scattering and neutron diffraction in studies of hydrogen containing materials, particularly in situ characterization as a means to study metal hydrides' structure and their modification upon hydrogen sorption. The investigation on solid state hydrogen storage

  8. Storage-induced increase in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in red blood cell components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükakin, Bülent; Kocak, Volkan; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    Transfusion of blood components may increase the risk of complications in relation to surgery. During storage, red blood cells (RBCs) undergo structural and functional changes that may reduce function and viability after transfusion. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of buffy-coat ...

  9. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hua Kun, E-mail: hua@uow.edu.au

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells.

  10. Passive safety device and internal short tested method for energy storage cells and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Matthew; Darcy, Eric; Long, Dirk; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-22

    A passive safety device for an energy storage cell for positioning between two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage cell. The safety device also comprising a separator and a non-conductive layer. A first electrically conductive material is provided on the non-conductive layer. A first opening is formed through the separator between the first electrically conductive material and one of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. A second electrically conductive material is provided adjacent the first electrically conductive material on the non-conductive layer, wherein a space is formed on the non-conductive layer between the first and second electrically conductive materials. A second opening is formed through the non-conductive layer between the second electrically conductive material and another of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. The first and second electrically conductive materials combine and exit at least partially through the first and second openings to connect the two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device at a predetermined temperature.

  11. 3D-printing of Redox flow batteries for energy storage: a rapid prototype laboratory cell

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas-Martinez, L.F.; Walsh, F.C.; Ponce de Leon, C.

    2015-01-01

    Although interest in redox flow batteries (RFBs) for energy storage has grown over the last few years, implementation of RFB technology has been slow and challenging. Recent developments in 3D-printing of materials enable a transforming technology for fast, reproducible and documented cell manufacture. This technology can give an improved engineering approach to cell design and fabrication, needed to fulfil requirements for lower cost, longer lifetime hardware capable of efficient reliable pe...

  12. Effect of adrenergic receptor ligands on metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake and storage in neuroblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babich, J.W. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Graham, W. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fischman, A.J. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The effects of adrenergic receptor ligands on uptake and storage of the radiopharmaceutical [{sup 125}I]metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) were studied in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH. For uptake studies, cells were with varying concentrations of {alpha}-agonist (clonidine, methoxamine, and xylazine), {alpha}-antagonist (phentolamine, tolazoline, phenoxybenzamine, yohimbine, and prazosin), {beta}-antagonist (propranolol, atenolol), {beta}-agonist (isoprenaline and salbutamol), mixed {alpha}/{beta} antagonist (labetalol), or the neuronal blocking agent guanethidine, prior to the addition of [{sup 125}I]MIBG (0.1 {mu}M). The incubation was continued for 2 h and specific cell-associated radioactivity was measured. For the storage studies, cells were incubated with [{sup 125}I]MIBG for 2 h, followed by replacement with fresh medium with or without drug (MIBG, clonidine, or yohimbine). Cell-associated radioactivity was measured at various times over the next 20 h. Propanolol reduced [{sup 125}I]MIBG uptake by approximately 30% (P<0.01) at all concentrations tested, most likely due to nonspecific membrane changes. In conclusion, the results of this study establish that selected adrenergic ligands can significantly influence the pattern of uptake and storage of MIBG in cultured neuroblastoma cells, most likely through inhibition of uptake or through noncompetitive inhibition. The potential inplications of these findings justify further study. (orig./VHE). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Behaviors of Microcystis aeruginosa cells during floc storage in drinking water treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hangzhou; Pei, Haiyan; Xiao, Hongdi; Jin, Yan; Li, Xiuqing; Hu, Wenrong; Ma, Chunxia; Sun, Jiongming; Li, Hongmin

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study to systematically investigate the different behaviors of Microcystis aeruginosa in the sludges formed by AlCl3, FeCl3, and polymeric aluminium ferric chloride (PAFC) coagulants during storage. Results show that the viability of Microcystis aeruginosa in PAFC sludge was stronger than that of cells in either AlCl3 or FeCl3 sludge after the same storage time, while the cells’ viability in the latter two systems stayed at almost the same level. In AlCl3 and FeCl3 sludges high concentrations of Al and Fe were toxic to Microcystis aeruginosa, whereas in PAFC sludge low levels of Al showed little toxic effect on Microcystis aeruginosa growth and moderate amounts of Fe were beneficial to growth. The lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa in AlCl3 sludge was more serious than that in PAFC sludge, for the same storage time. Although the cell viability in FeCl3 sludge was low (similar to AlCl3 sludge), the Microcystis aeruginosa cells remained basically intact after 10 d storage (similar to PAFC sludge). The maintenance of cellular integrity in FeCl3 sludge might be due to the large floc size and high density, which had a protective effect for Microcystis aeruginosa. PMID:27713525

  14. Role of phosphorylase in the mechanism of potato minituber storage cell changes during clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedukha, O.; Shnyukova, E.

    The differences between the cytochemical reaction intensity and activity of phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1) and carbohydrate content in storage parenchyma cells of Solanum tuberosum L. (cv Adreta) minitubers grown for 30 days in the horizontal clinostate (2 rev/min) and in the control have been studied by electroncytochemical and biochemical methods. It is established an acceleration of minitubers formation and storage parenchyma cell differentiation at clinorotation. Electroncytochemical investigation of phosphorylase activity localization in the storage parenchyma cells of minitubers grown in control and at clinorotation showed the product of the reaction as electron-dense precipitate was marked plastids. Intensity and density of precipitate was increase in stroma of plastids and on starch grain surface during of intensive growth of starch in amyloplast (on 10- and 20-days of the minituber formation) of clinorotated minitubers in comparison with that in the control. The precipitate amount was decreased in the plastids on 30 day of growth in both variants. Using biochemical methods it is found that activity of phosphorylase and content of mono- and disaccharide and also starch content changed in minitubers formed during clinorotation and in the control. Data obtained are discussed regarding the possible mechanism of phosphorylase activity change and the role of mono- and disaccharide in acceleration of storage organ formation during clinorotation.

  15. The storage center of short life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes; Le centre de stockage des dechets de faible et moyenne activite a vie courte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Situated at 50 km of Troyes, the Aube Center was opened in 1992 in order to take over from the Manche Center, for the surface storage of low life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. It offers an answer to manage safely theses wastes at an industrial scale during 50 years. (A.L.B.)

  16. Analysis of shelf-life extension of Asiatic red spot emperor (Lethrinus lentjan) using low dose of gamma rays and evaluation of biomolecular alterations during cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation, in combination with good refrigeration and handling practices, provides means to increase fish product shelf-life. Irradiation is effective in reducing microorganisms is known as a good method for inactivating pathogens in food materials. The present work focuses on the effect of the gamma radiation in aspect of finding microbiological, biochemical and sensory attribute over a period of 0 to 60 days of the storage. Variations in pH, FFA, TVBN, TMAN and TBA were observed throughout the storage period, present observation provide a possibility of irradiation treatment up to 6 kGy as a prerequisite for shelf life extension and by the SDS analysis most intense proteins were retained at the end of the cold storage

  17. Nanodefects of membranes cause destruction of packed red blood cells during long-term storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlova, Elena, E-mail: waterlake@mail.ru [V.A. Negovsky Scientific Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow (Russian Federation); I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chernysh, Aleksandr [V.A. Negovsky Scientific Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow (Russian Federation); I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moroz, Victor; Sergunova, Victoria; Gudkova, Olga; Kuzovlev, Artem [V.A. Negovsky Scientific Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-01

    Packed red blood cells (PRBC) are used for blood transfusion. PRBC were stored for 30 days under 4 °C in hermetic blood bags with CPD anticoagulant-preservative solution. Hematocrit was 50–55%. The distortions of PRBC membranes nanostructure and cells morphology during storage were studied by atomic force microscopy. Basic measurements were performed at the day 2, 6, 9, 16, 23 and 30 of storage and additionally 2–3 days after it. Topological defects occurred on RBC membranes by day 9. They appeared as domains with grain-like structures (“grains”) sized up to 200 nm. These domains were appeared in almost all cells. Later these domains merged and formed large defects on cells. It was the formation of domains with the “grains” which was onset process leading eventually to destruction of PRBC. Possible mechanisms of transformation of PRBC and their membrane are related to the alterations of spectrin cytoskeleton. During this storage period potassium ions and lactat concentrations increased, pH decreased, intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione diminished in the preservative solution. Changes of PRBC morphology were detected within the entire period of PRBC storage. Discocytes predominated at the days 1 and 2. By day 30 PRBC transformed into irreversible echinocytes and spheroechinocytes. Study of defects of membranes nanostructure may form the basis of assessing the quality of the stored PRBC. This method may allow to work out the best recommendations for blood transfusion. - Highlights: • Domains with “grains” are formed on membranes surface on 9–16 days of PRBC storage. • The development of domains is the reason of irreversible changes of PRBC structure. • The origin of domains is the consequence of alterations of spectrin cytoskeleton. • Study of nanostructure may form basis of assessing the quality of the stored PRBC.

  18. Evaluation of Periodontal Ligament Cell Viability in Three Different Storage Media: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL cells of avulsed teeth in three different storage media.Materials and Methods: Forty-five premolars extracted for orthodontic therapeutic purposes were randomly and equally divided into three groups based on storage media used [Group I: milk (control; Group II: aloe vera (experimental; Group III: egg white (experimental]. Following extractions, the teeth were placed in one of the three different storage media for 30 minutes, following which the scrapings of the PDL from these teeth were collected in Falcon tubes containing collagenase enzyme in 2.5 mL of phosphate buffered saline. The tubes were subsequently incubated for 30 minutes and centrifuged for five minutes at 800 rpm. The obtained PDL cells were stained with Trypan Blue and were observed under optical microscope. The percentage of viable cells was calculated.Results: Aloe vera showed the highest percentage of viable cells (114.3±8.0, followed by egg white (100.9±6.3 and milk (101.1±7.3.Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it appears that aloe vera maintains PDL cell viability better than egg white or milk.

  19. Development of carotenoid storage cells in Bixa orellana L. seed arils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louro, Ricardo P; Santiago, Laura J M

    2016-01-01

    The arils of Bixa orellana L. seeds contain carotenoid storage cells (CSCs). The main compounds in these cells include bixin and norbixin, which are important pigments in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Although many studies have been conducted on these chemical constituents, the cellular events that occur during the development of the carotenoid-accumulating cells in the arils and their relationship with the final carotenoid accumulation in the vacuoles remain unknown. In this study, the development of the CSCs in B. orellana arils was analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoids formed in specialized cells, whose number and size increased during aril development. At various stages of development, the cytoplasm of the CSCs contained chromoplasts that held an extensive network of tubules and plastoglobules. Next to the chromoplasts, lipid droplets may fuse one another to form osmiophilic bodies. In addition, vesicles were observed next to the tonoplast. At the final stages of development, both the osmiophilic bodies and vesicles, which became quadrangular or rectangular, were stored in the vacuoles of the CSCs. This study reported for the first time the occurrence of different storage unit types within the vacuole of carotenoid storage cells. PMID:25786349

  20. Development works on nickel/hydrogen cells. [for satellite energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, G.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were performed to reduce the costs for NI/H2 cells by using nickel oxide electrodes with high capacity per unit area. No maintenance requirements, long cycle life, insensitivity to overcharge and cell reversal, and high power capability were revealed.

  1. Neural stem cell transplantation as a therapeutic approach for treating lysosomal storage diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabuddin, Lamya S; Cheng, Seng H

    2011-10-01

    Treating the central nervous system manifestations of subjects with neuropathic lysosomal storage diseases remains a major technical challenge. This is because of the low efficiency by which lysosomal enzymes in systemic circulation are able to traverse the blood brain barrier into the central nervous system. Intracranial transplantation of neural stems cells genetically modified to overexpress the respective deficient enzymes represents a potential approach to addressing this group of diseases. The unique properties of neural stem cells and progenitor cells, such as their ability to migrate to distal sites, differentiate into various cell types and integrate within the host brain without disrupting normal function, making them particularly attractive therapeutic agents. In addition, neural stem cells are amenable to ex vivo propagation and modification by gene transfer vectors. In this regard, transplanted cells can serve not only as a source of lysosomal enzymes but also as a means to potentially repair the injured brain by replenishing the organ with healthy cells and effecting the release of neuroprotective factors. This review discusses some of the well-characterized neural stem cell types and their possible use in treating neuropathic lysosomal storage diseases such as the Niemann Pick A disease.

  2. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  3. Sorbent Material Property Requirements for On-Board Hydrogen Storage for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Peng, J-K; Hua, T. Q.

    2015-05-25

    Material properties required for on-board hydrogen storage in cryogenic sorbents for use with automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are discussed. Models are formulated for physical, thermodynamic and transport properties, and for the dynamics of H-2 refueling and discharge from a sorbent bed. A conceptual storage configuration with in-bed heat exchanger tubes, a Type-3 containment vessel, vacuum insulation and requisite balance-of-plant components is developed to determine the peak excess sorption capacity and differential enthalpy of adsorption for 5.5 wt% system gravimetric capacity and 55% well-to-tank (WTT) efficiency. The analysis also determines the bulk density to which the material must be compacted for the storage system to reach 40 g.L-1 volumetric capacity. Thermal transport properties and heat transfer enhancement methods are analyzed to estimate the material thermal conductivity needed to achieve 1.5 kg.min(-1) H-2 refueling rate. Operating temperatures and pressures are determined for 55% WTT efficiency and 95% usable H-2. Needs for further improvements in material properties are analyzed that would allow reduction of storage pressure to 50 bar from 100 bar, elevation of storage temperature to 175-200 K from 150 K, and increase of WTT efficiency to 57.5% or higher.

  4. Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

  5. Effect of packaging during storage time on retail display shelf life of longissimus muscle from two different beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, S; Woerner, D R; Geornaras, I; Engle, T E; Delmore, R J; Hess, A M; Belk, K E

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of packaging and production system (PS) on retail display life color (L*, a*, and b*), fatty acid profile (% of total fatty acids), lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; mg malondialdehyde/kg of muscle), vitamin E content (µg/g of muscle), and odor (trained panelists) during storage of LM. Four (or 3) different packaging treatments were applied to LM from steers fattened on grazing systems (Uruguayan) or on high-concentrate diets (U.S.). From fabrication to application of treatments, Uruguayan LM were vacuum packaged for air shipment and U.S. LM were also vacuum packaged and kept in a cooler until Uruguayan samples arrived. Treatments were applied 7 d after slaughter. In Exp. 1, treatments were vacuum packaging (VP), low-oxygen (O) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (MAP/CO), low-O MAP with N2 plus CO and carbon monoxide (MAP/CO), and VP plus an application of peroxyacetic acid (VP/PAA). In Exp. 2 block 1, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, and VP with ethyl-arginate HCl incorporated into the film as an antimicrobial agent (VP/AM). In Exp. 2 block 2, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, MAP/CO, and VP/AM. After 35 d storage, steaks were evaluated during simulated retail display for up to 6 d. In Exp. 1, Uruguayan steaks under MAP/CO had greater ( color ( packaging treatments on d 6 of display in Exp. 1. Packaging × PS × time interaction was significant ( 0.05) were detected among both VP and MAP/CO in U.S. steaks at this time. No significant ( > 0.05) packaging × PS × time interaction was observed in Exp. 2. Only PS (both experiments) and time (Exp. 1) affected ( Packaging × PS, PS × time, and packaging × PS × time interactions were not significant ( > 0.05) for any of the fatty acids. Beef from Uruguayan had lower ( < 0.05) SFA and MUFA and greater ( < 0.05) PUFA and n-6 and n-3 fatty acid percentages than U.S. beef. Complexity of fresh meat postmortem

  6. Life-cycle analysis of product integrated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; García-Valverde, Rafael; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    A life cycle analysis (LCA) on a product integrated polymer solar module is carried out in this study. These assessments are well-known to be useful in developmental stages of a product in order to identify the bottlenecks for the up-scaling in its production phase for several aspects spanning fr...... and instead of a battery charging station. The analysis reveals that the OPV lamp has a significant advantage provided that some of the challenges facing this novel technology are efficiently met such that it can enter the market of portable lighting devices....... on the complete product integrated polymer solar cell. We have compared this portable lighting system with other lighting solutions, namely: a kerosene lamp in a remote rural area in Africa (Ethiopia), as a replacement of a silicon PV based lamp, in place of a torch with non-rechargeable lead-acid battery...

  7. Lysosomal storage of oligosaccharide and glycosphingolipid in imino sugar treated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomkamp, Stephanie D; Rountree, J S Shane; Neville, David C A; Dwek, Raymond A; Fleet, George W J; Butters, Terry D

    2010-04-01

    Sandhoff and Tay-Sachs disease are autosomal recessive GM2 gangliosidoses where a deficiency of lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase results in storage of glycoconjugates. Imino sugar (2-acetamido-1,4-imino-1,2,4-trideoxy-L-arabinitol) inhibition of beta-hexosaminidase in murine RAW264.7 macrophage-like cells led to lysosomal storage of glycoconjugates that were characterised structurally using fluorescence labelling of the free or glycolipid-derived oligosaccharides followed by HPLC and mass spectrometry. Stored glycoconjugates were confirmed as containing non-reducing GlcNAc or GalNAc residues resulting from the incomplete degradation of N-linked glycoprotein oligosaccharide and glycolipids, respectively. When substrate reduction therapeutics N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ) or N-butyldeoxygalactonojirimycin (NB-DGJ) were applied to the storage phenotype cells, an increase in glucosylated and galactosylated oligosaccharide species was observed due to endoplasmic reticulum alpha-glucosidases and lysosomal beta-galactosidase inhibition, respectively. Hexosaminidase inhibition triggered a tightly regulated cytokine-mediated inflammatory response that was normalised using imino sugars NB-DNJ and NB-DGJ, which restored the GM2 ganglioside storage burden but failed to reduce the levels of GA2 glycolipid or glycoprotein-derived N-linked oligosaccharides. Using a chemically induced gangliosidosis phenotype that can be modulated with substrate lowering drugs, the critical role of GM2 ganglioside in the progression of inflammatory disease is also demonstrated. PMID:20186478

  8. Life cycle assessment of fuel cell vehicles: Dealing with uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contadini, Jose Fernando

    Life cycle assessment (LCA), or "well to wheels" in transportation terms, involves some subjectivity and uncertainty, especially with new technologies and future scenarios. To analyze lifecycle impacts of future fuel cell vehicles and fuels, I developed the Fuel Upstream Energy and Emission Model (FUEEM). The FUEEM project pioneered two specific new ways to incorporate and propagate uncertainty within an LCA analysis. First, the model uses probabilistic curves generated by experts as inputs and then employs Monte Carlo simulation techniques to propagate these uncertainties throughout the full chain of fuel production and use. Second, the FUEEM process explicitly involves the interested parties in the entire analysis process, not only in the critical final review phase. To demonstrate the FUEEM process, an analysis has been made for the use of three different fuel cell vehicle technologies (direct hydrogen, indirect methanol, and indirect hydrocarbon) in 2010 within the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) of California (Los Angeles). The analysis covered topics such as the requirement of non-renewable energy sources, emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, and emissions of several criteria pollutants generated within SCAB and within other regions. The results obtained from this example show that the hydrogen option has the potential to have the most efficient energy life cycle for the SCAB, followed by the methanol and finally by the Fisher-Tropsch naphtha option. A similar pattern is observed for the greenhouse gas emissions. The results showing criteria pollutants emitted within SCAB highlight the importance of having a flexible model that is responsive to local considerations. This dissertation demonstrates that explicit recognition and quantitative analysis of the inherent uncertainty in the LCA process generates richer information, explains many of the discrepancies between results of previous studies, and enhances the robustness and credibility of LCA analyses.

  9. Hydroxyurea and sickle cell anemia: effect on quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegelow Charles H

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Multicenter Study of Hydroxyurea (HU in Sickle Cell Anemia (MSH previously showed that daily oral HU reduces painful sickle cell (SS crises by 50% in patients with moderate to severe disease. The morbidity associated with this disease is known to have serious negative impact on the overall quality of life(QOL of affected individuals. Methods The data in this report were collected from the 299 patients enrolled in the MSH. Health quality of llife (HQOL measures were assessed in the MSH as a secondary endpoint to determine if the clinical benefit of HU could translate into a measurable benefit perceptible to the patients. HQOL was assessed with the Profile of Mood States, the Health Status Short Form 36 (SF-36, including 4-week pain recall, and the Ladder of Life, self-administered twice 2-weeks apart pre-treatment and every 6 months during the two-year, randomized, double-blind, treatment phase. The effects of factors including randomized treatment, age, gender, pre-treatment crises frequency, Hb-F level mean, daily pain from 4-week pre-treatment diaries, and 2-year Hb-F response level (low or high were investigated. Results Over two years of treatment, the benefit of HU treatment on QOL, other than pain scales, was limited to those patients taking HU who maintained a high HbF response, compared to those with low HbF response or on placebo. These restricted benefits occurred in social function, pain recall and general health perception. Stratification according to average daily pain prior to treatment showed that responders to HU whose average daily pain score was 5–9 (substantial pain achieved significant reduction in the tension scale compared to the placebo group and to non-responders. HU had no apparent effect on other QOL measures. Conclusion Treatment of SS with HU improves some aspects of QOL in adult patients who already suffer from moderate-to-severe SS.

  10. A Cell-in-the-Loop Approach to Systems Modelling and Simulation of Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Marco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research is aligned with the engineering challenge of scaling-up individual battery cells into a complete energy storage system (ESS. Manufacturing tolerances, coupled with thermal gradients and the differential electrical loading of adjacent cells, can result in significant variations in the rate of cell degradation, energy distribution and ESS performance. The uncertain transition from cell to system often manifests itself in over-engineered, non-optimal ESS designs within both the transport and energy sectors. To alleviate these issues, the authors propose a novel model-based framework for cell-in-the-loop simulation (CILS in which a physical cell may be integrated within a complete model of an ESS and exercised against realistic electrical and thermal loads in real-time. This paper focuses on the electrical integration of both real and simulated cells within the CILS test environment. Validation of the CILS approach using real-world electric vehicle data is presented for an 18650 cell. The cell is integrated within a real-time simulation model of a series string of similar cells in a 4sp1 configuration. Results are presented that highlight the impact of cell variability (i.e., capacity and impedance on the energy available from the multi-cell system and the useable capacity of the physical cell.

  11. A Comparison of Cholesterol Uptake and Storage in Inflammatory and Noninflammatory Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breonna J. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many subtypes of breast cancer, inflammatory breast cancer (IBC is arguably the deadliest. Research over the past decade has demonstrated that IBC is a distinct entity from other forms of breast cancer. Important risk factors that have been associated with the development of aggressive breast cancers, such as IBC, include obesity and diet, which are evident in the United States, where the overconsumption of high-fat foods continues to contribute to obesity in the nation. Here we investigate differences in cholesterol uptake and storage between IBC, non-IBC, and mammary epithelial cell lines. Our results demonstrate that compared with human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs, both IBC and non-IBC cells have increased cholesterol content. IBC cells retain intracellular cholesterol esters, free cholesterol, and triglycerides in lipid-deficient environments. In contrast, we observe in cell-type-of-origin-matched non-IBC a significant decrease in lipid content under the same lipid-deficient conditions. These data suggest that cholesterol storage may be affected by the cholesterol content of the environment where the tumor cell was isolated. Here, we suggest that breast cancer cells may migrate when they are unable to obtain cholesterol from their extracellular environments.

  12. Protein & Cell: a new scientific journal for the 21st century global life sciences community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zihe Rao

    2010-01-01

    @@ It is my very great pleasure to announce the launch of Protein & Cell. Understanding the cell, the basic unit of life, is a complicated process but is the source for all the key answers pertaining to the life sciences. A sophisticated view of the nature and essence of life requires systematic studies of the whole cell and the cellular components, ranging from small molecules, nucleic acids and carbohydrates to proteins and macromolecular complexes. Starting from the universal genetic cede,as simple as A, C, T and G, twenty standard amino acids are translated and thousands of proteins are assembled. Proteins function in concert with molecules both inside and outside cells. A single cell can represent the entirety of life in the case of bacteria, while differentiated cells form more complicated tissues and organisms. As implied by the title,Protein & Cell intends to promote greater understanding of the cell, the elementary unit of life, via structural and functional studies of its components.

  13. Effect of vacuum storage on shelf life of a grain protector based on Peumus boldus Molina foliage powder and lime against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Rivera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Coleoptera: Curculionidae is a key pest of stored grain maize. As an ecological pest control alternative, the use of botanical insecticides, such as powder from boldus (Peumus boldus Molina foliage singly or mixed with lime, has been evaluated. Unfortunately, its shelf life is very short and does not exceed 15 d. The effectiveness of vacuum storage on insecticidal properties of a natural grain protector produced with boldus powder:lime at proportions of 50:50 and 60:40 against adults of S. zeamais was assessed under laboratory conditions. Treatments were evaluated at 1% and 2% (w/w for 150 d of storage. All treatments based on boldus powder kept the level of mortality by contact activity over 80% at 150 d of storage. The highest toxicity, as a fumigant, was observed in treatments 50:50 at 2% and 60:40 at 1% and 2% with mortality over 60%. The grain weight loss was less than 1% and seed germination was not affected. With the exception of 0:100 at 2% without vacuum storage, all treatments were repellent to S. zeamais. Vacuum storage extended shelf life of the grain protector for 150 d.

  14. Relaxation rates of low-field gas-phase ^129Xe storage cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limes, Mark; Saam, Brian

    2010-10-01

    A study of longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates T1 of ^129Xe and Xe-N2 mixtures in a magnetic field of 3.8 mT is presented. In this regime, intrinsic spin relaxation is dominated by the intramolecular spin-rotation interaction due to persistent xenon dimers, a mechanism that can be quelled by introducing large amounts of N2 into the storage cell. Extrinsic spin relaxation is dominated by the wall-relaxation rate, which is the primary quantity of interest for the various low-field storage cells and coatings that we have tested. Previous group work has shown that extremely long gas-phase relaxation times T1 can be obtained, but only at large magnetic fields and low xenon densities. The current work is motivated by the practical benefits of retaining hyperpolarized ^129Xe for extended periods of time in a small magnetic field.

  15. Analysis of H2 storage needs for early market non-motive fuel cell applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Moreno, Marcina; Arienti, Marco; Pratt, Joseph William; Shaw, Leo; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2012-03-01

    Hydrogen fuel cells can potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the United States dependence on foreign oil, but issues with hydrogen storage are impeding their widespread use. To help overcome these challenges, this study analyzes opportunities for their near-term deployment in five categories of non-motive equipment: portable power, construction equipment, airport ground support equipment, telecom backup power, and man-portable power and personal electronics. To this end, researchers engaged end users, equipment manufacturers, and technical experts via workshops, interviews, and electronic means, and then compiled these data into meaningful and realistic requirements for hydrogen storage in specific target applications. In addition to developing these requirements, end-user benefits (e.g., low noise and emissions, high efficiency, potentially lower maintenance costs) and concerns (e.g., capital cost, hydrogen availability) of hydrogen fuel cells in these applications were identified. Market data show potential deployments vary with application from hundreds to hundreds of thousands of units.

  16. Delivery of prolamins to the protein storage vacuole in maize aleurone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Francisca C; Chung, Taijoon; Holding, David; Jung, Rudolf; Vierstra, Richard; Otegui, Marisa S

    2011-02-01

    Zeins, the prolamin storage proteins found in maize (Zea mays), accumulate in accretions called protein bodies inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of starchy endosperm cells. We found that genes encoding zeins, α-globulin, and legumin-1 are transcribed not only in the starchy endosperm but also in aleurone cells. Unlike the starchy endosperm, aleurone cells accumulate these storage proteins inside protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) instead of the ER. Aleurone PSVs contain zein-rich protein inclusions, a matrix, and a large system of intravacuolar membranes. After being assembled in the ER, zeins are delivered to the aleurone PSVs in atypical prevacuolar compartments that seem to arise at least partially by autophagy and consist of multilayered membranes and engulfed cytoplasmic material. The zein-containing prevacuolar compartments are neither surrounded by a double membrane nor decorated by AUTOPHAGY RELATED8 protein, suggesting that they are not typical autophagosomes. The PSV matrix contains glycoproteins that are trafficked through a Golgi-multivesicular body (MVB) pathway. MVBs likely fuse with the multilayered, autophagic compartments before merging with the PSV. The presence of similar PSVs also containing prolamins and large systems of intravacuolar membranes in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) starchy endosperm suggests that this trafficking mechanism may be common among cereals.

  17. Erythropoietin reduces storage lesions and decreases apoptosis indices in blood bank red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Andrés Penuela

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Recent evidence shows a selective destruction of the youngest circulating red blood cells (neocytolysis trigged by a drop in erythropoietin levels. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin beta on the red blood cell storage lesion and apoptosis indices under blood bank conditions. Methods: Each one of ten red blood cell units preserved in additive solution 5 was divided in two volumes of 100 mL and assigned to one of two groups: erythropoietin (addition of 665 IU of recombinant human erythropoietin and control (isotonic buffer solution was added. The pharmacokinetic parameters of erythropoietin were estimated and the following parameters were measured weekly, for six weeks: Immunoreactive erythropoietin, hemolysis, percentage of non-discocytes, adenosine triphosphate, glucose, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, and annexin-V/esterase activity. The t-test or Wilcoxon's test was used for statistical analysis with significance being set for a p-value 6 weeks under blood bank conditions, with persistent supernatant concentrations of erythropoietin during the entire storage period. Adenosine triphosphate was higher in the Erythropoietin Group in Week 6 (4.19 ± 0.05 µmol/L vs. 3.53 ± 0.02 µmol/L; p-value = 0.009. The number of viable cells in the Erythropoietin Group was higher than in the Control Group (77% ± 3.8% vs. 71% ± 2.3%; p-value <0.05, while the number of apoptotic cells was lower (9.4% ± 0.3% vs. 22% ± 0.8%; p-value <0.05. Conclusions: Under standard blood bank conditions, an important proportion of red blood cells satisfy the criteria of apoptosis. Recombinant human erythropoietin beta seems to improve storage lesion parameters and mitigate apoptosis.

  18. Cell-to-Cell stochastic fluctuations in apoptotic signaling can decide between life and death

    CERN Document Server

    Raychaudhuri, S; Nguyen, T; Khan, E M; Goldkorn, T

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis, or genetically programmed cell death, is a crucial cellular process that maintains the balance between life and death in cells. The precise molecular mechanism of apoptosis signaling and how these two pathways are differentially activated under distinct apoptotic stimuli is poorly understood. We developed a Monte Carlo-based stochastic simulation model that can characterize distinct signaling behaviors in the two major pathways of apoptotic signaling using a novel probability distribution-based approach. Specifically, we show that for a weak death signal, such as low levels of death ligand Fas (CD95) binding or under stress conditions, the type 2 mitochondrial pathway dominates apoptotic signaling. Our results also show signaling in the type 2 pathway is stochastic, where the population average over many cells does not capture the cell-to-cell fluctuations in the time course (~1 - 10 hours) of downstream caspase-3 activation. On the contrary, the probability distribution of caspase-3 activation for...

  19. The chilled storage life and retail display performance of vacuum and carbon dioxide packed hot deboned beef striploins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R G; Penney, N; Gilbert, K V; Moorhead, S M; Scott, S M

    1996-04-01

    appear to be the combination of choice. This combination would enable commercial processors to produce quality table beef with a chilled storage life of up to 70 days.

  20. Histological study of effects of storage duration and temperature on the rabbits blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim K. I. Ragab

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The temperature of the blood and its components during storage or processing is a very important factor affecting hemolysis. During storage, leukocytes break down and release a number of chemicals and enzymes, that have been reported to lysis RBC. With increasing duration of storage, the change of RBC shape becomes permanent. RBCs from different species behave differently during storage. So, this study aimed to investigate the histological effects of storage duration and temperature on the rabbit blood cells. Material and Methods: Blood samples from five adult male healthy rabbits were divided into (Group I stored at 4 for 12 and 48 hours, (Group at a room temperature of about 24 for 12 and 48 hours and (Group at 36 for 12 and 48 hours. Blood films made and stained by Leishman's stain immediately as a control group (A, after 12 hours (B and after 48 hours (C from each group respectively and examined for any morphological changes. Leukocytes counted totally immediately as a control group (A, after 12 hours (B and after 48 hours (C from each group respectively for detection of any histological changes. Results: no morphological changes of red blood cells, leukocytes and platelets of group was observed. The changes of mean of total leukocytic counts of group were non significant. Changes in total leukocytic counts and morphology of red blood cells, leukocytes and platelets of groups and were observed. The morphological degenerative changes of group involved red blood cells, neutrophils and platelets at 12 and 48 hours. The morphological degenerative changes of group involved red blood cells and leukocytes at 12 and 48 hours. The mean of total leukocytic counts of group was significantly decreased at 48 hours while the mean of total leukocytic counts of group was significantly decreased at 12 and 48 hours. Conclusion: blood samples from rabbits should be tested within 12 hours of collection if stored at a room temperature of about 24

  1. Advanced chemical hydride-based hydrogen generation/storage system for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W.; Rolfe, J. [Thermo Power Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Because of the inherent advantages of high efficiency, environmental acceptability, and high modularity, fuel cells are potentially attractive power supplies. Worldwide concerns over clean environments have revitalized research efforts on developing fuel cell vehicles (FCV). As a result of intensive research efforts, most of the subsystem technology for FCV`s are currently well established. These include: high power density PEM fuel cells, control systems, thermal management technology, and secondary power sources for hybrid operation. For mobile applications, however, supply of hydrogen or fuel for fuel cell operation poses a significant logistic problem. To supply high purity hydrogen for FCV operation, Thermo Power`s Advanced Technology Group is developing an advanced hydrogen storage technology. In this approach, a metal hydride/organic slurry is used as the hydrogen carrier and storage media. At the point of use, high purity hydrogen will be produced by reacting the metal hydride/organic slurry with water. In addition, Thermo Power has conceived the paths for recovery and regeneration of the spent hydride (practically metal hydroxide). The fluid-like nature of the spent hydride/organic slurry will provide a unique opportunity for pumping, transporting, and storing these materials. The final product of the program will be a user-friendly and relatively high energy storage density hydrogen supply system for fuel cell operation. In addition, the spent hydride can relatively easily be collected at the pumping station and regenerated utilizing renewable sources, such as biomass, natural, or coal, at the central processing plants. Therefore, the entire process will be economically favorable and environmentally friendly.

  2. A chitosan-based coating with or without clove oil extends the shelf life of cooked pork sausages in refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekjing, Somwang

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan coatings, with and without clove oil, were investigated for effects on quality and shelf life of cooked pork sausages stored at a refrigerated temperature (4±2°C). The various treatments of cooked pork sausages were: untreated (control), coating with 2% chitosan (CS), and coating with a mixture having 2% chitosan and 1.5% clove oil (CS+CO). Various microbiological, physical, chemical and sensory properties were monitored over 25 days of storage. The total viable count, the psychrotrophic bacteria count, the L* value, peroxide value and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances increased, while the a* value, the b* value, the pH and the sensory scores decreased with storage time, across all treatments. However, these changes were slowest with the CS+CO treatment. Based on sensory evaluation and microbiological quality, the shelf lives were 14 days for control, 20 days for CS, and 20 days for CS+CO treated samples, under refrigerated storage.

  3. A chitosan-based coating with or without clove oil extends the shelf life of cooked pork sausages in refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekjing, Somwang

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan coatings, with and without clove oil, were investigated for effects on quality and shelf life of cooked pork sausages stored at a refrigerated temperature (4±2°C). The various treatments of cooked pork sausages were: untreated (control), coating with 2% chitosan (CS), and coating with a mixture having 2% chitosan and 1.5% clove oil (CS+CO). Various microbiological, physical, chemical and sensory properties were monitored over 25 days of storage. The total viable count, the psychrotrophic bacteria count, the L* value, peroxide value and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances increased, while the a* value, the b* value, the pH and the sensory scores decreased with storage time, across all treatments. However, these changes were slowest with the CS+CO treatment. Based on sensory evaluation and microbiological quality, the shelf lives were 14 days for control, 20 days for CS, and 20 days for CS+CO treated samples, under refrigerated storage. PMID:26473294

  4. Life cycle assessment of conversion processes for the large-scale underground storage of electricity from renewables in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Alfonso Arias; Vogt Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the total storage capacity for renewable energies in European salt caverns up to the year 2030 in order to deal with the fluctuation of renewable energies. The round-trip efficiencies and the CO2 equivalent direct emissions of the different storage process stages are taken into account. These are transmission, electricity to gas conversion, storage and re-electrification from gas to electricity, of three different energy carriers, namely compressed air, hydrogen and renew...

  5. Effect of gamma-irradiation and refrigerated storage on the improvement of quality and shelf life of pear (Pyrus communis L., Cv. Bartlett/William)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-irradiation alone and in combination with refrigeration was tested consecutively for 3 years for extending the shelf life of pear. Matured green pears were irradiated in the dose range of 0.8-2.0 kGy and stored under ambient (temperature 25±2 deg. C, RH 70%) and refrigerated (temperature 3±1 deg. C, RH 80%) conditions. Dose range of 1.5-1.7 kGy extended the storage life of pear by 14 days under ambient conditions. Control unirradiated pears were almost fully ripe within 8 days, while as the pears irradiated in the dose range of 1.5-1.7 kGy were fully ripe within 22 days of ambient storage. Irradiation dose of 1.5-1.7 kGy significantly inhibited the decaying of pears upto 16 days of ambient storage. Irradiation in combination with refrigeration prevented the decaying of pears upto 45 days as against the 35% decay in unirradiated samples. Irradiation dose of 1.5-1.7 kGy also gave an extension of 8 and 4 days during additional ambient storage of the pears following 30 and 45 days of refrigeration, respectively

  6. Effect of vacuum storage on shelf life of a grain protector based on Peumus boldus Molina foliage powder and lime against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsk

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Rivera; Gonzalo Silva; Inés Figueroa; Maritza Tapia; J. Concepción Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a key pest of stored grain maize. As an ecological pest control alternative, the use of botanical insecticides, such as powder from boldus (Peumus boldus Molina) foliage singly or mixed with lime, has been evaluated. Unfortunately, its shelf life is very short and does not exceed 15 d. The effectiveness of vacuum storage on insecticidal properties of a natural grain protector produced with boldus powder:lime at pr...

  7. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume II: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains Volume II of the Closure Study for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Calcined Solids Storage Facility. This volume contains draft information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the four options described in Volume I: (1) Risk-Based Clean Closure; NRC Class C fill, (2) Risk-Based Clean Closure; Clean fill, (3) Closure to landfill Standards; NRC Class C fill, and (4) Closure to Landfill Standards; Clean fill

  8. Prevention of lysosomal storage diseases and derivation of mutant stem cell lines by preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarescu, Gheona; Beeri, Rachel; Eiges, Rachel; Epsztejn-Litman, Silvina; Eldar-Geva, Talia; Elstein, Deborah; Zimran, Ari; Margalioth, Ehud J; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Renbaum, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) allows birth of unaffected children for couples at risk for a genetic disorder. We present the strategy and outcome of PGD for four lysosomal storage disorders (LSD): Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), Gaucher disease (GD), Fabry disease (FD), and Hunter syndrome (HS), and subsequent development of stem cell lines. For each disease, we developed a family-specific fluorescent multiplex single-cell PCR protocol that included the familial mutation and informative markers surrounding the mutation. Embryo biopsy and PGD analysis were performed on either oocytes (polar bodies one and two) or on single blastomeres from a six-cell embryo. We treated twenty families carrying mutations in these lysosomal storage disorders, including 3 couples requiring simultaneous analysis for two disorders (TSD/GD, TSD/balanced Robertsonian translocation 45XYder(21;14), and HS/oculocutaneus albinism). These analyses led to an overall pregnancy rate/embryo transfer of 38% and the birth of 20 unaffected children from 17 families. We have found that PGD for lysosomal disorders is a safe and effective method to prevent birth of affected children. In addition, by using mutant embryos for the derivation of stem cell lines, we have successfully established GD and HS hESC lines for use as valuable models in LSD research. PMID:23320174

  9. Prevention of Lysosomal Storage Diseases and Derivation of Mutant Stem Cell Lines by Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheona Altarescu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD allows birth of unaffected children for couples at risk for a genetic disorder. We present the strategy and outcome of PGD for four lysosomal storage disorders (LSD: Tay-Sachs disease (TSD, Gaucher disease (GD, Fabry disease (FD, and Hunter syndrome (HS, and subsequent development of stem cell lines. For each disease, we developed a family-specific fluorescent multiplex single-cell PCR protocol that included the familial mutation and informative markers surrounding the mutation. Embryo biopsy and PGD analysis were performed on either oocytes (polar bodies one and two or on single blastomeres from a six-cell embryo. We treated twenty families carrying mutations in these lysosomal storage disorders, including 3 couples requiring simultaneous analysis for two disorders (TSD/GD, TSD/balanced Robertsonian translocation 45XYder(21;14, and HS/oculocutaneus albinism. These analyses led to an overall pregnancy rate/embryo transfer of 38% and the birth of 20 unaffected children from 17 families. We have found that PGD for lysosomal disorders is a safe and effective method to prevent birth of affected children. In addition, by using mutant embryos for the derivation of stem cell lines, we have successfully established GD and HS hESC lines for use as valuable models in LSD research.

  10. Effect of different covering materials used during the pre-harvest stage on the quality and storage life of 'Sultana Seedless' grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Sen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Covering the grapevine rows to delay the maturity and harvest date became widely practiced in 'Sultana Seedless' vineyards. The research work was conducted to test different cover materials (polypropylene cross-stitch, life pack, mogul and transparent polyethylene in respect to their effects on grape quality and storability. Harvest was delayed for one month in covered plots. Harvested grapes were packed and transferred to storage rooms after pre-cooling. During packing, the grape clusters were sealed in PE bags with sulphur dioxide pads. The grapes were stored for 90 days in the first year and 120 days in the second year, at -0.5ºC and 90% RH. All the grape clusters were healthy and of marketable quality after 90 days of storage period. In the first year, at the end of the storage, only those grapes harvested from the rows covered with polypropylene cross-stitch showed fungal growth. The sensory quality scores revealed a lower level of preference after 120 days of storage. The effects of the covering materials tested were similar regarding grape quality and storage performance except the transparent polyethylene that damaged the grapevine leaves.

  11. Storage of intact heads prior to processing limits the shelf-life of fresh-cut Lactuca sativa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkowska, I.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Harvested lettuce heads are usually transported and stored for some period of time under a variety of conditions prior to processing. During storage, especially under suboptimal conditions, nutritional composition of the harvested produce continues to change. The possible impact of prior storage of

  12. Rechargeability and economic aspects of alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide cells for electrical storage and load leveling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingale, ND; Gallaway, JW; Nyce, M; Couzis, A; Banerjee, S

    2015-02-15

    Batteries based on manganese dioxide (MnO2) cathodes are good candidates for grid-scale electrical energy storage, as MnO2 is low-cost, relatively energy dense, safe, water-compatible, and non-toxic. Alkaline Zn-MnO2 cells, if cycled at reduced depth of discharge (DOD), have been found to achieve substantial cycle life with battery costs projected to be in the range of $100 to 150 per kWh (delivered). Commercialization of rechargeable Zn-MnO2 batteries has in the past been hampered due to poor cycle life. In view of this, the work reported here focuses on the long-term rechargeability of prismatic MnO2 cathodes at reduced DOD when exposed to the effects of Zn anodes and with no additives or specialty materials. Over 3000 cycles is shown to be obtainable at 10% DOD with energy efficiency >80%. The causes of capacity fade during long-term cycling are also investigated and appear to be mainly due to the formation of irreversible manganese oxides in the cathode. Analysis of the data indicates that capacity loss is rapid in the first 250 cycles, followed by a regime of stability that can last for thousands of cycles. A model has been developed that captures the behavior of the cells investigated using measured state of charge (SOC) data as input. An approximate economic analysis is also presented to evaluate the economic viability of Zn-MnO2 batteries based on the experiments reported here. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Alkaline fuel cells for the regenerative fuel cell energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the alkaline Regenerative Fuel Cell System, whose fuel cell module would be a derivative of the 12-kW fuel cell power plant currently being produced for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, is reviewed. Long-term endurance testing of full-size fuel cell modules has demonstrated: (1) the extended endurance capability of potassium titanate matrix cells, (2) the long-term performance stability of the anode catalyst, and (3) the suitability of a lightweight graphite structure for use at the anode. These approaches, developed in the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, would also reduce cell weight by nearly one half.

  14. Graphene-based Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage: Fuel cells, Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael A.; Moore, Robert; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

  15. Graphene-based electrochemical energy conversion and storage: fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael W; Moore, Robert B; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems. PMID:21799983

  16. 水雷保险器水压膜贮存寿命预测%The Prediction on the Storage Life about Mine Insurance Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 汪波

    2011-01-01

    本文以水雷保险器水压膜贮存失效数据为研究对象,建立了水压膜贮存统计模型,采用周期测量数据失效时刻划分的方法,将不完全失效数据转换为区间数据;提出了基于对数正态分布族和基于极值分布族的水压膜贮存寿命预测方法,对水雷其它零部件的寿命预测具有一定的参考价值.%The storage statistic model of hydrostatic-membranes is established by the study on the storage failure data of the mine insurance devices hydrostatic-membranes. The interval transform method is used to transform the non-complete failure data to interval data by the method of dividing the cycle metrical data failure time. The method based on lognormal distribution and minimum value distribution is put forward to predict the storage life of mine hydrostatic-membranes. It has reference value to predict the life of the other parts of mine.

  17. Solid polymer electrolyte electrochemical storage cell containing a redox shuttle additive for overcharge protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Ross, Philip N.

    1999-01-01

    A class of organic redox shuttle additives is described, preferably comprising nitrogen-containing aromatics compounds, which can be used in a high temperature (85.degree. C. or higher) electrochemical storage cell comprising a positive electrode, a negative electrode, and a solid polymer electrolyte to provide overcharge protection to the cell. The organic redox additives or shuttles are characterized by a high diffusion coefficient of at least 2.1.times.10.sup.-8 cm.sup.2 /second and a high onset potential of 2.5 volts or higher. Examples of such organic redox shuttle additives include an alkali metal salt of 1,2,4-triazole, an alkali metal salt of imidazole, 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine, 1,3,5-tricyanobenzene, and a dialkali metal salt of 3-4-dihydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dione.

  18. The effects of washing with Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L. water solution on shelf life of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix fillet during refrigerator storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshagh Zakipour Rahimabadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antibacterial and antioxidant effects of tamarind water solution on shelf life of silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix fillet during refrigerator storage. Treatments of this study were unwashed samples (control, and samples washed with 1% and 2% tamarind water solution. Microbial, physicochemical and sensory analysis including total viable count (TVC, peroxide value (PV, thiobarbituric acid (TBA, total volatile base (TVB-N and pH were measured during 15 day storage at refrigerator (with 3 days intervals. Proximate analysis of samples also measured at day 0. TVC content was 0.93, 0.50 and 0.10 log CFU/g for control and treatments 1% and 2%, respectively and reached to 6.24, 5.82 and 5.21 log CFU/g at the end of storage period. At the end of storage period, the PV, TBA and TVB-N content were 8.4, 4.3, and 3.0 meq O2/Kg for control, 2.75, 1.35, and 0.50 mg/100g for 1% treatment, and 33.17, 23.90, and 22.10 mg N/100g for 2% treatment, respectively. This results showed the positive effect of tamarind to inhibit and delay fish fillet spoilage. According to sensory evaluation, the density of 1% tamarind was selected as the best density.

  19. A life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen : a user's tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Lord, Anna Snider; Borns, David James; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an interest in large scale hydrogen geostorage, which could offer substantial buffer capacity to meet possible disruptions in supply or changing seasonal demands. The geostorage site options being considered are salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers and hard rock caverns. The DOE has an interest in assessing the geological, geomechanical and economic viability for these types of geologic hydrogen storage options. This study has developed an economic analysis methodology and subsequent spreadsheet analysis to address costs entailed in developing and operating an underground geologic storage facility. This year the tool was updated specifically to (1) incorporate more site-specific model input assumptions for the wells and storage site modules, (2) develop a version that matches the general format of the HDSAM model developed and maintained by Argonne National Laboratory, and (3) incorporate specific demand scenarios illustrating the model's capability. Four general types of underground storage were analyzed: salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers, and hard rock caverns/other custom sites. Due to the substantial lessons learned from the geological storage of natural gas already employed, these options present a potentially sizable storage option. Understanding and including these various geologic storage types in the analysis physical and economic framework will help identify what geologic option would be best suited for the storage of hydrogen. It is important to note, however, that existing natural gas options may not translate to a hydrogen system where substantial engineering obstacles may be encountered. There are only three locations worldwide that currently store hydrogen underground and they are all in salt caverns. Two locations are in the U.S. (Texas), and are managed by ConocoPhillips and Praxair (Leighty, 2007). The third is in Teeside, U.K., managed by Sabic Petrochemicals (Crotogino

  20. Live Cell Imaging During Germination Reveals Dynamic Tubular Structures Derived from Protein Storage Vacuoles of Barley Aleurone Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Ibl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The germination of cereal seeds is a rapid developmental process in which the endomembrane system undergoes a series of dynamic morphological changes to mobilize storage compounds. The changing ultrastructure of protein storage vacuoles (PSVs in the cells of the aleurone layer has been investigated in the past, but generally this involved inferences drawn from static pictures representing different developmental stages. We used live cell imaging in transgenic barley plants expressing a TIP3-GFP fusion protein as a fluorescent PSV marker to follow in real time the spatially and temporally regulated remodeling and reshaping of PSVs during germination. During late-stage germination, we observed thin, tubular structures extending from PSVs in an actin-dependent manner. No extensions were detected following the disruption of actin microfilaments, while microtubules did not appear to be involved in the process. The previously-undetected tubular PSV structures were characterized by complex movements, fusion events and a dynamic morphology. Their function during germination remains unknown, but might be related to the transport of solutes and metabolites.

  1. Live Cell Imaging During Germination Reveals Dynamic Tubular Structures Derived from Protein Storage Vacuoles of Barley Aleurone Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibl, Verena; Stoger, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The germination of cereal seeds is a rapid developmental process in which the endomembrane system undergoes a series of dynamic morphological changes to mobilize storage compounds. The changing ultrastructure of protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) in the cells of the aleurone layer has been investigated in the past, but generally this involved inferences drawn from static pictures representing different developmental stages. We used live cell imaging in transgenic barley plants expressing a TIP3-GFP fusion protein as a fluorescent PSV marker to follow in real time the spatially and temporally regulated remodeling and reshaping of PSVs during germination. During late-stage germination, we observed thin, tubular structures extending from PSVs in an actin-dependent manner. No extensions were detected following the disruption of actin microfilaments, while microtubules did not appear to be involved in the process. The previously-undetected tubular PSV structures were characterized by complex movements, fusion events and a dynamic morphology. Their function during germination remains unknown, but might be related to the transport of solutes and metabolites.

  2. Accelerated Life Test for Photovoltaic Cells Using Concentrated Light

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Tudor Cotfas; Petru Adrian Cotfas; Dan Ion Floroian; Laura Floroian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new method developed to significantly reduce the necessary time for the ageing tests for different types of photovoltaic cells. Two ageing factors have been applied to the photovoltaic cells: the concentrated light and the temperature. The maximum power of the photovoltaic cells was monitored during the ageing process. The electrical dc and ac parameters of the photovoltaic cells were measured and analyzed at 1 sun irradiance, before and after the test stress. During the...

  3. CDP-diacylglycerol synthetase coordinates cell growth and fat storage through phosphatidylinositol metabolism and the insulin pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During development, animals usually undergo a rapid growth phase followed by a homeostatic stage when growth has ceased. The increase in cell size and number during the growth phase requires a large amount of lipids; while in the static state, excess lipids are usually stored in adipose tissues in preparation for nutrient-limited conditions. How cells coordinate growth and fat storage is not fully understood. Through a genetic screen we identified Drosophila melanogaster CDP-diacylglycerol synthetase (CDS/CdsA, which diverts phosphatidic acid from triacylglycerol synthesis to phosphatidylinositol (PI synthesis and coordinates cell growth and fat storage. Loss of CdsA function causes significant accumulation of neutral lipids in many tissues along with reduced cell/organ size. These phenotypes can be traced back to reduced PI levels and, subsequently, low insulin pathway activity. Overexpressing CdsA rescues the fat storage and cell growth phenotypes of insulin pathway mutants, suggesting that CdsA coordinates cell/tissue growth and lipid storage through the insulin pathway. We also revealed that a DAG-to-PE route mediated by the choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase Bbc may contribute to the growth of fat cells in CdsA RNAi.

  4. Effect of Different Initial pH on the Storage Characteristics and Shelf Life of Liquid Diet for Suckling and Weanling Piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yu-yong; MA Pen; LIU Xiao-lan; WANG Ren-hua; LU Wei

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different initial pH on the storage characteristics and shelf life of liquid diet. 45 polypropylene bags were allotted to treatments 1, 2 and 3 on average, 100 g diet and 200 g water were placed into each polypropylene bag, food-grade DL-lactic acid was added to each bag at a rate of 0.0 mL in treatment 1, 1.2 mL in treatment 2 and 4.7 mL in treatment 3, air was artiifcially expelled from each bag prior to heat-sealing. All bags were placed into a cage, cooked with steam at 90°C for 30 min under normal pressure, then taken out and stored from day 0 to 60 at room temperature. Results indicated that liquid diet in treatment 3 achieved the highest total sensory scores, the pH value had a tendency to decrease and the bacteria count had a tendency to increase in the liquid diet with the advancing of storage time with the advancing of storage time, lowering the initial pH of liquid diet decreased the bacteria count, the AFB1 and ZEN concentrations and increased the starch gelatinization degree from day 30 to 60, liquid diet in treatment 3 had a lower (P<0.01) bacteria count and a higher (P<0.05) starch gelatinization degree at day 30 and 45 than liquid diet in treatment 1. In conclusion, lowering the initial pH of liquid diet with lactic acid to pH 4 could effectively improve the storage characteristics and shelf life of liquid diet.

  5. Energy Storage Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program funded the Energy Storage Project to develop battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of the Constellation Program for human exploration. Technology needs were determined by architecture studies and risk assessments conducted by the Constellation Program, focused on a mission for a long-duration lunar outpost. Critical energy storage needs were identified as batteries for EVA suits, surface mobility systems, and a lander ascent stage; fuel cells for the lander and mobility systems; and a regenerative fuel cell for surface power. To address these needs, the Energy Storage Project developed advanced lithium-ion battery technology, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiated-mixed-metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety. The project also developed "non-flow-through" proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant--fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale nonflow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. This report summarizes the project s goals, objectives, technical accomplishments, and risk assessments. A bibliography spanning the life of the project is also included.

  6. Oral health-related quality of life of children and teens with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza da Matta Felisberto Fernandes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Children with sickle cell disease may have their quality of life affected by oral alterations. However, there is still little data on oral health-related quality of life in these children. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sickle cell disease, socioeconomic characteristics, and oral conditions on oral health-related quality of life of children and teens. METHOD: One hundred and six children and teens with sickle cell disease were compared to a similar sample of 385 healthy peers. Data were collected through oral examinations, interviews to assess quality of life (Child Perceptions Questionnaire for children aged 8-10 and 11-14 and questionnaires containing questions on socioeconomic status. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in the total scores of the Child Perceptions Questionnaires or domain scores comparing sickle cell disease patients to control subjects. When sub-scales were compared, oral symptoms and functional limitations had a greater negative impact on the quality of life of adolescents with sickle cell disease (p-value <0.001 and p-value <0.01, respectively when compared to healthy controls. The only statistically significant determinants of negative impact on oral health-related quality of life in the overall sample was home overcrowding (more than two people/room in the younger children's group, and dental malocclusion among teens. CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in the negative impact on the oral health-related quality of life between the group with sickle cell disease and the control group. Of the oral alterations, there was a significant difference in the oral health-related quality of life between adolescents with sickle cell disease and controls only in relation to malocclusion. Among the socioeconomic characteristics, only overcrowding was significantly associated with a negative impact on oral health-related quality of life.

  7. Storage duration of red blood cell transfusion and Clostridium difficile infection: a within person comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A M Rogers

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Randomized controlled trials demonstrated that red blood cell (RBC transfusion elevates the risk of infection, and trials are underway to evaluate whether RBC storage affects outcomes. We previously reported that transfusion predicts Clostridium difficile infection (CDI and, therefore, planned an investigation to examine this further using a more robust design. DESIGN: Within-person case-crossover study. Hospitalizations in which CDI developed (n = 406 were compared to hospitalizations for the same individuals in which CDI did not occur (n = 949. Transfusion volume and storage duration were assessed prior to the onset of CDI. SETTING: University of Michigan Health System. PATIENTS: Participants were individuals with a diagnosis of CDI from July 2009 through June 2012. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: During the hospitalizations when CDI occurred, 34.7% of the patients received allogeneic RBC transfusions (mean volume, 688 ml compared to 19.0% of patients in hospitalizations without CDI (mean volume, 180 ml. The odds of healthcare-associated CDI increased by 76% (95% CI 1.39-2.23 for every liter of RBCs transfused and was elevated in both nonsurgical (OR = 1.90 and surgical (OR = 1.86 hospitalizations. In patients who received RBC transfusions, the odds of developing CDI increased by 6% for every additional day of RBC stored and by 53% for every week of additional storage (P = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalizations in which a patient received a greater volume of RBC transfusions were more likely to be associated with the development of CDI. RBC units stored for a longer duration were associated with the development of healthcare-associated CDI after adjustment for RBC volume.

  8. Modeling a reversible solid oxide fuel cell as a storage device within AC power networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, J.; Roscoe, A.J.; Burt, G. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Royal College, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Gamble, S.R.; Irvine, J.T.S. [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, Purdie Building, St. Andrews (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    A reversible solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC) system, consisting of a RSOFC stack, heat store, and electrical inverters to convert DC to AC power, is shown by computer modeling to have the potential to efficiently store electrical energy. This paper describes the modeling of a single RSOFC, based on a proposed cell geometry, empirical data on the resistivities of the components, and calculation of activation and diffusion polarization resistances from electrochemical theory. Data from ac impedance spectroscopy measurements on symmetrical cells are used to model RSOFC impedance. A RSOFC stack is modeled by electrically linking the individual cells inside a pressurized vessel. A phase change heat store is added to improve energy storage efficiency. The model is implemented in MATLAB {sup registered} /Simulink {sup registered}. Two competing inverter control schemes are compared, trading off DC bus ripple against AC power quality. It is found that selection of appropriate DC bus capacitance is important in certain scenarios, with potential system cost implications. It is shown that the system can store electrical energy at an efficiency of 64% over a single discharge-charge cycle, i.e., hydrogen to electricity and heat to hydrogen. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Proposal of the visual inspection of the integrity of the storage cells of spent fuel from the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the evaluation of the structural integrity of the components of nuclear plants, particularly those applying for life extension is necessary to carry out inspections and nondestructive testing to determine the state meet. In many cases these activities are carried out in areas with high levels of radiation and contamination difficult to access, so that are required to use equipment or robotic systems operated remotely. Among others, the frames and cells of the storage pools for spent fuel are structures subject to a program of tests and inspections, and become relevant because the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-LV) is processing the license to extend the operational life of its reactors. Of non-destructive testing can be used to verify the physical condition of the frames and storage cells, is the remote visual inspection which is a test that allows determine the physical integrity of the components by one or more video cameras designed to applications in underwater environments with radiation, and are used to identify and locate adverse conditions such as ampoules, protuberances, pitting, cracks, stains or buckling, which could affect the three main functions for which the store components are designed: to maintain the physical integrity of spent fuels, store them properly guaranteeing their free insertion and removal, and ensure that the store as a whole meets the criticality criteria that keff is less than 0.95 throughout the life of the plant. This paper describes a proposal to carry out the visual inspection of the storage cells of spent fuel from the NPP-LV using a probe including one or more video cameras along with your recorder, and its corresponding control program. It is noted that due to the obtained results, the nuclear power plant personnel can make decisions regarding remedial actions or applying complementary methods to verify that the cells and frames have not lost their physical integrity, or in particular that the cover plates

  10. Programmed cell death: a way of life for plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, J T

    1996-01-01

    Cell death in higher plants has been widely observed in predictable patterns throughout development and in response to pathogenic infection. Genetic, biochemical, and morphological evidence suggests that these cell deaths occur as active processes and can be defined formally as examples of programmed cell death (PCD). Intriguingly, plants have at least two types of PCD, an observation that is also true of PCD in animals [Schwartz, L. M., Smith, W.W., Jones, M. E. E. & Osborne, B. A. (1993) Pr...

  11. Programming of Energy Storage System in an Island Microgrid with Photovoltaic and Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein KHORRAMDEL

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV systems in island microgrids (MGs are becoming increasingly attractive as a means of energy generation, due to new developments in technologies, environmental concerns, and transmission congestion management. Usually, the energy storage system (ESS is used to store the excess power generated during off-peak hours, and to return it to the system when power from PV is not enough for the system, or generation is more expensive. A real-time dynamic programming algorithm for energy storage in a PV/battery system, based on the battery charge and discharge characteristics, and current and temperature dependence of the capacity of the battery, is presented in this paper. The work aims to extend existing battery- aware programming techniques. It differs from previous works, as it takes into consideration many aspects of battery characteristics that were not considered previously. This allows better use of the battery bank and can prolong the battery service time. This paper also builds a simple PV/battery system in an island microgrid. In this paper, fuel cell power plants (FCPPs are permanently used to operate in island microgrids, and 2 batteries are used as reserves for charge and discharge in various hours.

  12. Raman Microspectroscopy of Individual Algal Cells: Sensing Unsaturation of Storage Lipids in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Nedbal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Algae are becoming a strategic source of fuels, food, feedstocks, and biologically active compounds. This potential has stimulated the development of innovative analytical methods focused on these microorganisms. Algal lipids are among the most promising potential products for fuels as well as for nutrition. The crucial parameter characterizing the algal lipids is the degree of unsaturation of the constituent fatty acids quantified by the iodine value. Here we demonstrate the capacity of the spatially resolved Raman microspectroscopy to determine the effective iodine value in lipid storage bodies of individual living algal cells. The Raman spectra were collected from three selected algal species immobilized in an agarose gel. Prior to immobilization, the algae were cultivated in the stationary phase inducing an overproduction of lipids. We employed the characteristic peaks in the Raman scattering spectra at 1,656 cm−1 (cis C=C stretching mode and 1,445 cm−1 (CH2 scissoring mode as the markers defining the ratio of unsaturated-to-saturated carbon-carbon bonds of the fatty acids in the algal lipids. These spectral features were first quantified for pure fatty acids of known iodine value. The resultant calibration curve was then used to calculate the effective iodine value of storage lipids in the living algal cells from their Raman spectra. We demonstrated that the iodine value differs significantly for the three studied algal species. Our spectroscopic estimations of the iodine value were validated using GC-MS measurements and an excellent agreement was found for the Trachydiscus minutus species. A good agreement was also found with the earlier published data on Botryococcus braunii. Thus, we propose that Raman microspectroscopy can become technique of choice in the rapidly expanding field of algal biotechnology.

  13. Fast stack activation procedure and effective long-term storage for high-performance polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung Yong; Seo, Dong-Jun; Kim, Myeong-Ri; Seo, Min Ho; Hwang, Sun-Mi; Jung, Yong-Min; Kim, Beom-Jun; Yoon, Young-Gi; Han, Byungchan; Kim, Tae-Young

    2016-10-01

    Time-saving stack activation and effective long-term storage are one of most important issues that must be resolved for the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Herein, we developed the cost-effective stack activation method to finish the whole activation within 30 min and the long-term storage method by using humidified N2 without any significant decrease in cell's performance for 30 days. Specifically, the pre-activation step with the direct injection of DI water into the stack and storage at 65 or 80 °C for 2 h increases the distinctive phase separation between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions in Nafion membrane, which significantly reduces the total activation time within 30 min. Additionally, the long-term storage with humidified N2 has no effect on the Pt oxidation and drying of Nafion membrane for 30 days due to its exergonic reaction in the cell. As a result, the high water content in Nafion membrane and the decrease of Pt oxidation are the critical factors that have a strong influence on the activation and long-term storage for high-performance PEMFC.

  14. Preservation of differentiation and clonogenic potential of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during lyophilization and ambient storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya S Buchanan

    Full Text Available Progenitor cell therapies show great promise, but their potential for clinical applications requires improved storage and transportation. Desiccated cells stored at ambient temperature would provide economic and practical advantages over approaches employing cell freezing and subzero temperature storage. The objectives of this study were to assess a method for loading the stabilizing sugar, trehalose, into hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPC and to evaluate the effects of subsequent freeze-drying and storage at ambient temperature on differentiation and clonogenic potential. HPC were isolated from human umbilical cord blood and loaded with trehalose using an endogenous cell surface receptor, termed P2Z. Solution containing trehalose-loaded HPC was placed into vials, which were transferred to a tray freeze-dryer and removed during each step of the freeze-drying process to assess differentiation and clonogenic potential. Control groups for these experiments were freshly isolated HPC. Control cells formed 1450+/-230 CFU-GM, 430+/-140 BFU-E, and 50+/-40 CFU-GEMM per 50 microL. Compared to the values for the control cells, there was no statistical difference observed for cells removed at the end of the freezing step or at the end of primary drying. There was a gradual decrease in the number of CFU-GM and BFU-E for cells removed at different temperatures during secondary drying; however, there were no significant differences in the number of CFU-GEMM. To determine storage stability of lyophilized HPC, cells were stored for 4 weeks at 25 degrees C in the dark. Cells reconstituted immediately after lyophilization produced 580+/-90 CFU-GM ( approximately 40%, relative to unprocessed controls p<0.0001, 170+/-70 BFU-E (approximately 40%, p<0.0001, and 41+/-22 CFU-GEMM (approximately 82%, p = 0.4171, and cells reconstituted after 28 days at room temperature produced 513+/-170 CFU-GM (approximately 35%, relative to unprocessed controls, p<0

  15. Shelf-life enhancement of fresh ginger rhizomes at ambient temperatures by combination of gamma-irradiation, biocontrol and closed polyethylene bag storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of a combination process involving gamma-irradiation, packing in closed polyethylene bags and biological control of fungi causing storage rot was evaluated as a means of extending the shelf-life of fresh ginger rhizomes at ambient temperatures (25–30°C). Storage in closed polyethylene bags reduced weight loss but increased sprouting and rooting, which could be prevented by gamma irradiation to 60 Gy. Rotting caused by Sclerotium rolfsii was, however, a major cause of spoilage during extended storage. Four isolates of Trichoderma sp. isolated from sclerotia of S. rolfsii infecting ginger rhizomes, one of Gliocfadium uirens, and four isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas were tested, out of which, one isolate of Trichoderma was found to be highly effective in suppressing the growth of S. rolfsii. The efficacy of the antagonist was demonstrated under simulated market conditions using artificially inoculated rhizomes. The recommended procedure consists of dipping washed, air dried rhizomes in Trichoderma suspension (108spores ml-1), air-drying, packing in 250 gauge LDPE bags followed by irradiation to 60 Gy. Rhizomes thus treated remained in good marketable condition for up to 2 months at ambient temperature without sprouting or significant loss of quality and less than 5% weight loss. An in vitro bioassay system was developed to demonstrate the efficacy of the antagonist to protect the cut surface of sliced rhizomes inoculated with the pathogen. The method could be used for rapid screening of antagonists

  16. The inhibitory effect of the various seed coating substances against rice seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobunluepop, Pitipong

    2009-08-15

    Presently, chemical seed treatments are in discussion due to their directly or indirectly impacts on human health or other living organisms. They may also negatively affect the ecosystem and the food chain. In rice seeds, chemicals may cause phytotoxic effects including seed degradation. Eugenol is the main component of clove (Eugenia caryophillis) oil, which was proved to act simultaneously as bactericide, virocide and especially fungicide. The in vitro study was aimed to compare the inhibitory effect of the following seed treatment substances against seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during 12 months of storage; conventional captan (CA), chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL), eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E+CL) and control (CO). The obtained results of fungi inhibition were classified in three groups, which showed at first that CA treatment led to a better, i.e., longer, inhibitory effect on Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Curvularia sp., Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger than E+CL. Secondly, E+CL coating polymer showed the longest inhibitory effect against Bipolaris oryzae and Nigrospora oryzae compared to CA and CL coating polymer. Finally, both CA and E+CL coating polymer had non-significant difference inhibitory effect on Fusarium moniliforme. The variant of CL coating polymer for seed coating was only during the first 6 months of storage able to inhibit all species of the observed seed borne fungi, whereas CA and E+CL coating polymer were capable to inhibit most of the fungi until 9 months of storage. PMID:19899320

  17. Effect of vacuum-packaging and low dose gamma irradiation on the microbial, bio-chemical quality and shelf life of peeled shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during ice storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was carried out to see the combined effect of vacuum packaging and low dose gamma irradiation (3kGy) on the shelf life of peeled and undeveined shrimp (Litopeanus vannamie) during ice storage. The fresh farm raised shrimps were peeled and un deveined, packed in high density polyethylene bags (aerobic and vacuum packaging) and were divided into four groups viz. control (C), Irradiated (I), Vacuum packed (V) and vacuum-packed with irradiation (VI). The two groups (I and VI) were irradiated at 3 kGy (Dose rate at the rate 6.043 kGy/hr) and aseptically stored in ice in an insulated polystyrene box. All the samples were periodically analysed for microbial (Total bacterial load, total Coliform, Faecal Coliforms, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Vibrios and E. coli) and bio chemical (TVB-N, TMA, TBARS and pH) quality. The results revealed that the combination of low dose gamma irradiation and vacuum packaging had a significant effect on microbial load (p>0.05). The TVB-N, TMA-N, TBARS and pH were significantly lower in vacuum packed with irradiation when compare to non-irradiated and aerobically packed shrimp (p> 0.05), and shelf life of peeled shrimp extended up to 21 days in ice storage. (author)

  18. CELL: Connecting Everyday Life in an archipeLago

    CERN Document Server

    Chorianopoulos, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    We explore the design of a seamless broadcast communication system that brings together the distributed community of remote secondary education schools. In contrast to higher education, primary and secondary education establishments should remain distributed, in order to maintain a balance of urban and rural life in the developing and the developed world. We plan to deploy an ambient and social interactive TV platform (physical installation, authoring tools, interactive content) that supports social communication in a positive way. In particular, we present the physical design and the conceptual model of the system.

  19. Red blood cell engineering in stroma and serum/plasma-free conditions and long term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ok; Baek, Eun Jung

    2012-01-01

    In vitro generation of artificial red blood cells (RBCs) is very important to overcome insufficient and unsafe blood supply. Despite recent progresses in RBCs engineering from several stem cell sources, none of them could succeed in generation of functional RBCs in the absence of serum/plasma and feeder cells. Without the elimination of serum and plasma, human RBC engineering in a large scale is impossible, especially for the future bioreactor system. Using an appropriate combination of cost-effective and safe reagents, the present study demonstrated the terminal maturation of hematopoietic stem cells into enucleated RBCs, which were functional comparable to donated human RBCs. Surprisingly, the viability of erythroid cells was higher in our serum- and feeder-free culture condition than in the previous serum-added condition. This was possible by supplementation with vitamin C in media and hypothermic conditions. Also, our report firstly presents the storability of artificial RBCs, which possibility is essential for clinical application. In summary, our report demonstrates engineering of human applicable RBCs with a dramatically enhanced viability and shelf-life in both serum- and stroma-free conditions. This innovative culture technology could contribute to the realization of the large-scale pharming of human RBCs using bioreactor systems. PMID:21902543

  20. Red blood cell engineering in stroma and serum/plasma-free conditions and long term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ok; Baek, Eun Jung

    2012-01-01

    In vitro generation of artificial red blood cells (RBCs) is very important to overcome insufficient and unsafe blood supply. Despite recent progresses in RBCs engineering from several stem cell sources, none of them could succeed in generation of functional RBCs in the absence of serum/plasma and feeder cells. Without the elimination of serum and plasma, human RBC engineering in a large scale is impossible, especially for the future bioreactor system. Using an appropriate combination of cost-effective and safe reagents, the present study demonstrated the terminal maturation of hematopoietic stem cells into enucleated RBCs, which were functional comparable to donated human RBCs. Surprisingly, the viability of erythroid cells was higher in our serum- and feeder-free culture condition than in the previous serum-added condition. This was possible by supplementation with vitamin C in media and hypothermic conditions. Also, our report firstly presents the storability of artificial RBCs, which possibility is essential for clinical application. In summary, our report demonstrates engineering of human applicable RBCs with a dramatically enhanced viability and shelf-life in both serum- and stroma-free conditions. This innovative culture technology could contribute to the realization of the large-scale pharming of human RBCs using bioreactor systems.

  1. Effects of electrode and cell design variables on capacity fading of a Ni/H2 cell on storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    A study is made of the capacity fading behavior on storage of nickel electrodes in a Ni/H2 cell as a function of the electrode and cell design parameters. The design variables included two different types of the nickel sinter substrate of the nickel electrode, two different processes of active material impregnation, and two levels of KOH concentration and hydrogen pressure under which the electrode is stored in a Ni/H2 cell. The results show that the hydrogen pressure and type of active material impregnation processes have strong effects on the rate of capacity fading. The capacity fading was faster under 100 psig of hydrogen pressure than under vacuum. Electrodes made by an aqueous bath impregnation process show slower fading than the one made by an alcoholic bath impregnation process. Variations in substrate structure has a moderate effect on the rate, while the effect of KOH concentration is not pronounced. Migration of cobalt in the active material and change of discharge voltages were observed with the nickel electrodes which had substantial capacity fading. A possible mechanism of the cobalt migration, change of the crystallographic structure of the active material, and a possible capacity fading mechanism are discussed.

  2. Storage of factor VIII variants with impaired von Willebrand factor binding in Weibel-Palade bodies in endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje van den Biggelaar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Point mutations resulting in reduced factor VIII (FVIII binding to von Willebrand factor (VWF are an important cause of mild/moderate hemophilia A. Treatment includes desmopressin infusion, which concomitantly increases VWF and FVIII plasma levels, apparently from storage pools containing both proteins. The source of these VWF/FVIII co-storage pools and the mechanism of granule biogenesis are not fully understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied intracellular trafficking of FVIII variants implicated in mild/moderate hemophilia A together with VWF in HEK293 cells and primary endothelial cells. The role of VWF binding was addressed using FVIII variants displaying reduced VWF interaction. Binding studies using purified FVIII proteins revealed moderate (Arg2150His, Del2201, Pro2300Ser to severe (Tyr1680Phe, Ser2119Tyr VWF binding defects. Expression studies in HEK293 cells and primary endothelial cells revealed that all FVIII variants were present within VWF-containing organelles. Quantitative studies showed that the relative amount of FVIII storage was independent of various mutations. Substantial amounts of FVIII variants are co-stored in VWF-containing storage organelles, presumably by virtue of their ability to interact with VWF at low pH. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the potential of FVIII co-storage with VWF is not affected in mild/moderate hemophilia A caused by reduced FVIII/VWF interaction in the circulation. These data support the hypothesis that Weibel-Palade bodies comprise the desmopressin-releasable FVIII storage pool in vivo.

  3. Mast cell-derived neurotrophin 4 mediates allergen-induced airway hyperinnervation in early life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kruti R.; Aven, Linh; Shao, Fengzhi; Krishnamoorthy, Nandini; Duvall, Melody G.; Levy, Bruce D.; Ai, Xingbin

    2016-01-01

    Asthma often progresses from early episodes of insults. How early life events connect to long-term airway dysfunction remains poorly understood. We demonstrated previously that increased neurotrophin 4 (NT4) levels following early life allergen exposure cause persistent changes in airway smooth muscle (ASM) innervation and airway hyper-reactivity (AHR) in mice. Herein, we identify pulmonary mast cells as a key source of aberrant NT4 expression following early insults. NT4 is selectively expressed by ASM and mast cells in mice, nonhuman primates and humans. We show in mice that mast cell-derived NT4 is dispensable for ASM innervation during development. However, upon insults, mast cells expand in number and degranulate to release NT4 and thus become the major source of NT4 under pathological condition. Adoptive transfer of wild type mast cells, but not NT4−/− mast cells restores ASM hyperinnervation and AHR in KitW-sh/W-sh mice following early life insults. Notably, an infant nonhuman primate model of asthma also exhibits ASM hyperinnervation associated with the expansion and degranulation of mast cells. Together, these findings identify an essential role of mast cells in mediating ASM hyperinnervation following early life insults by producing NT4. This role may be evolutionarily conserved in linking early insults to long-term airway dysfunction. PMID:26860818

  4. Research of improving lead-acid storage battery life-span%提高铅酸蓄电池寿命方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成建生

    2011-01-01

    首次提出在铅酸蓄电池内部加装可控点燃装置的方法,来提高铅酸蓄电池的循环寿命.原理是采用三段大电流脉冲过充电提高铅酸蓄电池组充电电压,加大充电电流,可控点燃装置点燃充电过程中产生的氢气和氧气,提高氢、氧的复合率.通过对同类型铅酸蓄电池内部的压力测量,不同工作模式时容量衰减比对,对铅酸蓄电池的循环寿命进行了研究.研究表明:铅酸蓄电池内部的气体压力减小,循环寿命比同类铅酸蓄电池提高1.5~2倍,深循环寿命可达600次.%The way of adding a controlled firing device inside the lead-acid storage battery was brought forward firstly to enhance the cycle life-span of leard-acid storage battery in this paper. The charging volt of the lead-acid storage battery group and the charging current could be improved by the way of three sections heavy current pulse over-charging. The controlled firing device fired the hydrogen and oxygen produced in the charging process to improve the hydrogen and oxygen recombination rate. By measuring the internal pressure of different types of lead acid batteries, and comparing the capacity attenuation in different working modes, the life of lead acid batteries were researched. The results show that the internal pressure of the battery is reduced, the life is extended by 1.5 - 2 times comparing with the similar types of batteries, and the deep cycle life can reach 600 times.

  5. Energy storage in hybrid organic-inorganic materials hexacyanoferrate-doped polypyrrole as cathode in reversible lithium cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Gomez, G,; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld;

    2000-01-01

    A study of the hybrid oganic-inorganic hexacyanoferrate-polypyrrole material as a cathode in rechargeable lithium cells is reported as part of a series of functional hybrid materials that represent a new concept in energy storage. The effect of synthesis temperatures of the hybrid in the specific...... The Electrochemical Society. S0013-4651(00)04-075-1. All rights reserved....

  6. Update on extracellular vesicles inside red blood cell storage units: Adjust the sails closer to the new wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelou, Marianna H; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2016-08-01

    Release of vesicles from cells is a universal biological system, an adaptive cellular response to endogenous or external physiological or stressful stimuli and a genius means for intercellular, inter-organ and even inter-organism communication. These secreted vesicles that are collectively designated extracellular vesicles (EVs) have increasingly attracted the interest of cell biologists due to their imaginable interactions with every piece of the known biological systems in both health and disease states. Although EVs isolation and characterization are challenges, owing to their particular physicochemical features and complex biology, recent technological innovation has offered better understanding and inevitably, driven the revision of previously established theories on them. However, a crucial question remains unsolved: the physiological relevance of EVs in vivo. Since membrane vesiculation is an integral part of red blood cell (RBC) aging and homeostatic machinery and a prominent feature of RBC storage lesion, the characterization of storage EVs and their probable clinical relevance with the therapeutic or adverse effects of transfusions are extremely important targets in the research fields of transfusion biology and medicine. The scientists involved should transfer nascent knowledge and state-of-the-art technological tools in the packed RBC unit in order to: (i) update the inventory of biochemical and biophysical features of storage EVs; (ii) gain insight into the molecular pathways/signals underlying their generation; and (iii) clarify their dependence on blood donor, storage strategies and analytical variations, in order to step forward on understanding their interactions with stored or recipient target cells.

  7. Update on extracellular vesicles inside red blood cell storage units: Adjust the sails closer to the new wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelou, Marianna H; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2016-08-01

    Release of vesicles from cells is a universal biological system, an adaptive cellular response to endogenous or external physiological or stressful stimuli and a genius means for intercellular, inter-organ and even inter-organism communication. These secreted vesicles that are collectively designated extracellular vesicles (EVs) have increasingly attracted the interest of cell biologists due to their imaginable interactions with every piece of the known biological systems in both health and disease states. Although EVs isolation and characterization are challenges, owing to their particular physicochemical features and complex biology, recent technological innovation has offered better understanding and inevitably, driven the revision of previously established theories on them. However, a crucial question remains unsolved: the physiological relevance of EVs in vivo. Since membrane vesiculation is an integral part of red blood cell (RBC) aging and homeostatic machinery and a prominent feature of RBC storage lesion, the characterization of storage EVs and their probable clinical relevance with the therapeutic or adverse effects of transfusions are extremely important targets in the research fields of transfusion biology and medicine. The scientists involved should transfer nascent knowledge and state-of-the-art technological tools in the packed RBC unit in order to: (i) update the inventory of biochemical and biophysical features of storage EVs; (ii) gain insight into the molecular pathways/signals underlying their generation; and (iii) clarify their dependence on blood donor, storage strategies and analytical variations, in order to step forward on understanding their interactions with stored or recipient target cells. PMID:27452642

  8. The CellFlux storage concept for cost reduction in parabolic trough solar thermal power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Odenthal, Christian; Steinmann, Wolf-Dieter; Eck, Markus; Laing, Doerte

    2013-01-01

    Although facility scale thermal energy storage of sensible heat in the range of 200-600°C has achieved a high maturity, state-of-the-art approaches are still not very cost effective. An innovative storage concept is thus proposed here that avoids the two major cost-driving factors of the concrete storage and 2-tank molten salt systems. First, the storage volume is comprised of low-cost sensible storage material such as concrete, natural stone or clinker bricks. These materials are several tim...

  9. Single cell synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy reveals a link between neutral lipid and storage carbohydrate fluxes in S. cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Jamme

    Full Text Available In most organisms, storage lipids are packaged into specialized structures called lipid droplets. These contain a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids, and various proteins which vary depending on the species. Hydrophobic structural proteins stabilize the interface between the lipid core and aqueous cellular environment (perilipin family of proteins, apolipoproteins, oleosins. We developed a genetic approach using heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of the Arabidopsis thaliana lipid droplet oleosin and caleosin proteins AtOle1 and AtClo1. These transformed yeasts overaccumulate lipid droplets, leading to a specific increase in storage lipids. The phenotype of these cells was explored using synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy to investigate the dynamics of lipid storage and cellular carbon fluxes reflected as changes in spectral fingerprints. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data showed a clear effect on storage carbohydrates and more specifically, a decrease in glycogen in our modified strains. These observations were confirmed by biochemical quantification of the storage carbohydrates glycogen and trehalose. Our results demonstrate that neutral lipid and storage carbohydrate fluxes are tightly connected and co-regulated.

  10. Characterization of Cell Wall Components and Their Modifications during Postharvest Storage of Asparagus officinalis L.: Storage-Related Changes in Dietary Fiber Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Judith; Wagner, Steffen; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko

    2016-01-20

    Changes in cell wall composition during storage of plant foods potentially alter the physiological effects of dietary fiber components. To investigate postharvest cell wall modifications of asparagus and their consequences in terms of insoluble dietary fiber structures, asparagus was stored at 20 and 1 °C for different periods of time. Structural analyses demonstrated postharvest changes in the polysaccharide profile, dominated by decreased portions of galactans. Increasing lignin contents correlated with compositional changes (monolignol ratios and linkage types) of the lignin polymer as demonstrated by chemical and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) methods. Depending on the storage time and temperature, syringyl units were preferentially incorporated into the lignin polymer. Furthermore, a drastic increase in the level of ester-linked phenolic monomers (i.e., p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid) and polymer cross-links (di- and triferulic acids) was detected. The attachment of p-coumaric acid to lignin was demonstrated by 2D-NMR experiments. Potential consequences of postharvest modifications on physiological effects of asparagus dietary fiber are discussed.

  11. Characterization of Cell Wall Components and Their Modifications during Postharvest Storage of Asparagus officinalis L.: Storage-Related Changes in Dietary Fiber Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Judith; Wagner, Steffen; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko

    2016-01-20

    Changes in cell wall composition during storage of plant foods potentially alter the physiological effects of dietary fiber components. To investigate postharvest cell wall modifications of asparagus and their consequences in terms of insoluble dietary fiber structures, asparagus was stored at 20 and 1 °C for different periods of time. Structural analyses demonstrated postharvest changes in the polysaccharide profile, dominated by decreased portions of galactans. Increasing lignin contents correlated with compositional changes (monolignol ratios and linkage types) of the lignin polymer as demonstrated by chemical and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) methods. Depending on the storage time and temperature, syringyl units were preferentially incorporated into the lignin polymer. Furthermore, a drastic increase in the level of ester-linked phenolic monomers (i.e., p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid) and polymer cross-links (di- and triferulic acids) was detected. The attachment of p-coumaric acid to lignin was demonstrated by 2D-NMR experiments. Potential consequences of postharvest modifications on physiological effects of asparagus dietary fiber are discussed. PMID:26671648

  12. The red cell revisited--matters of life and death.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werre, J.M.; Willekens, F.L.A.; Bosch, F.H.; Haans, L.D. de; Vegt, S.G. van der; Bos, A.G. van den; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    An erythrocyte-fractionating method combining volume and subsequent density separation is described. Iron isotope (59Fe)-validation proved this combination of methods to be complementary. By deploying HbA1c as cell age marker, obtained fractions demonstrated that circulating erythrocytes lose 20% of

  13. Effect of blood bank storage on the rheological properties of male and female donor red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Amanda; Raval, Jay S; Waters, Jonathan H; Yazer, Mark H; Kameneva, Marina V

    2014-01-01

    It was previously demonstrated that red blood cell (RBC) deformability progressively decreases during storage along with other changes in RBC mechanical properties. Recently, we reported that the magnitude of changes in RBC mechanical fragility associated with blood bank storage in a variety of additive solutions was strongly dependent on the donor gender [15]. Yet, the potential dependence of changes in the deformability and relaxation time of stored blood bank RBCs on donor gender is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of donor gender and blood bank storage on RBC deformability and relaxation time through the measurement of RBC suspension viscoelasticity. Packed RBC units preserved in AS-5 solution from 12 male and 12 female donors (three from each ABO group) were obtained from the local blood center and tested at 1, 4 and 7 weeks of storage at 1-6°C. At each time point, samples were aseptically removed from RBC units and hematocrit was adjusted to 40% before assessment of cell suspension viscoelasticity. RBC suspensions from both genders demonstrated progressive increases (p blood bank storage may reduce tissue perfusion and RBC lifespan in patients receiving blood bank RBCs.

  14. CHARACTERIZING DOE HANFORD SITE WASTE ENCAPSULATION STORAGE FACILITY CELLS USING RADBALL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Coleman, R.

    2011-03-31

    RadBall{trademark} is a novel technology that can locate and quantify unknown radioactive hazards within contaminated areas, hot cells, and gloveboxes. The device consists of a colander-like outer tungsten collimator that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer semi-sphere. The collimator has a number of small holes with tungsten inserts; as a result, specific areas of the polymer are exposed to radiation becoming increasingly more opaque in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer semi-sphere is imaged in an optical computed tomography scanner that produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. A subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation data using a reverse ray tracing or backprojection technique provides information on the spatial distribution of gamma-ray sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. RadBall{trademark} was originally designed for dry deployments and several tests, completed at Savannah River National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, substantiate its modeled capabilities. This study involves the investigation of the RadBall{trademark} technology during four submerged deployments in two water filled cells at the DOE Hanford Site's Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility.

  15. Study of an improved integrated collector-storage solar water heater combined with the photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Simulation of an enhanced ICSSWH system combined with PV panel was conducted. • The present model dose not uses any photovoltaic driven water pump. • High packing factor and tank water mass are caused to high PVT system efficiency. • Larger area of the collector is resulted to lower total PVT system efficiency. - Abstract: A photovoltaic–thermal (PVT) module is a combination of a photovoltaic (PV) panel and a thermal collector for co-generation of heat and electricity. An integrated collector-storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) system, due to its simple and compact structure, offers a promising approach for the solar water heating in the varied climates. The combination of the ICSSWH system with a PV solar system has not been reported. In this paper, simulation of an enhanced ICSSWH system combined with the PV panel has been conducted. The proposed design acts passive. Therefore, it does not use any photovoltaic driven water pump to maintain a flow of water inside the collector. The effects of the solar cell packing factor, the tank water mass and the collector area on the performance of the present PVT system have been investigated. The simulation results showed that the high solar cell packing factor and the tank water mass are caused to the high total PVT system efficiency. Also, larger area of the collector is resulted to lower total PVT system efficiency

  16. Invariant Natural Killer T cells are not affected by lysosomal storage in patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C

    OpenAIRE

    Speak, Anneliese O; Platt, Nicholas; Salio, Mariolina; te Vruchte, Danielle Taylor; Smith, David A.; Shepherd, Dawn; Veerapen, Natacha; Besra, Gurdyal; Yanjanin, Nicole M.; Simmons, Louise; Imrie, Jackie; Wraith, James E.; Lachmann, Robin; Hartung, Ralf; Runz, Heiko

    2012-01-01

    Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells are a specialised subset of T cells that are restricted to the MHC class I like molecule, CD1d. The ligands for iNKT cells are lipids, with the canonical superagonist being α-galactosylceramide, a non-mammalian glycosphingolipid. Trafficking of CD1d through the lysosome is required for the development of murine iNKT cells. Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by dysfunction in either of two lysosomal proteins, NPC1 or...

  17. Life behind cell walls: paradigm lost, paradigm regained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, D T

    2001-09-01

    This review of the living cell wall and its protein components is in two parts. The first is anecdotal. A personal account spanning over 40 years research may perhaps be an antidote to one stereotypical view of scientists as detached and humorless. The second part deals with the meaning of function, particularly as it applies to hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Function is a difficult word to define objectively. However, with help from such luminaries as Humpty Dumpty: "A word means what I want it to mean, neither more nor less," and Wittgenstein: "Giving examples of usage ... is the only way to talk about meaning," it is possible to construct a ziggurat representing increasingly complex levels of organization from molecular structure to ecology. Forty years ago I suggested that hydroxyproline-rich structural proteins played a key role in cell wall functioning. But because the bulk of the wall is carbohydrate, there has been an understandable resistance to paradigm change. Expansins, paradoxically, contribute greatly to this resistance because their modus operandi as cell-wall-loosening proteins is based on the idea that they break hydrogen bonds between polysaccharide chains allowing slippage. However, this view is not consistent with the recent discovery [Grobe et al. (1999) Eur. J. Biochem 263: 33-40] that beta-expansins may be proteases, as it implies that the extensin network is not a straightjacket but a substrate for expansin in muro. Such a direct role for extensins in both negative and positive regulation of cell expansion and elongation may constitute a major morphogenetic mechanism operating at all levels of plant growth and development.

  18. Life cycle assessment of roof integrated solar cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research protocol, applied in this report, is designed for use within the energy R and D-context: it provides a framework for finding bottlenecks and opportunities for (new) energy technologies in the context of (energy) resource scarcity and environmental issues. Finding and analyzing these bottlenecks and opportunities is a major objective of this study. A derived objective of this study is to gain experience in using the LCA-framework and the research protocol described earlier, and to evaluate the usefulness of these instruments in helping to find and analyze bottlenecks and opportunities in energy technologies. Photovoltaic solar cell systems (PV systems) are comprised of solar cell modules and a Balance-of-System (BOS): a support structure and power conditioning equipment. In this LCA amorphous silicon cells (a-Si) are considered. For the Netherlands roof-integrated, grid-connected systems are assumed to be the major application of PV in the future. Two cases will be studied. In case 1 a system of 30 m2 of modules which are connected to the grid via a single inverter are studied. The modules are comprised of a-Si cells and have a conversion efficiency of 10%. Integration into the roof is done with aluminium profiles. In case 2 a system of 30 m2 a-Si cell modules integrated in the roof with plastic 'tiles' is studied. The modules have an efficiency of 15% and connection to the grid is more or less centralized: 25 systems share an inverter which is connected to the grid. The goal and scope of the LCA and the functional unit are described in chapter 2. In chapter 3 the process tree and descriptions of the distinguished processes are given and the inventory table is drawn up. In chapter 4 the impact assessment is dealt with, followed by a discussion of improvement options in chapter 5. Conclusions and recommendations are given in the chapters 6 and 7 only regarding the environmental aspects. 9 figs., 13 tabs., 4 appendices, 13 refs

  19. Fast Evaluation of Storage Life of Missile Nonmetal Weak Links%导弹非金属薄弱环节贮存寿命快速评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周堃; 钱翰博; 周漪; 王成章; 王津梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To scientifically evaluate the storage life of 4 types and 80 kinds of nonmetal weak links in a type of missile. Methods The fast evaluation process of storage life was built by four working levels, namely, analysis, test, e-valuation, and verification. By means of laboratory accelerated aging tests, weathering tests, contrast tests and experience datum analysis, the storage life was evaluated using 4 method, including quantitative evaluation based on the laboratory ac-celerated aging tests, quantitative evaluation based on the existing accelerated aging tests data, semi-quantitative evaluation based on the contrast tests and qualitative evaluation based on the experience datum analysis. Results The natural rubber 1161, the JZ101-67 High damping shock absorber, the natural rubber 1157 and the 221 Grease were taken as the examples for application of the 4 methods. And the evaluation results showed that the storage life of all 4 types of nonmetal weak links was more than 23 years. Conclusion All the 4 types of nonmetal weak links met the requirements of life extension project.%目的:科学评估某型导弹4类80种非金属薄弱环节的贮存寿命。方法建立由分析、试验、评估、验证等4个层次工作组成的贮存寿命快速评估流程。以实验室加速老化试验、自然环境试验、对比试验、经验数据分析为手段,按照基于实验室加速老化试验结果定量评估、基于已有加速老化试验数据定量评估、基于对比加速老化试验结果半定量评估、基于近似产品经验数据定性评估等4种方法开展了试验评估工作。结果以天然橡胶1161、JZ101-67高阻尼减振器、天然橡胶1157、特221润滑脂等4种非金属薄弱环节为4种方法应用示例,得出了4种非金属薄弱环节贮存寿命都大于23年的评估结果。结论4种非金属薄弱环节多能满足延寿工程的要求。

  20. Photon-Storage in Optical Memory Cells Based on a Semiconductor Quantum Dot-Quantum Well Hybrid Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞松保; 唐艳; 李桂荣; 李月霞; 杨富华; 郑厚植; 曾一平

    2003-01-01

    We report a new type of photonic memory cell based on a semiconductor quantum dot (QD)-quantum well (QW)hybrid structure, in which photo-generated excitons can be decomposed into separated electrons and holes, and stored in QW and QDs respectively. Storage and retrieval of photonic signals are verified by time-resolved photoluminescence experiments. A storage time in excess of 100ms has been obtained at a temperature of 10K while the switching speed reaches the order of ten megahertz.

  1. Influence of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy-Storage Sizing on Battery Lifetime in a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Khaligh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEVs) results in a high-performance, highly efficient, low-size, and light system. Often, the battery is rated with respect to its energy requirement to reduce its volume and mass......, the battery, and the ultracapacitors, are proposed. A charging strategy, which charges the energy-storage devices due to the conditions of the FCHEV, is also proposed. The analysis provides recommendations on the design of the battery and the ultracapacitor energy-storage systems for FCHEVs....

  2. Rescaling of metal oxide nanocrystals for energy storage having high capacitance and energy density with robust cycle life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyung Mo; Choi, Kyung Min; Cheng, Tao; Lee, Dong Ki; Zhou, Renjia; Ock, Il Woo; Milliron, Delia J; Goddard, William A; Kang, Jeung Ku

    2015-06-30

    Nanocrystals are promising structures, but they are too large for achieving maximum energy storage performance. We show that rescaling 3-nm particles through lithiation followed by delithiation leads to high-performance energy storage by realizing high capacitance close to the theoretical capacitance available via ion-to-atom redox reactions. Reactive force-field (ReaxFF) molecular dynamics simulations support the conclusion that Li atoms react with nickel oxide nanocrystals (NiO-n) to form lithiated core-shell structures (Ni:Li2O), whereas subsequent delithiation causes Ni:Li2O to form atomic clusters of NiO-a. This is consistent with in situ X-ray photoelectron and optical spectroscopy results showing that Ni(2+) of the nanocrystal changes during lithiation-delithiation through Ni(0) and back to Ni(2+). These processes are also demonstrated to provide a generic route to rescale another metal oxide. Furthermore, assembling NiO-a into the positive electrode of an asymmetric device enables extraction of full capacitance for a counter negative electrode, giving high energy density in addition to robust capacitance retention over 100,000 cycles.

  3. Solid oxide fuel cells towards real life applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells offer a clean and efficient way of producing electricity and heat from a wide selection of fuels. The project addressed three major challenges to be overcome by the technology to make commercialisation possible. (1) At the cell level, increased efficiency combined with production cost reduction has been achieved through an optimization of the manufacturing processes, b) by using alternative raw materials with a lower purchase price and c) by introducing a new generation of fuel cells with reduced loss and higher efficiency. (2) At the stack level, production cost reduction is reduced and manufacturing capacity is increased through an optimization of the stack production. (3) At the system level, development of integrated hotbox concepts for the market segments distributed generation (DG), micro combined heat and power (mCHP), and auxiliary power units (APU) have been developed. In the mCHP segment, two concepts have been developed and validated with regards to market requirements and scalability. In the APU-segment, different types of reformers have been tested and it has been proven that diesel can be reformed through appropriate reformers. Finally, operation experience and feedback has been gained by deployment of stacks in the test facility at the H.C. OErsted Power Plant (HCV). This demonstration has been carried out in collaboration between TOFC and DONG Energy Power A/S (DONG), who has participated as a subcontractor to TOFC. The demonstration has given valuable knowledge and experience with design, start-up and operation of small power units connected to the grid and future development within especially the mCHP segment will benefit from this. In this report, the project results are described for each of the work packages in the project. (Author)

  4. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation attenuates taste progenitor cell proliferation and shortens the life span of taste bud cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian taste bud, a complex collection of taste sensory cells, supporting cells, and immature basal cells, is the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Even though the cells of the taste bud undergo constant turnover, the structural homeostasis of the bud is maintained by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Compared with nongustatory lingual epithelial cells, taste cells express higher levels of several inflammatory receptors and signalling proteins. Whether inflammation, an underlying condition in some diseases associated with taste disorders, interferes with taste cell renewal and turnover is unknown. Here we report the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation on taste progenitor cell proliferation and taste bud cell turnover in mouse taste tissues. Results Intraperitoneal injection of LPS rapidly induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interferon (IFN-γ, and interleukin (IL-6, in mouse circumvallate and foliate papillae. TNF-α and IFN-γ immunoreactivities were preferentially localized to subsets of cells in taste buds. LPS-induced inflammation significantly reduced the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU-labeled newborn taste bud cells 1-3 days after LPS injection, suggesting an inhibition of taste bud cell renewal. BrdU pulse-chase experiments showed that BrdU-labeled taste cells had a shorter average life span in LPS-treated mice than in controls. To investigate whether LPS inhibits taste cell renewal by suppressing taste progenitor cell proliferation, we studied the expression of Ki67, a cell proliferation marker. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that LPS markedly reduced Ki67 mRNA levels in circumvallate and foliate epithelia. Immunofluorescent staining using anti-Ki67 antibodies showed that LPS decreased the number of Ki67-positive cells in the basal regions surrounding circumvallate taste buds

  5. Surfaces of action: cells and membranes in electrochemistry and the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Mathias

    2010-09-01

    The term 'cell', in addition to designating fundamental units of life, has also been applied since the nineteenth century to technical apparatuses such as fuel and galvanic cells. This paper shows that such technologies, based on the electrical effects of chemical reactions taking place in containers, had a far-reaching impact on the concept of the biological cell. My argument revolves around the controversy over oxidative phosphorylation in bioenergetics between 1961 and 1977. In this scientific conflict, a two-level mingling of technological culture, physical chemistry and biological research can be observed. First, Peter Mitchell explained the chemiosmotic hypothesis of energy generation by representing cellular membrane processes via an analogy to fuel cells. Second, in the associated experimental scrutiny of membranes, material cell models were devised that reassembled spatialized molecular processes in vitro. Cells were thus modelled both on paper and in the test tube not as morphological structures but as compartments able to perform physicochemical work. The story of cells and membranes in bioenergetics points out the role that theories and practices in physical chemistry had in the molecularization of life. These approaches model the cell as a 'topology of molecular action', as I will call it, and it involves concepts of spaces, surfaces and movements. They epitomize an engineer's vision of the organism that has influenced diverse fields in today's life sciences.

  6. Optimizing energy management of fuel cell-direct storage-hybrid systems; Optimierendes Energiemanagement von Brennstoffzelle-Direktspeicher-Hybridsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocklisch, Thilo

    2010-03-29

    The dissertation presents a new optimizing energy management concept for fuel cell-direct storage-hybrid systems. Initially, the characteristics of specific energy time series are investigated on the basis of real measurement data. A new concept for the multi-scale analysis, modelling and prediction of fluctuating photovoltaic supply and electric load demand profiles is developed. The second part of the dissertation starts with a discussion of the benefits of and the basic coupling and control principles for fuel cell-direct storage-hybrid systems. The typical characteristics of a PEM-fuel cell, a metal hydride hydrogen storage, a lithium-ion battery and a supercap unit are presented. A new modular DC/DC-converter is described. Results from experimental and theoretical investigations of the individual components and the overall hybrid system are discussed. New practicable models for the voltage-current-curve, the state of charge behaviour and the conversion losses are presented. The third part of the dissertation explains the new energy management concept. The optimization of power flows is achieved by a control-oriented approach, employing a) the primary control of bus voltage and fuel cell current, b) the secondary control to limit fuel cell current gradient and operating range and to perform direct storage charge control, and c) the system control to optimally adjust secondary control parameters aiming for a reduction of dynamic fuel cell stress and hydrogen consumption. Results from simulations and experimental investigations demonstrate the benefits and high capabilities of the new optimizing energy management concept. Examples of stationary and portable applications conclude the dissertation. (orig.)

  7. Environmental life cycle assessment of roof-integrated flexible amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon solar cell laminate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Mohr; A. Meijer; M.A.J. Huijbregts; L. Reijnders

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an environmental life cycle assessment of a roof-integrated flexible solar cell laminate with tandem solar cells composed of amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon (a-Si/nc-Si). The a-Si/nc-Si cells are considered to have 10% conversion efficiency. Their expected service life

  8. Stability of rice bran oil extracted by SFE and soxhlet methods during accelerated shelf-life storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariod, A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid high oryzanol (SFE HO and supercritical fluid low oryzanol (SFE LO rice bran oils were obtained and compared with that extracted by the Soxhlet (SOX method. Their composition and stability during storage were determined. The amount of unsaponifiable matter and gamma oryzanol of SFE samples were significantly (p -1 was higher than that reported in SFE HO and SFE LO, at 3.2 and 2.6 mg·g-1, respectively. After storage for 42 days at 70 °C the PV, FFA%, conjugated diene and p-anisidine values of SOX were higher than those of SFE HO, and SFE LO. The SFE samples showed better stability than SOX under successive heating and the addition of BHA decreased PV, FFA%, conjugated diene and p-anisidine levels in all samples.Se realizaron extracciones mediante fluido supercrítico de salvado de arroz con alto (SFE HO y bajo (SFE LO contenido en orizanol y se comparó con los extraídos mediante Soxhlet (SOX. Se determinó la composición y la estabilidad durante el almacenamiento. La materia insaponificable y el gamma orizanol de las muestras SFE fueron significativamente más altas (p -1 fue mayor que lo encontrado para SFE HO y SFE LO, 3,2 y 2,6 mg·g-1 respectivamente. Después de 42 días de almacenamiento a 70 °C los valores de PV, FFA %, dienos conjugados y p-anisidina de SOX fueron mayores que los de SFE HO, y SFE LO. Las muestras SFE mostraron mejor estabilidad que SOX bajo calentamiento y la adición de BHA disminuyó el PV, FFA %, dienos conjugados y los niveles de p-anisidina en todas las muestras.

  9. Combined vacuum impregnation and electron-beam irradiation treatment to extend the storage life of sliced white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurttas, Zeynep Sevimli; Moreira, Rosana G; Castell-Perez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the application of an antibrowning solution using vacuum impregnation (VI) and then electron-beam irradiation as a means to extend the shelf life of sliced white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). A preliminary study helped to determine the best antibrowning solution and VI process parameters. Mushroom slices were impregnated with 2 g/100 g ascorbic acid + 1 g/100 g calcium lactate; 2 g/100 g citric acid + 1 g/100 g calcium lactate; 1 g/100 g chitosan + 1 g/100 g calcium lactate; and 1 g/100 g calcium lactate at different vacuum pressures and times and atmospheric restoration times. Selection of the antibrowning solution and VI parameters was based on texture and color of the mushroom slices. Next, the slices were irradiated at 1 kGy using a 1.35-MeV e-beam accelerator. Physicochemical, sensory, and microbial quality of mushrooms was monitored for 15 d at 4 °C. The best impregnation process in this study was 2 g/100 g ascorbic acid and 1 g/100 g calcium lactate at 50 mm Hg for 5 min and an atmospheric restoration time of 5 min. The control (untreated) samples suffered structural losses throughout storage. Only the vacuum impregnated-irradiated samples had acceptable color by the end of storage. Sensory panelists consistently preferred the samples produced with VI and irradiation because exposure to ionizing radiation inhibited growth of spoilage microorganisms. PMID:24266620

  10. The fuel cell model of abiogenesis: a new approach to origin-of-life simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barge, Laura M; Kee, Terence P; Doloboff, Ivria J; Hampton, Joshua M P; Ismail, Mohammed; Pourkashanian, Mohamed; Zeytounian, John; Baum, Marc M; Moss, John A; Lin, Chung-Kuang; Kidd, Richard D; Kanik, Isik

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss how prebiotic geo-electrochemical systems can be modeled as a fuel cell and how laboratory simulations of the origin of life in general can benefit from this systems-led approach. As a specific example, the components of what we have termed the "prebiotic fuel cell" (PFC) that operates at a putative Hadean hydrothermal vent are detailed, and we used electrochemical analysis techniques and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell components to test the properties of this PFC and other geo-electrochemical systems, the results of which are reported here. The modular nature of fuel cells makes them ideal for creating geo-electrochemical reactors with which to simulate hydrothermal systems on wet rocky planets and characterize the energetic properties of the seafloor/hydrothermal interface. That electrochemical techniques should be applied to simulating the origin of life follows from the recognition of the fuel cell-like properties of prebiotic chemical systems and the earliest metabolisms. Conducting this type of laboratory simulation of the emergence of bioenergetics will not only be informative in the context of the origin of life on Earth but may help in understanding whether life might emerge in similar environments on other worlds.

  11. Studies and research concerning BNFP. Spent fuel disassembly: increasing hot-cell storage capacity at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of work performed at AGNS in 1979 related to production-rate fuel disassembly in the existing hot cell spaces of the BNFP. The primary advantage of the developed technique is realized at a reprocessing plant facility where suitable hot cells and connecting storage pools are available. The existing spent fuel pools are also candidates for away-from-reactor (AFR) storage space. Storage estimates based on utilization of the BNFP indicate that a major expansion from 1600 MTU up to 3000 MTU is possible. The report presents data on the results of initial process development and prototype equipment testing. Assessments were made of operational safety, licensing, and economic factors. These studies indicate that the techniques are performable and have economic merit when there is a requirement for a large increment of new storage capacity. A development program plan is presented. This plan delineates the future work required to bring the process to a point where implementation is possible

  12. Sorting for storage in myeloid cells of nonmyeloid proteins and chimeras with the propeptide of myeloperoxidase precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bülow, E; Nauseef, W M; Goedken, M; McCormick, S; Calafat, J; Gullberg, U; Olsson, I

    2002-02-01

    During formation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, proteins are synthesized for storage in granules. Whereas sorting of proteins into distinct subtypes of cytoplasmic granules may reflect the coordinated expression of the proteins contained in them, still the mechanism(s) for the retrieval of proteins from the constitutive secretion is unknown. To investigate the mechanisms of retrieval, nonmyeloid secretory proteins were expressed in myeloid cell lines, and their subcellular fate was assessed. The contribution of the propeptide (MPOpro) of the myeloperoxidase (MPO) precursor was investigated by determining the fate of chimeras containing MPOpro. The nonmyeloid protein alpha(1)-microglobulin (alpha(1)-m) was targeted to storage organelles in 32D cells and colocalized with the lysosomal marker LAMP-1, whereas soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNFR1) was secreted without granule targeting. Fusion of MPOpro to alpha(1)-m delayed exit from endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but subsequent targeting to dense organelles was indistinguishable from that of alpha(1)-m alone. Fusion proteins between MPOpro and sTNFR1 or green fluorescent protein expressed in myeloid 32D, K562, or PLB-985 cells did not associate stably with calreticulin or calnexin, molecular chaperones that normally interact transiently with the MPO precursor, but were still efficiently retained in the ER followed by degradation. We conclude that normally secreted, nonmyeloid proteins can be targeted efficiently to storage organelles in myeloid cells, that myeloid cells selectively target some proteins for storage but not others, and that MPOpro may contribute to the prolonged ER retention of the MPO precursor independent of the ER-molecular chaperones calreticulin and calnexin.

  13. LifeMap Discovery™: the embryonic development, stem cells, and regenerative medicine research portal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Edgar

    Full Text Available LifeMap Discovery™ provides investigators with an integrated database of embryonic development, stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. The hand-curated reconstruction of cell ontology with stem cell biology; including molecular, cellular, anatomical and disease-related information, provides efficient and easy-to-use, searchable research tools. The database collates in vivo and in vitro gene expression and guides translation from in vitro data to the clinical utility, and thus can be utilized as a powerful tool for research and discovery in stem cell biology, developmental biology, disease mechanisms and therapeutic discovery. LifeMap Discovery is freely available to academic nonprofit institutions at http://discovery.lifemapsc.com.

  14. Life prediction of coated and uncoated metallic interconnect for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. N.; Sun, X.; Stephens, E.; Khaleel, M. A.

    In this paper, we present an integrated experimental and modeling methodology in predicting the life of coated and uncoated metallic interconnect (IC) for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The ultimate goal is to provide cell designer and manufacture with a predictive methodology such that the life of the IC system can be managed and optimized through different coating thickness to meet the overall cell designed life. Crofer 22 APU is used as the example IC material system. The life of coated and uncoated Crofer 22 APU under isothermal cooling was predicted by comparing the predicted interfacial strength and the interfacial stresses induced by the cooling process from the operating temperature to room temperature, together with the measured oxide scale growth kinetics. It was found that the interfacial strength between the oxide scale and the Crofer 22 APU substrate decreases with the growth of the oxide scale, and that the interfacial strength for the oxide scale/spinel coating interface is much higher than that of the oxide scale/Crofer 22 APU substrate interface. As expected, the predicted life of the coated Crofer 22 APU is significantly longer than that of the uncoated Crofer 22 APU.

  15. Quality of life of hospitalized patients submitted to hematopoietic stem cells transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa da Rocha; Luciana Puchalski Kalinke; Jorge Vinicius Cestari Felix; Maria de Fátima Montovani; Mariluci Alves Maftum; Paulo Ricardo Bittencourt Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the quality of life and to identify the altered domains of adult patients with blood cancer, submitted to hematopoietic stem cells transplantation during hospitalization time. A longitudinal, observation and analytical study, conducted in a reference hospital for hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The data collection was during September of 2013 and September of 2014, including 25 patients and using questionnaires for sociodemographic and clinic char...

  16. Microbial Fuel Cells Applied to the Metabolically-Based Detection of Extraterrestrial Life

    CERN Document Server

    Abrevaya, Ximena C; Cortón, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1970's, when the Viking spacecrafts carried out experiments aimed to the detection of microbial metabolism on the surface of Mars, the search for nonspecific methods to detect life in situ has been one of the goals of astrobiology. It is usually required that the methodology can detect life independently from its composition or form, and that the chosen biological signature points to a feature common to all living systems, as the presence of metabolism. In this paper we evaluate the use of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) for the detection of microbial life in situ. MFCs are electrochemical devices originally developed as power electrical sources, and can be described as fuel cells in which the anode is submerged in a medium that contains microorganisms. These microorganisms, as part of their metabolic process, oxidize organic material releasing electrons that contribute to the electric current, which is therefore proportional to metabolic and other redox processes. We show that power and current density...

  17. Quality of life of hospitalized patients submitted to hematopoietic stem cells transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa da Rocha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the quality of life and to identify the altered domains of adult patients with blood cancer, submitted to hematopoietic stem cells transplantation during hospitalization time. A longitudinal, observation and analytical study, conducted in a reference hospital for hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The data collection was during September of 2013 and September of 2014, including 25 patients and using questionnaires for sociodemographic and clinic characteristics, QLQ-C30 and FACT-BMT. A significant statistical worsening (p<0.05 was found in global quality of life, functional scales, physical, social and family function, personal performance, additional worries and symptoms, fatigue, nausea and vomit, pain, loss of appetite and diarrhea. There is impairment in quality of life of patients during hospitalization for the transplantation. This study can subsidize the direction of actions for adequate support during all therapeutic period.

  18. Illness cognitions in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Predicting quality of life outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Scharloo (Margreet); R.J.B. de Jong; T.P.M. Langeveld (ton); E. van Velzen-Verkaik (Els); M.M. den Doorn-op den Akker (Margreet); A.A. Kaptein (Adrian)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGoals of work: This paper presents an observational study of the longitudinal effects of cancer treatment on quality of life (QoL) in patients treated for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and evaluated the contribution of patients' baseline illness cognitions to the predict

  19. Impact of selection for decreased somatic cell score on productive life and culling for mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impact of continued selection for decreased somatic cell score (SCS) was examined to determine if such selection resulted in greater mastitis susceptibility and shorter productive life (PL). Holstein artificial-insemination bulls with a predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for SCS based on >=35 daug...

  20. Effect of cold storage on collagen-based hydrogels for the three-dimensional culture of adipose-derived stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collagen gels have been extensively used as three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems. To enhance their mechanical properties, the manufacture of collagen-based gels with agarose has been proposed. However, little is known about the stability of these gels under cold storage conditions. The consequences of cold storage on biological tissues for clinical applications are known to be significant; yet, they have not been considered on hydrogels used for in vitro experiments. This work studies the effect of extended cold storage on the stability of collagen and collagen-agarose hydrogels using rheometry and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, cell-matrix interactions of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) have been studied using these gels. Results show that both the storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) of pure collagen gels gradually decrease with extended cold storage along the 30 days of the study, while G′ and G″ increase in collagen-agarose gels under the same conditions. Moreover, significant changes in both moduli of collagen-agarose gels were only found after 30 days of cold storage, while in the case of collagen gels significant changes were already detected after 7 days. Finally, a reduction in the ability of ADSC to remodel the gel after prolonged cold storage was observed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work proving that cold storage of hydrogels prior to cell culture might have a significant impact on their mechanical properties and cell–matrix interactions. (paper)

  1. Porous α-Fe2O3 nanostructures and their lithium storage properties as full cell configuration against LiFePO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluri, P. S.; Shaligram, A.; Mitra, S.

    2015-10-01

    A two step approach for synthesis of porous α-Fe2O3 nanostructures has been realized via polyol method by complexing iron oxalate with ethylene glycol. Crystalline Fe2O3 samples with different porosities are obtained by calcination of Fe-Ethylene glycol complex at various temperatures. The as-prepared porous Fe2O3 structures exhibit promising lithium storage performance at high current rates. It is observed that the calcination temperature and the resultant porosity have a significant effect on capacity and cycling stability. Samples calcined at high temperature (600 °C) demonstrates stable cycle life with capacity retention of 1077 mAh g-1 at 500 mA g-1 current rate after 50 charge-discharge cycles. Samples calcined at temperatures of 500 and 600 °C display stable cycle life and high rate capability with reversible capacity of 930 mAh g-1 and 688 mAh g-1 at 5 A g-1, respectively. Impregnation of electrodes with electrolyte before cell fabrication shows enhanced electrochemical performance. The viability of Fe2O3 porous nanostructures as prospective anode material examined against commercial LiFePO4 cathode shows promising electrochemical performance.

  2. Two-layer cold storage method for pancreas and islet cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuhiro; Fujino

    2010-01-01

    The two-layer cold storage method (TLM) was f irst reported in 1988, consisting of a perfluorochemical (PFC) and initially Euro-Collins' solution, which was later replaced by University of Wisconsin solution (UW). PFC is a biologically inert liquid and acts as an oxygen-supplying agent. A pancreas preserved using the TLM is oxygenated through the PFC and substrates are supplied by the UW solution. This allows the pancreas preserved using the TLM to generate adenosine triphosphate during storage, prolonging ...

  3. Deep reversible storage. Design options for the storage in deep geological formation - High-medium activity, long living wastes 2009 milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report aims at presenting a synthesis of currently studied solutions for the different components of the project of deep geological radioactive waste storage centre. For each of these elements, the report indicates the main operational objectives to be taken into account in relationship with safety functions or with reversibility. It identifies the currently proposed design options, presents the technical solutions (with sometime several possibilities), indicates industrial references (in the nuclear sector, in underground works) and comments results of technological tests performed by the ANDRA. After a description of functionalities and of the overall organisation of storage components, the different following elements and aspects are addressed: surface installations, underground architecture, parcel transfer between the surface and storage cells, storage container for medium-activity long-life (MAVL) waste, storage cell for medium-activity long-life waste, handling of MAVL parcels in storage cells, storage container for high-activity (HA) waste, storage cell for HA waste, handling of HA parcels in storage cells, and works for site closing

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Titania Perovskite Solar Cell Technology for Sustainable Design and Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyi; Gao, Xianfeng; Deng, Yelin; Li, Bingbing; Yuan, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells have attracted enormous attention in recent years due to their low cost and superior technical performance. However, the use of toxic metals, such as lead, in the perovskite dye and toxic chemicals in perovskite solar cell manufacturing causes grave concerns for its environmental performance. To understand and facilitate the sustainable development of perovskite solar cell technology from its design to manufacturing, a comprehensive environmental impact assessment has been conducted on titanium dioxide nanotube based perovskite solar cells by using an attributional life cycle assessment approach, from cradle to gate, with manufacturing data from our laboratory-scale experiments and upstream data collected from professional databases and the literature. The results indicate that the perovskite dye is the primary source of environmental impact, associated with 64.77% total embodied energy and 31.38% embodied materials consumption, contributing to more than 50% of the life cycle impact in almost all impact categories, although lead used in the perovskite dye only contributes to about 1.14% of the human toxicity potential. A comparison of perovskite solar cells with commercial silicon and cadmium-tellurium solar cells reveals that perovskite solar cells could be a promising alternative technology for future large-scale industrial applications. PMID:26489525

  5. Symbiosis in cell evolution: Life and its environment on the early earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.

    1981-01-01

    The book treats cell evolution from the viewpoint of the serial endosymbiosis theory of the origin of organelles. Following a brief outline of the symbiotic theory, which holds that eukaryotes evolved by the association of free-living bacteria with a host prokaryote, the diversity of life is considered, and five kingdoms of organisms are distinguished: the prokaryotic Monera and the eukaryotic Protoctista, Animalia, Fungi and Plantae. Symbiotic and traditional direct filiation theories of cell evolution are compared. Recent observations of cell structure and biochemistry are reviewed in relation to early cell evolution, with attention given to the geological context for the origin of eukaryotic cells, the origin of major bacterial anaerobic pathways, the relationship between aerobic metabolism and atmospheric oxygen, criteria for distinguishing symbiotic organelles from those that originated by differentiation, and the major classes of eukaryotic organelles: mitochondria, cilia, microtubules, the mitotic and meiotic apparatuses, and pastids. Cell evolution during the Phanerozoic is also discussed with emphasis on the effects of life on the biosphere

  6. Storage Free Smart Energy Management for Frequency Control in a Diesel-PV-Fuel Cell-Based Hybrid AC Microgrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, P C; Mishra, S

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a novel, smart energy management scheme for a microgrid, consisting of a diesel generator and power electronic converter interfaced renewable energy-based generators, such as photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell, for frequency regulation without any storage. In the proposed strategy, output of the PV is controlled in coordination with other generators using neurofuzzy controller, either only for transient frequency regulation or for both transient and steady-state frequency regulation, depending on the load demand, thereby eliminating the huge storage requirements. The option of demand response control is also explored along with the generation control. For accurate and quick tracking of maximum power point and its associated reserve power from the PV generator, this paper also proposes a novel adaptive-predictor-corrector-based tracking mechanism. PMID:26011895

  7. Life cycle sustainability of solid oxide fuel cells: From methodological aspects to system implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmeti, Andi; McPhail, Stephen J.; Pumiglia, Davide; Carlini, Maurizio

    2016-09-01

    This study reviews the status of life cycle assessment (LCA) of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) and methodological aspects, communicates SOFC environmental performance, and compares the environmental performance with competing power production technologies using a life cycle perspective. Results indicate that power generation using SOFCs can make a significant contribution to the aspired-to greener energy future. Despite superior environmental performance, empirical studies indicate that economic performance is predominantly the highest-ranked criterion in the decision making process. Future LCA studies should attempt to employ comprehensive dynamic multi-criteria environmental impact analysis coupled with economic aspects, to allow a robust comparison of results. A methodology framework is proposed to achieve simultaneously ambitious socio-economic and environmental objectives considering all life cycle stages and their impacts.

  8. [The quality of life after chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowik-Gabryelska, A; Szczepanik, A; Kalicka, A

    1999-01-01

    The intensity of complains, short survival and great number of patients makes many oncologists to apply chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer/NSCLC/. The achieved median duration of life after chemotherapy was 6 to 12 month. From the other hand non small cell lung cancer chemotherapy is a big burden even to healthy persons. It can worsen the quality of life. That was the reason we evaluated the quality of life after chemotherapy in advanced non small cell lung cancer patients. Taking into account, that the evaluation of quality of life, used in most diseases is useless in advanced NSCLC patients, for appreciation the quality of life in these cases the lung cancer symptoms scale/LCSS/was adopted. In 110 non small cell lung cancer patients in stage IIIB and IV, who received combined chemotherapy by Le Chevalier/Vindesine, Cisplatin, Cyclophosphamide, Lomustin/or by Rosell/Mitomycin, Cyclophosphamide, Cisplatin/the quality of life was evaluated. In 20-persons control group all patients received the symptomatic treatment. In observed group of 110 patients, tumor regressions after 4 courses of chemotherapy allowed to resect cancer in 14 cases, to apply radiotherapy in 42 and to continue chemiotherapy in 23 persons. In every person from above mentioned group the quality of life was evaluated on the basis of intensity of cancer symptoms, accordingly to LCSS. The intensity of cancer symptoms was compared before and after treatment. There were compared; the innensity of complains, weakness, appetite, malnutrition, and hematological, neurological, performans state as well as respiratory sufficiency, infections, cardiac disorders and pain. Apart it, the side effects of applied therapy were assessed in 5 degree scale. The level of hemoglobin, the number of leucocytes, thrombocytes, bilirubine and transaminases in peripheral blood, hematurie, proteinurie, bleedings, appetite, nausea, vomitings, diarrhea, mucosal lesions, infections, skin lesions, cardiac lesions

  9. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  10. The Cell-Life Project: Converging technologies in the context of HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Rivett

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the development of a technology initiative called Cell-Life which addresses the need for information management in the HIV/AIDS sector. Cell-Life started in 2001 as a research collaboration between staff of the Engineering Faculties at the University of Cape Town (UCT and the Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT. Based on the need to support the primary health care sector in providing sustainable treatment options for HIV+ people in under-resourced and rural areas, converging technologies were identified as a possible solution for creating a ‘virtual infrastructure’ between the patient and the medical staff. In 2003 the Government of South Africa clarified in its operational plan for HIV/AIDS that anti-retroviral treatment (ART increased life expectancy of people living with AIDS. It also highlighted that provision of anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs required the regular assessment of the compliance rate to the treatment plan in order to avoid side effects and multiple resistant strains. For under-resourced primary health care centres in disadvantaged areas, HIV/AIDS treatment, and particularly the requirement to monitor patients regularly, became a near impossible task. Cell-Life investigated the use of readily available information and communication technologies to support the provision and distribution of medication, continuous patient monitoring, and communication of relevant data. By combining open source software, cellular technologies and a new approach to software design, a variety of solutions were developed that would take cognisance of the context of HIV/AIDS support and treatment across the country. In 2006 Cell-Life became a not-for-profit organisation and was spun out of the University of Cape Town. The organization currently implements Information Communication Technology (ICT systems that (as of late 2009 manage the dispensation of ARVs to approximately 70 000 patients, representing one-sixth of

  11. Depression, Anxiety, and Quality of Life In Children and Adolescents With Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, J Kelly; Hodge, Christopher; Jacob, Eufemia

    2016-01-01

    The relationships among depression, anxiety, and quality of life were tested, as were the effects of age, gender, and pain frequency on these variables in children (n = 44) and adolescents (n = 31) with sickle cell disease. Participants completed the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (ROADS) and the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedQL Generic Model). The mean and standard deviation for summary RCADS scores for the majority of participants were below the clinical thresholds of T depression (n = 65; 89.3%) and anxiety (n = 70; 93.3%). The subscale scores for the different dimensions of QOL health were a) psychosocial (73.3 ± 15.9), b) emotional (75.0 ± 20.7), c) social (80.8 ± 19.1), d) school functioning (64.0 ≥ 19.8), and e) physical (77.4 ± 17.4). Significant negative correlations were found between mean total quality of life scores and symptoms of a) general anxiety (r = -0.51, p depression (r = -0.66, p depression and anxiety or poor QOL. Pain frequency also did not have significant effects on the risk for depression and anxiety. Findings suggest that health care providers need to screen for anxiety and depression, and make referrals for early interventions to improve quality of life and promote school function in youth with sickle cell disease. PMID:27468512

  12. Depression, Anxiety, and Quality of Life In Children and Adolescents With Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, J Kelly; Hodge, Christopher; Jacob, Eufemia

    2016-01-01

    The relationships among depression, anxiety, and quality of life were tested, as were the effects of age, gender, and pain frequency on these variables in children (n = 44) and adolescents (n = 31) with sickle cell disease. Participants completed the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (ROADS) and the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedQL Generic Model). The mean and standard deviation for summary RCADS scores for the majority of participants were below the clinical thresholds of T anxiety (n = 70; 93.3%). The subscale scores for the different dimensions of QOL health were a) psychosocial (73.3 ± 15.9), b) emotional (75.0 ± 20.7), c) social (80.8 ± 19.1), d) school functioning (64.0 ≥ 19.8), and e) physical (77.4 ± 17.4). Significant negative correlations were found between mean total quality of life scores and symptoms of a) general anxiety (r = -0.51, p anxiety or poor QOL. Pain frequency also did not have significant effects on the risk for depression and anxiety. Findings suggest that health care providers need to screen for anxiety and depression, and make referrals for early interventions to improve quality of life and promote school function in youth with sickle cell disease.

  13. A rapid and versatile method for the isolation, purification and cryogenic storage of Schwann cells from adult rodent nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Natalia D; Srinivas, Shruthi; Piñero, Gonzalo; Monje, Paula V

    2016-08-23

    We herein developed a protocol for the rapid procurement of adult nerve-derived Schwann cells (SCs) that was optimized to implement an immediate enzymatic dissociation of fresh nerve tissue while maintaining high cell viability, improving yields and minimizing fibroblast and myelin contamination. This protocol introduces: (1) an efficient method for enzymatic cell release immediately after removal of the epineurium and extensive teasing of the nerve fibers; (2) an adaptable drop-plating method for selective cell attachment, removal of myelin debris, and expansion of the initial SC population in chemically defined medium; (3) a magnetic-activated cell sorting purification protocol for rapid and effective fibroblast elimination; and (4) an optional step of cryopreservation for the storage of the excess of cells. Highly proliferative SC cultures devoid of myelin and fibroblast growth were obtained within three days of nerve processing. Characterization of the initial, expanded, and cryopreserved cell products confirmed maintenance of SC identity, viability and growth rates throughout the process. Most importantly, SCs retained their sensitivity to mitogens and potential for differentiation even after cryopreservation. To conclude, this easy-to-implement and clinically relevant protocol allows for the preparation of expandable homogeneous SC cultures while minimizing time, manipulation of the cells, and exposure to culture variables.

  14. A rapid and versatile method for the isolation, purification and cryogenic storage of Schwann cells from adult rodent nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Natalia D.; Srinivas, Shruthi; Piñero, Gonzalo; Monje, Paula V.

    2016-01-01

    We herein developed a protocol for the rapid procurement of adult nerve-derived Schwann cells (SCs) that was optimized to implement an immediate enzymatic dissociation of fresh nerve tissue while maintaining high cell viability, improving yields and minimizing fibroblast and myelin contamination. This protocol introduces: (1) an efficient method for enzymatic cell release immediately after removal of the epineurium and extensive teasing of the nerve fibers; (2) an adaptable drop-plating method for selective cell attachment, removal of myelin debris, and expansion of the initial SC population in chemically defined medium; (3) a magnetic-activated cell sorting purification protocol for rapid and effective fibroblast elimination; and (4) an optional step of cryopreservation for the storage of the excess of cells. Highly proliferative SC cultures devoid of myelin and fibroblast growth were obtained within three days of nerve processing. Characterization of the initial, expanded, and cryopreserved cell products confirmed maintenance of SC identity, viability and growth rates throughout the process. Most importantly, SCs retained their sensitivity to mitogens and potential for differentiation even after cryopreservation. To conclude, this easy-to-implement and clinically relevant protocol allows for the preparation of expandable homogeneous SC cultures while minimizing time, manipulation of the cells, and exposure to culture variables. PMID:27549422

  15. Human life, media and market: a sociotechnical perspective of research with embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cesar de Almeida Nobre

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available New biotechnologies of reproduction emerge nowadays as radical destabilizing agents of what we understand as human life. Within this context, research involving stem cells are on the agenda of several academic articles and major newspapers and magazines around the world. The arguments vary from a sort of pride about the emancipatory power of technology to a fear about the absence of limits to restrict undesirable advances. Amid such controversies, our proposal is, based on Actor Network Theory, to draw a map of networks that produce what we understand as human life, insofar as it seems to be unstabled by the new biotechnologies of reproduction. We followed different mediators along their deviations, in order to produce a report based on the analysis of current bioethical controversies involving, specifically, embryonic stem cell research. These controversies led to a strong connection between media, new biotechnologies of human reproduction and a market logic.

  16. Spirituality, Self-Efficacy, and Quality of Life among Adults with Sickle Cell Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Adegbola, Maxine

    2011-01-01

    Spirituality and self-efficacy both have been identified as factors that contribute to management of chronic illnesses and quality of life (QOL). For individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD), the lifespan is increasing, but adults report low self-efficacy, ineffective coping skills and poor QOL. The care of adult patients with SCD requires a complex, multidisciplinary team approach with a focus not only on physiological, psychological, and social needs, but also on spiritual needs. However,...

  17. Life-cycle assessment of diesel, natural gas and hydrogen fuel cell bus transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Jamie; Pryor, Trevor

    The Sustainable Transport Energy Programme (STEP) is an initiative of the Government of Western Australia, to explore hydrogen fuel cell technology as an alternative to the existing diesel and natural gas public transit infrastructure in Perth. This project includes three buses manufactured by DaimlerChrysler with Ballard fuel cell power sources operating in regular service alongside the existing natural gas and diesel bus fleets. The life-cycle assessment (LCA) of the fuel cell bus trial in Perth determines the overall environmental footprint and energy demand by studying all phases of the complete transportation system, including the hydrogen infrastructure, bus manufacturing, operation, and end-of-life disposal. The LCAs of the existing diesel and natural gas transportation systems are developed in parallel. The findings show that the trial is competitive with the diesel and natural gas bus systems in terms of global warming potential and eutrophication. Emissions that contribute to acidification and photochemical ozone are greater for the fuel cell buses. Scenario analysis quantifies the improvements that can be expected in future generations of fuel cell vehicles and shows that a reduction of greater than 50% is achievable in the greenhouse gas, photochemical ozone creation and primary energy demand impact categories.

  18. A method for making an electrode for an alkaline storage cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagikhara, N.; Isitobi, M.; Ivaki, T.; Matsumoto, I.

    1983-07-21

    A paste forming active mass is applied to a foam metallic base, which is then etched into the surface of the base filling the pores. The etching is performed in a specific mode. The alkaline storage battery electrode produced in this way has high electrical characteristics. Its manufacturing is mechanized.

  19. Impact of Chromogranin A deficiency on catecholamine storage, catecholamine granule morphology and chromaffin cell energy metabolism in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqua, Teresa; Mahata, Sumana; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam K; Biswas, Angshuman; Perkins, Guy A; Sinha-Hikim, Amiya P; Goldstein, David S; Eiden, Lee E; Mahata, Sushil K

    2016-03-01

    Chromogranin A (CgA) is a prohormone and granulogenic factor in neuroendocrine tissues with a regulated secretory pathway. The impact of CgA depletion on secretory granule formation has been previously demonstrated in cell culture. However, studies linking the structural effects of CgA deficiency with secretory performance and cell metabolism in the adrenomedullary chromaffin cells in vivo have not previously been reported. Adrenomedullary content of the secreted adrenal catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) was decreased 30-40 % in Chga-KO mice. Quantification of NE and EPI-storing dense core (DC) vesicles (DCV) revealed decreased DCV numbers in chromaffin cells in Chga-KO mice. For both cell types, the DCV diameter in Chga-KO mice was less (100-200 nm) than in WT mice (200-350 nm). The volume density of the vesicle and vesicle number was also lower in Chga-KO mice. Chga-KO mice showed an ~47 % increase in DCV/DC ratio, implying vesicle swelling due to increased osmotically active free catecholamines. Upon challenge with 2 U/kg insulin, there was a diminution in adrenomedullary EPI, no change in NE and a very large increase in the EPI and NE precursor dopamine (DA), consistent with increased catecholamine biosynthesis during prolonged secretion. We found dilated mitochondrial cristae, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, as well as increased synaptic mitochondria, synaptic vesicles and glycogen granules in Chga-KO mice compared to WT mice, suggesting that decreased granulogenesis and catecholamine storage in CgA-deficient mouse adrenal medulla is compensated by increased VMAT-dependent catecholamine update into storage vesicles, at the expense of enhanced energy expenditure by the chromaffin cell. PMID:26572539

  20. Long-term frozen storage of stem cells: challenges and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, David

    2016-01-01

    David T Harris1-5 1University of Arizona Health Sciences Biorepository, 2Department of Immunology, 3Division of Translational Medicine, 4GMP Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, 5Celebration Stem Cell Centre, Gilbert, AZ, USA Abstract: Stem cells are found in all multicellular organisms and are defined as cells that can differentiate into specialized mature cells as well as divide to produce more stem cells. Stem cells are commonly harvested for clinical and research applications from b...

  1. Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Energy storage technology is critical if the U.S. is to achieve more than 25% penetration of renewable electrical energy, given the intermittency of wind and solar. Energy density is a critical parameter in the economic viability of any energy storage system with liquid fuels being 10 to 100 times better than batteries. However, the economical conversion of electricity to fuel still presents significant technical challenges. This project addressed these challenges by focusing on a specific approach: efficient processes to convert electricity, water and nitrogen to ammonia. Ammonia has many attributes that make it the ideal energy storage compound. The feed stocks are plentiful, ammonia is easily liquefied and routinely stored in large volumes in cheap containers, and it has exceptional energy density for grid scale electrical energy storage. Ammonia can be oxidized efficiently in fuel cells or advanced Carnot cycle engines yielding water and nitrogen as end products. Because of the high energy density and low reactivity of ammonia, the capital cost for grid storage will be lower than any other storage application. This project developed the theoretical foundations of N2 catalysis on specific catalysts and provided for the first time experimental evidence for activation of Mo 2N based catalysts. Theory also revealed that the N atom adsorbed in the bridging position between two metal atoms is the critical step for catalysis. Simple electrochemical ammonia production reactors were designed and built in this project using two novel electrolyte systems. The first one demonstrated the use of ionic liquid electrolytes at room temperature and the second the use of pyrophosphate based electrolytes at intermediate temperatures (200 – 300 ºC). The mechanism of high proton conduction in the pyrophosphate materials was found to be associated with a polyphosphate second phase contrary to literature claims and ammonia production rates as high as 5X 10

  2. Assessing Cholesterol Storage in Live Cells and C. elegans by Stimulated Raman Scattering Imaging of Phenyl-Diyne Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon Jeong; Zhang, Wandi; Zhang, Delong; Yang, Yang; Liu, Bin; Barker, Eric L.; Buhman, Kimberly K.; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V.; Dai, Mingji; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2015-01-01

    We report a cholesterol imaging method using rationally synthesized phenyl-diyne cholesterol (PhDY-Chol) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscope. The phenyl-diyne group is biologically inert and provides a Raman scattering cross section that is 88 times larger than the endogenous C = O stretching mode. SRS microscopy offers an imaging speed that is faster than spontaneous Raman microscopy by three orders of magnitude, and a detection sensitivity of 31 μM PhDY-Chol (~1,800 molecules in the excitation volume). Inside living CHO cells, PhDY-Chol mimics the behavior of cholesterol, including membrane incorporation and esterification. In a cellular model of Niemann-Pick type C disease, PhDY-Chol reflects the lysosomal accumulation of cholesterol, and shows relocation to lipid droplets after HPβCD treatment. In live C. elegans, PhDY-Chol mimics cholesterol uptake by intestinal cells and reflects cholesterol storage. Together, our work demonstrates an enabling platform for study of cholesterol storage and trafficking in living cells and vital organisms.

  3. Study of Pulmonary Complications in Pediatric Patients With Storage Disorders Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-23

    I Cell Disease; Fucosidosis; Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy; Adrenoleukodystrophy; Mannosidosis; Niemann-Pick Disease; Pulmonary Complications; Mucopolysaccharidosis I; Mucopolysaccharidosis VI; Metachromatic Leukodystrophy; Gaucher's Disease; Wolman Disease

  4. 真空包装盐水鹅在不同温度条件下的贮藏特性及其货架期预测%Storage Characteristics and Shelf Life Prediction of Vacuum-packed Salted Goose under Different Storage Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董洋; 王虎虎; 徐幸莲

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the storage characteristics and shelf life of vacuum-packed salted goose under different storage temperatures,dynamic changes and correlational analysis of sensory quality,pH,aw,total volatile basicnitrogen(TVB-N),TBARS and total bacterial count of vacuum-packed salted goose stored at 4,25 ℃ and 30 ℃ were explored.The results revealed that the storage temperature and storage time had a significant effect on the quality and shelf life of vacuum-packed salted goose.Low storage temperature could extend the shelf life.In addition,storage temperature had an obvious correlation with quality property indexes.Based on multiple regression model analysis,the equations of shelf life prediction for vacuum-packed salted goose under different storage temperatures were developed and exhibited high reliability in validation experiments.The predicted shelf life of vacuum-packed salted goose stored at 4,25 ℃ and 30 ℃ were 398,83 days and 20 days,respectively.Therefore,this research will provide the reference for the storage and sale of vacuum-packed salted goose.%为探明真空包装盐水鹅在不同贮藏温度条件条件下的贮藏特性和货架期。通过分析贮藏在4、25℃和30℃真空包装盐水鹅的感官品质、pH值、aw、挥发性盐基氮(total volatile basic nitrogen,TVB-N)、TBARS、菌落总数等指标的动态变化及其相关性,并结合回归方程预测货架期。结果表明:在不同贮藏温度、时间条件条件下,各项指标变化差异显著;贮藏温度与pH值、TVB-N、TBARS、菌落总数、感官指标均呈显著的相关性;通过回归方程得到其货架期分别为398d(4℃)、83d(25℃)和20d(30℃),经验证预测贮藏期与实际贮藏期较为相符。

  5. Modelling of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell CHP System Coupled with a Hot Water Storage Tank for a Single Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Liso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. The use of a storage tank with thermal stratification allows one to increase the annual operating hours of CHP: heat can be produced when the request is low (for instance during the night, taking advantage of thermal stratification to increases the heat recovery performance. A model of the SOFC system is presented to estimate the energy required to meet the average electric energy demand of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas produced by gasification and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation are used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small household using two different fuels. In particular it was shown that in the case of syngas, due to larger system heat output, a larger tank volume was required in order to accumulate unused heat over the night. The detailed description of the tank model will be useful to energy system modelers when sizing hot water tanks. Problem formulation is reported also using a Matlab script.

  6. 能量棒贮藏期稳定性及其货架期预测%Storage stability and shelf life prediction of energy bar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董新娜; 李博; 钱平; 肖龙恩; 张晓娟

    2012-01-01

    Storage stability of energy bar was studied. 37, 45, 55, 65 % was selected to carry out the accelerated experiments. Water activity and total number of colonies changes during storage at 25 were determined. The chromatic aberration, acid value, peroxide value changes at accelerated temperatures were all determined and the shelf life prediction model was established in which L value was critical indicator. The results indicated that non-enzyme browning was the most important factor during quality deterioration. The browning rate increased with test temperatures increasing. The prediction Lnk-1/ T linear equation was Lnk=-15244/T+40.729, the predictive error was 1.1%.%对能量棒的贮藏稳定性进行了研究。测定了产品常温(25℃)下的水分活度和菌落总数、色差、酸价及过氧化值的变化,选取37、45、55、65℃4个温度进行加速试验,测定了加速贮藏过程中产品色差、酸价及过氧化值的变化,以感官实验确定产品可接受终点,依据颜色亮度L值变化的二级动力学原理,对L值的变化进行回归分析,预测产品货架期。结果表明:能量棒贮藏期间主要的品质劣变为非酶褐变引起的颜色变化,温度越高褐变速度越快,以颜色亮度L为指标建立预测模型,其Lnk-1/T预测方程为Lnk=-15244/T+40.729,对常温25℃反应速率的预测误差为1.1%。

  7. Posttransfusion survival of red cells frozen for 8 weeks after 42-day liquid storage in AS-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current standards recommend that red cells (RBCs) should be frozen within 6 days of donation. There are situations, however, in which it is desirable to freeze RBCs that are older than 6 days, such as for the salvage of rare or autologous units. To determine the therapeutic efficacy of RBCs frozen after prolonged liquid storage, standard units were drawn from nine normal donors and stored at 4 degrees C for 42 days in a nutrient-additive solution, AS-3. 51CrRBC survival assays were performed (24-hour survival: 78.2 +/- 12.4%; n = 8) and the units were frozen at -80 degrees C in glycerol for 8 weeks. After deglycerolization, the mean RBC recovery was 81.0 +/- 4.1 percent and the mean 24-hour 51Cr survival was 78.0 +/- 9.1 percent. The index of therapeutic effectiveness (ITE) was determined by multiplying the postdeglycerolization 24-hour 51Cr survival by the mean RBC recovery (63.3 +/- 9.2). ITE values greater than 60 percent (75% 51Cr survival x 80% RBC recovery) were considered acceptable. Mean adenosine triphosphate levels declined from an initial 3.81 +/- 0.56 micromol per g of hemoglobin to 2.33 +/- 0.55 micromol per g after frozen storage. These findings show that an acceptable percentage of RBCs survives frozen storage after maximum liquid storage (mean ITE greater than 60%). If necessary, RBCs stored in AS-3 can be frozen at any time before 42 days

  8. Differential effects of LifeAct-GFP and actin-GFP on cell mechanics assessed using micropipette aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliogeryte, Kristina; Thorpe, Stephen D; Wang, Zhao; Thompson, Clare L; Gavara, Nuria; Knight, Martin M

    2016-01-25

    The actin cytoskeleton forms a dynamic structure involved in many fundamental cellular processes including the control of cell morphology, migration and biomechanics. Recently LifeAct-GFP (green fluorescent protein) has been proposed for visualising actin structure and dynamics in live cells as an alternative to actin-GFP which has been shown to affect cell mechanics. Here we compare the two approaches in terms of their effect on cellular mechanical behaviour. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were analysed using micropipette aspiration and the effective cellular equilibrium and instantaneous moduli calculated using the standard linear solid model. We show that LifeAct-GFP provides clearer visualisation of F-actin organisation and dynamics. Furthermore, LifeAct-GFP does not alter effective cellular mechanical properties whereas actin-GFP expression causes an increase in the cell modulus. Interestingly, LifeAct-GFP expression did produce a small (~10%) increase in the percentage of cells exhibiting aspiration-induced membrane bleb formation, whilst actin-GFP expression reduced blebbing. Further studies examined the influence of LifeAct-GFP in other cell types, namely chondrogenically differentiated hMSCs and murine chondrocytes. LifeAct-GFP also had no effect on the moduli of these non-blebbing cells for which mechanical properties are largely dependent on the actin cortex. In conclusion we show that LifeAct-GFP enables clearer visualisation of actin organisation and dynamics without disruption of the biomechanical properties of either the whole cell or the actin cortex. Thus the study provides new evidence supporting the use of LifeAct-GFP rather than actin-GFP for live cell microscopy and the study of cellular mechanobiology. PMID:26792287

  9. Life-cycle-assessment of fuel-cells-based landfill-gas energy conversion technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, P.; Bove, R.; Desideri, U.

    Landfill-gas (LFG) is produced as result of the biological reaction of municipal solid waste (MSW). This gas contains about 50% of methane, therefore it cannot be released into the atmosphere as it is because of its greenhouse effect consequences. The high percentage of methane encouraged researchers to find solutions to recover the related energy content for electric energy production. The most common technologies used at the present time are internal combustion reciprocating engines and gas turbines. High conversion efficiency guaranteed by fuel cells (FCs) enable to enhance the energy recovery process and to reduce emissions to air, such as NO x and CO. In any case, in order to investigate the environmental advantages associated with the electric energy generation using fuel cells, it is imperative to consider the whole "life cycle" of the system, "from cradle-to-grave". In fact, fuel cells are considered to be zero-emission devices, but, for example, emissions associated with their manufacture or for hydrogen production must be considered in order to evaluate all impacts on the environment. In the present work a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) system for LFG recovery is considered and a life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted for an evaluation of environmental consequences and to provide a guide for further environmental impact reduction.

  10. A concept of an electricity storage system with 50 MWh storage capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Paska; Mariusz Kłos; Paweł Antos; Grzegorz Błajszczak

    2012-01-01

    Electricity storage devices can be divided into indirect storage technology devices (involving electricity conversion into another form of energy), and direct storage (in an electric or magnetic fi eld). Electricity storage technologies include: pumped-storage power plants, BES Battery Energy Storage, CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage, Supercapacitors, FES Flywheel Energy Storage, SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, FC Fuel Cells reverse or operated in systems with electrolysers an...

  11. Cell Life Versus Cell Longevity: The Mysteries Surrounding the NAD+ Precursor Nicotinamide

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Faqi; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Maiese, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Nicotinamide, the amide form of niacin (vitamin B3), is the precursor for the coenzyme β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and plays a significant role during the enhancement of cell survival as well as cell longevity. Yet, these abilities of nicotinamide appear to be diametrically opposed. Here we describe the development of nicotinamide as a novel agent that is critical for modulating cellular metabolism, plasticity, longevity, and inflammatory microglial function as well as for infl...

  12. Design and Implementation for Multi-Level Cell Flash Memory Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Amarnath Gaini; K Vijayalaxmi; Sathish Mothe

    2011-01-01

    The flash memory management functions of write coalescing, space management, logical-to-physical mapping, wear leveling, and garbage collection require significant on-going computation and data movement. MLC flash memory also introduces new challenges: (1) Pages in a block must be written sequentially. (2) Information to indicate a page being obsolete cannot be recorded in its spare area. This paper designs an MLC Flash Translation Layer (MFTL) for flash-memory storage systems which takes new...

  13. Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Storage Factors: Effects of Depot, Sex and Fat Cell Size

    OpenAIRE

    Hames, Kazanna C.; Koutsari, Christina; Santosa, Sylvia; Bush, Nikki C.; Jensen, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Patterns of postabsorptive adipose tissue fatty acid storage correlate with sex-specific body fat distribution. Some proteins and enzymes participating in this pathway include CD36 (facilitated transport), acyl-CoA synthetases (ACS; the first step in fat metabolism), and diacylglycerol acetyl-transferase (DGAT; the final step of triglyceride synthesis). Our goal was to better define CD36, ACS and DGAT in relation to sex, subcutaneous fat depots, and adipocyte size. Subje...

  14. Current prognosis and quality of life following surgical treatment for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristina Hernández-Vila

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world with a close relation with some risk factor like, tobacco, alcohol consumption and more recently, with human papilloma virus infection. A review of the literature about actual prognosis and quality of life in HNSCC has been done analysing the results of surgical treatment and their impact on the quality of life of patients. Despite the elevated incidence of HNSCC, the survival rate has increased considerably over the last years thanks to the development of new surgical techniques, such as, microvascular reconstruction or transoral robotic surgery and the most accurate adjuvant radiochemotherapy. Even in bad prognosis cases, there are many options to take into account not only with curative expectation, even, keeping in mind the preservation of the quality of life of patients. Due to the improvement of the prognosis, the interest of surgeons has been focused on preserve the aesthetics, functional and psychosocial aspect of patients without a worsening of the main objective which is the curative result. Although prognosis of HNSCC has improved, further studies are necessary to understand the behaviour in every case and determine how the impact on the quality of life can be a useful tool to individualize the therapies.

  15. Performance of electric forklift with low-temperature polymer exchange membrane fuel cell power module and metal hydride hydrogen storage extension tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lototskyy, Mykhaylo V.; Tolj, Ivan; Parsons, Adrian; Smith, Fahmida; Sita, Cordellia; Linkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    We present test results of a commercial 3-tonne electric forklift (STILL) equipped with a commercial fuel cell power module (Plug Power) and a MH hydrogen storage tank (HySA Systems and TF Design). The tests included: (i) performance evaluation of "hybrid" hydrogen storage system during refuelling at low (distribution occurs when operating in the fuel cell powering mode with MH, in comparison to the battery powering mode; (c) use of the fully refuelled fuel cell power module with the MH extension tank allows for uninterrupted operation for 3 h 6 min and 7 h 15 min, for heavy- and light-duty operation, respectively.

  16. Novel patient cell-based HTS assay for identification of small molecules for a lysosomal storage disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Geng

    Full Text Available Small molecules have been identified as potential therapeutic agents for lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs, inherited metabolic disorders caused by defects in proteins that result in lysosome dysfunctional. Some small molecules function assisting the folding of mutant misfolded lysosomal enzymes that are otherwise degraded in ER-associated degradation. The ultimate result is the enhancement of the residual enzymatic activity of the deficient enzyme. Most of the high throughput screening (HTS assays developed to identify these molecules are single-target biochemical assays. Here we describe a cell-based assay using patient cell lines to identify small molecules that enhance the residual arylsulfatase A (ASA activity found in patients with metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD, a progressive neurodegenerative LSD. In order to generate sufficient cell lines for a large scale HTS, primary cultured fibroblasts from MLD patients were transformed using SV40 large T antigen. These SV40 transformed (SV40t cells showed to conserve biochemical characteristics of the primary cells. Using a specific colorimetric substrate para-nitrocatechol sulfate (pNCS, detectable ASA residual activity were observed in primary and SV40t fibroblasts from a MLD patient (ASA-I179S cultured in multi-well plates. A robust fluorescence ASA assay was developed in high-density 1,536-well plates using the traditional colorimetric pNCS substrate, whose product (pNC acts as "plate fluorescence quencher" in white solid-bottom plates. The quantitative cell-based HTS assay for ASA generated strong statistical parameters when tested against a diverse small molecule collection. This cell-based assay approach can be used for several other LSDs and genetic disorders, especially those that rely on colorimetric substrates which traditionally present low sensitivity for assay-miniaturization. In addition, the quantitative cell-based HTS assay here developed using patient cells creates an

  17. Study on the influence of storage life expectancy of the Valve Regulated Lead-Acid - VRLA battery; Estudo sobre a influencia da estocagem na expectativa de vida util da bateria chumbo-acida regulada por valvula - VRLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, A. Pinhel [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Email: pinhel@furnas.com.br; Rosolem, Maria de F.N.C.; Santos, G.R. dos; Frare, P.T.; Arioli, V.T.; Beck, R.F. [Telecomunicacoes do CPqD, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], Emails: mfatima@cpqd.com.br, glauco@cpqd.com.br, pfrare@cpqd.com.br, varioli@cpqd.com.br, raul@cpqd.com; Soares, L.A., Email: luiz.las@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    When valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are acquired and are not placed in operation immediately and remain stored in open circuit, they can loose autonomy and life. In these cases the current practice recommends, that the batteries receive quarterly recharges, which is often unfeasible. Given this scenario, Furnas by the CPqD, decided to verify the real impact of stockpiling in the expectancy of VRLAs battery life to establish the veracity of practice adopted or establish new procedures. The influences of time, the temperature of the local storage and application of charges are evaluated. It was also studied the application of techniques for measuring the internal resistance battery (conductance and impedance) for degradation monitoring and identification of the need for application of charges. As final products, it was developed novel diagnostic techniques that allow more accurate monitoring of the storage process.

  18. Relationship Between Texture Sensory Profiles and Optical Properties Measured by Time-Resolved Reflectance Spectroscopy During Post-Storage Shelf Life of ‘Braeburn’ Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzolo Anna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘Braeburn’ apples from three harvests after 6-month storage in controlled atmosphere were measured at 670 nm by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy (TRS, ranked on decreasing μa670 (increasing maturity, classified as less (LeM, medium and more mature (MoM, randomised into three batches per harvest and analysed after 1, 8 and 14 days of shelf life. LeM and MoM apples were measured in the 630-900 nm range by TRS, and analysed for sensory profile (firm, crispy, juicy, mealy and pulp mechanical characteristics (firmness, stiffness, energy-to-rupture. All data were processed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA. According to sensory intensity scores, fruits were either divided into five classes (very low – VL; low – L; medium – M; high – H; very high – VH separately for every attribute, or clustered into four groups, each one representing a specific sensory profile. The absorption spectra showed a maximum at 670 nm (chlorophyll-a and μa670 was higher in the VH class for firm, crispy and juicy and in the VL and L classes for mealy. The scattering spectra had a decreasing trend with the wavelength increase, and μs’ values were lower in the VH class for firm and crispy, and higher in the VH class for mealy and in the VL ones for juicy. PCA underlined that μs’ values were negatively related to firmness and μa670, and that μa690, μa730, μa830, μa850 and μa900 were opposed to mealiness. PC scores differed among the four sensory profiles and increased from VL to VH classes for firmness, crispiness and juiciness and from VH to VL classes for mealiness.

  19. The developments and challenges of cerium half-cell in zinc–cerium redox flow battery for energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc–cerium redox flow batteries (ZCBs) are emerging as a very promising new technology with the potential to store a large amount of energy economically and efficiently, thanking to its highest thermodynamic open-circuit cell voltage among all the currently studied aqueous redox flow batteries. However, there are numerous scientific and technical challenges that must be overcome if this alluring promise is to turn into reality, from designing the battery structure, to optimizing the electrolyte compositions and elucidating the complex chemical reactions that occur during charge and discharge. This review article is the first summary of the most significant developments and challenges of cerium half-cell and the current understanding of their chemistry. We are certain that this review will be of great interest to audience over a broad range, especially in fields of energy storage, electrochemistry, and chemical engineering

  20. Social science in a stem cell laboratory: what happened when social and life sciences met.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Glyn; Stephens, Neil

    2012-01-01

    We describe the experience of conducting intensive social science research at the UK Stem Cell Bank from the viewpoint of both the person conducting the social science research and the Director of the Bank. We detail the initial misunderstandings and concerns held by both and the problems these caused. Then we describe how the relationship developed as the project progressed and shared benefits became apparent. Finally, while acknowledging potential areas of tension between the life and social sciences, we suggest further interaction between the disciplines would prove beneficial for both and speculate as to how this may be achieved. In the discussion we identify a set of learning points from our experience and definitions of social science terminology that may help to inform future engagements between life and social scientists.

  1. NAD⁺ repletion improves mitochondrial and stem cell function and enhances life span in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Ryu, Dongryeol; Wu, Yibo; Gariani, Karim; Wang, Xu; Luan, Peiling; D'Amico, Davide; Ropelle, Eduardo R; Lutolf, Matthias P; Aebersold, Ruedi; Schoonjans, Kristina; Menzies, Keir J; Auwerx, Johan

    2016-06-17

    Adult stem cells (SCs) are essential for tissue maintenance and regeneration yet are susceptible to senescence during aging. We demonstrate the importance of the amount of the oxidized form of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and its effect on mitochondrial activity as a pivotal switch to modulate muscle SC (MuSC) senescence. Treatment with the NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) induced the mitochondrial unfolded protein response and synthesis of prohibitin proteins, and this rejuvenated MuSCs in aged mice. NR also prevented MuSC senescence in the mdx (C57BL/10ScSn-Dmd(mdx)/J) mouse model of muscular dystrophy. We furthermore demonstrate that NR delays senescence of neural SCs and melanocyte SCs and increases mouse life span. Strategies that conserve cellular NAD(+) may reprogram dysfunctional SCs and improve life span in mammals. PMID:27127236

  2. Cell surface proteome analysis of human-hosted Trypanosoma cruzi life stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queiroz, Rayner M L; Charneau, Sébastien; Bastos, Izabela M D;

    2014-01-01

    addressed the analysis of the plasma membrane (PM) subproteome from T. cruzi human-hosted life stages, trypomastigote and axenic amastigote, by two complementary PM protein enrichment techniques followed by identification using an LC-MS/MS approach. The results revealed an extensive repertoire of proteins...... in the PM subproteomes, including enzymes that might be suitable candidates for drug intervention. The comparison of the cell surface proteome among the life forms revealed some potentially stage-specific enzymes, although the majority was shared by both stages. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the vast......Chagas' disease is a neglected infectious illness, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. It remains a challenging health issue in Latin America, where it is endemic, and so far there is no immunoprophylatic vaccine or satisfactory chemotherapic treatment for its chronic stage. The present work...

  3. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood. Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ℃ were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness was largely determined by the yields of the Na2CO3- and KOH-soluble fractions, enriched in covalently-bound pectins and in matrix glycans, respectively, and correlated well with ascorbic acid contents. The yields of these two cell wall fractions were correlated inversely with pectinmethylesterase and endo-1,4-β-d-glucanase activities, indicating a relevant role of these two enzymes in postharvest firmness changes in sweet cherry. The amount of solubilised cell wall materials was closely associated to the contents of dehydroascorbic acid, suggesting the possible involvement of oxidative mechanisms in cell wall disassembly. These data may help understanding the evolution of fruit quality during the marketing period, and give hints for the design of suitable management strategies to preserve key attributes. PMID:24986906

  4. 24 hours in the life of HIV-1 in a T cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejman Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 infects CD4+ T cells and completes its replication cycle in approximately 24 hours. We employed repeated measurements in a standardized cell system and rigorous mathematical modeling to characterize the emergence of the viral replication intermediates and their impact on the cellular transcriptional response with high temporal resolution. We observed 7,991 (73% of the 10,958 expressed genes to be modulated in concordance with key steps of viral replication. Fifty-two percent of the overall variability in the host transcriptome was explained by linear regression on the viral life cycle. This profound perturbation of cellular physiology was investigated in the light of several regulatory mechanisms, including transcription factors, miRNAs, host-pathogen interaction, and proviral integration. Key features were validated in primary CD4+ T cells, and with viral constructs using alternative entry strategies. We propose a model of early massive cellular shutdown and progressive upregulation of the cellular machinery to complete the viral life cycle.

  5. Retention of storage quality and post-refrigeration shelf-life extension of plum (Prunus domestica L.) cv. Santa Rosa using combination of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coating and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coatings alone and in combination with gamma irradiation was tested for maintaining the storage quality and extending shelf-life of plum. Matured green plums were CMC coated at levels 0.5–1.0% w/v and gamma irradiated at 1.5 kGy. The treated fruit including control was stored under ambient (temperature 25±2 °C, RH 70%) and refrigerated (temperature 3±1 °C, RH 80%) conditions. In fruits treated with individual treatments of 1.0% w/v CMC; 1.5 kGy irradiation and combination of 1.0% w/v CMC and 1.5 kGy irradiation, no decay was recorded up to 11, 17 and 21 days of ambient storage. Irradiation alone at 1.5 kGy gave 8 days extension in shelf-life of plum compared to 5 days by 1.0% w/v CMC coating following 45 days of refrigeration. All combinatory treatments of CMC coating and irradiation proved beneficial in maintaining the storage quality as well as delaying the decaying of plum during post-refrigerated storage at 25±2 °C, RH 70% but, combination of CMC at 1.0% w/v and 1.5 kGy irradiation was found significantly (p≤0.05) superior to all other treatments in maintaining the storage quality and delaying the decaying of plum. CMC coating of plums at 1.0% w/v followed by irradiation at 1.5 kGy resulted in chlorophyll retention of 19.4% after 16 days compared to 10% in control after 8 days of ambient storage. Under refrigerated conditions, same treatment gave retention of 67.6% in chlorophyll compared to 10.6% in control after 35 days of storage. The above combinatory treatment resulted in extension of 11 days in shelf-life of plum during post-refrigerated storage at 25±2 °C, RH 70% following 45 days of refrigeration. Based on microbial analysis, irradiation alone at 1.5 kGy and in combination with 1.0% w/v CMC resulted in 2.0 and 1.8 log reduction in yeast and mold count of plum fruit after 20 and 35 days of ambient and refrigerated storage, thereby ensuring consumer safety. - Highlights: • Irradiation and CMC alone at 1.5 k

  6. Early-life compartmentalization of human T cell differentiation and regulatory function in mucosal and lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, Joseph J C; Bickham, Kara L; Ohmura, Yoshiaki; Kubota, Masaru; Matsuoka, Nobuhide; Gordon, Claire; Granot, Tomer; Griesemer, Adam; Lerner, Harvey; Kato, Tomoaki; Farber, Donna L

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear how the immune response in early life becomes appropriately stimulated to provide protection while also avoiding excessive activation as a result of diverse new antigens. T cells are integral to adaptive immunity; mouse studies indicate that tissue localization of T cell subsets is important for both protective immunity and immunoregulation. In humans, however, the early development and function of T cells in tissues remain unexplored. We present here an analysis of lymphoid and mucosal tissue T cells derived from pediatric organ donors in the first two years of life, as compared to adult organ donors, revealing early compartmentalization of T cell differentiation and regulation. Whereas adult tissues contain a predominance of memory T cells, in pediatric blood and tissues the main subset consists of naive recent thymic emigrants, with effector memory T cells (T(EM)) found only in the lungs and small intestine. Additionally, regulatory T (T(reg)) cells comprise a high proportion (30-40%) of CD4(+) T cells in pediatric tissues but are present at much lower frequencies (1-10%) in adult tissues. Pediatric tissue T(reg) cells suppress endogenous T cell activation, and early T cell functionality is confined to the mucosal sites that have the lowest T(reg):T(EM) cell ratios, which suggests control in situ of immune responses in early life.

  7. Storage of human red blood cells and platelets. Some aspects concerning the factors leading to storage lesion characterized as morphological changes and vesiculation. Minireview based on a doctoral thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, C

    1988-01-01

    1. Storage renders erythrocytes more responsive to thermally induced morphological changes, especially the shedding of microvesicles. 4-8 week old cells can be morphologically "rejuvenated" by heating. 2. If pH increases during storage of platelets an extensive loss of small particles occurs. The platelet disintegration is associated with a loss in the metabolic activity, discharge of LDH, increased susceptibility to phospholipid hydrolysis by phospholipase C and is found to be initiated during the actual preparation of platelet concentrates. 3. Activation of platelets during preparation can be decreased by shortening the first centrifugation time or by using adenine in the anticoagulant. 4. A 4 hour prestorage of the whole blood unit prior to centrifugation strongly decreases the activation of platelets upon stimuli and results in platelet concentrates much more stable to storage. PMID:3070889

  8. Criticality safety studies of Building 3019 Cell 4 and in-line storage wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New fissile material load limits for storage facilities located in Building 3019 are derived in a manner consistent with currently applicable Martin Marietta Energy Systems requirements. The limits for 233U loading are 2.00, 1.80, 1.45, and 0.19 kg/ft for hydrogen-to-233U atoms ratios of 3, 5, 10, and unrestricted, respectively. Limits were also found for 235U and 239Pu systems. The KENO-Va Monte Carlo Program and Hansen-Roach cross sections were used to derive these limits

  9. Connectivity in Later Life: The Declining Age Divide in Mobile Cell Phone Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Gilleard; Ian Jones; Paul Higgs

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades changes in social connectivity have become key features in the changing contexts of later life. Communities of propinquity no longer seem to be as determining of social relationships as they once were. Mobile cell phone technology and the Internet have redefined what it means to ‘keep in touch’. Some authors have argued that these new forms of connectivity have created a ‘digital divide’ between those who have become active adopters of these technologies and those wh...

  10. Dynamic behaviour of the 'Raman spectroscopic signature of life' in a starving budding yeast cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. In vivo molecular-level information is essentially important for understanding the structure, dynamics and functions of living cells. We use Raman microspectroscopy to single living budding yeast cells under a starving condition and study the dynamic behaviour of the 'Raman spectroscopic signature of life' (Y. Naito et al., J. Raman. Spectrosc., 36 (2005) 837-839. and Y-S. Huang et al., Biochemistry, 44 (2005) 10009-10019.) in relation to the formation and disappearance of a 'dancing body' in a vacuole. A focus is placed on the cell death process and the recovery from it. Our previous studies have shown that, under a starving condition, a dancing body appears suddenly in a vacuole and that the 'Raman spectroscopic signature of life' disappears concomitantly indicating the loss of the mitochondrial metabolic activity. This event is followed by gradual deterioration of the cell structure leading to death. This cell death process was visualized at the molecular level by time-resolved Raman imaging. In the present study, we show strong correlations not only between the appearance of a dancing body and the loss of the mitochondrial activity but also between the disappearance of the dancing body and the recovery of the activity. Time- and space-resolved Raman spectra of a single living budding yeast cell were recorded on a confocal Raman microspectrometer with 632.8 nm line of a He-Ne laser for excitation. The laser power at the sample was about 5 mW. The lateral and depth resolutions were about 300 nm with a 100 x oil immersion objective lens (N.A.=1.3) and about 2 μm with a 100 μm pinhole for a confocal detection. Raman spectra were recorded in the wavenumber range 300 - 1800 cm-1 with a spectral resolution of 3 cm-1. The exposure time was 150 sec. Saccharomyces cerevisiae/ Saccharomyces Bayanus hybrid, strain AJL3062 from, was grown at 30 deg C under a stationary cultivation condition in wort medium. The cells dispersed in 1 ml

  11. Differential effects of LifeAct-GFP and actin-GFP on cell mechanics assessed using micropipette aspiration

    OpenAIRE

    Sliogeryte, Kristina; Stephen D Thorpe; Wang, Zhao; Thompson, Clare L.; Gavara, Nuria; Knight, Martin M.

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton forms a dynamic structure involved in many fundamental cellular processes including the control of cell morphology, migration and biomechanics. Recently LifeAct-GFP (green fluorescent protein) has been proposed for visualising actin structure and dynamics in live cells as an alternative to actin-GFP which has been shown to affect cell mechanics. Here we compare the two approaches in terms of their effect on cellular mechanical behaviour. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hM...

  12. Super life--how and why 'cell selection' leads to the fastest-growing eukaryote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, Philip; Stouthamer, Adriaan H; Westerhoff, Hans V

    2009-01-01

    What is the highest possible replication rate for living organisms? The cellular growth rate is controlled by a variety of processes. Therefore, it is unclear which metabolic process or group of processes should be activated to increase growth rate. An organism that is already growing fast may already have optimized through evolution all processes that could be optimized readily, but may be confronted with a more generic limitation. Here we introduce a method called 'cell selection' to select for highest growth rate, and show how such a cellular site of 'growth control' was identified. By applying pH-auxostat cultivation to the already fast-growing yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus for a sufficiently long time, we selected a strain with a 30% increased growth rate; its cell-cycle time decreased to 52 min, much below that reported to date for any eukaryote. The increase in growth rate was accompanied by a 40% increase in cell surface at a fairly constant cell volume. We show how the increase in growth rate can be explained by a dominant (80%) limitation of growth by the group of membrane processes (a 0.7% increase of specific growth rate to a 1% increase in membrane surface area). Simultaneous activation of membrane processes may be what is required to accelerate growth of the fastest-growing form of eukaryotic life to growth rates that are even faster, and may be of potential interest for single-cell protein production in industrial 'White' biotechnology processes. PMID:19087200

  13. Distinct populations of hepatic stellate cells in the mouse liver have different capacities for retinoid and lipid storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana N D'Ambrosio

    Full Text Available Hepatic stellate cell (HSC lipid droplets are specialized organelles for the storage of retinoid, accounting for 50-60% of all retinoid present in the body. When HSCs activate, retinyl ester levels progressively decrease and the lipid droplets are lost. The objective of this study was to determine if the HSC population in a healthy, uninjured liver demonstrates heterogeneity in its capacity for retinoid and lipid storage in lipid droplets. To this end, we utilized two methods of HSC isolation, which leverage distinct properties of these cells, including their vitamin A content and collagen expression. HSCs were isolated either from wild type (WT mice in the C57BL/6 genetic background by flotation in a Nycodenz density gradient, followed by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS based on vitamin A autofluorescence, or from collagen-green fluorescent protein (GFP mice by FACS based on GFP expression from a GFP transgene driven by the collagen I promoter. We show that GFP-HSCs have: (i increased expression of typical markers of HSC activation; (ii decreased retinyl ester levels, accompanied by reduced expression of the enzyme needed for hepatic retinyl ester synthesis (LRAT; (iii decreased triglyceride levels; (iv increased expression of genes associated with lipid catabolism; and (v an increase in expression of the retinoid-catabolizing cytochrome, CYP2S1.Our observations suggest that the HSC population in a healthy, uninjured liver is heterogeneous. One subset of the total HSC population, which expresses early markers of HSC activation, may be "primed" and ready for rapid response to acute liver injury.

  14. Life Time Performance Characterization of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells for Hydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiufu; Chen, Ming; Liu, Yi-Lin;

    2015-01-01

    Solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) offer a promising technological solution for efficient energy conversion and production of hydrogen or syngas. The commercialization of the SOEC technology can be promoted if SOECs can be operated at high current density with stable performance over ~5 years...... - 3 years (continuous operation, setting 1.5 V as the upper voltage defining “end of life”). The results provide technological input to future design of electrolysis plants for hydrogen production. © 2015 ECS - The Electrochemical Society....... In this work, long-term durability of Ni/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) supported planar SOECs was investigated at 800 oC for electrolysis of steam at different current densities from 0 to -1.25 A/cm2. The SOEC cells are able to be operated at current density up to ~-1 A/cm2, with a predicted life time of 2...

  15. Life cycle assessment of cell phones in Brazil based on two reverse logistics scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela da Gama e Silva Volpe Moreira de Moraes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a result of a cell phone collection obtained at the Center for Information Technology Renato Archer (CTI under the AMBIENTRONIC Program, an initiative that supports the Brazilian electronic sector in the development of technologies for sustainability. The objective of this article is to assess two reverse logistic scenarios of cell phones using the technique of life-cycle assessment (LCA. The first scenario reflects the current scenario in Brazil, where batteries are recycled in Brazil and the other parts of the phones are outsourced to Europe. The second scenario is a proposal of full treatment in Brazil. The results indicate that the second scenario has a lower potential impact with important reduction of acidification, photochemical oxidation, eutrophication and the use of non-renewable energy. Furthermore, fully implementing reverse logistics in Brazil will enable socioeconomic benefits from the sale of materials and the generation of employment and income.

  16. Cell-free DNA Fragmentation Patterns in Amniotic Fluid Identify Genetic Abnormalities and Changes due to Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Inga; Tighiouart, Hocine; Lapaire, Olav; Johnson, Kirby L.; Bianchi, Diana W.; Terrin, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has become a promising biomarker in prenatal diagnosis. However, despite extensive studies in different body fluids, cfDNA predictive value is uncertain owing to the confounding factors that can affect its levels, such as gestational age, maternal weight, smoking status, and medications. Residual fresh and archived amniotic fluid (AF) supernatants were obtained from gravid women (mean gestational age 17 wk) carrying euploid (N = 36) and aneuploid (N = 29) fetuses, to characterize cfDNA-fragmentation patterns with regard to aneuploidy and storage time (−80°C). AF cfDNA was characterized by the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, gel electrophoresis, and pattern recognition of the DNA fragmentation. The distributions of cfDNA fragment lengths were compared using 6 measures that defined the locations and slopes for the first and last peaks, after elimination of the confounding variables. This method allowed for the unique classification of euploid and aneuploid cfDNA samples in AF, which had been matched for storage time. In addition, we showed that archived euploid AF samples gradually lose long cfDNA fragments: this loss accurately distinguishes them from the fresh samples. We present preliminary data using cfDNA-fragmentation patterns, to uniquely distinguish between AF samples of pregnant women with regard to aneuploidy and storage time, independent of gestational age and initial DNA amount. In addition to potential applications in prenatal diagnosis, these data suggest that archived AF samples consist of large amounts of short cfDNA fragments, which are undetectable using standard real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification. PMID:18382362

  17. Life cycle assessment of gas atomised sponge nickel for use in alkaline hydrogen fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Benjamin P.; Lavery, Nicholas P.; Jarvis, David J.; Anttila, Tomi; Rantanen, Jyri; Brown, Stephen G. R.; Adkins, Nicholas J.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a cradle-to-grave comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of new gas atomised (GA) sponge nickel catalysts and evaluates their performance against the both cast and crush (CC) sponge nickel and platinum standards currently used in commercial alkaline fuel cells (AFC). The LCA takes into account the energy used and emissions throughout the entire life cycle of sponge nickel catalysts - ranging from the upstream production of materials (mainly aluminium and nickel), to the manufacturing, to the operation and finally to the recycling and disposal. Through this assessment it was found that the energy and emissions during the operational phase associated with a given catalyst considerably outweigh the primary production, manufacturing and recycling. Primary production of the nickel (and to a lesser extent dopant materials) also has a significant environmental impact but this is offset by operational energy savings over the electrode's estimated lifetime and end of life recyclability. From the results it can be concluded that higher activity spongy nickel catalysts produced by gas atomisation could have a significantly lower environmental impact than either CC nickel or platinum. Doped GA sponge nickel in particular showed comparable performance to that of the standard platinum electrode used in AFCs.

  18. Tissue-specific mutation accumulation in human adult stem cells during life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokzijl, Francis; de Ligt, Joep; Jager, Myrthe; Sasselli, Valentina; Roerink, Sophie; Sasaki, Nobuo; Huch, Meritxell; Boymans, Sander; Kuijk, Ewart; Prins, Pjotr; Nijman, Isaac J.; Martincorena, Inigo; Mokry, Michal; Wiegerinck, Caroline L.; Middendorp, Sabine; Sato, Toshiro; Schwank, Gerald; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E. S.; Verstegen, Monique M. A.; van der Laan, Luc J. W.; de Jonge, Jeroen; Ijzermans, Jan N. M.; Vries, Robert G.; van de Wetering, Marc; Stratton, Michael R.; Clevers, Hans; Cuppen, Edwin; van Boxtel, Ruben

    2016-10-01

    The gradual accumulation of genetic mutations in human adult stem cells (ASCs) during life is associated with various age-related diseases, including cancer. Extreme variation in cancer risk across tissues was recently proposed to depend on the lifetime number of ASC divisions, owing to unavoidable random mutations that arise during DNA replication. However, the rates and patterns of mutations in normal ASCs remain unknown. Here we determine genome-wide mutation patterns in ASCs of the small intestine, colon and liver of human donors with ages ranging from 3 to 87 years by sequencing clonal organoid cultures derived from primary multipotent cells. Our results show that mutations accumulate steadily over time in all of the assessed tissue types, at a rate of approximately 40 novel mutations per year, despite the large variation in cancer incidence among these tissues. Liver ASCs, however, have different mutation spectra compared to those of the colon and small intestine. Mutational signature analysis reveals that this difference can be attributed to spontaneous deamination of methylated cytosine residues in the colon and small intestine, probably reflecting their high ASC division rate. In liver, a signature with an as-yet-unknown underlying mechanism is predominant. Mutation spectra of driver genes in cancer show high similarity to the tissue-specific ASC mutation spectra, suggesting that intrinsic mutational processes in ASCs can initiate tumorigenesis. Notably, the inter-individual variation in mutation rate and spectra are low, suggesting tissue-specific activity of common mutational processes throughout life.

  19. Is red blood cell rheology preserved during routine blood bank storage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, Sandra; Dijkstra-Tiekstra, Margriet J.; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny; Graaff, Reindert; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van Oeveren, Willem

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) units stored for more than 2 weeks at 4 degrees C are currently considered of impaired quality. This opinion has primarily been based on altered RBC rheologic properties (i.e., enhanced aggregability, reduced deformability, and elevated endothelial cell interaction),

  20. Gender specific quality of life in patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejewski Oliver

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was to evaluate the somatic and psychological effects by means of QUALITY OF LIFE (QOL of surgical treatment of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The factors gender, age, nicotine consumption, and tumour stage were taken into consideration. Methods 54 patients after surgical resection of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC were analysed from 01.09.2005 to 31.05.2008. Inclusion criteria for the study were: age at least 18 years, no indication or treatment of synchronous and metachronous tumours. German translations of the EORTC H&N-35 and EORTC QLQ-C-30 questionnaires, as well as a general socioeconomic patient history were used as measuring instruments. The questionnaires were completed independently by the patients. The answers were translated into scale values for statistical evaluation using appropriate algorithms. Results Analysis of the EORTC-QLQ-C-30 questionnaires demonstrated a tendency of more negative assessment of emotional function among the female participants, and a more negative evaluation of social function among the male participants. Greater tumour sizes showed significantly lower bodily function (p = 0.018. While a smaller tumour size was significantly associated with lower cognitive functioning (p = 0.031. Other cofactors such as age, nicotine consumption, and tumour stage only showed a tendency to influence the quality of sleep and daily life. Conclusions The data obtained within this investigation demonstrated that gender had the most significant power on the subjectively perceived postoperative quality of life. This factor is important e.g. in preoperative decision making regarding immediate microvascular reconstruction after e.g. mandibular resection and therefore QOL assessment should become integral component of the care of patients with OSCC.

  1. Design and Implementation for Multi-Level Cell Flash Memory Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarnath Gaini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The flash memory management functions of write coalescing, space management, logical-to-physical mapping, wear leveling, and garbage collection require significant on-going computation and data movement. MLC flash memory also introduces new challenges: (1 Pages in a block must be written sequentially. (2 Information to indicate a page being obsolete cannot be recorded in its spare area. This paper designs an MLC Flash Translation Layer (MFTL for flash-memory storage systems which takes new constraints of MLC flash memory and access behaviors of file system into consideration. A series of trace driven simulations is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme. Our experiment results show that the proposed MFTL outperforms other related works in terms of the number of extra page writes, the number of total block erasures, and the memory requirement for the management.

  2. Dynamic expression of the translational machinery during Bacillus subtilis life cycle at a single cell level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Rosenberg

    Full Text Available The ability of bacteria to responsively regulate the expression of translation components is crucial for rapid adaptation to fluctuating environments. Utilizing Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis as a model organism, we followed the dynamics of the translational machinery at a single cell resolution during growth and differentiation. By comprehensive monitoring the activity of the major rrn promoters and ribosomal protein production, we revealed diverse dynamics between cells grown in rich and poor medium, with the most prominent dissimilarities exhibited during deep stationary phase. Further, the variability pattern of translational activity varied among the cells, being affected by nutrient availability. We have monitored for the first time translational dynamics during the developmental process of sporulation within the two distinct cellular compartments of forespore and mother-cell. Our study uncovers a transient forespore specific increase in expression of translational components. Finally, the contribution of each rrn promoter throughout the bacterium life cycle was found to be relatively constant, implying that differential expression is not the main purpose for the existence of multiple rrn genes. Instead, we propose that coordination of the rrn operons serves as a strategy to rapidly fine tune translational activities in a synchronized fashion to achieve an optimal translation level for a given condition.

  3. Interplay between carotenoids, hemoproteins and the "life band" origin studied in live Rhodotorula mucilaginosa cells by means of Raman microimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacia, Marta Z; Turnau, Katarzyna; Baranska, Malgorzata; Kaczor, Agnieszka

    2015-03-21

    Raman microimaging of live Rhodotorula mucilaginosa cells, cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, showed striking differences in the composition and distribution of cell components. The analysis of these differences and recovery of oxidative phosphorylation upon environmental changes enabled the interrelation of carotenoids, hemoproteins and the unknown species considered as the "Raman signature of life".

  4. Chemical and electrochemical behavior of the Cr(3)/Cr(2) half cell in the NASA Redox Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. A.; Reid, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Cr(III) complexes in the NASA Redox Energy Storage System were isolated and identified as Cr(H2O)6(+3) and Cr(H2O)5Cl(+2) by ion exchange chromatography and visible spectrophotometry. The cell reactions during charge-discharge cycles were followed by means of visible spectrophotometry. The spectral bands were resolved into component peaks and concentrations calculated using Beer's Law. During the charge mode Cr(H2O)5Cl(+2) is reduced to Cr(H2O)5Cl(+) and during the discharge mode Cr(H2O)5Cl(+) is oxidized back to Cr(H2O)5Cl(+2). Both electrode reactions occur via a chloride-bridge inner-sphere reaction pathway. Hysteresis effects can be explained by the slow attainment of equilibrium between Cr(H2O)6(+3) and Cr(H2O)5Cl(+2).

  5. The performance of a grid-tied microgrid with hydrogen storage and a hydrogen fuel cell stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Two microgrids with different structure are simulated. • Their performance are comprehensively evaluated and compared. • The one with DES and a FC stack has high environmental and quality indexes. - Abstract: In a heat-power system, the use of distributed energy generation and storage not only improves system’s efficiency and reliability but also reduce the emission. This paper is focused on the comprehensive performance evaluation of a grid-tied microgrid, which consists of a PV system, a hydrogen fuel cell stack, a PEM electrolyzer, and a hydrogen tank. Electricity and heat are generated in this system, to meet the local electric and heat demands. The surplus electricity can be stored as hydrogen, which is supplied to the fuel cell stack to generate heat and power as needed. The performance of the microgrid is comprehensively evaluated and is compared with another microgrid without a fuel cell stack. As a result, the emission and the service quality in the first system are higher than those in the second one. But they both have the same overall performance

  6. POSIX and Object Distributed Storage Systems Performance Comparison Studies With Real-Life Scenarios in an Experimental Data Taking Context Leveraging OpenStack Swift & Ceph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poat, M. D.; Lauret, J.; Betts, W.

    2015-12-01

    The STAR online computing infrastructure has become an intensive dynamic system used for first-hand data collection and analysis resulting in a dense collection of data output. As we have transitioned to our current state, inefficient, limited storage systems have become an impediment to fast feedback to online shift crews. Motivation for a centrally accessible, scalable and redundant distributed storage system had become a necessity in this environment. OpenStack Swift Object Storage and Ceph Object Storage are two eye-opening technologies as community use and development have led to success elsewhere. In this contribution, OpenStack Swift and Ceph have been put to the test with single and parallel I/O tests, emulating real world scenarios for data processing and workflows. The Ceph file system storage, offering a POSIX compliant file system mounted similarly to an NFS share was of particular interest as it aligned with our requirements and was retained as our solution. I/O performance tests were run against the Ceph POSIX file system and have presented surprising results indicating true potential for fast I/O and reliability. STAR'S online compute farm historical use has been for job submission and first hand data analysis. The goal of reusing the online compute farm to maintain a storage cluster and job submission will be an efficient use of the current infrastructure.

  7. Sugar deficiency causes changes in cuticle permeability and cell wall composition that influence fruit postharvest shelf-life

    OpenAIRE

    Vallarino, J; Yeats, T.H.; Rose, J K; Fernie, A.R.; Osorio, S.

    2014-01-01

    The cuticle is a protective layer synthesized by epidermal cells of the plants and consisting of cutin covered and filled by waxes. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit, the thick cuticle embedding epidermal cells has crucial roles in the control of pathogens, water loss, cracking, and postharvest shelf-life. Tomato fruits with reduced expression of the tomato gene LIN5 encoding cell wall invertase exhibits decreases transpirational water loss. Transcriptomic, biochemical, histological, and...

  8. Quantitative investigation of red blood cell three-dimensional geometric and chemical changes in the storage lesion using digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaferzadeh, Keyvan; Moon, Inkyu

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative phase information obtained by digital holographic microscopy (DHM) can provide new insight into the functions and morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs). Since the functionality of a RBC is related to its three-dimensional (3-D) shape, quantitative 3-D geometric changes induced by storage time can help hematologists realize its optimal functionality period. We quantitatively investigate RBC 3-D geometric changes in the storage lesion using DHM. Our experimental results show that the substantial geometric transformation of the biconcave-shaped RBCs to the spherocyte occurs due to RBC storage lesion. This transformation leads to progressive loss of cell surface area, surface-to-volume ratio, and functionality of RBCs. Furthermore, our quantitative analysis shows that there are significant correlations between chemical and morphological properties of RBCs. PMID:26502322

  9. Quantitative investigation of red blood cell three-dimensional geometric and chemical changes in the storage lesion using digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaferzadeh, Keyvan; Moon, Inkyu

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative phase information obtained by digital holographic microscopy (DHM) can provide new insight into the functions and morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs). Since the functionality of a RBC is related to its three-dimensional (3-D) shape, quantitative 3-D geometric changes induced by storage time can help hematologists realize its optimal functionality period. We quantitatively investigate RBC 3-D geometric changes in the storage lesion using DHM. Our experimental results show that the substantial geometric transformation of the biconcave-shaped RBCs to the spherocyte occurs due to RBC storage lesion. This transformation leads to progressive loss of cell surface area, surface-to-volume ratio, and functionality of RBCs. Furthermore, our quantitative analysis shows that there are significant correlations between chemical and morphological properties of RBCs.

  10. Improved Quality of Life in A Case of Cerebral Palsy after Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alok; Sane, Hemangi; Kulkarni, Pooja; D'sa, Myola; Gokulchandran, Nandini; Badhe, Prerna

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non progressive, demyelinating disorder that affects a child's development and posture and may be associated with sensation, cognition, communication and perception abnormalities. In CP, cerebral white matter is injured resulting in the loss of oligodendrocytes. This causes damage to the myelin and disruption of nerve conduction. Cell therapy is being explored as an alternate therapeutic strategy as there is no treatment currently available for CP. To study the benefits of this treatment we have administered autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) to a 12-year-old CP case. He was clinically re-evaluated after six months and found to demonstrate positive clinical and functional outcomes. His trunk strength, upper limb control, hand functions, walking stability, balance, posture and coordination improved. His ability to perform activities of daily living improved. On repeating the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the score increased from 90 to 113. A repeat positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan of the brain six months after intervention showed progression of the mean standard deviation values towards normalization which correlated to the functional changes. At one year, all clinical improvements have remained. This indicated that cell transplantation may improve quality of life and have a potential for treatment of CP. PMID:26199918

  11. Improved Quality of Life in A Case of Cerebral Palsy after Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sharma

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP is a non progressive, demyelinating disorder that affects a child’s development and posture and may be associated with sensation, cognition, communication and perception abnormalities. In CP, cerebral white matter is injured resulting in the loss of oligodendrocytes. This causes damage to the myelin and disruption of nerve conduction. Cell therapy is being explored as an alternate therapeutic strategy as there is no treatment currently available for CP. To study the benefits of this treatment we have administered autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs to a 12-year-old CP case. He was clinically re-evaluated after six months and found to demonstrate positive clinical and functional outcomes. His trunk strength, upper limb control, hand functions, walking stability, balance, posture and coordination improved. His ability to perform activities of daily living improved. On repeating the Functional Independence Measure (FIM, the score increased from 90 to 113. A repeat positron emission tomography- computed tomography (PET-CT scan of the brain six months after intervention showed progression of the mean standard deviation values towards normalization which correlated to the functional changes. At one year, all clinical improvements have remained. This indicated that cell transplantation may improve quality of life and have a potential for treatment of CP.

  12. Supercapacitive microbial fuel cell: Characterization and analysis for improved charge storage/delivery performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Jeremiah; Santoro, Carlo; Soavi, Francesca; Serov, Alexey; Ieropoulos, Ioannis; Arbizzani, Catia; Atanassov, Plamen

    2016-10-01

    Supercapacitive microbial fuel cells with various anode and cathode dimensions were investigated in order to determine the effect on cell capacitance and delivered power quality. The cathode size was shown to be the limiting component of the system in contrast to anode size. By doubling the cathode area, the peak power output was improved by roughly 120% for a 10ms pulse discharge and internal resistance of the cell was decreased by ∼47%. A model was constructed in order to predict the performance of a hypothetical cylindrical MFC design with larger relative cathode size. It was found that a small device based on conventional materials with a volume of approximately 21cm(3) would be capable of delivering a peak power output of approximately 25mW at 70mA, corresponding to ∼1300Wm(-3). PMID:27400393

  13. Insulin promotes glycogen storage and cell proliferation in primary human astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Heni

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the human brain, there are at least as many astrocytes as neurons. Astrocytes are known to modulate neuronal function in several ways. Thus, they may also contribute to cerebral insulin actions. Therefore, we examined whether primary human astrocytes are insulin-responsive and whether their metabolic functions are affected by the hormone. METHODS: Commercially available Normal Human Astrocytes were grown in the recommended medium. Major players in the insulin signaling pathway were detected by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Phosphorylation events were detected by phospho-specific antibodies. Glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis were assessed using radio-labeled glucose. Glycogen content was assessed by histochemistry. Lactate levels were measured enzymatically. Cell proliferation was assessed by WST-1 assay. RESULTS: We detected expression of key proteins for insulin signaling, such as insulin receptor β-subunit, insulin receptor substrat-1, Akt/protein kinase B and glycogen synthase kinase 3, in human astrocytes. Akt was phosphorylated and PI-3 kinase activity increased following insulin stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. Neither increased glucose uptake nor lactate secretion after insulin stimulation could be evidenced in this cell type. However, we found increased insulin-dependent glucose incorporation into glycogen. Furthermore, cell numbers increased dose-dependently upon insulin treatment. DISCUSSION: This study demonstrated that human astrocytes are insulin-responsive at the molecular level. We identified glycogen synthesis and cell proliferation as biological responses of insulin signaling in these brain cells. Hence, this cell type may contribute to the effects of insulin in the human brain.

  14. Health related quality of life among adolescents with sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abdel-Monhem Amr

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Increased life expectancy due to recent medical advances has increased the need to understand more fully the quality of life (QoL in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD and factors predicting disease adaptation .The objectives of this study were to assess the impairment of health related quality of life (HRQoL domains in a sample of Saudi Arabian adolescents with SCD. METHODS: A non-probability sample composed of Saudi adolescents with SCD (n=180 aged 14-18 years and comparable age and gender matched healthy controls (n=202. Socio-demographics and disease related data were obtained through personal interview with parents/legal guardians and reviewing patients medical records. Self-administered "Short Form-36" questionnaire was used to assess HRQoL of the included groups. RESULTS: HRQoL showed significant deterioration in adolescents with SCD especially in role physical, general health, and bodily pain domains irrespective of the gender, while female adolescents with SCD demonstrated significant deterioration in emotional wellbeing. Those with SCD-complications showed worse scores along the physical, general health, and emotional wellbeing domains. HRQol scores were negatively associated with increasing age, female gender, rural residence, low family income, presence of disease-related complications and frequent hospital admissions as revealed by multivariate regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Saudi adolescents with SCD experience deterioration along all domains of HRQoL especially the physical. Disease related complications and socio-demographic correlates are significant determinants to worse HRQoL among the included adolescents with SCD.

  15. Adult Sickle Cell Quality-of-Life Measurement Information System (ASCQ-Me)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadwell, Marsha J.; Hassell, Kathryn; Levine, Roger; Keller, San

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research-derived evidence about the impact of sickle cell disease (SCD) on the lives of affected adults is lacking. We conducted formative research to provide the basis for a comprehensive description of how SCD affects the lives of adults, with the goal of developing a SCD-specific quality-of-life measurement system. Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature review of patient-reported outcomes, followed by a series of focus groups and structured individual interviews with adults with SCD (n = 122) and their health care providers (n = 15). Results We reviewed 473 abstracts and included 86 articles in the final review. The literature revealed broad categories of the impact of SCD and its treatment on the lives of adults—pain; emotional distress; social-role functioning; overall quality-of-life; and quality of care. We classified 1213 incidents from the focus groups and interviews into a taxonomy (16 domains) that met the criterion for saturation and was demonstrated to be reliable for the classification of incidents. The final conceptual model was built upon the taxonomy. Discussion Our conceptual model was similar to previous models with the effects of pain predominating, interwoven with emotional distress, quality of care, and stigmatization. We found a broad range of emotions reflected, including positive effects of SCD. Items for the quality-of-life measure were derived from the taxonomy and the conceptual model may be of use in generating hypotheses for clinical research and improving understanding for clinicians of the lived experience of adults with SCD. PMID:24300219

  16. Overview of Energy Storage Technologies for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao

    2006-01-01

    This presentations gives an overview of the energy storage technologies that are being used in space applications. Energy storage systems have been used in 99% of the robotic and human space missions launched since 1960. Energy storage is used in space missions to provide primary electrical power to launch vehicles, crew exploration vehicles, planetary probes, and astronaut equipment; store electrical energy in solar powered orbital and surface missions and provide electrical energy during eclipse periods; and, to meet peak power demands in nuclear powered rovers, landers, and planetary orbiters. The power source service life (discharge hours) dictates the choice of energy storage technology (capacitors, primary batteries, rechargeable batteries, fuel cells, regenerative fuel cells, flywheels). NASA is planning a number of robotic and human space exploration missions for the exploration of space. These missions will require energy storage devices with mass and volume efficiency, long life capability, an the ability to operate safely in extreme environments. Advanced energy storage technologies continue to be developed to meet future space mission needs.

  17. Roles of the Picornaviral 3C Proteinase in the Viral Life Cycle and Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Picornaviridae family comprises a large group of non-enveloped viruses that have a major impact on human and veterinary health. The viral genome contains one open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein that can be processed by viral proteinases. The crucial 3C proteinases (3Cpros of picornaviruses share similar spatial structures and it is becoming apparent that 3Cpro plays a significant role in the viral life cycle and virus host interaction. Importantly, the proteinase and RNA-binding activity of 3Cpro are involved in viral polyprotein processing and the initiation of viral RNA synthesis. In addition, 3Cpro can induce the cleavage of certain cellular factors required for transcription, translation and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to modulate cell physiology for viral replication. Due to interactions between 3Cpro and these essential factors, 3Cpro is also involved in viral pathogenesis to support efficient infection. Furthermore, based on the structural conservation, the development of irreversible inhibitors and discovery of non-covalent inhibitors for 3Cpro are ongoing and a better understanding of the roles played by 3Cpro may provide insights into the development of potential antiviral treatments. In this review, the current knowledge regarding the structural features, multiple functions in the viral life cycle, pathogen host interaction, and development of antiviral compounds for 3Cpro is summarized.

  18. Hydrogen Storage Experiments for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course--Clean Energy: Hydrogen/Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Alla; Andrews, Lisa; Khot, Ameya; Rubin, Lea; Young, Jun; Allston, Thomas D.; Takacs, Gerald A.

    2015-01-01

    Global interest in both renewable energies and reduction in emission levels has placed increasing attention on hydrogen-based fuel cells that avoid harm to the environment by releasing only water as a byproduct. Therefore, there is a critical need for education and workforce development in clean energy technologies. A new undergraduate laboratory…

  19. An improved red blood cell additive solution maintains 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and adenosine triphosphate levels by an enhancing effect on phosphofructokinase activity during cold storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Burger; H. Korsten; D. de Korte; E. Rombout; R. van Bruggen; A.J. Verhoeven

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current additive solutions (ASs) for red blood cells (RBCs) do not maintain constant 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels during cold storage We have previously shown that with a new AS called phosphate-adenine-glucose-guanosine-gluconate-mannitol (PAGGGM)

  20. No early effect of storage time of transfused red blood cells on fatigue and plasma cytokines in patients with anaemia from non-acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, Tommie; Dziegiel, Morten H; Kofoed, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    Background: Fatigue in anaemia is empirically reduced by blood transfusion. Long storage time of red cells may be associated with immunomodulatory effects, and blood stored for a long time may cause tissue hypoxia upon transfusion. Patients and Methods: 22 patients admitted with haemoglobin

  1. End-of-life decision making in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, M Encarlita; Balmaceda, Gayle Z; Granada, Myra A; Fowler, Clara S; Payne, Judith K

    2013-12-01

    Discussions about futile treatment options for patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can be difficult for healthcare providers. These discussions often are not initiated before transplantation, but only after a patient's healthcare status deteriorates. Nurses are in a key position to provide support and advocate for patients and their families in end-of-life (EOL) decisions. A need exists for increased autonomy for nurses as patient advocates. Implementation of multidisciplinary nursing education, both in schools and in the workplace, will support these new responsibilities. This article will provide a review of the literature related to the nurse role in the transition from active treatment (aggressive care) to EOL care in the HCT population.

  2. Evaluation of Health Related Quality of Life in Patient with Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma Receiving Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry CB; Rana DS; Batra V

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate impact of chemotherapy on Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) in patients of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) by analysis of two different treatments named Concurrent Chemo - Radiation (CTRT) and Neo-Adjuvant Chemotherapy (NACT). Study Design and Instrument: Prospective longitudinal study by evaluation HRQOL by general quality of life (QLQC30) and head & neck specific (QLQ-H&N35) questionnaires of the European Organization for Res...

  3. Dynamic tracking and mobility analysis of single GLUT4 storage vesicle in live 3T3-L1 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hong LI; Li BAI; Dong Dong LI; Sheng XIA; Tao XU

    2004-01-01

    Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is responsible for insulin-stimulated glucose transporting into the insulin-sensitive fat and muscle cells. The dynamics of GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs) remains to be explored and it is unclear how GSVs are arranged based on their mobility. We examined this issue in 3T3-L1 cells via investigating the three-dimensional mobility of single GSV labeled with EGFP-fused GLUT4. A thin layer of cytosol right adjacent to the plasma membrane was illuminated and successively imaged at 5 Hz under a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope with a penetration depth of 136 nm. Employing single particle tracking, the three-dimensional subpixel displacement of single GSV was tracked at a spatial precision of 22 nm. Both the mean square displacement and the diffusion coefficient were calculated for each vesicle. Tracking results revealed that vesicles moved as if restricted within a cage that has a mean radius of 160 nm, suggesting the presence of some intracellular tethering matrix. By constructing the histogram of the diffusion coefficients of GSVs, we observed a smooth distribution instead of the existence of distinct groups. The result indicates that GSVs are dynamically retained in a continuous and wide range of mobility rather than into separate classes.

  4. Further studies on the effect of radiation during the storage of frozen 8-cell mouse embryos at -196 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frozen 8-cell mouse embryos were treated with radiation doses of 0, 10, 50, 100 or 200 cGy γ-rays at a dose rate of approx. 5 cGy/day. After thawing the embryos were scored for normal morphological appearance and for development to morulae and blastocysts after 24 h in culture. Embryos from each treatment were then separately transferred to the uteri of pseudopregnant foster mothers which were killed at Day 14 of pregnancy. There was no effect of radiation on morphological appearance, development to morulae and blastocysts, implantation rate, or on the ratio of live fetuses to the number of transferred embryos. As there appeared to be no detrimental effect of up to 200 cGy on frozen 8-cell mouse embryos and, as this is the equivalent of approx. 2000 years of background radiation, it is concluded that normal levels of background radiation would not be a hazard to the long-term storage of mammalian embryos. (author)

  5. Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Orilall, M. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The development of energy conversion and storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. However, there are numerous issues that prevent the widespread use of these technologies including cost, performance and durability. These limitations can be directly related to the materials used. In particular, the design and fabrication of nanostructured hybrid materials is expected to provide breakthroughs for the advancement of these technologies. This tutorial review will highlight block copolymers as an emerging and powerful yet affordable tool to structure-direct such nanomaterials with precise control over structural dimensions, composition and spatial arrangement of materials in composites. After providing an introduction to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various underlying fundamental chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic formation principles enabling general and relatively inexpensive wet-polymer chemistry methodologies for the efficient creation of multiscale functional materials. Examples include nanostructured ceramics, ceramic-carbon composites, ceramic-carbon-metal composites and metals with morphologies ranging from hexagonally arranged cylinders to three-dimensional bi-continuous cubic networks. The review ends with an outlook towards the synthesis of multicomponent and hierarchical multifunctional hybrid materials with different nano-architectures from self-assembly of higher order blocked macromolecules which may ultimately pave the way for the further development of energy conversion and storage devices. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Capacity Optimal Modeling of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems Considering Battery Life%计及电池使用寿命的混合储能系统容量优化模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓娟; 程成; 籍天明; 马会萌

    2013-01-01

    为光伏电站配置适当容量的储能系统,可有效提高光伏发电的电能质量和经济效益。以电池-超级电容器混合储能系统为基础,采用雨流计算法计算电池放电深度,根据等效循环寿命曲线建立电池的使用寿命量化模型;通过分析储能系统的成本结构,建立以储能系统年均最小成本为目标函数,同时考虑波动率、置信度等约束条件的容量优化配置模型,利用粒子群算法对模型进行寻优。仿真实例验证了所提方法的有效性,采用混合储能系统替代单类型电池储能系统可以大幅降低运行成本,提高光储系统的经济性。%Incorporating energy storage system properly into the photovoltaic plant can improve the power quality and economic benefits effectively. Taking battery-supercapacitor hybrid energy storage system as an example, the paper calculated the depth of battery using the rain-flow-counting method, and established battery life quantitative model according to the equivalent cycle life curve. By analyzing the cost structure of the energy storage system, the paper established capacity allocation model using the minimum annual cost as objective, fluctuation rate and confidence as constraints. Simulation calculation used the particle swarm algorithm, and the results show the validity of the method. The simulation results also show that hybrid energy storage system can greatly reduce the operating costs and improve the economy of PV-energy storage system compared with a single type of battery energy storage system.

  7. Effect of heart failure on catecholamine granule morphology and storage in chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Sushil K; Zheng, Hong; Mahata, Sumana; Liu, Xuefei; Patel, Kaushik P

    2016-09-01

    One of the key mechanisms involved in sympathoexcitation in chronic heart failure (HF) is the activation of the adrenal glands. Impact of the elevated catecholamines on the hemodynamic parameters has been previously demonstrated. However, studies linking the structural effects of such overactivation with secretory performance and cell metabolism in the adrenomedullary chromaffin cells in vivo have not been previously reported. In this study, HF was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by ligation of the left coronary artery. Five weeks after surgery, cardiac function was assessed by ventricular hemodynamics. HF rats showed increased adrenal weight and adrenal catecholamine levels (norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine) compared with sham-operated rats. Rats with HF demonstrated increased small synaptic and dense core vesicle in splanchnic-adrenal synapses indicating trans-synaptic activation of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes, increased endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi lumen width to meet the demand of increased catecholamine synthesis and release, and more mitochondria with dilated cristae and glycogen to accommodate for the increased energy demand for the increased biogenesis and exocytosis of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. These findings suggest that increased trans-synaptic activation of the chromaffin cells within the adrenal medulla may lead to increased catecholamines in the circulation which in turn contributes to the enhanced neurohumoral drive, providing a unique mechanistic insight for enhanced catecholamine levels in plasma commonly observed in chronic HF condition. PMID:27402067

  8. Regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a low earth orbit space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.; Garow, J.; Michaels, K. B.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to define characteristics of a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) for low earth orbit Space Station missions. The RFCS's were defined and characterized based on both an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an alkaline electrolyte water electrolyzer and an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an acid solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyzer. The study defined the operating characteristics of the systems including system weight, volume, and efficiency. A maintenance philosophy was defined and the implications of system reliability requirements and modularization were determined. Finally, an Engineering Model System was defined and a program to develop and demonstrate the EMS and pacing technology items that should be developed in parallel with the EMS were identified. The specific weight of an optimized RFCS operating at 140 F was defined as a function of system efficiency for a range of module sizes. An EMS operating at a nominal temperature of 180 F and capable of delivery of 10 kW at an overall efficiency of 55.4 percent is described. A program to develop the EMS is described including a technology development effort for pacing technology items.

  9. Survival of red blood cells after transfusion: a comparison between red cells concentrates of different storage periods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luten, M.; Roerdinkholder-Stoelwinder, B.; Schaap, N.P.M.; Grip, W.J. de; Bos, H.J.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of fresh red blood cells (RBCs) is recommended for critically ill patients and patients undergoing surgery, although there is no conclusive evidence that this is beneficial. In this follow-up study, the short-term and the long-term recovery of irradiated, leukoreduced RBCs transf

  10. An optimization study on unprogrammed cryopreservation of human CD34+ bone marrow cells and their subsequent storage in an -80 degrees C mechanical freezer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, M Z; Ratajczak, J; Kregenow, D A; Marlicz, W; Machalinski, B; Simon, M; Luger, S; Gewirtz, A M

    1997-01-01

    Among the factors which enable successful bone marrow transplantation, the ability to store and subsequently recover sufficient viable marrow cells to reestablish hematopoiesis is crucial. In most centers, marrow is typically prepared for long term storage by programmed, controlled rate freezing with subsequent placement into the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen. Though clearly effective, this procedure is time consuming and equipment intensive. Since cost containment is an important issue for all medical procedures, we evaluated the utility of a faster and less costly method to accomplish the same purpose. We found that when CD34+ bone marrow cells are immediately frozen and stored at -80 degrees C, the number and quality of stem/progenitor cells recovered after thawing was comparable to those reported recovered after conventional processing. Herein we report optimized conditions for cryopreserving and storing CD34+ bone marrow cells at -80 degrees C and for subsequent thawing of the stored product. With these methods post-thaw recovery of CFU-Mix, for example, equaled or exceeded 80% of predicted numbers, even after six months of storage. Further, though progenitor cell recovery does not necessarily correlate with speed of engraftment, these results nonetheless suggest that storage of human CD34+ cells at -80 degrees C in a mechanical freezer is a convenient, inexpensive, and reliable method for storing marrow for transplantation. PMID:9869847

  11. SPENVIS Implementation of End-of-Life Solar Cell Calculations Using the Displacement Damage Dose Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Robert; Summers, Geoffrey P.; Warmer. Keffreu J/; Messenger, Scott; Lorentzen, Justin R.; Morton, Thomas; Taylor, Stephen J.; Evans, Hugh; Heynderickx, Daniel; Lei, Fan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a method for using the SPENVIS on-line computational suite to implement the displacement damage dose (D(sub d)) methodology for calculating end-of-life (EOL) solar cell performance for a specific space mission. This paper builds on our previous work that has validated the D(sub d) methodology against both measured space data [1,2] and calculations performed using the equivalent fluence methodology developed by NASA JPL [3]. For several years, the space solar community has considered general implementation of the D(sub d) method, but no computer program exists to enable this implementation. In a collaborative effort, NRL, NASA and OAI have produced the Solar Array Verification and Analysis Tool (SAVANT) under NASA funding, but this program has not progressed beyond the beta-stage [4]. The SPENVIS suite with the Multi Layered Shielding Simulation Software (MULASSIS) contains all of the necessary components to implement the Dd methodology in a format complementary to that of SAVANT [5]. NRL is currently working with ESA and BIRA to include the Dd method of solar cell EOL calculations as an integral part of SPENVIS. This paper describes how this can be accomplished.

  12. Investigation of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Rating for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Khaligh, A.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    Combining high energy density batteries and high power density ultracapacitors in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV) results in a high efficient, high performance, low size, and light system. Often the batteries are rated with respect to their energy requirement in order to reduce...... their volume and mass. This does not prevent deep discharges of the batteries, which is critical to their lifetime. In this paper, the ratings of the batteries and ultracapacitors in a FCHEV are investigated. Comparison of system volume, mass, efficiency, and battery lifetime due to the rating of the energy...

  13. Multifunctional nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbon aerogels for superior lithium storage and cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Xuzhen; Wan, Wubo; Li, Lingli; Dong, Yanfeng; Zhao, Zongbin; Qiu, Jieshan

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbon aerogels (N-GNRAs) are fabricated through the self-assembly of graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) combined with a thermal annealing process. Amino-groups are grafted to the surface of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) by an epoxy ring-opening reaction. High nitrogen doping level (7.6 atm% as confirmed by elemental analysis) is achieved during thermal treatment resulting from functionalization and the rich edge structures of GNRs. The three dimensional (3D) N-GNRAs feature a hierarchical porous structure. The quasi-one dimensional (1D) GNRs act as the building blocks for the construction of fishnet-like GNR sheets, which further create 3D frameworks with micrometer-scale pores. The edge effect of GNRs combined with nitrogen doping and porosity give rise to good electrical conductivity, superhydrophilic, highly compressible and low density GNRAs. As a result, a high capacity of 910 mA h g-1 is achieved at a current density of 0.5 A g-1 when they are tested as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Further cell culture experiments with the GNRAs as human medulloblastoma DAOY cell scaffolds demonstrate their good biocompatibility, inferring potential applications in the biomedical field.Nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbon aerogels (N-GNRAs) are fabricated through the self-assembly of graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) combined with a thermal annealing process. Amino-groups are grafted to the surface of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) by an epoxy ring-opening reaction. High nitrogen doping level (7.6 atm% as confirmed by elemental analysis) is achieved during thermal treatment resulting from functionalization and the rich edge structures of GNRs. The three dimensional (3D) N-GNRAs feature a hierarchical porous structure. The quasi-one dimensional (1D) GNRs act as the building blocks for the construction of fishnet-like GNR sheets, which further create 3D frameworks with micrometer-scale pores. The edge effect of GNRs combined with nitrogen

  14. Reversible solid oxide fuel cells as energy conversion and storage devices

    OpenAIRE

    Gamble, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    A reversible solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC) system could buffer intermittent electrical generation, e.g. wind, wave power by storing electrical energy as hydrogen and heat. RSOFC were fabricated by thermoplastic extrusion of (La₀.₈Sr₀.₂)₀.₉₅MnO[subscript(3−δ)] (LSM) ceramic support tubes, which were microstructurally stable with 55% porosity at 1350°C. A composite oxygen electrode of LSM-YSZ was applied, providing a homogeneous substrate for a 20 μm - 30 μm thick YSZ electrolyte. A dip-coated ...

  15. Estimation of the mechanical consequences due to the saturation of a radwaste storage cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbe, M.F. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2001-07-01

    Man y projects of underground repositories for high level rad wastes involve cells containing waste canisters surrounded by an engineered clay barrier. The cell is closed by a clay plug isolating the canisters from the gallery. By hydrating progressively, the barrier and the plug swell, seal the gaps and provide a good global mechanical stability of the waste - clay barrier - host rock system. From a physical point of view, the evolution of the clay behaviour is governed by thermal, hydraulic and mechanical processes, these three processes being coupled in the following way: the waste induces a thermal field; interstitial water infiltrates the clay material; temperature modifies the fluid density and viscosity and vaporizes the liquid water; steam diffuses towards the cold area and condensates; the capillary pressure induces mechanical stresses which in turn modify the porosity accessible to the interstitial water. In this paper, we take into consideration the hydro-mechanical aspect of the phenomenon. The hydraulic model is based on a mixed hybrid finite element formulation, on the Darcy's law and the resolution of the Richard's equation. This model only takes into account the water flows inside the ground: air flows, thermal exchanges and water vaporization are assumed to be negligible. (author)

  16. Estimation of the mechanical consequences due to the saturation of a radwaste storage cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man y projects of underground repositories for high level rad wastes involve cells containing waste canisters surrounded by an engineered clay barrier. The cell is closed by a clay plug isolating the canisters from the gallery. By hydrating progressively, the barrier and the plug swell, seal the gaps and provide a good global mechanical stability of the waste - clay barrier - host rock system. From a physical point of view, the evolution of the clay behaviour is governed by thermal, hydraulic and mechanical processes, these three processes being coupled in the following way: the waste induces a thermal field; interstitial water infiltrates the clay material; temperature modifies the fluid density and viscosity and vaporizes the liquid water; steam diffuses towards the cold area and condensates; the capillary pressure induces mechanical stresses which in turn modify the porosity accessible to the interstitial water. In this paper, we take into consideration the hydro-mechanical aspect of the phenomenon. The hydraulic model is based on a mixed hybrid finite element formulation, on the Darcy's law and the resolution of the Richard's equation. This model only takes into account the water flows inside the ground: air flows, thermal exchanges and water vaporization are assumed to be negligible. (author)

  17. Geometrically pinned magnetic domain wall for multi-bit per cell storage memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, M. Al; Sbiaa, R.

    2016-06-01

    Spintronic devices currently rely on magnetic switching or controlled motion of domain walls (DWs) by an external magnetic field or a spin-polarized current. Controlling the position of DW is essential for defining the state/information in a magnetic memory. During the process of nanowire fabrication, creating an off-set of two parts of the device could help to pin DW at a precise position. Micromagnetic simulation conducted on in-plane magnetic anisotropy materials shows the effectiveness of the proposed design for pinning DW at the nanoconstriction region. The critical current for moving DW from one state to the other is strongly dependent on nanoconstricted region (width and length) and the magnetic properties of the material. The DW speed which is essential for fast writing of the data could reach values in the range of hundreds m/s. Furthermore, evidence of multi-bit per cell memory is demonstrated via a magnetic nanowire with more than one constriction.

  18. A comparative study on life cycle analysis of molten carbon fuel cells and diesel engines for marine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaner, Selim; Zhou, Peilin

    The study performed a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) plant for marine applications. The results are compared to a benchmark conventional diesel engine (DE) which operates as an auxiliary power generating unit. The LCA includes manufacturing of MCFC and DE, fuel supply, operation and decommissioning stages of the system's life cycle. As a new technology in its very early stages of commercialisation, some detailed data for the FC systems are not available. In order to overcome this problem, a series of scenario analysis has also been performed to evaluate the effect of various factors on the overall impact, such as change in power load factors and effect of recycling credit at the end of life cycle. Environmental benefits from fuel cell operation are maximised with the use of hydrogen as an input fuel. For the manufacturing stage of the life cycle, input material and process energy required for fuel cell stack assemblies and balance-of-plants (BOP) represent a bigger impact than that of conventional benchmark mainly due to special materials used in the stack and the weights of the BOP components. Additionally, recovering valuable materials through re-use or re-cycle will reduce the overall environmental burden of the system over its life cycle.

  19. Quality of life before autologous stem cells transplantation as prognostic factor in patients with malignant lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Shevchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently high-doses chemotherapy (HD-PCT + autologous hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (auto-HSCT is the treatment ofchoice in patients with recurrent and progressive lymphomas. Most of quality of life (QoL studies in lymphomas patients received HSCT limited on parameters dynamics assessment in the early and late post-transplant period. Aim of this study was to evaluate the QoL parameters and their prognostic significance in lymphoma patients before transplantation. 124 patients with lymphomas (non-Hodgkin lymphomas – 45 patients, Hodgkin's lymphoma – 79 patients who received HD-PCT + auto-HSCT were included in the study: men – 42.7 % (n = 53, women – 57.3 % (n = 71, median age – 34 years (19–65 years. Patients’ heterogeneity before transplantation regarding quality of life has been revealed. Almost 1/3 of patients showed a significant reduction in the integral index of QoL. Insignificant differences between patients with chemosensitivity and chemoresistant lymphomas regarding QoL before HD-PCT + auto-HSCT were shown. We also analyzed the outcomes of studied patients received HD-PCT + auto-HSCT. With a median follow-up of 18 months, overall survival after transplantation was 72 % (95 % CI 56–84; event-free survival – 64 % (95 % CI 53,3–73,2.Overall and event-free survivals were significantly higher in patients with chemosensitive lymphoma compared with chemoresistance tumor. Differences in the survival rates between patients with no or negligible decrease of QoL integral index and with significant reduction of it also were found. Revealed differences in overall and event-free survival between the groups allowed the first group considered as patients with a favorable prognosis, and the second group – as patients with poor prognosis regarding the transplantation outcome.

  20. Quality of life before autologous stem cells transplantation as prognostic factor in patients with malignant lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Shevchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently high-doses chemotherapy (HD-PCT + autologous hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (auto-HSCT is the treatment ofchoice in patients with recurrent and progressive lymphomas. Most of quality of life (QoL studies in lymphomas patients received HSCT limited on parameters dynamics assessment in the early and late post-transplant period. Aim of this study was to evaluate the QoL parameters and their prognostic significance in lymphoma patients before transplantation. 124 patients with lymphomas (non-Hodgkin lymphomas – 45 patients, Hodgkin's lymphoma – 79 patients who received HD-PCT + auto-HSCT were included in the study: men – 42.7 % (n = 53, women – 57.3 % (n = 71, median age – 34 years (19–65 years. Patients’ heterogeneity before transplantation regarding quality of life has been revealed. Almost 1/3 of patients showed a significant reduction in the integral index of QoL. Insignificant differences between patients with chemosensitivity and chemoresistant lymphomas regarding QoL before HD-PCT + auto-HSCT were shown. We also analyzed the outcomes of studied patients received HD-PCT + auto-HSCT. With a median follow-up of 18 months, overall survival after transplantation was 72 % (95 % CI 56–84; event-free survival – 64 % (95 % CI 53,3–73,2.Overall and event-free survivals were significantly higher in patients with chemosensitive lymphoma compared with chemoresistance tumor. Differences in the survival rates between patients with no or negligible decrease of QoL integral index and with significant reduction of it also were found. Revealed differences in overall and event-free survival between the groups allowed the first group considered as patients with a favorable prognosis, and the second group – as patients with poor prognosis regarding the transplantation outcome.

  1. Study of the stability of packaging and storage conditions of human mesenchymal stem cell for intra-arterial clinical application in patient with critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez-Martín, Patricia; Hmadcha, Abdelkrim; Soria, Bernat; Calpena-Campmany, Ana C; Clares-Naveros, Beatriz

    2014-04-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In this study, we developed and characterized an intra-arterial cell suspension containing human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) for the treatment of CLI. Equally, the stability of cells was studied in order to evaluate the optimal conditions of storage that guarantee the viability from cell processing to the administration phase. Effects of various factors, including excipients, storage temperature and time were evaluated to analyze the survival of hMSCs in the finished medicinal product. The viability of hMSCs in different packaging media was studied for 60 h at 4 °C. The best medium to maintain hMSCs viability was then selected to test storage conditions (4, 8, 25 and 37 °C; 60 h). The results showed that at 4 °C the viability was maintained above 80% for 48 h, at 8 °C decreased slightly, whereas at room temperature and 37 °C decreased drastically. Its biocompatibility was assessed by cell morphology and cell viability assays. During stability study, the stored cells did not show any change in their phenotypic or genotypic characteristics and physicochemical properties remained constant, the ability to differentiate into adipocytes and osteocytes and sterility requirements were also unaltered. Finally, our paper proposes a packing media composed of albumin 20%, glucose 5% and Ringer's lactate at a concentration of 1×10(6) cells/mL, which must be stored at 4 °C as the most suitable to maintain cell viability (>80%) and without altering their characteristics for more than 48 h.

  2. Environmental analysis of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell on the subject of life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy is the fuel of growth and an essential requirement for the socioeconomic development. However, the current production model is based on fossil fuels, considered as threat to man and nature. As for, the relating to the human activities and their effects on the environment, they are handled by the implementation of a more rigid model of environmental control and the mobilization of the society in favor of technologies with less energy impact. In view of this scenario, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell - PEMFC has been recognized as a key for the vital need of a clean and efficient energy. Considering the conventional power generation system, their advantages during usage configure its application as an ideal option for several utilities, especially in the mobile sector. Even though, the focus on several environmental evaluations in energy systems is referred back to the initial stage of it use, the employment relating to production of the system and to final destination should be considered, since these also present impacts. In the case of PEMFC, their previous and subsequent phases of use are issues related to the platinum catalysts, which indicates an environmental importance that cannot be overlooked. In this sense, the Life Cycle Assessment has been used to understand and to question the risks and opportunities that are associated to certain product, starting from a systemic concept of their relationships with the environment. It is precisely in this context that the present research intends to present its major contribution, starting from an exploratory study towards the its objectives to provide an environmental analysis of such technology linked to post stage of powder-use of the membrane electrode assembly - MEA, concerning the platinum catalysts, on the subject of Life Cycle Assessment - LCA. To attain such aim, the relationships between energy, environment and development are presented and discussed, as well as, the Fuel Cell technology and

  3. AB5-type Hydrogen Storage Alloy Modified with Ti/Zr Used as Anodic Materials in Borohydride Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianbang WANG; Chunan MA; Xinbiao MAO; Yuanming SUN; Seijiro SUDA

    2005-01-01

    Fuel cell using borohydride as the fuel has received much attention. AB5-type hydrogen storage alloy used as the anodic material instead of noble metals has been investigated. In order to restrain the generation of hydrogen and enhance the utilization of borohydride, Ti/Zr metal powders has been added into the parent LmNi4.78Mn0.22 (where Lm is La-richened mischmetal) alloy (LNM) by ball milling and heat treatment methods. It is found that the addition of Ti/Zr metal powders lowers the electrochemical catalytic activity of the electrodes, at the same time, restrains the generation of hydrogen and enhances the utilization of the fuel. All the results show that the hydrogen generation rate or the utilization of the fuel is directly relative to the electrochemical catalytic activity or the discharge capability of the electrodes. The utilization of the fuel increases with discharge current density. It is very important to find a balance between the discharge capability and the utilization of the fuel.

  4. Biosensors and Biofuel Cells based on Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Integrated Energy Sensing, Generation, and Storage (SGS) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Archana; Prasad, Abhishek; Khin Yap, Yoke

    2010-03-01

    Diabetes is a growing health issue in the nation. Thus in-situ glucose sensors that can monitor the glucose level in our body are in high demand. Furthermore, it will be exciting if the excessive blood sugar can be converted into usable energy, and be stored in miniature batteries for applications. This will be the basis for an integrated energy sensing, generation, and storage (SGS) system in the future. Here we report the use of functionalized carbon nanotubes arrays as the glucose sensors as well as fuel cells that can convert glucose into energy. In principle, these devices can be integrated to detect excessive blood glucose and then convert the glucose into energy. They are also inline with our efforts on miniature 3D microbatteries using CNTs [1]. All these devices will be the basis for future SGS systems. Details of these results will be discussed in the meeting. [1] Wang et al., in 206^th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, October 3-8, Honolulu, Hawaii (2004), Symposium Q1, abstract 1492. Y. K. Yap acknowledges supports from DARPA (DAAD17-03-C-0115), USDA (2007-35603-17740), and the Multi-Scale Technologies Institute (MuSTI) at MTU.

  5. Formate: an Energy Storage and Transport Bridge between Carbon Dioxide and a Formate Fuel Cell in a Single Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Tracy; Purohit, Krutarth; Nguyen, Christopher; Biggs, Brenna; Mayoral, Salvador; Haan, John L

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the first device to our knowledge that uses a solar panel to power the electrochemical reduction of dissolved carbon dioxide (carbonate) into formate that is then used in the same device to operate a direct formate fuel cell (DFFC). The electrochemical reduction of carbonate is carried out on a Sn electrode in a reservoir that maintains a constant carbon balance between carbonate and formate. The electron-rich formate species is converted by the DFFC into electrical energy through electron release. The product of DFFC operation is the electron-deficient carbonate species that diffuses back to the reservoir bulk. It is possible to continuously charge the device using alternative energy (e.g., solar) to convert carbonate to formate for on-demand use in the DFFC; the intermittent nature of alternative energy makes this an attractive design. In this work, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept device that performs reduction of carbonate, storage of formate, and operation of a DFFC.

  6. Prospective study on quality of life before and after radical radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, JA; Aaronson, NK; de Jong, JMA; ten Velde, GPM; Muller, MJ; Lamers, RJ; Slotman, BJ; Wouters, EFM

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in respiratory symptoms and quality of life (QoL) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving radical radiotherapy (60 Gy). Additionally, the association between the level of symptom relief and objective tumor response,

  7. 不同出库方式对西兰花货架期品质的影响%Effect of different out-store tests on storage quality of broccolis during shelf-life period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林本芳; 鲁晓翔; 李江阔; 陈绍慧

    2012-01-01

    The effect of broccolis by different out-store tests after cold storage which temperature was -1 -1℃ was detected by analyzing physicochemical indexes and nutrition components. The research results showed that broccoli's Vc and chlorophyll content and firmness by low-temperature chain storage condition decreased less than that of progressively warming and control. Low-temperature chain storage increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and slowed down polyphenol oxidase (PPO)activity, also decreased MDA content. Mildew spot index of broccolis was zero by low-temperature chain storage after 10d of out-store,whereas the values of progressively warming and control were 88.89% and 100% after 8d of out-store. Therefore,the effect of broccolis' shelf-life by different out-store tests was significant,the storage effect of broccolis by low- temperature chain storage was better than that of by progressively warming and control.%通过对西兰花在货架期间理化指标及营养成分变化规律的分析,探讨不同出库方式对冷藏(-1~1℃)后西兰花的保鲜效果。实验结果表明:与缓慢升温出库和直接出库(对照组)相比,低温冷链出库处理对延缓西兰花黄化以及Vc含量、叶绿素含量和硬度的下降均有明显效果,提高了西兰花超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的活性,降低其多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性,延缓了丙二醛(MDA)含量的升高;该模式下货架期10d的西兰花仍没有生霉,而缓慢升温出库和直接出库的货架期8d时霉斑指数分别为88.89%和100%。这说明不同出库方式对西兰花的货架期有显著影响,低温冷链出库的西兰花保鲜效果更好。

  8. Growth and airborne transmission of cell-sorted life cycle stages of Pneumocystis carinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Anna; Halliez, Marie C M; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Chabé, Magali; Standaert-Vitse, Annie; Fréalle, Emilie; Gantois, Nausicaa; Pottier, Muriel; Pinon, Anthony; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Aliouat-Denis, Cécile-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Pneumocystis organisms are airborne opportunistic pathogens that cannot be continuously grown in culture. Consequently, the follow-up of Pneumocystis stage-to-stage differentiation, the sequence of their multiplication processes as well as formal identification of the transmitted form have remained elusive. The successful high-speed cell sorting of trophic and cystic forms is paving the way for the elucidation of the complex Pneumocystis life cycle. The growth of each sorted Pneumocystis stage population was followed up independently both in nude rats and in vitro. In addition, by setting up a novel nude rat model, we attempted to delineate which cystic and/or trophic forms can be naturally aerially transmitted from host to host. The results showed that in axenic culture, cystic forms can differentiate into trophic forms, whereas trophic forms are unable to evolve into cystic forms. In contrast, nude rats inoculated with pure trophic forms are able to produce cystic forms and vice versa. Transmission experiments indicated that 12 h of contact between seeder and recipient nude rats was sufficient for cystic forms to be aerially transmitted. In conclusion, trophic- to cystic-form transition is a key step in the proliferation of Pneumocystis microfungi because the cystic forms (but not the trophic forms) can be transmitted by aerial route from host to host. PMID:24223207

  9. Growth and airborne transmission of cell-sorted life cycle stages of Pneumocystis carinii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Martinez

    Full Text Available Pneumocystis organisms are airborne opportunistic pathogens that cannot be continuously grown in culture. Consequently, the follow-up of Pneumocystis stage-to-stage differentiation, the sequence of their multiplication processes as well as formal identification of the transmitted form have remained elusive. The successful high-speed cell sorting of trophic and cystic forms is paving the way for the elucidation of the complex Pneumocystis life cycle. The growth of each sorted Pneumocystis stage population was followed up independently both in nude rats and in vitro. In addition, by setting up a novel nude rat model, we attempted to delineate which cystic and/or trophic forms can be naturally aerially transmitted from host to host. The results showed that in axenic culture, cystic forms can differentiate into trophic forms, whereas trophic forms are unable to evolve into cystic forms. In contrast, nude rats inoculated with pure trophic forms are able to produce cystic forms and vice versa. Transmission experiments indicated that 12 h of contact between seeder and recipient nude rats was sufficient for cystic forms to be aerially transmitted. In conclusion, trophic- to cystic-form transition is a key step in the proliferation of Pneumocystis microfungi because the cystic forms (but not the trophic forms can be transmitted by aerial route from host to host.

  10. cPrG-HCl a potential H+/Cl- symporter prevents acidification of storage vacuoles in aleurone cells and inhibits GA-dependent hydrolysis of storage protein and phytate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yong-sic; Bethke, Paul C; Gubler, Frank; Jones, Russell L

    2003-07-01

    The putative H+/Cl- symporter cycloprodigiosin-HCl (cPrG-HCl) was used to investigate the role of vacuole acidification in cereal aleurone cell function. The protein storage vacuole (PSV) becomes acidified rapidly when aleurone cells are treated with gibberellic acid (GA) but not abscisic acid (ABA). We show that cPrG prevents PSV acidification in aleurone layers and prevents synthesis of secretory proteins such as alpha-amylase. Our data support the hypothesis that decreased hydrolase synthesis is a consequence of decreased hydrolysis of storage proteins in PSV. Support for this hypothesis comes from experiments showing that breakdown of barley 7S globulins and phytate is inhibited by cPrG in GA-treated aleurone layers. Decreased mobilization of PSV reserves is accompanied by reductions in the free amino acid pool size and in the amount of ions released from the aleurone layer. Vacuolation of the aleurone cell is a diagnostic feature of the response to GA, and vacuolation is also inhibited by cPrG. Evidence that cPrG acts as a potential H+/Cl- symporter in aleurone is presented. We show that cPrG does not inhibit the synthesis and secretion of alpha-amylase when Cl- ions are omitted from the incubation medium. Although cPrG blocks many GA-induced responses of aleurone layers, it does not affect early steps in GA signaling. The SLN1 protein, a negative regulator of GA signaling, is turned over in GA-treated cells in the presence and absence of cPrG. Similarly, synthesis of the transcriptional activator GAMYB is unaffected by the presence of cPrG in GA-treated cells.

  11. The Delta F508 mutation shortens the biochemical half-life of plasma membrane CFTR in polarized epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heda, G D; Tanwani, M; Marino, C R

    2001-01-01

    Although the biosynthetic arrest of the DeltaF508 mutant of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) can be partially reversed by physical and chemical means, recent evidence suggests that the functional stability of the mutant protein after reaching the cell surface is compromised. To understand the molecular basis for this observation, the current study directly measured the half-life of Delta F508 and wild-type CFTR at the cell surface of transfected LLC-PK(1) cells. Plasma membrane CFTR expression over time was characterized biochemically and functionally in these polarized epithelial cells. Surface biotinylation, streptavidin extraction, and quantitative immunoblot analysis determined the biochemical half-life of plasma membrane DeltaF508 CFTR to be approximately 4 h, whereas the plasma membrane half-life of wild-type CFTR exceeded 48 h. This difference in biochemical stability correlated with CFTR-mediated transport function. These findings indicate that the Delta F508 mutation decreases the biochemical stability of CFTR at the cell surface. We conclude that the Delta F508 mutation triggers more rapid internalization of CFTR and/or its preferential sorting to a pathway of rapid degradation. PMID:11121388

  12. Life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs

  13. Life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, L. (ed.)

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  14. A concept of an electricity storage system with 50 MWh storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity storage devices can be divided into indirect storage technology devices (involving electricity conversion into another form of energy, and direct storage (in an electric or magnetic fi eld. Electricity storage technologies include: pumped-storage power plants, BES Battery Energy Storage, CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage, Supercapacitors, FES Flywheel Energy Storage, SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, FC Fuel Cells reverse or operated in systems with electrolysers and hydrogen storage. These technologies have diff erent technical characteristics and economic parameters that determine their usability. This paper presents two concepts of an electricity storage tank with a storage capacity of at least 50 MWh, using the BES battery energy storage and CAES compressed air energy storage technologies.

  15. Kwaliteit van leven bij kinderen met sikkelcelziekte in de regio Amsterdam [Quality of life of children with sickle cell disease in the Amsterdam area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kater, A.P.; Heijboer, H.; Peters, M.; Vogels, T.; Prins, M.H.; Heymans, H.S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To determine the differences in quality of life between children with sickle cell disease and healthy immigrant children. Design. Descriptive, comparative. Method. The quality of life of children with sickle cell disease between 5 and 15 years old being treated in the Emma Children's Hosp

  16. Effect of Different Conditions of Growth and Storage on the Cell Counts of Two Lactic Acid Bacteria after Spray Drying in Orange Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Barbosa; Sandra Borges; Paula Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Consumers increasingly require innovative food products with health benefits. Thus, a dried orange juice incorporating probiotics could be a novel challenge. In this context, we investigated whether different sugars added to the culture media used for growth of two lactic acid bacteria contributed to their protection during spray drying in orange juice and subsequent storage under different conditions of temperature, light exposure and water activity. Cell viability during passage through sim...

  17. Quality of life after curative radiotherapy in Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate changes in quality of life (QOL) among medically inoperable Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with curative radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: The study sample was composed of 46 patients irradiated for Stage I NSCLC. Quality of life was assessed before, during, and after radiotherapy using the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-LC13. Changes in symptom and QOL scores over time were evaluated with a repeated measurement analysis of variance using the mixed effect modeling procedure, SAS Proc Mixed. Twenty-seven patients were treated only at the primary site, whereas for 19 patients, the regional lymph nodes were included in the target volume as well. Results: The median follow-up time of patients alive was 34 months. The median survival was 19.0 months. None of the locally treated patients developed regional recurrence. A significant, gradual increase over time was observed for dyspnea, fatigue, and appetite loss. A significant, gradual deterioration was observed also for role functioning. No significant changes were noted for the other symptoms or the functioning scales. Significantly higher levels of dysphagia, which persisted up to 12 months, were observed in those in which the regional lymph nodes were treated, as compared to the locally treated patients. Radiation-induced pulmonary changes assessed with chest radiograph were more pronounced in the group treated with locoregional radiotherapy. Conclusions: After curative radiotherapy for Stage I medically inoperable NSCLC, a gradual increase in dyspnea, fatigue, and appetite loss, together with a significant deterioration of role functioning, was observed, possibly because of pre-existing, slowly progressive chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and radiation-induced pulmonary changes. Taking into account the low incidence of regional recurrences after local irradiation, the higher incidence

  18. Better life and business based on the cell, brain, mind, sex laws: LIFEBIZ

    OpenAIRE

    SOUCEK, BRANKO

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Explosion of intelligence due to the human interventions leads to prosperity, but also to the strange attractions and dangerous chaos (like a big bang). The way out is presented: the LIFEBIZ theory and practice. It follows the natural life intelligence processes. Materials and Methods: The life intelligence processes, data and computer models, are described. They come from the experiments with the animals and human. Results: The map of life intelligence proc...

  19. Modeling and experimental performance of an intermediate temperature reversible solid oxide cell for high-efficiency, distributed-scale electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Christopher H.; Gao, Zhan; Barnett, Scott A.; Braun, Robert J.

    2015-06-01

    Electrical energy storage is expected to be a critical component of the future world energy system, performing load-leveling operations to enable increased penetration of renewable and distributed generation. Reversible solid oxide cells, operating sequentially between power-producing fuel cell mode and fuel-producing electrolysis mode, have the capability to provide highly efficient, scalable electricity storage. However, challenges ranging from cell performance and durability to system integration must be addressed before widespread adoption. One central challenge of the system design is establishing effective thermal management in the two distinct operating modes. This work leverages an operating strategy to use carbonaceous reactant species and operate at intermediate stack temperature (650 °C) to promote exothermic fuel-synthesis reactions that thermally self-sustain the electrolysis process. We present performance of a doped lanthanum-gallate (LSGM) electrolyte solid oxide cell that shows high efficiency in both operating modes at 650 °C. A physically based electrochemical model is calibrated to represent the cell performance and used to simulate roundtrip operation for conditions unique to these reversible systems. Design decisions related to system operation are evaluated using the cell model including current density, fuel and oxidant reactant compositions, and flow configuration. The analysis reveals tradeoffs between electrical efficiency, thermal management, energy density, and durability.

  20. Hydrogen storage properties of TiMn 1.5V 0.2-based alloys for application to fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Li, Yongtao; Zhang, Qingan; Sun, Liangliang; Shao, Zongping; Sun, Dalin

    To meet the requirements of fuel cell power system for electric bike, the influence of partial substitution of Zr and Cr on hydrogen storage performance of TiMn 1.5V 0.2-based alloys is investigated first, and a hydrogen storage tank is then built using the developed TiMn 1.5V 0.2-based alloy as metal hydride bed and its hydrogen supply ability is further evaluated. It is found that for TiMn 1.5V 0.2-based alloys, the Zr substitution for Ti effectively reduces the plateau pressure but increases the plateau slope, while the partial substitution of Mn by Cr decreases the absorption plateau pressure, leading to a smaller hysteresis factor. After the optimization of components, 6 kg of Ti 0.95Zr 0.05Mn 1.4Cr 0.1V 0.2 alloy powder with 5 wt.% aluminum foam is mixed uniformly to form a metal hydride bed inside the tank. The measurements show that the tank releases up to 82 g of hydrogen to produce a 200 W fuel cell output for 300 min and has a stable cyclic capacity, indicating that hydrogen storage system of TiMn 1.5V 0.2-based alloys for fuel cell power system of electric bike is applicable.

  1. Lived experiences of everyday life during curative radiotherapy in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer: A phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Petri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To explore and describe the essential meaning of lived experiences of the phenomenon: Everyday life during curative radiotherapy in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Background: Radiotherapy treatment in patients with NSCLC is associated with severe side effects such as fatigue, anxiety, and reduced quality of life. However, little is known about the patients’ experience of everyday life during the care trajectory. Design: This study takes a reflective lifeworld approach using an empirical application of phenomenological philosophy described by Dahlberg and colleagues. Method: A sample of three patients treated with curative radiotherapy for NSCLC was interviewed 3 weeks after the end of radiotherapy treatment about their experiences of everyday life during their treatment. Data were collected in 2014 and interviews and analysis were conducted within the descriptive phenomenological framework. Findings: The essential meaning structure of the phenomenon studied was described as “Hope for recovery serving as a compass in a changed everyday life,” which was a guide for the patients through the radiotherapy treatment to support their efforts in coping with side effects. The constituents of the structure were: Radiotherapy as a life priority, A struggle for acceptance of an altered everyday life, Interpersonal relationships for better or worse, and Meeting the health care system. Conclusion: The meaning of hope was essential during radiotherapy treatment and our results suggest that interpersonal relationships can be a prerequisite to the experience of hope. “Hope for recovery serving as a compass in a changed everyday life,” furthermore identifies the essentials in the patients’ assertive approach to believing in recovery and thereby enabling hope in a serious situation.

  2. Daughter cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from old mothers display a reduced life span

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae typically divides asymmetrically to give a large mother cell and a smaller daughter cell. As mother cells become old, they enlarge and produce daughter cells that are larger than daughters derived from young mother cells. We found that occasional daughter cells were indistinguishable in size from their mothers, giving rise to a symmetric division. The frequency of symmetric divisions became greater as mother cells aged and reached a maximum occurrence of 30%...

  3. Quality of life after palliative radiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in respiratory symptoms and quality of life (QoL) in patients with locally advanced and metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving thoracic radiotherapy. Additionally, the correlation between the level of symptom relief and objective tumor response was investigated. Methods and Materials: Sixty-five patients were entered in this prospective study. The EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-LC13 were used to investigate changes in QoL. Assessments were performed before radiotherapy and 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3 months after radiotherapy. Results: The QoL response rates were excellent for hemoptysis (79%); good for arm/shoulder pain (56%), chest wall pain (53%), and cough (49%); moderate for dyspnea (39%); and minimal for the general symptoms fatigue (22%) and appetite loss (11%). The QoL response rates for the five functioning scales of the QLQ-C30 varied from 35% for role functioning to 57% for emotional functioning. Global QoL improved in 37% of the cases. In general, there was a tendency for better palliation of symptoms and improvement of QoL among patients with an objective tumor response than among those without objective tumor response, which was statistically significant for dyspnea (p = 0.02) and social functioning (p = 0.04). Conclusions: This study confirms that conventional thoracic radiotherapy offers palliation of respiratory symptoms and improved QoL in a substantial proportion of patients with locally advanced and metastatic NSCLC. Tumor reduction is only one of the mechanisms by which palliation of symptoms and improvement of QoL is achieved

  4. Microstructural Influence on Deformation and Fatigue Life of Composites Using the Generalized Method of Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, S. M.; Murthy, P.; Bednarcyk, B. A.; Pineda, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    A fully coupled deformation and damage approach to modeling the response of composite materials and composite laminates is presented. It is based on the semi-­-analytical generalized method of cells (GMC) micromechanics model as well as its higher fidelity counterpart, HFGMC, both of which provide closed-form constitutive equations for composite materials as well as the micro scale stress and strain fields in the composite phases. The provided constitutive equations allow GMC and HFGMC to function within a higher scale structural analysis (e.g., finite element analysis or lamination theory) to represent a composite material point, while the availability of the micro fields allow the incorporation of lower scale sub­-models to represent local phenomena in the fiber and matrix. Further, GMC's formulation performs averaging when applying certain governing equations such that some degree of microscale field accuracy is surrendered in favor of extreme computational efficiency, rendering the method quite attractive as the centerpiece in a integrated computational material engineering (ICME) structural analysis; whereas HFGMC retains this microscale field accuracy, but at the price of significantly slower computational speed. Herein, the sensitivity of deformation and the fatigue life of graphite/epoxy PMC composites, with both ordered and disordered microstructures, has been investigated using this coupled deformation and damage micromechanics based approach. The local effects of fiber breakage and fatigue damage are included as sub-models that operate on the microscale for the individual composite phases. For analysis of laminates, classical lamination theory is employed as the global or structural scale model, while GMC/HFGMC is embedded to operate on the microscale to simulate the behavior of the composite material within each laminate layer. A key outcome of this study is the statistical influence of microstructure and micromechanics idealization (GMC or HFGMC) on

  5. Thermal analysis of the unloading cell of the Spanish centralized interim storage facility (CISF); Analisis termico de la celda de desarga del almacen temporal centralizado (ATC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Dominguez, J. R.; Perez Vara, R.; Huelamo Martinez, E.

    2016-08-01

    This article deals with the thermal analysis performed for the Untoading Cell of Spain Centralized Interim Storage Facility, CISF (ATC, in Spanish). The analyses are done using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, with the aim of obtaining the air flow required to remove the residual heat of the elements stored in the cell. Compliance with the admissible heat limits is checked with the results obtained in the various operation and accident modes. The calculation model is flexible enough to allow carrying out a number of sensitivity analyses with the different parameters involved in the process. (Author)

  6. Flow Synthesis of Silver Nanowires for Semitransparent Solar Cell Electrodes: A Life Cycle Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Søndergaard, Roar R.; Jørgensen, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    based on micron sized silver flakes using life cycle analysis and environmental impact analysis methods. The life cycle analysis of AgNWs confirms that they provide an avenue to low-impact semitransparent electrodes. We find that the benefit of AgNWs in terms of embodied energy is less pronounced than...

  7. Quality of life of survivors of testicular germ cell cancer : a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, J; Hoekstra, HJ; Sleijfer, DT; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM

    2004-01-01

    Goals of work. Testicular cancer (TC) affects young men in the prime of life. The excellent prognosis and an increasing incidence have led to a growing number of testicular cancer survivors (TCSs). The aim of this review was to summarize and discuss research findings on the quality of life (QOL) of

  8. Alkaline RFC Space Station prototype - 'Next step Space Station'. [Regenerative Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackler, I. M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell, a candidate technology for the Space Station's energy storage system, is described. An advanced development program was initiated to design, manufacture, and integrate a regenerative fuel cell Space Station prototype (RFC SSP). The RFC SSP incorporates long-life fuel cell technology, increased cell area for the fuel cells, and high voltage cell stacks for both units. The RFC SSP's potential for integration with the Space Station's life support and propulsion systems is discussed.

  9. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  10. Physicochemical attributes of Nigerian natural honey from honeybees (Apis mellifera adansonii) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and its shelf life in storage at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasasi, K A

    2012-11-01

    Nigerian honey competes globally in the world honey market. The physicochemical parameters of honey samples sourced from colonies of Apis mellifera adansonii were studied with the effect of storage-time over a period of two years. This was done by analyzing and evaluating eleven common physicochemical parameters including colour, moisture content, ash content, sugar content, acidity, pH value, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase activity, nitrogen content, insoluble matter and viscosity of honey samples with the effect of storage-time on the physicochemical parameters using Association of Official Analytical Chemists methods. Most of the honey samples showed proper maturity considering the moisture content (17.9 +/- 2.0%). The total acidity (21.5 +/- 5.6 meq kg(-1)) indicated absence of undesirable fermentation after harvest and extraction. The Mean +/- SD pH value (3.9 +/- 0.2) of the honey samples was within acceptable standards of Economic European Community (EEC) and Codex. The ash content (0.4 +/- 0.2%) (0.2-0.6%) was slightly higher than 0-0.50% of EEC and Codex standards. The fructose and glucose mean values were 38.9 +/- 0.8% and 28.3 +/- 2.4%, respectively. The Mean +/- S.D value of hydroxymethylfurfural content (8.5 +/- 2.7 mg kg(-1)) was low, while the Mean +/- SD value of diastase activity was high depicting freshness. The evaluated physicochemical parameters of two years old honey samples exhibited no significant deviation (p > 0.05) from that of the fresh samples. This study showed that natural honey if properly harvested, extracted hygienically, preserved and stored can maintain their stability relatively for at least two years at room temperature without undue interference. PMID:24163945

  11. Production of wood pellets. Influence of additives on production, quality, storage, combustion and life cycle analysis of wood pellets; Herstellung von Holzpellets. Einfluss von Presshilfsmitteln auf Produktion, Qualitaet, Lagerung, Verbrennung sowie Energie- und Oekobilanz von Holzpellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasler, P.; Nussbaumer, T. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland); Buerli, J. [Buerli Pellets, Willisau (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study concerning the influence of additives on the various factors related to the manufacture of wood pellets and their use. Results of tests concerning the production, storage and combustion of wood pellets with and without additives are presented. Process modifications are discussed. The report shows that for all investigated additives neither energy consumption nor pellet throughput was improved. The influence of additives on the mechanical strength of the pellets is discussed, as are the combustion characteristics of the pellets, which emit significantly lower levels of NO{sub x} and particulate matter than typical wood chips. The authors recommend the application of advanced control technology to ensure optimum combustion conditions. A life-cycle analysis is presented which shows that pellets are ecologically more favourable than wood chips. The ecological potential for improvement in the manufacturing process is discussed, including emission reductions and heat recovery.

  12. Impact of the European Union vehicle waste directive on end-of-life options for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, C.; Brandon, N. P.; van der Vorst, R.

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) may well be powering millions of cars by 2020. At its end-of-life, each car will have a redundant PEMFC stack. The EU vehicle waste directive sets tough recycling and re-use requirements for the cars of the future. The criteria for assessing the end-of-life options are based on technical, economic and environmental feasibility. The optimum strategy will require stack dismantling and separation of the major components. Steel and aluminium parts can enter the general recycling stream, but the membrane electrode assembly and bipolar plates will require a specialised recycling process. One option is to shred the MEA, dissolve and recover the membrane, burn off the carbon, and recycle the platinum and ruthenium catalysts using solvent extraction. The heaviest part of the PEMFC stack is the bipolar plates. If carbon fibre based, the bipolar plates could enter a fluidised bed recovery process where the constituent materials are recovered for re-use. The EU vehicle waste directive sets high recycling targets based on weight, and thus it is strongly advisable for the relatively heavy bipolar plates to be recycled, even though energy recovery by incineration may be a cheaper and possible more environmentally benign option. The EU vehicle directive will put pressure on the end-of-life options for the PEMFC stack to be weighted towards recycling and re-use; it will have a significant impact on the design and end-of-life options for the PEMFC. The overall effect of this pressure on the end-of-life treatment of the PEMFC and the consequential contribution to environmental life cycle impacts is discussed. It is concluded that a range of external pressures influence the selection of a suitable end-of-life management strategy, and while opportunities for re-use of components are limited, all components of the PEMFC stack could in principle be recycled.

  13. Quality of life among adolescents with sickle cell disease: Mediation of pain by internalizing symptoms and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Lauren C; Dampier Carlton; Patterson Chavis A; Barakat Lamia P

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed to clarify associations between pain, psychological adjustment, and family functioning with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a sample of adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD) utilizing teen- and parent-report. Methods Forty-two adolescents (between the ages of 12 and 18) with SCD and their primary caregivers completed paper-and-pencil measures of pain, teen's psychological adjustment, and HRQOL. In addition, primary caregivers completed a mea...

  14. 3种处理方式对冬枣货架期品质的影响%Effects of Different Treatments on Storage Quality of Dongzao Jujube Fruits during Shelf-life Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武杰; 张引成; 李梅玲; 钱金

    2012-01-01

    In order to prolong the shelf life of Dongzao jujube fruits,the effects of three treatments were studied.Through the determination of respiration intensity,firmness,total soluble solids,vitamin C,ethylene release amount and ethanol production,effects of hot-water treatment,1-MCP and nano-package on the storage quality of Dongzao jujube fruits were studied during the shelf-life period.The results showed that all treatments could keep the storage quality of Dongzao jujube in some degree during the shelf-life period.The nano-package revealed the best effect on maintaining firmness,vitamin C content and fruit color,increasing total soluble solid amount,and inhibiting respiration rate,ethylene release amount and ethanol production.Therefore,nano-package could extend the shelf life of Dongzao jujube fruits up to 15 days.%以冬枣为试材,研究3种处理方式对其货架期品质的影响。通过测定冬枣的呼吸强度、硬度、总可溶性固形物、VC、乙烯释放量、乙醇积累等指标,研究热水浸泡、1-MCP熏蒸、纳米袋包装3种处理对冬枣果实的保鲜效果。结果表明:3种处理方法均不同程度保持了枣果货架期品质,其中纳米袋包装保鲜效果最佳,有效维持了冬枣果肉硬度和VC含量,延缓其色泽由绿到红的转变和总可溶性固形物上升,抑制了冬枣的呼吸强度及乙烯和乙醇的产生,货架期15d后,仍具有商品价值。

  15. Studies of effect of heterocyclic dyes in photogalvanic cells for solar energy conversion and storage: NaLS-ascorbic acid system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K R Genwa; Anju Chouhan

    2004-11-01

    The photogalvanic effect has been studied in three systems using photogalvanic cells and NaLS-ascorbic acid-azur A, NaLS-ascorbic acid-azur B, NaLS-ascorbic acid-azur C systems. The photopotential and photocurrent generated by these systems are 770.0, 971.0, 623.0 mV and 160.0, 185.0, 145.0 A respectively. The effects of different parameters on the electrical outputs of the cell have been observed and current-voltage characteristics of the cell studied, and a mechanism has been proposed for the generation of photocurrent in photogalvanic cells. The conversion efficiencies for azur A, azur B and azur C are 0.5461, 0.9646 and 0.4567% and storage capacity 110, 135 and 95 min respectively.

  16. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells offer a powerful new tool for the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell biology started with the analysis of somatic stem cells that function to maintain the adult body. We now know that the body is maintained by regeneration of a wide range of cell types, such as skin cells, blood cells and gastrointestinal mucous cells, from somatic stem cells. This regenerative activity is essential for survival. Regenerative medicine was initiated to identify therapies that support and/or accelerate this natural regenerative ability. For example, bone marrow transplantation is a therapy for reconstituting hematopoiesis from the hematopoietic stem cells present in the donor bone marrow. The successful development of a protocol for obtaining human embryonic stem (ES) cells prompted medical scientists to utilize human ES cells for regenerative medicine. However, use of these cells raises ethical issues as they are derived from human embryos. An alternative approach using ES-like pluripotent stem cells has the considerable advantage that it does not necessitate use of human embryos. Pluripotent stem cells can be induced from terminally differentiated somatic cells by the introduction of only four defined factors. The products of this method are termed "induced pluripotent stem (iPS)" cells. iPS cells have considerable promise as a substitute for ES cells not only for regenerative medicine but also in many other fields. For example, liver and heart cells derived from iPS cells can be used in pharmaceutical research. In addition, iPS cell technology opens new avenues of disease research, for example, by construction of so-called "disease-specific iPS cells" from a patient's somatic cells. PMID:24693054

  17. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells offer a powerful new tool for the life sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Nakamura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell biology started with the analysis of somatic stem cells that function to maintain the adult body. We now know that the body is maintained by regeneration of a wide range of cell types, such as skin cells, blood cells and gastrointestinal mucous cells, from somatic stem cells. This regenerative activity is essential for survival. Regenerative medicine was initiated to identify therapies that support and/or accelerate this natural regenerative ability. For example, bone marrow transplantation is a therapy for reconstituting hematopoiesis from the hematopoietic stem cells present in the donor bone marrow. The successful development of a protocol for obtaining human embryonic stem (ES cells prompted medical scientists to utilize human ES cells for regenerative medicine. However, use of these cells raises ethical issues as they are derived from human embryos. An alternative approach using ES-like pluripotent stem cells has the considerable advantage that it does not necessitate use of human embryos. Pluripotent stem cells can be induced from terminally differentiated somatic cells by the introduction of only four defined factors. The products of this method are termed “induced pluripotent stem (iPS" cells. iPS cells have considerable promise as a substitute for ES cells not only for regenerative medicine but also in many other fields. For example, liver and heart cells derived from iPS cells can be used in pharmaceutical research. In addition, iPS cell technology opens new avenues of disease research, for example, by construction of so-called “disease-specific iPS cells” from a patient's somatic cells.

  18. Transport of radiolabelled glycoprotein to cell surface and lysosome-like bodies of absorptive cells in cultured small-intestinal tissue from normal subjects and patients with a lysosomal storage disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of 3H-fucose and 3H-glucosamine-labelled glycoproteins in the absorptive cells of cultured human small-intestinal tissue was investigated with light- and electron-microscopical autoradiography. The findings showed that these glycoproteins were completed in the Golgi apparatus and transported in small vesicular structures to the apical cytoplasm of these cells. Since this material arrived in the cell coat on the microvilli and in the lysosome-like bodies simultaneously, a crinophagic function of these organelles in the regulation of the transport or secretion of cell-coat material was supported. In the absorptive cells of patients with fucosidosis or Hunter's type of lysosomal storage disease, a similar transport of cell-coat material to the lysosome-like bodies and a congenital defect of a lysosomal hydrolase normally involved in the degradation of cell-coat material, can explain the accumulation of this material in the dense bodies. (orig.)

  19. Glimpse of natural selection of long-lived T-cell clones in healthy life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baojun; Jia, Qingzhu; Bock, Cheryl; Chen, Gang; Yu, Haili; Ni, Qingshan; Wan, Ying; Li, Qijing; Zhuang, Yuan

    2016-08-30

    Homeostatic maintenance of T cells with broad clonal diversity is influenced by both continuing output of young T cells from the thymus and ongoing turnover of preexisting clones in the periphery. In the absence of infection, self and commensal antigens are thought to play important roles in selection and homeostatic maintenance of the T-cell pool. Most naïve T cells are short-lived due to lack of antigen encounter, whereas antigen-experienced T cells may survive and persist as long-lived clones. Thus far, little is known about the homeostasis, antigenic specificity, and clonal diversity of long-lived T-cell clones in peripheral lymphoid organs under healthy living conditions. To identify long-lived T-cell clones in mice, we designed a lineage-tracing method to label a wave of T cells produced in the thymus of young mice. After aging the mice for 1.5 y, we found that lineage-tracked T cells consisted of primarily memory-like T cells and T regulatory cells. T-cell receptor repertoire analysis revealed that the lineage-tracked CD4 memory-like T cells and T regulatory cells exhibited age-dependent enrichment of shared clonotypes. Furthermore, these shared clonotypes were found across different mice maintained in the same housing condition. These findings suggest that nonrandom and shared antigens are involved in controlling selection, retention, and immune tolerance of long-lived T-cell clones under healthy living conditions. PMID:27535935

  20. Efficient Solar Energy Storage Using A TiO2/WO3 Tandem Photoelectrode in An All-vanadium Photoelectrochemical Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell to convert solar energy to either electricity or chemical fuels has attracted much attention in the last four decades. However, two major obstacles that hinder wide-spread application of this approach lie in the relatively wide bandgap of chemically stable semiconducotrs, e.g., TiO2, and the rapid recombination of photogenerated charge carriers once they are generated within the semiconductors. We reported herein a method that utilized vanadium redox pairs, which are commonly used in vanadium redox-flow batteries (VRB), to mitigate charge carrier recombination and thus to improve photoresponse in regenerative solar energy storage for the first time. The results showed significant improvement in photocurrent during photo-charging of the all-vanadium PEC storage cell with the addition of a very low morlarity of vanadium redox species (0.01 M) to the acid electrolytes. Additonally, the photocurrent was almost doubled even with a TiO2 electrode when two vanadium redox species were used in a full-cell configuration instead of a half-cell setup. To further enhance the light absorption, a TiO2/WO3 tandem electrode was studied and compared to the TiO2 electrode in various vanadium redox electrolytes. The tandem electrode showed higher photoresponse in all electrolytes investigated. Furthermore, the important role of vanadium redox species and WO3 have been discussed

  1. Technology and Manufacturing Readiness of Early Market Motive and Non-Motive Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Fuel Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronnebro, Ewa

    2012-06-16

    PNNL’s objective in this report is to provide DOE with a technology and manufacturing readiness assessment to identify hydrogen storage technologies’ maturity levels for early market motive and non-motive applications and to provide a path forward toward commercialization. PNNL’s Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) is based on a combination of Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL) designations that enable evaluation of hydrogen storage technologies in varying levels of development. This approach provides a logical methodology and roadmap to enable the identification of hydrogen storage technologies, their advantages/disadvantages, gaps and R&D needs on an unbiased and transparent scale that is easily communicated to interagency partners. The TRA report documents the process used to conduct the TRA, reports the TRL and MRL for each assessed technology and provides recommendations based on the findings.

  2. Comparative study of two table grape varieties with contrasting texture during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejsmentewicz, Troy; Balic, Iván; Sanhueza, Dayan; Barria, Romina; Meneses, Claudio; Orellana, Ariel; Prieto, Humberto; Defilippi, Bruno G; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo

    2015-01-01

    Postharvest softening of grape berries is one of the main problems affecting grape quality during export. Cell wall disassembly, especially of pectin polysaccharides, has been commonly related to fruit softening, but its influence has been poorly studied in grapes during postharvest life. In order to better understand this process, the Thompson seedless (TS) variety, which has significantly decreased berry texture after prolonged cold storage, was compared to NN107, a new table grape variety with higher berry firmness. Biochemical analysis revealed a greater amount of calcium in the cell wall of the NN107 variety and less reduction of uronic acids than TS during cold storage. In addition, the activity of polygalacturonase was higher in TS than NN107 berries; meanwhile pectin methylesterase activity was similar in both varieties. Polysaccharide analysis using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) suggests a differential pectin metabolism during prolonged cold storage. Results revealed lower pectin fragments in TS after 60 days of cold storage and shelf life (SL) compared to 30 days of cold storage and 30 + SL, while NN107 maintained the same fragment profile across all time points evaluated. Our results suggest that these important differences in cell wall metabolism during cold storage could be related to the differential berry firmness observed between these contrasting table grape varieties. PMID:25711424

  3. Comparative Study of Two Table Grape Varieties with Contrasting Texture during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Ejsmentewicz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Postharvest softening of grape berries is one of the main problems affecting grape quality during export. Cell wall disassembly, especially of pectin polysaccharides, has been commonly related to fruit softening, but its influence has been poorly studied in grapes during postharvest life. In order to better understand this process, the Thompson seedless (TS variety, which has significantly decreased berry texture after prolonged cold storage, was compared to NN107, a new table grape variety with higher berry firmness. Biochemical analysis revealed a greater amount of calcium in the cell wall of the NN107 variety and less reduction of uronic acids than TS during cold storage. In addition, the activity of polygalacturonase was higher in TS than NN107 berries; meanwhile pectin methylesterase activity was similar in both varieties. Polysaccharide analysis using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE suggests a differential pectin metabolism during prolonged cold storage. Results revealed lower pectin fragments in TS after 60 days of cold storage and shelf life (SL compared to 30 days of cold storage and 30 + SL, while NN107 maintained the same fragment profile across all time points evaluated. Our results suggest that these important differences in cell wall metabolism during cold storage could be related to the differential berry firmness observed between these contrasting table grape varieties.

  4. Probe Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemelli, Marcellino; Abelmann, Leon; Engelen, Johan B.C.; Khatib, Mohammed G.; Koelmans, Wabe W.; Zaboronski, Olog; Campardo, Giovanni; Tiziani, Federico; Laculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of probe-based data storage research over the last three decades, encompassing all aspects of a probe recording system. Following the division found in all mechanically addressed storage systems, the different subsystems (media, read/write heads, positioning, data chan

  5. [Selective "death programs" or pleiotropic"life programs"? Looking for programmed cell death in the light of evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameisen, Jean-Claude

    2005-01-01

    a model that I have termed the "original sin" hypothesis, I have proposed the existence of an initial pleiotropy of the molecular tools involved in the control and execution of self-destruction--an ancestral involvement in both pro-life and pro-death activities. I will discuss how this hypothesis may be reconciled with the C. elegans paradigm of programmed cell death. Finally I will discuss how an ancestral level of pleiotropic functions of the molecular tools involved in the control of cell death, aging and genetic diversification might have favored their initial selection, their constant availability for de novo selection, and their progressive propagation in most--if not all--species during the course of evolution.

  6. Enhancing DNA Vaccine Potency by Combining a Strategy to Prolong Dendritic Cell Life and Intracellular Targeting Strategies with a Strategy to Boost CD4+ T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Daejin; Hoory, Talia; Wu, T.-C.; Hung, Chien-Fu

    2007-01-01

    Intradermal administration of DNA vaccines, using a gene gun, represents an effective means of delivering DNA directly into professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the skin and thus allows the application of strategies to modify the properties of APCs to enhance DNA vaccine potency. In the current study, we hypothesized that the potency of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E7 DNA vaccines employing intracellular targeting strategies combined with a strategy to prolong the life of den...

  7. Terrestrial Energy Storage SPS Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial energy storage systems for the SSP system were evaluated that could maintain the 1.2 GW power level during periods of brief outages from the solar powered satellite (SPS). Short-term outages of ten minutes and long-term outages up to four hours have been identified as "typical" cases where the ground-based energy storage system would be required to supply power to the grid. These brief interruptions in transmission could result from performing maintenance on the solar power satellite or from safety considerations necessitating the power beam be turned off. For example, one situation would be to allow for the safe passage of airplanes through the space occupied by the beam. Under these conditions, the energy storage system needs to be capable of storing 200 MW-hrs and 4.8 GW-hrs, respectively. The types of energy storage systems to be considered include compressed air energy storage, inertial energy storage, electrochemical energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and pumped hydro energy storage. For each of these technologies, the state-of-the-art in terms of energy and power densities were identified as well as the potential for scaling to the size systems required by the SSP system. Other issues addressed included the performance, life expectancy, cost, and necessary infrastructure and site locations for the various storage technologies.

  8. Irradiation of potatoes - after cooking darkening - Fusarium susceptibility during storage. Part of a coordinated programme on the shelf-life extension of irradiated fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The after-cooking discolouration of Bintje potatoes, cultivated from five different origins in the Netherlands, irradiated by gamma rays or electron was assessed. For comparison, samples of unirradiated potatoes treated by IPC/CIPC sprout inhibitor were also studied. Sprout inhibition and rotting of potatoes treated by different methods were also investigated. It appears that there exist differences in the degree of after-cooking discolouration of potatoes harvested from different origins. Slight discolouration was observed in electron-irradiated potatoes, those exposed to 0.5MeV showed less greying than those treated by 1MeV. Potatoes treated with IPC/CIPC showed the least, and those treated by gamma rays showed the strongest after-cooking darkening. No sprouting occurred in gamma irradiated samples. Sprouting of IPC/CIPC treated samples was minimal during storage but was enhanced after reconditioning. Those treated by electrons showed severe sprouting. Two to 4 weeks reconditioning at 150C of irradiated potatoes, previously held at 7 - 100C for several months, did not reduce the degree of after-cooking discolouration

  9. Transposable DNA elements and life history traits: II. Transposition of P DNA elements in somatic cells reduces fitness, mating activity, and locomotion of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, R C; Thompson, J N; Barker, J S; Huai, H

    1999-01-01

    Some transposable DNA elements in higher organisms are active in somatic cells, as well as in germinal cells. What effect does the movement of DNA elements in somatic cells have on life history traits? It has previously been reported that somatically active P and mariner elements in Drosophila induce genetic damage and significantly reduce lifespan. In this study, we report that the movement of P elements in somatic cells also significantly reduces fitness, mating activity, and locomotion of Drosophila melanogaster. If other elements cause similar changes in life history traits, it is doubtful if transposable DNA elements remain active for long in somatic cells in natural populations.

  10. 温度对冷藏富士苹果货架品质变化的影响%Effect of temperatures on the quality and shelf life of Fuji apple after cold storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚玉静; 王庆国; 石晶盈

    2015-01-01

    为了研究富士苹果在流通过程中的品质变化,以1-MCP处理后贮藏4个月的富士苹果为实验材料,0℃贮藏4个月后转移至模拟货架温度(5、10、15、20、25℃)下进行贮藏性试验,研究不同温度对感官品质和营养特性的影响并探讨富士苹果的品质随货架时间的变化规律.结果表明:以感官品质评价,影响富士苹果货架期品质的最主要因素是果皮的褪色,主要表现为花青苷含量和a值的下降,最有利于颜色保持的温度是5℃;25℃条件下综合品质下降最快;货架期8、16、24 d口味最佳温度分别为15、10、10℃,说明货架时间越长,要求温度越低.以营养品质评价,货架期间Vc和总酚含量呈下降趋势,果肉总黄酮含量先上升后下降,而果皮则一直处于下降的趋势,相对于果肉而言,果皮DPPH清除率在货架初期对温度不敏感,各温度之间无明显差别.以上结果说明货架期间低温有利于保持较高的营养品质,但是口味最佳时果实营养品质并不是最高.%‘ Fuji’ apples were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and stored at 0℃ for up to 4 months then transferred to five simulated shelf temperatures (5,10,15,20 and 25℃) for storage test.The effects of different temperatures on the sensory quality and nutritional characteristics of Fuji apple and the variation of the qualities with the storage time were investigated.The results showed that color fading was the most important and main factor indicating the quality change.Color fading was mainly reflected by the reduction of anthocyanin content and a value.The best storage temperature to maintain the color was 5℃.Fruit quality declined most rapidly at 25℃.The best temperatures for good flavor on days 8,16 and 24 were 15℃,10℃ and 10℃,respectively.Therefore,long shelf life requires low storage temperature.Vitamin C and the total phenolic content decreased during the shelf life.Total flavonoid contents in fruit

  11. Stem cells from residual IVF-embryos - Continuation of life justifies isolation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, G.P.A.; Severijnen, R.S.V.M.

    2007-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated pluripotent cells that can indefinitely grow in vitro. They are derived from the inner mass of early embryos. Because of their ability to differentiate into all three embryonic germ layers, and finally into specialized somatic cell types, human embryonic ste

  12. Aging is associated with decreased maximal life span and accelerated senescence of bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dokkedahl, Karin Stenderup; Justesen, Jeannette; Clausen, Christian;

    2003-01-01

    -gal+) cells and mean telomere length in early-passage cells obtained from young and old donors. However, MSC from old donors exhibited accelerated senescence evidenced by increased number of SA beta-gal+ cells per PD as compared with young (4% per PD vs 0.4% per PD, respectively). MSC from young and old...

  13. Reliability Through Life of Internal Protection Devices in Small-Cell ABSL Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Ng, Ka Lok; Bennetti, Andrea; Pearson, Chris; Rao, gopal

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews a reliability analysis of small cell protection batteries. The contents include: 1) The s-p Topology; 2) Cell Level Protection Devices; 3) Battery Level Fault Protection; 4) Large Cell Comparison; and 5) Battery Level Testing and Results.

  14. Shining Light on the Sprout of Life: Optogenetics Applications in Stem Cell Research and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzapour Delavar, Hadi; Karamzadeh, Arezou; Pahlavanneshan, Saghar

    2016-06-01

    Optogenetics is the integration of genetics and optics to achieve gain or loss of function of well-defined events in specific cells of living tissue. As a versatile tool, upon light illumination, it allows fast control of precisely defined events in biological systems from single cell to different parts of whole tissue in freely moving animals. Taking advantage of this method, a multitude of studies have been published to understand brain functions and dysfunctions. Although from the beginning, it has been used to target neurons within the neural networks and to understand how specific neurons contribute to brain function, it gradually has been extended to other fields of biology such as stem cell research and therapy. With a combination of optogenetics and stem cells, new opportunities were opened up in stem cell biology and also its integration in new circuit as a cell-based treatment strategy for more common disorders like neurodegenerative and cardiovascular one. Recently, some studies showed that engineered stem cells expressing exogenous light-activated opsins can be used in stem cell biology including tracking the differentiation of stem cells, functional analysis of embryonic stem cell-derived graft, and testing the functional integration of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons. With the advent of non-invasive approach, such as transcranial excitation or inhibition, optogenetics also holds promise for non-invasive control of engineered stem cell.

  15. Towards a framework for evaluation of renewable energy storage projects: A study case of hydrogen and fuel cells in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben; Enevoldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    on governmental subsidies or high-risk venture capital. RES projects are along the energy agenda following an agenda of industrial development. The research question of this paper is: Given the high degree of uncertainty and low degree of technological maturity in energy storage, how to design evaluation...

  16. Interaction of resident sperm with sperm-storage tubule (SST) epithelial cell microvilli in the turkey hen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike most mammals, birds do not need to synchronize copulation with ovulation. Hens are endowed with tubular structures, the sperm-storage tubules (SST), in their oviducts which the sperm enter and survive for weeks after mating or artificial insemination. Sperm are slowly but continually releas...

  17. A cell protection screen reveals potent inhibitors of multiple stages of the hepatitis C virus life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chockalingam, Karuppiah; Simeon, Rudo L.; Rice, Charles M.; Chen, Zhilei

    2010-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle involves multiple steps, but most current drug candidates target only viral replication. The inability to systematically discover inhibitors targeting multiple steps of the HCV life cycle has hampered antiviral development. We present a simple screen for HCV antivirals based on the alleviation of HCV-mediated cytopathic effect in an engineered cell line—n4mBid. This approach obviates the need for a secondary screen to avoid cytotoxic false-positive hits. Application of our screen to 1280 compounds, many in clinical trials or approved for therapeutic use, yielded >200 hits. Of the 55 leading hits, 47 inhibited one or more aspects of the HCV life cycle by >40%. Six compounds blocked HCV entry to levels similar to an antibody (JS-81) targeting the HCV entry receptor CD81. Seven hits inhibited HCV replication and/or infectious virus production by >100-fold, with one (quinidine) inhibiting infectious virus production by 450-fold relative to HCV replication levels. This approach is simple and inexpensive and should enable the rapid discovery of new classes of HCV life cycle inhibitors. PMID:20142494

  18. 开关电源加速贮存寿命方法研究磁%The Accelerated Storage Life Method of Switch Power Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永兴

    2015-01-01

    The switching power supply is a new type widely used recently with characteristics such as small in volume , light in weight and high in efficiency .For its advantages ,at the time it has been widely used in aerospace ,communication in‐dustry ,electronics and so on .With the extension of the switching power supply ,the reliability of switching power supply has been paid great attention .Based on Arrhenius Models ,a test scheme is designed for evaluating power devices in switc‐hing power supply ,and predicting the life of power devices in switching power supply .The test scheme can apply accelerated models on power devices independently .Based on some models ,the activation energy and life of the devices are calculated , the consistency of the failure mechanism is analyzed .%开关电源具有体积小、重量轻、效率高等诸多优点,凭借其自身的诸多优势,开关电源已经广泛应用于航空航天、通信、以及电子类。由于应用领域的广泛性,开关电源的可靠性引起了人们的重视。论文以阿伦尼斯(Arrhenius)模型为基础,设计了一整套针对开关电源的可靠性评价和寿命预计的试验方案。该方案对试验器件施加温度应力,加速器件的失效过程,并通过一定的加速模型和统计分析方法,外推出正常工作条件下产品的寿命特征。

  19. Carbon dioxide electrolysis with solid oxide electrolyte cells for oxygen recovery in life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Cusick, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    The direct electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) is achieved without catalysts and at sufficiently high temperatures to avoid carbon formation. The tubular electrolysis cell consists of thin layers of anode, electrolyte, cathode and cell interconnection. The electrolyte is made from yttria-stabilized zirconia which is an oxygen ion conductor at elevated temperatures. Anode and cell interconnection materials are complex oxides and are electronic conductors. The cathode material is a composite metal-ceramic structure. Cell performance characteristics have been determined using varying feed gas compositions and degrees of electrochemical decomposition. Cell test data are used to project the performance of a three-person CO2-electrolysis breadboard system.

  20. Seed coat-associated invertases of fava bean control both unloading and storage functions: cloning of cDNAs and cell type-specific expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, H; Borisjuk, L; Heim, U; Buchner, P; Wobus, U

    1995-11-01

    We have studied the molecular physiology of photosynthate unloading and partitioning during seed development of fava bean (Vicia faba). During the prestorage phase, high levels of hexoses in the cotyledons and the apoplastic endospermal space are correlated with activity of cell wall-bound invertase in the seed coat. Three cDNAs were cloned. Sequence comparison revealed genes putatively encoding one soluble and two cell wall-bound isoforms of invertase. Expression was studied in different organs and tissues of developing seeds by RNA gel analysis, in situ hybridization, enzyme assay, and enzyme activity staining. One extracellular invertase gene is expressed during the prestorage phase in the thin-walled parenchyma of the seed coat, a region known to be the site of photoassimilate unloading. We propose a model for an invertase-mediated unloading process during early seed development and the regulation of cotyledonary sucrose metabolism. After unloading from the seed coat, sucrose is hydrolyzed by cell wall-bound invertases. Thus, invertase contributes to establish sink strength in young seeds. The resultant hexoses are loaded into the cotyledons and control carbohydrate partitioning via an influence on the sucrose synthase/sucrose-phosphate synthase pathway. The developmentally regulated degradation of the thin-walled parenchyma expressing the invertase apparently initiates the storage phase. This is characterized by a switch to a low sucrose/hexoses ratio. Feeding hexoses to storage-phase cotyledons in vitro increases the sucrose-phosphate synthase/sucrose synthase ratio and changes carbohydrate partitioning in favor of sucrose. Concomitantly, the transcript level of the major storage product legumin B is downregulated. PMID:8535137

  1. Relationship between seizure frequency and number of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the hippocampus throughout the life of rats with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopim, Glauber Menezes; Vannucci Campos, Diego; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Lent, Roberto; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between seizure frequency and cell death has been a subject of controversy. To tackle this issue, we determined the frequency of seizures and the total number of hippocampal cells throughout the life of rats with epilepsy using the pilocarpine model. Seizure frequency varied in animals with epilepsy according to which period of life they were in, with a progressive increase in the number of seizures until 180 days (sixth months) of epileptic life followed by a decrease (330 days-eleventh month) and subsequently stabilization of seizures. Cell counts by means of isotropic fractionation showed a reduction in the number of hippocampal neuronal cells following 30, 90, 180 and 360 days of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) in rats compared to their controls (about 25%-30% of neuronal cell reduction). In addition, animals with 360 days of SRS showed a reduction in the number of neuronal cells when compared with animals with 90 and 180 days of seizures. The total number of hippocampal non-neuronal cells was reduced in rats with epilepsy after 30 days of SRS, but no significant alteration was observed on the 90th, 180th and 360th days. The total number of neuronal cells was negatively correlated with seizure frequency, indicating an association between occurrence of epileptic seizures throughout life and neuronal loss. In sum, our results add novel data to the literature concerning the time-course of SRS and hippocampal cell number throughout epileptic life.

  2. Clinical utility of neuronal cells directly converted from fibroblasts of patients for neuropsychiatric disorders: studies of lysosomal storage diseases and channelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, S; Yuan, M; Cardarelli, R A; Maegawa, G; Higurashi, N; Gaval-Cruz, M; Wilson, A M; Tristan, C; Kondo, M A; Chen, Y; Koga, M; Obie, C; Ishizuka, K; Seshadri, S; Srivastava, R; Kato, T A; Horiuchi, Y; Sedlak, T W; Lee, Y; Rapoport, J L; Hirose, S; Okano, H; Valle, D; O'Donnell, P; Sawa, A; Kai, M

    2015-01-01

    Methodologies for generating functional neuronal cells directly from human fibroblasts [induced neuronal (iN) cells] have been recently developed, but the research so far has only focused on technical refinements or recapitulation of known pathological phenotypes. A critical question is whether this novel technology will contribute to elucidation of novel disease mechanisms or evaluation of therapeutic strategies. Here we have addressed this question by studying Tay-Sachs disease, a representative lysosomal storage disease, and Dravet syndrome, a form of severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy, using human iN cells with feature of immature postmitotic glutamatergic neuronal cells. In Tay-Sachs disease, we have successfully characterized canonical neuronal pathology, massive accumulation of GM2 ganglioside, and demonstrated the suitability of this novel cell culture for future drug screening. In Dravet syndrome, we have identified a novel functional phenotype that was not suggested by studies of classical mouse models and human autopsied brains. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that human iN cells are useful for translational neuroscience research to explore novel disease mechanisms and evaluate therapeutic compounds. In the future, research using human iN cells with well-characterized genomic landscape can be integrated into multidisciplinary patient-oriented research on neuropsychiatric disorders to address novel disease mechanisms and evaluate therapeutic strategies. PMID:25732146

  3. Lowering storage temperature during ovary transport is beneficial to the developmental competence of bovine oocytes used for somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y S; Zhao, X; Su, J M; An, Z X; Xiong, X R; Wang, L J; Liu, J; Quan, F S; Hua, S; Zhang, Y

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of storage temperature during ovary transport on the developmental competence of bovine oocytes for use in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Ovaries obtained from a slaughterhouse were stored in physiological saline for 3-4h at one of the three temperatures: 15 °C, 25 °C, or 35 °C. The developmental competence of oocytes used for SCNT was ascertained by cleavage and blastocyst formation rate, total cell number, apoptosis index, and the relative abundance of Bax and Hsp70.1 in day 7 blastocysts. Ovaries stored at 35 °C for 3-4h reduced the recovery rate of grade I and II oocytes compared with those stored at 25 °C or 15 °C (45.1±0.7% vs. 76.7±1.2% or 74.8±2.0%, Povaries stored at 15 °C, however, produced blastocysts with higher cell numbers (97.3±8.6 vs. 80.2±10.8 or 77.4±11.7; Povaries stored at 15 °C was lower than those stored at 25 °C or 35 °C (Pquality and developmental competence of oocytes used for SCNT due to the alleviation of stresses on the oocytes compared with those subjected to storage temperatures of 25 °C or 35 °C. PMID:21333472

  4. Life cycle analysis of organic tandem solar cells: When are they warranted?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Krebs, Frederik C

    2014-01-01

    that the tandem solar cell has to be ~20% higher performing than the corresponding single junction solar cell to be warranted. We also highlight that there is a range in the reciprocal EBPT–efficiency relationship where the tandem solar cell is an advantage. Specific to polymer and organic solar cells are however......One approach to use solar radiation more effectively in solar cells is to stack, in series, multiple photoactive layers with complementary absorption spectra. Such devices are often termed tandem or multi-junction solar cells. The larger number of different materials and processing steps involved...... in their making when compared with the single junction solar cell has to be justified and compensated by a higher efficiency. A central question to ask is how much energy you need to invest in a system in order for it to produce energy and return the investment at least once and preferably a number of times...

  5. 7 CFR 1770.4 - Record storage media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record storage media. 1770.4 Section 1770.4... § 1770.4 Record storage media. Each RUS borrower has the flexibility to select its own storage media subject to the following conditions: (a) The storage media must have a life expectancy at least equal...

  6. Skeletal muscle cells possess a 'memory' of acute early life TNF-α exposure: role of epigenetic adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, Adam P; Polydorou, Ioanna; Hughes, David C; Owens, Daniel J; Hughes, Thomas M; Stewart, Claire E

    2016-06-01

    Sufficient quantity and quality of skeletal muscle is required to maintain lifespan and healthspan into older age. The concept of skeletal muscle programming/memory has been suggested to contribute to accelerated muscle decline in the elderly in association with early life stress such as fetal malnutrition. Further, muscle cells in vitro appear to remember the in vivo environments from which they are derived (e.g. cancer, obesity, type II diabetes, physical inactivity and nutrient restriction). Tumour-necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pleiotropic cytokine that is chronically elevated in sarcopenia and cancer cachexia. Higher TNF-α levels are strongly correlated with muscle loss, reduced strength and therefore morbidity and earlier mortality. We have extensively shown that TNF-α impairs regenerative capacity in mouse and human muscle derived stem cells [Meadows et al. (J Cell Physiol 183(3):330-337, 2000); Foulstone et al. (J Cell Physiol 189(2):207-215, 2001); Foulstone et al. (Exp Cell Res 294(1):223-235, 2004); Stewart et al. (J Cell Physiol 198(2):237-247, 2004); Al-Shanti et al. (Growth factors (Chur, Switzerland) 26(2):61-73, 2008); Saini et al. (Growth factors (Chur, Switzerland) 26(5):239-253, 2008); Sharples et al. (J Cell Physiol 225(1):240-250, 2010)]. We have also recently established an epigenetically mediated mechanism (SIRT1-histone deacetylase) regulating survival of myoblasts in the presence of TNF-α [Saini et al. (Exp Physiol 97(3):400-418, 2012)]. We therefore wished to extend this work in relation to muscle memory of catabolic stimuli and the potential underlying epigenetic modulation of muscle loss. To enable this aim; C2C12 myoblasts were cultured in the absence or presence of early TNF-α (early proliferative lifespan) followed by 30 population doublings in the absence of TNF-α, prior to the induction of differentiation in low serum media (LSM) in the absence or presence of late TNF-α (late proliferative lifespan). The cells that

  7. Skeletal muscle cells possess a 'memory' of acute early life TNF-α exposure: role of epigenetic adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, Adam P; Polydorou, Ioanna; Hughes, David C; Owens, Daniel J; Hughes, Thomas M; Stewart, Claire E

    2016-06-01

    Sufficient quantity and quality of skeletal muscle is required to maintain lifespan and healthspan into older age. The concept of skeletal muscle programming/memory has been suggested to contribute to accelerated muscle decline in the elderly in association with early life stress such as fetal malnutrition. Further, muscle cells in vitro appear to remember the in vivo environments from which they are derived (e.g. cancer, obesity, type II diabetes, physical inactivity and nutrient restriction). Tumour-necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pleiotropic cytokine that is chronically elevated in sarcopenia and cancer cachexia. Higher TNF-α levels are strongly correlated with muscle loss, reduced strength and therefore morbidity and earlier mortality. We have extensively shown that TNF-α impairs regenerative capacity in mouse and human muscle derived stem cells [Meadows et al. (J Cell Physiol 183(3):330-337, 2000); Foulstone et al. (J Cell Physiol 189(2):207-215, 2001); Foulstone et al. (Exp Cell Res 294(1):223-235, 2004); Stewart et al. (J Cell Physiol 198(2):237-247, 2004); Al-Shanti et al. (Growth factors (Chur, Switzerland) 26(2):61-73, 2008); Saini et al. (Growth factors (Chur, Switzerland) 26(5):239-253, 2008); Sharples et al. (J Cell Physiol 225(1):240-250, 2010)]. We have also recently established an epigenetically mediated mechanism (SIRT1-histone deacetylase) regulating survival of myoblasts in the presence of TNF-α [Saini et al. (Exp Physiol 97(3):400-418, 2012)]. We therefore wished to extend this work in relation to muscle memory of catabolic stimuli and the potential underlying epigenetic modulation of muscle loss. To enable this aim; C2C12 myoblasts were cultured in the absence or presence of early TNF-α (early proliferative lifespan) followed by 30 population doublings in the absence of TNF-α, prior to the induction of differentiation in low serum media (LSM) in the absence or presence of late TNF-α (late proliferative lifespan). The cells that

  8. Quality of life, social challenges, and psychosocial support for long-term survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, Maxim; Hsu, Jack W; Wingard, John R

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades quality of life (QoL) and the social challenges of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) survivors have been emerging as subjects of extensive research and are now considered as very important aspects in the pretransplant evaluation and management of allo-HSCT recipients. Recognition of QoL challenges in allo-HSCT survivors allows timely interventions leading to improvement of post-transplant outcomes. It needs to be recognized that long-lasting life changes associated with survivorship after allo-HSCT also significantly affect QoL of partners of allo-HSCT survivors. Currently, resources should be focused on how research findings can be used by patients, their partners, and physicians to optimize QoL and psychosocial adjustment.

  9. A life cycle analysis of polymer solar cell modules prepared using roll-to-roll methods under ambient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; García-Valverde, Rafael; Urbina, Antonio;

    2011-01-01

    A life cycle analysis was performed on a full roll-to-roll coating procedure used for the manufacture of flexible polymer solar cell modules. The process known as ProcessOne employs a polyester substrate with a sputtered layer of the transparent conductor indium-tin-oxide (ITO). The ITO film...... printed. Finally the polymer solar modules were encapsulated, using a polyester barrier material. All operations except the application of ITO were carried out under ambient conditions. The life cycle analysis delivered a material inventory of the full process for a module production......, and an accountability of the energy embedded both in the input materials and in the production processes. Finally, upon assumption of power conversion efficiencies and lifetime for the modules, a calculation of energy pay-back time allowed us to compare this roll-to-roll manufacturing with other organic and hybrid...

  10. Cycle life testing and modeling of graphite/LiCoO2 cells under different state of charge ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Saurabh; Hendricks, Christopher; Pecht, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are used for energy storage in a wide array of applications, and do not always undergo full charge and discharge cycling. This study quantifies the effect of partial charge-discharge cycling on Li-ion battery capacity loss by means of cycling tests conducted on graphite/LiCoO2 pouch cells under different state of charge (SOC) ranges and discharge currents. The results are used to develop a model of capacity fade for batteries under full or partial cycling conditions. This study demonstrates that all of the variables studied including mean SOC, change in SOC (ΔSOC) and discharge rate have a significant impact on capacity loss rate during the cycling operation. This study is useful in identifying the SOC ranges with slow degradation rates.

  11. Skin reactions and quality of life after x-ray therapy of Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiveren, Jette; Mikkelsen, Maria Rudkjaer; Daugbjerg, Helle;

    2012-01-01

    controls (P = 0.819). Three months after X-ray therapy eight patients had no skin reactions, 11 had slight atrophy, pigmentation change, and/or some hair loss, four had patch atrophy, moderate telangiectasia, and/or total hair loss. Conclusions. BCC has a negative effect on patients' quality of life...

  12. Neuroimaging of Lipid Storage Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Deborah; Auerbach, Sarah; Robinson, Paul; Gropman, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Lipid storage diseases, also known as the lipidoses, are a group of inherited metabolic disorders in which there is lipid accumulation in various cell types, including the central nervous system, because of the deficiency of a variety of enzymes. Over time, excessive storage can cause permanent cellular and tissue damage. The brain is particularly…

  13. Solution and vapour deposited lead perovskite solar cells: Ecotoxicity from a life cycle assessment perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Serrano-Luján, Lucía; Urbina, Antonio;

    2015-01-01

    lead(II)halides is very limited compared to methylammoniumhalides employed. This applies during the raw materials extraction, synthesis of the starting materials and manufacture of the perovskite solar cells and from these points of view the lead based perovskite solar cells do not pose extra concerns...... the inventory for all the components employed for the two different device architectures that resemble respectively a traditional dye sensitised solar cell (DSSC) and an inverted polymer solar cell (OPV). We analyse the impacts from generation of 1 kWh of electricity and assume a lifetime of 1 year...

  14. Life history evolution and the origin of multicellularity: the case of different types of cells

    OpenAIRE

    Aleskerov, Fuad; Tverskoy, Denis

    2015-01-01

    The problem of unicellular-multicellular transition is one of the main issues that is discussing in evolutionary biology. In [1] the fitness of a colony of cells is considered in terms of its two basic components, viability and fecundity. Intrinsic trade-off function of each cell defines a type of cell. We elaborate models providing in [1]. Assuming that all intrinsic trade-off functions are linear, we construct a model with different cell types and show that the differentiation of these type...

  15. 风味花生粉基于温度变化的氧化货架寿命预测%Modeling of Lipid Oxidation and Storage Life Prediction of Aroma Peanut Flour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦健; 向传万

    2012-01-01

    The time-course of lipid oxidation determined by peroxide value and the sensory quality of peanut flour stored at different temperatures (40 ℃, 60 ℃) were evaluated. The separate kinetic models of peroxide value with respect to storage time at different storage temperatures were established based on Arrhenius equation, so as to predict the shelf life of peanut flour in room temperature (25℃). The results indicated that the shelf of peanut at 25 ℃ was 87 d, and the prediction model was verified to be accurate.%通过设定两个温度(40℃,60℃)对风味花生粉进行加速氧化试验,研究该过程中风味花生粉的过氧化值及感官品质随储藏时间的变化规律及其动力学特性。结合Arrhenius动力学方程,建立过氧化值与储藏时间、储藏温度之间的动力学模型,以预测常温下(25℃)风味花生粉的保质期。结果表明,风味花生粉在25℃条件下保藏的理论货架寿命是87d。并且通过验证确认了该预测模型的准确性。

  16. The microbial cell surface electric field: life in an ion cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, N.

    2005-05-01

    Electrical charge on microbial cell surfaces arises from the ionization of proton-active functional groups attached to cell wall polymers. In Gram-positive cell walls, ionizable functional groups are associated with peptidoglycan and secondary polymers such as teichoic or teichuronic acids. Carboxyl functional groups attached to the unlinked peptide crosslinks of peptidoglycan and phosphoryl groups associated with the teichoic acids can deprotonate to form negatively charged surface sites. These anionic functional groups generate charge in the cell wall which results in the formation of an electric field that surrounds the entire cell. The cell surface electric field controls the concentration and spatial distribution of ions and counterions at the cell-water interface, and strongly affects microbe-fluid and microbe-mineral interactions. Recently, we have used potentiometric titration, infrared spectroscopy, electrophoretic mobility, metal sorption experiments to characterize the surface electrical potential properties of the various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species. Potentiometric titration experiments show that the deprotonation of acidic cell wall functional groups generate surface charge density values typically ranging from 1.1 to 2.2 mol sites/g of bacteria. Spectroscopic measurements have confirmed that the dominant proton-active sites in the cell wall are carboxyl functional groups. Electrophoretic mobility experiments show that the magnitude of the electrostatic surface potential increases with increasing pH, and decreases with increasing ionic strength. Metal sorption experiments conducted with Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) exhibit strong ionic strength dependence, suggesting that high concentrations of metal ions are electrostatically bound to bacterial cell walls via outer-sphere complexation. We demonstrate that the electrostatic potential effects on ion sorption at the cell-water interface can be quantified using the Donnan model.

  17. Predictive Modeling of Shelf Life of Peanut and Walnut Kernels during Storage%花生仁与核桃仁贮藏货架期预测模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任斯忱; 李汴生; 申晓曦; 阮征

    2012-01-01

    In this study, accelerated storage tests were used to explore the kinetics of lipid oxidation in peanut and walnut kernels and develop mathematical models for predicting their shelf lives. Peanut and walnut kernels were stored at 0-50 ℃ in a vacuum or atmospheric environment to measure the changes of peroxide value (POV) at 20 d intervals during storage at different temperatures (0, 20, 30, 40 ℃ and 50 ℃). A first-order reaction model between logarithmic POV and storage time (t) was fitted and an Arrhenius model of reaction rate constant (k) with respect to storage temperature (73 was established for peanut and walnut kernels, respectively. The oxidative rancidity of both kernels could be inhibited in vacuum or at lower temperature due to the increased EA; walnut kernels were more sensitive to oxidation due to having lower EA than peanut kernels. The observed high regression coefficients (R2 〉 0.95) and similarity between the experimental and predicted shelf lives of peanut and walnut kernels indicated the high reliability of the established first order reaction model and Arrhenius model for the prediction of shelf life during storage at 0 - 50℃.%采用加速贮藏试验,研究花生仁与核桃仁贮藏中脂肪氧化的动力学及其货架期预测模型。花生仁和核桃仁分别采用真空和露空两种贮藏方式贮藏于0-50℃。以过氧化值(POV)为指标,通过对不同温度下POV的测定,建立了POV与贮藏时间(t)的一级反应动力学方程以及反应速率(D与贮藏温度(T)的Arrhenius方程;低温和真空贮藏时,氧化反应的活化能(EA)明显升高,证明低温和真空条件可延缓果仁的氧化酸败;两种贮藏方式下,核桃仁反应活化能(En)均小于花生仁EA,表明核桃仁氧化稳定性低于花生仁。两种果仁的一级化学反应动力学模型和Arrhenius方程均具有较高的拟合精度僻z〉0.95),建立的模型对

  18. Effect of thymol on freshness and shelf life of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) during cold storage%百里酚对冷藏大菱鲆鲜度和货架期的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋慧亮; 李学英; 杨宪时; 迟海

    2012-01-01

    Freshness changes and shelf life of turbot(Scophthalmus maximus) were investigated by testing the indexes of sensory evaluation,total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN),trimethylamine (TMA),total aerobic counts, H2S-producing bacteria and inhibition index(Ⅰ.Ⅰ) during storage at 3℃,compared control group(C) that dipped into distilled water with the fresh group(F) dipped into lg/kg thymol solution,then inquired into the fresh effects of thymol to turbot. The results showed that quality of turbot still was in high condition on 259 and 309h, respectively,and quality achieved unacceptable on 403 and 572h at their end of shelf life,which prolonged 169h compared F with C after dipping into thymol. At the end of good quality life,the values of TVBN were 13.60,10.70mg/100g,and 32.69,35.87mg/100g at the end of shelf life,respectively. The values of TMA reached 1.26,1.05mg/100g at the end of good quality,and 6.57,7.57mg/100g at the end of shelf life,respectively. The counts of total aerobic counts were 7.65,6.591g(CFU/g) at the end of good quality and 8.27,8.561g(CFU/g) at the end of shelf life, respectively. The counts of H~S-producing bacteria were 7.15,5.411g (CFU/g) at the end of good quality life, 7.37,6.131g (CFU/g) at the end of shelf life, respectively. Moreover,at the beginning of storage the inhibition indexs of total aerobic counts and H2S-producing bacteria were 57.02% and 100% ,and they were 16.34% ,45.73% at the end of good quality life of control,4.72% and 19.72% at the end of shelf life of control, respectively.%以感官评价、挥发性盐基氮(TVBN)、三甲胺氮(TMA)、菌落总数、产H2s细菌数和抑制指数(Ⅰ.Ⅰ)为指标,分别研究对照组(蒸馏水浸泡)和保鲜组(1g/kg百里酚溶液浸泡)大菱鲆冷藏(3℃)过程中的鲜度变化和货架期,以探讨百里酚对大菱鲆的保鲜效果。结果表明,对照组和保鲜组大菱鲆分别在259、309h

  19. Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients With Life Threatening Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-23

    Purpura, Schoenlein-Henoch; Graft Versus Host Disease; Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Churg-Strauss Syndrome; Hypersensitivity Vasculitis; Wegener's Granulomatosis; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Giant Cell Arteritis; Pure Red Cell Aplasia; Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis; Polyarteritis Nodosa; Autoimmune Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Takayasu Arteritis

  20. The P2X7 Receptor Supports Both Life and Death in Fibrogenic Pancreatic Stellate Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haanes, Kristian; Schwab, Albrecht; Novak, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    The pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) have complex roles in pancreas, including tissue repair and fibrosis. PSCs surround ATP releasing exocrine cells, but little is known about purinergic receptors and their function in PSCs. Our aim was to resolve whether PSCs express the multifunctional P2X7...... fibrosis and cancer....

  1. Flow Synthesis of Silver Nanowires for Semitransparent Solar Cell Electrodes: A Life Cycle Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Nieves; Søndergaard, Roar R; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2016-04-21

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs) were prepared on a 5 g scale using either the well-known batch synthesis following the polyol method or a new flow synthesis method. The AgNWs were employed as semitransparent electrode materials in organic photovoltaics and compared to traditional printed silver electrodes based on micron sized silver flakes using life cycle analysis and environmental impact analysis methods. The life cycle analysis of AgNWs confirms that they provide an avenue to low-impact semitransparent electrodes. We find that the benefit of AgNWs in terms of embodied energy is less pronounced than generally assumed but that the toxicological and environmental benefits are significant.

  2. Virology and cell biology of the hepatitis C virus life cycle: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, Jean; Cosset, François-Loïc

    2014-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen that causes hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It imposes a serious problem to public health in the world as the population of chronically infected HCV patients who are at risk of progressive liver disease is projected to increase significantly in the next decades. However, the arrival of new antiviral molecules is progressively changing the landscape of hepatitis C treatment. The search for new anti-HCV therapies has also been a driving force to better understand how HCV interacts with its host, and major progresses have been made on the various steps of the HCV life cycle. Here, we review the most recent advances in the fast growing knowledge on HCV life cycle and interaction with host factors and pathways.

  3. Silo Storage Preconceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie L. Austad; Patrick W. Bragassa; Kevin M Croft; David S Ferguson; Scott C Gladson; Annette L Shafer; John H Weathersby

    2012-09-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a need to develop and field a low-cost option for the long-term storage of a variety of radiological material. The storage option’s primary requirement is to provide both environmental and physical protection of the materials. Design criteria for this effort require a low initial cost and minimum maintenance over a 50-year design life. In 1999, Argonne National Laboratory-West was tasked with developing a dry silo storage option for the BN-350 Spent Fuel in Aktau Kazakhstan. Argon’s design consisted of a carbon steel cylinder approximately 16 ft long, 18 in. outside diameter and 0.375 in. wall thickness. The carbon steel silo was protected from corrosion by a duplex coating system consisting of zinc and epoxy. Although the study indicated that the duplex coating design would provide a design life well in excess of the required 50 years, the review board was concerned because of the novelty of the design and the lack of historical use. In 2012, NNSA tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with reinvestigating the silo storage concept and development of alternative corrosion protection strategies. The 2012 study, “Silo Storage Concepts, Cathodic Protection Options Study” (INL/EST-12-26627), concludes that the option which best fits the design criterion is a passive cathotic protection scheme, consisting of a carbon steel tube coated with zinc or a zinc-aluminum alloy encapsulated in either concrete or a cement grout. The hot dipped zinc coating option was considered most efficient, but the flame-sprayed option could be used if a thicker zinc coating was determined to be necessary.

  4. Life cycle assessment of molten carbonate fuel cells: State of the art and strategies for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmeti, Andi; Santoni, Francesca; Della Pietra, Massimiliano; McPhail, Stephen J.

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to review and provide an up to date international life cycle thinking literature with particular emphasis on life cycle assessment (LCA), applied to Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs), a technology forcefully entering the field of decentralized heat and power generation. Critical environmental issues, comparison of results between studies and improvement strategies are analyzed and highlighted. The findings stress that MCFC environmental performance is heavily influenced by the current use of non-renewable energy and high material demand of rare minerals which generate high environmental burdens in the manufacturing stage, thereby confirming the prominent role of these processes in a comprehensive LCA study. The comparison of operational phases highlights that MCFCs are robust and able to compete with other mature technologies contributing substantially to airborne emissions reduction and promoting a switch to renewable fuels, however, further progress and market competitiveness urges adoption of an eco-efficiency philosophy to forge the link between environmental and economic concerns. Adopting a well-organized systematic research driven by life cycle models and eco-efficiency principles stakeholders will glean valuable information to make well balanced decisions for improving performance towards the concept 'producing more quality with less resources' and accelerate market penetration of the technology.

  5. Shelf life of cooked crayfish meat treated with freezing under keeping-fresh storage%冷冻处理的熟制虾肉在保鲜条件下的货架期

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵立; 陈军; 郭振; 朱正坡; 孙存玉

    2012-01-01

    Changes in sensory qualities,physical,chemical and microbiological qualities of cooked crayfish(Procambarus clarkia) meat,treated with slow and fast freezing,were determined to research the shelf life and qualities during fresh storage(4 ℃).The results were showed that:the quality of crayfish meat with fast freezing treatment was better than that with slow freezing treatment,but the shelf life was not different,which was 5d,the limited shelf life was 6 d.The CK group was 2 d.Sensory assessment had very significant correlations with TVB-N,MDA content and total plate count(all of R 2 exceeded-0.947,P〈0.01).Several chemical qualities of crayfish meat,ie weight loss,pH,were stabilized during storage.TVB-N and total plate count were potential to act as the chemical indexes of assessing the qualities of cooked crayfish meat,while the limited values were TVB-N 30 mg/100 g and total plate count 6 logcfu/g.The freezing treatment was a effective method to lengthen the shelf life of cooked crayfish meat under 4 ℃ storage and was applied in the keeping fresh of the cooked seafood.%以熟制克氏原螯虾(Procambarus clarkia)虾肉为原料,分别进行缓慢冷冻和快速冷冻处理后,于4℃下贮藏,通过感官评价、理化指标和微生物指标的测定,研究冷冻处理的熟制虾肉的货架期和品质。研究发现:快速冷冻处理虾肉的品质优于缓慢冷冻处理,但两者的货架期均为5d,6d为可接受的限值,未经冷冻处理的虾肉货架期为2d。感官评分值与TVB-N,MDA含量和菌落总数均有极显著的负相关,R2均在-0.947以上(P〈0.01)。快速冷冻组虾肉在贮藏期间失重率和pH值稳定。TVB-N和菌落总数有望作为评价熟制虾肉品质的化学指标,TVB-N值为30mg/100g和菌落总数为6logcfu/g可作为熟制虾肉可接受的限值。冷冻处理有效的延长了熟制虾肉在4℃贮藏条件的货架期,可作为一种处理手段应用于熟制水产品的保鲜。

  6. A quasi-Delphi study on technological barriers to the uptake of hydrogen as a fuel for transport applications - Production, storage and fuel cell drivetrain considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, David; Vuille, Francois [E4tech Sarl, Avenue Juste-Olivier 2, 1006 Lausanne (Switzerland); Anghel, Alexandra T.; Huijsmans, Joep [Shell Hydrogen B.V., Carel van Bylandtlaan 23, 2596 HR The Hague (Netherlands)

    2009-08-01

    The introduction of hydrogen in transport, particularly using fuel cell vehicles, faces a number of technical and non-technical hurdles. However, their relative importance is unclear, as are the levels of concern accorded them within the expert community conducting research and development within this area. To understand what issues are considered by experts working in the field to have significant potential to slow down or prevent the introduction of hydrogen technology in transport, a study was undertaken, primarily during 2007. Three key technology areas within hydrogen transport were selected - hydrogen storage, fuel cell drivetrains, and small-scale hydrogen production - and interviews with selected experts conducted. Forty-nine experts from 34 organisations within the fuel cell, automotive, industrial gas and other related industries participated, in addition to some key academic and government figures. The survey was conducted in China, Japan, North America and Europe, and analysed using conventional mathematical techniques to provide weighted and averaged rankings of issues viewed as important by the experts. It became clear both from the interviews and the subsequent analysis that while a primary concern in China was fundamental technical performance, in the other regions cost and policy were rated more highly. Although a few individual experts identified possible technical showstoppers, the overall message was that pre-commercial hydrogen fuel cell vehicles could realistically be on the road in tens of thousands within 5 years, and that full commercialisation could take place within 10-15 years, without the need for radical technical breakthroughs. Perhaps surprisingly, the performance of hydrogen storage technologies was not viewed as a showstopper, though cost was seen as a significant challenge. Overall, however, coherent policy development was more frequently identified as a major issue to address. (author)

  7. Cell viability - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Open... Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Cell viability - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive ...

  8. Cell sample - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Open...ase Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Cell sample - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive ...

  9. Long-Life MEAs and Catalysts for PEM Electrolyzers/Fuel Cells Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nanostructured Thin Films (NSTF), used as substrates for catalysts, have proven to be highly active for oxygen reduction in fuel cells. This improvement in activity...

  10. Scale-free flow of life: on the biology, economics, and physics of the cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurakin Alexei

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present work is intended to demonstrate that most of the paradoxes, controversies, and contradictions accumulated in molecular and cell biology over many years of research can be readily resolved if the cell and living systems in general are re-interpreted within an alternative paradigm of biological organization that is based on the concepts and empirical laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In addition to resolving paradoxes and controversies, the proposed re-conceptualization of the cell and biological organization reveals hitherto unappreciated connections among many seemingly disparate phenomena and observations, and provides new and powerful insights into the universal principles governing the emergence and organizational dynamics of living systems on each and every scale of biological organizational hierarchy, from proteins and cells to economies and ecologies.

  11. T and B cell cooperation: a dance of life and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Alain; Coitot, Sylvie; Brémont, Aurore; Bernard, Ghislaine

    2005-02-15

    In order for the body to develop a good antibody response, B cells need to react intimately with antigen specific T cells. Experimental evidence using hapten-carriers revealed that T and B cells do not recognize the same epitope and this led to the view that the physical contact is mediated by the antigen. Although the modern concept of antigen presentation has changed our perception on how the antigen can bridge both cells, the basic virtues of earlier bridging models remain. Over the past few years, a number of surface ligand-receptor pathways have been described, most of them belonging either to the CD28/B7 Ig or to the TNF/TNFR-like families. These act in concert, whether they are agonist or antagonist, in a timely and spatially organized manner. They form cascades of successive induction and recruitment to ensure that T-B cooperation is closely controlled at all stages of antibody induction. PMID:15699753

  12. 1-MCP处理对乍娜葡萄常温货架期保鲜效果的研究%The Effect of 1-MCP on Zana Grape Fruit during Shelf Life Storage under Room Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志文; 张平; 王罡; 田海龙; 任朝晖; 朱志强

    2012-01-01

    ;Table grape (Vitis vinifera) Zana were analyzed to determine the effect of 0.5 μl/L and 1.0 μl/L 1-MCP treatment under normal temperature storage on postharvest quality and physiology index of fruit. The result showed that, both of concentrations could decrease the decay rate, thresh rate, stem browning index and weight loss rate at normal temperature, and delayed the decrease of solid content and VC content. 1-MCP treatment could also inhibit increase of TA content at the later period of grape self-life. The quality of grape fruit in shelf life had been also increased. Effect of 1-MCP treatment with 1 μL/L was better than 0.5 μL/L treatment.%以乍娜葡萄为试材,研究0.5μL/L和1.0μL/L两种浓度的1-MCP处理对葡萄采后常温(25±0.5)℃货架期的主要品质及相关生理指标的作用效果.结果表明:两种浓度的1-MCP处理均能在不同程度上降低常温贮藏条件下葡萄果实的腐烂率、脱粒率、果梗褐变指数和果穗失重率,延缓葡萄果实可溶性固形物和VC含量的下降,抑制货架后期可滴定酸含量的增加,提高果实货架期的品质.其中以1 μL/L浓度1-MCP处理的作用效果为好.

  13. 牛油火锅底料品质变化特征及货架期预测%Quality Changes during Storage and Shelf Life Prediction of Butter Hotpot Seasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽兰; 尼海峰; 闫志农; 卢晓黎

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated changes in the sensory quality, acid value, peroxide value and total bacterial count of butter hotpot seasoning during storage at different temperatures (5, 25 ℃ and 37 ℃). Acid value was found to be a reliable indicator for predicting the shelf life of butter hotpot seasoning. A kinetic model of acid value for predicting the shelf life of butter hotpot seasoning was developed with E (activation energy) and K0 (regression coefficient) of 21.82 J/mol and 32.62, respectively. The reliability of the prediction model was validated.%以牛油火锅底料为研究对象,在不同贮藏温度(5、25、37℃)条件,对牛油火锅底料的感官品质、酸价、过氧化值及菌落总数变化情况进行研究。结果表明预测牛油火锅底料货架期采用酸价变化动力学模型较为可靠。以酸价为指标建立动力学模型预测牛油火锅底料的货架期,模型的活化能(E)和回归系数(K0)分别为21.82J/mol和32.62。经验证,此动力学模型可较准确的预测火锅底料货架期。

  14. Early life ethanol exposure causes long-lasting disturbances in rat mesenchymal stem cells via epigenetic modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ethanol exposure alters proliferation and differentiation of MSCs. • Ethanol exposure suppresses osteogenesis and adipogenesis of MSCs. • H3K27me3-associated genes/pathways are affected in ethanol-exposed MSCs. • Expression of lineage-specific genes is dysregulated in ethanol-exposed MSCs. - Abstract: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a birth defect due to maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the main somatic stem cells in adults and may contribute to tissue homeostasis and repair in adulthood, we investigated whether early life ethanol exposure affects MSCs and contributes to the propensity for disease onset in later life. Using a rodent model of FAS, we found that ethanol exposure (5.25 g/kg/day) from postnatal days 4 to 9 in rat pups (mimic of human third trimester) caused long-term anomalies in bone marrow-derived MSCs. MSCs isolated from ethanol-exposed animals were prone to neural induction but resistant to osteogenic and adipogenic inductions compared to their age-matched controls. The altered differentiation may contribute to the severe trabecular bone loss seen in ethanol-exposed animals at 3 months of age as well as overt growth retardation. Expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, aP2, and PPARγ were substantially inhibited, but BDNF was up-regulated in MSCs isolated from ethanol-exposed 3 month-old animals. Several signaling pathways were distorted in ethanol-exposed MSCs via altered trimethylation at histone 3 lysine 27. These results demonstrate that early life ethanol exposure can have long-term impacts in rat MSCs by both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms

  15. Early life ethanol exposure causes long-lasting disturbances in rat mesenchymal stem cells via epigenetic modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leu, Yu-Wei [Department of Life Science and Institute of Molecular Biology, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China); Chu, Pei-Yi [Department of Pathology, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Min [Division of Neurosurgery, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Kun-Tu [Department of Pathology, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yu Ming; Lee, Yen-Hui; Kuo, Shan-Tsu [Department of Life Science and Institute of Molecular Biology, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, Shu-Huei, E-mail: bioshh@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Life Science and Institute of Molecular Biology, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • Ethanol exposure alters proliferation and differentiation of MSCs. • Ethanol exposure suppresses osteogenesis and adipogenesis of MSCs. • H3K27me3-associated genes/pathways are affected in ethanol-exposed MSCs. • Expression of lineage-specific genes is dysregulated in ethanol-exposed MSCs. - Abstract: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a birth defect due to maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the main somatic stem cells in adults and may contribute to tissue homeostasis and repair in adulthood, we investigated whether early life ethanol exposure affects MSCs and contributes to the propensity for disease onset in later life. Using a rodent model of FAS, we found that ethanol exposure (5.25 g/kg/day) from postnatal days 4 to 9 in rat pups (mimic of human third trimester) caused long-term anomalies in bone marrow-derived MSCs. MSCs isolated from ethanol-exposed animals were prone to neural induction but resistant to osteogenic and adipogenic inductions compared to their age-matched controls. The altered differentiation may contribute to the severe trabecular bone loss seen in ethanol-exposed animals at 3 months of age as well as overt growth retardation. Expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, aP2, and PPARγ were substantially inhibited, but BDNF was up-regulated in MSCs isolated from ethanol-exposed 3 month-old animals. Several signaling pathways were distorted in ethanol-exposed MSCs via altered trimethylation at histone 3 lysine 27. These results demonstrate that early life ethanol exposure can have long-term impacts in rat MSCs by both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms.

  16. Conceptual designs for utility load-leveling battery with Li/FeS cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zivi, S. M.; Kacinskas, H.; Pollack, I.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Grieve, W.; McFarland, B. L.; Sudar, S.

    1980-07-01

    In 1978, a conceptual design of a 100 MW-h load-leveling battery system having Li alloy/FeS cells was developed as a result of a joint effort between ANL and Rockwell International. In this conceptual design, the submodule, which was the basic replaceable unit for the system, had a capacity of 240 kW-h and consisted of ninety-six 2.5 kW-h cells. However, a study by Rockwell indicated that the cost for battery hardware, $60 to 80/kW-h (cells and converters not included), was too high. Most of this cost was contributed by the submodule structure and the charge equalization scheme, which was the same as that developed for electric-vehicle batteries. In 1979, subsequent efforts were concentrated on lowering these hardware costs and resulted in the development of three modified designs, which are presented in this report. The first, developed at ANL, consisted of a 30 kW-h cell/submodule and the electric-vehicle equalization scheme. The hardware cost for this modified design was quite low, about $25/kW-h; however, this design was eventually rejected owing to the apparent impracticality of such a large cell. The two other modified designs had more conservative cell designs. One of them, developed at ANL, consisted of a 120 kW-h submodule consisting of one hundred 1.2 kW-h cells; the other, developed at Rockwell, consisted of a 1020 kW-h submodule consisting of four hundred and eight 2.5 kW-h cells. For both of these designs, an alternative method of equalization, in which fixed resistance shunts are used on each cell, was proposed; this equalization method adds little equipment cost to the system and only sacrifices about 4% of the coulombic and energy efficiencies. The cost of battery hardware for these two designs was estimated to be acceptable, about $22 to 60/kW-h. Some questions remain on the assumed capabilities of the cells and the feasibility of the battery hardware.

  17. A curated transcriptome dataset collection to investigate the functional programming of human hematopoietic cells in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahbuba; Boughorbel, Sabri; Presnell, Scott; Quinn, Charlie; Cugno, Chiara; Chaussabel, Damien; Marr, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Compendia of large-scale datasets made available in public repositories provide an opportunity to identify and fill gaps in biomedical knowledge. But first, these data need to be made readily accessible to research investigators for interpretation. Here we make available a collection of transcriptome datasets to investigate the functional programming of human hematopoietic cells in early life. Thirty two datasets were retrieved from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and loaded in a custom web application called the Gene Expression Browser (GXB), which was designed for interactive query and visualization of integrated large-scale data. Quality control checks were performed. Multiple sample groupings and gene rank lists were created allowing users to reveal age-related differences in transcriptome profiles, changes in the gene expression of neonatal hematopoietic cells to a variety of immune stimulators and modulators, as well as during cell differentiation. Available demographic, clinical, and cell phenotypic information can be overlaid with the gene expression data and used to sort samples. Web links to customized graphical views can be generated and subsequently inserted in manuscripts to report novel findings. GXB also enables browsing of a single gene across projects, thereby providing new perspectives on age- and developmental stage-specific expression of a given gene across the human hematopoietic system. This dataset collection is available at: http://developmentalimmunology.gxbsidra.org/dm3/geneBrowser/list. PMID:27347375

  18. Transcriptome analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis spore life, germination and cell outgrowth in a vegetable-based food model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Daniela; Colla, Francesca; Gazzola, Simona; Puglisi, Edoardo; Delledonne, Massimo; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro

    2016-05-01

    Toxigenic species belonging to Bacillus cereus sensu lato, including Bacillus thuringiensis, cause foodborne outbreaks thanks to their capacity to survive as spores and to grow in food matrixes. The goal of this work was to assess by means of a genome-wide transcriptional assay, in the food isolate B. thuringiensis UC10070, the gene expression behind the process of spore germination and consequent outgrowth in a vegetable-based food model. Scanning electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis were applied to select the key steps of B. thuringiensis UC10070 cell cycle to be analyzed with DNA-microarrays. At only 40 min from heat activation, germination started rapidly and in less than two hours spores transformed in active growing cells. A total of 1646 genes were found to be differentially expressed and modulated during the entire B. cereus life cycle in the food model, with most of the significant genes belonging to transport, transcriptional regulation and protein synthesis, cell wall and motility and DNA repair groups. Gene expression studies revealed that toxin-coding genes nheC, cytK and hblC were found to be expressed in vegetative cells growing in the food model.

  19. Channels and Volume Changes in the Life and Death of the Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasantes-Morales, Herminia

    2016-09-01

    Volume changes deviating from original cell volume represent a major challenge for cellular homeostasis. Cell volume may be altered either by variations in the external osmolarity or by disturbances in the transmembrane ion gradients that generate an osmotic imbalance. Cells respond to anisotonicity-induced volume changes by active regulatory mechanisms that modify the intracellular/extracellular concentrations of K(+), Cl(-), Na(+), and organic osmolytes in the direction necessary to reestablish the osmotic equilibrium. Corrective osmolyte fluxes permeate across channels that have a relevant role in cell volume regulation. Channels also participate as causal actors in necrotic swelling and apoptotic volume decrease. This is an overview of the types of channels involved in either corrective or pathologic changes in cell volume. The review also underlines the contribution of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, notably TRPV4, in volume regulation after swelling and describes the role of other TRPs in volume changes linked to apoptosis and necrosis. Lastly we discuss findings showing that multimers derived from LRRC8A (leucine-rich repeat containing 8A) gene are structural components of the volume-regulated Cl(-) channel (VRAC), and we underline the intriguing possibility that different heteromer combinations comprise channels with different intrinsic properties that allow permeation of the heterogenous group of molecules acting as organic osmolytes. PMID:27358231

  20. Effect of prestorage curing on storage life, internal and external qualities of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Efeito da cura antes do armazenameto no prazo de conservação, qualidades internas e externas da laranja doce (Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Titilola Aborisade

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Orange fruits from two seasons, in April and August 2006 representing late 2005 and early 2006 harvests respectively were cured in hot air at 36-37(0C to 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% weight loss before storage at 28(0C and 86% relative humidity (RH. The fruits were observed for incidence of decay, further weight loss, juice content, firmness or softening of the peel, total soluble solids (TSS, pH, titratable acidity, and colour during storage. Curing reduced the incidence of decay. All control fruits were rotten by day 21 in August harvest while 22.5% of the control was rotten by day 56 in the April harvest. Storage life was extended beyond 56 days in fruits cured with 1, 3, 5 and 7% in April harvest as there was no decay throughout, while decay incidence in August harvest was 88.9, 61.1, 22.2 and 31.3% in 1, 3, 5 and 7% respectively. Penicillium digitatum, Phytophthora sp., Alternaria citri and Collectotrichum gloeosporioides were among decay causing moulds detected. Control fruits lost more weight during storage than cured fruits did. Fruit rind hardening was more noticed in the control and those cured to 1% weight loss, especially from the April harvest. It was insignificant in other treatments in both trials. Titratable acidity, pH, juice content and TSS were not affected by the treatment. Colour change to yellow was however retarded by curing. Curing to 5% weight loss was best for decay control and quality retention.Frutos de laranjas de duas safras, de Abril e de Agosto de 2006 representando colheitas do final de 2005 e começo de 2006 respectivamente foram curados em ar quente a 36-37(0C até a perda de peso de 1%, 3%, 5% e 7% antes do armazenamento a 28(0C e 86% de umidade relativa (UR. Os frutos foram observados quanto à incidência de apodrecimento, mais tarde perda de peso, conteúdo de suco, firmeza ou amolecimento da casca, sólidos solúveis totais (TSS, pH, acidez titúlavel, e coloração durante o armazenamento. A cura diminuiu a incid

  1. T helper cell 2 immune skewing in pregnancy/early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McFadden, J P; Thyssen, J P; Basketter, D A;

    2015-01-01

    During the last 50 years there has been a significant increase in Western societies of atopic disease and associated allergy. The balance between functional subpopulations of T helper cells (Th) determines the quality of the immune response provoked by antigen. One such subpopulation - Th2 cells...... - is associated with the production of IgE antibody and atopic allergy, whereas, Th1 cells antagonize IgE responses and the development of allergic disease. In seeking to provide a mechanistic basis for this increased prevalence of allergic disease, one proposal has been the 'hygiene hypothesis', which argues...... that the more marked Th2 skewing observed in first pregnancy may, at least in part, explain the higher prevalence of atopic disease and allergy in the first born....

  2. Life Time Performance Characterization of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells for Hydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiufu; Chen, Ming; Liu, Yi-Lin;

    2015-01-01

    is needed. Solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) offer a promising technological solution for efficient energy conversion and production of hydrogen or syngas (mixture of H2 and CO) using excess electricity from renewable energy sources. For SOECs to become commercially interesting, performance, durability...... densities up to -1 A/cm2. The long-term degradation is dominated by increase in serial resistance, which can be associated to a great extent with microstructure changes in the active Ni/YSZ electrode, namely Ni loss (directly reflected by an increase in the porosity) and Ni re-distribution. Operating...... generation SOEC cells produced at DTU are able to be operated at current density up to ~-0.9 A/cm2, in order to achieve a commercialization target of 5 years lifetime (for continuous electrolysis operation of hydrogen production). The cells can be operated at even higher current density, if the hydrogen...

  3. Programmed cell death: The life ambition of the barley aleurone layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Zor, Kinga; Heiskanen, Arto;

    We have developed a 24-well multiplate tissue culture system with electrochemical and optical detection techniques for cultivation of immobilised barley aleurone layers. We have applied the system for the purpose of studying the underlying mechanisms of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. We...... have optimised an electrochemical, intracellular, whole-cell redox activity assay [1] that probes the NAD(P):NAD(P)H ratio via a double-mediator system. Experiments show that redox activity changes depend on phytohormone activation or inactivation of aleurone layer metabolism and subsequent PCD. We...... have successfully applied a fluorescent double-probe system [2] to detect PCD to ensure that our redox activity data match with known responses of barley aleurone layers to phytohormones. We have also used the system for transformation of barley aleurone cells with α-amylase-GFP constructs...

  4. Respiratory chain complexes in dynamic mitochondria display a patchy distribution in life cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Muster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondria, the main suppliers of cellular energy, are dynamic organelles that fuse and divide frequently. Constraining these processes impairs mitochondrial is closely linked to certain neurodegenerative diseases. It is proposed that functional mitochondrial dynamics allows the exchange of compounds thereby providing a rescue mechanism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The question discussed in this paper is whether fusion and fission of mitochondria in different cell lines result in re-localization of respiratory chain (RC complexes and of the ATP synthase. This was addressed by fusing cells containing mitochondria with respiratory complexes labelled with different fluorescent proteins and resolving their time dependent re-localization in living cells. We found a complete reshuffling of RC complexes throughout the entire chondriome in single HeLa cells within 2-3 h by organelle fusion and fission. Polykaryons of fused cells completely re-mixed their RC complexes in 10-24 h in a progressive way. In contrast to the recently described homogeneous mixing of matrix-targeted proteins or outer membrane proteins, the distribution of RC complexes and ATP synthase in fused hybrid mitochondria, however, was not homogeneous but patterned. Thus, complete equilibration of respiratory chain complexes as integral inner mitochondrial membrane complexes is a slow process compared with matrix proteins probably limited by complete fusion. In co-expressing cells, complex II is more homogenously distributed than complex I and V, resp. Indeed, this result argues for higher mobility and less integration in supercomplexes. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results clearly demonstrate that mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics favours the re-mixing of all RC complexes within the chondriome. This permanent mixing avoids a static situation with a fixed composition of RC complexes per mitochondrion.

  5. A new platelet storage lesion index based on paired samples, without and with EDTA and cell counting: comparison of three types of leukoreduced preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghatchian, Jerard

    2006-12-01

    Platelets derived from whole blood and diverse apheresis procedures come in contact with various artificial surfaces and undergo contact activation, sheer stress-induced shape changes, aggregation and microvesiculation during collection, processing and storage. These dynamic changes are qualitatively reflected in the log-normal platelet size distribution patterns seen, when using modern automated cell counters and can be measured quantitatively by counting the paired samples, without and with added EDTA, and calculating the differences (d) in platelet cellular indices (dPLT/dMPV/dPDW). Reporting the differences instead of the absolute values of cellular indices makes the measurements independent of basic principles used for cell counting (i.e. aperture-impedance or flow-optic). The measurements can be performed either in blood centres, hospital blood banks or nearby patient clinics equipped with a validated cell counter. At least three useful quality indices could be derived simultaneously from this procedure (accurate estimation of platelet yields using the value of the EDTA-containing sample); quantitative assessment of the % of reversible platelet aggregates, an age/pH/temperature-dependent degree of microvesiculation/apoptosis/PS exposure, based on the response to EDTA. This new set of indices correlate significantly with other conventional tests for platelet quality; hence, provide additional supportive evidence for confirming the low pH values and the subjective poor swirling data occasionally seen with stored PC. In the following study, the Sysmex SE 9000 was successfully employed for estimation of platelet cellular indices comparing the platelet storage lesion index of three types of leukoreduced platelet concentrates in current practice. The relationship between this in vitro response to clinical outcome remains to be established. PMID:17113347

  6. Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung-Min; Shin, Jin-Ho; Bak, Da-Jeong; Kim, Na-Kyeong; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Yang, Cheul-Young; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at 10℃ and 15℃ had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at 25℃ and 35℃ had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitore...

  7. What is the maximum time that a unit of red blood cells can be safely left out of controlled temperature storage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunskill, Susan; Thomas, Stephen; Whitmore, Emma; McDonald, Carl P; Dorée, Carolyn; Hopewell, Sally; Staves, Julie; Cardigan, Rebecca; Murphy, Michael F

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to identify and analyze the evidence base supporting the "30-minute" and "4-hour" rules in transfusion medicine. The 30-minute rule states that red blood cell (RBC) units left out of controlled temperature storage for more than 30 minutes should not be returned to storage for reissue; the 4-hour rule states that transfusion of RBC units should be completed within 4 hours of their removal from controlled temperature storage. Eligible studies were identified from searches (to October 2010) of a range of electronic databases (including The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the National Health Service Blood and Transplant's Transfusion Evidence Library) and contact with transfusion medicine and blood bank experts. Twenty-three studies were identified that measured the quality of the RBC unit (n = 19), bacterial contamination in the RBC unit (n = 4), or both (n = 2) after exposure to greater than 4 °C ± 2 °C from between 20 minutes to 42 days. The overall finding was that temperature exposure did not adversely affect the quality of the RBC units or result in significant bacterial contamination. However, the variation in the temperature of exposure, its duration, the amount of data reported by the individual studies, and the age of the studies (and thus their comparability to current clinical practice) make it difficult to draw significant conclusions. To reliably determine whether these time "rules" could be extended without an adverse risk to the RBC unit requires robust, modern studies using multiple combinations of blood, anticoagulant, and additive solutions with defined temperatures and times of exposure. PMID:22119493

  8. Proposal of the visual inspection of the integrity of the storage cells of spent fuel from the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde; Propuesta para la inspeccion visual de la integridad de las celdas de almacenamiento de combustible gastado de la Central Laguna Verde (CLV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, J. L.; Rivero G, T.; Merino C, F. J. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Santander C, L. E., E-mail: francisco.merino@inin.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Veracruz-Medellin Km 7.5, Col. Dos Bocas, 94271 Medellin, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    As part of the evaluation of the structural integrity of the components of nuclear plants, particularly those applying for life extension is necessary to carry out inspections and nondestructive testing to determine the state meet. In many cases these activities are carried out in areas with high levels of radiation and contamination difficult to access, so that are required to use equipment or robotic systems operated remotely. Among others, the frames and cells of the storage pools for spent fuel are structures subject to a program of tests and inspections, and become relevant because the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-LV) is processing the license to extend the operational life of its reactors. Of non-destructive testing can be used to verify the physical condition of the frames and storage cells, is the remote visual inspection which is a test that allows determine the physical integrity of the components by one or more video cameras designed to applications in underwater environments with radiation, and are used to identify and locate adverse conditions such as ampoules, protuberances, pitting, cracks, stains or buckling, which could affect the three main functions for which the store components are designed: to maintain the physical integrity of spent fuels, store them properly guaranteeing their free insertion and removal, and ensure that the store as a whole meets the criticality criteria that k{sub eff} is less than 0.95 throughout the life of the plant. This paper describes a proposal to carry out the visual inspection of the storage cells of spent fuel from the NPP-LV using a probe including one or more video cameras along with your recorder, and its corresponding control program. It is noted that due to the obtained results, the nuclear power plant personnel can make decisions regarding remedial actions or applying complementary methods to verify that the cells and frames have not lost their physical integrity, or in particular that the cover

  9. Growth, endocrine function and quality of life after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Boudewijn

    2006-01-01

    This thesis contains the results of several studies on the long-term consequences of the myeloablative conditioning for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) during infancy and childhood, with the emphasis on late effects on endocrine functions. After a general introduction, effects of tot

  10. Human breast microvascular endothelial cells retain phenotypic traits in long-term finite life span culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Valgardur; Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Kjartansson, Jens;

    2007-01-01

    Attempts to study endothelial-epithelial interactions in the human breast have been hampered by lack of protocols for long-term cultivation of breast endothelial cells (BRENCs). The aim of this study was to establish long-term cultures of BRENCs and to compare their phenotypic traits with the tis......Attempts to study endothelial-epithelial interactions in the human breast have been hampered by lack of protocols for long-term cultivation of breast endothelial cells (BRENCs). The aim of this study was to establish long-term cultures of BRENCs and to compare their phenotypic traits...... with the tissue of origin. Microvasculature was localized in situ by immunohistochemistry in breast samples. From this tissue, collagen-rich stroma and adipose tissue were dissected mechanically and further disaggregated to release microvessel organoids. BRENCs were cultured from these organoids in endothelial......-galactosidase staining. We demonstrate here that breast microvasculature may serve as a large-scale source for expansion of BRENCs with molecular and functional traits preserved. These cells will form the basis for studies on the role of endothelial cells in breast morphogenesis....

  11. Incineration of organic solar cells: Efficient end of life management by quantitative silver recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar R.; Zimmermann, Yannick Serge; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves;

    2016-01-01

    by a factor of 100-150. LCA studies show that the resulting environmental impacts from silver extraction of incinerated ashes are more favourable on almost all standard factors compared to extraction from shredded organic solar cells. The so lessened environmental impacts by efficient recovery fully justify...

  12. Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    This U.S. DRIVE electrochemical energy storage roadmap describes ongoing and planned efforts to develop electrochemical energy storage technologies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The Energy Storage activity comprises a number of research areas (including advanced materials research, cell level research, battery development, and enabling R&D which includes analysis, testing and other activities) for advanced energy storage technologies (batteries and ultra-capacitors).

  13. Niemann-Pick disease, type B with TRAP-positive storage cells and secondary sea blue histiocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Saxena

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present 2 cases of Niemann Pick disease, type B with secondary sea-blue histiocytosis. Strikingly, in both cases the Pick cells were positive for tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, a finding hitherto described only in Gaucher cells. This report highlights the importance of this finding as a potential cytochemical diagnostic pitfall in the diagnosis of Niemann Pick disease.

  14. Niemann-Pick disease, type B with TRAP-positive storage cells and secondary sea blue histiocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    R. Saxena; Pati, H. P.; Dutta, S.; Kar, R.; Sharma, P.

    2009-01-01

    We present 2 cases of Niemann Pick disease, type B with secondary sea-blue histiocytosis. Strikingly, in both cases the Pick cells were positive for tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, a finding hitherto described only in Gaucher cells. This report highlights the importance of this finding as a potential cytochemical diagnostic pitfall in the diagnosis of Niemann Pick disease.

  15. Self organization of understanding, consciousness, emotions and knowledge: Cell, brain, mind, sex, life

    OpenAIRE

    Souček, Branko

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: This work develops the new intelligence Self Organization, SO; theory and practice. Materials and Methods: The experimental data and the theoretical results come from the animal and human cell, brain, mind and sex: firefly, katydid, frog, bird, rodent, human prefrontal cortex. Results: SO is a never ending, chaotic process that grows from the bottom up, without the leader or central control. It combines the inherited instructions and rules into complex processes ...

  16. Life-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emission and energy efficiency of hydrogen fuel cell scooters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jenn Jiang [Department of Greenergy, National University of Taiwan, Tainan (China); Chang, Wei Ru [Department of Landscape Architecture, FuJen Catholic University, Taipei (China)

    2010-11-15

    The well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy conservation and greenhouse gas emission of advanced scooters associated with new transportation fuels is studied in the present work. Focus is placed on fuel cell scooter technologies, while the gasoline-powered scooter equipped with an internal combustion engine (ICE) serves as a reference technology. The effect of various pathways of hydrogen production on the well-to-tank (WTT) efficiency for energy is examined. Both near-term and long-term hydrogen production options are explored, such as purification of coke oven gas (COG), steam reforming of natural gas, water electrolysis by generation mix and renewable electricity, and gasification of herbaceous biomass. Then, the WTW efficiency of fuel cell scooters for various hydrogen production options is compared with that of the conventional ICE scooters and electric scooters. Results showed that the fuel cell scooters fueled with COG-based hydrogen could achieve the highest reduction benefits in energy consumption and GHG emission. Finally, the potential for hydrogen production from COG resulting from the coking process in steelworks is evaluated, which is anticipated as a near-term hydrogen production for helping transition to a hydrogen energy economy in Taiwan. (author)

  17. Early-life origins of type 2 diabetes: fetal programming of the beta-cell mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portha, Bernard; Chavey, Audrey; Movassat, Jamileh

    2011-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence suggests that an abnormal intrauterine milieu elicited by maternal metabolic disturbances as diverse as undernutrition, placental insufficiency, diabetes or obesity, may program susceptibility in the fetus to later develop chronic degenerative diseases, such as obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. This paper examines the developmental programming of glucose intolerance/diabetes by disturbed intrauterine metabolic condition experimentally obtained in various rodent models of maternal protein restriction, caloric restriction, overnutrition or diabetes, with a focus on the alteration of the developing beta-cell mass. In most of the cases, whatever the type of initial maternal metabolic stress, the beta-cell adaptive growth which normally occurs during gestation, does not take place in the pregnant offspring and this results in the development of gestational diabetes. Therefore gestational diabetes turns to be the ultimate insult targeting the offspring beta-cell mass and propagates diabetes risk to the next generation again. The aetiology and the transmission of spontaneous diabetes as encountered in the GK/Par rat model of type 2 diabetes, are discussed in such a perspective. This review also discusses the non-genomic mechanisms involved in the installation of the programmed effect as well as in its intergenerational transmission.

  18. Early-Life Origins of Type 2 Diabetes: Fetal Programming of the Beta-Cell Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Portha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A substantial body of evidence suggests that an abnormal intrauterine milieu elicited by maternal metabolic disturbances as diverse as undernutrition, placental insufficiency, diabetes or obesity, may program susceptibility in the fetus to later develop chronic degenerative diseases, such as obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. This paper examines the developmental programming of glucose intolerance/diabetes by disturbed intrauterine metabolic condition experimentally obtained in various rodent models of maternal protein restriction, caloric restriction, overnutrition or diabetes, with a focus on the alteration of the developing beta-cell mass. In most of the cases, whatever the type of initial maternal metabolic stress, the beta-cell adaptive growth which normally occurs during gestation, does not take place in the pregnant offspring and this results in the development of gestational diabetes. Therefore gestational diabetes turns to be the ultimate insult targeting the offspring beta-cell mass and propagates diabetes risk to the next generation again. The aetiology and the transmission of spontaneous diabetes as encountered in the GK/Par rat model of type 2 diabetes, are discussed in such a perspective. This review also discusses the non-genomic mechanisms involved in the installation of the programmed effect as well as in its intergenerational transmission.

  19. Future thrusts of the NASA space power program. [with emphasis on electrochemical energy conversion and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, L.

    1978-01-01

    General objectives and plan directions are given for current program support in the following areas: (1) solar cells and arrays; (2) batteries and fuel cells; (3) thermoelectric, thermionic, and Brayton cycle conversion systems; (4) circuits and subsystems for the management and distribution of power; and (5) the interactions of the environment with the power system and the spacecraft. Particular emphasis is given to the electrochemical energy conversion storage portion of the program where efforts are directed to improving the energy density and life of nickel cadmium batteries, to validating flight-weight silver hydrogen cells, to promoting the safe use of lithium primary batteries, to completing the silver zinc batteries and the orbital transfer fuel cell technology, to increasing the capacity of space batteries, to and to evaluating new electrochemical concepts for very high energy density. The use of the fuel cell electrolyzer concept for energy storage in both the dedicated and the truly regenerative mode is also being investigated.

  20. Comparative assessment of hydrogen storage and international electricity trade for a Danish energy system with wind power and hydrogen/fuel cell technologies. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Bent (Roskilde University, Energy, Environment and Climate Group, Dept. of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change (ENSPAC) (DK)); Meibom, P.; Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Karlsson, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Systems Analysis Dept., Roskilde (DK)); Hauge Pedersen, A. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (DK)); Lindboe, H.H.; Bregnebaek, L. (ea Energy Analysis, Copenhagen (DK))

    2008-02-15

    This report is the final outcome of a project carried out under the Danish Energy Agency's Energy Research Programme. The aims of the project can be summarized as follows: 1) Simulation of an energy system with a large share of wind power and possibly hydrogen, including economic optimization through trade at the Nordic power pool (exchange market) and/or use of hydrogen storage. The time horizon is 50 years. 2) Formulating new scenarios for situations with and without development of viable fuel cell technologies. 3) Updating software to solve the abovementioned problems. The project has identified a range of scenarios for all parts of the energy system, including most visions of possible future developments. (BA)

  1. Quality of life and use of red cell transfusion in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchon, Deborah J; Stanworth, Simon J; Dorée, Carolyn; Brunskill, Susan; Norfolk, Derek R

    2009-10-01

    The main treatment for many patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) remains red cell transfusion to attenuate the symptoms of chronic anemia. Fatigue can reduce a patient's health related quality of life (HRQoL), but there is little understanding of the optimal use of transfusions to improve this. A systematic review was performed to identify and appraise publications reporting the use of HRQoL instruments in patients with MDS. A total of 17 separate studies were identified that used 14 HRQoL instruments, but only one MDS disease specific HRQoL instrument (QOL-E) was reported. Two well established HRQoL instruments were most often used in MDS research (variants of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30)). Several common problems were identified in the published literature including a lack of power calculations to detect clinically relevant changes, small sample sizes and significant attrition rates for completion of HRQoL assessments, all of which limit the strength of any conclusions. There is no consensus on the optimal transfusion regimen to improve HRQoL in transfusion-dependent MDS. Future research into HRQoL within MDS is a pressing requirement. Studies should focus on the domains that are of most clinical importance to the patient as well as traditional quantitative changes of hemoglobin concentration. PMID:19705430

  2. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamic analysis of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng; Babbitt, Callie W; Trabold, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    A methodology that integrates life cycle assessment (LCA) with thermodynamic analysis is developed and applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of producing biofuels from waste biomass, including biodiesel from waste cooking oil, ethanol from corn stover, and compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes. Solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power units using bio-fuel as the hydrogen precursor enable generation of auxiliary electricity for idling heavy-duty trucks. Thermodynamic analysis is applied to evaluate the fuel conversion efficiency and determine the amount of fuel feedstock needed to generate a unit of electrical power. These inputs feed into an LCA that compares energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of different fuel pathways. Results show that compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes is an optimal bio-fuel option for SOFC-APU applications in New York State. However, this methodology can be regionalized within the U.S. or internationally to account for different fuel feedstock options.

  3. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamic analysis of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng; Babbitt, Callie W; Trabold, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    A methodology that integrates life cycle assessment (LCA) with thermodynamic analysis is developed and applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of producing biofuels from waste biomass, including biodiesel from waste cooking oil, ethanol from corn stover, and compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes. Solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power units using bio-fuel as the hydrogen precursor enable generation of auxiliary electricity for idling heavy-duty trucks. Thermodynamic analysis is applied to evaluate the fuel conversion efficiency and determine the amount of fuel feedstock needed to generate a unit of electrical power. These inputs feed into an LCA that compares energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of different fuel pathways. Results show that compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes is an optimal bio-fuel option for SOFC-APU applications in New York State. However, this methodology can be regionalized within the U.S. or internationally to account for different fuel feedstock options. PMID:23201905

  4. Oil Storage Facilities - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  5. Phthalate Esters Used as Plasticizers in Packed Red Blood Cell Storage Bags May Lead to Progressive Toxin Exposure and the Release of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard T. Rael

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthalate esters (PE's are plasticizers used to soften PVC-based medical devices. PE's are the most abundant man-made pollutants and increase the risk of developing an allergic respiratory disease or a malignancy. The leaching of PE's in donated packed red blood cells (PRBC during storage was assessed. PRBC transfusion bags containing CPD/AS-1 (ADSOL buffer were analyzed. Samples were collected on storage day 1 and day 42. Two PE's, di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LCMS. Interleukin-8 (IL-8 was measured by standard ELISA techniques. DEHP significantly increased from 34.3 µM (±20.0 SD on day 1 to 433.2 µM (±131.2 SD on day 42, a 12.6-fold increase. Similarly, MEHP significantly increased from 3.7 µM (±2.8 SD on day 1 to 74.0 µM (±19.1 SD on day 42, a 20.2-fold increase. Also, DEHP and MEHP increased the release of IL-8 from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. The transfusion of older units of PRBC could lead to an accumulation of PE's possibly resulting in inflammation and other effects. This accumulation could be exacerbated due to the decreased metabolism of PE's since trauma patients have a lower esterase activity, the enzymes responsible for metabolizing PE's. The effect of oxidative stress caused by PE's is discussed as a potential mechanism for increases in inflammation caused by older units of PRBC.

  6. Listeria monocytogenes efficiently invades caco-2 cells after low-temperature storage in broth and on deli meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Koch, Anette Granly; Ingmer, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    infusion broth (BHI) with and without salt. Five strains of L. monocytogenes were selected to investigate their invasiveness and all strains invaded Caco-2 cells at higher levels than INT-407 cells. Further, the clinical strains (3443 and 3734) were more invasive (p ... to invade Caco-2 cells was compared after growth on a fermented sausage and on cured cooked ham to that of bacteria grown in BHI broth supplemented with salt. Samples were stored under chilling conditions for up to 4 weeks. The results showed no difference (p > 0.05) in invasiveness after 7 days at 10......The objective of this study was to investigate how various growth conditions influence the virulence of Listeria monocytogenes monitored by its ability to invade the epithelial cell lines Caco-2 and INT-407. The growth conditions examined were modified atmosphere-packaged deli meat and brain heart...

  7. Effect and Mechanism of Ginsenoside Rg3 on Postoperative Life Span of Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ping; SU Wei; MIAO Zhan-hui; NIU Hong-rui; LIU Jing; HUA Qin-liang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect and mechanism of ginsenoside Rg3 (Shenyi Capsule,参一胶囊) on the postoperative life span of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: The prospective, randomized, controlled method was adopted. One hundred and thirty- three patients with NSCLC were randomly assigned to 3 groups: Shenyi Capsule group (43 cases), combined therapy group (Shenyi Capsule plus chemotherapy, 46 cases), and chemotherapy group (44 cases). The survival rates, immune function and the correlation between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and clinical effect were analyzed in the three groups. Results: (1) The 1-year survival rate in the Shenyi group, the combined group and the chemotherapy group was 76.7% (33/43), 82.6% (38/46), and 79.5% (35/44), respectively; the 2-year survival rate was 67.4% (29/43), 71.7% (33/46), and 70.5% (31/44), respectively; and the 3-year survival rate was 46.5% (20/43), 54.3% (25/46), and 47.7% (21/44), respectively. There was no significant difference among the 3 groups (P>0.05). (2) NK cells were increased to different degrees and the ratio of CD4/CD8 was normal in the Shenyi Capsule group and the combined group, while the ratio of CD4/CD8 was disproportional in the chemotherapy group. (3) In the chemotherapy group, the 3-year survival rate was lower in patients with positive expression of VEGF than in patients with negative expression (37.0% vs 64.7%, ~ 2=17.9, P0.05; 44.4% vs 50.0%, P>0.05). Conclusion: Shenyi Capsule, especially in combination with chemotherapy, can improve the life span of patients with NSCLC after operation. The mechanism might be correlated with improving the immune function and anti-tumor angiogenesis.

  8. Protein restriction in early life is associated with changes in insulin sensitivity and pancreatic β-cell function during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignácio-Souza, Letícia Martins; Reis, Sílvia Regina; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina; Botosso, Bárbara Laet; Veloso, Roberto Vilela; Ferreira, Fabiano; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora de Barros; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz

    2013-01-28

    Malnutrition in early life impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in adulthood. Conversely, pregnancy is associated with a significant increase in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion under conditions of normoglycaemia. A failure in β-cell adaptive changes may contribute to the onset of diabetes. Thus, glucose homeostasis and β-cell function were evaluated in control-fed pregnant (CP) and non-pregnant (CNP) or protein-restricted pregnant (LPP) and non-pregnant (LPNP) rats, from fetal to adult life, and in protein-restricted rats that were recovered after weaning (RP and RNP). The typical insulin resistance of pregnancy was not observed in the RP rats, nor did pregnancy increase the insulin content/islet in the LPP group. The glucose dose-response curves from pregnant rats were shifted to the left in relation to the non-pregnant rats, except in the recovered group. Glucose utilisation but not oxidation in islets from the RP and LPP groups was reduced at a concentration of 8.3 mm-glucose compared with islets from the CP group. Cyclic AMP content and the potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by isobutylmethylxanthine at a concentration of 2.8 mm-glucose indicated increased adenylyl cyclase 3 activity but reduced protein kinase A-α activity in islets from the RP and LPP rats. Protein kinase C (PKC)-α but not phospholipase C (PLC)-β1 expression was reduced in islets from the RP group. Phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate produced a less potent stimulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the RP group. Thus, the alterations exhibited by islets from the LPP group appeared to be due to reduced islet mass and/or insulin biosynthesis. In the RP group the loss of the adaptive capacity apparently resulted from uncoupling between glucose metabolism and the amplifying signals of the secretory process, as well as a severe attenuation of the PLC/PKC pathway. PMID:22475371

  9. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  10. Synthetic Biology and Microbial Fuel Cells: Towards Self-Sustaining Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, John Andrew

    2014-01-01

    NASA ARC and the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) collaborated to investigate the development of advanced microbial fuels cells (MFCs) for biological wastewater treatment and electricity production (electrogenesis). Synthetic biology techniques and integrated hardware advances were investigated to increase system efficiency and robustness, with the intent of increasing power self-sufficiency and potential product formation from carbon dioxide. MFCs possess numerous advantages for space missions, including rapid processing, reduced biomass and effective removal of organics, nitrogen and phosphorus. Project efforts include developing space-based MFC concepts, integration analyses, increasing energy efficiency, and investigating novel bioelectrochemical system applications

  11. 初始气孔率热老化试验研究与应用--预测固体推进剂贮存寿命的一种新方法%HEAT AGEING EXPERIMENT ON INITIAL VOID CONTENT RATE AND IT'S APPLICATION--A NEW METHOD FOR PREDICTING STORAGE LIFE OF SOLID PROPELLANT GRAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鸣; 蔡体敏

    1999-01-01

    通过对固体推进剂药柱进行初始气孔率热老化试验研究,探讨了用累积损伤方法来预测药柱贮存寿命,提出了一种准确、经济、方便地提前预测药柱贮存寿命的新方法和新技术.%A method for predicting the storage life of solid propellant grain by cumulative damage was developed based on heat ageing experiment on initial void content rate of propellant grain,and its application was discussed.A new method which can accurately,economically and conveniently predict the storage life of solid propillant grain was prosoed.

  12. Natural and Treated FeS2 in Li/FeS2 Coin Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Treated FeS2 samples were prepared by natural FeS2 samples which were ground first,heated in nitrogen and then washed in acid. The levels of impurity elements, primarily present as metallic oxides and sulfides, are higher in the natural FeS2 than those in the treated sample. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the grain sizes of treated FeS2 particles are smaller than those of natural FeS2 particles. The electrochemical performance of Li/treated FeS2 cells is attributed to the smaller grain sizes and higher purity of treated FeS2 particles in comparison to the natural FeS2sample.

  13. Partial restoration of mutant enzyme homeostasis in three distinct lysosomal storage disease cell lines by altering calcium homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Wei Mu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A lysosomal storage disease (LSD results from deficient lysosomal enzyme activity, thus the substrate of the mutant enzyme accumulates in the lysosome, leading to pathology. In many but not all LSDs, the clinically most important mutations compromise the cellular folding of the enzyme, subjecting it to endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation instead of proper folding and lysosomal trafficking. A small molecule that restores partial mutant enzyme folding, trafficking, and activity would be highly desirable, particularly if one molecule could ameliorate multiple distinct LSDs by virtue of its mechanism of action. Inhibition of L-type Ca2+ channels, using either diltiazem or verapamil-both US Food and Drug Administration-approved hypertension drugs-partially restores N370S and L444P glucocerebrosidase homeostasis in Gaucher patient-derived fibroblasts; the latter mutation is associated with refractory neuropathic disease. Diltiazem structure-activity studies suggest that it is its Ca2+ channel blocker activity that enhances the capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum to fold misfolding-prone proteins, likely by modest up-regulation of a subset of molecular chaperones, including BiP and Hsp40. Importantly, diltiazem and verapamil also partially restore mutant enzyme homeostasis in two other distinct LSDs involving enzymes essential for glycoprotein and heparan sulfate degradation, namely alpha-mannosidosis and type IIIA mucopolysaccharidosis, respectively. Manipulation of calcium homeostasis may represent a general strategy to restore protein homeostasis in multiple LSDs. However, further efforts are required to demonstrate clinical utility and safety.

  14. Positive regulation of DNA double strand break repair activity during differentiation of long life span cells: the example of adipogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Meulle

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the ability of terminally differentiated cells to efficiently repair DNA double strand breaks (DSBs, and one might reasonably speculate that efficient DNA repair of these threatening DNA lesions, is needed in cells of long life span with no or limited regeneration from precursor. Few tissues are available besides neurons that allow the study of DNA DSBs repair activity in very long-lived cells. Adipocytes represent a suitable model since it is generally admitted that there is a very slow turnover of adipocytes in adult. Using both Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE and the disappearance of the phosphorylated form of the histone variant H2AX, we demonstrated that the ability to repair DSBs is increased during adipocyte differentiation using the murine pre-adipocyte cell line, 3T3F442A. In mammalian cells, DSBs are mainly repaired by the non-homologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ that relies on the DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK activity. During the first 24 h following the commitment into adipogenesis, we show an increase in the expression and activity of the catalytic sub-unit of the DNA-PK complex, DNA-PKcs. The increased in DNA DSBs repair activity observed in adipocytes was due to the increase in DNA-PK activity as shown by the use of DNA-PK inhibitor or sub-clones of 3T3F442A deficient in DNA-PKcs using long term RNA interference. Interestingly, the up-regulation of DNA-PK does not regulate the differentiation program itself. Finally, similar positive regulation of DNA-PKcs expression and activity was observed during differentiation of primary culture of pre-adipocytes isolated from human sub-cutaneous adipose tissue. Our results show that DNA DSBs repair activity is up regulated during the early commitment into adipogenesis due to an up-regulation of DNA-PK expression and activity. In opposition to the general view that DNA DSBs repair is decreased during differentiation, our results demonstrate

  15. TRIGA spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage of spent fuel elements is a step preliminary to final radioactive waste disposal operation. The spent fuel issue will have a common solution for both spent fuel from Cernavoda NPP and research TRIGA reactors currently operated in Romania. For the case of TRIGA reactor spent fuel this will be an alternative solution to the now functioning alternative of 'on site' storing solution adopted so far at INR Pitesti. For the time being the short term storage requirements for TRIGA spent fuel are adequately fulfilled by the pool of a multizonal reactor, the construction of which was definitively stopped. On the other hand the HEU - LEU conversion of the 14 MW TRIGA reactor which will be completed till May 2006, will pose not spent fuel problems as the TRIGA HEU fuel (612 elements) will be transferred in US (not later than May 2009). Consequently, the needs for intermediate storage will be associated only with the LEU spent fuel from TRIGA LEU-SSR and TRIGA LEU-ACPR reactors. In the latter case the maximum number of elements will be 167. For the stationary 14 MW (SSR) reactor but the amount of fuel elements to be stored on a intermediate term will be a function of service span of this reactor as well of the degree of request. Totally, some 1,750 SSR-LEU fuel elements will require intermediate storage. There is a preliminary agreement with 'NUCLEARELECTRICA -S.A.' Company regarding LEU TRIGA spent fuel storage at the intermediate storage facility for spent fuel of Cernavoda NPP.. A safety investigation is underway to determine the impact of LEU spent fuel upon the dry environment containing spent CANDU fuel. To fulfil the requirements imposed by CANDU storage technology the LEU spent fuel will be correspondingly conditioned. Then adequate containers will be used for transportation of fuel to Cernavoda's storage cell. Subcriticality condition in the storage cell loaded with LEU was checked by calculating the multiplication factor for an infinite lattice. The

  16. Proceedings of DAE-BRNS life sciences symposium 2011 on advances in molecular and cell biology of stress response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This series of symposia in life sciences was initiated for the purpose of facilitating strong interactions among the national research fraternity working in the areas of bio-medical and agricultural sciences of relevance and interest for the Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India. Dedicated research efforts in the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and other DAE institutions for nearly four decades have not only resulted in the development of technologies and products to improve the quality of human life, but have made impactful contributions in several contemporary areas in basic biological sciences. It is natural that keep visiting certain themes more than once. Biology of stress response is one such theme. The first symposium in the series was devoted to this field. And six years is long enough a time for catching up with the new developments. Stress to a system at equilibrium induces homeostatic mechanisms that ameliorate the stress. Entire living world, from microbes to man, have evolved such response mechanisms. Often a given battery of responsive genes may take care of more than one stresses and there may also be some redundancy in signalling or effector pathways to a response. Oxidative stress in one of the most common stresses that most living systems have to endure. Such a stress could be induced by a wide variety of insults including ionizing radiation, visible light, antibiotics, xenobiotics, metal ions, environmental pollutants, carcinogens, infectious agents etc. It may contribute to some inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. It also plays an important role in killing of intracellular pathogens. In recent years mechanistic details of body's antioxidant defences are being increasingly revealed. Even more interesting are the new findings that suggest that prooxidants may induce an adaptive response to help cells survive against death induced by higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The role of prosurvival transcription factors like NRF-2

  17. Life Functions and Cells: Level II, Unit 7, Lesson 1; Cell Structure: Lesson 2; Tissues, Organs, Systems: Lesson 3; Growth and Nutrition: Lesson 4; Metabolism: Lesson 5. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Life Functions and Cells; Cell Structure; Tissues, Organs, Systems; Growth and Nutrition; and Metabolism. Each of the lessons concludes with a Mastery Test to be completed by the student. (DB)

  18. Life-course origins of social inequalities in adult immune cell markers of inflammation in a developing southern Chinese population: the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West Douglas A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic position (SEP throughout life is associated with cardiovascular disease, though the mechanisms linking these two are unclear. It is also unclear whether there are critical periods in the life course when exposure to better socioeconomic conditions confers advantages or whether SEP exposures accumulate across the whole life course. Inflammation may be a mechanism linking socioeconomic position (SEP with cardiovascular disease. In a large sample of older residents of Guangzhou, in southern China, we examined the association of life course SEP with inflammation. Methods In baseline data on 9,981 adults (≥ 50 years old from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (2006-08, we used multivariable linear regression and model fit to assess the associations of life course SEP at four stages (childhood, early adult, late adult and current with white blood, granulocyte and lymphocyte cell counts. Results A model including SEP at all four life stages best explained the association of life course SEP with white blood and granulocyte cell count for men and women, with early adult SEP (education making the largest contribution. A critical period model best explained the association of life course SEP with lymphocyte count, with sex-specific associations. Early adult SEP was negatively associated with lymphocytes for women. Conclusions Low SEP throughout life may negatively impact late adult immune-inflammatory status. However, some aspects of immune-inflammatory status may be sensitive to earlier exposures, with sex-specific associations. The findings were compatible with the hypothesis that in a developing population, upregulation of the gonadotropic axis with economic development may obscure the normally protective effects of social advantage for men.

  19. Capacity and power fade cycle-life model for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle lithium-ion battery cells containing blended spinel and layered-oxide positive electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba-Arenas, Andrea; Onori, Simona; Guezennec, Yann; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes and validates a semi-empirical cycle-life model for lithium-ion pouch cells containing blended spinel and layered-oxide positive electrodes. For the model development and validation experimental data obtained during an aging campaign is used. During the campaign the influence of charge sustaining/depleting operation, minimum state of charge (SOC), charging rate and temperature on the aging process is studied. The aging profiles, which are prescribed in power mode, are selected to be representative of realistic plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) operation. The proposed model describes capacity fade and resistance increase as function of the influencing stress factors and battery charge throughput. Due to its simplicity but still good accuracy, the applications of the proposed aging model include the design of algorithms for battery state-of-health (SOH) monitoring and prognosis, PHEV optimal energy management including battery aging, and the study of aging propagation among battery cells in advanced energy storage systems.

  20. Pumping life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg; Dach, Ingrid; Hoffmann, Robert Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The name PUMPKIN may suggest a research centre focused on American Halloween traditions or the investigation of the growth of vegetables – however this would be misleading. Researchers at PUMPKIN, short for Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease, are in fact interested in a large family o......’. Here we illustrate that the pumping of ions means nothing less than the pumping of life....