WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell sphingolipid biosynthesis

  1. Disruption of Sphingolipid Biosynthesis Blocks Phagocytosis of Candida albicans.

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    Fikadu G Tafesse

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of phagocytes to clear pathogens is an essential attribute of the innate immune response. The role of signaling lipid molecules such as phosphoinositides is well established, but the role of membrane sphingolipids in phagocytosis is largely unknown. Using a genetic approach and small molecule inhibitors, we show that phagocytosis of Candida albicans requires an intact sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. Blockade of serine-palmitoyltransferase (SPT and ceramide synthase-enzymes involved in sphingolipid biosynthesis- by myriocin and fumonisin B1, respectively, impaired phagocytosis by phagocytes. We used CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing to generate Sptlc2-deficient DC2.4 dendritic cells, which lack serine palmitoyl transferase activity. Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells exhibited a stark defect in phagocytosis, were unable to bind fungal particles and failed to form a normal phagocytic cup to engulf C. albicans. Supplementing the growth media with GM1, the major ganglioside present at the cell surface, restored phagocytic activity of Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells. While overall membrane trafficking and endocytic pathways remained functional, Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells express reduced levels of the pattern recognition receptors Dectin-1 and TLR2 at the cell surface. Consistent with the in vitro data, compromised sphingolipid biosynthesis in mice sensitizes the animal to C. albicans infection. Sphingolipid biosynthesis is therefore critical for phagocytosis and in vivo clearance of C. albicans.

  2. Regulation of Sphingolipid Biosynthesis by the Morphogenesis Checkpoint Kinase Swe1.

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    Chauhan, Neha; Han, Gongshe; Somashekarappa, Niranjanakumari; Gable, Kenneth; Dunn, Teresa; Kohlwein, Sepp D

    2016-01-29

    Sphingolipid (SL) biosynthesis is negatively regulated by the highly conserved endoplasmic reticulum-localized Orm family proteins. Defective SL synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae leads to increased phosphorylation and inhibition of Orm proteins by the kinase Ypk1. Here we present evidence that the yeast morphogenesis checkpoint kinase, Swe1, regulates SL biosynthesis independent of the Ypk1 pathway. Deletion of the Swe1 kinase renders mutant cells sensitive to serine palmitoyltransferase inhibition due to impaired sphingoid long-chain base synthesis. Based on these data and previous results, we suggest that Swe1 kinase perceives alterations in SL homeostasis, activates SL synthesis, and may thus represent the missing regulatory link that controls the SL rheostat during the cell cycle. PMID:26634277

  3. Regulation of Sphingolipid Biosynthesis by the Morphogenesis Checkpoint Kinase Swe1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Neha; Han, Gongshe; Somashekarappa, Niranjanakumari; Gable, Kenneth; Dunn, Teresa; Kohlwein, Sepp D.

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipid (SL) biosynthesis is negatively regulated by the highly conserved endoplasmic reticulum-localized Orm family proteins. Defective SL synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae leads to increased phosphorylation and inhibition of Orm proteins by the kinase Ypk1. Here we present evidence that the yeast morphogenesis checkpoint kinase, Swe1, regulates SL biosynthesis independent of the Ypk1 pathway. Deletion of the Swe1 kinase renders mutant cells sensitive to serine palmitoyltransferase inhibition due to impaired sphingoid long-chain base synthesis. Based on these data and previous results, we suggest that Swe1 kinase perceives alterations in SL homeostasis, activates SL synthesis, and may thus represent the missing regulatory link that controls the SL rheostat during the cell cycle. PMID:26634277

  4. Substrate availability for long-chain base formation as a regulator of hepatic sphingolipid and cholesterol biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The de novo biosynthesis of the sphinganine and sphingosine backbones of sphingolipids was studied with isolated rat hepatocytes and established liver cell lines. The rate of incorporation of radiolabel from [14C]-serine by intact cells was half maximal at 0.3 mM, which is similar to the K/sub m/ of the initial enzyme of this pathway and in vivo concentrations of this substrate. Long-chain base biosynthesis was stimulated by another precursor, palmitic acid, but other fatty acids were inhibitory. Hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats had different rates of sphingolipid formation, which may also reflect the relative levels of palmitoyl-CoA. These results established that the availability of the precursors of long-chain base formation, serine and palmitic acid, is a major factor in the regulation of this pathway. Since sphingomyelin biosynthesis could be modified, its relationship to cholesterol metabolism was also examined. Both hepatocytes and cultured liver cells in high serine (0.6mM) had increased incorporation of [14C]-acetate into cholesterol (13%, P < 0.05 and 50%, P < 0.01, respectively). These results indicate that sphingolipid and cholesterol biosynthesis are coordinately regulated, perhaps because these lipids are located in similar membranes and lipoproteins

  5. Sphingolipid mediators in cardiovascular cell biology and pathology.

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    Levade, T; Augé, N; Veldman, R J; Cuvillier, O; Nègre-Salvayre, A; Salvayre, R

    2001-11-23

    Sphingolipids have emerged as a new class of lipid mediators. In response to various extracellular stimuli, sphingolipid turnover can be stimulated in vascular cells and cardiac myocytes. Subsequent generation of sphingolipid molecules such as ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate, is followed by regulation of ion fluxes and activation of various signaling pathways leading to smooth muscle cell proliferation, endothelial cell differentiation or apoptotic cell death, cell contraction, retraction, or migration. The importance of sphingolipids in cardiovascular signaling is illustrated by recent observations implicating them in physiological processes such as vasculogenesis as well as in frequent pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis and its complications. PMID:11717151

  6. Sphingolipid trafficking and protein sorting in epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimane, TA; Hoekstra, D

    2002-01-01

    Sphingolipids represent a minor, but highly dynamic subclass of lipids in all eukaryotic cells. They are involved in functions that range from structural protection to signal transduction and protein sorting, and participate in lipid raft assembly. In polarized epithelial cells, which display an asy

  7. Sphingolipid trafficking - Sorted out?

    OpenAIRE

    van Meer, G.; Burger, K.N.J.

    1992-01-01

    Studies of intracellular membrane traffic have traditionally focused on the protein components of membranes, but what about lipids? Recent findings have drawn attention to the transport of one type of lipid, the sphingolipids. Their unique physical properties may allow them to aggregate into microdomains in membranes that concentrate sphingolipids into specific transport pathways. Gerrit van Meer and Koert Burger consider here the routes of sphingolipid biosynthesis and transport, and the rol...

  8. A deficiency of ceramide biosynthesis causes cerebellar purkinje cell neurodegeneration and lipofuscin accumulation.

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    Lihong Zhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids, lipids with a common sphingoid base (also termed long chain base backbone, play essential cellular structural and signaling functions. Alterations of sphingolipid levels have been implicated in many diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. However, it remains largely unclear whether sphingolipid changes in these diseases are pathological events or homeostatic responses. Furthermore, how changes in sphingolipid homeostasis shape the progression of aging and neurodegeneration remains to be clarified. We identified two mouse strains, flincher (fln and toppler (to, with spontaneous recessive mutations that cause cerebellar ataxia and Purkinje cell degeneration. Positional cloning demonstrated that these mutations reside in the Lass1 gene. Lass1 encodes (dihydroceramide synthase 1 (CerS1, which is highly expressed in neurons. Both fln and to mutations caused complete loss of CerS1 catalytic activity, which resulted in a reduction in sphingolipid biosynthesis in the brain and dramatic changes in steady-state levels of sphingolipids and sphingoid bases. In addition to Purkinje cell death, deficiency of CerS1 function also induced accumulation of lipofuscin with ubiquitylated proteins in many brain regions. Our results demonstrate clearly that ceramide biosynthesis deficiency can cause neurodegeneration and suggest a novel mechanism of lipofuscin formation, a common phenomenon that occurs during normal aging and in some neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Screening of fungal species for fumonisin production and fumonisin-like disruption of sphingolipid biosynthesis.

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    Norred, W P; Bacon, C W; Riley, R T; Voss, K A; Meredith, F I

    1999-01-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by several species of Fusaria. They are found on corn and in corn-based products, can cause fatal illnesses in some animals and are suspected human esophageal carcinogens. Fumonisins are believed to cause toxicity by blocking ceramide synthase, a key enzyme in sphingolipid biochemistry which converts sphinganine (or sphingosine) and fatty acyl CoA to ceramide. Relatively few fungal species have been evaluated for their ability to produce fumonisins. Fewer have been studied to determine if they produce ceramide synthase inhibitors, whether fumonisin-like structures or not, therefore potentially having toxicity similar to fumonisins. We analyzed corn cultures of 49 isolates representing 32 diverse species of fungi for their ability to produce fumonisins. We also evaluated the culture extracts for ceramide synthase activity. Only cultures prepared with species reported previously to produce fumonisins--Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum--tested positive for fumonisins. Extracts of these cultures inhibited ceramide synthase, as expected. None of the other fungal isolates we examined produced fumonisins or other compounds capable of inhibiting ceramide synthase. Although the fungi we selected for these studies represent only a few of the thousands of species that exist, they share the commonality that they are frequently associated with cereal grasses, including corn, either as pathogens or as asymptomatic endophytes. Thus, these results should be encouraging to those attempting to find ways to genetically manipulate fumonisin-producing fungi, to make corn more resistant, or to develop biocontrol measures because it appears that only a relatively few fungal contaminants of corn can produce fumonisins. PMID:10822508

  10. [Sphingolipid and apoptosis].

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    Wang, Jing; Hu, Xiao-Song; Shi, Jie-Ping

    2003-07-01

    Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made in the study of sphingolipids with the development of biological techniques. Sphingolipids play important roles in diverse physiological process, including cytoskeleton migration, angiogenesis, embryonic development and signal transduction. Except for this, the lastest evidence has suggested that sphingolipids and their metabolite (ceramide, sphingosine, sphingosine 1-phosphate) can induce apoptosis in a wide variety of tumor cell lines such as LoVo HT29, Bel7402, A549, CNE2 cells. This paper is attempted to review the recent advances of investigation into the relationship between sphingolipids and apoptosis. PMID:14628466

  11. Sphingolipid signalling: molecular basis and role in TNF-alpha-induced cell death.

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    Malagarie-Cazenave, Sophie; Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie; Ségui, Bruno; Gouazé, Valérie; Tardy, Claudine; Cuvillier, Olivier; Levade, Thierry

    2002-12-01

    Various lipidic molecules serve as second messengers for transducing signals from the cell surface to the cell interior and trigger specific cellular responses. Sphingolipids represent a complex group of lipids that have recently emerged as new transducers in eukaryotic cells. Several sphingolipid molecules are able to modulate cell growth, differentiation and death. This review summarises current knowledge of the signalling functions of sphingolipids, especially in the regulation of tumour necrosis factor [alpha] (TNF-[alpha])-mediated cytotoxic effects. TNF-[alpha] is a multifaceted cytokine that controls a wide range of immune responses in mammals, including induction of programmed cell death (also called apoptosis). On the basis of recent observations, a working model is proposed for the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of sphingolipid generation following TNF-[alpha] receptor 1 activation. The implications of these findings for the development of future pharmacological strategies to prevent the cytotoxic TNF-[alpha] response and subsequent cellular dysfunctions (as seen in various human diseases) are discussed. PMID:14987386

  12. Roles of Sphingolipid Metabolism in Pancreatic β Cell Dysfunction Induced by Lipotoxicity

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    Julien Véret

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic β cells secrete insulin in order to maintain glucose homeostasis. However, various environmental stresses such as obesity have been shown to induce loss of secretory responsiveness in pancreatic β cells and pancreatic β cell apoptosis which can favor the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Indeed, elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs have been shown to induce β cell apoptosis. Importantly, the chronic adverse effects of FFAs on β cell function and viability are potentiated in the presence of hyperglycaemia, a phenomenon that has been termed gluco-lipotoxicity. The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of gluco-lipotoxicity in pancreatic β cells are not completely understood. Recent studies have shown that sphingolipid metabolism plays a key role in gluco-lipotoxicity induced apoptosis and loss of function of pancreatic β cells. The present review focuses on how the two main sphingolipid mediators, ceramides and sphingoid base-1-phosphates, regulate the deleterious effects of gluco-lipotoxicity on pancreatic β cells. The review highlights the role of a sphingolipid biostat on the dysregulation of β cell fate and function induced by gluco-lipotoxicity, offering the possibility of new therapeutic targets to prevent the onset of T2D.

  13. Inhibition of sphingolipid metabolism enhances resveratrol chemotherapy in human gastric cancer cells.

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    Shin, Kyong-Oh; Park, Nam-Young; Seo, Cho-Hee; Hong, Seon-Pyo; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hong, Jin-Tae; Han, Sang-Kil; Lee, Yong-Moon

    2012-09-01

    Resveratrol, a chemopreventive agent, is rapidly metabolized in the intestine and liver via glucuronidation. Thus, the pharmacokinetics of resveratrol limits its efficacy. To improve efficacy, the activity of resveratrol was investigated in the context of sphingolipid metabolism in human gastric cancer cells. Diverse sphingolipid metabolites, including dihydroceramides (DHCer), were tested for their ability to induce resveratrol cytotoxicity. Exposure to resveratrol (100 μM) for 24 hr induced cell death and cell cycle arrest in gastric cancer cells. Exposure to the combination of resveratrol and dimethylsphingosine (DMS) increased cytotoxicity, demonstrating that sphingolipid metabolites intensify resveratrol activity. Specifically, DHCer accumulated in a resveratrol concentration-dependent manner in SNU-1 and HT-29 cells, but not in SNU-668 cells. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that specific DHCer species containing C24:0, C16:0, C24:1, and C22:0 fatty acids chain were increased by up to 30-fold by resveratrol, indicating that resveratrol may partially inhibit DHCer desaturase. Indeed, resveratrol mildly inhibited DHCer desaturase activity compared to the specific inhibitor GT-11 or to retinamide (4-HPR); however, in SNU-1 cells resveratrol alone exhibited a typical cell cycle arrest pattern, which GT-11 did not alter, indicating that inhibition of DHCer desaturase is not essential to the cytotoxicity induced by the combination of resveratrol and sphingolipid metabolites. Resveratrol-induced p53 expression strongly correlated with the enhancement of cytotoxicity observed upon combination of resveratrol with DMS or 4-HPR. Taken together, these results show that DHCer accumulation is a novel lipid biomarker of resveratrol-induced cytotoxicity in human gastric cancer cells. PMID:24009836

  14. Three-dimensional imaging of cholesterol and sphingolipids within a Madin-Darby canine kidney cell.

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    Yeager, Ashley N; Weber, Peter K; Kraft, Mary L

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic stable isotope incorporation and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profiling performed on a Cameca NanoSIMS 50 were used to image the (18)O-cholesterol and (15)N-sphingolipid distributions within a portion of a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell. Three-dimensional representations of the component-specific isotope distributions show clearly defined regions of (18)O-cholesterol and (15)N-sphingolipid enrichment that seem to be separate subcellular compartments. The low levels of nitrogen-containing secondary ions detected at the (18)O-enriched regions suggest that these (18)O-cholesterol-rich structures may be lipid droplets, which have a core consisting of cholesterol esters and triacylglycerides. PMID:26746168

  15. Targeting the sphingolipid metabolism to defeat pancreatic cancer cell resistance to the chemotherapeutic gemcitabine drug.

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    Guillermet-Guibert, Julie; Davenne, Lise; Pchejetski, Dimitri; Saint-Laurent, Nathalie; Brizuela, Leyre; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Cuvillier, Olivier; Susini, Christiane; Bousquet, Corinne

    2009-04-01

    Defeating pancreatic cancer resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug gemcitabine remains a challenge to treat this deadly cancer. Targeting the sphingolipid metabolism for improving tumor chemosensitivity has recently emerged as a promising strategy. The fine balance between intracellular levels of the prosurvival sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and the proapoptotic ceramide sphingolipids determines cell fate. Among enzymes that control this metabolism, sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1), a tumor-associated protein overexpressed in many cancers, favors survival through S1P production, and inhibitors of SphK1 are used in ongoing clinical trials to sensitize epithelial ovarian and prostate cancer cells to various chemotherapeutic drugs. We here report that the cellular ceramide/S1P ratio is a critical biosensor for predicting pancreatic cancer cell sensitivity to gemcitabine. A low level of the ceramide/S1P ratio, associated with a high SphK1 activity, correlates with a robust intrinsic pancreatic cancer cell chemoresistance toward gemcitabine. Strikingly, increasing the ceramide/S1P ratio, by using pharmacologic (SphK1 inhibitor or ceramide analogue) or small interfering RNA-based approaches to up-regulate intracellular ceramide levels or reduce SphK1 activity, sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine. Conversely, decreasing the ceramide/S1P ratio, by up-regulating SphK1 activity, promoted gemcitabine resistance in these cells. Development of novel pharmacologic strategies targeting the sphingolipid metabolism might therefore represent an interesting promising approach, when combined with gemcitabine, to defeat pancreatic cancer chemoresistance to this drug. PMID:19372554

  16. Plant sphingolipids: Their importance in cellular organization and adaption.

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    Michaelson, Louise V; Napier, Johnathan A; Molino, Diana; Faure, Jean-Denis

    2016-09-01

    Sphingolipids and their phosphorylated derivatives are ubiquitous bio-active components of cells. They are structural elements in the lipid bilayer and contribute to the dynamic nature of the membrane. They have been implicated in many cellular processes in yeast and animal cells, including aspects of signaling, apoptosis, and senescence. Although sphingolipids have a better defined role in animal systems, they have been shown to be central to many essential processes in plants including but not limited to, pollen development, signal transduction and in the response to biotic and abiotic stress. A fuller understanding of the roles of sphingolipids within plants has been facilitated by classical biochemical studies and the identification of mutants of model species. Recently the development of powerful mass spectrometry techniques hailed the advent of the emerging field of lipidomics enabling more accurate sphingolipid detection and quantitation. This review will consider plant sphingolipid biosynthesis and function in the context of these new developments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:27086144

  17. A Functionalized Sphingolipid Analogue for Studying Redistribution during Activation in Living T Cells.

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    Collenburg, Lena; Walter, Tim; Burgert, Anne; Müller, Nora; Seibel, Jürgen; Japtok, Lukasz; Kleuser, Burkhard; Sauer, Markus; Schneider-Schaulies, Sibylle

    2016-05-01

    Sphingolipids are major components of the plasma membrane. In particular, ceramide serves as an essential building hub for complex sphingolipids, but also as an organizer of membrane domains segregating receptors and signalosomes. Sphingomyelin breakdown as a result of sphingomyelinase activation after ligation of a variety of receptors is the predominant source of ceramides released at the plasma membrane. This especially applies to T lymphocytes where formation of ceramide-enriched membrane microdomains modulates TCR signaling. Because ceramide release and redistribution occur very rapidly in response to receptor ligation, novel tools to further study these processes in living T cells are urgently needed. To meet this demand, we synthesized nontoxic, azido-functionalized ceramides allowing for bio-orthogonal click-reactions to fluorescently label incorporated ceramides, and thus investigate formation of ceramide-enriched domains. Azido-functionalized C6-ceramides were incorporated into and localized within plasma membrane microdomains and proximal vesicles in T cells. They segregated into clusters after TCR, and especially CD28 ligation, indicating efficient sorting into plasma membrane domains associated with T cell activation; this was abolished upon sphingomyelinase inhibition. Importantly, T cell activation was not abrogated upon incorporation of the compound, which was efficiently excluded from the immune synapse center as has previously been seen in Ab-based studies using fixed cells. Therefore, the functionalized ceramides are novel, highly potent tools to study the subcellular redistribution of ceramides in the course of T cell activation. Moreover, they will certainly also be generally applicable to studies addressing rapid stimulation-mediated ceramide release in living cells. PMID:27036914

  18. Sphingolipids, rafts and multidrug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinrichs, Joann Wilhelm Jakob

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of the research described in this thesis was to obtain more insight into the potential role of sphingolipids in multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumor cells. The approachinvolved the monitoring of sphingolipid dynamics in terms of metabolism and localization in relation to the acquisition

  19. Sphingolipids, rafts and multidrug resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Hinrichs, Joann Wilhelm Jakob

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of the research described in this thesis was to obtain more insight into the potential role of sphingolipids in multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumor cells. The approachinvolved the monitoring of sphingolipid dynamics in terms of metabolism and localization in relation to the acquisition of MDR and the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters involved in drug efflux. This research was conducted in two model cell lines, both human MDR cancer cells, over expressing eith...

  20. Sphingolipid metabolism and interorganellar transport: localization of sphingolipid enzymes and lipid transfer proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, Toshiyuki; Hanada, Kentaro

    2015-02-01

    In recent decades, many sphingolipid enzymes, sphingolipid-metabolism regulators and sphingolipid transfer proteins have been isolated and characterized. This review will provide an overview of the intracellular localization and topology of sphingolipid enzymes in mammalian cells to highlight the locations where respective sphingolipid species are produced. Interestingly, three sphingolipids that reside or are synthesized in cytosolic leaflets of membranes (ceramide, glucosylceramide and ceramide-1-phosphate) all have cytosolic lipid transfer proteins (LTPs). These LTPs consist of ceramide transfer protein (CERT), four-phosphate adaptor protein 2 (FAPP2) and ceramide-1-phosphate transfer protein (CPTP), respectively. These LTPs execute functions that affect both the location and metabolism of the lipids they bind. Molecular details describing the mechanisms of regulation of LTPs continue to emerge and reveal a number of critical processes, including competing phosphorylation and dephosphorylation reactions and binding interactions with regulatory proteins and lipids that influence the transport, organelle distribution and metabolism of sphingolipids. PMID:25382749

  1. Assessment of crosstalks between the Snf1 kinase complex and sphingolipid metabolism in S. cerevisiae via systems biology approaches.

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    Borklu Yucel, Esra; Ulgen, Kutlu O

    2013-11-01

    Sphingolipids are essential building blocks of the plasma membranes and are highly bioactive in the regulation of diverse cellular functions and pathological processes, a fact which renders the sphingolipid metabolism an important research area. In this study, a computational framework was recruited for the reconstruction of a functional interaction network for sphingolipid metabolism in Baker's yeast, SSN. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations were integrated with functional interaction data of the BIOGRID database and the reconstructed protein interaction network was subjected to topological and descriptive analyses. SSN was of a scale-free nature, following a power law model with γ=1.41. Prominent processes of SSN revealed that the reconstructed network encapsulated the involvement of sphingolipid metabolism in vital cellular processes such as energy homeostasis, cell growth and/or death and synthesis of building blocks. To investigate the potential of SSN for predicting signal transduction pathways regulating and/or being regulated by sphingolipid biosynthesis in yeast, a case study involving the S. cerevisiae counterpart of AMP-activated protein kinase, the Snf1 kinase complex, was conducted. The mutant strain lacking the catalytic α subunit, snf1Δ/snf1Δ, had elevated inositol phosphorylceramide and mannosyl-inositol phosphorylceramide levels, and decreased mannosyl-diinositol phosphorylceramide levels compared to the wild type strain, revealing that Snf1p has a regulatory role in the sphingolipid metabolism. Transcriptome data belonging to that strain available in the literature were mapped onto SSN and the correlated SSN was further investigated to evaluate the possible crosstalk machineries where sphingolipids and Snf1p function in coordination, in other words the crosstalk points between sphingolipid-mediated and Snf1 kinase signalling. The subsequent investigation of the discovered candidate crosstalk processes by performing sensitivity experiments imply a

  2. Downregulation of the autophagy protein ATG-7 correlates with distinct sphingolipid profile in MCF-7 cells sensitized to photodamage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Separovic, Duska; Kelekar, Ameeta; Tarca, Adi L.; Bielawski, Jacek; Kessel, David

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the sphingolipid (SL) profile in autophagy-defective cells and overall cell death after PDT with Pc 4 (PDT). Human breast cancer MCF-7 cells with downregulated autophagy protein ATG-7 and their scrambled controls (Scr) were used. Exposure of ATG-7 knockdown cells to PDT led to defective processing of the autophagy marker LC3, and increased overall cell killing. In both cell types PDT evoked an early (2 h) increase in ceramides and dihydroceramides (DHceramides). When the two cell types were compared regarding time (2 and 24 h) and treatment conditions (with and without PDT), the levels of several ceramides and DHceramides were reduced, whereas the concentrations of C14-ceramide, C16-ceramide and C12-DHceramide were higher in ATG-7 knockdown cells. The data imply that the SL profile might be a marker of autophagy-deficiency in cells sensitized to PDT.

  3. Moss cell walls: structure and biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Alison W. Roberts; Eric M Roberts; Haigler, Candace H.

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of the moss Physcomitrella patens has stimulated new research examining the cell wall polysaccharides of mosses and the glycosyl transferases that synthesize them as a means to understand fundamental processes of cell wall biosynthesis and plant cell wall evolution. The cell walls of mosses and vascular plants are composed of the same classes of polysaccharides, but with differences in side chain composition and structure. Similarly, the genomes of P. patens and angiosperm...

  4. Yeast lacking the amphiphysin family protein Rvs167 is sensitive to disruptions in sphingolipid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toume, Moeko; Tani, Motohiro

    2016-08-01

    Rvs167 and Rvs161 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are amphiphysin family proteins, which are involved in several important cellular events, such as invagination and scission of endocytic vesicles, and actin cytoskeleton organization. It has been reported that cellular dysfunctions caused by deletion of RVS167 or RVS161 are rescued by deletion of specific nonessential sphingolipid-metabolizing enzyme genes. Here, we found that yeast cells lacking RVS167 or RVS161 exhibit a decrease in sphingolipid levels. In rvs167∆ cells, the expression level of Orm2, a negative regulator of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) catalyzing the initial step of sphingolipid biosynthesis, was increased in a calcineurin-dependent manner, and the decrease in sphingolipid levels in rvs167∆ cells was reversed on deletion of ORM2. Moreover, repression of both ORM1 and ORM2 expression or overexpression of SPT caused a strong growth defect of rvs167∆ cells, indicating that enhancement of de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis is detrimental to rvs167∆ cells. In contrast, partial repression of LCB1-encoding SPT suppressed abnormal phenotypes caused by the deletion of RVS167, including supersensitivity to high temperature and salt stress, and impairment of endocytosis and actin cytoskeleton organization. In addition, the partial repression of SPT activity suppressed the temperature supersensitivity and abnormal vacuolar morphology caused by deletion of VPS1 encoding a dynamin-like GTPase, which is required for vesicle scission and is functionally closely related to Rvs167/Rvs161, whereas repression of both ORM1 and ORM2 expression in vps1∆ cells caused a growth defect. Thus, it was suggested that proper regulation of SPT activity is indispensable for amphiphysin-deficient cells. PMID:27312128

  5. Sphingolipids in human synovial fluid--a lipidomic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Krystyna Kosinska

    Full Text Available Articular synovial fluid (SF is a complex mixture of components that regulate nutrition, communication, shock absorption, and lubrication. Alterations in its composition can be pathogenic. This lipidomic investigation aims to quantify the composition of sphingolipids (sphingomyelins, ceramides, and hexosyl- and dihexosylceramides and minor glycerophospholipid species, including (lysophosphatidic acid, (lysophosphatidylglycerol, and bis(monoacylglycerophosphate species, in the SF of knee joints from unaffected controls and from patients with early (eOA and late (lOA stages of osteoarthritis (OA, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA. SF without cells and cellular debris from 9 postmortem donors (control, 18 RA, 17 eOA, and 13 lOA patients were extracted to measure lipid species using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry--directly or coupled with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. We provide a novel, detailed overview of sphingolipid and minor glycerophospholipid species in human SF. A total of 41, 48, and 50 lipid species were significantly increased in eOA, lOA, and RA SF, respectively when compared with normal SF. The level of 21 lipid species differed in eOA SF versus SF from lOA, an observation that can be used to develop biomarkers. Sphingolipids can alter synovial inflammation and the repair responses of damaged joints. Thus, our lipidomic study provides the foundation for studying the biosynthesis and function of lipid species in health and most prevalent joint diseases.

  6. Dictyostelium discoideum to human cells: pharmacogenetic studies demonstrate a role for sphingolipids in chemoresistance.

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    Alexander, Stephen; Min, Junxia; Alexander, Hannah

    2006-03-01

    Resistance to chemotherapy is a major obstacle for the treatment of cancer and a subject of extensive research. Numerous mechanisms of drug resistance have been proposed, and they differ for different drugs. Nevertheless, it is clear that our understanding of this important problem is still incomplete, and that new targets for modulating therapy still await discovery. The attractive biology and the availability of powerful molecular techniques have made the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, a powerful non-mammalian model for drug target discovery, and the problem of drug resistance. To understand the molecular basis of chemoresistance to the widely used drug cisplatin, both genetic and pharmacological approaches have been applied to this versatile experimental system. These studies have resulted in the identification of novel molecular pathways which can be used to increase the efficacy of cisplatin, and brought attention to the role of sphingolipids in mediating the cellular response to chemotherapeutic drugs. In the following review, we will describe the history and utility of D. discoideum in pharmacogenetics, and discuss recent studies which focus attention on the role of sphingolipids in chemotherapy and chemoresistance. PMID:16403600

  7. Sphingolipid and Ceramide Homeostasis: Potential Therapeutic Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Young

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells where they have been attributed a plethora of functions from the formation of structural domains to polarized cellular trafficking and signal transduction. Recent research has identified and characterised many of the key enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism and this has led to a heightened interest in the possibility of targeting these processes for therapies against cancers, Alzheimer's disease, and numerous important human pathogens. In this paper we outline the major pathways in eukaryotic sphingolipid metabolism and discuss these in relation to disease and therapy for both chronic and infectious conditions.

  8. Sphingolipids in Neurodegeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Haughey, Norman J.

    2010-01-01

    Although the brain contains a high content of sphingolipids, we know relatively little about the roles that sphingolipids play in regulating neural functions. Once regarded only for their structural roles in maintaining the integrity of cellular and sub-cellular compartments, it is now apparent that many sphingolipid species are biologically active and play important roles in regulating signaling events. Recent technological and scientific advances are rapidly increasing our knowledge of the ...

  9. Isolation and Functional Characterisation of the Genes Encoding △8-Sphingolipid Desaturase from Brassica rapa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Fen Li; Li-Ying Song; Wei-Bo Yin; Yu-Hong Chen; Liang Chen; Ji-Lin Li; Richard R.-C. Wang; Zan-Min Hu

    2012-01-01

    △8-Sphingolipid desaturase is the key enzyme that catalyses desaturation at the C8 position of the long-chain base of sphingolipids in higher plants.There have been no previous studies on the genes encoding △8-sphingolipid desaturases in Brassica rapa.In this study,four genes encoding △8-sphingolipid desaturases from B.rapa were isolated and characterised.Phylogenetic analyses indicated that these genes could be divided into two groups:BrD8A,BrD8C and BrD8D in group Ⅰ,and BrD8B in group Ⅱ.The two groups of genes diverged before the separation of Arabidopsis and Brassica.Though the four genes shared a high sequence similarity,and their coding desaturases all located in endoplasmic reticulum,they exhibited distinct expression patterns.Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that BrD8A/B/C/D were functionally diverse △8-sphingolipid desaturases that catalyse different ratios of the two products 8(Z)- and 8(E)-C18-phytosphingenine.The aluminium tolerance of transgenic yeasts expressing BrD8A/B/C/D was enhanced compared with that of control cells.Expression of BrD8A in A rabidopsis changed the ratio of 8(Z):8(E)-C 18-phytosphingenine in transgenic plants.The information reported here provides new insights into the biochemical functional diversity and evolutionary relationship of △8-sphingolipid desaturase in plants and lays a foundation for further investigation of the mechanism of 8(Z)- and 8(E)-C18-phytosphingenine biosynthesis.

  10. Long-chain bases of sphingolipids are transported into cells via the acyl-CoA synthetases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Tomomi; Naganuma, Tatsuro; Sase, Yurie; Kihara, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Transport of dietary lipids into small-intestinal epithelial cells is pathologically and nutritionally important. However, lipid uptake remains an almost unexplored research area. Although we know that long-chain bases (LCBs), constituents of sphingolipids, can enter into cells efficiently, the molecular mechanism of LCB uptake is completely unclear. Here, we found that the yeast acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs) Faa1 and Faa4 are redundantly involved in LCB uptake. In addition to fatty acid-activating activity, transporter activity toward long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) has been suggested for ACSs. Both LCB and LCFA transports were largely impaired in faa1Δ faa4Δ cells. Furthermore, LCB and LCFA uptakes were mutually competitive. However, the energy dependency was different for their transports. Sodium azide/2-deoxy-D-glucose treatment inhibited import of LCFA but not that of LCB. Furthermore, the ATP-AMP motif mutation FAA1 S271A largely impaired the metabolic activity and LCFA uptake, while leaving LCB import unaffected. These results indicate that only LCFA transport requires ATP. Since ACSs do not metabolize LCBs as substrates, Faa1 and Faa4 are likely directly involved in LCB transport. Furthermore, we revealed that ACSs are also involved in LCB transport in mammalian cells. Thus, our findings provide strong support for the hypothesis that ACSs directly transport LCFAs. PMID:27136724

  11. Nuclear Sphingolipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucki, Natasha C.; Sewer, Marion B.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear lipid metabolism is implicated in various processes, including transcription, splicing, and DNA repair. Sphingolipids play roles in numerous cellular functions, and an emerging body of literature has identified roles for these lipid mediators in distinct nuclear processes. Different sphingolipid species are localized in various subnuclear domains, including chromatin, the nuclear matrix, and the nuclear envelope, where sphingolipids exert specific regulatory and structural functions. Sphingomyelin, the most abundant nuclear sphingolipid, plays both structural and regulatory roles in chromatin assembly and dynamics in addition to being an integral component of the nuclear matrix. Sphingosine-1-phosphate modulates histone acetylation, sphingosine is a ligand for steroidogenic factor 1, and nuclear accumulation of ceramide has been implicated in apoptosis. Finally, nuclear membrane–associated ganglioside GM1 plays a pivotal role in Ca2+ homeostasis. This review highlights research on the factors that control nuclear sphingolipid metabolism and summarizes the roles of these lipids in various nuclear processes. PMID:21888508

  12. The role of ORMDL proteins, guardians of cellular sphingolipids, in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulenda, T; Draber, P

    2016-07-01

    A family of widely expressed ORM-like (ORMDL) proteins has been recently linked to asthma in genomewide association studies in humans and extensively explored in in vivo studies in mice. ORMDL proteins are key regulators of serine palmitoyltransferase, an enzyme catalyzing the initial step of sphingolipid biosynthesis. Sphingolipids play prominent roles in cell signaling and response to stress, and they affect the mechanistic properties of cellular membranes. Deregulation of sphingolipid biosynthesis and their recycling has been proven to support and even cause several diseases including allergy, inflammation, and asthma. ORMDL3, the most extensively studied member of the ORMDL family, has been shown to be important for endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis by regulating the unfolded protein response and calcium response. In immune cells, ORMDL3 is involved in migration and in the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, changes in the expression level of ORMDL3 are important in allergen-induced asthma pathologies. This review focuses on functional aspects of the ORMDL family proteins, which may serve as new therapeutic targets for the treatment of asthma and some other life-threatening diseases. PMID:26969910

  13. The GARP complex is required for cellular sphingolipid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fröhlich, Florian; Petit, Constance; Kory, Nora;

    2015-01-01

    (GARP) complex, which functions in endosome-to-Golgi retrograde vesicular transport, as a critical player in sphingolipid homeostasis. GARP deficiency leads to accumulation of sphingolipid synthesis intermediates, changes in sterol distribution, and lysosomal dysfunction. A GARP complex mutation...... the phenotypes of GARP-deficient yeast or mammalian cells. Together, these data show that GARP is essential for cellular sphingolipid homeostasis and suggest a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PCCA2....

  14. Plant Cell Wall Matrix Polysaccharide Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ajay Pal S. Sandhu; Gursharn S. Randhawa; Kanwarpal S. Dhugga

    2009-01-01

    The wall of an expanding plant cell consists primarily of cellulose microfibrils embedded in a matrix of hemi-cellulosic and pectic polysaccharides along with small amounts of structural and enzymatic proteins. Matrix polysacchar-ides are synthesized in the Golgi and exported to the cell wall by exocytosis, where they intercalate among cellulose microfibrUs, which are made at the plasma membrane and directly deposited into the cell wall. Involvement of Golgi glucan synthesis in auxin-induced cell expansion has long been recognized; however, only recently have the genes corresponding to glucan synthases been identified. Biochemical purification was unsuccessful because of the labile nature and very low abundance of these enzymes. Mutational genetics also proved fruitless. Expression of candidate genes identified through gene expression profiling or comparative genomics in heterologous systems followed by functional characterization has been relatively successful. Several genes from the cellulose synthase-like (Cs/) family have been found to be involved in the synthesis of various hemicellulosic glycans. The usefulness of this approach, however, is limited to those enzymes that probably do not form complexes consisting of unrelated proteins. Nonconventional approaches will continue to incre-mentally unravel the mechanisms of Golgi polysaccharide biosynthesis.

  15. A sphingolipid-dependent diffusion barrier confines ER stress to the yeast mother cell

    OpenAIRE

    Lori Clay; Fabrice Caudron; Annina Denoth-Lippuner; Barbara Boettcher; St\\xfdphanie Buvelot Frei; Erik Lee Snapp; Yves Barral

    2014-01-01

    eLife digest Cell division isn't always about splitting a cell into two identical parts. The diversity of many of our own cells relies on asymmetric cell divisions. The yeast used to make bread rely on a process called ‘budding’ that involves a small daughter cell emerging from the surface of the mother cell. Mother cells can only produce around 20–50 daughter cells before dying from old age. However, their daughters are always born rejuvenated, and not aged like their mothers. Budding involv...

  16. Analyzing the complex machinery of cell wall biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Timmers, J.F.P.

    2009-01-01

    The plant cell wall polymers make up most of the plant biomass and provide the raw material for many economically important products including food, feed, bio-materials, chemicals, textiles, and biofuel. This broad range of functions and applications make the biosynthesis of these polysaccharides a highly interesting target of scientific research. In this thesis a protein-protein interaction strategy was used to gain insight in the cell wall biosynthesis of Arabidopsis thaliana and to identif...

  17. A Sphingolipid Inhibitor Induces a Cytokinesis Arrest and Blocks Stage Differentiation in Giardia lamblia▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonda, Sabrina; Štefanić, Saša; Hehl, Adrian B.

    2008-01-01

    Sphingolipid biosynthesis pathways have recently emerged as a promising target for therapeutic intervention against pathogens, including parasites. A key step in the synthesis of complex sphingolipids is the glucosylation of ceramide, mediated by glucosylceramide (GlcCer) synthase, whose activity can be inhibited by PPMP (1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol). In this study, we investigated whether PPMP inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of the pathogenic parasite Giardia lamblia, the major cause of parasite-induced diarrhea worldwide. PPMP was found to block in vitro parasite replication in a dose-dependent manner, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 3.5 μM. The inhibition of parasite replication was irreversible at 10 μM PPMP, a concentration that did not affect mammalian cell metabolism. Importantly, PPMP inhibited the completion of cell division at a specific stage in late cytokinesis. Microscopic analysis of cells incubated with PPMP revealed the aberrant accumulation of cellular membranes belonging to the endoplasmic reticulum network in the caudal area of the parasites. Finally, PPMP induced a 90% reduction in G. lamblia differentiation into cysts, the parasite stage responsible for the transmission of the disease. These results show that PPMP is a powerful inhibitor of G. lamblia in vitro and that as-yet-uncharacterized sphingolipid biosynthetic pathways are potential targets for the development of anti-G. lamblia agents. PMID:18086854

  18. A sphingolipid inhibitor induces a cytokinesis arrest and blocks stage differentiation in Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonda, Sabrina; Stefanic, Sasa; Hehl, Adrian B

    2008-02-01

    Sphingolipid biosynthesis pathways have recently emerged as a promising target for therapeutic intervention against pathogens, including parasites. A key step in the synthesis of complex sphingolipids is the glucosylation of ceramide, mediated by glucosylceramide (GlcCer) synthase, whose activity can be inhibited by PPMP (1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol). In this study, we investigated whether PPMP inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of the pathogenic parasite Giardia lamblia, the major cause of parasite-induced diarrhea worldwide. PPMP was found to block in vitro parasite replication in a dose-dependent manner, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 3.5 muM. The inhibition of parasite replication was irreversible at 10 muM PPMP, a concentration that did not affect mammalian cell metabolism. Importantly, PPMP inhibited the completion of cell division at a specific stage in late cytokinesis. Microscopic analysis of cells incubated with PPMP revealed the aberrant accumulation of cellular membranes belonging to the endoplasmic reticulum network in the caudal area of the parasites. Finally, PPMP induced a 90% reduction in G. lamblia differentiation into cysts, the parasite stage responsible for the transmission of the disease. These results show that PPMP is a powerful inhibitor of G. lamblia in vitro and that as-yet-uncharacterized sphingolipid biosynthetic pathways are potential targets for the development of anti-G. lamblia agents. PMID:18086854

  19. Differential expression of sphingolipids in MRP1 overexpressing HT29 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, JW; Veldman, Robert; Klappe, K; Koning, H; Filipeanu, Catalin M.; Muller, Michael

    2000-01-01

    We have obtained a novel multidrug resistant cell line, derived from HT29 G(+) human colon carcinoma cells, by selection with gradually increasing concentrations of the anti-mitotic, microtubule-disrupting agent colchicine. This HT29(col) cell line displayed a 25-fold increase in colchicine resistan

  20. Role of sphingolipids in digestive system 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Kurek

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Present in the digestive system, sphingolipids are responsible for multiple important physiological and pathological processes. On the membrane of intestinal epithelial cells sphingolipids contribute to structural integrity, regulate absorption of nutrients and may act as receptors for some microorganisms and their toxins. Moreover, bioactive lipid messengers such as ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate influence cellular growth, differentiation and programmed cell death, apoptosis. Further studies are needed to fully explore the clinical implications of sphingolipids in neoplastic and inflammatory diseases in the gastrointestinal tract. Pharmacological compounds which regulate metabolism of sphingolipids can be potentially useful in treatment of colon cancer, inflammatory bowel diseases or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of this work is to present a critical review of the physiological and pathological role of sphingolipids in the digestive system.

  1. TOR Complex 2-Ypk1 Signaling Maintains Sphingolipid Homeostasis by Sensing and Regulating ROS Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad J. Niles

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are produced during normal metabolism and can function as signaling molecules. However, ROS at elevated levels can damage cells. Here, we identify the conserved target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2/Ypk1 signaling module as an important regulator of ROS in the model eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae. We show that TORC2/Ypk1 suppresses ROS produced both by mitochondria as well as by nonmitochondrial sources, including changes in acidification of the vacuole. Furthermore, we link vacuole-related ROS to sphingolipids, essential components of cellular membranes, whose synthesis is also controlled by TORC2/Ypk1 signaling. In total, our data reveal that TORC2/Ypk1 act within a homeostatic feedback loop to maintain sphingolipid levels and that ROS are a critical regulatory signal within this system. Thus, ROS sensing and signaling by TORC2/Ypk1 play a central physiological role in sphingolipid biosynthesis and in the maintenance of cell growth and viability.

  2. Membrane domains and polarized trafficking of sphingolipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maier, O; Slimane, TA; Hoekstra, D

    2001-01-01

    The plasma membrane of polarized cells consists of distinct domains, the apical and basolateral membrane that are characterized by a distinct lipid and protein content. Apical protein transport is largely mediated by (glyco)sphingolipid-cholesterol enriched membrane microdomains, so called rafts. In

  3. Inhibitors targeting on cell wall biosynthesis pathway of MRSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haihong; Cheng, Guyue; Dai, Menghong; Wu, Qinghua; Yuan, Zonghui

    2012-11-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), widely known as a type of new superbug, has aroused world-wide concern. Cell wall biosynthesis pathway is an old but good target for the development of antibacterial agents. Peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acids (WTAs) biosynthesis are two main processes of the cell wall biosynthesis pathway (CWBP). Other than penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), some key factors (Mur enzymes, lipid I or II precursor, etc.) in CWBP are becoming attractive molecule targets for the discovery of anti-MRSA compounds. A number of new compounds, with higher affinity for PBPs or with inhibitory activity on such molecule targets in CWBP of MRSA, have been in the pipeline recently. This review concludes recent research achievements and provides a complete picture of CWBP of MRSA, including the peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acids synthesis pathway. The potential inhibitors targeting on CWBP are subsequently presented to improve development of novel therapeutic strategies for MRSA. PMID:22898792

  4. Legionella pneumophila S1P-lyase targets host sphingolipid metabolism and restrains autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolando, Monica; Escoll, Pedro; Nora, Tamara; Botti, Joëlle; Boitez, Valérie; Bedia, Carmen; Daniels, Craig; Abraham, Gilu; Stogios, Peter J; Skarina, Tatiana; Christophe, Charlotte; Dervins-Ravault, Delphine; Cazalet, Christel; Hilbi, Hubert; Rupasinghe, Thusitha W T; Tull, Dedreia; McConville, Malcolm J; Ong, Sze Ying; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Codogno, Patrice; Levade, Thierry; Naderer, Thomas; Savchenko, Alexei; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2016-02-16

    Autophagy is an essential component of innate immunity, enabling the detection and elimination of intracellular pathogens. Legionella pneumophila, an intracellular pathogen that can cause a severe pneumonia in humans, is able to modulate autophagy through the action of effector proteins that are translocated into the host cell by the pathogen's Dot/Icm type IV secretion system. Many of these effectors share structural and sequence similarity with eukaryotic proteins. Indeed, phylogenetic analyses have indicated their acquisition by horizontal gene transfer from a eukaryotic host. Here we report that L. pneumophila translocates the effector protein sphingosine-1 phosphate lyase (LpSpl) to target the host sphingosine biosynthesis and to curtail autophagy. Our structural characterization of LpSpl and its comparison with human SPL reveals high structural conservation, thus supporting prior phylogenetic analysis. We show that LpSpl possesses S1P lyase activity that was abrogated by mutation of the catalytic site residues. L. pneumophila triggers the reduction of several sphingolipids critical for macrophage function in an LpSpl-dependent and -independent manner. LpSpl activity alone was sufficient to prevent an increase in sphingosine levels in infected host cells and to inhibit autophagy during macrophage infection. LpSpl was required for efficient infection of A/J mice, highlighting an important virulence role for this effector. Thus, we have uncovered a previously unidentified mechanism used by intracellular pathogens to inhibit autophagy, namely the disruption of host sphingolipid biosynthesis. PMID:26831115

  5. Orm family proteins mediate sphingolipid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslow, David K; Collins, Sean R; Bodenmiller, Bernd;

    2010-01-01

    expression or mutations to their phosphorylation sites cause dysregulation of sphingolipid metabolism. Our work identifies the Orm proteins as critical mediators of sphingolipid homeostasis and raises the possibility that sphingolipid misregulation contributes to the development of childhood asthma....

  6. Vitamin E metabolite 13'-carboxychromanols inhibit pro-inflammatory enzymes, induce apoptosis and autophagy in human cancer cells by modulating sphingolipids and suppress colon tumor development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yumi; Park, Na-Young; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha Linn; Huang, Jianjie; Jiang, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin E forms are substantially metabolized to various carboxychromanols including 13'-carboxychromanols (13'-COOHs) that are found at high levels in feces. However, there is limited knowledge about functions of these metabolites. Here we studied δT-13'-COOH and δTE-13'-COOH, which are metabolites of δ-tocopherol and δ-tocotrienol, respectively. δTE-13'-COOH is also a natural constituent of a traditional medicine Garcinia Kola. Both 13'-COOHs are much stronger than tocopherols in inhibition of pro-inflammatory and cancer promoting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and in induction of apoptosis and autophagy in colon cancer cells. The anticancer effects by 13'-COOHs appeared to be partially independent of inhibition of COX-2/5-LOX. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we found that 13'-COOHs increased intracellular dihydrosphingosine and dihydroceramides after short-time incubation in HCT-116 cells, and enhanced ceramides while decreased sphingomyelins during prolonged treatment. Modulation of sphingolipids by 13'-COOHs was observed prior to or coinciding with biochemical manifestation of cell death. Pharmaceutically blocking the increase of these sphingolipids partially counteracted 13'-COOH-induced cell death. Further, 13'-COOH inhibited dihydroceramide desaturase without affecting the protein expression. In agreement with these mechanistic findings, δTE-13'-COOH significantly suppressed the growth and multiplicity of colon tumor in mice. Our study demonstrates that 13'-COOHs have anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, may contribute to in vivo anticancer effect of vitamin E forms and are promising novel cancer prevention agents. PMID:27016075

  7. Analyzing the complex machinery of cell wall biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, J.F.P.

    2009-01-01

    The plant cell wall polymers make up most of the plant biomass and provide the raw material for many economically important products including food, feed, bio-materials, chemicals, textiles, and biofuel. This broad range of functions and applications make the biosynthesis of these polysaccharides a

  8. Lipid membrane domains in cell surface and vacuolar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T; Hirabayashi, Y

    2000-01-01

    Detergent insoluble sphingolipid-cholesterol enriched 'raft'-like membrane microdomains have been implicated in a variety of biological processes including sorting, trafficking, and signaling. Mutant cells and knockout animals of sphingolipid biosynthesis are clearly useful to understand the biological roles of lipid components in raft-like domains. It is suggested that raft-like domains distribute in internal vacuolar membranes as well as plasma membranes. In addition to sphingolipid-cholesterol-rich membrane domains, recent studies suggest the existence of another lipid-membrane domain in the endocytic pathway. This domain is enriched with a unique phospholipid, lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) and localized in the internal membrane of multivesicular endosome. LBPA-rich membrane domains are involved in lipid and protein sorting within the endosomal system. Possible interaction between sphingolipids and LBPA in sphingolipid-storage disease is discussed. PMID:11201787

  9. Principles of lysosomal membrane digestion: stimulation of sphingolipid degradation by sphingolipid activator proteins and anionic lysosomal lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolter, Thomas; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Sphingolipids and glycosphingolipids are membrane components of eukaryotic cell surfaces. Their constitutive degradation takes place on the surface of intra-endosomal and intra-lysosomal membrane structures. During endocytosis, these intra-lysosomal membranes are formed and prepared for digestion by a lipid-sorting process during which their cholesterol content decreases and the concentration of the negatively charged bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP)--erroneously also called lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA)--increases. Glycosphingolipid degradation requires the presence of water-soluble acid exohydrolases, sphingolipid activator proteins, and anionic phospholipids like BMP. The lysosomal degradation of sphingolipids with short hydrophilic head groups requires the presence of sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs). These are the saposins (Saps) and the GM2 activator protein. Sphingolipid activator proteins are membrane-perturbing and lipid-binding proteins with different specificities for the bound lipid and the activated enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Their inherited deficiency leads to sphingolipid- and membrane-storage diseases. Sphingolipid activator proteins not only facilitate glycolipid digestion but also act as glycolipid transfer proteins facilitating the association of lipid antigens with immunoreceptors of the CD1 family. PMID:16212488

  10. Role of sphingosine kinase localization in sphingolipid signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binks W Wattenberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The sphingosine kinases, SK1 and SK2, produce the potent signaling lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P. These enzymes have garnered increasing interest for their roles in tumorigenesis, inflammation, vascular diseases, and immunity, as well as other functions. The sphingosine kinases are considered signaling enzymes by producing S1P, and their activity is acutely regulated by a variety of agonists. However, these enzymes are also key players in the control of sphingolipid metabolism. A variety of sphingolipids, such as sphingosine and the ceramides, are potent signaling molecules in their own right. The role of sphingosine kinases in regulating sphingolipid metabolism is potentially a critical aspect of their signaling function. A central aspect of signaling lipids is that their hydrophobic nature constrains them to membranes. Most enzymes of sphingolipid metabolism, including the enzymes that degrade S1P, are membrane enzymes. Therefore the localization of the sphingosine kinases and S1P is likely to be important in S1P signaling. Sphingosine kinase localization affects sphingolipid signaling in several ways. Translocation of SK1 to the plasma membrane promotes extracellular secretion of S1P. SK1 and SK2 localization to specific sites appears to direct S1P to intracellular protein effectors. SK localization also determines the access of these enzymes to their substrates. This may be an important mechanism for the regulation of ceramide biosynthesis by diverting dihydrosphingosine, a precursor in the ceramide biosynthetic pathway, from the de novo production of ceramide.

  11. Role of sphingosine kinase localization in sphingolipid signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binks; W; Wattenberg

    2010-01-01

    The sphingosine kinases, SK1 and SK2, produce the potent signaling lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). These enzymes have garnered increasing interest for their roles in tumorigenesis, inflammation, vascular diseases, and immunity, as well as other functions. The sphingosine kinases are considered signaling enzymes by producing S1P, and their activity is acutely regulated by a variety of agonists. However, these enzymes are also key players in the control of sphingolipid metabolism. A variety of sphingolipids, such as sphingosine and the ceramides, are potent signaling molecules in their own right. The role of sphingosine kinases in regulating sphingolipid metabolism is potentially a critical aspect of their signaling function. A central aspect of signaling lipids is that their hydrophobic nature constrains them to membranes. Most enzymes of sphingolipid metabolism, including the enzymes that degrade S1P, are membrane enzymes. Therefore the localization of the sphingosine kinases and S1P is likely to be important in S1P signaling. Sphingosine kinase localization affects sphingolipid signaling in several ways. Translocation of SK1 to theplasma membrane promotes extracellular secretion of S1P. SK1 and SK2 localization to specific sites appears to direct S1P to intracellular protein effectors. SK localization also determines the access of these enzymes to their substrates. This may be an important mechanism for the regulation of ceramide biosynthesis by diverting dihydrosphingosine, a precursor in the ceramide biosynthetic pathway, from the de novo production of ceramide.

  12. Beyond the Cherry-Red Spot: Ocular Manifestations of Sphingolipid-mediated Neurodegenerative and Inflammatory Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hui; Chan, Annie Y.; Stone, Donald U.; Nawajes A Mandal

    2013-01-01

    Sphingolipids are a ubiquitous membrane lipid present in every cell and found most abundantly in neural tissues. Disorders such as Tay Sachs or Niemann Pick disease are the most familiar examples of dysfunction in sphingolipid metabolism and are typically associated with neurodegeneration and ocular findings such as blindness. More recently, the role of bioactive sphingolipids has been established in a multitude of cellular events, including cell survival, growth, senescence and apoptosis, in...

  13. Sterols and sphingolipids: Dynamic duo or partners in crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Sonia; Liu, Ying; Munkacsi, Andrew B.; Wilcox, Lisa; Sturley, Stephen L

    2010-01-01

    One manner in which eukaryotic cells respond to their environments is by optimizing the composition and proportions of sterols and sphingolipids in membranes. The physical association of the planar ring of sterols with the acyl chains of phospholipids, particularly sphingolipids, produces membrane micro-heterogeneity that is exploited to coordinate several crucial pathways. We hypothesize that these lipid molecules play an integrated role in human disease; when one of the partners is mis-regu...

  14. 7-ketocholesterol incorporation into sphingolipid/cholesterol-enriched (lipid raft) domains is impaired by vitamin E: a specific role for alpha-tocopherol with consequences on cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Marie-Charlotte; Lemaire-Ewing, Stéphanie; Desrumaux, Catherine; Monier, Serge; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Athias, Anne; Néel, Dominique; Lagrost, Laurent

    2009-06-01

    Cholesterol oxides, in particular 7-ketocholesterol, are proatherogenic compounds that induce cell death in the vascular wall when localized in lipid raft domains of the cell membrane. Deleterious effects of 7-ketocholesterol can be prevented by vitamin E, but the molecular mechanism involved is unclear. In this study, unlike gamma-tocopherol, the alpha-tocopherol vitamin E form was found to prevent 7-ketocholesterol-mediated apoptosis of A7R5 smooth muscle cells. To be operative, alpha-tocopherol needed to be added to the cells before 7-ketocholesterol, and its anti-apoptotic effect was reduced and even suppressed when added together or after 7-ketocholesterol, respectively. Both pre- and co-treatment of the cells with alpha-tocopherol resulted in the redistribution of 7-ketocholesterol out of the sphingolipid/cholesterol-enriched (lipid raft) domains. In turn, fewer amounts of alpha-tocopherol associated with lipid rafts on 7-ketocholesterol-pretreated cells compared with untreated cells, with no prevention of cell death in this case. In further support of the implication of lipid raft domains, the dephosphorylation/inactivation of Akt-PKB was involved in the 7-ketocholesterol-induced apoptosis. Akt-PKB dephosphorylation was prevented by alpha-tocopherol, but not gamma-tocopherol pretreatment. PMID:19351882

  15. Transformation-associated changes in sphingolipid metabolism sensitize cells to lysosomal cell death induced by inhibitors of acid sphingomyelinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nikolaj H T; Olsen, Ole D; Groth-Pedersen, Line;

    2013-01-01

    Lysosomal membrane permeabilization and subsequent cell death may prove useful in cancer treatment, provided that cancer cell lysosomes can be specifically targeted. Here, we identify acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) inhibition as a selective means to destabilize cancer cell lysosomes. Lysosome...

  16. Sphingolipid signaling and hematopoietic malignancies: to the rheostat and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Kenneth C; Baldwin, Dianna; Saba, Julie D

    2011-11-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid with diverse functions including the promotion of cell survival, proliferation and migration, as well as the regulation of angiogenesis, inflammation, immunity, vascular permeability and nuclear mechanisms that control gene transcription. S1P is derived from metabolism of ceramide, which itself has diverse and generally growth-inhibitory effects through its impact on downstream targets involved in regulation of apoptosis, senescence and cell cycle progression. Regulation of ceramide, S1P and the biochemical steps that modulate the balance and interconversion of these two lipids are major determinants of cell fate, a concept referred to as the "sphingolipid rheostat." There is abundant evidence that the sphingolipid rheostat plays a role in the origination, progression and drug resistance patterns of hematopoietic malignancies. The pathway has also been exploited to circumvent the problem of chemotherapy resistance in leukemia and lymphoma. Given the broad effects of sphingolipids, targeting multiple steps in the metabolic pathway may provide possible therapeutic avenues. However, new observations have revealed that sphingolipid signaling effects are more complex than previously recognized, requiring a revision of the sphingolipid rheostat model. Here, we summarize recent insights regarding the sphingolipid metabolic pathway and its role in hematopoietic malignancies. PMID:21707493

  17. Ceramide synthase inhibition causes accumulation of 1-deoxysphinganine: biosynthesis of a novel category of bioactive sphingoid bases in diverse mammalian cell linesa and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumonisins (FB) are mycotoxins that inhibit ceramide synthases (CerS) and cause animal and plant disease. Inhibition of CerS results in a rapid increases in sphinganine (Sa), an intermediate of de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis, sphinganine 1-phosphate, and a previously unidentified metabolite tha...

  18. Beyond the cherry-red spot: Ocular manifestations of sphingolipid-mediated neurodegenerative and inflammatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Chan, Annie Y; Stone, Donald U; Mandal, Nawajes A

    2014-01-01

    Sphingolipids are a ubiquitous membrane lipid present in every cell and found most abundantly in neural tissues. Disorders such as Tay-Sachs or Niemann-Pick disease are the most familiar examples of dysfunction in sphingolipid metabolism and are typically associated with neurodegeneration and ocular findings such as blindness. More recently, the role of bioactive sphingolipids has been established in a multitude of cellular events, including cell survival, growth, senescence and apoptosis, inflammation, and neovascularization. We discuss our current knowledge and understanding of sphingolipid metabolism and signaling in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases. PMID:24011710

  19. Autophagy in the light of sphingolipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvald, Eva Bang; Olsen, Anne Sofie Braun; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of cellular homeostasis requires tight and coordinated control of numerous metabolic pathways, which are governed by interconnected networks of signaling pathways and energy-sensing regulators. Autophagy, a lysosomal degradation pathway by which the cell self-digests its own components......, has over the past decade been recognized as an essential part of metabolism. Autophagy not only rids the cell of excessive or damaged organelles, misfolded proteins, and invading microorganisms, it also provides nutrients to maintain crucial cellular functions. Besides serving as essential structural...... moieties of biomembranes, lipids including sphingolipids are increasingly being recognized as central regulators of a number of important cellular processes, including autophagy. In the present review we describe how sphingolipids, with special emphasis on ceramides and sphingosine-1-phosphate, can act as...

  20. Sphingolipids and Plant Defense/Disease: The “Death” Connection and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Berkey, Robert; Bendigeri, Dipti; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2012-01-01

    Sphingolipids comprise a major class of structural materials and lipid signaling molecules in all eukaryotic cells. Over the past two decades, there has been a phenomenal growth in the study of sphingolipids (i.e., sphingobiology) at an average rate of ∼1000 research articles per year. Sphingolipid studies in plants, though accounting for only a small fraction (∼6%) of the total number of publications, have also enjoyed proportionally rapid growth in the past decade. Concomitant with the grow...

  1. Function of laccases in cell wall biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders; Holm, Preben Bach; Andersen, Jeppe Reitan

    2011-01-01

    Laccases are multicopper oxidases capable of polymerizing monolignols. Histochemical assays have shown temporal and spatial correlation with secondary cell wall formation in both herbs and woody perennials. However, in plants laccases constitutes a relatively large group of isoenzymes with unique...... substrate specificities and expression patterns. As part of the strategic research centre Bio4Bio, the present project deals with laccase functions in relation to cell wall formation in grasses based on a study of the model species Brachypodium distachyon. Thirty-one isozymes have been retrieved from the...... hybridization. Specific isozymes that show high correlation with the process of secondary cell wall formation will be further studied in a reverse genetic study in which candidates will be knocked out using RNA interference. Phenotypes of knock-out mutants are to be described in relation to cell wall...

  2. Liposomal Nanomedicine with Short Chain Sphingolipids Modulate Tumor Cell Membrane Permeability Modulate Tumor Cell Membrane Permeability and Improve Chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.R.C. Pedrosa (Lília R. Cordeiro)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Chapter 6 discusses the significance of the results described in this thesis and future perspectives. The main goal of the thesis was the application of SCS enriched liposomes to improve chemotherapy outcome, by enhancing drug bioavailability in target tumor cells. De

  3. Structure, function, and biosynthesis of plant cell walls: proceedings of the seventh annual symposium in botany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugger, W.M.; Bartnicki-Garcia, S. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    Papers in the following areas were included in these symposium proceedings: (1) cell wall chemistry and biosynthesis; (2) cell wall hydrolysis and associated physiology; (3) cellular events associated with cell wall biosynthesis; and (4) interactions of plant cell walls with pathogens and related responses. Papers have been individually abstracted for the data base. (ACR)

  4. Sphingolipids: the nexus between Gaucher disease and insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Maria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sphingolipids constitute a diverse array of lipids in which fatty acids are linked through amide bonds to a long-chain base, and, structurally, they form the building blocks of eukaryotic membranes. Ceramide is the simplest and serves as a precursor for the synthesis of the three main types of complex sphingolipids; sphingomyelins, glycosphingolipids and gangliosides. Sphingolipids are no longer considered mere structural spectators, but bioactive molecules with functions beyond providing a mechanically stable and chemically resistant barrier to a diverse array of cellular processes. Although sphingolipids form a somewhat minor component of the total cellular lipid pool, their accumulation in certain cells forms the basis of many diseases. Human diseases caused by alterations in the metabolism of sphingolipids are conventionally inborn errors of degradation, the most common being Gaucher disease, in which the catabolism of glucosylceramide is defective and accumulates. Insulin resistance has been reported in patients with Gaucher disease and this article presents evidence that this is due to perturbations in the metabolism of sphingolipids. Ceramide and the more complex sphingolipids, the gangliosides, are constituents of specialised membrane microdomains termed lipid rafts. Lipid rafts play a role in facilitating and regulating lipid and protein interactions in cells, and their unique lipid composition enables them to carry out this role. The lipid composition of rafts is altered in cell models of Gaucher disease which may be responsible for impaired lipid and protein sorting observed in this disorder, and consequently pathology. Lipid rafts are also necessary for correct insulin signalling, and a perturbed lipid raft composition may impair insulin signalling. Unravelling common nodes of interaction between insulin resistance and Gaucher disease may lead to a better understanding of the biochemical mechanisms behind pathology.

  5. On-Off Switches for Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan-Zhong Wang; Richard A.Dixon

    2012-01-01

    Secondary cell walls provide plants with rigidity and strength to support their body weight and ensure water and nutrient transport.They also provide textiles,timber,and potentially second-generation biofuels for human use.Genes responsible for synthesis of the different cell wall components,namely cellulose,hemicelluloses,and lignin,are coordinately expressed and under transcriptional regulation.In the past several years,cell wall-related NAC and MYB transcription factors have been intensively investigated in different species and shown to be master switches of secondary cell wall biosynthesis.Positive and negative regulators,which function upstream of NAC master switches,have also been identified in different plant tissues.Further elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms of cell wall synthesis will facilitate the engineering of plant feedstocks suitable for biofuel production.

  6. Sphingolipids: Important Players in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Halmer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is the most common cause for permanent disability in young adults. Current pathophysiological understanding has identified an autoaggressive immune reaction with infiltration of immune cells into the central nervous system and local inflammatory and demyelinating reactions. The current therapy focuses on a modulation or suppression of immune functions. Sphingolipids, main components of nervous tissue, have been linked to MS already 60 years ago with the description of an unusual myelin lipid distribution in diseased patients. There is tremendous information developing on the role of different sphingolipids in MS. Antibodies against sphingomyelin, sulfatide or galacosylceramide have been detected in serum or CSF of MS patients, although up to now, this knowledge did not find its way into clinical use. Ceramide and the enzymes linked to its production have been described to play a pivotal role in oligendrocyte damage and demyelination. Nowadays, especially sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is in the focus of pathophysiological research and therapy development. A S1P analogue, FTY720, is a widely distributed therapy against relapsing-remitting MS, attenuating the emigration of activated, autoreactive lymphocytes from lymph nodes, thereby preventing new inflammatory infiltration into the central nervous system. Beside, there is more and more evidence, that especially S1P receptors on oligodendrocytes and astrocytes are involved in demyelination processes and subsequent axonal degeneration, important features of chonic progressive MS disease course. Further information and research on the manifold role of sphingolipids are needed to prepare the ground for further clinical trials. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the role of sphingolipids in MS and describes the current therapeutical implications.

  7. Biosynthesis of a Fully Functional Cyclotide inside Living Bacterial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarero, J A; Kimura, R H; Woo, Y; Cantor, J; Shekhtman, A

    2007-04-05

    The cyclotide MCoTI-II is a powerful trypsin inhibitor recently isolated from the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis, a plant member of cucurbitaceae family. We report for the first time the in vivo biosynthesis of natively-folded MCoTI-II inside live E. coli cells. Our biomimetic approach involves the intracellular backbone cyclization of a linear cyclotide-intein fusion precursor mediated by a modified protein splicing domain. The cyclized peptide then spontaneously folds into its native conformation. The use of genetically engineered E. coli cells containing mutations in the glutathione and thioredoxin reductase genes considerably improves the production of folded MCoTI-II in vivo. Biochemical and structural characterization of the recombinant MCoTI-II confirmed its identity. Biosynthetic access to correctly-folded cyclotides allows the possibility of generating cell-based combinatorial libraries that can be screened inside living cells for their ability to modulate or inhibit cellular processes.

  8. Roles of tRNA in cell wall biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dare, Kiley; Ibba, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent research into various aspects of bacterial metabolism such as cell wall and antibiotic synthesis, degradation pathways, cellular stress, and amino acid biosynthesis has elucidated roles of aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (aa-tRNA) outside of translation. Although the two enzyme families...... specificity of this diverse enzymatic family is necessary to aid current efforts in designing potential bactericidal agents. These two enzyme families are linked only by the substrate with which they modify the cell wall, aa-tRNA; their structure, cell wall modification processes and the physiological changes...... responsible for cell wall modifications, aminoacyl-phosphatidylglycerol synthases (aaPGSs) and Fem, were discovered some time ago, they have recently become of intense interest for their roles in the antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic microorganisms. The addition of positively charged amino acids to...

  9. Podocyte pathology and nephropathy - sphingolipids in glomerular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merscher, Sandra; Fornoni, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    Sphingolipids are components of the lipid rafts in plasma membranes, which are important for proper function of podocytes, a key element of the glomerular filtration barrier. Research revealed an essential role of sphingolipids and sphingolipid metabolites in glomerular disorders of genetic and non-genetic origin. The discovery that glucocerebrosides accumulate in Gaucher disease in glomerular cells and are associated with clinical proteinuria initiated intensive research into the function of other sphingolipids in glomerular disorders. The accumulation of sphingolipids in other genetic diseases including Tay-Sachs, Sandhoff, Fabry, hereditary inclusion body myopathy 2, Niemann-Pick, and nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type and its implications with respect to glomerular pathology will be discussed. Similarly, sphingolipid accumulation occurs in glomerular diseases of non-genetic origin including diabetic kidney disease (DKD), HIV-associated nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and lupus nephritis. Sphingomyelin metabolites, such as ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate have also gained tremendous interest. We recently described that sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like 3b (SMPDL3b) is expressed in podocytes where it modulates acid sphingomyelinase activity and acts as a master modulator of danger signaling. Decreased SMPDL3b expression in post-reperfusion kidney biopsies from transplant recipients with idiopathic FSGS correlates with the recurrence of proteinuria in patients and in experimental models of xenotransplantation. Increased SMPDL3b expression is associated with DKD. The consequences of differential SMPDL3b expression in podocytes in these diseases with respect to their pathogenesis will be discussed. Finally, the role of sphingolipids in the formation of lipid rafts in podocytes and their contribution to the maintenance of a functional slit diaphragm in the glomerulus will be discussed. PMID:25126087

  10. Role of Sphingolipids and Metabolizing Enzymes in Hematological Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitatani, Kazuyuki; Taniguchi, Makoto; Okazaki, Toshiro

    2015-06-01

    Sphingolipids such as ceramide, sphingosine-1-phosphate and sphingomyelin have been emerging as bioactive lipids since ceramide was reported to play a role in human leukemia HL-60 cell differentiation and death. Recently, it is well-known that ceramide acts as an inducer of cell death, that sphingomyelin works as a regulator for microdomain function of the cell membrane, and that sphingosine-1-phosphate plays a role in cell survival/proliferation. The lipids are metabolized by the specific enzymes, and each metabolite could be again returned to the original form by the reverse action of the different enzyme or after a long journey of many metabolizing/synthesizing pathways. In addition, the metabolites may serve as reciprocal bio-modulators like the rheostat between ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate. Therefore, the change of lipid amount in the cells, the subcellular localization and the downstream signal in a specific subcellular organelle should be clarified to understand the pathobiological significance of sphingolipids when extracellular stimulation induces a diverse of cell functions such as cell death, proliferation and migration. In this review, we focus on how sphingolipids and their metabolizing enzymes cooperatively exert their function in proliferation, migration, autophagy and death of hematopoetic cells, and discuss the way developing a novel therapeutic device through the regulation of sphingolipids for effectively inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell death in hematological malignancies such as leukemia, malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma. PMID:25997737

  11. Cell Wall Composition, Biosynthesis and Remodeling during Pollen Tube Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Mollet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The pollen tube is a fast tip-growing cell carrying the two sperm cells to the ovule allowing the double fertilization process and seed setting. To succeed in this process, the spatial and temporal controls of pollen tube growth within the female organ are critical. It requires a massive cell wall deposition to promote fast pollen tube elongation and a tight control of the cell wall remodeling to modify the mechanical properties. In addition, during its journey, the pollen tube interacts with the pistil, which plays key roles in pollen tube nutrition, guidance and in the rejection of the self-incompatible pollen. This review focuses on our current knowledge in the biochemistry and localization of the main cell wall polymers including pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose and callose from several pollen tube species. Moreover, based on transcriptomic data and functional genomic studies, the possible enzymes involved in the cell wall remodeling during pollen tube growth and their impact on the cell wall mechanics are also described. Finally, mutant analyses have permitted to gain insight in the function of several genes involved in the pollen tube cell wall biosynthesis and their roles in pollen tube growth are further discussed.

  12. Another brick in the cell wall: biosynthesis dependent growth model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Barbacci

    Full Text Available Expansive growth of plant cell is conditioned by the cell wall ability to extend irreversibly. This process is possible if (i a tensile stress is developed in the cell wall due to the coupling effect between turgor pressure and the modulation of its mechanical properties through enzymatic and physicochemical reactions and if (ii new cell wall elements can be synthesized and assembled to the existing wall. In other words, expansive growth is the result of coupling effects between mechanical, thermal and chemical energy. To have a better understanding of this process, models must describe the interplay between physical or mechanical variable with biological events. In this paper we propose a general unified and theoretical framework to model growth in function of energy forms and their coupling. This framework is based on irreversible thermodynamics. It is then applied to model growth of the internodal cell of Chara corallina modulated by changes in pressure and temperature. The results describe accurately cell growth in term of length increment but also in term of cell pectate biosynthesis and incorporation to the expanding wall. Moreover, the classical growth model based on Lockhart's equation such as the one proposed by Ortega, appears as a particular and restrictive case of the more general growth equation developed in this paper.

  13. Exploring the role of sphingolipid machinery during the epithelial to mesenchymal transition program using an integrative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshcheryakova, Anastasia; Köfeler, Harald C.; Triebl, Alexander; Mungenast, Felicitas; Heinze, Georg; Gerner, Christopher; Zimmermann, Philip; Jaritz, Markus; Mechtcheriakova, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) program is activated in epithelial cancer cells and facilitates their ability to metastasize based on enhanced migratory, proliferative, anti-apoptotic, and pluripotent capacities. Given the fundamental impact of sphingolipid machinery to each individual process, the sphingolipid-related mechanisms might be considered among the most prominent drivers/players of EMT; yet, there is still limited knowledge. Given the complexity of the interconnected sphingolipid system, which includes distinct sphingolipid mediators, their synthesizing enzymes, receptors and transporters, we herein apply an integrative approach for assessment of the sphingolipid-associated mechanisms underlying EMT program. We created the sphingolipid-/EMT-relevant 41-gene/23-gene signatures which were applied to denote transcriptional events in a lung cancer cell-based EMT model. Based on defined 35-gene sphingolipid/EMT-attributed signature of regulated genes, we show close associations between EMT markers, genes comprising the sphingolipid network at multiple levels and encoding sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)-/ceramide-metabolizing enzymes, S1P and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors and S1P transporters, pluripotency genes and inflammation-related molecules, and demonstrate the underlying biological pathways and regulators. Mass spectrometry-based sphingolipid analysis revealed an EMT-attributed shift towards increased S1P and LPA accompanied by reduced ceramide levels. Notably, using transcriptomics data across various cell-based perturbations and neoplastic tissues (24193 arrays), we identified the sphingolipid/EMT signature primarily in lung adenocarcinoma tissues; besides, bladder, colorectal and prostate cancers were among the top-ranked. The findings also highlight novel regulatory associations between influenza virus and the sphingolipid/EMT-associated mechanisms. In sum, data propose the multidimensional contribution of sphingolipid machinery

  14. Legionella pneumophila restrains autophagy by modulating the host's sphingolipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolando, Monica; Escoll, Pedro; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    Sphingolipids are bioactive molecules playing a key role as membrane components, but they are also central regulators of many intracellular processes including macroautophagy/autophagy. In particular, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a critical mediator that controls the balance between sphingolipid-induced autophagy and cell death. S1P levels are adjusted via S1P synthesis, dephosphorylation or degradation, catalyzed by SGPL1 (sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase 1). Intracellular pathogens are able to modulate many different host cell pathways to allow their replication. We have found that infection of eukaryotic cells with the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila triggers a change in the host cell sphingolipid metabolism and specifically affects the levels of sphingosine. Indeed, L. pneumophila secretes a protein highly homologous to eukaryotic SGPL1 (named LpSPL). We solved the crystal structure of LpSPL and showed that it encodes lyase activity, targets the host's sphingolipid metabolism, and plays a role in starvation-induced autophagy during L. pneumophila infection to promote intracellular survival. PMID:27191778

  15. [Sphingolipid-mediated apoptotic signaling pathways].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvillier, Olivier; Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie; Ségui, Bruno; Malagarie-Cazenave, Sophie; Tardy, Claudine; Bonhoure, Elisabeth; Levade, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    Various sphingolipids are being viewed as bioactive molecules and/or second messengers. Among them, ceramide (or N-acylsphingosine) and sphingosine generally behave as pro-apoptotic mediators. Indeed, ceramide mediates the death signal initiated by numerous stress agents which either stimulate its de novo synthesis or activate sphingomyelinases that release ceramide from sphingomyelin. For instance, the early generation of ceramide promoted by TNF is mediated by a neutral sphingomyelinase the activity of which is regulated by the FAN adaptor protein, thereby controlling caspase activation and the cell death programme. In addition, the activity of this neutral sphingomyelinase is negatively modulated by caveolin, a major constituent of some membrane microdomains. The enzyme sphingosine kinase also plays a crucial role in apoptosis signalling by regulating the intracellular levels of two sphingolipids having opposite effects, namely the pro-apoptotic sphingosine and the anti-apoptotic sphingosine 1-phosphate molecule. Ceramide and sphingosine metabolism therefore appears as a pivotal regulatory pathway in the determination of cell fate. PMID:14708343

  16. Role of Sphingolipids and Metabolizing Enzymes in Hematological Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Kitatani, Kazuyuki; Taniguchi, Makoto; Okazaki, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids such as ceramide, sphingosine-1-phosphate and sphingomyelin have been emerging as bioactive lipids since ceramide was reported to play a role in human leukemia HL-60 cell differentiation and death. Recently, it is well-known that ceramide acts as an inducer of cell death, that sphingomyelin works as a regulator for microdomain function of the cell membrane, and that sphingosine-1-phosphate plays a role in cell survival/proliferation. The lipids are metabolized by the specific en...

  17. Structure of Sphingolipids From Sea Cucumber Cucumaria frondosa and Structure-Specific Cytotoxicity Against Human HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zicai; Song, Yu; Tao, Suyuan; Cong, Peixu; Wang, Xiaoxu; Xue, Changhu; Xu, Jie

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between structure and activity, three glucocerebroside series (CFC-1, CFC-2 and CFC-3), ceramides (CF-Cer) and long-chain bases (CF-LCB) of sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (C. frondosa) were isolated and evaluated in HepG2 cells. The molecular species of CFC-1, CFC-2 and CFC-3 and CF-Cer were identified using reversed-phase liquid chromatography with heated electrospray ionization coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (RPLC-HESI-HRMS), and determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence: For the three glucocerebroside series, fatty acids (FA) were mainly saturated (18:0 and 22:0), monounsaturated (22:1, 23:1 and 24:1) and 2-hydroxyl FA (2-HFA) (23:1 h and 24:1 h), the structure of long-chain bases (LCB) were dihydroxy (d17:1, d18:1 and d18:2) and trihydroxy (t16:0 and t17:0), and the glycosylation was glucose; For CF-Cer, FA were primarily saturated (17:0) and monounsaturated (16:1 and 19:1), the structure of LCB were dihydroxy (d17:1 and d18:1), and trihydroxy (t16:0). The results of cell experiment indicated that all of three glucocerebroside series, CF-Cer and CF-LCB exhibited an inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Moreover, CFC-3 was most effective in three glucocerebrosides to HepG-2 cell viability. The inhibition effect of CF-LCB was the strongest, and the inhibition effect of CF-Cer was much stronger than glucocerebrosides. PMID:26861868

  18. Stress-induced sphingolipid signaling: role of type-2 neutral sphingomyelinase in murine cell apoptosis and proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Devillard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sphingomyelin hydrolysis in response to stress-inducing agents, and subsequent ceramide generation, are implicated in various cellular responses, including apoptosis, inflammation and proliferation, depending on the nature of the different acidic or neutral sphingomyelinases. This study was carried out to investigate whether the neutral Mg(2+-dependent neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase2 plays a role in the cellular signaling evoked by TNFalpha and oxidized LDLs, two stress-inducing agents, which are mitogenic at low concentrations and proapoptotic at higher concentrations. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this purpose, we used nSMase2-deficient cells from homozygous fro/fro (fragilitas ossium mice and nSMase2-deficient cells reconstituted with a V5-tagged nSMase2. We report that the genetic defect of nSMase2 (in fibroblasts from fro/fro mice does not alter the TNFalpha and oxidized LDLs-mediated apoptotic response. Likewise, the hepatic toxicity of TNFalpha is similar in wild type and fro mice, thus is independent of nSMase2 activation. In contrast, the mitogenic response elicited by low concentrations of TNFalpha and oxidized LDLs (but not fetal calf serum requires nSMase2 activation. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: nSMase2 activation is not involved in apoptosis mediated by TNFalpha and oxidized LDLs in murine fibroblasts, and in the hepatotoxicity of TNFalpha in mice, but is required for the mitogenic response to stress-inducing agents.

  19. Biosynthesis of the neural cell adhesion molecule: characterization of polypeptide C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, O; Albrechtsen, M; Dahlin, J; Linnemann, D; Lyles, J M; Møller, C J; Bock, E

    1985-01-01

    The biosynthesis of the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) was studied in primary cultures of rat cerebral glial cells, cerebellar granule neurons, and skeletal muscle cells. The three cell types produced different N-CAM polypeptide patterns. Glial cells synthesized a 135,000 Mr polypeptide B...

  20. Effects of Nandrolone Stimulation on Testosterone Biosynthesis in Leydig Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Cristoforo; Barone, Rosario; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Sangiorgi, Claudia; Barone, Fulvio; Pitruzzella, Alessandro; Locorotondo, Nicola; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Salerno, Monica; Maglietta, Francesca; Sarni, Antonio Luciano; Di Felice, Valentina; Cappello, Francesco; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2016-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are among the drugs most used by athletes for improving physical performance, as well as for aesthetic purposes. A number of papers have showed the side effects of AAS in different organs and tissues. For example, AAS are known to suppress gonadotropin-releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. This study investigates the effects of nandrolone on testosterone biosynthesis in Leydig cells using various methods, including mass spectrometry, western blotting, confocal microscopy and quantitative real-time PCR. The results obtained show that testosterone levels increase at a 3.9 μM concentration of nandrolone and return to the basal level a 15.6 μM dose of nandrolone. Nandrolone-induced testosterone increment was associated with upregulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and downregulation of 17a-hydroxylase/17, 20 lyase (CYP17A1). Instead, a 15.6 µM dose of nandrolone induced a down-regulation of CYP17A1. Further in vivo studies based on these data are needed to better understand the relationship between disturbed testosterone homeostasis and reproductive system impairment in male subjects. PMID:26626779

  1. Diphtheria toxin translocation across cellular membranes is regulated by sphingolipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diphtheria toxin is translocated across cellular membranes when receptor-bound toxin is exposed to low pH. To study the role of sphingolipids for toxin translocation, both a mutant cell line lacking the first enzyme in de novo sphingolipid synthesis, serine palmitoyltransferase, and a specific inhibitor of the same enzyme, myriocin, were used. The serine palmitoyltransferase-deficient cell line (LY-B) was found to be 10-15 times more sensitive to diphtheria toxin than the genetically complemented cell line (LY-B/cLCB1) and the wild-type cell line (CHO-K1), both when toxin translocation directly across the plasma membrane was induced by exposing cells with surface-bound toxin to low pH, and when the toxin followed its normal route via acidified endosomes into the cytosol. Toxin binding was similar in these three cell lines. Furthermore, inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase activity by addition of myriocin sensitized the two control cell lines (LY-B/cLCB1 and CHO-K1) to diphtheria toxin, whereas, as expected, no effect was observed in cells lacking serine palmitoyltransferase (LY-B). In conclusion, diphtheria toxin translocation is facilitated by depletion of membrane sphingolipids

  2. Plant sphingolipids today - Are they still enigmatic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassieva, S; Hille, J; Voesenek, L.A.C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Sphingolipids are a diverse group of lipids found in all eukaryotes and some bacteria, consisting of a hydrophobic ceramide and a hydrophilic head group. We have summarised the contemporary understanding of the structure of plant sphingolipids with an emphasis on glucosylceramides and inositolphosph

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi Response to Sterol Biosynthesis Inhibitors: Morphophysiological Alterations Leading to Cell Death

    OpenAIRE

    Kessler, Rafael Luis; Soares, Maurilio José; Probst, Christian Macagnan; Krieger, Marco Aurélio

    2013-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi displays similarities to fungi in terms of its sterol lipid biosynthesis, as ergosterol and other 24-alkylated sterols are its principal endogenous sterols. The sterol pathway is thus a potential drug target for the treatment of Chagas disease. We describe here a comparative study of the growth inhibition, ultrastructural and physiological changes leading to the death of T. cruzi cells following treatment with the sterol biosynthesis inhibitors (SBIs) ...

  4. Biosynthesis of Bacterial Cellulose/Carboxylic Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Enzymatic Biofuel Cell Application

    OpenAIRE

    Pengfei Lv; Quan Feng; Qingqing Wang; Guohui Li; Dawei Li; Qufu Wei

    2016-01-01

    Novel nanocomposites comprised of bacterial cellulose (BC) with carboxylic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNTs) incorporated into the BC matrix were prepared through a simple method of biosynthesis. The biocathode and bioanode for the enzyme biological fuel cell (EBFC) were prepared using BC/c-MWCNTs composite injected by laccase (Lac) and glucose oxidase (GOD) with the aid of glutaraldehyde (GA) crosslinking. Biosynthesis of BC/c-MWCNTs composite was characterized by digital photos, scan...

  5. A New Sphingolipid from the Fungus Paxillus panuoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jin-Ming; ZHANG Zeng-Qiang; LIU Ji-Kai

    2003-01-01

    @@ The ceramides, cleavage products of various sphingolipids, including gangliosides and cerebrosides, are in volved in various signal transduction pathways. Many extracellular stresses, such as tumor necrosis factors-α (TNFα) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been shown to activate sphingomyelinases that release ceramides which inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis. Because of the importance of ceramides, chemistry and biology of ceramides have been the vital subject of the latest research in recent years. [1~4

  6. Mechanism of collagen biosynthesis up-regulation in cultured leiomyoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Miltyk

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Uterine leiomyoma is the most common tumour in women with a reported incidence of 25-30%. The tumors are benign, composed of smooth muscle cells with variable amount of collagen - rich fibrous tissue. It is well established that accumulation of extracellular matrix in leiomyoma is key feature of tissue fibrosis. However, the pathogenesis of leiomyoma is still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolism of collagen in cultured leiomyoma cells and in control myometrium cells. The effect of estradiol, selective modulators of estrogen receptors (raloxifene, tamoxifen and estrogen receptor down regulator (ICI 182.780 on collagen biosynthesis (measured by 5-[3H]-proline incorporation assay and measurement of prolidase activity and collagen degradation (measured by metalloproteinase activity assay was studied. It was found that collagen biosynthesis is strongly stimulated by low doses of estradiol (5 nM in leiomyoma cells while it is not changed in control myometrium cells. An increase in estradiol concentration to 10 nM results in drastic decrease of this process both in leiomyoma as well as control cells. Although raloxifene and tamoxifen only slightly affected collagen biosynthesis in control myometrium cells, they significantly inhibited the process in leiomyoma cells. There was no coordinate correlation between collagen biosysignificantly inhibited the process in leiomyoma cells. There was no coordinate correlation between collagen biosynthesis and prolidase activity suggesting that regulation of this process may take place at transcriptional level. Both estrogen and SERMs were found to inhibit MMP-2 in leiomyoma as well as in control myometrium cells. The data suggest that stimulatory action of estrogen on collagen biosynthesis and inhibitory effect on MMP-2 activity in uterine leiomyoma may contribute to accumulation of this protein in ECM of this tissue.

  7. Glucose stimulates proinsulin biosynthesis by a dose-dependent recruitment of pancreatic beta cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Schuit, F C; In't Veld, P A; Pipeleers, D. G

    1988-01-01

    Glucose is a well-known stimulus of proinsulin biosynthesis. In purified beta cells, the sugar induces a 25-fold increase in the synthesis of insulin immunoreactive material over 60-min incubation. Autoradiographic analysis of the individual cells shows that this effect is achieved via dose-dependent recruitment of pancreatic beta cells to biosynthetic activity. Recruitment of beta cells is also seen in isolated islets exposed to glucose. The sigmoidal dose-response curve for glucose-induced ...

  8. Rice Brittleness Mutants: A Way to Open the 'Black Box' of Monocot Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baocai Zhang; Yihua Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Rice is a model organism for studying the mechanism of cell wall biosynthesis and remolding in Gramineae.Mechanical strength is an important agronomy trait of rice(Oryza sativa L.)plants that affects crop lodging and grain yield.As a prominent physical property of cell walls,mechanical strength reflects upon the structure of different wall polymers and how they interact.Studies on the mechanisms that regulate the mechanical strength therefore consequently results in uncovering the genes functioning in cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling.Our group focuses on the study of isolation of brittle culm(bc)mutants and characterization of their corresponding genes.To date,several bc mutants have been reported.The identified genes have covered several pathways of cell wall biosynthesis,revealing many secrets of monocot cell wall biosynthesis.Here,we review the progress achieved in this research field and also highlight the perspectives in expectancy.All of those lend new insights into mechanisms of cell wall formation and are helpful for harnessing the waste rice straws for biofuel production.

  9. Dexamethasone blocks arachidonate biosynthesis in isolated hepatocytes and cultured hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of dexamethasone on the incorporation and conversion of [1-14C]eicosa-8,11,14-trienoic acid to arachidonic acid in isolated hepatocytes and in hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells was studied. In both kinds of cells, no changes in the exogenous acid incorporation were found when the hormone was added to the incubation media at 0.1 or 0.2 mM concentration, while the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid was significantly depressed. The effect on the biosynthesis was faster in isolated normal liver cells (60 min) than in tumoral cells (120 min) and reached an inhibition of ca. 50% after 3 hr of treatment. The addition of cycloheximide (10(-6) M) also caused a marked decrease in the biosynthesis of this polyunsaturated fatty acid, but when dexamethasone was added to the media simultaneously with cycloheximide, a synergistic action was not observed. The results obtained show that protein synthesis would be involved in the modulation of the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid by glucocorticoids. The changes in the delta 5 desaturation of labeled 20:3 omega 6 to arachidonic acid correlated with changes in the fatty acid composition in isolated cells

  10. Importance of hyaluronan biosynthesis and degradation in cell differentiation and tumor formation

    OpenAIRE

    Heldin P.

    2003-01-01

    Hyaluronan is an important connective tissue glycosaminoglycan. Elevated hyaluronan biosynthesis is a common feature during tissue remodeling under both physiological and pathological conditions. Through its interactions with hyaladherins, hyaluronan affects several cellular functions such as cell migration and differentiation. The activities of hyaluronan-synthesizing and -degrading enzymes have been shown to be regulated in response to growth factors. During tumor progression hyaluronan sti...

  11. [Biosynthesis of enniatin by washed cells of Fusarium sambucinum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasian, A E; Chermenskĭ, D N; Bezborodov, A M

    1979-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the depsipeptide membrane ionophore--enniatin B by the washed mycelium Fusarium sambucinum Fuck 52 377 was studied. Metabolic precursors of enniatin B, alpha-ketovaleric acid, 14C-L-valine, and 14CH3-methionine, were added to the system after starvation. The amino acid content in the metabolic pool increased 1.5 times after addition of alpha-ketovaleric acid, 2.2 times after that of valine, and 2.5 times after addition of methionine. 14C-L-valine and 14CH3-methionine were incorporated into the molecule of enniatin B. Valine methylation in the molecule occurred at the level of synthesized depsipeptide. Amino acids of the metabolic pool performed the regulatory function in the synthesis. PMID:583180

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi response to sterol biosynthesis inhibitors: morphophysiological alterations leading to cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Luis Kessler

    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi displays similarities to fungi in terms of its sterol lipid biosynthesis, as ergosterol and other 24-alkylated sterols are its principal endogenous sterols. The sterol pathway is thus a potential drug target for the treatment of Chagas disease. We describe here a comparative study of the growth inhibition, ultrastructural and physiological changes leading to the death of T. cruzi cells following treatment with the sterol biosynthesis inhibitors (SBIs ketoconazole and lovastatin. We first calculated the drug concentration inhibiting epimastigote growth by 50% (EC(50/72 h or killing all cells within 24 hours (EC(100/24 h. Incubation with inhibitors at the EC(50/72 h resulted in interesting morphological changes: intense proliferation of the inner mitochondrial membrane, which was corroborated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy of the parasites stained with rhodamine 123, and strong swelling of the reservosomes, which was confirmed by acridine orange staining. These changes to the mitochondria and reservosomes may reflect the involvement of these organelles in ergosterol biosynthesis or the progressive autophagic process culminating in cell lysis after 6 to 7 days of treatment with SBIs at the EC(50/72 h. By contrast, treatment with SBIs at the EC(100/24 h resulted in rapid cell death with a necrotic phenotype: time-dependent cytosolic calcium overload, mitochondrial depolarization and reservosome membrane permeabilization (RMP, culminating in cell lysis after a few hours of drug exposure. We provide the first demonstration that RMP constitutes the "point of no return" in the cell death cascade, and propose a model for the necrotic cell death of T. cruzi. Thus, SBIs trigger cell death by different mechanisms, depending on the dose used, in T. cruzi. These findings shed new light on ergosterol biosynthesis and the mechanisms of programmed cell death in this ancient protozoan parasite.

  13. Overexpression of Patatin-Related Phospholipase AIIIβ Altered the Content and Composition of Sphingolipids in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoyin eLi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In plants, fatty acids are primarily synthesized in plastids and then transported to the endoplasmic reticulum for synthesis of most of the complex membrane lipids, including glycerolipids and sphingolipids. The first step of sphingolipid synthesis, which uses a fatty acid and a serine as substrates, is critical for sphingolipid homeostasis; its disruption leads to an altered plant growth. Phospholipase As (PLAs have been implicated in the trafficking of fatty acids from plastids to the endoplasmic reticulum. Previously, we found that overexpression of a patatin-related phospholipase, pPLAIIIβ, resulted in a smaller plant size and altered anisotropic cell expansion. Here, we determined the content and composition of sphingolipids in pPLAIIIβ-knockout and overexpression plants (pPLAIIIβ-KO and -OE. 3-keto-sphinganine, the product of the first step of sphingolipid synthesis, had a 26% decrease in leaves of pPLAIIIβ-KO while a 52% increase in pPLAIIIβ-OE compared to wild type (WT. The levels of free long-chain base species, dihydroxy-C18:0 and trihydroxy-18:0 (d18:0 and t18:0, were 38% and 97% higher, respectively, in pPLAIIIβ-OE than in WT. The level of complex sphingolipids ceramide d18:0-16:0 and t18:1-16:0 had a 2-fold increase in pPLAIIIβ-OE. The level of hydroxyceramide d18:0-h16:0 was 72% higher in pPLAIIIβ-OE compared to WT. The levels of several species of glucosylceramide and glycosylinositolphosphoceramide tended to be higher in pPLAIIIβ-OE than in WT. The total content of the complex sphingolipids showed a slightly higher in pPLAIIIβ-OE than in WT. These results revealed an involvement of phospholipase-mediated lipid homeostasis in plant growth.

  14. Two tomato GDP-D-mannose epimerase isoforms involved in ascorbate biosynthesis play specific roles in cell wall biosynthesis and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounet-Gilbert, Louise; Dumont, Marie; Ferrand, Carine; Bournonville, Céline; Monier, Antoine; Jorly, Joana; Lemaire-Chamley, Martine; Mori, Kentaro; Atienza, Isabelle; Hernould, Michel; Stevens, Rebecca; Lehner, Arnaud; Mollet, Jean Claude; Rothan, Christophe; Lerouge, Patrice; Baldet, Pierre

    2016-08-01

    GDP-D-mannose epimerase (GME, EC 5.1.3.18) converts GDP-D-mannose to GDP-L-galactose, and is considered to be a central enzyme connecting the major ascorbate biosynthesis pathway to primary cell wall metabolism in higher plants. Our previous work demonstrated that GME is crucial for both ascorbate and cell wall biosynthesis in tomato. The aim of the present study was to investigate the respective role in ascorbate and cell wall biosynthesis of the two SlGME genes present in tomato by targeting each of them through an RNAi-silencing approach. Taken individually SlGME1 and SlGME2 allowed normal ascorbate accumulation in the leaf and fruits, thus suggesting the same function regarding ascorbate. However, SlGME1 and SlGME2 were shown to play distinct roles in cell wall biosynthesis, depending on the tissue considered. The RNAi-SlGME1 plants harbored small and poorly seeded fruits resulting from alterations of pollen development and of pollination process. In contrast, the RNAi-SlGME2 plants exhibited vegetative growth delay while fruits remained unaffected. Analysis of SlGME1- and SlGME2-silenced seeds and seedlings further showed that the dimerization state of pectin rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) was altered only in the RNAi-SlGME2 lines. Taken together with the preferential expression of each SlGME gene in different tomato tissues, these results suggest sub-functionalization of SlGME1 and SlGME2 and their specialization for cell wall biosynthesis in specific tomato tissues. PMID:27382114

  15. Biosynthesis and release of proteins by isolated pulmonary Clara cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major proteins synthesized and released by Clara cells were identified and compared with those synthesized and released by mixed lung cells. Highly purified Clara cells (85.9 +/- 2.4%) and mixed lung cells (Clara cells 4%, Type II cells 33%, granulocytes 18%, macrophages 2.7%, ciliated cells 1.2%) were isolated from rabbit lungs, incubated with Ham's F12 medium in collagen/fibronectin-coated plastic culture dishes in the presence of 35S-methionine for periods of 4 and 18 hrs. Radiolabelled proteins were isolated from the cells and from the culture medium, electrophoresed on polyacrylamide gels in the presence of SDS under reducing conditions, and then autoradiographed. After 4 and 18 hr of incubation of the Clara cells the major radiolabelled cell-associated proteins were those with molecular weights of 6, 48, and 180 Kd. The major radiolabelled proteins released by Clara cells into the medium after 4 hrs of incubation had molecular weights of 6, 48, and 180 Kd, accounting for 42, 16, and 10%, respectively, of the total extracellular protein-associated radioactivity. After 18 hr of incubation the 6 and 48 Kd proteins represented 30 and 18% of the total released radioactivity, and the relative amount of the 180 Kd protein had decreased to 3%. With the mixed lung cells, the major proteins released into the medium had molecular weights of 6 and 48 Kd. Under nonreducing conditions the 6 Kd protein released by Clara cells had an apparent molecular weight of 12 Kd. Labelling isolated Clara cells with a mixture of 14C-amino acids also identified this low molecular weight protein as the major secretory product of the Clara cell. The 6 Kd protein did not label when the cells were incubated with 14C-glucosamine indicating that it was not a glycoprotein. Data demonstrate the release of several proteins from isolated Clara cells but the major protein had a M.W. of 6 Kd

  16. A single extraction method for the analysis by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry of fumonisins and biomarkers of disrupted sphingolipid metabolism in tissues of maize seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Fusarium verticillioides is a pathogen of many plants and produces fumonisins. In addition to their well-studied animal toxicoses these toxins contribute to the development of maize seedling disease in susceptible maize varieties. Fumonisin disruption of sphingolipid biosynthesis occurs ...

  17. Short-term Mg deficiency upregulates protein kinase C isoforms in cardiovascular tissues and cells; relation to NF-kB, cytokines, ceramide salvage sphingolipid pathway and PKC-zeta: hypothesis and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altura, Burton M; Shah, Nilank C; Shah, Gatha J; Zhang, Aimin; Li, Wenyan; Zheng, Tao; Perez-Albela, Jose Luis; Altura, Bella T

    2014-01-01

    Numerous recent,epidemiological studies reveal that Western populations are growing more and more deficient in daily Mg intake which have been linked to etiology of cardiovascular (CV) diseases. A growing body of evidence suggests that a major missing link to this dilemma may reside within the sphingolipid-ceramide pathways. For the past 25 years , our labs have been focusing on these pathways in Mg-deficient mammals. The objective of this paper is two-fold: 1) to test various hypotheses and 2) to review the current status of the field and how protein kinase C isoforms may be pivotal to solving some of the CV attributes of Mg deficiency. Below, we test the hypotheses that: 1) short-term dietary deficiency of magnesium (MgD) would result in the upregulation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in left ventricular (LV) and aortic smooth muscle (ASM) and serum; 2) MgD would result in a release of select cytokines and an upregulation of NF-kB in LV and ASM, and in primary cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (PCASMC); 3) MgD would result in an activation of the sphingolipid salvage pathway in LV and ASM, and in PCASMC; 4) MgD would result in a synthesis of sphingosine, but not sphinganine, in PCASMC which could be inhibited by fumonisin B1 (FB) an inhibitor of ceramide synthase (CS), but not scyphostatin an inhibitor of neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase); 5) incubation of PCASMC (in low Mg2+) with the PKC-mimic PMA would result in release and synthesis of NF-kB, cytokines, and ceramide but not sphingosine. The new data indicate that short-term MgD (10% normal dietary intake) result in an upregulation of all three classes of PKC isoforms in LV, aortic muscle and in serum coupled to the upregulation of ceramide, NF-kB activation, and cytokines. High degrees of linear correlation were found to exist between upregulation of PKC isoforms, p65 and cytokine release, suggesting cross-talk between these molecules and molecular pathways. Our experiments with PCASMCs demonstrated

  18. The role of sphingolipids in neuronal plasticity of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnino, Sandro; Prinetti, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    This Editorial highlights a study by Müller et al. in which the authors suggest a new sphingolipid-dependent mechanism for behavioral extinction. Their study should be considered in the broad perspective of sphingolipid metabolic pathways and traffic (depicted in the graphic). Read the highlighted article 'A sphingolipid mechanism for behavioral extinction' on page 589. PMID:26990419

  19. Sphingolipid profile alters in retinal dystrophic P23H-1 rats and systemic FTY720 can delay retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Megan; Qi, Hui; Sun, Eleanor; Tan, Jeremy; Porter, Hunter; Allegood, Jeremy; Chalfant, Charles E; Yasumura, Douglas; Matthes, Michael T; LaVail, Matthew M; Mandal, Nawajes A

    2016-05-01

    Retinal degeneration (RD) affects millions of people and is a major cause of ocular impairment and blindness. With a wide range of mutations and conditions leading to degeneration, targeting downstream processes is necessary for developing effective treatments. Ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate, a pair of bioactive sphingolipids, are involved in apoptosis and its prevention, respectively. Apoptotic cell death is a potential driver of RD, and in order to understand the mechanism of degeneration and potential treatments, we studied rhodopsin mutant RD model, P23H-1 rats. Investigating this genetic model of human RD allows us to investigate the association of sphingolipid metabolites with the degeneration of the retina in P23H-1 rats and the effects of a specific modulator of sphingolipid metabolism, FTY720. We found that P23H-1 rat retinas had altered sphingolipid profiles that, when treated with FTY720, were rebalanced closer to normal levels. FTY720-treated rats also showed protection from RD compared with their vehicle-treated littermates. Based on these data, we conclude that sphingolipid dysregulation plays a secondary role in retinal cell death, which may be common to many forms of RDs, and that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug FTY720 or related compounds that modulate sphingolipid metabolism could potentially delay the cell death. PMID:26947037

  20. Isolation and characterization of a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant with altered regulation of phosphatidylserine biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have screened approximately 10,000 colonies of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells immobilized on polyester cloth for mutants defective in [14C]ethanolamine incorporation into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable phospholipids. In mutant 29, discovered in this way, the activities of enzymes involved in the CDP-ethanolamine pathway were normal; however, the intracellular pool of phosphorylethanolamine was elevated, being more than 10-fold that in the parental CHO-K1 cells. These results suggested that the reduced incorporation of [14C]ethanolamine into phosphatidylethanolamine in mutant 29 was due to dilution of phosphoryl-[14C]ethanolamine with the increased amount of cellular phosphorylethanolamine. Interestingly, the rate of incorporation of serine into phosphatidylserine and the content of phosphatidylserine in mutant 29 cells were increased 3-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively, compared with the parent cells. The overproduction of phosphorylethanolamine in mutant 29 cells was ascribed to the elevated level of phosphatidylserine biosynthesis, because ethanolamine is produced as a reaction product on the conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylserine, which is catalyzed by phospholipid-serine base-exchange enzymes. Using both intact cells and the particulate fraction of a cell extract, phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in CHO-K1 cells was shown to be inhibited by phosphatidylserine itself, whereas that in mutant 29 cells was greatly resistant to the inhibition, compared with the parental cells. As a conclusion, it may be assumed that mutant 29 cells have a lesion in the regulation of phosphatidylserine biosynthesis by serine-exchange enzyme activity, which results in the overproduction of phosphatidylserine and phosphorylethanolamine as well

  1. PECULIARITIES OF SECONDARY METABOLITES BIOSYNTHESIS IN PLANT CELL CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. NOSOV

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available metabolites formation in plant cell cultures of Panax spp., (ginsenosides; Dioscorea deltoidea (steroid glycosides; Ajuga reptans, Serratula coronata, Rhaponticum carthamoides (ecdisteroids; Polyscias spp., (triterpene glycosides, Taxus spp. (taxoids, Stevia rebaudiana (diterpene steviol-glycosides, Stephania glabra (alkaloids. They are some regular trends of secondary metabolites synthesis in the plant cell culture:It can be noted the stable synthesis of the compound promoting cell proliferation. Indeed, cell cultures of Dioscorea deltoidea were demonstrated to accumulate only furostanol glycosides, which promoted cell division. Furostanol glycoside content of Dioscorea strain DM-0.5 was up to 6 - 12% by dry biomass.Panax ginseng and P. japonicus plant cell cultures synthesize as minimum seven triterpene glycosides (ginsenosides, the productivity of these compounds was up to 6.0 - 8.0% on dry biomass.By contrast, the detectable synthesis of diterpene steviol-glycosides in cultivated cells of Stevia rebaudiana initiated in the mixotrophic cultures during chloroplast formation only.Despite these differences, or mainly due to them, plant cell cultures have become an attractive source of phytochemicals in alternative to collecting wild plants. It provides a guideline to bioreactor-based production of isoprenoids using undifferentiated plant cell cultures. 

  2. Hemicellulose biosynthesis and degradation in tobacco cell walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compier, M.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Natural fibres have a wide range of technological applications, such as in paper and textile industries. The basic properties and the quality of plant fibres are determined by the composition of the plant cell wall. Characteristic for fibres are thick secondary cell walls, which consist of cellulose

  3. Overexpression of SbMyb60 impacts phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and alters secondary cell wall composition in sorghum bicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway that generates lignin subunits represents a significant target to alter the abundance and composition of lignin. The major regulators of phenylpropanoid metabolism are myb transcription factors, which have been shown to modulate secondary cell wall compositi...

  4. Biosynthesis of von Willebrand protein by human endothelial cells: processing steps and their intracellular localization

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Biosynthesis of von Willebrand protein by human umbilical vein endothelial cells involved distinct processing steps marked by the presence of several intermediate molecular species. Examination of endoglycosidase H sensitivity of these intracellular intermediates indicated that the processing steps occurred in at least two separate cellular compartments. In the pre-Golgi apparatus (most probably the endoplasmic reticulum), the high mannose carbohydrates were added onto the precursor monomer c...

  5. A MurF Inhibitor That Disrupts Cell Wall Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli▿

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Ellen Z.; Crespo-Carbone, Steven M.; Klinger, Alexandra; Foleno, Barbara D.; Turchi, Ignatius; Macielag, Mark; Bush, Karen

    2007-01-01

    MurF is an essential enzyme of bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. Few MurF inhibitors have been reported, and none have displayed measurable antibacterial activity. Through the use of a MurF binding assay, a series of 8-hydroxyquinolines that bound to the Escherichia coli enzyme and inhibited its activity was identified. To derive additional chemotypes lacking 8-hydroxyquinoline, a known chelating moiety, a pharmacophore model was constructed from the series and used to select compounds for te...

  6. Phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. I. Inhibition of de novo phosphatidylserine biosynthesis by exogenous phosphatidylserine and its efficient incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of phosphatidylserine exogenously added to the medium on de novo biosynthesis of phosphatidylserine was investigated in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. When cells were cultured for several generations in medium supplemented with phosphatidylserine and 32Pi, the incorporation of 32Pi into cellular phosphatidylserine was remarkably inhibited, the degree of inhibition being dependent upon the concentration of added phosphatidylserine. 32Pi uptake into cellular phosphatidylethanolamine was also partly reduced by the addition of exogenous phosphatidylserine, consistent with the idea that phosphatidylethanolamine is biosynthesized via decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine. However, incorporation of 32Pi into phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylinositol was not significantly affected. In contrast, the addition of either phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylethanolamine, or phosphatidylinositol to the medium did not inhibit endogenous biosynthesis of the corresponding phospholipid. Radiochemical and chemical analyses of the cellular phospholipid composition revealed that phosphatidylserine in cells grown with 80 microM phosphatidylserine was almost entirely derived from the added phospholipid. Phosphatidylserine uptake was also directly determined by using [3H]serine-labeled phospholipid. Pulse and pulse-chase experiments with L-[U-14C] serine showed that when cells were cultured with 80 microM phosphatidylserine, the rate of synthesis of phosphatidylserine was reduced 3-5-fold. Enzyme assaying of extracts prepared from cells grown with and without phosphatidylserine indicated that the inhibition of de novo phosphatidylserine biosynthesis by the added phosphatidylserine appeared not to be caused by a reduction in the level of the enzyme involved in the base-exchange reaction between phospholipids and serine

  7. Endothelium in brain: Receptors, mitogenesis, and biosynthesis in glial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCumber, M.W.; Ross, C.A.; Snyder, S.H. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-03-01

    The authors have explored the cellular loci of endothelin (ET) actions and formation in the brain, using cerebellar mutant mice was well as primary and continuous cell cultures. A glial role is favored by several observations: (1) mutant mice lacking neuronal Purkinje cells display normal ET receptor binding and enhanced stimulation by ET of inositolphospholipid turnover; (ii) in weaver mice lacking neuronal granule cells, ET stimulation of inositolphospholipid turnover is not significantly diminished; (iii) C{sub 6} glioma cells and primary cultures of cerebellar astroglia exhibit substantial ET receptor binding and ET-induced stimulation of inositolphospholipid turnover; (iv) ET promotes mitogenesis of C{sub 6} glioma cells and primary cerebellar astroglia; and (v) primary cultures of cerebellar astroglia contain ET mRNA. ET also appears to have a neuronal role, since it stimulates inositolphospholipid turnover in primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells, and ET binding declines in granule cell-deficient mice. Thus, ET can be produced by glia and act upon both glia and neurons in a paracrine fashion.

  8. Genome-wide association study identifies novel loci associated with circulating phospho- and sphingolipid concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirkan, Ayşe; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ugocsai, Peter; Isaacs, Aaron; Pramstaller, Peter P; Liebisch, Gerhard; Wilson, James F; Johansson, Åsa; Rudan, Igor; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Kirichenko, Anatoly V; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Jansen, Ritsert C; Gnewuch, Carsten; Domingues, Francisco S; Pattaro, Cristian; Wild, Sarah H; Jonasson, Inger; Polasek, Ozren; Zorkoltseva, Irina V; Hofman, Albert; Karssen, Lennart C; Struchalin, Maksim; Floyd, James; Igl, Wilmar; Biloglav, Zrinka; Broer, Linda; Pfeufer, Arne; Pichler, Irene; Campbell, Susan; Zaboli, Ghazal; Kolcic, Ivana; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Huffman, Jennifer; Hastie, Nicholas D; Uitterlinden, Andre; Franke, Lude; Franklin, Christopher S; Vitart, Veronique; Nelson, Christopher P; Preuss, Michael; Bis, Joshua C; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Franceschini, Nora; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Axenovich, Tatiana; Oostra, Ben A; Meitinger, Thomas; Hicks, Andrew A; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F; Gyllensten, Ulf; Campbell, Harry; Schmitz, Gerd; Jørgensen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Phospho- and sphingolipids are crucial cellular and intracellular compounds. These lipids are required for active transport, a number of enzymatic processes, membrane formation, and cell signalling. Disruption of their metabolism leads to several diseases, with diverse neurological, psychiatric......, and metabolic consequences. A large number of phospholipid and sphingolipid species can be detected and measured in human plasma. We conducted a meta-analysis of five European family-based genome-wide association studies (N = 4034) on plasma levels of 24 sphingomyelins (SPM), 9 ceramides (CER), 57...

  9. Impact of trehalose and mycolate biosynthesis on the cell envelope of a Corynebacterium glutamicum L-lysine production strain

    OpenAIRE

    Gebhardt, Henrike

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to other Gram-positive bacteria all members of the suborder of Corynebacterineae, including Corynebacterium glutamicum, contain a cell envelope that comprises an outer lipid bilayer, the mycolate layer, which is considered as permeability barrier. Trehalose is an important component of the mycolate layer and involved in the biosynthesis of mycolate. The first step of mycolate biosynthesis, the condensation of trehalose monomycolate was proven to be located in the cell envelope. Th...

  10. CjbHLH1 homologs regulate sanguinarine biosynthesis in Eschscholzia californica cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Motomura, Yukiya; Sato, Fumihiko

    2015-05-01

    Isoquinoline alkaloids (IQAs), terpenoid indole alkaloid and nicotine are some of the most studied alkaloids. Recently, several groups have reported that the biosynthesis of these alkaloids is regulated by basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. Whereas the biosyntheses of nicotine and terpenoid indole alkaloid in Nicotiana plants and Catharanthus roseus are directly or indirectly regulated by Arabidopsis thaliana MYC2 homologs, a non-MYC2-type bHLH transcription factor, CjbHLH1, comprehensively regulates berberine biosynthesis in Coptis japonica. Interestingly, CjbHLH1 homologous genes were found in many IQA-producing plant species, which suggests that non-MYC2-type CjbHLH homologs are specifically associated with IQA biosynthesis. To test whether CjbHLH1 homologs are involved in the biosynthesis of IQA in a plant other than C. japonica, we isolated two genes homologous to CjbHLH1, i.e. EcbHLH1-1 and EcbHLH1-2, from Eschscholzia californica (California poppy). Stable transformants in which the expression levels of EcbHLH1 genes were constitutively suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi) showed a reduced expression of some IQA biosynthetic enzyme genes. A metabolite analysis confirmed that the suppression of EcbHLH1, particularly EcbHLH1-2, caused a decrease in sanguinarine accumulation in transgenic cultured cells. These results indicate that non-MYC2-type EcbHLH1s regulate IQA biosynthesis in California poppy like CjbHLH1 in C. japonica. PMID:25713177

  11. Biosynthesis and biotransformation of lipids in plant cell cultures and algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosynthesis and metabolism of lipids in plant cell cultures grown photoautotrophically, has been studied since 1970. The most prominently occuring lipids in cell cultures and whole plants are phospholipids, glycolipids, triglycerides and glycosides. Radioactively labelled lipids have been produced from soybean cell cultures incubated with 14C-linoleic acid, and the fate of the phospholipid formed was investigated. Freshwater and marine algae cultured under different conditions of light, temperature and nutrient media have also been investigated for their lipid and fatty acid content. The exploitation of biotechnological processes for producing valuable lipids is encouraged. (U.K.)

  12. Mechanisms and impact of ceramide phosphoethanolamine biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hentes Vacaru, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Sphingolipids represent an essential class of membrane molecules in eukaryotic cells. They are primarily found in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane where they help create a rigid and impermeable barrier to the extracellular environment. While sphingomyelin (SM) is the most abundant sphingolipid in mammals and nematodes, insects produce the SM analogue ceramide phosphoethanolamine (CPE) as a major plasma membrane constituent. Little is known about the biological role of CPE or about the...

  13. Unraveling the dynamics of sphingolipid metabolism by mass spectrometry based (phospho)proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebesgue, N.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids (SLs) are essential components of cell membranes and are broad-range bioactive signaling molecules with imbalances affecting cellular function and contributing to pathologies ranging from neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders to cancer and aging. Deciphering how SL homeostasis is m

  14. Cholesterol, sphingolipids, and glycolipids: What do we know about their role in raft-like membranes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rog, T.; Vattulainen, I.

    2014-01-01

    Lipids rafts are considered to be functional nanoscale membrane domains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids, characteristic in particular of the external leaflet of cell membranes. Lipids, together with membrane-associated proteins, are therefore considered to form nanoscale units with pote...

  15. Importance of hyaluronan biosynthesis and degradation in cell differentiation and tumor formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heldin P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronan is an important connective tissue glycosaminoglycan. Elevated hyaluronan biosynthesis is a common feature during tissue remodeling under both physiological and pathological conditions. Through its interactions with hyaladherins, hyaluronan affects several cellular functions such as cell migration and differentiation. The activities of hyaluronan-synthesizing and -degrading enzymes have been shown to be regulated in response to growth factors. During tumor progression hyaluronan stimulates tumor cell growth and invasiveness. Thus, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms which regulate the activities of hyaluronan-synthesizing and -degrading enzymes during tumor progression is highly desired.

  16. Phage display-derived inhibitor of the essential cell wall biosynthesis enzyme MurF

    OpenAIRE

    Blewett Ann; Clarke Tom; Sanschagrin François; Lloyd Adrian; Paradis-Bleau Catherine; Bugg Timothy DH; Levesque Roger C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background To develop antibacterial agents having novel modes of action against bacterial cell wall biosynthesis, we targeted the essential MurF enzyme of the antibiotic resistant pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MurF catalyzes the formation of a peptide bond between D-Alanyl-D-Alanine (D-Ala-D-Ala) and the cell wall precursor uridine 5'-diphosphoryl N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (UDP-MurNAc-Ala-Glu-meso-A2pm) with the concomitant hydrolysis of ATP to ...

  17. Green biosynthesis of biocompatible CdSe quantum dots in living Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A green and efficient biosynthesis method to prepare fluorescence-tunable biocompatible cadmium selenide quantum dots using Escherichia coli cells as biological matrix was proposed. Decisive factors in biosynthesis of cadmium selenide quantum dots in a designed route in Escherichia coli cells were elaborately investigated, including the influence of the biological matrix growth stage, the working concentration of inorganic reactants, and the co-incubation duration of inorganic metals to biomatrix. Ultraviolet-visible, photoluminescence, and inverted fluorescence microscope analysis confirmed the unique optical properties of the biosynthesized cadmium selenide quantum dots. The size distribution of the nanocrystals extracted from cells and the location of nanocrystals foci in vivo were also detected seriously by transmission electron microscopy. A surface protein capping layer outside the nanocrystals was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements, which were supposed to contribute to reducing cytotoxicity and maintain a high viability of cells when incubating with quantum dots at concentrations as high as 2 μM. Cell morphology observation indicated an effective labeling of living cells by the biosynthesized quantum dots after a 48 h co-incubation. The present work demonstrated an economical and environmentally friendly approach to fabricating highly fluorescent quantum dots which were expected to be an excellent fluorescent dye for broad bio-imaging and labeling. (papers)

  18. Localization of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in cells of capitate glandular trichomes of Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrehn, Evelyn; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Heller, Annerose; Spring, Otmar

    2016-03-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT) of sunflower, Helianthus annuus, synthesize bioactive sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) within a short period of only a few days during trichome development. In the current project, the subcellular localization of H. annuus germacrene A monooxygenase (HaGAO), a key enzyme of the STL biosynthesis in sunflower CGT, was investigated. A polyclonal antibody raised against this enzyme was used for immunolabelling. HaGAO was found in secretory and stalk cells of CGT. This correlated with the appearance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in both cell types. Stalk cells and secretory cells differed in form, size and types of plastids, but both had structures necessary for secretion. No HaGAO-specific immunoreaction was found in sunflower leaf tissue outside of CGT or in developing CGT before the secretory phase had started. Our results indicated that not only secretory cells but also nearly all cells of the CGT were involved in the biosynthesis of STL and that this process was not linked to the presence or absence of a specific type of plastid. PMID:25956500

  19. Influence of α sex factor on the biosynthesis of the cell wall from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae produce peptide hormones (a and α) which dramatically affect the physiology, structure, and behavior of cells from the opposite mating type, presumably in preparation for conjugation. Some cell division cycle mutants mimick several of the changes induced by α factor. Accordingly, conditional mutants cdc 28, cdc 36, cdc 37, and cdc 39 undergo arrest in G1, exhibit shmoo morphology and are able to mate when they are transferred to the restrictive temperature. Formation of shmoo cells would require increased synthesis of glycosyl transferases involved in the biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides. Accordingly, the authors investigated the effect of G1 arrest on the chemical composition of the cell wall and on the levels of glycosyl transferases. Arrest in G1 was obtained by two methods: addition of α factor, and transfer of a cdc 28 mutant to the restrictive temperature

  20. Pyruvate carboxylation enables growth of SDH-deficient cells by supporting aspartate biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardaci, Simone; Zheng, Liang; MacKay, Gillian; van den Broek, Niels J F; MacKenzie, Elaine D; Nixon, Colin; Stevenson, David; Tumanov, Sergey; Bulusu, Vinay; Kamphorst, Jurre J; Vazquez, Alexei; Fleming, Stewart; Schiavi, Francesca; Kalna, Gabriela; Blyth, Karen; Strathdee, Douglas; Gottlieb, Eyal

    2015-10-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a heterotetrameric nuclear-encoded complex responsible for the oxidation of succinate to fumarate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Loss-of-function mutations in any of the SDH genes are associated with cancer formation. However, the impact of SDH loss on cell metabolism and the mechanisms enabling growth of SDH-defective cells are largely unknown. Here, we generated Sdhb-ablated kidney mouse cells and used comparative metabolomics and stable-isotope-labelling approaches to identify nutritional requirements and metabolic adaptations to SDH loss. We found that lack of SDH activity commits cells to consume extracellular pyruvate, which sustains Warburg-like bioenergetic features. We further demonstrated that pyruvate carboxylation diverts glucose-derived carbons into aspartate biosynthesis, thus sustaining cell growth. By identifying pyruvate carboxylase as essential for the proliferation and tumorigenic capacity of SDH-deficient cells, this study revealed a metabolic vulnerability for potential future treatment of SDH-associated malignancies. PMID:26302408

  1. Sphingolipids and mitochondrial function, lessons learned from yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Spincemaille

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, but also of cancer, diabetes and rare diseases such as Wilson’s disease (WD and Niemann Pick type C1 (NPC. Mitochondrial dysfunction underlying human pathologies has often been associated with an aberrant cellular sphingolipid metabolism. Sphingolipids (SLs are important membrane constituents that also act as signaling molecules. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been pivotal in unraveling mammalian SL metabolism, mainly due to the high degree of conservation of SL metabolic pathways. In this review we will first provide a brief overview of the major differences in SL metabolism between yeast and mammalian cells and the use of SL biosynthetic inhibitors to elucidate the contribution of specific parts of the SL metabolic pathway in response to for instance stress. Next, we will discuss recent findings in yeast SL research concerning a crucial signaling role for SLs in orchestrating mitochondrial function, and translate these findings to relevant disease settings such as WD and NPC. In summary, recent research shows that S. cerevisiae is an invaluable model to investigate SLs as signaling molecules in modulating mitochondrial function, but can also be used as a tool to further enhance our current knowledge on SLs and mitochondria in mammalian cells.

  2. Gene-to-metabolite networks for terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rischer, Heiko; Orešič, Matej; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Katajamaa, Mikko; Lammertyn, Freya; Ardiles-Diaz, Wilson; Van Montagu, Marc C. E.; Inzé, Dirk; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Goossens, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Rational engineering of complicated metabolic networks involved in the production of biologically active plant compounds has been greatly impeded by our poor understanding of the regulatory and metabolic pathways underlying the biosynthesis of these compounds. Whereas comprehensive genome-wide functional genomics approaches can be successfully applied to analyze a select number of model plants, these holistic approaches are not yet available for the study of nonmodel plants that include most, if not all, medicinal plants. We report here a comprehensive profiling analysis of the Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), a source of the anticancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine. Genome-wide transcript profiling by cDNA-amplified fragment-length polymorphism combined with metabolic profiling of elicited C. roseus cell cultures yielded a collection of known and previously undescribed transcript tags and metabolites associated with terpenoid indole alkaloids. Previously undescribed gene-to-gene and gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 417 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 178 metabolite peaks. These networks revealed that the different branches of terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis and various other metabolic pathways are subject to differing hormonal regulation. These networks also served to identify a select number of genes and metabolites likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloids. This study provides the basis for a better understanding of periwinkle secondary metabolism and increases the practical potential of metabolic engineering of this important medicinal plant. PMID:16565214

  3. Cell suspension as a tool to study the biosynthesis of pilocarpine in Jaborandi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, I N; Andreazza, N L; Sawaya, A C H F; Eberlin, M N; Mazzafera, P

    2007-11-01

    Jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus) is a species that naturally occurs in the North and Northeast of Brazil, whose leaves produce pilocarpine (an imidazole alkaloid that has been used to treat glaucoma and xerostomy), the biosynthesis of which is still uncertain. The aim of this work was to establish cell lineages and select them according to an alkaloid profile similar to the one from Jaborandi leaves. The induction of callus was done in different culture media and growth regulators. Calluses from primary cultures or those subcultured several times were used as explants for the obtainment of six cell lineages. Alkaloids content analyses and growth curves showed that lines obtained from primary cultures produced more alkaloids and a better development. Cell lines from 12 subcultures presented a decrease in pilocarpine and pilosine production. After 24 subcultures, the production of alkaloids remained constant. ESI-MS analysis showed that cell culture extracts have the same alkaloid composition as extracts made from leaves. The results indicate that cell suspensions can be used as a model to study the biosynthesis of the imidazole alkaloid in P. microphyllus. PMID:17682964

  4. Biosynthesis of amorphous mesoporous aluminophosphates using yeast cells as templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Amorphous aluminophosphates can take place using yeast as template. ► A mesoporous material was obtained. ► The specific surface area after calcinations ranged between 176 and 214 m2 g−1. -- Abstract: In this study aluminophosphates have been synthesized from aluminum isopropoxide and phosphoric acid solutions using yeast cells as template. The physicochemical characterization was carried out by thermogravimetric analysis; X-ray diffraction; Fourier transform infrared; N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms; scanning electron microscopy; transmission electron microscopy and potentiometric titration with N-butylamine for determination of: thermal stability; crystalline structure; textural properties; morphology and surface acidity, respectively. The calcined powders consisted of an intimate mixture of amorphous and crystallized AlPO particles with sizes between 23 and 30 nm. The average pore size observed is 13–16 nm and the specific surface area after calcinations (at 650 °C) ranged between 176 and 214 m2 g−1.

  5. Biosynthesis of amorphous mesoporous aluminophosphates using yeast cells as templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifontes, Ángela B., E-mail: asifonte@ivic.gob.ve [Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); González, Gema [Centro de Ingeniería de Materiales y Nanotecnología, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Tovar, Leidy M.; Méndez, Franklin J. [Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Gomes, Maria E. [Centro de Ingeniería de Materiales y Nanotecnología, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Cañizales, Edgar [Área de Análisis Químico Inorgánico, PDVSA, INTEVEP, Los Teques 1070-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Niño-Vega, Gustavo; Villalobos, Hector [Centro de Microbiología y Biología Celular, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Brito, Joaquin L. [Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Amorphous aluminophosphates can take place using yeast as template. ► A mesoporous material was obtained. ► The specific surface area after calcinations ranged between 176 and 214 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. -- Abstract: In this study aluminophosphates have been synthesized from aluminum isopropoxide and phosphoric acid solutions using yeast cells as template. The physicochemical characterization was carried out by thermogravimetric analysis; X-ray diffraction; Fourier transform infrared; N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms; scanning electron microscopy; transmission electron microscopy and potentiometric titration with N-butylamine for determination of: thermal stability; crystalline structure; textural properties; morphology and surface acidity, respectively. The calcined powders consisted of an intimate mixture of amorphous and crystallized AlPO particles with sizes between 23 and 30 nm. The average pore size observed is 13–16 nm and the specific surface area after calcinations (at 650 °C) ranged between 176 and 214 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}.

  6. There is more to a lipid than just being a fat: sphingolipid-guided differentiation of oligodendroglial lineage from embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bieberich, Erhard

    2010-01-01

    Dr. Robert K. Yu's research showed for the first time that the composition of glycosphingolipids is tightly regulated during embryo development. Studies in our group showed that the glycosphingolipid precursor ceramide is also critical for stem cell differentiation and apoptosis. Our new studies suggest that ceramide and its derivative, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), act synergistically on embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation. When using neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from ES cells...

  7. Interaction between abscisic acid and nitric oxide in PB90-induced catharanthine biosynthesis of catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Chen, Zunwei; Lu, Li; Jin, Haihong; Sun, Lina; Yu, Qin; Xu, Hongke; Yang, Fengxia; Fu, Mengna; Li, Shengchao; Wang, Huizhong; Xu, Maojun

    2013-01-01

    Elicitations are considered to be an important strategy to improve production of secondary metabolites of plant cell cultures. However, mechanisms responsible for the elicitor-induced production of secondary metabolites of plant cells have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we report that treatment of Catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures with PB90, a protein elicitor from Phytophthora boehmeriae, induced rapid increases of abscisic acid (ABA) and nitric oxide (NO), subsequently followed by the enhancement of catharanthine production and up-regulation of Str and Tdc, two important genes in catharanthine biosynthesis. PB90-induced catharanthine production and the gene expression were suppressed by the ABA inhibitor and NO scavenger respectively, showing that ABA and NO are essential for the elicitor-induced catharanthine biosynthesis. The relationship between ABA and NO in mediating catharanthine biosynthesis was further investigated. Treatment of the cells with ABA triggered NO accumulation and induced catharanthine production and up-regulation of Str and Tdc. ABA-induced catharanthine production and gene expressions were suppressed by the NO scavenger. Conversely, exogenous application of NO did not stimulate ABA generation and treatment with ABA inhibitor did not suppress NO-induced catharanthine production and gene expressions. Together, the results showed that both NO and ABA were involved in PB90-induced catharanthine biosynthesis of C. roseus cells. Furthermore, our data demonstrated that ABA acted upstream of NO in the signaling cascade leading to PB90-induced catharanthine biosynthesis of C. roseus cells. PMID:23554409

  8. Biosynthesis of interleukin-I beta at inflammatory site in rabbits: kinetics and producing cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, F.; Goto, K; Mori, S.; Ohkawara, S.; Yoshinaga, M.

    1989-01-01

    Biosynthesis of interleukin-I beta (IL-I beta) by inflammatory peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) was studied in terms of biological activity (thymocyte co-mitogenic assay), IL-I beta mRNA expression (cytoplasmic slot blot analysis) and detection of immunoreactive IL-I beta molecule (immunocytochemistry). Our findings were taken to conclude that IL-I beta expression was observed only in PEC harvested from early inflammatory site and the kinetic profile of the IL-I activity during the course of th...

  9. A sphingolipid mechanism for behavioral extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Joseph P; Kornhuber, Johannes; Mühle, Christiane; Japtok, Lukasz; Komorowski, Mara; Mattern, Claudia; Reichel, Martin; Gulbins, Erich; Kleuser, Burkhard; Topic, Bianca; De Souza Silva, Maria A; Müller, Christian P

    2016-05-01

    Reward-dependent instrumental behavior must continuously be re-adjusted according to environmental conditions. Failure to adapt to changes in reward contingencies may incur psychiatric disorders like anxiety and depression. When an expected reward is omitted, behavior undergoes extinction. While extinction involves active re-learning, it is also accompanied by emotional behaviors indicative of frustration, anxiety, and despair (extinction-induced depression). Here, we report evidence for a sphingolipid mechanism in the extinction of behavior. Rapid extinction, indicating efficient re-learning, coincided with a decrease in the activity of the enzyme acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), which catalyzes turnover of sphingomyelin to ceramide, in the dorsal hippocampus of rats. The stronger the decline in ASM activity, the more rapid was the extinction. Sphingolipid-focused lipidomic analysis showed that this results in a decline of local ceramide species in the dorsal hippocampus. Ceramides shape the fluidity of lipid rafts in synaptic membranes and by that way can control neural plasticity. We also found that aging modifies activity of enzymes and ceramide levels in selective brain regions. Aging also changed how the chronic treatment with corticosterone (stress) or intranasal dopamine modified regional enzyme activity and ceramide levels, coinciding with rate of extinction. These data provide first evidence for a functional ASM-ceramide pathway in the brain involved in the extinction of learned behavior. This finding extends the known cellular mechanisms underlying behavioral plasticity to a new class of membrane-located molecules, the sphingolipids, and their regulatory enzymes, and may offer new treatment targets for extinction- and learning-related psychopathological conditions. Sphingolipids are common lipids in the brain which form lipid domains at pre- and postsynaptic membrane compartments. Here we show a decline in dorsal hippocampus ceramide species together with a

  10. CFTR and sphingolipids mediate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    OpenAIRE

    Tabeling, Christoph; Yu, Hanpo; Wang, Liming; Ranke, Hannes; Goldenberg, Neil M.; Zabini, Diana; Noe, Elena; Krauszman, Adrienn; Gutbier, Birgitt; Yin, Jun; Schaefer, Michael,; Arenz, Christoph; Hocke, Andreas C.; Suttorp, Norbert; Proia, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is a physiological mechanism that protects against systemic hypoxemia by redistributing blood flow from poorly to better ventilated areas of the lung, thereby minimizing ventilation-perfusion mismatch. However, in chronic hypoxemia-associated lung disease, HPV contributes to pulmonary hypertension. In this study, we provide novel evidence for a dual role of sphingolipids as important signal mediators in HPV, which critically depends on the presence of ...

  11. Biosynthesis of heparin. Effects of n-butyrate on cultured mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murine mastocytoma cells were incubated in vitro with inorganic [35S]sulfate, in the absence or presence of 2.5 mM n-butyrate, and labeled heparin was isolated. The polysaccharide produced in the presence of butyrate showed a lower charge density on anion exchange chromatography than did the control material and a 3-fold increased proportion of components with high affinity for antithrombin. Structural analysis of heparin labeled with [3H] glucosamine in the presence of butyrate showed that approximately 35% of the glucosamine units were N-acetylated, as compared to approximately 10% in the control material; the nonacetylated glucosamine residues were N-sulfated. The presence of butyrate thus leads to an inhibition of the N-deacetylation/N-sulfation process in heparin biosynthesis, along with an augmented formation of molecules with high affinity for antithrombin. Preincubation of the mastocytoma cells with butyrate was required for manifestation of either effect; when the preincubation period was reduced from 24 to 10 h the effects of butyrate were no longer observed. A polysaccharide formed on incubating mastocytoma microsomal fraction with UDP-[3H]glucuronic acid, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, and 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate in the presence of 5 mM butyrate showed the same N-acetyl/N-sulfate ratio as did the corresponding control polysaccharide, produced in the absence of butyrate. These findings suggest that the effect of butyrate on heparin biosynthesis depends on the integrity of the cell

  12. Phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. II. Isolation and characterization of phosphatidylserine auxotrophs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants that required exogenously added phosphatidylserine for cell growth were isolated by using the replica technique with polyester cloth, and three such mutants were characterized. Labeling experiments on intact cells with 32Pi and L-[U-14C]serine revealed that a phosphatidylserine auxotroph, designated as PSA-3, was strikingly defective in phosphatidylserine biosynthesis. When cells were grown for 2 days without phosphatidylserine, the phosphatidylserine content of PSA-3 was about one-third of that of the parent. In extracts of the mutant, the enzymatic activity of the base-exchange reaction of phospholipids with serine producing phosphatidylserine was reduced to 33% of that in the parent; in addition, the activities of base-exchange reactions of phospholipids with choline and ethanolamine in the mutant were also reduced to 1 and 45% of those in the parent, respectively. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the serine-exchange activity in the parent was inhibited approximately 60% when choline was added to the reaction mixture whereas that in the mutant was not significantly affected. From the results presented here, we conclude the following. There are at least two kinds of serine-exchange enzymes in CHO cells; one (serine-exchange enzyme I) can catalyze the base-exchange reactions of phospholipids with serine, choline, and ethanolamine while the other (serine-exchange enzyme II) does not use the choline as a substrate. Serine-exchange enzyme I, in which mutant PSA-3 is defective, plays a major role in phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in CHO cells. Serine-exchange enzyme I is essential for the growth of CHO cells

  13. IKK NBD peptide inhibits LPS induced pulmonary inflammation and alters sphingolipid metabolism in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bismarck, Philipp; Winoto-Morbach, Supandi; Herzberg, Mona; Uhlig, Ulrike; Schütze, Stefan; Lucius, Ralph; Krause, Martin F

    2012-06-01

    Airway epithelial NF-κB is a key regulator of host defence in bacterial infections and has recently evolved as a target for therapeutical approaches. Evidence is accumulating that ceramide, generated by acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase), and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1-P) are important mediators in host defence as well as in pathologic processes of acute lung injury. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of pulmonary sphingolipid metabolism in bacterial infections of the lung. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of NF-κB on sphingolipid metabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation. In a murine acute lung injury model with intranasal Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS we investigated TNF-α, KC (murine IL-8), IL-6, MCP-1 and neutrophilic infiltration next to aSMase activity and ceramide and S1-P lung tissue concentrations. Airway epithelial NF-κB was inhibited by topically applied IKK NBD, a cell penetrating NEMO binding peptide. This treatment resulted in significantly reduced inflammation and suppression of aSMase activity along with decreased ceramide and S1-P tissue concentrations down to levels observed in healthy animals. In conclusion our results confirm that changes in sphingolipid metabolim due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS inhalation are regulated by NF-κB translocation. This confirms the critical role of airway epithelial NF-κB pathway for the inflammatory response to bacterial pathogens and underlines the impact of sphingolipids in inflammatory host defence mechanisms. PMID:22469869

  14. Sphingolipids: promising lipid-class molecules with potential applications for industry. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miazek, K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sphingolipids are a group of lipid molecules, the focus on which has been gradually increasing during recent years. This review presents sphingolipids, as valuable compounds with a high potential for industry. Literature. Structures of sphingolipids are described and their natural sources are presented. Different methods for extraction, purification and structural characterization of sphingolipids are evaluated. Activity of sphingolipids towards various microorganisms is discussed and methods for chemical modifications of natural sphingolipids to obtain novel properties are depicted. Finally, applications for implementing sphingolipid molecules in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical or medical industry are proposed. Conclusions. Sphingolipids are molecules of high impact and their importance will inevitably increase in the future.

  15. Altered ganglioside biosynthesis in mouse cell cultures following transformation with chemical carcinogens and x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemically and x-ray-transformed subclones of BALB/c 3T3 mouse embryo cells were found to have reduced amounts of the mono- and disialogangliosides galactosyl-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (G/sub M1/) and N-acetylneuraminylgalactosyl-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (G/sub D1a/), and increased amounts of N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (G/sub M2/). The activity of the enzyme UDP-Gal:G/sub M2/ galactosyltransferase was reduced to between 2.7 and 14.3 percent of normal in the transformed clones. Other ganglioside glycosyltransferase activities were unaffected. This enzymatic change was consistent with the observed alteration in ganglioside pattern in the transformed cells. The residual galactosyltransferase activity in the transformed cells was kinetically similar to the normal enzyme, suggesting that transformation alters ganglioside biosynthesis by blocking enzyme synthesis at the translational or transcriptional levels

  16. Modulation of glycoconjugate biosynthesis by 5-hexyl-2'-deoxyuridine in highly metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of action of 5-hexyl-2'-deoxyuridine (HUdR), a compound showing antitumor activity, was investigated in the HM cell lines derived from the highly metastatic variant of Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL-HH). This pyrimidine analogue did not inhibit biosynthesis of nucleotides but it modified biosynthesis of glycoconjugates. The incorporation of [14C]-glucosamine into cytoplasmic glycoconjugates [glycosaminoglycan (GAG), glycolipid (GL), glycoprotein (GP), neutral polysaccharide] decreased to a similar level. The [14C]-glycosamine-derived radioactivity was reduced to about 60 to 70 % of the untreated controls in the presence of 15 μg/ml HUdR, which caused no inhibition of cell proliferation. These results might be explained by reduced conversion of glucosamine to uridine-5'-diphospho-hexosamine. As more reduction was observed in the glucosamine labelling of glycoconjugates in nuclei and extracellular compartment, it is conceivable that the intracellular transport of some glycoconjugates (GAG, GP) was also affected by HUdR. In the extracellular compartment the reduced level of GAG labelling was the most apparent change. However, at a higher concentration of HUdR (75 μg/ml) higher radioactivity was observed in the combined GL+GP fraction. Using [35S]-labelling, the GAG fractions also showed decreased radioactivity but only at a concentration of 75 μg/ml HUdR. (author). 2 figs., 4 tabs., 24 refs

  17. Biosynthesis of Bacterial Cellulose/Carboxylic Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Enzymatic Biofuel Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Lv

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Novel nanocomposites comprised of bacterial cellulose (BC with carboxylic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNTs incorporated into the BC matrix were prepared through a simple method of biosynthesis. The biocathode and bioanode for the enzyme biological fuel cell (EBFC were prepared using BC/c-MWCNTs composite injected by laccase (Lac and glucose oxidase (GOD with the aid of glutaraldehyde (GA crosslinking. Biosynthesis of BC/c-MWCNTs composite was characterized by digital photos, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR. The experimental results indicated the successful incorporation of c-MWCNTs into the BC. The electrochemical and biofuel performance were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV. The power density and current density of EBFCs were recorded at 32.98 µW/cm3 and 0.29 mA/cm3, respectively. Additionally, the EBFCs also showed acceptable stability. Preliminary tests on double cells indicated that renewable BC have great potential in the application field of EBFCs.

  18. Progesterone-specific stimulation of triglyceride biosynthesis in a breast cancer cell line (T-47D)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judge, S.M.; Chatterton, R.T. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the lactogenic response of human mammary cancer cell lines to hormones in vitro. Progesterone was found to stimulate the incorporation of 14C from (14C)acetate into triglycerides (TG) and to promote accumulation of TG with a fatty acid composition similar to that of human milk fat in T-47D cells. Lipid droplets were observed in larger numbers without concomitant accumulation of casein granules in cells incubated with progesterone, but secretion of lipid into the medium did not occur. An effect of progesterone on TG accumulation was detectable after 12 hr and was maximal at 72 hr. Increasing doses of progesterone (10(-9) to 10(-5) M) caused a progressive increase in TG accumulation. The presence of cortisol and/or prolactin did not alter TG formation nor the dose response of the cells to progesterone. The growth rate of T-47D cells was not altered by the presence of progesterone in the medium. Neither of the human mammary cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and HBL-100, nor the human fibroblast cell lines, 28 and 857, responded to progesterone. The data indicate that, while the normally lactogenic hormones do not stimulate milk product biosynthesis in the cell lines tested, progesterone specifically stimulated synthesis and accumulation of TG in the T-47D cells.

  19. Progesterone-specific stimulation of triglyceride biosynthesis in a breast cancer cell line (T-47D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the lactogenic response of human mammary cancer cell lines to hormones in vitro. Progesterone was found to stimulate the incorporation of 14C from [14C]acetate into triglycerides (TG) and to promote accumulation of TG with a fatty acid composition similar to that of human milk fat in T-47D cells. Lipid droplets were observed in larger numbers without concomitant accumulation of casein granules in cells incubated with progesterone, but secretion of lipid into the medium did not occur. An effect of progesterone on TG accumulation was detectable after 12 hr and was maximal at 72 hr. Increasing doses of progesterone (10(-9) to 10(-5) M) caused a progressive increase in TG accumulation. The presence of cortisol and/or prolactin did not alter TG formation nor the dose response of the cells to progesterone. The growth rate of T-47D cells was not altered by the presence of progesterone in the medium. Neither of the human mammary cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and HBL-100, nor the human fibroblast cell lines, 28 and 857, responded to progesterone. The data indicate that, while the normally lactogenic hormones do not stimulate milk product biosynthesis in the cell lines tested, progesterone specifically stimulated synthesis and accumulation of TG in the T-47D cells

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase: biochemical features of a crucial enzyme for mycobacterial cell wall biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P Lucarelli

    Full Text Available The selection and soaring spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB and extensively drug-resistant strains (XDR-TB is a severe public health problem. Currently, there is an urgent need for new drugs for tuberculosis treatment, with novel mechanisms of action and, moreover, the necessity to identify new drug targets. Mycobacterial phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase (MtbPRPPase is a crucial enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of decaprenylphosphoryl-arabinose, an essential precursor for the mycobacterial cell wall biosynthesis. Moreover, phosphoribosylpyrophosphate, which is the product of the PRPPase catalyzed reaction, is the precursor for the biosynthesis of nucleotides and of some amino acids such as histidine and tryptophan. In this context, the elucidation of the molecular and functional features of MtbPRPPase is mandatory. MtbPRPPase was obtained as a recombinant form, purified to homogeneity and characterized. According to its hexameric form, substrate specificity and requirement of phosphate for activity, the enzyme proved to belong to the class I of PRPPases. Although the sulfate mimicked the phosphate, it was less effective and required higher concentrations for the enzyme activation. MtbPRPPase showed hyperbolic response to ribose 5-phosphate, but sigmoidal behaviour towards Mg-ATP. The enzyme resulted to be allosterically activated by Mg(2+ or Mn(2+ and inhibited by Ca(2+ and Cu(2+ but, differently from other characterized PRPPases, it showed a better affinity for the Mn(2+ and Cu(2+ ions, indicating a different cation binding site geometry. Moreover, the enzyme from M. tuberculosis was allosterically inhibited by ADP, but less sensitive to inhibition by GDP. The characterization of M. tuberculosis PRPPase provides the starting point for the development of inhibitors for antitubercular drug design.

  1. Seladin-1/DHCR24: A key protein of cell homeostasis and cholesterol biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Drzewińska

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Seladin-1 is a multifunctional protein encoded by DHCR24 gene and due to its enzymatic, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic activities, it is considered as neuroprotective agent. Seladin-1 was identified as a gene down-regulated in brain regions selectively degenerated in Alzheimer’s disease. Mutations of DHCR24 gene result in inhibition of the enzymatic activity of seladin-1, causing an accumulation of desmosterol and leading to a lethal disorder called desmosterolosis. As an enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis, seladin-1 enhances the formation of lipid rafts and caveoles. These membrane structures are involved in the maintenance of signaling pathways and metabolic processes, such as the degradation of amyloid precursor protein, which is especially significant in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease. Independently of its enzymatic activity in cholesterol biosynthesis, seladin-1 acts as a caspase-3 inhibitor, a mediator of response to oxidative and oncogenic stress, and a reactive oxygen species scavenger. However, the effects of these activities seem to be indirectly modulated by membrane cholesterol level, which in turn gives priority to seladin-1’s enzymatic function in cholesterol biosynthesis, among its other functions. Seladin-1 is ubiquitously expressed, with the highest expression level in the brain and adrenal glands. Differences in seladin-1 expression profile were reported in transformed cells originating from many tissue types. Although the mechanisms of the regulation of seladin-1 activity demand further elucidation, it has already been shown that DHCR24 gene was activated by LXRα/RXRα in skin, by ERα in neurons, and by AR in prostate. Apart from estrogens and androgens, thyroid hormones, and IGF-1 also take part in the stimulation of seladin-1 expression.

  2. A non-target chemometric strategy applied to UPLC-MS sphingolipid analysis of a cell line exposed to chlorpyrifos pesticide: a feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Kássio M. G. Lima; Bedia, Carmen; Tauler, Romá

    2014-01-01

    A non-target chemometrics study based on the application of Multivariate Curve Resolution Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) method to a data set obtained by ultra-performance liquid chromatographic coupled to mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) has been applied to the study of human prostate cancer (DU145) cell line samples treated with the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). Full scan UPLC-MS data sets were segmented in 17 different chromatographic windows and submitted to a non-target d...

  3. Introduction of exogenous growth hormone receptors augments growth hormone-responsive insulin biosynthesis in rat insulinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stimulation of insulin biosynthesis in the pancreatic insulinoma cell line RIN5-AH by growth hormone (GH) is initiated by GH binding to specific receptors. To determine whether the recently cloned rat hepatic GH receptor is able to mediate the insulinotropic effect of GH, the authors have transfected a GH receptor cDNA under the transcriptional control of the human metallothionein promoter into RIN5-AH cells. The transfected cells were found to exhibit an increased expression of GH receptors and to contain a specific GH receptor mRNA that was not expressed in the parent cell line. The expression of GH receptors in one clone (1.24) selected for detailed analysis was increased 2.6-fold compared to untransfected cells. The increased GH receptor expression was accompanied by an increased responsiveness to GH. Thus, the maximal GH-stimulated increase of insulin biosynthesis was 4.1-fold in 1.24 cells compared to 1.9-fold in the nontransfected RIN5-AH cells. The expression of the transfected receptor was stimulated 1.6- and 2.3-fold when cells were cultured in the presence of 25 or 50 μM Zn2+ was associated with an increased magnitude of GH-stimulated insulin biosynthesis. A close stoichiometric relationship between the level of receptor expression and the level of GH-stimulated insulin biosynthesis was observed. They conclude from these results that the hepatic GH receptor is able to mediate the effect of GH on insulin biosynthesis in RIN5-AH cells

  4. Elucidating steroid alkaloid biosynthesis in Veratrum californicum: production of verazine in Sf9 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Megan M.; Ruzicka, Dan R.; Shukla, Ashutosh K.; Augustin, Jörg M.; Starks, Courtney M.; O’Neil-Johnson, Mark; McKain, Michael R.; Evans, Bradley S.; Barrett, Matt D.; Smithson, Ann; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Deyholos, Michael K.; Edger, Patrick P.; Pires, J. Chris; Leebens-Mack, James H.; Mann, David A.; Kutchan, Toni M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Steroid alkaloids have been shown to elicit a wide range of pharmacological effects that include anticancer and antifungal activities. Understanding the biosynthesis of these molecules is essential to bioengineering for sustainable production. Herein, we investigate the biosynthetic pathway to cyclopamine, a steroid alkaloid that shows promising antineoplastic activities. Supply of cyclopamine is limited, as the current source is solely derived from wild collection of the plant Veratrum californicum. To elucidate the early stages of the pathway to cyclopamine, we interrogated a V. californicum RNA-seq dataset using the cyclopamine accumulation profile as a predefined model for gene expression with the pattern-matching algorithm Haystack. Refactoring candidate genes in Sf9 insect cells led to discovery of four enzymes that catalyze the first six steps in steroid alkaloid biosynthesis to produce verazine, a predicted precursor to cyclopamine. Three of the enzymes are cytochromes P450 while the fourth is a γ-aminobutyrate transaminase; together they produce verazine from cholesterol. PMID:25939370

  5. Effective Immobilization of Agrobacterium sp. IFO 13140 Cells in Loofa Sponge for Curdlan Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ortiz Martinez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Curdlan production by Agrobacterium sp. IFO13140 immobilized on loofa sponge, alginate and loofa sponge with alginate was investigated. There was no statistically-significant difference in curdlan production when the microorganism was immobilized in different matrices. The loofa sponge was chosen because of its practical application and economy and because it provides a high stability through its continued use. The best conditions for immobilization on loofa sponge were 50 mg of cell, 200 rpm and 72 h of incubation, which provided a curdlan production 1.50-times higher than that obtained by free cells. The higher volumetric productivity was achieved by immobilized cells (0.09 g/L/h at 150 rpm. The operating stability was evaluated, and until the fourth cycle, immobilized cells retained 87.40% of the production of the first cycle. The immobilized cells remained active after 300 days of storage at 4 °C. The results of this study demonstrate success in immobilizing cells for curdlan biosynthesis, making the process potentially suitable for industrial scale-up. Additional studies may show a possible contribution to the reduction of operating costs.

  6. Bio-synthesis of gold nanoparticles by human epithelial cells, in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larios-Rodriguez, E; Rangel-Ayon, C; Herrera-Urbina, R [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Metalurgia, Universidad de Sonora, Rosales y Luis Encinas S/N, Hermosillo, Sonora, C.P. 83000 (Mexico); Castillo, S J [Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Rosales y Luis Encinas S/N, Hermosillo, Sonora, C.P. 83000 (Mexico); Zavala, G, E-mail: elarios@polimeros.uson.mx [Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-09-02

    Healthy epithelial cells, in vivo, have the ability to synthesize gold nanoparticles when aqueous tetrachloroauric acid is made to react with human skin. Neither a reducing agent nor a protecting chemical is needed for this bio-synthesis method. The first indication of gold nanoparticle formation is the staining of the skin, which turns deep purple. Stereoscopic optical micrographs of human skin tissue in contact with aqueous tetrachloroauric acid clearly show the staining of the epithelial cells. The UV-Vis spectrum of these epithelial cells shows an absorption band with a maximum at 553 nm. This absorption peak is within the wavelength region where the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of aqueous colloidal gold exhibits a maximum. Transmission electron micrographs show that gold nanoparticles synthesized by epithelial cells have sizes between 1 and 100 nm. The electron diffraction pattern of these nanoparticles reveals a crystalline structure whose interplanar distances correspond to fcc metallic gold. Transmission electron micrographs of ultra-thin (70 nm thick) slices of epithelial cells clearly and undoubtedly demonstrate that gold nanoparticles are inside the cell. According to high resolution transmission electron micrographs of intracellular single gold nanoparticles, they have the shape of a polyhedron.

  7. Co-expression network analysis reveals transcription factors associated to cell wall biosynthesis in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Savio Siqueira; Hotta, Carlos Takeshi; Poelking, Viviane Guzzo de Carli; Leite, Debora Chaves Coelho; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers; Barbosa, Marcio Henrique Pereira; Carneiro, Monalisa Sampaio; Souza, Glaucia Mendes

    2016-05-01

    Sugarcane is a hybrid of Saccharum officinarum and Saccharum spontaneum, with minor contributions from other species in Saccharum and other genera. Understanding the molecular basis of cell wall metabolism in sugarcane may allow for rational changes in fiber quality and content when designing new energy crops. This work describes a comparative expression profiling of sugarcane ancestral genotypes: S. officinarum, S. spontaneum and S. robustum and a commercial hybrid: RB867515, linking gene expression to phenotypes to identify genes for sugarcane improvement. Oligoarray experiments of leaves, immature and intermediate internodes, detected 12,621 sense and 995 antisense transcripts. Amino acid metabolism was particularly evident among pathways showing natural antisense transcripts expression. For all tissues sampled, expression analysis revealed 831, 674 and 648 differentially expressed genes in S. officinarum, S. robustum and S. spontaneum, respectively, using RB867515 as reference. Expression of sugar transporters might explain sucrose differences among genotypes, but an unexpected differential expression of histones were also identified between high and low Brix° genotypes. Lignin biosynthetic genes and bioenergetics-related genes were up-regulated in the high lignin genotype, suggesting that these genes are important for S. spontaneum to allocate carbon to lignin, while S. officinarum allocates it to sucrose storage. Co-expression network analysis identified 18 transcription factors possibly related to cell wall biosynthesis while in silico analysis detected cis-elements involved in cell wall biosynthesis in their promoters. Our results provide information to elucidate regulatory networks underlying traits of interest that will allow the improvement of sugarcane for biofuel and chemicals production. PMID:26820137

  8. Introduction of exogenous growth hormone receptors augments growth hormone-responsive insulin biosynthesis in rat insulinoma cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Billestrup, N; Møldrup, A; Serup, P.; Mathews, L S; Norstedt, G; Nielsen, J H

    1990-01-01

    The stimulation of insulin biosynthesis in the pancreatic insulinoma cell line RIN5-AH by growth hormone (GH) is initiated by GH binding to specific receptors. To determine whether the recently cloned rat hepatic GH receptor is able to mediate the insulinotropic effect of GH, we have transfected a GH receptor cDNA under the transcriptional control of the human metallothionein promoter into RIN5-AH cells. The transfected cells were found to exhibit an increased expression of GH receptors and t...

  9. Identification of candidate genes in Populus cell wall biosynthesis using text-mining, co-expression network and comparative genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Bisaria, Anjali [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Populus is an important bioenergy crop for bioethanol production. A greater understanding of cell wall biosynthesis processes is critical in reducing biomass recalcitrance, a major hindrance in efficient generation of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we report the identification of candidate cell wall biosynthesis genes through the development and application of a novel bioinformatics pipeline. As a first step, via text-mining of PubMed publications, we obtained 121 Arabidopsis genes that had the experimental evidences supporting their involvement in cell wall biosynthesis or remodeling. The 121 genes were then used as bait genes to query an Arabidopsis co-expression database and additional genes were identified as neighbors of the bait genes in the network, increasing the number of genes to 548. The 548 Arabidopsis genes were then used to re-query the Arabidopsis co-expression database and re-construct a network that captured additional network neighbors, expanding to a total of 694 genes. The 694 Arabidopsis genes were computationally divided into 22 clusters. Queries of the Populus genome using the Arabidopsis genes revealed 817 Populus orthologs. Functional analysis of gene ontology and tissue-specific gene expression indicated that these Arabidopsis and Populus genes are high likelihood candidates for functional genomics in relation to cell wall biosynthesis.

  10. Introduction of exogenous growth hormone receptors augments growth hormone-responsive insulin biosynthesis in rat insulinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, N; Møldrup, A; Serup, P;

    1990-01-01

    The stimulation of insulin biosynthesis in the pancreatic insulinoma cell line RIN5-AH by growth hormone (GH) is initiated by GH binding to specific receptors. To determine whether the recently cloned rat hepatic GH receptor is able to mediate the insulinotropic effect of GH, we have transfected ...

  11. Effect of Enzyme Inhibitors on Terpene Trilactones Biosynthesis and Gene Expression Profiling in Ginkgo biloba Cultured Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijia; Tong, Hui; Wang, Mingxuan; Zhu, Jianhua; Zi, Jiachen; Song, Liyan; Yu, Rongmin

    2015-12-01

    The biosynthetic pathway of terpene trilactones of Ginkgo biloba is unclear. In this present study, suspension cultured cells of G. biloba were used to explore the regulation of the mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathways in response to specific enzyme inhibitors (lovastatin and clomazone). The results showed that the biosynthesis of bilobalide was more highly correlated with the MVA pathway, and the biosynthesis of ginkgolides was more highly correlated with the MEP pathway. Meanwhile, according to the results, it could be speculated that bilobalide might be a product of ginkgolide metabolism. PMID:26882658

  12. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles and related cytotoxicity evaluation using A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathishkumar, M; Pavagadhi, S; Mahadevan, A; Balasubramanian, R

    2015-04-01

    Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has become an attractive area of research as it is environmentally benign. The toxicity of AuNPs synthesized by chemical routes has been widely studied. However, little is known about the toxicity associated with the biological synthesis of AuNPs. The present study was carried out to synthesize AuNPs using star anise (Illicium verum; a commercially available spice in abundance)and evaluate its toxicity using human epithelial lung cells (A549) in comparison with AuNPs synthesized by the traditional chemical methods (using sodium citrate and sodium borohydride). Apart from cell viability, markers of oxidative stress (reduced glutathione) and cell death (caspases) were also evaluated to understand the mechanisms of toxicity. Cell viability was observed to be 65.7 percent and 72.3 percent in cells exposed to chemically synthesized AuNPs at the highest dose (200nM) as compared to 80.2 percent for biologically synthesized AuNPs. Protective coating/capping of AuNPs by various polyphenolic compounds present in star anise extract appears to be a major contributor to lower toxicity observed in biologically synthesized AuNPs. PMID:24835429

  13. Systems Level Engineering of Plant Cell Wall Biosynthesis to Improve Biofuel Feedstock Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Samuel

    2013-09-27

    Our new regulatory model of cell wall biosynthesis proposes original network architecture with several newly incorporated components. The mapped set of protein-DNA interactions will serve as a foundation for 1) understanding the regulation of a complex and integral plant component and 2) the manipulation of crop species for biofuel and biotechnology purposes. This study revealed interesting and novel aspects of grass growth and development and further enforce the importance of a grass model system. By functionally characterizing a suite of genes, we have begun to improve the sparse model for transcription regulation of biomass accumulation in grasses. In the process, we have advanced methodology and brachy molecular genetic tools that will serve as valuable community resource.

  14. Combining polysaccharide biosynthesis and transport in a single enzyme: dual-function cell wall glycan synthases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Kent Davis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular polysaccharides are synthesized by a wide variety of species, from unicellular bacteria and Archaea to the largest multicellular plants and animals in the biosphere. In every case, the biosynthesis of these polymers requires transport across a membrane, from the cytosol to either the lumen of secretory pathway organelles or directly into the extracellular space. Although some polysaccharide biosynthetic substrates are moved across the membrane to sites of polysaccharide synthesis by separate transporter proteins before being incorporated into polymers by glycosyltransferase proteins, many polysaccharide biosynthetic enzymes appear to have both transporter and transferase activities. In these cases, the biosynthetic enzymes utilize substrate on one side of the membrane and deposit the polymer product on the other side. This review discusses structural characteristics of plant cell wall glycan synthases that couple synthesis with transport, drawing on what is known about such dual-function enzymes in other species.

  15. Sphingolipide – Analytik, Biosynthese und Funktion in der Arabidopsis thaliana Pathogenantwort

    OpenAIRE

    Peer, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Sphingolipide (SPL) sind wichtige und ubiquitar verbreitete Bestandteile von Biomembranen. Aufgrund der enormen Vielfalt, der komplexen Struktur und diverser physiko-chemischer Eigenschaften der Sphingolipide gestaltet sich die qualitative und quantitative Untersuchung der Sphingolipide allerdings schwierig. In dieser Arbeit konnten, basierend auf publizierten Methoden, analytische Verfahren entwickelt werden, mit deren Hilfe sich die Gehalte spezifischer Sphingolipide in A. thaliana quantita...

  16. Segregation of sphingolipids and sterols during formation of secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Robin W; Ejsing, Christer S.; Surma, Michal A; Kaiser, Hermann-Josef; Gerl, Mathias J; Sampaio, Julio L; de Robillard, Quentin; Ferguson, Charles; Proszynski, Tomasz J; Shevchenko, Andrej; Simons, Kai

    2009-01-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) is the major sorting station in the secretory pathway of all eukaryotic cells. How the TGN sorts proteins and lipids to generate the enrichment of sphingolipids and sterols at the plasma membrane is poorly understood. To address this fundamental question in membrane...... trafficking, we devised an immunoisolation procedure for specific recovery of post-Golgi secretory vesicles transporting a transmembrane raft protein from the TGN to the cell surface in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using a novel quantitative shotgun lipidomics approach, we could demonstrate that TGN...... sorting selectively enriched ergosterol and sphingolipid species in the immunoisolated secretory vesicles. This finding, for the first time, indicates that the TGN exhibits the capacity to sort membrane lipids. Furthermore, the observation that the immunoisolated vesicles exhibited a higher membrane order...

  17. New insights into sphingolipid metabolism and functions by using chemical tools

    OpenAIRE

    Cingolani, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Tesi realitzada a l'Institut de Química Avançada de Catalunya (IQAC-CSIC) Sphingolipids (SLs), essential components of cell membranes, are bioactive molecules involved in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes. Ceramide and sphingosine generally mediate anti-proliferative stimuli, while sphingosine-1-phospate plays an opposite role. The bioactive role of dihydroceramide has also been recently described, showing its involvement in processes like apoptosis and autophagy. Alteratio...

  18. 8th Annual Glycoscience Symposium: Integrating Models of Plant Cell Wall Structure, Biosynthesis and Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azadi, Paratoo [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-09-24

    The Complex Carbohydrate Research Center (CCRC) of the University of Georgia holds a symposium yearly that highlights a broad range of carbohydrate research topics. The 8th Annual Georgia Glycoscience Symposium entitled “Integrating Models of Plant Cell Wall Structure, Biosynthesis and Assembly” was held on April 7, 2014 at the CCRC. The focus of symposium was on the role of glycans in plant cell wall structure and synthesis. The goal was to have world leaders in conjunction with graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and research scientists to propose the newest plant cell wall models. The symposium program closely followed the DOE’s mission and was specifically designed to highlight chemical and biochemical structures and processes important for the formation and modification of renewable plant cell walls which serve as the basis for biomaterial and biofuels. The symposium was attended by both senior investigators in the field as well as students including a total attendance of 103, which included 80 faculty/research scientists, 11 graduate students and 12 Postdoctoral students.

  19. Immunocytochemical mapping of the hemoglobin biosynthesis site in amphibian erythroid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciarullo, A M; Beçak, W; Soares, M J

    1999-06-01

    During the past 25 years, several studies have attempted to determine the site of integration of the heme and the four globin chains in vertebrate erythroid cells that is important in the formation of the hemoglobin molecule. Mitochondrion-like organelles or hemosomes were pointed out as responsible for this task. We performed several experiments to investigate this hypothesis. The intracellular distribution of hemoglobin in amphibian erythroid cells was detected by post-embedding immuno-electron microscopy, using a polyclonal anti-human hemoglobin-proteinA-gold complex. Hemoglobin mapping showed an intense labeling in the cell cytoplasm, but none in cytoplasmic structures such as endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, mitochondrion-like organelles, Golgi complex, ribosomes or ferruginous inclusions. The mitochondrial fraction obtained according to the protocol described for some authors, showed by ultrastructural examination that this fraction has a heterogeneous content, also composed by microvesicles rich in cytoplasmic hemoglobin, an artifact generated by mechanical action during cell fractionation. Thus, when this fraction is lysed and its content submitted to electrophoresis, hemoglobin bands would be found inevitably, causing false-positive results, erroneously attributed to hemoglobin content of mitochondrion-like organelles. Our data do not confirm the hypothesis that the final hemoglobin biosynthesis occurs inside mitochondrion-like organelles. They suggest that the hemoglobin molecule be assembled in the erythrocyte cytoplasm outside of mitochondria or hemosomes. PMID:10481306

  20. Regulation of collagen biosynthesis in cultured bovine aortic smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aortic smooth muscles cells have been implicated in the etiology of lesions which occur in atherosclerosis and hypertension. Both diseases involve proliferation of smooth muscle cells and accumulation of excessive amounts of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagen type I and type III produced by the smooth muscle cells. To better understand the sites of regulation of collagen biosynthesis and to correlate these with the growth rate of the cells, cultured bovine aortic smooth muscle cells were studied as a function of the number of days (3 to 14) in second passage. Cells grew rapidly up to day 6 when confluence was reached. The total incorporation of [3H]-proline into proteins was highest at day 3 and decreased to a constant level after the cultures reached confluence. In contrast, collagen protein production was lowest before confluence and continued to increase over the entire time course of the experiments. cDNA clones for the α1 and α2 chains of type I and the α1 chain of type III collagen were used to quantitate the steady state level of collagen mRNAs. RNA was tested in a cell-free translation system. Changes in the translational activity of collagen mRNAs parallelled the observed increases in collagen protein production. Thus, at later time points, collagen mRNAs are more active in directing synthesis of preprocollagens, even though less collagen mRNA is present. The conclusion is that the site of regulation of the expression of collagen genes is a function of the growth rate of cultured smooth muscle cells

  1. Xyloglucan biosynthesis by Golgi membranes from suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xyloglucan is a major hemicellulose polysaccharide in plant cell walls. Biosynthesis of such cell wall polysaccharides is closely linked to the process of plant cell growth and development. Xyloglucan polysaccharides consist of a β-1,4 glucan backbone synthesized by xyloglucan synthase and sidechains of xylose, galactose, and fucose added by other transferase enzymes. Most plant Golgi and plasma membranes also contain glucan synthases I ampersand II, which make β-1,4 and β-1,3 glucans, respectively. All of these enzymes have very similar activities. Cell walls on suspension-cultured cells from Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple) were enzymatically softened prior to cell disruption by passing through a 30 μm nylon screen. Cell membranes from homogenates were separated by ultracentrifugation on top-loaded or flotation sucrose density gradients. Samples were collected by gradient fractionation and assayed for membrane markers and xyloglucan and glucan synthase activities. Standard marker assays (cyt. c reductase for eR, IDPase ampersand UDPase for Golgi, and eosin 5'-malelmide binding for plasma membrane) showed partial separation of these three membrane types. Golgi and plasma membrane markers overlapped in most gradients. Incorporation of 14C-labeled sugars from UDP-glucose and UDP-xylose was used to detect xyloglucan synthase, glucan synthases I ampersand II, and xylosyl transferase in Golgi membrane fractions. These activities overlapped, although distinct peaks of xyloglucan synthase and xylosyl transferase were found. Ca++ had a stimulatory effect on glucan synthases I ampersand II, while Mn++ had an inhibitory effect on glucan synthase I in the presence of Ca++. The similarity of these various synthase activities demonstrates the need for careful structural characterization of newly synthesized polysaccharides

  2. Genome-wide association study identifies novel loci associated with circulating phospho- and sphingolipid concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Demirkan

    Full Text Available Phospho- and sphingolipids are crucial cellular and intracellular compounds. These lipids are required for active transport, a number of enzymatic processes, membrane formation, and cell signalling. Disruption of their metabolism leads to several diseases, with diverse neurological, psychiatric, and metabolic consequences. A large number of phospholipid and sphingolipid species can be detected and measured in human plasma. We conducted a meta-analysis of five European family-based genome-wide association studies (N = 4034 on plasma levels of 24 sphingomyelins (SPM, 9 ceramides (CER, 57 phosphatidylcholines (PC, 20 lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC, 27 phosphatidylethanolamines (PE, and 16 PE-based plasmalogens (PLPE, as well as their proportions in each major class. This effort yielded 25 genome-wide significant loci for phospholipids (smallest P-value = 9.88×10(-204 and 10 loci for sphingolipids (smallest P-value = 3.10×10(-57. After a correction for multiple comparisons (P-value<2.2×10(-9, we observed four novel loci significantly associated with phospholipids (PAQR9, AGPAT1, PKD2L1, PDXDC1 and two with sphingolipids (PLD2 and APOE explaining up to 3.1% of the variance. Further analysis of the top findings with respect to within class molar proportions uncovered three additional loci for phospholipids (PNLIPRP2, PCDH20, and ABDH3 suggesting their involvement in either fatty acid elongation/saturation processes or fatty acid specific turnover mechanisms. Among those, 14 loci (KCNH7, AGPAT1, PNLIPRP2, SYT9, FADS1-2-3, DLG2, APOA1, ELOVL2, CDK17, LIPC, PDXDC1, PLD2, LASS4, and APOE mapped into the glycerophospholipid and 12 loci (ILKAP, ITGA9, AGPAT1, FADS1-2-3, APOA1, PCDH20, LIPC, PDXDC1, SGPP1, APOE, LASS4, and PLD2 to the sphingolipid pathways. In large meta-analyses, associations between FADS1-2-3 and carotid intima media thickness, AGPAT1 and type 2 diabetes, and APOA1 and coronary artery disease were observed. In conclusion, our

  3. Stimulation by interleukin 2 of antigen-specific suppressor factor biosynthesis in T-suppressor cell hybridomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T-cell hybridomas specific for the synthetic polypeptide antigen L-glutamic acid60-L-alanine30-L-tyrosine10 (GAT) release TsF spontaneously. Recent studies by Trial et al. have shown however that no more than 10% of the hybridoma cells display TsF or I-J determinants on their cell surface. Addition of interleukin 2 (IL-2) to Ts hybridomas markedly increases the cell surface expression of both I-J and TsF determinants. We have extended these studies to the biosynthesis of TsF by IL-2 treated Ts hybridomas. IL-2 has no effect on the cell growth of these hybridomas and little overall effect is observed on protein biosynthesis. Nevertheless, the addition of IL-2 leads to a substantial increase in TsF production as measured by both bioactivity and by direct analysis of 35S-methionine incorporation into TsF. Treatment of the TsF producing hybridomas with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) causes an increase in the level of IL-2 receptor expression in these hybridomas and enhances the effects of IL-2 on the biosynthesis of TsF. These data suggest that in addition to its growth promoting properties, IL-2 may provide a signal that triggers suppressor cells to release antigen specific suppressor factors

  4. The role of epidermal sphingolipids in dermatologic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodzicz, Sonia; Rudnicka, Lidia; Mirowska-Guzel, Dagmara; Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids, a group of lipids containing the sphingoid base, have both structural and biological functions in human epidermis. Ceramides, as a part of extracellular lipids in the stratum corneum, are important elements of the skin barrier and are involved in the prevention of transepidermal water loss. In addition, ceramides regulate such processes as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of keratinocytes. Another important sphingolipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), inhibits proliferation and induces differentiation of keratinocytes. A recent clinical study of the efficacy and safety of ponesimod (a selective modulator of the S1P receptor 1) suggested that sphingolipid metabolism may become a new target for the pharmacological treatment of psoriasis. The role of sphingolipids in some dermatologic diseases, including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and ichthyoses was summarized in this article. PMID:26786937

  5. Increase in sphingolipid catabolic enzyme activity during aging

    OpenAIRE

    Sacket, Santosh J; Chung, Hae-young; Okajima, Fumikazu; Im, Dong-Soon

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To understand the contribution of sphingolipid metabolism and its metabolites to development and aging. Methods: A systemic analysis on the changes in activity of sphingolipid metabolic enzymes in kidney, liver and brain tissues during development and aging was conducted. The study was conducted using tissues from 1-day-old to 720-day-old rats. Results: Catabolic enzyme activities as well as the level of sphingomyelinase (SMase) and ceramidase (CDase) were higher than that of anabolic en...

  6. Untersuchungen zur Sphingolipid-Biosynthese in der Hefe Pichia ciferrii

    OpenAIRE

    Börgel, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Dissertation sollte der Sphingolipid-Biosyntheseweg der Hefe Pichia ciferrii näher charakterisiert werden, um die Entwicklung einer fermentativen Route zur Sphingosin-Produktion zu ermöglichen. Darüber hinaus galt es patentierbare Selektionssysteme für diese Hefe zu etablieren. Durch Sequenzvergleiche mit nahe verwandten Hefen und das Ableiten degenerierter Primer wurden elf für die Sphingolipid-Biosynthese von Pichia ciferrii relevante Gene isoliert und sequenziert...

  7. Involvement of extracellular Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase in cotton fiber primary and secondary cell wall biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hee Jin; Triplett, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases (CSDs) that catalyze the conversion of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide have been suggested to be involved in lignification of secondary walls in spinach, pine and aspen. In cotton fibers, hydrogen peroxide was proposed to be involved in the induction of secondary cell wall biosynthesis. Recently, we identified extracellular CSDs from developing cotton fibers using both immunological and epitope tagging techniques. Since cotton fibers are not lignified...

  8. Mechanisms and impact of ceramide phosphoethanolamine biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hentes Vacaru, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Sphingolipids represent an essential class of membrane molecules in eukaryotic cells. They are primarily found in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane where they help create a rigid and impermeable barrier to the extracellular environment. While sphingomyelin (SM) is the most abundant sphingolip

  9. Parallel induction of tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity in human cells and cell lines by interferon-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, E R; Werner-Felmayer, G; Fuchs, D; Hausen, A; Reibnegger, G; Wachter, H

    1989-01-01

    In all of eight tested human cells and cell lines with inducible indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.17) tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis was activated by interferon-gamma. This was demonstrated by GTP cyclohydrolase I (EC 3.5.4.16) activities and intracellular neopterin and biopterin concentrations. Pteridine synthesis was influenced by extracellular tryptophan. In T 24-cell extracts, submillimolar concentrations of tetrahydrobiopterin stimulated the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase reaction. PMID:2511835

  10. Methods of staining and visualization of sphingolipid enriched and non-enriched plasma membrane regions of Arabidopsis thaliana with fluorescent dyes and lipid analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blachutzik Jörg O

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sterols and Sphingolipids form lipid clusters in the plasma membranes of cell types throughout the animal and plant kingdoms. These lipid domains provide a medium for protein signaling complexes at the plasma membrane and are also observed to be principal regions of membrane contact at the inception of infection. We visualized different specific fluorescent lipophilic stains of the both sphingolipid enriched and non-sphingolipid enriched regions in the plasma membranes of live protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Lipid staining protocols for several fluorescent lipid analogues in plants are presented. The most emphasis was placed on successful protocols for the single and dual staining of sphingolipid enriched regions and exclusion of sphingolipid enriched regions on the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts. A secondary focus was placed to ensure that these staining protocols presented still maintain cell viability. Furthermore, the protocols were successfully tested with the spectrally sensitive dye Laurdan. Conclusion Almost all existing staining procedures of the plasma membrane with fluorescent lipid analogues are specified for animal cells and tissues. In order to develop lipid staining protocols for plants, procedures were established with critical steps for the plasma membrane staining of Arabidopsis leaf tissue and protoplasts. The success of the plasma membrane staining protocols was additionally verified by measurements of lipid dynamics by the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique and by the observation of new phenomena such as time dependent lipid polarization events in living protoplasts, for which a putative physiological relevance is suggested.

  11. Cell wall O-glycoproteins and N-glycoproteins: aspects of biosynthesis and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguema-Ona, Eric; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Gotté, Maxime; Plancot, Barbara; Lerouge, Patrice; Bardor, Muriel; Driouich, Azeddine

    2014-01-01

    Cell wall O-glycoproteins and N-glycoproteins are two types of glycomolecules whose glycans are structurally complex. They are both assembled and modified within the endomembrane system, i.e., the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus, before their transport to their final locations within or outside the cell. In contrast to extensins (EXTs), the O-glycan chains of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are highly heterogeneous consisting mostly of (i) a short oligo-arabinoside chain of three to four residues, and (ii) a larger β-1,3-linked galactan backbone with β-1,6-linked side chains containing galactose, arabinose and, often, fucose, rhamnose, or glucuronic acid. The fine structure of arabinogalactan chains varies between, and within plant species, and is important for the functional activities of the glycoproteins. With regards to N-glycans, ER-synthesizing events are highly conserved in all eukaryotes studied so far since they are essential for efficient protein folding. In contrast, evolutionary adaptation of N-glycan processing in the Golgi apparatus has given rise to a variety of organism-specific complex structures. Therefore, plant complex-type N-glycans contain specific glyco-epitopes such as core β,2-xylose, core α1,3-fucose residues, and Lewisa substitutions on the terminal position of the antenna. Like O-glycans, N-glycans of proteins are essential for their stability and function. Mutants affected in the glycan metabolic pathways have provided valuable information on the role of N-/O-glycoproteins in the control of growth, morphogenesis and adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. With regards to O-glycoproteins, only EXTs and AGPs are considered herein. The biosynthesis of these glycoproteins and functional aspects are presented and discussed in this review. PMID:25324850

  12. Revealing fosfomycin primary effect on Staphylococcus aureus transcriptome: modulation of cell envelope biosynthesis and phosphoenolpyruvate induced starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruden Kristina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is a highly adaptable human pathogen and there is a constant search for effective antibiotics. Fosfomycin is a potent irreversible inhibitor of MurA, an enolpyruvyl transferase that uses phosphoenolpyruvate as substrate. The goal of this study was to identify the pathways and processes primarily affected by fosfomycin at the genome-wide transcriptome level to aid development of new drugs. Results S. aureus ATCC 29213 cells were treated with sub-MIC concentrations of fosfomycin and harvested at 10, 20 and 40 minutes after treatment. S. aureus GeneChip statistical data analysis was complemented by gene set enrichment analysis. A visualization tool for mapping gene expression data into biological pathways was developed in order to identify the metabolic processes affected by fosfomycin. We have shown that the number of significantly differentially expressed genes in treated cultures increased with time and with increasing fosfomycin concentration. The target pathway - peptidoglycan biosynthesis - was upregulated following fosfomycin treatment. Modulation of transport processes, cofactor biosynthesis, energy metabolism and nucleic acid biosynthesis was also observed. Conclusions Several pathways and genes downregulated by fosfomycin have been identified, in contrast to previously described cell wall active antibiotics, and was explained by starvation response induced by phosphoenolpyruvate accumulation. Transcriptomic profiling, in combination with meta-analysis, has been shown to be a valuable tool in determining bacterial response to a specific antibiotic.

  13. Sphingolipids: Key Regulators of Apoptosis and Pivotal Players in Cancer Drug Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Giussani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance elicited by cancer cells still constitutes a huge problem that frequently impairs the efficacy of both conventional and novel molecular therapies. Chemotherapy usually acts to induce apoptosis in cancer cells; therefore, the investigation of apoptosis control and of the mechanisms used by cancer cells to evade apoptosis could be translated in an improvement of therapies. Among many tools acquired by cancer cells to this end, the de-regulated synthesis and metabolism of sphingolipids have been well documented. Sphingolipids are known to play many structural and signalling roles in cells, as they are involved in the control of growth, survival, adhesion, and motility. In particular, in order to increase survival, cancer cells: (a counteract the accumulation of ceramide that is endowed with pro-apoptotic potential and is induced by many drugs; (b increase the synthesis of sphingosine-1-phosphate and glucosylceramide that are pro-survivals signals; (c modify the synthesis and the metabolism of complex glycosphingolipids, particularly increasing the levels of modified species of gangliosides such as 9-O acetylated GD3 (αNeu5Ac(2-8αNeu5Ac(2-3βGal(1-4βGlc(1-1Cer or N-glycolyl GM3 (αNeu5Ac (2-3βGal(1-4βGlc(1-1Cer and de-N-acetyl GM3 (NeuNH(2βGal(1-4βGlc(1-1Cer endowed with anti-apoptotic roles and of globoside Gb3 related to a higher expression of the multidrug resistance gene MDR1. In light of this evidence, the employment of chemical or genetic approaches specifically targeting sphingolipid dysregulations appears a promising tool for the improvement of current chemotherapy efficacy.

  14. Regulation of protein biosynthesis by non-lymphoid cells requires the participation of receptors, which recognize the same protein through a center analogous to the antibody active center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the mechanism for regulating the biosynthesis of one of the complement components (anti-idiotypic antibodies CI /SUB q/ ) by macrophages. The experiments were conducted on mouse resident peritoneal macrophages cultivated in medium containing C 14-glycine. The synthesis of CI /SUB q/ was evaluated according to the content of protein which was bound by rabbit antibodies against mouse CI /SUB q/ immobilized on bromocyan-Sepharose 4B. The study of the kinetics of the biosynthesis of CI /SUB q/ by propagated macrophages shows that the biosynthesis was initially recorded and in the subsequent period the culture contained no other cells apart from macrophages

  15. Phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. III. Genetic evidence for utilization of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine as precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reported that Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells contain two different serine-exchange enzymes (I and II) which catalyze the base-exchange reaction of phospholipid(s) with serine and that a phosphatidylserine-requiring mutant (strain PSA-3) of CHO cells is defective in serine-exchange enzyme I and lacks the ability to synthesize phosphatidylserine. In this study, we examined precursor phospholipids for phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in CHO cells. When mutant PSA-3 and parent (CHO-K1) cells were cultured with [32P]phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine in the parent accumulated radioactivity while that in the mutant was not labeled significantly. On the contrary, when cultured with [32P]phosphatidylethanolamine, the mutant incorporated the label into phosphatidylserine more efficiently than the parent. Furthermore, we found that mutant PSA-3 grew normally in growth medium supplemented with 30 microM phosphatidylethanolamine as well as phosphatidylserine and that the biosynthesis of phosphatidylserine in the mutant was normal when cells were cultured in the presence of exogenous phosphatidylethanolamine. The simplest interpretation of these findings is that phosphatidylserine in CHO cells is biosynthesized through the following sequential reactions: phosphatidylcholine----phosphatidylserine----phosphatidylethanolamine--- - phosphatidylserine. The three reactions are catalyzed by serine-exchange enzyme I, phosphatidylserine decarboxylase, and serine-exchange enzyme II, respectively

  16. Polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors alter protein-protein interactions involving estrogen receptor in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, T; Shah, N; Klinge, C M; Faaland, C A; Adihkarakunnathu, S; Gallo, M A; Thomas, T J

    1999-04-01

    We investigated the effects of polyamine biosynthesis inhibition on the estrogenic signaling pathway of MCF-7 breast cancer cells using a protein-protein interaction system. Estrogen receptor (ER) linked to glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was used to examine the effects of two polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors, difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and CGP 48664. ER was specifically associated with a 45 kDa protein in control cells. In cells treated with estradiol, nine proteins were associated with ER. Cells treated with polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors in the absence of estradiol retained the binding of their ER with a 45 kDa protein and the ER also showed low-affinity interactions with a number of cellular proteins; however, these associations were decreased by the presence of estradiol and the inhibitors. When samples from the estradiol+DFMO treatment group were incubated with spermidine prior to GST-ER pull down assay, an increased association of several proteins with ER was detected. The intensity of the ER-associated 45 kDa protein increased by 10-fold in the presence of 1000 microM spermidine. These results indicate a specific role for spermidine in ER association of proteins. Western blot analysis of samples eluted from GST-ER showed the presence of chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor, an orphan nuclear receptor, and the endogenous full-length ER. These results show that multiple proteins associate with ER and that the binding of some of these proteins is highly sensitive to intracellular polyamine concentrations. Overall, our results indicate the importance of the polyamine pathway in the gene regulatory function of estradiol in breast cancer cells. PMID:10194516

  17. Increase in sphingolipid catabolic enzyme activity during aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santosh J SACKET; Hae-young CHUNG; Fumikazu OKAJIMA; Dong-soon IM

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To understand the contribution of sphingolipid metabolism and its metabolites to development and aging.Methods: A systemic analysis on the changes in activity of sphingolipid metabolic enzymes in kidney, liver and brain tissues during development and aging was conducted. The study was conducted using tissues from 1-day-old to 720-day-old rats.Results: Catabolic enzyme activities as well as the level of sphingomyelinase (SMase) and ceramidase (CDase) were higher than that of anabolic enzyme activities, sphingomyelin synthase and ceramide synthase. This suggested an accumulation of ceramide and sphingosine during development and aging. The liver showed the highest neutral-SMase activity among the tested enzymes while the kidney and brain exhibited higher neutral-SMase and ceramidase activities, indicating a high production of ceramide in liver and ceramide/sphingosine in the kidney and brain. The activities of sphingolipid metabolic enzymes were significantly elevated in all tested tissues during development and aging, although the onset of significant increase in activity varied on the tissue and enzyme type. During aging, 18 out of 21 enzyme activities were further increased on day 720 compared to day 180.Conclusion: Differential increases in sphingolipid metabolic enzyme activities suggest that sphingolipids including ceramide and sphingosine might play important and dynamic roles in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis during development and aging.

  18. Engineering Microbial Cells for the Biosynthesis of Natural Compounds of Pharmaceutical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jeandet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbes constitute important platforms for the biosynthesis of numerous molecules of pharmaceutical interest such as antitumor, anticancer, antiviral, antihypertensive, antiparasitic, antioxidant, immunological agents, and antibiotics as well as hormones, belonging to various chemical families, for instance, terpenoids, alkaloids, polyphenols, polyketides, amines, and proteins. Engineering microbial factories offers rich opportunities for the production of natural products that are too complex for cost-effective chemical synthesis and whose extraction from their originating plants needs the use of many solvents. Recent progresses that have been made since the millennium beginning with metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the biosynthesis of natural products of pharmaceutical significance will be reviewed.

  19. Nitric oxide mediates the fungal elicitor-induced puerarin biosynthesis in Pueraria thomsonii Benth. suspension cells through a salicylic acid (SA)-dependent and a jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent signal pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Maojun; DONG Jufang; ZHU Muyuan

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a key signaling molecule in plant secondary metabolite biosynthesis recently. In order to investigate the molecular basis of NO signaling in elicitor-induced secondary metabolite biosynthesis of plant cells, we determined the contents of NO, salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and puerarin in Pueraria thomsonii Benth. suspension cells treated with the elicitors prepared from cell walls of Penicillium citrinum. The results showed that the fungal elicitor induced NO burst, SA accumulation and puerarin production of P. thomsonii Benth. cells. The elicitor-induced SA accumulation and puerarin production was suppressed by nitric oxide specific scavenger cPITO, indicating that NO was essential for elicitor-induced SA and puerarin biosynthesis in P. thomsonii Benth. cells. In transgenic NahG P. thomsonii Benth. cells, the fungal elicitor also induced puerarin biosynthesis, NO burst, and JA accumulation, though the SA biosynthesis was impaired. The elicitor-induced JA accumulation in transgenic cells was blocked by cPITO, which suggested that JA acted downstream of NO and its biosynthesis was controlled by NO. External application of NO via its donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) enhanced puerarin biosynthesis in transgenic NahG P. thomsonii Benth. cells, and the NO-triggered puerarin biosynthesis was suppressed by JA inhibitors IBU and NDGA, which indicated that NO induced puerarin production through a JA-dependent signal pathway in the transgenic cells. Exogenous application of SA suppressed the elicitor-induced JA biosynthesis and reversed the inhibition of IBU and NDGA on elicitor-induced puerarin accumulation in transgenic cells, which indicated that SA inhibited JA biosynthesis in the cells and that SA might be used as a substitute for JA to mediate the elicitor- and NO-induced puerarin biosynthesis. It was, therefore, concluded that NO might mediate the elicitor-induced puerarin biosynthesis through SA- and JA-dependent signal

  20. Involvement of complex sphingolipids and phosphatidylserine in endosomal trafficking in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Motohiro; Kuge, Osamu

    2012-12-01

    Sphingolipids play critical roles in many physiologically important events in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we found that csg2Δ mutant cells defective in the synthesis of mannosylinositol phosphorylceramide exhibited abnormal intracellular accumulation of an exocytic v-SNARE, Snc1, under phosphatidylserine synthase gene (PSS1)-repressive conditions, although in wild-type cells, Snc1 was known to cycle between plasma membranes and the late Golgi via post-Golgi endosomes. The mislocalized Snc1 was co-localized with an endocytic marker dye, FM4-64, upon labelling for a short time. The abnormal distribution of Snc1 was suppressed by deletion of GYP2 encoding a GTPase-activating protein that negatively regulates endosomal vesicular trafficking, or expression of GTP-restricted form of Ypt32 GTPase. Furthermore, an endocytosis-deficient mutant of Snc1 was localized to plasma membranes in PSS1-repressed csg2Δ mutant cells as well as wild-type cells. Thus, the PSS1-repressed csg2Δ mutant cells were indicated to be defective in the trafficking of Snc1 from post-Golgi endosomes to the late Golgi. In contrast, the vesicular trafficking pathways via pre-vacuolar endosomes in the PSS1-repressed csg2Δ mutant cells seemed to be normal. These results suggested that specific complex sphingolipids and phosphatidylserine are co-ordinately involved in specific vesicular trafficking pathway. PMID:23062277

  1. Cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor RO 48-8071 suppresses growth of hormone-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Y

    2016-05-01

    growth of aggressive castration-resistant human prostate cancer cell xenografts in vivo without any signs of toxicity to experimental animals. Importantly, RO did not reduce the viability of normal prostate cells in vitro. Our study is the first to demonstrate that the cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor RO effectively suppresses growth of human prostate cancer cells. Our findings suggest that cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitors such as RO, when used in combination with commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs or ERβ specific ligands, could represent a novel therapeutic approach to prevent the growth of prostate cancer tumors. Keywords: prostate cancer, cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor, cell viability, xenograft, castration resistant

  2. Phage display-derived inhibitor of the essential cell wall biosynthesis enzyme MurF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blewett Ann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To develop antibacterial agents having novel modes of action against bacterial cell wall biosynthesis, we targeted the essential MurF enzyme of the antibiotic resistant pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MurF catalyzes the formation of a peptide bond between D-Alanyl-D-Alanine (D-Ala-D-Ala and the cell wall precursor uridine 5'-diphosphoryl N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (UDP-MurNAc-Ala-Glu-meso-A2pm with the concomitant hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate, yielding UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-pentapeptide. As MurF acts on a dipeptide, we exploited a phage display approach to identify peptide ligands having high binding affinities for the enzyme. Results Screening of a phage display 12-mer library using purified P. aeruginosa MurF yielded to the identification of the MurFp1 peptide. The MurF substrate UDP-MurNAc-Ala-Glumeso-A2pm was synthesized and used to develop a sensitive spectrophotometric assay to quantify MurF kinetics and inhibition. MurFp1 acted as a weak, time-dependent inhibitor of MurF activity but was a potent inhibitor when MurF was pre-incubated with UDP-MurNAc-Ala-Glu-meso-A2pm or ATP. In contrast, adding the substrate D-Ala-D-Ala during the pre-incubation nullified the inhibition. The IC50 value of MurFp1 was evaluated at 250 μM, and the Ki was established at 420 μM with respect to the mixed type of inhibition against D-Ala-D-Ala. Conclusion MurFp1 exerts its inhibitory action by interfering with the utilization of D-Ala-D-Ala by the MurF amide ligase enzyme. We propose that MurFp1 exploits UDP-MurNAc-Ala-Glu-meso-A2pm-induced structural changes for better interaction with the enzyme. We present the first peptide inhibitor of MurF, an enzyme that should be exploited as a target for antimicrobial drug development.

  3. Ozone-induced kiwifruit ripening delay is mediated by ethylene biosynthesis inhibition and cell wall dismantling regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Ioannis S; Vicente, Ariel R; Dhanapal, Arun Prabhu; Manganaris, George A; Goulas, Vlasios; Vasilakakis, Miltiadis; Crisosto, Carlos H; Molassiotis, Athanassios

    2014-12-01

    Ozone treatments are used to preserve quality during cold storage of commercially important fruits due to its ethylene oxidizing capacity and its antimicrobial attributes. To address whether or not ozone also modulates ripening by directly affecting fruit physiology, kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. 'Hayward') were stored in very low ethylene atmosphere at 0°C (95% RH) in air (control) or in the presence of ozone (0.3μLL(-1)) for 2 or 4 months and subsequently ripened at 20°C (90% RH) for up to 8d. Ozone-treated kiwifruit showed a significant delay of ripening during maintenance at 20°C, accompanied by a marked decrease in ethylene biosynthesis due to inhibited AdACS1 and AdACO1 expression and reduced ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO) enzyme activity. Furthermore, ozone-treated fruit exhibited a marked reduction in flesh softening and cell wall disassembly. This effect was associated with reduced cell wall swelling and pectin and neutral sugar solubilization and was correlated with the inhibition of cell wall degrading enzymes activity, such as polygalacturonase (PG) and endo-1,4-β-glucanase/1,4-β-glucosidase (EGase/glu). Conclusively, the present study indicated that ozone may exert major residual effects in fruit ripening physiology and suggested that ethylene biosynthesis and cell walls turnover are specifically targeted by ozone. PMID:25443835

  4. Utility of Muropeptide Ligase for Identification of Inhibitors of the Cell Wall Biosynthesis Enzyme MurF

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Ellen Z.; Crespo-Carbone, Steven M.; Abbanat, Darren; Foleno, Barbara; Maden, Amy; Goldschmidt, Raul; Bush, Karen

    2006-01-01

    MurF is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. This enzyme has not been extensively exploited as a drug target, possibly due to the difficulty in obtaining one of the substrates, UDP-MurNAc-l-Ala-γ-d-Glu-meso-diaminopimelate, which is usually purified from bacteria. We have identified putative inhibitors of Escherichia coli MurF by a binding assay, thus bypassing the need for substrate. Inhibition of enzymatic activity was...

  5. Neurochemical Metabolomics Reveals Disruption to Sphingolipid Metabolism Following Chronic Haloperidol Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, Joseph L; Vunck, Sarah A; Batman, Angela M; Crowley, James J; Vann, Robert E; Beardsley, Patrick M; van den Oord, Edwin J

    2015-09-01

    Haloperidol is an effective antipsychotic drug for treatment of schizophrenia, but prolonged use can lead to debilitating side effects. To better understand the effects of long-term administration, we measured global metabolic changes in mouse brain following 3 mg/kg/day haloperidol for 28 days. These conditions lead to movement-related side effects in mice akin to those observed in patients after prolonged use. Brain tissue was collected following microwave tissue fixation to arrest metabolism and extracted metabolites were assessed using both liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (MS). Over 300 unique compounds were identified across MS platforms. Haloperidol was found to be present in all test samples and not in controls, indicating experimental validity. Twenty-one compounds differed significantly between test and control groups at the p < 0.05 level. Top compounds were robust to analytical method, also being identified via partial least squares discriminant analysis. Four compounds (sphinganine, N-acetylornithine, leucine and adenosine diphosphate) survived correction for multiple testing in a non-parametric analysis using false discovery rate threshold < 0.1. Pathway analysis of nominally significant compounds (p < 0.05) revealed significant findings for sphingolipid metabolism (p = 0.015) and protein biosynthesis (p = 0.024). Altered sphingolipid metabolism is suggestive of disruptions to myelin. This interpretation is supported by our observation of elevated N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate in the haloperidol-treated mice (p = 0.004), a marker previously associated with demyelination. This study further demonstrates the utility of murine neurochemical metabolomics as a method to advance understanding of CNS drug effects. PMID:25850894

  6. Critical importance of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway for Trypanosoma cruzi growth in the mammalian host cell cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We established Trypanosoma cruzi lacking the gene for carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II. ► Disruption of the cpsII gene significantly reduced the growth of epimastigotes. ► In particular, the CPSII-null mutant severely retarded intracellular growth. ► The de novo pyrimidine pathway is critical for the parasite growth in the host cell. -- Abstract: The intracellular parasitic protist Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease in Latin America. In general, pyrimidine nucleotides are supplied by both de novo biosynthesis and salvage pathways. While epimastigotes—an insect form—possess both activities, amastigotes—an intracellular replicating form of T. cruzi—are unable to mediate the uptake of pyrimidine. However, the requirement of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis for parasite growth and survival has not yet been elucidated. Carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase II (CPSII) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the de novo biosynthetic pathway, and increased CPSII activity is associated with the rapid proliferation of tumor cells. In the present study, we showed that disruption of the T. cruzicpsII gene significantly reduced parasite growth. In particular, the growth of amastigotes lacking the cpsII gene was severely suppressed. Thus, the de novo pyrimidine pathway is important for proliferation of T. cruzi in the host cell cytoplasm and represents a promising target for chemotherapy against Chagas disease.

  7. Critical importance of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway for Trypanosoma cruzi growth in the mammalian host cell cytoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Muneaki, E-mail: muneaki@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Molecular and Cellular Parasitology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Morales, Jorge; Fukai, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Shigeo; Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Tsubouchi, Akiko; Inoue, Syou [Department of Molecular and Cellular Parasitology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Inoue, Masayuki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kita, Kiyoshi [Department of Biomedical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Harada, Shigeharu [Department of Applied Biology, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Tanaka, Akiko [Systems and Structural Biology Center, RIKEN, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Aoki, Takashi [Department of Molecular and Cellular Parasitology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Nara, Takeshi, E-mail: tnara@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Molecular and Cellular Parasitology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We established Trypanosoma cruzi lacking the gene for carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disruption of the cpsII gene significantly reduced the growth of epimastigotes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In particular, the CPSII-null mutant severely retarded intracellular growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The de novo pyrimidine pathway is critical for the parasite growth in the host cell. -- Abstract: The intracellular parasitic protist Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease in Latin America. In general, pyrimidine nucleotides are supplied by both de novo biosynthesis and salvage pathways. While epimastigotes-an insect form-possess both activities, amastigotes-an intracellular replicating form of T. cruzi-are unable to mediate the uptake of pyrimidine. However, the requirement of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis for parasite growth and survival has not yet been elucidated. Carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase II (CPSII) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the de novo biosynthetic pathway, and increased CPSII activity is associated with the rapid proliferation of tumor cells. In the present study, we showed that disruption of the T. cruzicpsII gene significantly reduced parasite growth. In particular, the growth of amastigotes lacking the cpsII gene was severely suppressed. Thus, the de novo pyrimidine pathway is important for proliferation of T. cruzi in the host cell cytoplasm and represents a promising target for chemotherapy against Chagas disease.

  8. Melanin biosynthesis inhibitory activity of a compound isolated from young green barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in B16 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Tian Xiao; Irino, Nobuto; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2015-07-01

    In the course to find compounds that inhibit melanin biosynthesis (i.e., whitening agents), we evaluated the effects of the methanol-soluble fraction (i.e., the water-soluble portion of methanol extracts-CHP20P-MeOH eluted fraction) from young green barley leaves on melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Activity-guided fractionation led to an isolate called tricin (compound 1) as an inhibitory compound of melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Furthermore, tricin analogs such as tricetin, tricetin trimethyl ether, luteolin, and apigenin were used for analyzing the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of 5,7-dihydroxyflavones studies. Tricin demonstrated stronger inhibitory activity compared to three other compounds. The results suggest that a hydroxyl group at the C-4' position and methoxy groups at the C-3',5' positions of the tricin skeleton may have important roles in this inhibitory activity in B16 melanoma cells. Our results suggest that tricin inhibits melanin biosynthesis with higher efficacy than arbutin, and it could be used as a whitening agent. PMID:25827948

  9. Disruption of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 K5 Capsule Biosynthesis, through Loss of Distinct kfi genes, Modulates Interaction with Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Impact on Cell Health

    OpenAIRE

    Nzakizwanayo, Jonathan; Kumar, Sandeep; Ogilvie, Lesley A.; Patel, Bhavik A; Dedi, Cinzia; Wendy M. Macfarlane; Jones, Brian V.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is among the best characterised probiotics, with a proven clinical impact in a range of conditions. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying these "probiotic effects" are not clearly defined. Here we applied random transposon mutagenesis to identify genes relevant to the interaction of EcN with intestinal epithelial cells. This demonstrated mutants disrupted in the kfiB gene, of the K5 capsule biosynthesis cluster, to be significantly enhanced in attachment t...

  10. Polar flagellar biosynthesis and a regulator of flagellar number influence spatial parameters of cell division in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Balaban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and numerical regulation of flagellar biosynthesis results in different flagellation patterns specific for each bacterial species. Campylobacter jejuni produces amphitrichous (bipolar flagella to result in a single flagellum at both poles. These flagella confer swimming motility and a distinctive darting motility necessary for infection of humans to cause diarrheal disease and animals to promote commensalism. In addition to flagellation, symmetrical cell division is spatially regulated so that the divisome forms near the cellular midpoint. We have identified an unprecedented system for spatially regulating cell division in C. jejuni composed by FlhG, a regulator of flagellar number in polar flagellates, and components of amphitrichous flagella. Similar to its role in other polarly-flagellated bacteria, we found that FlhG regulates flagellar biosynthesis to limit poles of C. jejuni to one flagellum. Furthermore, we discovered that FlhG negatively influences the ability of FtsZ to initiate cell division. Through analysis of specific flagellar mutants, we discovered that components of the motor and switch complex of amphitrichous flagella are required with FlhG to specifically inhibit division at poles. Without FlhG or specific motor and switch complex proteins, cell division occurs more often at polar regions to form minicells. Our findings suggest a new understanding for the biological requirement of the amphitrichous flagellation pattern in bacteria that extend beyond motility, virulence, and colonization. We propose that amphitrichous bacteria such as Campylobacter species advantageously exploit placement of flagella at both poles to spatially regulate an FlhG-dependent mechanism to inhibit polar cell division, thereby encouraging symmetrical cell division to generate the greatest number of viable offspring. Furthermore, we found that other polarly-flagellated bacteria produce FlhG proteins that influence cell division, suggesting that

  11. Sng1 associates with Nce102 to regulate the yeast Pkh-Ypk signalling module in response to sphingolipid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Marqués, Sara; Randez-Gil, Francisca; Dupont, Sebastien; Garre, Elena; Prieto, Jose A

    2016-06-01

    All cells are delimited by biological membranes, which are consequently a primary target of stress-induced damage. Cold alters membrane functionality by decreasing lipid fluidity and the activity of membrane proteins. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, evidence links sphingolipid homeostasis and membrane phospholipid asymmetry to the activity of the Ypk1/2 proteins, the yeast orthologous of the mammalian SGK1-3 kinases. Their regulation is mediated by different protein kinases, including the PDK1 orthologous Pkh1/2p, and requires the function of protein effectors, among them Nce102p, a component of the sphingolipid sensor machinery. Nevertheless, the mechanisms and the actors involved in Pkh/Ypk regulation remain poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that Sng1, a transmembrane protein, is an effector of the Pkh/Ypk module and identify the phospholipid asymmetry as key for yeast cold adaptation. Overexpression of SNG1 impairs phospholipid flipping, reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and improves, in a Pkh-dependent manner, yeast growth in myriocin-treated cells, suggesting that excess Sng1p stimulates the Pkh/Ypk signalling. Furthermore, we link these effects to the association of Sng1p with Nce102p. Indeed, we found that Sng1p interacts with Nce102p both physically and genetically. Moreover, mutant nce102∆ sng1∆ cells show features of impaired Pkh/Ypk signalling, including increased ROS accumulation, reduced life span and defects in Pkh/Ypk-controlled regulatory pathways. Finally, myriocin-induced hyperphosphorylation of Ypk1p and Orm2p, which controls sphingolipid homeostasis, does not occur in nce102∆ sng1∆ cells. Hence, both Nce102p and Sng1p participate in a regulatory circuit that controls the activity of the Pkh/Ypk module and their function is required in response to sphingolipid status. PMID:27033517

  12. A quinazoline-based HDAC inhibitor affects gene expression pathways involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and mevalonate in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z; Bishop, K S; Sutherland, H; Marlow, G; Murray, P; Denny, W A; Ferguson, L R

    2016-03-01

    Chronic inflammation can lead to the development of cancers and resolution of inflammation is an ongoing challenge. Inflammation can result from dysregulation of the epigenome and a number of compounds that modify the epigenome are in clinical use. In this study the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects of a quinazoline epigenetic-modulator compound were determined in prostate cancer cell lines using a non-hypothesis driven transcriptomics strategy utilising the Affymetrix PrimeView® Human Gene Expression microarray. GATHER and IPA software were used to analyse the data and to provide information on significantly modified biological processes, pathways and networks. A number of genes were differentially expressed in both PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. The top canonical pathways that frequently arose across both cell lines at a number of time points included cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism, and the mevalonate pathway. Targeting of sterol and mevalonate pathways may be a powerful anticancer approach. PMID:26759180

  13. CCR1, an enzyme required for lignin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, mediates cell proliferation exit for leaf development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Jingshi; Luo, Dexian; Xu, Deyang;

    2015-01-01

    After initiation, leaves first undergo rapid cell proliferation. During subsequent development, leaf cells gradually exit the proliferation phase and enter the expansion stage, following a basipetally ordered pattern starting at the leaf tip. The molecular mechanism directing this pattern of leaf...... intermediate in lignin biosynthesis. FeA is known to have antioxidant activity, and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ccr1 were markedly reduced. We also characterized another double mutant in CAFFEIC ACID O-METHYLTRANSFERASE (comt) and CAFFEOYL CoA 3-O-METHYLTRANSFERASE (ccoaomt), in which the FeA...... level was dramatically reduced. Cell proliferation in comt ccoaomt leaves was decreased, accompanied by elevated ROS levels, and the mutant phenotypes were partially rescued by treatment with FeA or another antioxidant (N-acetyl-L-cysteine). Taken together, our results suggest that CCR1, FeA and ROS...

  14. A Cell-Based Approach for the Biosynthesis/Screening of Cyclic Peptide Libraries against Bacterial Toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarero, J A; Kimura, R; Woo, Y; Cantor, J; Steenblock, E

    2007-10-24

    Available methods for developing and screening small drug-like molecules able to knockout toxins or pathogenic microorganisms have some limitations. In order to be useful, these new methods must provide high-throughput analysis and identify specific binders in a short period of time. To meet this need, we are developing an approach that uses living cells to generate libraries of small biomolecules, which are then screened inside the cell for activity. Our group is using this new, combined approach to find highly specific ligands capable of disabling anthrax Lethal Factor (LF) as proof of principle. Key to our approach is the development of a method for the biosynthesis of libraries of cyclic peptides, and an efficient screening process that can be carried out inside the cell.

  15. Biosynthesis of the D2-cell adhesion molecule: post-translational modifications, intracellular transport, and developmental changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, J M; Linnemann, D; Bock, E

    1984-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications and intracellular transport of the D2-cell adhesion molecule (D2-CAM) were examined in cultured fetal rat neuronal cells. Developmental changes in biosynthesis were studied in rat forebrain explant cultures. Two D2-CAM polypeptides with Mr of 187,000-210,000 (A) and...... antibody. The two polypeptides were sulfated in the trans-Golgi compartment and phosphorylated at the plasma membrane. D2-CAM underwent rapid intracellular transport, appearing at the cell surface within 35 min of synthesis. A and B were shown to be integral membrane proteins as seen by radioiodination by...... photoactivation employing a hydrophobic labeling reagent. In rat forebrain explant cultures, D2-CAM was synthesized as four polypeptides: A (195,000 Mr), B (137,000 Mr), C (115,000 Mr), and a group of polypeptides in the high molecular weight region (HMr) between 250,000 and 350,000. Peptide maps of the four...

  16. Nitric oxide mediates the fungal elicitor-induced Taxol biosynthesis of Taxus chinensis suspension cells through the reactive oxygen species-dependent and-independent signal pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Maojun; DONG Jufang

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species are two important signal molecules that play key roles in plant defense responses. Nitric oxide generation and oxidative burst and accumulation of reactive oxygen species are the early reactions of Taxus chinensis suspension cells to fungal elicitor prepared from the cell walls of Penicillium citrinum. In order to investigate the relationship and/or interactions of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in the elicitor-induced Taxol biosynthesis of T. chinensis suspension cells, we treated the cells with nitric oxide specific scavenger 2-4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetra- methylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPITO), nitric oxide synthase inhibitor S,S(-1,3-phenylene-bis(1,2-eth- anediyl)-bis-isothiourea (PBITU), membrane NAD(P) H oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI), superoxide dismutases (SOD) and catalase. The results show that pretreatment of T. chinensis cells with cPITO and DPI inhibited not only the elicitor-induced nitric oxide biosynthesis and oxidative burst, but also the elicitor-induced Taxol production, suggesting that both nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species are involved in elicitor-induced Taxol biosynthesis. Furthermore, pretreatment of the cells with cPITO and PBITU suppressed the elicitor-induced oxidative burst, indicating that the oxidative burst might be dependent on NO. Application of nitric oxide via its donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) triggered Taxol biosynthesis of T. chinensis cells. The nitric oxide-induced Taxol production was suppressed by DPI, showing that the oxidative burst is involved in NO-triggered Taxol biosynthesis. However, nitric oxide and the fungal elicitor induced Taxol biosynthesis even though the accumulation of reactive oxygen species wass completely abolished in T. chinensis cells. Our data show that nitric oxide may mediate the elicitor-induced Taxol biosynthesis of T. chinensis suspension cells through both reactive oxygen species-dependent and -independent signal

  17. Gene-to-metabolite networks for terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rischer, Heiko; Orešič, Matej; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Katajamaa, Mikko; Lammertyn, Freya; Ardiles-Diaz, Wilson; Van Montagu, Marc C. E.; Inzé, Dirk; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Goossens, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Rational engineering of complicated metabolic networks involved in the production of biologically active plant compounds has been greatly impeded by our poor understanding of the regulatory and metabolic pathways underlying the biosynthesis of these compounds. Whereas comprehensive genome-wide functional genomics approaches can be successfully applied to analyze a select number of model plants, these holistic approaches are not yet available for the study of nonmodel plants that include most,...

  18. Golgi nucleotide sugar transporter modulates cell wall biosynthesis and plant growth in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Baocai; Liu, Xiangling; Qian, Qian; Liu, Lifeng; Dong, Guojun; Xiong, Guangyan; Zeng, Dali; Zhou, Yihua

    2011-01-01

    Golgi-localized nucleotide sugar transporters (NSTs) are considered essential for the biosynthesis of wall polysaccharides and glycoproteins based on their characteristic transport of a large number of nucleotide sugars to the Golgi lumen. The lack of NST mutants in plants has prevented evaluation of this hypothesis in plants. A previously undescribed Golgi NST mutant, brittle culm14 (bc14), displays reduced mechanical strength caused by decreased cellulose content and altered wall structure,...

  19. Biological Effects of Naturally Occurring Sphingolipids, Uncommon Variants, and Their Analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mitchell K P; Chew, Wee Siong; Torta, Federico; Rao, Angad; Harris, Greg L; Chun, Jerold; Herr, Deron R

    2016-09-01

    Sphingolipids (SPs) comprise a highly diverse class of lipids that serve biological roles both as structural components of cell membranes and as mediators of cell signaling. Pharmacologic and genetic manipulation of SPs and their signaling systems have underscored their importance in most biological processes, including central nervous system development and function. Likewise, perturbations of SP accumulation or signaling have been associated with a number of disease states, such as neural tube defects, neuroinflammation, stroke, and dementia. SPs can be endogenously synthesized de novo, and their metabolism is a well-regulated process, so their value as nutraceuticals has not been scrutinized. However, there is evidence that sphingolipid-rich diets can affect lipid homeostasis, and several mycotoxins are SP analogs that are known to cause profound derangement of SP metabolism or signaling. Furthermore, plants and invertebrates have SP species that are not present in mammals. Several of these have been shown to induce biological responses in mammalian cells. These findings suggest that dietary intake of SPs or SP analogs may have significant effects on human health or disease outcome. This manuscript provides an overview of SP metabolism and signaling, their perturbations in neurological diseases, as well as potential impacts of modulating this system in the brain. PMID:27393119

  20. Network-based analysis of the sphingolipid metabolism in hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Mogens; Linneberg, Allan; Jeppesen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    -step procedure is presented in which physiological heterogeneity is disentangled and genetic effects are analyzed by variance decomposition of genetic interactions and by an information theoretical approach including 162 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 84 genes in the sphingolipid metabolism and related...

  1. Complex modulation of peptidolytic activity of cathepsin D by sphingolipids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žebrakovská, Iva; Máša, Martin; Srp, Jaroslav; Horn, Martin; Vávrová, K.; Mareš, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1811, č. 12 (2011), s. 1097-1104. ISSN 1388-1981 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : sphingolipid * phospholipid * inhibition * activation * cathepsin D * enzyme regulation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.269, year: 2011

  2. Sphingolipids in intestine and liver: How to analyze?

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaus Gassler

    2012-01-01

    Identification and quantification of lipids, in particular sphingolipids from intestine and liver, using multidimensional mass spectrometry has dramatically improved our understanding of lipid-based molecular pathways and signaling. The editorial gives a short overview about basic technical approaches to characterize lipids from intestine and liver.

  3. Altered Sphingolipid Metabolism in Patients with Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd E. Fox

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although numerous genetic mutations and amplifications have been identified in pancreatic cancer, much of the molecular pathogenesis of the disease remains undefined. While proteomic and transcriptomic analyses have been utilized to probe and characterize pancreatic tumors, lipidomic analyses have not been applied to identify perturbations in pancreatic cancer patient samples. Thus, we utilized a mass spectrometry-based lipidomic approach, focused towards the sphingolipid class of lipids, to quantify changes in human pancreatic cancer tumor and plasma specimens. Subgroup analysis revealed that patients with positive lymph node metastasis have a markedly higher level of ceramide species (C16:0 and C24:1 in their tumor specimens compared to pancreatic cancer patients without nodal disease or to patients with pancreatitis. Also of interest, ceramide metabolites, including phosphorylated (sphingosine- and sphinganine-1-phosphate and glycosylated (cerebroside species were elevated in the plasma, but not the pancreas, of pancreatic cancer patients with nodal disease. Analysis of plasma level of cytokine and growth factors revealed that IL-6, IL-8, CCL11 (eotaxin, EGF and IP10 (interferon inducible protein 10, CXCL10 were elevated in patients with positive lymph nodes metastasis, but that only IP10 and EGF directly correlated with several sphingolipid changes. Taken together, these data indicate that sphingolipid metabolism is altered in human pancreatic cancer and associated with advanced disease. Assessing plasma and/or tissue sphingolipids could potentially risk stratify patients in the clinical setting.

  4. Auxin Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yunde

    2014-01-01

    lndole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the most important natural auxin in plants, is mainly synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan (Trp). Recent genetic and biochemical studies in Arabidopsis have unambiguously established the first complete Trp-dependent auxin biosynthesis pathway. The first chemical step of auxin biosynthesis is the removal of the amino group from Trp by the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS (TAA) family of transaminases to generate indole-3-pyruvate (IPA). IPA then unde...

  5. A method for analysis and design of metabolism using metabolomics data and kinetic models: Application on lipidomics using a novel kinetic model of sphingolipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoglidis, Georgios; da Silveira Dos Santos, Aline Xavier; Riezman, Isabelle; Angelino, Paolo; Riezman, Howard; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily

    2016-09-01

    We present a model-based method, designated Inverse Metabolic Control Analysis (IMCA), which can be used in conjunction with classical Metabolic Control Analysis for the analysis and design of cellular metabolism. We demonstrate the capabilities of the method by first developing a comprehensively curated kinetic model of sphingolipid biosynthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Next we apply IMCA using the model and integrating lipidomics data. The combinatorial complexity of the synthesis of sphingolipid molecules, along with the operational complexity of the participating enzymes of the pathway, presents an excellent case study for testing the capabilities of the IMCA. The exceptional agreement of the predictions of the method with genome-wide data highlights the importance and value of a comprehensive and consistent engineering approach for the development of such methods and models. Based on the analysis, we identified the class of enzymes regulating the distribution of sphingolipids among species and hydroxylation states, with the D-phospholipase SPO14 being one of the most prominent. The method and the applications presented here can be used for a broader, model-based inverse metabolic engineering approach. PMID:27113440

  6. Fumonisin B₁ (FB₁) Induces Lamellar Separation and Alters Sphingolipid Metabolism of In Vitro Cultured Hoof Explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Nicole; Dohnal, Ilse; Nagl, Veronika; Schaumberger, Simone; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Mayer, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important hoof diseases is laminitis. Yet, the pathology of laminitis is not fully understood. Different bacterial toxins, e.g. endotoxins or exotoxins, seem to play an important role. Additionally, ingestion of mycotoxins, toxic secondary metabolites of fungi, might contribute to the onset of laminitis. In this respect, fumonsins are of special interest since horses are regarded as species most susceptible to this group of mycotoxins. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of fumonisin B₁ (FB₁) on primary isolated epidermal and dermal hoof cells, as well as on the lamellar tissue integrity and sphingolipid metabolism of hoof explants in vitro. There was no effect of FB₁ at any concentration on dermal or epidermal cells. However, FB₁ significantly reduced the separation force of explants after 24 h of incubation. The Sa/So ratio was significantly increased in supernatants of explants incubated with FB₁ (2.5-10 µg/mL) after 24 h. Observed effects on Sa/So ratio were linked to significantly increased sphinganine concentrations. Our study showed that FB₁ impairs the sphingolipid metabolism of explants and reduces lamellar integrity at non-cytotoxic concentrations. FB₁ might, therefore, affect hoof health. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary to elucidate the effects of FB₁ on the equine hoof in more detail. PMID:27023602

  7. Multiple myeloma cell lines and primary tumors proteoma: protein biosynthesis and immune system as potential therapeutic targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Diego Robles; Evangelista, Adriane Feijó; Braga, Walter Moisés Tobias; de Lourdes Chauffaille, Maria; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Colleoni, Gisele Wally Braga

    2015-01-01

    Despite great advance in multiple myeloma (MM) treatment since 2000s, it is still an incurable disease and novel therapies are welcome. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore MM plasma cells' (MM-PC) proteome, in comparison with their normal counterparts (derived from palatine tonsils of normal donors, ND-PC), in order to find potential therapeutic targets expressed on the surface of these cells. We also aimed to evaluate the proteome of MM cell lines with different genetic alterations, to confirm findings obtained with primary tumor cells. Bone marrow (BM) samples from eight new cases of MM and palatine tonsils from seven unmatched controls were submitted to PC separation and, in addition to two MM cell lines (U266, RPMI-8226), were submitted to protein extraction for mass spectrometry analyses. A total of 81 proteins were differentially expressed between MM-PC and ND-PC - 72 upregulated and nine downregulated; U266 vs. RPMI 8226 cell lines presented 61 differentially expressed proteins - 51 upregulated and 10 downregulated. On primary tumors, bioinformatics analyses highlighted upregulation of protein biosynthesis machinery, as well as downregulation of immune response components, such as MHC class I and II, and complement receptors. We also provided comprehensive information about U266 and RPMI-8226 cell lines' proteome and could confirm some patients' findings. PMID:26807199

  8. Identification of novel bacterial histidine biosynthesis inhibitors using docking, ensemble rescoring, and whole-cell assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Signe Teuber; Liu, J.; Estiu, G.;

    2010-01-01

    . aureus histidine biosynthesis pathway, which is predicted to be essential for bacterial biomass productions. Virtual screening of a library of similar to 10(6) compounds identified 49 potential inhibitors of three enzymes of this pathway. Eighteen representative compounds were directly tested on three S....... aureus-and two Escherichia coli strains in standard disk inhibition assays. Thirteen compounds are inhibitors of some or all of the S. aureus strains, while 14 compounds weakly inhibit growth in one or both E. coli strains. The high hit rate obtained from a fast virtual screen demonstrates the...

  9. Psychosine-triggered endomitosis is modulated by membrane sphingolipids through regulation of phosphoinositide 4,5-bisphosphate production at the cleavage furrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Okahara, Kyohei; Naito-Matsui, Yuko; Abe, Mitsuhiro; Go, Shinji; Inokuchi, Jinichi; Okazaki, Toshiro; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Kozutsumi, Yasunori; Oka, Shogo; Takematsu, Hiromu

    2016-07-01

    Endomitosis is a special type of mitosis in which only cytokinesis-the final step of the cell division cycle-is defective, resulting in polyploid cells. Although endomitosis is biologically important, its regulatory aspects remain elusive. Psychosine, a lysogalactosylceramide, prevents proper cytokinesis when supplemented to proliferating cells. Cytokinetic inhibition by psychosine does not inhibit genome duplication. Consequently cells undergo multiple rounds of endomitotic cell cycles, resulting in the formation of giant multiploid cells. Here we successfully quantified psychosine-triggered multiploid cell formation, showing that membrane sphingolipids ratios modulate psychosine-triggered polyploidy in Namalwa cells. Among enzymes that experimentally remodel cellular sphingolipids, overexpression of glucosylceramide synthase to biosynthesize glycosylsphingolipids (GSLs) and neutral sphingomyelinase 2 to hydrolyze sphingomyelin (SM) additively enhanced psychosine-triggered multiploidy; almost all of the cells became polyploid. In the presence of psychosine, Namalwa cells showed attenuated cell surface SM clustering and suppression of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate production at the cleavage furrow, both important processes for cytokinesis. Depending on the sphingolipid balance between GSLs and SM, Namalwa cells could be effectively converted to viable multiploid cells with psychosine. PMID:27170180

  10. Mammalian cardiolipin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Edgard M; Nguyen, Hieu; Hatch, Grant M

    2014-04-01

    Cardiolipin is a major phospholipid in mitochondria and is involved in the generation of cellular energy in the form of ATP. In mammalian and eukaryotic cells it is synthesized via the cytidine-5'-diphosphate-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol phosphate pathway. This brief review will describe some of the more recent studies on mammalian cardiolipin biosynthesis and provide an overview of regulation of cardiolipin biosynthesis. In addition, the important role that this key phospholipid plays in disease processes including heart failure, diabetes, thyroid hormone disease and the genetic disease Barth Syndrome will be discussed. PMID:24144810

  11. The Tomato MIXTA-Like Transcription Factor Coordinates Fruit Epidermis Conical Cell Development and Cuticular Lipid Biosynthesis and Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashbrooke, Justin; Adato, Avital; Lotan, Orfa; Alkan, Noam; Tsimbalist, Tatiana; Rechav, Katya; Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Widemann, Emilie; Grausem, Bernard; Pinot, Franck; Granell, Antonio; Costa, Fabrizio; Aharoni, Asaph

    2015-12-01

    The epidermis of aerial plant organs is the primary source of building blocks forming the outer surface cuticular layer. To examine the relationship between epidermal cell development and cuticle assembly in the context of fruit surface, we investigated the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MIXTA-like gene. MIXTA/MIXTA-like proteins, initially described in snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) petals, are known regulators of epidermal cell differentiation. Fruit of transgenically silenced SlMIXTA-like tomato plants displayed defects in patterning of conical epidermal cells. They also showed altered postharvest water loss and resistance to pathogens. Transcriptome and cuticular lipids profiling coupled with comprehensive microscopy revealed significant modifications to cuticle assembly and suggested SlMIXTA-like to regulate cutin biosynthesis. Candidate genes likely acting downstream of SlMIXTA-like included cytochrome P450s (CYPs) of the CYP77A and CYP86A subfamilies, LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE2, GLYCEROL-3-PHOSPHATE SN-2-ACYLTRANSFERASE4, and the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE11 cuticular lipids transporter. As part of a larger regulatory network of epidermal cell patterning and L1-layer identity, we found that SlMIXTA-like acts downstream of SlSHINE3 and possibly cooperates with homeodomain Leu zipper IV transcription factors. Hence, SlMIXTA-like is a positive regulator of both cuticle and conical epidermal cell formation in tomato fruit, acting as a mediator of the tight association between fruit cutin polymer formation, cuticle assembly, and epidermal cell patterning. PMID:26443676

  12. Loss of Frataxin induces iron toxicity, sphingolipid synthesis, and Pdk1/Mef2 activation, leading to neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuchuan; Lin, Guang; Haelterman, Nele A; Ho, Tammy Szu-Yu; Li, Tongchao; Li, Zhihong; Duraine, Lita; Graham, Brett H; Jaiswal, Manish; Yamamoto, Shinya; Rasband, Matthew N; Bellen, Hugo J

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in Frataxin (FXN) cause Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA), a recessive neurodegenerative disorder. Previous studies have proposed that loss of FXN causes mitochondrial dysfunction, which triggers elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and leads to the demise of neurons. Here we describe a ROS independent mechanism that contributes to neurodegeneration in fly FXN mutants. We show that loss of frataxin homolog (fh) in Drosophila leads to iron toxicity, which in turn induces sphingolipid synthesis and ectopically activates 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 (Pdk1) and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (Mef2). Dampening iron toxicity, inhibiting sphingolipid synthesis by Myriocin, or reducing Pdk1 or Mef2 levels, all effectively suppress neurodegeneration in fh mutants. Moreover, increasing dihydrosphingosine activates Mef2 activity through PDK1 in mammalian neuronal cell line suggesting that the mechanisms are evolutionarily conserved. Our results indicate that an iron/sphingolipid/Pdk1/Mef2 pathway may play a role in FRDA. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16043.001 PMID:27343351

  13. Diglyceride Kinase Activity in Cell Extracts of Rhizobium meliloti: Evidence for a Diglyceride Cycle during Cyclic β-1,2-Glucan Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, William P.; Gore, Richard S.; Miller, Karen J.

    1991-01-01

    In this article, we provide evidence for the presence of diglyceride kinase activity in cell extracts of Rhizobium meliloti 1021. Characterization of the rhizobial enzyme revealed that it shares many properties with the diglyceride kinase of Escherichia coli. A possible role for this enzyme during cyclic β-1,2-glucan biosynthesis is discussed.

  14. Expression of essential genes for biosynthesis of antimicrobial peptides of Bacillus is modulated by inactivated cells of target microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leães, Fernanda Leal; Velho, Renata Voltolini; Caldas, Danielle Gregório Gomes; Ritter, Ana Carolina; Tsai, Siu Mui; Brandelli, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    Certain Bacillus strains are important producers of antimicrobial peptides with great potential for biological control. Antimicrobial peptide production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens P11 was investigated in the presence of heat-inactivated cells of bacteria and fungi. B. amyloliquefaciens P11 exhibited higher antimicrobial activity in the presence of inactivated cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus parasiticus compared to other conditions tested. Expression of essential genes related to biosynthesis of the antimicrobial peptides surfactin (sfp), iturin A (lpa-14 and ituD), subtilosin A (sboA) and fengycin (fenA) was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The genes lpa-14 and ituD were highly expressed in the presence of S. aureus (inactivated cells), indicating induction of iturin A production by B. amyloliquefaciens P11. The other inducing condition (inactivated cells of A. parasiticus) suppressed expression of lpa-14, but increased expression of ituD. A twofold increase in fenA expression was observed for both conditions, while strong suppression of sboA expression was observed in the presence of inactivated cells of S. aureus. An increase in antimicrobial activity was observed, indicating that synthesis of antimicrobial peptides may be induced by target microorganisms. PMID:26577655

  15. Radiometric investigation of biosynthesis of certain macromolecules in cell cultures inoculated with intracellularly multiplied Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was conducted to investigate the changes in the biosynthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in epithelian cells from monkey kidney in the case of invasion by initial and passage Yersinia and Listeria strains, multiplied intracellularly. The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains IB 373 and IB 373-GP and Listeria monocytogenes strains 760 1,2a and 383-4b obtained by several passages through guinea pigs and their passage subculture were used. Inoculated cultures were labelled with 3H-thymidine, 3H uridine and 14C-valine. The results showed that in all cases 3H-thymidine and 3H-uridine inclusions into cell cultures, invaded with intracellularly multiplied Yersinia strains showed statistically higher values as compared to those from cell cultures invaded with the initial strain. 14C-valine inclusion in cells, invaded by passage strains, decreased reaching its lowest values in cell populations invaded by Yersiniae isolated during the 9th passage. In cell cultures, invaded by passage L. monocytogenes strains, a rise in the levels of 3H-thymidine and 3H-uridine inclusions was observed. Inclusion values of the precursors were higher in cell populations invaded by the monocytogenes 760-1,2a initial strain and by passage strains obtained from it. The 14C-valine inclusion varied in epithelial cells invaded by Listeriae of sero-type 1,2a and by those of sero type 4b. In the first group the highest inclusion values were recorded in epithelian cells invaded by Listeriae of the 1st passage and in the second in those invaded by Listerae isolated during the 3rd and 4th passages when their most active multiplication accured

  16. Quantitative profiling of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its mycelia by using UHPLC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Ning Mi; Jing-Rong Wang; Zhi-Hong Jiang

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, 101 sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its five mycelia were quantitatively profiled by using a fully validated UHPLC-MS method. The results revealed that a general rank order for the abundance of different classes of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its mycelia is sphingoid bases/ceramides > phosphosphingolipids > glycosphingolipids. However, remarkable sphingolipid differences between wild Cordyceps and its mycelia were observed. One is that sphingoid base is the d...

  17. Biosynthesis of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) in a melanoma cell line and its metabolization by peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Melissa M; Coimbra, Janine B; Clara, Renan O; Dörr, Felipe A; Moreno, Ana Carolina R; Chagas, Jair R; Tufik, Sérgio; Pinto, Ernani; Catalani, Luiz H; Campa, Ana

    2014-04-01

    Tryptophan (TRP) is essential for many physiological processes, and its metabolism changes in some diseases such as infection and cancer. The most studied aspects of TRP metabolism are the kynurenine and serotonin pathways. A minor metabolic route, tryptamine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) biosynthesis, has received far less attention, probably because of the very low amounts of these compounds detected only in some tissues, which has led them to be collectively considered as trace amines. In a previous study, we showed a metabolic interrelationship for TRP in melanoma cell lines. Here, we identified DMT and N,N-dimethyl-N-formyl-kynuramine (DMFK) in the supernatant of cultured SK-Mel-147 cells. Furthermore, when we added DMT to the cell culture, we found hydroxy-DMT (OH-DMT) and indole acetic acid (IAA) in the cell supernatant at 24 h. We found that SK-Mel-147 cells expressed mRNA for myeloperoxidase (MPO) and also had peroxidase activity. We further found that DMT oxidation was catalyzed by peroxidases. DMT oxidation by horseradish peroxidase, H2O2 and MPO from PMA-activated neutrophils produced DMFK, N,N-dimethyl-kynuramine (DMK) and OH-DMT. Oxidation of DMT by peroxidases apparently uses the common peroxidase cycle involving the native enzyme, compound I and compound II. In conclusion, this study describes a possible alternative metabolic pathway for DMT involving peroxidases that has not previously been described in humans and identifies DMT and metabolites in a melanoma cell line. The extension of these findings to other cell types and the biological effects of DMT and its metabolites on cell proliferation and function are key questions for future studies. PMID:24508833

  18. Effect of nomegestrol acetate on estrogen biosynthesis and transformation in MCF-7 and T47-D breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields-Botella, J; Chetrite, G; Meschi, S; Pasqualini, J R

    2005-01-01

    Although ovaries serve as the primary source of estrogen for pre-menopausal women, after menopause estrogen biosynthesis from circulating precursors occurs in peripheral tissues by the action of several enzymes, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (17beta-HSD1), aromatase and estrogen sulfatase. In the breast, both normal and tumoral tissues have been shown to be capable of synthesizing estrogens, and this local estrogen production can be implicated in the development of breast tumors. In these tissues, estradiol (E(2)) can be synthesized by three pathways: (1) estrone sulfatase transforms estrogen sulfates into bioactive estrogens, (2) 17beta-HSD1 converts estrone (E(1)) into E(2), (3) aromatase which converts androgens into estrogens is also present and contributes to the in situ synthesis of active estrogens but to a far lesser extent than estrone sulfatase. Quantitative assessment of E(2) formation in human breast tumors indicates that metabolism of estrone sulfate (E(1)S) via the sulfatase pathway produces 100-500 times more E(2) than androgen aromatization. Breast tissue also possesses the estrogen sulfotransferase involved in the conversion of estrogens into their sulfates that are biologically inactive. In the present review, we summarized the action of the 19-nor-progestin nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) on the sulfatase, 17beta-HSD1 and sulfotransferase activities in the hormone-dependent MCF-7 and T47-D human breast cancer cell lines. Using physiological doses of substrates NOMAC blocks very significantly the conversion of E(1)S to E(2). It inhibits the transformation of E(1) to E(2). NOMAC has a stimulatory effect on sulfotransferase activity in both cell lines, with a strong stimulating effect at low doses but only a weak effect at high concentrations. The effects on the three enzymes are always stronger in the progesterone-receptor rich T47-D cell line as compared with the MCF-7 cell line. Besides, no effect is found for NOMAC on the transformation of

  19. Disruption of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 K5 capsule biosynthesis, through loss of distinct kfi genes, modulates interaction with intestinal epithelial cells and impact on cell health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Nzakizwanayo

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN is among the best characterised probiotics, with a proven clinical impact in a range of conditions. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying these "probiotic effects" are not clearly defined. Here we applied random transposon mutagenesis to identify genes relevant to the interaction of EcN with intestinal epithelial cells. This demonstrated mutants disrupted in the kfiB gene, of the K5 capsule biosynthesis cluster, to be significantly enhanced in attachment to Caco-2 cells. However, this phenotype was distinct from that previously reported for EcN K5 deficient mutants (kfiC null mutants, prompting us to explore further the role of kfiB in EcN:Caco-2 interaction. Isogenic mutants with deletions in kfiB (EcNΔkfiB, or the more extensively characterised K5 capsule biosynthesis gene kfiC (EcNΔkfiC, were both shown to be capsule deficient, but displayed divergent phenotypes with regard to impact on Caco-2 cells. Compared with EcNΔkfiC and the EcN wild-type, EcNΔkfiB exhibited significantly greater attachment to Caco-2 cells, as well as apoptotic and cytotoxic effects. In contrast, EcNΔkfiC was comparable to the wild-type in these assays, but was shown to induce significantly greater COX-2 expression in Caco-2 cells. Distinct differences were also apparent in the pervading cell morphology and cellular aggregation between mutants. Overall, these observations reinforce the importance of the EcN K5 capsule in host-EcN interactions, but demonstrate that loss of distinct genes in the K5 pathway can modulate the impact of EcN on epithelial cell health.

  20. Disruption of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 K5 capsule biosynthesis, through loss of distinct kfi genes, modulates interaction with intestinal epithelial cells and impact on cell health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzakizwanayo, Jonathan; Kumar, Sandeep; Ogilvie, Lesley A; Patel, Bhavik A; Dedi, Cinzia; Macfarlane, Wendy M; Jones, Brian V

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is among the best characterised probiotics, with a proven clinical impact in a range of conditions. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying these "probiotic effects" are not clearly defined. Here we applied random transposon mutagenesis to identify genes relevant to the interaction of EcN with intestinal epithelial cells. This demonstrated mutants disrupted in the kfiB gene, of the K5 capsule biosynthesis cluster, to be significantly enhanced in attachment to Caco-2 cells. However, this phenotype was distinct from that previously reported for EcN K5 deficient mutants (kfiC null mutants), prompting us to explore further the role of kfiB in EcN:Caco-2 interaction. Isogenic mutants with deletions in kfiB (EcNΔkfiB), or the more extensively characterised K5 capsule biosynthesis gene kfiC (EcNΔkfiC), were both shown to be capsule deficient, but displayed divergent phenotypes with regard to impact on Caco-2 cells. Compared with EcNΔkfiC and the EcN wild-type, EcNΔkfiB exhibited significantly greater attachment to Caco-2 cells, as well as apoptotic and cytotoxic effects. In contrast, EcNΔkfiC was comparable to the wild-type in these assays, but was shown to induce significantly greater COX-2 expression in Caco-2 cells. Distinct differences were also apparent in the pervading cell morphology and cellular aggregation between mutants. Overall, these observations reinforce the importance of the EcN K5 capsule in host-EcN interactions, but demonstrate that loss of distinct genes in the K5 pathway can modulate the impact of EcN on epithelial cell health. PMID:25790373

  1. Ceramide signalling: regulatory role in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in human epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilen, C C; Wieder, T; Orfanos, C E

    1997-09-01

    The stratum corneum of vertebrates is a major structural compartment that provides mechanical protection and prevents skin desiccation. The water barrier function of the stratum corneum was first reported in 1944, and this was shown later to be associated with multilayered lipid lamellae localized in the extracellular spaces. The major lipid components isolated from the cornified epidermal layers are ceramides, which belong to the class of sphingolipids, cholesterol and free fatty acids; their biosynthesis is in tight relationship with the cutaneous barrier function. In studies in which the barrier is artificially disturbed, lipid biosynthesis is found to be directly regulated by barrier permeability. As mentioned above, the ceramides involved in this process are located in the extracellular spaces of the upper epidermal layers, whereas sphingomyelin, the most common sphingolipid, is an integral part of the bilayer plasma membrane of the keratinocytes. During the last few years, however, increasing evidence has shown that sphingolipids may also take part in cell signalling, and the term 'sphingomyelin cycle' has been coined to describe this novel path-way of signal transduction. Intracellular messengers of the sphingomyelin cycle are ceramides as the products of an agonist-stimulated sphingomyelin hydrolysis. Increased levels of intracellular ceramides induce cell differentiation and/or apoptosis and reduce cell proliferation. In contrast to the extracellular barrier-forming ceramides which are complex partly O-acylated species containing long-chain fatty acids, intracellular signal-transducing ceramides are not O-acylated and have acyl chain lengths of 16 and 18 carbon atoms. We present here a review of our present knowledge on the sphingomyelin cycle as a possible signal transduction pathway in the human epidermis. We discuss the common origin of extracellular ceramides constituting the lipid barrier and of intracellular ceramides generated by agonist

  2. Propiconazole-enhanced hepatic cell proliferation is associated with dysregulation of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway leading to activation of Erk1/2 through Ras farnesylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Lynea A.; Moore, Tanya; Nesnow, Stephen, E-mail: nesnow.stephen@epa.gov

    2012-04-15

    Propiconazole is a mouse hepatotumorigenic fungicide designed to inhibit CYP51, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ergosterol in fungi and is widely used in agriculture to prevent fungal growth. Metabolomic studies in mice revealed that propiconazole increased levels of hepatic cholesterol metabolites and bile acids, and transcriptomic studies revealed that genes within the cholesterol biosynthesis, cholesterol metabolism and bile acid biosyntheses pathways were up-regulated. Hepatic cell proliferation was also increased by propiconazole. AML12 immortalized hepatocytes were used to study propiconazole's effects on cell proliferation focusing on the dysregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis and resulting effects on Ras farnesylation and Erk1/2 activation as a primary pathway. Mevalonate, a key intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, increases cell proliferation in several cancer cell lines and tumors in vivo and serves as the precursor for isoprenoids (e.g. farnesyl pyrophosphate) which are crucial in the farnesylation of the Ras protein by farnesyl transferase. Farnesylation targets Ras to the cell membrane where it is involved in signal transduction, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In our studies, mevalonic acid lactone (MVAL), a source of mevalonic acid, increased cell proliferation in AML12 cells which was reduced by farnesyl transferase inhibitors (L-744,832 or manumycin) or simvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, indicating that this cell system responded to alterations in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Cell proliferation in AML12 cells was increased by propiconazole which was reversed by co-incubation with L-744,832 or simvastatin. Increasing concentrations of exogenous cholesterol muted the proliferative effects of propiconazole and the inhibitory effects of L-733,832, results ascribed to reduced stimulation of the endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Western blot analysis of subcellular

  3. Phorbol ester induces the biosynthesis of glycosylated and nonglycosylated plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 in high excess over urokinase-type plasminogen activator in human U-937 lymphoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    The tumor-promoting phorbol ester PMA induces changes in the histiocytic human lymphoma cell line U-937 akin to cellular differentiation (Ralph, P., N. Williams, M. A. S. Moore, and P. B. Litcofsky, 1982, Cell. Immunol., 71:215-223) and concomitantly stimulates the biosynthesis of plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI 2) and of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). PAI 2 is found in a nonglycosylated intracellular and a glycosylated secreted form. The former appears to be identical to...

  4. NAC-MYB-based transcriptional regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis in land plants

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Yoshimi; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Endo, Hitoshi; Rejab, Nur Ardiyana; Ohtani, Misato

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells biosynthesize primary cell walls (PCW) in all cells and produce secondary cell walls (SCWs) in specific cell types that conduct water and/or provide mechanical support, such as xylem vessels and fibers. The characteristic mechanical stiffness, chemical recalcitrance, and hydrophobic nature of SCWs result from the organization of SCW-specific biopolymers, i.e., highly ordered cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Synthesis of these SCW-specific biopolymers requires SCW-specific enz...

  5. Biosynthesis and turnover of O-acetyl and N-acetyl groups in the gangliosides of human melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We and others previously described the melanoma-associated oncofetal glycosphingolipid antigen 9-O-acetyl-GD3, a disialoganglioside O-acetylated at the 9-position of the outer sialic acid residue. We have now developed methods to examine the biosynthesis and turnover of disialogangliosides in cultured melanoma cells and in Golgi-enriched vesicles from these cells. O-Acetylation was selectively expressed on di- and trisialogangliosides, but not on monosialogangliosides, nor on glycoprotein-bound sialic acids. Double-labeling of cells with [3H]acetate and [14C]glucosamine introduced easily detectable labels into each of the components of the ganglioside molecules. Pulse-chase studies of such doubly labeled molecules indicated that the O-acetyl groups turn over faster than the parent molecule. When Golgi-enriched vesicles from these cells were incubated with [acetyl-3H]acetyl-coenzyme A, the major labeled products were disialogangliosides. [Acetyl-3H]O-acetyl groups were found at both the 7- and the 9-positions, indicating that both 7-O-acetyl GD3 and 9-O-acetyl GD3 were synthesized by the action of O-acetyltransferase(s) on endogenous GD3. Analysis of the metabolically labeled molecules confirmed the existence of both 7- and 9-O-acetylated GD3 in the intact cells. Surprisingly, the major 3H-labeled product of the in vitro labeling reaction was not O-acetyl-GD3, but GD3, with the label exclusively in the sialic acid residues. Fragmentation of the labeled sialic acids by enzymatic and chemical methods showed that the 3H-label was exclusively in [3H]N-acetyl groups. Analyses of the double-labeled sialic acids from intact cells also showed that the 3H-label from [3H]acetate was exclusively in the form of [3H]N-acetyl groups, whereas the 14C-label was at the 4-position

  6. Genes encoding Δ(8)-sphingolipid desaturase from various plants: identification, biochemical functions, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Yuan, Jin-Hong; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Hu, Zan-Min; Gao, Wu-Jun

    2016-09-01

    ∆(8)-sphingolipid desaturase catalyzes the C8 desaturation of a long chain base, which is the characteristic structure of various complex sphingolipids. The genes of 20 ∆(8)-sphingolipid desaturases from 12 plants were identified and functionally detected by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae system to elucidate the relationship between the biochemical function and evolution of this enzyme. Results showed that the 20 genes all can encode a functional ∆(8)-sphingolipid desaturase, which catalyzes different ratios of two products, namely, 8(Z) and 8(E)-C18-phytosphingenine. The coded enzymes could be divided into two groups on the basis of biochemical functions: ∆(8)-sphingolipid desaturase with a preference for an E-isomer product and ∆(8)-sphingolipid desaturase with a preference for a Z-isomer product. The conversion rate of the latter was generally lower than that of the former. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 20 desaturases could also be clustered into two groups, and this grouping is consistent with that of the biochemical functions. Thus, the biochemical function of ∆(8)-sphingolipid desaturase is correlated with its evolution. The two groups of ∆(8)-sphingolipid desaturases could arise from distinct ancestors in higher plants. However, they might have initially evolved from ∆(8)-sphingolipid desaturases in lower organisms, such as yeasts, which can produce E-isomer products only. Furthermore, almost all of the transgenic yeasts harboring ∆(8)-sphingolipid desaturase genes exhibit an improvement in aluminum tolerance. Our study provided new insights into the biochemical function and evolution of ∆(8)-sphingolipid desaturases in plants. PMID:27294968

  7. Solubilization and purification of the glucosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of teichuronic acid by fragments of Micrococcus luteus cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of teichuronic acid have been demonstrated in cytoplasmic membrane fragments recovered from lysozyme treated Micrococcus luteus cells. Solubilization of the glucosyltransferase activity was effected with aqueous solutions of Triton X-100, Nonidet P-40, Tween 20, or Thesit. Thesit proved most amenable for recovery of glucosyltransferase activity as well as spectrophotometric protein determinations. Recovery of the glucosyltranferase activity was aided during purification by inclusion of 15% glycerol, 0.75% Thesit, 20 mM magnesium ion and 2 mM 2-mercaptoethanol in all buffers. Glucosyltransferase activity was monitored by the transfer of [14C]glucose from UDP-[14C]glucose to an artificial acceptor. Although the natural acceptor is presumed to be an undecaprenyl diphosphate-activated oligosaccharide, alternate acceptors such as isolated cell wall fractions containing teichuronic acid served equally well. Highly purified teichuronic acid devoid of peptidoglycan was the most effective alternate acceptor. The glucosyltransferase was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose yielding an overall 200-fold increase in specific activity

  8. Characterization of AnNce102 and its role in eisosome stability and sphingolipid biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandros Athanasopoulos; Christos Gournas; Sotiris Amillis; Vicky Sophianopoulou

    2015-01-01

    The plasma membrane is implicated in a variety of functions, whose coordination necessitates highly dynamic organization of its constituents into domains of distinct protein and lipid composition. Eisosomes, at least partially, mediate this lateral plasma membrane compartmentalization. In this work, we show that the Nce102 homologue of Aspergillus nidulans colocalizes with eisosomes and plays a crucial role in density/number of PilA/SurG foci in the head of germlings. In addition we demonstra...

  9. Xyloglucan and its biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A Zabotina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The hemicellulosic polysaccharide xyloglucan (XyG, found in the primary cell walls of most plant tissues, is important for structural organization of the cell wall and regulation of growth and development. Significant recent progress in structural characterization of XyGs from different plant species has shed light on the diversification of XyG during plant evolution. Also, identification of XyG biosynthetic enzymes and examination of their interactions suggests the involvement of a multiprotein complex in XyG biosynthesis. This mini-review presents an updated overview of the diversity of XyG structures in plant taxa and recent findings on XyG biosynthesis.

  10. Sphingolipids activate membrane fusion of Semliki Forest virus in a stereospecific manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Corver, J; Erukulla, R K; Bittman, R; Wilschut, J

    1995-01-01

    assessed by flotation on sucrose density gradients, was not dependent on the presence of fusion-competent or fusion-incompetent sphingolipids in the liposomes. The results of this study support the notion that a stereospecific interaction of the viral fusion protein with D-erythro sphingolipids in the...

  11. Regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis by poplar R2R3 MYB transcription factor PtrMYB152 in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shucai [Northeast Normal Univ., Changchun (China); Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Li, Eryang [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Porth, Ilga [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Chen, Jin-Gui [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mansfield, Shawn D. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Douglas, Carl [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2014-05-23

    Poplar has 192 annotated R2R3 MYB genes, of which only three have been shown to play a role in the regulation of secondary cell wall formation. Here we report the characterization of PtrMYB152, a poplar homolog of the Arabidopsis R2R3 MYB transcription factor AtMYB43, in the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The expression of PtrMYB152 in secondary xylem is about 18 times of that in phloem. When expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of either 35S or PtrCesA8 promoters, PtrMYB152 increased secondary cell wall thickness, which is likely caused by increased lignification. Accordingly, elevated expression of genes encoding sets of enzymes in secondary wall biosynthesis were observed in transgenic plants expressing PtrMYB152. Arabidopsis protoplast transfection assays suggested that PtrMYB152 functions as a transcriptional activator. Taken together, our results suggest that PtrMYB152 may be part of a regulatory network activating expression of discrete sets of secondary cell wall biosynthesis genes.

  12. Proteoglycan biosynthesis in murine monocytic leukemic (M1) cells before and after differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murine monocytic leukemic (M1) cells were cultured in the presence of [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulfate. Labeled proteoglycans were purified by anion exchange chromatography and characterized by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in combination with chemical and enzymatic degradation. M1 cells synthesize a single predominant species of proteoglycan which distributes almost equally between the cell and medium after 17 h labeling. The cell-associated proteoglycan has an overall size of about 135 kDa and contains three to five chondroitin sulfate chains (28-31 kDa each) attached to a chondroitinase-generated core protein of 28 kDa. The synthesis and subsequent secretion of this proteoglycan was enhanced 4-5-fold in cells induced to differentiate into macrophages. This was not a phenomenon of arrest in the G0/G1 stage of the cell cycle, since density inhibited undifferentiated cells arrested at this stage did not increase proteoglycan synthesis. The chondroitin sulfate chains contained exclusively chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfate; however, the ratio of these two disaccharides differed between the medium- and cell-associated proteoglycans, and changed during progression of the cells into a fully differentiated phenotype. Pulse-chase kinetics indicate the presence of two distinct pools of proteoglycan; one that is secreted very rapidly from the cell after a approximately 1-h lag, and a second pool that is turned over in the cell with a half-time of approximately 3.5 h. Subtle differences in the glycosylation patterns of the medium- and cell-associated species are consistent with synthesis of two pools. Papain digestion suggests that the chondroitin sulfate chains are clustered on a small protease resistant peptide. The data suggest that this proteoglycan is similar to the serglycin proteoglycan family

  13. Influenza Viral Manipulation of Sphingolipid Metabolism and Signaling to Modulate Host Defense System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuvanthi Vijayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses attempt to create a distinctive cellular environment to favor viral replication and spread. Recent studies uncovered new functions of the sphingolipid signaling/metabolism during pathogenic virus infections. While sphingolipids such as sphingomyelin and ceramide were reported to influence the entry step of several viruses, sphingolipid-metabolizing enzymes could directly alter viral replication processes. Influenza virus was shown to increase the level of sphingosine kinase (SK 1 to promote virus propagation. The mechanism involves regulation of intracellular signaling pathways, leading to the amplification of influenza viral RNA synthesis and nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP complex. However, bovine viral diarrhea virus inhibits SK1 to enhance the efficacy of virus replication, demonstrating the presence of virus-specific strategies for modulation of the sphingolipid system. Therefore, investigating the sphingolipid metabolism and signaling in the context of virus replication could help us design innovative therapeutic approaches to improve human health.

  14. GIPC: Glycosyl Inositol Phospho Ceramides, the major sphingolipids on earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronnier, Julien; Germain, Véronique; Gouguet, Paul; Cacas, Jean-Luc; Mongrand, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    What are the most abundant sphingolipids on earth? The answer is Glycosyl Inositol Phosphoryl Ceramides (GIPCs) present in fungi and the green lineage. In this review, we discuss the putative role of plant GIPCs in the lipid bilayer asymmetry, in the lateral organization of membrane rafts and in the very long chain fatty acid inter-leaflet coupling of lipids in the plant plasma membrane (PM). A special focus on the structural similarities -and putative functions- of GIPCs is discussed by comparison with animal gangliosides, structural homologs of plant GIPCs. PMID:27074617

  15. Biosynthesis of Monascus pigments by resting cell submerged culture in nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Zhilong

    2016-08-01

    Growing cell submerged culture is usually applied for fermentative production of intracellular orange Monascus pigments, in which accumulation of Monascus pigments is at least partially associated to cell growth. In the present work, extractive fermentation in a nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution was utilized as a strategy for releasing of intracellular Monascus pigments. Those mycelia with low content of intracellular Monascus pigments were utilized as biocatalyst in resting cell submerged culture. By this means, resting cell submerged culture for production of orange Monascus pigments was carried out successfully in the nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution, which exhibited some advantages comparing with the corresponding conventional growing cell submerged culture, such as non-sterilization operation, high cell density (24 g/l DCW) leading to high productivity (14 AU of orange Monascus pigments at 470 nm per day), and recycling of cells as biocatalyst leading to high product yield (approximately 1 AU of orange Monascus pigments at 470 nm per gram of glucose) based on energy metabolism. PMID:26971494

  16. 7-Ketocholesterol Incorporation into Sphingolipid/Cholesterol-enriched (Lipid Raft) Domains Is Impaired by Vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Marie-Charlotte; Lemaire-Ewing, Stéphanie; Desrumaux, Catherine; Monier, Serge; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Athias, Anne; Néel, Dominique; Lagrost, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Cholesterol oxides, in particular 7-ketocholesterol, are proatherogenic compounds that induce cell death in the vascular wall when localized in lipid raft domains of the cell membrane. Deleterious effects of 7-ketocholesterol can be prevented by vitamin E, but the molecular mechanism involved is unclear. In this study, unlike γ-tocopherol, the α-tocopherol vitamin E form was found to prevent 7-ketocholesterol-mediated apoptosis of A7R5 smooth muscle cells. To be operative, α-tocopherol needed to be added to the cells before 7-ketocholesterol, and its anti-apoptotic effect was reduced and even suppressed when added together or after 7-ketocholesterol, respectively. Both pre- and co-treatment of the cells with α-tocopherol resulted in the redistribution of 7-ketocholesterol out of the sphingolipid/cholesterol-enriched (lipid raft) domains. In turn, fewer amounts of α-tocopherol associated with lipid rafts on 7-ketocholesterol-pretreated cells compared with untreated cells, with no prevention of cell death in this case. In further support of the implication of lipid raft domains, the dephosphorylation/inactivation of Akt-PKB was involved in the 7-ketocholesterol-induced apoptosis. Akt-PKB dephosphorylation was prevented by α-tocopherol, but not γ-tocopherol pretreatment. PMID:19351882

  17. Biosynthesis and characterization of a novel genetically engineered polymer for targeted gene transfer to cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Canine, Brenda F.; Wang, Yuhua; Hatefi, Arash

    2009-01-01

    A novel multi-domain biopolymer was designed and genetically engineered with the purpose to target and transfect cancer cells. The biopolymer contains at precise locations: 1) repeating units of arginine and histidine to condense pDNA and lyse endosome membranes, 2) a HER2 targeting affibody to target cancer cells, 3) a pH responsive fusogenic peptide to destabilize endosome membranes and enhance endosomolytic activity of histidine residues, and 4) a nuclear localization signal to enhance tra...

  18. Random sequencing of an induced Taxus cell cDNA library for identification of clones involved in Taxol biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Jennewein, Stefan; Wildung, Mark R.; Chau, MyDoanh; Walker, Kevin; Croteau, Rodney

    2004-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the anticancer drug Taxol involves 19 enzymatic steps from the universal diterpenoid progenitor geranylgeranyl diphosphate derived by the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate pathway for isoprenoid precursor supply. To gain further insight about Taxol biosynthesis relevant to the improved production of this drug and to draw inferences about the organization, regulation, and origins of this complex natural product pathway, random sequencing of a cDNA library derived from Taxus...

  19. Manipulation of culture strategies to enhance capsaicin biosynthesis in suspension and immobilized cell cultures of Capsicum chinense Jacq. cv. Naga King Chili.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehie, Mechuselie; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2014-06-01

    Manipulation of culture strategies was adopted to study the influence of nutrient stress, pH stress and precursor feeding on the biosynthesis of capsaicin in suspension and immobilized cell cultures of C. chinense. Cells cultured in the absence of one of the four nutrients (ammonium and potassium nitrate for nitrate and potassium stress, potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate for phosphorus stress, and sucrose for sugar stress) influenced the accumulation of capsaicin. Among the stress factors studied, nitrate stress showed maximal capsaicin production on day 20 (505.9 ± 2.8 μg g(-1) f.wt) in immobilized cell, whereas in suspension cultures the maximum accumulation (345.5 ± 2.9 μg g(-1) f.wt) was obtained on day 10. Different pH affected capsaicin accumulation; enhanced accumulation of capsaicin (261.6 ± 3.4 μg g(-1) f.wt) was observed in suspension cultures at pH 6 on day 15, whereas in case of immobilized cultures the highest capsaicin content (433.3 ± 3.3 μg g(-1) f.wt) was obtained at pH 5 on day 10. Addition of capsaicin precursors and intermediates significantly enhanced the biosynthesis of capsaicin, incorporation of vanillin at 100 μM in both suspension and immobilized cell cultures resulted in maximum capsaicin content with 499.1 ± 5.5 μg g(-1) f.wt on day 20 and 1,315.3 ± 10 μg g(-1) f.wt on day 10, respectively. Among the different culture strategies adopted to enhance capsaicin biosynthesis in cell cultures of C. chinense, cells fed with vanillin resulted in the maximum capsaicin accumulation. The rate of capsaicin production was significantly higher in immobilized cells as compared to freely suspended cells. PMID:24141419

  20. Modifications of Sphingolipid Content Affect Tolerance to Hemibiotrophic and Necrotrophic Pathogens by Modulating Plant Defense Responses in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnin-Robert, Maryline; Le Bourse, Doriane; Markham, Jonathan; Dorey, Stéphan; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dhondt-Cordelier, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids are emerging as second messengers in programmed cell death and plant defense mechanisms. However, their role in plant defense is far from being understood, especially against necrotrophic pathogens. Sphingolipidomics and plant defense responses during pathogenic infection were evaluated in the mutant of long-chain base phosphate (LCB-P) lyase, encoded by the dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate lyase1 (AtDPL1) gene and regulating long-chain base/LCB-P homeostasis. Atdpl1 mutants exhibit tolerance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea but susceptibility to the hemibiotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst). Here, a direct comparison of sphingolipid profiles in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) during infection with pathogens differing in lifestyles is described. In contrast to long-chain bases (dihydrosphingosine [d18:0] and 4,8-sphingadienine [d18:2]), hydroxyceramide and LCB-P (phytosphingosine-1-phosphate [t18:0-P] and 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine-1-phosphate [t18:1-P]) levels are higher in Atdpl1-1 than in wild-type plants in response to B. cinerea. Following Pst infection, t18:0-P accumulates more strongly in Atdpl1-1 than in wild-type plants. Moreover, d18:0 and t18:0-P appear as key players in Pst- and B. cinerea-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species accumulation. Salicylic acid levels are similar in both types of plants, independent of the pathogen. In addition, salicylic acid-dependent gene expression is similar in both types of B. cinerea-infected plants but is repressed in Atdpl1-1 after treatment with Pst. Infection with both pathogens triggers higher jasmonic acid, jasmonoyl-isoleucine accumulation, and jasmonic acid-dependent gene expression in Atdpl1-1 mutants. Our results demonstrate that sphingolipids play an important role in plant defense, especially toward necrotrophic pathogens, and highlight a novel connection between the jasmonate signaling pathway, cell death, and sphingolipids. PMID:26378098

  1. Modifications of Sphingolipid Content Affect Tolerance to Hemibiotrophic and Necrotrophic Pathogens by Modulating Plant Defense Responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnin-Robert, Maryline; Le Bourse, Doriane; Markham, Jonathan; Dorey, Stéphan; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dhondt-Cordelier, Sandrine

    2015-11-01

    Sphingolipids are emerging as second messengers in programmed cell death and plant defense mechanisms. However, their role in plant defense is far from being understood, especially against necrotrophic pathogens. Sphingolipidomics and plant defense responses during pathogenic infection were evaluated in the mutant of long-chain base phosphate (LCB-P) lyase, encoded by the dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate lyase1 (AtDPL1) gene and regulating long-chain base/LCB-P homeostasis. Atdpl1 mutants exhibit tolerance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea but susceptibility to the hemibiotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst). Here, a direct comparison of sphingolipid profiles in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) during infection with pathogens differing in lifestyles is described. In contrast to long-chain bases (dihydrosphingosine [d18:0] and 4,8-sphingadienine [d18:2]), hydroxyceramide and LCB-P (phytosphingosine-1-phosphate [t18:0-P] and 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine-1-phosphate [t18:1-P]) levels are higher in Atdpl1-1 than in wild-type plants in response to B. cinerea. Following Pst infection, t18:0-P accumulates more strongly in Atdpl1-1 than in wild-type plants. Moreover, d18:0 and t18:0-P appear as key players in Pst- and B. cinerea-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species accumulation. Salicylic acid levels are similar in both types of plants, independent of the pathogen. In addition, salicylic acid-dependent gene expression is similar in both types of B. cinerea-infected plants but is repressed in Atdpl1-1 after treatment with Pst. Infection with both pathogens triggers higher jasmonic acid, jasmonoyl-isoleucine accumulation, and jasmonic acid-dependent gene expression in Atdpl1-1 mutants. Our results demonstrate that sphingolipids play an important role in plant defense, especially toward necrotrophic pathogens, and highlight a novel connection between the jasmonate signaling pathway, cell death, and sphingolipids. PMID:26378098

  2. Sphingolipids: A Potential Molecular Approach to Treat Allergic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Y. Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic inflammation is an immune response to foreign antigens, which begins within minutes of exposure to the allergen followed by a late phase leading to chronic inflammation. Prolonged allergic inflammation manifests in diseases such as urticaria and rhino-conjunctivitis, as well as chronic asthma and life-threatening anaphylaxis. The prevalence of allergic diseases is profound with 25% of the worldwide population affected and a rising trend across all ages, gender, and racial groups. The identification and avoidance of allergens can manage this disease, but this is not always possible with triggers being common foods, prevalent air-borne particles and only extremely low levels of allergen exposure required for sensitization. Patients who are sensitive to multiple allergens require prophylactic and symptomatic treatments. Current treatments are often suboptimal and associated with adverse effects, such as the interruption of cognition, sleep cycles, and endocrine homeostasis, all of which affect quality of life and are a financial burden to society. Clearly, a better therapeutic approach for allergic diseases is required. Herein, we review the current knowledge of allergic inflammation and discuss the role of sphingolipids as potential targets to regulate inflammatory development in vivo and in humans. We also discuss the benefits and risks of using sphingolipid inhibitors.

  3. Role of leptin in the regulation of sterol/steroid biosynthesis in goose granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shenqiang; Gan, Chao; Wen, Rui; Xiao, Qihai; Gou, Hua; Liu, Hehe; Zhang, Yingying; Li, Liang; Wang, Jiwen

    2014-09-15

    Leptin is critical for reproductive endocrinology. The aim of this study is to assess the expression patterns of leptin receptor (Lepr) during ovarian follicle development and to reveal the mechanism by which leptin affects steroid hormone secretion in goose granulosa cells. Transcripts of Lepr were ubiquitous in all tested tissues, with pituitary and adrenal glands being the predominant sites. Goose ovarian follicles were divided into several groups by diameter including prehierarchical (4 to 6, 6 to 8, and 8 to 10 mm) and hierarchical (F5-F1) follicles. Lepr gene expression was significantly higher in granulosa cells than in theca cells from follicles of 4 to 8 mm in diameter. Expression of Lepr in granulosa cells decreased gradually as follicles developed, with fluctuating expression in F5 and F3 follicles. Lepr mRNA in theca cells underwent a slight decrease from the 6- to 8-mm cohorts to F5 follicle and then exhibited a transient increase and declined later. In vitro experiments in cultured goose granulosa cells showed that estradiol release was significantly stimulated, whereas progesterone increased slightly and testosterone decreased dramatically after leptin treatment. In accordance with the data for steroids, expression of Lepr, Srebp1, Cyp51, StAR, and Cyp19a1 were induced by the addition of leptin, and the concomitant changes in Hmgcs1, Dhcr24, Cyp11a1, 17β-hsd, Cyp17, and 3β-hsd gene expression were seen. These results suggested that leptin is involved in the development of goose ovarian follicles, and leptin's effect on steroid hormone secretion could be due to altered sterol/steroidogenic gene expression via interaction with its receptor. PMID:25016410

  4. Engineering PQS biosynthesis pathway for enhancement of bioelectricity production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa microbial fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Victor Bochuan; Chua, Song-Lin; Cao, Bin;

    2013-01-01

    . aeruginosa strain that produces higher concentrations of phenazines under anaerobic conditions by over-expressing the PqsE effector in a PQS negative ΔpqsC mutant. The engineered strain exhibited an improved electrical performance in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and potentiostat-controlled electrochemical...... genetic engineering is a suitable technique to improve power output of bioelectrochemical systems....

  5. Pectin Biosynthesis Is Critical for Cell Wall Integrity and Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethke, Gerit; Thao, Amanda; Xiong, Guangyan; Li, Baohua; Soltis, Nicole E; Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Hillmer, Rachel A; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Pauly, Markus; Glazebrook, Jane

    2016-02-01

    Plant cell walls are important barriers against microbial pathogens. Cell walls of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves contain three major types of polysaccharides: cellulose, various hemicelluloses, and pectins. UDP-d-galacturonic acid, the key building block of pectins, is produced from the precursor UDP-d-glucuronic acid by the action of glucuronate 4-epimerases (GAEs). Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 (Pma ES4326) repressed expression of GAE1 and GAE6 in Arabidopsis, and immunity to Pma ES4326 was compromised in gae6 and gae1 gae6 mutant plants. These plants had brittle leaves and cell walls of leaves had less galacturonic acid. Resistance to specific Botrytis cinerea isolates was also compromised in gae1 gae6 double mutant plants. Although oligogalacturonide (OG)-induced immune signaling was unaltered in gae1 gae6 mutant plants, immune signaling induced by a commercial pectinase, macerozyme, was reduced. Macerozyme treatment or infection with B. cinerea released less soluble uronic acid, likely reflecting fewer OGs, from gae1 gae6 cell walls than from wild-type Col-0. Although both OGs and macerozyme-induced immunity to B. cinerea in Col-0, only OGs also induced immunity in gae1 gae6. Pectin is thus an important contributor to plant immunity, and this is due at least in part to the induction of immune responses by soluble pectin, likely OGs, that are released during plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:26813622

  6. Human growth hormone binding and stimulation of insulin biosynthesis in cloned rat insulinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils

    1985-01-01

    Binding of 125I labelled human growth hormone to cloned insulin producing RIN-5AH cells is described. Binding was specific for somatotropic hormones since both human and rat growth hormone could compete for binding sites, whereas much higher concentrations of lactogenic hormones were needed to in...

  7. A positive feedback pathway of estrogen biosynthesis in breast cancer cells is contained by resveratrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19 enzyme or aromatase catalyses the rate-determining step of estrogen synthesis. The transcriptional control of CYP19 gene is highly specific in different cell types, for instance, Promoter I.3/II is commonly used for regulation in breast cancer cells. Recently, a positive feedback pathway for estrogen synthesis has been identified in ERα expressing SK-BR-3 cells. CYP19 mRNA abundance and activity are increased in this pathway and the promoter usage is switched from Promoter I.3/II to I.1 through a non-genomic process. In the present study, effect of the phytocompound resveratrol on this Promoter I.1-controlled expression of aromatase was investigated. Results indicated that resveratrol reduced the estradiol-induced mRNA abundance in SK-BR-3 cells expressing ERα. Luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that resveratrol could also repress the transcriptional control dictated by Promoter I.1. Since the ERE-driven luciferase activity was not repressed by resveratrol, the nuclear events of estrogen were unlikely to be suppressed by resveratrol. Instead the phytochemical reduced the amount of ERK activated by estradiol, which could be the pathway responsible for Promoter I.1 transactivation and the induced CYP19 expression. The present study illustrated that resveratrol impeded the non-genomic induction of estrogen on CYP19

  8. Enzymology and Molecular Biology of Cell Wall Biosynthesis. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Peter M. Ray

    2000-04-01

    The following aspects of enzymology of cell wall synthesis were pursued under this cited grant: (1) Isolation of plasma membrane-localized glucan synthase II (GS-II) of pea; (2) Cloning of genes for possible plant GS-II components; (3) Golgi glucan synthase-I (GS-I); and (4) Golgi reversibly glycosylated protein 1 (RGP1).

  9. Biosynthesis and secretion of functional protein S by a human megakaryoblastic cell line (MEG-01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A human megakaryoblastic cell line (MEG-01) was investigated for the presence of protein S in culture medium and cell lysates using a specific enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and a functional assay. When 5 X 10(5) MEG-01 cells/mL was subcultured in RPMI 1640 medium with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS), the concentration of protein S antigen in the culture medium increased progressively with time from less than 8 ng/mL on day 0 to 105.6 +/- 6.0 ng/mL on day 13. Vitamin K2(1 microgram/mL) increased the production of functional protein S, whereas warfarin (1 microgram/mL) profoundly decreased the quantity and the specific activity of secreted protein S. By an indirect immunofluorescent technique, protein S antigen was detected in both MEG-01 cells and human bone marrow megakaryocytes. Immunoblot analysis of culture medium revealed two distinct bands (mol wt 84,000 and 78,000) that are identical to the doublets of purified plasma protein S. De novo synthesis of protein S was demonstrated by the presence of specific immunoprecipitable radioactivity in the medium after 5 hours of labeling of the cells with [35S]-methionine as a 84,000 mol wt protein. Plasma protein S levels of nine patients with severe aplastic anemia were not significantly different from those of normal controls. These results suggest that megakaryocytes produce functional protein S and contain the enzymes required for the carboxylation of selected glutamic acid residues, and that protein S synthesized by megakaryocytes does not represent a main source of plasma protein S

  10. Trichothecenes induce accumulation of glucosylceramide in neural cells by interfering with lactosylceramide synthase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid metabolites produced by several fungal strains that impair human and animal health. Since sphingolipids were connected with fungal toxicity the aim of the present study was to test the influence of fungal metabolites on sphingolipid metabolism in neural cells. The crude extract of fungal strain Spicellum roseum induced accumulation of glucosylceramide (GlcCer), and simultaneous reduction of the formation of lactosylceramide (LacCer) and complex gangliosides in primary cultured neurons. Following a bioassay-guided fractionation of the respective fungal extract we could demonstrate that the two isolated trichothecene derivatives, 8-deoxy-trichothecin (8-dT) and trichodermol (Td-ol) were responsible for this effect. Thus, incubation of primary cultured neurons as well as of neuroblastoma B104 cells for 24 h with 30 μM of either of the two fungal metabolites resulted in uncoupling of sphingolipid biosynthesis at the level of LacCer. For the observed reduction of LacCer synthase activity by about 90% cell integrity was crucial in both cell types. In neuroblastoma cells the amount of LacCer synthase mRNA was reduced in the presence of trichothecenes, whereas in primary cultured neurons this was not the case, suggesting a post-transcriptional mechanism of action in the latter cell type. The data also show that the compounds did not interfere with the translocation of GlcCer in neuroblastoma cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that trichodermol and 8-deoxy-trichothecin inhibit LacCer synthase activity in a cell-type-specific manner

  11. Quantitative profiling of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its mycelia by using UHPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Jia-Ning; Wang, Jing-Rong; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, 101 sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its five mycelia were quantitatively profiled by using a fully validated UHPLC-MS method. The results revealed that a general rank order for the abundance of different classes of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its mycelia is sphingoid bases/ceramides > phosphosphingolipids > glycosphingolipids. However, remarkable sphingolipid differences between wild Cordyceps and its mycelia were observed. One is that sphingoid base is the dominant sphingolipid in wild Cordyceps, whereas ceramide is the major sphingolipid in mycelia. Another difference is that the abundance of sphingomyelins in wild Cordyceps is almost 10-folds higher than those in most mycelia. The third one is that mycelia contain more inositol phosphorylceramides and glycosphingolipids than wild Cordyceps. Multivariate analysis was further employed to visualize the difference among wild Cordyceps and different mycelia, leading to the identification of respective sphingolipids as potential chemical markers for the differentiation of wild Cordyceps and its related mycelia. This study represents the first report on the quantitative profiling of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its related mycelia, which provided comprehensive chemical evidence for the quality control and rational utilization of wild Cordyceps and its mycelia. PMID:26868933

  12. Expression of the bacterial type III effector DspA/E in Saccharomyces cerevisiae down-regulates the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway leading to growth arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siamer, Sabrina; Guillas, Isabelle; Shimobayashi, Mitsugu; Kunz, Caroline; Hall, Michael N; Barny, Marie-Anne

    2014-06-27

    Erwinia amylovora, the bacterium responsible for fire blight, relies on a type III secretion system and a single injected effector, DspA/E, to induce disease in host plants. DspA/E belongs to the widespread AvrE family of type III effectors that suppress plant defense responses and promote bacterial growth following infection. Ectopic expression of DspA/E in plant or in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is toxic, indicating that DspA/E likely targets a cellular process conserved between yeast and plant. To unravel the mode of action of DspA/E, we screened the Euroscarf S. cerevisiae library for mutants resistant to DspA/E-induced growth arrest. The most resistant mutants (Δsur4, Δfen1, Δipt1, Δskn1, Δcsg1, Δcsg2, Δorm1, and Δorm2) were impaired in the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. Exogenously supplied sphingolipid precursors such as the long chain bases (LCBs) phytosphingosine and dihydrosphingosine also suppressed the DspA/E-induced yeast growth defect. Expression of DspA/E in yeast down-regulated LCB biosynthesis and induced a rapid decrease in LCB levels, indicating that serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway, was repressed. SPT down-regulation was mediated by dephosphorylation and activation of Orm proteins that negatively regulate SPT. A Δcdc55 mutation affecting Cdc55-PP2A protein phosphatase activity prevented Orm dephosphorylation and suppressed DspA/E-induced growth arrest. PMID:24828506

  13. Growth in rice cells requires de novo purine biosynthesis by the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Jessie Fernandez; Kuan Ting Yang; Kathryn M. Cornwell; Wright, Janet D.; Richard A. Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Increasing incidences of human disease, crop destruction and ecosystem perturbations are attributable to fungi and threaten socioeconomic progress and food security on a global scale. The blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is the most devastating pathogen of cultivated rice, but its metabolic requirements in the host are unclear. Here we report that a purine-requiring mutant of M. oryzae could develop functional appressoria, penetrate host cells and undergo the morphogenetic transition to elabor...

  14. Towards an Understanding of How Protein Hydrolysates Stimulate More Efficient Biosynthesis in Cultured Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemensma, André; Babcock, James; Wilcox, Chris; Huttinga, Hans

    In the light of the growing demand for high quality plant-derived hydrolysates (i.e., HyPep™ and UltraPep™ series), Sheffield Bio-Science has developed a new hydrolysate platform that addresses the need for animal-free cell culture medium supplements while also minimizing variability concerns. The platform is based upon a novel approach to enzymatic digestion and more refined processing. At the heart of the platform is a rationally designed animal component-free (ACF) enzyme cocktail that includes both proteases and non-proteolytic enzymes (hydrolases) whose activities can also liberate primary components of the polymerized non-protein portion of the raw material. This enzyme system is added during a highly optimized process step that targets specific enzyme-substrate reactions to expand the range of beneficial nutritional factors made available to cells in culture. Such factors are fundamental to improving the bio-performance of the culture system, as they provide not merely growth-promoting peptides and amino acids, but also key carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, and vitamins that improve both rate and quality of protein expression, and serve to improve culture life due to osmo-protectant and anti-apoptotic properties. Also of significant note is that, compared to typical hydrolysates, the production process is greatly reduced and requires fewer steps, intrinsically yielding a better-controlled and therefore more reproducible product. Finally, the more sophisticated approach to enzymatic digestion renders hydrolysates more amenable to sterile filtration, allowing hydrolysate end users to experience streamlined media preparation and bioreactor supplementation activities. Current and future development activities will evolve from a better understanding of the complex interactions within a handful of key biochemical pathways that impact the growth and productivity of industrially relevant organisms. Presented in this chapter are some examples of the efforts that

  15. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) Induces Lamellar Separation and Alters Sphingolipid Metabolism of In Vitro Cultured Hoof Explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Nicole; Dohnal, Ilse; Nagl, Veronika; Schaumberger, Simone; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Mayer, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important hoof diseases is laminitis. Yet, the pathology of laminitis is not fully understood. Different bacterial toxins, e.g. endotoxins or exotoxins, seem to play an important role. Additionally, ingestion of mycotoxins, toxic secondary metabolites of fungi, might contribute to the onset of laminitis. In this respect, fumonsins are of special interest since horses are regarded as species most susceptible to this group of mycotoxins. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) on primary isolated epidermal and dermal hoof cells, as well as on the lamellar tissue integrity and sphingolipid metabolism of hoof explants in vitro. There was no effect of FB1 at any concentration on dermal or epidermal cells. However, FB1 significantly reduced the separation force of explants after 24 h of incubation. The Sa/So ratio was significantly increased in supernatants of explants incubated with FB1 (2.5–10 µg/mL) after 24 h. Observed effects on Sa/So ratio were linked to significantly increased sphinganine concentrations. Our study showed that FB1 impairs the sphingolipid metabolism of explants and reduces lamellar integrity at non-cytotoxic concentrations. FB1 might, therefore, affect hoof health. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary to elucidate the effects of FB1 on the equine hoof in more detail. PMID:27023602

  16. The effects of γ-ray ultrastructure and ethylene biosynthesis in apple pulp cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrastructural changes caused by gamma-ray (Co-60) irradiation were investigated in preclimacteric apple fruits during storage. Under the electron microscope, the cellulose in the cell walls was reduced to a line when treated with 40 Krad gamma radiation for 38 hr, and disappeared completely after treatment with 100 Krad. The disintegration of plasmalemma and mitochondria membranes was observed. Plasmalemma membranes were impaired after 10 Krads for 38 hr, while in the mitochondria the destruction of the original structure and its inner membrane spine began at 40 Krads for 38 hr. Moreover, the size of starch granules was reduced by the irradiation, disappearing after treatment with 100 Krads. Both ethylene production and respiration rate were drastically reduced. The reduction of ethylene production in treated apple fruit was found to be due to the decrease of ACC content and the inhibition of ethylene-forming enzyme activity. MACC content was also decreased. Fruits treated with 40 Krad gamma radiation and stored at 0-2 degrees C maintained their quality for six months

  17. Phorbol ester induces the biosynthesis of glycosylated and nonglycosylated plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 in high excess over urokinase-type plasminogen activator in human U-937 lymphoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genton, C.; Kruithof, E.K.; Schleuning, W.D.

    1987-03-01

    The tumor-promoting phorbol ester PMA induces changes in the histiocytic human lymphoma cell line U-937 akin to cellular differentiation and concomitantly stimulates the biosynthesis of plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI 2) and of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). PAI 2 is found in a nonglycosylated intracellular and a glycosylated secreted form. The former appears to be identical to PAI 2 previously purified from placental extracts and large-scale U-937 cell cultures. The sixfold increase of PAI 2 antigen measured 24 h after PMA treatment in cell extracts and conditioned media is accompanied by an equal increase of active PAI 2 mRNA, whereas the 6 to 13-fold increase of u-PA antigen in the same samples is associated with only a 1.5-fold mRNA increase. The increase of PAI 2, but not of u-PA, biosynthesis requires transcription. A 50-fold molar excess of PAI 2 over u-PA is found in both extracts and conditioned media of PMA-treated cells. PAI 2 represents at least 0.3% of total de novo synthesized protein 24 h after induction with PMA. Thus, PAI 2, but not u-PA, is an abundant product of this precursor analogue of the mononuclear phagocyte lineage, and might represent a new marker for monocyte/macrophage differentiation.

  18. The phosphoinositol sphingolipids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are highly localized in the plasma membrane.

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, J L; Lester, R L

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the vital function(s) of the phosphoinositol-containing sphingolipids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we measured their intracellular distribution and found these lipids to be highly localized in the plasma membrane. Sphingolipids were assayed in organelles which had been uniformly labeled with [3H]inositol or 32P and by chemical measurements of alkali-stable lipid P, of long chain bases, and of very long chain fatty acids. We have developed an improved method for the preparation ...

  19. Aβ1-25-Derived Sphingolipid-Domain Tracer Peptide SBD Interacts with Membrane Ganglioside Clusters via a Coil-Helix-Coil Motif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaofeng Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Amyloid-β (Aβ-derived, sphingolipid binding domain (SBD peptide is a fluorescently tagged probe used to trace the diffusion behavior of sphingolipid-containing microdomains in cell membranes through binding to a constellation of glycosphingolipids, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol. However, the molecular details of the binding mechanism between SBD and plasma membrane domains remain unclear. Here, to investigate how the peptide recognizes the lipid surface at an atomically detailed level, SBD peptides in the environment of raft-like bilayers were examined in micro-seconds-long molecular dynamics simulations. We found that SBD adopted a coil-helix-coil structural motif, which binds to multiple GT1b gangliosides via salt bridges and CH–π interactions. Our simulation results demonstrate that the CH–π and electrostatic forces between SBD monomers and GT1b gangliosides clusters are the main driving forces in the binding process. The presence of the fluorescent dye and linker molecules do not change the binding mechanism of SBD probes with gangliosides, which involves the helix-turn-helix structural motif that was suggested to constitute a glycolipid binding domain common to some sphingolipid interacting proteins, including HIV gp120, prion, and Aβ.

  20. Aβ1-25-Derived Sphingolipid-Domain Tracer Peptide SBD Interacts with Membrane Ganglioside Clusters via a Coil-Helix-Coil Motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaofeng; Kraut, Rachel; Mu, Yuguang

    2015-01-01

    The Amyloid-β (Aβ)-derived, sphingolipid binding domain (SBD) peptide is a fluorescently tagged probe used to trace the diffusion behavior of sphingolipid-containing microdomains in cell membranes through binding to a constellation of glycosphingolipids, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol. However, the molecular details of the binding mechanism between SBD and plasma membrane domains remain unclear. Here, to investigate how the peptide recognizes the lipid surface at an atomically detailed level, SBD peptides in the environment of raft-like bilayers were examined in micro-seconds-long molecular dynamics simulations. We found that SBD adopted a coil-helix-coil structural motif, which binds to multiple GT1b gangliosides via salt bridges and CH-π interactions. Our simulation results demonstrate that the CH-π and electrostatic forces between SBD monomers and GT1b gangliosides clusters are the main driving forces in the binding process. The presence of the fluorescent dye and linker molecules do not change the binding mechanism of SBD probes with gangliosides, which involves the helix-turn-helix structural motif that was suggested to constitute a glycolipid binding domain common to some sphingolipid interacting proteins, including HIV gp120, prion, and Aβ. PMID:26540054

  1. Influence of the products of radiolysis of uracil and thymidine on the biosynthesis of DNA of Ehrlich's ascites cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polverelli, M.; Teoule, R.

    1972-09-01

    From ninth annual meeting of the European society for Radiation Biology; Rome, Italy (26 8ep 1972). The effect of gamma radiolysis products in aqueous solution of uracil and thymidine on the normal replicative biosynthesis of DNA of Ehrlich's ascites cells incubated in vitro in the presence of radioactive precursors of DNA (/sup 14/C-methyl thymidine or (/sup 14/C/sub 2/-d esoxyrytidine) was studied. The inhibiting effect of the thymidine radiolysis products, desoxy-2' - BETA -D-ribofuranosyl-1-hydroxy-5methyl-5-barbituric acid and hydroxy-6-dihydro-5, 6-thymidine, and the uracil radiolysis products, alloxanne and parabanic acid, was shown. (JSR)

  2. Analysis of proteins associated with the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and the biosynthesis of PGE2 in breast cancer cells with different metastatic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Shevchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The proteome of lysates of the breast tumor cell lines MCF-7, BT-474, and ZR-75-1 was mapped, resulting in the sequence of 340 proteins. The proteins associated with the biosynthesis of PGE2 and with the regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression were identified and their relative expression levels were determined. Potential goals for the targeted therapy of breast cancer, such as prostaglandin E2 and D2 receptors, pros- taglandin E synthase, 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase and leukotriene-A4 -hydrolase, are of special interest in this group.

  3. Cell-specific expression of tryptophan decarboxylase and 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase, key genes involved in camptothecin biosynthesis in Camptotheca acuminata Decne (Nyssaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamaria Anna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camptotheca acuminata is a major natural source of the terpenoid indole alkaloid camptothecin (CPT. At present, little is known about the cellular distribution of the biosynthesis of CPT, which would be useful knowledge for developing new strategies and technologies for improving alkaloid production. Results The pattern of CPT accumulation was compared with the expression pattern of some genes involved in CPT biosynthesis in C. acuminata [i.e., Ca-TDC1 and Ca-TDC2 (encoding for tryptophan decarboxylase and Ca-HGO (encoding for 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase]. Both CPT accumulation and gene expression were investigated in plants at different degrees of development and in plantlets subjected to drought-stress. In all organs, CPT accumulation was detected in epidermal idioblasts, in some glandular trichomes, and in groups of idioblast cells localized in parenchyma tissues. Drought-stress caused an increase in CPT accumulation and in the number of glandular trichomes containing CPT, whereas no increase in epidermal or parenchymatous idioblasts was observed. In the leaf, Ca-TDC1 expression was detected in some epidermal cells and in groups of mesophyll cells but not in glandular trichomes; in the stem, it was observed in parenchyma cells of the vascular tissue; in the root, no expression was detected. Ca-TDC2 expression was observed exclusively in leaves of plantlets subjected to drought-stress, in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1. In the leaf, Ca-HGO was detected in all chlorenchyma cells; in the stem, it was observed in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1; in the root, no expression was detected. Conclusions The finding that the sites of CPT accumulation are not consistently the same as those in which the studied genes are expressed demonstrates an organ-to-organ and cell-to-cell translocation of CPT or its precursors.

  4. Polymethoxy flavones do not exert an inducing effect on the biosynthesis and secretion of insulin by pancreatic β-cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Hao; Chen, Hong-Dong; ZHAO, YI-JUN; Li, Hong-Min

    2014-01-01

    Polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), which are compounds characteristic of citrus plants, possess a wide range of biological properties, particularly affecting glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the mechanism underlying the antidiabetic activity of PMFs has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential effect of PMFs on the biosynthesis and secretion of insulin, which are crucial in diabetes. We investigated whether PMFs are able to induce insulin secretion ...

  5. Inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase in vitro and long-chain base biosynthesis in intact Chinese hamster ovary cells by β-chloroalanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of β-chloroalanine (β-Cl-alanine) on the serine palmitoyltransferase activity and the de novo biosynthesis of sphinganine and sphingenine were investigated in vitro with rat liver microsomes and in vivo with intact Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The inhibition in vitro was rapid, irreversible, and concentration and time dependent and apparently involved the active site because inactivation only occurred with β-Cl-L-alanine and was blocked by L-serine. These are characteristics of mechanism-based (suicide) inhibition. Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) was also inhibited when intact CHO cells were incubated with β-Cl-alanine and this treatment inhibited [14C]serine incorporation into long-chain bases by intact cells. The concentration dependence of the loss of SPT activity and of long-chain base synthesis was identical. The effects of β-Cl-alanine appeared to occur with little perturbation of other cell functions: the cells exhibited no loss in cell viability, [14C]serine uptake was not blocked, total lipid biosynthesis from [14C]acetic acid was not decreased (nor was the appearance of radiolabel in cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine), and [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA was not affected. There appeared to be little effect on protein synthesis based on the incorporation of [3H]leucine, which was only decreased by 14%. Although β-Cl-L-alanine is known to inhibit other pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent enzymes, alanine and aspartate transaminases were not inhibited under these conditions. These results establish the close association between the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase and the cellular rate of long-chain base formation and indicate that β-Cl-alanine and other mechanism-based inhibitors might be useful to study alterations in cellular long-chain base synthesis

  6. Inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase in vitro and long-chain base biosynthesis in intact Chinese hamster ovary cells by. beta. -chloroalanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medlock, K.A.; Merrill, A.H. Jr.

    1988-09-06

    The effects of ..beta..-chloroalanine (..beta..-Cl-alanine) on the serine palmitoyltransferase activity and the de novo biosynthesis of sphinganine and sphingenine were investigated in vitro with rat liver microsomes and in vivo with intact Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The inhibition in vitro was rapid, irreversible, and concentration and time dependent and apparently involved the active site because inactivation only occurred with ..beta..-Cl-L-alanine and was blocked by L-serine. These are characteristics of mechanism-based (suicide) inhibition. Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) was also inhibited when intact CHO cells were incubated with ..beta..-Cl-alanine and this treatment inhibited (/sup 14/C)serine incorporation into long-chain bases by intact cells. The concentration dependence of the loss of SPT activity and of long-chain base synthesis was identical. The effects of ..beta..-Cl-alanine appeared to occur with little perturbation of other cell functions: the cells exhibited no loss in cell viability, (/sup 14/C)serine uptake was not blocked, total lipid biosynthesis from (/sup 14/C)acetic acid was not decreased (nor was the appearance of radiolabel in cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine), and (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into DNA was not affected. There appeared to be little effect on protein synthesis based on the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)leucine, which was only decreased by 14%. Although ..beta..-Cl-L-alanine is known to inhibit other pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent enzymes, alanine and aspartate transaminases were not inhibited under these conditions. These results establish the close association between the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase and the cellular rate of long-chain base formation and indicate that ..beta..-Cl-alanine and other mechanism-based inhibitors might be useful to study alterations in cellular long-chain base synthesis.

  7. A R2R3-MYB transcription factor that is specifically expressed in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers affects secondary cell wall biosynthesis and deposition in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang; Gong, Si-Ying; Nie, Xiao-Ying; Li, Yang; Li, Wen; Huang, Geng-Qing; Li, Xue-Bao

    2015-07-01

    Secondary cell wall (SCW) is an important industrial raw material for pulping, papermaking, construction, lumbering, textiles and potentially for biofuel production. The process of SCW thickening of cotton fibers lays down the cellulose that will constitute the bulk (up to 96%) of the fiber at maturity. In this study, a gene encoding a MYB-domain protein was identified in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and designated as GhMYBL1. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that GhMYBL1 was specifically expressed in cotton fibers at the stage of secondary wall deposition. Further analysis indicated that this protein is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor, and is targeted to the cell nucleus. Overexpression of GhMYBL1 in Arabidopsis affected the formation of SCW in the stem xylem of the transgenic plants. The enhanced SCW thickening also occurred in the interfascicular fibers, xylary fibers and vessels of the GhMYBL1-overexpression transgenic plants. The expression of secondary wall-associated genes, such as CesA4, CesA7, CesA8, PAL1, F5H and 4CL1, were upregulated, and consequently, cellulose and lignin biosynthesis were enhanced in the GhMYBL1 transgenic plants. These data suggested that GhMYBL1 may participate in modulating the process of secondary wall biosynthesis and deposition of cotton fibers. PMID:25534543

  8. Effect of sex hormones on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in HepG2 cells and in human primary hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbons, Charlene M; Brenna, J Thomas; Lawrence, Peter; Hoile, Samuel P; Clarke-Harris, Rebecca; Lillycrop, Karen A; Burdge, Graham C

    2014-01-01

    Female humans and rodents have been shown to have higher 22:6n-3 status and synthesis than males. It is unclear which sex hormone is involved. We investigated the specificity of the effects of physiological concentrations of sex hormones in vitro on the mRNA expression of genes involved in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis and on the conversion of [d5]-18:3n-3 to longer chain fatty acids. Progesterone, but not 17α-ethynylestradiol or testosterone, increased FADS2, FADS1, ELOVl 5 and ELOVl 2 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells, but only FADS2 in primary human hepatocytes. In HepG2 cells, these changes were accompanied by hypomethylation of specific CpG loci in the FADS2 promoter. Progesterone, not 17α-ethynylestradiol or testosterone, increased conversion of [d5]-18:3n-3 to 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. These findings show that progesterone increases n-3 PUFA biosynthesis by up-regulating the mRNA expression of genes involved in this pathway, possibly via changes in the epigenetic regulation of FADS2. PMID:24411721

  9. Sphingosine Kinase 2 and Ceramide Transport as Key Targets of the Natural Flavonoid Luteolin to Induce Apoptosis in Colon Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loubna Abdel Hadi

    Full Text Available The plant flavonoid luteolin exhibits different biological effects, including anticancer properties. Little is known on the molecular mechanisms underlying its actions in colorectal cancer (CRC. Here we investigated the effects of luteolin on colon cancer cells, focusing on the balance between ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, two sphingoid mediators with opposite roles on cell fate. Using cultured cells, we found that physiological concentrations of luteolin induce the elevation of ceramide, followed by apoptotic death of colon cancer cells, but not of differentiated enterocytes. Pulse studies revealed that luteolin inhibits ceramide anabolism to complex sphingolipids. Further experiments led us to demonstrate that luteolin induces an alteration of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER-Golgi flow of ceramide, pivotal to its metabolic processing to complex sphingolipids. We report that luteolin exerts its action by inhibiting both Akt activation, and sphingosine kinase (SphK 2, with the consequent reduction of S1P, an Akt stimulator. S1P administration protected colon cancer cells from luteolin-induced apoptosis, most likely by an intracellular, receptor-independent mechanism. Overall this study reveals for the first time that the dietary flavonoid luteolin exerts toxic effects on colon cancer cells by inhibiting both S1P biosynthesis and ceramide traffic, suggesting its dietary introduction/supplementation as a potential strategy to improve existing treatments in CRC.

  10. Occurrence of bioactive sphingolipids in meat and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars

    2001-01-01

    . Therefore we investigated the contents of sphingomyelin and neutral glycosphingolipids in commonly consumed meat and fish products. Sphingomyelin and glycosphingolipids were found in all foodstuffs studied. The total amount varied between 118 +/- 17 nmol/g (cod) to 589 +/- 39 nmol/g (chicken leg). Generally......, lower amounts of sphingolipids were determined in fish meat than in red meat and poultry, while poultry was the richest source of this class of lipids. However, fish meat contained a relatively high content of neutral glycolipids compared with other types of meat. Thus, in fish the ratio sphingomyelin....../neutral glycolipids varied from 1 to 2.9, while in poultry this ratio varied between 5.2 to 19.2 and in red meat it varied from 1.6 to 8.3. The fatty acid composition of sphingomyelin in fish was dominated by C24:1 (Delta (9)) or C22:1 (Delta (9)), while C16:0 and C18:0 were the dominating sphingomyelin species in...

  11. Occurrence of bioactive sphingolipids in meat and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars

    2001-01-01

    , lower amounts of sphingolipids were determined in fish meat than in red meat and poultry, while poultry was the richest source of this class of lipids. However, fish meat contained a relatively high content of neutral glycolipids compared with other types of meat. Thus, in fish the ratio sphingomyelin....../neutral glycolipids varied from 1 to 2.9, while in poultry this ratio varied between 5.2 to 19.2 and in red meat it varied from 1.6 to 8.3. The fatty acid composition of sphingomyelin in fish was dominated by C24:1 (Delta (9)) or C22:1 (Delta (9)), while C16:0 and C18:0 were the dominating sphingomyelin species in....... Therefore we investigated the contents of sphingomyelin and neutral glycosphingolipids in commonly consumed meat and fish products. Sphingomyelin and glycosphingolipids were found in all foodstuffs studied. The total amount varied between 118 +/- 17 nmol/g (cod) to 589 +/- 39 nmol/g (chicken leg). Generally...

  12. Depletion of acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein affects sphingolipid synthesis and causes vesicle accumulation and membrane defects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaigg, B; Neergaard, T B; Schneiter, R; Hansen, J.K.; Faergeman, N J; Jensen, N A; Andersen, J R; Friis, J; Sandhoff, R; Schrøder, H D; Knudsen, J

    2001-01-01

    -70%. The reduced incorporation of [(3)H]myo-inositol into sphingolipids was due to a reduced incorporation into inositol-phosphoceramide and mannose-inositol-phosphoceramide only, a pattern that is characteristic for cells with aberrant endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport. The plasma membrane of the...... Acb1p-depleted strain contained increased levels of inositol-phosphoceramide and mannose-inositol-phosphoceramide and lysophospholipids. Acb1p-depleted cells accumulated 50- to 60-nm vesicles and autophagocytotic like bodies and showed strongly perturbed plasma membrane structures. The present results...

  13. Changes in membrane sphingolipid composition modulate dynamics and adhesion of integrin nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eich, Christina; Manzo, Carlo; de Keijzer, Sandra; Bakker, Gert-Jan; Reinieren-Beeren, Inge; García-Parajo, Maria F; Cambi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids are essential constituents of the plasma membrane (PM) and play an important role in signal transduction by modulating clustering and dynamics of membrane receptors. Changes in lipid composition are therefore likely to influence receptor organisation and function, but how this precisely occurs is difficult to address given the intricacy of the PM lipid-network. Here, we combined biochemical assays and single molecule dynamic approaches to demonstrate that the local lipid environment regulates adhesion of integrin receptors by impacting on their lateral mobility. Induction of sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity reduced sphingomyelin (SM) levels by conversion to ceramide (Cer), resulting in impaired integrin adhesion and reduced integrin mobility. Dual-colour imaging of cortical actin in combination with single molecule tracking of integrins showed that this reduced mobility results from increased coupling to the actin cytoskeleton brought about by Cer formation. As such, our data emphasizes a critical role for the PM local lipid composition in regulating the lateral mobility of integrins and their ability to dynamically increase receptor density for efficient ligand binding in the process of cell adhesion. PMID:26869100

  14. Magnolol Affects Cellular Proliferation, Polyamine Biosynthesis and Catabolism-Linked Protein Expression and Associated Cellular Signaling Pathways in Human Prostate Cancer Cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan T. McKeown

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed form of cancer in men in Canada and the United States. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development and progression of many cancers, including prostate cancer. Context and purpose of this study: This study investigated the effects of magnolol, a compound found in the roots and bark of the magnolia tree Magnolia officinalis, on cellular proliferation and proliferation-linked activities of PC3 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Results: PC3 cells exposed to magnolol at a concentration of 80 μM for 6 hours exhibited decreased protein expression of ornithine decarboxylase, a key regulator in polyamine biosynthesis, as well as affecting the expression of other proteins involved in polyamine biosynthesis and catabolism. Furthermore, protein expression of the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, a key regulatory protein associated with DNA synthesis, was significantly decreased. Finally, the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase, PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, NFκB (nuclear factor of kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells and AP-1 (activator protein 1 cellular signaling pathways were assayed to determine which, if any, of these pathways magnolol exposure would alter. Protein expressions of p-JNK-1 and c-jun were significantly increased while p-p38, JNK-1/2, PI3Kp85, p-PI3Kp85, p-Akt, NFκBp65, p-IκBα and IκBα protein expressions were significantly decreased. Conclusions: These alterations further support the anti-proliferative effects of magnolol on PC3 human prostate cancer cells in vitro and suggest that magnolol may have potential as a novel anti-prostate cancer agent.

  15. Cotton GalT1 encoding a putative glycosyltransferase is involved in regulation of cell wall pectin biosynthesis during plant development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Xia Qin

    Full Text Available Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs, are a group of highly glycosylated proteins that are found throughout the plant kingdom. To date, glycosyltransferases that glycosylate AGP backbone have remained largely unknown. In this study, a gene (GhGalT1 encoding a putative β-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GalT was identified in cotton. GhGalT1, belonging to CAZy GT31 family, is the type II membrane protein that contains an N-terminal transmembrane domain and a C-terminal galactosyltransferase functional domain. A subcellular localization assay demonstrated that GhGalT1 was localized in the Golgi apparatus. RT-PCR analysis revealed that GhGalT1 was expressed at relatively high levels in hypocotyls, roots, fibers and ovules. Overexpression of GhGalT1 in Arabidopsis promoted plant growth and metabolism. The transgenic seedlings had much longer primary roots, higher chlorophyll content, higher photosynthetic efficiency, the increased biomass, and the enhanced tolerance to exogenous D-arabinose and D-galactose. In addition, gas chromatography (GC analysis of monosaccharide composition of cell wall fractions showed that pectin was changed in the transgenic plants, compared with that of wild type. Three genes (GAUT8, GAUT9 and xgd1 involved in pectin biosynthesis were dramatically up-regulated in the transgenic lines. These data suggested that GhGalT1 may be involved in regulation of pectin biosynthesis required for plant development.

  16. mTORC1 Controls PNS Myelination along the mTORC1-RXRγ-SREBP-Lipid Biosynthesis Axis in Schwann Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Norrmén

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Myelin formation during peripheral nervous system (PNS development, and reformation after injury and in disease, requires multiple intrinsic and extrinsic signals. Akt/mTOR signaling has emerged as a major player involved, but the molecular mechanisms and downstream effectors are virtually unknown. Here, we have used Schwann-cell-specific conditional gene ablation of raptor and rictor, which encode essential components of the mTOR complexes 1 (mTORC1 and 2 (mTORC2, respectively, to demonstrate that mTORC1 controls PNS myelination during development. In this process, mTORC1 regulates lipid biosynthesis via sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs. This course of action is mediated by the nuclear receptor RXRγ, which transcriptionally regulates SREBP1c downstream of mTORC1. Absence of mTORC1 causes delayed myelination initiation as well as hypomyelination, together with abnormal lipid composition and decreased nerve conduction velocity. Thus, we have identified the mTORC1-RXRγ-SREBP axis controlling lipid biosynthesis as a major contributor to proper peripheral nerve function.

  17. Changes of sphingolipids profiles after ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Shu-ting; LIANG Ting-bo; LIU Guang-yi; XUE Fei; SUN Gong-ping; LIANG Liang; CHEN Wei; XU Guo-dong; LI Jun-jian; YANG Jun

    2009-01-01

    Background Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs in many clinical procedures. The molecular mechanisms responsible for hepatic I/R injury however remain unknown. Sphingolipids, in particular ceramide, play a role in stress and death receptor-induced hepatocellular death, contributing to the progression of several liver diseases including liver I/R injury. In order to further define the role of sphingolipids in hepatic I/R, systemic analysis of sphingolipids after reperfusion is necessary.Methods We investigated the lipidomic changes of sphingolipids in a rat model of warm hepatic I/R injury, by delayed extraction matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DE MALDI-TOF-MS). Results The total amounts of ceramide and sphingomyelin and the intensity of most kinds of sphingolipids, mainly sphingomyelin, significantly increased at 1 hour after reperfusion (P <0.05) and reached peaks at 6 hours after reperfusion (P<0.01) compared to controls. Six new forms of ceramide and sphingomyelins appeared 6 hours after reperfusion, they were (m/z) 537.8, 555.7, 567.7, 583.8, 683.5 and 731.4 respectively. A ceramide-monohexoside (m/z) 804.4 (CMH(d18:1C22:1+Na)~+) also increased after reperfusion and correlated with extent of liver injury after reperfursion.Conclusions Three main forms of sphingolipids, ceramide, sphingomyelin and ceramide-monohexoside, are related to hepatic I/R injury and provide a new perspective in understanding the mechanisms responsible for hepatic I/R injury.

  18. Preservation of Bacillus firmus Strain 37 and Optimization of Cyclodextrin Biosynthesis by Cells Immobilized on Loofa Sponge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Moriwaki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of Bacillus firmus strain 37 cells by lyophilization was evaluated and response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize the β-cyclodextrin (β-CD production by cells immobilized on loofa sponge. Interactions were studied with the variables temperature, pH and dextrin concentration using a central composite design (CCD. Immobilization time influence on β-CD production was also investigated. B. firmus strain 37 cells remained viable after one year of storage, showing that the lyophilization is a suitable method for preservation of the microorganism. From the three-dimensional diagrams and contour plots, the best conditions for β-CD production were determined: temperature 60 °C, pH 8, and 18% dextrin. Considering that the amount of dextrin was high, a new assay was carried out, in which dextrin concentrations of 10, 15, and 18% were tested and the temperature of 60 °C and pH 8 were maintained. The results achieved showed very small differences and therefore, for economic reasons, the use of 10% dextrin is suggested. Increasing the immobilization time of cells immobilized on synthetic sponge the β-CD production decreased and did not change for cells immobilized on loofa sponge. The results of this research are important for microorganism preservation and essential in the optimization of the biosynthesis of CD.

  19. Lignification: Flexibility, Biosynthesis and Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiao

    2016-08-01

    Lignin is a complex phenolic polymer that is deposited in the secondary cell wall of all vascular plants. The evolution of lignin is considered to be a critical event during vascular plant development, because lignin provides mechanical strength, rigidity, and hydrophobicity to secondary cell walls to allow plants to grow tall and transport water and nutrients over a long distance. In recent years, great research efforts have been made to genetically alter lignin biosynthesis to improve biomass degradability for the production of second-generation biofuels. This global focus on lignin research has significantly advanced our understanding of the lignification process. Based on these advances, here I provide an overview of lignin composition, the biosynthesis pathway and its regulation. PMID:27131502

  20. Comparison of lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis genes of Campylobacter jejuni strains with varying abilities to colonize the chicken gut and to invade Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jens; Meyer, Birgit; Hänel, Ingrid; Hotzel, Helmut

    2007-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni strains develop a high variability of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) structures on the cell surface based on variations in the genetic content of the LOS biosynthesis locus. While the importance of these variations for ganglioside mimicry as a critical factor in the triggering of Guillain-Barré syndrome has already been shown, little work has been done on the investigation of LOS structures and their function in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disease. In this study, the presence of several LOS genes in 40 C. jejuni strains with different abilities to colonize the chicken gut and to invade Caco-2 cells was investigated by PCR. Two genes, cgtB and wlaN, encoding putative beta-1,3-galactosyltransferases were detected in most strongly invasive strains and rarely in non-invasive strains. A homopolymeric tract within the wlaN gene resulted in an intact gene product only in strongly invasive strains. The specific function of these genes during LOS biosynthesis is still unknown. cgtB and wlaN gene products are suggested to be involved in development of the colonization and invasion ability of C. jejuni. After a classification of the complete LOS loci, an association between a particular LOS class and colonization and invasion ability of the C. jejuni strain could not be detected. Lack of the pglB gene involved in protein glycosylation in one strain could be responsible for the weak colonization and invasion ability of this strain. There is some evidence that different genetic characteristics were responsible for strong or weak colonization and the invasion ability of C. jejuni strains. PMID:18033824

  1. Coordinate up-regulation of TMEM97 and cholesterol biosynthesis genes in normal ovarian surface epithelial cells treated with progesterone: implications for pathogenesis of ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovarian cancer (OvCa) most often derives from ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells. Several lines of evidence strongly suggest that increased exposure to progesterone (P4) protects women against developing OvCa. However, the underlying mechanisms of this protection are incompletely understood. To determine downstream gene targets of P4, we established short term in vitro cultures of non-neoplastic OSE cells from six subjects, exposed the cells to P4 (10-6 M) for five days and performed transcriptional profiling with oligonucleotide microarrays containing over 22,000 transcripts. We identified concordant but modest gene expression changes in cholesterol/lipid homeostasis genes in three of six samples (responders), whereas the other three samples (non-responders) showed no expressional response to P4. The most up-regulated gene was TMEM97 which encodes a transmembrane protein of unknown function (MAC30). Analyses of outlier transcripts, whose expression levels changed most significantly upon P4 exposure, uncovered coordinate up-regulation of 14 cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes, insulin-induced gene 1, low density lipoprotein receptor, ABCG1, endothelial lipase, stearoyl- CoA and fatty acid desaturases, long-chain fatty-acyl elongase, and down-regulation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and ABCC6. Highly correlated tissue-specific expression patterns of TMEM97 and the cholesterol biosynthesis genes were confirmed by analysis of the GNF Atlas 2 universal gene expression database. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed 2.4-fold suppression of the TMEM97 gene expression in short-term cultures of OvCa relative to the normal OSE cells. These findings suggest that a co-regulated transcript network of cholesterol/lipid homeostasis genes and TMEM97 are downstream targets of P4 in normal OSE cells and that TMEM97 plays a role in cholesterol and lipid metabolism. The P4-induced alterations in cholesterol and lipid metabolism in OSE cells might play a role in

  2. A higher plant delta8 sphingolipid desaturase with a preference for (Z)-isomer formation confers aluminum tolerance to yeast and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter R; Liu, Qing; Sperling, Petra; Dong, Bei; Franke, Stefan; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2007-08-01

    Three plant cDNA libraries were expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and screened on agar plates containing toxic concentrations of aluminum. Nine cDNAs were isolated that enhanced the aluminum tolerance of yeast. These cDNAs were constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and one cDNA from the roots of Stylosanthes hamata, designated S851, conferred greater aluminum tolerance to the transgenic seedlings. The protein predicted to be encoded by S851 showed an equally high similarity to Delta6 fatty acyl lipid desaturases and Delta8 sphingolipid desaturases. We expressed other known Delta6 desaturase and Delta8 desaturase genes in yeast and showed that a Delta6 fatty acyl desaturase from Echium plantagineum did not confer aluminum tolerance, whereas a Delta8 sphingobase desaturase from Arabidopsis did confer aluminum tolerance. Analysis of the fatty acids and sphingobases of the transgenic yeast and plant cells demonstrated that S851 encodes a Delta8 sphingobase desaturase, which leads to the accumulation of 8(Z/E)-C(18)-phytosphingenine and 8(Z/E)-C(20)-phytopshingenine in yeast and to the accumulation of 8(Z/E)-C(18)-phytosphingenine in the leaves and roots of Arabidopsis plants. The newly formed 8(Z/E)-C(18)-phytosphingenine in transgenic yeast accounted for 3 mol% of the total sphingobases with a 8(Z):8(E)-isomer ratio of approximately 4:1. The accumulation of 8(Z)-C(18)-phytosphingenine in transgenic Arabidopsis shifted the ratio of the 8(Z):8(E) isomers from 1:4 in wild-type plants to 1:1 in transgenic plants. These results indicate that S851 encodes the first Delta8 sphingolipid desaturase to be identified in higher plants with a preference for the 8(Z)-isomer. They further demonstrate that changes in the sphingolipid composition of cell membranes can protect plants from aluminum stress. PMID:17600137

  3. A Higher Plant Δ8 Sphingolipid Desaturase with a Preference for (Z)-Isomer Formation Confers Aluminum Tolerance to Yeast and Plants[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter R.; Liu, Qing; Sperling, Petra; Dong, Bei; Franke, Stefan; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Three plant cDNA libraries were expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and screened on agar plates containing toxic concentrations of aluminum. Nine cDNAs were isolated that enhanced the aluminum tolerance of yeast. These cDNAs were constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and one cDNA from the roots of Stylosanthes hamata, designated S851, conferred greater aluminum tolerance to the transgenic seedlings. The protein predicted to be encoded by S851 showed an equally high similarity to Δ6 fatty acyl lipid desaturases and Δ8 sphingolipid desaturases. We expressed other known Δ6 desaturase and Δ8 desaturase genes in yeast and showed that a Δ6 fatty acyl desaturase from Echium plantagineum did not confer aluminum tolerance, whereas a Δ8 sphingobase desaturase from Arabidopsis did confer aluminum tolerance. Analysis of the fatty acids and sphingobases of the transgenic yeast and plant cells demonstrated that S851 encodes a Δ8 sphingobase desaturase, which leads to the accumulation of 8(Z/E)-C18-phytosphingenine and 8(Z/E)-C20-phytopshingenine in yeast and to the accumulation of 8(Z/E)-C18-phytosphingenine in the leaves and roots of Arabidopsis plants. The newly formed 8(Z/E)-C18-phytosphingenine in transgenic yeast accounted for 3 mol% of the total sphingobases with a 8(Z):8(E)-isomer ratio of approximately 4:1. The accumulation of 8(Z)-C18-phytosphingenine in transgenic Arabidopsis shifted the ratio of the 8(Z):8(E) isomers from 1:4 in wild-type plants to 1:1 in transgenic plants. These results indicate that S851 encodes the first Δ8 sphingolipid desaturase to be identified in higher plants with a preference for the 8(Z)-isomer. They further demonstrate that changes in the sphingolipid composition of cell membranes can protect plants from aluminum stress. PMID:17600137

  4. Current relevance of fungal and trypanosomatid glycolipids and sphingolipids: studies defining structures conspicuously absent in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio K. Takahashi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, glycosphingolipids have been attracting attention due to their role on biological systems as second messengers or modulators of signal transduction, affecting several events, which range from apoptosis to regulation of the cell cycle. In pathogenic fungi, glycolipids are expressed in two classes: neutral monohexosylceramides (glucosyl-or galactosylceramide and acidic glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (the latter class carries longer glycan chains. It is worth to mention that monohexosylceramides exhibit significant structural differences in their lipid moieties compared to their mammalian counterparts, whereas the glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides exhibit remarkable structural differences in their carbohydrate moieties in comparison to mammal glycosphingolipids counterpart. We observed that glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides are capable of promoting immune response in infected humans. In addition, inhibiting fungal glycosphingolipid biosynthetic pathways leads to an inhibition of colony formation, spore germination, cell cycle, dimorphism and hyphal growth. Other pathogens, such as trypanosomatids, also present unique glycolipids, which may have an important role for the parasite development and/or disease establishment. Regarding host-pathogen interaction, cell membrane rafts, which are enriched in sphingolipids and sterols, participate in parasite/fungal infection. In this review, it is discussed the different biological roles of (glyco (sphingolipids of pathogenic/opportunistic fungi and trypanosomatids.Recentemente, glicoesfingolipídeos têm atraído atenção devido ao seu papel na biologia celular como segundo-mensageiro ou moduladores da transdução de sinal, afetando vários eventos, desde apoptose até a regulação do ciclo celular. Em fungos patogênicos, existem duas classes de glicolipídeos: monohexosil ceramidas neutras (glucosil-ou galactosilceramida e glicosilinositol fosforilceramidas (os quais apresentam

  5. BIOSYNTHESIS OF NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is reviewed in detail in this study. Comparison of different synthesis methods, namely physical, chemical and green methods giving emphasis to biological synthesis is documented here. This study also details limitations of the present techniques and envisages the future scope of nanoparticle biosynthesis. Important applications of nanoparticles are also discussed briefly in the present report.

  6. Antihypertensive Treatment Differentially Affects Vascular Sphingolipid Biology in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.A. Spijkers; B.J.A. Janssen; J. Nelissen; M.J.P.M.T. Meens; D. Wijesinghe; C.E. Chalfant; J.G.R. de Mey; A.E. Alewijnse; S.L.M. Peters

    2011-01-01

    Background: We have previously shown that essential hypertension in humans and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), is associated with increased levels of ceramide and marked alterations in sphingolipid biology. Pharmacological elevation of ceramide in isolated carotid arteries of SHR leads to vas

  7. Changes in membrane sphingolipid composition modulate dynamics and adhesion of integrin nanoclusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Eich (Christina); C. Manzo (Carlo); S. de Keijzer (Sandra); G.J. Bakker (Gert-Jan); I. Reinieren-Beeren (Inge); M.F. García-Parajo (Maria); A. Cambi (Alessandra)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSphingolipids are essential constituents of the plasma membrane (PM) and play an important role in signal transduction by modulating clustering and dynamics of membrane receptors. Changes in lipid composition are therefore likely to influence receptor organisation and function, but how t

  8. Sphingolipids in congenital diaphragmatic hernia; results from an international multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Snoek (Kitty); I.K.M. Reiss (Irwin); J. Tibboel (Jeroen); J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); I. Capolupo (Irma); A.F.J. van Heijst (Arno); T. Schaible (Thomas); M.R. Post (Martin); D. Tibboel (Dick)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a severe congenital anomaly with significant mortality and morbidity, for instance chronic lung disease. Sphingolipids have shown to be involved in lung injury, but their role in the pathophysiology of chronic lung disease has not been explo

  9. Low serum sphingolipids in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Patricia Henríquez-Henríquez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most prevalent neuropsychiatric condition in childhood. ADHD is a multifactorial trait with a strong genetic component. One neurodevelopmental hypothesis is that ADHD is associated with a lag in brain maturation. Sphingolipids are essential for brain development and neuronal functioning, but their role in ADHD pathogenesis is unexplored. We hypothesized that serum sphingolipid levels distinguish ADHD patients from unaffected subjects. Methods: We characterized serum sphingolipid profiles of ADHD patients and two control groups: non-affected relatives and non-affected subjects without a family history of ADHD. Sphingolipids were measured by LC-MS/MS in 77 participants (28 ADHD patients, 28 related controls and 21 unrelated controls. ADHD diagnosis was based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV-TR. Diagnostic criteria were assessed by 2 independent observers. Groups were compared by parametrical statistics. Results: Serum sphingomyelins C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C24:1, ceramide C24:0 and deoxy-ceramide C24:1 were significantly decreased in ADHD patients at 20-30% relative reductions. In our sample, decreased serum sphingomyelin levels distinguished ADHD patients with 79% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Conclusions: Our results showed lower levels of all major serum sphingomyelins in ADHD. These findings may reflect brain maturation and affect neuro-functional pathways characteristic for ADHD.

  10. Biochemical methods for quantifying sphingolipids: ceramide, sphingosine, sphingosine kinase-1 activity, and sphingosine-1-phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizuela, Leyre; Cuvillier, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Sphingolipids (ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate) are bioactive lipids with important biological functions in proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and inflammation. Herein, we describe easy and rapid biochemical methods with the use of radiolabeled molecules ((3)H, (32)P) for their mass determination. Quantitation of sphingosine kinase-1 activity, the most studied isoform, is also included. PMID:22528435

  11. Human Trabecular Meshwork Sphingolipid and Ceramide Profiles and Potential Latent Fungal Commensalism

    OpenAIRE

    Aljohani, Ayman J.; Edwards, Genea; Guerra, Yenifer; Dubovy, Sander; Miller, Darlene; Lee, Richard K; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K.

    2014-01-01

    The mass spectrometry-identified sphingolipids and ceramides in the trabecular meshwork (TM) showed presence of nonmammalian sphingoid base Fumonisins. Taken together with Gomori methenamine silver staining and DNA amplification, this suggests widespread latent commensalism by Fusarium species in the human TM.

  12. Role of sphingolipid mediator ceramide in obesity and renal injury in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boini, Krishna M; Zhang, Chun; Xia, Min; Poklis, Justin L; Li, Pin-Lan

    2010-09-01

    The present study tested a hypothesis that excess accumulation of sphingolipid, ceramide, its metabolites, or a combination contributes to the development of obesity and associated kidney damage. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that C57BL/6J mice on the high-fat diet (HFD) had significantly increased plasma total ceramide levels compared with animals fed a low-fat diet (LFD). Treatment of mice with the acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) inhibitor amitriptyline significantly attenuated the HFD-induced plasma ceramide levels. Corresponding to increase in plasma ceramide, the HFD significantly increased the body weight gain, plasma leptin concentration, urinary total protein and albumin excretion, glomerular damage index, and adipose tissue ASMase activity compared with the LFD-fed mice. These HFD-induced changes were also significantly attenuated by treatment of mice with amitriptyline. In addition, the decline of plasma glucose concentration after an intraperitoneal injection of insulin (0.15 U/kg b.wt.) was more sustained in mice on the HFD with amitriptyline than on the HFD alone. Intraperitoneal injection of glucose (3 g/kg b.wt.) resulted in a slow increase followed by a rapid decrease in the plasma glucose concentration in LFD and HFD plus amitriptyline-treated mice, but such blood glucose response was not observed in HFD-fed mice. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated a decrease in the podocin and an increase in the desmin in the glomeruli of HFD-fed mice compared with the LFD and HFD plus amitriptyline-treated mice. In conclusion, our results reveal a pivotal role for ceramide biosynthesis in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and associated kidney damage. PMID:20543095

  13. Chlorogenic acid biosynthesis: characterization of a light-induced microsomal 5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase from carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell suspension cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microsomal preparations from carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell suspension cultures catalyze the formation of trans-5-O-caffeoyl-D-quinate (chlorogenate) from trans-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate. trans-5-O-(4-Coumaroyl)shikimate is converted to about the same extent to trans-5-O-caffeoylshikimate. trans-4-O-(4-Coumaroyl)-D-quinate, trans-3-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate, trans-4-coumarate, and cis-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate do not act as substrates. The reaction is strictly dependent on molecular oxygen and on NADPH as reducing cofactor. NADH and ascorbic acid cannot substitute for NADPH. Cytochrome c, Tetcyclacis, and carbon monoxide inhibit the reaction suggesting a cytochrome P-450-dependent mixed-function monooxygenase. Competition experiments as well as induction and inhibition phenomena indicate that there is only one enzyme species which is responsible for the hydroxylation of the 5-O-(4-coumaric) esters of both D-quinate and shikimate. The activity of this enzyme is greatly increased by in vivo irradiation of the cells with blue/uv light. We conclude that the biosynthesis of the predominant caffeic acid conjugates in carrot cells occurs via the corresponding 4-coumaric acid esters. Thus, in this system, 5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate can be seen as the final intermediate in the chlorogenic acid pathway

  14. Serum sphingolipids: relationships to insulin sensitivity and changes with exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Bryan C; Brozinick, Joseph T; Strauss, Allison; Bacon, Samantha; Kerege, Anna; Bui, Hai Hoang; Sanders, Phil; Siddall, Parker; Kuo, Ming Shang; Perreault, Leigh

    2015-08-15

    Ceramides and sphingolipids are a family of lipid molecules that circulate in serum and accumulate in skeletal muscle, promoting insulin resistance. Plasma ceramide and dihydroceramide are related to insulin resistance, yet less is known regarding other ceramide and sphingolipid species. Despite its association with insulin sensitivity, chronic endurance exercise training does not change plasma ceramide and sphingolipid content, with little known regarding a single bout of exercise. We measured basal relationships and the effect of acute exercise (1.5 h at 50% V̇o2 max) and recovery on serum ceramide and sphingolipid content in sedentary obese individuals, endurance-trained athletes, and individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Basal serum C18:0, C20:0, and C24:1 ceramide and C18:0 and total dihydroceramide were significantly higher in T2D and, along with C16:0 ceramide and C18:0 sphingomyelin, correlated positively with insulin resistance. Acute exercise significantly increased serum ceramide, glucosylceramide, and GM3 gangliosides, which largely decreased to basal values in recovery. Sphingosine 1-phosphate and sphingomyelin did not change during exercise but decreased below basal values in recovery. Serum C16:0 and C18:0 ceramide and C18:0 sphingomyelin, but not the total concentrations of either of them, were positively correlated with markers of muscle NF-κB activation, suggesting that specific species activate intracellular inflammation. Interestingly, a subset of sphingomyelin species, notably C14:0, C22:3, and C24:4 species, was positively associated with insulin secretion and glucose tolerance. Together, these data show that unique ceramide and sphingolipid species associate with either protective or deleterious features for diabetes and could provide novel therapeutic targets for the future. PMID:26126684

  15. The Transcriptional Repressor TupA in Aspergillus niger Is Involved in Controlling Gene Expression Related to Cell Wall Biosynthesis, Development, and Nitrogen Source Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schachtschabel, Doreen; Arentshorst, Mark; Nitsche, Benjamin M; Morris, Sam; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; Klis, Frans M; Ram, Arthur F J

    2013-01-01

    of the agsA gene. The agsA gene encodes a putative alpha-glucan synthase, which is induced in response to cell wall stress in A. niger. Apart from the constitutive expression of agsA, the selected mutant was also found to produce an unknown pigment at high temperatures. Complementation analysis with......A mutants were very similar to the phenotypes of a tupA deletion strain. Further analysis of the tupA-17 mutant and the ΔtupA mutant revealed that TupA is also required for normal growth and morphogenesis. The production of the pigment at 37°C is nitrogen source-dependent and repressed by ammonium. Genome......-wide expression analysis of the tupA mutant during exponential growth revealed derepression of a large group of diverse genes, including genes related to development and cell wall biosynthesis, and also protease-encoding genes that are normally repressed by ammonium. Comparison of the transcriptome of up...

  16. Efficient biosynthesis of γ-decalactone in ionic liquids by immobilized whole cells of Yarrowia lipolytica G3-3.21 on attapulgite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuping; Xu, Yan; Jiang, Changxing

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the biosynthesis of γ-decalactone (GDL) was successfully conducted in an ionic liquid (IL)-containing cosolvent system using immobilized cells of Yarrowia lipolytica G3-3.21 on attapulgite (ATG). We found the immobilized Y. lipolytica G3-3.21 cells in N-butyl-pyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([BPy]BF4) solution gave the highest activity of C16-Acyl-CoA oxidase and the maximum yield of GDL. The optimum immobilization conditions for the highest yield of GDL were 20 g/L of ATG, 1.5 % of CaCl2 and 2 % of sodium alginate (NaAlg). The optimal [BPy]BF4 content, buffer pH, reaction temperature, shaking speed, castor oil and glucose contents were 7.5 %, 26 °C, 150 rpm, 100 g/L and 10 %, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the GDL yield was up to 8.05 g/L. After ten times of reuse, the GDL yield was 7.51 g/L, corresponding to 93.3 % of that obtained in the first batch, suggesting a good reusability and potential for industrial applications. PMID:26091898

  17. Ceramide signaling in cancer and stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bieberich, Erhard

    2008-01-01

    Most of the previous work on the sphingolipid ceramide has been devoted to its function as an apoptosis inducer. Recent studies, however, have shown that in stem cells, ceramide has additional nonapoptotic functions. In this article, ceramide signaling will be reviewed in light of ‘systems interface biology’: as an interconnection of sphingolipid metabolism, membrane biophysics and cell signaling. The focus will be on the metabolic interconversion of ceramide and sphingomyelin or sphingosine-...

  18. Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Type II is a generalized defect of de novo GDP-fucose biosynthesis. Endothelial cell fucosylation is not required for neutrophil rolling on human nonlymphoid endothelium.

    OpenAIRE

    Karsan, A.; Cornejo, C J; Winn, R K; Schwartz, B R; Way, W; Lannir, N; Gershoni-Baruch, R; Etzioni, A; Ochs, H. D.; Harlan, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Type II (LAD II) is a recently described syndrome and the two patients with this defect lack fucosylated glycoconjugates. These glycoconjugates include the selectin ligand, sialyl LewisX, and various fucosylated blood group antigens. To date, the molecular anomaly in these patients has not been identified. We localized the defect in LAD II to the de novo pathway of GDP-fucose biosynthesis, by inducing cell-surface expression of fucosylated glycoconjugates after e...

  19. The biosynthesis and wall-binding of hemicelluloses in cellulose-deficient maize cells:An example of metabolic plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mara de Castro; Janice G Miller; Jose Luis Acebes; Antonio Encina; Penelope Garca-Angulo; Stephen C Fry

    2015-01-01

    Cell-suspension cultures (Zea mays L., Black Mexican sweet corn) habituated to 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB) survive with reduced cellulose owing to hemicellulose network modification. We aimed to define the hemicellulose metabolism modifications in DCB-habituated maize cells showing a mild reduction in cellulose at different stages in the culture cycle. Using pulse-chase radiolabeling, we fed habituated and non-habituated cultures with [3H]arabinose, and traced the distribution of 3H-pentose residues between xylans, xyloglucans and other polymers in several cellular compartments for 5 h. Habituated cells were slower taking up exogenous [3H]arabinose. Tritium was incorporated into polysaccharide-bound arabinose and xylose residues, but habituated cells diverted a higher proportion of their new [3H] xylose residues into (hetero) xylans at the expense of xyloglucan synthesis. During logarithmic growth, habituated cells showed slower vesicular trafficking of polymers, especially xylans. Moreover, habituated cells showed a decrease in the strong wall-binding of all pentose-containing polysaccharides studied; correspondingly, especially in log-phase cultures, habituation increased the proportion of 3H-hemicelluloses ([3H]xylans and [3H]xyloglucan) sloughed into the medium. These findings could be related to the cell walls’ cellulose-deficiency, and consequent reduction in binding sites for hemicelluloses; the data could also reflect the habituated cells’ reduced capacity to integrate arabinox-ylans by extra-protoplasmic phenolic cross-linking, as well as xyloglucans, during wall assembly.

  20. Induction of anthocyanin formation and of enzymes related to its biosynthesis by UV light in cell cultures of Haplopappus gracilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only UV light below 345 nm stimulates anthocyanin formation in dark grown cell suspension cultures of Haplopappus gracilis. A linear relationship between UV dose and flavonoid accumulation, as found previously with parsley cell cultures was not observed with the H.gracilis cells. Only continuous irradiation with high doses of UV was effective. Drastic increases in the activities of the enzymes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone isomerase and flavanone synthase were observed under continuous UV light. The increase in enzyme activities paralleled anthocyanin formation. (author)

  1. Control of anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway gene expression by eutypine, a toxin from Eutypa lata, in grape cell tissue cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Afifi, Maha; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Legrand, Valérie; Chervin, Christian; Monje, Marie-Carmen; Nepveu, Françoise; Roustan, Jean-Paul

    2003-01-01

    Eutypine, 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-3-butene-1-ynyl) benzaldehyde, is a toxin produced by Eutypa lata, the causal agent of Eutypa dieback in grapevine. The effect of the toxin on anthocyanin synthesis has been investigated in Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay cell cultures. At concentrations higher than 200 μmol/L, eutypine reduced anthocyanin accumulation in cells. The reduction in anthocyanin accumulation was proportional to the eutypine concentrations and HPLC analysis showed that eutypine ...

  2. Pathways and Subcellular Compartmentation of NAD Biosynthesis in Human Cells: FROM ENTRY OF EXTRACELLULAR PRECURSORS TO MITOCHONDRIAL NAD GENERATION*

    OpenAIRE

    Nikiforov, Andrey; Dölle, Christian; Niere, Marc; Ziegler, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    NAD is a vital redox carrier, and its degradation is a key element of important regulatory pathways. NAD-mediated functions are compartmentalized and have to be fueled by specific biosynthetic routes. However, little is known about the different pathways, their subcellular distribution, and regulation in human cells. In particular, the route(s) to generate mitochondrial NAD, the largest subcellular pool, is still unknown. To visualize organellar NAD changes in cells, we targeted poly(ADP-ribo...

  3. Bulk protein biosynthesis of the spleen and some splenic cell populations after induction of splenomegaly by application of Bordetella pertussis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiographic studies and liquid scintillation counting were carried out in female NMRI mice just reaching maturity. All animals had received a single injection, either of bovine serum albumin (BSA) or of pertussis organism (PO) or BSA + PO. The animals were sacrificed 4 d and 10 d after this pretreatment. 2 h before decapitation, a single dose of 3H-l phenyl alamine was applied intraperitoneally. The following results were obtained: The splenic index (splenic weight in mg/mouse weight in g) increased as a result of splenomegaly caused by PO. Morphometric data suggested an enlarged cell and nuclear area with enhanced cellular amino acid turnover and migration of RNP-containing matter into the nucleus, especially in the megakaryocytes and in lymphocytoid blastic cells. Incorporation of 3H-l-phenylalanine per unit of dry weight of the spleen is slowed down during the experiment while amiro acid incorporation by the total spleen increases with PO-induced splenomegaly. Incorporation of amino acid per unit of dry weight is constant in all experimental and control animals. The increased amino acid incorporation in lymphocytoid blastic cells is probably caused by the immunological situations during the experiment. An explanation of total cell increase and cell increase of megakaryocytic splenic cells is attempted. (orig./MG)

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Sphingolipids Isolated from the Stems of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three antimicrobial sphingolipids were separated by bioassay-guided isolation from the chloroform fraction of the crude methanol extract of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. stems and identified as (2S,3S,4R,10E-2-[(2'R-2-hydroxytetra-cosanoylamino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol-10-ene (1, 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(2S,3S,4R,10E-2-[(2'R-2-hydroxy-tetracosanoylamino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol-10-ene (2 and soya-cerebroside I (3 by their physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. They were evaluated to show antifungal and antibacterial activity on test microorganisms including four fungal and three bacterial species. Among them, compound 1, a relatively low polarity aglycone,  exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than its corresponding glycoside 2. The results indicated that sphingolipids could be the main antimicrobial compounds in the crude methanol extract of cucumber stems.

  5. Examination of the Effects of a Sphingolipid-Enriched Lipid Fraction from Wheat Gluten on the Incidence of Diabetes in BBdp Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Wenjuan

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to examine if a sphingolipid-enriched lipid fraction from wheat gluten could affect the incidence of type I diabetes in BioBreeding diabetes prone (BBdp) rats. Wheat gluten was extracted with a chloroform-methanol (CM) mixture to isolate most of the lipids. Isolated lipids were subjected to silica gel column chromatography and saponification to remove most of neutral lipids and phospholipids, leaving behind a lipid fraction enriched in sphingolipids. This sphingolipid-...

  6. Expression, Reinigung und biophysikalische Charakterisierung verschiedener Hydrolasen des Sphingolipid-Stoffwechsels

    OpenAIRE

    Ficht-Redmer, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipide sind eine wichtige Klasse von Lipiden, die nicht nur als Strukturmoleküle von Bedeutung sind sondern auch in Signaltransduktionsprozessen eine wichtige Rolle spielen. Insbesondere die Sphingolipidmetaboliten Ceramid, Sphingosin und Sphingosin-1-phosphat sind an zellulären Prozessen wie Differenzierung, Apoptose, Proliferation und Inflammation beteiligt. Sphingomyelinasen üben daher als katabole Enzyme des Sphingolipidstoffwechsels eine wichtige Funktion aus. Die vorliegende Ar...

  7. Sphingolipid metabolism correlates with cerebrospinal fluid Beta amyloid levels in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred N Fonteh

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are important in many brain functions but their role in Alzheimer's disease (AD is not completely defined. A major limit is availability of fresh brain tissue with defined AD pathology. The discovery that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF contains abundant nanoparticles that include synaptic vesicles and large dense core vesicles offer an accessible sample to study these organelles, while the supernatant fluid allows study of brain interstitial metabolism. Our objective was to characterize sphingolipids in nanoparticles representative of membrane vesicle metabolism, and in supernatant fluid representative of interstitial metabolism from study participants with varying levels of cognitive dysfunction. We recently described the recruitment, diagnosis, and CSF collection from cognitively normal or impaired study participants. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we report that cognitively normal participants had measureable levels of sphingomyelin, ceramide, and dihydroceramide species, but that their distribution differed between nanoparticles and supernatant fluid, and further differed in those with cognitive impairment. In CSF from AD compared with cognitively normal participants: a total sphingomyelin levels were lower in nanoparticles and supernatant fluid; b levels of ceramide species were lower in nanoparticles and higher in supernatant fluid; c three sphingomyelin species were reduced in the nanoparticle fraction. Moreover, three sphingomyelin species in the nanoparticle fraction were lower in mild cognitive impairment compared with cognitively normal participants. The activity of acid, but not neutral sphingomyelinase was significantly reduced in the CSF from AD participants. The reduction in acid sphingomylinase in CSF from AD participants was independent of depression and psychotropic medications. Acid sphingomyelinase activity positively correlated with amyloid β42 concentration in CSF from cognitively normal but

  8. Assignment of the gene for human sphingolipid activator protein-2 (SAP-2) to chromosome 10.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujibayashi, S; Kao, F T; Jones, C.; Morse, H; Law, M; Wenger, D A

    1985-01-01

    Sphingolipid activator protein-2 (SAP-2) has been found to stimulate the enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosylceramide, galactosylceramide, and sphingomyelin. When human skin fibroblast extracts were subjected to sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by electroblotting and immunochemical staining using monospecific antibodies against SAP-2, two or three major bands with estimated mol. wts. of 9,000-10,000 were found. These antibodies did not crossreact with purified SAP...

  9. The Role of Sphingolipids and Ceramide in Pulmonary Inflammation in Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Katrin Anne; Riethmüller, Joachim; Zhang, Yang; Gulbins, Erich

    2010-01-01

    Sphingolipids and in particular ceramide have been shown to be critically involved in the response to many receptor-mediated, but also receptor-independent, mainly stress stimuli. Recent studies demonstrate that ceramide plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis, a hereditary metabolic disorder caused by mutations of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator. Patients with cystic fibrosis suffer from chronic pulmonary inflammation and microbial lung infectio...

  10. Plasma Phospholipid and Sphingolipid Alterations in Presenilin1 Mutation Carriers: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pratishtha; Lim, Wei L.F.; Shui, Guanghou; Gupta, Veer B.; James, Ian; Fagan, Anne M.; Xiong, Chengjie; Sohrabi, Hamid R.; Taddei, Kevin; Brown, Belinda M.; Benzinger, Tammie; Masters, Colin; Snowden, Stuart G.; Wenk, Marcus R.; Bateman, Randall J.; Morris, John C.; Martins, Ralph N.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Aberrant lipid metabolism has been implicated in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The current study investigated plasma phospholipid and sphingolipid profiles in individuals carrying PSEN1 mutations responsible for autosomal dominant AD (ADAD). Methods Study participants evaluated were from the Perth and Melbourne sites of the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) study. Plasma phospholipid and sphingolipid profiles were measured using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in 20 PSEN1 mutation carriers (MC; eight of whom were symptomatic and twelve asymptomatic, based on Clinical Dementia Rating scores) and compared with six non carriers (NC) using linear mixed models. Further, AD gold standard biomarker data obtained from the DIAN database were correlated with lipid species significantly altered between MC and NC, using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results One-hundred and thirty-nine plasma phospholipid and sphingolipid species were measured. Significantly altered species in MC compared to NC primarily belonged to choline and ethanolamine containing phospholipid classes and ceramides. Further phosphatidylcholine species (34:6, 36:5, 40:6) correlated with cerebrospinal fluid tau (p < 0.05), and plasmalogen ethanolamine species (34:2, 36:,4) correlated with both cerebrospinal fluid tau and brain amyloid load within the MC group (p < 0.05). Conclusion These findings indicate altered phospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism in ADAD and provide insight into the pathomolecular changes occurring with ADAD pathogenesis. Further, findings reported in this study allow comparison of lipid alterations in ADAD with those reported previously in sporadic AD. The findings observed in the current pilot study warrant validation in the larger DIAN cohort. PMID:26836186

  11. Biosynthesis, Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Effects Against Prostate Cancer (PC-3) Cells of Silver Nanoparticles Using Dimocarpus Longan Lour. Peel Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Du, Zhiyun; Ma, Shijing; Cheng, Shupeng; Jiang, Sen; Liu, Yue; Li, Dongli; Huang, Huarong; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Xi

    2016-12-01

    Metal nanoparticles, particularly silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), are developing more important roles as diagnostic and therapeutic agents for cancers with the improvement of eco-friendly synthesis methods. This study demonstrates the biosynthesis, antibacterial activity, and anticancer effects of silver nanoparticles using Dimocarpus Longan Lour. peel aqueous extract. The AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR). The bactericidal properties of the synthesized AgNPs were observed via the agar dilution method and the growth inhibition test. The cytotoxicity effect was explored on human prostate cancer PC-3 cells in vitro by trypan blue assay. The expressions of phosphorylated stat 3, bcl-2, survivin, and caspase-3 were examined by Western blot analysis. The longan peel extract acted as a strong reducing and stabilizing agent during the synthesis. Water-soluble AgNPs of size 9-32 nm was gathered with a face-centered cubic structure. The AgNPs had potent bactericidal activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria with a dose-related effect. AgNPs also showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity against PC-3 cells through a decrease of stat 3, bcl-2, and survivin, as well as an increase in caspase-3. These findings confirm the bactericidal properties and explored a potential anticancer application of AgNPs for prostate cancer therapy. Further research should be focused on the comprehensive study of molecular mechanism and in vivo effects on the prostate cancer. PMID:27316741

  12. Sphingolipid metabolism enzymes as targets for anticancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, JW; Sietsma, H

    2004-01-01

    Treatment with anti-cancer agents in most cases ultimately results in apoptotic cell death of the target tumour cells. Unfortunately, tumour cells can develop multidrug resistance, e.g., by a reduced propensity to engage in apoptosis by which they become insensitive to multiple chemotherapeutics. Ce

  13. The transcriptional repressor TupA in Aspergillus niger is involved in controlling gene expression related to cell wall biosynthesis, development, and nitrogen source availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Schachtschabel

    Full Text Available The Tup1-Cyc8 (Ssn6 complex is a well characterized and conserved general transcriptional repressor complex in eukaryotic cells. Here, we report the identification of the Tup1 (TupA homolog in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger in a genetic screen for mutants with a constitutive expression of the agsA gene. The agsA gene encodes a putative alpha-glucan synthase, which is induced in response to cell wall stress in A. niger. Apart from the constitutive expression of agsA, the selected mutant was also found to produce an unknown pigment at high temperatures. Complementation analysis with a genomic library showed that the tupA gene could complement the phenotypes of the mutant. Screening of a collection of 240 mutants with constitutive expression of agsA identified sixteen additional pigment-secreting mutants, which were all mutated in the tupA gene. The phenotypes of the tupA mutants were very similar to the phenotypes of a tupA deletion strain. Further analysis of the tupA-17 mutant and the ΔtupA mutant revealed that TupA is also required for normal growth and morphogenesis. The production of the pigment at 37°C is nitrogen source-dependent and repressed by ammonium. Genome-wide expression analysis of the tupA mutant during exponential growth revealed derepression of a large group of diverse genes, including genes related to development and cell wall biosynthesis, and also protease-encoding genes that are normally repressed by ammonium. Comparison of the transcriptome of up-regulated genes in the tupA mutant showed limited overlap with the transcriptome of caspofungin-induced cell wall stress-related genes, suggesting that TupA is not a general suppressor of cell wall stress-induced genes. We propose that TupA is an important repressor of genes related to development and nitrogen metabolism.

  14. A model for the biosynthesis and transport of plasma membrane-associated signaling receptors to the cell surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Claudia Popescu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular protein transport is emerging as critical in determining the outcome of receptor-activated signal transduction pathways. In plants, relatively little is known about the nature of the molecular components and mechanisms involved in coordinating receptor synthesis and transport to the cell surface. Recent advances in this field indicate that signaling pathways and intracellular transport machinery converge and coordinate to render receptors competent for signaling at their plasma membrane activity sites. The biogenesis and transport to the cell surface of signaling receptors appears to require both general trafficking and receptor-specific factors. Several molecular determinants, residing or associated with compartments of the secretory pathway and known to influence aspects in receptor biogenesis, are discussed and integrated into a predictive cooperative model for the functional expression of signaling receptors at the plasma membrane.

  15. The mechanism of Acetobacter xylinum cellulose biosynthesis: direction of chain elongation and the role of lipid pyrophosphate intermediates in the cell membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosynthesis of Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10821 cellulose has been studied with resting cells and a membrane preparation using 14C-pulse and chase reactions, with d-glucose and UDPGlc, respectively. Cellulose was biosynthesized from UDPGlc, and it was found to be tightly associated with both the cells and the membrane. The cellulose chains could be released from the cells and the membrane preparation by treating at pH 2, 100 C for 20 min. The cellulose chains that were released from the pulse and pulse-chase reactions were purified and separated from any low molecular weight substances by gel chromatography on Bio-Gel P4. They were then reduced with sodium borohydride and hydrolyzed with 4 M trifluoroacetic acid at 121 C for 2 h. Labeled products from the acid hydrolyzates were separated by paper chromatography and found to be d-glucose and d-glucitol. The amount of radioactivity in the products was determined by liquid scintillation counting. It was found that the pulsed products from the resting cells gave a ratio of d-[14C]glucitol to d-[14C]glucose of 1:11, and after chasing, the ratio decreased to 1:36. The pulsed products from the membrane gave a ratio of d-[14C]glucitol to d-[14C]glucose of 1:12, and after chasing for 5 min the ratio decreased to 1:43, and after 10 min, the ratio decreased to 1:66. These results show that the labeled d-glucitol obtained from the reducing end of the cellulose chain is chased into the interior of the cellulose chain during synthesis, showing that the cellulose chain is elongated from the reducing end. An insertion mechanism for the synthesis of cellulose from UDPGlc is proposed that involves lipid pyrophosphate glycosyl intermediates and three membrane enzymes: lipid phosphate:UDPGlc phosphotransferase, cellulose synthase, and lipid pyrophosphate phosphohydrolase. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Biosynthesis of tylophora alkaloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using labelled precursors, biosynthesis of the tylophora alkaloids, tylophorine, tylophorinidine and tylophorinide has been investigated in Tylophora asthmatica plants. The radioactive precursors, phenylalanine-2-14C, benzoic acid-1-14C, benzoic acid-ring 14C, acetate-2-14C, ornithine-5-14C, acetate-2-14C, ornithine-5-14C and cinnamic acid-2-14C were administered to the plants individually by wick technique. Tylophorine was isolated in each case and assayed for its radioactivity to find out the incorporation of the label into it. The results indicate that: (1) phenylalanine via cinnamic acid is an important precursor in the biosynthesis of tylophorine (2) orinithine participates in tylophorine biosynthesis via pyrroline and (3) tylophorinidine may be a direct precursor of tylophorine. (M.G.B.)

  17. Ceramide and S1P signaling in embryonic stem cell differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bieberich, Erhard

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies show that bioactive lipids are important regulators for stem cell survival and differentiation. The sphingolipid ceramide and its derivative, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), can act synergistically on embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation. We show here simple methods to analyze sphingolipids in differentiating ES cells and to use ceramide and S1P analogs for the guided differentiation of mouse ES cells toward neuronal and glial lineage.

  18. Purification and characterization of glycosyltransferases involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in cell-suspension cultures of Daucus carota L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major anthocyanins accumulated by an Afghan cultivar of Daucus carota L. are cyanidin 3-(xylosylglucosylgalactosides) acylated with sinapic or ferulic acid. The formation of the branched triglycoside present as a common structural element requires an ordered sequence of glycosylation events. Two of these enzymic glycosylation reactions have been detected in protein preparations from carrot cell-suspension cultures. The first step is a galactosyl transfer catalyzed by UDP-galactose: cyanidin galactosyltransferase (CGT) resulting in cyanidin 3-galactoside. The putative second step is the formation of cyanidin 3-(xylosylgalactoside) catalyzed by UDP-xylose: cyanidin 3-galactoside xylosyltransferase (CGXT). Both enzyme activities were characterized from crude protein preparations. The CGT was purified 526-fold from the cytosolic fraction of UV-irradiated cell cultures by ion-exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-Sephacel, affinity chromatography on Blue Sepharose CL-6B, gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-75 and elution from the gel matrix after non-dissociating PAGE. Its molecular mass was estimated by SDS-PAGE and by calibrated gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-75. In both cases a molecular mass of 52 kDa was determined, indicating that the native protein is a monomer of 52 kDa. The galactosyl transfer and the xylosyl transfer are presumed to be catalyzed by separate enzymes. (author)

  19. Taking control over control: use of product sensing in single cells to remove flux control at key enzymes in biosynthesis pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendzielorz, Georg; Dippong, Martin; Grünberger, Alexander; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Yoshida, Ayako; Binder, Stephan; Nishiyama, Chiharu; Nishiyama, Makoto; Bott, Michael; Eggeling, Lothar

    2014-01-17

    Enzymes initiating the biosynthesis of cellular building blocks are frequently inhibited by the end-product of the respective pathway. Here we present an approach to rapidly generate sets of enzymes overriding this control. It is based on the in vivo detection of the desired end-product in single cells using a genetically encoded sensor. The sensor transmits intracellular product concentrations into a graded optical output, thus enabling ultrahigh-throughput screens by FACS. We randomly mutagenized plasmid-encoded ArgB of Corynebacterium glutamicum and screened the library in a strain carrying the sensor pSenLys-Spc, which detects l-lysine, l-arginine and l-histidine. Six of the resulting N-acetyl-l-glutamate kinase proteins were further developed and characterized and found to be at least 20-fold less sensitive toward l-arginine inhibition than the wild-type enzyme. Overexpression of the mutein ArgB-K47H-V65A in C. glutamicumΔargR led to the accumulation of 34 mM l-arginine in the culture medium. We also screened mutant libraries of lysC-encoded aspartate kinase and hisG-encoded ATP phosphoribosyltransferase. We isolated 11 LysC muteins, enabling up to 45 mM l-lysine accumulation, and 13 HisG muteins, enabling up to 17 mM l-histidine accumulation. These results demonstrate that in vivo screening of enzyme libraries by using metabolite sensors is extremely well suited to identify high-performance muteins required for overproduction. PMID:23829416

  20. Metabolomics study on the antitumor effect of marine natural compound flexibilide in HCT-116 colon cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dan; Wang, Yini; Xie, Weiyi; Yang, Ti; Jiang, Yuyang; Guo, Yuewei; Guan, Jin; Liu, Hongxia

    2016-03-01

    A marine natural compound flexibilide isolated from the soft coral Sinularia flexibilis has been found to have antitumor activity. However, its pharmacological mechanism on tumor cells has not been studied. Herein, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) based metabolomics approach was established to investigate the antitumor effect of flexibilide on HCT-116 cells and its action mechanism. Q-TOF MS and MS/MS were used to identify significantly different metabolites. Comparing flexibilide-treated HCT-116 cells group with control group (dimethyl sulfoxide), 19 distinct metabolites involved in sphingolipid metabolism, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, d-glutamine and d-glutamate metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism and others were discovered and identified. The significant decrease of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphocholine levels and increase of lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) levels in flexibilide treated cells suggested down-regulation of PC biosynthesis pathway. The decrease of sphingolipids reflected the lesions of cell membrane, and the up-regulation of sphingosine-1-phosphate indicated that TRAF2 and caspase-8 were likely to be activated by flexibilide and further caused cell apoptosis. Furthermore, TCA cycle was deemed to be down-regulated after flexibilide treatment, which might lead to an unsustainable of mitochondrial transmembrane potential MMP). The further measured descreased MMP with the increasing concentration of flexibilide treatment indiciated the dysfunction of mitochondrial which might finally lead to apoptosis. The UPLC/Q-TOF MS based metabolomics approach provides new insights into the mechanistic studies of flexibilide on tumor cells, which benefit its further improvement and application. PMID:26859520

  1. Methylmercury alters glutathione homeostasis by inhibiting glutaredoxin 1 and enhancing glutathione biosynthesis in cultured human astrocytoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Stephan; Mailloux, Ryan J; Chan, Hing Man

    2016-08-10

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxin that binds strongly to thiol residues on protein and low molecular weight molecules like reduced glutathione (GSH). The mechanism of its effects on GSH homeostasis particularly at environmentally relevant low doses is not fully known. We hypothesized that exposure to MeHg would lead to a depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and an accumulation of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) leading to alterations in S-glutathionylation of proteins. Our results showed exposure to low concentrations of MeHg (1μM) did not significantly alter GSH levels but increased GSSG levels by ∼12-fold. This effect was associated with a significant increase in total cellular glutathione content and a decrease in GSH/GSSG. Immunoblot analyses revealed that proteins involved in glutathione synthesis were upregulated accounting for the increase in cellular glutathione. This was associated an increase in cellular Nrf2 protein levels which is required to induce the expression of antioxidant genes in response to cellular stress. Intriguingly, we noted that a key enzyme involved in reversing protein S-glutathionylation and maintaining glutathione homeostasis, glutaredoxin-1 (Grx1), was inhibited by ∼50%. MeHg treatment also increased the S-glutathionylation of a high molecular weight protein. This observation is consistent with the inhibition of Grx1 and elevated H2O2 production however; contrary to our original hypothesis we found few S-glutathionylated proteins in the astrocytoma cells. Collectively, MeHg affects multiple arms of glutathione homeostasis ranging from pool management to protein S-glutathionylation and Grx1 activity. PMID:27180086

  2. Peptide Biosynthesis with Stable Isotope Labeling from a Cell-free Expression System for Targeted Proteomics with Absolute Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Feng; Zi, Jin; Wang, Quanhui; Lou, Xiaomin; Sun, Haidan; Lin, Liang; Hou, Guixue; Rao, Weiqiao; Yin, Changcheng; Wu, Lin; Li, Shuwei; Liu, Siqi

    2016-08-01

    Because of its specificity and sensitivity, targeted proteomics using mass spectrometry for multiple reaction monitoring is a powerful tool to detect and quantify pre-selected peptides from a complex background and facilitates the absolute quantification of peptides using isotope-labeled forms as internal standards. How to generate isotope-labeled peptides remains an urgent challenge for accurately quantitative targeted proteomics on a large scale. Herein, we propose that isotope-labeled peptides fused with a quantitative tag could be synthesized through an expression system in vitro, and the homemade peptides could be enriched by magnetic beads with tag-affinity and globally quantified based on the corresponding multiple reaction monitoring signals provided by the fused tag. An Escherichia coli cell-free protein expression system, protein synthesis using recombinant elements, was adopted for the synthesis of isotope-labeled peptides fused with Strep-tag. Through a series of optimizations, we enabled efficient expression of the labeled peptides such that, after Strep-Tactin affinity enrichment, the peptide yield was acceptable in scale for quantification, and the peptides could be completely digested by trypsin to release the Strep-tag for quantification. Moreover, these recombinant peptides could be employed in the same way as synthetic peptides for multiple reaction monitoring applications and are likely more economical and useful in a laboratory for the scale of targeted proteomics. As an application, we synthesized four isotope-labeled glutathione S-transferase (GST) peptides and added them to mouse sera pre-treated with GST affinity resin as internal standards. A quantitative assay of the synthesized GST peptides confirmed the absolute GST quantification in mouse sera to be measurable and reproducible. PMID:27234506

  3. Ceramide in Stem Cell Differentiation and Embryo Development: Novel Functions of a Topological Cell-Signaling Lipid and the Concept of Ceramide Compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhard Bieberich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the view on the function of ceramide as a sole metabolic precursor for other sphingolipids has completely changed. A plethora of studies has shown that ceramide is an important lipid cell-signaling factor regulating apoptosis in a variety of cell types. With the advent of new stem cell technologies and knockout mice for specific steps in ceramide biosynthesis, this view is about to change again. Recent studies suggest that ceramide is a critical cell-signaling factor for stem cell differentiation and cell polarity, two processes at the core of embryo development. This paper discusses studies on ceramide using in vitro differentiated stem cells, embryo cultures, and knockout mice with the goal of linking specific developmental stages to exciting and novel functions of this lipid. Particular attention is devoted to the concept of ceramide as a topological cell-signaling lipid: a lipid that forms distinct structures (membrane domains and vesicles termed “sphingosome”, which confines ceramide-induced cell signaling pathways to localized and even polarized compartments.

  4. Two natural products, trans-phytol and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3β,5α,8α-triol, inhibit the biosynthesis of estrogen in human ovarian granulosa cells by aromatase (CYP19)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aromatase is the only enzyme in vertebrates to catalyze the biosynthesis of estrogens. Although inhibitors of aromatase have been developed for the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer, the whole-body inhibition of aromatase causes severe adverse effects. Thus, tissue-selective aromatase inhibitors are important for the treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. In this study, 63 natural products with diverse structures were examined for their effects on estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa-like KGN cells. Two compounds—trans-phytol (SA-20) and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3β,5α,8α-triol (SA-48)—were found to potently inhibit estrogen biosynthesis (IC50: 1 μM and 0.5 μM, respectively). Both compounds decreased aromatase mRNA and protein expression levels in KGN cells, but had no effect on the aromatase catalytic activity in aromatase-overexpressing HEK293A cells and recombinant expressed aromatase. The two compounds decreased the expression of aromatase promoter I.3/II. Neither compound affected intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels, but they inhibited the phosphorylation or protein expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The effects of these two compounds on extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and AKT/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway were examined. Inhibition of p38 MAPK could be the mechanism underpinning the actions of these compounds. Our results suggests that natural products structurally similar to SA-20 and SA-48 may be a new source of tissue-selective aromatase modulators, and that p38 MAPK is important in the basal control of aromatase in ovarian granulosa cells. SA-20 and SA-48 warrant further investigation as new pharmaceutical tools for the prevention and treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. - Highlights: • Two natural products inhibited estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa cells. • They inhibited

  5. Two natural products, trans-phytol and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3β,5α,8α-triol, inhibit the biosynthesis of estrogen in human ovarian granulosa cells by aromatase (CYP19)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jiajia [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Yuan, Yun [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang (China); Lu, Danfeng; Du, Baowen [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Xiong, Liang; Shi, Jiangong [State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Yang, Lijuan [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Liu, Wanli [MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yuan, Xiaohong [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang (China); Zhang, Guolin, E-mail: zhanggl@cib.ac.cn [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences Sichuan Translational Medicine Research Hospital, Chengdu (China); Wang, Fei, E-mail: wangfei@cib.ac.cn [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences Sichuan Translational Medicine Research Hospital, Chengdu (China)

    2014-08-15

    Aromatase is the only enzyme in vertebrates to catalyze the biosynthesis of estrogens. Although inhibitors of aromatase have been developed for the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer, the whole-body inhibition of aromatase causes severe adverse effects. Thus, tissue-selective aromatase inhibitors are important for the treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. In this study, 63 natural products with diverse structures were examined for their effects on estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa-like KGN cells. Two compounds—trans-phytol (SA-20) and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3β,5α,8α-triol (SA-48)—were found to potently inhibit estrogen biosynthesis (IC{sub 50}: 1 μM and 0.5 μM, respectively). Both compounds decreased aromatase mRNA and protein expression levels in KGN cells, but had no effect on the aromatase catalytic activity in aromatase-overexpressing HEK293A cells and recombinant expressed aromatase. The two compounds decreased the expression of aromatase promoter I.3/II. Neither compound affected intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels, but they inhibited the phosphorylation or protein expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The effects of these two compounds on extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and AKT/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway were examined. Inhibition of p38 MAPK could be the mechanism underpinning the actions of these compounds. Our results suggests that natural products structurally similar to SA-20 and SA-48 may be a new source of tissue-selective aromatase modulators, and that p38 MAPK is important in the basal control of aromatase in ovarian granulosa cells. SA-20 and SA-48 warrant further investigation as new pharmaceutical tools for the prevention and treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. - Highlights: • Two natural products inhibited estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa cells. • They

  6. Propiconazole enhanced hepatic cell proliferation is associated with dysregulation of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway leading to activation of Erk1/2 through Ras famesylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propiconazole is a mouse hepatotumorigenic fungicide designed to inhibit CYP51, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ergosterol in fungi and is widely used in agriculture to prevent fungal growth. Metabolomic studies in mice revealed that propiconazole increased levels of hepatic ...

  7. Interaction of saposin D with membranes: effect of anionic phospholipids and sphingolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaffoni, Fiorella; Tatti, Massimo; Salvioli, Rosa; Vaccaro, Anna Maria

    2003-08-01

    Saposin (Sap) D is an endolysosomal protein that, together with three other similar proteins, Sap A, Sap B and Sap C, is involved in the degradation of sphingolipids and, possibly, in the solubilization and transport of gangliosides. We found that Sap D is able to destabilize and disrupt membranes containing each of the three anionic phospholipids most abundant in the acidic endolysosomal compartment, namely lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylserine (PS). The breakdown of the membranes, which occurs when the Sap D concentration on the lipid surface reaches a critical value, is a slow process that gives rise to small particles. The Sap D-particle complexes formed in an acidic milieu can be dissociated by an increase in pH, suggesting a dynamic association of Sap D with membranes. The presence of anionic phospholipids is required also for the Sap D-induced perturbation and solubilization of membranes containing a neutral sphingolipid such as ceramide or a ganglioside such as G(M1). At appropriate Sap D concentrations Cer and G(M1) are solubilized as constituents of small phospholipid particles. Our findings imply that most functions of Sap D are dependent on its interaction with anionic phospholipids, which mediate the Sap D effect on other components of the membrane such as sphingolipids. On consideration of the properties of Sap D we propose that Sap D might have a role in the definition of the structure and function of membranes, such as the intra-endolysosomal membranes, that are rich in anionic phospholipids. PMID:12733985

  8. Dengue Virus Infection Perturbs Lipid Homeostasis in Infected Mosquito Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, Rushika M.; Riley, Catherine; Isaac, Georgis; Hopf- Jannasch, Amber; Moore, Ronald J.; Weitz, Karl K.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Metz, Thomas O.; Adamec, Jiri; Kuhn, Richard J.

    2012-03-22

    Dengue virus causes {approx}50-100 million infections per year and thus is considered one of the most aggressive arthropod-borne human pathogen worldwide. During its replication, dengue virus induces dramatic alterations in the intracellular membranes of infected cells. This phenomenon is observed both in human and vector-derived cells. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry of mosquito cells, we show that this membrane remodeling is directly linked to a unique lipid repertoire induced by dengue virus infection. Specifically, 15% of the metabolites detected were significantly different between DENV infected and uninfected cells while 85% of the metabolites detected were significantly different in isolated replication complex membranes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that intracellular lipid redistribution induced by the inhibition of fatty acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in lipid biosynthesis, is sufficient for cell survival but is inhibitory to dengue virus replication. Lipids that have the capacity to destabilize and change the curvature of membranes as well as lipids that change the permeability of membranes are enriched in dengue virus infected cells. Several sphingolipids and other bioactive signaling molecules that are involved in controlling membrane fusion, fission, and trafficking as well as molecules that influence cytoskeletal reorganization are also up regulated during dengue infection. These observations shed light on the emerging role of lipids in shaping the membrane and protein environments during viral infections and suggest membrane-organizing principles that may influence virus-induced intracellular membrane architecture.

  9. On the influence of ionizing radiation on polyamine biosynthesis and content in animal cells and on the possibility of involvement of polyamines in the formation and recovery from radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial section of this monograph provides a review of the present data on distribution, biosynthesis, catabolism and biological function of polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in animal cells. The conclusion is drawn that there is a possibility of participation of these compounds in the formation and recovery from radiation damage. In the investigations presented in the experimental section, it was established that ionizing radiation can induce changes of the polyamine content and activity of the enzymes of polyamine metabolism (ornithine decarboxylase, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, diamine oxidase, and polyamine oxidase) in animal cells. The results were also obtained which indicate that a close relationship exists between the post-irradiation synthesis and accumulation of polyamines and such recovery processes from radiation insult as restorative cell proliferation and repair of chromosome damage. Moreover, it was found that products of enzymatic and radiolytic oxidative deamination of spermidine and spermine can cause inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of chromosome aberrations. (author)

  10. Hypertension is associated with marked alterations in sphingolipid biology: a potential role for ceramide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léon J A Spijkers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertension is, amongst others, characterized by endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling. As sphingolipids have been implicated in both the regulation of vascular contractility and growth, we investigated whether sphingolipid biology is altered in hypertension and whether this is reflected in altered vascular function. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In isolated carotid arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats, shifting the ceramide/S1P ratio towards ceramide dominance by administration of a sphingosine kinase inhibitor (dimethylsphingosine or exogenous application of sphingomyelinase, induced marked endothelium-dependent contractions in SHR vessels (DMS: 1.4±0.4 and SMase: 2.1±0.1 mN/mm; n = 10, that were virtually absent in WKY vessels (DMS: 0.0±0.0 and SMase: 0.6±0.1 mN/mm; n = 9, p<0.05. Imaging mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry indicated that these contractions were most likely mediated by ceramide and dependent on iPLA(2, cyclooxygenase-1 and thromboxane synthase. Expression levels of these enzymes were higher in SHR vessels. In concurrence, infusion of dimethylsphingosine caused a marked rise in blood pressure in anesthetized SHR (42±4%; n = 7, but not in WKY (-12±10%; n = 6. Lipidomics analysis by mass spectrometry, revealed elevated levels of ceramide in arterial tissue of SHR compared to WKY (691±42 vs. 419±27 pmol, n = 3-5 respectively, p<0.05. These pronounced alterations in SHR sphingolipid biology are also reflected in increased plasma ceramide levels (513±19 pmol WKY vs. 645±25 pmol SHR, n = 6-12, p<0.05. Interestingly, we observed similar increases in ceramide levels (correlating with hypertension grade in plasma from humans with essential hypertension (185±8 pmol vs. 252±23 pmol; n = 18 normotensive vs. n = 19 hypertensive patients, p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension is associated with marked alterations in vascular

  11. Preparation of sphingolipid fatty acid methyl esters for determination by gas-liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGee, J; Williams, M G

    1981-01-30

    Sphingolipid fatty acids are first converted to a mixture of free acids and their n-butyl esters by heating the specimen at 85 degree C in aqueous butanolic hydrogen chloride; the butyl esters are then saponified with methanolic potassium hydroxide. After acidification and extraction into hexane, the fatty acids are extracted into a very small volume of aqueous trimethyl(m-trifluorotolyl)ammonium hydroxide (TMTFTH), injection of an aliquot of the TMTFTH extract into the gas chromatograph yields the fatty acid methyl esters by pyrolytic methylation of the quaternary ammonium salts of the fatty acids. The preparation of a specimen ready for the gas--liquid chromatographic (GLC) analysis with quantitative recovery of the sphingolipid fatty acids can be accomplished in less than 2 h. By comparison, none of a number of well-accepted techniques for the release of sphingomyelin fatty acids by hydrolysis or methanolysis released the fatty acids quantitatively in less than 3 h, and all required additional manipulations before GLC analysis. PMID:7217267

  12. The tRNA-Dependent Biosynthesis of Modified Cyclic Dipeptides

    OpenAIRE

    Giessen, Tobias W.; Mohamed A. Marahiel

    2014-01-01

    In recent years it has become apparent that aminoacyl-tRNAs are not only crucial components involved in protein biosynthesis, but are also used as substrates and amino acid donors in a variety of other important cellular processes, ranging from bacterial cell wall biosynthesis and lipid modification to protein turnover and secondary metabolite assembly. In this review, we focus on tRNA-dependent biosynthetic pathways that generate modified cyclic dipeptides (CDPs). The essential peptide bond...

  13. Evolution of the Kdo2-lipid A biosynthesis in bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama Hideaki; Pardy Rosevelt L; Opiyo Stephen O; Moriyama Etsuko N

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Lipid A is the highly immunoreactive endotoxic center of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It anchors the LPS into the outer membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria. Lipid A can be recognized by animal cells, triggers defense-related responses, and causes Gram-negative sepsis. The biosynthesis of Kdo2-lipid A, the LPS substructure, involves with nine enzymatic steps. Results In order to elucidate the evolutionary pathway of Kdo2-lipid A biosynthesis, we examined the distribution o...

  14. Role of Sphingolipids in Infant Gut Health and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Åke

    2016-06-01

    Sphingomyelin (SM), glycosphingolipids, and gangliosides are important polar lipids in the milk fat globule membrane but are not found in standard milk replacement formulas. Because digestion and absorption of SM and glycosphingolipids generate the bioactive metabolites ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and because intact gangliosides may have beneficial effects in the gut, this may be important for gut integrity and immune maturation in the neonate. The brush border enzymes that hydrolyze milk SM, alkaline sphingomyelinase (nucleotide phosphodiesterase pyrophosphatase 7), and neutral ceramidase are expressed at birth in both term and preterm infants. Released sphingosine is absorbed, phosphorylated to S1P, and converted to palmitic acid via S1P-lyase in the gut mucosa. Hypothetically, S1P also may be released from absorptive cells and exert important paracrine actions favoring epithelial integrity and renewal, as well as immune function, including secretory IgA production and migration of T lymphocyte subpopulations. Gluco-, galacto-, and lactosylceramide are hydrolyzed to ceramide by lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, which also hydrolyzes lactose. Gangliosides may adhere to the brush border and is internalized, modified, and possibly transported into blood, and may exert protective functions by their interactions with bacteria, bacterial toxins, and the brush border. PMID:27234412

  15. Lipoteichoic acid induces surfactant protein-A biosynthesis in human alveolar type II epithelial cells through activating the MEK1/2-ERK1/2-NF-κB pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Feng-Lin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipoteichoic acid (LTA, a gram-positive bacterial outer membrane component, can cause septic shock. Our previous studies showed that the gram-negative endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, could induce surfactant protein-A (SP-A production in human alveolar epithelial (A549 cells. Objectives In this study, we further evaluated the effect of LTA on SP-A biosynthesis and its possible signal-transducing mechanisms. Methods A549 cells were exposed to LTA. Levels of SP-A, nuclear factor (NF-κB, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2, and mitogen-activated/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK1 were determined. Results Exposure of A549 cells to 10, 30, and 50 μg/ml LTA for 24 h did not affect cell viability. Meanwhile, when exposed to 30 μg/ml LTA for 1, 6, and 24 h, the biosynthesis of SP-A mRNA and protein in A549 cells significantly increased. As to the mechanism, LTA enhanced cytosolic and nuclear NF-κB levels in time-dependent manners. Pretreatment with BAY 11–7082, an inhibitor of NF-κB activation, significantly inhibited LTA-induced SP-A mRNA expression. Sequentially, LTA time-dependently augmented phosphorylation of ERK1/2. In addition, levels of phosphorylated MEK1 were augmented following treatment with LTA. Conclusions Therefore, this study showed that LTA can increase SP-A synthesis in human alveolar type II epithelial cells through sequentially activating the MEK1-ERK1/2-NF-κB-dependent pathway.

  16. Ceramide 1-phosphate regulates cell migration and invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Io-Guané; Ordoñez, Marta; Presa, Natalia; Gangoiti, Patricia; Gomez-Larrauri, Ana; Trueba, Miguel; Fox, Todd; Kester, Mark; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio

    2016-02-15

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive and devastating disease characterized by invasiveness, rapid progression and profound resistance to treatment. Despite years of intense investigation, the prognosis of this type of cancer is poor and there is no efficacious treatment to overcome the disease. Using human PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells, we demonstrate that the bioactive sphingolipid ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) increases pancreatic cancer cell migration and invasion. Treatment of these cells with selective inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt1, or mammalian target of rapamycin 1 (mTOR1), or with specific siRNAs to silence the genes encoding these kinases, resulted in potent inhibition of C1P-induced cell migration and invasion. Likewise, the extracellularly regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1-2), and the small GTPase RhoA, which regulates cytoskeleton reorganization, were also found to be implicated in C1P-stimulated ROCK1-dependent cancer cell migration and invasion. In addition, pre-treatment of the cancer cells with pertussis toxin abrogated C1P-induced cell migration, suggesting the intervention of a Gi protein-coupled receptor in this process. Pancreatic cancer cells engineered to overexpress ceramide kinase (CerK), the enzyme responsible for C1P biosynthesis in mammalian cells, showed enhanced spontaneous cell migration that was potently blocked by treatment with the selective CerK inhibitor NVP-231, or by treatment with specific CerK siRNA. Moreover, overexpression of CerK with concomitant elevations in C1P enhanced migration of pancreatic cancer cells. Collectively, these data demonstrate that C1P is a key regulator of pancreatic cancer cell motility, and suggest that targeting CerK expression/activity and C1P may be relevant factors for controlling pancreatic cancer cell dissemination. PMID:26707801

  17. A Hyphenated Technique based on High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography for Determining Neutral Sphingolipids: A Proof of Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Domínguez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyphenated HPTLC has been used to analyze several neutral sphingolipids acting as lysosomal storage disease (LSD biomarkers. Automated multiple development (AMD provides separation of lipid peaks, which are detected and quantified using fluorescence detection by intensity changes (FDIC after primuline post-impregnation. A final online transfer to a mass spectrometer by means of an elution-based interface allows their identification using electrospray ionization (ESI and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI.Given that the increases in fluorescent emission detected by FDIC are produced by non-specific, electrostatic interactions between the primuline and hydrocarbon chains in the ceramide backbones of sphingolipids, it is a non-destructive detection technique, allowing the precise location and transfer of biomarker peaks to a mass spectrometer using an elution interface. By using primuline as a fluorophore, the technique is also compatible with ESI-APCI and does not interfere with the MS of sphingolipids. APCI provides useful and complementary structural information to the ESI for sphingolipid identification. Moreover, FDIC emission can be used for quantitative purposes. Results include the determination of sphingomyelin (SM in human-plasma samples (RSD < 6% by means of a standard addition method with non-linear calibration, and the identification of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3 in the plasma of a Fabry patient. Only one HPTLC plate is needed to perform the analysis.

  18. Terpene Biosynthesis: Modularity Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Oldfield, Eric; Lin, Fu-Yang

    2011-01-01

    Terpenes are the largest class of small molecule natural products on Earth, and the most abundant by mass. Here, we summarize recent developments in elucidating the structure and function of the proteins involved in their biosynthesis. There are 6 main building blocks or modules (α,β,γ,δ,ε and ζ) that make up the structures of these enzymes: the αα and αδ head-to-tail trans-prenyl transferases that produce trans-isoprenoid diphosphates from C5 precursors; the ε head-to-head prenyl transferase...

  19. Biosynthesis of fibronectin by human embryo fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosynthesis of fibronectin by human embryo fibroblasts, transformed by SV-40 virus, was investigated in intact cells and in a cell-free protein-synthesizing system on free and membrane-bound polyribosomes, isolated from the same cells. It was shown that fibronectin production in the culture medium by transformed fibroblasts is reduced by a factor of 4.5, while its percent content in the medium is decreased by a factor of 2. The content of fibronectin material precipitable by antibodies during the immunoprecipitation reaction proved to be somewhat greater in transformed cells than in normal cells, although the percentage was decreased by a factor of 1.5. However, the content of the fibronectin monomer with molecular weight 220 kilodaltons was 1.6 times as great in the cellular material of normal fibroblasts. In an investigation of fibronectin biosynthesis in a cell-free system it was established that in transformed cells 45% of the fibronectin is synthesized on free polyribosomes; in normal fibroblasts only 13% of the fibronectin is synthesized on free polyribosomes. It is suggested that one of the consequences of the transformation of human fibroblasts by SV-40 virus, leading to a decrease in fibronectin production, is the spatial uncoupling of the polyribosomes and membrane structures responsible for protein transport out of the cell, as a result of which a substantial portion of the fibronectin synthesized by transformed fibroblasts is subjected to intracellular degradation

  20. Antihypertensive treatment differentially affects vascular sphingolipid biology in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léon J A Spijkers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that essential hypertension in humans and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, is associated with increased levels of ceramide and marked alterations in sphingolipid biology. Pharmacological elevation of ceramide in isolated carotid arteries of SHR leads to vasoconstriction via a calcium-independent phospholipase A(2, cyclooxygenase-1 and thromboxane synthase-dependent release of thromboxane A(2. This phenomenon is almost absent in vessels from normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats. Here we investigated whether lowering of blood pressure can reverse elevated ceramide levels and reduce ceramide-mediated contractions in SHR. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For this purpose SHR were treated for 4 weeks with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan or the vasodilator hydralazine. Both drugs decreased blood pressure equally (SBP untreated SHR: 191±7 mmHg, losartan: 125±5 mmHg and hydralazine: 113±14 mmHg. The blood pressure lowering was associated with a 20-25% reduction in vascular ceramide levels and improved endothelial function of isolated carotid arteries in both groups. Interestingly, losartan, but not hydralazine treatment, markedly reduced sphingomyelinase-induced contractions. While both drugs lowered cyclooxygenase-1 expression, only losartan and not hydralazine, reduced the endothelial expression of calcium-independent phospholipase A(2. The latter finding may explain the effect of losartan treatment on sphingomyelinase-induced vascular contraction. CONCLUSION: In summary, this study corroborates the importance of sphingolipid biology in blood pressure control and specifically shows that blood pressure lowering reduces vascular ceramide levels in SHR and that losartan treatment, but not blood pressure lowering per se, reduces ceramide-mediated arterial contractions.

  1. A profile of sphingolipids and related compounds tentatively identified in yak milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, S; Barrett-Wilt, G; Fonseca, L M; Rankin, S A

    2016-07-01

    This work characterized a fraction of constituents in yak milk within the realm of approximately 1,000 to 3,000 Da using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Eleven samples of yak milk powder from the Sichuan province of China were received by the Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and stored at room temperature until analysis. Sample preparation involved delipidation and deproteinization of yak milk samples and cold ethanol precipitation. Subsequently, MALDI time-of-flight mass spectrometry was performed in positive ion, reflector mode (AB Sciex TOF/TOF 4800 MALDI; AB Sciex, Foster City, CA). The instrument was first calibrated with the manufacturer's 6-peptide mixture, and each spectrum was internally calibrated using the accurate mass of ACTH Fragment 18-39 standard peptide (protonated mass at m/z 2464.199) present in each sample. Laser power was adjusted for the calibration standards and for each sample so that the signal obtained for the most-abundant ion in each spectrum could be maximized, or kept below ~2×10(4) to preserve spectral quality. Structure and name based on mass were matched using the Metlin metabolite database (https://metlin.scripps.edu/index.php). Results of the current work for yak milk powder showed a large variety of sphingolipid structures with clusters around 1,200, 1,600, and 2,000 Da. The profiling matched several glycosphingolipids, such as gangliosides GA1, GD1a, GD1b, GD3, GM1, GM2, GM3, and GT2 and several other unique moieties, including deaminated neuraminic acid (KDN) oligosaccharides, and fucose containing gangliosides. Matrix preparation and MALDI time-of-flight parameters were important factors established in this work to allow high resolution profiling of complex sphingolipids in yak powder milk. PMID:27085416

  2. Levels of Blood Organophosphorus Flame Retardants and Association with Changes in Human Sphingolipid Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fanrong; Wan, Yi; Zhao, Haoqi; Hu, Wenxin; Mu, Di; Webster, Thomas F; Hu, Jianying

    2016-08-16

    While a recent toxicological study has shown that organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) may disrupt sphingolipid homeostasis, epidemiologic evidence is currently lacking. In this study, a total of 257 participants were recruited from Shenzhen, China. Eleven OPFRs were for the first time simultaneously determined in the human blood samples by ultraperformance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Six OPFRs, tributyl phosphate (TNBP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), triethyl phosphate (TEP), and TPHP, were detectable in at least 90% of participants, with median concentrations of 37.8, 1.22, 0.71, 0.54, 0.49, and 0.43 ng/mL, respectively. Sphingomyelin (SM) levels in the highest quartile of EHDPP, TPHP, TNBP, TBOEP, TEP, and TCIPP were 45.3% [95% confidence interval; 38.1%, 53.0%], 51.9% (45.5%, 58.6%), 153.6% (145.1%, 162.3%), 20.6% (14.5%, 27.0%), 59.0% (52.1%, 66.2%), and 62.8% (55.2%, 70.6%) higher than those in the lowest quartile, respectively, after adjusting for covariates. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) levels in the highest quartile of EHDPP, TPHP, and TNBP were 36% (-39%, -33%), 16% (-19%, -14%), and 36% (-38%, -33%) lower than those in the lowest quartile, respectively. A similar pattern emerged when exposures were modeled continuously. We for the first time found the associations between OPFRs and changes in human sphingolipid homeostasis. PMID:27434659

  3. Biosynthesis of plant sulfolipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complete biosynthesis of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) remains undetermined although dark synthesis of SQDG by chloroplasts supplied with AP35S, PAP35S or 35SO4 plus ATP suggests the sulfur moiety arises from either APS or sulfite (1). Sulfate incorporation into sulfolipids in isolated chloroplasts and in intact roots is reported here and compared to lipids labelled by 14C-acetate or 14C-glycerol. Several unknown 35S-labelled chloroform-soluble compounds were isolated from sterile roots. These 35S-labelled compounds differ from those of the chloroplast, identified as elemental sulfur forms. Identification of the unknown root compounds is in progress. Unlike chloroplast, isolated root plastids do not synthesis SQDG from sulfate plus ATP suggesting a requirement for an activated form of sulfate, such as APS or PAPS

  4. Mitochondrial respiration without ubiquinone biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Hekimi, Siegfried

    2013-12-01

    Ubiquinone (UQ), a.k.a. coenzyme Q, is a redox-active lipid that participates in several cellular processes, in particular mitochondrial electron transport. Primary UQ deficiency is a rare but severely debilitating condition. Mclk1 (a.k.a. Coq7) encodes a conserved mitochondrial enzyme that is necessary for UQ biosynthesis. We engineered conditional Mclk1 knockout models to study pathogenic effects of UQ deficiency and to assess potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of UQ deficiencies. We found that Mclk1 knockout cells are viable in the total absence of UQ. The UQ biosynthetic precursor DMQ9 accumulates in these cells and can sustain mitochondrial respiration, albeit inefficiently. We demonstrated that efficient rescue of the respiratory deficiency in UQ-deficient cells by UQ analogues is side chain length dependent, and that classical UQ analogues with alkyl side chains such as idebenone and decylUQ are inefficient in comparison with analogues with isoprenoid side chains. Furthermore, Vitamin K2, which has an isoprenoid side chain, and has been proposed to be a mitochondrial electron carrier, had no efficacy on UQ-deficient mouse cells. In our model with liver-specific loss of Mclk1, a large depletion of UQ in hepatocytes caused only a mild impairment of respiratory chain function and no gross abnormalities. In conjunction with previous findings, this surprisingly small effect of UQ depletion indicates a nonlinear dependence of mitochondrial respiratory capacity on UQ content. With this model, we also showed that diet-derived UQ10 is able to functionally rescue the electron transport deficit due to severe endogenous UQ deficiency in the liver, an organ capable of absorbing exogenous UQ. PMID:23847050

  5. Inborn errors of metabolism in the biosynthesis and remodelling of phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortmann, Saskia B; Espeel, Marc; Almeida, Ligia; Reimer, Annette; Bosboom, Dennis; Roels, Frank; de Brouwer, Arjan P M; Wevers, Ron A

    2015-01-01

    Since the proposal to define a separate subgroup of inborn errors of metabolism involved in the biosynthesis and remodelling of phospholipids, sphingolipids and long chain fatty acids in 2013, this group is rapidly expanding. This review focuses on the disorders involved in the biosynthesis of phospholipids. Phospholipids are involved in uncountable cellular processes, e.g. as structural components of membranes, by taking part in vesicle and mitochondrial fusion and fission or signal transduction. Here we provide an overview on both pathophysiology and the extremely heterogeneous clinical presentations of the disorders reported so far (Sengers syndrome (due to mutations in AGK), MEGDEL syndrome (or SERAC defect, SERAC1), Barth syndrome (or TAZ defect, TAZ), congenital muscular dystrophy due to CHKB deficiency (CHKB). Boucher-Neuhäuser/Gordon Holmes syndrome (PNPLA6), PHARC syndrome (ABHD12), hereditary spastic paraplegia type 28, 54 and 56 (HSP28, DDHD1; HSP54, DDHD2; HSP56, CYP2U1), Lenz Majewski syndrome (PTDSS1), spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with cone-rod dystrophy (PCYT1A), atypical haemolytic-uremic syndrome due to DGKE deficiency (DGKE). PMID:25178427

  6. Mutual co-regulation between GPI-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and ergosterol biosynthesis in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Guiliana Soraya; Yadav, Bhawna; Hauhnar, Lalremruata; Jain, Priyanka; Bhatnagar, Shilpi; Komath, Sneha Sudha

    2012-05-01

    A novel co-regulation exists between the first step of GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchor biosynthesis and the rate-determining step of ergosterol biosynthesis in Candida albicans. Depleting CaGpi19p, an accessory subunit of the enzyme complex that initiates GPI biosynthesis, down-regulates ERG11, altering ergosterol levels and drug response. This effect is specific to CaGpi19p depletion and is not due to cell wall defects or GPI deficiency. Additionally, down-regulation of ERG11 down-regulates CaGPI19 and GPI biosynthesis. PMID:22390164

  7. Phytoecdysteroids: Diversity, Biosynthesis and Distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dinan, L.; Harmatha, Juraj; Volodin, V.; Lafont, R.

    Dordrecht : Springer Netherlands , 2009 - (Smagghe, G.), s. 3-45 ISBN 978-1-4020-9111-7 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : ecdysteroid * phytosterol * structure * biosynthesis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  8. The metabolism of L-arginine and its significance for the biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor: L-glutamine inhibits the generation of L-arginine by cultured endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessa, W.C.; Hecker, M.; Mitchell, J.A. Vane, J.R. (William Harvey Research Inst., London (England))

    1990-11-01

    The mechanism by which L-glutamine (L-Gln) inhibits the release of endothelium-derived factor from bovine aortic cultured endothelial cells was investigated. The intracellular concentration of L-arginine (L-Arg) in Arg-depleted endothelial cells was inversely related to the level of L-Gln. Removal of L-Gln from the culture medium (usually containing L-Gln at 2 mM) abolished the inhibitory effect of the culture medium on L-Arg generation. L-Gln (0.2 and 2 mM) but not D-Gln inhibited the generation of L-Arg by both Arg-depleted and nondepleted endothelial cells. L-Gln did not interfere with the uptake of L-Arg or the metabolism of L-Arg-L-Phe to L-Arg but inhibited the formation of L-Arg from L-citrulline (L-Cit), L-Cit-L-Phe, and N{sup G}-monomethyl-L-arginine. L-Gln also inhibited the conversion of L-({sup 14}C)Cit to L-({sup 14}C)Arg by Arg-depleted endothelial cells. However, L-Gln did not inhibit the conversion of L-argininosuccinic acid to L-Arg by endothelial cell homogenates. Thus, L-Gln interferes with the conversion of L-Cit to L-Arg probably by acting on argininosuccinate synthetase rather than argininosuccinate lyase. L-Gln also inhibited the generation of L-Arg by the monocyte-macrophage cell line J774 but had no effect on the conversion of L-Cit to L-Arg by these cells. As the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor from cultured and non-cultured endothelial cells is limited by the availability of L-Arg, endogenous L-Gln may play a regulatory role in the biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor.

  9. The metabolism of L-arginine and its significance for the biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor: L-glutamine inhibits the generation of L-arginine by cultured endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism by which L-glutamine (L-Gln) inhibits the release of endothelium-derived factor from bovine aortic cultured endothelial cells was investigated. The intracellular concentration of L-arginine (L-Arg) in Arg-depleted endothelial cells was inversely related to the level of L-Gln. Removal of L-Gln from the culture medium (usually containing L-Gln at 2 mM) abolished the inhibitory effect of the culture medium on L-Arg generation. L-Gln (0.2 and 2 mM) but not D-Gln inhibited the generation of L-Arg by both Arg-depleted and nondepleted endothelial cells. L-Gln did not interfere with the uptake of L-Arg or the metabolism of L-Arg-L-Phe to L-Arg but inhibited the formation of L-Arg from L-citrulline (L-Cit), L-Cit-L-Phe, and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. L-Gln also inhibited the conversion of L-[14C]Cit to L-[14C]Arg by Arg-depleted endothelial cells. However, L-Gln did not inhibit the conversion of L-argininosuccinic acid to L-Arg by endothelial cell homogenates. Thus, L-Gln interferes with the conversion of L-Cit to L-Arg probably by acting on argininosuccinate synthetase rather than argininosuccinate lyase. L-Gln also inhibited the generation of L-Arg by the monocyte-macrophage cell line J774 but had no effect on the conversion of L-Cit to L-Arg by these cells. As the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor from cultured and non-cultured endothelial cells is limited by the availability of L-Arg, endogenous L-Gln may play a regulatory role in the biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor

  10. Serine biosynthesis and transport defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W

    2016-07-01

    l-serine is a non-essential amino acid that is biosynthesized via the enzymes phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH), phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT), and phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP). Besides its role in protein synthesis, l-serine is a potent neurotrophic factor and a precursor of a number of essential compounds including phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin, glycine, and d-serine. Serine biosynthesis defects result from impairments of PGDH, PSAT, or PSP leading to systemic serine deficiency. Serine biosynthesis defects present in a broad phenotypic spectrum that includes, at the severe end, Neu-Laxova syndrome, a lethal multiple congenital anomaly disease, intermediately, infantile serine biosynthesis defects with severe neurological manifestations and growth deficiency, and at the mild end, the childhood disease with intellectual disability. A serine transport defect resulting from deficiency of the ASCT1, the main transporter for serine in the central nervous system, has been recently described in children with neurological manifestations that overlap with those observed in serine biosynthesis defects. l-serine therapy may be beneficial in preventing or ameliorating symptoms in serine biosynthesis and transport defects, if started before neurological damage occurs. Herein, we review serine metabolism and transport, the clinical, biochemical, and molecular aspects of serine biosynthesis and transport defects, the mechanisms of these diseases, and the potential role of serine therapy. PMID:27161889

  11. Role of Sphingolipid Mediator Ceramide in Obesity and Renal Injury in Mice Fed a High-Fat DietS⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Boini, Krishna M.; Zhang, Chun; Xia, Min; Poklis, Justin L.; Li, Pin-Lan

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested a hypothesis that excess accumulation of sphingolipid, ceramide, its metabolites, or a combination contributes to the development of obesity and associated kidney damage. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that C57BL/6J mice on the high-fat diet (HFD) had significantly increased plasma total ceramide levels compared with animals fed a low-fat diet (LFD)...

  12. BIOSYNTHESIS OF STRESS ETHYLENE IN SOYBEAN SEEDLINGS: SIMILARITIES TO ENDOGENOUS ETHYLENE BIOSYNTHESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The similarity of stress ethylene biosynthesis in whole plants to endogenous ethylene biosynthesis was investigated using two inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, amino-ethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and cobalt chloride (Co2+); and the intermediates, methionine, S-adenosylmethionine (S...

  13. Involved in the secondary cell wall biosynthesis in popar%杨树中与次生细胞壁生物合成相关的糖基转移酶研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨少辉; 王洁华; 宋英今; 胡荣峰

    2013-01-01

    随着杨树基因组测序计划的完成,加之生物信息学、生物化学、分子生物学和遗传学等研究方法的不断完善,杨树功能基因组学研究近年来被大大推进.目前,有关杨树材性的研究主要集中于MYBs、NACs、bZIP、HB、WRKY、MADS等转录因子的调控机制以及木质素的合成途径.与之相比,有关次生细胞壁中关键碳水化合物结构的合成及代谢仍然不清楚.糖基转移酶参与木本植物次生细胞壁中碳水化合物的合成和架构,直接影响木质部的发育过程.着重介绍了木本模式植物——杨树中参与次生细胞壁生物合成的糖基转移酶基因家族及其生物学功能,并对其在利用基因工程手段改良杨树材性和选育新品种方面进行了展望.%With the completion of genome sequencing of populus trichacarpa,together with the methods of bioinformatics,biochemistry,molecular biology and genetics,the functional genomics of poplar were greatly promoted.So far,the wood-related reseaches in poplar were mainly concentrated on the transcripional factors including MYBs,NACs,bZIP,HB,WRKY,MADS and on the lignin biosynthesis pathway.In comparison,the metabolic pathways of the key structural carbohydrates still remain unclear.Glycosyltransferases are involved in the biosynthesis and remodeling of the carbahydrates in poplar xylem,thus directly affecting xylem developmental process.In this review,an emphasis on the glycosyltransferase gene family and their biological functions involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis in the woody model system-poplar weere summarized,and the future perspectives on the modification of wood properties in poplar by genetic engineering and new variety breeding were given.

  14. Structure and mechanism of calmodulin binding to a signaling sphingolipid reveal new aspects of lipid-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Erika; Harmat, Veronika; Tóth, Judit; Vértessy, Beáta G; Módos, Károly; Kardos, József; Liliom, Károly

    2010-10-01

    Lipid-protein interactions are rarely characterized at a structural molecular level due to technical difficulties; however, the biological significance of understanding the mechanism of these interactions is outstanding. In this report, we provide mechanistic insight into the inhibitory complex formation of the lipid mediator sphingosylphosphorylcholine with calmodulin, the most central and ubiquitous regulator protein in calcium signaling. We applied crystallographic, thermodynamic, kinetic, and spectroscopic approaches using purified bovine calmodulin and bovine cerebral microsomal fraction to arrive at our conclusions. Here we present 1) a 1.6-Å resolution crystal structure of their complex, in which the sphingolipid occupies the conventional hydrophobic binding site on calmodulin; 2) a peculiar stoichiometry-dependent binding process: at low or high protein-to-lipid ratio calmodulin binds lipid micelles or a few lipid molecules in a compact globular conformation, respectively, and 3) evidence that the sphingolipid displaces calmodulin from its targets on cerebral microsomes. We have ascertained the specificity of the interaction using structurally related lipids as controls. Our observations reveal the structural basis of selective calmodulin inhibition by the sphingolipid. On the basis of the crystallographic and biophysical characterization of the calmodulin-sphingosylphosphorylcholine interaction, we propose a novel lipid-protein binding model, which might be applicable to other interactions as well. PMID:20522785

  15. Glycolipid biosynthesis in cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosynthesis of monogalactosyldiacyl-glycerol (MGDG) was studied in five different cyanobacteria. Previous work has shown Anabaena variabilis to synthesize both MGDG and monoglucosyl-diacylglycerol (MG1cDG) with MG1cDG being the precursor of MGDG. They have examined four other cyanobacteria to determine if a similar relationship exists. The cyanobacteria studied were Anabaena variabilis, Chlorogloeopsis sp., Schizothrix calcicola, Anacystis nidulans, and Anacystis marina. Each were grown in liquid culture and lipids were labeled with 14C]CO2 for 20 min., 1.0 hr, 1.0 hr + 10 hr chase. Glycolipids were analyzed by initial separation of MGDG and MG1cDG by TLC followed by further analysis by HPLC. Complete separation of molecular species was obtained isocratically on an ODS column. All of the cyanobacteria labeled 16-C and 18-C fatty acids except for A. marina which labeled only 14-C and 16-C fatty acids. Desaturation of the fatty acids could be observed in the 1.0 hr and chase experiments. All were capable of labeling both MG1cDG and MGDG with the precursor-product relationship being observed. There does not appear to be a direct relationship between the epimerization of the sugar moiety and fatty acid desaturation

  16. Uptake of long chain fatty acids is regulated by dynamic interaction of FAT/CD36 with cholesterol/sphingolipid enriched microdomains (lipid rafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrmann Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms of long chain fatty acid uptake across the plasma membrane are important targets in treatment of many human diseases like obesity or hepatic steatosis. Long chain fatty acid translocation is achieved by a concert of co-existing mechanisms. These lipids can passively diffuse, but certain membrane proteins can also accelerate the transport. However, we now can provide further evidence that not only proteins but also lipid microdomains play an important part in the regulation of the facilitated uptake process. Methods Dynamic association of FAT/CD36 a candidate fatty acid transporter with lipid rafts was analysed by isolation of detergent resistant membranes (DRMs and by clustering of lipid rafts with antibodies on living cells. Lipid raft integrity was modulated by cholesterol depletion using methyl-β-cyclodextrin and sphingolipid depletion using myriocin and sphingomyelinase. Functional analyses were performed using an [3H]-oleate uptake assay. Results Overexpression of FAT/CD36 and FATP4 increased long chain fatty acid uptake. The uptake of long chain fatty acids was cholesterol and sphingolipid dependent. Floating experiments showed that there are two pools of FAT/CD36, one found in DRMs and another outside of these domains. FAT/CD36 co-localized with the lipid raft marker PLAP in antibody-clustered domains at the plasma membrane and segregated away from the non-raft marker GFP-TMD. Antibody cross-linking increased DRM association of FAT/CD36 and accelerated the overall fatty acid uptake in a cholesterol dependent manner. Another candidate transporter, FATP4, was neither present in DRMs nor co-localized with FAT/CD36 at the plasma membrane. Conclusion Our observations suggest the existence of two pools of FAT/CD36 within cellular membranes. As increased raft association of FAT/CD36 leads to an increased fatty acid uptake, dynamic association of FAT/CD36 with lipid rafts might regulate the process. There is no

  17. Imaging MALDI mass spectrometry of sphingolipids using an oscillating capillary nebulizer matrix application system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Liu, Ying; Allegood, Jeremy; Wang, Elaine; Cachón-González, Begoña; Cox, Timothy M; Merrill, Alfred H; Sullards, M Cameron

    2010-01-01

    Matrix deposition is a critical step in tissue imaging by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). It greatly affects the quality of MALDI imaging, especially for the analytes (such as lipids) that may easily dissolve in the solvent used for the matrix application. This chapter describes the use of an oscillating capillary nebulizer (OCN) to spray small droplets of matrix aerosol onto the sample surface for improved matrix homogeneity, reduced crystal size, and controlled solvent effects. This protocol allows visualization of many different lipid species and, of particular interest, sphingolipids in tissue slices of Tay-Sachs/Sandhoff disease by imaging MALDI-MS. The structures of these lipids were identified by analysis of tissue extracts using electrospray ionization in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MS(3)). These results illustrate the usefulness of tissue imaging MALDI-MS with matrix deposition by OCN for the molecular analysis in normal physiology and pathology. In addition, the observation of numerous lipid subclasses with distinct localizations in the brain slices demonstrates that imaging MALDI-MS could be effectively used for "lipidomic" studies. PMID:20680588

  18. Jasmonate-induced biosynthesis of andrographolide in Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shiv Narayan; Jha, Zenu; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar; Geda, Arvind Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Andrographolide is a prominent secondary metabolite found in Andrographis paniculata that exhibits enormous pharmacological effects. In spite of immense value, the normal biosynthesis of andrographolide results in low amount of the metabolite. To induce the biosynthesis of andrographolide, we attempted elicitor-induced activation of andrographolide biosynthesis in cell cultures of A. paniculata. This was carried out by using methyl jasmonate (MeJA) as an elicitor. Among the various concentrations of MeJA tested at different time periods, 5 µM MeJA yielded 5.25 times more andrographolide content after 24 h of treatment. The accumulation of andrographolide was correlated with the expression level of known regulatory genes (hmgs, hmgr, dxs, dxr, isph and ggps) of mevalonic acid (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathways. These results established the involvement of MeJA in andrographolide biosynthesis by inducing the transcription of its biosynthetic pathways genes. The coordination of isph, ggps and hmgs expression highly influenced the andrographolide biosynthesis. PMID:25104168

  19. The yeast PH domain proteins Slm1 and Slm2 are targets of sphingolipid signaling during the response to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daquinag, Alexes; Fadri, Maria; Jung, Sung Yun; Qin, Jun; Kunz, Jeannette

    2007-01-01

    The PH domain-containing proteins Slm1 and Slm2 were previously identified as effectors of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI4,5P(2)) and TORC2 signaling pathways. Here, we demonstrate that Slm1 and Slm2 are also targets of sphingolipid signaling during the heat shock response. We show that upon depletion of cellular sphingolipid levels, Slm1 function becomes essential for survival under heat stress. We further demonstrate that Slm proteins are regulated by a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycle involving the sphingolipid-activated protein kinases Pkh1 and Pkh2 and the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin. By using a combination of mass spectrometry and mutational analysis, we identified serine residue 659 in Slm1 as a site of phosphorylation. Characterization of Slm1 mutants that mimic dephosphorylated and phosphorylated states demonstrated that phosphorylation at serine 659 is vital for survival under heat stress and promotes the proper polarization of the actin cytoskeleton. Finally, we present evidence that Slm proteins are also required for the trafficking of the raft-associated arginine permease Can1 to the plasma membrane, a process that requires sphingolipid synthesis and actin polymerization. Together with previous work, our findings suggest that Slm proteins are subject to regulation by multiple signals, including PI4,5P(2), TORC2, and sphingolipids, and may thus integrate inputs from different signaling pathways to temporally and spatially control actin polarization. PMID:17101780

  20. Alternate biosynthesis of valerenadiene and related sesquiterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknikar, Shashikumar K; Kadam, Shahuraj H; Ehrlich, April L; Bates, Robert B

    2013-09-01

    It is proposed that the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene valerenadiene, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of a sedative in valerian, involves cyclopropane and not cyclobutane intermediates and includes as a key step a cyclopropylcarbinylcation-cyclopropylcarbinylcation rearrangement analogous to the one observed in the conversion of presqualene to squalene in triterpene and steroid biosynthesis. Similar mechanisms are proposed for the biosynthesis of the related sesquiterpenes pacifigorgiol, tamariscene and (+)-pacifigorgia-1,10-diene. PMID:24273843

  1. In vitro biosynthesis of complement protein D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnum, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: to determine site(s) of complement protein D biosynthesis and to examine D biosynthesis with respect to the kinetics of D secretion, the post-translational modification of D and the tissue-specific differences in D secretion and processing. Antigenic D was detected in the culture supernatants of two cell lines, U937 and HepG2, and adherent blood monocytes by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. D secreted by U937 cells was hemolytically active with a specific activity comparable to D in serum. De novo synthesis of D by U937 cells was demonstrated with the use of cycloheximide. Biosynthetic labeling using /sup 35/S labeled methionine or cysteine, followed by immunoprecipitation demonstrated a single d band intra- and extra-cellularly in all three cell types as analyzed by SDS-PAGE and auto-radiography. Elevated serum D levels in individuals with IgA nephropathy led to studies on the D levels in serum and urine of individuals with chronic renal failure and an individual with Fanconi's syndrome. The former group had elevated serum D levels, compared to normals, and insignificant levels of D in their urine while the patient with Fanconi's syndrome had normal serum D levels but markedly elevated urinary D levels. These studies demonstrate that the monocyte and hepatocyte are both sites of D synthesis and that there are no apparent differences in the secretion rates and processing of D produced by these cell types. The results also suggest that D is not synthesized or secreted as a precursor molecule. Additionally, these studies suggest that the kidney is a major site of D catabolism.

  2. LOCALIZATION OF THE PATHWAY OF THE PENICILLIN BIOSYNTHESIS IN PENICILLIUM-CHRYSOGENUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULLER, WH; VANDERKRIFT, TP; KROUWER, AJJ; WOSTEN, HAB; VANDERVOORT, LHM; SMAAL, EB; VERKLEIJ, AJ

    1991-01-01

    The localization of the enzymes involved in penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum hyphae has been studied by immunological detection methods in combination with electron microscopy and cell fractionation. The results suggest a complicated pathway involving different intracellular locati

  3. Xyloglucan and Its Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Zabotina, Olga A.

    2012-01-01

    The hemicellulosic polysaccharide xyloglucan (XyG), found in the primary cell walls of most plant tissues, is important for structural organization of the cell wall and regulation of growth and development. Significant recent progress in structural characterization of XyGs from different plant species has shed light on the diversification of XyG during plant evolution. Also, identification of XyG biosynthetic enzymes and examination of their interactions suggests the involvement of a multipro...

  4. Xyloglucan and its biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Zabotina, Olga A.

    2012-01-01

    The hemicellulosic polysaccharide xyloglucan (XyG), found in the primary cell walls of most plant tissues, is important for structural organization of the cell wall and regulation of growth and development. Significant recent progress in structural characterization of XyGs from different plant species has shed light on the diversification of XyG during plant evolution. Also, identification of XyG biosynthetic enzymes and examination of their interactions suggests the involvement of a multipro...

  5. EXPRESSED PROTEIN LIGATION. A NEW TOOL FOR THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF CYCLIC POLYPEPTIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, R; Camarero, J A

    2004-11-11

    The present paper reviews the use of expressed protein ligation for the biosynthesis of backbone cyclic polypeptides. This general method allows the in vivo and in vitro biosynthesis of cyclic polypeptides using recombinant DNA expression techniques. Biosynthetic access to backbone cyclic peptides opens the possibility to generate cell-based combinatorial libraries that can be screened inside living cells for their ability to attenuate or inhibit cellular processes.

  6. The Evolution of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biosynthesis of aflatoxin (AF) involves over 20 enzymatic reactions in a complex polyketide pathway that converts acetate and malonate to the intermediates sterigmatocystin (ST) and O-methylsterigmatocysin (OMST), the respective penultimate and ultimate precursors of AF. Although ST, OMST, and ...

  7. Nucleotide sequence of cloned cDNA for human sphingolipid activator protein 1 precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cDNA clones encoding prepro-sphingolipid activator protein 1 (SAP-1) were isolated from a λ gt11 human hepatoma expression library using polyclonal antibodies. These had inserts of ≅ 2 kilobases (λ-S-1.2 and λ-S-1.3) and both were both homologous with a previously isolated clone (λ-S-1.1) for mature SAP-1. The authors report here the nucleotide sequence of the longer two EcoRI fragments of S-1.2 and S-1.3 that were not the same and the derived amino acid sequences of mature SAP-1 and its prepro form. The open reading frame encodes 19 amino acids, which are colinear with the amino-terminal sequence of mature SAP-1, and extends far beyond the predicted carboxyl terminus of mature SAP-1, indicating extensive carboxyl-terminal processing. The nucleotide sequence of cDNA encoding prepro-SAP-1 includes 1449 bases from the assigned initiation codon ATG at base-pair 472 to the stop codon TGA at base-pair 1921. The first 23 amino acids coded after the initiation ATG are characteristic of a signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass for a polypeptide encoded by 1449 bases is ≅ 53 kDa, in keeping with the reported value for pro-SAP-1. The data indicate that after removal of the signal peptide mature SAP-1 is generated by removing an additional 7 amino acids from the amino terminus and ≅ 373 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus. One potential glycosylation site was previously found in mature SAP-1. Three additional potential glycosylation sites are present in the processed carboxyl-terminal polypeptide, which they designate as P-2

  8. 1-MCP treatment enhanced expression of genes controlling endosperm cell division and starch biosynthesis for improvement of grain filling in a dense-panicle rice cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, B B; Badoghar, A K; Sekhar, S; Shaw, B P; Mohapatra, P K

    2016-05-01

    High ethylene production in dense-panicle rice cultivars impacts grain filling. 1-MCP (ethylene action inhibitor) treatment increased assimilates partitioning, cell number and size and expression of starch synthesizing enzyme genes of developing caryopses mostly in the basal spikelets of panicle at early post-anthesis stage. The gain in cell number was less compared to the increase of size. High ethylene production in spikelets matched with greater expression of ethylene receptor and signal transducer genes. Genes encoding cell cycle regulators CDK, CYC and CKI expressed poorly on 9 DAA. 1-MCP treatment enhanced their expression; the increase of expression was higher for CDKs and lower for CKIs in basal compared to apical spikelets. Greater expression of CDKB2:1 might have lifted cytokinesis of nascent peripheral cells of endosperm, while promotion of CDKAs, CYCD2:2 and inhibition of CYCB2:2 expression contributed to endoreduplication of central cells increasing cell size and DNA ploidy level. It is concluded that the process of endoreduplication, which begins at mid-grain filling stage, is crucially linked with the final caryopsis size of rice grain. The enhanced endosperm growth brought about by repressed ethylene action during the first few days after anthesis seems to be associated with the overall increased cell cycle activity and sink strength. PMID:26993232

  9. Final Report on Regulation of Guaiacyl and Syringyl Monolignol Biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent L. Chiang

    2006-03-09

    The focus of this research is to understand syringyl monolignol biosynthesis that leads to the formation of syringyl lignin, a type of lignin that can be easily removed during biomass conversion. We have achieved the three originally proposed goals for this project. (1) SAD and CAD genes (enzyme catalytic and kinetic properties) and their functional relevance to CAld5H/AldOMT pathway, (2) spatiotemporal expression patterns of Cald5H, AldOMT, SAD and CAD genes, and (3) functions of CAld5H, AldOMT, and SAD genes in vivo using transgenic aspen. Furthermore, we also found that microRNA might be involved in the upstream regulatory network of lignin biosynthesis and wood formation. The achievements are as below. (1) Based on biochemical and molecular studies, we discovered a novel syringyl-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) involved in monolignol biosynthesis in angiosperm trees. Through CAld5H/OMT/SAD mediation, syringyl monolignol biosynthesis branches out from guaiacyl pathway at coniferaldehyde; (2) The function of CAld5H gene in this syringyl monolignol biosynthesis pathway also was confirmed in vivo in transgenic Populus; (3) The proposed major monolignol biosynthesis pathways were further supported by the involving biochemical functions of CCR based on a detailed kinetic study; (4) Gene promoter activity analysis also supported the cell-type specific expression of SAD and CAD genes in xylem tissue, consistent with the cell-specific locations of SAD and CAD proteins and with the proposed pathways; (5) We have developed a novel small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated stable gene-silencing system in transgenic plants; (6) Using the siRNA and P. trichocarpa transformation/regeneration systems we are currently producing transgenic P. trichocarpa to investigate the interactive functions of CAD and SAD in regulating guaiacyl and syringyl lignin biosynthesis; (7) We have cloned for the first time from a tree species, P. trichocarpa, small regulatory RNAs termed micro

  10. Effective pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with combination pretreatment and its hydrolyzates as reaction media for the biosynthesis of ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate by whole cells of E. coli CCZU-K14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu-Cai; Zhang, Dan-Ping; Di, Jun-Hua; Wu, Yin-Qi; Tao, Zhi-Cheng; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Chong, Gang-Gang; Ding, Yun; Ma, Cui-Luan

    2016-07-01

    In this study, sugarcane bagasse (SB) was pretreated with combination pretreatment (e.g., sequential KOH extraction and ionic liquid soaking, sequential KOH extraction and Fenton soaking, or sequential KOH extraction and glycerol soaking). After the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated SBs, it was found that all these three concentrated hydrolyzates could be used for the asymmetric bioreduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE) into ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate [(S)-CHBE]. Compared with glucose, arabinose and cellobiose couldn't promote the initial reaction rate, and xylose could increase the intracellular NADH content. Moreover, it was the first report that hydrolyzates could be used for the effective biosynthesis of (S)-CHBE (∼500g/L; 98.0% yield) from 3000 COBE by whole cells of Escherichia coli CCZU-K14 in the presence of β-CD (0.4mol β-CD/mol COBE), l-glutamine (200mM) and glycine (500mM). In conclusion, it is a new alternative to utilize bioresource for the synthesis of key chiral intermediate (S)-CHBE. PMID:27060248

  11. Biosynthesis of pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Jensen, Jacob Krüger; Sørensen, Susanne Oxenbøll; Harholt, Jesper; Geshi, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    Pectin consists of a group of acidic polysaccharides that constitute a large part of the cell wall of plants. The pectic polysaccharides have a complex structure but can generally be divided into homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan I, rhamnogalacturonan II (RGII) and xylogalacturonan (XGA). These...... polysaccharides appear to be present in all cells but their relative abundance and structural details differ between cell types and species. Pectin is synthesized in the Golgi vesicles and its complexity dictates that a large number of enzymes must be involved in the process. The biosynthetic enzymes required are...... glycosyltransferases and decorating enzymes including methyltransferases, acetyltransferases and feruloyltransferases. Biochemical methods successfully led to the recent identification of a pectin biosynthetic galacturonosyltransferase (GAUT1), and recent functional genomics and mutant studies have allowed the...

  12. (-)-Menthol biosynthesis and molecular genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney B.; Davis, Edward M.; Ringer, Kerry L.; Wildung, Mark R.

    2005-12-01

    (-)-Menthol is the most familiar of the monoterpenes as both a pure natural product and as the principal and characteristic constituent of the essential oil of peppermint ( Mentha x piperita). In this paper, we review the biosynthesis and molecular genetics of (-)-menthol production in peppermint. In Mentha species, essential oil biosynthesis and storage is restricted to the peltate glandular trichomes (oil glands) on the aerial surfaces of the plant. A mechanical method for the isolation of metabolically functional oil glands, has provided a system for precursor feeding studies to elucidate pathway steps, as well as a highly enriched source of the relevant biosynthetic enzymes and of their corresponding transcripts with which cDNA libraries have been constructed to permit cloning and characterization of key structural genes. The biosynthesis of (-)-menthol from primary metabolism requires eight enzymatic steps, and involves the formation and subsequent cyclization of the universal monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate to the parent olefin (-)-(4 S)-limonene as the first committed reaction of the sequence. Following hydroxylation at C3, a series of four redox transformations and an isomerization occur in a general “allylic oxidation-conjugate reduction” scheme that installs three chiral centers on the substituted cyclohexanoid ring to yield (-)-(1 R, 3 R, 4 S)-menthol. The properties of each enzyme and gene of menthol biosynthesis are described, as are their probable evolutionary origins in primary metabolism. The organization of menthol biosynthesis is complex in involving four subcellular compartments, and regulation of the pathway appears to reside largely at the level of gene expression. Genetic engineering to up-regulate a flux-limiting step and down-regulate a side route reaction has led to improvement in the composition and yield of peppermint oil.

  13. Biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi eTsutsui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pineal gland transduces photoperiodic changes to the neuroendocrine system by rhythmic secretion of melatonin. We recently provided new evidence that the pineal gland is a major neurosteroidogenic organ and actively produces a variety of neurosteroids de novo from cholesterol in birds. Notably, allopregnanolone is a major pineal neurosteroid that is far more actively produced in the pineal gland than the brain and secreted by the pineal gland in juvenile birds. Subsequently, we have demonstrated the biological action of pineal allopregnanolone on Purkinje cells in the cerebellum during development in juvenile birds. Pinealectomy (Px induces apoptosis of Purkinje cells, whereas allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks prevents cell death. Furthermore, Px increases the number of Purkinje cells that express active caspase-3, a crucial mediator of apoptosis, and allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks decreases the number of Purkinje cells expressing active caspase-3. It thus appears that pineal allopregnanolone prevents cell death of Purkinje cells by suppressing the activity of caspase-3 during development. This paper highlights new aspects of the biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone.

  14. Biosynthesis of archaeal membrane ether lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Samta; Caforio, Antonella; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2014-01-01

    A vital function of the cell membrane in all living organism is to maintain the membrane permeability barrier and fluidity. The composition of the phospholipid bilayer is distinct in archaea when compared to bacteria and eukarya. In archaea, isoprenoid hydrocarbon side chains are linked via an ether bond to the sn-glycerol-1-phosphate backbone. In bacteria and eukarya on the other hand, fatty acid side chains are linked via an ester bond to the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate backbone. The polar head groups are globally shared in the three domains of life. The unique membrane lipids of archaea have been implicated not only in the survival and adaptation of the organisms to extreme environments but also to form the basis of the membrane composition of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). In nature, a diverse range of archaeal lipids is found, the most common are the diether (or archaeol) and the tetraether (or caldarchaeol) lipids that form a monolayer. Variations in chain length, cyclization and other modifications lead to diversification of these lipids. The biosynthesis of these lipids is not yet well understood however progress in the last decade has led to a comprehensive understanding of the biosynthesis of archaeol. This review describes the current knowledge of the biosynthetic pathway of archaeal ether lipids; insights on the stability and robustness of archaeal lipid membranes; and evolutionary aspects of the lipid divide and the LUCA. It examines recent advances made in the field of pathway reconstruction in bacteria. PMID:25505460

  15. Essences in Metabolic Engineering of Lignan Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoo Satake

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lignans are structurally and functionally diverse phytochemicals biosynthesized in diverse plant species and have received wide attentions as leading compounds of novel drugs for tumor treatment and healthy diets to reduce of the risks of lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases. However, the lineage-specific distribution and the low-amount of production in natural plants, some of which are endangered species, hinder the efficient and stable production of beneficial lignans. Accordingly, the development of new procedures for lignan production is of keen interest. Recent marked advances in the molecular and functional characterization of lignan biosynthetic enzymes and endogenous and exogenous factors for lignan biosynthesis have suggested new methods for the metabolic engineering of lignan biosynthesis cascades leading to the efficient, sustainable, and stable lignan production in plants, including plant cell/organ cultures. Optimization of light conditions, utilization of a wide range of elicitor treatments, and construction of transiently gene-transfected or transgenic lignan-biosynthesizing plants are mainly being attempted. This review will present the basic and latest knowledge regarding metabolic engineering of lignans based on their biosynthetic pathways and biological activities, and the perspectives in lignan production via metabolic engineering.

  16. Breeding grasses for capacity to biofuel production or silage feeding value: an updated list of genes involved in maize secondary cell wall biosynthesis and assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Courtial, Audrey; Soler, Marçal; Chateigner-Boutin, Anne Laure; Reymond, Matthieu; Mechin, Valerie; WANG Hua; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    In the near future, maize, sorghum, or switchgrass stovers and cereal straws will be a significant source of carbohydratesfor sustainable biofuel production, in addition to the current use of grass silage in cattle feeding. However, cell wall properties, including the enzymatic degradability of structural polysaccharides in industrial fermenters or animal rumen, is greatly influenced by the embedding of cell wall carbohydrates in lignin matrix, and the linkages between lignins, p-hydroxycinna...

  17. Screening of hyaluronic acid-poly(ethylene glycol) composite hydrogels to support intervertebral disc cell biosynthesis using artificial neural network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Claire G; Francisco, Aubrey T; Niu, Zhenbin; Mancino, Robert L; Craig, Stephen L; Setton, Lori A

    2014-08-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) composite hydrogels have been widely studied for both cell delivery and soft tissue regeneration applications. A very broad range of physical and biological properties have been engineered into HA-PEG hydrogels that may differentially affect cellular "outcomes" of survival, synthesis and metabolism. The objective of this study was to rapidly screen multiple HA-PEG composite hydrogel formulations for an effect on matrix synthesis and behaviors of nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF) cells of the intervertebral disc (IVD). A secondary objective was to apply artificial neural network analysis to identify relationships between HA-PEG composite hydrogel formulation parameters and biological outcome measures for each cell type of the IVD. Eight different hydrogels were developed from preparations of thiolated HA (HA-SH) and PEG vinylsulfone (PEG-VS) macromers, and used as substrates for NP and AF cell culture in vitro. Hydrogel mechanical properties ranged from 70 to 489kPa depending on HA molecular weight, and measures of matrix synthesis, metabolite consumption and production and cell morphology were obtained to study relationships to hydrogel parameters. Results showed that NP and AF cell numbers were highest upon the HA-PEG hydrogels formed from the lower-molecular-weight HA, with evidence of higher sulfated glycosaminoglycan production also upon lower-HA-molecular-weight composite gels. All cells formed more multi-cell clusters upon any HA-PEG composite hydrogel as compared to gelatin substrates. Formulations were clustered into neurons based largely on their HA molecular weight, with few effects of PEG molecular weight observed on any measured parameters. PMID:24859415

  18. The Yeast PH Domain Proteins Slm1 and Slm2 Are Targets of Sphingolipid Signaling during the Response to Heat Stress▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Daquinag, Alexes; Fadri, Maria; Jung, Sung Yun; Qin, Jun; Kunz, Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    The PH domain-containing proteins Slm1 and Slm2 were previously identified as effectors of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI4,5P2) and TORC2 signaling pathways. Here, we demonstrate that Slm1 and Slm2 are also targets of sphingolipid signaling during the heat shock response. We show that upon depletion of cellular sphingolipid levels, Slm1 function becomes essential for survival under heat stress. We further demonstrate that Slm proteins are regulated by a phosphorylation/dephosph...

  19. Regulation of mammalian nucleotide metabolism and biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew N; Fan, Teresa W-M

    2015-02-27

    Nucleotides are required for a wide variety of biological processes and are constantly synthesized de novo in all cells. When cells proliferate, increased nucleotide synthesis is necessary for DNA replication and for RNA production to support protein synthesis at different stages of the cell cycle, during which these events are regulated at multiple levels. Therefore the synthesis of the precursor nucleotides is also strongly regulated at multiple levels. Nucleotide synthesis is an energy intensive process that uses multiple metabolic pathways across different cell compartments and several sources of carbon and nitrogen. The processes are regulated at the transcription level by a set of master transcription factors but also at the enzyme level by allosteric regulation and feedback inhibition. Here we review the cellular demands of nucleotide biosynthesis, their metabolic pathways and mechanisms of regulation during the cell cycle. The use of stable isotope tracers for delineating the biosynthetic routes of the multiple intersecting pathways and how these are quantitatively controlled under different conditions is also highlighted. Moreover, the importance of nucleotide synthesis for cell viability is discussed and how this may lead to potential new approaches to drug development in diseases such as cancer. PMID:25628363

  20. Cell Wall N-Linked Mannoprotein Biosynthesis Requires Goa1p, a Putative Regulator of Mitochondrial Complex I in Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    She, Xiaodong; Calderone, Richard; Kruppa, Michael; Lowman, Douglas; Williams, David; Zhang, Lili; Gao, Ying; Khamooshi, Kasra; Liu, Weida; Li, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    The Goa1p of Candida albicans regulates mitochondrial Complex I (CI) activities in its role as a putative CI accessory protein. Transcriptional profiling of goa1∆ revealed a down regulation of genes encoding β-oligomannosyl transferases. Herein, we present data on cell wall phenotypes of goa1∆ (strain GOA31). We used transmission electron microscopy (TEM), GPC/MALLS, and NMR to compare GOA31 to a gene-reconstituted strain (GOA32) and parental cells. We note by TEM a reduction in outer wall fi...

  1. Heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Heparan sulfate is perhaps the most complex polysaccharide known from animals. The basic repeating disaccharide is extensively modified by sulfation and uronic acid epimerization. Despite this, the fine structure of heparan sulfate is remarkably consistent with a particular cell type. This suggests...... apparatus has not been carried out in a detailed way using high-resolution microscopy. We have begun this process, using well-known markers for the various Golgi compartments, coupled with the use of characterized antibodies and cDNA expression. Laser scanning confocal microscopy coupled with line scanning...

  2. Biosynthesis of enediyne antitumor antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lanen, Steven G; Shen, Ben

    2008-01-01

    The enediyne polyketides are secondary metabolites isolated from a variety of Actinomycetes. All members share very potent anticancer and antibiotic activity, and prospects for the clinical application of the enediynes has been validated with the recent marketing of two enediyne derivatives as anticancer agents. The biosynthesis of these compounds is of interest because of the numerous structural features that are unique to the enediyne family. The gene cluster for five enediynes has now been cloned and sequenced, providing the foundation to understand natures' means to biosynthesize such complex, exotic molecules. Presented here is a review of the current progress in delineating the biosynthesis of the enediynes with an emphasis on the model enediyne, C-1027. PMID:18397168

  3. Biosynthesis of Enediyne Antitumor Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Van Lanen, Steven G.; Shen, Ben

    2008-01-01

    The enediyne polyketides are secondary metabolites isolated from a variety of Actinomycetes. All members share very potent anticancer and antibiotic activity, and prospects for the clinical application of the enediynes has been validated with the recent marketing of two enediyne derivatives as anticancer agents. The biosynthesis of these compounds is of interest because of the numerous structural features that are unique to the enediyne family. The gene cluster for five enediynes has now been...

  4. Fatty acid biosynthesis in actinomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    Gago, Gabriela; Diacovich, Lautaro; Arabolaza, Ana; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Gramajo, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    All organisms that produce fatty acids do so via a repeated cycle of reactions. In mammals and other animals, these reactions are catalyzed by a type I fatty acid synthase (FAS), a large multifunctional protein to which the growing chain is covalently attached. In contrast, most bacteria (and plants) contain a type II system in which each reaction is catalyzed by a discrete protein. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is well established and has provided a foundation fo...

  5. Taxol biosynthesis and molecular genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Croteau, Rodney; Ketchum, Raymond E.B.; Long, Robert M.; Kaspera, Rüdiger; Wildung, Mark R.

    2006-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the anticancer drug Taxol in Taxus (yew) species involves 19 steps from the universal diterpenoid progenitor geranylgeranyl diphosphate derived by the plastidial methyl erythritol phosphate pathway for isoprenoid precursor supply. Following the committed cyclization to the taxane skeleton, eight cytochrome P450-mediated oxygenations, three CoA-dependent acyl/aroyl transfers, an oxidation at C9, and oxetane (D-ring) formation yield the intermediate baccatin III, to which the fu...

  6. Biosynthesis of dipicolinic acid in Clostridium roseum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dipicolinic acid (DPA) synthesis was studied in Clostridium roseum by permitting the organism to complete vegetative growth in trypticase medium and trasfering the cells to a non-growth-promoting-medium, supplemented with the appropriate 14C-labelled precursors to complete sporulation and assaying the incorporation of label into DPA. Glu, asp, ala, ser and acetate were found to be efficient precursors of DPA and each one influenced the incorporation of other into DPA. The data suggest that a C5 precursor is being trasformed into a C4 intermediate, and a C2 precursor into a C4 intermediate, before their entry into DPA carbon structure. A C4 plus C3 condensation is favoured over C5 plus C2 or other condensation in the DPA biosynthesis. (Author)

  7. Biosynthesis of dipicolinic acid in Clostridium roseum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakasan, K. (Paraiba Univ., Joao Pessoa (Brazil)); Sharma, D. (Gobind Ballabh Pant Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Nainital (India))

    1981-02-01

    Dipicolinic acid (DPA) synthesis was studied in Clostridium roseum by permitting the organism to complete vegetative growth in trypticase medium and trasfering the cells to a non-growth-promoting-medium, supplemented with the appropriate /sup 14/C-labelled precursors to complete sporulation and assaying the incorporation of label into DPA. Glu, asp, ala, ser and acetate were found to be efficient precursors of DPA and each one influenced the incorporation of other into DPA. The data suggest that a C/sub 5/ precursor is being trasformed into a C/sub 4/ intermediate, and a C/sub 2/ precursor into a C/sub 4/ intermediate, before their entry into DPA carbon structure. A C/sub 4/ plus C/sub 3/ condensation is favoured over C/sub 5/ plus C/sub 2/ or other condensation in the DPA biosynthesis.

  8. Effect of diphenyl ether herbicides and oxadiazon on porphyrin biosynthesis in mouse liver, rat primary hepatocyte culture and HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijt, J; van Holsteijn, I; Hassing, I; Vokurka, M; Blaauboer, B J

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the herbicides fomesafen, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon and fluazifop-butyl on porphyrin accumulation in mouse liver, rat primary hepatocyte culture and HepG2 cells were investigated. Ten days of herbicide feeding (0.25% in the diet) increased the liver porphyrins in male C57B1/6J mice from 1.4 +/- 0.6 to 4.8 +/- 2.1 (fomesafen) 16.9 +2- 2.9 (oxyfluorfen) and 25.9 +/- 3.1 (oxadiazon) nmol/g wet weight, respectively. Fluazifop-butyl had no effect on liver porphyrin metabolism. Fomesafen, oxyfluorfen and oxadiazon increased the cellular porphyrin content of rat hepatocytes after 24 h of incubation (control, 3.2 pmol/mg protein, fomesafen, oxyfluorfen and oxadiazon at 0.125 mM concentration 51.5, 54.3 and 44.0 pmol/mg protein, respectively). The porphyrin content of HepG2 cells increased from 1.6 to 18.2, 10.6 and 9.2 pmol/mg protein after 24 h incubation with the three herbicides. Fluazifop-butyl increased hepatic cytochrome P450 levels and ethoxy- and pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD and PROD) activity, oxyfluorfen increased PROD activity. Peroxisomal palmitoyl CoA oxidation increased after fomesafen and fluazifop treatment to about 500% of control values both in mouse liver and rat hepatocytes. Both rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells can be used as a test system for the porphyrogenic potential of photobleaching herbicides. PMID:8517781

  9. Liquid Chromatography with Dual Parallel Mass Spectrometry and 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Analysis of Sphingomyelin and Dihydrosphingomyelin. II. Bovine Milk Sphingolipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS), in parallel, was used for simultaneous detection of bovine milk sphingolipids (BMS). APCI-MS mass spectra exhibited mostly ceramide-like fragment ions, [Cer-H2O...

  10. The sphingolipid long-chain base-Pkh1/2-Ypk1/2 signaling pathway regulates eisosome assembly and turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Guangzuo; Gruhler, Albrecht; Liu, Ying;

    2008-01-01

    Eisosomes are recently described fungal structures that play roles in the organization of the plasma membrane and endocytosis. Their major protein components are Pil1 and Lsp1, and previous studies showed that these proteins are phosphorylated by the sphingolipid long-chain base-activated Pkh1 an...

  11. Expression, biosynthesis and release of preadipocyte factor-1/ delta-like protein/fetal antigen-1 in pancreatic beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, B N; Carlsson, C; Møldrup, Annette;

    2003-01-01

    Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1)/delta-like protein/fetal antigen-1 (FA1) is a member of the epidermal growth factor-like family. It is widely expressed in embryonic tissues, whereas in adults it is confined to the adrenal gland, the anterior pituitary, the endocrine pancreas, the testis and the...... insulin-positive islet cells. We found that Pref-1 was synthesized in normal islets and in RINm5F insulinoma cells and released into the medium in two forms, of which one corresponded to FA1. Both the expression of the mRNA for Pref-1 and the release of the soluble form(s) were stimulated by GH and...... prolactin (PRL). Whereas 2 h exposure to high glucose or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine stimulated insulin release, only a small change was seen in FA1 release, suggesting that the FA1 is released by a different pathway than insulin. However, long-term exposure (48 h) to high glucose increased FA1 secretion...

  12. Biosynthesis of 10 kDa and 7.5 kDa insulin-like growth factor II in a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, F C; Haselbacher, G; Christiansen, Jan;

    1993-01-01

    -II mRNA. Two forms of IGF-II with molecular masses of 7.5 kDa and 10 kDa, corresponding to the mature IGF-II and IGF-II with a C-terminal extension of 21 amino acids (IGF-IIE21), were secreted into the culture medium at amounts of 17 ng/ml (2.3 nM) and 15 ng/ml (1.5 nM), respectively. IN157 cells also...... produce IGF binding protein-2. The bioactivity of recombinant IGF-IIE21 was compared with human IGF-I and IGF-II. IGF-I, IGF-II and IGF-IIE21 bound with high affinity to human IGF-I receptors (Kd approximately 1 nM), whereas the human IGF-II/mannose 6-phosphate (IGF-II/Man 6-P) receptor bound IGF-II and...... IGF-IIE21 with Kd values of 0.5 nM and 2 nM, respectively, and IGF-I with about 500 times lower affinity. IGF-II and IGF-IIE21 stimulated DNA synthesis via the IGF-I receptor, whereas the IGF-II/Man 6-P receptor mediated their rapid internalization and inactivation. During culture of IN157 cells about...

  13. The translation elongation factor eEF-1Bβ1 is involved in cell wall biosynthesis and plant development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakir Hossain

    Full Text Available The eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF-1Bβ1 (EF1Bβ is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that plays an important role in translation elongation. In this study, we show that the EF1Bβ protein is localized in the plasma membrane and cytoplasm, and that the transcripts should be expressed in most tissue types in seedlings. Sectioning of the inflorescence stem revealed that EF1Bβ predominantly localizes to the xylem vessels and in the interfascicular cambium. EF1Bβ gene silencing in efβ caused a dwarf phenotype with 38% and 20% reduction in total lignin and crystalline cellulose, respectively. This loss-of-function mutant also had a lower S/G lignin monomer ratio relative to wild type plants, but no changes were detected in a gain-of-function mutant transformed with the EF1Bβ gene. Histochemical analysis showed a reduced vascular apparatus, including smaller xylem vessels in the inflorescence stem of the loss-of-function mutant. Over-expression of EF1Bβ in an eli1 mutant background restored a WT phenotype and abolished ectopic lignin deposition as well as cell expansion defects in the mutant. Taken together, these data strongly suggest a role for EF1Bβ in plant development and cell wall formation in Arabidopsis.

  14. Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA Mutants Implicate GAUT Genes in the Biosynthesis of Pectin and Xylan in Cell Walls and Seed Testa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kerry H. Caffall; Sivakumar Pattathil; Sarah E. Phillips; Michael G. Hahn; Debra Mohnen

    2009-01-01

    Galacturonosyltransferase 1 (GAUT1) is an α1,4-D-galacturonosyltransferase that transfers galacturonic acid from uridine 5'-diphosphogalacturonic acid onto the pectic polysaccharide homogalacturonan (Sterling et al., 2006). The 25-member Arabidopsis thaliana GAUT1-related gene family encodes 15 GAUT and 10 GAUT-like (GATL) proteins with, respectively, 56-84 and 42-53% amino acid sequence similarity to GAUT1. Previous phylogenetic analyses of AtGAUTs indicated three clades: A through C. A comparative phylogenetic analysis of the Arabidopsis, poplar and rice GAUT families has sub-classified the GAUTs into seven clades: clade A-1 (GAUTs 1 to 3); A-2 (GAUT4); A-3 (GAUTs 5 and 6); A-4 (GAUT7); B-1(GAUTs 8 and 9); B-2 (GAUTs 10 and 11); and clade C (GAUTs 12 to 15). The Arabidopsis GAUTs have a distribution com-parable to the poplar orthologs, with the exception of GAUT2, which is absent in poplar. Rice, however, has no orthologs of GAUTs 2 and 12 and has multiple apparent orthologs of GAUTs 1, 4, and 7 compared with eitherArabidopsis or poplar. The cell wall glycosyl residue compositions of 26 homozygous T-DNA insertion mutants for 13 of 15 Arabidopsis GAUTgenes reveal significantly and reproducibly different cell walls in specific tissues of gaut mutants 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 from that of wild-type Arabidopsis walls. Pectin and xylan polysaccharides are affected by the loss of GAUT function, as dem-onstrated by the altered galacturonic acid, xylose, rhamnose, galactose, and arabinose composition of distinct gaut mu-tant walls. The wall glycosyl residue compositional phenotypes observed among the gaut mutants suggest that at least six different biosynthetic linkages in pectins and/or xylans are affected by the lesions in these GAUTgenes. Evidence is also presented to support a role for GAUT11 in seed mucilage expansion and in seed wall and mucilage composition.

  15. Optimization of L-Tryptophan Biosynthesis From L-Serine of Processed Iranian Beet and Cane Molasses and Indole by Induced Escherichia coli ATCC 11303 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Sadeghiyan-Rizi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: L-tryptophan is an important ingredient in medicines, especially in neuromedicines such as antidepressants. Many commercial processes employ various microorganisms with high tryptophan synthase activity to produce L-tryptophan from indole and L-serine, but these processes are very costly due to the costs of precursors, especially L-serine. Objectives: For this reason, we studied the ability to use processed Iranian cane and beet molasses as L-serine sources for L-tryptophan production, which enables us to reach a cost-effective process. Materials and Methods: Whole cells of Escherichia coli ATCC 11303 were induced for L-tryptophan synthase by addition of indole to the growth medium and bacterial cells harvested from the growth medium were used as biocatalysts in the production medium. Conditions of the production medium were optimized and Iranian cane and beet molasses were processed by solvent extraction with ethanol and n-butanol and used as L-serine sources of the production medium. Amount of L-tryptophan and theoretical yield of L-tryptophan production were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and by a colorimetrical method on the basis of the remaining indole assay, respectively. Results: L-tryptophan production increased by 15 folds, when indole was used as an inducer. L-tryptophan was produced from processed Iranian beet molasses in satisfactory amounts (0.53 mM and no exogenous pyridoxal phosphate was required as a cofactor under our experimental conditions. Conclusions: The obtained results proved that Iranian beet molasses include significant amounts of L-serine that makes them a suitable substitution for L-serine. Findings of the present study give impetus to use of Iranian beet molasses for cost-effective L-Trp production in the amino acid industry. Keywords: Tryptophan; Tryptophan Synthase; Indole

  16. Lignin biosynthesis and its molecular regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Lignin biosynthesis has become increasingly highlighted because it plays an important role in the growth and development of plant, in the systematic evolution of plant and in the human life. Due to the progress in the field of lignin studies in recent years, the lignin biosynthesis pathway has been 修订日期:. Here we discuss some genetic engineering approaches on lignin biosynthesis, and conceive strategy to regulate lignin biosynthesis in order to use lignin resource more efficiently in agricultural and industrial productions.

  17. Biosynthesis and Function of Extracellular Glycans in Cyanobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Jan-Christoph Kehr; Elke Dittmann

    2015-01-01

    The cell surface of cyanobacteria is covered with glycans that confer versatility and adaptability to a multitude of environmental factors. The complex carbohydrates act as barriers against different types of stress and play a role in intra- as well as inter-species interactions. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the chemical composition, biosynthesis and biological function of exo- and lipo-polysaccharides from cyanobacteria and give an overview of sugar-binding lectins c...

  18. Two distinct pathways for essential metabolic precursors for isoprenoid biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Seto, Haruo

    2012-01-01

    Isoprenoids are a diverse group of molecules found in all organisms, where they perform such important biological functions as hormone signaling (e.g., steroids) in mammals, antioxidation (e.g., carotenoids) in plants, electron transport (e.g., ubiquinone), and cell wall biosynthesis intermediates in bacteria. All isoprenoids are synthesized by the consecutive condensation of the five-carbon monomer isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to its isomer, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The biosynthet...

  19. Improving penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum by glyoxalase overproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Scheckhuber, Christian Q.; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

    2013-01-01

    Genetic engineering of fungal cell factories mainly focuses on manipulating enzymes of the product pathway or primary metabolism. However, despite the use of strong promoters or strains containing the genes of interest in multiple copies, the desired strongly enhanced enzyme levels are often not obtained. Here we present a novel strategy to improve penicillin biosynthesis by Penicillium chrysogenum by reducing reactive and toxic metabolic by-products, 2-oxoaldehydes. This was achieved by over...

  20. Lipid-based transfection reagents can interfere with cholesterol biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielli, Mauro; Marinelli, Raúl A

    2016-02-15

    Lipid-based transfection reagents are widely used for delivery of small interfering RNA into cells. We examined whether the commonly used commercial transfection reagents DharmaFECT-4 and Lipofectamine 2000 can interfere with lipid metabolism by studying cholesterogenesis. Cholesterol de novo synthesis from [(14)C]acetate was assessed in human hepatocyte-derived Huh-7 cells. The results revealed that DharmaFECT, but not Lipofectamine, markedly inhibited cholesterol biosynthesis by approximately 70%. Cell viability was not significantly altered. These findings suggest that caution is required in the choice of certain lipid-based transfection reagents for gene silencing experiments, particularly when assessing cholesterol metabolism. PMID:26656923

  1. Monomethylarsonous acid inhibited endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Lei [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Xiao, Yongsheng [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Wang, Yinsheng, E-mail: yinsheng.wang@ucr.edu [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Human exposure to arsenic in drinking water is a widespread public health concern, and such exposure is known to be associated with many human diseases. The detailed molecular mechanisms about how arsenic species contribute to the adverse human health effects, however, remain incompletely understood. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a highly toxic and stable metabolite of inorganic arsenic. To exploit the mechanisms through which MMA(III) exerts its cytotoxic effect, we adopted a quantitative proteomic approach, by coupling stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with LC-MS/MS analysis, to examine the variation in the entire proteome of GM00637 human skin fibroblasts following acute MMA(III) exposure. Among the ∼ 6500 unique proteins quantified, ∼ 300 displayed significant changes in expression after exposure with 2 μM MMA(III) for 24 h. Subsequent analysis revealed the perturbation of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, selenoprotein synthesis and Nrf2 pathways evoked by MMA(III) exposure. Particularly, MMA(III) treatment resulted in considerable down-regulation of several enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, real-time PCR analysis showed reduced mRNA levels of select genes in this pathway. Furthermore, MMA(III) exposure contributed to a distinct decline in cellular cholesterol content and significant growth inhibition of multiple cell lines, both of which could be restored by supplementation of cholesterol to the culture media. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of MMA(III) may arise, at least in part, from the down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes and the resultant decrease of cellular cholesterol content. - Highlights: • MMA(III)-induced perturbation of the entire proteome of GM00637 cells is studied. • Quantitative proteomic approach revealed alterations of multiple cellular pathways. • MMA(III) inhibits de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. • MMA

  2. Monomethylarsonous acid inhibited endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human exposure to arsenic in drinking water is a widespread public health concern, and such exposure is known to be associated with many human diseases. The detailed molecular mechanisms about how arsenic species contribute to the adverse human health effects, however, remain incompletely understood. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a highly toxic and stable metabolite of inorganic arsenic. To exploit the mechanisms through which MMA(III) exerts its cytotoxic effect, we adopted a quantitative proteomic approach, by coupling stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with LC-MS/MS analysis, to examine the variation in the entire proteome of GM00637 human skin fibroblasts following acute MMA(III) exposure. Among the ∼ 6500 unique proteins quantified, ∼ 300 displayed significant changes in expression after exposure with 2 μM MMA(III) for 24 h. Subsequent analysis revealed the perturbation of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, selenoprotein synthesis and Nrf2 pathways evoked by MMA(III) exposure. Particularly, MMA(III) treatment resulted in considerable down-regulation of several enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, real-time PCR analysis showed reduced mRNA levels of select genes in this pathway. Furthermore, MMA(III) exposure contributed to a distinct decline in cellular cholesterol content and significant growth inhibition of multiple cell lines, both of which could be restored by supplementation of cholesterol to the culture media. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of MMA(III) may arise, at least in part, from the down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes and the resultant decrease of cellular cholesterol content. - Highlights: • MMA(III)-induced perturbation of the entire proteome of GM00637 cells is studied. • Quantitative proteomic approach revealed alterations of multiple cellular pathways. • MMA(III) inhibits de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. • MMA

  3. Biosynthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters for in vitro and in vivo tumor imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Liu, Xi; Fu, Changhui; Tan, Longfei; Liu, Huiyu

    2015-11-01

    Recently, fluorescent metallic nanoclusters with sizes in the few-nanometer range have showed great potentials in biomedical applications for their stable and tailorable fluorescence. Although many studies have focused on fabricating these kinds of materials with chemical methods, there has been little focus on the biosynthesis of gold nanoclusters with green and facile methods. In this study, a facile, scalable, cost-effective and environmentally benign biosynthesis approach was developed to produce fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). Biomasses including egg white, egg yolk and serums were used as both capping agents and reductants in the biosynthesis of AuNCs. As a new kind of fluorescent imaging agent, they were used for in vitro and in vivo tumor imaging that can efficiently track cancer cells with excellent biocompatibility. This work provides new insight into green biosynthesis and biomedical applications of fluorescent metallic nanoclusters.

  4. Oleic acid biosynthesis in cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosynthesis of fatty acids in cyanobacteria is very similar to the well characterized system found in green plants. However, the initial desaturation of stearic acid in cyanobacteria appears to represent a significant departure from plant systems in which stearoyl-ACP is the exclusive substrate for desaturation. In Anabaena variabilis, the substrate appears to be monoglucosyldiacylglycerol, a lipid not found in plants. The authors examined five different cyanobacteria to determine if the pathway in A. variabilis was generally present in other cyanobacteria. The cyanobacteria studied were A. variabilis, Chlorogloeopsis sp., Schizothrix calcicola, Anacystis marina, and Anacystis nidulans. Each were grown in liquid culture, harvested, and examined for stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity or incubated with 14CO2. None of the cyanobacteria contained any stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity in whole homogenates or 105,000g supernatants. All were capable of incorporating 14CO2 into monoglucosyldiacylglycerol and results from incubations of 20 min, 1 hr, 1 hr + 10 hr chase were consistent with monoglucosyldiacylglycerol serving as precursor for monogalctosyldiacylglycerol. Thus, initial evidence is consistent with oleic acid biosynthesis occurring by desaturation of stearoyl-monoglucosyldiacylglycerol in all cyanobacteria

  5. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products, and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits - which differ among various taxa - affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating (i) the expression of the biosynthesis apparatus, (ii) the export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and (iii) the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of resulting biofilms, which is particularly important for the interactions of bacteria with higher organisms - leading to rhizosphere colonization and modulating the virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. We review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operon found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms and in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. PMID:26077867

  6. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits – which differ among various taxa – affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating expression of biosynthesis apparatus, export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of the resulting biofilm, which is particularly important for interactions of bacteria with higher organisms that lead to rhizosphere colonization and modulate virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. Here we review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operons found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode likely components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms formed by a variety of free-living and pathogenic bacteria and, for the latter, in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. PMID:26077867

  7. Biosynthesis and Function of Extracellular Glycans in Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Christoph Kehr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cell surface of cyanobacteria is covered with glycans that confer versatility and adaptability to a multitude of environmental factors. The complex carbohydrates act as barriers against different types of stress and play a role in intra- as well as inter-species interactions. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the chemical composition, biosynthesis and biological function of exo- and lipo-polysaccharides from cyanobacteria and give an overview of sugar-binding lectins characterized from cyanobacteria. We discuss similarities with well-studied enterobacterial systems and highlight the unique features of cyanobacteria. We pay special attention to colony formation and EPS biosynthesis in the bloom-forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa.

  8. Biosynthesis of collagen by fibroblasts kept in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sinthesis of collagen is studied in fibroblasts of different origins with the purpose of obtaining an appropriate system for the study of its biosynthesis and processing. The percentage of collagen synthesis vary according to the fibroblast origin. Experiences are performed with fibroblasts kept in culture from: chicken - and guinea pig embryos, carragheenin - induced granulomas in adult guinea pig and from human skin. The collagen pattern synthesized after acetic acid - or saline extractions in the presence of inhibitors is also determined. This pattern is then assayed by poliacrilamide - 5% - SDS gel electrophoresis accompanied by fluorography. The importance of the cell culture system in the elucidation of collagen biosynthesis is pointed out. (M.A.)

  9. Biosynthesis of myristic acid in luminescent bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo pulse-label studies have demonstrated that luminescent bacteria can provide myritic acid (14:0) required for the synthesis of the luciferase substrate myristyl aldehyde. Luminescent wild type Vibrio harveyi incubated with [14C] acetate in a nutrient-depleted medium accumulated substantial tree [14C]fatty acid (up to 20% of the total lipid label). Radio-gas chromatography revealed that > 75% of the labeled fatty acid is 14:0. No free fatty acid was detected in wild type cells labeled prior to the development of bioluminescence in the exponential growth phase, or in a dark mutant of V. harveyi (mutant M17) that requires exogenous 14:0 for light emission. The preferential accumulation of 14:0 was not observed when wild type cells were labeled with [14C]acetate in regular growth medium. Moreover, all V. harveyi strains exhibited similar fatty acid mass compositions regardless of the state of bioluminescence. Since earlier work has shown that a luminescence-related acyltransferase (defective in the M17 mutant) can catalyze the deacylation of fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein in vitro, the present results are consistent with a model in which this enzyme diverts 14:0 to the luminescence system during fatty acid biosynthesis. Under normal conditions, the supply of 14:0 by this pathway is tightly regulated such that bioluminescence development does not significantly alter the total fatty acid composition

  10. Acylphloroglucinol Biosynthesis in Strawberry Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chuankui; Ring, Ludwig; Hoffmann, Thomas; Huang, Fong-Chin; Slovin, Janet; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-11-01

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native Fragaria spp. fruit metabolites whose levels were differently regulated in the transgenic fruits. The biosynthesis of the APG aglycones was investigated by examination of the enzymatic properties of three recombinant Fragaria vesca chalcone synthase (FvCHS) proteins. CHS is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis during ripening. The F. vesca enzymes readily catalyzed the condensation of two intermediates in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, isovaleryl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and isobutyryl-CoA, with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form phlorisovalerophenone and phlorisobutyrophenone, respectively, and formed naringenin chalcone when 4-coumaroyl-CoA was used as starter molecule. Isovaleryl-CoA was the preferred starter substrate of FvCHS2-1. Suppression of CHS activity in both transient and stable CHS-silenced fruit resulted in a substantial decrease of APG glucosides and anthocyanins and enhanced levels of volatiles derived from branched-chain amino acids. The proposed APG pathway was confirmed by feeding isotopically labeled amino acids. Thus, Fragaria spp. plants have the capacity to synthesize pharmaceutically important APGs using dual functional CHS/(phloriso)valerophenone synthases that are expressed during fruit ripening. Duplication and adaptive evolution of CHS is the most probable scenario and might be generally applicable to other plants. The results highlight that important promiscuous gene function may be missed when annotation relies solely on in silico analysis. PMID:26169681

  11. Phosphoglycerate Mutase 1 Coordinates Glycolysis and Biosynthesis to Promote Tumor Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitosugi, Taro [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Zhou, Lu [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Elf, Shannon [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Fan, Jun [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kang, Hee-Bum [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Seo, Jae Ho [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Shan, Changliang [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Dai, Qing [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Liang [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Xie, Jianxin [Cell Signaling Technology, Inc., Danvers, MA (United States); Gu, Ting-Lei [Cell Signaling Technology, Inc., Danvers, MA (United States); Jin, Peng [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Alečković, Masa [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); LeRoy, Gary [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Kang, Yibin [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Sudderth, Jessica A. [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); DeBerardinis, Ralph J. [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Luan, Chi-Hao [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Chen, Georgia Z. [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Muller, Susan [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Shin, Dong M. [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Owonikoko, Taofeek K. [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lonial, Sagar [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Arellano, Martha L. [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Khoury, Hanna J. [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Khuri, Fadlo R. [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lee, Benjamin H. [Novartis Inst. for BioMedical Research, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ye, Keqiang [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Boggon, Titus J. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Kang, Sumin [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); He, Chuan [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Chen, Jing [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-11-12

    It is unclear how cancer cells coordinate glycolysis and biosynthesis to support rapidly growing tumors. We found that the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1), commonly upregulated in human cancers due to loss of TP53, contributes to biosynthesis regulation partially by controlling intracellular levels of its substrate, 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG), and product, 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PG). 3-PG binds to and inhibits 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), while 2-PG activates 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase to provide feedback control of 3-PG levels. Inhibition of PGAM1 by shRNA or a small molecule inhibitor PGMI-004A results in increased 3-PG and decreased 2-PG levels in cancer cells, leading to significantly decreased glycolysis, PPP flux and biosynthesis, as well as attenuated cell proliferation and tumor growth.

  12. Evolution of catalase activity during nystatin biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Bota

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The research studies focused on the dynamics of catalase during nystatin biosynthesis by Streptomyces noursei. The catalase activity was determined by growing a pure culture of Streptomyces noursei from the strain collection owned by the company S.C. Antibiotice Iasi on biosynthesis medium. The test was performed on two experimental models of biosynthesis, one using sunflower oil, while the other soybean oil as basic nutrients. Special attention was paid to the connection between the evolution of the biomass and the level of catalase activity.

  13. Characterization of secretory sphingomyelinase activity, lipoprotein sphingolipid content and LDL aggregation in ldlr−/− mice fed on a high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Gergana M. Deevska; Manjula Sunkara; Andrew J. Morris; Mariana N. Nikolova‑Karakashian

    2012-01-01

    The propensity of LDLs (low-density lipoproteins) for aggregation and/or oxidation has been linked to their sphingolipid content, specifically the levels of SM (sphingomyelin) and ceramide. To investigate this association in vivo, ldlr (LDL receptor)-null mice (ldlr−/−) were fed on a modified (atherogenic) diet containing saturated fats and cholesterol. The diet led to significantly elevated SM content in all serum lipoproteins. In contrast, ceramide increased only in the LDL pa...

  14. Egghead and brainiac are essential for glycosphingolipid biosynthesis in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandall, Hans H; Pizette, Sandrine; Pedersen, Johannes W;

    2004-01-01

    The Drosophila genes, brainiac and egghead, encode glycosyltransferases predicted to act sequentially in early steps of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, and both genes are required for development in Drosophila. egghead encodes a beta4-mannosyltransferase, and brainiac encodes a beta3-N-acetylgluc......The Drosophila genes, brainiac and egghead, encode glycosyltransferases predicted to act sequentially in early steps of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, and both genes are required for development in Drosophila. egghead encodes a beta4-mannosyltransferase, and brainiac encodes a beta3-N...... lactosylceramide glycosphingolipid biosynthetic pathway (Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1-Cer) using a human beta4-galactosyltransferase (beta4Gal-T6) transgene. Conversely, introduction of egghead in vertebrate cells (Chinese hamster ovary) resulted in near complete blockage of biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids and...... accumulation of Manbeta1-4Glcbeta1-Cer. The study demonstrates that glycosphingolipids are essential for development of complex organisms and suggests that the function of the Drosophila glycosphingolipids in development does not depend on the core structure....

  15. The tRNA-Dependent Biosynthesis of Modified Cyclic Dipeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias W. Giessen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years it has become apparent that aminoacyl-tRNAs are not only crucial components involved in protein biosynthesis, but are also used as substrates and amino acid donors in a variety of other important cellular processes, ranging from bacterial cell wall biosynthesis and lipid modification to protein turnover and secondary metabolite assembly. In this review, we focus on tRNA-dependent biosynthetic pathways that generate modified cyclic dipeptides (CDPs. The essential peptide bond-forming catalysts responsible for the initial generation of a CDP-scaffold are referred to as cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs and use loaded tRNAs as their substrates. After initially discussing the phylogenetic distribution and organization of CDPS gene clusters, we will focus on structural and catalytic properties of CDPSs before turning to two recently characterized CDPS-dependent pathways that assemble modified CDPs. Finally, possible applications of CDPSs in the rational design of structural diversity using combinatorial biosynthesis will be discussed before concluding with a short outlook.

  16. Peroxisomes contribute to biosynthesis of extracellular glycolipids in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Johannes; Ast, Julia; Linne, Uwe; Stehlik, Thorsten; Martorana, Domenica; Bölker, Michael; Sandrock, Björn

    2014-07-01

    Many microorganisms secrete surface-active glycolipids. The basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis produces two different classes of glycolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL) and ustilagic acids (UAs). Here we report that biosynthesis of MELs is partially localized in peroxisomes and coupled to peroxisomal fatty acid degradation. The acyltransferases, Mac1 and Mac2, which acylate mannosylerythritol with fatty acids of different length, contain a type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1). We demonstrate that Mac1 and Mac2 are targeted to peroxisomes, while other enzymes involved in MEL production reside in different compartments. Mis-targeting of Mac1 and Mac2 to the cytosol did not block MEL synthesis but promoted production of MEL species with altered acylation pattern. This is in contrast to peroxisome deficient mutants that produced MELs similar to the wild type. We could show that cytosolic targeting of Mac1 and Mac2 reduces the amount of UA presumably due to competition for overlapping substrates. Interestingly, hydroxylated fatty acids characteristic for UAs appear in MELs corroborating cross-talk between both biosynthesis pathways. Therefore, peroxisomal localization of MEL biosynthesis is not only prerequisite for generation of the natural spectrum of MELs, but also facilitates simultaneous assembly of different glycolipids in a single cell. PMID:24835306

  17. S1P lyase regulates DNA damage responses through a novel sphingolipid feedback mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, A.; Oskouian, B; Fyrst, H; Zhang, M.; Paris, F; Saba, J D

    2011-01-01

    The injurious consequences of ionizing radiation (IR) to normal human cells and the acquired radioresistance of cancer cells represent limitations to cancer radiotherapy. IR induces DNA damage response pathways that orchestrate cell cycle arrest, DNA repair or apoptosis such that irradiated cells are either repaired or eliminated. Concomitantly and independent of DNA damage, IR activates acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase), which generates ceramide, thereby promoting radiation-induced apoptosis. H...

  18. Rafting trips into the cell

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Robert; Knorr, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Lipid rafts are small, heterogeneous and short-lived assemblies of cholesterol, sphingolipids and few proteins in biological membranes. They can be converted to larger and more permanent membrane domains by coalescence. Cells appear to be able to modulate the size and the longevity of lipid rafts and thus exploit the local enrichment of membrane components for processes ranging from signaling to intracellular sorting and transport. In a recent paper, we provided evidence for the internalizati...

  19. Effect of intestinal resection on hydrogen sulfide biosynthesis and the damage of Cajal interstitial cells%肠道手术对肠道硫化氢生成及Cajal间质细胞破坏的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄颖; 邵宇; 叶道雄; 黄胜辉; 徐宗斌; 池畔

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨小鼠肠切除术对肠道内源性硫化氢(H2S)生成与Cajal间质细胞(ICC)破坏的影响。方法制作肠切除术模型小鼠,检测术后吻合口近端过氧化物酶(MPO)活性,敏感硫电极法测定H2S含量,反转录PCR检测肠组织H2S生成酶[胱硫醚β合成酶(CBS)和胱硫醚γ裂解酶(CSE)] mRNA表达,免疫荧光检测肠组织c-kit表达以了解ICC的分布。结果小鼠小肠组织表达CSE mRNA,但未检测到CBS mRNA表达。小鼠肠切除术后,吻合口近端3 cm处CSE mRNA表达在术后1 h开始增加(P<0.05),术后6 h达峰值,而后逐渐下降,至术后24 h与对照组的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。术前腹腔注射CSE拮抗剂propargylglycine(PPG)后,小鼠吻合口近端3 cm处肠组织CSE mRNA表达下降[(1.16±0.18)比(1.63±0.13),P<0.05],MPO活性降低[(0.54±0.07) U/g比(0.83±0.09) U/g,P<0.05],H2S含量减少[(36.1±6.1) nmol/mg比(45.3±5.6) nmol/mg,P<0.05],肌间丛ICC阳性面积百分比增加[(2.26±0.19)%比(1.65±0.24)%, P<0.01]。结论小鼠肠切除诱发的肌层炎性反应,可增加吻合口近端小肠组织CSE表达,产生过量的H2S,破坏ICC,造成肠动力紊乱。术前抑制内源性H2S的产生可对ICC具有保护作用。%Objective To investigate the effect of intestinal resection on hydrogen sulfide (H2S) biosynthesis and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in mice. Methods After intestinal resection mouse model was established , the activity of MPO in the proximal anastomosis intestinal tissue were detected. Sensitive sulphur electrode assay was applied to measure the H2S level. RT-PCR technique was employed to investigate the mRNA expression of the endogenous H2S biosynthesis enzymes , cystathionine-b-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-c-lyase (CSE). Immunofluorescence staining was used to detecte

  20. The regulation and biosynthesis of antimycins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan F. Seipke

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimycins (>40 members were discovered nearly 65 years ago but the discovery of the gene cluster encoding antimycin biosynthesis in 2011 has facilitated rapid progress in understanding the unusual biosynthetic pathway. Antimycin A is widely used as a piscicide in the catfish farming industry and also has potent killing activity against insects, nematodes and fungi. The mode of action of antimycins is to inhibit cytochrome c reductase in the electron transport chain and halt respiration. However, more recently, antimycin A has attracted attention as a potent and selective inhibitor of the mitochondrial anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Remarkably, this inhibition is independent of the main mode of action of antimycins such that an artificial derivative named 2-methoxyantimycin A inhibits Bcl-xL but does not inhibit respiration. The Bcl-2/Bcl-xL family of proteins are over-produced in cancer cells that are resistant to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy agents, so antimycins have great potential as anticancer drugs used in combination with existing chemotherapeutics. Here we review what is known about antimycins, the regulation of the ant gene cluster and the unusual biosynthetic pathway.

  1. Estrogen biosynthesis in human uterine adenomyosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrogen biosynthesis (aromatiase activity) was investigated in human adenomyosis tissue and compared with that of the normal myometrium, endometrium, and endometrical cancer tissues. Homogenates were incubated with [1,2,6,7-3H]androstenedione and NADPH at 37 deg. C for 1 h. After stopping the enzymatic reaction with ethyl acetate, [4-14C]estrone and [4-14C]estradiol-17β were added to the incubated sample. Estrone and estradiol were purified and identified by Bio-Rad AG1-X2 column chromatography, thin-layer chromatography and co-crystallization. Estrogen formed in the incubated sample was calculated from the 3H/14C ratio of the final crystal. The value for estrone formed from androstenedione was 52-132 fmol.h-1.g-1 wet weight. Aromatase activity in the adenomyosis tissues was higher than that in normal endometrial or myometrial tissues, but lower than that found in myometrial or endometrial tumour tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of danazol, progresterone, and medroxyprogesterone acetate on adenomyosis cells in primary cultures. Aromatase activity in adenomyosis was blocked by danazol, but stimulated by progesterone and MPA. These results indicate that aromatase activity in adenomyosis may contribute to the growth of the ectopic endometrial tissue which occurs in this disease. (author)

  2. Estrogen biosynthesis in human uterine adenomyosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urabe, Mamoru; Yamamoto, Takara; Kitawaki, Jo; Honjo, Hideo; Okada, Hiroji (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan))

    1989-01-01

    Estrogen biosynthesis (aromatiase activity) was investigated in human adenomyosis tissue and compared with that of the normal myometrium, endometrium, and endometrical cancer tissues. Homogenates were incubated with (1,2,6,7-{sup 3}H)androstenedione and NADPH at 37 deg. C for 1 h. After stopping the enzymatic reaction with ethyl acetate, (4-{sup 14}C)estrone and (4-{sup 14}C)estradiol-17{beta} were added to the incubated sample. Estrone and estradiol were purified and identified by Bio-Rad AG1-X2 column chromatography, thin-layer chromatography and co-crystallization. Estrogen formed in the incubated sample was calculated from the {sup 3}H/{sup 14}C ratio of the final crystal. The value for estrone formed from androstenedione was 52-132 fmol{sup .}h{sup -1.}g{sup -1} wet weight. Aromatase activity in the adenomyosis tissues was higher than that in normal endometrial or myometrial tissues, but lower than that found in myometrial or endometrial tumour tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of danazol, progresterone, and medroxyprogesterone acetate on adenomyosis cells in primary cultures. Aromatase activity in adenomyosis was blocked by danazol, but stimulated by progesterone and MPA. These results indicate that aromatase activity in adenomyosis may contribute to the growth of the ectopic endometrial tissue which occurs in this disease. (author).

  3. Monoterpene biosynthesis potential of plant subcellular compartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, L.; Jongedijk, E.J.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Krol, van der A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular monoterpene biosynthesis capacity based on local geranyl diphosphate (GDP) availability or locally boosted GDP production was determined for plastids, cytosol and mitochondria. A geraniol synthase (GES) was targeted to plastids, cytosol, or mitochondria. Transient expression in Nicotiana

  4. Antibacterial Targets in Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, H. Tonie; Reynolds, Kevin A.

    2007-01-01

    The fatty acid biosynthesis pathway is an attractive but still largely unexploited target for development of new anti-bacterial agents. The extended use of the anti-tuberculosis drug isoniazid and the antiseptic triclosan, which are inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis, validates this pathway as a target for anti-bacterial development. Differences in subcellular organization of the bacterial and eukaryotic multi-enzyme fatty acid synthase systems offer the prospect of inhibitors with host vs...

  5. Biosynthesis of monoterpene scent compounds in roses

    OpenAIRE

    Magnard, Jean-Louis; Roccia, Aymeric; Caissard, Jean-Claude; Vergne, Philippe; Sun, Pulu; Hecquet, Romain; Dubois, Annick; Hibrand-Saint Oyant, Laurence; Jullien, Frederic; Nicolè, Florence; Raymond, Olivier; Huguet, Stephanie; Baltenweck-Guyot, Raymonde; Meyer, Sophie; Claudel, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The scent of roses (Rosa x hybrida) is composed of hundreds of volatile molecules. Monoterpenes represent up to 70% percent of the scent content in some cultivars, such as the Papa Meilland rose. Monoterpene biosynthesis in plants relies on plastid-localized terpene synthases. Combining transcriptomic and genetic approaches, we show that the Nudix hydrolase RhNUDX1, localized in the cytoplasm, is part of a pathway for the biosynthesis of free monoterpene alcohols that contribut...

  6. Effect of apolipoprotein a-I complex with tetrahydrocortisone on protein biosynthesis and glucose absorption by rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumenkova, D V; Knyazev, R A; Guschya, R S; Polyakov, L M; Panin, L E

    2009-08-01

    We studied the effect of apolipoprotein A-I-tetrahydrocortisone complex on (14)C glucose absorption and lactate accumulation and on the rate of protein biosynthesis in isolated rat hepatocytes. The presence of apolipoprotein A-I-tetrahydrocortisone complex in the incubation medium increased absorption of labeled glucose by hepatocytes by 52%, while lactate content in the conditioning medium increased 4-fold. The rate of protein biosynthesis increased by 80% in comparison with control cells. It is hypothesized that the increase in protein biosynthesis rate in hepatocytes under the effect of apolipoprotein A-I-tetrahydrocortisone complex is due to stimulation of energy metabolism, specifically, of its glycolytic component. PMID:20027330

  7. Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Daucus carota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kevin; Cerda, Ariel; Stange, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is one of the most important vegetable cultivated worldwide and the main source of dietary provitamin A. Contrary to other plants, almost all carrot varieties accumulate massive amounts of carotenoids in the root, resulting in a wide variety of colors, including those with purple, yellow, white, red and orange roots. During the first weeks of development the root, grown in darkness, is thin and pale and devoid of carotenoids. At the second month, the thickening of the root and the accumulation of carotenoids begins, and it reaches its highest level at 3 months of development. This normal root thickening and carotenoid accumulation can be completely altered when roots are grown in light, in which chromoplasts differentiation is redirected to chloroplasts development in accordance with an altered carotenoid profile. Here we discuss the current evidence on the biosynthesis of carotenoid in carrot roots in response to environmental cues that has contributed to our understanding of the mechanism that regulates the accumulation of carotenoids, as well as the carotenogenic gene expression and root development in D. carota. PMID:27485223

  8. Role of acid sphingomyelinase in the age-dependent dysregulation of sphingolipids turnover in the tissues of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babenko, Nataliya A; Garkavenko, Vladimir V; Storozhenko, Galina V; Timofiychuk, Olga A

    2016-04-01

    Old age-associated pathologies usually coincide with altered sphingolipid metabolism. In the present article, the role of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) in the age-dependent changes of sphingomyelin (SM) and ceramide contents in the tissues has been investigated by means of ASMase inhibitors, imipramine and zoledronic acid. It has been determined that ceramide content and ceramide/SM ratio increased, while SM level decreased in the heart, liver, blood serum and skeletal muscles of 24-month old rats in contrast to 3-month old animals. Injections of imipramine or zoledronic acid to 24-month old rats resulted in significant downregulation of ASMase in the liver and skeletal and heart muscles. The both inhibitors decreased the ceramide content and ceramide/SM ratio and increased the SM content in all tissues studied, except the heart, of old rats to the levels close to those observed in the young animals. Long-term treatment of rats by inhibitors, which have different mechanisms of action on ASMase, exerts the similar, but not equal effects on enzyme activity and SM turnover. In summary, the data above strongly suggest that the age-dependent up-regulation of ASMase plays an important role in the modulation of ceramide and SM contents in rat tissues and that imipramine and zoledronic acid are useful tools for SM turnover manipulation at old age. PMID:26830134

  9. A DUF-246 family glycosyltransferase-like gene affects male fertility and the biosynthesis of pectic arabinogalactans

    OpenAIRE

    Stonebloom, Solomon; Ebert, Berit; Xiong, Guangyan; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Birdseye, Devon; Lao, Jeemeng; Pauly, Markus; Hahn, Michael G.; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2016-01-01

    Background Pectins are a group of structurally complex plant cell wall polysaccharides whose biosynthesis and function remain poorly understood. The pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) has two types of arabinogalactan side chains, type-I and type-II arabinogalactans. To date few enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of pectin have been described. Here we report the identification of a highly conserved putative glycosyltransferase encoding gene, Pectic ArabinoGalactan synthesis-Re...

  10. Biosynthesis of Dictyostelium discoideum differentiation-inducing factor by a hybrid type I fatty acid–type III polyketide synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Michael B; Saito, Tamao; Bowman, Marianne E.; Haydock, Stephen; Kato, Atsushi; Moore, Bradley S.; Kay, Robert R.; Noel, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    Differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) are well known to modulate formation of distinct communal cell types from identical Dictyostelium discoideum amoebas, but DIF biosynthesis remains obscure. We report complimentary in vivo and in vitro experiments identifying one of two ~3,000-residue D. discoideum proteins, termed ‘steely’, as responsible for biosynthesis of the DIF acylphloroglucinol scaffold. Steely proteins possess six catalytic domains homologous to metazoan type I fatty acid syntha...

  11. Folate deficiency triggers an oxidative-nitrosative stress-mediated apoptotic cell death and impedes insulin biosynthesis in RINm5F pancreatic islet β-cells: relevant to the pathogenesis of diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chih Hsu

    Full Text Available It has been postulated that folic acid (folate deficiency (FD may be a risk factor for the pathogenesis of a variety of oxidative stress-triggered chronic degenerative diseases including diabetes, however, the direct evidence to lend support to this hypothesis is scanty. For this reason, we set out to study if FD can trigger the apoptotic events in an insulin-producing pancreatic RINm5F islet β cells. When these cells were cultivated under FD condition, a time-dependent growth impediment was observed and the demise of these cells was demonstrated to be apoptotic in nature proceeding through a mitochondria-dependent pathway. In addition to evoke oxidative stress, FD condition could also trigger nitrosative stress through a NF-κB-dependent iNOS-mediated overproduction of nitric oxide (NO. The latter compound could then trigger depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER calcium (Ca(2+ store leading to cytosolic Ca(2+ overload and caused ER stress as evidence by the activation of CHOP expression. Furthermore, FD-induced apoptosis of RINm5F cells was found to be correlated with a time-dependent depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH and a severe down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression. Along the same vein, we also demonstrated that FD could severely impede RINm5F cells to synthesize insulin and their abilities to secret insulin in response to glucose stimulation were appreciably hampered. Even more importantly, we found that folate replenishment could not restore the ability of RINm5F cells to resynthesize insulin. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence to support the hypothesis that FD is a legitimate risk factor for the pathogenesis of diabetes.

  12. Biosynthesis of Triacylglycerols (TAGs in plants and algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Cagliari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Triacylglycerols (TAGs, which consist of three fatty acids bound to a glycerol backbone, are major storage lipids that accumulate in developing seeds, flower petals, pollen grains, and fruits of innumerous plant species. These storage lipids are of great nutritional and nutraceutical value and, thus, are a common source of edible oils for human consumption and industrial purposes. Two metabolic pathways for the production of TAGs have been clarified: an acyl¬ CoA-dependent pathway and an acyl-CoA-independent pathway. Lipid metabolism, specially the pathways to fatty acids and TAG biosynthesis, is relatively well understood in plants, but poorly known in algae. It is generally accepted that the basic pathways of fatty acid and TAG biosynthesis in algae are analogous to those of higher plants. However, unlike higher plants where individual classes of lipids may be synthesized and localized in a specific cell, tissue or organ, the complete pathway, from carbon dioxide fixation to TAG synthesis and sequestration, takes place within a single algal cell. Another distinguishing feature of some algae is the large amounts of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC- PUFAs as major fatty acid components. Nowadays, the focus of attention in biotechnology is the isolation of novel fatty acid metabolizing genes, especially elongases and desaturases that are responsible for PUFAs synthesis, from different species of algae, and its transfer to plants. The aim is to boost the seed oil content and to generate desirable fatty acids in oilseed crops through genetic engineering approaches. This paper presents the current knowledge of the neutral storage lipids in plants and algae from fatty acid biosynthesis to TAG accumulation.

  13. Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. França

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A set of genes related to secondary metabolism was extracted from the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database and was used to investigate both the gene expression pattern of key enzymes regulating the main biosynthetic secondary metabolism pathways and the major classes of metabolites involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental and developmental cues. The SUCEST database was constructed with tissues in different physiological conditions which had been collected under varied situation of environmental stress. This database allows researchers to identify and characterize the expressed genes of a wide range of putative enzymes able to catalyze steps in the phenylpropanoid, isoprenoid and other pathways of the special metabolic mechanisms involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental changes. Our results show that sugarcane cDNAs encoded putative ultra-violet induced sesquiterpene cyclases (SC; chalcone synthase (CHS, the first enzyme in the pathway branch for flavonoid biosynthesis; isoflavone synthase (IFS, involved in plant defense and root nodulation; isoflavone reductase (IFR, a key enzyme in phenylpropanoid phytoalexin biosynthesis; and caffeic acid-O-methyltransferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin cell wall precursors. High levels of CHS transcripts from plantlets infected with Herbaspirillum rubri or Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans suggests that agents of biotic stress can elicit flavonoid biosynthesis in sugarcane. From this data we have predicted the profile of isoprenoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism in sugarcane and pointed the branches of secondary metabolism activated during tissue-specific stages of development and the adaptive response of sugarcane to agents of biotic and abiotic stress, although our assignment of enzyme function should be confirmed by careful biochemical and genetic supporting evidence.Este trabalho foi realizado com os objetivos de gerar uma coleção de genes

  14. Mechanisms for Recycling and Biosynthesis of Endogenous Cannabinoids Anandamide and 2-Arachidonylglycerol

    OpenAIRE

    Placzek, Ekaterina A.; Okamoto, Yasuo; Ueda, Natsuo; Barker, Eric L.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of endogenous cannabinoid biosynthesis are not completely understood. We hypothesized that anandamide could be recycled by the cell to form new endocannabinoid molecules and released into the extracellular space. We determined that new endocannabinoids derived from exogenous anandamide or arachidonic acid were synthesized and released from RBL-2H3 cells in response to ionomycin. Treatment of RBL-2H3 cells with nystatin and progesterone, agents that disrupt organization of lipid...

  15. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles: A green approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shakeel; Annu; Ikram, Saiqa; Yudha S, Salprima

    2016-08-01

    Nanotechnology is an immensely developing field due to its extensive range of applications in different areas of technology and science. Different types of methods are employed for synthesis of nanoparticles due to their wide applications. The conventional chemical methods have certain limitations with them either in the form of chemical contaminations during their syntheses procedures or in later applications and use of higher energy. During the last decade research have been focussed on developing simple, clean, non-toxic, cost effective and eco-friendly protocols for synthesis of nanoparticles. In order to get this objective, biosynthesis methods have been developed in order to fill this gap. The biosynthesis of nanoparticles is simple, single step, eco-friendly and a green approach. The biochemical processes in biological agents reduce the dissolved metal ions into nano metals. The various biological agents like plant tissues, fungi, bacteria, etc. are used for biosynthesis for metal nanoparticles. In this review article, we summarised recent literature on biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles which have revolutionised technique of synthesis for their applications in different fields. Due to biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles, it has find its applications in biomedical applications. The protocol and mechanism of biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles along with various applications have also been discussed. PMID:27236049

  16. Multicellular compartmentation of catharanthus roseus alkaloid biosynthesis predicts intercellular translocation of a pathway intermediate

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, B; Vazquez-Flota, FA; De Luca V

    1999-01-01

    In situ RNA hybridization and immunocytochemistry were used to establish the cellular distribution of monoterpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus). Tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) and strictosidine synthase (STR1), which are involved in the biosynthesis of the central intermediate strictosidine, and desacetoxyvindoline 4-hydroxylase (D4H) and deacetylvindoline 4-O-acetyltransferase (DAT), which are involved in the terminal steps of vindoline biosynthesis, were localized. tdc and str1 mRNAs were present in the epidermis of stems, leaves, and flower buds, whereas they appeared in most protoderm and cortical cells around the apical meristem of root tips. In marked contrast, d4h and dat mRNAs were associated with the laticifer and idioblast cells of leaves, stems, and flower buds. Immunocytochemical localization for TDC, D4H, and DAT proteins confirmed the differential localization of early and late stages of vindoline biosynthesis. Therefore, we concluded that the elaboration of the major leaf alkaloids involves the participation of at least two cell types and requires the intercellular translocation of a pathway intermediate. A basipetal gradient of expression in maturing leaves also was shown for all four genes by in situ RNA hybridization studies and by complementary studies with dissected leaves, suggesting that expression of the vindoline pathway occurs transiently during early leaf development. These results partially explain why attempts to produce vindoline by cell culture technology have failed. PMID:10330473

  17. High-temperature injury and auxin biosynthesis in microsporogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eHigashitani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant reproductive development is more sensitive than vegetative growth to many environmental stresses. With global warming, in particular, plant high temperature injury is becoming an increasingly serious problem. In wheat, barley, and various other commercially important crops, the early phase of anther development is especially susceptible to high temperatures. We recently demonstrated that high temperature causes cell-proliferation arrest and represses auxin signaling in a tissue-specific manner of the anther cells of barley and Arabidopsis. These phenomena were accompanied by comprehensive alterations in transcription including repression of cell-proliferation related genes and YUCCA auxin biosynthesis genes. Moreover, application of auxin completely improved the transcriptional alterations, the production of normal pollen grains, and seed setting rate under increasing temperatures. These denote that auxin, which has been used widely as potent and selective herbicides, is useful for the promotion of plant fertility and maintenance of crop yields under the global warming conditions.

  18. Sphingoid Base Is Required for Translation Initiation during Heat Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiaeD⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Karsten D.; Deloche, Olivier; Kajiwara, Kentaro; Funato, Kouichi; Riezman, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Sphingolipids are required for many cellular functions including response to heat shock. We analyzed the yeast lcb1-100 mutant, which is conditionally impaired in the first step of sphingolipid biosynthesis and shows a strong decrease in heat shock protein synthesis and viability. Transcription and nuclear export of heat shock protein mRNAs is not affected. However, lcb1-100 cells exhibited a strong decrease in protein synthesis caused by a defect in translation initiation under heat stress c...

  19. Yeast sphingolipids do not need to contain very long chain fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerantola, Vanessa; Vionnet, Christine; Aebischer, Olivier F;

    2007-01-01

    mouse LAG1 homologue. Ceramide synthase activity of 4Delta.Lass5 cells only utilizes C16 and C18 fatty acids and does not require the help of Lip1p, an essential cofactor of Lag1p/Lac1p. HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS/MS analysis demonstrated that in IPCs (inositolphosphorylceramides) of 4Delta.Lass5...

  20. Fermentation kinetics makeover in poly-ε-lysine biosynthesis by Streptomyces noursei NRRL 5126

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Balasaheb Bankar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An unstructured model has been used to predict microbial growth based on glycerol consumption and poly-ε-lysine (ε-PL biosynthesis by Streptomyces noursei NRRL 5126. The logistic and Luedeking-Piret equations have been proposed to describe the time course of ε-PL formation, substrate consumption and cell growth. The shake flask level data from kinetic studies was illustrated and compared with fermenter studies. In all cases, the model simulation matched well with the experimental observations, which made it possible to elucidate the fermentation characteristics of Streptomyces noursei during efficient ε-PL production from glycerol. Optimized oxygen supply into the fermenter shifted mixed growth associated biosynthesis of ε-PL from shake flask level to growth associated biosynthesis

  1. Bioregulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis by unirradiated and irradiated conidia of Aspergillus flavus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sequential technique involving the transfer of mycelia from peptone-based, aflatoxin-non-supporting medium to glucose based, aflatoxin-supporting medium was used to study the effect of γ-irradiation on the regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis by Aspergillus flavus. Analysis indicated that irradiation at a dose of 1.00 kGy produced enhancement of aflatoxin biosynthesis in peptone-glucose mineral salt cultures with an increase of adenine nucleotide levels and fatty acid patterns of microsomes and mitochondria. The results suggest that aflatoxin synthesis is not regulated by the overall energy status of the fungal cell but that lipoperoxidation by γ-irradiation plays a role in aflatoxin biosynthesis

  2. Identification of CDP-archaeol synthase, a missing link of ether lipid biosynthesis in Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Samta; Caforio, Antonella; Fodran, Peter; Lolkema, Juke S; Minnaard, Adriaan J; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2014-10-23

    Archaeal membrane lipid composition is distinct from Bacteria and Eukarya, consisting of isoprenoid chains etherified to the glycerol carbons. Biosynthesis of these lipids is poorly understood. Here we identify and characterize the archaeal membrane protein CDP-archaeol synthase (CarS) that catalyzes the transfer of the nucleotide to its specific archaeal lipid substrate, leading to the formation of a CDP-activated precursor (CDP-archaeol) to which polar head groups are attached. The discovery of CarS enabled reconstitution of the entire archaeal lipid biosynthesis pathway in vitro, starting from simple isoprenoid building blocks and using a set of five purified enzymes. The cell free synthetic strategy for archaeal lipids we describe opens opportunity for studies of archaeal lipid biochemistry. Additionally, insights into archaeal lipid biosynthesis reported here allow addressing the evolutionary hypothesis of the lipid divide between Archaea and Bacteria. PMID:25219966

  3. Structure of hypothetical Mo-cofactor biosynthesis protein B (ST2315) from Sulfolobus tokodaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of a protein involved in the molybdopterin and molybdenum co-factor biosynthesis pathways of Sulfolobus tokodaii has been solved to a resolution of 1.9 Å. The structure of a probable Mo-cofactor biosynthesis protein B from Sulfolobus tokodaii, belonging to space group P6422 with unit-cell parameters a = b = 136.68, c = 210.52 Å, was solved by molecular replacement to a resolution of 1.9 Å and refined to an R factor and Rfree of 16.8% and 18.5%, respectively. The asymmetric unit contains a trimer, while the biologically significant oligomer is predicted to be a hexamer by size-exclusion chromatography. The subunit structure and fold of ST2315 are similar to those of other enzymes that are known to be involved in the molybdopterin- and molybdenum cofactor-biosynthesis pathways

  4. Gangliosides in the Nervous System: Biosynthesis and Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Robert K.; Ariga, Toshio; Yanagisawa, Makoto; Zeng, Guichao

    Gangliosides, abundant in the nervous system, are known to play crucial modulatory roles in cellular recognition, interaction, adhesion, and signal transduction, particularly during early developmental stages. The expression of gangliosides in the nervous system is developmentally regulated and is closely related to the differentiation state of the cell. Ganglioside biosynthesis occurs in intracellular organelles, from which gangliosides are transported to the plasma membrane. During brain development, the ganglioside composition of the nervous system undergoes remarkable changes and is strictly regulated by the activities of glycosyltransferases, which can occur at different levels of control, including glycosyltransferase gene transcription and posttranslational modification. Genes for glycosyltransferase involved in ganglioside biosynthesis have been cloned and classified into families of glycosyltransferases based on their amino acid sequence similarities. The donor and acceptor substrate specificities are determined by enzymatic analysis of the glycosyltransferase gene products. Cell-type specific regulation of these genes has also been studied. Gangliosides are degraded by lysosomal exoglycosidases. The action of these enzymes occurs frequently in cooperation with activator proteins. Several human diseases are caused by defects of degradative enzymes, resulting in massive accumulation of certain glycolipids, including gangliosides in the lysosomal compartment and other organelles in the brain and visceral organs. Some of the representative lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) caused by the accumulation of lipids in late endosomes and lysosomes will be discussed.

  5. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structures of triterpenols, not previously been known, from Euphorbia lathyris latex are reported. A method for quantifying very small amounts of these compounds was developed. Concerning the biochemistry of the latex, no exogenous cofactors were required for the biosynthesis and the addition of compounds such as NADPAH and ATP do not stimulate the biosynthesis. The addition of DTE or a similar anti-oxidant was found to help reduce the oxidation of the latex, thus increasing the length of time that the latex remains active. The requirement of a divalent cation and the preference for Mn in the pellet was observed. The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. Mevinolin was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids from acetate, but not mevalonate. A dixon plot of the inhibition of acetate incorporation showed an I50 concentration of 3.2 μM. Fenpropimorph was found to have little or no effect on the biosynthesis. Tridemorph was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of all of the triterpenoids with an I50 of 4 μM. It was also observed that the cyclopropyl containing triterpenols, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol were inhibited much more strongly than those containing an 8-9 double bond, lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol. The evidence indicates, but does not definetely prove, that lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol are not made from cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol via a ring-opening enzyme such as cycloeucalenol-obtusifoliol isomerase. The possibilty that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4-3H-mevalonic acid and incubating latex with a mixture of this and 14C-mevalonic acid. From the 3H/14C ratio it was shown that cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol are not made via an intermediate containing as 8-9 double bond. 88 refs., 15 figs., 30 tabs

  6. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1987-11-01

    The structures of triterpenols, not previously been known, from Euphorbia lathyris latex are reported. A method for quantifying very small amounts of these compounds was developed. Concerning the biochemistry of the latex, no exogenous cofactors were required for the biosynthesis and the addition of compounds such as NADPAH and ATP do not stimulate the biosynthesis. The addition of DTE or a similar anti-oxidant was found to help reduce the oxidation of the latex, thus increasing the length of time that the latex remains active. The requirement of a divalent cation and the preference for Mn in the pellet was observed. The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. Mevinolin was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids from acetate, but not mevalonate. A dixon plot of the inhibition of acetate incorporation showed an I/sub 50/ concentration of 3.2 ..mu..M. Fenpropimorph was found to have little or no effect on the biosynthesis. Tridemorph was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of all of the triterpenoids with an I/sub 50/ of 4 ..mu..M. It was also observed that the cyclopropyl containing triterpenols, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol were inhibited much more strongly than those containing an 8-9 double bond, lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol. The evidence indicates, but does not definetely prove, that lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol are not made from cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol via a ring-opening enzyme such as cycloeucalenol-obtusifoliol isomerase. The possibilty that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4-/sup 3/H-mevalonic acid and incubating latex with a mixture of this and /sup 14/C-mevalonic acid. From the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio it was shown that cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol are not made via an intermediate containing as 8-9 double bond. 88 refs., 15 figs., 30 tabs.

  7. Ethylene biosynthesis. 7. Secondary isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a continuing investigation of the mechanism of the biosynthesis of ethylene, the plant ripening hormone, from 1-amino-cyclopropanecarboxylic acid, the study of isotope effects was undertaken in order to provide insight into the rates of various bond-breaking steps. While the applicability of the concept of rate-limiting step to enzymatic reactions has been questioned and redefined (and there is little doubt an ethylene-forming enzyme exists), such studies were expected to elucidate some mechanistic detail as well as measure the validity of a model for ethylene biosynthesis

  8. The structural biology of phenazine biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenfeldt, Wulf; Parsons, James F

    2014-12-01

    The phenazines are a class of over 150 nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds of bacterial and archeal origin. Their redox properties not only explain their activity as broad-specificity antibiotics and virulence factors but also enable them to function as respiratory pigments, thus extending their importance to the primary metabolism of phenazine-producing species. Despite their discovery in the mid-19th century, the molecular mechanisms behind their biosynthesis have only been unraveled in the last decade. Here, we review the contribution of structural biology that has led to our current understanding of phenazine biosynthesis. PMID:25215885

  9. Direct Ionic Regulation of the Activity of Myo-Inositol Biosynthesis Enzymes in Mozambique Tilapia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando D Villarreal

    Full Text Available Myo-inositol (Ins is a major compatible osmolyte in many cells, including those of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus. Ins biosynthesis is highly up-regulated in tilapia and other euryhaline fish exposed to hyperosmotic stress. In this study, enzymatic regulation of two enzymes of Ins biosynthesis, Ins phosphate synthase (MIPS and inositol monophosphatase (IMPase, by direct ionic effects is analyzed. Specific MIPS and IMPase isoforms from Mozambique tilapia (MIPS-160 and IMPase 1 were selected based on experimental, phylogenetic, and structural evidence supporting their role for Ins biosynthesis during hyperosmotic stress. Recombinant tilapia IMPase 1 and MIPS-160 activity was assayed in vitro at ionic conditions that mimic changes in the intracellular milieu during hyperosmotic stress. The in vitro activities of MIPS-160 and IMPase 1 are highest at alkaline pH of 8.8. IMPase 1 catalytic efficiency is strongly increased during hyperosmolality (particularly for the substrate D-Ins-3-phosphate, Ins-3P, mainly as a result of [Na+] elevation. Furthermore, the substrate-specificity of IMPase 1 towards D-Ins-1-phosphate (Ins-1P is lower than towards Ins-3P. Because MIPS catalysis results in Ins-3P this results represents additional evidence for IMPase 1 being the isoform that mediates Ins biosynthesis in tilapia. Our data collectively demonstrate that the Ins biosynthesis enzymes are activated under ionic conditions that cells are exposed to during hypertonicity, resulting in Ins accumulation, which, in turn, results in restoration of intracellular ion homeostasis. We propose that the unique and direct ionic regulation of the activities of Ins biosynthesis enzymes represents an efficient biochemical feedback loop for regulation of intracellular physiological ion homeostasis during hyperosmotic stress.

  10. Cellular oxido-reductive proteins of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii control the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barwal Indu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elucidation of molecular mechanism of silver nanoparticles (SNPs biosynthesis is important to control its size, shape and monodispersity. The evaluation of molecular mechanism of biosynthesis of SNPs is of prime importance for the commercialization and methodology development for controlling the shape and size (uniform distribution of SNPs. The unicellular algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was exploited as a model system to elucidate the role of cellular proteins in SNPs biosynthesis. Results The C. reinhardtii cell free extract (in vitro and in vivo cells mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles reveals SNPs of size range 5 ± 1 to 15 ± 2 nm and 5 ± 1 to 35 ± 5 nm respectively. In vivo biosynthesized SNPs were localized in the peripheral cytoplasm and at one side of flagella root, the site of pathway of ATP transport and its synthesis related enzymes. This provides an evidence for the involvement of oxidoreductive proteins in biosynthesis and stabilization of SNPs. Alteration in size distribution and decrease of synthesis rate of SNPs in protein-depleted fractions confirmed the involvement of cellular proteins in SNPs biosynthesis. Spectroscopic and SDS-PAGE analysis indicate the association of various proteins on C. reinhardtii mediated in vivo and in vitro biosynthesized SNPs. We have identified various cellular proteins associated with biosynthesized (in vivo and in vitro SNPs by using MALDI-MS-MS, like ATP synthase, superoxide dismutase, carbonic anhydrase, ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, histone etc. However, these proteins were not associated on the incubation of pre-synthesized silver nanoparticles in vitro. Conclusion Present study provides the indication of involvement of molecular machinery and various cellular proteins in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. In this report, the study is mainly focused towards understanding the role of diverse cellular protein in the synthesis and capping of silver

  11. Identification of Environmental Quaternary Ammonium Compounds as Direct Inhibitors of Cholesterol Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Josi; Reese, Rosalyn C; Tallman, Keri A; Narayanaswamy, Rohini; Porter, Ned A; Xu, Libin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we aim to identify environmental molecules that can inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis, potentially leading to the same biochemical defects as observed in cholesterol biosynthesis disorders, which are often characterized by congenital malformations and developmental delay. Using the Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) Database Network developed by EPA, we first carried out in silico screening of environmental molecules that display structures similar to AY9944, a known potent inhibitor of 3β-hydroxysterol-Δ(7)-reductase (DHCR7)-the last step of cholesterol biosynthesis. Molecules that display high similarity to AY9944 were subjected to test in mouse and human neuroblastoma cells for their effectiveness in inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis by analyzing cholesterol and its precursor using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found that a common disinfectant mixture, benzalkonium chlorides (BACs), exhibits high potency in inhibiting DHCR7, as suggested by greatly elevated levels of the cholesterol precursor, 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC). Subsequent structure-activity studies suggested that the potency of BACs as Dhcr7 inhibitors decrease with the length of their hydrocarbon chain: C10 > C12 ≫ C14 > C16. Real-time qPCR analysis revealed upregulation of the genes related to cholesterol biosynthesis and downregulation of the genes related to cholesterol efflux, suggesting a feedback response to the inhibition. Furthermore, an oxidative metabolite of 7-DHC that was previously identified as a biomarker in vivo was also found in cells exposed to BACs by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our findings suggest that certain environmental molecules could potently inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis, which could be a new link between environment and developmental disorders. PMID:26919959

  12. MRP1 and glucosylceramide are coordinately over expressed and enriched in rafts during multidrug resistance acquisition in colon cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klappe, K; Hinrichs, JWJ; Kroesen, BJ; Sietsma, H; Kok, JW

    2004-01-01

    Previously we have described a novel multidrug-resistant cell line, HT29(col), which displayed over expression of the multidrug-resistance protein 1 (MRP1) and an altered sphingolipid composition, including enhanced levels of glucosylceramide (GlcCer; Kok JW, Veldman RJ, Klappe K, Koning H, Filipean

  13. Collision-induced dissociation pathways of yeast sphingolipids and their molecular profiling in total lipid extracts: a study by quadrupole TOF and linear ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing, Christer S.; Moehring, Thomas; Bahr, Ute;

    2006-01-01

    the long chain base moieties in individual molecular species. By selecting m/z of class-specific fragment ions for multiple precursor ion scanning, we profiled yeast sphingolipids in total lipid extracts on a QqTOF mass spectrometer. Thus, a combination of QqTOF and LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry......The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae synthesizes three classes of sphingolipids: inositolphosphoceramides (IPCs), mannosyl-inositolphosphoceramides (MIPCs), and mannosyl-diinositolphosphoceramides (M(IP)2C). Tandem mass spectrometry of their molecular anions on a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (Qq...

  14. Inhibition of honokiol on the proliferation and melanin biosynthesis on B16 melanoma cells in vitro%和厚朴酚对小鼠黑色素瘤B16细胞增殖以及黑色素合成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻丽红; 张超; 谭茵

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the inhibition of honokiol on proliferation and melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cells in vitro. Methods B16 cells were cultured in vitro. MTT assay, DAPI and NaOH lysis test were applied for assessment of cell proliferation, cellular morphologic observation and cellular melanin content, respectively. Results B16 cells were treated with honokiol with different concentrations ( 5,10,20,40 and 80 μmol/L ) and durations ( 12,24 and 48 h ). The IC50 of honokiol on proliferation of B16 cells were 23. 4, 13. 1 and 11.4 μmol/L, respectively, with durations of 12,24 and 48 h. Apoptosis of B16 cells were induced with honokiol in DAPI staining. Furthermore, the melanin biosynthesis was inhibited with honokiol with concentration over 20 (xmol/L. Conclusion Honokiol effectively inhibits the proliferation of B16 in dose - and time - depend manners. Apoptotic bodies were observed in B16 cells treated with honokiol. Although melanin biosynthesis is also inhibited by honokiol, this effect is insignificant.%目的 探讨和厚朴酚对小鼠黑色素瘤B16细胞增殖以及细胞内黑色素合成的影响.方法 体外培养小鼠B16细胞,MTT法检测和厚朴酚对B16细胞增殖的影响;DAPI染色法观察和厚朴酚对B16细胞细胞形态的影响;NaOH裂解法检测和厚朴酚对黑色素含量的影响.结果 和厚朴酚浓度为5、10、20、40、80 μmol/L 作用B16细胞,在不同的用药时间12、24和48 h,和厚朴酚对B16细胞增殖的IC50分别为23.4、13.1和11.4 μmol/L;同时和厚朴酚作用B16细胞12 h后,经DAPI染色,B16细胞呈现典型的凋亡形态;另外采用20、40、80 μmol/L的和厚朴酚分别作用B16细胞,B16细胞内黑色素合成量也呈现降低的趋势.结论 和厚朴酚能有效地抑制B16细胞增殖,且其抑制作用具有时间和浓度依赖性;药物作用后的B16细胞呈现凋亡形态并出现凋亡小体;和厚朴酚对B16细胞内黑色素合成也呈现抑制作用但不明显.

  15. Biosynthesis of promatrix metalloproteinase-9/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan heteromer involves a Rottlerin-sensitive pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabin Malla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previously we have shown that a fraction of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 synthesized by the macrophage cell line THP-1 was bound to a chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSPG core protein as a reduction sensitive heteromer. Several biochemical properties of the enzyme were changed when it was bound to the CSPG. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By use of affinity chromatography, zymography, and radioactive labelling, various macrophage stimulators were tested for their effect on the synthesis of the proMMP-9/CSPG heteromer and its components by THP-1 cells. Of the stimulators, only PMA largely increased the biosynthesis of the heteromer. As PMA is an activator of PKC, we determined which PKC isoenzymes were expressed by performing RT-PCR and Western Blotting. Subsequently specific inhibitors were used to investigate their involvement in the biosynthesis of the heteromer. Of the inhibitors, only Rottlerin repressed the biosynthesis of proMMP-9/CSPG and its two components. Much lower concentrations of Rottlerin were needed to reduce the amount of CSPG than what was needed to repress the synthesis of the heteromer and MMP-9. Furthermore, Rottlerin caused a minor reduction in the activation of the PKC isoenzymes δ, ε, θ and υ (PKD3 in both control and PMA exposed cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The biosynthesis of the proMMP-9/CSPG heteromer and proMMP-9 in THP-1 cells involves a Rottlerin-sensitive pathway that is different from the Rottlerin sensitive pathway involved in the CSPG biosynthesis. MMP-9 and CSPGs are known to be involved in various physiological and pathological processes. Formation of complexes may influence both the specificity and localization of the enzyme. Therefore, knowledge about biosynthetic pathways and factors involved in the formation of the MMP-9/CSPG heteromer may contribute to insight in the heteromers biological function as well as pointing to future targets for therapeutic agents.

  16. A review on biosynthesis of nanoparticles by marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmathunisha, N; Kathiresan, K

    2013-03-01

    Marine organisms produce remarkable nanofabricated structures in cell wall, shells, pearls and fish bones. Marine microorganisms such as bacteria (E. coli, Pseudomonas sp.), cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis, Oscillatoria willei, Phormidium tenue), yeasts (Pichia capsulata, Rhodospiridium diobovatum), fungi (Thraustochytrium sp., Penicillium fellutanum, Aspergillus niger), and algae (Navicula atomus, Diadesmis gallica, Stauroneis sp. Sargassum wightii, Fucus vesiculosus) are reported to synthesize inorganic nanoparticles either inside or outside cells. Mangroves (Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus mekongensis), salt marshes (Sesuvium portulacastrum and Suaeda sp.) and sand dune (Citrullus colocynthis) are also capable of synthesizing the nanoparticles, in addition to marine animals such as finfish and sponges. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles may be triggered by several compounds such as carbonyl groups, terpenoids, phenolics, flavonones, amines, amides, proteins, pigments, alkaloids and other reducing agents present in the biological extracts. Marine bio-nanotechnology has a great promise in nanomedicines, food stuff, pharmaceuticals and fabric industries for the future. PMID:23202242

  17. Role of glutamine in cobinamide biosynthesis in Propionibacterium shermanii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of glutamine as a possible donor of amide groups in the biosynthesis of vitamin B12 was investigated. In the incubation of P. shermanii cells preliminarily exhausted with respect to nitrogen on media containing ammonium sulfate or asparagine, the glutamine synthetase inhibitor methionine sulfoximine suppressed the formation of cobinamide (factor B) from the monoamide of cobiric acid (by 75 and 59%, respectively). At the same time, the inhibitor did not affect cobinamide synthesis on a medium with glutamine. The amide group of glutamine, labeled with 13N, was used for the amidation of corrinoids four times as efficiently as the amine group. It was concluded that a glutamine-dependent synthetase, which catalyzes the amidation of cobiric acids with the formation of cobinamide, functions in cells of propionic acid bacteria

  18. Combinatorial biosynthesis of medicinal plant secondary metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julsing, Mattijs K.; Koulman, Albert; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Quax, Wim J.; Kayser, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Combinatorial biosynthesis is a new tool in the generation of novel natural products and for the production of rare and expensive natural products. The basic concept is combining metabolic pathways in different organisms on a genetic level. As a consequence heterologous organisms provide precursors

  19. Biosynthesis and metabolic pathways of pivalic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Kolouchová, I.; Čejková, A.; Sigler, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 6 (2012), s. 1371-1376. ISSN 0175-7598 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0215 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Pivalic acid * Isooctane * Biosynthesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.689, year: 2012

  20. Outlining eicosanoid biosynthesis in the crustacean Daphnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmermans Martijn JTN

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eicosanoids are biologically active, oxygenated metabolites of three C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. They act as signalling molecules within the autocrine or paracrine system in both vertebrates and invertebrates mainly functioning as important mediators in reproduction, the immune system and ion transport. The biosynthesis of eicosanoids has been intensively studied in mammals and it is known that they are synthesised from the fatty acid, arachidonic acid, through either the cyclooxygenase (COX pathway; the lipoxygenase (LOX pathway; or the cytochrome P450 epoxygenase pathway. However, little is still known about the synthesis and structure of the pathway in invertebrates. Results Here, we show transcriptomic evidence from Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Branchiopoda together with a bioinformatic analysis of the D. pulex genome providing insight on the role of eicosanoids in these crustaceans as well as outlining a putative pathway of eicosanoid biosynthesis. Daphnia appear only to have one copy of the gene encoding the key enzyme COX, and phylogenetic analysis reveals that the predicted protein sequence of Daphnia COX clusters with other invertebrates. There is no current evidence of an epoxygenase pathway in Daphnia; however, LOX products are most certainly synthesised in daphnids. Conclusion We have outlined the structure of eicosanoid biosynthesis in Daphnia, a key genus in freshwater ecosystems. Improved knowledge of the function and synthesis of eicosanoids in Daphnia and other invertebrates could have important implications for several areas within ecology. This provisional overview of daphnid eicosanoid biosynthesis provides a guide on where to focus future research activities in this area.

  1. Unedoside derivatives in Nuxia and their biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Ravnkilde, Lene; Schripsema, Jan

    1998-01-01

    isolated, while from N. oppositifolia 2 "-acetyl-3 "-benzoyl-nuxioside was obtained. Both plants contained verbascoside. The biosynthesis of unedoside in N. floribunda was investigated and deoxyloganic acid was found to be a precursor, similar to wh;lt was found for the eight-carbon iridoids in Thunbergia...

  2. Bile acid biosynthesis and its regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areta Hebanowska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bile acid biosynthesis is the main pathway of cholesterol catabolism. Bile acids are more soluble than cholesterol so are easier to excrete. As amphipathic molecules they participate in lipid digestion and absorption in the intestine and they help to excrete free cholesterol with bile. They are also ligands for nuclear receptors regulating the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. Interconversion of cholesterol into bile acids is an important point of its homeostasis. Seventeen enzymes are engaged in this process and many of them are cytochromes P450. Bile acid synthesis initiation may proceed with the “classical” pathway (starting with cholesterol hydroxylation at the C7α position or the “alternative” pathway (starting with cholesterol hydroxylation at the C27 position. Two additional pathways are possible, though their quantitative significance is small (initiated with cholesterol hydroxylations of C24 and C25 positions. Oxysterols produced are not only intermediates of bile acid biosynthesis but also important regulators of metabolism. Bile acid biosynthesis takes place in the liver, but some enzymes are also present in other organs, where they participate in regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Those enzymes are potential targets for new drugs against cholesterol metabolism disturbances. This article is a brief description of the bile acid biosynthesis pathway and participating enzymes.

  3. Synthesis of N-acetyl Glucosamine Analogs as Inhibitors for Hyaluronan Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wasonga, Gilbert; Tatara, Yota; Kakizaki, Ikuko; Huang, Xuefei

    2013-01-01

    Elevated hyaluronan expression is a hallmark of many types of cancer. Therefore, inhibition of hyaluronan biosynthesis can potentially slow the growth of tumor cells. Herein, we explore a chain termination strategy to reduce hyaluronan synthesis by tumor cells. Several analogs of glucosamine were prepared, which contained modifications at the C-3 positions. These analogs can possibly cap the nonreducing end of a growing hyaluronan chain, thus lowering the amount of hyaluronan synthesized. Upo...

  4. Compartmentalization and transport in β-lactam antibiotic biosynthesis by filamentous fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Kamp, Mart van de; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Konings, Wil N.

    1999-01-01

    A proper description of the biosynthesis of fungal β-lactam antibiotics requires detailed knowledge of the cell biology of the producing organisms. This involves a delineation of the compartmentalization of the biosynthetic pathways, and of the consequential transport steps across the cell-boundary plasma membrane and across organellar membranes. Of the enzymes of the penicillin biosynthetic pathway in Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus nidulans, δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine ...

  5. Methionine salvage pathway in relation to ethylene biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recycling of methionine during ethylene biosynthesis (the methionine cycle) was studied. During ethylene biosynthesis, the H3CS-group of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is released at 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), which is recycled to methionine via 5'-methylthioribose (MTS). In mungbean hypocotyls and cell-free extracts of avocado fruit, [14C]MTR was converted to labeled methionine via 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyric acid (KMB) and 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyric acid (HMB) as intermediates. Radioactive tracer studies showed that KMB was converted readily in vivo and in vitro to methionine, while HMB was converted much more slowly. The conversion of KMB to methionine by dialyzed avocado extract required an amino group donor. Among several potential donors tested, L-glutamine was the most efficient. Incubation of [ribose-U-14C]MTR with avocado extract resulted in the production of [14C]formate, with little evolution of other 14C-labeled one-carbon compounds, indicating that the conversion of MTR to KMB involves a loss of formate, presumably from C-1 of MTR

  6. Feeding a Modified Fish Diet to Bottlenose Dolphins Leads to an Increase in Serum Adiponectin and Sphingolipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolesky, Philip M.; Harrell, Tyler S.; Parry, Celeste; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Janech, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Feeding a modified fish diet has been suggested to improve insulin sensitivity in bottlenose dolphins; however, insulin sensitivity was not directly measured. Since demonstrating an improvement in insulin sensitivity is technically difficult in dolphins, we postulated that directional changes in the hormone axis: fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)/Adiponectin/Ceramide (Cer), could provide further support to this hypothesis. We measured 2-h post-prandial serum FGF21, total adiponectin, percent unmodified adiponectin, ceramide, and sphingosine levels from dolphins fed a diet rich in heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) over 24 weeks. Serum FGF21 was quantified by ELISA with an observed range of 129–1599 pg/ml, but did not significantly change over the 24-week study period. Total adiponectin levels (mean ± SD) significantly increased from 776 ± 400 pmol/ml at week 0 to 1196 ± 467 pmol/ml at week 24. The percent unmodified adiponectin levels (mean ± SD) decreased from 23.8 ± 6.0% at week 0 to 15.2 ± 5.2% at week 24. Interestingly, although FGF21 levels did not change, there was a good correlation between FGF21 and total adiponectin (ρ = 0.788, P < 0.001). We quantified the abundances of serum ceramides and sphingosines (SPH) because adiponectin has a defined role in sphingolipid metabolism through adiponectin receptor-mediated activation of ceramidases. The most abundant ceramide in dolphin sera was Cer 24:1 comprising 49% of the ceramides measured. Significant reductions were observed in the unsaturated Cer 18:1, Cer 20:1, and Cer 24:1, whereas significant increases were observed in saturated Cer 22:0, Cer 24:0, and Cer 26:0. However, total serum ceramides did not change. Significant elevations were detected for total sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate. Proteomic analysis of the serum proteins revealed few changes in serum proteins over the study period. In conclusion

  7. Altering sphingolipid composition with aging induces contractile dysfunction of gastric smooth muscle via K(Ca) 1.1 upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Shinkyu; Kim, Ji Aee; Kim, Tae Hun; Li, Hai-Yan; Shin, Kyong-Oh; Lee, Yong-Moon; Oh, Seikwan; Pewzner-Jung, Yael; Futerman, Anthony H; Suh, Suk Hyo

    2015-12-01

    K(Ca) 1.1 regulates smooth muscle contractility by modulating membrane potential, and age-associated changes in K(Ca) 1.1 expression may contribute to the development of motility disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Sphingolipids (SLs) are important structural components of cellular membranes whose altered composition may affect K(Ca) 1.1 expression. Thus, in this study, we examined whether altered SL composition due to aging may affect the contractility of gastric smooth muscle (GSM). We studied changes in ceramide synthases (CerS) and SL levels in the GSM of mice of varying ages and compared them with those in young CerS2-null mice. The levels of C16- and C18-ceramides, sphinganine, sphingosine, and sphingosine 1-phosphate were increased, and levels of C22, C24:1 and C24 ceramides were decreased in the GSM of both aged wild-type and young CerS2-null mice. The altered SL composition upregulated K(Ca) 1.1 and increased K(Ca) 1.1 currents, while no change was observed in K(Ca) 1.1 channel activity. The upregulation of KC a 1.1 impaired intracellular Ca²⁺mobilization and decreased phosphorylated myosin light chain levels, causing GSM contractile dysfunction. Additionally, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, protein kinase Cζ , c-Jun N-terminal kinases, and nuclear factor kappa-B were found to be involved in K(Ca) 1.1 upregulation. Our findings suggest that age-associated changes in SL composition or CerS2 ablation upregulate K(Ca) 1.1 via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase Cζ /c-Jun N-terminal kinases/nuclear factor kappa-B-mediated pathway and impair Ca²⁺ mobilization, which thereby induces the contractile dysfunction of GSM. CerS2-null mice exhibited similar effects to aged wild-type mice; therefore, CerS2-null mouse models may be utilized for investigating the pathogenesis of aging-associated motility disorders. PMID:26288989

  8. Creatine biosynthesis and transport in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joncquel-Chevalier Curt, Marie; Voicu, Pia-Manuela; Fontaine, Monique; Dessein, Anne-Frédérique; Porchet, Nicole; Mention-Mulliez, Karine; Dobbelaere, Dries; Soto-Ares, Gustavo; Cheillan, David; Vamecq, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Creatine is physiologically provided equally by diet and by endogenous synthesis from arginine and glycine with successive involvements of arginine glycine amidinotransferase [AGAT] and guanidinoacetate methyl transferase [GAMT]. A specific plasma membrane transporter, creatine transporter [CRTR] (SLC6A8), further enables cells to incorporate creatine and through uptake of its precursor, guanidinoacetate, also directly contributes to creatine biosynthesis. Breakthrough in the role of creatine has arisen from studies on creatine deficiency disorders. Primary creatine disorders are inherited as autosomal recessive (mutations affecting GATM [for glycine-amidinotransferase, mitochondrial]) and GAMT genes) or X-linked (SLC6A8 gene) traits. They have highlighted the role of creatine in brain functions altered in patients (global developmental delay, intellectual disability, behavioral disorders). Creatine modulates GABAergic and glutamatergic cerebral pathways, presynaptic CRTR (SLC6A8) ensuring re-uptake of synaptic creatine. Secondary creatine disorders, addressing other genes, have stressed the extraordinary imbrication of creatine metabolism with many other cellular pathways. This high dependence on multiple pathways supports creatine as a cellular sensor, to cell methylation and energy status. Creatine biosynthesis consumes 40% of methyl groups produced as S-adenosylmethionine, and creatine uptake is controlled by AMP activated protein kinase, a ubiquitous sensor of energy depletion. Today, creatine is considered as a potential sensor of cell methylation and energy status, a neurotransmitter influencing key (GABAergic and glutamatergic) CNS neurotransmission, therapeutic agent with anaplerotic properties (towards creatine kinases [creatine-creatine phosphate cycle] and creatine neurotransmission), energetic and antioxidant compound (benefits in degenerative diseases through protection against energy depletion and oxidant species) with osmolyte behavior (retention of

  9. How peroxisomes affect aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Reverberi

    Full Text Available In filamentous fungi, peroxisomes are crucial for the primary metabolism and play a pivotal role in the formation of some secondary metabolites. Further, peroxisomes are important site for fatty acids β-oxidation, the formation of reactive oxygen species and for their scavenging through a complex of antioxidant activities. Oxidative stress is involved in different metabolic events in all organisms and it occurs during oxidative processes within the cell, including peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids. In Aspergillus flavus, an unbalance towards an hyper-oxidant status into the cell is a prerequisite for the onset of aflatoxin biosynthesis. In our preliminary results, the use of bezafibrate, inducer of both peroxisomal β-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation in mammals, significantly enhanced the expression of pex11 and foxA and stimulated aflatoxin synthesis in A. flavus. This suggests the existence of a correlation among peroxisome proliferation, fatty acids β-oxidation and aflatoxin biosynthesis. To investigate this correlation, A. flavus was transformed with a vector containing P33, a gene from Cymbidium ringspot virus able to induce peroxisome proliferation, under the control of the promoter of the Cu,Zn-sod gene of A. flavus. This transcriptional control closely relates the onset of the antioxidant response to ROS increase, with the proliferation of peroxisomes in A. flavus. The AfP33 transformant strain show an up-regulation of lipid metabolism and an higher content of both intracellular ROS and some oxylipins. The combined presence of a higher amount of substrates (fatty acids-derived, an hyper-oxidant cell environment and of hormone-like signals (oxylipins enhances the synthesis of aflatoxins in the AfP33 strain. The results obtained demonstrated a close link between peroxisome metabolism and aflatoxin synthesis.

  10. Cellulose biosynthesis in Acetobacter xylinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-lapse video microscopy has shown periodic reversals during the synthesis of cellulose. In the presence of Congo Red, Acetobacter produces a band of fine fibrils. The direction of cell movement is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of cell, and the rate of movement was decreased. A linear row of particles, presumably the cellulose synthesizing complexes, was found on the outer membrane by freeze-fracture technique. During the cell cycle, the increase of particles in linear row, the differentiation to four linear rows and the separation of the linear rows have been observed. A digitonin-solubilized cellulose synthase was prepared from A. xylinum, and incubated under conditions known to lead to active in vitro synthesis of 1,4-β-D-glucan polymer. Electron microscopy revealed that clusters of fibrils were assembled within minutes. Individual fibrils are 17 ± 2 angstroms in diameter. Evidence for the cellulosic composition of newly synthesized fibrils was based on incorporation of tritium from UDP-[3H] glucose binding of gold-labeled cellobiohydrolase, and an electron diffraction pattern identified as cellulose II polymorph instead of cellulose I

  11. Quantitative analysis of the lipidomes of the influenza virus envelope and MDCK cell apical membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Gerl, Mathias J.; Sampaio, Julio L; Urban, Severino; Kalvodova, Lucie; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Binnington, Beth; Lindemann, Dirk; Lingwood, Clifford A.; Shevchenko, Andrej; Schroeder, Cornelia; Simons, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The influenza virus (IFV) acquires its envelope by budding from host cell plasma membranes. Using quantitative shotgun mass spectrometry, we determined the lipidomes of the host Madin–Darby canine kidney cell, its apical membrane, and the IFV budding from it. We found the apical membrane to be enriched in sphingolipids (SPs) and cholesterol, whereas glycerophospholipids were reduced, and storage lipids were depleted compared with the whole-cell membranes. The virus membrane exhibited a furthe...

  12. Jagn1 Is Induced in Response to ER Stress and Regulates Proinsulin Biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Nosak

    Full Text Available The Jagn1 protein was indentified in a SILAC proteomic screen of proteins that are increased in insulinoma cells expressing a folding-deficient proinsulin. Jagn1 mRNA was detected in primary rodent islets and in insulinoma cell lines and the levels were increased in response to ER stress. The function of Jagn1 was assessed in insulinoma cells by both knock-down and overexpression approaches. Knock-down of Jagn1 caused an increase in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion resulting from an increase in proinsulin biosynthesis. In contrast, overexpression of Jagn1 in insulinoma cells resulted in reduced cellular proinsulin and insulin levels. Our results identify a novel role for Jagn1 in regulating proinsulin biosynthesis in pancreatic β-cells. Under ER stress conditions Jagn1 is induced which might contribute to reducing proinsulin biosynthesis, in part by helping to relieve the protein folding load in the ER in an effort to restore ER homeostasis.

  13. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Oliver B.; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D.; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-10-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinositol-phosphate synthase from Renibacterium salmoninarum, with and without bound CDP-diacylglycerol to 3.6 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal the location of the acceptor site, and the molecular determinants of substrate specificity and catalysis. Functional characterization of the 40%-identical ortholog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a potential target for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs, supports the proposed mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis. This work therefore provides a structural and functional framework to understand the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis.

  14. Plant Terpenoids: Biosynthesis and Ecological Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Xia Cheng; Yong-Gen Lou; Ying-Bo Mao; Shan Lu; Ling-Jian Wang; Xiao-Ya Chen

    2007-01-01

    Among plant secondary metabolites terpenoids are a structurally most diverse group; they function as phytoalexins in plant direct defense, or as signals in indirect defense responses which involves herbivores and their natural enemies. In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the investigation of the ecological role of plant terpenoids. The biosynthesis pathways of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes include the synthesis of C5 precursor isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and its allylic isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), the synthesis of the immediate diphosphate precursors, and the formation of the diverse terpenoids. Terpene synthases (TPSs) play a key role in volatile terpene synthesis. By expression of the TPS genes, significant achievements have been made on metabolic engineering to increase terpenoid production. This review mainly summarizes the recent research progress in elucidating the ecological role of terpenoids and characterization of the enzymes involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis. Spatial and temporal regulations of terpenoids metabolism are also discussed.

  15. Carotenoid Metabolism: Biosynthesis, Regulation,and Beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Lu; Li Li

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are Indispensable to plants and play a critical role in human nutrition and health. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of carotenoid metabolism in plants. The biosynthetic pathway has been extensively studied.Nearly all the genes encoding the biosynthetic enzymes have been isolated and characterized from various organisms. In recent years, there is an increasing body of work on the signaling pathways and plastid development, which might provide global control of carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation. Herein, we will highlight recent progress on the biosynthesis,regulation, and metabolic engineering of carotenoids in plants, as well as the future research towards elucidating the regulatory mechanisms and metabolic network that control carotenoid metabolism.

  16. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structures of those tetracyclic triterpenols in Euphorbia lathyris latex which had not previously been known were elucidated. Many times dependent incubations were done, investigating the stability of the whole latex system and the re-suspended pellet systems. The effects of centrifugation on the biosynthesis were examined. The partitioning of the triterpenoid pool as a function of when the compounds were made was examined. A number of incubations were performed in the hopes of observing some interconversion of the individual triterpenols. The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. The effects of the morpholine based fungicides, tridemorph and fenpropimorph were examined. The possibility that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4-3 H-mevalonic acid and incubating the latex with a mixture of this and 14C-mevalonic acid

  17. Efficiency of Lignin Biosynthesis: a Quantitative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Amthor, Jeffrey S.

    2003-01-01

    Lignin is derived mainly from three alcohol monomers: p‐coumaryl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol. Biochemical reactions probably responsible for synthesizing these three monomers from sucrose, and then polymerizing the monomers into lignin, were analysed to estimate the amount of sucrose required to produce a unit of lignin. Included in the calculations were amounts of respiration required to provide NADPH (from NADP+) and ATP (from ADP) for lignin biosynthesis. Two pathways in...

  18. Light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Zoratti, Laura; Karppinen, Katja; Luengo Escobar, Ana; Häggman, Hely; Jaakola, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Light is one of the most important environmental factors affecting flavonoid biosynthesis in plants. The absolute dependency of light to the plant development has driven evolvement of sophisticated mechanisms to sense and transduce multiple aspects of the light signal. Light effects can be categorized in photoperiod (duration), intensity (quantity), direction and quality (wavelength) including UV-light. Recently, new information has been achieved on the regulation of light-controlled flavonoi...

  19. Triterpenoid Biosynthesis and Engineering in Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sawai, Satoru; Saito, Kazuki

    2011-01-01

    Triterpenoid saponins are a diverse group of natural products in plants and are considered defensive compounds against pathogenic microbes and herbivores. Because of their various beneficial properties for humans, saponins are used in wide-ranging applications in addition to medicinally. Saponin biosynthesis involves three key enzymes: oxidosqualene cyclases, which construct the basic triterpenoid skeletons; cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, which mediate oxidations; and uridine diphosphate-dep...

  20. Biosynthesis of Aromatic Polyketides in Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Abhirup; Khosla, Chaitan

    2009-01-01

    Natural products, produced chiefly by microorganisms and plants, can be large and structurally complex molecules. These molecules are manufactured by cellular assembly lines, in which enzymes construct the molecules in a stepwise fashion. The means by which enzymes interact and work together in a modular fashion to create diverse structural features has been an active area of research; the work has provided insight into the fine details of biosynthesis.

  1. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Oliver B.; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D.; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinosito...

  2. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Marine Sponge

    OpenAIRE

    Mahta Rezazaeh Hamed; Mohammad Hadi Givianrad; Ali Mashinchian Moradi

    2015-01-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine sponge extract Haliclona was carried out. Marine sponges' extracts are responsible for the reduction of silver nitrate solution. Silver nanoparticles synthesized using fresh and dry marine sponge. Experimental factors including, time duration, pH, temperature were optimized. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometry. The sizes of synthesis silver nanoparticles were 27-46 nm and confirmed by scanning electron micro...

  3. The structural biology of phenazine biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Blankenfeldt, Wulf; Parsons, James F.

    2014-01-01

    The phenazines are a class of over 150 nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds of bacterial and archeal origin. Their redox properties not only explain their activity as broad-specificity antibiotics and virulence factors but also enable them to function as respiratory pigments, thus extending their importance to the primary metabolism of phenazine-producing species. Despite their discovery in the mid-19th century, the molecular mechanisms behind their biosynthesis have only been unraveled in ...

  4. Leukotriene C4 biosynthesis in isolated August rat peritoneal leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Huebner

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixed leukocyte population obtained from the peritoneum of the August rat is a potentially important experimental model of inherent eosinophilia that has not been well characterized. In the present study, isolated cell preparations generated a concentration-dependent release of leukotriene (LT C4 when exposed to the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, reaching maximal stimulation at 5.0 μM. This response was inhibited by the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein antagonist MK-886 (0.1 μM, nominally Ca2+ and Mg2+-free incubation media and by activation of protein kinase C via phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (50 nM. These findings establish a model system for investigating LTC4 profiles contingent with innate peritoneal eosinophilia and are consistent with the hypothesis that cellular LTC4 biosynthesis is phosphoregulated.

  5. Localization of heme biosynthesis pathway enzymes in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Aditya; Yeleswarapu, Sri Jyothsna; Srinivasan, Rajgopal; Bulusu, Gopalakrishnan

    2008-12-01

    Protein trafficking in the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum is dictated by a complex life-cycle that involves a variety of intra-cellular and host cell destinations, such as the mitochondrion, apicoplast, rhoptries and micronemes. Of these, the apicoplast and mitochondrion are believed to account for more than 10% of this traffic. Studies have shown that mechanisms for mitochondrion and apicoplast targeting are distinct, despite their close physical proximity. The heme biosynthesis pathway spans both these organelles, making trafficking studies crucial for the spatial demarcation of the constituent interactions. This minireview highlights the challenges in identifying the possible sub-cellular destinations of the heme pathway enzymes using gleanings from literature survey as well as focussed bioinformatic analysis. PMID:19239121

  6. A mitochondrial pathway for biosynthesis of lipid mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Poloyac, Samuel M.; Tyurin, Vladimir A.; Kapralov, Alexander A.; Jiang, Jianfei; Anthonymuthu, Tamil Selvan; Kapralova, Valentina I.; Vikulina, Anna S.; Jung, Mi-Yeon; Epperly, Michael W.; Mohammadyani, Dariush; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Jackson, Travis C.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Pitt, Bruce R.; Greenberger, Joel S.; Vladimirov, Yury A.; Bayır, Hülya; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2014-06-01

    The central role of mitochondria in metabolic pathways and in cell-death mechanisms requires sophisticated signalling systems. Essential in this signalling process is an array of lipid mediators derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the molecular machinery for the production of oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids is localized in the cytosol and their biosynthesis has not been identified in mitochondria. Here we report that a range of diversified polyunsaturated molecular species derived from a mitochondria-specific phospholipid, cardiolipin (CL), is oxidized by the intermembrane-space haemoprotein, cytochrome c. We show that a number of oxygenated CL species undergo phospholipase A2-catalysed hydrolysis and thus generate multiple oxygenated fatty acids, including well-known lipid mediators. This represents a new biosynthetic pathway for lipid mediators. We demonstrate that this pathway, which includes the oxidation of polyunsaturated CLs and accumulation of their hydrolysis products (oxygenated linoleic, arachidonic acids and monolysocardiolipins), is activated in vivo after acute tissue injury.

  7. Biosynthesis of cardiac natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac-derived peptide hormones were identified more than 25 years ago. An astonishing amount of clinical studies have established cardiac natriuretic peptides and their molecular precursors as useful markers of heart disease. In contrast to the clinical applications, the biogenesis of cardiac p...... competent endocrine cells. The structurally related atrial natriuretic peptide will be mentioned where appropriate, whereas C-type natriuretic peptide will not be considered as a cardiac peptide of relevance in mammalian physiology....... characterized. An ongoing characterization of the molecular heterogeneity will help appreciate the biosynthetic capacity of the endocrine heart and could introduce new diagnostic possibilities. Notably, different biosynthetic products may not be equal markers of the same pathophysiological processes. An...... inefficient post-translational prohormone maturation will also affect the biology of the cardiac natriuretic peptide system. This review aims at summarizing the myocardial synthesis of natriuretic peptides focusing on B-type natriuretic peptide, where new data has disclosed cardiac myocytes as highly...

  8. Biosynthesis of cardiac natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac-derived peptide hormones were identified more than 25 years ago. An astonishing amount of clinical studies have established cardiac natriuretic peptides and their molecular precursors as useful markers of heart disease. In contrast to the clinical applications, the biogenesis of cardiac...... inefficient post-translational prohormone maturation will also affect the biology of the cardiac natriuretic peptide system. This review aims at summarizing the myocardial synthesis of natriuretic peptides focusing on B-type natriuretic peptide, where new data has disclosed cardiac myocytes as highly...... competent endocrine cells. The structurally related atrial natriuretic peptide will be mentioned where appropriate, whereas C-type natriuretic peptide will not be considered as a cardiac peptide of relevance in mammalian physiology....

  9. MYB103 is required for FERULATE-5-HYDROXYLASE expression and syringyl lignin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhman, David; Demedts, Brecht; Kumar, Manoj; Gerber, Lorenz; Gorzsás, András; Goeminne, Geert; Hedenström, Mattias; Ellis, Brian; Boerjan, Wout; Sundberg, Björn

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor MYB103 was previously identified as a member of the transcriptional network regulating secondary wall biosynthesis in xylem tissues of Arabidopsis, and was proposed to act on cellulose biosynthesis. It is a direct transcriptional target of the transcription factor SECONDARY WALL ASSOCIATED NAC DOMAIN PROTEIN 1 (SND1), and 35S-driven dominant repression or over-expression of MYB103 modifies secondary wall thickness. We identified two myb103 T-DNA insertion mutants and chemically characterized their lignocellulose by pyrolysis/GC/MS, 2D NMR, FT-IR microspectroscopy and wet chemistry. The mutants developed normally but exhibited a 70-75% decrease in syringyl (S) lignin. The level of guaiacyl (G) lignin was co-ordinately increased, so that total Klason lignin was not affected. The transcript abundance of FERULATE-5-HYDROXYLASE (F5H), the key gene in biosynthesis of S lignin, was strongly decreased in the myb103 mutants, and the metabolomes of the myb103 mutant and an F5H null mutant were very similar. Other than modification of the lignin S to G ratio, there were only very minor changes in the composition of secondary cell-wall polymers in the inflorescence stem. In conclusion, we demonstrate that F5H expression and hence biosynthesis of S lignin are dependent on MYB103. PMID:22967312

  10. Classical galactosaemia: novel insights in IgG N-glycosylation and N-glycan biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maratha, Ashwini; Stockmann, Henning; Coss, Karen P; Estela Rubio-Gozalbo, M; Knerr, Ina; Fitzgibbon, Maria; McVeigh, Terri P; Foley, Patricia; Moss, Catherine; Colhoun, Hugh-Owen; van Erven, Britt; Stephens, Kelly; Doran, Peter; Rudd, Pauline; Treacy, Eileen

    2016-07-01

    Classical galactosaemia (OMIM #230400), a rare disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, is caused by a deficient activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.12). The pathophysiology of the long-term complications, mainly cognitive, neurological and female fertility problems remains poorly understood. The lack of validated biomarkers to determine prognosis, monitor disease progression and responses to new therapies, pose a huge challenge. We report the detailed analysis of an automated robotic hydrophilic interaction ultra-performance liquid chromatography N-glycan analytical method of high glycan peak resolution applied to serum IgG. This has revealed specific N-glycan processing defects observed in 40 adult galactosaemia patients (adults and adolescents), in comparison with 81 matched healthy controls. We have identified a significant increase in core fucosylated neutral glycans (Pperipheral blood mononuclear cells from 32 adult galactosaemia patients. We have noted significant dysregulation of two key N-glycan biosynthesis genes: ALG9 upregulated (P<0.001) and MGAT1 downregulated (P<0.01) in galactosaemia patients, which may contribute to its ongoing pathophysiology. Our data suggest that the use of IgG N-glycosylation analysis with matched N-glycan biosynthesis gene profiles may provide useful biomarkers for monitoring response to therapy and interventions. They also indicate potential gene modifying steps in this N-glycan biosynthesis pathway, of relevance to galactosaemia and related N-glycan biosynthesis disorders. PMID:26733289

  11. Sterol Biosynthesis Pathway as Target for Anti-trypanosomatid Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterols are constituents of the cellular membranes that are essential for their normal structure and function. In mammalian cells, cholesterol is the main sterol found in the various membranes. However, other sterols predominate in eukaryotic microorganisms such as fungi and protozoa. It is now well established that an important metabolic pathway in fungi and in members of the Trypanosomatidae family is one that produces a special class of sterols, including ergosterol, and other 24-methyl sterols, which are required for parasitic growth and viability, but are absent from mammalian host cells. Currently, there are several drugs that interfere with sterol biosynthesis (SB that are in use to treat diseases such as high cholesterol in humans and fungal infections. In this review, we analyze the effects of drugs such as (a statins, which act on the mevalonate pathway by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, (b bisphosphonates, which interfere with the isoprenoid pathway in the step catalyzed by farnesyl diphosphate synthase, (c zaragozic acids and quinuclidines, inhibitors of squalene synthase (SQS, which catalyzes the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, (d allylamines, inhibitors of squalene epoxidase, (e azoles, which inhibit C14α-demethylase, and (f azasterols, which inhibit Δ24(25-sterol methyltransferase (SMT. Inhibition of this last step appears to have high selectivity for fungi and trypanosomatids, since this enzyme is not found in mammalian cells. We review here the IC50 values of these various inhibitors, their effects on the growth of trypanosomatids (both in axenic cultures and in cell cultures, and their effects on protozoan structural organization (as evaluted by light and electron microscopy and lipid composition. The results show that the mitochondrial membrane as well as the membrane lining the protozoan cell body and flagellum are the main targets. Probably as a consequence of these primary effects, other important changes take

  12. Sphingolipids in Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Jernigan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Major depression is one of the most common and severe diseases affecting the world's population. However, the pathogenesis of the disease remains inadequately defined. Previously, a lack of monoaminergic neurotransmitters was the focus of pathophysiological concepts; however, recent concepts focus on a alteration of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. This concept suggests that neurogenesis is decreased in major depression with a rarefication of neuronal networks and a lack of new, immature neurons in the hippocampus, events that may result in the clinical symptoms of major depression. However, molecular targets involved in the pathogenesis of major depression and, in particular, a reduction of neurogenesis, are largely unknown. We have recently discovered that an inhibition of the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system mediates the effects of tri- and tetracyclic antidepressants. Moreover, an accumulation of ceramide in the hippocampus results in depression-like symptoms. This suggests the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system is very important in the pathogenesis of major depression.

  13. Relationship between carbon catabolite repression and the biosynthesis regulation of the prolidase PepQ from Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus CNRZ 397

    OpenAIRE

    Lamarque, Mauld; Morel, Fabienne; Bissardon, Isabelle; Galinier, Anne; Portalier, Raymond; Atlan, Danièle

    2001-01-01

    International audience Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus CNRZ 397 (L. bulgaricus) displays several enzymes specific of proline-containing peptides. We focused on the prolidase PepQ which specifically cleaves X-Pro dipeptides. PepQ biosynthesis was previously shown to be independent of the peptide concentration of the culture medium in contrast to the cell surface proteinase PrtB and several aminopeptidases. Regulation of PepQ biosynthesis can be explained by the genetic organizatio...

  14. Identification of a Gene Cluster for the Biosynthesis of a Long, Galactose-Rich Exopolysaccharide in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Functional Analysis of the Priming Glycosyltransferase▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Lebeer, Sarah; Verhoeven, Tine L. A.; Francius, Grégory; Schoofs, Geert; Lambrichts, Ivo; Dufrêne, Yves; Vanderleyden, Jos; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.

    2009-01-01

    Cell surface polysaccharides have an established role as virulence factors in human bacterial pathogens. Less documented are the biosynthesis and biological functions of surface polysaccharides in beneficial bacteria. We identified a gene cluster that encodes the enzymes and regulatory and transporter proteins for the different steps in the biosynthesis of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) of the well-documented probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Subsequent mutation of the welE ge...

  15. Enhancement of misonidazole radiosensitization by an inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A well known inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis, buthione sulphoximine (S-n-butyl homocysteine sulphoximine, BSO) depletes non-protein sulphydryls (NPSH) in Chinese hamster cells in vitro, resulting in a marked increase in the radiosensitization efficiency of misonidazole. V79 379A Chinese hamster cells were maintained in suspension cultures and irradiated in monolayers using 250 kVp X-rays at a dose rate of 3.93 Gy/min. Radiosensitization by misonidazole alone gave results within 0.1 sensitizer enhancement ratio (s.e.r.) of the curve reported by Watts et al. (1980). GSH (2 mmol dm-3) added to the extracellular medium resulted in a marked decrease in the radiosensitization efficiency of misonidazole, eliminating the effect at 0.1 mmol dm-3 misonidazole (s.e.r. = 1.0 relative to nitrogen control). A marked enhancement of the radiosensitization by misonidazole was observed when the cells had been incubated with BSO (0.1 mmol dm-3). BSO alone at this concentration gave s.e.r. = 1.17; misonidazole alone (0.1 mmol dm-3) gave s.e.r. = 1.18 and misonidazole with BSO (both 0.1. mmol dm-3) gave s.e.r. = 1.9. The BSO treatment gave little effect in aerated cells. The concentration of BSO needed to produce these effects in vitro is ca. 40-fold lower than doses tolerated by mice in repeated administrations. (U.K.)

  16. Biosynthesis of heterogeneous forms of multidrug resistance-associated glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, L M; Williams, S S; Horwitz, S B

    1987-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant J774.2 mouse macrophage-like cells, selected for resistance to colchicine, vinblastine, or taxol, overexpress antigenically related glycoproteins with distinct electrophoretic mobilities. These plasma membrane glycoproteins are likely to play a pivotal role in the expression of the multidrug resistance phenotype. To determine how these multidrug resistance-associated glycoproteins differ, the biosynthesis and N-linked carbohydrate composition of these proteins were examined and compared. Vinblastineor colchicine-selected cells made a 125-kDa precursor that was rapidly processed (t1/2 approximately equal to 20 min) to mature forms of 135 and 140 kDa, respectively. Heterogeneity between the 135- and 140-kDa forms of the molecule can be attributed to N-linked carbohydrate. In contrast, taxol-selected cells made two precursors, 125 and 120 kDa, which appeared within 5 and 15 min after the onset of pulse labeling, respectively. They were processed to mature forms of 140 and 130 kDa. Since a single deglycosylated precursor or mature form was not observed after enzymatic removal of N-linked oligosaccharides, other differences, besides N-linked glycosylation, which occur in early processing compartments, are likely to account for the two multidrug resistance-associated glycoproteins in taxol-selected cells. These results demonstrate that a family of multidrug resistance-associated glycoproteins can be differentially expressed. PMID:2888763

  17. Fermentation kinetics makeover in poly-ε-lysine biosynthesis by Streptomyces noursei NRRL 5126

    OpenAIRE

    Sandip Balasaheb Bankar; Singhal, Rekha S.

    2012-01-01

    An unstructured model has been used to predict microbial growth based on glycerol consumption and poly-ε-lysine (ε-PL) biosynthesis by Streptomyces noursei NRRL 5126. The logistic and Luedeking-Piret equations have been proposed to describe the time course of ε-PL formation, substrate consumption and cell growth. The shake flask level data from kinetic studies was illustrated and compared with fermenter studies. In all cases, the model simulation matched well with the ...

  18. Identification and characterization of an operon in Salmonella typhimurium involved in thiamine biosynthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, L A; Downs, D M

    1997-01-01

    Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is synthesized de novo in Salmonella typhimurium and is a required cofactor for many enzymes in the cell. Five kinase activities have been implicated in TPP synthesis, which involves joining a 4-methyl-5-(beta-hydroxyethyl)thiazole (THZ) moiety and a 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine (HMP) moiety. We report here identification of a 2-gene operon involved in thiamine biosynthesis and present evidence that the genes in this operon, thiMD, encode two previou...

  19. Elucidation and Chemical Modulation of Sulfolipid-1 Biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis *

    OpenAIRE

    Seeliger, Jessica C.; Holsclaw, Cynthia M.; Schelle, Michael W.; Botyanszki, Zsofia; Gilmore, Sarah A.; Tully, Sarah E.; Niederweis, Michael; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Leary, Julie A.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis possesses unique cell-surface lipids that have been implicated in virulence. One of the most abundant is sulfolipid-1 (SL-1), a tetraacyl-sulfotrehalose glycolipid. Although the early steps in SL-1 biosynthesis are known, the machinery underlying the final acylation reactions is not understood. We provide genetic and biochemical evidence for the activities of two proteins, Chp1 and Sap (corresponding to gene loci rv3822 and rv3821), that complete this pathway. The m...

  20. Menaquinone Biosynthesis: Formation of aminofutalosine requires a unique radical SAM enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Mahanta, Nilkamal; Fedoseyenko, Dmytro; Dairi, Tohru; Begley, Tadhg P.

    2013-01-01

    Menaquinone (MK, vitamin K2) is a lipid soluble molecule that participates in the bacterial electron transport chain. In mammalian cells, MK functions as an essential vitamin for the activation of various proteins involved in blood clotting and bone metabolism. Recently, a new pathway for the biosynthesis of this cofactor was discovered in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) in which chorismate is converted to aminofutalosine in a reaction catalyzed by MqnA and an unidentified enzyme. Here, we reco...