WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell storage life

  1. Safe extension of red blood cell storage life at 4{degree}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitensky, M.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1996-04-01

    The project sought to develop methods to extend the storage life of red blood cells. Extended storage would allow donor to self or autologous transfusion, expand and stabilize the blood supply, reduce the cost of medical care and eliminate the risk of transfusion related infections, including a spectrum of hepatitides (A, B and C) and HIV. The putative cause of red blood cell spoilage at 4 C has been identified as oxidative membrane damage resulting from deoxyhemoglobin and its denaturation products including hemichrome, hemin and Fe{sup 3+}. Trials with carbon monoxide, which is a stabilizer of hemoglobin, have produced striking improvement of red blood cell diagnostics for cells stored at 4 C. Carbonmonoxy hemoglobin is readily converted to oxyhemoglobin by light in the presence of oxygen. These findings have generated a working model and an approach to identify the best protocols for optimal red cell storage and hemoglobin regeneration.

  2. Red Blood Cell Storage Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl J. Kor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have witnessed increased scrutiny regarding efficacy and risk of the once unquestioned therapy of red blood cell (RBC transfusion. Simultaneously, a variety of changes have been identified within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation that are correlated with reduced tissue oxygenation and transfusion-associated adverse effects. These alterations are collectively termed the storage lesion and include extensive biochemical, biomechanical, and immunologic changes involving cells of diverse origin. Time-dependent falls is 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, intracellular RBC adenosine triphosphate, and nitric oxide have been shown to impact RBC deformability and delivery of oxygen to the end-organ. The accumulation of biologic response modifiers such as soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES have been associated with altered recipient immune function as well. This review will address the alterations occurring within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation and will address the potential clinical consequence thereof.

  3. Red cell concentrate storage and transport temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, V; Cardigan, R; Thomas, S

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the current U.K. guidelines for storage and transport of red cell concentrates (RCC) in saline, adenine, glucose and mannitol (SAGM). The guidelines stipulate storage at 2-6 °C but allow exposure to between 1-10 °C core temperature in a single occurrence of less than 5 h and a surface temperature of 2-10 °C for no more than 12 h during transportation. Twenty RCC units in SAGM were selected on the day of blood collection (day 0) and in vitro quality was tested pre- and post-temperature deviation at 10 °C and up to day 42 of storage. Each group of 10 RCC units was incubated for either 12 h or for both 5 and 12 h. Haemolysis was below the 0·8% U.K. limit at day 42 in all units, although there was an unexpected trend towards lower haemolysis in packs incubated for 5 and 12 h rather than just 12 h alone. Supernatant potassium was significantly higher than reference data on day 35 (P levels of adenosine triphosphate and, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate to reference data from previous studies, throughout storage. These results suggest that exposure to 10 °C for 12 h or for 5 and 12 h did not adversely affect in vitro red cell quality for the remainder of the components shelf life. © 2011 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2011 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  4. Hydrogen storage and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di-Jia

    2018-01-01

    Global warming and future energy supply are two major challenges facing American public today. To overcome such challenges, it is imperative to maximize the existing fuel utilization with new conversion technologies while exploring alternative energy sources with minimal environmental impact. Hydrogen fuel cell represents a next-generation energy-efficient technology in transportation and stationary power productions. In this presentation, a brief overview of the current technology status of on-board hydrogen storage and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell in transportation will be provided. The directions of the future researches in these technological fields, including a recent "big idea" of "H2@Scale" currently developed at the U. S. Department of Energy, will also be discussed.

  5. Duration of red blood cell storage and inflammatory marker generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Caroline; Tariket, Sofiane; Chou, Ming Li; Garraud, Olivier; Laradi, Sandrine; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Seghatchian, Jerard; Burnouf, Thierry; Cognasse, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a life-saving treatment for several pathologies. RBCs for transfusion are stored refrigerated in a preservative solution, which extends their shelf-life for up to 42 days. During storage, the RBCs endure abundant physicochemical changes, named RBC storage lesions, which affect the overall quality standard, the functional integrity and in vivo survival of the transfused RBCs. Some of the changes occurring in the early stages of the storage period (for approximately two weeks) are reversible but become irreversible later on as the storage is extended. In this review, we aim to decipher the duration of RBC storage and inflammatory marker generation. This phenomenon is included as one of the causes of transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM), an emerging concept developed to potentially elucidate numerous clinical observations that suggest that RBC transfusion is associated with increased inflammatory events or effects with clinical consequence. PMID:28263172

  6. Dry storage cells for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, D.J.; Paget, F.T.W.

    1982-01-01

    A facility for posting irradiated nuclear fuel from a preparation cell of a dry storage complex into storage canisters located in buckets within a clean cell comprises a telescopic tubular port member for sealably connecting the preparation cell to a canister. In operation the closure of the canister is screened against contamination and withdrawn from the canister into the preparation cell via a retractable grab prior to posting of the fuel into the canister. (author)

  7. Synthesis long life storage studies surface storage of vitrified wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beziat, A.; Breton, E.; Ranc, G.; Gaillard, J.P.; Lagrave, H.; Hollender, F.; Jourdain, F.; Piault, E.; Garnier, J.; Lamare, V.; Duret, B.; Helie, M.; Ferry, C.; Mijuin, D.; Gagnier, E.

    2004-01-01

    This document is realized in the framework of the axis 3 of the law of 1991 on the radioactive wastes management. It justifies the choices concerning long time surface storage installation of vitrified wastes, called high activity wastes. The long time of the installation would reach 300 years at the maximum. These wastes represent 1 % at the maximum, of radioactive wastes in France but 95 % of the whole radioactivity. Three main objectives were followed: provide a permanent containment of radionuclides; give the possibility of wastes containers retrieval at all the time; minimize the maintenance and the control. The results allow to conclude that the long time surface storage of high activity wastes is feasible. (A.L.B.)

  8. Hydrogen storage and integrated fuel cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karl J.

    2010-08-24

    Hydrogen is stored in materials that absorb and desorb hydrogen with temperature dependent rates. A housing is provided that allows for the storage of one or more types of hydrogen-storage materials in close thermal proximity to a fuel cell stack. This arrangement, which includes alternating fuel cell stack and hydrogen-storage units, allows for close thermal matching of the hydrogen storage material and the fuel cell stack. Also, the present invention allows for tailoring of the hydrogen delivery by mixing different materials in one unit. Thermal insulation alternatively allows for a highly efficient unit. Individual power modules including one fuel cell stack surrounded by a pair of hydrogen-storage units allows for distribution of power throughout a vehicle or other electric power consuming devices.

  9. Environmental performance of electricity storage systems for grid applications, a life cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.; Messagie, M.; Mertens, J.; Laget, H.; Coosemans, T.; Van Mierlo, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Large energy storage systems: environmental performance under different scenarios. • ReCiPe midpoint and endpoint impact assessment results are analyzed. • Energy storage systems can replace peak power generation units. • Energy storage systems and renewable energy have the best environmental scores. • Environmental performance of storage systems is application dependent. - Abstract: In this paper, the environmental performance of electricity storage technologies for grid applications is assessed. Using a life cycle assessment methodology we analyze the impacts of the construction, disposal/end of life, and usage of each of the systems. Pumped hydro and compressed air storage are studied as mechanical storage, and advanced lead acid, sodium sulfur, lithium-ion and nickel–sodium-chloride batteries are addressed as electrochemical storage systems. Hydrogen production from electrolysis and subsequent usage in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are also analyzed. The selected electricity storage systems mimic real world installations in terms of capacity, power rating, life time, technology and application. The functional unit is one kW h of energy delivered back to the grid, from the storage system. The environmental impacts assessed are climate change, human toxicity, particulate matter formation, and fossil resource depletion. Different electricity mixes are used in order to exemplify scenarios where the selected technologies meet specific applications. Results indicate that the performance of the storage systems is tied to the electricity feedstocks used during use stage. Renewable energy sources have lower impacts throughout the use stage of the storage technologies. Using the Belgium electricity mix of 2011 as benchmark, the sodium sulfur battery is shown to be the best performer for all the impacts analyzed. Pumped hydro storage follows in second place. Regarding infrastructure and end of life, results indicate that battery systems

  10. Nickel hydrogen battery cell storage matrix test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R.; Dodson, Gary W.

    1993-01-01

    Test were conducted to evaluate post storage performance of nickel hydrogen cells with various design variables, the most significant being nickel precharge versus hydrogen precharge. Test procedures and results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  11. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  12. High energy density, long life energy storage capacitor dielectric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.H.; Wilson, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of energy storage dielectric systems shows a dramatic improvement in life and joule density, culminating in a 50% to 300% life improvement of polypropylene film-paper-phthalate ester over paper-castor oil depending on service. The physical and electrical drawbacks of castor oil are not present in the new system, allowing the capacitor designer to utilize the superior insulation resistance, dielectric strength, and corona resistance to full advantage. The result is longer life for equal joule density or greater joule density for equal life. Field service proof of the film-Geconol system superiority is based on 5 megajoule in operation and 16 megajoule on order

  13. Application of Cloud Storage on BIM Life-Cycle Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieyun Ding

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Because of its high information intensity, strong consistency and convenient visualization features, building information modelling (BIM has received widespread attention in the fields of construction and project management. However, due to large amounts of information, high integration, the need for resource sharing between various departments, the long time-span of the BIM application, challenges relating to data interoperability, security and cost all slow down the adoption of BIM. This paper constructs a BIM cloud storage concept system using cloud storage, an advanced computer technology, to solve the problem of mass data processing, information security, and cost problems in the existing application of BIM to full life-cycle management. This system takes full advantage of the cloud storage technique. Achievements are reached in four areas of BIM information management, involving security and licensing management, file management, work process management and collaborative management. The system expands the time and space scales, improves the level of participation, and reduces the cost of BIM. The construction of the BIM cloud storage system is one of the most important directions of the development of BIM, which benefits the promotion and further development of BIM to better serve construction and engineering project management.

  14. Lengthening of the storage life of cooled chicken through radurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, H.E.; Holzapfel, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    Radurization is a particularly suitable method to lengthen the shelf life of chicken carcasses. A study was undertaken to determine the influence of four different dose rates and three storage temperatures, namely 3, 4, 5 and 7 kGy and 2, 4 and 8 degrees Celsius respectively. A total bacteria population of 10 6 per gramme was used as cut-off point for shelf life. Accordingly the untreated samples had a shelf life of 3 days at 4 degrees Celsius in comparison with 13 and 29 days for 3 and 5 kGy respectively. This study showed that low gamma radiation doses is not only an economical preservation method for chicken carcasses, but also destroys typical food pathogens such as Salmonella spp. The method also produces an organoleptic acceptable product

  15. Extending the Refrigerated Storage of Red Blood Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bitensky, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Oxygen removal increases shelf-life and quality of refrigerated blood. The shelf life of our blood has been prolonged to a minimum of 12 weeks with survival equal to or greater than that of conventional 6 week storage...

  16. Dry storage cell for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, N.

    1982-01-01

    In a dry storage cell for irradiated nuclear fuel or other highly active waste, cooling air flow is by natural draught in heat exchange with fuel containing canisters housed in channels. To inhibit corrosion by ensuring that the temperature of the air flowing over the canisters does not fall below the dew point when heat generation by decay has fallen, a fraction of the heat energy transferred to the cooling air is recirculated to the air upstream of the canisters. Recirculation of heat energy is effected by recirculation of a fraction of the hot air from downstream of the canisters. (author)

  17. Long-term storage life of light source modules by temperature cycling accelerated life test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Ningning; Tan Manqing; Li Ping; Jiao Jian; Guo Xiaofeng; Guo Wentao

    2014-01-01

    Light source modules are the most crucial and fragile devices that affect the life and reliability of the interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG). While the light emitting chips were stable in most cases, the module packaging proved to be less satisfactory. In long-term storage or the working environment, the ambient temperature changes constantly and thus the packaging and coupling performance of light source modules are more likely to degrade slowly due to different materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion in the bonding interface. A constant temperature accelerated life test cannot evaluate the impact of temperature variation on the performance of a module package, so the temperature cycling accelerated life test was studied. The main failure mechanism affecting light source modules is package failure due to solder fatigue failure including a fiber coupling shift, loss of cooling efficiency and thermal resistor degradation, so the Norris-Landzberg model was used to model solder fatigue life and determine the activation energy related to solder fatigue failure mechanism. By analyzing the test data, activation energy was determined and then the mean life of light source modules in different storage environments with a continuously changing temperature was simulated, which has provided direct reference data for the storage life prediction of IFOG. (semiconductor devices)

  18. Prolonged storage of packed red blood cells for blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Peña-González, Barbra S

    2015-07-14

    A blood transfusion is an acute intervention, used to address life- and health-threatening conditions on a short-term basis. Packed red blood cells are most often used for blood transfusion. Sometimes blood is transfused after prolonged storage but there is continuing debate as to whether transfusion of 'older' blood is as beneficial as transfusion of 'fresher' blood. To assess the clinical benefits and harms of prolonged storage of packed red blood cells, in comparison with fresh, on recipients of blood transfusion. We ran the search on 1st May 2014. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO Host) and two other databases. We also searched clinical trials registers and screened reference lists of the retrieved publications and reviews. We updated this search in June 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated. Randomised clinical trials including participants assessed as requiring red blood cell transfusion were eligible for inclusion. Prolonged storage was defined as red blood cells stored for ≥ 21 days in a blood bank. We did not apply limits regarding the duration of follow-up, or country where the study took place. We excluded trials where patients received a combination of short- and long-stored blood products, and also trials without a clear definition of prolonged storage. We independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction by at least two review authors. The major outcomes were death from any cause, transfusion-related acute lung injury, and adverse events. We estimated relative risk for dichotomous outcomes. We measured statistical heterogeneity using I(2). We used a random-effects model to synthesise the findings. We identified three randomised clinical trials, involving a total of 120 participants, comparing packed red blood cells with ≥ 21 days storage

  19. Energy storage cell impedance measuring apparatus, methods and related systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.; Christophersen, Jon P.

    2017-12-26

    Energy storage cell impedance testing devices, circuits, and related methods are disclosed. An energy storage cell impedance measuring device includes a sum of sinusoids (SOS) current excitation circuit including differential current sources configured to isolate a ground terminal of the differential current sources from a positive terminal and a negative terminal of an energy storage cell. A method includes applying an SOS signal comprising a sum of sinusoidal current signals to the energy storage cell with the SOS current excitation circuit, each of the sinusoidal current signals oscillating at a different one of a plurality of different frequencies. The method also includes measuring an electrical signal at a positive terminal and a negative terminal of the energy storage cell, and computing an impedance of the energy storage cell at each of the plurality of different frequencies using the measured electrical signal.

  20. Compartmentalized storage tank for electrochemical cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Benjamin Michael (Inventor); Dalton, Luke Thomas (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A compartmentalized storage tank is disclosed. The compartmentalized storage tank includes a housing, a first fluid storage section disposed within the housing, a second fluid storage section disposed within the housing, the first and second fluid storage sections being separated by a movable divider, and a constant force spring. The constant force spring is disposed between the housing and the movable divider to exert a constant force on the movable divider to cause a pressure P1 in the first fluid storage section to be greater than a pressure P2 in the second fluid storage section, thereby defining a pressure differential.

  1. Hydrogen sulfide extends the postharvest life and enhances antioxidant activity of kiwifruit during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liqin; Wang, Wei; Shi, Jingying; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Yonggen; Du, Huaying; Wu, Shaofu

    2014-10-01

    Exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) treatment can prolong the postharvest life of cut flowers and strawberries. Little work has been done to explore the effects of H₂S on respiratory climacteric fruits such as kiwifruits during storage. Therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of H₂S treatment at concentrations of 15–1000 µmol L⁻¹ on the postharvest life of kiwifruit during 25 °C storage and the role of H₂S in regulating the antioxidant defensive system of kiwifruit. Treatments with 45 and 90 µmol L⁻¹ H₂S significantly inhibited the increase in soluble sugar content and the decrease in vitamin C (Vit C), chlorophyll content and firmness, inhibited ethylene production and both superoxide production rate (O(·2)⁻) and hydrogen peroxide content. Kiwifruits with 45 and 90 µmol L⁻¹ H₂S exhibited significantly higher activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase. Treatment with 180 µmol L⁻¹ H₂S promoted the ripening of kiwifruits. Treatments with 45 and 90 µmol L⁻¹ H₂S could delay the maturation and senescence of kiwifruits and maintain higher titratable acid (TA) and Vit C during eating-ripe storage by inhibiting ethylene production, improving protective enzyme activities and decreasing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species to protect the cell membrane during storage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Life Prediction of Spent Fuel Storage Canister Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Ronald

    2018-04-16

    The original purpose of this project was to develop a probabilistic model for SCC-induced failure of spent fuel storage canisters, exposed to a salt-air environment in the temperature range 30-70°C for periods up to and exceeding 100 years. The nature of this degradation process, which involves multiple degradation mechanisms, combined with variable and uncertain environmental conditions dictates a probabilistic approach to life prediction. A final report for the original portion of the project was submitted earlier. However, residual stress measurements for as-welded and repair welds could not be performed within the original time of the project. As a result of this, a no-cost extension was granted in order to complete these tests. In this report, we report on the results of residual stress measurements.

  3. Microbial Life in an Underground Gas Storage Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombach, Petra; van Almsick, Tobias; Richnow, Hans H.; Zenner, Matthias; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    While underground gas storage is technically well established for decades, the presence and activity of microorganisms in underground gas reservoirs have still hardly been explored today. Microbial life in underground gas reservoirs is controlled by moderate to high temperatures, elevated pressures, the availability of essential inorganic nutrients, and the availability of appropriate chemical energy sources. Microbial activity may affect the geochemical conditions and the gas composition in an underground reservoir by selective removal of anorganic and organic components from the stored gas and the formation water as well as by generation of metabolic products. From an economic point of view, microbial activities can lead to a loss of stored gas accompanied by a pressure decline in the reservoir, damage of technical equipment by biocorrosion, clogging processes through precipitates and biomass accumulation, and reservoir souring due to a deterioration of the gas quality. We present here results from molecular and cultivation-based methods to characterize microbial communities inhabiting a porous rock gas storage reservoir located in Southern Germany. Four reservoir water samples were obtained from three different geological horizons characterized by an ambient reservoir temperature of about 45 °C and an ambient reservoir pressure of about 92 bar at the time of sampling. A complementary water sample was taken at a water production well completed in a respective horizon but located outside the gas storage reservoir. Microbial community analysis by Illumina Sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of phylogenetically diverse microbial communities of high compositional heterogeneity. In three out of four samples originating from the reservoir, the majority of bacterial sequences affiliated with members of the genera Eubacterium, Acetobacterium and Sporobacterium within Clostridiales, known for their fermenting capabilities. In

  4. Storage temperature: A factor of shelf life of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memiši Nurgin R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was designed to monitor the durability of certain dairy products stored at proper temperatures (8°C and elevated temperatures (14°C within their shelf life. Samples of fermented milk products were tested during 25 days, samples of cheese spread products over 80 days, while soft white cheese samples were analyzed during a storage period of 100 days. In the defined study periods, depending on the type of product, pH and aw value of the product, as well as sensory analysis (odor, taste, color and consistency, along with microbiological safety, were investigated. The investigations were performed in accordance with national legislation. The results indicate that the products stored at 14°C showed significant acidity (lower pH value, changed sensory properties, and had an increased number of aerobic bacteria. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009: Improvement and development of hygienic and technological procedures in production of foodstuffs of animal origin with the aim of producing high-quality and safe products competitive on the global market

  5. Effect of storage and LEO cycling on manufacturing technology IPV nickel-hydrogen cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.

    1987-01-01

    Yardney Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH) 50 A-hr space weight individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen cells were evaluated. This consisted of investigating: the effect of storage and charge/discharge cycling on cell performance. For the storage test the cells were precharged with hydrogen, by the manufacturer, to a pressure of 14.5 psia. After undergoing activation and acceptance tests, the cells were discharged at C/10 rate (5A) to 0.1 V or less. The terminals were then shorted. The cells were shipped to NASA Lewis Research Center where they were stored at room temperature in the shorted condition for 1 year. After storage, the acceptance tests were repeated at NASA Lewis. A comparison of test results indicate no significant degradation in electrical performance due to 1 year storage. For the cycle life test the regime was a 90 minute low earth orbit at deep depths of discharge (80 and 60 percent). At the 80 percent DOD the three cells failed on the average at cycle 741. Failure for this test was defined to occur when the cell voltage degraded to 1 V prior to completion of the 35 min discharge. The DOD was reduced to 60 percent. The cycle life test was continued.

  6. Considerations for Disposition of Dry Cask Storage System Materials at End of Storage System Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Rob; Van den Akker, Bret

    2014-01-01

    Dry cask storage systems are deployed at nuclear power plants for used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage when spent fuel pools reach their storage capacity and/or the plants are decommissioned. An important waste and materials disposition consideration arising from the increasing use of these systems is the management of the dry cask storage systems' materials after the UNF proceeds to disposition. Thermal analyses of repository design concepts currently under consideration internationally indicate that waste package sizes for the geologic media under consideration may be significantly smaller than the canisters being used for on-site dry storage by the nuclear utilities. Therefore, at some point along the UNF disposition pathway, there could be a need to repackage fuel assemblies already loaded into the dry storage canisters currently in use. In the United States, there are already over 1650 of these dry storage canisters deployed and approximately 200 canisters per year are being loaded at the current fleet of commercial nuclear power plants. There is about 10 cubic meters of material from each dry storage canister system that will need to be dispositioned. The concrete horizontal storage modules or vertical storage overpacks will need to be reused, re-purposed, recycled, or disposed of in some manner. The empty metal storage canister/cask would also have to be cleaned, and decontaminated for possible reuse or recycling or disposed of, likely as low-level radioactive waste. These material disposition options can have impacts of the overall used fuel management system costs. This paper will identify and explore some of the technical and interface considerations associated with managing the dry cask storage system materials. (authors)

  7. Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saxon, Aron R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cao, Ziwei [SunPower Corporation; Roc, Albert [SunPower Corp.

    2017-08-25

    Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System: Preprint Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are being deployed on the electrical grid for a variety of purposes, such as to smooth fluctuations in solar renewable power generation. The lifetime of these batteries will vary depending on their thermal environment and how they are charged and discharged. To optimal utilization of a battery over its lifetime requires characterization of its performance degradation under different storage and cycling conditions. Aging tests were conducted on commercial graphite/nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) Li-ion cells. A general lifetime prognostic model framework is applied to model changes in capacity and resistance as the battery degrades. Across 9 aging test conditions from 0oC to 55oC, the model predicts capacity fade with 1.4 percent RMS error and resistance growth with 15 percent RMS error. The model, recast in state variable form with 8 states representing separate fade mechanisms, is used to extrapolate lifetime for example applications of the energy storage system integrated with renewable photovoltaic (PV) power generation.

  8. Ethics and the storage of long-life radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.

    1999-01-01

    This article deals with the ethical aspects of nuclear waste storage. The different solutions: transmutation, sub-surface storage and deep geological storage are reviewed from this point of view. Reversibility means for future generations the possibility to recover stored waste packages, this recovery could be motivated by various reasons based on: scientific progress, the valorization of some nuclides, the recovery of energy in spent fuels or the underestimation of a risk in the safety analysis. Reversibility could also be a political argument to convince population repelled by the solution of a definitive choice. It appears that our technological choices do not have to assure both reversibility and definitive storage, this possibility would give to future generations the possibility to do something or to do nothing, it is beyond our moral obligations. (A.C.)

  9. Dry storage cells for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, N.

    1982-01-01

    A concrete cell structure for storing irradiated nuclear fuel or other highly active waste has air inlets in the roof and an outlet stack for effecting natural draught ventilation. Air flows through cells in heat exchange with nuclear fuel containers. The concrete cell structure is housed within a steel framed and sheeted weather tight building which provides a large air plenum for its inlet ports and thereby avoids serious pressure variations at these ports caused by wind loadings. (author)

  10. Optimization of Storage Temperature for Cultured ARPE-19 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Pasovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The establishment of future retinal pigment epithelium (RPE replacement therapy is partly dependent on the availability of tissue-engineered RPE cells, which may be enhanced by the development of suitable storage methods for RPE. This study investigates the effect of different storage temperatures on the viability, morphology, and phenotype of cultured RPE. Methods. ARPE-19 cells were cultured under standard conditions and stored in HEPES-buffered MEM at nine temperatures (4°C, 8°C, 12°C, 16°C, 20°C, 24°C, 28°C, 32°C, and 37°C for seven days. Viability and phenotype were assessed by a microplate fluorometer and epifluorescence microscopy, while morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Results. The percentage of viable cells preserved after storage was highest in the 16°C group (48.7%±9.8%; P<0.01 compared to 4°C, 8°C, and 24°C–37°C; P<0.05 compared to 12°C. Ultrastructure was best preserved at 12°C, 16°C, and 20°C. Expression of actin, ZO-1, PCNA, caspase-3, and RPE65 was maintained after storage at 16°C compared to control cells that were not stored. Conclusion. Out of nine temperatures tested between 4°C and 37°C, storage at 12°C, 16°C, and 20°C was optimal for maintenance of RPE cell viability, morphology, and phenotype. The preservation of RPE cells is critically dependent on storage temperature.

  11. Effects of sunflower wax coating on physicochemical changes of mangifera indica L. in storage life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, R.K.; Sherazi, S.T.H.

    2013-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit has a relatively short storage life due to perishable nature. In order to increases the storage life of langra mangoes, fruits were coated with sunflower wax. Mangoes were stored at room and refrigerated temperature. Sunflower wax coating protects the mangoes in greater proportion to change their color, weight loss, moisture loss, pH and total soluble solids content. The sensorial panel also favors the grander role of sunflower wax coating. Application of sunflower wax coatings had no effect on vitamin C content of mangoes variety and could increases mango storage time around 30 days under regular storage conditions. Sunflower wax coating also inhibited the growth of micro-organisms. The data reveal that by applying a sunflower wax coating effectively prolongs the quality which attributes and extends the shelf life of mango. (author)

  12. Hydrogen Storage Needs for Early Motive Fuel Cell Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Ainscough, C.; Simpson, L.; Caton, M.

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) objective for this project is to identify performance needs for onboard energy storage of early motive fuel cell markets by working with end users, manufacturers, and experts. The performance needs analysis is combined with a hydrogen storage technology gap analysis to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program with information about the needs and gaps that can be used to focus research and development activities that are capable of supporting market growth.

  13. Attenuation of Red Blood Cell Storage Lesions with Vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Sanford

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stored red blood cells (RBCs undergo oxidative stress that induces deleterious metabolic, structural, biochemical, and molecular changes collectively referred to as “storage lesions”. We hypothesized that vitamin C (VitC, reduced or oxidized would reduce red cell storage lesions, thus prolonging their storage duration. Whole-blood-derived, leuko-reduced, SAGM (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol-preserved RBC concentrates were equally divided into four pediatric storage bags and the following additions made: (1 saline (saline; (2 0.3 mmol/L reduced VitC (Lo VitC; (3 3 mmol/L reduced VitC (Hi VitC; or (4 0.3 mmol/L oxidized VitC (dehydroascorbic acid, DHA as final concentrations. Biochemical and rheological parameters were serially assessed at baseline (prior to supplementation and Days 7, 21, 42, and 56 for RBC VitC concentration, pH, osmotic fragility by mechanical fragility index, and percent hemolysis, LDH release, glutathione depletion, RBC membrane integrity by scanning electron microscopy, and Western blot for β-spectrin. VitC exposure (reduced and oxidized significantly increased RBC antioxidant status with varying dynamics and produced trends in reduction in osmotic fragility and increases in membrane integrity. Conclusion: VitC partially protects RBC from oxidative changes during storage. Combining VitC with other antioxidants has the potential to improve long-term storage of RBC.

  14. Storage rack for fuel cell receiving shrouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollon, L.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a rack for receiving a multiplicity of vertical tubular shrouds or tubes for storing spent nuclear fuel cells. The rack comprises a plurality of horizontally reticulated frames interconnected by tension rods and spacing tubes surrounding the rods

  15. Extending the storage life of garlic by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, O.A.; Croci, C.A.; Quaranta, H.O.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.03kGy) on garlic bulbs from local cultivars was studied. The treatment proved to be effective in reducing weight loss and spoilage percentage of the bulbs. After 10 months of storage the weight loss was found to be reduced by 37% in irradiated garlic. Irradiation reduced sprouting of the fresh bulbs but did not affect the rotting process. (author)

  16. Improved thermal storage material for portable life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The availability of thermal storage materials that have heat absorption capabilities substantially greater than water-ice in the same temperature range would permit significant improvements in performance of projected portable thermal storage cooling systems. A method for providing increased heat absorption by the combined use of the heat of solution of certain salts and the heat of fusion of water-ice was investigated. This work has indicated that a 30 percent solution of potassium bifluoride (KHF2) in water can absorb approximately 52 percent more heat than an equal weight of water-ice, and approximately 79 percent more heat than an equal volume of water-ice. The thermal storage material can be regenerated easily by freezing, however, a lower temperature must be used, 261 K as compared to 273 K for water-ice. This work was conducted by the United Aircraft Research Laboratories as part of a program at Hamilton Standard Division of United Aircraft Corporation under contract to NASA Ames Research Center.

  17. A Study on the Storage Reliability of LSINS Based on Step-stress Accelerated Life Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the step-stress accelerated life test and the laser strap-down inertial navigation system, this paper studies the accelerated life model and the test method, provides the likelihood function, the likelihood equation and the two-order derivative when the stress level is k, evaluates the effectiveness of the method with the simulation test model established by MATLAB, applies the research findings in the storage reliability study of the XX laser strap-down inertial navigation system, and puts forward an effective evaluation method of the storage life of the inertial navigation system.

  18. CD3-positive B cells: a storage-dependent phenomenon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Nagel

    Full Text Available The majority of clinical studies requires extensive management of human specimen including e.g. overnight shipping of blood samples in order to convey the samples in a central laboratory or to simultaneously analyze large numbers of patients. Storage of blood samples for periods of time before in vitro/ex vivo testing is known to influence the antigen expression on the surface of lymphocytes. In this context, the present results show for the first time that the T cell antigen CD3 can be substantially detected on the surface of human B cells after ex vivo storage and that the degree of this phenomenon critically depends on temperature and duration after blood withdrawal. The appearance of CD3 on the B cell surface seems to be a result of contact-dependent antigen exchange between T and B lymphocytes and is not attributed to endogenous production by B cells. Since cellular subsets are often classified by phenotypic analyses, our results indicate that ex vivo cellular classification in peripheral blood might result in misleading interpretations. Therefore, in order to obtain results reflecting the in vivo situation, it is suggested to minimize times of ex vivo blood storage after isolation of PBMC. Moreover, to enable reproducibility of results between different research groups and multicenter studies, we would emphasize the necessity to specify and standardize the storage conditions, which might be the basis of particular findings.

  19. Evaluation of goat milk as storage media to preserve viability of human periodontal ligament cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Ayça Tuba; Kalyoncuoglu, Elif; Kaya, Senay; Cehreli, Zafer Cavit

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of goat milk as a storage media for maintenance of periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability of avulsed teeth and compare it with commonly used and/or investigated storage media. PDL cells were obtained from the root surface of healthy premolars and were cultured in Eagle's maintenance medium (EMM). Cell cultures were treated with the following storage media: tap water (negative control); EMM (positive control); Hank's balanced salt solution; ultra high temperature (UHT) long-shelf-life lactose-free cow milk; UHT long-shelf-life whole cow milk; UHT long-shelf-life skimmed cow milk; UHT long-shelf-life soy milk; UHT long-shelf-life goat milk, UHT long-shelf-life follow on milk with probiotic, 20% propolis, and egg white. Culture plates were incubated with experimental media at 20°C for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. PDL cell viability was assessed by tetrazolium salt-based colorimetric (MTT) assay at each test period. One-way anova was used to evaluate the effects of storage solutions at each time point, followed by post hoc Duncan's multiple comparison test (P = 0.05). A dendrogram was constructed to show the arrangement of hierarchical clustering. Goat milk displayed the highest capacity to maintain cell viability at all test intervals (P milk with the probiotic showed the lowest time-dependent PDL cell viability among all test media (P milks, HBSS performed significantly less effectively in maintaining PDL cell viability during the entire test period (P milk can be recommended as a suitable storage medium for avulsed teeth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of the long-shelf life honey milk As a storage media for preservation of avulsed teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nozari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tooth avulsion is defined as the complete displacement of the tooth from its alveolar socket which causes damage to the periodontal ligament structure, cementum, alveolar bone, gingiva, and dental pulp. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of long-shelf life honey milk to serve as a temporary storage medium for the maintenance of periodontal ligament (PDL cell viability on avulsed teeth. Methods: PDL cells were obtained from premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes which were clinically healthy and had healthy gingiva (i.e. not inflamed.Then, 8×10³ cells were seeded in each well of 96-well plate. and Afterwards treated with long-shelf life milk and honey milk, Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS and fresh milk. Different incubation periods were 1, 3, 6, and 9 hours. Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM and dry medium were considered as positive and negative control media, respectively. Cell viability was determined by using the MTT (Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide assay. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way anova, two-way anova and post hoc Scheffe tests. A level of p≤0.05 was accepted as statistically significant Results: The results indicate that all media performed significantly better in maintaining PDL cell viability than the negative control at all time periods. (p≤0.001 After 9 hours, Percentage of viable PDL cells in long-shelf life honey milk, long-shelf life milk and HBSS were 82±0.82, 75±8.13 and 87±2.78 respectively. Furthermore cells' viability in both long-shelf life honey milk and HBSS was significantly better than fresh milk medium (p=0.003. Moreover, the results of One-way ANOVA showed long-shelf life honey milk were more effective in preserving the PDL cell viability as well as HBSS after 9 hours. Conclusions: According to the study results, long-shelf life honey milk considered as appropriate storage media which are comparable to HBSS. These media are not only able

  1. Suitability of Dukat strawberries for studying effects on shelf life of irradiation combined with cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zegota, H.

    1988-01-01

    A new Dukat variety of strawberries was used to study the effect of irradiation combined with cold storage on their shelf life and chemical composition. Strawberries, with or without stems, were irradiated with a dose of 2.5 or 3.0 kGy within 6-10 or 20-24 h after harvesting. Results of the sensory evaluation showed that the minimum storage time for the fruits could be extended by a minimum of 9 days. If the time between harvest and irradiation was shorter, better results for storage experiments were obtained. Fruits with stems were more suitable for cold storage after irradiation than those without stems. Irradiation of strawberries did not change the titratable acidity and content of the reducing sugars. Colour intensity and ascorbic acid levels decreased in proportion to the absorbed dose and storage time. (orig.)

  2. Energy Storage: Batteries and Fuel Cells for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Baumann, Eric D.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Exploration requires safe, human-rated, energy storage technologies with high energy density, high specific energy and the ability to perform in a variety of unique environments. The Exploration Technology Development Program is currently supporting the development of battery and fuel cell systems that address these critical technology areas. Specific technology efforts that advance these systems and optimize their operation in various space environments are addressed in this overview of the Energy Storage Technology Development Project. These technologies will support a new generation of more affordable, more reliable, and more effective space systems.

  3. Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D.; Morse, T.; Patel, P.; Patel, S.; Bondar, J.; Taylor, L.

    1980-12-01

    Nickel-zinc, lead-acid, nickel-iron, zinc-chlorine, sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte), sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte), lithium-metal sulfide, and aluminum-air batteries were studied in order to evaluate the energy used to produce the raw materials and to manufacture the battery, the energy consumed by the battery during its operational life, and the energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. Battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling are described. The operational energy for an electric vehicle and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.

  4. The involvement of cation leaks in the storage lesion of red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna F Flatt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stored blood components are a critical life-saving tool provided to patients by health services worldwide. Red cells may be stored for up to 42 days, allowing for efficient blood bank inventory management, but with prolonged storage comes an unwanted side-effect known as the ‘storage lesion’, which has been implicated in poorer patient outcomes. This lesion is comprised of a number of processes that are inter-dependent. Metabolic changes include a reduction in glycolysis and ATP production after the first week of storage. This leads to an accumulation of lactate and drop in pH. Longer term damage may be done by the consequent reduction in anti-oxidant enzymes, which contributes to protein and lipid oxidation via reactive oxygen species. The oxidative damage to the cytoskeleton and membrane is involved in increased vesiculation and loss of cation gradients across the membrane. The irreversible damage caused by extensive membrane loss via vesiculation alongside dehydration is likely to result in immediate splenic sequestration of these dense, spherocytic cells. Although often overlooked in the literature, the loss of the cation gradient in stored cells will be considered in more depth in this review as well as the possible effects it may have on other elements of the storage lesion. It has now become clear that blood donors can exhibit quite large variations in the properties of their red cells, including microvesicle production and the rate of cation leak. Further study of stored red blood cells from donors known to have a high or low-rate of cation leak will shed more light on the relationship between cation gradients and the manifestation of the various elements of the storage lesion.

  5. Potential of reversible solid oxide cells as electricity storage system

    OpenAIRE

    Di Giorgio, Paolo; Desideri, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Electrical energy storage (EES) systems allow shifting the time of electric power generation from that of consumption, and they are expected to play a major role in future electric grids where the share of intermittent renewable energy systems (RES), and especially solar and wind power plants, is planned to increase. No commercially available technology complies with all the required specifications for an efficient and reliable EES system. Reversible solid oxide cells (ReSOC) working in both ...

  6. Hydrogen-Oxygen PEM Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to the closed cycle hydrogen-oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell (RFC), recently constructed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is presented. Illustrated with explanatory graphics and figures, this report outlines the engineering motivations for the RFC as a solar energy storage device, the system requirements, layout and hardware detail of the RFC unit at NASA Glenn, the construction history, and test experience accumulated to date with this unit.

  7. Effects of storage media on the green life span and culinary qualities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sawdust (SD) and ricehusk (RH)) used singly or mixed in varying proportions and enclosed in polyethylene were used to study the storage life of mature green plantain fruits. There were two control treatments comprising fruits sealed in polyethylene without plant residue and fruits kept on laboratory shelf. Fruits were sealed ...

  8. Second life battery energy storage system for enhancing renewable energy grid integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Ciobotaru, C.; Saez-de-Ibarra, A.; Martinez-Laserna, E.

    2015-01-01

    of a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS) and secondly, to obtain the power exchange and battery state of charge profiles during the operation. These will constitute the cycling patterns for testing batteries and studying the ageing effect of this specific application. Real data from the Spanish...... electricity market for a whole year are used for validating the results....

  9. Monitoring Shelf Life of Pasteurized Whole Milk Under Refrigerated Storage Conditions: Predictive Models for Quality Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaina, Mohamed; Govindan, Byju N; Rasco, Barbara; Coffey, Todd; Sablani, Shyam S

    2018-02-01

    The shelf life of pasteurized milk is generally determined through microbiological analysis. The objective of this study was to correlate microbial quality parameters then to design predictive models for shelf life of pasteurized milk. We analyzed pasteurized milk (3.9% fat) for aerobic plate counts (APCs), psychrotrophic bacteria counts (PBCs), and Bacillus spp. counts at 5, 7, 10, 13, 15, and 19 (±1 °C) to the end of storage time. We also monitored titratable acidity, pH, and, lipase, and protease activity and correlated this with APC, which is the principal index defining shelf life. Results indicate that the shelf life of pasteurized milk was 24, 36, and 72 h at 19, 15, and 13 °C respectively, as determined by APC and acidity indicators. However, milk stored at lower temperatures of 5, 7, and 10 °C had longer shelf life of 30, 24, and 12 d, respectively. A sharp increase in titratable acidity, while decrease pH were observed when APCs reached 5.0 log 10 CFU/mL at all storage temperatures. Lipase and protease activities increased with storage temperature. At 5 and 7 °C, however, protease activity was very low. Therefore, we eliminated this parameter from our quality parameters as a potential spoilage indicator. Findings of this research are useful for monitoring the quality of commercial pasteurized milk, particularly in locations where environmental conditions make longer storage difficult. The study also provides valuable information for development of colorimetric shelf life indicators. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Potential of Reversible Solid Oxide Cells as Electricity Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Di Giorgio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy storage (EES systems allow shifting the time of electric power generation from that of consumption, and they are expected to play a major role in future electric grids where the share of intermittent renewable energy systems (RES, and especially solar and wind power plants, is planned to increase. No commercially available technology complies with all the required specifications for an efficient and reliable EES system. Reversible solid oxide cells (ReSOC working in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes could be a cost effective and highly efficient EES, but are not yet ready for the market. In fact, using the system in fuel cell mode produces high temperature heat that can be recovered during electrolysis, when a heat source is necessary. Before ReSOCs can be used as EES systems, many problems have to be solved. This paper presents a new ReSOC concept, where the thermal energy produced during fuel cell mode is stored as sensible or latent heat, respectively, in a high density and high specific heat material and in a phase change material (PCM and used during electrolysis operation. The study of two different storage concepts is performed using a lumped parameters ReSOC stack model coupled with a suitable balance of plant. The optimal roundtrip efficiency calculated for both of the configurations studied is not far from 70% and results from a trade-off between the stack roundtrip efficiency and the energy consumed by the auxiliary power systems.

  11. Determining Appropriate Harvesting Date and Storage Life of Kinnow Mandarine Fruits in Jiroft County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seied Mehdi Miri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Citrus is one of the most commercially important horticultural crops grown in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. They are classified as non-climacteric fruits. Harvesting date and storage can influence citrus fruit quality and shelf life. In Iran, some members of citrus family including sweet orange and mandarin are produced as an export crop, so research on fruit quality and storage life is needed. There is no available scientific literature regarding the effect of harvesting date and storage duration on retaining the postharvest physicochemical properties of Kinnow mandarin under cold storage. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of harvesting date and storing time on shelf life and quality of Kinnow mandarin fruits under Jiroft weather conditions. Materials and Methods. Investigations were carried out on mandarin (Citrus reticulata cv. Kinnow grafted on sour orange rootstock in an orchard located in Jiroft and Kahnooj Agricultural Research Center, Jiroft, Iran. Fruits were harvested on 6th December, 21th December, 5th January, 20th January and 4th February. After cold storage for 30-90 days at 4-6 °C, the fruit was analyzed for quantitative and qualitative characteristics including weight of fruit, peel, meat, pulp and juice, fruit weight loss, pH, total soluble solids (TSS, titratable acidity (TA and TSS/TA. Experiment was arranged in a split plot based on randomized complete block design (RCBD. Data analysis and similarity coefficient (Pearson's method were performed using SPSS.16 software, and means comparison was performed by using Duncan's multiple range test at 1 and 5% probability levels. Results and Discussion. The results showed that the interaction effect of harvesting date and storage period on the weight of the fruit, meat, pulp and juice and TSS, TA and TSS/TA was significant at 1% probability level. Weight of harvested fruits from 6th December to 5th January was constant

  12. QUALIY PARAMETERS AND SHELF LIFE OF GAME MEAT DURING FROZEN STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spaziani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of the duration of frozen storage at –20°C on the game meat quality parameters, namely the pH, colour, thawing and cooking losses. The oxidative stability of game meat was evaluated by the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS. Frozen storage duration did not extensively influence either the quality properties, or the oxidative stability of game meat. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the higher amount of a- tocopherol in the muscles of game compared to pellet-fed animals could be mainly responsible for the lower lipid oxidation and longer shelf life.

  13. Quality indicators and shelf life of red octopus (Octopus maya) in chilling storage

    OpenAIRE

    GULLIAN-KLANIAN,Mariel; SÁNCHEZ-SOLÍS,María José; TERRATS-PRECIAT,Montserrat; DELGADILLO-DÍAZ,Mariana; ARANDA,Javier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There are no precedents concerning the quality of Octopus maya during chilled storage. This study evaluated the shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage (4oC) and the correlation of the sensory quality index with microbiological counting and the biochemical indicators (hypoxanthine, histamine and volatile amines). A total of 112 whole raw octopi (average weight of 896 g) were randomly selected from seven batches and exposed to 4°C for 18, 24, 48, 72, 84, 96, and 100 h. The h...

  14. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.baptista@ist.utl.pt [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley [Intelligent Energy, Charnwood Building, HolywellPark, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3GR (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO{sub 2} emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: > A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. > The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions results. > A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  15. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Patricia; Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla; Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO 2 emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: → A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. → The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO 2 emissions results. → A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  16. Feasibility of extending storage life of sheep-milk cheese using ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krcal, Z; Prekoppova, J; Slottova, A [Vyskumny Ustav Mliekarensky, Zilina (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-12-01

    3 types of winter full-fat sheep cheese were /sup 60/Co gamma irradiated with doses of 75, 100, 200, and 500 krads, this 48 hours after production. Within a week-long storage the organoleptic properties of the cheeses were repeatedly evaluated. The irradiation was found to significantly reduce all microorganism groups. Doses above 100 krads were found to be unsuitable; cheese taste deteriorated and was defined as ''scorched, strange, impure''. Although during storage these defects disappear, the individual main components of proteins and lipids decompose due to enzyme activity, which results in a rapid deterioration of the product. The dose of 75 krads did not cause any taste defects and storage life was extended by four days as against the stated guarantee period.

  17. General safety guidelines for looking for a low mass activity-long life waste storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this document is to define general guidelines which must be followed during the stages of search for a site and stages of design of a storage facility for low activity-long life radioactive wastes, in order to ensure its safety after closure. After having specified the considered wastes, geological shapes, and situations, this document defines the fundamental objective and the associated criteria (protection against chemical risk, radioprotection). It presents the design aspects related to safety (safety principles and functions, waste packages, public works engineering, geological environment, storage concepts). The last part deals with the safety demonstration after site closure which includes the control of some components, the assessment of disturbances in the storage facility or due to its presence, the taking of uncertainty and sensitivity studies into account, the influence of natural events

  18. Feasibility of extending storage life of sheep-milk cheese using ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krcal, Z.; Prekoppova, J.; Slottova, A.

    1978-01-01

    3 types of winter full-fat sheep cheese were 60 Co gamma irradiated with doses of 75, 100, 200, and 500 krads, this 48 hours after production. Within a week-long storage the organoleptic properties of the cheeses were repeatedly evaluated. The irradiation was found to significantly reduce all microorganism groups. Doses above 100 krads were found to be unsuitable; cheese taste deteriorated and was defined as ''scorched, strange, impure''. Although during storage these defects disappear, the individual main components of proteins and lipids decompose due to enzyme activity, which results in a rapid deterioration of the product. The dose of 75 krads did not cause any taste defects and storage life was extended by four days as against the stated guarantee period. (B.S.)

  19. Case Studies of Energy Storage with Fuel Cells and Batteries for Stationary and Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Belmonte

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, hydrogen coupled with fuel cells and lithium-ion batteries are considered as alternative energy storage methods. Their application on a stationary system (i.e., energy storage for a family house and a mobile system (i.e., an unmanned aerial vehicle will be investigated. The stationary systems, designed for off-grid applications, were sized for photovoltaic energy production in the area of Turin, Italy, to provide daily energy of 10.25 kWh. The mobile systems, to be used for high crane inspection, were sized to have a flying range of 120 min, one being equipped with a Li-ion battery and the other with a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell. The systems were compared from an economical point of view and a life cycle assessment was performed to identify the main contributors to the environmental impact. From a commercial point of view, the fuel cell and the electrolyzer, being niche products, result in being more expensive with respect to the Li-ion batteries. On the other hand, the life cycle assessment (LCA results show the lower burdens of both technologies.

  20. Effect of Nano Packaging on Storage Life and Quality Attributes of Elberta Peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Asghari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Asaclimactericfruit, peach has a highrespiration rateandvery lowshelf life. Nowadays theuse ofappropriatepostharvesttechnologiesto increase fruit postharvest lifeis necessary.Use of nanotechnologyis considered asan effective method to increase fruit postharvest life. Nanotechnology isused extensivelyinallstages of production, processing, storage, packagingand transport ofagriculturalproducts.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of silver and silica nanocomposites, nanosilver and polypropylene containers on shelf-life and preservation of peach qualitative characteristics (Prunuspersicacv. Elberta such as titrable acidity, soluble solids, ascorbic acid, total antioxidant and total phenolics content in cold storage after the harvest. Materials and Methods: To determine the effect of nanopackaging onshelf life andqualitativecharacteristics ofElberta peaches,the experiment was conducted in a factorial based on a completely randomized design with two treatmentsand four replications.The first factor consisted of nanopackagingnanosilver, silver and silica nanocompositesandpolypropylenepackaging, and the second factor was coldstorage periods of15, 30 and 45 daysattemperaturesfrom 0 to0/5 °C and a relative humidityof 85to 95%.In general, the experiment consisted of 36 experimental units, and each includinga container with four Elberta peach fruits.Data were analyzed by using SAS software, and Microsoft Office Excel 2010 software was used to plot the graphs.Duncan's multiple range test was used to compare the means of treatments. Results and Discussion: At the end of the maintenance period, the highest firmness of peach texture was related to nanosilver containers. The main cause of fruit softening is the destruction of cell wall components, especially pectin, which is caused by certain enzymes such as polygalactronase. Whenstorage timeincreased, polypropylene containers showed a higher weight loss compared to

  1. Ozone treatment of shell eggs to preserve functional quality and enhance shelf life during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüceer, Muhammed; Aday, Mehmet Seçkin; Caner, Cengiz

    2016-06-01

    Eggs have long been recognised as a source of high-quality proteins. Many methods exist to extend shelf life of food and one of them is ozone treatment, which is an emerging technology for disinfecting surfaces in the food industry. This study aimed to extend the shelf life of fresh eggs using gaseous ozone treatments at concentrations of 2, 4 and 6 ppm with exposure times of 2 and 5 min during storage for 6 weeks at 24 °C. The effect of the treatments on interior quality and functional properties of eggs is also reported. Ozone concentration and exposure time significantly affected the Haugh unit (HU), yolk index, albumen pH, relative whipping capacity (RWC), and albumen viscosity of eggs during the storage. Control eggs had the highest albumen pH and lowest albumen viscosity. Attributes such as albumen pH and RWC of eggs exposed to ozone treatments were better than the control samples. The measurement results showed that ozone concentration at 6 ppm and exposure time of 5 min can be applied to fresh eggs and extend shelf life up to 6 weeks at 24 °C storage period. Ozone treatments helped to maintain egg quality for a longer time. Ozone concentrations at 2 and 4 ppm showed promising results in maintaining internal quality and functional properties of fresh eggs during storage. Ozone at high concentration (6 ppm) caused a detrimental effect on eggshell quality. As a result, this study demonstrated that ozone treatments of 2, and especially 4 and 6 ppm concentration maintained eggshell quality during the storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. From Lysosomal Storage Diseases to NKT Cell Activation and Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia S. Pereira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs are inherited metabolic disorders characterized by the accumulation of different types of substrates in the lysosome. With a multisystemic involvement, LSDs often present a very broad clinical spectrum. In many LSDs, alterations of the immune system were described. Special emphasis was given to Natural Killer T (NKT cells, a population of lipid-specific T cells that is activated by lipid antigens bound to CD1d (cluster of differentiation 1 d molecules at the surface of antigen-presenting cells. These cells have important functions in cancer, infection, and autoimmunity and were altered in a variety of LSDs’ mouse models. In some cases, the observed decrease was attributed to defects in either lipid antigen availability, trafficking, processing, or loading in CD1d. Here, we review the current knowledge about NKT cells in the context of LSDs, including the alterations detected, the proposed mechanisms to explain these defects, and the relevance of these findings for disease pathology. Furthermore, the effect of enzyme replacement therapy on NKT cells is also discussed.

  3. Shelf-life extension of Pacific white shrimp using algae extracts during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingchang; Yang, Zhongyan; Li, Jianrong

    2017-01-01

    Shrimp is a low-fat, high-protein aquatic product, and is susceptible to spoilage during storage. To establish an effective method for the quality control of Pacific white shrimp, the effects of polyphenols (PP) and polysaccharides (PS) from Porphyra yezoensis on the quality of Pacific white shrimp were assessed during refrigerated storage. Pacific white shrimp samples were treated with 5 g L -1 polyphenols, and 8 g L -1 polysaccharides, then stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 8 days. All samples were subjected to measurement of total viable count (TVC), pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), K-value, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, and were also assessed by sensory evaluation. The results showed that PP, PS, and the mixture of polyphenols and polysaccharides (PP+PS) could inhibit the increase of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and K-value, and reduce total viable count (TVC) compared with the control group. PP could also inhibit polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. Sensory evaluation proved the efficacy of PP and PS by maintaining the overall quality of Pacific white shrimp during refrigerated storage. Moreover, PP+PS could extend the shelf-life of shrimp by 3-4 days compared with the control group. PP+PS could more effectively maintain quality and extend shelf-life during refrigerated storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Second life battery energy storage system for residential demand response service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-de-Ibarra, Andoni; Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Koch-Ciobotaru, Cosmin

    2015-01-01

    vehicles, during their main first life application, for providing residential demand response service. The paper considers the decayed characteristics of these batteries and optimizes the rating of such a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS) for maximizing the economic benefits of the user......The integration of renewable energies and the usage of battery energy storage systems (BESS) into the residential buildings opens the possibility for minimizing the electricity bill for the end-user. This paper proposes the use of batteries that have already been aged while powering electric......'s energy consumption during a period of one year. Furthermore, simulations were performed considering real data of PV generation, consumption, prices taken from the Spanish market and costs of battery and photovoltaic systems....

  5. Assessment of Shelf-Life Ability of Apples cv. ‘Auksis’ after Long-term Storage Under Different Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Juhņeviča-Radenkova Karina; Radenkovs Vitalijs

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current research was to ascertain the shelf-life ability of apple ‘Auksis’ after 6 months of cold storage under different conditions. The effect of storage conditions such as: cold storage under normal atmosphere (NA), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) + cold storage, and ultra-low oxygen (ULO)-controlled atmosphere (CA) [2.0% CO2 and 1.0% O2 (ULO1) and 2.5% CO2 and 1.5% O2 (ULO2)] on the quality of apples during shelf-life was evaluated. Apple fruits immediately after cold st...

  6. Studies on Prolonging Storage life and Maintaining Fruit Quality Parameters of Zaghloul Dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElSalhy, F.T.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation ( 1, 2 and 3 kGy) and some natural plant extracts i.e. aloe, ambrosia, cinnamon, chamomile, clove or nigella on prolonging the storage life and some parameters of Zaghloul dates quality under cold storage (5 ±2 C, 90-95 % RH). The weight loss %, decay %, T.S.S. %, total sugars and non-reducing sugars % of Zaghloul dates were increased in most cases with prolonging the storage time. Meanwhile, titratable acidity %, reducing sugars % and tannins content were decreased during storage period (56 days). However, the lowest values of weight loss % and decay % were recorded by aloe extract treatment while the highest values of T.S.S., total sugars, non-reducing sugars, titratable acidity %, reducing sugars % and tannins content were scored by gamma irradiation at 3 kGy. It could be concluded that using irradiation at 3 kGy, aloe, cinnamon or clove can keep the dates (Zaghloul variety) fresh even after 56 days at cold storage with good quality and safety levels of microbes

  7. At-reactor storage of spent fuel for life-of-plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuierer, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The management of commercial spent fuel is a fairly broad topic beginning with the discharge from a reactor, its storage on-site, its transport from the reactor site to a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility, and its ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. This paper discusses spent-fuel management in the at-reactor phase. There are two basic methods for at-reactor storage of spent fuel. The first is wet storage in a pool, and the second is dry storage external to the plant in some form of cask or vault. Spent-fuel consolidation will impact the utility and the DOE waste system. Some of these impacts have a positive effect and some have a negative effect, and each will vary somewhat for each utility. Spent-fuel consolidation and life-of-plant storage will be an increased burden to utilities but will likely result in significant cost savings to the overall waste management system and by proper integration can result in significant institutional benefits

  8. Quality changes of long-life foods during three-month storage at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Bubelová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe quality changes of eight long-life foods (instant potato purée with milk, instant goulash soup, canned white-type cheese, pre-baked baguette, szeged goulash meal-ready-to-eat, canned chicken meat, pork pate and canned tuna fish during three-month storage at 4 different temperatures (-18 °C, 5 °C, 23 °C and 40 °C. These temperatures were chosen to simulate various climatic conditions in which these foods could be used to ensure the boarding during crisis situations and military operations to provide high level of sustainability. Foods were assessed in terms of microbiological (total number of aerobic and/or facultative anaerobic mesophilic microorganisms, number of aerobic and anaerobic spore-forming microorganisms, number of enterobacteria, number of yeasts and/or moulds, chemical (pH-values, dry matter, fat, crude protein, ammonia and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances contents, texture profile (hardness and sensory (appearance, consistency, firmness, flavour and off-flavour analyses. Microbiological analyses showed expected results with the exception of szeged goulash, pork pate and tuna fish, which, although being sterilised products, contained some counts of bacteria. The decrease of pH-values and increase of dry matter, ammonia and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances contents were observed during the storage of all foods due to prolonged storage time and/or elevated storage temperature. Furthermore, according to texture profile analysis, hardness of cheese and baguette rose as a result of both storage temperature and time. Finally, the highest storage temperature (40 °C resulted in a deterioration of sensory quality (especially flavour of most foods; the exceptions were pate and tuna fish which retained good sensory quality throughout 3-month storage at all temperatures.

  9. Electricity Storage and the Hydrogen-Chlorine Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugolo, Jason Steven

    Electricity storage is an essential component of the transforming energy marketplace. Its absence at any significant scale requires that electricity producers sit ready to respond to every flick of a switch, constantly adjusting power production to meet demand. The dispatchable electricity production technologies that currently enable this type of market are growing unpopular because of their carbon emissions. Popular methods to move away from fossil fuels are wind and solar power. These sources also happen to be the least dispatchable. Electricity storage can solve that problem. By overproducing during sunlight to store energy for evening use, or storing during windy periods for delivery in future calm ones, electricity storage has the potential to allow intermittent renewable sources to constitute a large portion of our electricity mix. I investigate the variability of wind in Chapter 2, and show that the variability is not significantly reduced by geographically distributing power production over the entire country of the Netherlands. In Chapter 3, I calculate the required characteristics of a linear-response, constant activity storage technology to map wind and solar production scenarios onto several different supply scenarios for a range of specified system efficiencies. I show that solid electrode batteries have two orders of magnitude too little energy per unit power to be well suited for renewable balancing and emphasize the value of the modular separation between the power and energy components of regenerative fuel cell technologies. In Chapter 4 I introduce the regenerative hydrogen-chlorine fuel cell (rHCFC), which is a specific technology that shows promise for the above applications. In collaboration with Sustainable Innovations, we have made and tested 6 different rHCFCs. In order to understand the relative importance of the different inefficiencies in the rHCFC, Chapter 5 introduces a complex temperature and concentration dependent model of the r

  10. Simulation of the saturation process of a radwaste storage cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbe, M.F.; Clouard, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation of the saturation of the barrier and the plug of a storage cell by the surrounding host rock. Generally speaking, the unsaturated barrier and plug start saturating immediately in the vicinity of the quasi-saturated host rock. Then the saturation front propagates towards the canisters and the symmetry axis. Apart from the part in contact with the plug, the barrier is saturated at about 30 years. The part of the barrier near the plug is saturated around 80 years. If the top of the plug is saturated very soon, the part in the corner near the gallery and the symmetry axis is not completely saturated after 100 years. In the site, we observe a small desaturation during the first month, at the limit with the plug and the barrier, and especially in the corner limited by both FoCa clay pieces. This transient phenomenon may be assigned to the time difference between the immediate suction of water by the unsaturated materials and the delayed water flows coming from the saturated host rock to compensate the water suction. The purpose of this computation was at once to estimate the time necessary for the saturation of the clay layers surrounding the radwaste canisters and to evaluate the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the storage cell during the saturation process. Therefore a mechanical simulation was performed using the present hydraulic results to initiate the mechanical computation. (authors)

  11. The influence of ionizing radiation on the ripening and storage life of some tropical fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, Ch.

    1972-01-01

    The tests extended to the weight loss, changes in the vitamin C content and in the organoleptic properties of fruit irradiated up to 200 krad as well as to the determination of the ripening and rotting indices. Radiation doses had no effect on the vitamin C content. Investigation of papaya. A certain change was observed in the organoleptic properties of the irradiated fruit. For an improved storage life with preserved quality a storage temperature of 18 0 C and irradiation with 50 and 75 krad radiation dose were found to be the most favourable. Investigation of mango. In course of the storage temperature experiments the irradiated and control fruits were stored at 15 0 C, 18 0 and 22 0 C and it was found that a temperature of 18 0 C and a radiation dose of 40 krad will lead to the most favourable organoleptic and storage properties. Investigation of rambutan. Higher radiation doses, e.g. 100 krad, are more favourable from the aspect of extended storage life of rambutan than lower doses. After 8 days storage the weight loss of samples which had been irradiated with 100 krad was 15% less than that of the controls. Radiation doses had no effect on the reducing sugar content of the rambutan samples. A slight decrease in titratable acidity was found in the stored irradiated rambutan samples. The rotting index of the control sample of the Pink rambutan variety was 40% after 10 days and 100% after 16 days, while after 18 days the rotting index of samples irradiated with 50 krad was only 50% and of those irradiated with 60 krad not more than 30%. Longan investigation. The most favourable change in texture was observed on samples irradiated with high doses and then stored. No significant difference was found between the reducing sugar contents and acidity values as function of the storage period. During 15 days storage at 18 0 C the rotting indices reached, in case of low radiation doses, 100%, while samples irradiated with 150 and 200 krad, respectively, and stored for 30

  12. Effect of Biopreservatives on Storage Life of Papaya (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatema H. Brishti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this experiment the effect on post-harvest preservation of papaya (Carica papaya L. fruit coated with either Aloe gel (AG; 100% or papaya leaf extract with Aloe gel (PLEAG; 1:1 was studied. To evaluate the role of coating on ripening behavior and quality of papaya the uncoated and coated fruits were stored and ripened at room temperature (25 °C-29 °C and 82-84% relative humidity. Physico-chemical properties were analyzed at 4 day intervals during the storage period. The incidence of disease attack was also visually observed. The overall results showed the superiority of AG and PLEAG coating in lengthening the shelf-life of papaya fruit compared to controls which showed significant decay from 6th day onward and complete decay within 12 days of storage. The AG and PLEAG coated fruits maintained their shelf life for 12 days and decayed at 16th day. The coated fruits also maintained their color, flavor and firmness up to 12 days of storage. An increase in ascorbic acid content (120.2 mg/100 g was also found in coated fruits in contrast to the control (59 mg/100 g. Only 27% disease incidence was observed in AG and 13% in PLEAG coated fruits as compared to control (100% during the storage period. The results of this study show that both AG and PLEAG coatings have excellent potential to be used on fresh produce to maintain quality and extend shelf-life.

  13. A high-rate and long cycle life aqueous electrolyte battery for grid-scale energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D.; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    New types of energy storage are needed in conjunction with the deployment of solar, wind and other volatile renewable energy sources and their integration with the electric grid. No existing energy storage technology can economically provide the power, cycle life and energy efficiency needed to respond to the costly short-term transients that arise from renewables and other aspects of grid operation. Here we demonstrate a new type of safe, fast, inexpensive, long-life aqueous electrolyte battery, which relies on the insertion of potassium ions into a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a novel activated carbon/polypyrrole hybrid anode. The cathode reacts rapidly with very little hysteresis. The hybrid anode uses an electrochemically active additive to tune its potential. This high-rate, high-efficiency cell has a 95% round-trip energy efficiency when cycled at a 5C rate, and a 79% energy efficiency at 50C. It also has zero-capacity loss after 1,000 deep-discharge cycles. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  14. A high-rate and long cycle life aqueous electrolyte battery for grid-scale energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-10-23

    New types of energy storage are needed in conjunction with the deployment of solar, wind and other volatile renewable energy sources and their integration with the electric grid. No existing energy storage technology can economically provide the power, cycle life and energy efficiency needed to respond to the costly short-term transients that arise from renewables and other aspects of grid operation. Here we demonstrate a new type of safe, fast, inexpensive, long-life aqueous electrolyte battery, which relies on the insertion of potassium ions into a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a novel activated carbon/polypyrrole hybrid anode. The cathode reacts rapidly with very little hysteresis. The hybrid anode uses an electrochemically active additive to tune its potential. This high-rate, high-efficiency cell has a 95% round-trip energy efficiency when cycled at a 5C rate, and a 79% energy efficiency at 50C. It also has zero-capacity loss after 1,000 deep-discharge cycles. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  15. Modified atmosphere packaging extending the storage life of 'douradão' peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Regina Radomille de Santana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 'Douradão' peach is a perishable product and when cold stored is subject to chilling injury. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP and cold storage on quality and storage life of these peaches. Fruits were packed in polypropylene (PP trays and placed inside low density polyethylene (LDPE bags (30, 50, 60, 75 μm thickness with active modified atmosphere (10 kPa CO2 + 1.5kPa O2, balance N2. The control was made with peaches held in nonwrapped PP trays. Fruits were kept at 1 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% relative humidity (RH for 28 days and CO2 and O2 within packages was monitored every two days. After 14, 21 and 28 days, samples were withdrawn from MAP and kept in air at 25 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% RH for ripening. On the day of removal from the cold storage and after 4 days, peaches were evaluated for weight loss, decay incidence, flesh firmness, woolliness incidence, soluble solids content (SSC, titratable acidity (TA and juice content. The results showed that MAP had influence on reducing weight loss and prevented postharvest decay. MAP of 1-2 kPa O2 and 3-6 kPa CO2 at 1 °C (from 50 and 60 μm LDPE films were effective for keeping good quality of 'Douradão' peaches during 28 days of storage, the ripe fruits showed reduced incidence of woolliness, adequate juiciness and flesh firmness. Packages of 30 and 75 μm LDPE films were ineffective for reducing woolliness during cold storage. MAP fruits showed lower SSC and no relevant effect on TA. Control fruits did not present marketable conditions after 14 days of cold storage.

  16. Quality indicators and shelf life of red octopus (Octopus maya in chilling storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel GULLIAN-KLANIAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are no precedents concerning the quality of Octopus maya during chilled storage. This study evaluated the shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage (4oC and the correlation of the sensory quality index with microbiological counting and the biochemical indicators (hypoxanthine, histamine and volatile amines. A total of 112 whole raw octopi (average weight of 896 g were randomly selected from seven batches and exposed to 4°C for 18, 24, 48, 72, 84, 96, and 100 h. The histamine concentration (91.7%, followed by the counts of psychrotrophic bacteria (5.5% and hypoxanthine (2.2%, were the predictors from the redundancy analysis that better explained the changes taking place during the chilling hours. After 72 h of chilling, the microbial count was determined to be log 4.7 CFU/g, and the octopus samples were classified as B quality (minor sensory quality defects based on the sensory quality scale. Although the samples were not classified as unacceptable at 100 h of refrigeration by the sensory index, the level of histamine reached the defect action level (5 mg/100 g as ruled by the International Food Safety Authorities. The shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage was predicted to be 119 h.

  17. Shelf-life extension of packed mushroom (Agaricus sp.) by a combination of gamma radiation and low temperature storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, S.; Sharma, Arun; Thomas, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Gamma irradiation to a dose of 2 kGy coupled with storage at 10 degC was found to provide 2-3 fold enhancement in the shelf-life of button mushrooms with reduced energy requirement for storage. The study shows possible commercial application of this technology. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  18. Method for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells by flushing with inert gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitensky, M.W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1997-04-29

    A method is disclosed using oxygen removal for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells. A cost-effective, 4 C storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. Preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels and reduction in hemolysis and in membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4 C for prolonged periods of time is achieved by removing oxygen from the red blood cells at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing with an inert gas. Adenosine triphosphate levels of the stored red blood cells are boosted in some samples by addition of ammonium phosphate. 4 figs.

  19. Effects of Edible Chitosan Coating on Quality and Increasing Storage Life of Cucumber cv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghasemi Tavallaiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan, is non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible material, which can be used as edible coatings to maintain quality and enhance postharvest life of fruits and vegetables. In this study, the effect of chitosan at 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% concentrations on storage life of cucumber cv. "Zomorod" was investigated. After treatment and keeping in an incubator at 12 °C and 90% relative humidity, the fruits were assessed in 5-days intervals to determine parameters such as firmness, weight loss, vitamin C, titratable acidity, soluble solids and chlorophyll content. Experiment was performed as a split-plot design in time in a completely randomized design with three replications. The results of the experiment showed that chitosan coating, had a significant effect on all traits except titrable acidity. The lowest weight loss and the highest firmness were recorded with 1% chitosan treatment which significantly differed from the control. It is appeared that chitosan coatings could be used to increase the storage life of cucumber fruit and to maintain its quality for a longer period.

  20. Pesticidal seed coats based on azadirachtin-A: release kinetics, storage life and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Keyath; Kumar, Jitendra; Arun Kumar, M B; Walia, Suresh; Shakil, Najam A; Parsad, Rajender; Parmar, Balraj S

    2009-02-01

    Infestation of seeds by pests during storage leads to deterioration in quality. Seed coating is an effective option to overcome the menace. Unlike synthetic fungicidal seed coats, little is known of those based on botanicals. This study aims at developing azadirachtin-A-based pesticidal seed coats to maintain seed quality during storage. Polymer- and clay-based coats containing azadirachtin-A were prepared and evaluated for quality maintenance of soybean seed during storage. Gum acacia, gum tragacanth, rosin, ethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, polyethyl methacrylate, methyl cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and Agrimer VA 6 polymers and the clay bentonite were used as carriers. The time for 50% release (t(1/2)) of azadirachtin-A into water from the seeds coated with the different coats ranged from 8.02 to 21.36 h. The half-life (T(1/2)) of azadirachtin-A in the coats on seed ranged from 4.37 to 11.22 months, as compared with 3.45 months in azadirachtin-A WP, showing an increase by a factor of nearly 1.3-3.3 over the latter. The coats apparently acted as a barrier to moisture to reduce azadirachtin-A degradation and prevented proliferation of storage fungi. Polyethyl methacrylate, polyvinyl acetate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone were significantly superior to the other polymers. Azadirachtin-A showed a significant positive correlation with seed germination and vigour, and negative correlation with moisture content. Effective polymeric carriers for seed coats based on azadirachtin-A are reported. These checked seed deterioration during storage by acting as a barrier to moisture and reduced the degradation of azadirachtin-A.

  1. Correction: Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2017-01-01

    Correction for ‘Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4’ by S. H. Jensen et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 2471–2479.......Correction for ‘Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4’ by S. H. Jensen et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 2471–2479....

  2. Development of Specific Rules for the Application of Life Cycle Assessment to Carbon Capture and Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Gallo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS is a very innovative and promising solution for greenhouse gases (GHG reduction, i.e., capturing carbon dioxide (CO2 at its source and storing it indefinitely to avoid its release to the atmosphere. This paper investigates a set of key issues in the development of specific rules for the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA to CCS. The following LCA-based information are addressed in this work: definition of service type, definition of functional unit, definition of system boundaries, choice of allocation rules, choice of selected Life Cycle Inventory (LCI results or other selected parameters for description of environmental performance. From a communication perspective, the specific rules defined in this study have been developed coherently with the requirements of a type III environment label scheme, the International EPD® System, according to the ISO 14025 standard.

  3. Life cycle assessment of solar aided coal-fired power system with and without heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Rongrong; Li, Chao; Chen, Ying; Yang, Yongping; Patchigolla, Kumar; Oakey, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The comprehensive performances of three kinds of different systems were compared through LCA. • The comprehensive results of all systems were evaluated by grey relation theory. • The effects of life span, coal price, and solar collector field cost, among other factors, on the results were explored. - Abstract: Pollutant emissions from coal-fired power system have been receiving increasing attention over the past few years. Integration of solar thermal energy can greatly reduce pollutant emissions from these power stations. The performances of coal-fired power system (S1), solar aided coal-fired power system with thermal storage (S2), and solar aided coal-fired power system without thermal storage (S3) with three capacities of each kind of system (i.e., nine subsystems) were analyzed over the entire life span. The pollutant emissions and primary energy consumptions (PECs) of S1, S2, and S3 were estimated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The evaluation value of global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), respiratory effects potential (REP) and PEC were obtained based on the LCA results. Furthermore, the system investments were estimated, and grey relation theory was used to evaluate the performance of the three types of systems comprehensively. Finally, in order to find the effect of some main factors on the solar aided coal-fired power system (SACFPS), uncertainty analysis has been carried out. The LCA results show that the pollutant emissions and PEC mainly take place in the fuel processing and operation stages for all three system types, and S2 performs the best among the three systems based on the grey relation analysis results. And the uncertainty analysis shows that with longer life span, the power system have better performance; with higher coal price, the power system will have worse performance; with lower solar collector field cost, the solar aided coal-fired power system will be more profitable than the base

  4. Microbial profiles of commercial, vacuum-packaged, fresh pork of normal or short storage life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Richard A; Peirson, Michael D; Lam, Jocelyn; Tan, Kit Bee

    2004-12-01

    The microbial ecology of fresh vacuum-packed pork cuts during storage at -1.5 degrees C for up to 45 days was examined to characterize rates of microbial growth and pH changes in commercially prepared products of normal storage quality. Pork loins in commercial distribution with odour defects were also studied to determine a possible cause of the defects and avoid future problems. In addition, microbial profiles of pork cuts from two plants were compared, after storage for 25 days at -1.5 degrees C, to identify possible reasons for differences in the storage life of product from the plants. The effects of a change in sanitation procedures on the microbial populations of products stored for 25 days were also studied. With normal product, microbial growth in different packages progressed at different rates, reflecting differences in initial levels of bacterial contamination. All samples in the study reached 8 weeks without apparent organoleptic change and samples carried 5.8+/-1.2 log bacteria cm(-2) (mean+/-S.D.). The flora of loins with the odour defect were predominately lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and carnobacteria, but they contained large fractions of Enterobacteriaceae spoiled products, but species of Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria could have contributed to spoilage. Comparison of microbial groups present in 16 other cuts, half from each of two commercial plants, which were stored for 25 days at -1.5 degrees C, showed that larger fractions of Enterobacteriaceae were present in samples from the plant having difficulty achieving the desired storage life. Additional bacterial samples from 12 cuts supplied by the latter plant obtained after adoption of an acid sanitizer step in the plant cleaning regimen, and also stored for 25 days at -1.5 degrees C, yielded few Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonas or Shewanella. Use of an acid sanitizer in plant cleaning may be a means of controlling alkali-tolerant bacteria such as Aeromonas or Shewanella which can

  5. Extension of raw watermelon juice shelf-life up to 58days by hyperbaric storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Álvaro T; Ribeiro, Ana C; Fidalgo, Liliana G; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2017-09-15

    Hyperbaric storage (HS) of raw watermelon juice, at 50, 62.5 and 75MPa, at temperatures of 10, 15 and ≈25°C (room temperature, RT), was studied to evaluate shelf-life comparatively to refrigeration (RF, 4°C). Generally, RF caused an increase of microbial loads to values ≥6.0logCFU/mL after 7days of storage. Contrarily, HS at 62.5/75MPa (15°C) showed a reduction of initial loads, by at least 2.5logCFU/mL, up to 58days, while pH and colour values did not changed under these HS conditions. Additionally, the combination of a lower temperature with HS has beneficial effects to control microbial development, particularly for the lower pressure studied (50MPa/10°C). In conclusion, HS increased watermelon juice shelf-life for at least 58days, indicating a great potential for future RF replacement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Shelf-Life and Sensory Scores of Squid Sundae under Accelerated Storage Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.J.; Kim, K.B.W.R.; Kim, D.H.; Sunwoo, C.; Jung, S.A.; Jeong, D.H.; Jung, H.Y.; Ahn, D.H.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, J.W.; Do, S.R.; Byun, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of gamma irradiation on the shelf-life and sensory scores of squid Sundae under accelerated storage conditions. Squid Sundae was stored at 37°C for 35 days following gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 10, and 20 kGy. For total viable cell counts, control and gamma-irradiated (GI) (10 kGy) squid Sundae were already spoiled in 4 days, whereas GI (20 kGy) squid Sundae showed complete suppression of bacterial growth during storage. There were no significant changes in pH values compared to the control. The VBN and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) values of GI (20 kGy) squid Sundae were significantly lower than those of the control. In addition, the induction period of GI (20 kGy) squid Sundae as measured by a Rancimat showed a higher level compared to that of the control. In the sensory evaluation, there were no significant changes between the control and GI samples. These results suggest that a dose of 20 kGy is the optimum and effective dose for preservation of squid Sundae. (author)

  7. Storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Rita

    The increased utilization of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as an alternative to internal combustion engines is expected to increase the demand for hydrogen, which is used as the energy source in these systems. The objective of this work is to develop and test new methods for the storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cells. Six ligand-stabilized hydrides were synthesized and tested as hydrogen storage media for use in portable fuel cells. These novel compounds are more stable than classical hydrides (e.g., NaBH4, LiAlH4) and react to release hydrogen less exothermically upon hydrolysis with water. Three of the compounds produced hydrogen in high yield (88 to 100 percent of the theoretical) and at significantly lower temperatures than those required for the hydrolysis of NaBH4 and LiAlH4. However, a large excess of water and acid were required to completely wet the hydride and keep the pH of the reaction medium neutral. The hydrolysis of the classical hydrides with steam can overcome these limitations. This reaction was studied in a flow reactor and the results indicate that classical hydrides can be hydrolyzed with steam in high yields at low temperatures (110 to 123°C) and in the absence of acid. Although excess steam was required, the pH of the condensed steam was neutral. Consequently, steam could be recycled back to the reactor. Production of hydrogen for large-scale transportation fuel cells is primarily achieved via the steam reforming, partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of natural gas or the steam reforming of methanol. However, in all of these processes CO is a by-product that must be subsequently removed because the Pt-based electrocatalyst used in the fuel cells is poisoned by its presence. The direct cracking of methane over a Ni/SiO2 catalyst can produce CO-free hydrogen. In addition to hydrogen, filamentous carbon is also produced. This material accumulates on the catalyst and eventually deactivates it. The Ni/SiO2 catalyst

  8. Method for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells by flushing with inert gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitensky, Mark W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1997-01-01

    Method using oxygen removal for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells. A cost-effective, 4.degree. C. storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. Preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels and reduction in hemolysis and in membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4.degree. C. for prolonged periods of time is achieved by removing oxygen therefrom at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing with an inert gas. Adenosine triphosphate levels of the stored red blood cells are boosted in some samples by addition of ammonium phosphate.

  9. Pathogen inactivation by riboflavin and ultraviolet light illumination accelerates the red blood cell storage lesion and promotes eryptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Syed M; Chen, Deborah; Schubert, Peter; Perruzza, Darian L; Bhakta, Varsha; Devine, Dana V; Sheffield, William P

    2017-03-01

    Pathogen reduction treatment using riboflavin and ultraviolet light illumination (Mirasol) effectively reduces the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections. This treatment is currently licensed for only platelets and plasma products, while its application to whole blood (WB) to generate pathogen-inactivated red blood cells (RBCs) is under development. RBC storage lesion, constituting numerous morphologic and biochemical changes, influences RBC quality and limits shelf life. Stored RBCs further show enhanced susceptibility to RBC programmed cell death (eryptosis) characterized by increased cytosolic Ca 2+ -provoked membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Using a "pool-and-split" approach, we examined multiple variables of RBC storage lesion and eryptosis in RBC units, derived from Mirasol-treated or untreated WB, after 4 to 42 days of storage, under blood bank conditions. In comparison to untreated RBC units, Mirasol treatment significantly altered membrane microvesiculation, supernatant hemoglobin, osmotic fragility, and intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels but did not influence membrane CD47 expression and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels. Mirasol-treated RBCs showed significantly higher PS exposure after 42, but not after not more than 21, days of storage, which was accompanied by enhanced cytosolic Ca 2+ activity, ceramide abundance, and oxidative stress, but not p38 kinase activation. Mirasol treatment significantly augmented PS exposure, Ca 2+ entry, and protein kinase C activation after energy depletion, a pathophysiologic cell stressor. Mirasol-treated RBCs were, however, more resistant to cell shrinkage. Prolonged storage of Mirasol-treated RBCs significantly increases the proportion of eryptotic RBCs, while even short-term storage enhances the susceptibility of RBCs to stress-induced eryptosis, which could reduce posttransfusion RBC recovery in patients. © 2016 AABB.

  10. Life cycle GHG assessment of fossil fuel power plants with carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odeh, Naser A.; Cockerill, Timothy T.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a critical factor in energy and policy analysis. The current paper examines life cycle emissions from three types of fossil-fuel-based power plants, namely supercritical pulverized coal (super-PC), natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), with and without CCS. Results show that, for a 90% CO 2 capture efficiency, life cycle GHG emissions are reduced by 75-84% depending on what technology is used. With GHG emissions less than 170 g/kWh, IGCC technology is found to be favorable to NGCC with CCS. Sensitivity analysis reveals that, for coal power plants, varying the CO 2 capture efficiency and the coal transport distance has a more pronounced effect on life cycle GHG emissions than changing the length of CO 2 transport pipeline. Finally, it is concluded from the current study that while the global warming potential is reduced when MEA-based CO 2 capture is employed, the increase in other air pollutants such as NO x and NH 3 leads to higher eutrophication and acidification potentials

  11. A case study of remaining storage life prediction using stochastic filtering with the influence of condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaoqiang; Hu, Changhua; Wang, Wenbin; Zhou, Zhijie; Si, Xiaosheng

    2014-01-01

    Some systems may spend most of their time in storage, but once needed, must be fully functional. Slow degradation occurs when the system is in storage, so to ensure the functionality of these systems, condition monitoring is usually conducted periodically to check the condition of the system. However, taking the condition monitoring data may require putting the system under real testing situation which may accelerate the degradation, and therefore, shorten the storage life of the system. This paper presents a case study of condition-based remaining storage life prediction for gyros in the inertial navigation system on the basis of the condition monitoring data and the influence of the condition monitoring data taking process. A stochastic-filtering-based degradation model is developed to incorporate both into the prediction of the remaining storage life distribution. This makes the predicted remaining storage life depend on not only the condition monitoring data but also the testing process of taking the condition monitoring data, which the existing prognostic techniques and algorithms did not consider. The presented model is fitted to the real condition monitoring data of gyros testing using the maximum likelihood estimation method for parameter estimation. Comparisons are made with the model without considering the process of taking the condition monitoring data, and the results clearly demonstrate the superiority of the newly proposed model

  12. Assessment of Shelf-Life Ability of Apples cv. ‘Auksis’ after Long-term Storage Under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhņeviča-Radenkova Karina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current research was to ascertain the shelf-life ability of apple ‘Auksis’ after 6 months of cold storage under different conditions. The effect of storage conditions such as: cold storage under normal atmosphere (NA, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP + cold storage, and ultra-low oxygen (ULO-controlled atmosphere (CA [2.0% CO2 and 1.0% O2 (ULO1 and 2.5% CO2 and 1.5% O2 (ULO2] on the quality of apples during shelf-life was evaluated. Apple fruits immediately after cold storage and after 25 days of maintaining at market condition had been evaluated. The physical (firmness, weight losses, chemical (total soluble solids and acid contents, and sensory (aroma, taste, acidity, sweetness, juiciness, and color characteristics of apples had been evaluated after 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 days to ascertain maximal shelf-life. Results from sensory evaluation indicated that apples treated with 1-MCP and stored at NA were characterized with distinctive aroma, whereas apples stored under CA were poor in sweetness and had remarkable acidity and juiciness. Apples that were stored in cold had pronounced aroma and color but without taste. Based on the evaluation by panelist, maximum shelf-life of apples that were kept under cold storage and ULO1 was 15 days, whereas that of apples that had been treated with 1-MCP and stored at NA and those stored in ULO2 was 25 days.

  13. Capacity fade of LiNi(1-x-y)CoxAlyO2 cathode for lithium-ion batteries during accelerated calendar and cycle life test. I. Comparison analysis between LiNi(1-x-y)CoxAlyO2 and LiCoO2 cathodes in cylindrical lithium-ion cells during long term storage test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shoichiro; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Nakura, Kensuke

    2014-02-01

    Ni-based LiNi(1-x-y)CoxAlyO2 (NCA) and LiCoO2 (LCO) cathode materials taken out of lithium-ion cells after storage for 2 years at 45 °C were analyzed by various spectroscopic techniques. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy exhibited that there was no difference between NCA and LCO. On the other hand, scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron energy-loss spectroscopy demonstrated there was a remarkably large difference between the two cathode materials. Ni-L2,3 energy-loss near-edge structure (ELNES) spectra of the NCA showed a peak at about 856.5 eV, which was assigned to trivalent nickel, was maintained even after storage, indicating that the NCA had no significant change in its surface structure during storage. On the other hand, in the Co-L2,3 ELNES spectra of the LCO a peak at about 782.5 eV, which was assigned to trivalent cobalt, significantly shifted to the lower energies after storage. These results suggest that crystal structure change of the active material surface is a predominant reason of deterioration during the storage test.

  14. Combined effect of temperature and controlled atmosphere on storage and shelf-life of 'Rocha' pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago, Custódia M L; Miguel, Maria G; Cavaco, Ana M; Almeida, Domingos P F; Antunes, Maria D C

    2015-03-01

    The combination of temperature and atmosphere composition for storage of Pyrus communis L. 'Rocha' treated with 1-methylcyclopropene was investigated. Fruits treated with 312 nl l(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene were stored at 0 ℃ and 2.5 ℃ in air and controlled atmosphere (CA) (3.04 kPa O2+ 0.91 kPa CO2). Fruits were removed from storage after 14, 26 and 35 weeks, transferred to shelf-life at approximately 22 ℃ and assessed for ripening and quality, symptoms of superficial scald and internal browning and the accumulation of biochemical compounds related to scald after 0, 1 and 2 weeks. Superficial scald occurred only in fruits stored for 35 weeks in air at 2.5 ℃. Levels of conjugated trienols and α-farnesene increased during the first 26 weeks in storage, remaining constant thereafter. During shelf-life, conjugated trienols were higher in fruits stored in air at 2.5 ℃. Internal browning developed in shelf-life after 26 weeks at 2.5 ℃. Pears in air at 2.5 ℃ were not able to stand a 2-week shelf-life after 35 weeks of storage, while fruits stored at 0 ℃ under CA ripened slowly after the same storage period. The retention of firmness during shelf-life of 1-methylcyclopropene-treated 'Rocha' pear can be overcome by elevating the storage temperature from 0 ℃ to 2.5 ℃, but CA is a required complement to avoid excessive softening after long-term storage. The ratio carotenoid/chlorophyll increased during storage and shelf-life, as plastids senesced. CA reduced the rate of chlorophyll loss during the first 14 weeks in storage, but its effect was reduced afterwards. 'Rocha' pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene had a similar post-harvest behaviour during long-term storage at 0 ℃ in air or at 2.5 ℃ under CA. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Effect of chitosan coating and bamboo FSC (fruit storage chamber) to expand banana shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, Aksarani'Sa; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Larasati, Dwinita; Islamia, Hana Cahya; Martien, Ronny

    2015-09-01

    Chitosan has been widely used as fruit preserver and proven to extend the shelf life of many fruits, such as banana. However, banana producers and many industries in Indonesia still facing storage problems which may lead to mechanical damage of the fruits and ripening acceleration. Therefore, we have designed food storage chamber (FSC) based on bamboo material. Bamboo was selected because of material abundance in Indonesia, economically effective, and not causing an autocatalytic reaction to the ethylene gas produced by the banana. In this research, Cavendish banana that has reached the maturity level of mature green were coated with 1% chitosan and placed inside the FSC. As control treatments, uncoated banana was also placed inside the FSC as well as uncoated banana that were placed at open space. All of the treatments were placed at 25°C temperature and observed for 9 days. Water produced by respiration was reduced by the addition of charcoal inside a fabric pouch. The result showed that treatment using FSC and chitosan can delay ripening process.

  16. Enhancing post harvest storage life of peach fruits using calcium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.; Afridi, S.R.; Khan, R.U.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The present study was conducted to enhance the post harvest storage life of peach fruits using calcium chloride treatments. CaCl/sub 2/ solution at 1 % (T1 ), 2 % (T2 ) and 3 % (T3) were prepared and the fruits were dipped for five minutes, while (To) was left with out calcium chloride treatment as control. The fruits were packed in corrugated soft board cartons and stored at ambient temperature (35 degree C + 2) for a total period of 15 days. The physicochemical analysis such as weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), decay index, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content and overall sensory acceptability were determined at an interval of three days up to the successful completion of the study. A significant decrease was observed in fruit firmness (1.8-0.3 kg), % acidity (0.950- 0.538), ascorbic acid content (7.06-4.67 mg/100g) and overall sensory acceptability (8.4-2.3), while a significant increase was observed in TSS (8.2-11.9 degree brix), decay index (0-72.64 %) and % weight loss (0-11.3) during storage. Results showed that one and two percent calcium chloride treated fruits have little improvement while fruits treated with 3 % calcium chloride were found to be most acceptable as per physico-chemical analyses and over all sensory acceptability result. (author)

  17. Active packaging from chitosan-titanium dioxide nanocomposite film for prolonging storage life of tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewklin, Patinya; Siripatrawan, Ubonrat; Suwanagul, Anawat; Lee, Youn Suk

    2018-06-01

    The feasibility of active packaging from chitosan (CS) and chitosan containing nanosized titanium dioxide (CT) to maintain quality and extend storage life of climacteric fruit was investigated. The CT nanocomposite film and CS film were fabricated using a solution casting method and used as active packaging to delay ripening process of cherry tomatoes. Changes in firmness, weight loss, a*/b* color, lycopene content, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid, and concentration of ethylene and carbon dioxide of the tomatoes packaged in CT film, CS film, and control (without CT or CS films) were monitored during storage at 20°C. Classification of fruit quality as a function of different packaging treatments was visualized using linear discriminant analysis. Tomatoes packaged in the CT film evolved lower quality changes than those in the CS film and control. The results suggested that the CT film exhibited ethylene photodegradation activity when exposed to UV light and consequently delayed the ripening process and changes in the quality of the tomatoes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biochemical Storage Lesions Occurring in Nonirradiated and Irradiated Red Blood Cells: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Adams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells undergo a series of biochemical fluctuations during 35–42-day storage period at 1°C to 6°C. The sodium/potassium pump is immobilised causing a decrease in intracellular potassium with an increase in cytoplasmic sodium levels, glucose levels decline, and acidosis occurs as a result of low pH levels. The frailty of stored erythrocytes triggers the formation of haemoglobin-containing microparticles and the release of cell-free haemoglobin which may add to transfusion difficulties. Lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress to band 3 structures, and other morphological and structural molecular changes also occur leading to spheroechinocytes and osmotic fragility. These changes that transpire in the red cells during the storage period are referred to as “storage lesions.” It is well documented that gamma irradiation exacerbates storage lesions and the reports of increased potassium levels leading to adverse reactions observed in neonates and infants have been of particular concern. There are, however, remarkably few systematic studies comparing the in vitro storage lesions of irradiated and nonirradiated red cell concentrates and it has been suggested that the impact of storage lesions on leucocyte reduced red blood cell concentrate (RBCC is incomplete. The review examines storage lesions in red blood cells and their adverse effects in reference to blood transfusion.

  19. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreases during storage of leukoreduced red blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Anna L.; van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.

    2016-01-01

    During storage, the activity of the red blood cell (RBC) antioxidant system decreases. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is essential for protection against oxidative stress by producing NADPH. G6PD function of RBC transfusion products is reported to remain stable during storage, but activity

  20. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, Hassan; Giri, Fouad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for electric vehicle. The storage system consists of a fuel cell (FC), serving as the main power source, and a supercapacitor (SC), serving as an auxiliary power source. It also contains a power block for energy...

  1. The proteome of red cell membranes and vesicles during storage in blood bank conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Lasonder, E.; Luten, M.; Roerdinkholder-Stoelwinder, B.; Novotny, V.M.J.; Bos, H.; Grip, W.J. de

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During storage of red cells (RBCs) for transfusion, RBCs undergo a number of biochemical and morphologic changes. To be able to identify the mechanisms underlying these storage lesions, a proteomic analysis of the membranes of RBCs and their vesicles was performed during various periods

  2. Hydrogen storage material, electrochemically active material, electrochemical cell and electronic equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a hydrogen storage material comprising an alloy of magnesium. The invention further relates to an electrochemically active material and an electrochemical cell provided with at least one electrode comprising such a hydrogen storage material. Also, the invention relates to

  3. Making the case for direct hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, B.D.; Thomas, C.E.; Baum, G.N.; Lomas, F.D. Jr.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Three obstacles to the introduction of direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are often states: (1) inadequate onboard hydrogen storage leading to limited vehicle range; (2) lack of an hydrogen infrastructure, and (3) cost of the entire fuel cell system. This paper will address the first point with analysis of the problem/proposed solutions for the remaining two obstacles addressed in other papers. Results of a recent study conducted by Directed Technologies Inc. will be briefly presented. The study, as part of Ford Motor Company/DOE PEM Fuel Cell Program, examines multiple pure hydrogen onboard storage systems on the basis of weight, volume, cost, and complexity. Compressed gas, liquid, carbon adsorption, and metal hydride storage are all examined with compressed hydrogen storage at 5,000 psia being judged the lowest-risk, highest benefit, near-term option. These results are combined with recent fuel cell vehicle drive cycle simulations to estimate the onboard hydrogen storage requirement for full vehicle range (380 miles on the combined Federal driving schedule). The results indicate that a PNGV-like vehicle using powertrain weights and performance realistically available by the 2004 PNGV target data can achieve approximate fuel economy equivalent to 100 mpg on gasoline (100 mpg{sub eq}) and requires storage of approximately 3.6 kg hydrogen for full vehicle storage quantity allows 5,000 psia onboard storage without altering the vehicle exterior lines or appreciably encroaching on the passenger or trunk compartments.

  4. Red blood cell storage duration and long-term mortality in patients undergoing cardiac intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, D; Pedersen, F; Engstrøm, T

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of red blood cell (RBC) storage duration on long-term mortality in patients undergoing cardiac intervention. BACKGROUND: RBCs undergo numerous structural and functional changes during storage. Observational studies have assessed the association between RBC storage...... duration and patient outcomes with conflicting results. METHODS: Between January 2006 and December 2014, 82 408 patients underwent coronary angiography. Of these, 1856 patients received one to four RBC units within 30 days after this procedure. Patients were allocated according to length of RBC storage...

  5. A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzo, M.A.; Hoberecht, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for space station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life

  6. A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, M. A.; Hoberecht, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for Space Station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life.

  7. Effects of chitosan on the shelf life of marinated sardine (Sardina pilchardus fillets during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygül Küçükgülmez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of chitosan on chemical, colour, sensory and microbial changes of marinated sardine (Sardina pilchardus fillets. Marination solution consisted of 10% sodium chloride + 1% chitosan (dissolved in 3% acetic acid for the chitosan group, and 10% sodium chloride + 3% acetic acid solution for the control group. After the marination process, sardine fillets were packed and stored at 4ºC for 60 days. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA values were found to be lower in the chitosan group than the control group (PL*, a*, or b* values of marinated sardine fillets. According to sensory analysis, shelf life of the chitosan group was found to be ten days longer than that of the control group. Total bacteria count of two marinated groups was found to be less than 1 log CFU/g. This study concluded that sardine marination with the addition of chitosan can delay undesirable chemical changes, retard lipid oxidation, improve sensory attributes and extend the shelf life of the product during refrigerated storage.

  8. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    A. Hajizadeh; F. Hassanzadeh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid ...

  9. Liquid Storage at 4 deg C of Previously Frozen Red Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    adenosine tnphosphate (ATP). 2.3- acceptable red cell function. A post-thaw storage ca- diphosphoglycerate (2.3-DPG), glucose, supernatant hemo...and Received for publication September 22. 1986; revision received supernatant hemoglobin levels within the acceptable range, November 29, 1986, and...percent. All units were sterile at the end of the 21-day post- thaw storage period. 6.9 The mean red cell ATP and 2,3-DPG levels are shown in Figure 1

  10. Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saxon, Aron R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cao, Ziwei [SunPower Corporation; Roc, Albert [SunPower Corporation

    2017-09-06

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are being deployed on the electrical grid for a variety of purposes, such as to smooth fluctuations in solar renewable power generation. The lifetime of these batteries will vary depending on their thermal environment and how they are charged and discharged. To optimal utilization of a battery over its lifetime requires characterization of its performance degradation under different storage and cycling conditions. Aging tests were conducted on commercial graphite/nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) Li-ion cells. A general lifetime prognostic model framework is applied to model changes in capacity and resistance as the battery degrades. Across 9 aging test conditions from 0oC to 55oC, the model predicts capacity fade with 1.4% RMS error and resistance growth with 15% RMS error. The model, recast in state variable form with 8 states representing separate fade mechanisms, is used to extrapolate lifetime for example applications of the energy storage system integrated with renewable photovoltaic (PV) power generation.

  11. High temperature solid oxide regenerative fuel cell for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.

    A hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system based on high temperature solid oxide fuel cell technology is discussed which has application to darkside energy storage for solar photovoltaics. The forward and reverse operating cycles are described, and heat flow, mass, and energy balance data are presented to characterize the system's performance and the variation of performance with changing reactant storage pressure. The present system weighs less than nickel hydrogen battery systems after 0.7 darkside operation, and it maintains a specific weight advantage over radioisotope generators for discharge periods up to 72 hours.

  12. High temperature solid oxide regenerative fuel cell for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.

    1987-01-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system based on high temperature solid oxide fuel cell technology is discussed which has application to darkside energy storage for solar photovoltaics. The forward and reverse operating cycles are described, and heat flow, mass, and energy balance data are presented to characterize the system's performance and the variation of performance with changing reactant storage pressure. The present system weighs less than nickel hydrogen battery systems after 0.7 darkside operation, and it maintains a specific weight advantage over radioisotope generators for discharge periods up to 72 hours.

  13. Modeling of Complex Life Cycle Prediction Based on Cell Division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fucheng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective fault diagnosis and reasonable life expectancy are of great significance and practical engineering value for the safety, reliability, and maintenance cost of equipment and working environment. At present, the life prediction methods of the equipment are equipment life prediction based on condition monitoring, combined forecasting model, and driven data. Most of them need to be based on a large amount of data to achieve the problem. For this issue, we propose learning from the mechanism of cell division in the organism. We have established a moderate complexity of life prediction model across studying the complex multifactor correlation life model. In this paper, we model the life prediction of cell division. Experiments show that our model can effectively simulate the state of cell division. Through the model of reference, we will use it for the equipment of the complex life prediction.

  14. Regenerative Hydrogen-oxygen Fuel Cell-electrolyzer Systems for Orbital Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel cells have found application in space since Gemini. Over the years technology advances have been factored into the mainstream hardware programs. Performance levels and service lives have been gradually improving. More recently, the storage application for fuel cell-electrolyzer combinations are receiving considerable emphasis. The regenerative system application described here is part of a NASA Fuel Cell Program which was developed to advance the fuel cell and electrolyzer technology required to satisfy the identified power generation and energy storage need of the Agency for space transportation and orbital applications to the year 2000.

  15. Stress-life interrelationships associated with alkaline fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Martin, Ronald E.; Stedman, James K.

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented concerning the interrelationships between applied stress and the expected service life of alkaline fuel cells. Only the physical, chemical, and electrochemical phenomena that take place within the fuel cell stack portion of an overall fuel cell system will be discussed. A brief review will be given covering the significant improvements in performance and life over the past two decades as well as summarizing the more recent advances in understanding which can be used to predict the performance and life characteristics of fuel cell systems that have yet to be built.

  16. Closed-cell polymeric foam for hydrogen separation and storage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pientka, Zbyněk; Pokorný, P.; Bélafi-Bakó, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 304, 1-2 (2007), s. 82-87 ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/1207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymeric foam * gas separation * hydrogen storage Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.432, year: 2007

  17. Shelf life of donkey milk subjected to different treatment and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Bardasi, Lia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Morbarigazzi, Michele; Federici, Simone; Piva, Silvia; Serraino, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different treatment conditions on microbiological indicators of donkey milk hygiene and their evolution during shelf life at 4 and 12°C from 3 to 30d, simulating a farm-scale pasteurization and packing system. Four treatment conditions were tested: no treatment (raw milk), pasteurization (65°C × 30 min), high-pressure processing (HPP), and pasteurization plus HPP. The microbiological quality of the raw donkey milk investigated was not optimal; our results highlight the importance of raw milk management with the need for animal hygiene management and good dairy farming practices on donkey farms to improve handling procedures. The raw milk treated with HPP alone showed visible alterations with flocks, making the milk unfit for sale. The microbiological risk posed by consumption of raw donkey milk was significantly reduced by heat treatment but farm-scale packing systems cannot guarantee an extended shelf life. In contrast, the pasteurization plus HPP treatment was the most effective method to maintain microbiological milk quality. Microflora growth had little effect on pH in donkey milk: pH values were significantly different only between raw milk and pasteurized and pasteurized plus HPP milk stored at 12°C for 3d. Alkaline phosphatase activity and furosine could be used as indicators of proper pasteurization and thermal processing in donkey milk. Moreover, the presence and growth of Bacillus cereus in the case of thermal abuse hamper the wide-scale marketing of donkey milk due to the potential consequences for sensitive consumers and therefore further tests with time/temperature/high-pressure protocols associated with B. cereus are needed. Finally, our study shows that an HPP treatment of pasteurized milk after packing extends the shelf life of donkey milk and assures its microbial criteria up to 30d if properly stored at 4°C until opening; therefore, combined heat treatment and storage strategies are

  18. Study of sorption behavior, shelf life and colour kinetics of vacuum puffed honey powder at accelerated storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, K Deepika; Paul, Sanjib Kr; Sahu, Jatindra K

    2016-05-01

    In the study, the storage life of vacuum puffed honey powder at accelerated storage environment (90 % relative humidity and 36 °C) was computed by determining the sticky-point moisture content as the critical parameter of the honey powder. The value of monolayer moisture content in the GAB model was calculated to be 0.081 kg water/kg dry solids by fitting water activity and moisture sorption data. Shelf life of the honey powder was predicted to be 222 days when the powder was packaged in aluminum foil-laminated polyethylene pouches with permeability value of 5.427X10(-8) kg/m(2)//day/Pa. Actual shelf life of honey powder was experimentally determined as 189 days and analysis of mean relative percent derivation modulus (Rd) and root mean square (RMS) established the accuracy and acceptability of the technique for the prediction of shelf life of honey powder. Overall colour deviation pattern followed first order reaction kinetics with rate constant (k1) as 0.037 day(-1). This study revealed overall colour difference of 18.1 till the end of shelf life with drastic change during initial storage period.

  19. Long life nickel electrodes for a nickel-hydrogen cell: Cycle life tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    In order to develop a long life nickel electrode for a Ni/H2 cell, the cycle life of nickel electrodes was tested in Ni/H2 boiler plate cells. A 19 test cell matrix was made of various nickel electrode designs including three levels each of plaque mechanical strength, median pore size of the plaque, and active material loading. Test cells were cycled to the end of their life (0.5v) in a 45 minute low Earth orbit cycle regime at 80% depth-of-discharge. It is shown that the active material loading level affects the cycle life the most with the optimum loading at 1.6 g/cc void. Mechanical strength does not affect the cycle life noticeably in the bend strength range of 400 to 700 psi. It is found that the best plaque is made of INCO nickel powder type 287 and has median pore size of 13 micron.

  20. Effect of gamma radiation on post harvest storage life of onion bulb under ordinary room condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, N.; Badshah, N.; Mahboob, F.; Ayub, G.

    2003-01-01

    Post harvest storage life of radiated onion bulbs harvested at different stages of maturity and stored at ordinary room temperature (30-39 degree C) was studied at the Department of Horticulture, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, during August 2002. Onion bulbs were harvested at two stages i.e. drooping and complete dried leaf. Four radiation doses of 2, 4, 6 and 8 kilo rad (Kr) were applied with normal (control). The data of experiment was collected from weight loss, rot attack, sprouting, firmness and taste pungency. The results revealed that various radiation doses significantly affected weight loss, rot attack, sprouting, firmness and taste pungency. Onion bulbs radiated with 8 Kr showed minimum percent weight loss (28.59%), decrease in firmness and taste pungency. Minimum percent rot attack (6.3%) was observed in 6 and 8 Kr. Radiation doses of 4, 6 and 8 Kr showed no sprouting at all. Maximum weight loss (43.20%), rot attack (16.2%), sprouting (40.78%), decrease in firmness and taste pungency were recorded for control. The results showed that harvesting stages are statistically non-significant. The interaction between radiation doses and harvesting stages are also non-significant. Harvesting stages significantly affected weight loss, rot attack, sprouting and taste pungency. Onion bulbs of complete dried leaf stage recorded maximum percent weight loss (35.42%), percent sprouting (11.7%) and taste pungency while minimum percent weight loss (31.62%), percent sprouting (5.01%) and taste pungency was observed in onion bulbs of drooping stage. Maximum percent rot attack (10.9%) was noted in onion bulbs of drooping stage while minimum (7.3%) in onion bulbs of complete dried leaf stage. Radiation dose of 8 Kr is recommended to reduce the post-harvest losses in onion bulbs. Drooping stage comparatively prolonged the shelf life of bulb

  1. Effect of irradiation in extending the storage life of boiled Chub mackerel (Rastrelliger spp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P; Prompubesara, C; Songprasertchai, S; Kraisorn, K

    1972-12-31

    Effect of irradiation at doses of 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 Mrad in extending the storage life of boiled Chub mackerel held at room temperature was described. Total aerobic count, trimethylamine nitrogen, and total volatile basic nitrogen contents were used and objective indices of quality in comparison with sensory evaluation of the product. Boiled fish irradiated at 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 Mrad were found to be in good quality for 10, 15, and 17 days respectively, compared with 3 days for the unirradiated control. Trimethylamine nitrogen and total volatile basic nitrogen contents were found to be useful indices of quality, which showed fair correlation with sensory evaluation of the irradiated product. Total aerobic count showed little value as a quality index. Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus predominated in both unirradiated and irradiated boiled fish. The product was found to be free of faocal coliform. Safety of the irradiated boiled fish concerning botulism was discussed.

  2. Advances in postharvest technologies to extend the storage life of minimally processed fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asgar; Yeoh, Wei Keat; Forney, Charles; Siddiqui, Mohammed Wasim

    2017-10-26

    Minimally processed fresh produce is one of the fastest growing segments of the food industry due to consumer demand for fresh, healthy, and convenient foods. However, mechanical operations of cutting and peeling induce the liberation of cellular contents at the site of wounding that can promote the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. In addition, rates of tissue senescence can be enhanced resulting in reduced storage life of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Chlorine has been widely adopted in the disinfection and washing procedures of fresh-cut produce due to its low cost and efficacy against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Continuous replenishment of chlorine in high organic wash water can promote the formation of carcinogenic compounds such as trihalomethanes, which threaten human and environmental health. Alternative green and innovative chemical and physical postharvest treatments such as ozone, electrolyzed water, hydrogen peroxide, ultraviolet radiation, high pressure processing, and ultrasound can achieve similar reduction of microorganisms as chlorine without the production of harmful compounds or compromising the quality of fresh-cut produce.

  3. Viscoelastic response of HTPB based solid fuel to horizontal and vertical storage slumping conditions and it's affect on service life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Q.; Nizam, F.

    2011-01-01

    Frequent use of solid fuels as thrust generating energy source in modern day space vehicle systems has created a need to assess their serviceability for long term storage under various conditions. Solid fuel grain, the most important part of any solid fuel system, responds visco elastically to any loading condition. For the assessment of the service life of any solid fuel system, the solid fuel grain has to be structurally evaluated in applied storage conditions. Structural integrity of the grain is exceptionally significant to guarantee the successful operation of the solid fuel system. In this work, numerical simulations have been performed to assess the mechanical stresses and strains induced in an HTPB based solid fuel grain during service life employing ABAQUS standard FEA software using 4-node bilinear quadrilateral elements. For finite element analysis (FEA), typical 2-D and p/nth axisymmetric section of 5-point (n) star grain geometry is considered. Mechanical loads include the horizontal or vertical 1-g (solid fuel weight) storage condition. The simulation results are compared with the analytical results for the same grain geometry. Analytically measured slump deflections in grain segment at various storage times have been found in good relation with the FEA based simulation results. This proves the validity of the procedure adopted and is helpful in assessment of the service life of solid fuel systems. (author)

  4. Key issues and options in accounting for carbon sequestration and temporary storage in life cycle assessment and carbon footprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandao, Miguel; Levasseur, Annie; Kirschbaum, Miko U. F.

    2013-01-01

    . However, there is still no overall consensus on the most appropriate ways of considering and quantifying it. Method: This paper reviews and discusses six available methods for accounting for the potential climate impacts of carbon sequestration and temporary storage or release of biogenic carbon in LCA...... footprinting (CF) are increasingly popular tools for the environmental assessment of products, that take into account their entire life cycle. There have been significant efforts to develop robust methods to account for the benefits, if any, of sequestration and temporary storage and release of biogenic carbon...

  5. Influence of gamma irradiation, cold storage and pulsing on post harvest life and respiration rate of 'golden gate' cut roses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanikumar, S.; Vinod Kumar; Bhattacharjee, S.K.; Pal, Madan

    2003-01-01

    Gamma irradiation at 0.025 kGy increased the respiration rate of 'Golden Gate' cut roses. The irradiation followed by cold storage (at 4 deg C) brought down the respiration rate after storage duration of 3 days. The respiration rate was found maximum in the sucrose (3% ) pulsed flowers immediately after pulsing. However, the rate of respiration is decreased in all the treatments. The irradiated flowers recorded lowest amount of respiration at senescence and the vase life was maximum in these flowers. (author)

  6. Hollow optical fiber induced solar cells with optical energy storage and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jie; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Duan, Jialong; Duan, Yanyan; Tang, Qunwei

    2017-11-09

    Hollow optical fiber induced dye-sensitized solar cells are made by twisting Ti wire/N719-TiO 2 nanotube photoanodes and Ti wire/Pt (CoSe, Pt 3 Ni) counter electrodes, yielding a maximized efficiency of 0.7% and good stability. Arising from optical energy storage ability, the solar cells can generate electricity without laser illumination.

  7. Design Tool for Estimating Chemical Hydrogen Storage System Characteristics for Light-Duty Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Matthew J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brooks, Kriston P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Tamburello, David A. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2018-04-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) developed a vehicle Framework model to simulate fuel cell-based light-duty vehicle operation for various hydrogen storage systems. This transient model simulates the performance of the storage system, fuel cell, and vehicle for comparison to Technical Targets established by DOE for four drive cycles/profiles. Chemical hydrogen storage models have been developed for the Framework for both exothermic and endothermic materials. Despite the utility of such models, they require that material researchers input system design specifications that cannot be estimated easily. To address this challenge, a design tool has been developed that allows researchers to directly enter kinetic and thermodynamic chemical hydrogen storage material properties into a simple sizing module that then estimates system parameters required to run the storage system model. Additionally, the design tool can be used as a standalone executable file to estimate the storage system mass and volume outside of the Framework model. These models will be explained and exercised with the representative hydrogen storage materials exothermic ammonia borane (NH3BH3) and endothermic alane (AlH3).

  8. Design Tool for Estimating Chemical Hydrogen Storage System Characteristics for Light-Duty Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Sprik, Sam; Tamburello, David; Thornton, Matthew

    2018-05-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a vehicle framework model to simulate fuel cell-based light-duty vehicle operation for various hydrogen storage systems. This transient model simulates the performance of the storage system, fuel cell, and vehicle for comparison to DOE’s Technical Targets using four drive cycles/profiles. Chemical hydrogen storage models have been developed for the Framework model for both exothermic and endothermic materials. Despite the utility of such models, they require that material researchers input system design specifications that cannot be easily estimated. To address this challenge, a design tool has been developed that allows researchers to directly enter kinetic and thermodynamic chemical hydrogen storage material properties into a simple sizing module that then estimates the systems parameters required to run the storage system model. Additionally, this design tool can be used as a standalone executable file to estimate the storage system mass and volume outside of the framework model and compare it to the DOE Technical Targets. These models will be explained and exercised with existing hydrogen storage materials.

  9. Hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications: Challenges, opportunities and prospects for metal-organic frameworks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available and release, and cycle life of the materials. In the past decade, there has been growing interest in metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as hydrogen storage materials and significant progress has been made in this regard. The challenges, opportunities...

  10. KOH concentration effect on cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells. III - Cycle life test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    A cycle life test of Ni/H2 cells containing electrolytes of various KOH concentrations and a sintered type nickel electrode was carried out at 23 C using a 45 min accelerated low earth orbit (LEO) cycle regime at 80 percent depth of discharge. One of three cells containing 26 percent KOH has achieved over 28,000 cycles, and the other two 19,000 cycles, without a sign of failure. Two other cells containing 31 percent KOH electrolyte, which is the concentration presently used in aerospace cells, failed after 2,979 and 3,620 cycles. This result indicates that the cycle life of the present type of Ni/H2 cells may be extended by a factor of 5 to 10 simply by lowering the KOH concentration. Long cycle life of a Ni/H2 battery at high depth-of-discharge operation is desired, particularly for an LEO spacecraft application. Typically, battery life of about 30,000 cycles is required for a five year mission in an LEO. Such a cycle life with presently available cells can be assured only at a very low depth-of-discharge operation. Results of testing already show that the cycle life of an Ni/H2 cell is tremendously improved by simply using an electrolyte of low KOH concentration.

  11. A Look into the Cell: Honey Storage in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Michael; Neumann, Peter; Dietemann, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees, Apis species, obtain carbohydrates from nectar and honeydew. These resources are ripened into honey in wax cells that are capped for long-term storage. These stores are used to overcome dearth periods when foraging is not possible. Despite the economic and ecological importance of honey, little is known about the processes of its production by workers. Here, we monitored the usage of storage cells and the ripening process of honey in free-flying A. mellifera colonies. We provided the colonies with solutions of different sugar concentrations to reflect the natural influx of nectar with varying quality. Since the amount of carbohydrates in a solution affects its density, we used computer tomography to measure the sugar concentration of cell content over time. The data show the occurrence of two cohorts of cells with different provisioning and ripening dynamics. The relocation of the content of many cells before final storage was part of the ripening process, because sugar concentration of the content removed was lower than that of content deposited. The results confirm the mixing of solutions of different concentrations in cells and show that honey is an inhomogeneous matrix. The last stage of ripening occurred when cell capping had already started, indicating a race against water absorption. The storage and ripening processes as well as resource use were context dependent because their dynamics changed with sugar concentration of the food. Our results support hypotheses regarding honey production proposed in earlier studies and provide new insights into the mechanisms involved.

  12. A Look into the Cell: Honey Storage in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Eyer

    Full Text Available Honey bees, Apis species, obtain carbohydrates from nectar and honeydew. These resources are ripened into honey in wax cells that are capped for long-term storage. These stores are used to overcome dearth periods when foraging is not possible. Despite the economic and ecological importance of honey, little is known about the processes of its production by workers. Here, we monitored the usage of storage cells and the ripening process of honey in free-flying A. mellifera colonies. We provided the colonies with solutions of different sugar concentrations to reflect the natural influx of nectar with varying quality. Since the amount of carbohydrates in a solution affects its density, we used computer tomography to measure the sugar concentration of cell content over time. The data show the occurrence of two cohorts of cells with different provisioning and ripening dynamics. The relocation of the content of many cells before final storage was part of the ripening process, because sugar concentration of the content removed was lower than that of content deposited. The results confirm the mixing of solutions of different concentrations in cells and show that honey is an inhomogeneous matrix. The last stage of ripening occurred when cell capping had already started, indicating a race against water absorption. The storage and ripening processes as well as resource use were context dependent because their dynamics changed with sugar concentration of the food. Our results support hypotheses regarding honey production proposed in earlier studies and provide new insights into the mechanisms involved.

  13. Shelf Life Extension of Tomato Paste Through Organoleptically Acceptable Concentration of Betel Leaf Essential Oil Under Accelerated Storage Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Suradeep

    2018-05-01

    This study was attempted with two objectives: (1) to find an acceptable concentration of betel leaf essential oil (BLEO) based on sensory evaluation that can be employed in tomato paste; (2) to evaluate the effect of the acceptable concentration of BLEO in the paste during accelerated storage under 89 ± 1.2% RH at 39 ± 1 °C. Linguistic data obtained from sensory evaluation of tomato paste treated with 4 different concentrations of BLEO were analyzed using fuzzy logic approach. The organoleptically acceptable concentration was determined to be 0.25 mg/g of BLEO in tomato paste. The effect of the selected concentration of BLEO on different physicochemical and microbial attributes of tomato paste during accelerated storage was studied. Untreated tomato paste was found to have 12% less total antioxidant capacity than treated paste at the end of storage. Based on a * /b * value in CIELAB color space, the BLEO treated paste efficiently extended the shelf life by 14 days with respect to untreated paste samples under accelerated storage conditions. BLEO comes with a tag contributing to green consumerism, and its application as food preservative is no less than a value addition to the product. Essential oil is considered to have promising potential as an alternative food preservative, and its use is practically possible if they could overcome the sensory barrier, while retaining the preservative potency. The importance of identifying the sensory attributes for commercial success of essential oil treated food product was considered in this study. It contributes to the potency of organoleptically acceptable concentration of BLEO in shelf life extension of tomato paste under accelerated storage conditions. At industrial level, the estimated shelf life of treated tomato paste can be increased by incorporating more hurdles alongside BLEO. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Control of hybrid fuel cell/energy storage distributed generation system against voltage sag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajizadeh, Amin; Golkar, Masoud Aliakbar [Electrical Engineering Department, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Seyedkhandan, Dr. Shariati Ave, P.O. Box 16315-1355, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-06-15

    Fuel cell (FC) and energy storage (ES) based hybrid distributed power generation systems appear to be very promising for satisfying high energy and high power requirements of power quality problems in distributed generation (DG) systems. In this study, design of control strategy for hybrid fuel cell/energy storage distributed power generation system during voltage sag has been presented. The proposed control strategy allows hybrid distributed generation system works properly when a voltage disturbance occurs in distribution system and hybrid system stays connected to the main grid. Hence, modeling, controller design, and simulation study of a hybrid distributed generation system are investigated. The physical model of the fuel cell stack, energy storage and the models of power conditioning units are described. Then the control design methodology for each component of the hybrid system is proposed. Simulation results are given to show the overall system performance including active power control and voltage sag ride-through capability of the hybrid distributed generation system. (author)

  15. An investigation of hydrogen storage methods for fuel cell operation with man-portable equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, D [Defence Evaluation and Research Agency, Haslar (United Kingdom); Jones, P [Defence Evaluation and Research Agency, Haslar (United Kingdom); Packer, K [Defence Evaluation and Research Agency, Haslar (United Kingdom)

    1997-03-01

    Air breathing proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are being considered as a power source for man-portable equipment, such as army radios. In addition to the weight and volume of the fuel cell itself, the device producing hydrogen with which to fuel the cell is also of crucial importance. This paper describes a number of hydrogen storage methods and discusses their applicability to man-portable equipment. (orig.)

  16. A comparative study of different storage methods on the shelf-life of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the storage method that will best preserve the quality and quantity of smoke-cured Clarias sp. using boxes made of cardboard and wood, as well as, airtight metal containers. The boxes made of cardboard material was found to be the best medium of storage as all infesting dermestid ...

  17. Effect of storage in media with different ion strengths and osmolalities on human periodontal ligament cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomloef, L.; Otteskog, P.; Hammarstroem, L.

    1981-01-01

    The viability of the periodontal ligament (PDL) cells is critical for a successful healing of replanted exarticulated teeth. It is mainly dependent on the duration of the extra-alveolar time and the storage medium. Saliva has usually been recommended as the most suitable storage medium, but recent experimental studies indicate that milk is preferable. In the present study the effect on cultured PDL cells of saliva and milk has been compared with some reference media such as tap water or saline by means of a 3 H-uridine leakage test. Storage in milk or saline was found to cause much less 3 H-uridine leakage than storage in saliva or tap water. Cells stored in milk for 60-180 min showed about the same leakage as cells stored in saline or Hanks' balanced salt solution. Osmolality measurements showed that saliva was hypotonic, while the osmolality of milk ranged within physiological limits. When the osmolality of saliva was increased by addition of NaCl the leakage of the stored cells decreased to the level of cells stored in 0.9% NaCl or milk. (author)

  18. Development of a software interface for optical disk archival storage for a new life sciences flight experiments computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Peter N.

    1989-01-01

    The current Life Sciences Laboratory Equipment (LSLE) microcomputer for life sciences experiment data acquisition is now obsolete. Among the weaknesses of the current microcomputer are small memory size, relatively slow analog data sampling rates, and the lack of a bulk data storage device. While life science investigators normally prefer data to be transmitted to Earth as it is taken, this is not always possible. No down-link exists for experiments performed in the Shuttle middeck region. One important aspect of a replacement microcomputer is provision for in-flight storage of experimental data. The Write Once, Read Many (WORM) optical disk was studied because of its high storage density, data integrity, and the availability of a space-qualified unit. In keeping with the goals for a replacement microcomputer based upon commercially available components and standard interfaces, the system studied includes a Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) for interfacing the WORM drive. The system itself is designed around the STD bus, using readily available boards. Configurations examined were: (1) master processor board and slave processor board with the SCSI interface; (2) master processor with SCSI interface; (3) master processor with SCSI and Direct Memory Access (DMA); (4) master processor controlling a separate STD bus SCSI board; and (5) master processor controlling a separate STD bus SCSI board with DMA.

  19. Energy Storage via Polyvinylidene Fluoride Dielectric on the Counterelectrode of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuezhen; Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Hongrui

    2014-02-15

    To study the fundamental energy storage mechanism of photovoltaically self-charging cells (PSCs) without involving light-responsive semiconductor materials such as Si powder and ZnO nanowires, we fabricate a two-electrode PSC with the dual functions of photocurrent output and energy storage by introducing a PVDF film dielectric on the counterelectrode of a dye-sensitized solar cell. A layer of ultrathin Au film used as a quasi-electrode establishes a shared interface for the I - /I 3 - redox reaction and for the contact between the electrolyte and the dielectric for the energy storage, and prohibits recombination during the discharging period because of its discontinuity. PSCs with a 10-nm-thick PVDF provide a steady photocurrent output and achieve a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency ( η) of 3.38%, and simultaneously offer energy storage with a charge density of 1.67 C g -1 . Using this quasi-electrode design, optimized energy storage structures may be used in PSCs for high energy storage density.

  20. Mannose and fructose metabolism in red blood cells during cold storage in SAGM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfsson, Óttar; Johannsson, Freyr; Magnusdottir, Manuela; Paglia, Giuseppe; Sigurjonsson, Ólafur E; Bordbar, Aarash; Palsson, Sirus; Brynjólfsson, Sigurður; Guðmundsson, Sveinn; Palsson, Bernhard

    2017-11-01

    Alternate sugar metabolism during red blood cell (RBC) storage is not well understood. Here we report fructose and mannose metabolism in RBCs during cold storage in SAGM and the impact that these monosaccharides have on metabolic biomarkers of RBC storage lesion. RBCs were stored in SAGM containing uniformly labeled 13 C-fructose or 13 C-mannose at 9 or 18 mmol/L concentration for 25 days. RBCs and media were sampled at 14 time points during storage and analyzed using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Blood banking quality assurance measurements were performed. Red blood cells incorporated fructose and mannose during cold storage in the presence of glucose. Mannose was metabolized in preference to glucose via glycolysis. Fructose lowered adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels and contributed little to ATP maintenance when added to SAGM. Both monosaccharides form the advanced glycation end product glycerate. Mannose activates enzymes in the RBC that take part in glycan synthesis. Fructose or mannose addition to RBC SAGM concentrates may not offset the shift in metabolism of RBCs that occurs after 10 days of storage. Fructose and mannose metabolism at 4°C in SAGM reflects their metabolism at physiologic temperature. Glycerate excretion is a measure of protein deglycosylation activity in stored RBCs. No cytoprotective effect was observed upon the addition of either fructose or mannose to SAGM. © 2017 AABB.

  1. Mitosis in storage cells of the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czerneková, Michaela; Jönsson, K. I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 178, č. 4 (2016), s. 888-896 ISSN 0024-4082 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cell division * coelomocytes * development * mitotic index * moulting * tardigrada Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2016

  2. Flow Cells for Scalable Energy Conversion and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-26

    This project is a response to current flow systems that are V-aqueous and not cost effective. It will hopefully enable high energy/ power density flow cells through rational materials and system design.

  3. Heat conduction through geological mattresses from cells storing mean activity and long life nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajoie, D.; Raffourt, C.; Wendling, J.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. ANDRA ordered in 2008 a campaign of numerical simulations to assess the efficiency of the ventilation system designed for cells storing mean activity and long life nuclear wastes. Numerical models were performed by ACRIIN as research engineering office. The main objectives were to assess the risks of atmospheric explosions due to high rate of hydrogen and to determine the efficiency of the system to evacuate released heat from storage packages. Further calculations have been carried out to evaluate temperature gradients in the surrounding geological medium. Three-dimensional numerical models of a reference cell were built to simulate the air flow injected at the cell entrance and retrieved and the other extremity. The reference case is based on a cell full of storage packages, with rows and columns of packages methodically ordered. Analytic and numerical calculations have been performed introducing progressively each complex physical phenomenon in order to dissociate origins of transport of released mass or heat. Three kinds of flows have been physically distinguished: 1) Ventilation in a cell with storage package that are thermally inert, i.e. no heat release, but with hydrogen release. 2) Flow in a cell with storage packages that emit heat and warm the injected air, supposing that no heat were lost towards the surrounding concrete walls of the cell. 3) Air Flow warmed by the storage packages with heat losses towards concrete walls and geological medium. Simulations with absence of thermal effects allowed the knowledge of main topics of the ventilation air flows that may be synthesized as follows: - Flows infiltrate clearances between piles and rows of storage packages. Such apertures are a few centimetres wide. The flow is disorganised between the first rows, with distribution in both transversal and longitudinal directions. After a few tens of rows, the flow reaches its hydraulic equilibrium, with a nearly pure

  4. Reversible energy storage on a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerpa Unda, Jesus Enrique

    2011-02-18

    A new concept of energy storage based on hydrogen which operates reversibly near ambient conditions and without important energy losses is investigated. This concept involves the hybridization between a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a supercapacitor. The main idea consists in the electrochemical splitting of hydrogen at a PEM fuel cell-type electrode into protons and electrons and then in the storage of these two species separately in the electrical double layer of a supercapacitor-type electrode which is made of electrically conductive large-surface area carbon materials. The investigation of this concept was performed first using a two-electrode fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device. A three-electrode hybrid cell was used to explore the application of this concept as a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a PEM fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. (orig.)

  5. Storage-induced increase in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in red blood cell components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükakin, Bülent; Kocak, Volkan; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2011-01-01

    of buffy-coat reduced red cells in SAG-M additive solution, by assessing biomarkers of oxidative and inflammatory stress during a storage period of 35 days. Study design and methods. Ten units of RBCs were stored for 35 days. Samples were collected from the units at storage days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35......, respectively. The samples were analysed for various biomarkers expressing the oxidative stress and inflammation, including malondialdehyde (MDA), α-tocopherol (AT), dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), ascorbate (ASC), YKL-40 and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Results. The levels ofMDA, ASC, DHA, IL-6 and YKL-40 changed...... significantly during the storage period (p oxidative and inflammatory stress during a storage period...

  6. High Performance Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) for Space Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Thomas I.; Billings, Keith J.; Kisor, Adam; Bennett, William R.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Burke, Kenneth; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative fuel cells provide a pathway to energy storage system development that are game changers for NASA missions. The fuel cell/ electrolysis MEA performance requirements 0.92 V/ 1.44 V at 200 mA/cm2 can be met. Fuel Cell MEAs have been incorporated into advanced NFT stacks. Electrolyzer stack development in progress. Fuel Cell MEA performance is a strong function of membrane selection, membrane selection will be driven by durability requirements. Electrolyzer MEA performance is catalysts driven, catalyst selection will be driven by durability requirements. Round Trip Efficiency, based on a cell performance, is approximately 65%.

  7. The effect of prefreeze rejuvenation on postthaw storage of red blood cells in AS-3 and SAGM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelkens, Charles C M; Lagerberg, Johan W M; de Korte, Dirk

    2017-06-01

    We investigated whether improving the metabolic status of red blood cell concentrates before freezing could extend the postthaw shelf life beyond 14 days while still meeting the requirements for hemolysis (0.8%) and total adenylate (>82% of original values). At Day 8 after collection, four leukoreduced red blood cell concentrates in saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) were pooled, mixed, and split (n = 4). Of these concentrates, two were rejuvenated in Rejuvesol. In addition, two leukoreduced red blood cell concentrates in phosphate-adenine-glucose-guanosine-gluconate-mannitol (PAGGGM) were pooled, mixed, and split at Day 8 after collection (n = 4). All concentrates were glycerolized, frozen, and stored for at least 2 weeks at -80°C. After thawing and deglycerolization, from each pair, one red blood cell concentrate was resuspended in SAGM, and one was suspended in AS-3. During postthaw storage at 2 to 6°C for 35 days, all concentrates were sampled weekly and analyzed for hematologic, metabolic, and morphologic parameters. Both Rejuvesol and PAGGGM treatment produced increased adenosine triphosphate and total adenylate and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels compared with untreated red blood cell concentrates. Regardless of prefreeze Rejuvesol or PAGGGM treatment, postthaw hemolysis remained below 0.8% during 7 days in SAGM and during 35 days in AS-3. At Day 35 of postthaw storage in AS-3, total adenylate in nonrejuvenated red blood cell concentrates had decreased to 72% of the original values; whereas, in prefreeze Rejuvesol-treated and PAGGGM-treated concentrates, adenylate values were still were at 101% and 98%, respectively. Based on maximum allowable hemolysis of 0.8% and total adenylate content greater than 82% of the original value, thawed, prefreeze Rejuvesol-treated or PAGGGM-treated red blood cell concentrates can be stored for 35 days at 2 to 6ºC in AS-3. © 2017 AABB.

  8. Red blood cell aging markers during storage in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelou, Marianna H; Kriebardis, Anastasios G; Stamoulis, Konstantinos E; Economou-Petersen, Effrosini; Margaritis, Lukas H; Papassideri, Issidora S

    2010-02-01

    It has been suggested that red blood cell (RBC) senescence is accelerated under blood bank conditions, although neither protein profile of RBC aging nor the impact of additive solutions on it have been studied in detail. RBCs and vesicles derived from RBCs in both citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD)-saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) and citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA) were evaluated for the expression of cell senescence markers (vesiculation, protein aggregation, degradation, activation, oxidation, and topology) through immunoblotting technique and immunofluorescence or immunoelectron microscopy study. A group of cellular stress proteins exhibited storage time- and storage medium-related changes in their membrane association and exocytosis. The extent, the rate, and the expression of protein oxidation, Fas oligomerization, caspase activation, and protein modifications in Band 3, hemoglobin, and immunoglobulin G were less conspicuous and/or exhibited significant time retardation under storage in CPD-SAGM, compared to the CPDA storage. There was evidence for the localization of activated caspases near to the membrane of both cells and vesicles. We provide circumstantial evidence for a lower protein oxidative damage in CPD-SAGM-stored RBCs compared to the CPDA-stored cells. The different expression patterns of the senescence markers in the RBCs seem to be accordingly related to the oxidative stress management of the cells. We suggest that the storage of RBCs in CPD-SAGM might be more alike the in vivo RBC aging process, compared to storage in CPDA, since it is characterized by a slower stimulation of the recognition signaling pathways that are already known to trigger the erythrophagocytosis of senescent RBCs.

  9. Study of Charge Build Up in UCN Storage Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broering, Mark; Abney, Josh; Swank, Christopher; Filippone, Bradley; Yao, Weijun; Korsch, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    The neutron EDM collaboration at the Spallation Neutron Source(ORNL) is using ultra-cold neutrons in superfluid helium to improve the nEDM limit by about two orders of magnitude. These neutrons will be stored in target cells located in a strong, stable electric field. Local radiation will generate charged particles which may build up on the target cell walls reducing field strength over time. The field changes need to be kept below 1%, making it necessary to study this cell charging behavior, determine its effect on the experiment and find ways to mitigate this. In order to study this cell charging effect, a compact test setup was designed. Using this scaled down model, charged particles are generated by a 137Cs source and the electric field is monitored via the electo-optic Kerr effect. Liquid nitrogen has a much stronger response to electric fields than helium, making it an ideal candidate for first tests. Cell charging effects have been observed in liquid nitrogen. These results along with the experimental technique and progress toward a superfluid helium measurement will also be presented. This research is supported by DOE Grants: DE-FG02-99ER41101, DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  10. Strain energy storage and dissipation rate in active cell mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosti, A.; Ambrosi, D.; Turzi, S.

    2018-05-01

    When living cells are observed at rest on a flat substrate, they can typically exhibit a rounded (symmetric) or an elongated (polarized) shape. Although the cells are apparently at rest, the active stress generated by the molecular motors continuously stretches and drifts the actin network, the cytoskeleton of the cell. In this paper we theoretically compare the energy stored and dissipated in this active system in two geometric configurations of interest: symmetric and polarized. We find that the stored energy is larger for a radially symmetric cell at low activation regime, while the polar configuration has larger strain energy when the active stress is beyond a critical threshold. Conversely, the dissipation of energy in a symmetric cell is always larger than that of a nonsymmetric one. By a combination of symmetry arguments and competition between surface and bulk stress, we argue that radial symmetry is an energetically expensive metastable state that provides access to an infinite number of lower-energy states, the polarized configurations.

  11. Deep wells integrated with microfluidic valves for stable docking and storage of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yun-Ho; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Kim, Sang Bok; Selimović, Seila; Sim, Woo Young; Bae, Hojae; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we describe a microfluidic mechanism that combines microfluidic valves and deep wells for cell localization and storage. Cells are first introduced into the device via externally controlled flow. Activating on-chip valves was used to interrupt the flow and to sediment the cells floating above the wells. Thus, valves could be used to localize the cells in the desired locations. We quantified the effect of valves in the cell storage process by comparing the total number of cells stored with and without valve activation. We hypothesized that in deep wells external flows generate low shear stress regions that enable stable, long-term docking of cells. To assess this hypothesis we conducted numerical calculations to understand the influence of well depth on the forces acting on cells. We verified those predictions experimentally by comparing the fraction of stored cells as a function of the well depth and input flow rate upon activation of the valves. As expected, upon reintroduction of the flow the cells in the deep wells were not moved whereas those in shallow wells were washed away. Taken together, our paper demonstrates that deep wells and valves can be combined to enable a broad range of cell studies. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hua Kun, E-mail: hua@uow.edu.au

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells.

  13. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hua Kun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

  14. Process and device for controling lateral wall of fuel assembly storage cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, B.

    1989-01-01

    The inspection procedure involves moving a detection system along the length of the wall of a cell in the fuel storage rack immersed in water. The detection system has at least one probe for determining the wall thickness. The probe signal is received above the pond and compared against a reference signal. This process allows to verify the presence of neutron absorbing material in the side walls of the cell [fr

  15. Influence of gamma irradiation and low temperature storage on the quality and shelf life of squid (Doryteuthis sibogae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjanaik, B.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation is considered as an efficient method for the reduction of microorganisms in food. It has been used to improve the safety and shelf life of food products. The present investigation is aimed at studying the influence of gamma irradiation (3 and 5 kGy and subsequent storage at refrigeration temperature (4oC on the chemical, microbial qualities and extended shelf life of squid (Doryteuthis sibogae. The total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N and trimethyl amine nitrogen values (TMA-N of the irradiated squid samples significantly decreased in comparison with the control (non-irradiated stored at 4oC. The thiobarbituric acid values for the irradiated squid was significantly lower than of the non-irradiated samples stored at 4oC (p<0.05. The pH value of the squid was affected significantly by both, irradiation dose and storage temperature (p<0.05. The total microbial load for the non-irradiated squid samples was higher than those of irradiated samples at 4oC temperature. The results revealed that the combination of irradiation and refrigerated storage resulted in a significant reduction of microbial growth and stabilized the biochemical characteristics of squid.

  16. High pressure treatment changes spoilage characteristics and shelf life of Pacific oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) during refrigerated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rong; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Qi

    2017-04-01

    The effects of high pressure (HP) treatment on spoilage characteristic and shelf life extension of Pacific oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) during refrigerated storage were studied. Results showed that HP treatment of 275 MPa for 3 min or 300 MPa for 2 min could achieve 100% full release of oyster adductor muscle, pressures higher than 350 MPa caused excessive release as the shells of oysters were broken, thus use of higher pressures should be cautious in oyster processing industry because of its adverse impact on the appearance of shells. HP treatment (300 MPa, 2 min) was proper for the shucking of Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) in China. This treatment caused no organoleptic disadvantage. Moreover, HP treatment resulted in obvious differences in biochemical spoilage indicators (pH, TVB-N and TBARS) changes and volatile compounds profile determined by electronic nose during storage. HP treatment (300 MPa, 2 min) also led to a reduction of aerobic bacterial count (APC) by 1.27 log cycles. Furthermore, the APC values of oysters treated by HP were always lower than those of the control samples during storage. Based on the organoleptic, biochemical and microbiological indicators, shelf life of 6-8 d for control and 12 d for HP-treated oysters could be expected. HP treatment showed great potential in oyster processing and preservation.

  17. Effect of chitosan on shelf life of restructured fish products from pangasius (pangasianodon hypophthalmus) surimi during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyakumari A; George Ninan; Joshy C G; Parvathy U; Zynudheen A A; Lalitha K V

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, restructured products were prepared from pangasius surimi and their qualities were analysed under chilled storage. Pangasius surimi had 75.82 % moisture, 16.91 % protein, 2.76 % fat and 0.95 % ash. Restructured products were prepared in three different formulations by incorporating corn starch (10 %) and chitosan (0.75 %). Formulation containing only corn starch (10 %) was served as control. In all the formulations, mono unsaturated fatty acids were higher (45.14 %). The total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) showed an increasing trend and it was found to be higher in control (4.8 mg/100 g) on 10(th) day than the chitosan incorporated sample (3.5-4.2 mg/100 g) on 17(th) day during chill storage. Similarly, peroxide value (PV) was found to higher (8.85 milliequivalent of O2/kg) in control than the chitosan incorporated sample (4.5-6.8 milliequivalent of O2/kg) on 10(th) day. All the three formulations had an acceptable level of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value that ranged between 0.023-0.098 mg of malanoldehyde/kg during chilled storage. Based on the sensory and microbiological analysis, products prepared without chitosan had a shelf life of 10 day whereas, products incorporated with chitosan had an extended shelf life of 17 day.

  18. Studies and research concerning BNFP: life of project operating expenses for away-from-reactor (AFR) spent fuel storage facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallo, F.A.

    1979-09-01

    Life of Project operating expenses for a licensed Away-From-Reactor (AFR) Spent Fuel Storage Facility are developed in this report. A comprehensive business management structure is established and the functions and responsibilities for the facility organization are described. Contractual provisions for spent fuel storage services are evaluated

  19. Passive safety device and internal short tested method for energy storage cells and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Matthew; Darcy, Eric; Long, Dirk; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-22

    A passive safety device for an energy storage cell for positioning between two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage cell. The safety device also comprising a separator and a non-conductive layer. A first electrically conductive material is provided on the non-conductive layer. A first opening is formed through the separator between the first electrically conductive material and one of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. A second electrically conductive material is provided adjacent the first electrically conductive material on the non-conductive layer, wherein a space is formed on the non-conductive layer between the first and second electrically conductive materials. A second opening is formed through the non-conductive layer between the second electrically conductive material and another of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. The first and second electrically conductive materials combine and exit at least partially through the first and second openings to connect the two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device at a predetermined temperature.

  20. Effect of adrenergic receptor ligands on metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake and storage in neuroblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babich, J.W. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Graham, W. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fischman, A.J. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The effects of adrenergic receptor ligands on uptake and storage of the radiopharmaceutical [{sup 125}I]metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) were studied in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH. For uptake studies, cells were with varying concentrations of {alpha}-agonist (clonidine, methoxamine, and xylazine), {alpha}-antagonist (phentolamine, tolazoline, phenoxybenzamine, yohimbine, and prazosin), {beta}-antagonist (propranolol, atenolol), {beta}-agonist (isoprenaline and salbutamol), mixed {alpha}/{beta} antagonist (labetalol), or the neuronal blocking agent guanethidine, prior to the addition of [{sup 125}I]MIBG (0.1 {mu}M). The incubation was continued for 2 h and specific cell-associated radioactivity was measured. For the storage studies, cells were incubated with [{sup 125}I]MIBG for 2 h, followed by replacement with fresh medium with or without drug (MIBG, clonidine, or yohimbine). Cell-associated radioactivity was measured at various times over the next 20 h. Propanolol reduced [{sup 125}I]MIBG uptake by approximately 30% (P<0.01) at all concentrations tested, most likely due to nonspecific membrane changes. In conclusion, the results of this study establish that selected adrenergic ligands can significantly influence the pattern of uptake and storage of MIBG in cultured neuroblastoma cells, most likely through inhibition of uptake or through noncompetitive inhibition. The potential inplications of these findings justify further study. (orig./VHE). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Role of Nuclear Based Techniques in Development and Characterization of Materials for Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-02-01

    Today various materials for fuel cell applications are urgently needed, including potential electrodes for the molten carbonate fuel cells. Identification of appropriate storage concepts are also urgently needed in order to initiate necessary steps for implementation of such technologies in daily life. Recent progress in nuclear analyses and observation/imaging techniques can significantly contribute to a successful achievement of ongoing research challenges. Primary importance is given to areas of characterization and in-situ testing of materials and/or components of hydrogen storage and fuel cell systems. Dedicated attention is addressed to issues related to hydrogen storage concepts, such as metal hydrides and other systems (e.g. fullerene structures) as well as their stability and the changes induced by hydrogen sorption process. In total 14 papers report on various scientific and research issues related to hydrogen storage and conversion technologies. Based on presented results, it can be concluded that nuclear- based techniques, specifically those involving neutrons, X rays and particle beams, play very important roles in ongoing research activities among many IAEA Member States. A short overview of individual reports is summarized below. The presented papers give an overview of typical applications of such techniques and their experimental setups based either on X ray or neutron sources, which can be used effectively to study specific properties of materials for hydrogen storage as well as microstructural features and hydrogen interaction with solid matter. The papers presented by Canadian, Dutch, Italian and Norwegian groups, report on research results related to application of thermal neutron scattering and neutron diffraction in studies of hydrogen containing materials, particularly in situ characterization as a means to study metal hydrides' structure and their modification upon hydrogen sorption. The investigation on solid state hydrogen storage

  2. Life span extension and neuronal cell protection by Drosophila nicotinamidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Vitaly; Miller, Gregory S; Kaplun, Ludmila; Balan, Karina; Chong, Zhao-Zhong; Li, Faqi; Kaplun, Alexander; VanBerkum, Mark F A; Arking, Robert; Freeman, D Carl; Maiese, Kenneth; Tzivion, Guri

    2008-10-10

    The life span of model organisms can be modulated by environmental conditions that influence cellular metabolism, oxidation, or DNA integrity. The yeast nicotinamidase gene pnc1 was identified as a key transcriptional target and mediator of calorie restriction and stress-induced life span extension. PNC1 is thought to exert its effect on yeast life span by modulating cellular nicotinamide and NAD levels, resulting in increased activity of Sir2 family class III histone deacetylases. In Caenorhabditis elegans, knockdown of a pnc1 homolog was shown recently to shorten the worm life span, whereas its overexpression increased survival under conditions of oxidative stress. The function and regulation of nicotinamidases in higher organisms has not been determined. Here, we report the identification and biochemical characterization of the Drosophila nicotinamidase, D-NAAM, and demonstrate that its overexpression significantly increases median and maximal fly life span. The life span extension was reversed in Sir2 mutant flies, suggesting Sir2 dependence. Testing for physiological effectors of D-NAAM in Drosophila S2 cells, we identified oxidative stress as a primary regulator, both at the transcription level and protein activity. In contrast to the yeast model, stress factors such as high osmolarity and heat shock, calorie restriction, or inhibitors of TOR and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways do not appear to regulate D-NAAM in S2 cells. Interestingly, the expression of D-NAAM in human neuronal cells conferred protection from oxidative stress-induced cell death in a sirtuin-dependent manner. Together, our findings establish a life span extending the ability of nicotinamidase in flies and offer a role for nicotinamide-modulating genes in oxidative stress regulated pathways influencing longevity and neuronal cell survival.

  3. A life-cycle perspective on automotive fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, Andrew; Bauer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Individual inventories for each fuel cell system component, current and future. • Environmental and human health burdens from fuel cell production and end-of-life. • Comparison passenger transport in fuel cell and conventional vehicles. • Fuel cell can be more critical to overall burdens than hydrogen production. • Fuel cell developments require radical but possible changes to reduce burdens. - Abstract: The production and end-of-life (EoL) processes for current and future proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems for road passenger vehicle applications were analysed and quantified in the form of life cycle inventories. The current PEMFC technology is characterised by highly sensitive operating conditions and a high system mass. For each core component of PEMFC there are a range of materials under development and the research aimed to identify those considered realistic for a 2020 future scenario and according to commercial goals of achieving higher performance, increased power density, greater stability and a marked reduction of costs. End-of-life scenarios were developed in consideration of the materials at the focus of recovery efforts. The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) addressed the production and EoL of the fuel cell systems with inclusion of a sensitivity analysis to assess influences on the results from the key fuel cell parameters. The second part to the LCIA assessed the environmental and human health burdens from passenger transport in a fuel cell vehicle (FCV) with comparison between the 2012 and 2020 fuel cell scenarios and referenced to an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) of Euro5 emission standard. It was seen that whilst the drivetrain (and therefore the fuel cell system) is a major contributor to the emissions in all the indicators shown, the hydrogen use (and therefore the efficiency of the fuel cell system and the method of hydrogen production) can have a far greater influence on the environmental

  4. Combined effect of thermal sterilization and ionizing radiation on storage life of preserved foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozova, B.; Sorman, L.; Fazekasova, H.

    1986-01-01

    The effect was studied of the binary combination of preservation methods, i.e., of a reduced intensity of thermosterilization and diverse doses of ionizing radiation, on the content of microorganisms in single-component tinned products (tinned beef and gravy, tinned pickled cauliflower) and in tins containing two components (beef with cauliflower) over a period of 115 days of storage at a laboratory temperature of 20 degC ± 2 degC. The experimental results showed that the chosen combined process of preservation guaranteed sufficient storage stability to the products over several months of storage. An ionizing radiation dose of 5 kGy was sufficient for both types of model samples, this both from microbiological, nutritional aspects (some group B vitamins, vitamin C, -SH groups, etc.) and with regard to organoleptic properties (outlook, color, odor, flavor, consistence, juiciness). The problems will further be studied. (author) 2 tabs., 4 figs., 14 refs

  5. Optimization of Vacuum Impregnation with Calcium Lactate of Minimally Processed Melon and Shelf-Life Study in Real Storage Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappi, Silvia; Tylewicz, Urszula; Romani, Santina; Siroli, Lorenzo; Patrignani, Francesca; Dalla Rosa, Marco; Rocculi, Pietro

    2016-10-05

    Vacuum impregnation (VI) is a processing operation that permits the impregnation of fruit and vegetable porous tissues with a fast and more homogeneous penetration of active compounds compared to the classical diffusion processes. The objective of this research was to investigate the impact on VI treatment with the addition of calcium lactate on qualitative parameters of minimally processed melon during storage. For this aim, this work was divided in 2 parts. Initially, the optimization of process parameters was carried out in order to choose the optimal VI conditions for improving texture characteristics of minimally processed melon that were then used to impregnate melons for a shelf-life study in real storage conditions. On the basis of a 2 3 factorial design, the effect of Calcium lactate (CaLac) concentration between 0% and 5% and of minimum pressure (P) between 20 and 60 MPa were evaluated on color and texture. Processing parameters corresponding to 5% CaLac concentration and 60 MPa of minimum pressure were chosen for the storage study, during which the modifications of main qualitative parameters were evaluated. Despite of the high variability of the raw material, results showed that VI allowed a better maintenance of texture during storage. Nevertheless, other quality traits were negatively affected by the application of vacuum. Impregnated products showed a darker and more translucent appearance on the account of the alteration of the structural properties. Moreover microbial shelf-life was reduced to 4 d compared to the 7 obtained for control and dipped samples. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Evaluation of Periodontal Ligament Cell Viability in Three Different Storage Media: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL cells of avulsed teeth in three different storage media.Materials and Methods: Forty-five premolars extracted for orthodontic therapeutic purposes were randomly and equally divided into three groups based on storage media used [Group I: milk (control; Group II: aloe vera (experimental; Group III: egg white (experimental]. Following extractions, the teeth were placed in one of the three different storage media for 30 minutes, following which the scrapings of the PDL from these teeth were collected in Falcon tubes containing collagenase enzyme in 2.5 mL of phosphate buffered saline. The tubes were subsequently incubated for 30 minutes and centrifuged for five minutes at 800 rpm. The obtained PDL cells were stained with Trypan Blue and were observed under optical microscope. The percentage of viable cells was calculated.Results: Aloe vera showed the highest percentage of viable cells (114.3±8.0, followed by egg white (100.9±6.3 and milk (101.1±7.3.Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it appears that aloe vera maintains PDL cell viability better than egg white or milk.

  7. Nanodefects of membranes cause destruction of packed red blood cells during long-term storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlova, Elena; Chernysh, Aleksandr; Moroz, Victor; Sergunova, Victoria; Gudkova, Olga; Kuzovlev, Artem

    2015-01-01

    Packed red blood cells (PRBC) are used for blood transfusion. PRBC were stored for 30 days under 4 °C in hermetic blood bags with CPD anticoagulant-preservative solution. Hematocrit was 50–55%. The distortions of PRBC membranes nanostructure and cells morphology during storage were studied by atomic force microscopy. Basic measurements were performed at the day 2, 6, 9, 16, 23 and 30 of storage and additionally 2–3 days after it. Topological defects occurred on RBC membranes by day 9. They appeared as domains with grain-like structures (“grains”) sized up to 200 nm. These domains were appeared in almost all cells. Later these domains merged and formed large defects on cells. It was the formation of domains with the “grains” which was onset process leading eventually to destruction of PRBC. Possible mechanisms of transformation of PRBC and their membrane are related to the alterations of spectrin cytoskeleton. During this storage period potassium ions and lactat concentrations increased, pH decreased, intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione diminished in the preservative solution. Changes of PRBC morphology were detected within the entire period of PRBC storage. Discocytes predominated at the days 1 and 2. By day 30 PRBC transformed into irreversible echinocytes and spheroechinocytes. Study of defects of membranes nanostructure may form the basis of assessing the quality of the stored PRBC. This method may allow to work out the best recommendations for blood transfusion. - Highlights: • Domains with “grains” are formed on membranes surface on 9–16 days of PRBC storage. • The development of domains is the reason of irreversible changes of PRBC structure. • The origin of domains is the consequence of alterations of spectrin cytoskeleton. • Study of nanostructure may form basis of assessing the quality of the stored PRBC

  8. Nanodefects of membranes cause destruction of packed red blood cells during long-term storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlova, Elena, E-mail: waterlake@mail.ru [V.A. Negovsky Scientific Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow (Russian Federation); I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chernysh, Aleksandr [V.A. Negovsky Scientific Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow (Russian Federation); I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moroz, Victor; Sergunova, Victoria; Gudkova, Olga; Kuzovlev, Artem [V.A. Negovsky Scientific Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-01

    Packed red blood cells (PRBC) are used for blood transfusion. PRBC were stored for 30 days under 4 °C in hermetic blood bags with CPD anticoagulant-preservative solution. Hematocrit was 50–55%. The distortions of PRBC membranes nanostructure and cells morphology during storage were studied by atomic force microscopy. Basic measurements were performed at the day 2, 6, 9, 16, 23 and 30 of storage and additionally 2–3 days after it. Topological defects occurred on RBC membranes by day 9. They appeared as domains with grain-like structures (“grains”) sized up to 200 nm. These domains were appeared in almost all cells. Later these domains merged and formed large defects on cells. It was the formation of domains with the “grains” which was onset process leading eventually to destruction of PRBC. Possible mechanisms of transformation of PRBC and their membrane are related to the alterations of spectrin cytoskeleton. During this storage period potassium ions and lactat concentrations increased, pH decreased, intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione diminished in the preservative solution. Changes of PRBC morphology were detected within the entire period of PRBC storage. Discocytes predominated at the days 1 and 2. By day 30 PRBC transformed into irreversible echinocytes and spheroechinocytes. Study of defects of membranes nanostructure may form the basis of assessing the quality of the stored PRBC. This method may allow to work out the best recommendations for blood transfusion. - Highlights: • Domains with “grains” are formed on membranes surface on 9–16 days of PRBC storage. • The development of domains is the reason of irreversible changes of PRBC structure. • The origin of domains is the consequence of alterations of spectrin cytoskeleton. • Study of nanostructure may form basis of assessing the quality of the stored PRBC.

  9. Effect of processing and storage methods on the shelf life and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These samples were packed in different packaging materials; polythene, aluminium foil, plastic container, and carton and stored at low (refrigeration) and ambient temperatures. For the period of 90 days of storage, the sample that was processed in the laboratory did not show any pest infestation, while the already smoked ...

  10. Life cycle assessment of hydrogen production and fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper details life cycle assessment (LCA) of hydrogen production and fuel cell system. LCA is a key tool in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies for design, analysis, development; manufacture, applications etc. Energy efficiencies and greenhouse gases and air pollution emissions have been evaluated in all process steps including crude oil and natural gas pipeline transportation, crude oil distillation, natural gas reprocessing, wind and solar electricity generation , hydrogen production through water electrolysis and gasoline and hydrogen distribution and utilization

  11. Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

  12. Analysis of DC/DC Converter Efficiency for Energy Storage System Based on Bidirectional Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    interface to the grid. In power electronics, the converter efficiency is characterized at fixed operating voltage for various output power. This type of characterization is not suitable for fuel cells, since as the power from the fuel cell increases, the cell voltage decreases. This paper analyses how......Renewable energy sources are fluctuating depending on the availability of the energy source. For this reason, energy storage is becoming more important and bidirectional fuel cells represent an attractive technology. Fuel cells require highcurrent low-voltage dc-dc or dc-ac converters as power...... the fuel cell I-V characteristics influences the power electronics converter efficiency and their consequence on the overall system. A loaddependent efficiency curve is presented based on experimental results from a 6 kW dc-dc converter prototype including the most suitable control strategy which maximizes...

  13. SNEV overexpression extends the life span of human endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voglauer, Regina; Chang, Martina Wei-Fen; Dampier, Brigitta; Wieser, Matthias; Baumann, Kristin; Sterovsky, Thomas; Schreiber, Martin; Katinger, Hermann; Grillari, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    In a recent screening for genes downregulated in replicatively senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we have isolated the novel protein SNEV. Since then SNEV has proven as a multifaceted protein playing a role in pre-mRNA splicing, DNA repair, and the ubiquitin/proteosome system. Here, we report that SNEV mRNA decreases in various cell types during replicative senescence, and that it is increased in various immortalized cell lines, as well as in breast tumors, where SNEV transcript levels also correlate with the survival of breast cancer patients. Since these mRNA profiles suggested a role of SNEV in the regulation of cell proliferation, the effect of its overexpression was tested. Thereby, a significant extension of the cellular life span was observed, which was not caused by altered telomerase activity or telomere dynamics but rather by enhanced stress resistance. When SNEV overexpressing cells were treated with bleomycin or bleomycin combined with BSO, inducing DNA damage as well as reactive oxygen species, a significantly lower fraction of apoptotic cells was found in comparison to vector control cells. These data suggest that high levels of SNEV might extend the cellular life span by increasing the resistance to stress or by improving the DNA repair capacity of the cells

  14. Effects of 4000 rad irradiation on the in vitro storage properties of packed red cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.L.; Ledford, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Immunosuppressed patients who require red cell transfusions receive irradiated (1500-3000 rad) packed red cells. These cells are irradiated immediately before infusion. If a large group of patients become immunosuppressed due to exposure to radiation or chemicals, the ability to supply large volumes of irradiated blood at the time of use might not be possible. An alternate solution to providing quantities of irradiated blood is to irradiate the units prior to storage. This study presents in vitro data comparing storage of paired packed red cell units either irradiated or not irradiated. Five units of fresh blood drawn into citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA-1) were packed to a hematocrit of 75 +/- 1 percent, and then each unit was divided in two equal parts. One of each pair was irradiated (4000 rads), and both parts of each unit were stored for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Samples were analyzed every 7 days. Irradiation caused a slight drop in red cell adenosine triphosphate and 2,3 diphosphoglycerate and a slight increase in plasma hemoglobin compared to controls. Methemoglobin, pH, and glucose consumption were identical to the controls. The evidence indicates that irradiation did not cause biochemical or metabolic changes in the red cells that would lead us to suspect a difference between irradiated and nonirradiated stored red cells in function or viability. These negative findings require in vivo confirmation

  15. Postharvest Application of Spermidine Polyamine on the Storage Quality and Vase Life of Mango (Mangifera indica L. in Dipped Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Sadat Hosseini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mango (Mangifera indica is a tropical fruit native to India whose global production in 2014 reached nearly 45 million tones. Mango is a commercially important fruit and improvement in its storage is of special importance. Mango is a Climacteric fruit whose ripening is done by exogenous or endogenous ethylene. In plants, Polyamines such as spermine, spermidine, and putrescine contradict ethylene because of a common precursor (s-adenosyl methionine (SAM. During ripening, different qualitative and nutritional changes occur in the fruit, e. g. changes in color, tissue softening, accumulation of sugars and organic acids, and great changes in taste, flavor, aroma and plant biochemical materials. Fruit ripening is a complicated process, complementary to fruit development, and a start to its senescence. In general, senescence of a fruit is related to loss of membrane lipids, destabilization of membrane matrix, and lipid peroxidation. Recently, naturally active biological products are applied in a large amount for increasing the storage life and quality of the fruits and delaying their senescence.This study was carried out to investigate the effect of different concentrations of spermidine on the quality and vase life of a local mango variety of Minab. Materials and Methods: Healthy fruits, uniform in size, shape, color, and degree of maturity were selected from a mango orchard in Minab and their original physical and chemical characteristics on the first day were measured after washing with water and drying. Statistical analysis of data was done by a general linear model (GLM with SAS (version 9.1 and mean comparisons were performed using Duncan's multiple range test. Treatment solution in the rate of 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mM spermidine (SIGMA was made and its pH was set to 5 using NaOH. One liter of distilled water was used in the control treatment. The treated samples were immersed in solutions of different concentrations of spermidine just

  16. The 6-chromanol derivate SUL-109 enables prolonged hypothermic storage of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajmousa, Ghazaleh; Vogelaar, Pieter; Brouwer, Linda A.; Graaf, Adrianus Cornelis van der; Henning, Robert H.; Krenning, Guido

    Encouraging advances in cell therapy research with adipose derived stem cells (ASC) require an effective short-term preservation method that provides time for quality control and transport of cells from their manufacturing facility to their clinical destination. Hypothermic storage of cells in their

  17. The Impact of Microbially Influenced Corrosion on Spent Nuclear Fuel and Storage Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, J. H.; Mizia, R. E.; Jex, R.; Nelson, L.; Garcia, K. M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was performed to evaluate if microbial activity could be considered a threat to spent nuclear fuel integrity. The existing data regarding the impact of microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) on spent nuclear fuel storage does not allow a clear assessment to be made. In order to identify what further data are needed, a literature survey on MIC was accomplished with emphasis on materials used in nuclear fuel fabrication, e.g., A1, 304 SS, and zirconium. In addition, a survey was done at Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and the INEL on the condition of their wet storage facilities. The topics discussed were the SNF path forward, the types of fuel, ramifications of damaged fuel, involvement of microbial processes, dry storage scenarios, ability to identify microbial activity, definitions of water quality, and the use of biocides. Information was also obtained at international meetings in the area of biological mediated problems in spent fuel and high level wastes. Topics dis cussed included receiving foreign reactor research fuels into existing pools, synergism between different microbes and other forms of corrosion, and cross contamination

  18. The Impact of Microbially Influenced Corrosion on Spent Nuclear Fuel and Storage Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. H. Wolfram; R. E. Mizia; R. Jex; L. Nelson; K. M. Garcia

    1996-10-01

    A study was performed to evaluate if microbial activity could be considered a threat to spent nuclear fuel integrity. The existing data regarding the impact of microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) on spent nuclear fuel storage does not allow a clear assessment to be made. In order to identify what further data are needed, a literature survey on MIC was accomplished with emphasis on materials used in nuclear fuel fabrication, e.g., A1, 304 SS, and zirconium. In addition, a survey was done at Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and the INEL on the condition of their wet storage facilities. The topics discussed were the SNF path forward, the types of fuel, ramifications of damaged fuel, involvement of microbial processes, dry storage scenarios, ability to identify microbial activity, definitions of water quality, and the use of biocides. Information was also obtained at international meetings in the area of biological mediated problems in spent fuel and high level wastes. Topics dis cussed included receiving foreign reactor research fuels into existing pools, synergism between different microbes and other forms of corrosion, and cross contamination.

  19. EFFECT OF IRRADIATION AND PACKAGING MATERIALS TYPES ON SHELF-LIFE AND QUALITY ATTRIBUTES OF MINCED MEAT DURING COLD STORAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OSHEBA, A.S.; NAGY, KH.S.; ANWAR, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Minced meat is considered one of the most meat products that exposed to contamination which led to many changes in its quality and reduced its shelf-life.Therefore, this investigation was carried out to extend the shelf-life of minced meat for consumption and maintaining its quality during cold storage by using irradiation with various doses (3, 6 and 9 kGy) and different packing materials. The results indicated that irradiation,especially at 3 and 6 kGy, had no effect on chemical composition and some physical properties of minced meat. On the other hand, pH values of all irradiated samples were slightly decreased with decreasing irradiation doses.Irradiation at the highest dose used, i.e. 9 kGy, slightly increased total volatile nitrogen (TVN) of minced meat. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of irradiated samples was tended to increase with increasing irradiation dose from 3 to 9 kGy either directly after irradiation or during storage.Regardless of irradiation effect on TVN and TBA values at zero time, there were no marked differences in TVN and TBA values of irradiated minced meat according to differentiate packaging materials (PE, PA/PE and PET/Al/PE). During cold storage, the TVN and TBA values of all minced meat samples either non-irradiated or irradiated were progressively increased as the time of cold storage increased. The higher increasing rate in TVN and TBA of irradiated samples was recorded for samples packaged in PE (one layer) followed by PA/PE (two layers) and finally PET/Al/PE (three layers) at the same irradiation dose. Irradiation of minced meat with 3 kGy reduced the counts of total bacteria, coliform bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts and molds counts as well as eliminating Salmonella spp. Irradiation doses of 6 and 9 kGy completely eliminated coliform bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts and molds. Also, type of packaging materials which used had no effect on counts of all studied microorganisms. Irradiation of minced meat with

  20. Effect of pectin edible coating enriched with essential oils of citrus on strawberry quality during refrigerated storage and shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Abdi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Postharvest life of strawberry fruit is very short due to humidity and high metabolic activity. In order to extend the shelf life and quality of strawberry (cv. parous, effects of pectin coating enriched with different concentrations of lemon and orange peel essential oil were assessed at 20˚C for 6 days or 5˚C to 12 days. The experiment conducted based on a complete randomized design (CDR in 3 replications with 6 treatments including control (distilled water, pectin (1%, pectin enriched with orange peel essential oil (0.5 and 1% and pectin containing lemon peel essential oil (0.5 and 1%. Fruit quality was evaluated by marketing, weight loss, anthocyanin content, ascorbic acid content, total protein and chlorophyll of calyx every 3 days. Based on results coating fruits with citrus essential oil carried by pectin delayed the change in weight loss, total protein, anthocyanin content, maintained ascorbic acid content of fruits and also reduced chlorophyll destruction of calyx. The results showed that pectin coating containing lemon essential oil had a significant effect on the maintaining the visual quality of the fruit during the storage, delayed the weight loss and showed better results compared to the other coatings and to the control fruit. In addition, the maximum content of ascorbic acid and anthocyanin were obtained for strawberries coated with pectin containing lemon essential oil 1% after 12 days storage of fruits at 5˚C. All coatings significantly reduced weight loss of fresh strawberries during storage at 5˚C and 20˚C compared to the uncoated fruits. Results indicated that adding high concentrations (1% of orange peel essential oil into pectin coatings did not improve quality of fruits. In addition, it was found that adding orange peel essential oil to pectin coating accelerate decay of fruits. Based on results, pectin coating containing 1% lemon essential oil considered an appropriate treatment to improve shelf life and storage

  1. New and future developments in catalysis batteries, hydrogen storage and fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Suib, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    New and Future Developments in Catalysis is a package of seven books that compile the latest ideas concerning alternate and renewable energy sources and the role that catalysis plays in converting new renewable feedstock into biofuels and biochemicals. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts and catalytic processes will be discussed in a unified and comprehensive approach. There will be extensive cross-referencing within all volumes. Batteries and fuel cells are considered to be environmentally friendly devices for storage and production of electricity, and they are gaining considerable attention. The preparation of the feed for fuel cells (fuel) as well as the catalysts and the various conversion processes taking place in these devices are covered in this volume, together with the catalytic processes for hydrogen generation and storage. An economic analysis of the various processes is also part of this volume and enables an informed choice of the most suitable process. Offers in-depth coverage of all ca...

  2. Relaxation rates of low-field gas-phase ^129Xe storage cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limes, Mark; Saam, Brian

    2010-10-01

    A study of longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates T1 of ^129Xe and Xe-N2 mixtures in a magnetic field of 3.8 mT is presented. In this regime, intrinsic spin relaxation is dominated by the intramolecular spin-rotation interaction due to persistent xenon dimers, a mechanism that can be quelled by introducing large amounts of N2 into the storage cell. Extrinsic spin relaxation is dominated by the wall-relaxation rate, which is the primary quantity of interest for the various low-field storage cells and coatings that we have tested. Previous group work has shown that extremely long gas-phase relaxation times T1 can be obtained, but only at large magnetic fields and low xenon densities. The current work is motivated by the practical benefits of retaining hyperpolarized ^129Xe for extended periods of time in a small magnetic field.

  3. Analysis of H2 storage needs for early market non-motive fuel cell applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Moreno, Marcina; Arienti, Marco; Pratt, Joseph William; Shaw, Leo; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2012-03-01

    Hydrogen fuel cells can potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the United States dependence on foreign oil, but issues with hydrogen storage are impeding their widespread use. To help overcome these challenges, this study analyzes opportunities for their near-term deployment in five categories of non-motive equipment: portable power, construction equipment, airport ground support equipment, telecom backup power, and man-portable power and personal electronics. To this end, researchers engaged end users, equipment manufacturers, and technical experts via workshops, interviews, and electronic means, and then compiled these data into meaningful and realistic requirements for hydrogen storage in specific target applications. In addition to developing these requirements, end-user benefits (e.g., low noise and emissions, high efficiency, potentially lower maintenance costs) and concerns (e.g., capital cost, hydrogen availability) of hydrogen fuel cells in these applications were identified. Market data show potential deployments vary with application from hundreds to hundreds of thousands of units.

  4. Efficacy of antimicrobial pullulan-based coating to improve internal quality and shelf-life of chicken eggs during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Mohamed K; Sharoba, Ashraf M; Khalaf, Hassan H; El-Tanahy, Hassan H; Cutter, Catherine N

    2015-05-01

    There has been a growing interest in the use of natural materials as a delivery mechanism for antimicrobials and coatings in foods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pullulan coatings to improve internal quality and shelf-life of fresh eggs during 10 wk of storage at 25 and 4 °C. Three treatments of eggs were evaluated as follows; non-coated (control; C), coated with pullulan (P), and coated with pullulan containing nisin (N). The effects of the pullulan coatings on microbiological qualities, physical properties, and freshness parameters were investigated and compared with non-coated eggs. For non-coated eggs, as storage time increased, yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh unit value decreased and weight loss increased. However, pullulan coatings (P or N) minimized weight loss (eggs (with a final B grade) 3 wk longer than non-coated eggs at 25 °C. At 4 °C, both P- and N-coated eggs went from AA to A grade after 9 wk and maintained the grade for 10 wk (4 wk longer than that of non-coated eggs). This study is the first to demonstrate that pullulan coatings can preserve the internal quality, prolong the shelf-life, and minimize weight loss of fresh eggs. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. The impact of enterocin AS-48 on the shelf-life and safety of sardines (Sardina pilchardus) under different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananou, S; Zentar, H; Martínez-Bueno, M; Gálvez, A; Maqueda, M; Valdivia, E

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of enterocin AS-48, packaged under normal atmosphere (NA), vacuum (VP) or modified atmosphere (MAP) on the shelf life and safety of fresh sardines (Sardina pilchardus) stored at 5 °C. We studied the effect of these hurdles, alone or combined, on the relevant autochthonous bacterial populations. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content was used as indicative of freshness. Levels of biogenic amines cadaverine, putrescine, tyramine, and histamine were also determined. The application of AS-48 did not reduce the mesophilic, psychrotrophic, or Gram negative bacteria viable cell counts under any of the storage conditions tested. AS-48 did cause significant reductions in viable staphylococci counts, especially under VP. In sardines under NA treated with AS-48, the populations of histamine- and tyramine-forming total and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) showed no significant reductions. MAP or VP with AS-48 allowed reductions (significant at some storage times) in histamine- and tyramine-forming LAB. The TVB-N content was also reduced under normal atmosphere and, especially, in sardines stored under MAP. The most interesting results are those concerning the decrease (by several fold) in the levels of the biogenic amines cadaverine, putrescine, tyramine, and histamine determined after treatment with AS-48. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy storage options for fuel cell hybrid power-trains in road vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D; Mortimer, R; Moore, J

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this work was to identify and assess energy storage technologies that may be applicable for use in fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in the time frame to 2010. The current and projected status of each technology was evaluated, based on recognised existing goals (such as USDoE and USABC) and performance requirements, so that potential commercial opportunities could be identified. (Author)

  7. Advanced, Long-Life Cryocooler Technology for Zero-Boil-Off Cryogen Storage, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-life, high-capacity cryocoolers are a critical need for future space systems utilizing stored cryogens. The cooling requirements for planetary and...

  8. Advanced, Long-Life Cryocooler Technology for Zero-Boil-Off Cryogen Storage, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-life, high-capacity cryocoolers are a critical need for future space systems utilizing stored cryogens. The cooling requirements for planetary and...

  9. Proinflammatory T Cell Status Associated with Early Life Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwenspoek, Martha M C; Hengesch, Xenia; Leenen, Fleur A D; Schritz, Anna; Sias, Krystel; Schaan, Violetta K; Mériaux, Sophie B; Schmitz, Stephanie; Bonnemberger, Fanny; Schächinger, Hartmut; Vögele, Claus; Turner, Jonathan D; Muller, Claude P

    2017-12-15

    Early life adversity (ELA) has been associated with an increased risk for diseases in which the immune system plays a critical role. The ELA immune phenotype is characterized by inflammation, impaired cellular immunity, and immunosenescence. However, data on cell-specific immune effects are largely absent. Additionally, stress systems and health behaviors are altered in ELA, which may contribute to the generation of the ELA immune phenotype. The present investigation tested cell-specific immune differences in relationship to the ELA immune phenotype, altered stress parameters, and health behaviors in individuals with ELA ( n = 42) and those without a history of ELA (control, n = 73). Relative number and activation status (CD25, CD69, HLA-DR, CD11a, CD11b) of monocytes, NK cells, B cells, T cells, and their main subsets were assessed by flow cytometry. ELA was associated with significantly reduced numbers of CD69 + CD8 + T cells ( p = 0.022), increased numbers of HLA-DR + CD4 and HLA-DR + CD8 T cells ( p ELA also showed a trend toward higher numbers of CCR4 + CXCR3 - CCR6 + CD4 T cells. Taken together, our data suggest an elevated state of immune activation in ELA, in which particularly T cells are affected. Although several aspects of the ELA immune phenotype were related to increased activation markers, neither stress nor health-risk behaviors explained the observed group differences. Thus, the state of immune activation in ELA does not seem to be secondary to alterations in the stress system or health-risk behaviors, but rather a primary effect of early life programming on immune cells. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Key challenges and recent progress in batteries, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage for clean energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalk, Steven G.; Miller, James F.

    Reducing or eliminating the dependency on petroleum of transportation systems is a major element of US energy research activities. Batteries are a key enabling technology for the development of clean, fuel-efficient vehicles and are key to making today's hybrid electric vehicles a success. Fuel cells are the key enabling technology for a future hydrogen economy and have the potential to revolutionize the way we power our nations, offering cleaner, more efficient alternatives to today's technology. Additionally fuel cells are significantly more energy efficient than combustion-based power generation technologies. Fuel cells are projected to have energy efficiency twice that of internal combustion engines. However before fuel cells can realize their potential, significant challenges remain. The two most important are cost and durability for both automotive and stationary applications. Recent electrocatalyst developments have shown that Pt alloy catalysts have increased activity and greater durability than Pt catalysts. The durability of conventional fluorocarbon membranes is improving, and hydrocarbon-based membranes have also shown promise of equaling the performance of fluorocarbon membranes at lower cost. Recent announcements have also provided indications that fuel cells can start from freezing conditions without significant deterioration. Hydrogen storage systems for vehicles are inadequate to meet customer driving range expectations (>300 miles or 500 km) without intrusion into vehicle cargo or passenger space. The United States Department of Energy has established three centers of Excellence for hydrogen storage materials development. The centers are focused on complex metal hydrides that can be regenerated onboard a vehicle, chemical hydrides that require off-board reprocessing, and carbon-based storage materials. Recent developments have shown progress toward the 2010 DOE targets. In addition DOE has established an independent storage material testing center

  11. Thermal analysis of the unloading cell of the Spanish centralized interim storage facility (CISF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Dominguez, J. R.; Perez Vara, R.; Huelamo Martinez, E.

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with the thermal analysis performed for the Untoading Cell of Spain Centralized Interim Storage Facility, CISF (ATC, in Spanish). The analyses are done using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, with the aim of obtaining the air flow required to remove the residual heat of the elements stored in the cell. Compliance with the admissible heat limits is checked with the results obtained in the various operation and accident modes. The calculation model is flexible enough to allow carrying out a number of sensitivity analyses with the different parameters involved in the process. (Author)

  12. [Life quality parameters in prenosologic evaluation of health state in residents of protective measures area near objects of storage and destruction of chemical weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, V L; Nechaeva, E N

    2014-01-01

    The article presents results of life quality assessment and subjective evaluation data on health state, used for prenosologic evaluation of health state in residents of protective measures area near objects of storage and destruction of chemical weapons. Considering specific features of residence near potentially dangerous objects, the authors conducted qualitative evaluation of satisfaction with various life facets, with taking into account the objects specificity, established correlation between life quality and self-evaluation of health with factors influencing public health state.

  13. Chitosan extends the shelf-life of filleted tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) during refrigerated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rong; Liu, Qi; Yin, Bangzhong; Wu, Biao

    2012-09-01

    Shelf-life extension of aquatic products is of significant economical importance. To determine the potential effect of chitosan on the shelf-life of filleted tilapia, this study analyzed the bacterial community diversity in fresh and spoiled tilapia fillets stored at (4 ± 1)°C and examined the antimicrobial activity of chitosan against relevant bacteria isolates. Results showed that Pseudomonas (20%) and Aeromonas (16%) were abundant in fresh tilapia fillets, whereas Pseudomonas (52%), Aeromonas (32%) and Staphylococcus (12%) were dominant in the spoiled samples. Chitosan showed wide-spectrum antibacterial activity against bacteria isolated from tilapia and 5.0 g L-1 chitosan was selected for application in preservation. We further determined the shelf-life of chitosan-treated, filleted tilapia stored at (4 ± 1)°C based on microbiological, biochemical and sensory analyses. Results showed that the shelf-life of chitosan-treated, filleted tilapia was extended to 12 d, whereas that of untreated, control samples was 6 d. These indicate that chitosan, as a natural preservative, has great application potential in the shelf-life extension of tilapia fillets.

  14. Factors affecting red blood cell storage age at the time of transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzik, Walter H; Beckman, Neil; Murphy, Michael F; Delaney, Meghan; Flanagan, Peter; Fung, Mark; Germain, Marc; Haspel, Richard L; Lozano, Miguel; Sacher, Ronald; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew; Wendel, Silvano

    2013-12-01

    Clinical trials are investigating the potential benefit resulting from a reduced maximum storage interval for red blood cells (RBCs). The key drivers that determine RBC age at the time of issue vary among individual hospitals. Although progressive reduction in the maximum storage period of RBCs would be expected to result in smaller hospital inventories and reduced blood availability, the magnitude of the effect is unknown. Data on current hospital blood inventories were collected from 11 hospitals and three blood centers in five nations. A general predictive model for the age of RBCs at the time of issue was developed based on considerations of demand for RBCs in the hospital. Age of RBCs at issue is sensitive to the following factors: ABO group, storage age at the time of receipt by the hospital, the restock interval, inventory reserve, mean demand, and variation in demand. A simple model, based on hospital demand, may serve as the basis for examining factors affecting the storage age of RBCs in hospital inventories. The model suggests that the age of RBCs at the time of their issue to the patient depends on factors external to the hospital transfusion service. Any substantial change in the expiration date of stored RBCs will need to address the broad variation in demand for RBCs while attempting to balance considerations of availability and blood wastage. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. Extending the shelf-life of cocoyam leaves(xanthosoma sagitifolium) through blanching, irradiation and low temperature storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afrifa, J.T.

    2013-07-01

    Cocoyam leaf (Xanthosoma sagiitifolium) (,Kontommire') is arguably one of the most readily available and cheap indigenous leafy vegetable that is commonly consumed in Ghana. It is noted to be a good source of minerals, vitamins and soluble fibre when consumed in its fresh (not raw though) state. However, this vegetable is highly perishable. Dehydration methods and jute sack storage are usually used for its preservation. However, these lead to discolouration, loss of some nutrients, and exposure to microbial contamination thus reducing the general acceptability by consumers. In view of this, a study was conducted to process and preserve the leaves in their fresh state. Preservation methods investigated were: refrigeration, steam blanching, gamma irradiation and a combination of these methods. The effect of the various preservation methods on some physicochemical properties (moisture content and dry matter by gravimetric method, vitamin C (ascorbic acid) was determined by iodometric titration method, crude protein was determined by Kjeldahl method, colour change using a Minolta CR310 colorimeter, pH using the Mettler Toledo pH meter (model:T3KfTLH); phytochemical properties (total phenolic using the Folin ciocalteau method and total flavonoids using aluminium chloride colorimetric method); microbial quality (total viable count, total coliforms, yeast and moulds count using serial dilution); consumer acceptance using a 9-point hedonic scale to assess the colour, texture and odour. The best packaging material for effective storage was also investigated. Fresh, fully opened leaves of cocoyam which were two (2) weeks old were collected from the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute (BNARI) farm and used for the study. They were decontaminated by washing in fifty (50) % of brine solution and shredded and apportioned for the various treatments, packaged into zip-lock polyethylene bags and hermetically sealed bags. The shelf-life study lasted for

  16. Hybrid Graphene-Polyoxometalates Nanofluids as Liquid Electrodes for Dual Energy Storage in Novel Flow Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubal, Deepak P; Rueda-Garcia, Daniel; Marchante, Carlos; Benages, Raul; Gomez-Romero, Pedro

    2018-02-22

    Solid Hybrid materials abound. But flowing versions of them are new actors in the materials science landscape and in particular for energy applications. This paper presents a new way to deliver nanostructured hybrid materials for energy storage, namely, in the form of nanofluids. We present here the first example of a hybrid electroactive nanofluid (HENFs) combining capacitive and faradaic energy storage mechanisms in a single fluid material. This liquid electrode is composed of reduced graphene oxide and polyoxometalates (rGO-POMs) forming a stable nanocomposite for electrochemical energy storage in novel Nanofluid Flow Cells. Two graphene based hybrid materials (rGO-phosphomolybdate, rGO-PMo 12 and rGO-phosphotungstate, rGO-PW 12 ) were synthesized and dispersed with the aid of a surfactant in 1 M H 2 SO 4 aqueous electrolyte to yield highly stable hybrid electroactive nanofluids (HENFs) of low viscosity which were tested in a home-made flow cell under static and continuous flowing conditions. Remarkably, even low concentration rGO-POMs HENFs (0.025 wt%) exhibited high specific capacitances of 273 F/g(rGO-PW 12 ) and 305 F/g(rGO-PMo 12 ) with high specific energy and specific power. Moreover, rGO-POM HENFs show excellent cycling stability (∼95 %) as well as Coulombic efficiency (∼77-79 %) after 2000 cycles. Thus, rGO-POM HENFs effectively behave as real liquid electrodes with excellent properties, demonstrating the possible future application of HENFs for dual energy storage in a new generation of Nanofluid Flow Cells. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Reversible transient hydrogen storage in a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unda, Jesus E Zerpa; Roduner, Emil

    2012-03-21

    A new concept is investigated for hydrogen storage in a supercapacitor based on large-surface-area carbon material (Black Pearls 2000). Protons and electrons of hydrogen are separated on a fuel cell-type electrode and then stored separately in the electrical double layer, the electrons on the carbon and the protons in the aqueous electrolyte of the supercapacitor electrode. The merit of this concept is that it works spontaneously and reversibly near ambient pressure and temperature. This is in pronounced contrast to what has been known as electrochemical hydrogen storage, which does not involve hydrogen gas and where electrical work has to be spent in the loading process. With the present hybrid device, a H(2) storage capacity of 0.13 wt% was obtained, one order of magnitude more than what can be stored by conventional physisorption on large-surface-area carbons at the same pressure and temperature. Raising the pressure from 1.5 to 3.5 bar increased the capacity by less than 20%, indicating saturation. A capacitance of 11 μF cm(-2), comparable with that of a commercial double layer supercapacitor, was found using H(2)SO(4) as electrolyte. The chemical energy of the stored H(2) is almost a factor of 3 larger than the electrical energy stored in the supercapacitor. Further developments of this concept relate to a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a proton exchange membrane fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. This serial setup takes advantage of the suggested novel concept of hydrogen storage. It is fundamentally different from previous ways of operating a conventional supercapacitor hooked up in parallel to a fuel cell.

  18. Predicted energy densitites for nickel-hydrogen and silver-hydrogen cells embodying metallic hydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Simplified design concepts were used to estimate gravimetric and volumetric energy densities for metal hydrogen battery cells for assessing the characteristics of cells containing metal hydrides as compared to gaseous storage cells, and for comparing nickel cathode and silver cathode systems. The silver cathode was found to yield superior energy densities in all cases considered. The inclusion of hydride forming materials yields cells with very high volumetric energy densities that also retain gravimetric energy densities nearly as high as those of gaseous storage cells.

  19. Advanced chemical hydride-based hydrogen generation/storage system for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W.; Rolfe, J. [Thermo Power Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Because of the inherent advantages of high efficiency, environmental acceptability, and high modularity, fuel cells are potentially attractive power supplies. Worldwide concerns over clean environments have revitalized research efforts on developing fuel cell vehicles (FCV). As a result of intensive research efforts, most of the subsystem technology for FCV`s are currently well established. These include: high power density PEM fuel cells, control systems, thermal management technology, and secondary power sources for hybrid operation. For mobile applications, however, supply of hydrogen or fuel for fuel cell operation poses a significant logistic problem. To supply high purity hydrogen for FCV operation, Thermo Power`s Advanced Technology Group is developing an advanced hydrogen storage technology. In this approach, a metal hydride/organic slurry is used as the hydrogen carrier and storage media. At the point of use, high purity hydrogen will be produced by reacting the metal hydride/organic slurry with water. In addition, Thermo Power has conceived the paths for recovery and regeneration of the spent hydride (practically metal hydroxide). The fluid-like nature of the spent hydride/organic slurry will provide a unique opportunity for pumping, transporting, and storing these materials. The final product of the program will be a user-friendly and relatively high energy storage density hydrogen supply system for fuel cell operation. In addition, the spent hydride can relatively easily be collected at the pumping station and regenerated utilizing renewable sources, such as biomass, natural, or coal, at the central processing plants. Therefore, the entire process will be economically favorable and environmentally friendly.

  20. Increased storage and secretion of phosphatidylcholines by senescent human peritoneal mesothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosova, Maria; Rudolf, Andras; Pichl, Sebastian; Schmidt, Kathrin; Okun, Jürgen G; Straub, Beate K; Rutkowski, Rafael; Witowski, Janusz; Schmitt, Claus P

    2016-08-01

    Human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC) secrete phosphatidylcholines (PC) which form a lipid bilayer lining the peritoneum. They prevent frictions and adhesions and act as a barrier to the transport of water-soluble solutes while permitting water flux. PC may play an essential role in peritoneal integrity and function, the role of PD induced HPMC senescence on PC homeostasis, however, is unknown. HPMC cell lines were isolated from four non-uremic patients. Expression of the three PC synthesis genes (rt-PCR), and cellular storage and secretion of PC (ESI-mass-spectrometry) were analyzed in young and senescent HPMC (>Hayflick-limit). Senescent cells displayed significantly altered morphology; flow cytometry demonstrated extensive staining for senescence-associated beta galactosidase. Nine different PC were detected in HPMC with palmitoyl-myristoyl phosphatidylcholine (PMPC) being most abundant. In senescent HPMC mRNA expression of the three key PC synthesis genes was 1.5-, 2.4- and 6-fold increased as compared to young HPMC, with the latter, phosphatidylcholine cytidylyltransferase, being rate limiting. Intracellular storage of the nine PC was 75-450 % higher in senescent vs. young HPMC, PC secretion rates were 100-300 % higher. Intracellular PC concentrations were not correlated with the PC secretion rates. Electron microscopy demonstrated lamellar bodies, the primary storage site of PC, in senescent but not in young cells. Senescent HPMC store and secrete substantially more PC than young cells. Our findings indicate a novel protective mechanism, which should counteract peritoneal damage induced by chronic exposure to PD fluids.

  1. Hydrogen storage systems based on magnesium hydride: from laboratory tests to fuel cell integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rango, P.; Marty, P.; Fruchart, D.

    2016-02-01

    The paper reviews the state of the art of hydrogen storage systems based on magnesium hydride, emphasizing the role of thermal management, whose effectiveness depends on the effective thermal conductivity of the hydride, but also depends of other limiting factors such as wall contact resistance and convective exchanges with the heat transfer fluid. For daily cycles, the use of phase change material to store the heat of reaction appears to be the most effective solution. The integration with fuel cells (1 kWe proton exchange membrane fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell) highlights the dynamic behaviour of these systems, which is related to the thermodynamic properties of MgH2. This allows for "self-adaptive" systems that do not require control of the hydrogen flow rate at the inlet of the fuel cell.

  2. The effect of storage time of human red cells on intestinal microcirculatory oxygenation in a rat isovolemic exchange model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raat, N. J.; Verhoeven, A. J.; Mik, E. G.; Gouwerok, C. W.; Verhaar, R.; Goedhart, P. T.; de Korte, D.; Ince, C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the storage time of human leukodepleted red blood cell concentrates compromises intestinal microvascular oxygen concentration oxygen (muPo(2)) during isovolemic exchange transfusion at low hematocrit. Design: Prospective, randomized, controlled study. Setting:

  3. Life-cycle analysis of product integrated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; García-Valverde, Rafael; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    A life cycle analysis (LCA) on a product integrated polymer solar module is carried out in this study. These assessments are well-known to be useful in developmental stages of a product in order to identify the bottlenecks for the up-scaling in its production phase for several aspects spanning from...... economics through design to functionality. An LCA study was performed to quantify the energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity use in the manufacture of a light-weight lamp based on a plastic foil, a lithium-polymer battery, a polymer solar cell, printed circuitry, blocking diode......, switch and a white light emitting semiconductor diode. The polymer solar cell employed in this prototype presents a power conversion efficiency in the range of 2 to 3% yielding energy payback times (EPBT) in the range of 1.3–2 years. Based on this it is worthwhile to undertake a life-cycle study...

  4. Sperm-storage defects and live birth in Drosophila females lacking spermathecal secretory cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L Schnakenberg

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Male Drosophila flies secrete seminal-fluid proteins that mediate proper sperm storage and fertilization, and that induce changes in female behavior. Females also produce reproductive-tract secretions, yet their contributions to postmating physiology are poorly understood. Large secretory cells line the female's spermathecae, a pair of sperm-storage organs. We identified the regulatory regions controlling transcription of two genes exclusively expressed in these spermathecal secretory cells (SSC: Spermathecal endopeptidase 1 (Send1, which is expressed in both unmated and mated females, and Spermathecal endopeptidase 2 (Send2, which is induced by mating. We used these regulatory sequences to perform precise genetic ablations of the SSC at distinct time points relative to mating. We show that the SSC are required for recruiting sperm to the spermathecae, but not for retaining sperm there. The SSC also act at a distance in the reproductive tract, in that their ablation: (1 reduces sperm motility in the female's other sperm-storage organ, the seminal receptacle; and (2 causes ovoviviparity--the retention and internal development of fertilized eggs. These results establish the reproductive functions of the SSC, shed light on the evolution of live birth, and open new avenues for studying and manipulating female fertility in insects.

  5. Effect of storage temperature on shelf-life of yogurt-like product from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the protein content (3.20%) and carbohydrate content (3.15%) were lower than values of (3.51%) and (11.12%) respectively for dairy yogurt. Soy yogurt had significantly lower acceptability (P ≤ 0.05) than the dairy yogurt. Shelf life study was carried out at room temperature (27±3oC) and refrigeration temperature ...

  6. Effect of Storage on the Shelf life of Dehydrated Fermented Locust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermented locust bean is used as a flavour intensifier for soups and stews. As beneficent as it is, problems still exist about its preservation using appropriate and affordable technology. Little is known about the shelf life of dehydrated fermented locust beans. This study aimed to investigate the effect of polythene packaging ...

  7. Evaluating the effect of storage conditions on the shelf life of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares-Tenorio, Mary Luz; Dekker, Matthijs; Boekel, van Tiny; Verkerk, Ruud

    2017-01-01

    Cape gooseberry is the fruit of the plant Physalis peruviana L. and has gained commercial and scientific interest for its contents of health-promoting compounds. An integral approach to estimate shelf life of cape gooseberry was conducted taking into account physicochemical, microbiological and

  8. Energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-07-01

    The papers on energy storage problems, given to the United Nations Conference on New Sources of Energy, Rome, 1961, are reviewed. Many aspects of the subject are discussed: comparisons between the costs of storing energy in batteries and in fuel cells; the use, efficiency and expected improvement of fuel cells; the principles involved in the chemical conversion of solar energy to chemical energy; the use of metal hydride fuel cells; the chemical conversion and storage of concentrated solar energy for which the solar furnace is used for photochemical reactions. Finally, the general costs of storing energy in any form and delivering it are analyzed with particular reference to storage batteries and fuel cells.

  9. Novel electrical energy storage system based on reversible solid oxide cells: System design and operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, C. H.; Kazempoor, P.; Braun, R. J.

    2015-02-01

    Electrical energy storage (EES) is an important component of the future electric grid. Given that no other widely available technology meets all the EES requirements, reversible (or regenerative) solid oxide cells (ReSOCs) working in both fuel cell (power producing) and electrolysis (fuel producing) modes are envisioned as a technology capable of providing highly efficient and cost-effective EES. However, there are still many challenges and questions from cell materials development to system level operation of ReSOCs that should be addressed before widespread application. This paper presents a novel system based on ReSOCs that employ a thermal management strategy of promoting exothermic methanation within the ReSOC cell-stack to provide thermal energy for the endothermic steam/CO2 electrolysis reactions during charging mode (fuel producing). This approach also serves to enhance the energy density of the stored gases. Modeling and parametric analysis of an energy storage concept is performed using a physically based ReSOC stack model coupled with thermodynamic system component models. Results indicate that roundtrip efficiencies greater than 70% can be achieved at intermediate stack temperature (680 °C) and elevated stack pressure (20 bar). The optimal operating condition arises from a tradeoff between stack efficiency and auxiliary power requirements from balance of plant hardware.

  10. Prevention of Lysosomal Storage Diseases and Derivation of Mutant Stem Cell Lines by Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarescu, Gheona; Beeri, Rachel; Eiges, Rachel; Epsztejn-Litman, Silvina; Eldar-Geva, Talia; Elstein, Deborah; Zimran, Ari; Margalioth, Ehud J.; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Renbaum, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) allows birth of unaffected children for couples at risk for a genetic disorder. We present the strategy and outcome of PGD for four lysosomal storage disorders (LSD): Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), Gaucher disease (GD), Fabry disease (FD), and Hunter syndrome (HS), and subsequent development of stem cell lines. For each disease, we developed a family-specific fluorescent multiplex single-cell PCR protocol that included the familial mutation and informative markers surrounding the mutation. Embryo biopsy and PGD analysis were performed on either oocytes (polar bodies one and two) or on single blastomeres from a six-cell embryo. We treated twenty families carrying mutations in these lysosomal storage disorders, including 3 couples requiring simultaneous analysis for two disorders (TSD/GD, TSD/balanced Robertsonian translocation 45XYder(21;14), and HS/oculocutaneus albinism). These analyses led to an overall pregnancy rate/embryo transfer of 38% and the birth of 20 unaffected children from 17 families. We have found that PGD for lysosomal disorders is a safe and effective method to prevent birth of affected children. In addition, by using mutant embryos for the derivation of stem cell lines, we have successfully established GD and HS hESC lines for use as valuable models in LSD research. PMID:23320174

  11. Length of Storage of Red Blood Cells and Patient Survival After Blood Transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halmin, Märit; Rostgaard, Klaus; Lee, Brian K

    2017-01-01

    received transfusions from 2003 to 2012. Measurements: Patients were followed from first blood transfusion. Relative and absolute risks for death in 30 days or 1 year in relation to length of RBC storage were assessed by using 3 independent analytic approaches. All analyses were conducted by using Cox......Background: Possible negative effects, including increased mortality, among persons who receive stored red blood cells (RBCs) have recently garnered considerable attention. Despite many studies, including 4 randomized trials, no consensus exists. Objective: To study the association between...... the length of RBC storage and mortality in a large population-based cohort of patients who received transfusions, allowing detection of small yet clinically significant effects. Design: Binational cohort study. Setting: All transfusion recipients in Sweden and Denmark. Patients: 854 862 adult patients who...

  12. High electrochemical energy storage in self-assembled nest-like CoO nanofibers with long cycle life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramanik, Atin; Maiti, Sandipan [CSIR-Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute, Fuel Cell & Battery Division (India); Sreemany, Monjoy [CSIR-Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute, Advanced Mechanical and Materials Characterization Division (India); Mahanty, Sourindra, E-mail: mahanty@cgcri.res.in [CSIR-Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute, Fuel Cell & Battery Division (India)

    2016-04-15

    Developing efficient electrode material is essential to keep pace with the demand for high energy density together with high power density and long cycle life in next generation energy storage devices. Herein, we report the electrochemical properties of hydrothermally synthesized CoO nanofibers of diameter 30–80 nm assembled in a nest-like morphology which showed a very high reversible lithium storage capacity of 2000 mA h g{sup −1} after 600 cycles at 0.1 mA cm{sup −2} as lithium-ion battery anode. Systematic investigation by ex situ transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy at different cycling stages indicated that the extraordinary performance could be related to an enhancement in the Co{sup 2+}↔Co{sup x+} (2 < x ≤ 3) redox process in addition to the commonly believed structural and morphological evolution during cycling favoring generation of large number of accessible active sites for lithium insertion. Further, when examined as a supercapacitor electrode in 1.0 M KOH, a capacitance of 1167 F g{sup −1} is achieved from these 1D CoO nanofibers after 10,000 charge discharge cycles at a high current density of 5 A g{sup −1} demonstrating good application potential.Graphical AbstractNest-like CoO nanofibers showed a reversible lithium storage capacity of 2000 mA h g{sup −1} after 600 cycles as LIB anode and a capacitance of 1167 F g{sup −1} after 10,000 cycles as electrochemical supercapacitor.

  13. Testosterone-dependent sex differences in red blood cell hemolysis in storage, stress, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanias, Tamir; Sinchar, Derek; Osei-Hwedieh, David; Baust, Jeffrey J; Jordan, Andrew; Zimring, James C; Waterman, Hayley R; de Wolski, Karen S; Acker, Jason P; Gladwin, Mark T

    2016-10-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) hemolysis represents an intrinsic mechanism for human vascular disease. Intravascular hemolysis releases hemoglobin and other metabolites that inhibit nitric oxide signaling and drive oxidative and inflammatory stress. Although these pathways are important in disease pathogenesis, genetic and population modifiers of hemolysis, including sex, have not been established. We studied sex differences in storage or stress-induced hemolysis in RBC units from the United States and Canada in 22 inbred mouse strains and in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) using measures of hemolysis in 315 patients who had homozygous SS hemoglobin from the Walk-PHASST cohort. A mouse model also was used to evaluate posttransfusion recovery of stored RBCs, and gonadectomy was used to determine the mechanisms related to sex hormones. An analysis of predisposition to hemolysis based on sex revealed that male RBCs consistently exhibit increased susceptibility to hemolysis compared with females in response to routine cold storage, under osmotic or oxidative stress, after transfusion in mice, and in patients with SCD. The sex difference is intrinsic to the RBC and is not mediated by plasmatic factors or female sex hormones. Importantly, orchiectomy in mice improves RBC storage stability and posttransfusion recovery, whereas testosterone repletion therapy exacerbates hemolytic response to osmotic or oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that testosterone increases susceptibility to hemolysis across human diseases, suggesting that male sex may modulate clinical outcomes in blood storage and SCD and establishing a role for donor genetic variables in the viability of stored RBCs and in human hemolytic diseases. © 2016 AABB.

  14. Joint optimisation of arbitrage profits and battery life degradation for grid storage application of battery electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    To meet European decarbonisation targets by 2050, the electrification of the transport sector is mandatory. Most electric vehicles rely on lithium-ion batteries, because they have a higher energy/power density and longer life span compared to other practical batteries such as zinc-carbon batteries. Electric vehicles can thus provide energy storage to support the system integration of generation from highly variable renewable sources, such as wind and photovoltaics (PV). However, charging/discharging causes batteries to degradate progressively with reduced capacity. In this study, we investigate the impact of the joint optimisation of arbitrage revenue and battery degradation of electric vehicle batteries in a simplified setting, where historical prices allow for market participation of battery electric vehicle owners. It is shown that the joint optimisation of both leads to stronger gains then the sum of both optimisation strategies and that including battery degradation into the model avoids state of charges close to the maximum at times. It can be concluded that degradation is an important aspect to consider in power system models, which incorporate any kind of lithium-ion battery storage.

  15. Effect of functional chitosan coating and gamma irradiation on the shelf-life of chicken meat during refrigerated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Parviz; Tajik, Hossein; Rohani, Seyed Mehdi Razavi; Moradi, Mehran; Hashemi, Mohammad; Aliakbarlu, Javad

    2017-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of low-dose gamma irradiation (2.5 kGy) and chitosan edible coating (2%) containing grape seed extract (GSE) (0.1%) on the microbial, chemical and sensorial quality of chicken breast meat during 21 days of storage at 4 °C. The samples were periodically analyzed for microbiological (aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts), chemical (TBA, pH, aw) and sensorial (odor, appearance, and overall acceptability) characteristics. Results indicated that irradiation and the active coating had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effects on reduction of bacterial growth with at least a 14-day extension of shelf life. Results represented the protective effect of chitosan coating containing GSE against induced lipid oxidation by irradiation. All chitosan-coated samples showed lower TBA and pH values than other treatments during storage, and no significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed due to irradiation in TBA values. Results also indicated that the application of chitosan coating significantly improved the sensorial quality of the samples, and none of the evaluated sensorial attributes was significantly affected by irradiation. Based on the results obtained in this study, the application of low-dose gamma irradiation and chitosan coating containing GSE was effective in preserving the quality of fresh chicken meats and is recommended in meat products.

  16. Influence of packaging and storage conditions on quality parameters and shelf life of solar-dried banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Phothapaeree

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of packaging materials (metalized or polylactic acid, PLA, based pouches, storage temperatures (30-50°C and time (up to 6 months on quality of solar-dried banana were investigated. At 30°C in both packaging materials, change in moisture content, water activity (a w and hardness were minimal while darkening of the surface color progressed. No microbial spoilage was found. Hedonic scores of color, flavor, taste, texture and overall acceptance of the 6th month aged samples were lowest (p≤0.05. Based on the sensory test, product packed in both packaging materials had shelf life of 5 months at 30°C. Higher storage temperature greatly induced time-dependent decrease in moisture content and a w with an increase in hardness, especially for the samples in PLA-based pouches. Fractional conversion model was used to predicted time-dependent change in total color difference (ΔE (R2 ≥ 0.84. Temperature dependence of the rate constant followed Arrhenius-type relationship (R2 ≥ 0.99.

  17. Improvement Shelf-Life Extension of Apple by Pre storage Thermal Treatment, CaCl2 and Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.A.; Moussa, Z.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of physical and chemical methods to extend the shelf life of apple fruits by control the blue mold disease causing by Penicillium expansum. Apple fruits are subjected to different temperatures between 38, and 50 degree C for 24 hr. and stored at 0 degree C for 4 months. Increasing in temperature caused decreasing in firmness and blue mold incidence percentage (%) caused by P. expansum. At 50 degree C the treated apple fruits gave sharp softness and inhibition of blue mold incidence (%) caused by P. expansum exposing for 4 days and cold storage at 0 degree C for 4 months and 5 days at 20 degree C. Dipping apple fruits in CaCl 2 at 2% and 4% decreased blue mold incidence (%) caused by P. expansum and increased apple fruits firmness at 2 and 4 months storage periods. Also, CaCl 2 treatments gave insignificant change in total soluble solid (TSS%) and in titratable acidity (TA%) of apple fruits. Gamma irradiation doses above 1 kGy significantly decreased firmness of apple fruits with the decrement being higher at higher doses.

  18. Remaining Useful Life Estimation of Li-ion Battery for Energy Storage System Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongjin; Kim, Seok Goo; Choi, Jooho; Lee, Jaewook [Korea Aerospace Univ., Koyang (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hwa Seob; Park, Sang Hui [Hyosung Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Remaining useful life (RUL) estimation of the Li-ion battery has gained great interest because it is necessary for quality assurance, operation planning, and determination of the exchange period. This paper presents the RUL estimation of an Li-ion battery for an energy storage system using exponential function for the degradation model and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach for parameter estimation. The MCMC approach is dependent upon information such as model initial parameters and input setting parameters which highly affect the estimation result. To overcome this difficulty, this paper offers a guideline for model initial parameters based on the regression result, and MCMC input parameters derived by comparisons with a thorough search of theoretical results.

  19. Remaining Useful Life Estimation of Li-ion Battery for Energy Storage System Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongjin; Kim, Seok Goo; Choi, Jooho; Lee, Jaewook; Song, Hwa Seob; Park, Sang Hui

    2016-01-01

    Remaining useful life (RUL) estimation of the Li-ion battery has gained great interest because it is necessary for quality assurance, operation planning, and determination of the exchange period. This paper presents the RUL estimation of an Li-ion battery for an energy storage system using exponential function for the degradation model and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach for parameter estimation. The MCMC approach is dependent upon information such as model initial parameters and input setting parameters which highly affect the estimation result. To overcome this difficulty, this paper offers a guideline for model initial parameters based on the regression result, and MCMC input parameters derived by comparisons with a thorough search of theoretical results

  20. Plerixafor mobilization leads to a lower ratio of CD34+ cells to total nucleated cells which results in greater storage costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhehco, Yvette C; Adamski, Jill; Sell, Mary; Cunningham, Kathleen; Eisenmann, Christa; Magee, Deborah; Stadtmauer, Edward A; O'Doherty, Una

    2010-01-01

    Plerixafor (Mozobil, AMD3100) with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilizes more CD34+ cells/kg compared to G-CSF alone. Given that plerixafor enhances mobilization of multiple white blood cell lineages, we determined if more storage space is required for products collected from patients mobilized with plerixafor. A review of the medical records of 15 patients mobilized with chemotherapy and G-CSF (control) and 14 patients mobilized with plerixafor plus G-CSF (plerixafor) was performed. Data on demographics, baseline characteristics, CD34+ cells/kg, total nucleated cells, total mononuclear cells, total apheresis sessions, and total bags for storage were collected. Mean values were determined and compared using Student's t-test. We found that the proportion of CD34+ cells among total nucleated cells was less in the plerixafor group compared to the control group (P = 0.0427). More nucleated cells (10.7 x 10(10) vs. 7.1 x 10(10), P =0.0452) and mononuclear cells (9.7 x 10(10) vs. 5.9 x 10(10), P = 0.0059) were mobilized with plerixafor plus G-CSF. However, there was no significant difference in CD34+ cells/kg, total CD34+ cells or the proportion of mononuclear cells among total nucleated cells between the two groups. More storage bags were required for the plerixafor group compared to the control group (15 vs. 9, P = 0.0299). Mobilization with plerixafor plus G-CSF resulted in a smaller proportion of CD34+ cells collected and a greater number of storage bags. An increase in the number of bags required for stem cell storage may be logistically problematic and will also lead to increased costs for storage of stem cells.

  1. Development of a novel method for amniotic fluid stem cell storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavatti, Manuela; Beretti, Francesca; Casciaro, Francesca; Comitini, Giuseppina; Franchi, Fabrizia; Barbieri, Veronica; Bertoni, Laura; De Pol, Anto; La Sala, Giovanni B; Maraldi, Tullia

    2017-08-01

    Current procedures for collection of human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) indicate that cells cultured in a flask for 2 weeks can then be used for research. However, hAFSCs can be retrieved directly from a small amount of amniotic fluid that can be obtained at the time of diagnostic amniocentesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether direct freezing of amniotic fluid cells is able to maintain or improve the potential of a sub-population of stem cells. We compared the potential of the hAFSCs regarding timing of freezing, cells obtained directly from amniotic fluid aspiration (D samples) and cells cultured in a flask before freezing (C samples). Colony-forming-unit ability, proliferation, morphology, stemness-related marker expression, senescence, apoptosis and differentiation potential of C and D samples were compared. hAFSCs isolated from D samples expressed mesenchymal stem cells markers until later passages, had a good proliferation rate and exhibited differentiation capacity similar to hAFSCs of C samples. Interestingly, direct freezing induced a higher concentration of cells positive for pluripotency stem cell markers, without teratoma formation in vivo. This study suggests that minimal processing may be adequate for the banking of amniotic fluid cells, avoiding in vitro passages before the storage and exposure to high oxygen concentration, which affect stem cell properties. This technique might be a cost-effective and reasonable approach to the process of Good Manufacturing Process accreditation for stem-cell banks. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampfer, Martha R; Garbe, James C

    2015-02-24

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  3. The Life and Fate of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke eEggenhofer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are present throughout the body and are thought to play a role in tissue regeneration and control of inflammation. MSC can be easily expanded in vitro and their potential as a therapeutic option for degenerative and inflammatory disease is therefore intensively investigated. Whilst it was initially thought that MSC would replace dysfunctional cells and migrate to sites of injury to interact with inflammatory cells, experimental evidence indicates that the majority of administered MSC get trapped in capillary networks and have a short life span. In this review we discuss current knowledge on the migratory properties of endogenous and exogenous MSC and confer on how culture induced modifications of MSC may affect these properties. Finally we will discuss how, despite their limited survival, administered MSC can bring about their therapeutic effects.

  4. Only in dying, life: programmed cell death during plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hautegem, Tom; Waters, Andrew J; Goodrich, Justin; Nowack, Moritz K

    2015-02-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a fundamental process of life. During the evolution of multicellular organisms, the actively controlled demise of cells has been recruited to fulfil a multitude of functions in development, differentiation, tissue homeostasis, and immune systems. In this review we discuss some of the multiple cases of PCD that occur as integral parts of plant development in a remarkable variety of cell types, tissues, and organs. Although research in the last decade has discovered a number of PCD regulators, mediators, and executers, we are still only beginning to understand the mechanistic complexity that tightly controls preparation, initiation, and execution of PCD as a process that is indispensable for successful vegetative and reproductive development of plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An advanced GAP/AN/TAGN propellant : part 2 : stability and storage life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judge, M.D. [Bristol Aerospace, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Badeen, C.M.; Jones, D.E.G. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory

    2007-07-15

    An advanced solid propellant was characterized. The propellant was based on a glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) energetic binder with an ammonium nitrate (AN) oxidizer, and contained a significant percentage of triaminoguanidine nitrate (TAGN). Raw ingredient accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was performed to determine self-heating rates. Thermal stability and heat flow calorimetry tests were also conducted. Ballistic analyses were conducted to determine the propellant's burn rate. The propellant was designed to produce non-toxic and non-acidic exhaust products. Results of the tests indicated that the propellant is safe for prolonged storage. The study demonstrated that propellant samples can be heated to temperatures up to 175 degrees C for several hours without combustion response. A mass loss of 62 per cent was observed at temperatures between 160 and 230 degrees C. The samples ignited almost immediately after being placed in a pre-heated block at temperatures higher than 175 degrees C. The propellant's burn rate was approximately twice that of standard AN propellants. The propellant will be further evaluated as a candidate for the propulsion of tactical rockets and missiles. 17 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  6. Assessment of changes in plasma hemoglobin and potassium levels in red cell units during processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Nishant; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Ravneet; Kaur, Jasbinder

    2015-06-01

    Red cell units undergo changes during storage and processing. The study was planned to assess plasma potassium, plasma hemoglobin, percentage hemolysis during storage and to determine the effects of outdoor blood collection and processing on those parameters. Blood collection in three types of blood storage bags was done - single CPDA bag (40 outdoor and 40 in-house collection), triple CPD + SAGM bag (40 in-house collection) and quadruple CPD + SAGM bag with integral leukoreduction filter (40 in-house collection). All bags were sampled on day 0 (day of collection), day 1 (after processing), day 7, day 14 and day 28 for measurement of percentage hemolysis and potassium levels in the plasma of bag contents. There was significant increase in percentage hemolysis, plasma hemoglobin and plasma potassium level in all the groups during storage (p levels during the storage of red blood cells. Blood collection can be safely undertaken in outdoor blood donation camps even in hot summer months in monitored blood transport boxes. SAGM additive solution decreases the red cell hemolysis and allows extended storage of red cells. Prestorage leukoreduction decreases the red cell hemolysis and improves the quality of blood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dragon's Blood Sap (Croton Lechleri) As Storage Medium For Avulsed Teeth: In Vitro Study Of Cell Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Christine Men; Hamanaka, Elizane Ferreira; Hoshida, Thayse Yumi; Sell, Ana Maria; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Silveira, Catarina Soares; Poi, Wilson Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Tooth replantation success depends on the condition of cementum periodontal ligament after tooth avulsion; which is influenced by storage medium. The dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) sap has been suggested as a promising medium because it supports collagen formation and exhibits healing, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dragon's blood sap as a storage medium for avulsed teeth through evaluation of functional and metabolic cell viability. This in vitro study compared the efficacy of different storage media to maintain the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear and periodontal ligament cells. A 10% dragon's blood sap was tested while PBS was selected as its control. Ultra pasteurized whole milk was used for comparison as a commonly used storage medium. DMEM and distilled water were the positive and negative controls, respectively. The viability was assessed through trypan blue exclusion test and colorimetric MTT assay after 1, 3, 6, 10 and 24 h of incubation. The dragon's blood sap showed promising results due to its considerable maintenance of cell viability. For trypan blue test, the dragon's blood sap was similar to milk (psap showed better results than all storage media, even better than milk (psap was as effective as milk, the gold standard for storage medium. The experimental sap preserved the membrane of all cells and the functional viability of periodontal ligament cells.

  8. Lactated Ringer-based storage solutions are equally well suited for the storage of fresh osteochondral allografts as cell culture medium-based storage solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Afif; von Horn, Alexander; Gocalek, Kornelia; Schäck, Luisa Marilena; Clausen, Jan; Krettek, Christian; Noack, Sandra; Neunaber, Claudia

    2017-07-01

    Due to the rising interest in Europe to treat large cartilage defects with osteochondrale allografts, research aims to find a suitable solution for long-term storage of osteochondral allografts. This is further encouraged by the fact that legal restrictions currently limit the use of the ingredients from animal or human sources that are being used in other regions of the world (e.g. in the USA). Therefore, the aim of this study was A) to analyze if a Lactated Ringer (LR) based solution is as efficient as a Dulbecco modified Eagle's minimal essential medium (DMEM) in maintaining chondrocyte viability and B) at which storage temperature (4°C vs. 37°C) chondrocyte survival of the osteochondral allograft is optimally sustained. 300 cartilage grafts were collected from knees of ten one year-old Black Head German Sheep. The grafts were stored in four different storage solutions (one of them DMEM-based, the other three based on Lactated Ringer Solution), at two different temperatures (4 and 37°C) for 14 and 56days. At both points in time, chondrocyte survival as well as death rate, Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, and Hydroxyproline (HP) concentration were measured and compared between the grafts stored in the different solutions and at the different temperatures. Independent of the storage solutions tested, chondrocyte survival rates were higher when stored at 4°C compared to storage at 37°C both after short-term (14days) and long-term storage (56days). At no point in time did the DMEM-based solution show a superior chondrocyte survival compared to lactated Ringer based solution. GAG and HP content were comparable across all time points, temperatures and solutions. LR based solutions that contain only substances that are approved in Germany may be just as efficient for storing grafts as the USA DMEM-based solution gold standard. Moreover, in the present experiment storage of osteochondral allografts at 4°C was superior to storage at 37°C. Copyright © 2017

  9. Graphene-based Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage: Fuel cells, Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael A.; Moore, Robert; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

  10. Rejuvenation capacity of red blood cells in additive solutions over long-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Erin K; Dumont, Deborah F; Baker, Sharry; Dumont, Larry J

    2011-07-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for 42-day storage with the use of additive solutions (ASs). However, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in the RBCs decline over this time. These constituents may be restored by treatment with rejuvenation (REJ) solutions. This study was done to assess the response capability of RBCs from 30 to 120 days of storage in three FDA-licensed RBC storage solutions after incubation with a rejuvenating solution of pyruvate, inosine, phosphate, and adenine. Three units each of RBCs in approved AS (AS-1 [Adsol, Fenwal, Inc.], AS-3 [Nutricel, Medsep Corp.], and AS-5 [Optisol, Terumo Corp.]) were stored under standard conditions at 1 to 6°C for up to 120 days. Aliquots (4 mL) on Days 30, 42, 60, 80, 100, and 120 (± 2 days) were REJ by incubating with Rejuvesol (Encyte Corp.). Control untreated and REJ aliquots were extracted using perchloric acid and stored at -80°C until assayed for 2,3-DPG and ATP. RBCs responded to REJ by increasing DPG and ATP contents. The response declined linearly at 0.070 ± 0.008 µmol DPG/g hemoglobin (Hb)/day and 0.035 ± 0.004 µmol ATP/g Hb/day with no differences between ASs. We conclude that Rejuvesol is able to restore ATP and 2,3-DPG levels in RBCs stored up to 120 days in AS. The response diminishes as storage time increases. This rejuvenation (REJ) capability does not seem useful for routine assessment of RBC anabolic capacity in research programs, but may be useful to the investigator when studying unique and novel treatment methods. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  11. Refined life-cycle assessment of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenzmann, F.; Kroon, J.; Andriessen, R.

    2011-01-01

    A refined life-cycle assessment of polymer solar cells is presented with a focus on critical components, i.e. the transparent conductive ITO layer and the encapsulation components. This present analysis gives a comprehensive sketch of the full environmental potential of polymer-OPV in comparison...... with other PV technologies. It is shown that on a m2 basis the environmental characteristics of polymer-OPV are highly beneficial, while on a watt-peak and on a kWh basis, these benefits are - at the current level of the development - still (over-)compensated by low module efficiency and limited lifetime...

  12. Storage effect on viability and biofunctionality of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falah, Mizied; Rayan, Anwar; Srouji, Samer

    2015-09-01

    In our recent studies, the transplantation of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) has shown promise for treatment of diseases related to bone and joint disorders. For the current clinical applications, ASCs were formulated and suspended in PlasmaLyte A supplemented with heparin, glucose and human serum albumin, balanced to pH 7.4 with sodium bicarbonate. This cell solution constitutes 20% of the overall transplanted mixture and is supplemented with hyaluronic acid (60%) and OraGraft particles (20%). We intended to investigate the effect of this transplantation mixture on the viability and biofunctionality of ASCs in bone formation. Freshly harvested cells were resuspended and incubated in the indicated mixture for up to 48 h at 4°C. Cell viability was assessed using trypan blue and AlamarBlue, and cell functionality was determined by quantifying their adhesion rate in vitro and bone formation in an ectopic mouse model. More than 80% of the ASCs stored in the transplantation mixture were viable for up to 24 h. Cell viability beyond 24 h in storage decreased to approximately 50%. In addition, an equal degree of bone formation was observed between the cells transplanted following incubation in transplantation mixture for up to 24 h and zero-time non-incubated cells (control). The viability and functionality of ASCs stored in the presented formulation will make such cell therapy accessible to larger and more remote populations. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of shelf-life extension of Asiatic red spot emperor (Lethrinus lentjan) using low dose of gamma rays and evaluation of biomolecular alterations during cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunith Shine, S.R.; Godwin Wesley, S.; Satheesh, S.; Moses Ezhil Raj, A.

    2012-01-01

    Food irradiation, in combination with good refrigeration and handling practices, provides means to increase fish product shelf-life. Irradiation is effective in reducing microorganisms is known as a good method for inactivating pathogens in food materials. The present work focuses on the effect of the gamma radiation in aspect of finding microbiological, biochemical and sensory attribute over a period of 0 to 60 days of the storage. Variations in pH, FFA, TVBN, TMAN and TBA were observed throughout the storage period, present observation provide a possibility of irradiation treatment up to 6 kGy as a prerequisite for shelf life extension and by the SDS analysis most intense proteins were retained at the end of the cold storage

  14. Antigen storage compartments in mature dendritic cells facilitate prolonged cytotoxic T lymphocyte cross-priming capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Montfoort, Nadine; Camps, Marcel G; Khan, Selina; Filippov, Dmitri V; Weterings, Jimmy J; Griffith, Janice M; Geuze, Hans J; van Hall, Thorbald; Verbeek, J Sjef; Melief, Cornelis J; Ossendorp, Ferry

    2009-04-21

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for priming of naive CD8(+) T lymphocytes to exogenous antigens, so-called "cross-priming." We report that exogenous protein antigen can be conserved for several days in mature DCs, coinciding with strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte cross-priming potency in vivo. After MHC class I peptide elution, protein antigen-derived peptide presentation is efficiently restored, indicating the presence of an intracellular antigen depot. We characterized this depot as a lysosome-like organelle, distinct from MHC class II compartments and recently described early endosomal compartments that allow acute antigen presentation in MHC class I. The storage compartments we report here facilitate continuous supply of MHC class I ligands. This mechanism ensures sustained cross-presentation by DCs, despite the short-lived expression of MHC class I-peptide complexes at the cell surface.

  15. The storage center of short life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes; Le centre de stockage des dechets de faible et moyenne activite a vie courte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Situated at 50 km of Troyes, the Aube Center was opened in 1992 in order to take over from the Manche Center, for the surface storage of low life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. It offers an answer to manage safely theses wastes at an industrial scale during 50 years. (A.L.B.)

  16. Effects of red blood cell storage time on transfused patients in the ICU-protocol for a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygård, S L; Jonsson, A B; Madsen, M B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are often anaemic due to blood loss, impaired red blood cell (RBC) production and increased RBC destruction. In some studies, more than half of the patients were treated with RBC transfusion. During storage, the RBC and the storage medium...... evidence to assess the effects of shorter vs. longer storage time of transfused RBCs for ICU patients. METHODS: We will conduct a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials, and also include results of severe adverse events from large observational...

  17. Life cycle analysis of photovoltaic cell and wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yohji

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents life cycle analyses of net energy and CO 2 emissions on photovoltaic cell and wind power generation plants. Energy requirements associated with a plant are estimated for producing materials, manufacturing equipment, constructing facilities, acid operating plants. Energy ratio and net supplied energy are calculated by the process energy analysis that examines the entire energy inventory of input and output during life time of a plant. Life cycle CO 2 emission can also be calculated from the energy requirements obtained by the net energy analysis. The emission also includes greenhouse effect equivalent to CO 2 emission of methane gas leakage at a mining as well as CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion during generating electricity, natural gas treatment at an extracting well and cement production in industry. The commercially available and future-commercial technologies are dealt with in the study. Regarding PV technologies, two different kinds of installation are investigated; roof-top typed installation of residential houses and ground installation of electric utilities. (author)

  18. Short-term storage of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus testicular cells at -80 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpour, Amin; Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Rodina, Marek; Pšenička, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The conservation of sturgeons is of critical importance, and optimization of long-term storage is crucial to cell survival. This study aimed to examine the viability rates of several variations of sturgeon testicular cells storage at -80 °C for purpose of a short-term storage in a deep freezer or shipment on dried ice. Testes extracted from three immature fish were cut into small pieces, immersed in a cryomedium composed of phosphate buffered saline with 0.5% bovine serum albumin, 50 mM glucose, and 1.5 M ethylene glycol as a cryoprotectant, chilled from 10 to -80 °C at a cooling rate of 1 °C per min, and stored under varying conditions. Our results revealed a significant effect of storage conditions on the number of living and dead cells (p > 0.05). Samples that were stored for 7 days at -80 °C showed a considerable decline in terms of cell viability compared to samples stored for 2 days storage at -80 °C or in LN. This result indicated that testicular cells can be stored at -80 °C and/or on dry ice, for 2 days with minimum loss of viability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Live Cell Imaging During Germination Reveals Dynamic Tubular Structures Derived from Protein Storage Vacuoles of Barley Aleurone Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Ibl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The germination of cereal seeds is a rapid developmental process in which the endomembrane system undergoes a series of dynamic morphological changes to mobilize storage compounds. The changing ultrastructure of protein storage vacuoles (PSVs in the cells of the aleurone layer has been investigated in the past, but generally this involved inferences drawn from static pictures representing different developmental stages. We used live cell imaging in transgenic barley plants expressing a TIP3-GFP fusion protein as a fluorescent PSV marker to follow in real time the spatially and temporally regulated remodeling and reshaping of PSVs during germination. During late-stage germination, we observed thin, tubular structures extending from PSVs in an actin-dependent manner. No extensions were detected following the disruption of actin microfilaments, while microtubules did not appear to be involved in the process. The previously-undetected tubular PSV structures were characterized by complex movements, fusion events and a dynamic morphology. Their function during germination remains unknown, but might be related to the transport of solutes and metabolites.

  20. Effect of packaging during storage time on retail display shelf life of longissimus muscle from two different beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, S; Woerner, D R; Geornaras, I; Engle, T E; Delmore, R J; Hess, A M; Belk, K E

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of packaging and production system (PS) on retail display life color (L*, a*, and b*), fatty acid profile (% of total fatty acids), lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; mg malondialdehyde/kg of muscle), vitamin E content (µg/g of muscle), and odor (trained panelists) during storage of LM. Four (or 3) different packaging treatments were applied to LM from steers fattened on grazing systems (Uruguayan) or on high-concentrate diets (U.S.). From fabrication to application of treatments, Uruguayan LM were vacuum packaged for air shipment and U.S. LM were also vacuum packaged and kept in a cooler until Uruguayan samples arrived. Treatments were applied 7 d after slaughter. In Exp. 1, treatments were vacuum packaging (VP), low-oxygen (O) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (MAP/CO), low-O MAP with N2 plus CO and carbon monoxide (MAP/CO), and VP plus an application of peroxyacetic acid (VP/PAA). In Exp. 2 block 1, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, and VP with ethyl-arginate HCl incorporated into the film as an antimicrobial agent (VP/AM). In Exp. 2 block 2, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, MAP/CO, and VP/AM. After 35 d storage, steaks were evaluated during simulated retail display for up to 6 d. In Exp. 1, Uruguayan steaks under MAP/CO had greater ( packaging treatments on d 6 of display in Exp. 1. Packaging × PS × time interaction was significant ( 0.05) were detected among both VP and MAP/CO in U.S. steaks at this time. No significant ( > 0.05) packaging × PS × time interaction was observed in Exp. 2. Only PS (both experiments) and time (Exp. 1) affected ( Packaging × PS, PS × time, and packaging × PS × time interactions were not significant ( > 0.05) for any of the fatty acids. Beef from Uruguayan had lower ( < 0.05) SFA and MUFA and greater ( < 0.05) PUFA and n-6 and n-3 fatty acid percentages than U.S. beef. Complexity of fresh meat postmortem chemistry

  1. Storage related changes of cell wall based dietary fiber components of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Judith; Stanojlovic, Luisa; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko

    2017-03-01

    Storage related changes in the cell wall composition potentially affect the texture of plant-based foods and the physiological effects of cell wall based dietary fiber components. Therefore, a detailed characterization of cell wall polysaccharides and lignins from broccoli stems was performed. Freshly harvested broccoli and broccoli stored at 20°C and 1°C for different periods of time were analyzed. Effects on dietary fiber contents, polysaccharide composition, and on lignin contents/composition were much more pronounced during storage at 20°C than at 1°C. During storage, insoluble dietary fiber contents of broccoli stems increased up to 13%. Storage related polysaccharide modifications include an increase of the portions of cellulose, xylans, and homogalacturonans and a decrease of the neutral pectic side-chains arabinans and galactans. Broccoli stem lignins are generally rich in guaiacyl units. Lignins from freshly harvested broccoli stems contain slightly larger amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl units than syringyl units. Syringyl units are predominantly incorporated into the lignin polymers during storage, resulting in increased acetyl bromide soluble lignin contents. NMR-based analysis of the interunit linkage types of broccoli stem lignins revealed comparably large portions of resinol structures for a guaiacyl rich lignin. Incorporation of syringyl units into the polymers over storage predominantly occurs through β-O-4-linkages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CDP-diacylglycerol synthetase coordinates cell growth and fat storage through phosphatidylinositol metabolism and the insulin pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During development, animals usually undergo a rapid growth phase followed by a homeostatic stage when growth has ceased. The increase in cell size and number during the growth phase requires a large amount of lipids; while in the static state, excess lipids are usually stored in adipose tissues in preparation for nutrient-limited conditions. How cells coordinate growth and fat storage is not fully understood. Through a genetic screen we identified Drosophila melanogaster CDP-diacylglycerol synthetase (CDS/CdsA, which diverts phosphatidic acid from triacylglycerol synthesis to phosphatidylinositol (PI synthesis and coordinates cell growth and fat storage. Loss of CdsA function causes significant accumulation of neutral lipids in many tissues along with reduced cell/organ size. These phenotypes can be traced back to reduced PI levels and, subsequently, low insulin pathway activity. Overexpressing CdsA rescues the fat storage and cell growth phenotypes of insulin pathway mutants, suggesting that CdsA coordinates cell/tissue growth and lipid storage through the insulin pathway. We also revealed that a DAG-to-PE route mediated by the choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase Bbc may contribute to the growth of fat cells in CdsA RNAi.

  3. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide modulates catecholamine storage and exocytosis in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    Full Text Available A number of efforts have been made to understand how pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP functions as a neurotrophic and neuroprotective factor in Parkinson's disease (PD. Recently its effects on neurotransmission and underlying mechanisms have generated interest. In the present study, we investigate the effects of PACAP on catecholamine storage and secretion in PC12 cells with amperometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. PACAP increases quantal release induced by high K+ without significantly regulating the frequency of vesicle fusion events. TEM data indicate that the increased volume of the vesicle is mainly the result of enlargement of the fluidic space around the dense core. Moreover, the number of docked vesicles isn't modulated by PACAP. When cells are acutely treated with L-DOPA, the vesicular volume and quantal release both increase dramatically. It is likely that the characteristics of amperometric spikes from L-DOPA treated cells are associated with increased volume of individual vesicles rather than a direct effect on the mechanics of exocytosis. Treatment with PACAP versus L-DOPA results in different profiles of the dynamics of exocytosis. Release via the fusion pore prior to full exocytosis was observed with the same frequency following treatment with PACAP and L-DOPA. However, release events have a shorter duration and higher average current after PACAP treatment compared to L-DOPA. Furthermore, PACAP reduced the proportion of spikes having rapid decay time and shortened the decay time of both fast and slow spikes. In contrast, the distributions of the amperometric spike decay for both fast and slow spikes were shifted to longer time following L-DOPA treatment. Compared to L-DOPA, PACAP may produce multiple favorable effects on dopaminergic neurons, including protecting dopaminergic neurons against neurodegeneration and potentially regulating dopamine storage and release, making it a promising

  4. Heat exchange studies on coconut oil cells as thermal energy storage for room thermal conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutjahja, I. M.; Putri, Widya A.; Fahmi, Z.; Wonorahardjo, S.; Kurnia, D.

    2017-07-01

    As reported by many thermal environment experts, room air conditioning might be controlled by thermal mass system. In this paper we discuss the performance of coconut oil cells as room thermal energy storage. The heat exchange mechanism of coconut oil (CO) which is one of potential organic Phase Change Material (PCM) is studied based on the results of temperature measurements in the perimeter and core parts of cells. We found that the heat exchange performance, i.e. heat absorption and heat release processes of CO cells are dominated by heat conduction in the sensible solid from the higher temperature perimeter part to the lower temperature core part and heat convection during the solid-liquid phase transition and sensible liquid phase. The capability of heat absorption as measured by the reduction of air temperature is not influenced by CO cell size. Besides that, the application of CO as the thermal mass has to be accompanied by air circulation to get the cool sensation of the room’s occupants.

  5. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  6. Scattering-layer-induced energy storage function in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Hongrui

    2015-03-09

    Photo-self-charging cells (PSCs) are compact devices with dual functions of photoelectric conversion and energy storage. By introducing a scattering layer in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, two-electrode PSCs with highly compact structure were obtained. The charge storage function stems from the formed ion channel network in the scattering layer/polymer electrolyte system. Both the photoelectric conversion and the energy storage functions are integrated in only the photoelectrode of such PSCs. This design of PSC could continuously output power as a solar cell with considerable efficiency after being photo-charged. Such PSCs could be applied in highly-compact mini power devices.

  7. Influence of cultivar, cooking, and storage on cell-wall polysaccharide composition of winter squash (Cucurbita maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, R M Sunil; Melton, Laurence D; Hurst, Paul L

    2003-03-26

    Changes in the cell-wall polysaccharides (CWP) of the edible tissues of four winter squash cultivars during storage and after cooking were investigated. A procedure for isolating cell walls of tissues containing high levels of starch was used. The starch-free CWP were sequentially fractionated using CDTA, dilute Na(2)CO(3), and 4 M KOH. Cellulose made up 40-42% of the total CWP for three cultivars (Delica, CF 2, and CF 4) at harvest but was 35% in the softer Red Warren. The pectic polysaccharides of Delica, CF 2, and CF 4 cell walls are more branched than those from Red Warren squash. The higher proportion of uronic acid in the pectic polysaccharides of Red Warren squash correlates with its lower firmness. Cooking resulted in an increase in the water-soluble pectins and a decrease in the pectins associated with cellulose. The total CWP content of the squash cultivars remained unchanged for up to 2 months of storage and then markedly decreased between 2 and 3 months of storage. The galactose content of Delica and Red Warren cell walls remained relatively constant from harvest to 2 months of storage and then decreased markedly during 2-3 months of storage.

  8. Shelf life extension of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using chitosan and ε-polylysine during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Soyoung; Kim, Jin-Hee; Jang, Hye-Jin; Park, Hee Jung; Oh, Se-Wook

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of an ε-polylysine (PL) and chitosan (CH) coating on the quality of shrimp under refrigeration. Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were coated with PL, CH, or CH + PL and stored at 4 °C for 15 days. The quality of shrimp was measured by observing changes in microbiota, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and sensory characteristics. Among the coating films, the CH + PL coating most effectively inhibited the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., and H 2 S-producing bacteria. This coating increased the shelf life of shrimp by decreasing the amount of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, with inhibition greater than three log cycles on the ninth day of storage. In addition, the CH and CH + PL coatings effectively suppressed the formation of TVB-N compared with that in the control by 43% and 30%, respectively. The pH of all treated samples increased slowly compared with that of the control, but no significant difference was observed. Sensory quality was similar to microbial and physicochemical properties, and the acceptability of all treated samples gradually decreased. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effect of substrate storage conditions on the stability of “Smart” films used for mammalian cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluestein, Blake M.; Reed, Jamie A.; Canavan, Heather E., E-mail: Canavan@unm.edu

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • pNIPAM can be deposited onto a surface using plasma polymerization or spin coating. • Storage conditions can affect both surfaces although thermoresponse is maintained. • spNIPAM surfaces delaminate over time, regardless of storage conditions. • Delamination will affect cell attachment/detachment, resulting in limited attachment. • ppNIPAM surfaces are more stable, regardless of storage conditions. - Abstract: When poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (pNIPAM) is tethered to a surface, it can induce the spontaneous release of a sheet of mammalian cells. The release of cells is a result of the reversible phase transition the polymer undergoes at its lower critical solution temperature (LCST). Many techniques are used for the deposition of pNIPAM onto cell culture substrates. Previously, we compared two methods of deposition (plasma polymerization, and co-deposition with a sol-gel). We proved that although both were technically appropriate for obtaining thermoresponsive pNIPAM films, the surfaces that were co-deposited with a sol-gel caused some disruption in cell activity. The variation of cell behavior could be due to the delamination of pNIPAM films leaching toxic chemicals into solution. In this work, we assessed the stability of these pNIPAM films by manipulating the storage conditions and analyzing the surface chemistry using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements over the amount of time required to obtain confluent cell sheets. From XPS, we demonstrated that ppNIPAM (plasma polymerized NIPAM) films remains stable across all storage conditions while sol-gel deposition show large deviations after 48 h of storage. Cell response of the deposited films was assessed by investigating the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility. The 37 °C and high humidity storage affects sol-gel deposited films, inhibiting normal cell growth and proper thermoresponse of the film. Surface chemistry, thermoresponse and cell growth remained

  10. Alterations of the cytoskeleton in human cells in space proved by life-cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corydon, Thomas J.; Kopp, Sascha; Wehland, Markus; Braun, Markus; Schütte, Andreas; Mayer, Tobias; Hülsing, Thomas; Oltmann, Hergen; Schmitz, Burkhard; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Grimm, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Microgravity induces changes in the cytoskeleton. This might have an impact on cells and organs of humans in space. Unfortunately, studies of cytoskeletal changes in microgravity reported so far are obligatorily based on the analysis of fixed cells exposed to microgravity during a parabolic flight campaign (PFC). This study focuses on the development of a compact fluorescence microscope (FLUMIAS) for fast live-cell imaging under real microgravity. It demonstrates the application of the instrument for on-board analysis of cytoskeletal changes in FTC-133 cancer cells expressing the Lifeact-GFP marker protein for the visualization of F-actin during the 24th DLR PFC and TEXUS 52 rocket mission. Although vibration is an inevitable part of parabolic flight maneuvers, we successfully for the first time report life-cell cytoskeleton imaging during microgravity, and gene expression analysis after the 31st parabola showing a clear up-regulation of cytoskeletal genes. Notably, during the rocket flight the FLUMIAS microscope reveals significant alterations of the cytoskeleton related to microgravity. Our findings clearly demonstrate the applicability of the FLUMIAS microscope for life-cell imaging during microgravity, rendering it an important technological advance in live-cell imaging when dissecting protein localization. PMID:26818711

  11. Potential of carboxymethyl cellulose coating and low dose gamma irradiation to maintain storage quality, inhibit fungal growth and extend shelf-life of cherry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, P R; Rather, S A; Suradkar, P; Parveen, S; Mir, M A; Shafi, F

    2016-07-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coatings alone and in combination with gamma irradiation was tested for maintaining the storage quality, inhibiting fungal incidence and extending shelf-life of cherry fruit. Two commercial cherry varieties viz. Misri and Double after harvest at commercial maturity were coated with CMC at levels 0.5-1.0 % w/v and gamma irradiated at 1.2 kGy. The treated fruit including control was stored under ambient (temperature 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70 %) and refrigerated (temperature 3 ± 1 °C, RH 80 %) conditions for evaluation of various physico-chemical parameters. Fruits were evaluated after every 3 and 7 days under ambient and refrigerated conditions. CMC coating alone at levels 0.5 and 0.75 % w/v was not found effective with respect to mold growth inhibition under either of the two conditions. Individual treatment of CMC coating at 1.0 % w/v and 1.2 kGy irradiation proved helpful in delaying the onset of mold growth up to 5 and 8 days of ambient storage. During post-refrigerated storage at 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70 %, irradiation alone at 1.2 kGy gave further 4 days extension in shelf-life of cherry varieties following 28 days of refrigeration. All combinatory treatments of CMC coating and irradiation proved beneficial in maintaining the storage quality as well as delaying the decaying of cherry fruit during post-refrigerated storage at 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70 % but, combination of CMC at 1.0 % w/v and 1.2 kGy irradiation was found significantly ( p  ≤ 0.05) superior to all other treatments in maintaining the storage quality and delaying the decaying of cherry fruit. The above combinatory treatment besides maintaining storage quality resulted in extension of 6 days in shelf life of cherry varieties during post-refrigerated storage at 25 ± 2 °C, RH 80 % following 28 days of refrigeration. Above Combination treatment gave a maximum of 2.3 and 1.5 log reduction in yeast and mold count of cherry fruits after 9 and 28

  12. Dye-sensitized solar cell with energy storage function through PVDF/ZnO nanocomposite counter electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Huang, Xuezhen; Li, Chensha; Jiang, Hongrui

    2013-08-14

    Dye-sensitized solar cells with an energy storage function are demonstrated by modifying its counter electrode with a poly (vinylidene fluoride)/ZnO nanowire array composite. This simplex device could still function as an ordinary solar cell with a steady photocurrent output even after being fully charged. An energy storage density of 2.14 C g(-1) is achieved, while simultaneously a 3.70% photo-to-electric conversion efficiency is maintained. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Graphene-based electrochemical energy conversion and storage: fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael W; Moore, Robert B; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  14. Raman Microspectroscopy of Individual Algal Cells: Sensing Unsaturation of Storage Lipids in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Nedbal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Algae are becoming a strategic source of fuels, food, feedstocks, and biologically active compounds. This potential has stimulated the development of innovative analytical methods focused on these microorganisms. Algal lipids are among the most promising potential products for fuels as well as for nutrition. The crucial parameter characterizing the algal lipids is the degree of unsaturation of the constituent fatty acids quantified by the iodine value. Here we demonstrate the capacity of the spatially resolved Raman microspectroscopy to determine the effective iodine value in lipid storage bodies of individual living algal cells. The Raman spectra were collected from three selected algal species immobilized in an agarose gel. Prior to immobilization, the algae were cultivated in the stationary phase inducing an overproduction of lipids. We employed the characteristic peaks in the Raman scattering spectra at 1,656 cm−1 (cis C=C stretching mode and 1,445 cm−1 (CH2 scissoring mode as the markers defining the ratio of unsaturated-to-saturated carbon-carbon bonds of the fatty acids in the algal lipids. These spectral features were first quantified for pure fatty acids of known iodine value. The resultant calibration curve was then used to calculate the effective iodine value of storage lipids in the living algal cells from their Raman spectra. We demonstrated that the iodine value differs significantly for the three studied algal species. Our spectroscopic estimations of the iodine value were validated using GC-MS measurements and an excellent agreement was found for the Trachydiscus minutus species. A good agreement was also found with the earlier published data on Botryococcus braunii. Thus, we propose that Raman microspectroscopy can become technique of choice in the rapidly expanding field of algal biotechnology.

  15. The chilled storage life and retail display performance of vacuum and carbon dioxide packed hot deboned beef striploins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R G; Penney, N; Gilbert, K V; Moorhead, S M; Scott, S M

    1996-04-01

    appear to be the combination of choice. This combination would enable commercial processors to produce quality table beef with a chilled storage life of up to 70 days.

  16. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Cell Life Test Program Update for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2000-01-01

    NASA and Boeing North America are responsible for constructing the electrical power system for the International Space Station (ISS), which circles the Earth every 90 minutes in a low Earth orbit (LEO). For approximately 55 minutes of this orbit, the ISS is in sunlight, and for the remaining 35 minutes, the ISS is in the Earth s shadow (eclipse). The electrical power system must not only provide power during the sunlight portion by means of the solar arrays, but also store energy for use during the eclipse. Nickel-hydrogen (Ni/H2) battery cells were selected as the energy storage systems for ISS. Each battery Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) comprises 38 individual series-connected Ni/H2 battery cells, and there are 48 battery ORU s on the ISS. On the basis of a limited Ni/H2 LEO data base on life and performance characteristics, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field commenced testing through two test programs: one in-house and one at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Crane, Indiana.

  17. UK MOD research on H{sub 2} storage and generation methods for soldier-portable fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, D.J. [Defence Evaluation Research Agency, Hampshire (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    The research which the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (DERA) has conducted on hydrogen storage and production methods was presented and their applicability to soldier portable applications was discussed. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are considered to be the future power source for solider-portable equipment such as army radios. Advances in fuel cell technology has resulted in improvements in specific power and power density as well as reductions in Pt loading and cost. However, a viable in-service power source is still required. This fuel source is likely to be hydrogen because it has a high energy per unit weight and has a simple reaction with oxygen to produce water as the only by-product. In the future, methanol may be used as the fuel source but currently methanol fuel cells demonstrate poorer performance than those running on hydrogen. A vital part of a fuel cell system, therefore, is hydrogen storage, of which there are two basic types; physical and chemical storage. In addition to weight, other important factors to be considered in a storage system are cost, reliability and safety. This paper described each physical storage method including hydrogen stored as a compressed gas, as a cryogenic liquid, reversibly absorbed in intermetallic alloys and reversibly adsorbed onto carbon materials such as nonofibres. Liquid hydrogen storage is only feasible for larger scale applications such as electric vehicles and is not practical for portable applications. A man-portable fuel cell is likely to be either pressure cylinders or reversible metal hydrides. 6 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  18. Process modeling of a reversible solid oxide cell (r-SOC) energy storage system utilizing commercially available SOC reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottaghizadeh, Pegah; Santhanam, Srikanth; Heddrich, Marc P.; Friedrich, K. Andreas; Rinaldi, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An electric energy storage system was developed based on a commercially available SOC reactor. • Heat generated in SOFC mode of r-SOC is utilized in SOEC operation of r-SOC using latent heat storage. • A round trip efficiency of 54.3% was reached for the reference system at atmospheric pressure. • An improved process system design achieved a round-trip efficiency of 60.4% at 25 bar. - Abstract: The increase of intermittent renewable energy contribution in power grids has urged us to seek means for temporal decoupling of electricity production and consumption. A reversible solid oxide cell (r-SOC) enables storage of surplus electricity through electrochemical reactions when it is in electrolysis mode. The reserved energy in form of chemical compounds is then converted to electricity when the cell operates as a fuel cell. A process system model was implemented using Aspen Plus® V8.8 based on a commercially available r-SOC reactor experimentally characterized at DLR. In this study a complete self-sustaining system configuration is designed by optimal thermal integration and balance of plant. Under reference conditions a round trip efficiency of 54.3% was achieved. Generated heat in fuel cell mode is exploited by latent heat storage tanks to enable endothermic operation of reactor in its electrolysis mode. In total, out of 100 units of thermal energy stored in heat storage tanks during fuel cell mode, 90% was utilized to offset heat demand of system in its electrolysis mode. Parametric analysis revealed the significance of heat storage tanks in thermal management even when reactor entered its exothermic mode of electrolysis. An improved process system design demonstrates a system round-trip efficiency of 60.4% at 25 bar.

  19. Preservation of differentiation and clonogenic potential of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during lyophilization and ambient storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya S Buchanan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Progenitor cell therapies show great promise, but their potential for clinical applications requires improved storage and transportation. Desiccated cells stored at ambient temperature would provide economic and practical advantages over approaches employing cell freezing and subzero temperature storage. The objectives of this study were to assess a method for loading the stabilizing sugar, trehalose, into hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPC and to evaluate the effects of subsequent freeze-drying and storage at ambient temperature on differentiation and clonogenic potential. HPC were isolated from human umbilical cord blood and loaded with trehalose using an endogenous cell surface receptor, termed P2Z. Solution containing trehalose-loaded HPC was placed into vials, which were transferred to a tray freeze-dryer and removed during each step of the freeze-drying process to assess differentiation and clonogenic potential. Control groups for these experiments were freshly isolated HPC. Control cells formed 1450+/-230 CFU-GM, 430+/-140 BFU-E, and 50+/-40 CFU-GEMM per 50 microL. Compared to the values for the control cells, there was no statistical difference observed for cells removed at the end of the freezing step or at the end of primary drying. There was a gradual decrease in the number of CFU-GM and BFU-E for cells removed at different temperatures during secondary drying; however, there were no significant differences in the number of CFU-GEMM. To determine storage stability of lyophilized HPC, cells were stored for 4 weeks at 25 degrees C in the dark. Cells reconstituted immediately after lyophilization produced 580+/-90 CFU-GM ( approximately 40%, relative to unprocessed controls p<0.0001, 170+/-70 BFU-E (approximately 40%, p<0.0001, and 41+/-22 CFU-GEMM (approximately 82%, p = 0.4171, and cells reconstituted after 28 days at room temperature produced 513+/-170 CFU-GM (approximately 35%, relative to unprocessed controls, p<0

  20. Energy Storage Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program funded the Energy Storage Project to develop battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of the Constellation Program for human exploration. Technology needs were determined by architecture studies and risk assessments conducted by the Constellation Program, focused on a mission for a long-duration lunar outpost. Critical energy storage needs were identified as batteries for EVA suits, surface mobility systems, and a lander ascent stage; fuel cells for the lander and mobility systems; and a regenerative fuel cell for surface power. To address these needs, the Energy Storage Project developed advanced lithium-ion battery technology, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiated-mixed-metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety. The project also developed "non-flow-through" proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant--fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale nonflow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. This report summarizes the project s goals, objectives, technical accomplishments, and risk assessments. A bibliography spanning the life of the project is also included.

  1. Sheet GT3-2. General approach of life phases on a long term for uranium mining residues storages and comparison with other storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document aims at specifying the short term, middle term and long term boundaries for a sustainable management and rehabilitated ancient uranium mining sites and of uranium mining residue storage sites. It presents a general overview of site evolution in time, and then, more precisely, the different functions (rehabilitation management, corrective actions, control and monitoring, and so on) and equipment (confinement works, measurement system) at stake in the management of these sites and the control of their impacts. Functions and equipment implemented on such a site, as well as time scales corresponding to different approaches are compared with those of other types of storage. The peculiarity of ancient uranium mining sites and its implications in terms of management on a long term are discussed

  2. Preservation of differentiation and clonogenic potential of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during lyophilization and ambient storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Sandhya S; Pyatt, David W; Carpenter, John F

    2010-09-01

    Progenitor cell therapies show great promise, but their potential for clinical applications requires improved storage and transportation. Desiccated cells stored at ambient temperature would provide economic and practical advantages over approaches employing cell freezing and subzero temperature storage. The objectives of this study were to assess a method for loading the stabilizing sugar, trehalose, into hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPC) and to evaluate the effects of subsequent freeze-drying and storage at ambient temperature on differentiation and clonogenic potential. HPC were isolated from human umbilical cord blood and loaded with trehalose using an endogenous cell surface receptor, termed P2Z. Solution containing trehalose-loaded HPC was placed into vials, which were transferred to a tray freeze-dryer and removed during each step of the freeze-drying process to assess differentiation and clonogenic potential. Control groups for these experiments were freshly isolated HPC. Control cells formed 1450+/-230 CFU-GM, 430+/-140 BFU-E, and 50+/-40 CFU-GEMM per 50 microL. Compared to the values for the control cells, there was no statistical difference observed for cells removed at the end of the freezing step or at the end of primary drying. There was a gradual decrease in the number of CFU-GM and BFU-E for cells removed at different temperatures during secondary drying; however, there were no significant differences in the number of CFU-GEMM. To determine storage stability of lyophilized HPC, cells were stored for 4 weeks at 25 degrees C in the dark. Cells reconstituted immediately after lyophilization produced 580+/-90 CFU-GM ( approximately 40%, relative to unprocessed controls pGM (approximately 35%, relative to unprocessed controls, p<0.0001), 112+/-68 BFU-E (approximately 26%, p<0.0001), and 36+/-17 CFU-GEMM ( approximately 82%, p = 0.2164) These studies are the first to document high level retention of CFU-GEMM following lyophilization and

  3. Proposal of the visual inspection of the integrity of the storage cells of spent fuel from the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez M, J. L.; Rivero G, T.; Merino C, F. J.; Santander C, L. E.

    2015-09-01

    As part of the evaluation of the structural integrity of the components of nuclear plants, particularly those applying for life extension is necessary to carry out inspections and nondestructive testing to determine the state meet. In many cases these activities are carried out in areas with high levels of radiation and contamination difficult to access, so that are required to use equipment or robotic systems operated remotely. Among others, the frames and cells of the storage pools for spent fuel are structures subject to a program of tests and inspections, and become relevant because the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-LV) is processing the license to extend the operational life of its reactors. Of non-destructive testing can be used to verify the physical condition of the frames and storage cells, is the remote visual inspection which is a test that allows determine the physical integrity of the components by one or more video cameras designed to applications in underwater environments with radiation, and are used to identify and locate adverse conditions such as ampoules, protuberances, pitting, cracks, stains or buckling, which could affect the three main functions for which the store components are designed: to maintain the physical integrity of spent fuels, store them properly guaranteeing their free insertion and removal, and ensure that the store as a whole meets the criticality criteria that k eff is less than 0.95 throughout the life of the plant. This paper describes a proposal to carry out the visual inspection of the storage cells of spent fuel from the NPP-LV using a probe including one or more video cameras along with your recorder, and its corresponding control program. It is noted that due to the obtained results, the nuclear power plant personnel can make decisions regarding remedial actions or applying complementary methods to verify that the cells and frames have not lost their physical integrity, or in particular that the cover

  4. Electroactive and High Dielectric Folic Acid/PVDF Composite Film Rooted Simplistic Organic Photovoltaic Self-Charging Energy Storage Cell with Superior Energy Density and Storage Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Swagata; Thakur, Pradip; Hoque, Nur Amin; Bagchi, Biswajoy; Sepay, Nayim; Khatun, Farha; Kool, Arpan; Das, Sukhen

    2017-07-19

    Herein we report a simplistic prototype approach to develop an organic photovoltaic self-charging energy storage cell (OPSESC) rooted with biopolymer folic acid (FA) modified high dielectric and electroactive β crystal enriched poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) composite (PFA) thin film. Comprehensive and exhaustive characterizations of the synthesized PFA composite films validate the proper formation of β-polymorphs in PVDF. Significant improvements of both β-phase crystallization (F(β) ≈ 71.4%) and dielectric constant (ε ≈ 218 at 20 Hz for PFA of 7.5 mass %) are the twosome realizations of our current study. Enhancement of β-phase nucleation in the composites can be thought as a contribution of the strong interaction of the FA particles with the PVDF chains. Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) interfacial polarization approves the establishment of thermally stable high dielectric values measured over a wide temperature spectrum. The optimized high dielectric and electroactive films are further employed as an active energy storage material in designing our device named as OPSESC. Self-charging under visible light irradiation without an external biasing electrical field and simultaneous remarkable self-storage of photogenerated electrical energy are the two foremost aptitudes and the spotlight of our present investigation. Our as fabricated device delivers an impressively high energy density of 7.84 mWh/g and an excellent specific capacitance of 61 F/g which is superior relative to the other photon induced two electrode organic self-charging energy storage devices reported so far. Our device also proves the realistic utility with good recycling capability by facilitating commercially available light emitting diode.

  5. Modified formulation of CPDA for storage of whole blood, and of SAGM for storage of red blood cells, to maintain the concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, P A; Arun, P; Gayathri, N S; Dhanya, C R; Indu, A R

    2003-11-01

    A dramatic decrease in the level of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) takes place during the storage of whole blood (WB) in CPDA (citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine) and a similar decrease occurs during the storage of red blood cells (RBCs) in SAGM (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol). The aim of the present study was to prevent this decrease by modifying CPDA and SAGM. The pH of WB anticoagulant or RBC preservative solution was maintained at 7.6 by autoclaving the dextrose solution separately, by incorporating ascorbic acid and nicotinic acid into both CPDA and SAGM (to produce modified CPDA and SAGM solutions), and by reducing the concentration of adenine and adding citrate to the modified SAGM solution. The concentration of 2,3-DPG in WB after 28 days of storage in modified CPDA, and in RBCs stored in modified SAGM, was compared with that in WB or RBCs stored in unmodified solutions. The initial 2,3-DPG levels were maintained after 28 days in the modified formulations [10.63 +/- 2.58 microM/g of haemoglobin (Hb) in the case of modified CPDA and 12.07 +/- 1.47 microM/g of Hb in the case of modified SAGM], whereas in standard CPDA and SAGM solutions, the concentration of 2,3-DPG decreased to very low levels (0.86 +/- 0.97 microM/g Hb for CPDA and 0.12 +/- 0.008 for SAGM). Our modification in the formulation of CPDA or SAGM is effective in arresting the dramatic decrease in the level of 2,3-DPG that occurs during storage of WB and RBCs in unmodified solutions.

  6. Coconut milk and probiotic milk as storage media to maintain periodontal ligament cell viability: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Divya; Gadicherla, Prahlad; Chandra, Prakash; Anandakrishna, Latha

    2017-06-01

    The viability of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells is a significant determinant of the long-term prognosis of replanted avulsed teeth. A storage medium is often required to maintain the viability of these cells during the extra-alveolar period. Many studies have been carried out to search for the most suitable storage medium for avulsed teeth, but an ideal solution has not yet been found. The purpose of the study was to compare and analyze the ability of coconut milk and probiotic milk to maintain PDL cell viability. In an in vitro setting, 69 caries free human premolars with normal periodontium that had been extracted for orthodontic purposes were randomly divided into two experimental groups on the basis of storage media used (i.e., coconut milk or probiotic milk) and a Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) control group (23 samples per group). Immediately after extraction, the teeth were stored dry for 20 min and then immersed for 30 min in one of the storage media. The teeth were then subjected to collagenase-dispase assay and labeled with 0.5% trypan blue staining solution for determination of cell viability. The number of viable cells was counted under a light microscope and statistically analyzed using anova and post hoc Tukey test (P ≤ 0.05). Statistical analysis demonstrated there was a significant difference (P coconut milk and probiotic milk as well as HBSS in maintaining cell viability. However, there was no significant difference between probiotic milk and HBSS in ability to maintain PDL cell viability (P > 0.05). Coconut milk may not be suitable as an interim transport media due to poor maintenance of cell viability. However, probiotic milk was able to maintain PDL cell viability as well as HBSS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Structural Changes in the Surface of Red Blood Cell Membranes during Long-Term Donor Blood Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study changes in the surface of red blood cell membranes of donor blood at the macro- and ultrastructural level during its storage for 30 days and to evaluate the functional state of the red blood cell membrane during the whole storage period. Material and methods. The investigation was conducted on human whole blood and packed red blood cells placed in the specialized packs containing the preservative CPDA-1, by using calibrated electroporation and atomic force microscopy and measuring plasma pH. Conclusion. The long-term, up to 30-day, storage of whole blood and packed red blood cells at 4°C was attended by lower plasma pH and increased hemolysis rate constant during calibrated electroporation and by the development of oxidative processes. The hemolysis rate constant was also higher in the packed red blood cells than that in the whole blood. On days 5—6, the membrane structure showed defects that developed, as the blood was stored, and caused irreversible cell membrane damage by day 30. Key words: donor blood, red blood cell membranes, atomic force microscopy.

  8. Heat Modeling and Material Development of Mg-Based Nanomaterials Combined with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Stationary Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiyu Shao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mg-based materials have been investigated as hydrogen storage materials, especially for possible onboard storage in fuel cell vehicles for decades. Recently, with the development of large-scale fuel cell technologies, the development of Mg-based materials as stationary storage to supply hydrogen to fuel-cell components and provide electricity and heat is becoming increasingly promising. In this work, numerical analysis of heat balance management for stationary solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC systems combined with MgH2 materials based on a carbon-neutral design concept was performed. Waste heat from the SOFC is supplied to hydrogen desorption as endothermic heat for the MgH2 materials. The net efficiency of this model achieves 82% lower heating value (LHV, and the efficiency of electrical power output becomes 68.6% in minimizing heat output per total energy output when all available heat of waste gas and system is supplied to warm up the storage. For the development of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials, various nano-processing techniques have been widely applied to synthesize Mg-based materials with small particle and crystallite sizes, resulting in good hydrogen storage kinetics, but poor thermal conductivity. Here, three kinds of Mg-based materials were investigated and compared: 325 mesh Mg powers, 300 nm Mg nanoparticles synthesized by hydrogen plasma metal reaction, and Mg50Co50 metastable alloy with body-centered cubic structure. Based on the overall performances of hydrogen capacity, absorption kinetics and thermal conductivity of the materials, the Mg nanoparticle sample by plasma synthesis is the most promising material for this potential application. The findings in this paper may shed light on a new energy conversion and utilization technology on MgH2-SOFC combined concept.

  9. Storage of factor VIII variants with impaired von Willebrand factor binding in Weibel-Palade bodies in endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje van den Biggelaar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Point mutations resulting in reduced factor VIII (FVIII binding to von Willebrand factor (VWF are an important cause of mild/moderate hemophilia A. Treatment includes desmopressin infusion, which concomitantly increases VWF and FVIII plasma levels, apparently from storage pools containing both proteins. The source of these VWF/FVIII co-storage pools and the mechanism of granule biogenesis are not fully understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied intracellular trafficking of FVIII variants implicated in mild/moderate hemophilia A together with VWF in HEK293 cells and primary endothelial cells. The role of VWF binding was addressed using FVIII variants displaying reduced VWF interaction. Binding studies using purified FVIII proteins revealed moderate (Arg2150His, Del2201, Pro2300Ser to severe (Tyr1680Phe, Ser2119Tyr VWF binding defects. Expression studies in HEK293 cells and primary endothelial cells revealed that all FVIII variants were present within VWF-containing organelles. Quantitative studies showed that the relative amount of FVIII storage was independent of various mutations. Substantial amounts of FVIII variants are co-stored in VWF-containing storage organelles, presumably by virtue of their ability to interact with VWF at low pH. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the potential of FVIII co-storage with VWF is not affected in mild/moderate hemophilia A caused by reduced FVIII/VWF interaction in the circulation. These data support the hypothesis that Weibel-Palade bodies comprise the desmopressin-releasable FVIII storage pool in vivo.

  10. T cell activation and proliferation following acute exercise in human subjects is altered by storage conditions and mitogen selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlik, Jacob A; Deckert, Jake A; Benedict, Stephen H; Bhatta, Anuja; Dunbar, Amanda J; Vardiman, John P; Gallagher, Philip M

    2017-07-01

    Recent work investigating exercise induced changes in immunocompetence suggests that some of the ambiguity in the literature is resultant from different cell isolation protocols and mitogen selection. To understand this effect, we compared post-exercise measures of T cell activation and proliferation using two different stimulation methods (costimulation through CD28 or stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin [PHA]). Further, we investigated whether exercise induced changes are maintained when T cell isolation from whole blood is delayed overnight in either a room temperature or chilled (4°C) environment. As expected, an increased proliferation response was observed post-exercise in T cells isolated from whole blood of previously trained individuals immediately after blood collection. Also, cells stimulated with PHA after resting overnight in whole blood were not adversely impacted by the storage conditions. In contrast, allowing cells to rest overnight in whole blood prior to stimulation through CD28, lessened the proliferation observed by cells following exercise rendering both the room temperature and chilled samples closer to the results seen in the control condition. Changes in early markers of activation (CD25), followed a similar pattern, with activation in PHA stimulated cells remaining fairly robust after overnight storage; whereas cell activation following stimulation through CD3+CD28 was disproportionately decreased by the influence of overnight storage. These findings indicate that decisions regarding cell stimulation methods need to be paired with the timeline for T cell isolation from whole blood. These considerations will be especially important for field based studies of immunocompetence where there is a delay in getting whole blood samples to a lab for processing as well as clinical applications where a failure to isolate T cells in a timely manner may result in loss of the response of interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Storage of intact heads prior to processing limits the shelf-life of fresh-cut Lactuca sativa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkowska, I.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Harvested lettuce heads are usually transported and stored for some period of time under a variety of conditions prior to processing. During storage, especially under suboptimal conditions, nutritional composition of the harvested produce continues to change. The possible impact of prior storage of

  12. Collection and storage of red blood cells with anticoagulant and additive solution with a physiologic pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Patrick; Korsten, Herbert; Verhoeven, Arthur J.; de Korte, Dirk; van Bruggen, Robin

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A donation of whole blood is most commonly collected in acidic citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD) variants with pH 5.2 to 6.2 as anticoagulants. Previously, we have shown that the initial pH after red blood cell (RBC) preparation can have an effect on RBCs during storage. First, we

  13. Novel Integration of Perovskite Solar Cell and Supercapacitor Based on Carbon Electrode for Hybridizing Energy Conversion and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyong; Zhong, Yan; Sun, Bo; Liu, Xingyue; Han, Jinghui; Shi, Tielin; Tang, Zirong; Liao, Guanglan

    2017-07-12

    Power packs integrating both photovoltaic parts and energy storage parts have gained great scientific and technological attention due to the increasing demand for green energy and the tendency for miniaturization and multifunctionalization in electronics industry. In this study, we demonstrate novel integration of perovskite solar cell and solid-state supercapacitor for power packs. The perovskite solar cell is integrated with the supercapacitor based on common carbon electrodes to hybridize photoelectric conversion and energy storage. The power pack achieves a voltage of 0.84 V when the supercapacitor is charged by the perovskite solar cell under the AM 1.5G white light illumination with a 0.071 cm 2 active area, reaching an energy storage proportion of 76% and an overall conversion efficiency of 5.26%. When the supercapacitor is precharged at 1.0 V, an instant overall output efficiency of 22.9% can be achieved if the perovskite solar cell and supercapacitor are connected in series, exhibiting great potential in the applications of solar energy storage and flexible electronics such as portable and wearable devices.

  14. Energy storage in hybrid organic-inorganic materials hexacyanoferrate-doped polypyrrole as cathode in reversible lithium cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Gomez, G,; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld

    2000-01-01

    A study of the hybrid oganic-inorganic hexacyanoferrate-polypyrrole material as a cathode in rechargeable lithium cells is reported as part of a series of functional hybrid materials that represent a new concept in energy storage. The effect of synthesis temperatures of the hybrid in the specific...

  15. Improving the Efficiency and Durability of Reversible Solid Oxide Cells for Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gareth Allen

    This thesis presents research on the use of solid oxide cells (SOCs) as energy storage devices, and covers methods to improve their efficiency and durability for this use. It specifically covers two main topics: the durability of the oxygen electrode under forced alternating current, and the effect of pressurization on various oxygen electrode materials. Additionally, research was completed on thermodynamic modeling of a pressurized SOC energy storage system, and a new experimental testing apparatus was constructed to enable investigation of SOC samples operating under pressure. Forced alternating current using a symmetric sample structure was used to simulate the operation of a reversible SOC, effectively isolating the measurement of the performance response of the oxygen electrode. Cells consisting of La 0.8Sr0.2MnO3-delta - 8mol% Y2O 3-stabilized ZrO2 (LSM-YSZ) oxygen electrodes on YSZ electrolytes were tested. Early testing utilizing Ag current collectors showed that forced currents and the elevated operating temperature of SOCs cause silver to vaporize and deposit at the active region of the electrode. To avoid this artifact, a new test setup utilizing LSM current collectors was created. It was found that a shorter current cycling time of 1 hour helps prevent degradation compared to 12 hour cycles. Additionally, both cycling times showed improvement compared cells operated with dc current. Further study showed that operating at current densities of 0.8 A/cm2 and below can prevent degradation entirely. Pressurization of oxygen electrodes showed, as expected, that polarization resistance decreases with increasing oxygen pressure. The materials tested were LSM-YSZ and La0.6Sr0.4Fe0.8Co0.2 O3-d - Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.95 (LSCF-GDC), both in single-phase and composite electrode structures. Additionally, LSM-infiltrated YSZ was tested. The resistance typically decreased following power-law behavior with exponents ranging from -0.17 to -0.30, with similar trends found in all

  16. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume II: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This document contains Volume II of the Closure Study for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Calcined Solids Storage Facility. This volume contains draft information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the four options described in Volume I: (1) Risk-Based Clean Closure; NRC Class C fill, (2) Risk-Based Clean Closure; Clean fill, (3) Closure to landfill Standards; NRC Class C fill, and (4) Closure to Landfill Standards; Clean fill.

  17. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume II: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This document contains Volume II of the Closure Study for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Calcined Solids Storage Facility. This volume contains draft information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the four options described in Volume I: (1) Risk-Based Clean Closure; NRC Class C fill, (2) Risk-Based Clean Closure; Clean fill, (3) Closure to landfill Standards; NRC Class C fill, and (4) Closure to Landfill Standards; Clean fill

  18. Study of an improved integrated collector-storage solar water heater combined with the photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziapour, Behrooz M.; Palideh, Vahid; Mohammadnia, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation of an enhanced ICSSWH system combined with PV panel was conducted. • The present model dose not uses any photovoltaic driven water pump. • High packing factor and tank water mass are caused to high PVT system efficiency. • Larger area of the collector is resulted to lower total PVT system efficiency. - Abstract: A photovoltaic–thermal (PVT) module is a combination of a photovoltaic (PV) panel and a thermal collector for co-generation of heat and electricity. An integrated collector-storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) system, due to its simple and compact structure, offers a promising approach for the solar water heating in the varied climates. The combination of the ICSSWH system with a PV solar system has not been reported. In this paper, simulation of an enhanced ICSSWH system combined with the PV panel has been conducted. The proposed design acts passive. Therefore, it does not use any photovoltaic driven water pump to maintain a flow of water inside the collector. The effects of the solar cell packing factor, the tank water mass and the collector area on the performance of the present PVT system have been investigated. The simulation results showed that the high solar cell packing factor and the tank water mass are caused to the high total PVT system efficiency. Also, larger area of the collector is resulted to lower total PVT system efficiency

  19. CHARACTERIZING DOE HANFORD SITE WASTE ENCAPSULATION STORAGE FACILITY CELLS USING RADBALL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Coleman, R.

    2011-03-31

    RadBall{trademark} is a novel technology that can locate and quantify unknown radioactive hazards within contaminated areas, hot cells, and gloveboxes. The device consists of a colander-like outer tungsten collimator that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer semi-sphere. The collimator has a number of small holes with tungsten inserts; as a result, specific areas of the polymer are exposed to radiation becoming increasingly more opaque in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer semi-sphere is imaged in an optical computed tomography scanner that produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. A subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation data using a reverse ray tracing or backprojection technique provides information on the spatial distribution of gamma-ray sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. RadBall{trademark} was originally designed for dry deployments and several tests, completed at Savannah River National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, substantiate its modeled capabilities. This study involves the investigation of the RadBall{trademark} technology during four submerged deployments in two water filled cells at the DOE Hanford Site's Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility.

  20. Single Cell Synchrotron FT-IR Microspectroscopy Reveals a Link between Neutral Lipid and Storage Carbohydrate Fluxes in S. cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamme, Frédéric; Vindigni, Jean-David; Méchin, Valérie; Cherifi, Tamazight; Chardot, Thierry; Froissard, Marine

    2013-01-01

    In most organisms, storage lipids are packaged into specialized structures called lipid droplets. These contain a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids, and various proteins which vary depending on the species. Hydrophobic structural proteins stabilize the interface between the lipid core and aqueous cellular environment (perilipin family of proteins, apolipoproteins, oleosins). We developed a genetic approach using heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of the Arabidopsis thaliana lipid droplet oleosin and caleosin proteins AtOle1 and AtClo1. These transformed yeasts overaccumulate lipid droplets, leading to a specific increase in storage lipids. The phenotype of these cells was explored using synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy to investigate the dynamics of lipid storage and cellular carbon fluxes reflected as changes in spectral fingerprints. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data showed a clear effect on storage carbohydrates and more specifically, a decrease in glycogen in our modified strains. These observations were confirmed by biochemical quantification of the storage carbohydrates glycogen and trehalose. Our results demonstrate that neutral lipid and storage carbohydrate fluxes are tightly connected and co-regulated. PMID:24040242

  1. Single cell synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy reveals a link between neutral lipid and storage carbohydrate fluxes in S. cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Jamme

    Full Text Available In most organisms, storage lipids are packaged into specialized structures called lipid droplets. These contain a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids, and various proteins which vary depending on the species. Hydrophobic structural proteins stabilize the interface between the lipid core and aqueous cellular environment (perilipin family of proteins, apolipoproteins, oleosins. We developed a genetic approach using heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of the Arabidopsis thaliana lipid droplet oleosin and caleosin proteins AtOle1 and AtClo1. These transformed yeasts overaccumulate lipid droplets, leading to a specific increase in storage lipids. The phenotype of these cells was explored using synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy to investigate the dynamics of lipid storage and cellular carbon fluxes reflected as changes in spectral fingerprints. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data showed a clear effect on storage carbohydrates and more specifically, a decrease in glycogen in our modified strains. These observations were confirmed by biochemical quantification of the storage carbohydrates glycogen and trehalose. Our results demonstrate that neutral lipid and storage carbohydrate fluxes are tightly connected and co-regulated.

  2. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance

    OpenAIRE

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell i Sarle, Jordi; Lara Ayala, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood.Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ºC were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness wa...

  3. Toward Wearable Energy Storage Devices: Paper-Based Biofuel Cells based on a Screen-Printing Array Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitanda, Isao; Momiyama, Misaki; Watanabe, Naoto; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Tsujimura, Seiya; Hoshi, Yoshinao; Itagaki, Masayuki

    2017-10-01

    A novel paper-based biofuel cell with a series/parallel array structure has been fabricated, in which the cell voltage and output power can easily be adjusted as required by printing. The output of the fabricated 4-series/4-parallel biofuel cell reached 0.97±0.02 mW at 1.4 V, which is the highest output power reported to date for a paper-based biofuel cell. This work contributes to the development of flexible, wearable energy storage device.

  4. Characterization of Cell Wall Components and Their Modifications during Postharvest Storage of Asparagus officinalis L.: Storage-Related Changes in Dietary Fiber Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Judith; Wagner, Steffen; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko

    2016-01-20

    Changes in cell wall composition during storage of plant foods potentially alter the physiological effects of dietary fiber components. To investigate postharvest cell wall modifications of asparagus and their consequences in terms of insoluble dietary fiber structures, asparagus was stored at 20 and 1 °C for different periods of time. Structural analyses demonstrated postharvest changes in the polysaccharide profile, dominated by decreased portions of galactans. Increasing lignin contents correlated with compositional changes (monolignol ratios and linkage types) of the lignin polymer as demonstrated by chemical and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) methods. Depending on the storage time and temperature, syringyl units were preferentially incorporated into the lignin polymer. Furthermore, a drastic increase in the level of ester-linked phenolic monomers (i.e., p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid) and polymer cross-links (di- and triferulic acids) was detected. The attachment of p-coumaric acid to lignin was demonstrated by 2D-NMR experiments. Potential consequences of postharvest modifications on physiological effects of asparagus dietary fiber are discussed.

  5. A comparative evaluation of energy storage systems for a fuel cell vehicle. Paper no. IGEC-1-142

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.; Kazerani, M.

    2005-01-01

    The widespread operation of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles has today become a great cause for concern due to the uncertainty of fossil fuel reserves, energy security issues, and numerous adverse environmental effects. Alternatives such as fuel cell vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, and biodiesel vehicles provide the possibility to ease some or all of these concerns. The fuel cell vehicle, however, offers an excellent combination of reducing ICE vehicle problems while maintaining the performance, driving range, and convenience that consumers require. This paper documents a comparative evaluation of an extremely important facet of the fuel cell vehicle: the energy storage system (ESS). Batteries and ultracapacitors, the two most common choices for an ESS, are compared qualitatively to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each. Also, a quantitative comparison is made to choose the best technology for a small fuel cell-powered SUV having the design objectives of high performance and high efficiency. Practical issues such as availability and cost are also considered. The results of the analysis indicate that a battery ESS provides the best combination of efficiency, performance, and cost for a present-day fuel cell vehicle design. Yet, if the anticipated cost reductions and improvements in the energy storage capabilities of ultracapacitors do occur, ultracapacitors will become a very strong contender for energy storage solutions of future fuel cell vehicles. (author)

  6. Individual shrink wrapping extends the storage life and maintains the quality of pomegranates (cvs. 'Mridula' and 'Bhagwa') at ambient and low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar Rao, D V

    2018-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the response of two commercial pomegranate cultivars to individual shrink wrapping in extending the storage life and quality maintenance. Pomegranate fruits ('Mridula' and 'Bhagwa') were individually shrink wrapped using three semi-permeable films (Cryovac ® BDF-2001, D-955 and normal LDPE) and stored at ambient (25-32 °C and 49-67% RH) and low temperature (8 °C and 75-80% RH). Shrink wrapping greatly reduced weight loss in both cultivars irrespective of the film used and storage temperature. Weight loss in shrink wrapped (D-955 film) 'Mridula' and 'Bhagwa' after 1 month storage at ambient temperature was respectively 1.40 and 1.05%, when compared to 22.92 and 22.53% in non-wrapped fruits. After 3 months at 8 °C, shrink wrapped 'Mridula' and 'Bhagwa' fruits lost only 0.43 and 0.68% weight respectively, compared to 17.23 and 21.67% in non-wrapped ones. Shrink wrapping significantly reduced the respiration rate at ambient temperature and the response varied with variety and film used. Shrink wrapped fruits of both cultivars retained the original peel colour (Hunter h∘ and C* values) to a maximum extent during 3 months storage at 8 °C and shelf-life period at ambient temperature. Irrespective of variety and film, shrink wrapping maintained the peel thickness and peel moisture content, significantly much higher than non-wrapped fruits at both temperatures. Compared to 'Mridula' cultivar, 'Bhagwa' responded well to shrink wrapping during prolonged storage at both temperatures with better maintenance of quality in terms of appearance, colour, juice content, TSS, acidity, sugars and sensory attributes. At ambient temperature, shrink wrapping with D-955 or LDPE film extended the storage life of 'Mridula' and 'Bhagwa' for 3 weeks and 1 month respectively, whereas at 8 °C both could be stored for 3 months with 3 days of shelf life.

  7. Efficiency of Castor Oil as a Storage Medium for Avulsed Teeth in Maintaining the Viability of Periodontal Ligament Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, Mohammadreza; Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Khodabakhsi, Afrooz; Ahzan, Shamseddin; Mehrabani, Davood

    2018-03-01

    Researchers always seek a new storage medium for avulsed teeth. Castor oil is a vegetable oil with several advantages such as antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, low toxicity, and glutathione preservation capability, low cost, and high availability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the capacity of castor oil as a new storage medium in preserving the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells compared to Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and milk. Forty freshly extracted human teeth were divided into 3 experimental and 2 control groups. The experimental teeth were stored dry for 30 min and then immersed for 45 min in one of the following media; castor oil, HBSS, and milk. The positive and negative control groups were exposed to 0 min and 2 h of dry time respectively with no immersion in any storage medium. The teeth were then treated with dispase grade II and collagenase and the number of viable PDL cells were counted. Data were analyzed using Kruskal- Wallis test. The percentage of viable cells treated with castor oil, HBSS and milk counted immediately after removal from these media were 46.93, 51.02 and 55.10 % respectively. The statistical analysis revealed that the value for castor oil was significantly lower than HBSS and milk ( p > 0.05). Within the parameters of this study, it appears that castor oil cannot be served as an ideal medium for storage of avulsed tooth. More investigations under in vivo conditions are required to justify the results of this study.

  8. Solar energy conversion and storage by using Rose Extract as natural dye and nitrilotriacetic acid as reductant in photogalvanic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sushil Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Photogalvanic effect was studied in Photogalvanic cell containing Rose Extract was used as Natural Dye (Photosensitizer), Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) as Reductant. The observed value of photopotential and photocurrent generated by this cell were 872 mV and 176 µA, respectively. The observed power at power point was 82.18 µW and the conversion efficiency was 0.79 %. The fill factor 0.4678 was experimentally determined at the power point of the cell. The photogalvanic cell can be used in dark for 42 min., showing the storage capacity of the cell against charging time was 200 min. The effect of different parameters on electrical output of the cell was observed and a mechanism has also been proposed for the generation of photocurrent in photogalvanic cell.

  9. Prevalence of storage lower urinary tract symptoms in male patients attending Spanish urology office. Urinary urgency as predictor of quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambronero Santos, J; Errando Smet, C

    2016-12-01

    The study sought to determine the symptomatic profile of men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) who visited a urology clinic in Spain and its impact on their health-related quality of life (HRQL). A national, epidemiological cross-sectional study was conducted and included 291 urology clinics. The prevalence of storage LUTS was investigated in 25,482 men. The study collected sociodemographic and clinical data from a subgroup of 1015 patients with storage LUTS who filled out the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Overactive Bladder Questionnaire Short Form (OABq-SF) and Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC) questionnaires. The impact of urinary urgency on HRQL was analysed. The prevalence of storage LUTS was 41%, increasing with age: 14.1%, 41.5% and 60.8% for patients aged 18-49, 50-64 and ≥65 years, respectively. Of the 1015 selected patients, only 2.6% had storage symptoms exclusively. Symptom severity (IPSS) increased with age. Nocturia, frequency and urgency were the most common symptoms and had the most impact on HRQL (IPSS and OABq-SF). The number of urgency episodes was inversely correlated with the HRQL (r=-.773; P<.0001). In the multivariate analysis, only the IPSS and OABq-SF bother scores were significant predictors of HRQL (P<.001). Storage LUTS are highly prevalent among patients attending urology clinics in Spain. The severity of the urgency (number of urgency episodes) predicted a poorer quality of life for the patient. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical Practice Guidelines From the AABB: Red Blood Cell Transfusion Thresholds and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Jeffrey L; Guyatt, Gordon; Heddle, Nancy M; Grossman, Brenda J; Cohn, Claudia S; Fung, Mark K; Gernsheimer, Terry; Holcomb, John B; Kaplan, Lewis J; Katz, Louis M; Peterson, Nikki; Ramsey, Glenn; Rao, Sunil V; Roback, John D; Shander, Aryeh; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2016-11-15

    More than 100 million units of blood are collected worldwide each year, yet the indication for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and the optimal length of RBC storage prior to transfusion are uncertain. To provide recommendations for the target hemoglobin level for RBC transfusion among hospitalized adult patients who are hemodynamically stable and the length of time RBCs should be stored prior to transfusion. Reference librarians conducted a literature search for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating hemoglobin thresholds for RBC transfusion (1950-May 2016) and RBC storage duration (1948-May 2016) without language restrictions. The results were summarized using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation method. For RBC transfusion thresholds, 31 RCTs included 12 587 participants and compared restrictive thresholds (transfusion not indicated until the hemoglobin level is 7-8 g/dL) with liberal thresholds (transfusion not indicated until the hemoglobin level is 9-10 g/dL). The summary estimates across trials demonstrated that restrictive RBC transfusion thresholds were not associated with higher rates of adverse clinical outcomes, including 30-day mortality, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, rebleeding, pneumonia, or thromboembolism. For RBC storage duration, 13 RCTs included 5515 participants randomly allocated to receive fresher blood or standard-issue blood. These RCTs demonstrated that fresher blood did not improve clinical outcomes. It is good practice to consider the hemoglobin level, the overall clinical context, patient preferences, and alternative therapies when making transfusion decisions regarding an individual patient. Recommendation 1: a restrictive RBC transfusion threshold in which the transfusion is not indicated until the hemoglobin level is 7 g/dL is recommended for hospitalized adult patients who are hemodynamically stable, including critically ill patients, rather than when the hemoglobin level

  11. Effect of freezing rate and storage time on shelf-life quality of hot boned and conventionally boned ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gapud, V.G.; Schlimme, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    Commercially processed, 80% lean, chub packaged ground beef (both conventionally boned and hot boned) was frozen to O F (-18 0 C) at three rates: 72, 96, and 120 hours before storage at O F (-18 0 C). The meat was examined after 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months storage for the following attributes: psychrophile and aerobic plate counts, free fatty acid (FFA) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, niacin content, raw and cooked color, moisture, fat and protein contents, and cook shrink and texture of cooked patties. Freezing rates had no significant effect on microbial load, niacin content, color, or cook shrink and texture. Freezing rate had a significant effect upon TBA and FFA values. Niacin, cook shrink and moisture values declined and TBA and FFA values increased with storage. Raw meat Hunter L value increased and Hunter a/b value declined during storage. Substantial quality differences between meat types were found

  12. Optimizing energy management of fuel cell-direct storage-hybrid systems; Optimierendes Energiemanagement von Brennstoffzelle-Direktspeicher-Hybridsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocklisch, Thilo

    2010-03-29

    The dissertation presents a new optimizing energy management concept for fuel cell-direct storage-hybrid systems. Initially, the characteristics of specific energy time series are investigated on the basis of real measurement data. A new concept for the multi-scale analysis, modelling and prediction of fluctuating photovoltaic supply and electric load demand profiles is developed. The second part of the dissertation starts with a discussion of the benefits of and the basic coupling and control principles for fuel cell-direct storage-hybrid systems. The typical characteristics of a PEM-fuel cell, a metal hydride hydrogen storage, a lithium-ion battery and a supercap unit are presented. A new modular DC/DC-converter is described. Results from experimental and theoretical investigations of the individual components and the overall hybrid system are discussed. New practicable models for the voltage-current-curve, the state of charge behaviour and the conversion losses are presented. The third part of the dissertation explains the new energy management concept. The optimization of power flows is achieved by a control-oriented approach, employing a) the primary control of bus voltage and fuel cell current, b) the secondary control to limit fuel cell current gradient and operating range and to perform direct storage charge control, and c) the system control to optimally adjust secondary control parameters aiming for a reduction of dynamic fuel cell stress and hydrogen consumption. Results from simulations and experimental investigations demonstrate the benefits and high capabilities of the new optimizing energy management concept. Examples of stationary and portable applications conclude the dissertation. (orig.)

  13. Techno-economic and life-cycle modeling and analysis of various energy storage technologies coupled with a solar photovoltaic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Brian Andrew

    Renewable energies, such as wind and solar, are a growing piece of global energy consumption. The chief motivation to develop renewable energy is two-fold: reducing carbon dioxide emissions and reducing dependence on diminishing fossil fuel supplies. Energy storage is critical to the growth of renewable energy because it allows for renewably-generated electricity to be consumed at times when renewable sources are unavailable, and it also enhances power quality (maintaining voltage and frequency) on an electric grid which becomes increasingly unstable as more renewable energy is added. There are numerous means of storing energy with different advantages, but none has emerged as the clear solution of choice for renewable energy storage. This thesis attempts to explore the current and developing state of energy storage and how it can be efficiently implemented with crystalline silicon solar photovotlaics, which has a minimum expected lifetime of 25 years assumed in this thesis. A method of uniformly comparing vastly different energy storage technologies using empirical data was proposed. Energy storage technologies were compared based on both economic valuation over the system life and cradle-to-gate pollution rates for systems with electrochemical batteries. For stationary, non-space-constrained settings, lead-acid batteries proved to be the most economical. Carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries were competitive, showing promise as an energy storage technology. Lithium-ion batteries showed the lowest pollution rate of electrochemical batteries examined, but both lithium-ion and lead-acid batteries produce comparable carbon dioxide to coal-derived electricity.

  14. Studies of Modified Hydrogen Storage Intermetallic Compounds Used as Fuel Cell Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui F. M. Lobo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of substituting Pt/C with the hydrogen storage alloy MlNi3.6Co0.85Al0.3Mn0.3 as the anode active material of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell system has been analyzed. The electrochemical properties indicate that a much more electrochemically active anode is obtained by impregnating the active material loaded anode in a Nafion proton conducting polymer. Such performance improvement might result from the increase of three-phase boundary sites or length in the gas diffusion electrode where the electrochemical reaction occurs. The experimental data revealed that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA shows better results when the anode active material, MlNi3.6Co0.85Al0.3Mn0.3, is treated with a hot alkaline KBH4 solution, and then chemically coated with 3 wt.% Pd. The MEA with the aforesaid modification presents an enhanced surface capability for hydrogen adsorption, and has been studied by molecular beam-thermal desorption spectrometry.

  15. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinov, A; Khayrullina, A; Khmelik, M; Sveshnikova, A; Borzenko, V

    2016-01-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia. (paper)

  16. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, A.; Khayrullina, A.; Borzenko, V.; Khmelik, M.; Sveshnikova, A.

    2016-09-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia.

  17. Solar driven electrochromic photoelectrochemical fuel cells for simultaneous energy conversion, storage and self-powered sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhu; Zhang, Lina; Cui, Kang; Xu, Caixia; Li, Hao; Liu, Hong; Yu, Jinghua

    2018-02-15

    One solar-driven electrochromic photoelectrochemical fuel cell (PFC) with highly efficient energy conversion and storage is easily constructed to achieve quantitative self-powered sensing. Layered bismuth oxyiodide-zinc oxide nanorod arrays (ZnO@BiOI NRA) with a core/shell p-n heterostructure are fabricated as the photoanode with electrochromic Prussian blue (PB) as the cathode. The core/shell p-n heterostructure for the ZnO@BiOI photoanode can effectively boost the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance through the improvement of photon absorption and charge carrier separation. The optimal assembled PFC yields an open-circuit voltage (V OC ) of 0.48 V with the maximum power output density (P max ) as high as 155 μW cm -2 upon illumination. Benefitting from the interactive color-changing behavior of PB, the cathode not only exhibits cathodic catalytic activity in the PFC but also serves as an electrochromic display for self-powered sensing. The as-constructed PFC possesses multiple readable signal output nanochannels through the maximum power output density (P max ) of the PFC or the color change of PB. Meanwhile, the dual-signal-output makes the as-constructed self-powered sensor highly available in various operations demands with the enhanced reliability. With the advantages of high efficiency of PFCs, unique assay ability, and broad environmental suitability, the constructed self-powered platform shows broad application prospects as an integrated smart analytical device.

  18. A life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen : a user's tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Lord, Anna Snider; Borns, David James; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an interest in large scale hydrogen geostorage, which could offer substantial buffer capacity to meet possible disruptions in supply or changing seasonal demands. The geostorage site options being considered are salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers and hard rock caverns. The DOE has an interest in assessing the geological, geomechanical and economic viability for these types of geologic hydrogen storage options. This study has developed an economic analysis methodology and subsequent spreadsheet analysis to address costs entailed in developing and operating an underground geologic storage facility. This year the tool was updated specifically to (1) incorporate more site-specific model input assumptions for the wells and storage site modules, (2) develop a version that matches the general format of the HDSAM model developed and maintained by Argonne National Laboratory, and (3) incorporate specific demand scenarios illustrating the model's capability. Four general types of underground storage were analyzed: salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers, and hard rock caverns/other custom sites. Due to the substantial lessons learned from the geological storage of natural gas already employed, these options present a potentially sizable storage option. Understanding and including these various geologic storage types in the analysis physical and economic framework will help identify what geologic option would be best suited for the storage of hydrogen. It is important to note, however, that existing natural gas options may not translate to a hydrogen system where substantial engineering obstacles may be encountered. There are only three locations worldwide that currently store hydrogen underground and they are all in salt caverns. Two locations are in the U.S. (Texas), and are managed by ConocoPhillips and Praxair (Leighty, 2007). The third is in Teeside, U.K., managed by Sabic Petrochemicals (Crotogino

  19. [Effects of Two Placement Ways for Storage of Blood Bag on Biochemical Indexes of Leukodepleted Red Blood Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Jun; Duan, Bing-Zheng; Ju, Chun-Mei; Sui, Su-Qin; Bai, Yan; Cao, Huan

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effects of 2 different ways of storage bag placement on some biochemical indexes of leukodepleted red blood cells (LD-RBC) to as to ensure the efficacy and safety of clinical blood transfusion. The whole blood samples of 20 donors (400 ml/donor) were selected for preparating the LP-RBC, which were divided evenly into 10 bags. The 10 bags were randomly divided into 2 groups; the bags in 1 group were placed uprightly, while the bags in another group were placed horizontally. The bags of 2 groups were stored in the same conditions. One storage bag from each group was taken randomly on day 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 respectively, and then the biochemical indexes of samples were detected and analyzed. The values of K(+) and LAC on day 14, the value of LDH on day 28 in the uprightly placed group were higher than those in the horizontally placed group (P value of Na(+) on day 28, and the value of Glu on day 35 in the uprightly placed group were lower than those in horizontally placed group (P 0.05). The storage bags placed by different ways during the storage show different influence on some biochemical indexes of LD-RBC in the storage period.

  20. The effects of washing with Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L. water solution on shelf life of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix fillet during refrigerator storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshagh Zakipour Rahimabadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antibacterial and antioxidant effects of tamarind water solution on shelf life of silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix fillet during refrigerator storage. Treatments of this study were unwashed samples (control, and samples washed with 1% and 2% tamarind water solution. Microbial, physicochemical and sensory analysis including total viable count (TVC, peroxide value (PV, thiobarbituric acid (TBA, total volatile base (TVB-N and pH were measured during 15 day storage at refrigerator (with 3 days intervals. Proximate analysis of samples also measured at day 0. TVC content was 0.93, 0.50 and 0.10 log CFU/g for control and treatments 1% and 2%, respectively and reached to 6.24, 5.82 and 5.21 log CFU/g at the end of storage period. At the end of storage period, the PV, TBA and TVB-N content were 8.4, 4.3, and 3.0 meq O2/Kg for control, 2.75, 1.35, and 0.50 mg/100g for 1% treatment, and 33.17, 23.90, and 22.10 mg N/100g for 2% treatment, respectively. This results showed the positive effect of tamarind to inhibit and delay fish fillet spoilage. According to sensory evaluation, the density of 1% tamarind was selected as the best density.

  1. Development, DNA fragmentation and cell death in porcine embryos afer 24 h storage under different conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubio Pomar, F.J.; Ducro-Steverink, D.W.B.; Hazeleger, W.; Teerds, K.J.; Colenbrander, B.; Bevers, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    For practical applications of porcine embryo transfer (ET) it is important to develop feasible embryo storage conditions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of short-term storage (24 h) on the quality of in vivo produced porcine embryos. Three temperatures 18, 25 and 38 degreesC

  2. Hydrogen storage by organic chemical hydrides and hydrogen supply to fuel cells with superheated liquid-film-type catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodoshima, S.; Shono, A.; Sato, K.; Saito, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Organic chemical hydrides, consisting of decalin / naphthalene and tetralin / naphthalene pairs, have been proposed as the storage medium of hydrogen for operating fuel cells in mobile and static modes. The target values in the DOE Hydrogen Plan, U.S., on storage ( 6.5 wt%, 62.0 kg-H 2 / m 3 ) are met with decalin ( 7.3 wt%, 64.8 kg-H 2 / m 3 ). In addition, existing gas stations and tank lorries are available for storage and supply of hydrogen by utilizing the decalin / naphthalene pair, suggesting that decalin is suitable for operating fuel-cell vehicles. Tetralin dehydrogenation proceeds quite rapidly, assuring a predominant power density, though its storage densities ( 3.0 wt%, 28.2 kg-H 2 / m 3 ) are relatively low. Efficient hydrogen supply from decalin or tetralin by heating at 210-280 o C was attained only with the carbon-supported nano-size metal catalysts in the 'superheated liquid-film states' under reactive distillation conditions, where coke formation over the catalyst surface was prevented. The catalyst layer superheated in the liquid-film states gave high reaction rates and conversions, minimizing the evaporation loss under boiling conditions and exergy loss in hydrogen energy systems. (author)

  3. Accelerating Rate Calorimetry Tests of Lithium-Ion Cells Before and After Storage Degradation at High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza-Hernandez Omar Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the behavior of Li-ion cells during thermal runaway is critical to evaluate the safety of these energy storage devices under outstanding conditions. Li-ion cells possess a high energy density and are used to store and supply energy to many aerospace applications. Incidents related to the overheating or thermal runaway of these cells can cause catastrophic damages that could end up costly space missions; therefore, thermal studies of Li-ion cells are very important for ensuring safety and reliability of space missions. This work evaluates the thermal behavior of Li-ion cells before and after storage degradation at high temperature using accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC equipment to analyze the thermal behavior of Li-ion cells under adiabatic conditions. Onset temperature points of self-heating and thermal runaway reactions are obtained. The onset points are used to identify non-self-heating, self-heating and thermal runaway regions as a function of state of charge. The results obtained can be useful to develop accurate thermo-electrochemical models of Li-ion cells.

  4. Efficacy of various protein-based coating on enhancing the shelf life of fresh eggs during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caner, Cengiz; Yüceer, Muhammed

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of various coatings (whey protein isolate [WPI], whey protein concentrate [WPC], zein, and shellac) on functional properties, interior quality, and eggshell breaking strength of fresh eggs were evaluated during storage at 24 °: C for 6 weeks. Coatings and storage time had significant effects on Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen pH, dry matter (DMA), relative whipping capacity (RWC), and albumen viscosity. Uncoated eggs had higher albumen pH (9.56) and weight loss, and lower albumen viscosity (5.73), Haugh unit (HU), and yolk index (YI) during storage. Among the coated eggs, the shellac and zein coated eggs had the highest value of albumen viscosity (27.26 to 26.90), HU (74.10 to 73.61), and YI (44.84 to 44.63) after storage. Shellac (1.44%) was more effective in preventing weight loss than WPC (4.59%), WPI (4.60%), and zein (2.13%) coatings. Uncoated eggs had the higest value (6.71%) of weight lost. All coatings increased shell strength (5.18 to 5.73 for top and 3.58 to 4.71 for bottom) significantly (P eggs (4.70 for top and 3.15 for bottom). The functional properties such as albumen DMA (14.50 to 16.66 and 18.97 for uncoated) and albumen RWC (841 to 891 and 475 for uncoated) of fresh eggs can be preserved during storage when they are coated. The shellac and zein coatings were more effective for maintaining the internal quality of fresh eggs during storage. Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) in the 800 to 2500 nm reflection spectra were used to quantify the contents of the fresh eggs at the end of storage. Eggs coated with shellac or zein displayed a higher absorbance at 970 and 1,197 nm respectively (OH vibration of water) compared with those coated with WPI or WPC and the uncoated group at the end of storage. The coatings improved functional properties and also shell strength and could be a viable alternative technology for maintaining the internal quality of eggs during long-term storage. This study highlights the promising use of

  5. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  6. Electrically-controlled nonlinear switching and multi-level storage characteristics in WOx film-based memory cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, W. J.; Wang, J. B.; Zhong, X. L.

    2018-05-01

    Resistive switching random access memory (RRAM) is considered as a promising candidate for the next generation memory due to its scalability, high integration density and non-volatile storage characteristics. Here, the multiple electrical characteristics in Pt/WOx/Pt cells are investigated. Both of the nonlinear switching and multi-level storage can be achieved by setting different compliance current in the same cell. The correlations among the current, time and temperature are analyzed by using contours and 3D surfaces. The switching mechanism is explained in terms of the formation and rupture of conductive filament which is related to oxygen vacancies. The experimental results show that the non-stoichiometric WOx film-based device offers a feasible way for the applications of oxide-based RRAMs.

  7. 3D organic Na4C6O6/graphene architecture for fast sodium storage with ultralong cycle life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianan; Gu, Yue; Yang, Shubin

    2017-11-23

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have aroused increasing interest as one of the most promising replacements for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, a novel organic-inorganic 3D Na 4 C 6 O 6 -graphene architecture was successfully fabricated from commercial Na 2 C 6 O 6 and for the first time applied for sodium storage. Hence, the 3D Na 4 C 6 O 6 -graphene architecture exhibits a high reversible capacity, good cyclic performance and high-rate capability for sodium storage.

  8. Energy Storage Facilities | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    , electric, and fuel cell battery and ultracapacitor pack testing. Their voltages range from 0-100 volts component developers and automobile manufacturers improve battery and energy storage system designs by enhancing performance and extending battery life. Sophisticated experimentation, modeling, and analysis

  9. The effect of combination treatment of gamma irradiation with refrigeration or with hot water treatment on the storage life and organoleptic properties of carabao mangoes and lacatan bananas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barruel, D.S.

    1976-03-01

    This study aims to determine the best combination of irradiation-hot water and irradiation-low temperature storage as treatments to help achieve longer shelf-life extension of fruits with export value such as bananas and mangoes. Results have shown the combined irradiation and hot water treatment as a better treatment for mangoes over that of combined irradiation (50kr) and low temperature storage (15 0 C) or of single treatments with irradiation, refrigeration or hot water. A much lower dose of 30 krad was found to give the longest extension in shelf-life in mangoes subjected to irradiation and hot (55 0 C) water treatment. No significant differences in the organoleptic properties were found in the samples given the combination treatment when compared to samples given no treatment at all. The extension in shelf-life may be attributed to the synergistic effect of the treatments, which could have affected the senescence of the fruit and likewise controlled the growth of rot-causing microorganisms. Similar work was also done on bananas but the results are still preliminary

  10. Effect of storage temperature and osmotic pre-treatment with alternative solutes on the shelf-life of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofania N. Tsironi

    2017-01-01

    Osmotic pre-treatment led to significant shelf-life extension of fillets, in terms of microbial growth, chemical changes and organoleptic deterioration. The pre-treatment with the alternative solutes led to depression of the freezing point (−1.8, −2.6, −3.2 and −3.5 °C for the untreated samples and the osmotically pre-treated with HDM, HDM + treh and HDM + gluc, respectively. TVB-N values were higher in untreated samples, followed by osmotically treated fillets, mainly at higher storage temperatures (i.e. 10 and 15 °C. Based on the mathematical models for sensory evaluation scoring, the shelf-life was 12, 19, 22 and 22 days at 0 °C for untreated and osmotically pre-treated with HDM, HDM + treh and HDM + gluc fish slices, respectively, while the respective values at −3 °C were 21, 35, 38 and 38 days. The alternative solutes had no significant effect on the quality and shelf-life of pre-treated fish fillet during storage at refrigerated conditions.

  11. Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    Electricity storage is needed on an unprecedented scale to sustain the ongoing transition of electricity generation from fossil fuels to intermittent renewable energy sources like wind and solar power. Today pumped hydro is the only commercially viable large-scale electricity storage technology......-scale electricity storage with a round-trip efficiency exceeding 70% and an estimated storage cost around 3 b kW-1 h-1, i.e., comparable to pumped hydro and much better than previously proposed technologies...

  12. Effects of current stress and thermal storage on polymeric heterojunction P3HT:PCBM solar cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzo, Antonio; Cester, Andrea; Torto, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We subjected P3HT:PCBM solar cells to electrical constant current stress and thermal storage. We employed the impedance spectroscopy technique combined to conventional DC measurements for device characterization during all stresses. We identified and separated different contributions affecting...... the open circuit voltage and short circuit current. Several mechanisms are behind these changes during the stresses; in particular, we underlined the exciton recombination rate and the variation of the built-in voltage....

  13. New technology and possible advances in energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, John

    2008-01-01

    Energy storage technologies may be electrical or thermal. Electrical energy stores have an electrical input and output to connect them to the system of which they form part, while thermal stores have a thermal input and output. The principal electrical energy storage technologies described are electrochemical systems (batteries and flow cells), kinetic energy storage (flywheels) and potential energy storage, in the form of pumped hydro and compressed air. Complementary thermal storage technologies include those based on the sensible and latent heat capacity of materials, which include bulk and smaller-capacity hot and cold water storage systems, ice storage, phase change materials and specific bespoke thermal storage media. For the majority of the storage technologies considered here, the potential for fundamental step changes in performance is limited. For electrochemical systems, basic chemistry suggests that lithium-based technologies represent the pinnacle of cell development. This means that the greatest potential for technological advances probably lies in the incremental development of existing technologies, facilitated by advances in materials science, engineering, processing and fabrication. These considerations are applicable to both electrical and thermal storage. Such incremental developments in the core storage technologies are likely to be complemented and supported by advances in systems integration and engineering. Future energy storage technologies may be expected to offer improved energy and power densities, although, in practice, gains in reliability, longevity, cycle life expectancy and cost may be more significant than increases in energy/powerdensity per se

  14. Longevity-conscious dimensioning and power management of the hybrid energy storage system in a fuel cell hybrid electric bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiaosong; Johannesson, Lars; Murgovski, Nikolce; Egardt, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid energy storage system is optimally sized and controlled for a hybrid bus. • Dynamic battery health model is incorporated in the optimization. • Convex programming is efficient for optimizing hybrid propulsion systems. • Optimal battery replacement strategy is explored. • Comparison to the battery-only option is made in the health-aware optimization. - Abstract: Energy storage systems (ESSs) play an important role in the performance and economy of electrified vehicles. Hybrid energy storage system (HESS) combining both lithium-ion cells and supercapacitors is one of the most promising solutions. This paper discusses the optimal HESS dimensioning and energy management of a fuel cell hybrid electric bus. Three novel contributions are added to the relevant literature. First, efficient convex programming is used to simultaneously optimize the HESS dimension (including sizes of both the lithium-ion battery pack and the supercapacitor stack) and the power allocation between the HESS and the fuel cell system (FCS) of the hybrid bus. In the combined plant/controller optimization problem, a dynamic battery State-of-Health (SOH) model is integrated to quantitatively examine the impact of the battery replacement strategy on both the HESS size and the bus economy. Second, the HESS and the battery-only ESS options are systematically compared in the proposed optimization framework. Finally, the battery-health-perceptive HESS optimization outcome is contrasted to the ideal one neglecting the battery degradation (assuming that the battery is durable over the bus service period without deliberate power regulation)

  15. Low-crystallinity molybdenum sulfide nanosheets assembled on carbon nanotubes for long-life lithium storage: Unusual electrochemical behaviors and ascending capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaodan, E-mail: xiaodan_li@yeah.net [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Wu, Gaoxiang, E-mail: wgxjimmy@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Chen, Jiewei, E-mail: kzscjw@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Li, Meicheng, E-mail: mcli@ncepu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Chongqing Materials Research Institute, Chongqing 400707 (China); Li, Wei, E-mail: wei.li@inl.int [International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory (INL), Braga 4715-330 (Portugal); Wang, Tianyue, E-mail: 1355796015@qq.com [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Jiang, Bing, E-mail: BingJiang@ncepu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); He, Yue, E-mail: 947667748@qq.com [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China ElectricPower University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Mai, Liqiang, E-mail: mlq518@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Low-crystallinity molybdenum sulfide coated on carbon nanotubes were synthesized. • This anode material has unusual electrochemical behaviors compared to typical MoS{sub 2}. • It exhibits noticable ascending trends in capacity and superior rate performance. • The ascending performance can effectively extend the circulation life of batteries. - Abstract: Low-crystallinity molybdenum sulfide (LCMS, Mo:S = 1:2.75) nanosheets synthesized by a facile and low temperature solvothermal method is now reported. The as-prepared LCMS anode material is composited of MoS{sub 2} layers mixed with amorphous MoS{sub 3}, which leads to an unusual electrochemical process for lithium storage compared to typical MoS{sub 2} anode. The existence of MoS{sub 3} and Mo (VI) provide strong adsorption and binding sites for polar polysulphides, which compels abundant sulfur to turn into new-formed MoS{sub 3} rather than diffuse into electrolyte. To fully utilize this novel electrochemical process, LCMS is decorated on carbon nanotubes, obtaining well-dispersed CNTs@LCMS. As electrode material for lithium storage, CNTs@LCMS exhibits a noticable ascending trend in capacity from 820 mA h g{sup −1} to 1350 mA h g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1} during 130 cycles. The persistent ascending capacity is ascribed to the increasing lithium storage caused by new-formed MoS{sub 3}, combined with the reduced volume change benifiting from well-dispersed CNTs@LCMS. Furthermore, the ascending performance is proved to be able to effectively extend the circulation life (up to 200%) for lithium-ion batteries by mathematical modeling and calculation. Accordingly, the CNTs@LCMS composite is a promising anode material for long-life lithium-ion batteries.

  16. KOH concentration effect on the cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of KOH concentration on the cycle life of a sintered-type nickel electrode were studied in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell at 23 C using an accelerated 45-min cycle regime at 80 percent depth of discharge. The cycle life improved greatly as the KOH concentration decreased, although the initial capacity of the cell decreased slightly. The cycle life improved by a factor of two or more when the KOH concentration was reduced from 36 to 31 percent and by a similar factor from reductions of 31 to 26 percent. For many applications, this life improvement may outweigh the initial capacity decrease.

  17. Optimal bidding strategy of battery storage in power markets considering performance based regulation and battery cycle life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Guannan; Chen, Qixin; Kang, Chongqing

    2016-01-01

    to reduce the complexity of the model. This novel bidding model would help investor-owned battery storages better decide their bidding and operational schedules and investors to estimate the battery storage’s economic viability. The validity of the proposed model is proven by case study results....

  18. Storage of parbaked bread affects shelf life of fully baked end product: a ¹H NMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Lagrain, Bert; Ooms, Nand; Fierens, Ellen; Delcour, Jan A

    2014-12-15

    Full baking of earlier partially baked (parbaked) bread can supply fresh bread to the consumer at any time of the day. When parbaked bread loaves were stored at -25, 4 or 23°C, the extent of crumb to crust moisture migration and amylopectin retrogradation differed with storage temperature, and the firming rate was evidently lowest during frozen storage. The extent of crumb to crust moisture migration during parbaked bread storage largely determined the mass of the fresh finished bread, and its crumb and crust moisture contents. Initial NMR proton mobility, initial resilience, the extent of amylopectin retrogradation and changes in firmness and resilience during storage of fully baked bread were affected by its crumb moisture content. The lowest firming rate was observed for finished bread resulting from parbaked bread stored at -25°C, while the highest firming rate was observed for finished bread from parbaked bread stored at 23°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of FTA gene guard filter paper for the storage and transportation of tumor cells for molecular testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Larry J; Madigan, Merle N; Carter, Alexis B; Earls, Lori

    2002-01-01

    Efficient methods of storing tumor specimens for molecular testing are needed in the modern surgical pathology laboratory. The FTA Gene Guard system is a novel method for the collection and room temperature storage of blood samples for DNA testing. The method uses index card-sized filter papers that provide an ideal medium on which to store tumor specimens for DNA testing. To determine whether FTA filter paper can be used in the surgical pathology laboratory to store tumor cells for DNA testing. Cell suspensions were prepared from 60 surgical specimens, and DNA was extracted either immediately or after storage on FTA paper. The DNA extracted by each method was tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the beta-globin and interferon gamma genes, and the results were compared. Fifteen lymph node specimens stored on FTA paper were then tested for immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement by PCR, and these results were compared with those obtained for immediately extracted DNA. University medical center. The DNA extracted from cells stored on FTA paper performed as well in the PCR as the freshly extracted DNA in nearly all cases (>95%). The results of tests for IgH gene rearrangements showed 100% concordance between the 2 methods of DNA extraction.Conclusion.-Cells from surgical specimens can be stored on FTA paper for extended lengths of time, and DNA can be extracted from these cells for PCR-based testing. FTA filter paper is a reliable medium for the storage and/or transport of tumor cells for PCR-based DNA analysis.

  20. Detection of charge storage on molecular thin films of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) by Kelvin force microscopy: a candidate system for high storage capacity memory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydavosi, Sarah; Aidala, Katherine E; Brown, Patrick R; Hashemi, Pouya; Supran, Geoffrey J; Osedach, Timothy P; Hoyt, Judy L; Bulović, Vladimir

    2012-03-14

    Retention and diffusion of charge in tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq(3)) molecular thin films are investigated by injecting electrons and holes via a biased conductive atomic force microscopy tip into the Alq(3) films. After the charge injection, Kelvin force microscopy measurements reveal minimal changes with time in the spatial extent of the trapped charge domains within Alq(3) films, even for high hole and electron densities of >10(12) cm(-2). We show that this finding is consistent with the very low mobility of charge carriers in Alq(3) thin films (<10(-7) cm(2)/(Vs)) and that it can benefit from the use of Alq(3) films as nanosegmented floating gates in flash memory cells. Memory capacitors using Alq(3) molecules as the floating gate are fabricated and measured, showing durability over more than 10(4) program/erase cycles and the hysteresis window of up to 7.8 V, corresponding to stored charge densities as high as 5.4 × 10(13) cm(-2). These results demonstrate the potential for use of molecular films in high storage capacity nonvolatile memory cells. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  1. Storage characteristics of multiple-donor pooled red blood cells compared to single-donor red blood cell units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Aabhas; Chowdhury, Raquibul; Hillyer, Christopher D; Mitchell, W Beau; Shaz, Beth H

    2016-12-01

    Each unit of blood donated is processed and stored individually resulting in variability in the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) collected, RBC properties, and the 24-hour posttransfusion RBC survivability. As a result, each unit differs in its ability to deliver oxygen and potentially its effects on the recipient. The goal of this study was to investigate the storage of pooled RBCs from multiple donors in comparison to control standard RBC units. Two units of irradiated, leukoreduced RBCs of same ABO, D, E, C, and K antigen phenotype were collected from each of five donors using apheresis. One unit from each donor was pooled in a 2-L bag and remaining units were used as controls. After being pooled, RBCs were separated in five bags and stored at 4°C along with the controls. Quality indexes were measured on Days 2, 14, and 28 for all the units. Adenosine triphosphate assays for both pooled and controls showed a slight decrease from Day 2 to Day 28 (pooled/control from 5.22/5.24 to 4.35/4.33 µmol/g hemoglobin [Hb]). 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate was successfully rejuvenated for all RBC units on Day 28 (pooled 11.46 µmol/g Hb; control 11.86 µmol/g Hb). The results showed a nonsignificant difference between pooled and control units, with a general trend of lower standard deviation for pooled units when compared to controls. Pooled units have reduced unit-to-unit variability. Future exploration of their immunogenicity is required before using pooled units for transfusion. © 2016 AABB.

  2. Liner failure around a tunnel or a storage cell in Callovo-Oxfordian clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damjanac, Branko; Radakovic-Guzina, Zorica; Billaux, Daniel; Poutrel, A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework of the feasibility studies for the storage of radioactive waste in a deep geological layer, the post-failure behaviour of the concrete liner of the galleries and storage cells may have a direct effect on long term safety. In fact, the failure of the liner will result in new loads on the canisters placed inside the works, and in the de-stressing of the Callovo-Oxfordian clays, which may lead to a change in the Excavation Damage Zone. These phenomenons are studied via numerical modelling, using properties derived from ANDRA's underground laboratory (CMHM) project. Two types of gallery geometries are analyzed: one with a thinner concrete liner and filled interior (the standard gallery); and another with a thick concrete liner filled with concrete canisters (the MAVL disposal cell). The Standard Gallery is filled with a Cam-Clay material after 100 years of creep, while the MAVL disposal cell is filled with 16 concrete canisters immediately after installation of the concrete liner. Progressive failure of the concrete liner due to time-dependent deformation of the surrounding rock (Callovo-Oxfordian clay) over a long period of time is analyzed. The analyses are carried out in two steps. In the initial simulations, the concrete liner is represented as a continuum strain-softening Mohr-Coulomb material. The locations of stress-induced fractures in the concrete are determined from this continuum model. The stress-induced fractures are then specified as pre-defined discontinuities in the concrete liner in subsequent dis-continuum simulations. In a dis-continuum model, the large deformations and movements of the concrete blocks as the liner disintegrates can be simulated without numerical problems. The Callovo-Oxfordian clay is represented as an elastic-plastic-viscous material using the Lemaitre constitutive relation. The majority of the simulations are carried out over 5,000 years of creep time, with a

  3. The inhibitory effect of the various seed coating substances against rice seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobunluepop, Pitipong

    2009-08-15

    Presently, chemical seed treatments are in discussion due to their directly or indirectly impacts on human health or other living organisms. They may also negatively affect the ecosystem and the food chain. In rice seeds, chemicals may cause phytotoxic effects including seed degradation. Eugenol is the main component of clove (Eugenia caryophillis) oil, which was proved to act simultaneously as bactericide, virocide and especially fungicide. The in vitro study was aimed to compare the inhibitory effect of the following seed treatment substances against seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during 12 months of storage; conventional captan (CA), chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL), eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E+CL) and control (CO). The obtained results of fungi inhibition were classified in three groups, which showed at first that CA treatment led to a better, i.e., longer, inhibitory effect on Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Curvularia sp., Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger than E+CL. Secondly, E+CL coating polymer showed the longest inhibitory effect against Bipolaris oryzae and Nigrospora oryzae compared to CA and CL coating polymer. Finally, both CA and E+CL coating polymer had non-significant difference inhibitory effect on Fusarium moniliforme. The variant of CL coating polymer for seed coating was only during the first 6 months of storage able to inhibit all species of the observed seed borne fungi, whereas CA and E+CL coating polymer were capable to inhibit most of the fungi until 9 months of storage.

  4. Shelf-life enhancement of fresh ginger rhizomes at ambient temperatures by combination of gamma-irradiation, biocontrol and closed polyethylene bag storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, P.K.; Thomas, P.; Raghu, K.

    1995-01-01

    The feasibility of a combination process involving gamma-irradiation, packing in closed polyethylene bags and biological control of fungi causing storage rot was evaluated as a means of extending the shelf-life of fresh ginger rhizomes at ambient temperatures (25–30°C). Storage in closed polyethylene bags reduced weight loss but increased sprouting and rooting, which could be prevented by gamma irradiation to 60 Gy. Rotting caused by Sclerotium rolfsii was, however, a major cause of spoilage during extended storage. Four isolates of Trichoderma sp. isolated from sclerotia of S. rolfsii infecting ginger rhizomes, one of Gliocfadium uirens, and four isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas were tested, out of which, one isolate of Trichoderma was found to be highly effective in suppressing the growth of S. rolfsii. The efficacy of the antagonist was demonstrated under simulated market conditions using artificially inoculated rhizomes. The recommended procedure consists of dipping washed, air dried rhizomes in Trichoderma suspension (10 8 spores ml -1 ), air-drying, packing in 250 gauge LDPE bags followed by irradiation to 60 Gy. Rhizomes thus treated remained in good marketable condition for up to 2 months at ambient temperature without sprouting or significant loss of quality and less than 5% weight loss. An in vitro bioassay system was developed to demonstrate the efficacy of the antagonist to protect the cut surface of sliced rhizomes inoculated with the pathogen. The method could be used for rapid screening of antagonists

  5. KOH concentration effect on cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hong S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    A cycle life test of Ni/H2 cells containing electrolytes of various KOH concentrations and a sintered type nickel electrode was carried out at 23 C using a 45 min accelerated low Earth orbit (LEO) cycle regime at 80 percent depth of discharge. One of three cells containing 26 percent KOH has achieved over 28,000 cycles, and the other two 19,000 cycles, without a sign of failure. Two other cells containing 31 percent KOH electrolyte, which is the concentration presently used in aerospace cells, failed after 2,979 and 3,620 cycles. This result indicates that the cycle life of the present type of Ni/H2 cells may be extended by a factor of 5 to 10 simply by lowering the KOH concentration. Long cycle life of a Ni/H2 battery at high depth-of-discharge operation is desired, particularly for an LEO spacecraft application. Typically, battery life of about 30,000 cycles is required for a five year mission in an LEO. Such a cycle life with presently available cells can be assured only at a very low depth-of-discharge operation. Results of testing already show that the cycle life of an Ni/H2 cell is tremendously improved by simply using an electrolyte of low KOH concentration.

  6. Numerical modelling of the long term mechanical behaviour of a storage cell for high level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian, H.B.; Jia, Y.; Duveau, G.; Shao, J.F.; Poutrel, A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In France, a clay formation, called Callovo-Oxfordian clay, is considered as potential geological barrier for storage of radioactive wastes. An underground research laboratory is constructed in this clay layer in Bure (CMHM). The French Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra) plans to conduct a series of full scale experiments in the Bure Underground Research Laboratory in order to study the coupled Chemo- Thermo-Hydraulic-Mechanical processes due to the excavation, ventilation, subsequent backfilling/sealing, corrosion of metal components and heat release from the radioactive wasters. These phenomena will occur in the storage structures and the geologic barrier for a short/very long period of time. Especially for the High-Level Wastes, due to the important increase of temperature released by the waste packages, the behaviour of geological barrier is perhaps perturbed and the design of repository is also influenced in terms of admissible thermal loading. In this paper, a disposal cell for the radioactive High-Level Wastes (HLW) is studied in order to analyser the coupled phenomena evolving in the HLW storage. The carbon steel is adopted as the first choice material for the container of waste because of its relevant geochemical condition. In the underground radioactive wastes storage, due to the arrival of water from the geological formation, the metallic components will be corroded, by step, with a decrease of mechanical resistance and a generated supplementary volume. The space between the metallic container and the host rock will then be closed under the combination of metallic corrosion and the behaviour differs of Callovo-Oxfordian clay. As results, important stress will be created on the interface of Callovo-Oxfordian clay and wastes packages. In addition, local hydration of barrier modifies the water infiltration from the Callovo-Oxfordian clay and the stress distribution in the argillite. According to

  7. The Effect of Storage and Routing Policies on Picker Blocking in a Real-life Narrow-aisle Warehouse

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gils, Teun; Caris, An; Ramaekers, Katrien

    2017-01-01

    Upcoming e-commerce markets force warehouses to handle a large number of orders within short time windows. Narrow-aisle order picking systems allow to store a large number of products in small areas. In manual order picking systems, narrow aisles can result in substantial waiting time compared to wide-aisle systems. The objective of this study is to analyse the joint effect of the two main operational order picking planning problems, storage location assignment and order picker routing, on or...

  8. Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance as it allows existence of a temperature gradient with the benefit of deliver......In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance as it allows existence of a temperature gradient with the benefit...... of delivering hot water for the household and returning the coldest fluid back to SOFC heat recovery heat-exchanger. A model of the SOFC system is developed to determine the energy required to meet the hourly average electric load of the residence. The model evaluates the amount of heat generated and the amount...... of heat used for thermal loads of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation is used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small...

  9. An All-vanadium Continuous-flow Photoelectrochemical Cell for Extending State-of-charge in Solar Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zi; Shen, Yi; Liu, Dong; Liu, Fuqiang

    2017-04-04

    Greater levels of solar energy storage provide an effective solution to the inherent nature of intermittency, and can substantially improve reliability, availability, and quality of the renewable energy source. Here we demonstrated an all-vanadium (all-V) continuous-flow photoelectrochemical storage cell (PESC) to achieve efficient and high-capacity storage of solar energy, through improving both photocurrent and photocharging depth. It was discovered that forced convective flow of electrolytes greatly enhanced the photocurrent by 5 times comparing to that with stagnant electrolytes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study revealed a great reduction of charge transfer resistance with forced convective flow of electrolytes as a result of better mass transport at U-turns of the tortuous serpentine flow channel of the cell. Taking advantage of the improved photocurrent and diminished charge transfer resistance, the all-V continuous-flow PESC was capable of producing ~20% gain in state of charge (SOC) under AM1.5 illumination for ca. 1.7 hours without any external bias. This gain of SOC was surprisingly three times more than that with stagnant electrolytes during a 25-hour period of photocharge.

  10. Effect of vacuum-packaging and low dose gamma irradiation on the microbial, bio-chemical quality and shelf life of peeled shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during ice storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojayanaik, Manjanaik; Naroth, Kavya; Prasad, Surjith; Shetty, Veena; Hiriyur, Somashekarappa; Patil, Rajashekar

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to see the combined effect of vacuum packaging and low dose gamma irradiation (3kGy) on the shelf life of peeled and undeveined shrimp (Litopeanus vannamie) during ice storage. The fresh farm raised shrimps were peeled and un deveined, packed in high density polyethylene bags (aerobic and vacuum packaging) and were divided into four groups viz. control (C), Irradiated (I), Vacuum packed (V) and vacuum-packed with irradiation (VI). The two groups (I and VI) were irradiated at 3 kGy (Dose rate at the rate 6.043 kGy/hr) and aseptically stored in ice in an insulated polystyrene box. All the samples were periodically analysed for microbial (Total bacterial load, total Coliform, Faecal Coliforms, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Vibrios and E. coli) and bio chemical (TVB-N, TMA, TBARS and pH) quality. The results revealed that the combination of low dose gamma irradiation and vacuum packaging had a significant effect on microbial load (p>0.05). The TVB-N, TMA-N, TBARS and pH were significantly lower in vacuum packed with irradiation when compare to non-irradiated and aerobically packed shrimp (p> 0.05), and shelf life of peeled shrimp extended up to 21 days in ice storage. (author)

  11. Centre of the Cell: Science Comes to Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkwill, Frances; Chambers, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Centre of the Cell is a unique biomedical science education centre, a widening participation and outreach project in London's East End. This article describes Centre of the Cell's first five years of operation, the evolution of the project in response to audience demand, and the impact of siting a major public engagement project within a research laboratory.

  12. Prolonged maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate acid and adenosine triphosphate in red blood cells during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Korte, Dirk; Kleine, Mya; Korsten, Herbert G H; Verhoeven, Arthur J

    2008-06-01

    Current additive solutions (ASs) for red cells (RBCs) do not maintain a constant level of critical metabolites such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate acid (2,3-DPG) during cold storage. From the literature it is known that the intracellular pH is an important determinant of RBC metabolism. Therefore, a new, alkaline, AS was developed with the aim to allow cold storage of RBCs with stable product characteristics. Whole blood-derived RBCs (leukoreduced) were resuspended in experimental medium phosphate-adenine-guanosine-glucose-gluconate-mannitol (PAGGG-M; pH 8.2) with and without washing in the same medium. During cold storage several in vitro variables, such as intracellular pH, 2,3-DPG, ATP, and hemolysis, were analyzed. During cold storage, RBCs resuspended in PAGGG-M showed a constant ATP level (approx. 6 mumol/g Hb) and a very limited hemolysis (level), followed by a slow decrease, with at Day 35 still 100 percent of the initial level. RBCs washed in PAGGG-M even showed a continuous increase of 2,3-DPG during 35 days, with a maximum level of 200 percent of the initial value. The effect of PAGGG-M appears to be related to long-lasting effects of the initial intracellular pH shortly after production. Resuspension of RBCs in our alkaline medium PAGGG-M resulted in a RBC unit of high quality during storage for up to at least 35 days, with 2,3-DPG levels of higher than 10 mumol per g Hb, hemolysis of less than 0.2 percent, and ATP levels of higher than 5 mumol per g Hb.

  13. Analysis of Pressure Variations in a Low-Pressure Nickel-Hydrogen Battery- Part 2: Cells with Metal Hydride Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, B K; Wainright, J S

    2012-05-15

    A sub-atmospheric pressure nickel hydrogen (Ni-H(2)) battery with metal hydride for hydrogen storage is developed for implantable neuroprosthetic devices. Pressure variations during charge and discharge of the cell are analyzed at different states of charge and are found to follow the desorption curve of the pressure composition isotherm (PCI) of the metal hydride. The measured pressure agreed well with the calculated theoretical pressure based on the PCI and is used to predict the state of charge of the battery. Hydrogen equilibration with the metal hydride during charge/discharge cycling is fast when the pressure is in the range from 8 to 13 psia and slower in the range from 6 to 8 psia. The time constant for the slower hydrogen equilibration, 1.37h, is similar to the time constant for oxygen recombination and therefore pressure changes due to different mechanisms are difficult to estimate. The self-discharge rate of the cell with metal hydride is two times lower in comparison to the cell with gaseous hydrogen storage alone and is a result of the lower pressure in the cell when the metal hydride is used.

  14. Analysis of Pressure Variations in a Low-Pressure Nickel-Hydrogen Battery– Part 2: Cells with Metal Hydride Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, B. K.; Wainright, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    A sub-atmospheric pressure nickel hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery with metal hydride for hydrogen storage is developed for implantable neuroprosthetic devices. Pressure variations during charge and discharge of the cell are analyzed at different states of charge and are found to follow the desorption curve of the pressure composition isotherm (PCI) of the metal hydride. The measured pressure agreed well with the calculated theoretical pressure based on the PCI and is used to predict the state of charge of the battery. Hydrogen equilibration with the metal hydride during charge/discharge cycling is fast when the pressure is in the range from 8 to 13 psia and slower in the range from 6 to 8 psia. The time constant for the slower hydrogen equilibration, 1.37h, is similar to the time constant for oxygen recombination and therefore pressure changes due to different mechanisms are difficult to estimate. The self-discharge rate of the cell with metal hydride is two times lower in comparison to the cell with gaseous hydrogen storage alone and is a result of the lower pressure in the cell when the metal hydride is used. PMID:22711974

  15. Listeria monocytogenes efficiently invades Caco-2 cells after low-temperature storage in broth and on deli meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Koch, Anette Granly; Ingmer, Hanne

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how various growth conditions influence the virulence of Listeria monocytogenes monitored by its ability to invade the epithelial cell lines Caco-2 and INT-407. The growth conditions examined were modified atmosphere-packaged deli meat and brain heart infusion broth (BHI) with and without salt. Five strains of L. monocytogenes were selected to investigate their invasiveness and all strains invaded Caco-2 cells at higher levels than INT-407 cells. Further, the clinical strains (3443 and 3734) were more invasive (p 0.05) in invasiveness after 7 days at 10 degrees C in BHI broth or on sausage, whereas a slight increase (p < 0.05) was observed after incubation on ham for 2 and 4 weeks compared to that in BHI broth. Most importantly, our results show that L. monocytogenes efficiently invade Caco-2 cells even after 4 weeks of storage at chilled temperature. This is highly relevant for safety assessment of this organism in food as these conditions reflect storage of ready-to-eat food products in domestic refrigerators.

  16. Molecular Beam-Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (MB-TDS Monitoring of Hydrogen Desorbed from Storage Fuel Cell Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge H. F. Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Different types of experimental studies are performed using the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA MlNi3.6Co0.85Al0.3Mn0.3 (Ml: La-rich mischmetal, chemically surface treated, as the anode active material for application in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. The recently developed molecular beam—thermal desorption spectrometry (MB-TDS technique is here reported for detecting the electrochemical hydrogen uptake and release by the treated HSA. The MB-TDS allows an accurate determination of the hydrogen mass absorbed into the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA, and has significant advantages in comparison with the conventional TDS method. Experimental data has revealed that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA using such chemically treated alloy presents an enhanced surface capability for hydrogen adsorption.

  17. Storage Free Smart Energy Management for Frequency Control in a Diesel-PV-Fuel Cell-Based Hybrid AC Microgrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, P C; Mishra, S

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a novel, smart energy management scheme for a microgrid, consisting of a diesel generator and power electronic converter interfaced renewable energy-based generators, such as photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell, for frequency regulation without any storage. In the proposed strategy, output of the PV is controlled in coordination with other generators using neurofuzzy controller, either only for transient frequency regulation or for both transient and steady-state frequency regulation, depending on the load demand, thereby eliminating the huge storage requirements. The option of demand response control is also explored along with the generation control. For accurate and quick tracking of maximum power point and its associated reserve power from the PV generator, this paper also proposes a novel adaptive-predictor-corrector-based tracking mechanism.

  18. Molecular Beam-Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (MB-TDS) Monitoring of Hydrogen Desorbed from Storage Fuel Cell Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Rui F M; Santos, Diogo M F; Sequeira, Cesar A C; Ribeiro, Jorge H F

    2012-02-06

    Different types of experimental studies are performed using the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA) MlNi 3.6 Co 0.85 Al 0.3 Mn 0.3 (Ml: La-rich mischmetal), chemically surface treated, as the anode active material for application in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The recently developed molecular beam-thermal desorption spectrometry (MB-TDS) technique is here reported for detecting the electrochemical hydrogen uptake and release by the treated HSA. The MB-TDS allows an accurate determination of the hydrogen mass absorbed into the hydrogen storage alloy (HSA), and has significant advantages in comparison with the conventional TDS method. Experimental data has revealed that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) using such chemically treated alloy presents an enhanced surface capability for hydrogen adsorption.

  19. Potential of oregano essential oil and MAP to extend the shelf life of fresh swordfish: a comparative study with ice storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatrakou, V; Kykkidou, S; Papavergou, A; Kontominas, M G; Savvaidis, I N

    2008-05-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 5% O(2)/50% CO(2)/45% N(2); treatment M), the addition of oregano oil (0.1%, v/w; treatment AO) as a natural preservative, as well as their combination (treatment MO) on the quality and shelf life extension of fresh Mediterranean swordfish fillets during a refrigerated storage (4 degrees C) period of 18 d. Simultaneously, swordfish fillets were stored under aerobic conditions (control treatment A, 4 degrees C) and on ice (usual commercial method of preservation, treatment I, 0 degrees C). Among the 5 treatments examined in the present study, the most effective one to inhibit the microbial and sensory spoilage proved to be the MO treatment, achieving a shelf life extension of 8 to 9 d. The dominant bacteria in the microflora of swordfish, irrespective of treatment, were the Pseudomonads and the H(2)S-producing bacteria, while both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the Enterobacteriaceae produced the lowest populations in swordfish samples kept on ice. Among the chemical indices examined, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values showed no specific trend of lipid oxidation for swordfish, irrespective of treatment. Final trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values for treatments, A, AO, M, and MO ranged between 1.33 and 14.29 mg N/100 g and 14.11 to 55.52 mg N/100 g, respectively, whereas for I samples they remained almost unchanged during storage. Sensory analysis (taste attribute) correlated well with microbiological analysis, indicating a shelf life of approximately 5 to 6 d for control, 10 to 11 d for AO, 12 d for I, 13 d for M, and 14 d for MO samples.

  20. Combined effects of thermosonication and slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the microbial quality and shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during refrigeration storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of thermosonication combined with slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAcEW) on the shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during storage at 4 and 7 °C. Each kale (10 ± 0.2 g) was inoculated to contain approximately 6 log CFU/g of Listeria monocytogenes. Each inoculated or uninoculated samples was dip treated at 40 °C for 3 min with deionized water, thermosonication (400 W/L), SAcEW (5 mg/L), sodium chlorite (SC; 100 mg/L), sodium hypochlorite (SH; 100 mg/L), and thermosonication combined with SAcEW, SC, and SH (TS + SAcEW, TS + SC, and TS + SH, respectively). Growths of L. monocytogenes and spoilage microorganisms and changes in sensory (overall visual quality, browning, and off-odour) were evaluated. The results show that lag time and specific growth rate of each microorganism were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by treatment and storage temperature. Exceeding the unacceptable counts of spoilage microorganisms did not always result in adverse effects on sensory attributes. This study suggests that TS + SAcEW was the most effective method to prolong the shelf life of kale with an extension of around 4 and 6 days at 4 and 7 °C, respectively, and seems to be a promising method for the shelf life extension of fresh produce. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  2. A preliminary study of a miniature planar 6-cell PEMFC stack combined with a small hydrogen storage canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xigui; Zheng, Dan; Wang, Tao; Chen, Cong; Cao, Jianyu; Yan, Jian; Wang, Wenming; Liu, Juanying; Liu, Haohan; Tian, Juan; Li, Xinxin; Yang, Hui; Xia, Baojia

    The fabrication and performance evaluation of a miniature 6-cell PEMFC stack based on Micro-Electronic-Mechanical-System (MEMS) technology is presented in this paper. The stack with a planar configuration consists of 6-cells in serial interconnection by spot welding one cell anode with another cell cathode. Each cell was made by sandwiching a membrane-electrode-assembly (MEA) between two flow field plates fabricated by a classical MEMS wet etching method using silicon wafer as the original material. The plates were made electrically conductive by sputtering a Ti/Pt/Au composite metal layer on their surfaces. The 6-cells lie in the same plane with a fuel buffer/distributor as their support, which was fabricated by the MEMS silicon-glass bonding technology. A small hydrogen storage canister was used as fuel source. Operating on dry H 2 at a 40 ml min -1 flow rate and air-breathing conditions at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the linear polarization experiment gave a measured peak power of 0.9 W at 250 mA cm -2 for the stack and average power density of 104 mW cm -2 for each cell. The results suggested that the stack has reasonable performance benefiting from an even fuel supply. But its performance tended to deteriorate with power increase, which became obvious at 600 mW. This suggests that the stack may need some power assistance, from say supercapacitors to maintain its stability when operated at higher power.

  3. Modeling the performance of hydrogen-oxygen unitized regenerative proton exchange membrane fuel cells for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Massimo; Alotto, Piergiorgio; Moro, Federico

    2015-11-01

    Thanks to the independent sizing of power and energy, hydrogen-based energy storage is one of the very few technologies capable of providing long operational times in addition to the other advantages offered by electrochemical energy storage, for example scalability, site versatility, and mobile service. The typical design consists of an electrolyzer in charge mode and a separate fuel cell in discharge mode. Instead, a unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) is a single device performing both energy conversions, achieving a higher compactness and power-to-weight ratio. This paper presents a performance model of a URFC based on a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyte and working on hydrogen and oxygen, which can provide high energy and power densities (>0.7 W cm-2). It provides voltage, power, and efficiency at varying load conditions as functions of the controlling physical quantities: temperature, pressure, concentration, and humidification. The model constitutes a tool for designing the interface and control sub-system as well as for exploring optimized cell/stack designs and operational conditions. To date, only a few of such analyses have been carried out and more research is needed in order to explore the true potential of URFCs.

  4. Nutritional status, quality of life and CD4 cell count of adults living ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: CD4 cell count; Quality of Life; adults; nutritional status; nutritional intake. Nutritional status .... used to calculate the Body Mass Index (BMI). BMI was ... fat consumption as a percentage of the total food energy intake, and component ..... except when the CD4 counts fall very low.5,27 The CD4 cell count may offer a ...

  5. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation attenuates taste progenitor cell proliferation and shortens the life span of taste bud cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian taste bud, a complex collection of taste sensory cells, supporting cells, and immature basal cells, is the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Even though the cells of the taste bud undergo constant turnover, the structural homeostasis of the bud is maintained by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Compared with nongustatory lingual epithelial cells, taste cells express higher levels of several inflammatory receptors and signalling proteins. Whether inflammation, an underlying condition in some diseases associated with taste disorders, interferes with taste cell renewal and turnover is unknown. Here we report the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation on taste progenitor cell proliferation and taste bud cell turnover in mouse taste tissues. Results Intraperitoneal injection of LPS rapidly induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interferon (IFN-γ, and interleukin (IL-6, in mouse circumvallate and foliate papillae. TNF-α and IFN-γ immunoreactivities were preferentially localized to subsets of cells in taste buds. LPS-induced inflammation significantly reduced the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU-labeled newborn taste bud cells 1-3 days after LPS injection, suggesting an inhibition of taste bud cell renewal. BrdU pulse-chase experiments showed that BrdU-labeled taste cells had a shorter average life span in LPS-treated mice than in controls. To investigate whether LPS inhibits taste cell renewal by suppressing taste progenitor cell proliferation, we studied the expression of Ki67, a cell proliferation marker. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that LPS markedly reduced Ki67 mRNA levels in circumvallate and foliate epithelia. Immunofluorescent staining using anti-Ki67 antibodies showed that LPS decreased the number of Ki67-positive cells in the basal regions surrounding circumvallate taste buds

  6. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation attenuates taste progenitor cell proliferation and shortens the life span of taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Zachary J; Kim, Agnes; Huang, Liquan; Brand, Joseph; Wang, Hong

    2010-06-10

    The mammalian taste bud, a complex collection of taste sensory cells, supporting cells, and immature basal cells, is the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Even though the cells of the taste bud undergo constant turnover, the structural homeostasis of the bud is maintained by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Compared with nongustatory lingual epithelial cells, taste cells express higher levels of several inflammatory receptors and signalling proteins. Whether inflammation, an underlying condition in some diseases associated with taste disorders, interferes with taste cell renewal and turnover is unknown. Here we report the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation on taste progenitor cell proliferation and taste bud cell turnover in mouse taste tissues. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS rapidly induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and interleukin (IL)-6, in mouse circumvallate and foliate papillae. TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma immunoreactivities were preferentially localized to subsets of cells in taste buds. LPS-induced inflammation significantly reduced the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled newborn taste bud cells 1-3 days after LPS injection, suggesting an inhibition of taste bud cell renewal. BrdU pulse-chase experiments showed that BrdU-labeled taste cells had a shorter average life span in LPS-treated mice than in controls. To investigate whether LPS inhibits taste cell renewal by suppressing taste progenitor cell proliferation, we studied the expression of Ki67, a cell proliferation marker. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that LPS markedly reduced Ki67 mRNA levels in circumvallate and foliate epithelia. Immunofluorescent staining using anti-Ki67 antibodies showed that LPS decreased the number of Ki67-positive cells in the basal regions surrounding circumvallate taste buds, the niche for taste progenitor

  7. Deep reversible storage. Design options for the storage in deep geological formation - High-medium activity, long living wastes 2009 milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    This report aims at presenting a synthesis of currently studied solutions for the different components of the project of deep geological radioactive waste storage centre. For each of these elements, the report indicates the main operational objectives to be taken into account in relationship with safety functions or with reversibility. It identifies the currently proposed design options, presents the technical solutions (with sometime several possibilities), indicates industrial references (in the nuclear sector, in underground works) and comments results of technological tests performed by the ANDRA. After a description of functionalities and of the overall organisation of storage components, the different following elements and aspects are addressed: surface installations, underground architecture, parcel transfer between the surface and storage cells, storage container for medium-activity long-life (MAVL) waste, storage cell for medium-activity long-life waste, handling of MAVL parcels in storage cells, storage container for high-activity (HA) waste, storage cell for HA waste, handling of HA parcels in storage cells, and works for site closing

  8. Synthetic nanocomposite MgH2/5 wt. % TiMn2 powders for solid-hydrogen storage tank integrated with PEM fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Eskandarany, M Sherif; Shaban, Ehab; Aldakheel, Fahad; Alkandary, Abdullah; Behbehani, Montaha; Al-Saidi, M

    2017-10-16

    Storing hydrogen gas into cylinders under high pressure of 350 bar is not safe and still needs many intensive studies dedic ated for tank's manufacturing. Liquid hydrogen faces also severe practical difficulties due to its very low density, leading to larger fuel tanks three times larger than traditional gasoline tank. Moreover, converting hydrogen gas into liquid phase is not an economic process since it consumes high energy needed to cool down the gas temperature to -252.8 °C. One practical solution is storing hydrogen gas in metal lattice such as Mg powder and its nanocomposites in the form of MgH 2 . There are two major issues should be solved first. One related to MgH 2 in which its inherent poor hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics and high thermal stability must be improved. Secondly, related to providing a safe tank. Here we have succeeded to prepare a new binary system of MgH 2 /5 wt. % TiMn 2 nanocomposite powder that show excellent hydrogenation/dehydrogenation behavior at relatively low temperature (250 °C) with long cycle-life-time (1400 h). Moreover, a simple hydrogen storage tank filled with our synthetic nanocomposite powders was designed and tested in electrical charging a battery of a cell phone device at 180 °C through a commercial fuel cell.

  9. Neutron imaging methods for the investigation of energy related materials. Fuel cells, battery, hydrogen storage and nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Eberhard H.; Boillat, Pierre; Kaestner, Anders; Vontobel, Peter; Mannes, David

    2015-10-01

    After a short explanation of the state-of-the-art in the field of neutron imaging we give some examples how energy related materials can be studied successfully. These are in particular fuel cell studies, battery research approaches, the storage of hydrogen, but also some investigations with nuclear fuel components. The high contrast for light isotopes like H-1, Li-6 or B-10 are used to trace low amounts of material even within compact sealing of metals which are relatively transparent for neutrons at the same time.

  10. Mitochondrial damage and cholesterol storage in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells with silencing of UBIAD1 gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Morales

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterozygous mutations in the UBIAD1 gene cause Schnyder corneal dystrophy characterized by abnormal cholesterol and phospholipid deposits in the cornea. Ubiad1 protein was recently identified as Golgi prenyltransferase responsible for biosynthesis of vitamin K2 and CoQ10, a key protein in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Our study shows that silencing UBIAD1 in cultured human hepatocellular carcinoma cells causes dramatic morphological changes and cholesterol storage in the mitochondria, emphasizing an important role of UBIAD1 in mitochondrial function.

  11. Nickel-based anode with water storage capability to mitigate carbon deposition for direct ethanol solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Su, Chao; Ran, Ran; Zhao, Bote; Shao, Zongping; Tade, Moses O; Liu, Shaomin

    2014-06-01

    The potential to use ethanol as a fuel places solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) as a sustainable technology for clean energy delivery because of the renewable features of ethanol versus hydrogen. In this work, we developed a new class of anode catalyst exemplified by Ni+BaZr0.4Ce0.4Y0.2O3 (Ni+BZCY) with a water storage capability to overcome the persistent problem of carbon deposition. Ni+BZCY performed very well in catalytic efficiency, water storage capability and coking resistance tests. A stable and high power output was well maintained with a peak power density of 750 mW cm(-2) at 750 °C. The SOFC with the new robust anode performed for seven days without any sign of performance decay, whereas SOFCs with conventional anodes failed in less than 2 h because of significant carbon deposition. Our findings indicate the potential applications of these water storage cermets as catalysts in hydrocarbon reforming and as anodes for SOFCs that operate directly on hydrocarbons. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Quality changes of pasteurised mango juice during storage. Part I: Selecting shelf-life markers by integration of a targeted and untargeted multivariate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Scheling; Grauwet, Tara; Gedefa, Getnet Belete; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2015-12-01

    For the first time, a multivariate approach combining targeted and untargeted data was used to obtain insight into quality changes in pasteurised mango juice (cv. 'Totapuri') as a function of storage (42°C for 8weeks). Mango juice samples were formulated with addition of different potential precursors for different quality-related chemical reactions: ascorbic acid, citric acid and sugars. Control (diluted mango puree with water), ascorbic acid-enriched (AA 250 and AA 500 ), citric acid-enriched (CA, CA+AA 250 and CA+AA 500 ) and sugar-enriched (S) samples were characterised for a range of targeted quality parameters as well as for a volatile fingerprint (untargeted). Selection of shelf-life markers or quality parameters significantly changing during shelf-life was performed over all formulations as well as per mango juice formulation. Our study showed that a common trend over all formulations was observed for colour values (VID>│0.90│), while specific shelf-life markers were selected for each formulation. In acidified mango juice samples (CA, CA+AA 250 , CA+AA 500 ), more terpene oxides were selected compared to other formulations. In ascorbic acid-enriched samples (AA 250 , AA 500 , CA+AA 250 , CA+AA 500 ), furfural and ascorbic acid were significantly changing during shelf-life. It seems that the reaction pathways for compounds being formed or degraded upon shelf-life are clearly affected by the acidity level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mitochondria can Power Cells to Life and Death

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    molecular basis of pathogenicity and ... Mitochondria were discovered by R Altman in 1890 and the word was coined ... Diabetes mellitus ... 2 x 103 per cell) depending upon where and in which tissue they exist. They can .... is released, which then gears up other types of caspases to orchestrate .... Cellular Biology, CDFD.

  14. The life and fate of mesenchymal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Eggenhofer (Elke); F. Luk (Franka); M.H. Dahlke (Marc); M.J. Hoogduijn (Martin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are present throughout the body and are thought to play a role in tissue regeneration and control of inflammation. MSC can be easily expanded in vitro and their potential as a therapeutic option for degenerative and inflammatory disease is therefore

  15. Effect of KOH concentration on LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen flight battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1990-01-01

    A breakthrough in the low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycle life of individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel hydrogen battery cells is reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The effect of KOH concentration on cycle life was studied. The cycle regime was a stressful accelerated LEO, which consisted of a 27.5 min charge followed by a 17.5 min charge (2 x normal rate). The depth of discharge (DOD) was 80 percent. The cell temperature was maintained at 23 C. The next step is to validate these results using flight hardware and real time LEO test. NASA Lewis has a contract with the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC), Crane, Indiana to validate the boiler plate test results. Six 48 A-hr Hughes recirculation design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight battery cells are being evaluated. Three of the cells contain 26 percent KOH (test cells) and three contain 31 percent KOH (control cells). They are undergoing real time LEO cycle life testing. The cycle regime is a 90-min LEO orbit consisting of a 54-min charge followed by a 36-min discharge. The depth-of-discharge is 80 percent. The cell temperature is maintained at 10 C. The cells were cycled for over 8000 cycles in the continuing test. There were no failures for the cells containing 26 percent KOH. There were two failures, however, for the cells containing 31 percent KOH.

  16. Length of Storage of Red Blood Cells and Patient Survival After Blood Transfusion: A Binational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmin, Märit; Rostgaard, Klaus; Lee, Brian K; Wikman, Agneta; Norda, Rut; Nielsen, Kaspar René; Pedersen, Ole B; Holmqvist, Jacob; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Edgren, Gustaf

    2017-02-21

    Possible negative effects, including increased mortality, among persons who receive stored red blood cells (RBCs) have recently garnered considerable attention. Despite many studies, including 4 randomized trials, no consensus exists. To study the association between the length of RBC storage and mortality in a large population-based cohort of patients who received transfusions, allowing detection of small yet clinically significant effects. Binational cohort study. All transfusion recipients in Sweden and Denmark. 854 862 adult patients who received transfusions from 2003 to 2012. Patients were followed from first blood transfusion. Relative and absolute risks for death in 30 days or 1 year in relation to length of RBC storage were assessed by using 3 independent analytic approaches. All analyses were conducted by using Cox proportional hazards regression. Regardless of the analytic approach, no association was found between the length of RBC storage and mortality. The difference in 30-day cumulative mortality between patients receiving blood stored for 30 to 42 days and those receiving blood stored for 10 to 19 days was -0.2% (95% CI, -0.5% to 0.1%). Even among patients who received more than 6 units of RBCs stored for 30 days or longer, the hazard ratio of death was 1.00 (CI, 0.96 to 1.05) compared with those who received no such units. Observational study; risk of confounding by indication. Consistent with previous randomized trials, this study found no association between the length of storage of transfused RBCs and patient mortality. Results were homogeneous, with differences in absolute mortality consistently less than 1% among the most extreme exposure categories. These findings suggest that the current practice of storing RBCs for up to 42 days does not need to be changed. The Swedish Research Council, Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, Swedish Society for Medical Research, Strategic Research Program in Epidemiology at Karolinska Institutet, and Danish

  17. The search for a storage site for low-level and long-life wastes. December 2008 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After having recalled the methodology and approach implemented for the search and selection of radioactive waste storage sites, this report proposes a brief synthesis of contacts taken during the call for candidates. It comments the results of this call, describes the project technical constraints (waste inventory, studied solutions, graphite and radiferous wastes, programmed investigations on preselected sites), gives the results of the geological analysis (methodology, geological context, site ranking), of the environmental analysis (context and principles, collected information), and of the socio-economic analysis of the candidate sites. The last chapter discusses the identification of possible preselected sites. Some more detailed information are available in appendix: candidate list, geological sheets and maps, environmental and socio-economic analysis of candidate towns or districts

  18. Effect of KOH concentration on LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells. An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1991-01-01

    An update of validation test results confirming the breakthrough in LEO cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells containing 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte is presented. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen cells is reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH.

  19. Effect of KOH concentration on LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells - An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1991-01-01

    An update of validation test results confirming the breakthrough in LEO cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells containing 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte is presented. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen cells is reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH.

  20. Quality of life of individuals with sickle cell disease followed at referral centers in Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Quintella Brandão Vilela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is a genetic, hereditary and chronic disease that affects the health of its carriers and might impair their health-related quality of life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to assess the health-related quality of life of individuals with sickle cell disease followed at referral centers in Alagoas, Brazil. METHODS: A total of 40 individuals with sickle cell disease aged 12 to 43 years old were evaluated by means of sociodemographic and clinical questionnaires, the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey and the Beck Depression Inventory. The latter was applied only to adults. RESULTS: Most participants were adults (62.5% with a predominance of the SS genotype (85% with pain being the commonest complication (95%. Mood disorder was found in 40% of the adults. The patients exhibited overall impairment of quality of life, which was more pronounced among the adults and under 15-year-old adolescents. Married adults exhibited less impairment of most quality of life domains compared to unmarried adults, and the adults with mood disorder exhibited greater impairment of all quality of life domains. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that interventions that aim to improve vitality, pain, and mental health might contribute to maintaining high levels of quality of life in patients with sickle cell disease, especially among adults and under 15-year-old adolescents.

  1. Leaching of metals from end-of-life solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakankar, Mital; Su, Chun Hui; Hocheng, Hong

    2018-04-10

    The issue of recycling waste solar cells is critical with regard to the expanded use of these cells, which increases waste production. Technology establishment for this recycling process is essential with respect to the valuable and hazardous metals present therein. In the present study, the leaching potentials of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium simplicissimum were assessed for the recovery of metals from spent solar cells, with a focus on retrieval of the valuable metal Te. Batch experiments were performed to explore and compare the metal removal efficiencies of the aforementioned microorganisms using spent media. P. chrysogenum spent medium was found to be most effective, recovering 100% of B, Mg, Si, V, Ni, Zn, and Sr along with 93% of Te at 30 °C, 150 rpm and 1% (w/v) pulp density. Further optimization of the process parameters increased the leaching efficiency, and 100% of Te was recovered at the optimum conditions of 20 °C, 200 rpm shaking speed and 1% (w/v) pulp density. In addition, the recovery of aluminum increased from 31 to 89% upon process optimization. Thus, the process has considerable potential for metal recovery and is environmentally beneficial.

  2. An optimized cask technology for conditioning, transportation and long term interim storage of 'End of Life' nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefort-Mary, Florence; Clement, Gilles; Lamouroux, Christine; Dumont, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for the decommissioning of a nuclear facility, during its 'end of life' management and while performing the actual dismantling operations, one has to consider a large diversity of nuclear waste in term of types, volumes and activities. Customers are frequently faced with the obligation to undertake multiple and costly waste management operations including handling, reconditioning or re-transferring from one package to another, for example when moving from on-site storage to transportation. To address this issue, a new - highly flexible - cask system named TN R MW is being developed. This cask has a total weight of 10 T and is compliant with the 2012 IAEA regulations. It is developed on a flexible concept basis, adaptable to the various nuclear needs, including: from IP2 to B(U) / B(U)F; on-site/ international transportation; long term interim storage. Licensing and manufacturing of number of items of this TN R MW family is underway. (authors)

  3. Use of Structural Equation Modeling to Demonstrate the Differential Impact of Storage and Voiding Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms on Symptom Bother and Quality of Life during Treatment for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Associated with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVary, Kevin T; Peterson, Andrew; Donatucci, Craig F; Baygani, Simin; Henneges, Carsten; Clouth, Johannes; Wong, David; Oelke, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia typically respond well to medical therapy. While changes in total I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) are generally accepted as measurement for treatment response, I-PSS storage and voiding subscores may not accurately reflect the influence of symptom improvement on patient bother and quality of life. Structural equation modeling was done to evaluate physiological interrelationships measured by I-PSS storage vs voiding subscore questions and measure the magnitude of effects on bother using BII (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index) and quality of life on I-PSS quality of life questions. Pooled data from 4 randomized, controlled trials of tadalafil and placebo in 1,462 men with lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia were used to investigate the relationship of storage vs voiding lower urinary tract symptoms on BII and quality of life. The final structural equation model demonstrated a sufficient fit to model interdependence of storage, voiding, bother and quality of life (probability for test of close fit <0.0001). Storage aspects had a twofold greater effect on voiding vs voiding aspects on storage (0.61 vs 0.28, each p <0.0001). The direct effect of storage on bother was twofold greater than voiding on bother (0.64 vs 0.29, each p <0.0001). Bother directly impacted quality of life by the largest magnitude of (-0.83), largely driven by storage lower urinary tract symptoms (p <0.0001). Total I-PSS is a reliable instrument to assess the therapeutic response in lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia cases. However, an improvement in storage lower urinary tract symptoms is mainly responsible for improved bother and quality of life during treatment. Care should be taken when evaluating the accuracy of I-PSS subscores as indicators of the response to medical therapy. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  4. Life cycle assessment of roof integrated solar cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brummelen, M.; Nieuwlaar, E.

    1994-01-01

    The research protocol, applied in this report, is designed for use within the energy R and D-context: it provides a framework for finding bottlenecks and opportunities for (new) energy technologies in the context of (energy) resource scarcity and environmental issues. Finding and analyzing these bottlenecks and opportunities is a major objective of this study. A derived objective of this study is to gain experience in using the LCA-framework and the research protocol described earlier, and to evaluate the usefulness of these instruments in helping to find and analyze bottlenecks and opportunities in energy technologies. Photovoltaic solar cell systems (PV systems) are comprised of solar cell modules and a Balance-of-System (BOS): a support structure and power conditioning equipment. In this LCA amorphous silicon cells (a-Si) are considered. For the Netherlands roof-integrated, grid-connected systems are assumed to be the major application of PV in the future. Two cases will be studied. In case 1 a system of 30 m 2 of modules which are connected to the grid via a single inverter are studied. The modules are comprised of a-Si cells and have a conversion efficiency of 10%. Integration into the roof is done with aluminium profiles. In case 2 a system of 30 m 2 a-Si cell modules integrated in the roof with plastic 'tiles' is studied. The modules have an efficiency of 15% and connection to the grid is more or less centralized: 25 systems share an inverter which is connected to the grid. The goal and scope of the LCA and the functional unit are described in chapter 2. In chapter 3 the process tree and descriptions of the distinguished processes are given and the inventory table is drawn up. In chapter 4 the impact assessment is dealt with, followed by a discussion of improvement options in chapter 5. Conclusions and recommendations are given in the chapters 6 and 7 only regarding the environmental aspects. 9 figs., 13 tabs., 4 appendices, 13 refs

  5. Complex life histories of fishes revealed through natural information storage devices: case studies of diadromous events as recorded by otoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfman, M.; Limburg, K.E.; Kristiansson, P.; Svedaeng, H.; Westin, L.; Wickstroem, H.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.

    2000-01-01

    Diadromous fishes - species that move across salinity gradients as part of their life repertoire - form a major part of coastal and inland fisheries. Conventional mark-recapture techniques have long been used to track their movements, but give incomplete information at best. On the other hand, otoliths (ear-stones) of fishes can provide a complete record of major life history events, as reflected both in their microstructure and elemental composition. Strontium, which substitutes for calcium in the aragonite matrix of otoliths, is a powerful tracer of salinity histories in many migratory fishes. We measured Sr and Ca with a nuclear microprobe (PIXE) and show examples (eel, Anguilla anguilla; brown trout, Salmo trutta; American shad, Alosa sapidissima) of how the technique has solved several mysteries within fisheries biology

  6. Efficacy of Various Preservatives on Extending Shelf Life of Vacuum-Packaged Raw Pork during 4°C Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Qi, Yan; Zheng, Jiayi; Fan, X U; Liang, Peixin; Song, Cunjiang

    2018-04-01

    Uncontrolled bacterial growth and metabolic activities are responsible for the short shelf life of raw pork. Culture-independent analysis by 16S ribosome cDNA could reveal viable bacteria in raw pork. This study investigated microbial growth and volatile organic compounds of raw pork supplemented with various preservatives. Vacuum-packaged raw pork was stored at 4°C, after soaking in solutions of potassium sorbate, ε-poly-l-lysine, kojic acid (KA), or sodium diacetate, individually. Spoilage of raw pork was monitored by determining pH and total volatile basic nitrogen, whereas bacterial growth was determined by culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses. Data indicated that all the preservatives were able to inhibit bacterial growth and extend the shelf life of pork. High-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosome cDNA indicated that Pseudomonas was inhibited under vacuum conditions, whereas facultative anaerobes ( Acinetobacter, Photobacterium, Brochothrix, and Myroides) were the most active genera in the spoiled pork. Photobacterium was further inhibited by each preservative. The inhibition of Acinetobacter, Photobacterium, and Myroides could be responsible for the extended shelf life of vacuum-packaged pork; they were effectively inhibited by KA, which also induced the longest shelf life. Moreover, 19 types of volatile organic compounds were detected. 3-Methylbutanol, 3-methylbutanol acetate, 2-butanone, toluene, benzeneacetaldehyde, dimethyl trisulfide, and acetoin were associated with spoilage. Furthermore, KA is a potential preservative in raw pork; because no phenol was detectable within 35 days, excessive intake of phenol induced by preservatives was avoided.

  7. Predicting storage-dependent damage to red blood cells using nitrite oxidation kinetics, peroxiredoxin-2 oxidation, and hemoglobin and free heme measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Joo-Yeun; Stapley, Ryan; Harper, Victoria; Marques, Marisa B; Patel, Rakesh P

    2015-12-01

    Storage-dependent damage to red blood cells (RBCs) varies significantly. Identifying RBC units that will undergo higher levels of hemolysis during storage may allow for more efficient inventory management decision-making. Oxidative-stress mediates storage-dependent damage to RBCs and will depend on the oxidant:antioxidant balance. We reasoned that this balance or redox tone will serve as a determinant of how a given RBC unit stores and that its assessment in "young" RBCs will predict storage-dependent hemolysis. RBCs were sampled from bags and segments stored for 7 to 42 days. Redox tone was assessed by nitrite oxidation kinetics and peroxiredoxin-2 (Prx-2) oxidation. In parallel, hemolysis was assessed by measuring cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) and free heme (hemin). Correlation analyses were performed to determine if Day 7 measurements predicted either the level of hemolysis at Day 35 or the increase in hemolysis during storage. Higher Day 7 Prx-2 oxidation was associated with higher Day 35 Prx-2 oxidation, suggesting that early assessment of this variable may identify RBCs that will incur the most oxidative damage during storage. RBCs that oxidized nitrite faster on Day 7 were associated with the greatest levels of storage-dependent hemolysis and increases in Prx-2 oxidation. An inverse relationship between storage-dependent changes in oxyhemoglobin and free heme was observed underscoring an unappreciated reciprocity between these molecular species. Moreover, free heme was higher in the bag compared to paired segments, with opposite trends observed for free Hb. Measurement of Prx-2 oxidation and nitrite oxidation kinetics early during RBC storage may predict storage-dependent damage to RBC including hemolysis-dependent formation of free Hb and heme. © 2015 AABB.

  8. Simulation of a resonant-type ring magnet power supply with multiple resonant cells and energy storage chokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.M.S.; Blackmore, E.W.; Reiniger, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    For the TRIUMF KAON Factory Booster Ring, a resonant-type magnet power supply has been proposed for the dipole magnet excitation. The Booster Ring magnet power supply system based on resonant circuits, coupled with distributed energy make-up networks, is a complex system, sensitive to many system parameters. When multiple resonant cells, each with its own energy make-up network, are connected in a ring, it is very difficult to derive closed-form solutions to determine the operating conditions of the power supply system. A meaningful way to understand and analyze such a complex system is to use a simulation tool. This paper presents the analysis of operating conditions of the resonant-type ring magnet power supply with multiple resonant cells, using the circuit simulation tool, SPICE. The focus of the study is on the effect of circuit parameter variations in energy storage chokes

  9. The developments and challenges of cerium half-cell in zinc–cerium redox flow battery for energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Zhipeng; Liu, Qingchao; Chang, Zhiwen; Zhang, Xinbo

    2013-01-01

    Zinc–cerium redox flow batteries (ZCBs) are emerging as a very promising new technology with the potential to store a large amount of energy economically and efficiently, thanking to its highest thermodynamic open-circuit cell voltage among all the currently studied aqueous redox flow batteries. However, there are numerous scientific and technical challenges that must be overcome if this alluring promise is to turn into reality, from designing the battery structure, to optimizing the electrolyte compositions and elucidating the complex chemical reactions that occur during charge and discharge. This review article is the first summary of the most significant developments and challenges of cerium half-cell and the current understanding of their chemistry. We are certain that this review will be of great interest to audience over a broad range, especially in fields of energy storage, electrochemistry, and chemical engineering

  10. IL-2 Enhances Gut Homing Potential of Human Naive Regulatory T Cells Early in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Peter S; Lai, Catherine L; Hu, Mingjing; Santner-Nanan, Brigitte; Dahlstrom, Jane E; Lee, Cheng Hiang; Ajmal, Ayesha; Bullman, Amanda; Arbuckle, Susan; Al Saedi, Ahmed; Gacis, Lou; Nambiar, Reta; Williams, Andrew; Wong, Melanie; Campbell, Dianne E; Nanan, Ralph

    2018-06-15

    Recent evidence suggests early environmental factors are important for gut immune tolerance. Although the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells for gut immune homeostasis is well established, the development and tissue homing characteristics of Treg cells in children have not been studied in detail. In this article, we studied the development and homing characteristics of human peripheral blood Treg cell subsets and potential mechanisms inducing homing molecule expression in healthy children. We found contrasting patterns of circulating Treg cell gut and skin tropism, with abundant β7 integrin + Treg cells at birth and increasing cutaneous lymphocyte Ag (CLA + ) Treg cells later in life. β7 integrin + Treg cells were predominantly naive, suggesting acquisition of Treg cell gut tropism early in development. In vitro, IL-7 enhanced gut homing but reduced skin homing molecule expression in conventional T cells, whereas IL-2 induced a similar effect only in Treg cells. This effect was more pronounced in cord compared with adult blood. Our results suggest that early in life, naive Treg cells may be driven for gut tropism by their increased sensitivity to IL-2-induced β7 integrin upregulation, implicating a potential role of IL-2 in gut immune tolerance during this critical period of development. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Analysis of stationary fuel cell dynamic ramping capabilities and ultra capacitor energy storage using high resolution demand data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, James R.; Jabbari, Faryar; Brouwer, Jacob; Mauzey, Josh L.; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    Current high temperature fuel cell (HTFC) systems used for stationary power applications (in the 200-300 kW size range) have very limited dynamic load following capability or are simply base load devices. Considering the economics of existing electric utility rate structures, there is little incentive to increase HTFC ramping capability beyond 1 kWs -1 (0.4% s -1). However, in order to ease concerns about grid instabilities from utility companies and increase market adoption, HTFC systems will have to increase their ramping abilities, and will likely have to incorporate electrical energy storage (EES). Because batteries have low power densities and limited lifetimes in highly cyclic applications, ultra capacitors may be the EES medium of choice. The current analyses show that, because ultra capacitors have a very low energy storage density, their integration with HTFC systems may not be feasible unless the fuel cell has a ramp rate approaching 10 kWs -1 (4% s -1) when using a worst-case design analysis. This requirement for fast dynamic load response characteristics can be reduced to 1 kWs -1 by utilizing high resolution demand data to properly size ultra capacitor systems and through demand management techniques that reduce load volatility.

  12. Is Type-2 Diabetes a Glycogen Storage Disease of Pancreatic β-Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Frances M; Rohm, Maria; Clark, Anne; Brereton, Melissa F

    2018-01-01

    Elevated plasma glucose leads to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and death in type 2 diabetes. Glycogen accumulation, due to impaired metabolism, contributes to this ‘glucotoxicity’ via dysregulated biochemical pathways promoting β-cell dysfunction. Here, we review emerging data, and re-examine published findings, on the role of glycogen in β-cells in normoglycaemia and in diabetes. PMID:28683284

  13. Solid oxide fuel cells towards real life applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells offer a clean and efficient way of producing electricity and heat from a wide selection of fuels. The project addressed three major challenges to be overcome by the technology to make commercialisation possible. (1) At the cell level, increased efficiency combined with production cost reduction has been achieved through an optimization of the manufacturing processes, b) by using alternative raw materials with a lower purchase price and c) by introducing a new generation of fuel cells with reduced loss and higher efficiency. (2) At the stack level, production cost reduction is reduced and manufacturing capacity is increased through an optimization of the stack production. (3) At the system level, development of integrated hotbox concepts for the market segments distributed generation (DG), micro combined heat and power (mCHP), and auxiliary power units (APU) have been developed. In the mCHP segment, two concepts have been developed and validated with regards to market requirements and scalability. In the APU-segment, different types of reformers have been tested and it has been proven that diesel can be reformed through appropriate reformers. Finally, operation experience and feedback has been gained by deployment of stacks in the test facility at the H.C. OErsted Power Plant (HCV). This demonstration has been carried out in collaboration between TOFC and DONG Energy Power A/S (DONG), who has participated as a subcontractor to TOFC. The demonstration has given valuable knowledge and experience with design, start-up and operation of small power units connected to the grid and future development within especially the mCHP segment will benefit from this. In this report, the project results are described for each of the work packages in the project. (Author)

  14. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood. Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ℃ were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness was largely determined by the yields of the Na2CO3- and KOH-soluble fractions, enriched in covalently-bound pectins and in matrix glycans, respectively, and correlated well with ascorbic acid contents. The yields of these two cell wall fractions were correlated inversely with pectinmethylesterase and endo-1,4-β-d-glucanase activities, indicating a relevant role of these two enzymes in postharvest firmness changes in sweet cherry. The amount of solubilised cell wall materials was closely associated to the contents of dehydroascorbic acid, suggesting the possible involvement of oxidative mechanisms in cell wall disassembly. These data may help understanding the evolution of fruit quality during the marketing period, and give hints for the design of suitable management strategies to preserve key attributes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Effect of radurization on the storage life of pollen substitutes utilized in the feeding of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymas, B.; Przybyl, A.

    1993-01-01

    In spite of treatment under high pressure and in elevated temperature, the pollen substitutes are not free from microbial contamination, and the pasteurizing effect may be achieved through the use of gamma irradiation. In the case of feed for honey bees, the dose of 5 KGy resulted in decrease of bacterial contamination by 2-3 log cycles. The problem whether such treatment could influence the nutritive value of two protein-rich feeds for honey bees, was the scope of this work. Two protein feeds were used for the feeding studies. The feeds had the following composition: powder milk, casein, Torula fodder yeasts, extruded maize, potato pulp, maltodextrin, sunflower oil, vitamin mixture, milk acid. Besides, feed I contained blood meal and ground rape, while feed II contained fish meal and soya meal instead. On the basis of the experiment, it was found that extruded and radurized protein feeds, after one-years storage at 6 C, did not lose their nutritive value. (orig./vhe)

  16. Life Span Extension and Neuronal Cell Protection by Drosophila Nicotinamidase*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Vitaly; Miller, Gregory S.; Kaplun, Ludmila; Balan, Karina; Chong, Zhao-Zhong; Li, Faqi; Kaplun, Alexander; VanBerkum, Mark F. A.; Arking, Robert; Freeman, D. Carl; Maiese, Kenneth; Tzivion, Guri

    2008-01-01

    The life span of model organisms can be modulated by environmental conditions that influence cellular metabolism, oxidation, or DNA integrity. The yeast nicotinamidase gene pnc1 was identified as a key transcriptional target and mediator of calorie restriction and stress-induced life span extension. PNC1 is thought to exert its effect on yeast life span by modulating cellular nicotinamide and NAD levels, resulting in increased activity of Sir2 family class III histone deacetylases. In Caenorhabditis elegans, knockdown of a pnc1 homolog was shown recently to shorten the worm life span, whereas its overexpression increased survival under conditions of oxidative stress. The function and regulation of nicotinamidases in higher organisms has not been determined. Here, we report the identification and biochemical characterization of the Drosophila nicotinamidase, D-NAAM, and demonstrate that its overexpression significantly increases median and maximal fly life span. The life span extension was reversed in Sir2 mutant flies, suggesting Sir2 dependence. Testing for physiological effectors of D-NAAM in Drosophila S2 cells, we identified oxidative stress as a primary regulator, both at the transcription level and protein activity. In contrast to the yeast model, stress factors such as high osmolarity and heat shock, calorie restriction, or inhibitors of TOR and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways do not appear to regulate D-NAAM in S2 cells. Interestingly, the expression of D-NAAM in human neuronal cells conferred protection from oxidative stress-induced cell death in a sirtuin-dependent manner. Together, our findings establish a life span extending the ability of nicotinamidase in flies and offer a role for nicotinamide-modulating genes in oxidative stress regulated pathways influencing longevity and neuronal cell survival. PMID:18678867

  17. Comparison of manual and automated cell counts in EDTA preserved synovial fluids. Storage has little influence on the results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, M; Rosas, J; Iborra, J; Manero, H; Pascual, E

    1997-10-01

    To determine the precision and agreement of synovial fluid (SF) cell counts done manually and with automated counters, and to determine the degree of variability of the counts in SF samples, kept in the tubes used for routine white blood cell (WBC) counts--which use liquid EDTA as anticoagulant--at 24 and 48 hours at 4 degrees C, and at room temperature. To determine precision, cell counts were repeated 10 times--both manually and by an automated counter--in a SF sample of low, medium, and high cellularity. The variances were calculated to determine the interobserver variation in two manual (M1,M2) and two automated cell counts (C1,C2). The agreement between a manual (M1) and automated counter (C1) results, was analysed by the Bland and Altman method and the difference against the mean of the two methods was plotted. Then, the mean difference between the two methods was estimated and the standard deviation of the difference. To determine the effects of storage, SF samples were kept in a refrigerator at 4 degrees C, and at room temperature; cell counts were done manually (M1) and automatically (C1) at 24 and 48 hours and the changes analysed by the Bland and Altman method. The variances were compared using an F test. (1) Precision. With the manual technique, the coefficients of variation were 27.9%, 14%, and 10.7% when used for counting the SF with low (270), medium (6200), and high cellularities (25,000). With the automated technique the coefficients of variation were 20%, 3.4%, and 2.9% in the same SF samples. In the fluids of medium and high cellularity, the variances of the automated cell counts were significatively lower (F test, p automated counter. (4) Influence of storage. The coulter counts of SF samples preserved at 4 degrees C showed less variance (F test, p Automated cell count of the SF offers advantages: it gives higher precision and consumes less time. The stability of the samples preserved in the EDTA tubes used for routine WBC counts is of

  18. Evaluation of Quality of Life and Care Needs of Turkish Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslisah Yasar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study explored the quality of life and care needs of Turkish patients who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The study sample consisted of 100 hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Their quality of life was assessed using Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant Scale. The mean patient age was 44.99 ± 13.92 years. Changes in sexual functions, loss of hair, loss of taste, loss of appetite, and sleep disturbances were the most common symptoms. The quality of life of transplant patients was moderately affected; the functional well-being and social/family well-being subscales were the most adversely and least negatively affected (12.13 ± 6.88 dimensions, respectively. Being female, being between 50 and 59 years of age, being single, having a chronic disease, and having a history of hospitalization were associated with lower quality of life scores. Interventions to improve functional status, physical well-being, and emotional status of patients during the transplantation process may help patients cope with treatment-related impairments more effectively. Frequent screening and management of patient symptoms in order to help patients adapt to life following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are crucial for meeting care needs and developing strategies to improve their quality of life.

  19. Evaluation of medically significant bacteria in colonoscopes after 8 weeks of shelf life in open air storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jackie; Gaines, Peggy; Kite, Roberta; Morgan, Marcia; Spurling, Sheila; Winsett, Rebecca P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine bacterial growth in colonoscopes in a series of graduated shelf times. There is no conclusive evidence on the length of time colonoscopes can be safely stored before requiring redisinfection. Standards for processing scopes after use are described and supported by the professional organizations of gastroenterology and infection control; however, shelf life varies from 3 to 5 days and most recommendations are based on clinical consensus. In this study, four colonoscopes were used in a clinical procedure, underwent automated high-level disinfection with 2.6% buffered glutaraldehyde, and cultured after 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 days of shelf time. Two investigators collected all the cultures after interrater reliability was established. Cultures were processed in the microbiology laboratory. No medically significant growth was detected at any of the culture points. At Day 14 and Day 42, one of four scopes grew fewer than two colony-forming units of a medically insignificant bacterium. Using professional standards for high-level disinfection growth was suppressed for up to 8 weeks. Further evidence to assess fungal or viral growth is needed to be able to make suggestions for colonoscope shelf life.

  20. Bioenergy conversion and storage systems: from conventional electrochemical cells to hybrid bioelectronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pankratov, Dmitrii; Chi, Qijin

    2017-01-01

    The rapid development and popularization of wearable and implantable self-sustainable electronics has increasingly demanded new-generation miniature and biocompatible power systems that can function under near-neutral pH solution and ambient conditions. Towards this end, enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs......) using biocatalysts can offer an effective alternative to conventional batteries or fuel cells attributed to high biocatalytic activity, substrate specified selectivity, and non-toxic end products with ecofriendly impacts. Newly emerging photobioelectrochemical cells (PBCs), exploiting photosynthetic...

  1. Is Type 2 Diabetes a Glycogen Storage Disease of Pancreatic β Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Frances M; Rohm, Maria; Clark, Anne; Brereton, Melissa F

    2017-07-05

    Elevated plasma glucose leads to pancreatic β cell dysfunction and death in type 2 diabetes. Glycogen accumulation, due to impaired metabolism, contributes to this "glucotoxicity" via dysregulated biochemical pathways promoting β cell dysfunction. Here, we review emerging data, and re-examine published findings, on the role of glycogen in β cells in normoglycemia and in diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The cycle life chemistry of ambient-temperature secondary lithium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoano, R.; Carter, B. J.; Subba Rao, S.; Shen, D.; Yen, S. P. S.

    1985-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is involved in a NASA-sponsored research program to demonstrate the feasibility of ambient-temperature secondary lithium batteries for geosynchronous space applications. Encouraging cycle life has been demonstrated in sealed, cathode-limited laboratory cells. However, the cell capacity declines with cycle life. The results of recent studies of the lithium electrode passivation chemistry, and of conductive diluents for TiS2 cathodes and their possible contribution to capacity decline, are here presented. Technical issues associated with the unique operational requirements of a geosynchronous mission are also described.

  3. Effects of Packaging on Shelf Life and Postharvest Qualities of Radish Roots during Storage at Low Temperature for an Extended Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal Chandra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of packaging on the quality aspects of radish, Korean radish roots (Raphanus sativus L. var. Kwandong were stored at 0°C after different packaging treatments such as keeping in paper cartoon box (control, keeping in plastic crates (PC, packaging with micro perforated HDPE film in PC (HDPE + PC, curing followed by keeping in PC (Curing + PC, and curing followed by packaging with micro perforated HDPE film in PC (Curing + HDPE + PC. Weight losses of radish roots were remarkably lower (<3% in both HDPE film packaged samples compared to that of control (10% or without film (≈18%. L⁎ values, whiteness index, total soluble solids, and flesh and skin firmness were better maintained in Curing + HDPE + PC treatment compared to other treatments. Lower color difference values were also found in this treatment. Both film packaged samples had lower scores of black spot, surface shrinkage, and fungal infection incidence which revealed significantly longer marketable periods. HDPE film packaged samples exhibited longer shelf life more than one and two months compared to control and unpacked samples, respectively. Results suggest that HDPE film packaging can extend postharvest life of radish while curing might have little but beneficial effects in maintaining the quality characteristics. To our knowledge, this is the first report on quality evaluation of Korean radish during an extended storage period simulating the Korean industrial practices.

  4. Effects of four additive solutions on canine leukoreduced red cell concentrate quality during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Luciana A; Hlavac, Nicole R C; Terra, Silvia R; Back, Franciele P; Jane Wardrop, K; González, Félix H D

    2014-09-01

    Additive solutions (AS) and prestorage leukoreduction (LR) are important tools used to maintain erythrocyte viability during storage and avoid transfusion reactions in recipients, respectively. The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of a WBC filter (Immugard IIIRC) and compare the effect of 4 AS (phosphate-adenine-glucose-guanosine-gluconate-mannitol [PAGGGM], saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol [SAGM], Adsol, Optisol) on the in vitro quality of canine leukoreduced packed RBC units (pRBC) stored for 41 days. Five hundred milliliters of blood were collected from 8 healthy dogs each into 70 mL of citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD) solution, and were leukoreduced by a polyurethane filter. pRBC of each dog were divided equally into 4 bags containing a different AS. Bags were stored for 41 days at 4°C and evaluated every 10 days. Variables analyzed included pH, PCV, and% hemolysis, and lactate, glucose, potassium, sodium, ATP, and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentrations. The LR resulted in residual WBC counts comparable to human standards. During storage, pH, and glucose, 2,3-DPG, and ATP concentrations decreased, and hemolysis, and lactate, sodium, and potassium concentrations increased (P 2,3-DPG concentrations. When compared with day 1 values, significant changes were seen in these variables by day 31 with all AS. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  5. Filtration Device for On-Site Collection, Storage and Shipment of Cells from Urine and Its Application to DNA-Based Detection of Bladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Elin; Dahmcke, Christina M; Steven, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Molecular analysis of cells from urine provides a convenient approach to non-invasive detection of bladder cancer. The practical use of urinary cell-based tests is often hampered by difficulties in handling and analyzing large sample volumes, the need for rapid sample processing to avoid...... filter, which after filtration of urine can be transferred to a storage unit containing an appropriate preserving solution. In spiking experiments, the use of this device provided efficient recovery of bladder cancer cells with elimination of >99% of excess smaller-sized cells. The performance...... degradation of cellular content, and low sensitivity due to a high background of normal cells. We present a filtration device, designed for home or point-of-care use, which enables collection, storage and shipment of urinary cells. A special feature of this device is a removable cartridge housing a membrane...

  6. Fuel economy and life-cycle cost analysis of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kwi Seong; Oh, Byeong Soo

    The most promising vehicle engine that can overcome the problem of present internal combustion is the hydrogen fuel cell. Fuel cells are devices that change chemical energy directly into electrical energy without combustion. Pure fuel cell vehicles and fuel cell hybrid vehicles (i.e. a combination of fuel cell and battery) as energy sources are studied. Considerations of efficiency, fuel economy, and the characteristics of power output in hybridization of fuel cell vehicle are necessary. In the case of Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) cycle simulation, hybridization is more efficient than a pure fuel cell vehicle. The reason is that it is possible to capture regenerative braking energy and to operate the fuel cell system within a more efficient range by using battery. Life-cycle cost is largely affected by the fuel cell size, fuel cell cost, and hydrogen cost. When the cost of fuel cell is high, hybridization is profitable, but when the cost of fuel cell is less than 400 US$/kW, a pure fuel cell vehicle is more profitable.

  7. Distinct populations of hepatic stellate cells in the mouse liver have different capacities for retinoid and lipid storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana N D'Ambrosio

    Full Text Available Hepatic stellate cell (HSC lipid droplets are specialized organelles for the storage of retinoid, accounting for 50-60% of all retinoid present in the body. When HSCs activate, retinyl ester levels progressively decrease and the lipid droplets are lost. The objective of this study was to determine if the HSC population in a healthy, uninjured liver demonstrates heterogeneity in its capacity for retinoid and lipid storage in lipid droplets. To this end, we utilized two methods of HSC isolation, which leverage distinct properties of these cells, including their vitamin A content and collagen expression. HSCs were isolated either from wild type (WT mice in the C57BL/6 genetic background by flotation in a Nycodenz density gradient, followed by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS based on vitamin A autofluorescence, or from collagen-green fluorescent protein (GFP mice by FACS based on GFP expression from a GFP transgene driven by the collagen I promoter. We show that GFP-HSCs have: (i increased expression of typical markers of HSC activation; (ii decreased retinyl ester levels, accompanied by reduced expression of the enzyme needed for hepatic retinyl ester synthesis (LRAT; (iii decreased triglyceride levels; (iv increased expression of genes associated with lipid catabolism; and (v an increase in expression of the retinoid-catabolizing cytochrome, CYP2S1.Our observations suggest that the HSC population in a healthy, uninjured liver is heterogeneous. One subset of the total HSC population, which expresses early markers of HSC activation, may be "primed" and ready for rapid response to acute liver injury.

  8. The fuel cell model of abiogenesis: a new approach to origin-of-life simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barge, Laura M; Kee, Terence P; Doloboff, Ivria J; Hampton, Joshua M P; Ismail, Mohammed; Pourkashanian, Mohamed; Zeytounian, John; Baum, Marc M; Moss, John A; Lin, Chung-Kuang; Kidd, Richard D; Kanik, Isik

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss how prebiotic geo-electrochemical systems can be modeled as a fuel cell and how laboratory simulations of the origin of life in general can benefit from this systems-led approach. As a specific example, the components of what we have termed the "prebiotic fuel cell" (PFC) that operates at a putative Hadean hydrothermal vent are detailed, and we used electrochemical analysis techniques and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell components to test the properties of this PFC and other geo-electrochemical systems, the results of which are reported here. The modular nature of fuel cells makes them ideal for creating geo-electrochemical reactors with which to simulate hydrothermal systems on wet rocky planets and characterize the energetic properties of the seafloor/hydrothermal interface. That electrochemical techniques should be applied to simulating the origin of life follows from the recognition of the fuel cell-like properties of prebiotic chemical systems and the earliest metabolisms. Conducting this type of laboratory simulation of the emergence of bioenergetics will not only be informative in the context of the origin of life on Earth but may help in understanding whether life might emerge in similar environments on other worlds.

  9. Use of liquid nitrogen during storage in a cell and tissue bank: contamination risk and effect on the detectability of potential viral contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabet, Vicente; Alvarez, Manuel; Solves, Pilar; Ocete, Dolores; Gimeno, Concepción

    2012-04-01

    Cryopreservation is widely used for banking cells and tissues intended for transplantation. Liquid nitrogen provides a very stable ultra-low temperature environment. Thus, it is used for longterm storage. Unlike the exhaustive microbiological monitoring of the environmental conditions during tissue processing, storage is not usually considered as a critical point of potential contamination risk in professional standards for cell and tissue banking. We have analysed the presence of microbial agents inside our nitrogen tanks. We have mainly detected environmental and water-borne bacteria and fungi. In addition, we have studied the effect of liquid nitrogen exposure on virus detectability. Only differences for hepatitis C virus RNA were observed. Measures for contamination risk reduction during storage must be mandatory in cell and tissue banking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Design and analysis of a multi-cell subscale tank for liquid hydrogen storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tapeinos, I.; Koussios, S.; Groves, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the structural performance of a conformable pressurizable tank consisting of intersecting spherical shells (multi-cell tank). Multi-cell tanks outrival conventional multiple cylindrical tanks in volumetric efficiency when required to fit in a rectangular envelope in the

  11. DIFFERENCES IN HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE CELL DISEASE RECEIVING HYDROXYUREA

    OpenAIRE

    Thornburg, Courtney D.; Calatroni, Agustin; Panepinto, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyurea is a safe and efficacious medication for children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Our objective was to compare health related quality of life (HRQL) between children taking hydroxyurea and those not taking hydroxyurea. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children with SCD who had completed the PedsQL 4.0 at Duke University Medical Center or the Midwest Sickle Cell Center. Our primary outcome was HRQL in children receiving hydroxyurea therapy compared to those not receivin...

  12. Controlled data storage for non-volatile memory cells embedded in nano magnetic logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riente, Fabrizio; Ziemys, Grazvydas; Mattersdorfer, Clemens; Boche, Silke; Turvani, Giovanna; Raberg, Wolfgang; Luber, Sebastian; Breitkreutz-v. Gamm, Stephan

    2017-05-01

    Among the beyond-CMOS technologies, perpendicular Nano Magnetic Logic (pNML) is a promising candidate due to its low power consumption, its non-volatility and its monolithic 3D integrability, which makes it possible to integrate memory and logic into the same device by exploiting the interaction of bi-stable nanomagnets with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Logic computation and signal synchronization are achieved by focus ion beam irradiation and by pinning domain walls in magnetic notches. However, in realistic circuits, the information storage and their read-out are crucial issues, often ignored in the exploration of beyond-CMOS devices. In this paper we address these issues by experimentally demonstrating a pNML memory element, whose read and write operations can be controlled by two independent pulsed currents. Our results prove the correct behavior of the proposed structure that enables high density memory embedded in the logic plane of 3D-integrated pNML circuits.

  13. Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Storage rings are circular machines that store particle beams at a constant energy. Beams are stored in rings without acceleration for a number of reasons (Tab. 1). Storage rings are used in high-energy, nuclear, atomic, and molecular physics, as well as for experiments in chemistry, material and life sciences. Parameters for storage rings such as particle species, energy, beam intensity, beam size, and store time vary widely depending on the application. The beam must be injected into a storage ring but may not be extracted (Fig. 1). Accelerator rings such as synchrotrons are used as storage rings before and after acceleration. Particles stored in rings include electrons and positrons; muons; protons and anti-protons; neutrons; light and heavy, positive and negative, atomic ions of various charge states; molecular and cluster ions, and neutral polar molecules. Spin polarized beams of electrons, positrons, and protons were stored. The kinetic energy of the stored particles ranges from 10 -6 eV to 3.5 x 10 12 eV (LHC, 7 x 10 12 eV planned), the number of stored particles from one (ESR) to 1015 (ISR). To store beam in rings requires bending (dipoles) and transverse focusing (quadrupoles). Higher order multipoles are used to correct chromatic aberrations, to suppress instabilities, and to compensate for nonlinear field errors of dipoles and quadrupoles. Magnetic multipole functions can be combined in magnets. Beams are stored bunched with radio frequency systems, and unbunched. The magnetic lattice and radio frequency system are designed to ensure the stability of transverse and longitudinal motion. New technologies allow for better storage rings. With strong focusing the beam pipe dimensions became much smaller than previously possible. For a given circumference superconducting magnets make higher energies possible, and superconducting radio frequency systems allow for efficient replenishment of synchrotron radiation losses of large current electron or positron beams

  14. Chronic brain damage in sickle cell disease and its relation with quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Elena; Vélez, Ana G; Aguado, Alejandra; Medín, Gabriela; Bellón, José M; Beléndez, Cristina

    2016-12-16

    Sickle cell anaemia causes progressive organ damage. The objective is to describe school performance of patients with sickle cell anaemia and their clinical parameters and quality of life that may have an influence. The hypothesis is that if school alterations occur without other objective data, additional factors must be present besides the disease itself. Transversal study performed in November 2015 considering analytical variables, complications and neuroradiological images of children with sickle cell anaemia, and family survey on school performance and quality of life. Median age was 6.8 years and 78% were diagnosed at birth. Sixty patients were included. School performance was altered in 51% of cases and was related to nocturnal hypoxemia. Acute stroke incidence was 6.7%. Transcranial ultrasound was abnormal in 4% of cases and magnetic resonance imaging in 16% of cases. Quality of life showed pathological findings in all areas and the low values increased proportionally in older ages. The stroke affected the physical and social sphere, and lung disease affected the physical and emotional spheres. Poor school performance affects half of the patients and it is related to nocturnal hypoxemia, although other socio-cultural factors may have an influence. Quality of life is affected in most of these cases independently of academic results. The absence of alterations in neuroimaging or the apparent lack of severe clinical parameters do not mean that quality of life and schooling are normal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. An improved red blood cell additive solution maintains 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and adenosine triphosphate levels by an enhancing effect on phosphofructokinase activity during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Patrick; Korsten, Herbert; De Korte, Dirk; Rombout, Eva; Van Bruggen, Robin; Verhoeven, Arthur J

    2010-11-01

    Current additive solutions (ASs) for red blood cells (RBCs) do not maintain constant 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels during cold storage. We have previously shown that with a new AS called phosphate-adenine-glucose-guanosine-gluconate-mannitol (PAGGGM), both 2,3-DPG and ATP could be maintained throughout storage for 35 days. In this study, the mechanism underlying the effect of PAGGGM on RBC storage was studied in more detail. By using double-erythrocytapheresis units (leukoreduced), a direct comparison could be made between the current AS saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) and the experimental solution PAGGGM. During cold storage, several in vitro characteristics were analyzed. In agreement with our previous findings with single RBCs, PAGGGM maintained 2,3-DPG and ATP levels for 35 days of cold storage. Furthermore, glucose consumption and lactate production were higher in PAGGGM units during the first 21 days of cold storage. Fructose-1,6-diphophate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate levels were also increased during the first 21 days of storage in PAGGGM units. These results indicate that it is likely that phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity is enhanced in PAGGGM units relative to SAGM units. After 21 days, PFK activity also decreases in PAGGGM units, but sufficient metabolic reserve in these units prevents depletion of 2,3-DPG and ATP. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  16. Feasibility of biodegradable based packaging used for red meat storage during shelf-life: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panseri, S; Martino, P A; Cagnardi, P; Celano, G; Tedesco, D; Castrica, M; Balzaretti, C; Chiesa, L M

    2018-05-30

    This study was designated to ascertain the effectiveness of polylactic acid (PLA) based packaging solution to store red fresh meat during its refrigerated shelf-life. Recently the attention in the packaging industry regarding the use of bioplastics has been shifting from compostable/biodegradable materials toward biobased materials. Steaks obtained from semimembranous muscle of Piemontese beef were packaged in PLA trays closed with a lid made of PLA film and for comparison purposed in a conventional reference package consisting of a amorphous polyethylene terephthalate/polyethylene (APET/PET) trays and wrapped in plastic film of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The packaging under modified atmosphere MAP was carried out by using a gas mixture of 66% O 2 , 25% CO 2 and 9%N 2 . By using PLA packaging combination it was possible to maintain an optimum red colour together with a reduced content of volatile compounds associated to off-flavours of meat samples particularly related to the oxidation phenomena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Elevated plasma glucosylsphingosine in Gaucher disease: relation to phenotype, storage cell markers, and therapeutic response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Nick; van Dussen, Laura; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Overkleeft, Herman; Scheij, Saskia; Ghauharali, Karen; van Breemen, Mariëlle J.; Ferraz, Maria J.; Groener, Johanna E. M.; Maas, Mario; Wijburg, Frits A.; Speijer, Dave; Tylki-Szymanska, Anna; Mistry, Pramod K.; Boot, Rolf G.; Aerts, Johannes M.

    2011-01-01

    Gaucher disease, caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase, leads to prominent glucosylceramide accumulation in lysosomes of tissue macrophages (Gaucher cells). Here we show glucosylsphingosine, the deacylated form of glucosylceramide, to be markedly increased in plasma of

  18. [THE USE AND STORAGE OF STEM CELLS AND CORD BLOOD: FRENCH AND ENGLISH LAW COMPARATIVE APPROACH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanamoothoo, Allane

    2015-07-01

    Becoming parents is one of the greatest wishes of a lot of couples. When their dreams come true, prior to the birth of the child, parents have to face several points: the choice of the name, place of delivery, breast or bottle feeding, etc. Recently, they have to face the issues of cord blood stem cells. Researchers and cord blood banks are also interested in those cells. In many countries a lot of advertising is made around umbilical cord blood stem cells. In France as in England, the use and preservation of cord blood are regulated by the legislators without necessarily having the same approach. The objective of this paper is to present English and French law approaches' on cord blood stem cells.

  19. The Effects of Storage on Irradiated Red Blood Cells: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    nerve impulses, and is involved with cellular menbrane potential. It also influences and is influenced by the acid base balance. 19 Normal serum...maintained by active transport of scdium and potassium across the cell menbrane . Sodium is punped out and potassium pumped into the cell. The body’s...insufficiency or failure; renal dialysis is often required to remove 4 accumulated plasma potassium. Increased extr.cellular potassium causes changes in muscle

  20. Analog storage integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.T.; Larsen, R.S.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1989-03-07

    A high speed data storage array is defined utilizing a unique cell design for high speed sampling of a rapidly changing signal. Each cell of the array includes two input gates between the signal input and a storage capacitor. The gates are controlled by a high speed row clock and low speed column clock so that the instantaneous analog value of the signal is only sampled and stored by each cell on coincidence of the two clocks. 6 figs.

  1. Biochemistry of storage lesions of red cell and platelet concentrates: A continuous fight implying oxidative/nitrosative/phosphorylative stress and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinalducci, Sara; Zolla, Lello

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the reduced lifespan of transfused red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets (PLTs) are still under investigation, however one explanation refers to the detrimental biochemical changes occurring during ex vivo storage of these blood products. A myriad of historical and more recent studies has contributed to advance our understanding of storage lesion. Without any doubts, proteomics had great impact on transfusion medicine by profiling the storage-dependent changes in the total detectable protein pool of both RBCs and PLTs. This review article focuses on the role of oxidative/nitrosative stress in developing RBC and PLT storage lesions, with a special glance at its biochemistry and cross-talk with phosphorylative signal transduction. In this sense, we enlighten the potential contribution of new branches of proteomics in identifying novel points of intervention for the improvement of blood product quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The performance of a grid-tied microgrid with hydrogen storage and a hydrogen fuel cell stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Linfeng; Xiang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two microgrids with different structure are simulated. • Their performance are comprehensively evaluated and compared. • The one with DES and a FC stack has high environmental and quality indexes. - Abstract: In a heat-power system, the use of distributed energy generation and storage not only improves system’s efficiency and reliability but also reduce the emission. This paper is focused on the comprehensive performance evaluation of a grid-tied microgrid, which consists of a PV system, a hydrogen fuel cell stack, a PEM electrolyzer, and a hydrogen tank. Electricity and heat are generated in this system, to meet the local electric and heat demands. The surplus electricity can be stored as hydrogen, which is supplied to the fuel cell stack to generate heat and power as needed. The performance of the microgrid is comprehensively evaluated and is compared with another microgrid without a fuel cell stack. As a result, the emission and the service quality in the first system are higher than those in the second one. But they both have the same overall performance

  3. Surface modification of a proton exchange membrane and hydrogen storage in a metal hydride for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Lisa

    promising option. Effective hydrogen storage methods must be used as sources of available hydrogen. One possibility is to use hydrogen stored in a solid chemical compound such as magnesium hydride. The kinetics of hydrogen release from the hydrolysis of magnesium hydride with 2 wt% acetic acid was examined. The hydrogen produced was supplied to a fuel cell and the amount of hydrogen consumed by the fuel cell was determined. Carbon nanotubes also can play a role in energy sources and as components in fuel cells. VUV photo-oxidized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) paper was grafted with polyacrylic acid and analyzed using XPS.

  4. The effect of pre-storage cooling on 2,3-DPG levels in red cells stored in SAG-M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llohn, Abid Hussain; Vetlesen, Annette; Fagerhol, Magne Kristoffer; Kjeldsen-Kragh, Jens

    2005-10-01

    The concentration of red cell 2,3-DPG (2,3-diphosphoglycerate) rapidly decreases during storage. A favourable effect on red cell 2,3-DPG has been demonstrated by rapid cooling of whole blood prior to storage. In our study we have investigated how different methods of cooling whole blood immediately after donation effect 2,3-DPG levels during storage. Thirty-six whole blood units (in 6 groups) of 450 ml were collected in 63 ml CPD. SAG-M was used as preservative solution for red cell concentrates (RCC). The units in one group were cooled down at ambient temperature, while units in the other groups were cooled down rapidly by different ways immediately after bleeding. Samples from the whole blood units were collected at various days during storage for 2,3-DPG measurements. The decline in 2,3-DPG during the first two weeks of storage was significantly slower in the groups which were cooled down rapidly to 17-18 degrees C within 1h after bleeding (all p

  5. Cell growth and resistance of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis TOMSC161 following freezing, drying and freeze-dried storage are differentially affected by fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velly, H; Fonseca, F; Passot, S; Delacroix-Buchet, A; Bouix, M

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effects of fermentation parameters on the cell growth and on the resistance to each step of the freeze-drying process of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis TOMSC161, a natural cheese isolate, using a response surface methodology. Cells were cultivated at different temperatures (22, 30 and 38°C) and pH (5·6, 6·2 and 6·8) and were harvested at different growth phases (0, 3 and 6 h of stationary phase). Cultivability and acidification activity losses of Lc. lactis were quantified after freezing, drying, 1 and 3 months of storage at 4 and 25°C. Lactococcus lactis was not damaged by freezing but was sensitive to drying and to ambient temperature storage. Moreover, the fermentation temperature and the harvesting time influenced the drying resistance of Lc. lactis. Lactococcus lactis cells grown in a whey-based medium at 32°C, pH 6·2 and harvested at late stationary phase exhibited both an optimal growth and the highest resistance to freeze-drying and storage. A better insight on the individual and interaction effects of fermentation parameters made it possible the freeze-drying and storage preservation of a sensitive strain of technological interest. Evidence on the particularly damaging effect of the drying step and the high-temperature storage is presented. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of solid oxide cells for energy conversion and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chenghao

    2011-12-01

    There has been an increasing interest in clean and renewable energy generation for highlighted energy and environmental concerns. Solid oxide cells (SOCs) have been considered as one of the promising technologies, since they can be operated efficiently both in electrolysis mode by generating hydrogen through steam electrolysis and fuel cell mode by electrochemically combining fuel with oxidant. The present work is devoted to performing a fundamental study of SOC in both fuel cell mode for power generation and electrolysis mode for fuel production. The research work on SOCs that can be operated reversibly for power generation and fuel production has been conducted in the following six projects: (1) High performance solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) Fabrication of novel structured SOEC oxygen electrode with the conventional and commercial solid oxide fuel cell materials by screen-printing and infiltration fabrication methods. The microstructure, electrochemical properties and durability of SOECs has been investigated. It was found that the LSM infiltrated cell has an area specific resistance (ASR) of 0.20 Ω cm2 at 900°C at open circuit voltage with 50% absolute humidity (AH), which is relatively lower than that of the cell with LSM-YSZ oxygen electrode made by a conventional mixing method. Electrolysis cell with LSM infiltrated oxygen electrode has demonstrated stable performance under electrolysis operation with 0.33 A/cm2 and 50 vol.% AH at 800°C. (2) Advanced performance high temperature micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell (MT-SOFC) Phase-inversion, dip-coating, high temperature co-sintering process and impregnation method were used to fabricate micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell. The micro-structure of the micro-tubular fuel cell will be investigated and the power output and thermal robustness has been evaluated. High performance and rapid start-up behavior have been achieved, indicates that the MT-SOFC developed in this work can be a promising technology

  7. Life coaching following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a mixed-method investigation of feasibility and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, M; Young, F; Mufti, G J; Pagliuca, A; Lim, Z; Ream, E

    2015-07-01

    Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) cures many haematological cancers. Recovery post-HSCT is physically and psychologically challenging, lasting several months. Beyond the first post-transplant year, a fifth report difficulties encompassing practical, social and emotional domains, including finance and employment. We investigated the feasibility, acceptability and impact of a life coaching intervention designed to address psychosocial 'survivor' concerns of HSCT recipients and facilitate transition to life post-treatment. A concurrent embedded experimental mixed-method design was employed. Pre- and post-intervention data collection comprised qualitative semi-structured telephone interviews and quantitative postal questionnaires. Seven purposively sampled HSCT recipients (life coaching delivered by a professional life coach fortnightly over 8 weeks. Participants reported less anxiety, depression and fewer survivor concerns post-intervention, with a trend for lower social difficulties and increased functional well-being. Perceived self-efficacy was unchanged. Life coaching was feasible to deliver and acceptable to the participants who indicated it was a positive experience, with benefits described in diverse areas including work, lifestyle and hobbies. Life coaching within cancer services potentially offers the means to address psychosocial concerns and support transition to life after treatment, enabling patients to reach their potential, e.g. returning to employment and financial independence. Further investigation of this intervention in cancer survivors is warranted. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Performance Maintenance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using a Latent Heat Storage Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruki, Naoto; Horibe, Akihiko

    2017-07-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in various renewable energies. Among them, solar cell production has increased markedly because the photovoltaic is a clean and safe power generation method. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) has attracted much attention as an alternative to silicon solar cells due to lower manufacturing costs and plentiful resources for DSSC production. However, the performance of DSSCs has been limited by their durability and low photoelectric conversion efficiency. Temperature control of DSSCs via phase-change materials (PCMs) is expected to improve performance. In this study, DSSCs were heated or cooled with a heat exchanger copper block that was in contact with a PCM (heptadecane), while being irradiated by a solar simulator light source. The durability and photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC improved under PCM temperature control.

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of Titania Perovskite Solar Cell Technology for Sustainable Design and Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyi; Gao, Xianfeng; Deng, Yelin; Li, Bingbing; Yuan, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells have attracted enormous attention in recent years due to their low cost and superior technical performance. However, the use of toxic metals, such as lead, in the perovskite dye and toxic chemicals in perovskite solar cell manufacturing causes grave concerns for its environmental performance. To understand and facilitate the sustainable development of perovskite solar cell technology from its design to manufacturing, a comprehensive environmental impact assessment has been conducted on titanium dioxide nanotube based perovskite solar cells by using an attributional life cycle assessment approach, from cradle to gate, with manufacturing data from our laboratory-scale experiments and upstream data collected from professional databases and the literature. The results indicate that the perovskite dye is the primary source of environmental impact, associated with 64.77% total embodied energy and 31.38% embodied materials consumption, contributing to more than 50% of the life cycle impact in almost all impact categories, although lead used in the perovskite dye only contributes to about 1.14% of the human toxicity potential. A comparison of perovskite solar cells with commercial silicon and cadmium-tellurium solar cells reveals that perovskite solar cells could be a promising alternative technology for future large-scale industrial applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. [Life cycle assessment of the infrastructure for hydrogen sources of fuel cell vehicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wen; Wang, Shujuan; Ni, Weidou; Chen, Changhe

    2003-05-01

    In order to promote the application of life cycle assessment and provide references for China to make the project of infrastructure for hydrogen sources of fuel cell vehicles in the near future, 10 feasible plans of infrastructure for hydrogen sources of fuel cell vehicles were designed according to the current technologies of producing, storing and transporting hydrogen. Then life cycle assessment was used as a tool to evaluate the environmental performances of the 10 plans. The standard indexes of classified environmental impacts of every plan were gotten and sensitivity analysis for several parameters were carried out. The results showed that the best plan was that hydrogen will be produced by natural gas steam reforming in central factory, then transported to refuelling stations through pipelines, and filled to fuel cell vehicles using hydrogen gas at last.

  11. Controlled data storage for non-volatile memory cells embedded in nano magnetic logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Riente

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the beyond-CMOS technologies, perpendicular Nano Magnetic Logic (pNML is a promising candidate due to its low power consumption, its non-volatility and its monolithic 3D integrability, which makes it possible to integrate memory and logic into the same device by exploiting the interaction of bi-stable nanomagnets with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Logic computation and signal synchronization are achieved by focus ion beam irradiation and by pinning domain walls in magnetic notches. However, in realistic circuits, the information storage and their read-out are crucial issues, often ignored in the exploration of beyond-CMOS devices. In this paper we address these issues by experimentally demonstrating a pNML memory element, whose read and write operations can be controlled by two independent pulsed currents. Our results prove the correct behavior of the proposed structure that enables high density memory embedded in the logic plane of 3D-integrated pNML circuits.

  12. Effects of shorter versus longer storage time of transfused red blood cells in adult ICU patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygård, Sofie L; Jonsson, Andreas B; Madsen, Martin B

    2018-01-01

    on the effects of shorter versus longer storage time of transfused RBCs on outcomes in ICU patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (TSA) of randomised clinical trials including adult ICU patients transfused with fresher versus older or standard issue...... blood. RESULTS: We included seven trials with a total of 18,283 randomised ICU patients; two trials of 7504 patients were judged to have low risk of bias. We observed no effects of fresher versus older blood on death (relative risk 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-1.11; 7349 patients; TSA......-adjusted CI 0.93-1.15), adverse events (1.26, 0.76-2.09; 7332 patients; TSA-adjusted CI 0.16-9.87) or post-transfusion infections (1.07, 0.96-1.20; 7332 patients; TSA-adjusted CI 0.90-1.27). The results were unchanged by including trials with high risk of bias. TSA confirmed the results and the required...

  13. Long term storage in liquid nitrogen leads to only minor phenotypic and gene expression changes in the mammary carcinoma model cell line BT474.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazekas, Judit; Grunt, Thomas W; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Singer, Josef

    2017-05-23

    Cancer cell lines are indispensible surrogate models in cancer research, as they can be used off-the-shelf, expanded to the desired extent, easily modified and exchanged between research groups for affirmation, reproduction or follow-up experiments.As malignant cells are prone to genomic instability, phenotypical changes may occur after certain passages in culture. Thus, cell lines have to be regularly authenticated to ensure data quality. In between experiments these cell lines are often stored in liquid nitrogen for extended time periods.Although freezing of cells is a necessary evil, little research is performed on how long-term storage affects cancer cell lines. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of a 28-year long liquid nitrogen storage period on BT474 cells with regard to phenotypical changes, differences in cell-surface receptor expression as well as cytokine and gene expressional variations. Two batches of BT474 cells, one frozen in 1986, the other directly purchased from ATCC were investigated by light microscopy, cell growth analysis, flow cytometry and cytokine as well as whole-transcriptome expression profiling. The cell lines were morphologically indifferent and showed similar growth rates and similar cell-surface receptor expression. Transcriptome analysis revealed significant differences in only 26 of 40,716 investigated RefSeq transcripts with 4 of them being up-regulated and 22 down-regulated. This study demonstrates that even after very long periods of storage in liquid nitrogen, cancer cell lines display only minimal changes in their gene expression profiles. However, also such minor changes should be carefully assessed before continuation of experiments, especially if phenotypic alterations can be additionally observed.

  14. Quantitative investigation of red blood cell three-dimensional geometric and chemical changes in the storage lesion using digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaferzadeh, Keyvan; Moon, Inkyu

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative phase information obtained by digital holographic microscopy (DHM) can provide new insight into the functions and morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs). Since the functionality of a RBC is related to its three-dimensional (3-D) shape, quantitative 3-D geometric changes induced by storage time can help hematologists realize its optimal functionality period. We quantitatively investigate RBC 3-D geometric changes in the storage lesion using DHM. Our experimental results show that the substantial geometric transformation of the biconcave-shaped RBCs to the spherocyte occurs due to RBC storage lesion. This transformation leads to progressive loss of cell surface area, surface-to-volume ratio, and functionality of RBCs. Furthermore, our quantitative analysis shows that there are significant correlations between chemical and morphological properties of RBCs.

  15. Tests of a polarized source of hydrogen and deuterium based on spin-exchange optical pumping and a storage cell for polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.; Gilman, R.; Kinney, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    A novel laser-driven polarized source of hydrogen and deuterium which is based on the principle of spin-exchange optical pumping has been developed at Argonne. The advantages of this method over conventional polarized sources for internal target experiments is discussed. At present, the laser-driven polarized source delivers hydrogen 8 x 10 16 atoms/s with a polarization of 24% and deuterium at 6 x 10 16 atoms/s with a polarization of 25%. A passive storage cell for polarized deuterium was tested in the VEPP-3 electron storage ring. The storage cell was found to increase the target thickness by approximately a factor of three and no loss in polarization was observed. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Elevated plasma glucosylsphingosine in Gaucher disease: relation to phenotype, storage cell markers, and therapeutic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Nick; van Dussen, Laura; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Overkleeft, Herman; Scheij, Saskia; Ghauharali, Karen; van Breemen, Mariëlle J.; Ferraz, Maria J.; Groener, Johanna E. M.; Maas, Mario; Wijburg, Frits A.; Speijer, Dave; Tylki-Szymanska, Anna; Mistry, Pramod K.; Boot, Rolf G.

    2011-01-01

    Gaucher disease, caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase, leads to prominent glucosylceramide accumulation in lysosomes of tissue macrophages (Gaucher cells). Here we show glucosylsphingosine, the deacylated form of glucosylceramide, to be markedly increased in plasma of symptomatic nonneuronopathic (type 1) Gaucher patients (n = 64, median = 230.7nM, range 15.6-1035.2nM; normal (n = 28): median 1.3nM, range 0.8-2.7nM). The method developed for mass spectrometric quantification of plasma glucosylsphingosine is sensitive and robust. Plasma glucosylsphingosine levels correlate with established plasma markers of Gaucher cells, chitotriosidase (ρ = 0.66) and CCL18 (ρ = 0.40). Treatment of Gaucher disease patients by supplementing macrophages with mannose-receptor targeted recombinant glucocerebrosidase results in glucosylsphingosine reduction, similar to protein markers of Gaucher cells. Since macrophages prominently accumulate the lysoglycosphingolipid on glucocerebrosidase inactivation, Gaucher cells seem a major source of the elevated plasma glucosylsphingosine. Our findings show that plasma glucosylsphingosine can qualify as a biomarker for type 1 Gaucher disease, but that further investigations are warranted regarding its relationship with clinical manifestations of Gaucher disease. PMID:21868580

  17. Investigation of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Rating for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Khaligh, A.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    Combining high energy density batteries and high power density ultracapacitors in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV) results in a high efficient, high performance, low size, and light system. Often the batteries are rated with respect to their energy requirement in order to reduce...

  18. Storage and regulated secretion of factor VIII in blood outgrowth endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Biggelaar, M.; Bouwens, E.A.M.; Kootstra, N.A.; Hebbel, R.P.; Voorberg, J.; Mertens, K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Gene therapy provides an attractive alternative for protein replacement therapy in hemophilia A patients. Recent studies have shown the potential benefit of directing factor (F)VIII gene delivery to cells that also express its natural carrier protein von Willebrand factor (VWF). In this

  19. Storage and regulated secretion of factor VIII in blood outgrowth endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Bouwens, Eveline A. M.; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Hebbel, Robert P.; Voorberg, Jan; Mertens, Koen

    2009-01-01

    Gene therapy provides an attractive alternative for protein replacement therapy in hemophilia A patients. Recent studies have shown the potential benefit of directing factor (F)VIII gene delivery to cells that also express its natural carrier protein von Willebrand factor (VWF). In this study, we

  20. Hydrogen Storage Experiments for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course--Clean Energy: Hydrogen/Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Alla; Andrews, Lisa; Khot, Ameya; Rubin, Lea; Young, Jun; Allston, Thomas D.; Takacs, Gerald A.

    2015-01-01

    Global interest in both renewable energies and reduction in emission levels has placed increasing attention on hydrogen-based fuel cells that avoid harm to the environment by releasing only water as a byproduct. Therefore, there is a critical need for education and workforce development in clean energy technologies. A new undergraduate laboratory…

  1. Wind turbine storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Ilinca, A.; Perron, J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

  2. Gamma radiation in increasing productivity of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus sajor-caju and enhancing storage life of P. sajor-caju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.K.; Chatterjee, S.R.; Bahukhandi, D.; Sharma, R.; Philips, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Gamma radiation of spawn of Agaricus bisporus and pleurotus sajor-caju at doses of 0.1 to 0.3 kGy and 0.1 to 0.25 kGy respectively, reduced the mycelial spawn run time and exerted a stimulatory effect on the growth of these two mushrooms. Irradiation also increased yield of these mushrooms. In all cases of the former, the highest yield of 2.57g was recorded from spawn irradiated at 0.3 kGy, while with the latter, best yield of 1119 g was recorded from spawn treated with 0.25 kGy. The control (non-irradiated) spawns of A. bisporus and P. sajor-caju gave yields of 2.03 g and 565 g respectively. Thus, a major boost in yields could be achieved using this technology. The shelf life of P. sajor-caju could be extended up to 9 days by 0.5 kGy of radiation, when the treated fruit bodies were held at 15 deg C as against the un-irradiated ones which had a shelf-life of 6 days. This dose neither adversely affected the browning of the fruit bodies at 45 deg C, nor lowered their protein (protein + free amino acids) and carbohydrate contents. Irradiation, however, at all the doses from 0.1 to 0.75 kGy enhanced the rehydration ratio and total free amino acid contents. The rehydration ratio of 0.62 was the maximum, reached with a dose of 0.25 kGy as against the control, which showed a value of 5.0. Dehydration along with gamma radiation treatment could play an important role for long term storage of mushrooms. Weight loss of un-dehydrated fruit bodies also decreased as a result of irradiation. (author)

  3. Neuronal and epithelial cell rescue resolves chronic systemic inflammation in the lipid storage disorder Niemann-Pick C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Manuel E; Klein, Andrés D; Hong, Jennifer; Dimbil, Ubah J; Scott, Matthew P

    2012-07-01

    Chronic systemic inflammation is thought to be a major contributor to metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. Since inflammatory components are shared among different disorders, targeting inflammation is an attractive option for mitigating disease. To test the significance of inflammation in the lipid storage disorder (LSD) Niemann-Pick C (NPC), we deleted the macrophage inflammatory gene Mip1a/Ccl3 from NPC diseased mice. Deletion of Ccl3 had been reported to delay neuronal loss in Sandhoff LSD mice by inhibiting macrophage infiltration. For NPC mice, in contrast, deleting Ccl3 did not retard neurodegeneration and worsened the clinical outcome. Depletion of visceral tissue macrophages also did not alter central nervous system (CNS) pathology and instead increased liver injury, suggesting a limited macrophage infiltration response into the CNS and a beneficial role of macrophage activity in visceral tissue. Prevention of neuron loss or liver injury, even at late stages in the disease, was achieved through specific rescue of NPC disease in neurons or in liver epithelial cells, respectively. Local epithelial cell correction was also sufficient to reduce the macrophage-associated pathology in lung tissue. These results demonstrate that elevated inflammation and macrophage activity does not necessarily contribute to neurodegeneration and tissue injury, and LSD defects in immune cells may not preclude an appropriate inflammatory response. We conclude that inflammation remains secondary to neuronal and epithelial cell dysfunction and does not irreversibly contribute to the pathogenic cascade in NPC disease. Without further exploration of possible beneficial roles of inflammatory mediators, targeting inflammation may not be therapeutically effective at ameliorating disease severity.

  4. Shelf life of loose flowers of rose cv. Gruss an Teplitz as influenced by 60Co-gamma irradiation followed by dry cool storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod Kumar; Bhattacharjee, S.K.; Sainudhin, Sumy; Chatterjee, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    The two different experiments were carried out firstly on effect of different doses of gamma irradiation on rose loose flowers and secondly on effect of two selected doses of gamma irradiation and dry cool storage for different durations. Different doses of gamma irradiation viz.. 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 krad were employed to freshly harvested half opened flower buds of rose cv. Gruss an Teplitz. It has been recorded that gamma irradiation doses. viz., 2.5 and 5 krad were found suitable in enhancing shelf life of rose loose flowers. Among these two doses, 2.5 krad was found better where 100, 75 and 15 per cent flowers remained fresh after 24, 48 and 72 hours respectively. In rose cv. Gruss an Teplitz loose flowers after treatment with 2.5 krad and storing the same for 1 day at 4 deg C it resulted in 100, 95, 75, 40 and 10 per cent in flowers in fresh state after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours, respectively, by keeping the flowers at ambient conditions. In control (fresh flowers) all flowers were found wilted up to 96 hours when kept at ambient conditions. It is concluded that rose cv. Gruss an Teplitz loose flowers after treatment with gamma irradiation of 2.5 krad can be further dry cool stored up to 120 hours at 4 deg C without affecting their longevity. (author)

  5. Application of Ozone as a Result of the Chemical Plasma Technology for Preservation of the Storage Life of the Potato Corm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Purwadi; Widdi Usada; Suryadi

    2007-01-01

    It has been done the research of influence of the ozone gift (ozonization) to the potato corm to know its storage life. Ozone gas with product rate of 0.015 mg/s applied was the result of combination of plasma and chemistry process from oxygen gas in the discharge tube of the power of P=50 wall. The research was carried out by variation of the ozonization time duration on potato corm (0 minute, 4 minute, 8 minute and 12 minute) and each of its condition was observed every 5 day, 15 day, 25 day and 35 day. Observation of the condition of potato corm consisted of the analysis parameters of water stage, texture, sugar reduction, the colour and test the differentiation. From research result was shown that the potato corm ozonization at room temperature by the ozonization for 12 minute per day, potato corm could be maintained during 35 day with the water stage of 83.72% wet base (% wb), texture of 12.19 N, sugar reduction of 1.42% dry base (% db), the yellowness degree of 4.30 and the redness degree of 8.34. (author)

  6. Effect of incorporation of natural chemicals in water ice-glazing on freshness and shelf-life of Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) during -18 °C frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haibo; Wang, Weihua; Chen, Wei; Tang, Haiqing; Jiang, Li; Yu, Zhifang

    2017-12-14

    Microbial spoilage and lipid oxidation are two major factors causing freshness deterioration of Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) during frozen storage. To provide a remedy, the effects of several natural chemicals incorporated alone or in combination in traditional water ice-glazing on the freshness and shelf-life of Pacific saury during frozen storage at -18 °C were investigated. Pacific sauries were subjected to individual quick freezing followed immediately by dipping into cold tap water (control) or solutions containing nisin, chitosan, phytic acid (single-factor experiment) or their combinations ((L 9 (3 4 ) orthogonal experiment) for 10 s at 1 °C and then packaged in polypropylene bags before frozen storage at -18 °C. The storage duration tested was up to 12 months. All ice-glazing treatments with individual chemicals could significantly (P shelf-life of Pacific saury could be extended up to 12 months at -18 °C. The study indicated that the combination treatment with natural chemicals could be commercially utilized to maintain the freshness and prolong the shelf-life of Pacific saury. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Sociodemographic aspects and quality of life of patients with sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Juliana Pereira; Gomes Neto, Mansueto

    2013-01-01

    Background Sickle cell anemia is a chronic inherited disease, widespread in the Brazilian population due to the high degree of miscegenation in the country. Despite the high prevalence, there are few studies describing the characteristics of patients and the impact of the disease on quality of life. Objective To describe the sociodemographic profile and the impact of the disease on the quality of life of sickle cell anemia patients. Methods Over 18-year-old patients with sickle cell anemia who attended meetings held by the Associação Baiana de Portadores de Doenças Falciformes, an association for sickle cell anemia patients in Bahia, were interviewed. Sociodemographic data were collected and the generic the Medical Outcomes 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire, which is used to assess quality of life, was applied. The analysis of the descriptive statistics was performed using the Statistics Program for the Social Sciences software. Results Thirty-two mostly female (65.6%) patients were interviewed. The mean age was 31.9 ± 12.67 years, 50.0% considered themselves black, 68.8% did not work and 87.5% had per capita income below the poverty line (up to one and a half minimum wages). The SF-36 scores were: limitation by physical aspects 26.56, functional capacity 28.9, emotional aspects 30.20, social aspects, 50.0, pain 50.31, mental health 54.62, general health status 56.09 and vitality 56.71. This shows that the disease has a huge impact on the patients' quality of life. Conclusion The disease interferes in the working capacity of individuals, who mostly have low incomes and impaired access to healthcare services and significantly impacts on their quality of life. PMID:24106440

  8. Duration of Red Blood Cell Storage Is Associated with Increased Incidence of Deep Vein Thrombosis and in Hospital Mortality in Patients with Traumatic Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-22

    Verhoeven AJ: Prolonged maintenance of 2, 3- diphosphoglycerate acid and adenosine triphosphate in red blood cells during storage. Transfusion 2008...ABO blood group geno- type and factor VIII levels as independent risk factors for venous thromboembolism. Thromb Haemost 2005, 93(3):468-474. 41. Koch

  9. Influence of Pre-Storage Irradiation on the Oxidative Stress Markers, Membrane Integrity, Size and Shape of the Cold Stored Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosik, Adam; Czubak, Kamila; Gajek, Arkadiusz; Marczak, Agnieszka; Glowacki, Rafal; Borowczyk, Kamila; Zbikowska, Halina Malgorzata

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the extent of oxidative damage and changes in morphology of manually isolated red blood cells (RBCs) from whole blood, cold stored (up to 20 days) in polystyrene tubes and subjected to pre-storage irradiation (50 Gy) and to compare the properties of SAGM-preserved RBCs stored under experimental conditions (polystyrene tubes) with RBCs from standard blood bag storage. The percentage of hemolysis as well as the extracellular activity of LDH, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, reduced glutathione (GSH), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. Changes in the topology of RBC membrane, shape, and size were evaluated by flow cytometry and judged against microscopy images. Irradiation caused significant LDH release as well as increased hemolysis and lipid peroxidation, GSH depletion, and reduction of TAC. Prolonged storage of irradiated RBCs resulted in phosphatidylserine exposure on the cell surface. By day 20, approximately 60% of RBCs displayed non-discoid shape. We did not notice significant differences in percentage of altered cells and cell volume between RBCs exposed to irradiation and those not exposed. Irradiation of RBC transfusion units with a dose of 50 Gy should be avoided. For research purposes such as studying the role of antioxidants, storage of small volumes of RBCs derived from the same donor would be more useful, cheaper, and blood-saving.

  10. Symbiosis in cell evolution: Life and its environment on the early earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.

    1981-01-01

    The book treats cell evolution from the viewpoint of the serial endosymbiosis theory of the origin of organelles. Following a brief outline of the symbiotic theory, which holds that eukaryotes evolved by the association of free-living bacteria with a host prokaryote, the diversity of life is considered, and five kingdoms of organisms are distinguished: the prokaryotic Monera and the eukaryotic Protoctista, Animalia, Fungi and Plantae. Symbiotic and traditional direct filiation theories of cell evolution are compared. Recent observations of cell structure and biochemistry are reviewed in relation to early cell evolution, with attention given to the geological context for the origin of eukaryotic cells, the origin of major bacterial anaerobic pathways, the relationship between aerobic metabolism and atmospheric oxygen, criteria for distinguishing symbiotic organelles from those that originated by differentiation, and the major classes of eukaryotic organelles: mitochondria, cilia, microtubules, the mitotic and meiotic apparatuses, and pastids. Cell evolution during the Phanerozoic is also discussed with emphasis on the effects of life on the biosphere

  11. Evidence for Nuclear Tensor Polarization of Deuterium Molecules in Storage Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van den Brand, J.; Bulten, H.; Zhou, Z.; Unal, O.; van den Brand, J.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Botto, T.; Bouwhuis, M.; Heimberg, P.; de Jager, C.; de Lange, D.; Nooren, G.; Papadakis, N.; Passchier, I.; Poolman, H.; Steijger, J.; Vodinas, N.; de Vries, H.; van den Brand, J.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Lang, J.; Alarcon, R.; Dolfini, S.; Ent, R.; Higinbotham, D.

    1997-01-01

    Deuterium molecules were obtained by recombination, on a copper surface, of deuterium atoms prepared in specific hyperfine states. The molecules were stored for about 5ms in an open-ended cylindrical cell, placed in a 23mT magnetic field, and their tensor polarization was measured by elastic scattering of 704MeV electrons. The results of the measurements are consistent with the deuterium molecules retaining the tensor polarization of the initial atoms. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Orilall, M. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The development of energy conversion and storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. However, there are numerous issues that prevent the widespread use of these technologies including cost, performance and durability. These limitations can be directly related to the materials used. In particular, the design and fabrication of nanostructured hybrid materials is expected to provide breakthroughs for the advancement of these technologies. This tutorial review will highlight block copolymers as an emerging and powerful yet affordable tool to structure-direct such nanomaterials with precise control over structural dimensions, composition and spatial arrangement of materials in composites. After providing an introduction to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various underlying fundamental chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic formation principles enabling general and relatively inexpensive wet-polymer chemistry methodologies for the efficient creation of multiscale functional materials. Examples include nanostructured ceramics, ceramic-carbon composites, ceramic-carbon-metal composites and metals with morphologies ranging from hexagonally arranged cylinders to three-dimensional bi-continuous cubic networks. The review ends with an outlook towards the synthesis of multicomponent and hierarchical multifunctional hybrid materials with different nano-architectures from self-assembly of higher order blocked macromolecules which may ultimately pave the way for the further development of energy conversion and storage devices. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orilall, M Christopher; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    The development of energy conversion and storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. However, there are numerous issues that prevent the widespread use of these technologies including cost, performance and durability. These limitations can be directly related to the materials used. In particular, the design and fabrication of nanostructured hybrid materials is expected to provide breakthroughs for the advancement of these technologies. This tutorial review will highlight block copolymers as an emerging and powerful yet affordable tool to structure-direct such nanomaterials with precise control over structural dimensions, composition and spatial arrangement of materials in composites. After providing an introduction to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various underlying fundamental chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic formation principles enabling general and relatively inexpensive wet-polymer chemistry methodologies for the efficient creation of multiscale functional materials. Examples include nanostructured ceramics, ceramic-carbon composites, ceramic-carbon-metal composites and metals with morphologies ranging from hexagonally arranged cylinders to three-dimensional bi-continuous cubic networks. The review ends with an outlook towards the synthesis of multicomponent and hierarchical multifunctional hybrid materials with different nano-architectures from self-assembly of higher order blocked macromolecules which may ultimately pave the way for the further development of energy conversion and storage devices.

  14. Fundamental characteristics of new electric power storage equipment celled `ECS`; Atarashii denryoku chozo sochi `ECS` no kisoteki tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, T.; Yamagishi, M.

    1997-01-30

    This paper introduces new electric power storage equipment called an energy capacitor system. A special electrically double-layered capacitor with its energy density raised in sacrifice of internal resistance has the current so adjusted that loss will not increase by using a switching converter (consisting of a charger and a current pump). The capacitor is charged and discharged at high efficiency. Upper limits of the charge voltage for each capacitor are connected with parallel monitor circuits so that maximum charge voltage of each capacitor will be aligned at one level, wherein charge and discharge are performed with that voltage used as the starting point. A drawback in a capacitor is lower energy density than in a secondary battery. Therefore, high voltage withstanding organic electrolyte was used, and electrode activated carbon was given discussions starting from its raw material structures. The efforts resulted in obtaining as high energy density as 43 Wh/kg (about 20 times as much as in conventional materials, and comparable to lead-acid batteries). In order to minimize heat generation due to the increased internal resistance, a switching converter was used to suppress charge/discharge currents to the minimum required levels. Although the capacitor still has insufficient voltage withstanding power and short life, the energy density is increasing beyond the initial estimation. The next problem to be solved is reduction in production cost for its industrialization. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Raman Microspectroscopy of Individual Algal Cells: Sensing Unsaturation of Storage Lipids in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samek, Ota; Jonáš, Alexandr; Pilát, Zdeněk; Zemánek, Pavel; Nedbal, Ladislav; Tříska, Jan; Kotas, Petr; Trtílek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 9 (2010), s. 8635-8651 ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk OC08034; GA MPO FR-TI1/433; GA ČR GA206/09/1284 Grant - others:EU(XE) PERG 06-GA-2009-256526 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Raman spectroscopy * algal cells * lipids * iodine value Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.771, year: 2010

  16. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1990-01-01

    This document represents a synthesis relative to tritium storage. After indicating the main storage particularities as regards tritium, storages under gaseous and solid form are after examined before establishing choices as a function of the main criteria. Finally, tritium storage is discussed regarding tritium devices associated to Fusion Reactors and regarding smaller devices [fr

  17. Synthetic Biology Parts for the Storage of Increased Genetic Information in Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Sydney E; Feldman, Aaron W; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2017-10-20

    To bestow cells with novel forms and functions, the goal of synthetic biology, we have developed the unnatural nucleoside triphosphates dNaMTP and dTPT3TP, which form an unnatural base pair (UBP) and expand the genetic alphabet. While the UBP may be retained in the DNA of a living cell, its retention is sequence-dependent. We now report a steady-state kinetic characterization of the rate with which the Klenow fragment of E. coli DNA polymerase I synthesizes the UBP and its mispairs in a variety of sequence contexts. Correct UBP synthesis is as efficient as for a natural base pair, except in one sequence context, and in vitro performance is correlated with in vivo performance. The data elucidate the determinants of efficient UBP synthesis, show that the dNaM-dTPT3 UBP is the first generally recognized natural-like base pair, and importantly, demonstrate that dNaMTP and dTPT3TP are well optimized and standardized parts for the expansion of the genetic alphabet.

  18. A supporting role of Chinese National Immortalized Cell Bank in life science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chong-feng; Duan, Zi-yuan

    2017-01-20

    A biorepository of human samples is essential to support the research of life science. Lymphoblastoid B cell line (LCL), which is easy to be prepared and can reproduce indefinitely, is a convenient form of sample preservation. LCLs are established from human B cells transformed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Chinese National Immortalized Cell Bank has preserved human LCLs from different ethnic groups in China. As there are many studies on the nature of LCLs and public available resources with genome-wide data for LCLs, they have been widely applied in genetics, immunology, pharmacogenetics/genomics, regenerative medicine, cancer pathogenesis and immunotherapy, screening and generation of fully human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and study on EBV pathogenesis. Here, we review the characteristics of LCLs and their contributions to scientific research, and introduce preserved samples in Chinese National Immortalized Cell Bank to the scientific community. We hope this bank can support more areas in the scientific research.

  19. Impacts of treatments on the quality of life among esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-Y; Hsieh, V C-R; Chang, C-H; Chen, P-R; Liang, W-M; Pan, S-C; Shieh, S-H

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of treatments on the quality of life for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients diagnosed at early and late stages. From a medical center in central Taiwan, patients who had been diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma from February 2007 and March 2011 were recruited. Using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the Quality of Life Questionnaire Oesophageal 18 (QLQ-OES18), quality of life scores for 105 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients were obtained and assessed. Multivariate analysis was performed on the quality of life scores after stratification by cancer stage. Among early-stage esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients, those received only surgery (S-only) performed better in physical and social functioning compared with patients who underwent surgery and concurrent chemoradiotherapy (S+CCRT) (β = 9.0, P = 0.03; β = 12.1, P = 0.04, respectively). For those that received only concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT-only), they performed worse in role and emotional functioning relative to S+CCRT patients (β = -17.2, P = 0.02; β = -15.7, P = 0.05, respectively). Among late-stage patients, CCRT-only treatment gave insignificantly better global health status and functional scale scores and less severe symptoms compared to the S+CCRT option. Better functional scores and less aggravated symptoms are observed in early-stage esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients who received surgery-only treatment relative to those that underwent both surgery and chemoradiotherapy. For late-stage esophageal cancer patients, the measured difference of quality of life is not significant between CCRT-only and S+CCRT treatments. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Stem cell research on other worlds, or why embryos do not have a right to life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, R

    2006-03-01

    Anxieties about the creation and destruction of human embryos for the purpose of scientific research on embryonic stem cells have given a new urgency to the question of whether embryos have moral rights. This article uses a thought experiment involving two possible worlds, somewhat removed from our own in the space of possibilities, to shed light on whether early embryos have such rights as a right not to be destroyed or discarded (a "right to life"). It is argued that early embryos do not have meaningful interests or any moral rights. Accordingly, claims about the moral rights of embryos do not justify restrictions on stem cell research.

  1. Optimal stochastic coordinated scheduling of proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power, wind and photovoltaic units in micro grids considering hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornapour, Mosayeb; Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Khodabakhshian, Amin; Parastegari, Moein

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Stochastic model is proposed for coordinated scheduling of renewable energy sources. •The effect of combined heat and power is considered. •Hydrogen storage is considered for fuel cells. •Maximizing profits of micro grid is considered as objective function. •Considering the uncertainties of problem lead to profit increasing. -- Abstract: Nowadays, renewable energy sources and combined heat and power units are extremely used in micro grids, so it is necessary to schedule these units to improve the performance of the system. In this regard, a stochastic model is proposed in this paper to schedule proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power, wind turbines, and photovoltaic units coordinately in a micro grid while considering hydrogen storage. Hydrogen storage strategy is considered for the operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power units. To consider stochastic generation of renewable energy source units in this paper, a scenario-based method is used. In this method, the uncertainties of electrical market price, the wind speed, and solar irradiance are considered. This stochastic scheduling problem is a mixed integer- nonlinear programming which considers the proposed objective function and variables of coordinated scheduling of PEMFC-CHP, wind turbines and photovoltaic units. It also considers hydrogen storage strategy and converts it to a mixed integer nonlinear problem. In this study a modified firefly algorithm is used to solve the problem. This method is examined on modified 33-bus distributed network as a MG for its performance.

  2. Influence of the type of milking and storage of milk on the chem ical composition, Somatic Cell Count and bacterial count Total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Leite Peixoto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The refrigeration of milk and the usage of mechanical milking are important to obtain milk in accordance with quality standards. In this work we evaluated the influence of the type of milking process and type of storage on the quality of the refrigerated milk. It was obtained 1363 refrigerated milk samples stored in single or collective expansion tanks, from manually or mechanically milked animals. The experiment was carried out in a 2x2 randomized factorial scheme. Two types of expansion tanks (single and collective and two types of milking (manual and mechanical. The average comparison test and Tukey test was carried out with 95% confidence. The levels of fat, protein, lactose and defatted dry extract, were evaluated according to the type of milking and type of milk storage. The values obtained were higher when compared to the values stabilished by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. The level of milk fat was higher in samples with somatic cell count above 501,000 SC/mL. However, the levels of protein and defatted dry extract were higher in samples with somatic cell count below 500,000 SC/mL. The type of milking and the type of storage have influence on parameters related to milk quality such as levels of fat, protein, lactose and somatic cell count. The milk chemical composition revealed in accordance with the values stabilished by the Brazilian legislation. The total bacterial count did not vary with storage type nor the type of milking.

  3. Effect of Thyme and Rosemary on The Quality Characteristics, Shelf-life, and Residual Nitrite Content of Sausages During Cold Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang Keun; Choi, Jung Seok; Lee, Seung Jae

    2016-01-01

    The effects of thyme and rosemary on the quality characteristics of sausages during cold storage were investigated. Sausages were prepared with thyme and rosemary powder (1 and 2%) and stored for 6 weeks at 10℃. The pH was significantly decreased in sausages by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that observed in the control before and after storage. At 4 weeks of storage, the residual nitrite content was decreased by thyme and rosemary compared to the control. Lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were increased during storage, whereas redness (a*) and whiteness (W) were decreased before and after storage by addition of thyme and rosemary. The amount of TPC and lactic acid bacteria was lower at the end of storage in sausage containing thyme and rosemary. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity of sausages was increased by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that in the control before and after storage. In particular, T2 (0.2% thyme addition) showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity during storage. In a sensory evaluation, flavor and overall acceptability were lower in sausages containing thyme and rosemary than in the control. However, at the end of storage (6 wk), aroma, flavor and overall acceptability were not significantly different among the sausage samples. PMID:27857542

  4. Fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, C.; Alvarez-Miranda, A.

    2009-01-01

    ENSA is a well known manufacturer of multi-system primary components for the nuclear industry and is totally prepared to satisfy future market requirements in this industry. At the same time that ENSA has been gaining a reputation world wider for the supply of primary components, has been strengthening its commitment and experience in supplying spent fuel components, either pool racks or storage and transportation casks, and offers not only fabrication but also design capabilities for its products. ENSA has supplied Spent Fuel Pool Racks, in spain, Finland, Taiwan, Korea, China, and currently it is in the process of licensing its own rack design in the United States of America for the ESBWR along with Ge-Hitachi. ENSA has supplied racks for 20 pools and 22 different reactors and it has also manufactured racks under all available technologies and developed a design known as Interlock Cell Matrix whose main features are outlined in this article. Another ENSA achievement in rack technology is the use of remote control for re-racking activities instead of using divers, which improves the ALARA requirements. Regarding casks for storage and transportation, ENSA also has al leading worldwide position, with exports prevailing over the Spanish market where ENSA has supplied 16 storage and transportation casks to the Spanish nuclear power Trillo. In some cases, ENSA acts as subcontractor for other clients. Foreign markets are still a major challenge for ENSA. ENSA-is well known for its manufacturing capabilities in the nuclear industry, but has been always involved in design activities through its engineering division, which carries out different tasks: components Design; Tooling Design; Engineering and Documentation; Project Engineering; Calculations, Design and Development Engineering. (Author)

  5. The effect of milk components and storage conditions on the virulence of Listeria monocytogenes as determined by a Caco-2 cell assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricope-Ciolacu, Luminita; Nicolau, Anca Ioana; Wagner, Martin; Rychli, Kathrin

    2013-08-16

    Nearly all cases of human listeriosis have been associated with consumption of contaminated food, therefore the investigation of the virulence of Listeria (L.) monocytogenes after exposure to environmental conditions in food matrices is critical in order to understand and control its impact on public health. As milk and dairy products have been implicated in more than half of the listeriosis outbreaks, we investigated the in vitro virulence of L. monocytogenes incubated in different milk types at various storage conditions. Incubation in pasteurized milk at refrigeration conditions (4°C) revealed a higher invasion and intracellular proliferation of four different L. monocytogenes strains compared to raw milk using human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Furthermore the period of storage, which increased L. monocytogenes cell numbers, decreased in vitro virulence. However, L. monocytogenes stored for 3weeks at 4°C in milk are still able to invade and proliferate into the host cell. Interestingly abused storage temperatures (25°C and 30°C) for a short time period (2h) revealed an attenuated impact on the in vitro virulence of L. monocytogenes compared to the storage temperature of 4°C. Regarding the major milk compounds, the level of milk fat significantly affected the in vitro virulence of L. monocytogenes. Pre-incubation in milk with high fat content (3.6%) resulted in a lower invasion capability compared to milk with low fat content. In contrast casein and lactose did not influence the invasiveness of L. monocytogenes into the host cell. In conclusion our study shows that the milk environment and different storage conditions influence the in vitro virulence of L. monocytogenes, both of which have to be considered in the risk assessment of contaminated food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quality of life of inoperable non-small cell lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minet, P.; Chevalier, P.; Gras, A.; Dejardin-Closon, M.T.; Bartsch, P.; Raets, D.; Lennes, G.

    1987-01-01

    Eighty one patients with inoperable non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) were entered in a randomized phase II trial comparing split-dose irradiation alone to combined treatment radiotherapy and polychemotherapy (C.A.P. + V.D.S.). The quality of life and the survival of the patients were studied. The authors have defined three classes of quality of life responses based on the time elapsed before the performance status index drops. A higher quality of life failure rate was observed in the combined treatment group (p non-significant) but the time elapsed before the Karnofsky index drops is longer in the combined treatment group for the quality of life 'no change' subgroup (p = 0.15). Survival and quality adjusted survival are similar in both treatment groups. The same conclusion holds for retrospective stratified treatment groups. The authors conclude that as far as the quality of life is concerned, polychemotherapy combined with the particular split-dose irradiation schedule used is an effective treatment of inoperable NSCLC. (Auth.)

  7. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation survivorship and quality of life: is it a small world after all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Lisa; Gilroy, Nicole; Dyer, Gemma; Kabir, Masura; Greenwood, Matt; Larsen, Stephen; Moore, John; Kwan, John; Hertzberg, Mark; Brown, Louisa; Hogg, Megan; Huang, Gillian; Tan, Jeff; Ward, Christopher; Gottlieb, David; Kerridge, Ian

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to gain a rich understanding of the impact that haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has on long-term survivor's quality of life (QoL). Participants included 441 survivors who had undergone HSCT for a malignant or non-malignant disease. Data were obtained by a questionnaire positing a single open-ended question asking respondents to list the three issues of greatest importance to their QoL in survivorship. Responses were analysed and organised into QoL themes and subthemes. Major themes identified included the following: the failing body and diminished physical effectiveness, the changed mind, the loss of social connectedness, the loss of the functional self and the patient for life. Each of these themes manifests different ways in which HSCT survivor's world and opportunities had diminished compared to the unhindered and expansive life that they enjoyed prior to the onset of disease and subsequent HSCT. HSCT has a profound and pervasive impact on the life of survivors-reducing their horizons and shrinking various parts of their worlds. While HSCT survivors can describe the ways in which their life has changed, many of their fears, anxieties, regrets and concerns are existential in nature and are ill-defined-making it exceeding unlikely that they would be adequately captured by standard psychometric measures of QoL post HSCT.

  8. Study of the stability of packaging and storage conditions of human mesenchymal stem cell for intra-arterial clinical application in patient with critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez-Martín, Patricia; Hmadcha, Abdelkrim; Soria, Bernat; Calpena-Campmany, Ana C; Clares-Naveros, Beatriz

    2014-04-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In this study, we developed and characterized an intra-arterial cell suspension containing human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) for the treatment of CLI. Equally, the stability of cells was studied in order to evaluate the optimal conditions of storage that guarantee the viability from cell processing to the administration phase. Effects of various factors, including excipients, storage temperature and time were evaluated to analyze the survival of hMSCs in the finished medicinal product. The viability of hMSCs in different packaging media was studied for 60 h at 4 °C. The best medium to maintain hMSCs viability was then selected to test storage conditions (4, 8, 25 and 37 °C; 60 h). The results showed that at 4 °C the viability was maintained above 80% for 48 h, at 8 °C decreased slightly, whereas at room temperature and 37 °C decreased drastically. Its biocompatibility was assessed by cell morphology and cell viability assays. During stability study, the stored cells did not show any change in their phenotypic or genotypic characteristics and physicochemical properties remained constant, the ability to differentiate into adipocytes and osteocytes and sterility requirements were also unaltered. Finally, our paper proposes a packing media composed of albumin 20%, glucose 5% and Ringer's lactate at a concentration of 1×10(6) cells/mL, which must be stored at 4 °C as the most suitable to maintain cell viability (>80%) and without altering their characteristics for more than 48 h. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Developing eco-friendly biofungicide for the management of major seed borne diseases of rice and assessing their physical stability and storage life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveenkumar, Ramasamy; Muthukumar, Arjunan; Sangeetha, Ganesan; Mohanapriya, Ramanathan

    2017-04-01

    Three plant oils (Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini, and Pelargonium graveolens) were developed as EC formulations and tested for their physical stabilities. EC formulations (10EC, 20EC and 30EC) of C. citratus, C. martini and P. graveolens had emulsion stability, spontaneity property, heat and cold stability. EC formulated plant oils were screened against the major seed borne fungi of rice such as Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme, Bipolaris oryzae, and Sarocladium oryzae. The level of inhibition varied among the concentrations of EC formulations. Among the three EC formulations, that of C. citratus oil 30EC recorded 100% inhibition on the mycelial growth of test pathogens. In the blotter paper method, rice seeds treated with a formulation of C. citratus oil 30EC controlled the infection of C. lunata, F. moniliforme, B. oryzae and S. oryzae in rice seed to the tune of 66.0%, 60.4%, 66.0% and 69.1%, respectively. Seed soaking with formulation of C. citratus oil 30EC showed the highest percentage of normal seedlings, the lowest number of abnormal seedling and fresh ungerminated seeds when tested with the roll-towel method. Seed soaking with 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil increased seed germination, shoot length, root length and vigour of rice seedlings when tested with the plastic tray method. Transmission of pathogens from seed to seedling was reduced significantly by the 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil when tested with the plastic pot method. The effect of the storage life of the 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil showed that it had retained their antifungal effect till the end of the incubation period (120 days), and is able to inhibit the mycelial growth of all test pathogens to the 100% level. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. The search for a storage site for low-level and long-life wastes. A national project and a development opportunity for your town. A dossier for local communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After a review of the program schedule, this document presents the project of a storage site for low-level and long life radioactive wastes as an opportunity for a district: it outlines the benefits of such a realisation for the dynamics of the local activity, specifies the main economical and financial characteristics associated with such a facility, and evokes the elements which are taken into account for the selection of the site. It describes the storage centre as a place of industrial activity, a monitored and controlled facility, an installation opened to the public. It describes the different stages of the life cycle of this future storage centre: pre-selection, on-site investigations, additional studies and administrative process for the selected site, building and starting, operation, shutting down, surveillance. The document indicates the legal frame related to this activity, specifies what are the different concerned wastes, and their present warehousing locations. It gives some details on the different safety principles for such a storage: environment and health protection, geological layer, public works engineering solutions, waste packages

  11. Study on the influence of storage life expectancy of the Valve Regulated Lead-Acid - VRLA battery; Estudo sobre a influencia da estocagem na expectativa de vida util da bateria chumbo-acida regulada por valvula - VRLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, A. Pinhel [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Email: pinhel@furnas.com.br; Rosolem, Maria de F.N.C.; Santos, G.R. dos; Frare, P.T.; Arioli, V.T.; Beck, R.F. [Telecomunicacoes do CPqD, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], Emails: mfatima@cpqd.com.br, glauco@cpqd.com.br, pfrare@cpqd.com.br, varioli@cpqd.com.br, raul@cpqd.com; Soares, L.A., Email: luiz.las@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    When valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are acquired and are not placed in operation immediately and remain stored in open circuit, they can loose autonomy and life. In these cases the current practice recommends, that the batteries receive quarterly recharges, which is often unfeasible. Given this scenario, Furnas by the CPqD, decided to verify the real impact of stockpiling in the expectancy of VRLAs battery life to establish the veracity of practice adopted or establish new procedures. The influences of time, the temperature of the local storage and application of charges are evaluated. It was also studied the application of techniques for measuring the internal resistance battery (conductance and impedance) for degradation monitoring and identification of the need for application of charges. As final products, it was developed novel diagnostic techniques that allow more accurate monitoring of the storage process.

  12. Effect of KOH concentration on LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cell - Update II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1992-01-01

    An update of validation test results confirming the breakthrough in LEO cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte is presented. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles, compared to 3500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The cycle regime was a stressful accelerated LEO, which consisted of a 27.5 min charge followed by a 17.5 min discharge (2X normal rate). The depth-of-discharge was 80 percent. Six 48-Ah Hughes recirculation design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight battery cells are being evaluated. Three of the cells contain 26 percent KOH (test cells), and three contain 31 percent KOH (control cells). They are undergoing real time LEO cycle life testing. The cycle regime is a 90-min LEO orbit consisting of a 54-min charge followed by a 36-min discharge. The depth-of-discharge is 80 percent. The cell temperature is maintained at 10 C. The three 31 percent KOH cells failed (cycles 3729, 4165, and 11355). One of the 26 percent KOH cells failed at cycle 15314. The other two 26 percent KOH cells were cycled for over 16,000 cycles during the continuing test.

  13. Biosensors and Biofuel Cells based on Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Integrated Energy Sensing, Generation, and Storage (SGS) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Archana; Prasad, Abhishek; Khin Yap, Yoke

    2010-03-01

    Diabetes is a growing health issue in the nation. Thus in-situ glucose sensors that can monitor the glucose level in our body are in high demand. Furthermore, it will be exciting if the excessive blood sugar can be converted into usable energy, and be stored in miniature batteries for applications. This will be the basis for an integrated energy sensing, generation, and storage (SGS) system in the future. Here we report the use of functionalized carbon nanotubes arrays as the glucose sensors as well as fuel cells that can convert glucose into energy. In principle, these devices can be integrated to detect excessive blood glucose and then convert the glucose into energy. They are also inline with our efforts on miniature 3D microbatteries using CNTs [1]. All these devices will be the basis for future SGS systems. Details of these results will be discussed in the meeting. [1] Wang et al., in 206^th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, October 3-8, Honolulu, Hawaii (2004), Symposium Q1, abstract 1492. Y. K. Yap acknowledges supports from DARPA (DAAD17-03-C-0115), USDA (2007-35603-17740), and the Multi-Scale Technologies Institute (MuSTI) at MTU.

  14. Adaption to High Altitude: An Evaluation of the Storage Quality of Suspended Red Blood Cells Prepared from the Whole Blood of Tibetan Plateau Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rui; Liu, Hua; Wang, Hong; Li, Xiaojuan; He, Zeng; Gangla, Meiduo; Zhang, Jingdan; Han, Dingding; Liu, Jiaxin

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia has been reported to cause the significant enhancement of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct), which stabilizes at relatively high levels after an individual ascends to a high altitude. However, the quality of the suspended red blood cells (SRBCs) obtained from individuals at high altitudes such as Tibetan plateau migrants after storage has not been studied. In this study, we compared the storage quality of SRBCs prepared from Tibetan plateau and Deyang lowland populations by adding a normal volume of mannitol-adenine-phosphate (MAP), which is a common additive solution used in blood storage in Asian countries. The storage cell characteristics were examined on days 1, 7, 14 and 35.We found higher Hct and Hb levels and viscosity in the high altitude samples. The metabolic rates, including those for electrolytes and lactate, were higher in plateau SRBCs than in lowland SRBCs; these findings were consistent with the higher osmotic fragility and hemolysis of plateau SRBCs throughout the entire storage period. In addition, the reduction rates of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and oxygen tension to attain 50% oxygen saturation of Hb (P50) in plateau SRBCs were higher than those in lowland SRBCs, and the oxygen delivering capacity in plateau SRBCs was weaker than that in lowland SRBCs. We concluded that the storage quality of plateau SRBCs was inferior to that of lowland SRBCs when using the same concentration of MAP. We suggested that the optimal formula, including the MAP concentration or even a new additive solution, to store the plateau SRBCs must be assessed and regulated.

  15. Adaption to High Altitude: An Evaluation of the Storage Quality of Suspended Red Blood Cells Prepared from the Whole Blood of Tibetan Plateau Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Li, Xiaojuan; He, Zeng; Gangla, Meiduo; Zhang, Jingdan; Han, Dingding; Liu, Jiaxin

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia has been reported to cause the significant enhancement of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct), which stabilizes at relatively high levels after an individual ascends to a high altitude. However, the quality of the suspended red blood cells (SRBCs) obtained from individuals at high altitudes such as Tibetan plateau migrants after storage has not been studied. In this study, we compared the storage quality of SRBCs prepared from Tibetan plateau and Deyang lowland populations by adding a normal volume of mannitol-adenine-phosphate (MAP), which is a common additive solution used in blood storage in Asian countries. The storage cell characteristics were examined on days1, 7, 14 and 35.We found higher Hct and Hb levels and viscosity in the high altitude samples. The metabolic rates, including those for electrolytes and lactate, were higher in plateau SRBCs than in lowland SRBCs; these findings were consistent with the higher osmotic fragility and hemolysis of plateau SRBCs throughout the entire storage period. In addition, the reduction rates of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and oxygen tension to attain 50% oxygen saturation of Hb (P50) in plateau SRBCs were higher than those in lowland SRBCs, and the oxygen delivering capacity in plateau SRBCs was weaker than that in lowland SRBCs. We concluded that the storage quality of plateau SRBCs was inferior to that of lowland SRBCs when using the same concentration of MAP. We suggested that the optimal formula, including the MAP concentration or even a new additive solution, to store the plateau SRBCs must be assessed and regulated. PMID:26637115

  16. Adaption to High Altitude: An Evaluation of the Storage Quality of Suspended Red Blood Cells Prepared from the Whole Blood of Tibetan Plateau Migrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhong

    Full Text Available Hypoxia has been reported to cause the significant enhancement of hemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit (Hct, which stabilizes at relatively high levels after an individual ascends to a high altitude. However, the quality of the suspended red blood cells (SRBCs obtained from individuals at high altitudes such as Tibetan plateau migrants after storage has not been studied. In this study, we compared the storage quality of SRBCs prepared from Tibetan plateau and Deyang lowland populations by adding a normal volume of mannitol-adenine-phosphate (MAP, which is a common additive solution used in blood storage in Asian countries. The storage cell characteristics were examined on days 1, 7, 14 and 35.We found higher Hct and Hb levels and viscosity in the high altitude samples. The metabolic rates, including those for electrolytes and lactate, were higher in plateau SRBCs than in lowland SRBCs; these findings were consistent with the higher osmotic fragility and hemolysis of plateau SRBCs throughout the entire storage period. In addition, the reduction rates of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG and oxygen tension to attain 50% oxygen saturation of Hb (P50 in plateau SRBCs were higher than those in lowland SRBCs, and the oxygen delivering capacity in plateau SRBCs was weaker than that in lowland SRBCs. We concluded that the storage quality of plateau SRBCs was inferior to that of lowland SRBCs when using the same concentration of MAP. We suggested that the optimal formula, including the MAP concentration or even a new additive solution, to store the plateau SRBCs must be assessed and regulated.

  17. Retention of storage quality and post-refrigeration shelf-life extension of plum (Prunus domestica L.) cv. Santa Rosa using combination of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coating and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Peerzada R.; Suradkar, Prashant P.; Wani, Ali M.; Dar, Mohd A.

    2015-01-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coatings alone and in combination with gamma irradiation was tested for maintaining the storage quality and extending shelf-life of plum. Matured green plums were CMC coated at levels 0.5–1.0% w/v and gamma irradiated at 1.5 kGy. The treated fruit including control was stored under ambient (temperature 25±2 °C, RH 70%) and refrigerated (temperature 3±1 °C, RH 80%) conditions. In fruits treated with individual treatments of 1.0% w/v CMC; 1.5 kGy irradiation and combination of 1.0% w/v CMC and 1.5 kGy irradiation, no decay was recorded up to 11, 17 and 21 days of ambient storage. Irradiation alone at 1.5 kGy gave 8 days extension in shelf-life of plum compared to 5 days by 1.0% w/v CMC coating following 45 days of refrigeration. All combinatory treatments of CMC coating and irradiation proved beneficial in maintaining the storage quality as well as delaying the decaying of plum during post-refrigerated storage at 25±2 °C, RH 70% but, combination of CMC at 1.0% w/v and 1.5 kGy irradiation was found significantly (p≤0.05) superior to all other treatments in maintaining the storage quality and delaying the decaying of plum. CMC coating of plums at 1.0% w/v followed by irradiation at 1.5 kGy resulted in chlorophyll retention of 19.4% after 16 days compared to 10% in control after 8 days of ambient storage. Under refrigerated conditions, same treatment gave retention of 67.6% in chlorophyll compared to 10.6% in control after 35 days of storage. The above combinatory treatment resulted in extension of 11 days in shelf-life of plum during post-refrigerated storage at 25±2 °C, RH 70% following 45 days of refrigeration. Based on microbial analysis, irradiation alone at 1.5 kGy and in combination with 1.0% w/v CMC resulted in 2.0 and 1.8 log reduction in yeast and mold count of plum fruit after 20 and 35 days of ambient and refrigerated storage, thereby ensuring consumer safety. - Highlights: • Irradiation and CMC alone at 1.5 k

  18. The Effectiveness of self management program on quality of life in patients with sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, M; Jahani, S; Poormansouri, S; Shariati, A; Tabesh, H

    2015-01-01

    Background Sickle cell patients suffer from many physical, psychological, and social problems that can affect their quality of life. To deal with this chronic condition and manage their disease and prevent complications associated with the disease, they must learn skills and behaviours. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of self-management programs on quality of life in these patients. Material and Methods Samples of this quasi-experimental study, which included 69 patients with sickle cell disease referring to the Thalassemia Clinic of Shafa Hospital, were entered into the study by census method. Patients received a self-management program using the 5A model for 12 weeks, while their quality of life before the intervention were assessed at the twelfth week and thirty-sixth week using SF-36 questionnaire. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, paired t-test, Wilcoxon test, Hotelling's T2, and repeated measures test. Results The eight dimensions and the total QoL score after intervention were significantly increased compared to those before the intervention (P<0.001). Repeated measures test showed that the mean score of eight QoL dimensions and the total QoL score decreased in the thirty-sixth week, compared to twelfth week. However, it was significantly enhanced in comparison with the intervention baseline (P<0.05). Conclusions Current study revealed the efficacy of self-management interventions on the quality of life in patients with sickle cell disease. Therefore, application of this supportive method could be useful to empower the patients and help them to manage the disease. PMID:25914799

  19. Shelf life and outdoor degradation studies of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergova, R.; Sendova-Vassileva, M.; Popkirov, G.; Gancheva, V.; Grancharov, G.

    2018-03-01

    We studied the degradation of different types of bulk heterojunction devices, in which the materials comprising the active layer and/or the materials used for the back electrode are varied. The devices are deposited on ITO covered glass and have the structure PEDOT:PSS/BHJ/Me, where PEDOT:PSS is the hole transport layer, BHJ (bulk heterojunction) is the active layer comprising a polymer donor (e.g. PTB7, PCDTBT) and a fullerene derivative acceptor (e.g. PC60BM, PC70BM) deposited by spin coating, Me is the metal back contact, which is either Ag or Al deposited by magnetron sputtering or thermal evaporation. The device performance was monitored after storage in the dark at ambient conditions by following the evolution of the J-V curve over time. Results of real conditions outdoor degradation studies are also presented. The stability of the different solar cell structures studied is compared.

  20. Performance of electric forklift with low-temperature polymer exchange membrane fuel cell power module and metal hydride hydrogen storage extension tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lototskyy, Mykhaylo V.; Tolj, Ivan; Parsons, Adrian; Smith, Fahmida; Sita, Cordellia; Linkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    We present test results of a commercial 3-tonne electric forklift (STILL) equipped with a commercial fuel cell power module (Plug Power) and a MH hydrogen storage tank (HySA Systems and TF Design). The tests included: (i) performance evaluation of "hybrid" hydrogen storage system during refuelling at low (fuel cell power module (alone) - power module with integrated MH tank; and (iii) performance tests of the forklift during its operation under working conditions. It was found that (a) the forklift with power module and MH tank can achieve 83% of maximum hydrogen storage capacity during 6 min refuelling (for full capacity 12-15 min); (b) heavy-duty operation of the forklift is characterised by 25% increase in energy consumption, and during system operation more uniform power distribution occurs when operating in the fuel cell powering mode with MH, in comparison to the battery powering mode; (c) use of the fully refuelled fuel cell power module with the MH extension tank allows for uninterrupted operation for 3 h 6 min and 7 h 15 min, for heavy- and light-duty operation, respectively.

  1. Combining plasma gasification and solid oxide cell technologies in advanced power plants for waste to energy and electric energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Alessandra; Minutillo, Mariagiovanna; Lubrano Lavadera, Antonio; Jannelli, Elio

    2018-03-01

    The waste to energy (WtE) facilities and the renewable energy storage systems have a strategic role in the promotion of the "eco-innovation", an emerging priority in the European Union. This paper aims to propose advanced plant configurations in which waste to energy plants and electric energy storage systems from intermittent renewable sources are combined for obtaining more efficient and clean energy solutions in accordance with the "eco-innovation" approach. The advanced plant configurations consist of an electric energy storage (EES) section based on a solid oxide electrolyzer (SOEC), a waste gasification section based on the plasma technology and a power generation section based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The plant configurations differ for the utilization of electrolytic hydrogen and oxygen in the plasma gasification section and in the power generation section. In the first plant configuration IAPGFC (Integrated Air Plasma Gasification Fuel Cell), the renewable oxygen enriches the air stream, that is used as plasma gas in the gasification section, and the renewable hydrogen is used to enrich the anodic stream of the SOFC in the power generation section. In the second plant configuration IHPGFC (Integrated Hydrogen Plasma Gasification Fuel Cell) the renewable hydrogen is used as plasma gas in the plasma gasification section, and the renewable oxygen is used to enrich the cathodic stream of the SOFC in the power generation section. The analysis has been carried out by using numerical models for predicting and comparing the systems performances in terms of electric efficiency and capability in realizing the waste to energy and the electric energy storage of renewable sources. Results have highlighted that the electric efficiency is very high for all configurations (35-45%) and, thanks to the combination with the waste to energy technology, the storage efficiencies are very attractive (in the range 72-92%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  2. TiO2-photoanode-assisted direct solar energy harvesting and storage in a solar-powered redox cell using halides as active materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Yangen; Qian, Yumin; Ye, Jing; Xiong, Shiyun; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2018-06-19

    The rapid deployment of renewable energy is resulting in significant energy security, climate change mitigation, and economic benefits. We demonstrate here the direct solar energy harvesting and storage in a rechargeable solar-powered redox cell, which can be charged solely by solar irradiation. The cell follows a conventional redox-flow cell design with one integrated TiO2 photoanode in the cathode side. Direct charging the cell by solar irradiation results in the conversion of solar energy in to chemical energy. While discharging the cell leads to the release of chemical energy in the form of electricity. The cell integrates energy conversion and storage processes in a single device, making the solar energy directly and efficiently dispatchable. When using redox couples of Br2/Br- and I3-/I- in the cathode side and anode side, respectively, the cell can be directly charged upon solar irradiation, yielding a discharge potential of 0.5V with good round-trip efficiencies. This design is expected to be a potential alternative towards the development of affordable, inexhaustible and clean solar energy technologies.

  3. Liberal red blood cell transfusions impair quality of life after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, A; Al-Sibai, J Z; Álvarez-Fernández, P; Martínez-Camblor, P; Argüello-Junquera, M; García-Gala, J M; Martínez-Revuelta, E; Silva, J; Morís, C; Albaiceta, G M

    2018-03-12

    The optimal blood management after cardiac surgery remains controversial. Moreover, blood transfusions may have an impact on long-term outcomes. The aim of this study is to characterize the impact of liberal red blood cell transfusions on Health-Related Quality of life (HRQoL) after cardiac surgery. We studied a cohort of 205 consecutive patients after ICU discharge. Baseline characteristics and clinical data were recorded, and HRQoL was assessed using the EuroQoL-5D instrument, applied 6 months after ICU discharge. A specific question regarding the improvement in the quality of life after the surgical intervention was added to the HRQoL questionnaire. Risk factors related to impaired quality of life were identified using univariate comparisons and multivariate regression techniques. The median (interquartile range, IQR) of transfused red blood cells was 3 (1-4). Among 205 patients, 178 were studied 6 months after discharge. Impairment in at least one dimension of the EuroQoL-5D questionnaire was observed in 120 patients, with an overall score of 0.8 (IQR 0.61-1). The number of red blood cell transfusions was related to an impaired HRQoL (OR 1.17 per additional unit, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.36, p=0.03), a trend to lower visual analog scale score (coefficient -0.75 per additional unit, 95% confidence interval -1.61 to 0.1, p=0.09) and an absence of improvement in HRQoL after surgery compared to the previous status (OR 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.25, p=0.01). Liberal red blood cell transfusions increase the risk of impaired HRQoL after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  4. A new cell culture model to genetically dissect the complete human papillomavirus life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowska-Haba, Malgorzata; Luszczek, Wioleta; Myers, Julia E; Keiffer, Timothy R; DiGiuseppe, Stephen; Polk, Paula; Bodily, Jason M; Scott, Rona S; Sapp, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Herein, we describe a novel infection model that achieves highly efficient infection of primary keratinocytes with human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16). This cell culture model does not depend on immortalization and is amenable to extensive genetic analyses. In monolayer cell culture, the early but not late promoter was active and yielded a spliced viral transcript pattern similar to HPV16-immortalized keratinocytes. However, relative levels of the E8^E2 transcript increased over time post infection suggesting the expression of this viral repressor is regulated independently of other early proteins and that it may be important for the shift from the establishment to the maintenance phase of the viral life cycle. Both the early and the late promoter were strongly activated when infected cells were subjected to differentiation by growth in methylcellulose. When grown as organotypic raft cultures, HPV16-infected cells expressed late E1^E4 and L1 proteins and replication foci were detected, suggesting that they supported the completion of the viral life cycle. As a proof of principle that the infection system may be used for genetic dissection of viral factors, we analyzed E1, E6 and E7 translation termination linker mutant virus for establishment of infection and genome maintenance. E1 but not E6 and E7 was essential to establish infection. Furthermore, E6 but not E7 was required for episomal genome maintenance. Primary keratinocytes infected with wild type HPV16 immortalized, whereas keratinocytes infected with E6 and E7 knockout virus began to senesce 25 to 35 days post infection. The novel infection model provides a powerful genetic tool to study the role of viral proteins throughout the viral life cycle but especially for immediate early events and enables us to compare low- and high-risk HPV types in the context of infection.

  5. A new cell culture model to genetically dissect the complete human papillomavirus life cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Bienkowska-Haba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we describe a novel infection model that achieves highly efficient infection of primary keratinocytes with human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16. This cell culture model does not depend on immortalization and is amenable to extensive genetic analyses. In monolayer cell culture, the early but not late promoter was active and yielded a spliced viral transcript pattern similar to HPV16-immortalized keratinocytes. However, relative levels of the E8^E2 transcript increased over time post infection suggesting the expression of this viral repressor is regulated independently of other early proteins and that it may be important for the shift from the establishment to the maintenance phase of the viral life cycle. Both the early and the late promoter were strongly activated when infected cells were subjected to differentiation by growth in methylcellulose. When grown as organotypic raft cultures, HPV16-infected cells expressed late E1^E4 and L1 proteins and replication foci were detected, suggesting that they supported the completion of the viral life cycle. As a proof of principle that the infection system may be used for genetic dissection of viral factors, we analyzed E1, E6 and E7 translation termination linker mutant virus for establishment of infection and genome maintenance. E1 but not E6 and E7 was essential to establish infection. Furthermore, E6 but not E7 was required for episomal genome maintenance. Primary keratinocytes infected with wild type HPV16 immortalized, whereas keratinocytes infected with E6 and E7 knockout virus began to senesce 25 to 35 days post infection. The novel infection model provides a powerful genetic tool to study the role of viral proteins throughout the viral life cycle but especially for immediate early events and enables us to compare low- and high-risk HPV types in the context of infection.

  6. Energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  7. Skin Reactions and Quality of Life after X-Ray Therapy of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skiveren, J.; Daugbjerg, H.; Wulf, H. C.; Mikkelsen, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is often treated by surgery or X-ray therapy. The consequences of X-ray therapy on the patients health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) have so far not been described. Objectives. To quantify quality of life in BCC patients before and after X-ray therapy compared with matched healthy controls. Materials. Twenty-five patients (mean age 69) with BCC completed the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) before and two weeks and three months after X-ray therapy and their results were compared with the DLQI scores for 25 matched controls. Results. Compared to the healthy controls the patients' DLQI score was significantly higher before and 2 weeks after X-ray therapy ( ρ=0.005;ρ=0.000). The patients' DLQI score decreased significantly from baseline to three months after X-ray therapy (ρ=0.024), when it became similar to that of the healthy controls (ρ=0.819). Three months after X-ray therapy eight patients had no skin reactions, 11 had slight atrophy, pigmentation change, and/or some hair loss, four had patch atrophy, moderate telangiectasia, and/or total hair loss. Conclusions. BCC has a negative effect on patients' quality of life. The study shows that HRQOL normalises shortly after X-ray therapy, despite minor skin manifestations.

  8. T Cell Immunosenescence after Early Life Adversity: Association with Cytomegalovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M. C. Elwenspoek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Early life adversity (ELA increases the risk for multiple age-related diseases, such as diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular disease. As prevalence is high, ELA poses a major and global public health problem. Immunosenescence, or aging of the immune system, has been proposed to underlie the association between ELA and long-term health consequences. However, it is unclear what drives ELA-associated immunosenescence and which cells are primarily affected. We investigated different biomarkers of immunosenescence in a healthy subset of the EpiPath cohort. Participants were either parent-reared (Ctrl, n = 59 or had experienced separation from their parents in early childhood and were subsequently adopted (ELA, n = 18. No difference was observed in telomere length or in methylation levels of age-related CpGs in whole blood, containing a heterogeneous mixture of immune cells. However, when specifically investigating T cells, we found a higher expression of senescence markers (CD57 in ELA. In addition, senescent T cells (CD57+ in ELA had an increased cytolytic potential compared to senescent cells in controls. With a mediation analysis we demonstrated that cytomegalovirus (CMV infection, which is an important driving force of immunosenescence, largely accounted for elevated CD57 expression observed in ELA. Leukocyte telomere length may obscure cell-specific immunosenescence; here, we demonstrated that the use of cell surface markers of senescence can be more informative. Our data suggest that ELA may increase the risk of CMV infection in early childhood, thereby mediating the effect of ELA on T cell-specific immunosenescence. Thus, future studies should include CMV as a confounder or selectively investigate CMV seronegative cohorts.

  9. Social science in a stem cell laboratory: what happened when social and life sciences met.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Glyn; Stephens, Neil

    2012-01-01

    We describe the experience of conducting intensive social science research at the UK Stem Cell Bank from the viewpoint of both the person conducting the social science research and the Director of the Bank. We detail the initial misunderstandings and concerns held by both and the problems these caused. Then we describe how the relationship developed as the project progressed and shared benefits became apparent. Finally, while acknowledging potential areas of tension between the life and social sciences, we suggest further interaction between the disciplines would prove beneficial for both and speculate as to how this may be achieved. In the discussion we identify a set of learning points from our experience and definitions of social science terminology that may help to inform future engagements between life and social scientists.

  10. Enhanced life of proton exchange membrane fuel cell catalysts using perfluorosulfonic acid stabilized carbon support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Niancai; Mu Shichun; Chen Xiaojing; Lv Haifeng; Pan Mu; Edwards, Peter P.

    2011-01-01

    We report a new and simple solution to increase life of Pt/C catalysts using the proton-conducting polymer (perfluorosulfonic acid, PFSA) stabilized carbon support (denoted these catalysts as Pt/NFC catalysts) as compared to conventional Pt/C catalysts commonly used in PEM fuel cells. A high catalytic activity of the catalyst is observed by both CV (cyclic voltammetry) and ORR (oxygen reduction reaction) measurements. Especially, our own catalysts have a 60% better life as compared to Pt/C under electrochemically accelerated durability test conditions. The loss rate of electrochemical active area (ECA) for Pt/NFC catalysts is only 0.007 m 2 g -1 cycle -1 , compared to a value of 0.011 m 2 g -1 cycle -1 for Pt/C.

  11. Enhanced life of proton exchange membrane fuel cell catalysts using perfluorosulfonic acid stabilized carbon support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Niancai [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 430070 (China); Mu Shichun, E-mail: msc@whut.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 430070 (China); Department of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Chen Xiaojing; Lv Haifeng; Pan Mu [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 430070 (China); Edwards, Peter P. [Department of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, OX1 3QR (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-01

    We report a new and simple solution to increase life of Pt/C catalysts using the proton-conducting polymer (perfluorosulfonic acid, PFSA) stabilized carbon support (denoted these catalysts as Pt/NFC catalysts) as compared to conventional Pt/C catalysts commonly used in PEM fuel cells. A high catalytic activity of the catalyst is observed by both CV (cyclic voltammetry) and ORR (oxygen reduction reaction) measurements. Especially, our own catalysts have a 60% better life as compared to Pt/C under electrochemically accelerated durability test conditions. The loss rate of electrochemical active area (ECA) for Pt/NFC catalysts is only 0.007 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} cycle{sup -1}, compared to a value of 0.011 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} cycle{sup -1} for Pt/C.

  12. Optimized Fuzzy-Cuckoo Controller for Active Power Control of Battery Energy Storage System, Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell and Wind Turbine in an Isolated Micro-Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Einan; Hossein Torkaman; Mahdi Pourgholi

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new control strategy for isolated micro-grids including wind turbines (WT), fuel cells (FC), photo-voltaic (PV) and battery energy storage systems (BESS). FC have been used in parallel with BESSs in order to increase their lifetime and efficiency. The changes in some parameters such as wind speed, sunlight, and consumption, lead to improper performance of droop. To overcome this challenge, a new intelligent method using a combination of fuzzy controller and cuckoo optimi...

  13. Modeling and experimental performance of an intermediate temperature reversible solid oxide cell for high-efficiency, distributed-scale electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Christopher H.; Gao, Zhan; Barnett, Scott A.; Braun, Robert J.

    2015-06-01

    Electrical energy storage is expected to be a critical component of the future world energy system, performing load-leveling operations to enable increased penetration of renewable and distributed generation. Reversible solid oxide cells, operating sequentially between power-producing fuel cell mode and fuel-producing electrolysis mode, have the capability to provide highly efficient, scalable electricity storage. However, challenges ranging from cell performance and durability to system integration must be addressed before widespread adoption. One central challenge of the system design is establishing effective thermal management in the two distinct operating modes. This work leverages an operating strategy to use carbonaceous reactant species and operate at intermediate stack temperature (650 °C) to promote exothermic fuel-synthesis reactions that thermally self-sustain the electrolysis process. We present performance of a doped lanthanum-gallate (LSGM) electrolyte solid oxide cell that shows high efficiency in both operating modes at 650 °C. A physically based electrochemical model is calibrated to represent the cell performance and used to simulate roundtrip operation for conditions unique to these reversible systems. Design decisions related to system operation are evaluated using the cell model including current density, fuel and oxidant reactant compositions, and flow configuration. The analysis reveals tradeoffs between electrical efficiency, thermal management, energy density, and durability.

  14. Effect of KOH concentration on LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells-update 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1991-01-01

    An update of validation test results confirming the breakthrough in low earth orbit (LEO) cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte is presented. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of individual pressure vessel (IPV nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte was about 40 000 LEO cycles compared to 3500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. This test was conducted at Hughes Aircraft Company under a NASA Lewis contract. The purpose was to investigate the effect of KOH concentration on cycle life. The cycle regime was a stressful accelerated LEO, which consisted of a 27.5 min charge followed by a 17.5 min discharge (2x normal rate). The depth of discharge (DOD) was 80 percent. The cell temperature was maintained at 23 C. The boiler plate test results are in the process of being validated using flight hardware and real time LEO test at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC), Crane, Indiana under a NASA Lewis Contract. Six 48 Ah Hughes recirculation design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight battery cells are being evaluated. Three of the cells contain 26 percent KOH (test cells), and three contain 31 percent KOH (control cells). They are undergoing real time LEO cycle life testing. The cycle regime is a 90-min LEO orbit consisting of a 54-min charge followed by a 36-min discharge. The depth-of-discharge is 80 percent. The cell temperature is maintained at 10 C. The three 31 percent KOH cells failed (cycles 3729, 4165, and 11355). One of the 26 percent KOH cells failed at cycle 15314. The other two 26 percent KOH cells were cycled for over 16600 cycles during the continuing test.

  15. The thermodynamic efficiency of computations made in cells across the range of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempes, Christopher P.; Wolpert, David; Cohen, Zachary; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2017-11-01

    Biological organisms must perform computation as they grow, reproduce and evolve. Moreover, ever since Landauer's bound was proposed, it has been known that all computation has some thermodynamic cost-and that the same computation can be achieved with greater or smaller thermodynamic cost depending on how it is implemented. Accordingly an important issue concerning the evolution of life is assessing the thermodynamic efficiency of the computations performed by organisms. This issue is interesting both from the perspective of how close life has come to maximally efficient computation (presumably under the pressure of natural selection), and from the practical perspective of what efficiencies we might hope that engineered biological computers might achieve, especially in comparison with current computational systems. Here we show that the computational efficiency of translation, defined as free energy expended per amino acid operation, outperforms the best supercomputers by several orders of magnitude, and is only about an order of magnitude worse than the Landauer bound. However, this efficiency depends strongly on the size and architecture of the cell in question. In particular, we show that the useful efficiency of an amino acid operation, defined as the bulk energy per amino acid polymerization, decreases for increasing bacterial size and converges to the polymerization cost of the ribosome. This cost of the largest bacteria does not change in cells as we progress through the major evolutionary shifts to both single- and multicellular eukaryotes. However, the rates of total computation per unit mass are non-monotonic in bacteria with increasing cell size, and also change across different biological architectures, including the shift from unicellular to multicellular eukaryotes. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  16. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After having outlined the importance of energy storage in the present context, this document outlines that it is an answer to economic, environmental and technological issues. It proposes a brief overview of the various techniques of energy storage: under the form of chemical energy (hydrocarbons, biomass, hydrogen production), thermal energy (sensitive or latent heat storage), mechanical energy (potential energy by hydraulic or compressed air storage, kinetic energy with flywheels), electrochemical energy (in batteries), electric energy (super-capacitors, superconductor magnetic energy storage). Perspectives are briefly evoked

  17. POSIX and Object Distributed Storage Systems Performance Comparison Studies With Real-Life Scenarios in an Experimental Data Taking Context Leveraging OpenStack Swift & Ceph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poat, M. D.; Lauret, J.; Betts, W.

    2015-12-01

    The STAR online computing infrastructure has become an intensive dynamic system used for first-hand data collection and analysis resulting in a dense collection of data output. As we have transitioned to our current state, inefficient, limited storage systems have become an impediment to fast feedback to online shift crews. Motivation for a centrally accessible, scalable and redundant distributed storage system had become a necessity in this environment. OpenStack Swift Object Storage and Ceph Object Storage are two eye-opening technologies as community use and development have led to success elsewhere. In this contribution, OpenStack Swift and Ceph have been put to the test with single and parallel I/O tests, emulating real world scenarios for data processing and workflows. The Ceph file system storage, offering a POSIX compliant file system mounted similarly to an NFS share was of particular interest as it aligned with our requirements and was retained as our solution. I/O performance tests were run against the Ceph POSIX file system and have presented surprising results indicating true potential for fast I/O and reliability. STAR'S online compute farm historical use has been for job submission and first hand data analysis. The goal of reusing the online compute farm to maintain a storage cluster and job submission will be an efficient use of the current infrastructure.

  18. Quality of Life After Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voort van Zyp, Noelle C. van der; Prevost, Jean-Briac; Holt, Bronno van der; Braat, Cora; Klaveren, Robertus J. van; Pattynama, Peter M.; Levendag, Peter C.; Nuyttens, Joost J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of stereotactic radiotherapy on the quality of life of patients with inoperable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Overall survival, local tumor control, and toxicity were also evaluated in this prospective study. Methods and Materials: From January 2006 to February 2008, quality of life, overall survival, and local tumor control were assessed in 39 patients with pathologically confirmed T1 to 2N0M0 NSCLC. These patients were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ) C30 and the QLQ LC13 lung cancer-specific questionnaire were used to investigate changes in quality of life. Assessments were done before treatment, at 3 weeks, and at 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months after treatment, until death or progressive disease. Toxicity was evaluated using common terminology criteria for adverse events version 3.0. Results: Emotional functioning improved significantly after treatment. Other function scores and QLQ C30 and QLQ LC13 lung symptoms (such as dyspnea and coughing) showed no significant changes. The overall 2-year survival rate was 62%. After a median follow-up of 17 months, 1 patient had a local recurrence (3%). No grade 4 or 5 treatment-related toxicity occurred. Grade 3 toxicity consisted of thoracic pain, which occurred in 1 patient within 4 months of treatment, while it occurred thereafter in 2 patients. Conclusions: Quality of life was maintained, and emotional functioning improved significantly after stereotactic radiotherapy for stage I NSCLC, while survival was acceptable, local tumor control was high, and toxicity was low.

  19. KOH concentration effect on the cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells. IV - Results of failure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    Potassium hydroxide concentration effects on the cycle life of a Ni/H2 cell have been studied by carrying out a cycle life test on ten Ni/H2 boiler plate cells which contain electrolytes of various KOH concentrations. Failure analyses of these cells were carried out after completion of the life test, which accumulated up to 40,000 cycles at an 80-percent depth of discharge over a period of 3.7 years. These failure analyses included studies on changes of electrical characteristics of test cells, and component analyses after disassembly of the cell. The component analyses included visual inspections, dimensional changes, capacity measurements of nickel electrodes, scanning electron microscopy, surface area measurements, and chemical analyses. Results have indicated that failure mode and change in the nickel electrode varied as the concentration was varied, especially when the concentration was changed from 31 percent or higher to 26 percent or lower.

  20. KOH concentration effect on the cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells. Part 4: Results of failure analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    KOH concentration effects on cycle life of a Ni/H2 cell have been studied by carrying out a cycle life test of ten Ni/H2 boiler plate cells which contain electrolytes of various KOH concentrations. Failure analyses of these cells were carried out after completion of the life test which accumulated up to 40,000 cycles at an 80 percent depth of discharge over a period of 3.7 years. These failure analyses included studies on changes of electrical characteristics of test cells and component analyses after disassembly of the cell. The component analyses included visual inspections, dimensional changes, capacity measurements of nickel electrodes, scanning electron microscopy, BET surface area measurements, and chemical analyses. Results have indicated that failure mode and change in the nickel electrode varied as the concentration was varied, especially, when the concentration was changed from 31 percent or higher to 26 percent or lower.

  1. KOH concentration effect on the cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells. 4: Results of failure analyse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of KOH concentrations on failure modes and mechanisms of nickel-hydrogen cells were studied using long cycled boiler plate cells containing electrolytes of various KOH concentrations ranging 21 to 36 percent. Life of these cells were up to 40,000 cycles in an accelerated low earth orbit (LEO) cycle regime at 80 percent depth of discharge. An interim life test results were reported earlier in J. Power Sources, 22, 213-220, 1988. The results of final life test, end-of-life cell performance, and teardown analyses are discussed. These teardown analyses included visual observations, measurements of nickel electrode capacity in an electrolyte-flooded cell, dimensional changes of cell components, SEM studies on cell cross section, BET surface area and pore volume distribution in cycled nickel electrodes, and chemical analyses. Cycle life of a nickel-hydrogen cell was improved tremendously as KOH concentration was decreased from 36 to 31 percent and from 31 to 26 percent while effect of further concentration decrease was complicated as described in our earlier report. Failure mode of high concentration (31 to 36 percent) cells was gradual capacity decrease, while that of low concentration (21 to 26 percent) cells was mainly formation of a soft short. Long cycled (25,000 to 40,000 cycles) nickel electrodes were expanded more than 50 percent of the initial value, but no correlation was found between this expansion and measured capacity. All electrodes cycled in low concentration (21 to 26 percent) cells had higher capacity than those cycled in high concentration (31 to 36 percent) cells.

  2. Life cycle assessment of cell phones in Brazil based on two reverse logistics scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela da Gama e Silva Volpe Moreira de Moraes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a result of a cell phone collection obtained at the Center for Information Technology Renato Archer (CTI under the AMBIENTRONIC Program, an initiative that supports the Brazilian electronic sector in the development of technologies for sustainability. The objective of this article is to assess two reverse logistic scenarios of cell phones using the technique of life-cycle assessment (LCA. The first scenario reflects the current scenario in Brazil, where batteries are recycled in Brazil and the other parts of the phones are outsourced to Europe. The second scenario is a proposal of full treatment in Brazil. The results indicate that the second scenario has a lower potential impact with important reduction of acidification, photochemical oxidation, eutrophication and the use of non-renewable energy. Furthermore, fully implementing reverse logistics in Brazil will enable socioeconomic benefits from the sale of materials and the generation of employment and income.

  3. Alternatives to reduce corrosion of carbon steel storage drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirker, L.R.; Beitel, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    The major tasks of this research were (a) pollution prevention opportunity assessments on the overpacking operations for failed or corroded drums, (b) research on existing container corrosion data, (c) investigation of the storage environment of the new Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Type II storage modules, (d) identification of waste streams that demonstrate deleterious corrosion affects on drum storage life, and (e) corrosion test cell program development. Twenty-one waste streams from five US Department of Energy (DOE) sites within the DOE Complex were identified to demonstrate a deleterious effect to steel storage drums. The major components of these waste streams include acids, salts, and solvent liquids, sludges, and still bottoms. The solvent-based waste streams typically had the shortest time to failure: 0.5 to 2 years. The results of this research support the position that pollution prevention evaluations at the front end of a project or process will reduce pollution on the back end

  4. A concept of an electricity storage system with 50 MWh storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity storage devices can be divided into indirect storage technology devices (involving electricity conversion into another form of energy, and direct storage (in an electric or magnetic fi eld. Electricity storage technologies include: pumped-storage power plants, BES Battery Energy Storage, CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage, Supercapacitors, FES Flywheel Energy Storage, SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, FC Fuel Cells reverse or operated in systems with electrolysers and hydrogen storage. These technologies have diff erent technical characteristics and economic parameters that determine their usability. This paper presents two concepts of an electricity storage tank with a storage capacity of at least 50 MWh, using the BES battery energy storage and CAES compressed air energy storage technologies.

  5. Filtration Device for On-Site Collection, Storage and Shipment of Cells from Urine and Its Application to DNA-Based Detection of Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Elin; Dahmcke, Christina M; Steven, Kenneth; Larsen, Louise K; Guldberg, Per

    2015-01-01

    Molecular analysis of cells from urine provides a convenient approach to non-invasive detection of bladder cancer. The practical use of urinary cell-based tests is often hampered by difficulties in handling and analyzing large sample volumes, the need for rapid sample processing to avoid degradation of cellular content, and low sensitivity due to a high background of normal cells. We present a filtration device, designed for home or point-of-care use, which enables collection, storage and shipment of urinary cells. A special feature of this device is a removable cartridge housing a membrane filter, which after filtration of urine can be transferred to a storage unit containing an appropriate preserving solution. In spiking experiments, the use of this device provided efficient recovery of bladder cancer cells with elimination of >99% of excess smaller-sized cells. The performance of the device was further evaluated by DNA-based analysis of urinary cells collected from 57 patients subjected to transurethral resection following flexible cystoscopy indicating the presence of a tumor. All samples were tested for FGFR3 mutations and seven DNA methylation markers (BCL2, CCNA1, EOMES, HOXA9, POU4F2, SALL3 and VIM). In the group of patients where a transitional cell tumor was confirmed at histopathological evaluation, urine DNA was positive for one or more markers in 29 out of 31 cases (94%), including 19 with FGFR3 mutation (61%). In the group of patients with benign histopathology, urine DNA was positive for methylation markers in 13 out of 26 cases (50%). Only one patient in this group was positive for a FGFR3 mutation. This patient had a stage Ta tumor resected 6 months later. The ability to easily collect, store and ship diagnostic cells from urine using the presented device may facilitate non-invasive testing for bladder cancer.

  6. Filtration Device for On-Site Collection, Storage and Shipment of Cells from Urine and Its Application to DNA-Based Detection of Bladder Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Andersson

    Full Text Available Molecular analysis of cells from urine provides a convenient approach to non-invasive detection of bladder cancer. The practical use of urinary cell-based tests is often hampered by difficulties in handling and analyzing large sample volumes, the need for rapid sample processing to avoid degradation of cellular content, and low sensitivity due to a high background of normal cells. We present a filtration device, designed for home or point-of-care use, which enables collection, storage and shipment of urinary cells. A special feature of this device is a removable cartridge housing a membrane filter, which after filtration of urine can be transferred to a storage unit containing an appropriate preserving solution. In spiking experiments, the use of this device provided efficient recovery of bladder cancer cells with elimination of >99% of excess smaller-sized cells. The performance of the device was further evaluated by DNA-based analysis of urinary cells collected from 57 patients subjected to transurethral resection following flexible cystoscopy indicating the presence of a tumor. All samples were tested for FGFR3 mutations and seven DNA methylation markers (BCL2, CCNA1, EOMES, HOXA9, POU4F2, SALL3 and VIM. In the group of patients where a transitional cell tumor was confirmed at histopathological evaluation, urine DNA was positive for one or more markers in 29 out of 31 cases (94%, including 19 with FGFR3 mutation (61%. In the group of patients with benign histopathology, urine DNA was positive for methylation markers in 13 out of 26 cases (50%. Only one patient in this group was positive for a FGFR3 mutation. This patient had a stage Ta tumor resected 6 months later. The ability to easily collect, store and ship diagnostic cells from urine using the presented device may facilitate non-invasive testing for bladder cancer.

  7. Dynamic expression of the translational machinery during Bacillus subtilis life cycle at a single cell level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Rosenberg

    Full Text Available The ability of bacteria to responsively regulate the expression of translation components is crucial for rapid adaptation to fluctuating environments. Utilizing Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis as a model organism, we followed the dynamics of the translational machinery at a single cell resolution during growth and differentiation. By comprehensive monitoring the activity of the major rrn promoters and ribosomal protein production, we revealed diverse dynamics between cells grown in rich and poor medium, with the most prominent dissimilarities exhibited during deep stationary phase. Further, the variability pattern of translational activity varied among the cells, being affected by nutrient availability. We have monitored for the first time translational dynamics during the developmental process of sporulation within the two distinct cellular compartments of forespore and mother-cell. Our study uncovers a transient forespore specific increase in expression of translational components. Finally, the contribution of each rrn promoter throughout the bacterium life cycle was found to be relatively constant, implying that differential expression is not the main purpose for the existence of multiple rrn genes. Instead, we propose that coordination of the rrn operons serves as a strategy to rapidly fine tune translational activities in a synchronized fashion to achieve an optimal translation level for a given condition.

  8. Quality of life concerns and depression among hematopoietic stem cell transplant survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Catherine E; DuHamel, Katherine N; Rini, Christine; Corner, Geoffrey; Lam, Joanne; Redd, William H

    2011-09-01

    This study examined quality of life, transplant-related concerns, and depressive symptoms and their demographic and medical correlates at 1 to 3 years following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). HSCT survivors (N=406) completed telephone-administered questionnaires that assessed demographic variables, functional status, quality of life, transplant-related concerns, and depressive symptoms. The most prevalent concerns among HSCT survivors included physical symptoms (e.g., fatigue and pain), maintaining current health status and employment, changes in appearance, and lack of sexual interest and satisfaction. In addition, almost one-third (32%) of survivors age 40 years and younger reported concern about their ability to have children. Unemployed survivors and those with lower incomes and worse functional status were more likely to experience poorer quality of life in multiple domains. Fifteen percent of the sample reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms, and these symptoms were higher among allogeneic transplant recipients and those with lower functional status. Results suggest that interventions are needed to address physical symptoms, coping with an uncertain future, infertility, and sexual issues during the early phase of HSCT survivorship.

  9. Quality of life in survivors of squamous cell carcinoma of oral and oropharyngeal patients in karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, S.U.; Farrukh, M.S.; Begum, K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate quality of life (QOL) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of oral and oropharyngeal region. Methodology: This is prospective longitudinal study was conducted at ENT department Dow University Hospital and Radiotherapy Department KIRAN from November 2012 to November 2015. It included 56 patients of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of oral cavity and oropharynx regions who had completed cancer treatment (Wide local excision +/-Neck dissection +/- Radiotherapy). UW QOL questionnaire is taken as the tool to analyze the quality improvement in the domains of pain, appearance, activity, recreation, swallowing, chewing, speech, shoulder, taste, saliva, mood and anxiety. Comparative analysis used to assess all 12 factors associated with cancer patients. A paired t-test was used to compare preoperative and 6 months or more post-operative QOL rating. Results: Six months or more after surgery, 13 patients were lost to follow up and 9 died. 34 patients completed the UW QOL. Cancer Survivors presented overall significantly poorer QOL. QOL improved in the domains of activity, shoulder pain, mood and anxiety. Conclusion: This study recommend Quality of life assessment of oral and oropharyngeal cancers which may contribute to functional, psychological and somatic limitations and likely alter the treatment methodology where cure of cancer is equally good for any modality. This study also identifies that cases of early cancer of oral and oropharyngeal region would not compromise QOL of the patients significantly. (author)

  10. Life without a cell membrane: Challenging the specificity of bacterial endophytes within Bryopsis (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta