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Sample records for cell specific nanos3

  1. The Nanos3-3'UTR is required for germ cell specific NANOS3 expression in mouse embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Suzuki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The regulation of gene expression via a 3' untranslated region (UTR plays essential roles in the discrimination of the germ cell lineage from somatic cells during embryogenesis. This is fundamental to the continuation of a species. Mouse NANOS3 is an essential protein required for the germ cell maintenance and is specifically expressed in these cells. However, the regulatory mechanisms that restrict the expression of this gene in the germ cells is largely unknown at present. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In our current study, we show that differences in the stability of Nanos3 mRNA between germ cells and somatic cells is brought about in a 3'UTR-dependent manner in mouse embryos. Although Nanos3 is transcribed in both cell lineages, it is efficiently translated only in the germ lineage. We also find that the translational suppression of NANOS3 in somatic cells is caused by a 3'UTR-mediated mRNA destabilizing mechanism. Surprisingly, even when under the control of the CAG promoter which induces strong ubiquitous transcription in both germ cells and somatic cells, the addition of the Nanos3-3'UTR sequence to the coding region of exogenous gene was effective in restricting protein expression in germ cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our current study thus suggests that Nanos3-3'UTR has an essential role in translational control in the mouse embryo.

  2. Conserved elements in the nanos3 3'UTR of olive flounder are responsible for the selective retention of RNA in germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meijie; Tan, Xungang; Sui, Yulei; Jiao, Shuang; Wu, Zhihao; You, Feng

    2016-08-01

    In teleost fish, primordial germ cells (PGCs) are specified very early during embryogenesis and migrate to the site that gonads are formed. A previous study indicated that nanos3 is specifically expressed in PGCs, and the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of nanos3 is responsible for the localization of mRNA in these cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate the functional regions of nanos3 3'UTR in olive flounder using truncated and mutated nanos3 3'UTRs fused to chimeric RNAs and microinjected into fertilized zebrafish eggs. The results indicated that a 68-bp functional element in the nanos3 3'UTR of olive flounder played important roles in the protection and degradation of RNA. Within this element, a U-rich region was identified to be responsible for the protection of RNA in PGCs and two GCAC sites for the degradation of RNA in somatic cells. The first GCAC was located adjacently to the U-rich region and the second GCAC within the U-rich region. Overall, we concluded that the two GCACs were the binding sites of miR-430, a microRNA that suppresses translation, whereas the U-rich region was the binding site of Dnd, a protein that antagonizes the miR-430-mediated silencing of mRNA. PMID:27085583

  3. Homozygous Inactivating Mutation in NANOS3 in Two Sisters with Primary Ovarian Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza G. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing understanding of female reproduction, the molecular diagnosis of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI is seldom obtained. The RNA-binding protein NANOS3 poses as an interesting candidate gene for POI since members of the Nanos family have an evolutionarily conserved function in germ cell development and maintenance by repressing apoptosis. We performed mutational analysis of NANOS3 in a cohort of 85 Brazilian women with familial or isolated POI, presenting with primary or secondary amenorrhea, and in ethnically-matched control women. A homozygous p.Glu120Lys mutation in NANOS3 was identified in two sisters with primary amenorrhea. The substituted amino acid is located within the second C2HC motif in the conserved zinc finger domain of NANOS3 and in silico molecular modelling suggests destabilization of protein-RNA interaction. In vitro analyses of apoptosis through flow cytometry and confocal microscopy show that NANOS3 capacity to prevent apoptosis was impaired by this mutation. The identification of an inactivating missense mutation in NANOS3 suggests a mechanism for POI involving increased primordial germ cells (PGCs apoptosis during embryonic cell migration and highlights the importance of NANOS proteins in human ovarian biology.

  4. Cell-specific precursor processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Bundgaard, Jens R

    2010-01-01

    The singular gene for a peptide hormone is expressed not only in a specific endocrine cell type but also in other endocrine cells as well as in entirely different cells such as neurons, adipocytes, myocytes, immune cells, and cells of the sex-glands. The cellular expression pattern for each gene...... varies with development, time and species. Endocrine regulation is, however, based on the release of a given hormone from an endocrine cell to the general circulation from whose cappilaries the hormone reaches the specific target cell elsewhere in the body. The widespread expression of hormone genes in...... different cells and tissues therefore requires control of biogenesis and secretion in order to avoid interference with the function of a specific hormonal peptide from a particular endocrine cell. Several mechanisms are involved in such control, one of them being cell-specific processing of prohormones. The...

  5. Electrochemical production of KNO3/NANO3 salt mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for the electrolytic production of a chloride-free mixture consisting essentially of sodium and potassium nitrates is disclosed. In this process, an anolyte brine comprised of a mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides dissolved therein is electrolyzed in a membrane type electrolysis type cell to produce a mixed alkali metal hydroxide catholyte solution. The catholyte is reacted with nitric acid to form a mixed potassium-sodium nitrate solution. By properly adjusting the ratio of potassium chloride to sodium chloride concentration in the anolyte brine, a final nitrate product containing about from about 40% to about 80% NaNO3 and from about 60% to about 20% KNO3 by weight can be produced. The resulting product, after drying is suitable for use in many solar panel heat transfer applications

  6. Effects of specific and prolonged expression of zebrafish growth factors, Fgf2 and Lif in primordial germ cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We discovered that nanos3 3′UTR prolonged PGC-specific protein expression up to 26 days. ► Expression of Fgf2 in PGCs significantly increased PGC number at later developmental stages. ► Expression of Lif in PGCs resulted in a significant disruption of PGC migration. ► Lif illicited its effect on PGC migration through Lif receptor a. ► Our approach could be used to achieve prolonged PGC-specific expression of other proteins. -- Abstract: Primordial germ cells (PGCs), specified early in development, proliferate and migrate to the developing gonad before sexual differentiation occurs in the embryo and eventually give rise to spermatogonia or oogonia. In this study, we discovered that nanos3 3′UTR, a common method used to label PGCs, not only directed PGC-specific expression of DsRed but also prolonged this expression up to 26 days post fertilization (dpf) when DsRed-nanos3 3′UTR hybrid mRNAs were introduced into 1- to 2-cell-stage embryos. As such, we employed this knowledge to express zebrafish leukemia inhibitory factor (Lif), basic fibroblast growth factor (Fgf2) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) in the PGCs and evaluate their effects on PGC development in vivo for over a period of 3 weeks. The results show that expression of Fgf2 significantly increased PGC number at 14- and 21-dpf while Bmp4 resulted in severe ventralization and death of the embryos by 3 days. Expression of Lif resulted in a significant disruption of PGC migration. Mopholino knockdown experiments indicated that Lif illicited its effect on PGC migration through Lif receptor a (Lifra) but not Lifrb. The general approach described in this study could be used to achieve prolonged PGC-specific expression of other proteins to investigate their roles in germ cell and gonad development. The results also indicate that zebrafish PGCs have a mechanism to stabilize and prolong the expression of mRNA that carries nanos3 3′UTR. Understanding this mechanism may make it

  7. Effects of specific and prolonged expression of zebrafish growth factors, Fgf2 and Lif in primordial germ cells in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Ten-Tsao, E-mail: wong20@purdue.edu [Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, 901 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Collodi, Paul [Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, 901 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We discovered that nanos3 3 Prime UTR prolonged PGC-specific protein expression up to 26 days. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of Fgf2 in PGCs significantly increased PGC number at later developmental stages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of Lif in PGCs resulted in a significant disruption of PGC migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lif illicited its effect on PGC migration through Lif receptor a. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our approach could be used to achieve prolonged PGC-specific expression of other proteins. -- Abstract: Primordial germ cells (PGCs), specified early in development, proliferate and migrate to the developing gonad before sexual differentiation occurs in the embryo and eventually give rise to spermatogonia or oogonia. In this study, we discovered that nanos3 3 Prime UTR, a common method used to label PGCs, not only directed PGC-specific expression of DsRed but also prolonged this expression up to 26 days post fertilization (dpf) when DsRed-nanos3 3 Prime UTR hybrid mRNAs were introduced into 1- to 2-cell-stage embryos. As such, we employed this knowledge to express zebrafish leukemia inhibitory factor (Lif), basic fibroblast growth factor (Fgf2) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) in the PGCs and evaluate their effects on PGC development in vivo for over a period of 3 weeks. The results show that expression of Fgf2 significantly increased PGC number at 14- and 21-dpf while Bmp4 resulted in severe ventralization and death of the embryos by 3 days. Expression of Lif resulted in a significant disruption of PGC migration. Mopholino knockdown experiments indicated that Lif illicited its effect on PGC migration through Lif receptor a (Lifra) but not Lifrb. The general approach described in this study could be used to achieve prolonged PGC-specific expression of other proteins to investigate their roles in germ cell and gonad development. The results also indicate that zebrafish PGCs

  8. Cdc42-mediated tubulogenesis controls cell specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesavan, Gokul; Sand, Fredrik Wolfhagen; Greiner, Thomas Uwe;

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how cells polarize and coordinate tubulogenesis during organ formation is a central question in biology. Tubulogenesis often coincides with cell-lineage specification during organ development. Hence, an elementary question is whether these two processes are independently controlled...... later for maintaining apical cell polarity. Finally, we show that Cdc42 controls cell specification non-cell-autonomously by providing the correct microenvironment for proper control of cell-fate choices of multipotent progenitors. For a video summary of this article, see the PaperFlick file with the......, or whether proper cell specification depends on formation of tubes. To address these fundamental questions, we have studied the functional role of Cdc42 in pancreatic tubulogenesis. We present evidence that Cdc42 is essential for tube formation, specifically for initiating microlumen formation and...

  9. PD-L1-specific T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Shamaila Munir; Borch, Troels Holz; Hansen, Morten; Andersen, Mads Hald

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increased focus on the immune checkpoint protein PD-1 and its ligand PD-L1 due to the discovery that blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway with monoclonal antibodies elicits striking clinical results in many different malignancies. We have described naturally occurring PD-L1......-specific T cells that recognize both PD-L1-expressing immune cells and malignant cells. Thus, PD-L1-specific T cells have the ability to modulate adaptive immune reactions by reacting to regulatory cells. Thus, utilization of PD-L1-derived T cell epitopes may represent an attractive vaccination strategy...... for targeting the tumor microenvironment and for boosting the clinical effects of additional anticancer immunotherapy. This review summarizes present information about PD-L1 as a T cell antigen, depicts the initial findings about the function of PD-L1-specific T cells in the adjustment of immune...

  10. Apoptin: specific killer of tumor cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, M; Guelen, L; Luxon, B A; Gäken, J

    2005-08-01

    In the early 1990s it was discovered that the VP3/Apoptin protein encoded by the Chicken Anemia virus (CAV) possesses an inherent ability to specifically kill cancer cells. Apoptin was found to be located in the cytoplasm of normal cells while in tumor cells it was localized mainly in the nucleus.(1) These differences in the localization pattern were suggested to be the main mechanism by which normal cells show resistance to Apoptin-mediated cell killing. Although the mechanism of action of Apoptin is presently unknown, it seems to function by the induction of programmed cell death (PCD) after translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and arresting the cell cycle at G2/M, possibly by interfering with the cyclosome.(2) In addition, cancer specific phosphorylation of Threonine residue 108 has been suggested to be important for Apoptin's function to kill tumor cells.(3) In contrast to the large number of publications reporting that nuclear localization, induction of PCD and phosphorylation of Apoptin is restricted to cancer cells, several recent studies have shown that Apoptin has the ability to migrate to the nucleus and induce PCD in some of the normal cell lines tested. There is evidence that high protein expression levels as well as the cellular growth rate may influence Apoptin's ability to specifically kill tumor cells. Thus far both in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that Apoptin is a powerful apoptosis inducing protein with a promising prospective utility in cancer therapy. However, here we show that several recent findings contradict some of the earlier results on the tumor specificity of Apoptin, thus creating some controversy in the field. The aim of this article is to review the available data, some published and some unpublished, which either agree or contradict the reported "black and white" tumor cell specificity of Apoptin. Understanding what factors appear to influence its function should help to develop Apoptin into a potent anti

  11. Apoptin: Specific killer of tumor cells?

    OpenAIRE

    Tavassoli, M; Guelen, L.; Luxon, B. A.; Gäken, J

    2005-01-01

    In the early 1990s it was discovered that the VP3/Apoptin protein encoded by the Chicken Anemia virus (CAV) possesses an inherent ability to specifically kill cancer cells. Apoptin was found to be located in the cytoplasm of normal cells while in tumor cells it was localized mainly in the nucleus.1 These differences in the localization pattern were suggested to be the main mechanism by which normal cells show resistance to Apoptin-mediated cell killing. Although the mechanism of action of Apo...

  12. Cell-Specific Aptamers as Emerging Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Cindy Meyer; Ulrich Hahn; Andrea Rentmeister

    2011-01-01

    Aptamers are short nucleic acids that bind to defined targets with high affinity and specificity. The first aptamers have been selected about two decades ago by an in vitro process named SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment). Since then, numerous aptamers with specificities for a variety of targets from small molecules to proteins or even whole cells have...

  13. Learning LM Specificity for Ganglion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Unsupervised learning models have been proposed based on experience (Ahumada and Mulligan, 1990;Wachtler, Doi, Lee and Sejnowski, 2007) that allow the cortex to develop units with LM specific color opponent receptive fields like the blob cells reported by Hubel and Wiesel on the basis of visual experience. These models used ganglion cells with LM indiscriminate wiring as inputs to the learning mechanism, which was presumed to occur at the cortical level.

  14. Cell-Specific Aptamers as Emerging Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Meyer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are short nucleic acids that bind to defined targets with high affinity and specificity. The first aptamers have been selected about two decades ago by an in vitro process named SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment. Since then, numerous aptamers with specificities for a variety of targets from small molecules to proteins or even whole cells have been selected. Their applications range from biosensing and diagnostics to therapy and target-oriented drug delivery. More recently, selections using complex targets such as live cells have become feasible. This paper summarizes progress in cell-SELEX techniques and highlights recent developments, particularly in the field of medically relevant aptamers with a focus on therapeutic and drug-delivery applications.

  15. Specification for dispersed fuel-cell generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, L. M.; Cohen, R.

    1981-11-01

    A general description and performance definition for a standard 11-mw fuel cell power plant designed for electric utility dispersed-generation applications are provided. Additional features available at the option of the purchaser are also described. The power plant can operate singly or grouped with other power plants to produce larger mutli-megawatt power stations. A 33-mw station is discussed as representative of multiple power plant installations. The power plant specification defines power rating, heat rate, fuels, operating modes, siting characteristics, and available options. A general description included in the attachments covers equipment, typical site arrangement, auxiliary subsystems, maintenance, fuel flexibility, and general fluid and electrical schematics.

  16. The NaNO3-KNO3 system - the position of solidus and sub-solidus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerridge, D. H.; Berg, Rolf W.

    2003-01-01

    The NaNO3-KNO3 system - the position of solidus and sub-solidus”, Extended abstract Paper Eventually see paper at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/David-MGE.pdf......The NaNO3-KNO3 system - the position of solidus and sub-solidus”, Extended abstract Paper Eventually see paper at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/David-MGE.pdf...

  17. Myogenic differentiation of FSHD patient specific induced pluripotent stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bosnakovski, Darko

    2012-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (IPS) cells overcome several disadvantages of human embryonic stem cells, including host specificity and ethical issues. Patient-specific IPS cells can be generated from every donor by using different cell types, making them a suitable tool for autologous cell therapy and tissue engineering. IPS cells generated from patients with genetic disorders capture the disease genotype in the cell, making them a good model for studying the pathology of the diseas...

  18. Electrochemical niobium oxide coating in molten NaNO3-KNO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of anodic oxide film growth on niobium in molten NaNO3-KNO3 (50 mol %) is studied in galvanostatic and potentiostatic conditions. Basic kinetic parameters of the oxide-coating process are determined. Chemical composition of the oxide coatings is established

  19. Enteric glial cells have specific immunosuppressive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermarrec, Laetitia; Durand, Tony; Neunlist, Michel; Naveilhan, Philippe; Neveu, Isabelle

    2016-06-15

    Enteric glial cells (EGC) have trophic and neuroregulatory functions in the enteric nervous system, but whether they exert a direct effect on immune cells is unknown. Here, we used co-cultures to show that human EGC can inhibit the proliferation of activated T lymphocytes. Interestingly, EGC from Crohn's patients were effective at one EGC for two T cells whereas EGC from control patients required a ratio of 1:1. These data suggest that EGC contribute to local immune homeostasis in the gastrointestinal wall. They also raise the possibility that EGC have particular immunosuppressive properties in inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease. PMID:27235353

  20. Measles virus-specific murine T cell clones: characterization of fine specificity function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. de Vries (Petra); J.P.M. Versteeg-van Oosten (José); I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); R.S. van Binnendijk (Rob); S.A. Langeveld (Sacha); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Ab); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractMeasles virus (MV)-specific murine helper T cell clones (Thy-1.2+, CD4+, CD8-) were generated from mice immunized with MV-infected mouse brain homogenate by limiting dilution and in vitro stimulation of spleen cells with UV-inactivated MV Ag. The protein specificity of 7 out of 37 stable

  1. Allergen-Specific CD4(+) T Cells in Human Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Morris F; Luster, Andrew D

    2016-03-01

    In allergic asthma, aeroallergen exposure of sensitized individuals mobilizes robust innate and adaptive airway immune responses, stimulating eosinophilic airway inflammation and the activation and infiltration of allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells into the airways. Allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells are thought to be central players in the asthmatic response as they specifically recognize the allergen and initiate and orchestrate the asthmatic inflammatory response. In this article, we briefly review the role of allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells in the pathogenesis of human allergic airway inflammation in allergic individuals, discuss the use of allergen-major histocompatibility complex class II tetramers to characterize allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells, and highlight current gaps in knowledge and directions for future research pertaining to the role of allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells in human asthma. PMID:27027948

  2. Birthdating studies reshape models for pituitary gland cell specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Shannon W; Mortensen, Amanda H; Camper, Sally A

    2011-04-15

    The intermediate and anterior lobes of the pituitary gland are derived from an invagination of oral ectoderm that forms Rathke's pouch. During gestation proliferating cells are enriched around the pouch lumen, and they appear to delaminate as they exit the cell cycle and differentiate. During late mouse gestation and the postnatal period, anterior lobe progenitors re-enter the cell cycle and expand the populations of specialized, hormone-producing cells. At birth, all cell types are present, and their localization appears stratified based on cell type. We conducted a birth dating study of Rathke's pouch derivatives to determine whether the location of specialized cells at birth is correlated with the timing of cell cycle exit. We find that all of the anterior lobe cell types initiate differentiation concurrently with a peak between e11.5 and e13.5. Differentiation of intermediate lobe melanotropes is delayed relative to anterior lobe cell types. We discovered that specialized cell types are not grouped together based on birth date and are dispersed throughout the anterior lobe. Thus, the apparent stratification of specialized cells at birth is not correlated with cell cycle exit. Thus, the currently popular model of cell specification, dependent upon timing of extrinsic, directional gradients of signaling molecules, needs revision. We propose that signals intrinsic to Rathke's pouch are necessary for cell specification between e11.5 and e13.5 and that cell-cell communication likely plays an important role in regulating this process. PMID:21262217

  3. Cell type-specific transcriptome profiling in mammalian brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoVerso, Peter R; Cui, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A mammalian brain contains numerous types of cells. Advances in neuroscience in the past decade allow us to identify and isolate neural cells of interest from mammalian brains. Recent developments in high-throughput technologies, such as microarrays and next-generation sequencing (NGS), provide detailed information on gene expression in pooled cells on a genomic scale. As a result, many novel genes have been found critical in cell type-specific transcriptional regulation. These differentially expressed genes can be used as molecular signatures, unique to a particular class of neural cells. Use of this gene expression-based approach can further differentiate neural cell types into subtypes, potentially linking some of them with neurological diseases. In this article, experimental techniques used to purify neural cells are described, followed by a review on recent microarray- or NGS-based transcriptomic studies of common neural cell types. The future prospects of cell type-specific research are also discussed. PMID:27100485

  4. Influence of NaNO3 concentration and incident light intensity on Nannochloropsis oculata lipid accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Regina Soccol Gris

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the best conditions for lipid accumulation in the marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata in an airlift photobioreactor. Experiments were carried out following a central composite design with the following variables: temperature (19 to 29°C, sodium nitrate concentration (NaNO3 in the culture medium (f/2 (25 to 125 mg.L-1 and incident light intensity (49 to 140 µE.m-2s-1. The maximum lipid production was 132.4 mg.L-1 under the following conditions: 27°C, NaNO3 concentration 105 mg.L-1 and 122 µE.m-2.s-1, which was 30% of dry weight of the biomass.

  5. Tissue specific heterogeneity in effector immune cell response

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    Saba eTufail

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Post pathogen invasion, migration of effector T-cell subsets to specific tissue locations is of prime importance for generation of robust immune response. Effector T cells are imprinted with distinct ‘homing codes’ (adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors during activation which regulate their targeted trafficking to specific tissues. Internal cues in the lymph node microenvironment along with external stimuli from food (vitamin A and sunlight (vitamin D3 prime dendritic cells, imprinting them to play centrestage in the induction of tissue tropism in effector T cells. B cells as well, in a manner similar to effector T cells, exhibit tissue tropic migration. In this review, we have focused on the factors regulating the generation and migration of effector T cells to various tissues alongwith giving an overview of tissue tropism in B cells.

  6. Cell Theory, Specificity, and Reproduction, 1837–1870

    OpenAIRE

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2010-01-01

    The cell is not only the structural, physiological, and developmental, but also the reproductive unit of life. So far, however, this aspect of the cell has received little attention by historians and philosophers of biology. I will argue that cell theory had far-reaching consequences for how biologists conceptualized the reproductive relationships between germs and adult organisms. Cell theory, as formulated by Theodor Schwann in 1839, implied that this relationship was a specific and lawful ...

  7. Isolating specific embryonic cells of the sea urchin by FACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Celina; Swartz, S Zachary; Wessel, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Isolating cells based on specific gene expression enables a focused biochemical and molecular analysis. While cultured cells and hematopoietic cells, for example, are routinely isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), early embryonic cells are a relatively untapped source for FACS applications often because the embryos of many animals are quite limiting. Furthermore, many applications require genetic model organisms in which cells can be labeled by fluorescent transgenes, or antibodies against cell surface antigens. Here we define conditions in the sea urchin embryo for isolation of embryonic cells based on expression of specific proteins. We use the sea urchin embryo for which a nearly unlimited supply of embryonic cells is available and demonstrate the conditions for separation of the embryo into single cells, fixation of the cells for antibody penetration into the cells, and conditions for FACS of a rare cell type in the embryo. This protocol may be adapted for analysis of mRNA, chromatin, protein, or carbohydrates and depends only on the probe availability for the cell of interest. We anticipate that this protocol will be broadly applicable to embryos of other species. PMID:24567215

  8. Stimulation of adult oligodendrogenesis by myelin-specific T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted Nielsen, Helle; Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Lambertsen, Kate Lykke;

    2011-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), myelin-specific T cells are normally associated with destruction of myelin and axonal damage. However, in acute MS plaque, remyelination occurs concurrent with T-cell infiltration, which raises the question of whether T cells might stimulate myelin repair. We investiga...... calretinergic associational/commissural fibers within the dentate gyrus. These results have implications for the perception of MS pathogenesis because they show that infiltrating myelin-specific T cells can stimulate oligodendrogenesis in the adult central nervous system....

  9. Tumor-specific CD4+ T cells maintain effector and memory tumor-specific CD8+ T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Sarah E; Jensen, Shawn M; Antony, Paul A; Restifo, Nicholas P; Fox, Bernard A

    2014-01-01

    Immunotherapies that augment antitumor T cells have had recent success for treating patients with cancer. Here we examined whether tumor-specific CD4+ T cells enhance CD8+ T-cell adoptive immunotherapy in a lymphopenic environment. Our model employed physiological doses of tyrosinase-related protein 1-specific CD4+ transgenic T cells-CD4+ T cells and pmel-CD8+ T cells that when transferred individually were subtherapeutic; however, when transferred together provided significant (p ≤ 0.001) therapeutic efficacy. Therapeutic efficacy correlated with increased numbers of effector and memory CD8+ T cells with tumor-specific cytokine expression. When combined with CD4+ T cells, transfer of total (naïve and effector) or effector CD8+ T cells were highly effective, suggesting CD4+ T cells can help mediate therapeutic effects by maintaining function of activated CD8+ T cells. In addition, CD4+ T cells had a pronounced effect in the early posttransfer period, as their elimination within the first 3 days significantly (p < 0.001) reduced therapeutic efficacy. The CD8+ T cells recovered from mice treated with both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells had decreased expression of PD-1 and PD-1-blockade enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of pmel-CD8 alone, suggesting that CD4+ T cells help reduce CD8+ T-cell exhaustion. These data support combining immunotherapies that elicit both tumor-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells for treatment of patients with cancer. PMID:24114780

  10. Early specification of dopaminergic phenotype during ES cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Meng

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how lineage choices are made during embryonic stem (ES cell differentiation is critical for harnessing strategies for controlled production of therapeutic somatic cell types for cell transplantation and pharmaceutical drug screens. The in vitro generation of dopaminergic neurons, the type of cells lost in Parkinson's disease patients' brains, requires the inductive molecules sonic hedgehog and FGF8, or an unknown stromal cell derived inducing activity (SDIA. However, the exact identity of the responding cells and the timing of inductive activity that specify a dopaminergic fate in neural stem/progenitors still remain elusive. Results Using ES cells carrying a neuroepithelial cell specific vital reporter (Sox1-GFP and FACS purification of Sox1-GFP neural progenitors, we have investigated the temporal aspect of SDIA mediated dopaminergic neuron specification during ES cell differentiation. Our results establish that SDIA induces a dopaminergic neuron fate in nascent neural stem or progenitor cells at, or prior to, Sox1 expression and does not appear to have further instructive role or neurotrophic activity during late neuronal differentiation of neural precursors. Furthermore, we show that dopaminergic neurons could be produced efficiently in a monolayer differentiation paradigm independent of SDIA activity or exogenous signalling molecules. In this case, the competence for dopaminergic neuron differentiation is also established at the level of Sox1 expression. Conclusion Dopaminergic neurons are specified early during mouse ES cell differentiation. The subtype specification seems to be tightly linked with the acquisition of a pan neuroectoderm fate.

  11. A xylogalacturonan epitope is specifically associated with plant cell detachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willats, William George Tycho; McCartney, L.; Steele-King, C.G.;

    2004-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (LM8) was generated with specificity for xyloglacturonan (XGA) isolated from pea (Pisum sativum L.) testae. Characterization of the LM8 epitope indicates that it is a region of XGA that is highly substituted with xylose. Immunocytochemical analysis indicates that this epitop...... that is specifically associated with a plant cell separation process that results in complete cell detachment....... is restricted to loosely attached inner parenchyma cells at the inner face of the pea testa and does not occur in other cells of the testa. Elsewhere in the pea seedling, the LM8 epitope was found only in association with root cap cell development at the root apex. Furthermore, the LM8 epitope is...... specifically associated with root cap cells in a range of angiosperm species. In embryogenic carrot suspension cell cultures the epitope is abundant at the surface of cell walls of loosely attached cells in both induced and non-induced cultures. The LM8 epitope is the first cell wall epitope to be identified...

  12. Divergence of zebrafish and mouse lymphatic cell fate specification pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Impel, Andreas; Zhao, Zhonghua; Hermkens, Dorien M A;

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, the homeodomain transcription factor Prox1 acts as the central regulator of lymphatic cell fate. Its restricted expression in a subset of cardinal vein cells leads to a switch towards lymphatic specification and hence represents a prerequisite for the initiation of lymphangiogenesis. ...

  13. Cell-Type Specific Four-Component Hydrogel

    OpenAIRE

    Timo Aberle; Katrin Franke; Elke Rist; Karin Benz; Burkhard Schlosshauer

    2014-01-01

    In the field of regenerative medicine we aim to develop implant matrices for specific tissue needs. By combining two per se, cell-permissive gel systems with enzymatic crosslinkers (gelatin/transglutaminase and fibrinogen/thrombin) to generate a blend (technical term: quattroGel), an unexpected cell-selectivity evolved. QuattroGels were porous and formed cavities in the cell diameter range, possessed gelation kinetics in the minute range, viscoelastic properties and a mechanical strength appr...

  14. T-cell regulatory mechanisms in specific immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Jutel, M; Akdis, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only treatment which leads to a lifelong tolerance against previously disease-causing allergens due to restoration of normal immunity against allergens. The description of T-regulatory (Treg) cells being involved in prevention of sensitization to allergens has led to great interest whether they represent a major target for allergen-SIT and whether it would be possible to manipulate Treg cells to increase its efficacy. Activationinduced cell death, ...

  15. Perfection of NaNO3 single crystals grown by axial vibrational control technique in Czochralski configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetissov, I. Ch.; Sadovskiy, A. P.; Sukhanova, E. A.; Orlova, G. Yu.; Belogorokhov, I. A.; Zharikov, E. V.

    2012-12-01

    Perfection of NaNO3 single crystals grown by axial vibrational control technique in the Czochralski configuration (AVC-CZ) by submerging an oscillating baffle into the melt under the crystal was studied. The characteristics of AVC-CZ grown crystals were analyzed by micro-Raman technique, X-ray structural analysis and chemical dislocation etching. For the AVC-CZ grown NaNO3 single crystals the structure sensitive properties of high-quality were demonstrated.

  16. Specific uptake of serotonin by murine lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the authors confirmed and extended earlier observations that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) can influence immune function. Both 5HT and its precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan inhibit the primary, in vivo antibody response to sheep red blood cells, in mice. Here, the authors report specific in vitro association of this amine with mouse splenocytes. Spleen cells from 6-8 week old CBA/J mice incorporated 3H-5HT(10-8 to 2.5 x 10-6M) in a saturable manner, at 370C. Specificity of uptake was indicated by competition with excess (10-5M) unlabelled 5HT and with 10-5M fluoxetine, a selective inhibitor of active 5HT reuptake in rat brain. The 5HT receptor antagonists, methysergide and cyproheptadine, also blocked 5HT uptake. Cell lysis and displacement studies revealed largely intracellular accumulation of 3H-5HT with little membrane association, in splenocytes. Hofstee analysis of uptake kinetics yielded an apparent Km of 0.82 +/- 0.22 x 10-7M and Vmax of 501 +/- 108 pM/3 x 106 cells/10 min. Spleen cells fractionated on Sephadex G10 showed virtually no specific 5HT uptake while peritoneal exudate cells from thioglycollate treated mice displayed 5HT uptake kinetics similar to those of splenocytes. The site of specific 3H-5HT incorporation within a population of spleen cells and the functional significance of this phenomenon to immunomodulation by 5HT remain to be elucidated

  17. Human Y-79 retinoblastoma cells exhibit specific insulin receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saviolakis, G.A.; Kyritsis, A.P.; Chader, G.J.

    1986-07-01

    The presence of insulin receptors was investigated in human Y-79 retinoblastoma cells grown in suspension culture. The binding of (/sup 125/I) insulin to these cells was time, temperature, and pH dependent, was competed for by insulin and proinsulin but not other peptides, and was inhibited by antibodies against the insulin receptor. The Scatchard plot of insulin competition data was curvilinear and was resolved into a high-affinity (KD approximately 0.5 X 10(-9) M)/low-capacity (approximately 3000 sites/cell) and a low-affinity (KD approximately 1 X 10(-7) M)/high-capacity (approximately 155,000 sites/cell) component. Negative cooperativity was not found, in agreement with other studies in rodent neural cells. However, in contrast to studies with rodent cells, insulin specifically down-regulated its receptor on human Y-79 cells after prolonged exposure. In conclusion, these data show for the first time the presence of specific insulin receptors in human Y-79 retinoblastoma cells. Because these cells were previously shown to have several characteristics typical of neural cells, we propose their use as a model to study the effects of insulin on neural and retinal tissues of human origin.

  18. Dissection of T-cell antigen specificity in human melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sick; Albæk Thrue, Charlotte; Junker, Niels; Skou, Rikke Birgitte Lyngaa; Donia, Marco; Ellebæk, Eva; Svane, Inge Marie; Schumacher, Ton N; Thor Straten, Per; Hadrup, Sine Reker

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) isolated from melanoma patients and expanded in vitro by interleukin (IL)-2 treatment can elicit therapeutic response after adoptive transfer, but the antigen specificities of the T cells transferred have not been determined. By compiling all known melanoma......-associated antigens and applying a novel technology for high-throughput analysis of T-cell responses, we dissected the composition of melanoma-restricted T-cell responses in 63 TIL cultures. T-cell reactivity screens against 175 melanoma-associated epitopes detected 90 responses against 18 different epitopes...... from different fragments of resected melanoma lesions. In summary, our findings provide an initial definition of T-cell populations contributing to tumor recognition in TILs although the specificity of many tumor-reactive TILs remains undefined....

  19. Cell-specific DNA methylation patterns of retina-specific genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannath L Merbs

    Full Text Available Many studies have demonstrated that epigenetic mechanisms are important in the regulation of gene expression during embryogenesis, gametogenesis, and other forms of tissue-specific gene regulation. We sought to explore the possible role of epigenetics, specifically DNA methylation, in the establishment and maintenance of cell type-restricted gene expression in the retina. To assess the relationship between DNA methylation status and expression level of retinal genes, bisulfite sequence analysis of the 1000 bp region around the transcription start sites (TSS of representative rod and cone photoreceptor-specific genes and gene expression analysis were performed in the WERI and Y79 human retinoblastoma cell lines. Next, the homologous genes in mouse were bisulfite sequenced in the retina and in non-expressing tissues. Finally, bisulfite sequencing was performed on isolated photoreceptor and non-photoreceptor retinal cells isolated by laser capture microdissection. Differential methylation of rhodopsin (RHO, retinal binding protein 3 (RBP3, IRBP cone opsin, short-wave-sensitive (OPN1SW, cone opsin, middle-wave-sensitive (OPN1MW, and cone opsin, long-wave-sensitive (OPN1LW was found in the retinoblastoma cell lines that inversely correlated with gene expression levels. Similarly, we found tissue-specific hypomethylation of the promoter region of Rho and Rbp3 in mouse retina as compared to non-expressing tissues, and also observed hypomethylation of retinal-expressed microRNAs. The Rho and Rbp3 promoter regions were unmethylated in expressing photoreceptor cells and methylated in non-expressing, non-photoreceptor cells from the inner nuclear layer. A third regional hypomethylation pattern of photoreceptor-specific genes was seen in a subpopulation of non-expressing photoreceptors (Rho in cones from the Nrl -/- mouse and Opn1sw in rods. These results demonstrate that a number of photoreceptor-specific genes have cell-specific differential DNA

  20. Cell-specific monitoring of protein synthesis in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Kourtis

    Full Text Available Analysis of general and specific protein synthesis provides important information, relevant to cellular physiology and function. However, existing methodologies, involving metabolic labelling by incorporation of radioactive amino acids into nascent polypeptides, cannot be applied to monitor protein synthesis in specific cells or tissues, in live specimens. We have developed a novel approach for monitoring protein synthesis in specific cells or tissues, in vivo. Fluorescent reporter proteins such as GFP are expressed in specific cells and tissues of interest or throughout animals using appropriate promoters. Protein synthesis rates are assessed by following fluorescence recovery after partial photobleaching of the fluorophore at targeted sites. We evaluate the method by examining protein synthesis rates in diverse cell types of live, wild type or mRNA translation-defective Caenorhabditis elegans animals. Because it is non-invasive, our approach allows monitoring of protein synthesis in single cells or tissues with intrinsically different protein synthesis rates. Furthermore, it can be readily implemented in other organisms or cell culture systems.

  1. Secondary specific immune response in vitro to MSV tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senik, A; Hebrero, F P; Levy, J P

    1975-12-15

    The interactions which occur between antigenic tumor cells and normal or immune lymphoid cells in a 3-day in vitro culture, have been studied with a murine sarcoma virus (MSV)-induced tumor. The 3H-thymidine incorporation of lymphoma cells growing in suspension, and the radioactive-chromium release of freshly sampled lymphoma cells regularly added to the culture, have been compared to determine the part played by immune lymphoid cells in cytolysis and cytostasis of the tumor-cell population. The cytolytic activity increases in the culture from day 0 to day 3. It is due, predominantly, to T-cells, and remains specific to antigens shared by MSV tumors and related lymphomas. This activity would be difficult to detect unless freshly sampled ascitic cells were used as targets, since the lymphoma cells spontaneously lose a part of their sensitivity to immune cytolysis during in vitro culture. The method used in the present experiments is a secondary chromium release test (SCRT), which measures the invitro secondary stimulation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) by tumor cells. In the absence of stimulatory cells, the CTL activity would have rapidly fallen in vitro. The cytostatic activity also increases during the 3 days in vitro, in parallel to the cytolytic activity: it is due to non-T-cells and remains mainly non-specific. The significance of these data for the interpretation of invitro demonstrated cell-mediated anti-tumor immune reactions is briefly discussed, as well as their relevance in the in vivo role of immune CTL. PMID:53210

  2. Type-specific cell line models for type-specific ovarian cancer research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Anglesio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: OVARIAN CARCINOMAS CONSIST OF AT LEAST FIVE DISTINCT DISEASES: high-grade serous, low-grade serous, clear cell, endometrioid, and mucinous. Biomarker and molecular characterization may represent a more biologically relevant basis for grouping and treating this family of tumors, rather than site of origin. Molecular characteristics have become the new standard for clinical pathology, however development of tailored type-specific therapies is hampered by a failure of basic research to recognize that model systems used to study these diseases must also be stratified. Unrelated model systems do offer value for study of biochemical processes but specific cellular context needs to be applied to assess relevant therapeutic strategies. METHODS: We have focused on the identification of clear cell carcinoma cell line models. A panel of 32 "ovarian cancer" cell lines has been classified into histotypes using a combination of mutation profiles, IHC mutation-surrogates, and a validated immunohistochemical model. All cell lines were identity verified using STR analysis. RESULTS: Many described ovarian clear cell lines have characteristic mutations (including ARID1A and PIK3CA and an overall molecular/immuno-profile typical of primary tumors. Mutations in TP53 were present in the majority of high-grade serous cell lines. Advanced genomic analysis of bona-fide clear cell carcinoma cell lines also support copy number changes in typical biomarkers such at MET and HNF1B and a lack of any recurrent expressed re-arrangements. CONCLUSIONS: As with primary ovarian tumors, mutation status of cancer genes like ARID1A and TP53 and a general immuno-profile serve well for establishing histotype of ovarian cancer cell We describe specific biomarkers and molecular features to re-classify generic "ovarian carcinoma" cell lines into type specific categories. Our data supports the use of prototype clear cell lines, such as TOV21G and JHOC-5, and questions the use of

  3. Cell-type specific four-component hydrogel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Aberle

    Full Text Available In the field of regenerative medicine we aim to develop implant matrices for specific tissue needs. By combining two per se, cell-permissive gel systems with enzymatic crosslinkers (gelatin/transglutaminase and fibrinogen/thrombin to generate a blend (technical term: quattroGel, an unexpected cell-selectivity evolved. QuattroGels were porous and formed cavities in the cell diameter range, possessed gelation kinetics in the minute range, viscoelastic properties and a mechanical strength appropriate for general cell adhesion, and restricted diffusion. Cell proliferation of endothelial cells, chondrocytes and fibroblasts was essentially unaffected. In contrast, on quattroGels neither endothelial cells formed vascular tubes nor did primary neurons extend neurites in significant amounts. Only chondrocytes differentiated properly as judged by collagen isoform expression. The biophysical quattroGel characteristics appeared to leave distinct cell processes such as mitosis unaffected and favored differentiation of sessile cells, but hampered differentiation of migratory cells. This cell-type selectivity is of interest e.g. during articular cartilage or invertebral disc repair, where pathological innervation and angiogenesis represent adverse events in tissue engineering.

  4. Cell-type specific four-component hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberle, Timo; Franke, Katrin; Rist, Elke; Benz, Karin; Schlosshauer, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    In the field of regenerative medicine we aim to develop implant matrices for specific tissue needs. By combining two per se, cell-permissive gel systems with enzymatic crosslinkers (gelatin/transglutaminase and fibrinogen/thrombin) to generate a blend (technical term: quattroGel), an unexpected cell-selectivity evolved. QuattroGels were porous and formed cavities in the cell diameter range, possessed gelation kinetics in the minute range, viscoelastic properties and a mechanical strength appropriate for general cell adhesion, and restricted diffusion. Cell proliferation of endothelial cells, chondrocytes and fibroblasts was essentially unaffected. In contrast, on quattroGels neither endothelial cells formed vascular tubes nor did primary neurons extend neurites in significant amounts. Only chondrocytes differentiated properly as judged by collagen isoform expression. The biophysical quattroGel characteristics appeared to leave distinct cell processes such as mitosis unaffected and favored differentiation of sessile cells, but hampered differentiation of migratory cells. This cell-type selectivity is of interest e.g. during articular cartilage or invertebral disc repair, where pathological innervation and angiogenesis represent adverse events in tissue engineering. PMID:24475174

  5. Investigating Striatal Function through Cell-Type-Specific Manipulations

    OpenAIRE

    Kreitzer, Anatol C.; Berke, Joshua D.

    2011-01-01

    The striatum integrates convergent input from the cortex, thalamus, and midbrain, and has a powerful influence over motivated behavior via outputs to downstream basal ganglia nuclei. Although the anatomy and physiology of distinct classes of striatal neurons has been intensively studied, the specific functions of these cell subpopulations have been more difficult to address. Recently, application of new methodologies for perturbing activity and signaling in different cell types in vivo has be...

  6. T-cell regulatory mechanisms in specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutel, Marek; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2008-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only treatment which leads to a lifelong tolerance against previously disease-causing allergens due to restoration of normal immunity against allergens. The description of T-regulatory (Treg) cells being involved in prevention of sensitization to allergens has led to great interest whether they represent a major target for allergen-SIT and whether it would be possible to manipulate Treg cells to increase its efficacy. Activationinduced cell death, anergy and/or immune response modulation by Treg cells are essential mechanisms of peripheral T-cell tolerance. There is growing evidence that anergy, tolerance and active suppression are not entirely distinct, but rather represent linked mechanisms possibly involving the same cells and multiple suppressor mechanisms. Skewing of allergen-specific effector T cells to Treg cells appears as a crucial event in the control of healthy immune response to allergens and successful allergen-SIT. The Treg cell response is characterized by abolished allergen- induced specific T-cell proliferation and suppressed Thelper (Th)1- and Th2-type cytokine secretion. In addition, mediators of allergic inflammation that trigger cAMP-associated G-protein-coupled receptors, such as histamine receptor-2, may contribute to peripheral tolerance mechanisms. The increased levels of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-Beta that are produced by Treg cells potently suppress IgE production, while simultaneously increasing production of non-inflammatory isotypes IgG4 and IgA, respectively. In addition, Treg cells directly or indirectly suppress effector cells of allergic inflammation such as mast cells, basophils and eosinophils. In conclusion, peripheral tolerance to allergens is controlled by multiple active suppression mechanisms. It is associated with regulation of antibody isotypes and effector cells to the direction of a healthy immune response. By the application of the recent knowledge in Treg

  7. Specific Protein Markers for Stem Cell Cross-Talk with Neighboring Cells in the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kyung Soo; Shin, Seung Won; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Um, Soong Ho

    2013-01-01

    A stem cell interacts with the neighboring cells in its environment. To maintain a living organism’s metabolism, either cell-cell or cell-environment interactions may be significant. Usually, these cells communicate with each other through biological signaling by interactive behaviors of primary proteins or complementary chemicals. The signaling intermediates offer the stem cell’s functionality on its metabolism. With the rapid advent of omics technologies, various specific markers by which s...

  8. Specific uptake of serotonin by murine lymphoid cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J.C.; Walker, R.F.; Brooks, W.H.; Roszman, T.L.

    1986-03-01

    Recently the authors confirmed and extended earlier observations that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) can influence immune function. Both 5HT and its precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan inhibit the primary, in vivo antibody response to sheep red blood cells, in mice. Here, the authors report specific in vitro association of this amine with mouse splenocytes. Spleen cells from 6-8 week old CBA/J mice incorporated /sup 3/H-5HT(10/sup -8/ to 2.5 x 10/sup -6/M) in a saturable manner, at 37/sup 0/C. Specificity of uptake was indicated by competition with excess (10/sup -5/M) unlabelled 5HT and with 10/sup -5/M fluoxetine, a selective inhibitor of active 5HT reuptake in rat brain. The 5HT receptor antagonists, methysergide and cyproheptadine, also blocked 5HT uptake. Cell lysis and displacement studies revealed largely intracellular accumulation of /sup 3/H-5HT with little membrane association, in splenocytes. Hofstee analysis of uptake kinetics yielded an apparent Km of 0.82 +/- 0.22 x 10/sup -7/M and Vmax of 501 +/- 108 pM/3 x 10/sup 6/ cells/10 min. Spleen cells fractionated on Sephadex G10 showed virtually no specific 5HT uptake while peritoneal exudate cells from thioglycollate treated mice displayed 5HT uptake kinetics similar to those of splenocytes. The site of specific /sup 3/H-5HT incorporation within a population of spleen cells and the functional significance of this phenomenon to immunomodulation by 5HT remain to be elucidated.

  9. Optimization Manufacture of Virus- and Tumor-Specific T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Lapteva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although ex vivo expanded T cells are currently widely used in pre-clinical and clinical trials, the complexity of manufacture remains a major impediment for broader application. In this review we discuss current protocols for the ex vivo expansion of virus- and tumor-specific T cells and describe our experience in manufacture optimization using a gas-permeable static culture flask (G-Rex. This innovative device has revolutionized the manufacture process by allowing us to increase cell yields while decreasing the frequency of cell manipulation and in vitro culture time. It is now being used in good manufacturing practice (GMP facilities for clinical cell production in our institution as well as many others in the US and worldwide.

  10. Cell-specific information processing in segregating populations of Eph receptor ephrin-expressing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus; Sherman, Andrew; Chen, Ginny I; Pasculescu, Adrian; Poliakov, Alexei; Hsiung, Marilyn; Larsen, Brett; Wilkinson, David G; Linding, Rune; Pawson, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Cells have self-organizing properties that control their behavior in complex tissues. Contact between cells expressing either B-type Eph receptors or their transmembrane ephrin ligands initiates bidirectional signals that regulate cell positioning. However, simultaneously investigating how...... information is processed in two interacting cell types remains a challenge. We implemented a proteomic strategy to systematically determine cell-specific signaling networks underlying EphB2- and ephrin-B1-controlled cell sorting. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of mixed populations of EphB2- and...... revealed that signaling between mixed EphB2- and ephrin-B1-expressing cells is asymmetric and that the distinct cell types use different tyrosine kinases and targets to process signals induced by cell-cell contact. We provide systems- and cell-specific network models of contact-initiated signaling between...

  11. Modelling of cation concentrations in the outflow of NaNO3 percolation experiments through Boom Clay cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory percolation experiment was performed to study the effect of a NaNO3 plume on the Boom Clay. In this experiment, Boom Clay cores were consecutively percolated with Boom Clay pore water and Boom Clay pore water to which NaNO3 was added. The concentration of NaNO3 in the pore water was increased stepwise (0.1, 0.5, and 1 M NaNO3). The concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg and Sr in the eluted water were measured. After every switch of the NaNO3 concentration, the concentration profiles of K, Ca, Mg, and Sr showed a sharp rise, followed by a slow decrease. It was hypothesised that the cation elution curves are mainly determined by cation exchange processes. Reactive coupled transport modelling with the PHREEQC-2 code was used to describe the experimentally observed elution curves for the cations. Solute transport and water-clay interaction mechanisms, namely cation exchange, were accounted for in the model. Cation exchange parameters (cation exchange capacity and selectivity coefficients) previously determined on non-perturbed Boom Clay (De Craen et al., 2004) were used. A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the influence of these parameter values on the goodness of the model to describe the experimental data. The model could fairly well describe the experimentally observed cation concentrations in the eluted water, confirming that cation exchange is indeed the dominant mechanism regulating the cation elution in the percolation experiments. (authors)

  12. CELL DETACHMENT BY PROLYL-SPECIFIC ENDOPEPTIDASE FROM WOLFIPORIA COCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Cierpka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As requirements for Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product (ATMP production differ from other production processes (e.g., therapeutic protein production, cell detachment is often a crucial step for the process success. In most cases, cell detachment is done enzymatically. Although many peptidases are established in cell culture in R&D, e.g., Trypsin as gold standard, many of them seem to be unsuitable in ATMP production processes. Therefore, the present study investigated a novel endopeptidase used in food biotechnology for its applicability in ATMP processes where cell detachment is needed. The Prolyl-specific Peptidase (PsP is of non-mammalian origin and considered as safe for humans. PsP was purified from the supernatant of the fungus Wolfiporia cocos. The isolation and purification resulted in an enzyme solution with 0.19 U mg-1 prolyl-specific activity. By in silico analysis it was confirmed that attachment-promoting proteins can be cleaved by PsP in a similar amount than with Trypsin. Further the proteolytic activity was determined for PsP and Trypsin by using the same enzymatic assay. Detachment with both enzymes was compared for cells used in typical therapeutic production processes namely a mesenchymal stem cell line (hMSC-TERT as a model for a cell therapeutic, Vero and MA104 cells used for viral therapeutic or vaccine production. The cell detachment experiments were performed with comparable enzyme activities (1.6 U mL-1. hMSC-TERT detachment was faster with PsP than with Trypsin. For Vero cells the detachment with PsP was not only faster but also more efficient. For MA104 cells the detachment rate with PsP was similar to Trypsin. For all cell types, detachment with PsP showed less influence on cell growth and metabolism compared to standard Trypsin.Thus, three cell types used in ATMP, viral therapeutics or vaccine production can be detached efficiently and gently with PsP. Therefore, PsP shows

  13. High efficiency cell-specific targeting of cytokine activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, Geneviève; Paul, Franciane; Staufenbiel, Markus; Bordat, Yann; van der Heyden, José; Wilmes, Stephan; Cartron, Guillaume; Apparailly, Florence; de Koker, Stefaan; Piehler, Jacob; Tavernier, Jan; Uzé, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Systemic toxicity currently prevents exploiting the huge potential of many cytokines for medical applications. Here we present a novel strategy to engineer immunocytokines with very high targeting efficacies. The method lies in the use of mutants of toxic cytokines that markedly reduce their receptor-binding affinities, and that are thus rendered essentially inactive. Upon fusion to nanobodies specifically binding to marker proteins, activity of these cytokines is selectively restored for cell populations expressing this marker. This ‘activity-by-targeting’ concept was validated for type I interferons and leptin. In the case of interferon, activity can be directed to target cells in vitro and to selected cell populations in mice, with up to 1,000-fold increased specific activity. This targeting strategy holds promise to revitalize the clinical potential of many cytokines.

  14. Target cell specific antibody-based photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Lauren T.; Mitsunaga, Makoto; Kakareka, John W.; Morgan, Nicole Y.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Choyke, Peter L.; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2011-03-01

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), localized monochromatic light is used to activate targeted photosensitizers (PS) to induce cellular damage through the generation of cytotoxic species such as singlet oxygen. While first-generation PS passively targeted malignancies, a variety of targeting mechanisms have since been studied, including specifically activatable agents. Antibody internalization has previously been employed as a fluorescence activation system and could potentially enable similar activation of PS. TAMRA, Rhodamine-B and Rhodamine-6G were conjugated to trastuzumab (brand name Herceptin), a humanized monoclonal antibody with specificity for the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), to create quenched PS (Tra-TAM, Tra-RhoB, and Tra-Rho6G). Specific PDT with Tra-TAM and Tra-Rho6G, which formed covalently bound H-dimers, was demonstrated in HER2+ cells: Minimal cell death (SDS-PAGE).

  15. Molecular targeting of intracellular compartments specifically in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Hetal; Gibo, Denise M; Debinski, Waldemar

    2010-05-01

    We have implemented a strategy in which a genetically engineered, single-chain protein specifically recognizes cancer cells and is trafficked to a targeted subcellular compartment, such as the nucleus. The recombinant protein termed IL-13.E13K-D2-NLS has a triple functional property: (1) it binds a cancer-associated receptor, interleukin 13 receptor alpha 2 (IL-13Rα2), using modified IL-13 ligand, IL-13.E13K; (2) it exports its C-terminal portion out of the endosomal compartment using Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (PE) translocation domain (D2); and (3) it travels to and accumulates in the nucleus guided by the nuclear localization signal (NLS). Here, we have demonstrated that this protein is transported into the brain tumor cells' nucleus, using 3 different methods of protein conjugation to dyes for the purpose of direct visualization of the protein's intracellular trafficking. IL-13.E13K-D2-NLS, and not the controls such as IL-13.E13K-D2, IL-13.E13K-NLS, or IL-13.E13K, accumulated in nuclei very efficiently, which increased with the time the cells were exposed to the protein. Also, IL-13.E13K-D2-NLS did not exhibit nuclear transport in cells with low expression levels of IL-13Rα2. Thus, it is possible to recognize cancer cells through their specific receptors and deliver a conjugated protein that travels specifically to the nucleus. Hence, our molecular targeting strategy succeeded in generating a single-chain proteinaceous agent capable of delivering drugs/labels needed to be localized to the cells' nuclei or potentially any other subcellular compartment, for their optimal efficacy or ability to exert their specific action. PMID:20740056

  16. Micro-magnet arrays for specific single bacterial cell positioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivetal, Jérémy, E-mail: jeremy.piv@netcmail.com [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5005, Laboratoire Ampère, F-69134 Écully (France); Royet, David [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5005, Laboratoire Ampère, F-69134 Écully (France); Ciuta, Georgeta [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Frenea-Robin, Marie [Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS UMR 5005, Laboratoire Ampère, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Haddour, Naoufel [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5005, Laboratoire Ampère, F-69134 Écully (France); Dempsey, Nora M. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Dumas-Bouchiat, Frédéric [Univ Limoges, CNRS, SPCTS UMR 7513, 12 Rue Atlantis, F-87068 Limoges (France); Simonet, Pascal [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5005, Laboratoire Ampère, F-69134 Écully (France)

    2015-04-15

    In various contexts such as pathogen detection or analysis of microbial diversity where cellular heterogeneity must be taken into account, there is a growing need for tools and methods that enable microbiologists to analyze bacterial cells individually. One of the main challenges in the development of new platforms for single cell studies is to perform precise cell positioning, but the ability to specifically target cells is also important in many applications. In this work, we report the development of new strategies to selectively trap single bacterial cells upon large arrays, based on the use of micro-magnets. Escherichia coli bacteria were used to demonstrate magnetically driven bacterial cell organization. In order to provide a flexible approach adaptable to several applications in the field of microbiology, cells were magnetically and specifically labeled using two different strategies, namely immunomagnetic labeling and magnetic in situ hybridization. Results show that centimeter-sized arrays of targeted, isolated bacteria can be successfully created upon the surface of a flat magnetically patterned hard magnetic film. Efforts are now being directed towards the integration of a detection tool to provide a complete micro-system device for a variety of microbiological applications. - Highlights: 1.We report a new approach to selectively micropattern bacterial cells individually upon micro-magnet arrays. 2.Permanent micro-magnets of a size approaching that of bacteria could be fabricated using a Thermo-Magnetic Patterning process. 3.Bacterial cells were labeled using two different magnetic labeling strategies providing flexible approach adaptable to several applications in the field of microbiology.

  17. Micro-magnet arrays for specific single bacterial cell positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In various contexts such as pathogen detection or analysis of microbial diversity where cellular heterogeneity must be taken into account, there is a growing need for tools and methods that enable microbiologists to analyze bacterial cells individually. One of the main challenges in the development of new platforms for single cell studies is to perform precise cell positioning, but the ability to specifically target cells is also important in many applications. In this work, we report the development of new strategies to selectively trap single bacterial cells upon large arrays, based on the use of micro-magnets. Escherichia coli bacteria were used to demonstrate magnetically driven bacterial cell organization. In order to provide a flexible approach adaptable to several applications in the field of microbiology, cells were magnetically and specifically labeled using two different strategies, namely immunomagnetic labeling and magnetic in situ hybridization. Results show that centimeter-sized arrays of targeted, isolated bacteria can be successfully created upon the surface of a flat magnetically patterned hard magnetic film. Efforts are now being directed towards the integration of a detection tool to provide a complete micro-system device for a variety of microbiological applications. - Highlights: 1.We report a new approach to selectively micropattern bacterial cells individually upon micro-magnet arrays. 2.Permanent micro-magnets of a size approaching that of bacteria could be fabricated using a Thermo-Magnetic Patterning process. 3.Bacterial cells were labeled using two different magnetic labeling strategies providing flexible approach adaptable to several applications in the field of microbiology

  18. Pathway-specific differences between tumor cell lines and normal and tumor tissue cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tozeren Aydin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell lines are used in experimental investigation of cancer but their capacity to represent tumor cells has yet to be quantified. The aim of the study was to identify significant alterations in pathway usage in cell lines in comparison with normal and tumor tissue. Methods This study utilized a pathway-specific enrichment analysis of publicly accessible microarray data and quantified the gene expression differences between cell lines, tumor, and normal tissue cells for six different tissue types. KEGG pathways that are significantly different between cell lines and tumors, cell lines and normal tissues and tumor and normal tissue were identified through enrichment tests on gene lists obtained using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM. Results Cellular pathways that were significantly upregulated in cell lines compared to tumor cells and normal cells of the same tissue type included ATP synthesis, cell communication, cell cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, purine, pyrimidine and pyruvate metabolism, and proteasome. Results on metabolic pathways suggested an increase in the velocity nucleotide metabolism and RNA production. Pathways that were downregulated in cell lines compared to tumor and normal tissue included cell communication, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs, and ECM-receptor interaction. Only a fraction of the significantly altered genes in tumor-to-normal comparison had similar expressions in cancer cell lines and tumor cells. These genes were tissue-specific and were distributed sparsely among multiple pathways. Conclusion Significantly altered genes in tumors compared to normal tissue were largely tissue specific. Among these genes downregulation was a major trend. In contrast, cell lines contained large sets of significantly upregulated genes that were common to multiple tissue types. Pathway upregulation in cell lines was most pronounced over metabolic pathways including cell nucleotide metabolism and oxidative

  19. Cell population-specific expression analysis of human cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhn Alexandre

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpreting gene expression profiles obtained from heterogeneous samples can be difficult because bulk gene expression measures are not resolved to individual cell populations. We have recently devised Population-Specific Expression Analysis (PSEA, a statistical method that identifies individual cell types expressing genes of interest and achieves quantitative estimates of cell type-specific expression levels. This procedure makes use of marker gene expression and circumvents the need for additional experimental information like tissue composition. Results To systematically assess the performance of statistical deconvolution, we applied PSEA to gene expression profiles from cerebellum tissue samples and compared with parallel, experimental separation methods. Owing to the particular histological organization of the cerebellum, we could obtain cellular expression data from in situ hybridization and laser-capture microdissection experiments and successfully validated computational predictions made with PSEA. Upon statistical deconvolution of whole tissue samples, we identified a set of transcripts showing age-related expression changes in the astrocyte population. Conclusions PSEA can predict cell-type specific expression levels from tissues homogenates on a genome-wide scale. It thus represents a computational alternative to experimental separation methods and allowed us to identify age-related expression changes in the astrocytes of the cerebellum. These molecular changes might underlie important physiological modifications previously observed in the aging brain.

  20. Extracellular Vesicles from Ovarian Carcinoma Cells Display Specific Glycosignatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Gomes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cells release vesicles to the extracellular environment with characteristic nucleic acid, protein, lipid, and glycan composition. Here we have isolated and characterized extracellular vesicles (EVs and total cell membranes (MBs from ovarian carcinoma OVMz cells. EVs were enriched in specific markers, including Tsg101, CD63, CD9, annexin-I, and MBs contained markers of cellular membrane compartments, including calnexin, GRASP65, GS28, LAMP-1, and L1CAM. The glycoprotein galectin-3 binding protein (LGALS3BP was strongly enriched in EVs and it contained sialylated complex N-glycans. Lectin blotting with a panel of lectins showed that EVs had specific glycosignatures relative to MBs. Furthermore, the presence of glycoproteins bearing complex N-glycans with α2,3-linked sialic acid, fucose, bisecting-GlcNAc and LacdiNAc structures, and O-glycans with the T-antigen were detected. The inhibition of N-glycosylation processing from high mannose to complex glycans using kifunensine caused changes in the composition of EVs and induced a decrease of several glycoproteins. In conclusion, the results showed that glycosignatures of EVs were specific and altered glycosylation within the cell affected the composition and/or dynamics of EVs release. Furthermore, the identified glycosignatures of EVs could provide novel biomarkers for ovarian cancer.

  1. Targeting vault nanoparticles to specific cell surface receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Han, Muri; Raval-Fernandes, Sujna; Poderycki, Michael J; Moniz, Raymond J; Vaccari, Dana; Silvestry, Mariena; Stewart, Phoebe L; Kelly, Kathleen A; Rome, Leonard H

    2009-01-27

    As a naturally occurring nanocapsule abundantly expressed in nearly all-eukaryotic cells, the barrel-shaped vault particle is perhaps an ideal structure to engineer for targeting to specific cell types. Recombinant vault particles self-assemble from 96 copies of the major vault protein (MVP), have dimensions of 72.5 x 41 nm, and have a hollow interior large enough to encapsulate hundreds of proteins. In this study, three different tags were engineered onto the C-terminus of MVP: an 11 amino acid epitope tag, a 33 amino acid IgG-binding peptide, and the 55 amino acid epidermal growth factor (EGF). These modified vaults were produced using a baculovirus expression system. Our studies demonstrate that recombinant vaults assembled from MVPs containing C-terminal peptide extensions display these tags at the top and bottom of the vault on the outside of the particle and can be used to specifically bind the modified vaults to epithelial cancer cells (A431) via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), either directly (EGF modified vaults) or as mediated by a monoclonal antibody (anti-EGFR) bound to recombinant vaults containing the IgG-binding peptide. The ability to target vaults to specific cells represents an essential advance toward using recombinant vaults as delivery vehicles. PMID:19206245

  2. GRAFTING OF POLY(SODIUM STYRENESULFONATE) ONTO GOLD SURFACE FROM NaNO3 SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iram Bibi; Mohammad Siddiq

    2011-01-01

    The chemical grafting of thiol terminated poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) (HS-PSSS) chains from sodium nitrate (NaNO3) salt solution to a gold surface was investigated with a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) in different salt concentrations.It was found that at low salt concentration grafting density of HS-PSSS was low and the grafted chains adopted a mushroom conformation.With the increase of salt concentration polyelectrolyte chains underwent a transition toward coiled state due to reduction of electrostatic repulsion and as a result more chains were grafted on the surface.When the grafting density reached a certain limit after which further grafting caused repulsion between already grafted HS-PSSS chains and as a result grafted chains adopted a brush conformation.

  3. Redirecting T Cell Specificity Using T Cell Receptor Messenger RNA Electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Sarene; Shimasaki, Noriko; Bertoletti, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Autologous T lymphocytes genetically modified to express T cell receptors or chimeric antigen receptors have shown great promise in the treatment of several cancers, including melanoma and leukemia. In addition to tumor-associated antigens and tumor-specific neoantigens, tumors expressing viral peptides can also be recognized by specific T cells and are attractive targets for cell therapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma cells often have hepatitis B virus DNA integration and can be targeted by hepatitis B virus-specific T cells. Here, we describe a method to engineer hepatitis B virus-specific T cell receptors in primary human T lymphocytes based on electroporation of hepatitis B virus T cell receptor messenger RNA. This method can be extended to a large scale therapeutic T cell production following current good manufacturing practice compliance and is applicable to the redirection of T lymphocytes with T cell receptors of other virus specificities such as Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and chimeric receptors specific for other antigens expressed on cancer cells. PMID:27236807

  4. Cell-specific synaptic plasticity induced by network oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnadze, Shota; Bäuerle, Peter; Santos-Torres, Julio; Böhm, Claudia; Schmitz, Dietmar; Geiger, Jörg Rp; Dugladze, Tamar; Gloveli, Tengis

    2016-01-01

    Gamma rhythms are known to contribute to the process of memory encoding. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms at the molecular, cellular and network levels. Using local field potential recording in awake behaving mice and concomitant field potential and whole-cell recordings in slice preparations we found that gamma rhythms lead to activity-dependent modification of hippocampal networks, including alterations in sharp wave-ripple complexes. Network plasticity, expressed as long-lasting increases in sharp wave-associated synaptic currents, exhibits enhanced excitatory synaptic strength in pyramidal cells that is induced postsynaptically and depends on metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 activation. In sharp contrast, alteration of inhibitory synaptic strength is independent of postsynaptic activation and less pronounced. Further, we found a cell type-specific, directionally biased synaptic plasticity of two major types of GABAergic cells, parvalbumin- and cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons. Thus, we propose that gamma frequency oscillations represent a network state that introduces long-lasting synaptic plasticity in a cell-specific manner. PMID:27218453

  5. Potential cell-specific functions of CXCR4 in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Christian; Döring, Yvonne; Noels, Heidi

    2016-05-10

    The chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 form an important axis contributing to cellular functions in homeostasis and disease. In addition, the atypical CXCL12 receptor CXCR7 may shape the availability and function of CXCL12. Further to their role through progenitor cell mobilization, CXCL12 and CXCR4 may affect native atherogenesis by modifying atherosclerosis-relevant cellular functions. This short review intends to provide a concise summary of current knowledge with regards to cell-specific functions of CXCL12 and its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 with potential implications for the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:25586789

  6. [Inhibition of adenovirus reproduction in cell culture by specific antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povnytsia, O Iu; Nosach, L M; Zhovnovata, V L; Zahorodnia, S D; Vantsak, N P; Tokarchuk, L V; Polishchuk, O M; Diachenko, N S

    2009-01-01

    The capacity of specific antibodies to inhibit the reproduction of homo- and heterologous adenoviruses in Hela cell added to culture medium after virus adsorption was studied. The inhibiting effect of polyclonal antivirus and monospecific antihexone antibodies to homo- and heterologous adenoviruses was shown. The effect was more expressed when using antibodies to homologous antibodies. The intensity of inhibition depended on antibodies concentration in the medium and infecting dose of the virus. Essential reduction of the quantity of infected cells and a decrease of the titer of adenovirus synthesized in the presence of homo- and heterologous antibodies was shown but adenovirus reproduction was not inhibited completely. PMID:19663330

  7. Targeting Vault Nanoparticles to Specific Cell Surface Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Han, Muri; Raval-Fernandes, Sujna; Poderycki, Michael J.; Moniz, Raymond J.; Vaccari, Dana; Silvestry, Mariena; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Kelly, Kathleen A.; Rome, Leonard H.

    2009-01-01

    As a naturally occurring nanocapsule abundantly expressed in nearly all-eukaryotic cells, the barrel-shaped vault particle is perhaps an ideal structure to engineer for targeting to specific cell types. Recombinant vault particles self-assemble from 96 copies of the major vault protein (MVP), have dimensions of 72.5 × 41 nm, and have a hollow interior large enough to encapsulate hundreds of proteins. In this study, three different tags were engineered onto the C-terminus of MVP: an 11 amino a...

  8. Acetylation site specificities of lysine deacetylase inhibitors in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schölz, Christian; Weinert, Brian Tate; Wagner, Sebastian A;

    2015-01-01

    Lysine deacetylases inhibitors (KDACIs) are used in basic research, and many are being investigated in clinical trials for treatment of cancer and other diseases. However, their specificities in cells are incompletely characterized. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) to obtain...... acetylation signatures for 19 different KDACIs, covering all 18 human lysine deacetylases. Most KDACIs increased acetylation of a small, specific subset of the acetylome, including sites on histones and other chromatin-associated proteins. Inhibitor treatment combined with genetic deletion showed that the...

  9. Specific Control of Immunity by Regulatory CD8 T Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoleiTang; TrevorRFSmith

    2005-01-01

    T lymphocytes with dedicated suppressor function (Treg) play a crucial role in the homeostatic control of immunity in the periphery. Several Treg phenotypes have now been identified in the CD4 and CD8 T cell populations, suggesting their down-regulatory function in both human and animal models of autoimmunity, transplantation and tumor immunity. Here we will focus on the CD8 Treg population and their ability to specifically inhibit a pathogenic autoimmune response. This review will detail the current advances in the knowledge of CD8 Treg in the context of antigen specificity, phenotype, MHC restriction, mechanism of action, and priming. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(1):11-19.

  10. Cell reprogramming for the creation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells by defined factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiqun YIN; Heng WANG; Hongguo CAO; Yunhai ZHANG; Yong TAO; Xiaorong ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), characterized by being able to differentiate into various types of cells, are generally regarded as the most promising sources for cell replacement therapies. However, as typical PSCs, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are still far away from human clinics so far due to ethical issues and immune rejection response. One way to avoid such problems is to use stem cells derived from autologous somatic cells. Up to date, PSCs could be obtained by reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotent state with approaches including somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), fusion with stem cells, coculture with cells' extracts, and induction with defined factors. Among these, through reprogramming somatic cells directly by retroviral transduction of transcription factors, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been successfully generated in both mouse and human recently. These iPS cells shared similar morphology and growth properties to ESCs, could express ESCs marker genes, and could produce adult or germline-competent chimaeras and differentiate into a variety of cell types, including germ cells. Moreover, with iPS technique, patient specific PSCs could be derived more easily from handful somatic cells in human without immune rejection responses innately connected to ESCs. Consequently, generation of iPS cells would be of great help to further understand disease mechanisms, drug screening, and cell transplantation therapies as well.In summary,the recent progress in the study of cell reprogramming for the creation of patientspecific pluripotent stem cells, some existing problems, and research perspectives were suggested.

  11. Generation of Transplantable Beta Cells for Patient-Specific Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Islet cell transplantation offers a potential cure for type 1 diabetes, but it is challenged by insufficient donor tissue and side effects of current immunosuppressive drugs. Therefore, alternative sources of insulin-producing cells and isletfriendly immunosuppression are required to increase the efficiency and safety of this procedure. Beta cells can be transdifferentiated from precursors or another heterologous (non-beta-cell source. Recent advances in beta cell regeneration from somatic cells such as fibroblasts could circumvent the usage of immunosuppressive drugs. Therefore, generation of patient-specific beta cells provides the potential of an evolutionary treatment for patients with diabetes.

  12. Cell-specific regulation of apoptosis by designed enediynes.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Stabila, P; Esmaeli-Azad, B; Wrasidlo, W; Hiatt, A

    1993-01-01

    The naturally occurring enediyne antibiotics are a unique class of antitumor drugs that combine reactive enediynes with additional structural features conferring affinity for DNA. Dynemicin A, in which an enediyne core is attached to an anthraquinone group capable of DNA intercalation, readily cleaves double-stranded DNA. This activity is thought to be the basis of its potent antitumor cytotoxicity. To investigate cell-specific mechanisms of cytotoxicity in the absence of DNA affinity, we hav...

  13. Anatomy of a new B-cell-specific enhancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, W; Benoist, C.; Mathis, D

    1989-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, like the immunoglobulins, are prominent B-lymphocyte markers. Herein, we describe a B-cell-specific enhancer associated with the murine class II gene, Ek alpha. This enhancer has a complex anatomy that suggests interactions between remotely spaced elements. Of particular interest is the finding that two CCAAT boxes spaced one kilobase apart are important for enhancer activity. Somewhat surprisingly, the E alpha and immunoglobulin enhanc...

  14. Specific insulin binding in bovine chromaffin cells; demonstration of preferential binding to adrenalin-storing cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serck-Hanssen, G.; Soevik, O.

    1987-12-28

    Insulin binding was studied in subpopulations of bovine chromaffin cells enriched in adrenalin-producing cells (A-cells) or noradrenalin-producing cells (NA-cells). Binding of /sup 125/I-insulin was carried out at 15/sup 0/C for 3 hrs in the absence or presence of excess unlabeled hormone. Four fractions of cells were obtained by centrifugation on a stepwise bovine serum albumin gradient. The four fractions were all shown to bind insulin in a specific manner and the highest binding was measured in the cell layers of higher densities, containing mainly A-cells. The difference in binding of insulin to the four subpopulations of chromaffin cells seemed to be related to differences in numbers of receptors as opposed to receptor affinities. The authors conclude that bovine chromaffin cells possess high affinity binding sites for insulin and that these binding sites are mainly confined to A-cells. 24 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  15. Specific inactivation of glucose metabolism from eucaryotic cells by pentalenolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszenko, M; Balla, H; Mecke, D

    1982-02-01

    Pentalenolactone, an antibiotic related to the class of the sesquiterpene-lactones and produced by the strain Streptomyces arenae Tü-469, inhibits specifically the glucose metabolism by inactivation of the enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate: NAD oxidoreductase (phosphorylating) ED 1.2.1.1.2). The sensitivity of several eucaryotic cell-systems for pentalenolactone was shown under in vivo conditions. The glycolytic as well as the gluconeogenetic pathway of mammalian cells can be completely inhibited with low concentrations of the antibiotic. In all cases, the minimum inhibitory concentration is dependent on cell density. The inhibitory effect in vivo and in vitro does not seem to be species-specific. In erythrocytes from rats, in Ehrlich-ascites tumor cells and in Plasmodium vinckei infected erythrocytes from mice glycolysis can be inhibited with concentrations of 18--90 micrometers pentalenolactone. In hepatocytes, glycolysis as well as gluconeogenesis in prevented by the same concentrations. In contrast to these results, in yeast the inhibition depends on growth conditions. The inhibition in glucose medium is cancelled by precultivation on acetate-containing medium. PMID:7034785

  16. Germ tube-specific antigens of Candida albicans cell walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were performed to characterize the surface differences between blastospores and germ tubes of the pathogenic, dimorphic yeast, Candida albicans, and to identify components of yeast cells responsible for these differences. Investigation of surfaces differences of the two growth forms was facilitated by the production of rabbit antiserum prepared against Formalin-treated yeast possessing germ tubes. To prepare antiserum specific for germ tubes, this serum was adsorbed with stationary phase blastospores. Whereas the unadsorbed antiserum reacted with both blastospore and germ tube forms by immunofluorescence and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, the adsorbed antiserum did not react with blastospores but detected germ tube-specific antigens in hyphal forms. The differences between blastospores and germ tubes of Candida albicans, were further studied by comparing enzymatic digests of cell walls of both growth forms in radiolabeled organisms. Organisms were labeled either on the surface with 125I, or metabolically with [35S] methionine or [3H] mannose. Three-surface-located components (as shown by antibody adsorption and elution experiments) were precipitated from Zymolase digests. All three components were mannoproteins as shown by their ability to bind Concanavalin A, and to be labeled in protein labeling procedures, and two of these (200,000 and 155,000 molecular weight) were germ tube specific, as shown by their ability to be precipitated by germ tube-specific antiserum. Monoclonal antibodies were prepared to C. albicans, using blastospores bearing germ tubes as immunogen

  17. Restriction specificity of virus-specific cytotoxic T cells from thymectomised irradiated bone marrow chimeras reconstituted with thymus grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult-thymectomised lethally irradiated mice A that were reconstituted with T-cell-depleted bone marrow cells of (A X B)F1 origin plus fetal thymus grafts of (B X C)F1 origin generated virus-specific T cells restricted to B alone; adult-thymectomised and lethally irradiated (A X B)F1 mice that were reconstituted with T-cell depleted bone marrow cells of (A X B)F1 origin plus fetal thymus grafts of A and of B origin generated virus-specific T cells restricted to A or to B. These results do not reveal obvious suppressive influences of host or stem-cell origin that might have explained results obtained with various irradiated bone marrow or thymus chimeras, they indicate that the thymus' influence on maturing T cells is one of the limiting steps in the selection of T cells' restriction specificities. (Auth.)

  18. Tract specific analysis in patients with sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yaqiong; Coloigner, Julie; Qu, Xiaoping; Choi, Soyoung; Bush, Adam; Borzage, Matt; Vu, Chau; Lepore, Natasha; Wood, John

    2015-12-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary blood disorder in which the oxygen-carrying hemoglobin molecule in red blood cells is abnormal. It affects numerous people in the world and leads to a shorter life span, pain, anemia, serious infections and neurocognitive decline. Tract-Specific Analysis (TSA) is a statistical method to evaluate white matter alterations due to neurocognitive diseases, using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images. Here, for the first time, TSA is used to compare 11 major brain white matter (WM) tracts between SCD patients and age-matched healthy subjects. Alterations are found in the corpus callosum (CC), the cortico-spinal tract (CST), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), and uncinated fasciculus (UNC). Based on previous studies on the neurocognitive functions of these tracts, the significant areas found in this paper might be related to several cognitive impairments and depression, both of which are observed in SCD patients.

  19. WT1-specific T cell receptor gene therapy: improving TCR function in transduced T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauss, Hans J; Thomas, Sharyn; Cesco-Gaspere, Michela; Hart, Daniel P; Xue, Shao-An; Holler, Angelika; King, Judy; Wright, Graham; Perro, Mario; Pospori, Constantina; Morris, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T lymphocytes is an attractive form of immunotherapy for haematological malignancies and cancer. The difficulty of isolating antigen-specific T lymphocytes for individual patients limits the more widespread use of adoptive T cell therapy. The demonstration that cloned T cell receptor (TCR) genes can be used to produce T lymphocyte populations of desired specificity offers new opportunities for antigen-specific T cell therapy. The first trial in humans demonstrated that TCR gene-modified T cells persisted for an extended time period and reduced tumor burden in some patients. The WT1 protein is an attractive target for immunotherapy of leukemia and solid cancer since elevated expression has been demonstrated in AML, CML, MDS and in breast, colon and ovarian cancer. In the past, we have isolated high avidity CTL specific for a WT1-derived peptide presented by HLA-A2 and cloned the TCR alpha and beta genes of a WT1-specific CTL line. The genes were inserted into retroviral vectors for transduction of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes of leukemia patients and normal donors. The treatment of leukemia-bearing NOD/SCID mice with T cells transduced with the WT1-specific TCR eliminated leukemia cells in the bone marrow of most mice, while treatment with T cells transduced with a TCR of irrelevant specificity did not diminish the leukemia burden. In order to improve the safety and efficacy of TCR gene therapy, we have developed lentiviral TCR gene transfer. In addition, we employed strategies to enhance TCR expression while avoiding TCR mis-pairing. It may be possible to generate dominant TCR constructs that can suppress the expression of the endogenous TCR on the surface of transduced T cells. The development of new TCR gene constructs holds great promise for the safe and effective delivery of TCR gene therapy for the treatment of malignancies. PMID:17855129

  20. The determination of mother cell-specific mating type of switching in yeast by a specific regulator of HO transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Nasmyth, Kim

    1987-01-01

    In haploid homothallic budding yeast, cell division gives rise to a mother cell which proceeds to switch its mating type and a daughter cell (the bud) which does not. Switching is initiated by a specific double strand cleavage of mating type DNA by an endonuclease encoded by the HO gene. Previous data suggest that the pattern of HO transcription is responsible for the mother cell specificity of switching. HO is transcribed transiently, at START, during the cell cycle of mother cells but not a...

  1. Semiallogenic fusions of MSI+ tumor cells and activated B cells induce MSI-specific T cell responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klier Ulrike

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various strategies have been developed to transfer tumor-specific antigens into antigen presenting cells in order to induce cytotoxic T cell responses against tumor cells. One approach uses cellular vaccines based on fusions of autologous antigen presenting cells and allogeneic tumor cells. The fusion cells combine antigenicity of the tumor cell with optimal immunostimulatory capacity of the antigen presenting cells. Microsatellite instability caused by mutational inactivation of DNA mismatch repair genes results in translational frameshifts when affecting coding regions. It has been shown by us and others that these mutant proteins lead to the presentation of immunogenic frameshift peptides that are - in principle - recognized by a multiplicity of effector T cells. Methods We chose microsatellite instability-induced frameshift antigens as ideal to test for induction of tumor specific T cell responses by semiallogenic fusions of microsatellite instable carcinoma cells with CD40-activated B cells. Two fusion clones of HCT116 with activated B cells were selected for stimulation of T cells autologous to the B cell fusion partner. Outgrowing T cells were phenotyped and tested in functional assays. Results The fusion clones expressed frameshift antigens as well as high amounts of MHC and costimulatory molecules. Autologous T cells stimulated with these fusions were predominantly CD4+, activated, and reacted specifically against the fusion clones and also against the tumor cell fusion partner. Interestingly, a response toward 6 frameshift-derived peptides (of 14 tested could be observed. Conclusion Cellular fusions of MSI+ carcinoma cells and activated B cells combine the antigen-presenting capacity of the B cell with the antigenic repertoire of the carcinoma cell. They present frameshift-derived peptides and can induce specific and fully functional T cells recognizing not only fusion cells but also the carcinoma cells. These

  2. Semiallogenic fusions of MSI+ tumor cells and activated B cells induce MSI-specific T cell responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various strategies have been developed to transfer tumor-specific antigens into antigen presenting cells in order to induce cytotoxic T cell responses against tumor cells. One approach uses cellular vaccines based on fusions of autologous antigen presenting cells and allogeneic tumor cells. The fusion cells combine antigenicity of the tumor cell with optimal immunostimulatory capacity of the antigen presenting cells. Microsatellite instability caused by mutational inactivation of DNA mismatch repair genes results in translational frameshifts when affecting coding regions. It has been shown by us and others that these mutant proteins lead to the presentation of immunogenic frameshift peptides that are - in principle - recognized by a multiplicity of effector T cells. We chose microsatellite instability-induced frameshift antigens as ideal to test for induction of tumor specific T cell responses by semiallogenic fusions of microsatellite instable carcinoma cells with CD40-activated B cells. Two fusion clones of HCT116 with activated B cells were selected for stimulation of T cells autologous to the B cell fusion partner. Outgrowing T cells were phenotyped and tested in functional assays. The fusion clones expressed frameshift antigens as well as high amounts of MHC and costimulatory molecules. Autologous T cells stimulated with these fusions were predominantly CD4+, activated, and reacted specifically against the fusion clones and also against the tumor cell fusion partner. Interestingly, a response toward 6 frameshift-derived peptides (of 14 tested) could be observed. Cellular fusions of MSI+ carcinoma cells and activated B cells combine the antigen-presenting capacity of the B cell with the antigenic repertoire of the carcinoma cell. They present frameshift-derived peptides and can induce specific and fully functional T cells recognizing not only fusion cells but also the carcinoma cells. These hybrid cells may have great potential for cellular immunotherapy and

  3. A recombinant antibody with the antigen-specific, major histocompatibility complex-restricted specificity of T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Stryhn, A; Hansen, B E; Fugger, L; Engberg, J; Buus, S

    1996-01-01

    lead to novel approaches in immunotherapy. However, it has proven difficult to generate antibodies with the specificity of T cells by conventional hybridoma techniques. Here we report that the phage display technology is a feasible alternative to generate antibodies recognizing specific, predetermined......Specific recognition of peptide/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule complexes by the T-cell receptor is a key reaction in the specific immune response. Antibodies against peptide/MHC complexes would therefore be valuable tools in studying MHC function and T-cell recognition and might...

  4. Kinetics of antigen specific and non-specific polyclonal B-cell responses during lethal Plasmodium yoelii malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Rolland

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the kinetics and composition of the polyclonal B-cell activation associated to malaria infection, antigen-specific and non-specific B-cell responses were evaluated in the spleens of mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii 17 XL or injected with lysed erythrocytes or plasma from P. yoelii infected mice or with P. falciparum culture supernatants. Spleen/body weigth ratio, numbers of nucleated spleen cells and Immunoglobulin-containing and Immunoglobulin-secreting cells increased progressively during the course of infection,in parallel to the parasitemia. A different pattern of kinetics was observed when anti-sheep red blood cell and anti-trinitrophenylated-sheep red blood cell plaque forming cells response were studied: maximum values were observed at early stages of infection, whereas the number of total Immunoglobulin-containing and Immunoglobulin-secreting cells were not yet altered. Conversely, at the end of infection, when these latter values reached their maximum, the anti-sheep red blood cell and anti-trinitrophenylated-sheep red blood cell specific responses were normal or even infranormal. In mice injected with Plasmodium-derived material, a higher increase in antigen-specific PFC was observed, as compared to the increase of Immunoglobulin-containing and Immunoglobulin-secreting cell numbers. This suggested a "preferential" (antigen-plus mitogen-induced stimulation of antigen-specific cells rather than a generalized non-specific (mitogen-induced triggering of B-lymphocytes. On the basis of these and previous results, it is suggested that polyclonal B-cell activation that takes place during the course of infection appears as a result of successive waves of antigen-specific B-cell activation.

  5. Cell-specific modulation of surfactant proteins by ambroxol treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambroxol [trans-4-(2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzylamino)-cyclohexanole hydrochloride], a mucolytic agent, was postulated to provide surfactant stimulatory properties and was previously used to prevent surfactant deficiency. Currently, the underlying mechanisms are not exactly clear. Because surfactant homeostasis is regulated by surfactant-specific proteins (SP), we analyzed protein amount and mRNA expression in whole lung tissue, isolated type II pneumocytes and bronchoalveolar lavage of Sprague-Dawley rats treated with ambroxol i.p. (75 mg/kg body weight, twice a day [every 12 h]). The methods used included competitive polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Northern blotting, Western immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. In isolated type II pneumocytes of ambroxol-treated animals, SP-C protein and mRNA content were increased, whereas SP-A, -B and -D protein, mRNA, and immunoreactivity remained unaffected. However, ambroxol treatment resulted in a significant increase of SP-B and in a decrease of SP-D in whole lung tissue with enhanced immunostaining for SP-B in Clara Cells. SP-A and SP-D were significantly decreased in BAL fluid of ambroxol-treated animals. The data suggest that surfactant protein expression is modulated in a cell-specific manner by ambroxol, as type II pneumocytes exhibited an increase in SP-C, whereas Clara cells exhibited an increase in the immunoreactivity for SP-B accounting for the increased SP-B content of whole lung tissue. The results indicate that ambroxol may exert its positive effects, observed in the treatment of diseases related to surfactant deficiency, via modulation of surfactant protein expression

  6. A specific Fc gamma receptor on cultured rat mesangial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesangial cells represent specialized pericytes in the renal glomerulus that contribute to the regulation of a variety of glomerular functions. Recently we and others have shown that cultured mesangial cells bind and take up immune complexes in an Fc-dependent manner leading in turn to generation of PGE2, reactive oxygen, and platelet-activating factor. The present studies were designed to further characterize potential Fc-gamma R on mesangial cells. Binding assays with either monomeric or heat aggregated (HA) [125I] labeled rat subclass-specific IgG were performed at 4 degrees C for 2 h on subcultured rat mesangial cells. Monomeric rat IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG1 and HA IgG2a bound only nonspecifically. Saturable Fc-dependent binding occurred for HA IgG2b and HA IgG1 though maximal binding and affinity were much higher for IgG2b. The presence of an Fc-gamma R was confirmed by surface protein iodination of mesangial cells (MC) and immunoprecipitation with either a polyclonal or mAb 2.4G2 prepared against murine Fc-gamma R. Both antibodies precipitated a 45-kDa iodinated protein band from cultured rat MC that comigrated with that from murine macrophage J774 cells on SDS-PAGE. This protein band also reacted with the polyclonal anti Fc-gamma R antibody on immunoblots. In contrast rat renal papillary epithelial cells were negative. The 45-kDa protein recognized by the rat anti-Fc-gamma R antibody 2.4G2 probably represents the binding site for HA IgG2b, as the 2.4G2 antibody also blocked binding of HA IgG2b. By immunofluorescence microscopy all MC stained positively with the polyclonal anti-Fc-gamma R antibody. A cDNA probe for the Fc-gamma RII-alpha on murine macrophages hybridized to mRNA from cultured rat MC which was of the same size (though less abundant) as that from J774 macrophages

  7. A specific Fc gamma receptor on cultured rat mesangial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, A.; Satriano, J.; DeCandido, S.; Holthofer, H.; Schreiber, R.; Unkeless, J.; Schlondorff, D. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, NY (USA))

    1989-10-15

    Mesangial cells represent specialized pericytes in the renal glomerulus that contribute to the regulation of a variety of glomerular functions. Recently we and others have shown that cultured mesangial cells bind and take up immune complexes in an Fc-dependent manner leading in turn to generation of PGE2, reactive oxygen, and platelet-activating factor. The present studies were designed to further characterize potential Fc-gamma R on mesangial cells. Binding assays with either monomeric or heat aggregated (HA) (125I) labeled rat subclass-specific IgG were performed at 4 degrees C for 2 h on subcultured rat mesangial cells. Monomeric rat IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG1 and HA IgG2a bound only nonspecifically. Saturable Fc-dependent binding occurred for HA IgG2b and HA IgG1 though maximal binding and affinity were much higher for IgG2b. The presence of an Fc-gamma R was confirmed by surface protein iodination of mesangial cells (MC) and immunoprecipitation with either a polyclonal or mAb 2.4G2 prepared against murine Fc-gamma R. Both antibodies precipitated a 45-kDa iodinated protein band from cultured rat MC that comigrated with that from murine macrophage J774 cells on SDS-PAGE. This protein band also reacted with the polyclonal anti Fc-gamma R antibody on immunoblots. In contrast rat renal papillary epithelial cells were negative. The 45-kDa protein recognized by the rat anti-Fc-gamma R antibody 2.4G2 probably represents the binding site for HA IgG2b, as the 2.4G2 antibody also blocked binding of HA IgG2b. By immunofluorescence microscopy all MC stained positively with the polyclonal anti-Fc-gamma R antibody. A cDNA probe for the Fc-gamma RII-alpha on murine macrophages hybridized to mRNA from cultured rat MC which was of the same size (though less abundant) as that from J774 macrophages.

  8. Cell-of-Origin-Specific 3D Genome Structure Acquired during Somatic Cell Reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijger, Peter Hugo Lodewijk; Di Stefano, Bruno; de Wit, Elzo; Limone, Francesco; van Oevelen, Chris; de Laat, Wouter; Graf, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Forced expression of reprogramming factors can convert somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here we studied genome topology dynamics during reprogramming of different somatic cell types with highly distinct genome conformations. We find large-scale topologically associated domain (TAD) repositioning and alterations of tissue-restricted genomic neighborhoods and chromatin loops, effectively erasing the somatic-cell-specific genome structures while establishing an embryonic stem-cell-like 3D genome. Yet, early passage iPSCs carry topological hallmarks that enable recognition of their cell of origin. These hallmarks are not remnants of somatic chromosome topologies. Instead, the distinguishing topological features are acquired during reprogramming, as we also find for cell-of-origin-dependent gene expression patterns. PMID:26971819

  9. Engineering antigen-specific T cells from genetically modified human hematopoietic stem cells in immunodeficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott G Kitchen

    Full Text Available There is a desperate need for effective therapies to fight chronic viral infections. The immune response is normally fastidious at controlling the majority of viral infections and a therapeutic strategy aimed at reestablishing immune control represents a potentially powerful approach towards treating persistent viral infections. We examined the potential of genetically programming human hematopoietic stem cells to generate mature CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes that express a molecularly cloned, "transgenic" human anti-HIV T cell receptor (TCR. Anti-HIV TCR transduction of human hematopoietic stem cells directed the maturation of a large population of polyfunctional, HIV-specific CD8+ cells capable of recognizing and killing viral antigen-presenting cells. Thus, through this proof-of-concept we propose that genetic engineering of human hematopoietic stem cells will allow the tailoring of effector T cell responses to fight HIV infection or other diseases that are characterized by the loss of immune control.

  10. Cardiomyocyte expression and cell-specific processing of procholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens P.; Johnsen, Anders H.; Kistorp, Caroline;

    2015-01-01

    Heart muscle cells produce peptide hormones such as natriuretic peptides. Developing hearts also express the gene for the classic intestinal hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) in amounts similar to those in the intestine and brain. However, cardiac expression of peptides other than natriuretic peptides...... has only been suggested using transcriptional measures or methods, with the post-translational phase of gene expression unaddressed. In this study, we examined the cardiac expression of the CCK gene in adult mammals and its expression at the protein level. Using quantitative PCR, a library of sequence......-specific pro-CCK assays, peptide purification, and mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that the mammalian heart expresses pro-CCK in amounts comparable to natriuretic prohormones and processes it to a unique, triple-sulfated, and N-terminally truncated product distinct from intestinal and cerebral CCK peptides...

  11. Human T-Cell Clones from Autoimmune Thyroid Glands: Specific Recognition of Autologous Thyroid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londei, Marco; Bottazzo, G. Franco; Feldmann, Marc

    1985-04-01

    The thyroid glands of patients with autoimmune diseases such as Graves' disease and certain forms of goiter contain infiltrating activated T lymphocytes and, unlike cells of normal glands, the epithelial follicular cells strongly express histocompatability antigens of the HLA-DR type. In a study of such autoimmune disorders, the infiltrating T cells from the thyroid glands of two patients with Graves' disease were cloned in mitogen-free interleukin-2 (T-cell growth factor). The clones were expanded and their specificity was tested. Three types of clones were found. One group, of T4 phenotype, specifically recognized autologous thyroid cells. Another, also of T4 phenotype, recognized autologous thyroid or blood cells and thus responded positively in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction. Other clones derived from cells that were activated in vivo were of no known specificity. These clones provide a model of a human autoimmune disease and their analysis should clarify mechanisms of pathogenesis and provide clues to abrogating these undesirable immune responses.

  12. Common and cell type-specific responses of human cells to mitochondrial dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In yeast, mitochondrial dysfunction activates a specific pathway, termed retrograde regulation, which alters the expression of specific nuclear genes and results in increased replicative life span. In mammalian cells, the specific nuclear genes induced in response to loss of mitochondrial function are less well defined. This study characterizes responses in nuclear gene expression to loss of mitochondrial DNA sequences in three different human cell types: T143B, an osteosarcoma-derived cell line; ARPE19, a retinal pigment epithelium cell line; and GMO6225, a fibroblast cell population from an individual with Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS). Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure gene expression of a selection of glycolysis, TCA cycle, mitochondrial, peroxisomal, extracellular matrix, stress response, and regulatory genes. Gene expression changes that were common to all three cell types included up-regulation of GCK (glucokinase), CS (citrate synthase), HOX1 (heme oxygenase 1), CKMT2 (mitochondrial creatine kinase 2), MYC (v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog), and WRN (Werner syndrome helicase), and down-regulation of FBP1 (fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase 1) and COL4A1 (collagen, type IV, alpha 1). RNA interference experiments show that induction of MYC is important in ρ0 cells for the up-regulation of glycolysis. In addition, a variety of cell type-specific gene changes was detected and most likely depended upon the differentiated functions of the individual cell types. These expression changes may help explain the response of different tissues to the loss of mitochondrial function due to aging or disease

  13. Thrombin-specific inactivation of endothelial cell derived plasminogen activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although thrombin (T) has diverse functions in the overall hemostatic mechanism, relatively little is known about its direct effect on components of the fibrinolytic enzyme system. The authors have investigated the interaction of T with plasminogen activators (PA) derived from bovine aortic endothelial cells (EC) in culture (2-5th passage, preconfluent monolayers). Varying concentrations of purified bovine or human thrombin were added to EC-conditioned media (CM). CM + T mixtures were assayed at various times for PA activity using purified plasminogen and a sensitive 125I-fibrinogenolytic or caseinolytic assay. T (5 nM), but not plasmin or trypsin at equivalent concentrations, resulted in a time-dependent inhibition of the PA activity in CM. T had no effect on the PA activity of urokinase, streptokinase or preformed plasmin. The ability of T to inactivate the EC-derived PA was abolished by prior treatment of T with active site-directed reagents. SDS-PAGE and zymography with copolymerized fibrinogen and plasminogen revealed further specificity in that only one of the multiple-molecular weight forms of PA present in EC-CM was inactivated by T. The authors conclude that in a highly specific fashion, T inactivates the predominant PA present in EC-CM by limited proteolysis. Thus, another potentially important function of T is suggested which may have particular significance in the temporal regulation of coagulation and fibrinolysis at the blood-endothelium interface

  14. Lineage-specific interface proteins match up the cell cycle and differentiation in embryo stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Re, Angela; Workman, Christopher; Waldron, Levi;

    2014-01-01

    The shortage of molecular information on cell cycle changes along embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation prompts an in silico approach, which may provide a novel way to identify candidate genes or mechanisms acting in coordinating the two programs. We analyzed germ layer specific gene expression...... changes during the cell cycle and ESC differentiation by combining four human cell cycle transcriptome profiles with thirteen in vitro human ESC differentiation studies. To detect cross-talk mechanisms we then integrated the transcriptome data that displayed differential regulation with protein...... interaction data. A new class of non-transcriptionally regulated genes was identified, encoding proteins which interact systematically with proteins corresponding to genes regulated during the cell cycle or cell differentiation, and which therefore can be seen as interface proteins coordinating the two...

  15. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of ESGP, an Embryonic Stem Cell and Germ Cell Specific Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Mei CHEN; Zhong-Wei DU; Zhen YAO

    2005-01-01

    Several putative Oct-4 downstream genes from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells have been identified using the suppression-subtractive hybridization method. In this study, one of the novel genes encoding an ES cell and germ cell specific protein (ESGP) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends.ESGP contains 801 bp encoding an 84 amino acid small protein and has no significant homology to any known genes. There is a signal peptide at the N-terminal of ESGP protein as predicted by SeqWeb (GCG)(SeqWeb version 2.0.2, http://gcg.biosino.org:8080/). The result of immunofluorescence assay suggested that ESGP might encode a secretory protein. The expression pattern of ESGP is consistent with the expression of Oct-4 during embryonic development. ESGP protein was detected in fertilized oocyte, from 3.5 day postcoital (dpc) blastocyst to 17.5 dpc embryo, and was only detected in testis and ovary tissues in adult. In vitro, ESGP was only expressed in pluripotent cell lines, such as embryonic stem cells, embryonic carcinoma cells and embryonic germ cells, but not in their differentiated progenies. Despite its specific expression,forced expression of ESGP is not indispensable for the effect of Oct-4 on ES cell self-renewal, and does not affect the differentiation to three germ layers.

  16. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-specific monoclonal antibody to detect CD19-specific T cells in clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipulendu Jena

    Full Text Available Clinical trials targeting CD19 on B-cell malignancies are underway with encouraging anti-tumor responses. Most infuse T cells genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR with specificity derived from the scFv region of a CD19-specific mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb, clone FMC63. We describe a novel anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody (mAb to detect CD19-specific CAR(+ T cells before and after their adoptive transfer. This mouse mAb was generated by immunizing with a cellular vaccine expressing the antigen-recognition domain of FMC63. The specificity of the mAb (clone no. 136.20.1 was confined to the scFv region of the CAR as validated by inhibiting CAR-dependent lysis of CD19(+ tumor targets. This clone can be used to detect CD19-specific CAR(+ T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells at a sensitivity of 1∶1,000. In clinical settings the mAb is used to inform on the immunophenotype and persistence of administered CD19-specific T cells. Thus, our CD19-specific CAR mAb (clone no. 136.20.1 will be useful to investigators implementing CD19-specific CAR(+ T cells to treat B-lineage malignancies. The methodology described to develop a CAR-specific anti-idiotypic mAb could be extended to other gene therapy trials targeting different tumor associated antigens in the context of CAR-based adoptive T-cell therapy.

  17. Characterization of efferent T suppressor cells induced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis-specific afferent T suppressor cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez-Finkel, B E; Murphy, J W

    1988-01-01

    Previously, we reported that Paracoccidioides brasiliensis culture filtrate antigen (Pb.Ag) when injected i.v. into mice induces antigen-specific suppressor cells which down-regulate the anti-P. brasiliensis delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. The suppressor cells are present in both spleens and lymph nodes of Pb.Ag-treated animals and suppress the afferent limb but not the efferent limb of the DTH response to P. brasiliensis. The suppressor cells induced by Pb.Ag are L3T4+ Lyt-1+2-...

  18. Recombinant scorpion insectotoxin AaIT kills specifically insect cells but not human cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence deduced from the amino acid sequence of the scorpion insectotoxin AaIT was chemically synthesized and was expressed in Escherichia coli. The authenticity of this in vitro expressed peptide was confirmed by N-terminal peptide sequencing. Two groups of bioassays, artificial diet incorporation assay and contact insecticidal effect assay, were carried out separately to verify the toxicity of this recombinant toxin. At the end of a 24 h experimental period, more than 60% of the testing diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) larvae were killed in both groups with LCs0 value of 18.4 uM and 0.70 μM respectively. Cytotoxicity assay using cultured Sf9 insect cells and MCF-7 human cells demonstrated that the toxin AaIT had specific toxicity against insect cells but not human cells. Only 0.13 μM recombinant toxin was needed to kill 50% of cultured insect cells while as much as 1.3μM toxin had absolutely no effect on human cells. Insect cells produced obvious intrusions from their plasma membrane before broken up. We infer that toxin AaIT bind to a putative sodium channel in these insect cells and open the channel persistently, which would result in Na+ influx and finally cause destruction of insect cells.

  19. GATA-3 promotes T-cell specification by repressing B-cell potential in pro-T cells in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. García (Marcos); R.G.J. Klein Wolterink (Roel); F. Lemâitre (Fabrice); C. Le Goff (Carine); M. Hasan (Milena); R.W. Hendriks (Rudi); A. Cumano (Ana); J.P. di Santo (James)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractTranscription factors orchestrate T-lineage differentiation in the thymus. One critical checkpoint involves Notch1 signaling that instructs T-cell commitment at the expense of the B-lineage program. While GATA-3 is required for T-cell specification, its mechanism of action is poorly unde

  20. Tissue-specific stem cells: friend or foe?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joerg Huelsken

    2009-01-01

    @@ In the face of a hostile environ-ment, the integrity of many tissues in the adult organism is maintained by a constant replacement of cells. This involves a hierarchical organization of the tissue with rare multi-potent stem cells giving rise to proliferating cells of limited proliferative capacity which in turn produce differentiating cells.

  1. Apoptotic cell-treated dendritic cells induce immune tolerance by specifically inhibiting development of CD4(+) effector memory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fang; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Rostami, Abdolmohamad

    2016-02-01

    CD4(+) memory T cells play an important role in induction of autoimmunity and chronic inflammatory responses; however, regulatory mechanisms of CD4(+) memory T cell-mediated inflammatory responses are poorly understood. Here we show that apoptotic cell-treated dendritic cells inhibit development and differentiation of CD4(+) effector memory T cells in vitro and in vivo. Simultaneously, intravenous transfer of apoptotic T cell-induced tolerogenic dendritic cells can block development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system in C57 BL/6J mouse. Our results imply that it is effector memory CD4(+) T cells, not central memory CD4(+) T cells, which play a major role in chronic inflammatory responses in mice with EAE. Intravenous transfer of tolerogenic dendritic cells induced by apoptotic T cells leads to immune tolerance by specifically blocking development of CD4(+) effector memory T cells compared with results of EAE control mice. These results reveal a new mechanism of apoptotic cell-treated dendritic cell-mediated immune tolerance in vivo. PMID:26111522

  2. Species-specific transformation of T cells by HVMNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HVMNE is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-like lymphocryptovirus (LCV) originally isolated from a Macaca nemestrina with CD8+ T cell mycosis fungoides/cutaneous T cell lymphoma (Blood 98 (2001), 2193). HVMNE transforms rabbit T cells in vitro and causes T cell lymphoma in New Zealand white rabbits. Here we demonstrate that HVMNE also immortalizes T cells from mustached tamarins but not those from owl monkeys, common marmosets, squirrel monkeys, black-capped capuchins, and humans. Cytogenetic and FACS analysis revealed the true origin and T cell lineage of the transformed tamarin T cell lines. Tamarin T cells contained HVMNE DNA sequence and displayed a decreased requirement for the IL-2 cytokine for growth. Thus, this EBV-like virus from M. nemestrina differs from the other EBV-like viruses found in nonhuman primates inasmuch as it appears to preferentially transform T cells

  3. ACE2 is required for daughter cell-specific G1 delay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Laabs, Tracy L.; Markwardt, David D.; Slattery, Matthew G.; Newcomb, Laura L.; Stillman, David J.; Heideman, Warren

    2003-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells reproduce by budding to yield a mother cell and a smaller daughter cell. Although both mother and daughter begin G1 simultaneously, the mother cell progresses through G1 more rapidly. Daughter cell G1 delay has long been thought to be due to a requirement for attaining a certain critical cell size before passing the commitment point in the cell cycle known as START. We present an alternative model in which the daughter cell-specific Ace2 ...

  4. Specific differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells by small molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Heesang; Chang, Woochul; Song, Byeong-Wook; Hwang, Ki-Chul

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent, self-renewing cells harboring multi-lineage differentiation potential and immunosuppressive properties that make them an attractive candidate for biological cell-based regenerative medicine. In addition to its undoubted clinical interest, controlling the fate and behaviors of MSCs is a crucial prerequisite for their therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine. Stem cell differentiation and modulation of functional activities are generally c...

  5. Tissue-specific designs of stem cell hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visvader, Jane E; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Recent work in the field of stem cell biology suggests that there is no single design for an adult tissue stem cell hierarchy, and that different tissues employ distinct strategies to meet their self-renewal and repair requirements. Stem cells may be multipotent or unipotent, and can exist in quiesc

  6. Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Danish RERTR Program, three fuel elements with LEU U3O8-Al fuel and three fuel elements with LEU U3Si2-Al fuel were manufactured by NUKEM for irradiation testing in the DR-3 reactor at the Risoe National Laboratory in Denmark. The specifications for the elements with U3O8-Al fuel are presented here as an illustration only. Specifications for the elements with U3Si2-Al fuel were very similar. In this example, materials, material numbers, documents numbers, and drawing numbers specific to a single fabricator have been deleted. (author)

  7. High specific power, direct methanol fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, John C.; Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2007-05-08

    The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold with an integral flow restrictor to the outlet manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  8. Antigen-specific and non-specific CD4+ T cell recruitment and proliferation during influenza infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To track epitope-specific CD4+ T cells at a single-cell level during influenza infection, the MHC class II-restricted OVA323-339 epitope was engineered into the neuraminidase stalk of influenza/A/WSN, creating a surrogate viral antigen. The recombinant virus, influenza A/WSN/OVAII, replicated well, was cleared normally, and stimulated both wild-type and DO11.10 or OT-II TCR transgenic OVA-specific CD4+ T cells. OVA-specific CD4 T cells proliferated during infection only when the OVA epitope was present. However, previously primed (but not naive) transgenic CD4+ T cells were recruited to the infected lung both in the presence and absence of the OVA323-339 epitope. These data show that, when primed, CD4+ T cells may traffic to the lung in the absence of antigen, but do not proliferate. These results also document a useful tool for the study of CD4 T cells in influenza infection

  9. Uroplakins, specific membrane proteins of urothelial umbrella cells, as histological markers of metastatic transitional cell carcinomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, R.; Wu, X. R.; Lin, J.H.; Sun, T. T.

    1995-01-01

    Uroplakins (UPs) Ia, Ib, II, and III, transmembrane proteins constituting the asymmetrical unit membrane of urothelial umbrella cells, are the first specific urothelial differentiation markers described. We investigated the presence and localization patterns of UPs in various human carcinomas by applying immunohistochemistry (avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method), using rabbit antibodies against UPs II and III, to paraffin sections. Positive reactions for UP III (sometimes very focal) were...

  10. Enhanced cell-permeant Cre protein for site-specific recombination in cultured cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruley H Earl

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-permeant Cre DNA site-specific recombinases provide an easily controlled means to regulate gene structure and function in living cells. Since recombination provides a stable and unambiguous record of protein uptake, the enzyme may also be used for quantitative studies of cis- and trans-acting factors that influence the delivery of proteins into cells. Results In the present study, 11 recombinant fusion proteins were analyzed to characterize sequences and conditions that affect protein uptake and/or activity and to develop more active cell-permeant enzymes. We report that the native enzyme has a low, but intrinsic ability to enter cells. The most active Cre proteins tested contained either an N-terminal 6xHis tag and a nuclear localization sequence from SV40 large T antigen (HNC or the HIV Tat transduction sequence and a C-terminal 6xHis tag (TCH6. The NLS and 6xHis elements separately enhanced the delivery of the HNC protein into cells; moreover, transduction sequences from fibroblast growth factor 4, HIV Tat or consisting of the (KFF3K sequence were not required for efficient protein transduction and adversely affected enzyme solubility. Transduction of the HNC protein required 10 to 15 min for half-maximum uptake, was greatly decreased at 4°C and was inhibited by serum. Efficient recombination was observed in all cell types tested (a T-cell line, NIH3T3, Cos7, murine ES cells, and primary splenocytes, and did not require localization of the enzyme to the nucleus. Conclusions The effects of different sequences on the delivery and/or activity of Cre in cultured cells could not be predicted in advance. Consequently, the process of developing more active cell-permeant recombinases was largely empirical. The HNC protein, with an excellent combination of activity, solubility and yield, will enhance the use of cell-permeant Cre proteins to regulate gene structure and function in living cells.

  11. Generation of Human Lens Epithelial-Like Cells From Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Qiu, Xiaodi; Yang, Jin; Liu, Tianjin; Luo, Yi; Lu, Yi

    2016-12-01

    Cataractogenesis begins from the dynamic lens epithelial cells (LECs) and adjacent fiber cells. LECs derived from cell lines cannot maintain the crystalline expression as the primary LECs. The current study aimed to efficiently generate large numbers of human LECs from patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Anterior lens capsules were collected from cataract surgery and were used to culture primary hLECs. iPSCs were induced from these primary hLECs by lentiviral transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. Then, the generated iPSCs were re-differentiated into hLECs by the 3-step addition of defined factor combinations (Noggin, BMP4/7, bFGF, and EGF) modified from an established method. During the re-differentiation process, colonies of interest were isolated using a glass picking tool and cloning cylinders based on the colony morphology. After two steps of isolation, populations of LEC-like cells (LLCs) were generated and identified by the expression of lens marker genes by qPCR, western blot and immunofluorescence staining. The study introduced a modified protocol to isolate LLCs from iPSCs by defined factors in a short time frame. This technique could be useful for mechanistic studies of lens-related diseases. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2555-2562, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26991066

  12. HLA-DP specific responses in allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, Caroline Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Clinical studies demonstrated that HLA-DPB1 mismatched stem cell transplantation (SCT) is associated with a decreased risk of disease relapse and an increased risk of graft versus host disease (GVHD) compared to HLA-DPB1 matched SCT. In T-cell depleted SCT, mismatching of HLA-DPB1 was not associated

  13. Cells determine cell density using a small protein bound to a unique tissue-specific phospholipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Petzold

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell density is the critical parameter controlling tendon morphogenesis. Knowing its neighbors allows a cell to regulate correctly its proliferation and collagen production. A missing link to understanding this process is a molecular description of the sensing mechanism. Previously, this mechanism was shown in cell culture to rely on a diffusible factor (SNZR [sensor] with an affinity for the cell layer. This led to purifying conditioned medium over 4 columns and analyzing the final column fractions for band intensity on SDS gels versus biological activity – a 16 kD band strongly correlated between assays. N-terminal sequencing – EPLAVVDL – identified a large gene (424 AA, extremely conserved between chicken and human. In this paper we probe whether this is the correct gene. Can the predicted large protein be cleaved to a smaller protein? EPLAVVDL occurs towards the C-terminus and cleavage would create a small 94 AA protein. This protein would run at ∼10 kD, so what modifications or cofactor binding accounts for its running at 16 kD on SDS gels? This protein has no prominent hydrophobic regions, so can it be secreted? To validate its role, the chicken cDNA for this gene was tagged with myc and his and transfected into a human osteosarcoma cell line (U2OS. U2OS cells expressed the gene but not passively: differentiating into structures resembling spongy bone and expressing alkaline phosphatase, an early bone marker. Intracellularly, two bands were observed by Western blotting: the full length protein and a smaller form (26 kD. Outside the cell, a small band (28 kD was detected, although it was 40% larger than expected, as well as multiple larger bands. These larger forms could be converted to the predicted smaller protein (94 AA + tags by changing salt concentrations and ultrafiltering – releasing a cofactor to the filtrate while leaving a protein factor in the retentate. Using specific degradative enzymes and mass spectrometry, the

  14. Antigen-specific murine T cell clones produce soluble interleukin 2 receptor on stimulation with specific antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, monoclonal antibodies were used to the murine IL 2 receptor (IL 2R) termed 3C7 and 7D4, which bind to different epitopes on the murine IL 2R, to develop an ELISA to measure soluble murine IL 2R. Surprisingly, stimulated murine spleen cells not only expressed cell-associated IL 2R, but also produced a considerable level of cellfree IL 2R in the culture supernatant fluid. To assess the fine specificity of this response, myoglobin-immune murine T cell clones were stimulated with appropriate or inappropriate antigen and syngeneic or allogeneic presenting cells. Proliferation, measured by [3H] thymidine incorporation, and levels of soluble IL 2R were determined at day 4. The production of soluble IL2R displayed the same epitope fine specificity, genetic restriction, and antigen dose-response as the proliferative response. Indeed, in some cases there was sharper discrimination of epitope specificity and genetic restriction with the soluble IL 2R levels. There was also reproducible clone-to-clone variation in the amount of soluble receptor produced in response to antigen among 12 T cell clones and lines tested. In time course experiments, proliferation was greatest at day 3, whereas soluble IL 2R levels continued to rise in subsequent days. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first demonstration of release of secretion of soluble IL 2R by murine T cells, and the first demonstration of the fine specificity and genetic restriction of the induction of soluble IL 2R by specific antigen

  15. Kidney Specific Protein-Positive Cells Derived from Embryonic Stem Cells Reproduce Tubular Structures In Vitro and Differentiate into Renal Tubular Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ryuji Morizane; Toshiaki Monkawa; Shizuka Fujii; Shintaro Yamaguchi; Koichiro Homma; Yumi Matsuzaki; Hideyuki Okano; Hiroshi Itoh

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells have the ability to differentiate into various organs and tissues, and are regarded as new tools for the elucidation of disease mechanisms as well as sources for regenerative therapies. However, a method of inducing organ-specific cells from pluripotent stem cells is urgently needed. Although many scientists have been developing methods to induce various organ-specific cells from pluripotent stem cells, renal lineage cells have yet to be...

  16. Positive ion emission accompanying UV irradiation of single crystal MgO and NaNO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although MgO is much more resistant to radiolysis by 248-nm photons than NaNO3, the ion emission processes at low fluence have much in common: both materials yield high energy ions (>5 eV kinetic energy) with a strongly nonlinear fluence dependence. The authors report time-of-flight measurements of quadrupole mass-selected Mg+ from polished, single crystal MgO and Na+ from cleaved, single crystal NaNO3. At fluences between 10 and 1,000 mJ/cm2, the Mg+ intensities show a strongly nonlinear fluence dependence which decreases to roughly second order behavior at fluences above 100 mJ/cm2. The Na+ intensities display third or fourth order emission kinetics throughout the experimental range of fluences. The authors attribute these emissions to cations adsorbed atop surface electron traps where the cation is ejected when the underlying trap is photo-ionized. The potential energy of this defect configuration accounts for the observed ion kinetic energies. However, the direct photo-ionization of surface vacancy/adsorbed ion defects with 5 eV photons should not be possible. Thus the authors propose that emission requires the photoionization of nearby electron traps, followed by photo-induced charge transfer to the empty traps. They show that a sequence of single-photon absorption events [involving photo-ionization, charge transfer, and electron retrapping] accounts for the strongly nonlinear fluence dependence

  17. Branch-specific heterosynaptic facilitation in Aplysia siphon sensory cells

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Gregory A.; Kandel, Eric R.

    1984-01-01

    Aplysia siphon sensory cells exhibit heterosynaptic facilitation of transmitter release during both sensitization and classical conditioning of the siphon withdrawal response. In the present study, we asked whether facilitation must invariably enhance transmission at all terminals of a neuron or whether facilitation can instead occur at one set of terminals without also occurring at other terminals of the same cell. To examine this question, we compared effects of local application of seroton...

  18. Target cell-specific modulation of neuronal activity by astrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, A. S.; Angulo, M. C.; Audinat, E.; Charpak, S

    2006-01-01

    Interaction between astrocytes and neurons enriches the behavior of brain circuits. By releasing glutamate and ATP, astrocytes can directly excite neurons and modulate synaptic transmission. In the rat olfactory bulb, we demonstrate that the release of GABA by astrocytes causes long-lasting and synchronous inhibition of mitral and granule cells. In addition, astrocytes release glutamate, leading to a selective activation of granule-cell NMDA receptors. Thus, by releasing excitatory and inhibi...

  19. Specifications and schedule of a fuel cell test railway vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, T.; Ogawa, K.; Furuya, T.; Kondo, K.; Yamamoto, T. [Railway Technical Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    This paper described a fuel cell test railway vehicle designed at a research institute in Japan. A proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was used as the on-board power source of the railway vehicle traction system. Use of the fuel cell was expected to reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions as well as overall energy consumption when combined with the use of a regenerative brake. During the experiment, 100 kW class fuel cells were constructed, and pure hydrogen was supplied from a hydrogen cylinder. A composite cylinder made from an aluminum liner wrapped in carbon fiber was selected as a hydrogen storage tank. An existing rapid service train body was modified to test the new system. The train was comprised of a motive bogie with 2 motors, and a trailing bogie without motors. The fuel cells and the traction inverter were installed inside the car, while hydrogen cylinders were installed under the floor to avoid leaks. The motor was operated at the limit of the fuel cell's power of 120 kW. Train performance curves of the test track were measured. A high-speed test drive of the system will be conducted in the near future. Details of the test schedule were provided. 1 ref., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  20. Pathogen-specific regulatory T cells delay the arrival of effector T cells in the lung during early tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiani, Shahin; Tucker-Heard, Glady’s; Kariyone, Ai; Takatsu, Kiyoshi; Urdahl, Kevin B.

    2010-01-01

    The ability of the adaptive immune system to restrict Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is impeded by activated Foxp3+ regulatory T (T reg) cells. The importance of pathogen-specific T reg cells in this process has not been addressed. We show that T reg cell expansion after aerosol Mtb infection does not occur until Mtb is transported to the pulmonary lymph node (pLN), and Mtb-specific T reg cells have an increased propensity to proliferate. Even small numbers of Mtb-specific T reg cells are c...

  1. An experimental study of a non-eutectic mixture of KNO3 and NaNO3 with a melting range for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal energy storage is a key technology for reduced cost solar thermal power generation. This high-temperature application requires storage operation above 100 °C. Possible options are sensible, latent and thermochemical heat storages. A combination of sensible and latent heat storage seems a promising option for thermal energy storage with an increased specific heat capacity. Salt mixtures with a melting range as opposed to a melting point combine the effects of both latent and sensible heat storage. These provide the possibility of utilizing not only latent but in addition sensible heat during the melting and solidification process. The present paper focuses on a binary mixture of 30 wt.% potassium nitrate (KNO3) and 70 wt.% sodium nitrate (NaNO3). The measurement systems include a differential scanning calorimeter, a melting point apparatus, a custom-built adiabatic calorimeter and a lab-scale storage unit. The sample masses ranged from about 20 mg to 156 kg. Tests with the lab-scale storage unit indicate that salt mixtures with a melting range may be successfully utilized in large-scale applications. -- Highlights: • Enhanced capacities are possible by using anhydrous salt mixtures in the melting range. • As a suitable binary salt mixture was sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate identified. • A distribution of the enthalpy of fusion within the melting range was determined. • Cyclic stabilities of the selected salt mixture were measured. • The effect of dimension on the cyclic stability was examined in various test rigs

  2. Multiple Effector Functions Mediated by Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific CD4+ T-Cell Clones

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Philip J.; Sumaroka, Marina; Brander, Christian; Moffett, Howell F.; Boswell, Steven L.; Nguyen, Tam; Sykulev, Yuri; Walker, Bruce D; Rosenberg, Eric S.

    2001-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag-specific T helper cells contribute to effective antiviral control, but their functional characteristics and the precise epitopes targeted by this response remain to be defined. In this study, we generated CD4+ T-cell clones specific for Gag from HIV-1-infected persons with vigorous Gag-specific responses detectable in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Multiple peptides containing T helper epitopes were identifie...

  3. Defining cell-type specificity at the transcriptional level in human disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Wenjun; Greene, Casey S; Eichinger, Felix; Nair, Viji; Hodgin, Jeffrey B.; Bitzer, Markus; Lee, Young-Suk; Zhu, Qian; Kehata, Masami; Li, Min; Jiang, Song; Rastaldi, Maria Pia; Cohen, Clemens D; Troyanskaya, Olga G.; Kretzler, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Cell-lineage–specific transcripts are essential for differentiated tissue function, implicated in hereditary organ failure, and mediate acquired chronic diseases. However, experimental identification of cell-lineage–specific genes in a genome-scale manner is infeasible for most solid human tissues. We developed the first genome-scale method to identify genes with cell-lineage–specific expression, even in lineages not separable by experimental microdissection. Our machine-learning–based approa...

  4. Perforin and Fas in murine gammaherpesvirus-specific CD8(+) T cell control and morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topham, D J; Cardin, R C; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard;

    2001-01-01

    The immune system uses both virus-specific T cells and B cells to control the acute and latent phases of respiratory infection with the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (gammaHV-68). We sought to further define the important effector mechanisms for CD8(+) T cells. First, depletion of the CD4(+) T cells...

  5. Cell type-specific neuroprotective activity of untranslocated prion protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Restelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A key pathogenic role in prion diseases was proposed for a cytosolic form of the prion protein (PrP. However, it is not clear how cytosolic PrP localization influences neuronal viability, with either cytotoxic or anti-apoptotic effects reported in different studies. The cellular mechanism by which PrP is delivered to the cytosol of neurons is also debated, and either retrograde transport from the endoplasmic reticulum or inefficient translocation during biosynthesis has been proposed. We investigated cytosolic PrP biogenesis and effect on cell viability in primary neuronal cultures from different mouse brain regions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mild proteasome inhibition induced accumulation of an untranslocated form of cytosolic PrP in cortical and hippocampal cells, but not in cerebellar granules. A cyclopeptolide that interferes with the correct insertion of the PrP signal sequence into the translocon increased the amount of untranslocated PrP in cortical and hippocampal cells, and induced its synthesis in cerebellar neurons. Untranslocated PrP boosted the resistance of cortical and hippocampal neurons to apoptotic insults but had no effect on cerebellar cells. SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate cell type-dependent differences in the efficiency of PrP translocation, and argue that cytosolic PrP targeting might serve a physiological neuroprotective function.

  6. Towards an understanding of cell-specific functions of signal-dependent transcription factors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Dawn X.; Glass, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to regulate gene expression in a cell-specific manner is a feature of many broadly expressed signal-dependent transcription factors, including nuclear hormone receptors and transcription factors that are activated by cell surface receptors for extracellular signals. As the most plastic cells of the hematopoietic system, macrophages are responsive to a wide spectrum of regulatory molecules and provide a robust model system for investigation of the basis for cell-specific transcript...

  7. Sox17 is essential for the specification of cardiac mesoderm in embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yu; Asakura, Masanori; Inoue, Hironori; Nakamura, Teruya; Sano, Motoaki; Niu, Zhiyv; Chen, Michelle; Schwartz, Robert J.; Schneider, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Early steps for cardiac specification are problematic for the study of mammalian embryos, which has favored using pluripotent cells that recapitulate cardiac myogenesis. Furthermore, circuits governing cardiac specification have relevance to the application of ES cells and other cells for heart repair. In mouse teratocarcinoma cells, canonical Wnts that inhibit heart formation in avian or amphibian embryos and explants activate cardiogenesis, paradoxically. Here, we show that the Wnt/β-cateni...

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC PEPTIDE LIGANDS FOR B-LYMPHOMA CELL AND ITS EFFECT ON TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION AND CELL APOPTOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋良文; 马宪梅; 崔雪梅; 李扬; 王晓民

    2004-01-01

    Objective To search novel method for diagnosis and therapy of B-lymphoma, specific small molecular peptide ligands against binding site of tumor cells were screened and its effects on signal transduction and cell apoptosis were tested. Methods Specific peptide ligands were screened by binding with site of human B lymphoma cell (OC1LY8) using peptide-bead libraries. The identified peptides were characterized with responsible cells by rebinding test. The role of tyrosine phosphorylation of peptide ligand was tested by Western blot;and its apoptosispromoting role was observed by confocal fluorescent microscope. Results Specific peptide ligand was able to bind specifically to site on cell surface and enter into cytoplasm. Tetrameric peptide ligand was able to strongly trigger signal transduction resulting in tyrosine phosphorylation and cellular apoptosis in OC1LY8 cell line.Conclusion Screened peptide ligand can effectively bind with OC1LY8 cell, stimulate cellular tyrosine phosphorylation and induce cellular apoptosis.

  9. Role of T cell receptor affinity in the efficacy and specificity of adoptive T cell therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Stone

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several years, there has been considerable progress in the treatment of cancer using gene modified adoptive T cell therapies. Two approaches have been used, one involving the introduction of a conventional alpha-beta T cell receptor (TCR against a pepMHC cancer antigen, and the second involving introduction of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR consisting of a single-chain antibody as an Fv fragment (scFv linked to transmembrane and signaling domains. In this review, we focus on one aspect of TCR-mediated adoptive T cell therapies, the impact of the affinity of the alpha-beta TCR for the pepMHC cancer antigen on both efficacy and specificity. We discuss the advantages of higher affinity TCRs in mediating potent activity of CD4 T cells. This is balanced with the potential disadvantage of higher affinity TCRs in mediating greater self-reactivity against a wider range of structurally similar antigenic peptides, especially in synergy with the CD8 co-receptor. Both TCR affinity and target selection will influence potential safety issues. We suggest pre-clinical strategies that might be used to examine each TCR for possible on-target and off-target side effects due to self-reactivities, and to adjust TCR affinities accordingly.

  10. Specifically targeted gene therapy for small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C.L.; Zandi, R.; Gjetting, T.;

    2009-01-01

    DNA into malignant cells causing them to die. Since SCLC is a highly disseminated malignancy, the gene therapeutic agent must be administered systemically, obligating a high level of targeting of tumor tissue and the use of delivery vehicles designed for systemic circulation of the therapeutic DNA......Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant disease with poor prognosis. Hence, there is great demand for new therapies that can replace or supplement the current available treatment regimes. Gene therapy constitutes a promising strategy and relies on the principle of introducing exogenous...

  11. HLA-DP specific responses in allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Rutten, Caroline Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Clinical studies demonstrated that HLA-DPB1 mismatched stem cell transplantation (SCT) is associated with a decreased risk of disease relapse and an increased risk of graft versus host disease (GVHD) compared to HLA-DPB1 matched SCT. In T-cell depleted SCT, mismatching of HLA-DPB1 was not associated with an increased risk of severe GVHD, whereas a significant decreased risk of disease relapse was still observed. In this thesis we showed that HLA-DPB1 mismatched allo-SCT followed by donor lymp...

  12. Structural analysis of antigen-specific Ia-bearing regulatory T-cell factors: gel electrophoretic analysis of the antigen-specific augmenting T -cell factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyatani, S; Hiramatsu, K; Nakajima, P B; Owen, F L; Tada, T

    1983-01-01

    An antigen-specific T-cell factor (TaF) that specifically augments the antibody response was purified and biochemically analyzed by NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. Biosynthetically labeled TaF was separated from the Nonidet P-40 extract of T-cell hybridoma FL10, which produces a keyhole limpet hemocyanin-specific TaF, by affinity chromatography either with antigen or with monoclonal anti-I-A antibodies. The material thus obtained was composed of two diffe...

  13. Specific Effects of Synthetic Oligopeptides on Cultured Animal Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franěk, František; Katinger, H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 18, - (2002), s. 155-158. ISSN 8756-7938 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 844.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Oligopeptides * Animal Cells Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.734, year: 2002

  14. The role of auxin in cell specification during arabidopsis embryogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokerse, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Auxin is a structurally simple molecule, yet it elicits many different responses in plants. In Chapter 1 we have reviewed how specificity in the output of auxin signaling could be generated by distinct regulation and the unique properties of the members of the Aux/IAA and ARF transcription factor fa

  15. Programmed death-1 expression on HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells is shaped by epitope specificity, T-cell receptor clonotype usage and antigen load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Henrik N; McGregor, Reuben; McLaren, James E; Ladell, Kristin; Buus, Anette Stryhn; Koofhethile, Catherine; Brener, Jacqui; Chen, Fabian; Riddell, Lynn; Graziano, Luzzi; Klenerman, Paul; Leslie, Alasdair; Buus, Søren; Price, David A; Goulder, Philip

    2014-01-01

    ) clonotypes within individual HIV-1-specific CD8+ T-cell populations was also apparent, independent of clonal dominance hierarchies. Positive correlations were detected between PD-1 expression and plasma viral load, which were reinforced by stratification for epitope sequence stability and dictated by...... effector memory CD8+ T cells. CONCLUSION: Collectively, these data suggest that PD-1 expression on HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells tracks antigen load at the level of epitope specificity and TCR clonotype usage. These findings are important because they provide evidence that PD-1 expression levels are......OBJECTIVES: Although CD8+ T cells play a critical role in the control of HIV-1 infection,their antiviral efficacy can be limited by antigenic variation and immune exhaustion.The latter phenomenon is characterized by the upregulation of multiple inhibitory receptors, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1...

  16. Tumor Antigen Specific Activation of Primary Human T-Cells Expressing a Virally Encoded Chimeric T-Cell Receptor Specific for p185HER2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建民; MichaelSFRIEDMAN; ChristopherMREYNOLDS; MarianneTHUBEN; LeeWILKE; JenniferFULLER; 李桥; ZeligESHHAR; JamesJMULE; KevimTMCDONAGH

    2004-01-01

    We have developed and tested chimeric T-cell receptors (TCR) specific for p185HER2. In these experiments,retroviral vectors expressing the N297 or N29ξ receptors were constructed in pRET6. Amphotropic viral producer cells were established in the GALV-based PG13 packaging cell line. Ficoll purified human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were vitally transduced using an optimized protocol incorporating activation with immobilized anti-CD3/anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies, followed by viral infection in the presence of fibronectin fragment CH296. Transduced cells were co-cultured with human tumor cell lines that overexpress (SK-OV-3) or underexpress (MCF7) p185HER2 to assay for antigen specific immune responses. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells transduced with the N297 or N29ξ chTCR demonstrated HER2-specific antigen responses, as determined by release of Th1 like cytokines, and cellular cytotoxicity assays. Our results support the feasibility of adoptive immunothempy with genetically modified T-cells expressing a chTCR specific for p185HER2.

  17. MEK kinase 1 is a negative regulator of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labuda, Tord; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Rasmussen, Susanne; Bonnesen, Barbara; Karin, Michael; Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Ødum, Niels

    2006-01-01

    in the generation of a virus-specific immune response. Mekk1(DeltaKD) mice challenged with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) showed a fourfold increase in splenic CD8(+) T cell numbers. In contrast, the number of splenic T cells in infected WT mice was only marginally increased. The CD8(+) T cell...... result of increased proliferation, since a significantly higher percentage of virus-specific Mekk1(DeltaKD) CD8(+) T cells incorporated BrdU as compared to virus-specific WT CD8(+) T cells. In contrast, similar levels of apoptosis were detected in Mekk1(DeltaKD) and WT T cells following VSV infection....... These results strongly suggest that MEKK1 plays a negative regulatory role in the expansion of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells in vivo....

  18. T cells expressing CD19-specific Engager Molecules for the Immunotherapy of CD19-positive Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Mireya Paulina Velasquez; David Torres; Kota Iwahori; Sunitha Kakarla; Caroline Arber; Tania Rodriguez-Cruz; Arpad Szoor; Bonifant, Challice L.; Claudia Gerken; Cooper, Laurence J.N.; Xiao-Tong Song; Stephen Gottschalk

    2016-01-01

    T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) or the infusion of bispecific T-cell engagers (BITEs) have shown antitumor activity in humans for CD19-positive malignancies. While BITEs redirect the large reservoir of resident T cells to tumors, CAR T cells rely on significant in vivo expansion to exert antitumor activity. We have shown that it is feasible to modify T cells to secrete solid tumor antigen-specific BITEs, enabling T cells to redirect resident T cells to tumor cells. To ada...

  19. 89 Is Basophil Specific Response to Hymenoptera Venom Related to T Regulatory Cells?

    OpenAIRE

    Kucera, Petr; Hulikova, Katarina; Cvackova, Milada; Planska, Daniela; Riegerova, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    Background The exact mechanism of systemic hypersensitivity to venom is not exactly understood. It is suggested T cells with regulatory potential can downregulate other T cell subsets and effector cells, ex. mast cell or basophils. We focused on relationship of specific basophil reactivity in relationship to proportion of regulatory T cells. Methods Forty-five patients with history of systemic symptoms of allergy to Hymenoptera venom were included. Basophil reactivity before the treatment and...

  20. Bi-specific MHC Heterodimers for Characterization of Cross-reactive T Cells*

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Zu T.; Brehm, Michael A; Daniels, Keith A.; Sigalov, Alexander B.; Selin, Liisa K.; Welsh, Raymond M.; Stern, Lawrence J.

    2010-01-01

    T cell cross-reactivity describes the phenomenon whereby a single T cell can recognize two or more different peptide antigens presented in complex with MHC proteins. Cross-reactive T cells have previously been characterized at the population level by cytokine secretion and MHC tetramer staining assays, but single-cell analysis is difficult or impossible using these methods. In this study, we describe development of a novel peptide-MHC heterodimer specific for cross-reactive T cells. MHC-pepti...

  1. Ionizing radiation affects generation of MART-1-specific cytotoxic T cell responses by dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The human MART-1/Melan-A (MART-1) melanoma tumor antigen is known to be recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and several groups are using this target for clinical immunotherapy. Most approaches use dendritic cells (DCs) that are potent antigen presentation cells for initiating CTL responses. In order for CTL recognition to occur, DCs must display 9-residue antigenic peptides on MHC class I molecules. These peptides are generated by proteasome degradation and then transported through the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface where they stabilize MHC class I expression. Our previous data showed that irradiation inhibits proteasome function and, therefore, we hypothesized that irradiation may inhibit antigen processing and CTL activation, as has been shown for proteasome inhibitors. To study the importance of irradiation effects on DCs, we studied the generation MART-1-specific CTL responses. Preliminary data showed that irradiation of murine bone marrow derived DCs did not affect expression of MHC class I, II, CD80, or CD86, as assessed by flow cytometric analyses 24-hour after irradiation. The effect of irradiation on MART-1 antigen processing by DCs was evaluated using DC transduced with adenovirus MART-1 (AdVMART1). C57BL/6 mice were immunized with AdVMART1 transduced DCs, with and without prior irradiation. IFN-γ production was measured by ELISPOT assays after 10-14 days of immunization. Prior radiation treatment resulted in a significant decrease in MART-1-specific T cell responses. The ability of irradiated and non-irradiated AdVMART1/DC vaccines to protect mice against growth of murine B16 tumors, which endogenously express murine MART-1, was also examined. AdVMART1/DC vaccination protected C57BL/6 mice against challenge with viable B16 melanoma cells while DCs irradiated (10 Gy) prior to AdVMART1 transduction abrogated protection. These results suggest that proteasome inhibition in DCs by irradiation may be a possible pathway in

  2. HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells and viremia: who's in control?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Jansen; D. van Baarle; F. Miedema

    2006-01-01

    It has been proposed that HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells with a central memory phenotype might be involved in controlling HIV replication. Based on recent data (lack of protective effects of HIV-specific CD4+ T-cell responses in acutely infected patients undergoing treatment interruptions; loss of init

  3. Contribution of Herpesvirus Specific CD8 T Cells to Anti-Viral T Cell Response in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Sandalova; Diletta Laccabue; Carolina Boni; Tan, Anthony T.; Katja Fink; Eng Eong Ooi; Robert Chua; Bahar Shafaeddin Schreve; Carlo Ferrari; Antonio Bertoletti

    2010-01-01

    Herpesviruses infect most humans. Their infections can be associated with pathological conditions and significant changes in T cell repertoire but evidences of symbiotic effects of herpesvirus latency have never been demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that HCMV and EBV-specific CD8 T cells contribute to the heterologous anti-viral immune response. Volume of activated/proliferating virus-specific and total CD8 T cells was evaluated in 50 patients with acute viral infections: 20 with HBV, 1...

  4. Planar cell polarity effector gene Intu regulates cell fate-specific differentiation of keratinocytes through the primary cilia

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, D.; Li, L.; Huebner, A; H. Zeng; Guevara, E; Claypool, D J; Liu, A.; Chen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Genes involved in the planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway are essential for a number of developmental processes in mammals, such as convergent extension and ciliogenesis. Tissue-specific PCP effector genes of the PCP signaling pathway are believed to mediate PCP signals in a tissue- and cell type-specific manner. However, how PCP signaling controls the morphogenesis of mammalian tissues remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of inturned (Intu), a tissue-specific PCP...

  5. Specific immunotherapy generates CD8(+) CD196(+) T cells to suppress lung cancer growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Jing; Chen, Huiguo; Wu, Weibin; Li, Xiaojun; Wu, Yonghui; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Kai; Li, Yun; Weng, Yimin; Liao, Hongying; Gu, Lijia

    2016-08-01

    That specific immunotherapy can inhibit cancer growth has been recognized; its efficiency is to be improved. This study aimed to inhibit lung cancer (LC) growth in a mouse model by using an LC-specific vaccination. In this study, a LC mouse model was created by adoptive transplantation with LC cells. The tumor-bearing mice were vaccinated with LC cell extracts plus adjuvant TNBS or adoptive transplantation with specific CD8(+) CD196(+) T cells. The results showed that the vaccination with LC extracts (LCE)/TNBS markedly inhibited the LC growth and induced CD8(+) CD196(+) T cells in LC tissue and the spleen. These CD8(+) CD196(+) T cells proliferated and produce high levels of perforin upon exposure to LCE and specifically induced LC cell apoptosis. Exposure to TNBS induced RAW264.7 cells to produce macrophage inflammatory protein-3α; the latter activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and further induced perforin expression in the CD8(+) CD196(+) T cells. Adoptive transfer with specific CD8(+) CD196(+) T cells suppressed LC growth in mice. In conclusion, immunization with LC extracts and TNBS can induce LC-specific CD8(+) CD196(+) T cells in LC-bearing mice and inhibit LC growth. PMID:26910585

  6. Cooperativity of HIV-Specific Cytolytic CD4 T Cells and CD8 T Cells in Control of HIV Viremia

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Susan; Eller, Michael; Teigler, Jeffrey E.; Maloveste, Sebastien M.; Schultz, Bruce T.; Soghoian, Damien Z.; Lu, Richard; Oster, Alexander F.; Chenine, Agnès-Laurence; Alter, Galit; Dittmer, Ulf; Marovich, Mary; Merlin L Robb; Michael, Nelson L.; Bolton, Diane

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T cells play a pivotal role in the control of chronic viral infections. Recently, nontraditional CD4+ T cell functions beyond helper effects have been described, and a role for cytolytic CD4+ T cells in the control of HIV infection has been suggested. We define here the transcriptional, phenotypic, and functional profiles of HIV-specific cytolytic CD4+ T cells. Fluidigm BioMark and multiparameter flow cytometric analysis of HIV-specific cytolytic CD4+ T cells revealed a distinct transcri...

  7. Induction of Specific CD8+ T Cells against Intracellular Bacteria by CD8+ T-Cell-Oriented Immunization Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshi Nagata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For protection against intracellular bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes, the cellular arm of adaptive immunity is necessary. A variety of immunization methods have been evaluated and are reported to induce specific CD8+ T cells against intracellular bacterial infection. Modified BCG vaccines have been examined to enhance CD8+ T-cell responses. Naked DNA vaccination is a promising strategy to induce CD8+ T cells. In addition to this strategy, live attenuated intracellular bacteria such as Shigella, Salmonella, and Listeria have been utilized as carriers of DNA vaccines in animal models. Vaccination with dendritic cells pulsed with antigenic peptides or the cells introduced antigen genes by virus vectors such as retroviruses is also a powerful strategy. Furthermore, vaccination with recombinant lentivirus has been attempted to induce specific CD8+ T cells. Combinations of these strategies (prime-boost immunization have been studied for the efficient induction of intracellular bacteria-specific CD8+ T cells.

  8. Induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity by the T cell line specific to bacterial peptidoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A T cell line specific for the chemically well-defined peptidoglycan of bacterial cell wall, disaccharide tetrapeptide, was established from Lewis rats immunized with the antigen covalently linked to the autologous rat serum albumin. The antigen specificity was examined with various analogues or derivatives of the peptidoglycan. The cell line was reactive to analogues with the COOH-terminal D-amino acid, but least reactive to those with L-amino acid as COOH terminus. Transferring of the T cell line into X-irradiated normal Lewis rats induced delayed-type hypersensitivity in an antigen specific manner

  9. Daughter-specific transcription factors regulate cell size control in budding yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Di Talia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle.

  10. Tracking antigen-specific T-cells during clinical tolerance induction in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Aslam

    Full Text Available Allergen immunotherapy presents an opportunity to define mechanisms of induction of clinical tolerance in humans. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of changes in T cell responses during immunotherapy, but existing work has largely been based on functional T cell assays. HLA-peptide-tetrameric complexes allow the tracking of antigen-specific T-cell populations based on the presence of specific T-cell receptors and when combined with functional assays allow a closer assessment of the potential roles of T-cell anergy and clonotype evolution. We sought to develop tools to facilitate tracking of antigen-specific T-cell populations during wasp-venom immunotherapy in people with wasp-venom allergy. We first defined dominant immunogenic regions within Ves v 5, a constituent of wasp venom that is known to represent a target antigen for T-cells. We next identified HLA-DRB1*1501 restricted epitopes and used HLA class II tetrameric complexes alongside cytokine responses to Ves v 5 to track T-cell responses during immunotherapy. In contrast to previous reports, we show that there was a significant initial induction of IL-4 producing antigen-specific T-cells within the first 3-5 weeks of immunotherapy which was followed by reduction of circulating effector antigen-specific T-cells despite escalation of wasp-venom dosage. However, there was sustained induction of IL-10-producing and FOXP3 positive antigen-specific T cells. We observed that these IL-10 producing cells could share a common precursor with IL-4-producing T cells specific for the same epitope. Clinical tolerance induction in humans is associated with dynamic changes in frequencies of antigen-specific T-cells, with a marked loss of IL-4-producing T-cells and the acquisition of IL-10-producing and FOXP3-positive antigen-specific CD4+ T-cells that can derive from a common shared precursor to pre-treatment effector T-cells. The development of new approaches to track antigen

  11. Sequence and chromatin determinants of cell-type-specific transcription factor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvey, Aaron; Agius, Phaedra; Noble, William Stafford; Leslie, Christina

    2012-09-01

    Gene regulatory programs in distinct cell types are maintained in large part through the cell-type-specific binding of transcription factors (TFs). The determinants of TF binding include direct DNA sequence preferences, DNA sequence preferences of cofactors, and the local cell-dependent chromatin context. To explore the contribution of DNA sequence signal, histone modifications, and DNase accessibility to cell-type-specific binding, we analyzed 286 ChIP-seq experiments performed by the ENCODE Consortium. This analysis included experiments for 67 transcriptional regulators, 15 of which were profiled in both the GM12878 (lymphoblastoid) and K562 (erythroleukemic) human hematopoietic cell lines. To model TF-bound regions, we trained support vector machines (SVMs) that use flexible k-mer patterns to capture DNA sequence signals more accurately than traditional motif approaches. In addition, we trained SVM spatial chromatin signatures to model local histone modifications and DNase accessibility, obtaining significantly more accurate TF occupancy predictions than simpler approaches. Consistent with previous studies, we find that DNase accessibility can explain cell-line-specific binding for many factors. However, we also find that of the 10 factors with prominent cell-type-specific binding patterns, four display distinct cell-type-specific DNA sequence preferences according to our models. Moreover, for two factors we identify cell-specific binding sites that are accessible in both cell types but bound only in one. For these sites, cell-type-specific sequence models, rather than DNase accessibility, are better able to explain differential binding. Our results suggest that using a single motif for each TF and filtering for chromatin accessible loci is not always sufficient to accurately account for cell-type-specific binding profiles. PMID:22955984

  12. Cell-type specific light-mediated transcript regulation in the multicellular alga Volvox carteri

    OpenAIRE

    Kianianmomeni, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Background The multicellular green alga Volvox carteri makes use of none less than 13 photoreceptors, which are mostly expressed in a cell-type specific manner. This gives reason to believe that trasncriptome pattern of each cell type could change differentially in response to environmental light. Here, the cell-type specific changes of various transcripts from different pathways in response to blue, red and far-red light were analyzed. Results In response to different light qualities, distin...

  13. Cryopreservation of MHC Multimers: Recommendations for Quality Assurance in Detection of Antigen Specific T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hadrup, Sine Reker; Maurer, Dominik; Laske, Karoline; Frøsig, Thomas Mørch; Andersen, Sofie Ramskov; Britten, Cedrik M.; Sjoerd H van der Burg; Walter, Steffen; Gouttefangeas, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence-labeled peptide-MHC class I multimers serve as ideal tools for the detection of antigen-specific T cells by flow cytometry, enabling functional and phenotypical characterization of specific T cells at the single cell level. While this technique offers a number of unique advantages, MHC multimer reagents can be difficult to handle in terms of stability and quality assurance. The stability of a given fluorescence-labeled MHC multimer complex depends on both the stability of the pep...

  14. The roles of ERAS during cell lineage specification of mouse early embryonic development

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zhen-Ao; Yu, Yang; Ma, Huai-Xiao; Wang, Xiao-Xiao; Lu, Xukun; Zhai, Yanhua; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Wang, Haibin; Li, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Eras encodes a Ras-like GTPase protein that was originally identified as an embryonic stem cell-specific Ras. ERAS has been known to be required for the growth of embryonic stem cells and stimulates somatic cell reprogramming, suggesting its roles on mouse early embryonic development. We now report a dynamic expression pattern of Eras during mouse peri-implantation development: its expression increases at the blastocyst stage, and specifically decreases in E7.5 mesoderm. In accordance with it...

  15. Differential Effect of Culture Temperature and Specific Growth Rate on CHO Cell Behavior in Chemostat Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara, Mauricio; Becerra, Silvana; Berrios, Julio; Osses, Nelson; Reyes, Juan; Rodríguez-Moyá, María; Gonzalez, Ramon; Altamirano, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Mild hypothermia condition in mammalian cell culture technology has been one of the main focuses of research for the development of breeding strategies to maximize productivity of these production systems. Despite the large number of studies that show positive effects of mild hypothermia on specific productivity of r-proteins, no experimental approach has addressed the indirect effect of lower temperatures on specific cell growth rate, nor how this condition possibly affects less specific pro...

  16. Transcriptional Profiling of Ectoderm Specification to Keratinocyte Fate in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Mafalda Baptista Tadeu; Samantha Lin; Lin Hou; Lisa Chung; Mei Zhong; Hongyu Zhao; Valerie Horsley

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have shed light into the processes that regulate epidermal specification and homeostasis. We previously showed that a broad-spectrum γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT promoted early keratinocyte specification in human embryonic stem cells triggered to undergo ectoderm specification. Here, we show that DAPT accelerates human embryonic stem cell differentiation and induces expression of the ectoderm protein AP2. Furthermore, we utilize RNA sequencing to identify severa...

  17. Cell type-specific interactions of transcription factors with a housekeeping promoter in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Stapleton, G; Somma, M P; Lavia, P

    1993-01-01

    Mammalian housekeeping promoters represent a class of regulatory elements different from those of tissues-specific genes, lacking a TATA box and associated with CG-rich DNA. We have compared the organization of the housekeeping Htf9 promoter in different cell types by genomic footprinting. The sites of in vivo occupancy clearly reflected local combinations of tissue-specific and ubiquitous binding factors. The flexibility of the Htf9 promoter in acting as the target of cell-specific combinati...

  18. Pancreatic islet-specific T-cell clones from nonobese diabetic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Haskins, K; Portas, M; Bergman, B.; Lafferty, K; Bradley, B

    1989-01-01

    We have produced a panel of islet-specific T-cell clones from nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. These clones proliferate and make interleukin 2 in an antigen-specific manner in response to NOD antigen-presenting cells and islet cells. Most of the clones respond to islet-cell antigen from different mouse strains but only in the presence of antigen-presenting cells bearing the class II major histocompatibility complex of the NOD mouse. In vivo, the clones mediate the destruction of islet, but not p...

  19. Control of renin secretion from rat juxtaglomerular cells by cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulla G; Jensen, Boye L; Sethi, Shala;

    2002-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that cGMP stimulates renin release through inhibition of the cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) in isolated rat juxtaglomerular (JG) cells. In addition, we assessed the involvement of PDE4 in JG-cell function. JG cells expressed PDE3A and PDE3B, and the PDE3 inhibit...

  20. Contribution of regulatory T cells to alleviation of experimental allergic asthma after specific immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maazi, H.; Shirinbak, S.; Willart, M.; Hammad, H. M.; Cabanski, M.; Boon, L.; Ganesh, V.; Baru, A. M.; Hansen, G.; Lambrecht, B. N.; Sparwasser, T.; Nawijn, M. C.; van Oosterhout, A. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) has been used since 1911, yet its mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. There is evidence indicating that CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are induced during SIT in allergic patients. However, the contribution of these cells to SIT h

  1. A NOVel ELISPOT assay to quantify HLA-specific B cells in HLA-immunized individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidt, S.; Roelen, D.L.; Vaal, Y.J. de; Kester, M.G.; Eijsink, C.; Thomas, S.; Besouw, N.M. van; Volk, H.D.; Weimar, W.; Claas, F.H.; Mulder, A.

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of the humoral alloimmune response is generally achieved by measuring serum HLA antibodies, which provides no information about the cells involved in the humoral immune response. Therefore, we have developed an HLA-specific B-cell ELISPOT assay allowing for quantification of B cells p

  2. Antigen-specific T cell activation independently of the MHC: chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-redirected T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinrich eAbken

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive T cell therapy has recently shown powerful in initiating a lasting anti-tumor response with spectacular therapeutic success in some cases. Specific T cell therapy, however, is limited since a number of cancer cells are not recognized by T cells due to various mechanisms including the limited availability of tumor-specific T cells and deficiencies in antigen processing or major histocompatibility complex (MHC expression of cancer cells. To make adoptive cell therapy applicable for the broad variety of cancer entities, patient's T cells are engineered ex vivo with pre-defined specificity by a recombinant chimeric antigen receptor (CAR which consists in the extracellular part of an antibody-derived domain for binding with a tumor-associated antigen and in the intracellular part of a TCR-derived signaling moiety for T cell activation. The specificity of CAR mediated T cell recognition is defined by the antibody domain, is independent of MHC presentation and can be extended to any target for which an antibody is available. We discuss the advantages and limitations of MHC-independent T cell targeting by an engineered CAR and review most significant progress recently made in early stage clinical trials to treat cancer.

  3. Studies on thyroglobulin-specific suppressor T cell function in autoimmune thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T cell regulation of the generation of thyroglobulin plaque-forming cells (Tg PFC) and protein A plaque-forming cells (Prot A PFC) was investigated using lymphocytes from patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. T and B cell mixed cultures (T-B MC) were carried out without mitogenic or antigenic stimulation to identify physiological T cell effects in the system. Tg PFC were found in 8 (44%) of 18 patients who had high titers of thyroglobulin antibody in their sera. Tg-specific and nonspecific immunoregulation by T cells from patients and normal subjects was studied using B cells from these eight patients in the T-B MC system. Remarkably lower values of Tg PFC induction compared to Prot A PFC induction were found after T cell addition. Normal T cells inhibited Tg PFC induction, but patient T cells did not, while the same extent of helper effects were found on Prot A PFC induction by the addition of patient and normal T cells. Irradiation (1500 rads) of T cells from patients and normal subjects significantly enhanced both Tg PFC and Prot A PFC induction. Thus, Tg-specific suppressor T cells are present in all normal subjects as part of the radiosensitive suppressor T cell subset. The increase in Tg-PFC caused by irradiation-induced inhibition of Tg-specific suppressor T cell function was significantly greater in normal subjects than in patients. Histamine type 2 receptor-bearing T cells inhibited Prot A PFC induction, but not Tg PFC induction, in the autologous T-B MC system. No Tg PFC were induced from normal B cells in any combination with untreated T cells, irradiated T cells, or histamine type 2 receptor-negative T cells from patients or normal subjects

  4. Human rotavirus specific T cells: quantification by ELISPOT and expression of homing receptors on CD4+ T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an intracellular cytokine assay, we recently showed that the frequencies of rotavirus (RV)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells secreting INFγ, circulating in RV infected and healthy adults, are very low compared to the frequencies of circulating cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactive T cells in comparable individuals. In children with acute RV infection, these T cells were barely or not detectable. In the present study, an ELISPOT assay enabled detection of circulating RV-specific INFγ-secreting cells in children with RV diarrhea but not in children with non-RV diarrhea without evidence of a previous RV infection. Using microbead-enriched CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, IFNγ-secreting RV-specific CD8+ but not CD4+ T cells were detected in recently infected children. Using the same approach, both CD4+ and CD8+ RV-specific T cells were detected in healthy adults. Furthermore, stimulation of purified subsets of PBMC that express lymphocyte homing receptors demonstrated that RV-specific INFγ-secreting CD4+ T cells from adult volunteers preferentially express the intestinal homing receptor α4β7, but not the peripheral lymph node homing receptor L-selectin. In contrast, CMV-specific INFγ-secreting CD4+ T cells preferentially express L-selectin but not α4β7. These results suggest that the expression of homing receptors on virus-specific T cells depends on the organ where these cells were originally stimulated and that their capacity to secrete INFγ is independent of the expression of these homing receptors

  5. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy: T-regulatory cells and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Johan; Blaser, Kurt; Akdis, Cezmi A; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2006-05-01

    Activation-induced cell death, anergy, or immune response modulation by regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are essential mechanisms of peripheral T-cell tolerance. Genetic predisposition and environmental instructions tune thresholds for the activation of T cells, other inflammatory cells, and resident tissue cells in allergic diseases. Skewing allergen-specific effector T cells to a Treg-cell phenotype seems to be crucial in maintaining a healthy immune response to allergens and successful allergen-specific immunotherapy. The Treg-cell response is characterized by an abolished allergen-specific T-cell proliferation and the suppressed secretion of T-helper 1- and T-helper 2-type cytokines. Suppressed proliferative and cytokine responses against allergens are induced by multiple suppressor factors, including cytokines such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), and cell surface molecules such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, programmed death-1, and histamine receptor 2. The increased levels of IL-10 and TGF-beta produced by Treg cells potently suppress IgE production while simultaneously increasing the production of noninflammatory isotypes IgG4 and IgA, respectively. In addition, Treg cells directly or indirectly suppress the activity of effector cells of allergic inflammation, such as mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils. In conclusion, peripheral tolerance to allergens is controlled by multiple active suppression mechanisms on T cells, regulation of antibody isotypes, and suppression of effector cells. The application of current knowledge of Treg cells and related mechanisms of peripheral tolerance may soon lead to more rational and safer approaches to the prevention and cure of allergic disease. PMID:16701141

  6. T helper cell subsets specific for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah K Bayes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We set out to determine the magnitude of antigen-specific memory T helper cell responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in healthy humans and patients with cystic fibrosis. METHODS: Peripheral blood human memory CD4(+ T cells were co-cultured with dendritic cells that had been infected with different strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The T helper response was determined by measuring proliferation, immunoassay of cytokine output, and immunostaining of intracellular cytokines. RESULTS: Healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis had robust antigen-specific memory CD4(+ T cell responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa that not only contained a Th1 and Th17 component but also Th22 cells. In contrast to previous descriptions of human Th22 cells, these Pseudomonal-specific Th22 cells lacked the skin homing markers CCR4 or CCR10, although were CCR6(+. Healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis had similar levels of Th22 cells, but the patient group had significantly fewer Th17 cells in peripheral blood. CONCLUSIONS: Th22 cells specific to Pseudomonas aeruginosa are induced in both healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis. Along with Th17 cells, they may play an important role in the pulmonary response to this microbe in patients with cystic fibrosis and other conditions.

  7. Contribution of distinct homeodomain DNA binding specificities to Drosophila embryonic mesodermal cell-specific gene expression programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W Busser

    Full Text Available Homeodomain (HD proteins are a large family of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors (TFs having diverse developmental functions, often acting within the same cell types, yet many members of this family paradoxically recognize similar DNA sequences. Thus, with multiple family members having the potential to recognize the same DNA sequences in cis-regulatory elements, it is difficult to ascertain the role of an individual HD or a subclass of HDs in mediating a particular developmental function. To investigate this problem, we focused our studies on the Drosophila embryonic mesoderm where HD TFs are required to establish not only segmental identities (such as the Hox TFs, but also tissue and cell fate specification and differentiation (such as the NK-2 HDs, Six HDs and identity HDs (I-HDs. Here we utilized the complete spectrum of DNA binding specificities determined by protein binding microarrays (PBMs for a diverse collection of HDs to modify the nucleotide sequences of numerous mesodermal enhancers to be recognized by either no or a single subclass of HDs, and subsequently assayed the consequences of these changes on enhancer function in transgenic reporter assays. These studies show that individual mesodermal enhancers receive separate transcriptional input from both I-HD and Hox subclasses of HDs. In addition, we demonstrate that enhancers regulating upstream components of the mesodermal regulatory network are targeted by the Six class of HDs. Finally, we establish the necessity of NK-2 HD binding sequences to activate gene expression in multiple mesodermal tissues, supporting a potential role for the NK-2 HD TF Tinman (Tin as a pioneer factor that cooperates with other factors to regulate cell-specific gene expression programs. Collectively, these results underscore the critical role played by HDs of multiple subclasses in inducing the unique genetic programs of individual mesodermal cells, and in coordinating the gene regulatory

  8. Specific polar subpopulations of astral microtubules control spindle orientation and symmetric neural stem cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Bermúdez, Felipe; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Huttner, Wieland B

    2014-01-01

    Mitotic spindle orientation is crucial for symmetric vs asymmetric cell division and depends on astral microtubules. Here, we show that distinct subpopulations of astral microtubules exist, which have differential functions in regulating spindle orientation and division symmetry. Specifically, in polarized stem cells of developing mouse neocortex, astral microtubules reaching the apical and basal cell cortex, but not those reaching the central cell cortex, are more abundant in symmetrically than asymmetrically dividing cells and reduce spindle orientation variability. This promotes symmetric divisions by maintaining an apico-basal cleavage plane. The greater abundance of apical/basal astrals depends on a higher concentration, at the basal cell cortex, of LGN, a known spindle-cell cortex linker. Furthermore, newly developed specific microtubule perturbations that selectively decrease apical/basal astrals recapitulate the symmetric-to-asymmetric division switch and suffice to increase neurogenesis in vivo. Thus, our study identifies a novel link between cell polarity, astral microtubules, and spindle orientation in morphogenesis. PMID:24996848

  9. A Good Manufacturing Practice procedure to engineer donor virus-specific T cells into potent anti-leukemic effector cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loenen, Marleen M; de Boer, Renate; van Liempt, Ellis; Meij, Pauline; Jedema, Inge; Falkenburg, J H Frederik; Heemskerk, Mirjam H M

    2014-04-01

    A sequential, two-step procedure in which T-cell-depleted allogeneic stem cell transplantation is followed by treatment with donor lymphocyte infusion at 6 months can significantly reduce the risk and severity of graft-versus-host disease, with postponed induction of the beneficial graft-versus-leukemia effect. However, patients with high-risk leukemia have a substantial risk of relapse early after transplantation, at a time when administration of donor lymphocytes has a high likelihood of resulting in graft-versus-host disease, disturbing a favorable balance between the graft-versus-leukemia effect and graft-versus-host disease. New therapeutic modalities are, therefore, required to allow early administration of T cells capable of exerting a graft-versus-leukemia effect without causing graft-versus-host disease. Here we describe the isolation of virus-specific T cells using Streptamer-based isolation technology and subsequent transfer of the minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1-specific T-cell receptor using retroviral vectors. Isolation of virus-specific T cells and subsequent transduction with HA-1-T-cell receptor resulted in rapid in vitro generation of highly pure, dual-specific T cells with potent anti-leukemic reactivity. Due to the short production procedure of only 10-14 days and the defined specificity of the T cells, administration of virus-specific T cells transduced with the HA-1-T-cell receptor as early as 8 weeks after allogeneic stem cell transplantation is feasible. (This clinical trial is registered at www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu as EudraCT number 2010-024625-20). PMID:24334296

  10. Tissue-specific B-cell dysfunction and generalized memory B-cell loss during acute SIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Peruchon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary HIV-infected patients display severe and irreversible damage to different blood B-cell subsets which is not restored by highly efficient anti-retroviral therapy (HAART. Because longitudinal investigations of primary HIV-infection is limited by the availability of lymphoid organs, we studied the tissue-specific B-cell dysfunctions in acutely simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV mac251-infected Cynomolgus macaques. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Experiments were performed on three groups of macaques infected for 14, 21 or 28 days and on three groups of animals treated with HAART for two-weeks either initiated at 4 h, 7 or 14 days post-infection (p.i.. We have simultaneously compared changes in B-cell phenotypes and functions and tissue organization of B-cell areas in various lymphoid organs. We showed that SIV induced a steady decline in SIgG-expressing memory (SIgD(-CD27(+ B-cells in spleen and lymph nodes during the first 4 weeks of infection, concomitant to selective homing/sequestration of B-cells to the small intestine and spleen. SIV non-specific Ig production was transiently increased before D14p.i., whereas SIV-specific Ig production was only detectable after D14p.i., coinciding with the presence of CD8(+ T-cells and IgG-expressing plasma cells within germinal centres. Transient B-cell apoptosis on D14p.i. and commitment to terminal differentiation contributed to memory B-cell loss. HAART abrogated B-cell apoptosis, homing to the small intestine and SIV-specific Ig production but had minimal effect on early Ig production, increased B-cell proportions in spleen and loss of memory B-cells. Therefore, virus-B-cell interactions and SIV-induced inflammatory cytokines may differently contribute to early B-cell dysfunction and impaired SIV/HIV-specific antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: These data establish tissue-specific impairments in B-cell trafficking and functions and a generalized and steady memory B-cell loss in secondary lymphoid

  11. T-cell libraries allow simple parallel generation of multiple peptide-specific human T-cell clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theaker, Sarah M.; Rius, Cristina; Greenshields-Watson, Alexander; Lloyd, Angharad; Trimby, Andrew; Fuller, Anna; Miles, John J.; Cole, David K.; Peakman, Mark; Sewell, Andrew K.; Dolton, Garry

    2016-01-01

    Isolation of peptide-specific T-cell clones is highly desirable for determining the role of T-cells in human disease, as well as for the development of therapies and diagnostics. However, generation of monoclonal T-cells with the required specificity is challenging and time-consuming. Here we describe a library-based strategy for the simple parallel detection and isolation of multiple peptide-specific human T-cell clones from CD8+ or CD4+ polyclonal T-cell populations. T-cells were first amplified by CD3/CD28 microbeads in a 96U-well library format, prior to screening for desired peptide recognition. T-cells from peptide-reactive wells were then subjected to cytokine-mediated enrichment followed by single-cell cloning, with the entire process from sample to validated clone taking as little as 6 weeks. Overall, T-cell libraries represent an efficient and relatively rapid tool for the generation of peptide-specific T-cell clones, with applications shown here in infectious disease (Epstein–Barr virus, influenza A, and Ebola virus), autoimmunity (type 1 diabetes) and cancer. PMID:26826277

  12. The role of virus-specific human T cells in influenza A virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Jing; 管静

    2011-01-01

    Influenza A virus infection is a major cause of human morbidity and mortality. T cell immunity is believed to play critical roles for host defenses against influenza A infection. Once intracellular influenza A infection is established, viral clearance is mainly dependent on virus-specific CD8+ T cells. CD4+ T cells are important for adaptive immunity to natural influenza A infection or vaccination by providing help to B cells for antibody production and also providing help...

  13. Cell-type-specific control elements of the lymphotropic papovavirus enhancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Erselius, J R; Jostes, B; Hatzopoulos, A K; Mosthaf, L; Gruss, P

    1990-01-01

    Lymphotropic papovavirus (LPV) exhibits a highly restricted host range, in which only cells of primate B-lymphocyte origin are permissive for infection. Its enhancer element contributes to this tropism, since transcriptional potentiation is confined to cells of the hematopoietic lineage. Nuclear extracts from B and T cells, but not from HeLa cells, contain protein factors that interact specifically with the LPV 63-base-pair enhancer repeat, as demonstrated by DNase I footprinting and gel reta...

  14. PROMOTERS WITH CANCER CELL-SPECIFIC ACTIVITY FOR MELANOMA GENE THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Pleshkan, V.; Alekseenko, I.; Zinovyeva, M.; Vinogradova, T.; Sverdlov, E.

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive tumors. It develops from pigment-forming cells (melanocytes) and results in a high number of lethal outcomes. The use of genetic constructs with the ability to specifically kill melanoma cells, but not normal cells, might increase the lifespan of patients, as well as improve their quality of life. One of the methods to achieve a selective impact for therapeutic genes on cancer cells is to utilize a transcriptional control mechanism using promoters that a...

  15. Cumulus-specific genes are transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer in a mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether four cumulus-specific genes: follicular stimulating hormone receptor (FSHr), hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2), prostaglandin synthase 2 (Ptgs2) and steroidogenic acute regulator protein (Star), were correctly reprogrammed to be transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a murine model. Cumulus cells of C57×CBA F1 female mouse were injected into enucleated oocytes, followed by activation in 10 μmol/L strontium chloride for 5 h and subsequent in vitro culture up to the blastocyst stage. Expression of cumulus-specific genes in SCNT-derived embryos at 2-cell, 4-cell and day 4.5 blastocyst stages was compared with corresponding in vivo fertilized embryos by real-time PCR. It was demonstrated that immediately after the first cell cycle, SCNT-derived 2-cell stage embryos did not express all four cumulus-specific genes, which continually remained silent at the 4-cell and blastocyst stages. It is therefore concluded that all four cumulus-specific genes were correctly reprogrammed to be silent following nuclear transfer with cumulus donor cells in the mouse model. This would imply that the poor preimplantation developmental competence of SCNT embryos derived from cumulus cells is due to incomplete reprogramming of other embryonic genes, rather than cumulus-specific genes.

  16. Kidney specific protein-positive cells derived from embryonic stem cells reproduce tubular structures in vitro and differentiate into renal tubular cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji Morizane

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells have the ability to differentiate into various organs and tissues, and are regarded as new tools for the elucidation of disease mechanisms as well as sources for regenerative therapies. However, a method of inducing organ-specific cells from pluripotent stem cells is urgently needed. Although many scientists have been developing methods to induce various organ-specific cells from pluripotent stem cells, renal lineage cells have yet to be induced in vitro because of the complexity of kidney structures and the diversity of kidney-component cells. Here, we describe a method of inducing renal tubular cells from mouse embryonic stem cells via the cell purification of kidney specific protein (KSP-positive cells using an anti-KSP antibody. The global gene expression profiles of KSP-positive cells derived from ES cells exhibited characteristics similar to those of cells in the developing kidney, and KSP-positive cells had the capacity to form tubular structures resembling renal tubular cells when grown in a 3D culture in Matrigel. Moreover, our results indicated that KSP-positive cells acquired the characteristics of each segment of renal tubular cells through tubular formation when stimulated with Wnt4. This method is an important step toward kidney disease research using pluripotent stem cells, and the development of kidney regeneration therapies.

  17. Preparation of antisera specific for human B cells by immunization of rabbits with immune complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three rabbit antisera are described which are specific without absorption (titer 1:100) for separated human B cells, as measured by complement and non-complement fixing assays. The method of production of these sera involved injections of rabbits with precipitin lines formed between 10μ1 of three separate detergent solubilized membrane preparations and 4μ1 aliquots of rabbit antisera to human B cells. In addition to being B cell specific, the three sera block the MLC reaction, inhibit aggregated IgG binding to B cells, and show differential degrees of B cell lysis when tested on a panel of separated B and T cells. These and other properties suggest that the target specificities of the antibodies are the human equivalent of the murine Ia antigens. (author)

  18. Design of High-Specificity Nanocarriers by Exploiting Non-Equilibrium Effects in Cancer Cell Targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsekouras

    Full Text Available Although targeting of cancer cells using drug-delivering nanocarriers holds promise for improving therapeutic agent specificity, the strategy of maximizing ligand affinity for receptors overexpressed on cancer cells is suboptimal. To determine design principles that maximize nanocarrier specificity for cancer cells, we studied a generalized kinetics-based theoretical model of nanocarriers with one or more ligands that specifically bind these overexpressed receptors. We show that kinetics inherent to the system play an important role in determining specificity and can in fact be exploited to attain orders of magnitude improvement in specificity. In contrast to the current trend of therapeutic design, we show that these specificity increases can generally be achieved by a combination of low rates of endocytosis and nanocarriers with multiple low-affinity ligands. These results are broadly robust across endocytosis mechanisms and drug-delivery protocols, suggesting the need for a paradigm shift in receptor-targeted drug-delivery design.

  19. Neuroantigen-specific autoregulatory CD8+ T cells inhibit autoimmune demyelination through modulation of dendritic cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh P Kashi

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is a well-established murine model of multiple sclerosis, an immune-mediated demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS. We have previously shown that CNS-specific CD8+ T cells (CNS-CD8+ ameliorate EAE, at least in part through modulation of CNS-specific CD4+ T cell responses. In this study, we show that CNS-CD8+ also modulate the function of CD11c+ dendritic cells (DC, but not other APCs such as CD11b+ monocytes or B220+ B cells. DC from mice receiving either myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific CD8+ (MOG-CD8+ or proteolipid protein-specific CD8+ (PLP-CD8+ T cells were rendered inefficient in priming T cell responses from naïve CD4+ T cells (OT-II or supporting recall responses from CNS-specific CD4+ T cells. CNS-CD8+ did not alter DC subset distribution or MHC class II and CD86 expression, suggesting that DC maturation was not affected. However, the cytokine profile of DC from CNS-CD8+ recipients showed lower IL-12 and higher IL-10 production. These functions were not modulated in the absence of immunization with CD8-cognate antigen, suggesting an antigen-specific mechanism likely requiring CNS-CD8-DC interaction. Interestingly, blockade of IL-10 in vitro rescued CD4+ proliferation and in vivo expression of IL-10 was necessary for the suppression of EAE by MOG-CD8+. These studies demonstrate a complex interplay between CNS-specific CD8+ T cells, DC and pathogenic CD4+ T cells, with important implications for therapeutic interventions in this disease.

  20. Sleeping Beauty system to redirect T-cell specificity for human applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Sourindra; Huls, Helen; Singh, Harjeet; Dawson, Margaret; Figliola, Matthew; Olivares, Simon; Rao, Pullavathi; Jue, Yi; Multani, Asha; Yang, Ge; Zhang, Ling; Kellar, Denise; Ang, Sonny; Torikai, Hiroki; Rabinovich, Brian; Lee, Dean A.; Kebriaei, Partow; Hackett, Perry; Champlin, Richard E.; Cooper, Laurence J.N.

    2013-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon/transposase DNA plasmid system is used to genetically modify cells for long-term transgene expression. We adapted the SB system for human application and generated T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for CD19. Electro-transfer of CD19-specific SB DNA plasmids in PBMC and propagation on CD19+ artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC) was used to numerically expand CD3+ T cells expressing CAR. By Day 28 of co-culture >90% of expanded CD3+ T cells expressed CAR. CAR+ T cells specifically killed CD19+ target cells and consisted of subsets expressing biomarkers consistent with central memory, ieffector memory, and effector phenotypes. CAR+ T cells contracted numerically in the absence of CD19 antigen, did not express SB11 transposase, and maintained a polyclonal TCRVα and TCRVβ repertoire. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH) revealed that CAR+ T cells preserved telomere length. Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) and FISH showed CAR transposon integrated on average once per T-cell genome. CAR+ T cells in peripheral blood can be detected by Q-PCR at a sensitivity of 0.01%. These findings lay the groundwork as the basis of our first-in-human clinical trials of the non-viral SB system for the investigational treatment of CD19+ B-cell malignancies (currently under three INDs #: 14193, 14577, and 14739). PMID:23377665

  1. L1 Cell Adhesion Molecule-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Redirected Human T Cells Exhibit Specific and Efficient Antitumor Activity against Human Ovarian Cancer in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hong

    Full Text Available New therapeutic modalities are needed for ovarian cancer, the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated the impressive therapeutic potential of adoptive therapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-redirected T cells to target hematological cancers, and emerging studies suggest a similar impact may be achieved for solid cancers. We sought determine whether genetically-modified T cells targeting the CE7-epitope of L1-CAM, a cell adhesion molecule aberrantly expressed in several cancers, have promise as an immunotherapy for ovarian cancer, first demonstrating that L1-CAM was highly over-expressed on a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines, primary ovarian tumor tissue specimens, and ascites-derived primary cancer cells. Human central memory derived T cells (TCM were then genetically modified to express an anti-L1-CAM CAR (CE7R, which directed effector function upon tumor antigen stimulation as assessed by in vitro cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity assays. We also found that CE7R+ T cells were able to target primary ovarian cancer cells. Intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of CE7R+ TCM induced a significant regression of i.p. established SK-OV-3 xenograft tumors in mice, inhibited ascites formation, and conferred a significant survival advantage compared with control-treated animals. Taken together, these studies indicate that adoptive transfer of L1-CAM-specific CE7R+ T cells may offer a novel and effective immunotherapy strategy for advanced ovarian cancer.

  2. Heterogeneous reactions of HNO3(g) + NaCl(s) yields HCl(g) + NaNO3(s) and N2O5(g) + NaCl(s) yields ClNO2(g) + NaNO3(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Ming-Taun; Timonen, Raimo S.; Keyser, Leon F.; Yung, Yuk L.

    1995-01-01

    The heterogeneous reactions of HNO3(g) + NaCl(s) yields HCl(g) + NaNO3(s) (eq 1) and N2O5(g) + NaCl(s) yields ClNO2(g) + NaNO3(S) (eq 2) were investigated over the temperature range 223-296 K in a flow-tube reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Either a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) or an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer (EIMS) was used to provide suitable detection sensitivity and selectivity. In order to mimic atmospheric conditions, partial pressures of HNO3 and N2O5 in the range 6 x 10(exp -8) - 2 x 10(exp -6) Torr were used. Granule sizes and surface roughness of the solid NaCl substrates were determined by using a scanning electron microscope. For dry NaCl substrates, decay rates of HNO3 were used to obtain gamma(1) = 0.013 +/- 0.004 (1sigma) at 296 K and > 0.008 at 223 K, respectively. The error quoted is the statistical error. After all corrections were made, the overall error, including systematic error, was estimated to be about a factor of 2. HCl was found to be the sole gas-phase product of reaction 1. The mechanism changed from heterogeneous reaction to predominantly physical adsorption when the reactor was cooled from 296 to 223 K. For reaction 2 using dry salts, gamma(2) was found to be less than 1.0 x 10(exp -4) at both 223 and 296 K. The gas-phase reaction product was identified as ClNO2 in previous studies using an infrared spectrometer. An enhancement in reaction probability was observed if water was not completely removed from salt surfaces, probably due to the reaction of N2O5(g) + H2O(s) yields 2HNO3(g). Our results are compared with previous literature values obtained using different experimental techniques and conditions. The implications of the present results for the enhancement of the hydrogen chloride column density in the lower stratosphere after the El Chichon volcanic eruption and for the chemistry of HCl and HNO3 in the marine troposphere are discussed.

  3. Dual-specificity anti-sigma factor reinforces control of cell-type specific gene expression in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Mónica; Gao, JinXin; Bota, João; Bate, Ashley R; Meisner, Jeffrey; Eichenberger, Patrick; Moran, Charles P; Henriques, Adriano O

    2015-04-01

    Gene expression during spore development in Bacillus subtilis is controlled by cell type-specific RNA polymerase sigma factors. σFand σE control early stages of development in the forespore and the mother cell, respectively. When, at an intermediate stage in development, the mother cell engulfs the forespore, σF is replaced by σG and σE is replaced by σK. The anti-sigma factor CsfB is produced under the control of σF and binds to and inhibits the auto-regulatory σG, but not σF. A position in region 2.1, occupied by an asparagine in σG and by a glutamate in οF, is sufficient for CsfB discrimination of the two sigmas, and allows it to delay the early to late switch in forespore gene expression. We now show that following engulfment completion, csfB is switched on in the mother cell under the control of σK and that CsfB binds to and inhibits σE but not σK, possibly to facilitate the switch from early to late gene expression. We show that a position in region 2.3 occupied by a conserved asparagine in σE and by a conserved glutamate in σK suffices for discrimination by CsfB. We also show that CsfB prevents activation of σG in the mother cell and the premature σG-dependent activation of σK. Thus, CsfB establishes negative feedback loops that curtail the activity of σE and prevent the ectopic activation of σG in the mother cell. The capacity of CsfB to directly block σE activity may also explain how CsfB plays a role as one of the several mechanisms that prevent σE activation in the forespore. Thus the capacity of CsfB to differentiate between the highly similar σF/σG and σE/σK pairs allows it to rinforce the cell-type specificity of these sigma factors and the transition from early to late development in B. subtilis, and possibly in all sporeformers that encode a CsfB orthologue. PMID:25835496

  4. Vaccination Against Human Papilloma Viruses Leads to a Favorable Cytokine Profile of Specific T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckau, Stefanie; Wehrs, Tim P; Brandau, Sven; Horn, Peter A; Lindemann, Monika

    2016-10-01

    Several human papilloma viruses (HPV) are known to cause malignant transformation. The high-risk type HPV 16 is associated with cervical carcinoma and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. HPV 16-positive tumor cells exclusively carry the HPV 16 oncogenes E6 and E7. These oncogenes appear as excellent targets for an adoptive immunotherapy. We here addressed the question whether specific T cells from HPV-vaccinated healthy volunteers could be especially suitable for an HPV-specific cellular immunotherapy. Of note, vaccines contain HPV 16. To quantify HPV 16 E6-specific and E7-specific cells, enzyme-linked immunospot assays to measure interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (Th1-Th2 balance) and the secretion of the cytotoxic molecules granzyme B and perforin have been optimized. The frequency of peripheral blood mononuclear cells secreting IFN-γ and perforin was significantly (P<0.05) increased in HPV-vaccinated versus nonvaccinated volunteers. Overall, however, the median frequency of HPV 16-specific cells with a favorable secretion profile (Th1 balanced and cytotoxic) was low even in vaccinated volunteers (IFN-γ: 0.0018% and 0.0023%, perforin: 0.01% and 0.0087% for E6-specific and E7-specific cells, respectively). But some vaccinated volunteers showed up to 0.1% HPV-specific, IFN-γ or perforin-secreting cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that vaccinated volunteers are superior to nonvaccinated donors for HPV-specific cellular cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27548034

  5. Methodologies for the analysis of HCV-specific CD4+ T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha eLokhande

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Virus-specific CD4+ T cells play a major role in viral infections, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV. Viral clearance is associated with vigorous and multispecific CD4+ T cell responses, while chronic infection has been shown to be associated with weak or absent T cell responses. Most of these studies have used functional assays to analyse virus-specific CD4+ T cell responses; however, these and other detection methods have various limitations. Therefore, the important question of whether virus-specific CD4+ T cells are completely absent or primarily impaired in specific effector functions during chronic infection, has yet to be analysed in detail. A novel assay, in which virus-specific CD4+ T cell frequencies can be determined by de novo CD154 (CD40 ligand expression in response to viral antigens, can help to overcome some of the limitations of functional assays and restrictions of multimer-based methods. This and other current established methods for the detection of HCV-specific CD4+ T cells will be discussed in this review.

  6. Laminin-511 and laminin-521-based matrices for efficient hepatic specification of human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanninen, Liisa K; Harjumäki, Riina; Peltoniemi, Pasi; Bogacheva, Mariia S; Salmi, Tuuli; Porola, Pauliina; Niklander, Johanna; Smutný, Tomáš; Urtti, Arto; Yliperttula, Marjo L; Lou, Yan-Ru

    2016-10-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have gained a solid foothold in basic research and drug industry as they can be used in vitro to study human development and have potential to offer limitless supply of various somatic cell types needed in drug development. Although the hepatic differentiation of hPSCs has been extensively studied, only a little attention has been paid to the role of the extracellular matrix. In this study we used laminin-511, laminin-521, and fibronectin, found in human liver progenitor cells, as culture matrices for hPSC-derived definitive endoderm cells. We observed that laminin-511 and laminin-521 either alone or in combination support the hepatic specification and that fibronectin is not a vital matrix protein for the hPSC-derived definitive endoderm cells. The expression of the laminin-511/521-specific integrins increased during the definitive endoderm induction and hepatic specification. The hepatic cells differentiated on laminin matrices showed the upregulation of liver-specific markers both at mRNA and protein levels, secreted human albumin, stored glycogen, and exhibited cytochrome P450 enzyme activity and inducibility. Altogether, we found that laminin-511 and laminin-521 can be used as stage-specific matrices to guide the hepatic specification of hPSC-derived definitive endoderm cells. PMID:27372423

  7. HaloTag protein-mediated specific labeling of living cells with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum dots emerge as an attractive alternative to small molecule fluorophores as fluorescent tags for in vivo cell labeling and imaging. This communication presents a method for specific labeling of live cells using quantum dots. The labeling is mediated by HaloTag protein expressed at the cell surface which forms a stable covalent adduct with its ligand (HaloTag ligand). The labeling can be performed in one single step with quantum dot conjugates that are functionalized with HaloTag ligand, or in two steps with biotinylated HaloTag ligand first and followed by streptavidin coated quantum dots. Live cell fluorescence imaging indicates that the labeling is specific and takes place at the cell surface. This HaloTag protein-mediated cell labeling method should facilitate the application of quantum dots for live cell imaging

  8. Thermodynamic evaluation and optimization of the (NaNO3 + KNO3 + Na2SO4 + K2SO4) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic model for the (NaNO3 + KNO3 + Na2SO4 + K2SO4) system. • The Modified Quasichemical Model was used for the molten salt phase. • The Compound Energy Formalism was used for the solid solutions. - Abstract: A complete critical evaluation of all available phase diagram and thermodynamic data has been performed for all condensed phases of the (NaNO3 + KNO3 + Na2SO4 + K2SO4) ternary reciprocal system, and optimised model parameters have been found. The model parameters obtained for the four binary common-ion subsystems (i.e. (NaNO3 + Na2SO4), (KNO3 + K2SO4), (NaNO3 + KNO3) and (Na2SO4 + K2SO4)) are used to predict thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria for the entire system. The Modified Quasichemical Model in the Quadruplet Approximation for short-range ordering was used for the molten salt phase, and the Compound Energy Formalism was used for the various solid solutions

  9. Tracer-diffusion of sulphate ions in NaNO3 and KNO3 aqueous solutions of radio-tracer techniques (Preprint No. CT-55)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tracer-diffusion coefficients of sulphate ions in NaNO3 and KNO3 aqueous solutions were determined in different gel concentrations at various temperatures by radio-tracer technique. The diffusion coefficients are f ound to increase with temperature and decrease with increase in the concentration of the supporting electrolyte as well as gel concentration. (author). 9 refs

  10. Improved Activation toward Primary Colorectal Cancer Cells by Antigen-Specific Targeting Autologous Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Schlimper

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive therapy of malignant diseases with cytokine-induced killer (CIK cells showed promise in a number of trials; the activation of CIK cells from cancer patients towards their autologous cancer cells still needs to be improved. Here, we generated CIK cells ex vivo from blood lymphocytes of colorectal cancer patients and engineered those cells with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR with an antibody-defined specificity for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA. CIK cells thereby gained a new specificity as defined by the CAR and showed increase in activation towards CEA+ colon carcinoma cells, but less in presence of CEA− cells, indicated by increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Redirected CIK activation was superior by CAR-mediated CD28-CD3ζ than CD3ζ signaling only. CAR-engineered CIK cells from colon carcinoma patients showed improved activation against their autologous, primary carcinoma cells from biopsies resulting in more efficient tumour cell lysis. We assume that adoptive therapy with CAR-modified CIK cells shows improved selectivity in targeting autologous tumour lesions.

  11. The influence of T cell development on pathogen specificity and autoreactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Kosmrlj, Andrej; Chakraborty, Arup K

    2012-01-01

    T cells orchestrate adaptive immune responses upon activation. T cell activation requires sufficiently strong binding of T cell receptors on their surface to short peptides derived from foreign proteins bound to protein products of the major histocompatibility (MHC) gene products, which are displayed on the surface of antigen presenting cells. T cells can also interact with peptide-MHC complexes, where the peptide is derived from host (self) proteins. A diverse repertoire of relatively self-tolerant T cell receptors is selected in the thymus. We study a model, computationally and analytically, to describe how thymic selection shapes the repertoire of T cell receptors, such that T cell receptor recognition of pathogenic peptides is both specific and degenerate. We also discuss the escape probability of autoimmune T cells from the thymus.

  12. Quantitative analysis of cell-type specific gene expression in the green alga Volvox carteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallmann Armin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The multicellular alga Volvox carteri possesses only two cell types: mortal, motile somatic cells and potentially immortal, immotile reproductive cells. It is therefore an attractive model system for studying how cell-autonomous cytodifferentiation is programmed within a genome. Moreover, there are ongoing genome projects both in Volvox carteri and in the closely related unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. However, gene sequencing is only the beginning. To identify cell-type specific expression and to determine relative expression rates, we evaluate the potential of real-time RT-PCR for quantifying gene transcript levels. Results Here we analyze a diversified pool of 39 target genes by real-time RT-PCR for each cell type. This gene pool contains previously known genes with unknown localization of cellular expression, 28 novel genes which are described in this study for the first time, and a few known, cell-type specific genes as a control. The respective gene products are, for instance, part of photosynthesis, cellular regulation, stress response, or transport processes. We provide expression data for all these genes. Conclusion The results show that quantitative real-time RT-PCR is a favorable approach to analyze cell-type specific gene expression in Volvox, which can be extended to a much larger number of genes or to developmental or metabolic mutants. Our expression data also provide a basis for a detailed analysis of individual, previously unknown, cell-type specifically expressed genes.

  13. Crosslinking of the T cell-specific accessory molecules CD7 and CD28 modulates T cell adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Regulated adhesion enables T cells to migrate through tissue and transiently interact with an endless succession of cells. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) engagement of the CD3/T cell receptor (TCR) complex results in a rapid and transient augmentation of the adhesion function of LFA-1 and VLA integrin molecules on human T cells. We show in this study that mAb crosslinking of the T cell-specific accessory molecules CD7 and CD28, or treatment with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, results in the rapid indu...

  14. IL-10 and regulatory T cells cooperate in allergen-specific immunotherapy to ameliorate allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Livia; Maxeiner, Joachim; Meyer-Martin, Helen; Reuter, Sebastian; Finotto, Susetta; Klein, Matthias; Schild, Hansjörg; Schmitt, Edgar; Bopp, Tobias; Taube, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Human studies demonstrated that allergen-specific immunotherapy (IT) represents an effective treatment for allergic diseases. IT involves repeated administration of the sensitizing allergen, indicating a crucial contribution of T cells to its medicinal benefit. However, the underlying mechanisms of IT, especially in a chronic disease, are far from being definitive. In the current study, we sought to elucidate the suppressive mechanisms of IT in a mouse model of chronic allergic asthma. OVA-sensitized mice were challenged with OVA or PBS for 4 wk. After development of chronic airway inflammation, mice received OVA-specific IT or placebo alternately to airway challenge for 3 wk. To analyze the T cell-mediated mechanisms underlying IT in vivo, we elaborated the role of T-bet-expressing Th1 cells, T cell-derived IL-10, and Ag-specific thymic as well as peripherally induced Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells. IT ameliorated airway hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation in a chronic asthma model. Of note, IT even resulted in a regression of structural changes in the airways following chronic inhaled allergen exposure. Concomitantly, IT induced Th1 cells, Foxp3(+), and IL-10-producing Treg cells. Detailed analyses revealed that thymic Treg cells crucially contribute to the effectiveness of IT by promoting IL-10 production in Foxp3-negative T cells. Together with the peripherally induced Ag-specific Foxp3(+) Treg cells, thymic Foxp3(+) Treg cells orchestrate the curative mechanisms of IT. Taken together, we demonstrate that IT is effective in a chronic allergic disease and dependent on IL-10 and thymic as well as peripherally induced Ag-specific Treg cells. PMID:25527785

  15. Cell-Type-Specific Profiling of Gene Expression and Chromatin Binding without Cell Isolation: Assaying RNA Pol II Occupancy in Neural Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Southall, Tony D.; Gold, Katrina S.; Egger, Boris; Davidson, Catherine M.; Caygill, Elizabeth E.; Marshall, Owen J.; Brand, Andrea H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cell-type-specific transcriptional profiling often requires the isolation of specific cell types from complex tissues. We have developed “TaDa,” a technique that enables cell-specific profiling without cell isolation. TaDa permits genome-wide profiling of DNA- or chromatin-binding proteins without cell sorting, fixation, or affinity purification. The method is simple, sensitive, highly reproducible, and transferable to any model system. We show that TaDa can be used to identify transc...

  16. Antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies isolated from B cells expressing constitutively active STAT5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc A Scheeren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fully human monoclonal antibodies directed against specific pathogens have a high therapeutic potential, but are difficult to generate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Memory B cells were immortalized by expressing an inducible active mutant of the transcription factor Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 (STAT5. Active STAT5 inhibits the differentiation of B cells while increasing their replicative life span. We obtained cloned B cell lines, which produced antibodies in the presence of interleukin 21 after turning off STAT5. We used this method to obtain monoclonal antibodies against the model antigen tetanus toxin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we describe a novel and relatively simple method of immortalizing antigen-specific human B cells for isolation of human monoclonal antibodies. These results show that STAT5 overexpression can be employed to isolate antigen specific antibodies from human memory B cells.

  17. Targeting the hemangioblast with a novel cell type-specific enhancer

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira Vera; Arede Natacha; Gardner Rui; Rodríguez-León Joaquín; Tavares Ana T

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Hemangioblasts are known as the common precursors for primitive hematopoietic and endothelial lineages. Their existence has been supported mainly by the observation that both cell types develop in close proximity and by in vitro differentiation and genetic studies. However, more compelling evidence will arise from tracking their cell fates using a lineage-specific marker. Results We report the identification of a hemangioblast-specific enhancer (Hb) located in the cis-regu...

  18. Onset of cell-specific gene expression in the developing mouse pancreas.

    OpenAIRE

    Gittes, G K; Rutter, W J

    1992-01-01

    A central question in developmental biology has been the initiation of cell-specific gene expression and its temporal relationship to morphogenesis. We have coupled embryo microdissection with the exquisite sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction to define the onset of cell-specific gene expression during pancreatic organogenesis. Using the precise assignment of gestational age by the number of somites in each embryo, we determined the onset of transcription of major genes of the endocri...

  19. Triple helix-forming oligonucleotides target psoralen adducts to specific chromosomal sequences in human cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, D H; Hanawalt, P C

    1999-01-01

    The ability to target photochemical adducts to specific genomic DNA sequences in cells is useful for studying DNA repair and mutagenesis in intact cells, and also as a potential mode of gene-specific therapy. Triple helix-forming DNA oligonucleotides linked to psoralen (psoTFOs) were designed to deliver UVA-induced psoralen photoadducts to two distinct sequences within the human interstitial collagenase gene. A primer extension assay demonstrated that the appropriate psoTFO selectively damage...

  20. Protection against murine disseminated candidiasis mediated by a Candida albicans-specific T-cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Sieck, T G; Moors, M A; Buckley, H R; Blank, K J

    1993-01-01

    The role of T lymphocytes in disseminated candidiasis in a mouse model of irradiation-induced immunosuppression was investigated. A continuously cultured Candida albicans-specific T-cell line mediated protection of sublethally irradiated mice from disseminated candidiasis as measured by both the fungal load in the kidneys and mortality. These results are the first to demonstrate directly a role for antigen-specific T cells in the protective immune response against murine disseminated candidia...

  1. Role of SCHIZORIZA in asymmetric cell division, cell fate segregation and specification in Arabidopsis root development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansweijer, V.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Multicellular organisms develop their large variety of cell types from just one single cell, the zygote. Both plants and animals use asymmetric cell division to establish a multicellular body plan How different cell and tissue types are determined, how patterns are created and maintained, and which

  2. Cell-Specific Expression of Connexins and Evidence of Restricted Gap Junctional Coupling between Glial Cells and between Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Rash, John E.; Yasumura, Thomas; Dudek, F. Edward; NAGY, JAMES I.

    2001-01-01

    The transmembrane connexin proteins of gap junctions link extracellularly to form channels for cell-to-cell exchange of ions and small molecules. Two primary hypotheses of gap junction coupling in the CNS are the following: (1) generalized coupling occurs between neurons and glia, with some connexins expressed in both neurons and glia, and (2) intercellular junctional coupling is restricted to specific coupling partners, with different connexins expressed in each cell type. There is consensus...

  3. Evaluation of Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein 2 Specific T-Cell Receptors Driven by T-Cell Specific Promoters Using Lentiviral Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongchang Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transduction of latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2-specific T-cell receptors into activated T lymphocytes may provide a universal, MHC-restricted mean to treat EBV-associated tumors in adoptive immunotherapy. We compared TCR-specific promoters of distinct origin in lentiviral vectors, that is, Vβ6.7, delta, luria, and Vβ5.1 to evaluate TCR gene expression in human primary peripheral blood monocytes and T cell line HSB2. Vectors containing Vβ 6.7 promoter were found to be optimal for expression in PBMCs, and they maintained expression of the transduced TCRs for up to 7 weeks. These cells had the potential to recognize subdominant EBV latency antigens as measured by cytotoxicity and IFN-γ secretion. The nude mice also exhibited significant resistance to the HLA-A2 and LMP2-positive CNE tumor cell challenge after being infused with lentiviral transduced CTLs. In conclusion, LMP2-specific CTLs by lentiviral transduction have the potential use for treatment of EBV-related tumors.

  4. Identification of Cell Type-Specific Differences in Erythropoietin Receptor Signaling in Primary Erythroid and Lung Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salopiata, Florian; Depner, Sofia; Wäsch, Marvin; Böhm, Martin E.; Mücke, Oliver; Plass, Christoph; Lehmann, Wolf D.; Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens; Klingmüller, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer, with its most prevalent form non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and is commonly treated with chemotherapeutic drugs such as cisplatin. Lung cancer patients frequently suffer from chemotherapy-induced anemia, which can be treated with erythropoietin (EPO). However, studies have indicated that EPO not only promotes erythropoiesis in hematopoietic cells, but may also enhance survival of NSCLC cells. Here, we verified that the NSCLC cell line H838 expresses functional erythropoietin receptors (EPOR) and that treatment with EPO reduces cisplatin-induced apoptosis. To pinpoint differences in EPO-induced survival signaling in erythroid progenitor cells (CFU-E, colony forming unit-erythroid) and H838 cells, we combined mathematical modeling with a method for feature selection, the L1 regularization. Utilizing an example model and simulated data, we demonstrated that this approach enables the accurate identification and quantification of cell type-specific parameters. We applied our strategy to quantitative time-resolved data of EPO-induced JAK/STAT signaling generated by quantitative immunoblotting, mass spectrometry and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in CFU-E and H838 cells as well as H838 cells overexpressing human EPOR (H838-HA-hEPOR). The established parsimonious mathematical model was able to simultaneously describe the data sets of CFU-E, H838 and H838-HA-hEPOR cells. Seven cell type-specific parameters were identified that included for example parameters for nuclear translocation of STAT5 and target gene induction. Cell type-specific differences in target gene induction were experimentally validated by qRT-PCR experiments. The systematic identification of pathway differences and sensitivities of EPOR signaling in CFU-E and H838 cells revealed potential targets for intervention to selectively inhibit EPO-induced signaling in the tumor cells but leave the responses in erythroid

  5. Identification of Cell Type-Specific Differences in Erythropoietin Receptor Signaling in Primary Erythroid and Lung Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Ruth; Steiert, Bernhard; Salopiata, Florian; Depner, Sofia; Raue, Andreas; Iwamoto, Nao; Schelker, Max; Hass, Helge; Wäsch, Marvin; Böhm, Martin E; Mücke, Oliver; Lipka, Daniel B; Plass, Christoph; Lehmann, Wolf D; Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens; Schilling, Marcel; Klingmüller, Ursula

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer, with its most prevalent form non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and is commonly treated with chemotherapeutic drugs such as cisplatin. Lung cancer patients frequently suffer from chemotherapy-induced anemia, which can be treated with erythropoietin (EPO). However, studies have indicated that EPO not only promotes erythropoiesis in hematopoietic cells, but may also enhance survival of NSCLC cells. Here, we verified that the NSCLC cell line H838 expresses functional erythropoietin receptors (EPOR) and that treatment with EPO reduces cisplatin-induced apoptosis. To pinpoint differences in EPO-induced survival signaling in erythroid progenitor cells (CFU-E, colony forming unit-erythroid) and H838 cells, we combined mathematical modeling with a method for feature selection, the L1 regularization. Utilizing an example model and simulated data, we demonstrated that this approach enables the accurate identification and quantification of cell type-specific parameters. We applied our strategy to quantitative time-resolved data of EPO-induced JAK/STAT signaling generated by quantitative immunoblotting, mass spectrometry and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in CFU-E and H838 cells as well as H838 cells overexpressing human EPOR (H838-HA-hEPOR). The established parsimonious mathematical model was able to simultaneously describe the data sets of CFU-E, H838 and H838-HA-hEPOR cells. Seven cell type-specific parameters were identified that included for example parameters for nuclear translocation of STAT5 and target gene induction. Cell type-specific differences in target gene induction were experimentally validated by qRT-PCR experiments. The systematic identification of pathway differences and sensitivities of EPOR signaling in CFU-E and H838 cells revealed potential targets for intervention to selectively inhibit EPO-induced signaling in the tumor cells but leave the responses in erythroid

  6. Interleukin-2-Dependent Allergen-Specific Tissue-Resident Memory Cells Drive Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondowicz, Brian D; An, Dowon; Schenkel, Jason M; Kim, Karen S; Steach, Holly R; Krishnamurty, Akshay T; Keitany, Gladys J; Garza, Esteban N; Fraser, Kathryn A; Moon, James J; Altemeier, William A; Masopust, David; Pepper, Marion

    2016-01-19

    Exposure to inhaled allergens generates T helper 2 (Th2) CD4(+) T cells that contribute to episodes of inflammation associated with asthma. Little is known about allergen-specific Th2 memory cells and their contribution to airway inflammation. We generated reagents to understand how endogenous CD4(+) T cells specific for a house dust mite (HDM) allergen form and function. After allergen exposure, HDM-specific memory cells persisted as central memory cells in the lymphoid organs and tissue-resident memory cells in the lung. Experimental blockade of lymphocyte migration demonstrated that lung-resident cells were sufficient to induce airway hyper-responsiveness, which depended upon CD4(+) T cells. Investigation into the differentiation of pathogenic Trm cells revealed that interleukin-2 (IL-2) signaling was required for residency and directed a program of tissue homing migrational cues. These studies thus identify IL-2-dependent resident Th2 memory cells as drivers of lung allergic responses. PMID:26750312

  7. Cell-specific localization of alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus stem tissue measured with Imaging MS and Single-cell MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kotaro; Takahashi, Katsutoshi; Mizuno, Hajime; Anegawa, Aya; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Ohnishi, Miwa; Yamazaki, Mami; Masujima, Tsutomu; Mimura, Tetsuro

    2016-04-01

    Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don is a medicinal plant well known for producing antitumor drugs such as vinblastine and vincristine, which are classified as terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs). The TIA metabolic pathway in C. roseus has been extensively studied. However, the localization of TIA intermediates at the cellular level has not been demonstrated directly. In the present study, the metabolic pathway of TIA in C. roseus was studied with two forefront metabolomic techniques, that is, Imaging mass spectrometry (MS) and live Single-cell MS, to elucidate cell-specific TIA localization in the stem tissue. Imaging MS indicated that most TIAs localize in the idioblast and laticifer cells, which emit blue fluorescence under UV excitation. Single-cell MS was applied to four different kinds of cells [idioblast (specialized parenchyma cell), laticifer, parenchyma, and epidermal cells] in the stem longitudinal section. Principal component analysis of Imaging MS and Single-cell MS spectra of these cells showed that similar alkaloids accumulate in both idioblast cell and laticifer cell. From MS/MS analysis of Single-cell MS spectra, catharanthine, ajmalicine, and strictosidine were found in both cell types in C. roseus stem tissue, where serpentine was also accumulated. Based on these data, we discuss the significance of TIA synthesis and accumulation in the idioblast and laticifer cells of C. roseus stem tissue. PMID:27001858

  8. Identification of proteins specific for human herpesvirus 6-infected human T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandran, N.; Amelse, R.E.; Zhou, W.W.; Chang, C.K.

    1989-06-01

    Proteins specific for human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)-infected human T cells (HSB-2) were examined by using polyclonal rabbit antibodies and monoclonal antibodies against HHV-6-infected cells and human sera. More than 20 proteins and six glycoproteins specific for HHV-6-infected cells were identified from (/sup 35/S)methionine- and (/sup 3/H)glucosamine-labeled total-cell extracts. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies immunoprecipitated 33 (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled HHV-6-specific polypeptides with approximate molecular weights ranging from 180,000 to 31,000. In immunoprecipitation and Western immunoblot reactions, a patient's serum also recognized more than 30 HHV-6-specific proteins and seven glycoproteins. In contrast, sera from individuals with high-titered antibodies against other human herpes viruses reacted with few HHV-6-infected cell proteins, and only a 135,000-M/sub r/ polypeptide was prominent. Monoclonal antibodies to HHV-6-infected cells reacted with single and multiple polypeptides specific for virus-infected cells and immunoprecipitated three distinct sets of glycoproteins, which were designated gp105K and gp92k, gp116k, gp64k, and gp54k, and gp102k.

  9. Identification of proteins specific for human herpesvirus 6-infected human T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandran, N.; Amelse, R.E.; Zhou, W.W.; Chang, C.K. (Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City (USA))

    1989-06-01

    Proteins specific for human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)-infected human T cells (HSB-2) were examined by using polyclonal rabbit antibodies and monoclonal antibodies against HHV-6-infected cells and human sera. More than 20 proteins and six glycoproteins specific for HHV-6-infected cells were identified from ({sup 35}S)methionine- and ({sup 3}H)glucosamine-labeled total-cell extracts. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies immunoprecipitated 33 ({sup 35}S)methionine-labeled HHV-6-specific polypeptides with approximate molecular weights ranging from 180,000 to 31,000. In immunoprecipitation and Western immunoblot reactions, a patient's serum also recognized more than 30 HHV-6-specific proteins and seven glycoproteins. In contrast, sera from individuals with high-titered antibodies against other human herpesviruses reacted with fewer HHV-6-infected cell proteins, and only a 135,000-M{sub r} polypeptide was prominent. Monoclonal antibodies to HHV-6-infected cells reacted with single and multiple polypeptides specific for virus-infected cells and immunoprecipitated three distinct sets of glycoproteins, which were designated gp105k and gp82k, gp116k, gp64k, and gp54k, and gp102k.

  10. Circulating HIV-Specific Interleukin-21(+)CD4(+) T Cells Represent Peripheral Tfh Cells with Antigen-Dependent Helper Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Bruce T; Teigler, Jeffrey E; Pissani, Franco; Oster, Alexander F; Kranias, Gregory; Alter, Galit; Marovich, Mary; Eller, Michael A; Dittmer, Ulf; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome H; Michael, Nelson L; Bolton, Diane; Streeck, Hendrik

    2016-01-19

    A central effort in HIV vaccine development is to generate protective broadly neutralizing antibodies, a process dependent on T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. The feasibility of using peripheral blood counterparts of lymph node Tfh cells to assess the immune response and the influence of viral and vaccine antigens on their helper functions remain obscure. We assessed circulating HIV-specific IL-21(+)CD4(+) T cells and showed transcriptional and phenotypic similarities to lymphoid Tfh cells, and hence representing peripheral Tfh (pTfh) cells. pTfh cells were functionally active and B cell helper quality differed depending on antigen specificity. Furthermore, we found higher frequency of pTfh cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cell specimens from the ALVAC+AIDSVAX (RV144) HIV vaccine trial associated with protective antibody responses compared to the non-protective DNA+Ad5 vaccine trial. Together, we identify IL-21(+)CD4(+) T cells as pTfh cells, implicating them as key populations in the generation of vaccine-evoked antibody responses. PMID:26795249

  11. Production of antigen-specific suppressive T cell factor by radiation leukemia virus-transformed suppressor T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hen egg-white lysozyme-specific suppressor T cells induced in C57BL/6 mice have been selected by sequential passage over plates coated with goat anti-mouse Ig and HEL. These suppressor T cells, 80% I-J+, were infected in vitro with radiation leukemia virus and injected intravenously into sublethally irradiated syngeneic recipients. After 4 to 6 months, 6 out of 20 injected mice developed thymic lymphomas, which were maintained by transplantation into histocompatible hosts and subsequently established as permanent cell lines. Cells of these six thymomas were screened for the presence of Thy 1.2, Lyt 1, Lyt 2, I-J/sup b/, and Ig cell surface antigens by direct or indirect immunofluorescence. One tumor was found to express the expected phenotype of suppressor T cells. High-speed supernatants of extracts obtained from L4 cells were able to induce HEL-specific suppression in a T cell proliferative assay, demonstrating the presence of an antigen-specific suppressive T cell factor

  12. Disturbance of the bacterial cell wall specifically interferes with biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Tabitha; Oppenheimer-Shaanan, Yaara; Savidor, Alon; Bloom-Ackermann, Zohar; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana

    2015-12-01

    In nature, bacteria communicate via chemical cues and establish complex communities referred to as biofilms, wherein cells are held together by an extracellular matrix. Much research is focusing on small molecules that manipulate and prevent biofilm assembly by modifying cellular signalling pathways. However, the bacterial cell envelope, presenting the interface between bacterial cells and their surroundings, is largely overlooked. In our study, we identified specific targets within the biosynthesis pathways of the different cell wall components (peptidoglycan, wall teichoic acids and teichuronic acids) hampering biofilm formation and the anchoring of the extracellular matrix with a minimal effect on planktonic growth. In addition, we provide convincing evidence that biofilm hampering by transglycosylation inhibitors and D-Leucine triggers a highly specific response without changing the overall protein levels within the biofilm cells or the overall levels of the extracellular matrix components. The presented results emphasize the central role of the Gram-positive cell wall in biofilm development, resistance and sustainment. PMID:26472159

  13. Concanavalin A-induced activation of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus memory lymphocytes into specifically cytotoxic T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, O; Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Andersen, G T

    1977-01-01

    When spleen cells, which have been primed to Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis (LCM) virus during a primary infection several months previously, are stimulated in vitro with Con A. highly specific secondary cytotoxic effector cells are generated. The degree of cytotoxicity revealed by such Con A...

  14. Structure and organ specificity of an anionic peroxidase from Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, L; Abelskov, A K; Mattsson, O; Welinder, K G

    The predominant peroxidase (pI 3.5) (E.C. 1.11.1.7) of an Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture was purified and partially sequenced. Oligonucleotides were designed and a specific probe was obtained. A cDNA clone was isolated from an Arabidopsis cell suspension cDNA library and completely ...

  15. Embryonic Stem Cell (ES)-Specific Enhancers Specify the Expression Potential of ES Genes in Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Aran, Dvir; Abu-Remaileh, Monther; Levy, Revital; Meron, Nurit; Toperoff, Gidon; Edrei, Yifat; Bergman, Yehudit; Hellman, Asaf

    2016-01-01

    Cancers often display gene expression profiles resembling those of undifferentiated cells. The mechanisms controlling these expression programs have yet to be identified. Exploring transcriptional enhancers throughout hematopoietic cell development and derived cancers, we uncovered a novel class of regulatory epigenetic mutations. These epimutations are particularly enriched in a group of enhancers, designated ES-specific enhancers (ESSEs) of the hematopoietic cell lineage. We found that hema...

  16. Distinct organ-specific metastatic potential of individual breast cancer cells and primary tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Minn, Andy J.; Kang, Yibin; Serganova, Inna; Gupta, Gaorav P.; Giri, Dilip D.; Doubrovin, Mikhail; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Gerald, William L; Blasberg, Ronald; Massagué, Joan

    2005-01-01

    We used bioluminescence imaging to reveal patterns of metastasis formation by human breast cancer cells in immunodeficient mice. Individual cells from a population established in culture from the pleural effusion of a breast cancer patient showed distinct patterns of organ-specific metastasis. Single-cell progenies derived from this population exhibited markedly different abilities to metastasize to the bone, lung, or adrenal medulla, which suggests that metastases to different organs have di...

  17. Altering the distribution of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells results in tissue-specific inflammatory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sather, Blythe D.; Treuting, Piper; Perdue, Nikole; Miazgowicz, Mike; Fontenot, Jason D.; Rudensky, Alexander Y.; Campbell, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (T reg) are essential for maintaining self-tolerance, but their functional mechanisms and sites of action in vivo are poorly defined. We examined the homing receptor expression and tissue distribution of T reg cells in the steady state and determined whether altering their distribution by removal of a single chemokine receptor impairs their ability to maintain tissue-specific peripheral tolerance. We found that T reg cells are distributed throughout all nonlympho...

  18. Infected site-restricted Foxp3+ natural regulatory T cells are specific for microbial antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Suffia, Isabelle J.; Reckling, Stacie K.; Piccirillo, Ciriaco A; Goldszmid, Romina S.; Belkaid, Yasmine

    2006-01-01

    Natural regulatory T (T reg) cells are involved in control of the immune response, including response to pathogens. Previous work has demonstrated that the repertoire of natural T reg cells may be biased toward self-antigen recognition. Whether they also recognize foreign antigens and how this recognition contributes to their function remain unknown. Our studies addressed the antigenic specificity of natural T reg cells that accumulate at sites of chronic infection with Leishmania major in mi...

  19. Glutamine Synthetase Is a Genetic Determinant of Cell Type–Specific Glutamine Independence in Breast Epithelia

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiu-Ni Kung; Marks, Jeffrey R.; Jen-Tsan Chi

    2011-01-01

    Although significant variations in the metabolic profiles exist among different cells, little is understood in terms of genetic regulations of such cell type-specific metabolic phenotypes and nutrient requirements. While many cancer cells depend on exogenous glutamine for survival to justify the therapeutic targeting of glutamine metabolism, the mechanisms of glutamine dependence and likely response and resistance of such glutamine-targeting strategies among cancers are largely unknown. In th...

  20. Successful disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cell generation from patients with kidney transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Thatava, Tayaramma; Armstrong, Adam S.; De Lamo, Josep Genebriera; Edukulla, Ramakrishna; Khan, Yulia Krotova; Sakuma, Toshie; Ohmine, Seiga; Sundsbak, Jamie L; Harris, Peter C.; Kudva, Yogish C.; Ikeda, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Introduction End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a major public health problem. Although kidney transplantation is a viable therapeutic option, this therapy is associated with significant limitations, including a shortage of donor organs. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology, which allows derivation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells, could provide a possible alternative modality for kidney replacement therapy for patients with ESRD. Methods The feasibility of iPS cell generat...

  1. Germ Cell-Specific Excision of loxP-Flanked Transgenes in Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naoto; Kume, Sachi; Hattori-Ihara, Shoko; Sadaie, Sakiko; Hayashi, Makoto; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2016-04-01

    Cre/loxP-mediated DNA excision in germ cell lineages could contribute substantially to the study of germ cell biology in salmonids, which are emerging as a model species in this field. However, a cell type-specific Cre/loxPsystem has not been successfully developed for any salmonid species. Therefore, we examined the feasibility of Cre/loxP-mediated, germ cell-specific gene excision and transgene activation in rainbow trout. Double-transgenic (wTg) progeny were obtained by mating a transgenic male carryingcrewith a transgenic female carrying thehsc-LRLGgene;crewas driven by rainbow troutvasaregulatory regions and thehsc-LRLGgene was made up of the rainbow troutheat-shock-cognate71promoter, theDsRedgene flanked by twoloxPsites, and theEgfpgene. PCR analysis, fluorescence imaging, and histological analysis revealed that excision of theloxP-flanked sequence and activation ofEgfpoccurred only in germ cells of wTg fish. However, progeny tests revealed that the excision efficiency ofloxP-flanked sequence in germ cells was low (≤3.27%). In contrast, the other wTg fish derived from two differentcre-transgenic males frequently excised theloxP-flanked sequence in germ cells (≤89.25%). Thus, we showed for the first time successful germ cell-specific transgene manipulation via the Cre/loxPsystem in rainbow trout. We anticipate that this technology will be suitable for studies of cell function through cell targeting, cell-linage tracing, and generating cell type-specific conditional gene knockouts and separately for developing sterile rainbow trout in aquaculture. PMID:26911430

  2. Epigenetic regulation of normal human mammary cell type-specific miRNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrba, Lukas [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Arizona Cancer Center; Inst. of Plant Molecular Biology, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). Biology Centre ASCR; Garbe, James C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Center; Stampfer, Martha R. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Arizona Cancer Center; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Center; Futscher, Bernard W. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Arizona Cancer Center and Dept. of Pharmacology & Toxicology

    2011-08-26

    Epigenetic mechanisms are important regulators of cell type–specific genes, including miRNAs. In order to identify cell type-specific miRNAs regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, we undertook a global analysis of miRNA expression and epigenetic states in three isogenic pairs of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and human mammary fibroblasts (HMF), which represent two differentiated cell types typically present within a given organ, each with a distinct phenotype and a distinct epigenotype. While miRNA expression and epigenetic states showed strong interindividual concordance within a given cell type, almost 10% of the expressed miRNA showed a cell type–specific pattern of expression that was linked to the epigenetic state of their promoter. The tissue-specific miRNA genes were epigenetically repressed in nonexpressing cells by DNA methylation (38%) and H3K27me3 (58%), with only a small set of miRNAs (21%) showing a dual epigenetic repression where both DNA methylation and H3K27me3 were present at their promoters, such as MIR10A and MIR10B. Individual miRNA clusters of closely related miRNA gene families can each display cell type–specific repression by the same or complementary epigenetic mechanisms, such as the MIR200 family, and MIR205, where fibroblasts repress MIR200C/141 by DNA methylation, MIR200A/200B/429 by H3K27me3, and MIR205 by both DNA methylation and H3K27me3. Since deregulation of many of the epigenetically regulated miRNAs that we identified have been linked to disease processes such as cancer, it is predicted that compromise of the epigenetic control mechanisms is important for this process. Overall, these results highlight the importance of epigenetic regulation in the control of normal cell type–specific miRNA expression.

  3. Circulating rotavirus-specific T cells have a poor functional profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequencies of circulating T cells producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2, and percentages of T cells proliferating after stimulation with rotavirus (RV), tetanus toxoid, and influenza were evaluated in PBMC derived from healthy adults and children. In addition, the potential anergic state of RV-specific T cells was analyzed by stimulation of PBMC with RV antigen in the presence of three anergy inhibitors (rIL-2, rIL-12, or DGKα-i). The quality and magnitude of RV-T cell responses were significantly lower than those of tetanus toxoid and influenza antigens. RV-CD4 T cell response was enriched in monofunctional IFN-γ+ cells, while influenza-CD4 and tetanus toxoid-CD4 T cell responses were enriched in multifunctional T cells. Moreover, rIL-2 – unlike rIL-12 or DGKα-i – increased the frequencies of RV-CD4 TNF-α+, CD4 IFN-γ+, and CD8 IFN-γ+ cells. Thus, circulating RV-T cells seem to have a relatively poor functional profile that may be partially reversed in vitro by the addition of rIL-2. - Highlights: • The quality and magnitude of circulating RV-T cell responses are relatively poor. • Circulating RV-CD4 T cells are enriched in monofunctional IFN-γ+ cells. • Treatment with rIL-2 increased the frequencies of cytokine secreting RV-T cells

  4. The bubble to jetting transition mechanism of plasmas in NaNO3 solutions sustained by pulsed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasmas in NaNO3 solutions sustained by pulsed power with Ton = 10-500 µs are studied. With an applied voltage equal to or lower than 100 V, the bubble mode is observed. In this mode, bubbles, a few hundred μm in diameter, are formed and detached continuously at the electrode surface because of the buoyant force. An increase in the applied voltage to 125 V results in a bubble to jetting transition. When this transition occurs, bubbles with diameters smaller than 100 µm are formed and are rapidly jetted away continuously. The examination of various conditions shows that the transition occurs when the power and energy input simultaneously exceed critical values 4.4 × 10-3 ± 6 × 10-4 J and 45 ± 5 W, respectively, within Ton. Given the electrode surface area, this critical power is equivalent to a heat flux of 229 ± 25 MW m-2, which is close to the heat flux required, 223 MW m-2, for the occurrence of explosive vaporization reported in the literature. Such an observation strongly supports the hypothesis that the bubble to jetting transition is induced by the electrothermal effect.

  5. Effect of ageing on CMV-specific CD8 T cells from CMV seropositive healthy donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Corona

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ageing is associated with changes in the immune system with substantial alterations in T-lymphocyte subsets. Cytomegalovirus (CMV is one of the factors that affect functionality of T cells and the differentiation and large expansions of CMV pp65-specific T cells have been associated with impaired responses to other immune challenges. Moreover, the presence of clonal expansions of CMV-specific T cells may shrink the available repertoire for other antigens and contribute to the increased incidence of infectious diseases in the elderly. In this study, we analyse the effect of ageing on the phenotype and frequency of CMV pp65-specific CD8 T cell subsets according to the expression of CCR7, CD45RA, CD27, CD28, CD244 and CD85j. Results Peripheral blood from HLA-A2 healthy young, middle-aged and elderly donors was analysed by multiparametric flow cytometry using the HLA-A*0201/CMV pp65495–504 (NLVPMVATV pentamer and mAbs specific for the molecules analysed. The frequency of CMV pp65-specific CD8 T cells was increased in the elderly compared with young and middle-aged donors. The proportion of naïve cells was reduced in the elderly, whereas an age-associated increase of the CCR7null effector-memory subset, in particular those with a CD45RAdim phenotype, was observed, both in the pentamer-positive and pentamer-negative CD8 T cells. The results also showed that most CMV pp65-specific CD8 T cells in elderly individuals were CD27/CD28 negative and expressed CD85j and CD244. Conclusion The finding that the phenotype of CMV pp65-specific CD8 T cells in elderly individuals is similar to the predominant phenotype of CD8 T cells as a whole, suggests that CMV persistent infections contributes to the age-related changes observed in the CD8 T cell compartment, and that chronic stimulation by other persistent antigens also play a role in T cell immunosenescence. Differences in subset distribution in elderly individuals showing a decrease in

  6. An innovative pre-targeting strategy for tumor cell specific imaging and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Si-Yong; Peng, Meng-Yun; Rong, Lei; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Chen, Si; Cheng, Si-Xue; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2015-08-01

    A programmed pre-targeting system for tumor cell imaging and targeting therapy was established based on the ``biotin-avidin'' interaction. In this programmed functional system, transferrin-biotin can be actively captured by tumor cells with the overexpression of transferrin receptors, thus achieving the pre-targeting modality. Depending upon avidin-biotin recognition, the attachment of multivalent FITC-avidin to biotinylated tumor cells not only offered the rapid fluorescence labelling, but also endowed the pre-targeted cells with targeting sites for the specifically designed biotinylated peptide nano-drug. Owing to the successful pre-targeting, tumorous HepG2 and HeLa cells were effectively distinguished from the normal 3T3 cells via fluorescence imaging. In addition, the self-assembled peptide nano-drug resulted in enhanced cell apoptosis in the observed HepG2 cells. The tumor cell specific pre-targeting strategy is applicable for a variety of different imaging and therapeutic agents for tumor treatments.A programmed pre-targeting system for tumor cell imaging and targeting therapy was established based on the ``biotin-avidin'' interaction. In this programmed functional system, transferrin-biotin can be actively captured by tumor cells with the overexpression of transferrin receptors, thus achieving the pre-targeting modality. Depending upon avidin-biotin recognition, the attachment of multivalent FITC-avidin to biotinylated tumor cells not only offered the rapid fluorescence labelling, but also endowed the pre-targeted cells with targeting sites for the specifically designed biotinylated peptide nano-drug. Owing to the successful pre-targeting, tumorous HepG2 and HeLa cells were effectively distinguished from the normal 3T3 cells via fluorescence imaging. In addition, the self-assembled peptide nano-drug resulted in enhanced cell apoptosis in the observed HepG2 cells. The tumor cell specific pre-targeting strategy is applicable for a variety of different imaging

  7. Dendritic Cells in the Periphery Control Antigen-Specific Natural and Induced Regulatory T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yamazaki, Sayuri; Morita, Akimichi

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen-presenting cells that regulate both immunity and tolerance. DCs in the periphery play a key role in expanding naturally occurring Foxp3+ CD25+ CD4+ regulatory T cells (Natural T-regs) and inducing Foxp3 expression (Induced T-regs) in Foxp3− CD4+ T cells. DCs are phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous, and further classified into several subsets depending on distinct marker expression and their location. Recent findings indicate the presence...

  8. Identification of a novel male germ cell-specific gene TESF-1 in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammalian spermatogenesis is precisely regulated by many germ cell-specific factors. In search for such a germ cell-specific factor, we have identified a novel mouse gene testis-specific factor 1 (TESF-1). Messenger RNA of TESF-1 was found only in the testis and its expression appeared to be regulated in a developmental manner. Further analysis demonstrated that the expression of TESF-1 was specifically in male germ cells, supported by the observation that we were not able to detect the TESF-1 mRNA from at/at homozygous mutant testes, which lack germ cells. The deduced amino acid sequence of TESF-1 contains a leucine-zipper motif, a potential nuclear localization signal, and two cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation sites. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged TESF-1 fusion protein was expressed in COS-7 cells and localized primarily in the nucleus. Taken together, these results indicate that TESF-1 is a novel male germ cell-specific gene, and its protein product may function as a nuclear factor involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis

  9. Editing T cell specificity towards leukemia by zinc-finger nucleases and lentiviral gene transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Angelo; Magnani, Zulma; Liu, Pei-Qi; Reik, Andreas; Chu, Victoria; Paschon, David E.; Zhang, Lei; Kuball, Jurgen; Camisa, Barbara; Bondanza, Attilio; Casorati, Giulia; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ciceri, Fabio; Bordignon, Claudio; Greenberg, Philip D.; Holmes, Michael C.; Gregory, Philip D.; Naldini, Luigi; Bonini, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of high-avidity T-cell receptor (TCR) genes isolated from rare tumor-specific lymphocytes into polyclonal T cells is an attractive cancer immunotherapy strategy. However, TCR gene transfer results in competition for surface expression and inappropriate pairing between the exogenous and endogenous TCR chains, resulting in suboptimal activity and potentially harmful unpredicted specificities. We designed zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) promoting the disruption of endogenous TCR β and α chain genes. ZFN-treated lymphocytes lacked CD3/TCR surface expression and expanded with IL-7 and IL-15. Upon lentiviral transfer of a TCR for the WT1 tumor antigen, these TCR-edited cells expressed the new TCR at high levels, were easily expanded to near-purity, and proved superior in specific antigen recognition to matched TCR-transferred cells. In contrast to TCR-transferred cells, TCR edited lymphocytes did not mediate off-target reactivity while maintaining anti-tumor activity in vivo, thus demonstrating that complete editing of T-cell specificity generate tumor-specific lymphocytes with improved biosafety profile. PMID:22466705

  10. A Role for RE-1-Silencing Transcription Factor in Embryonic Stem Cells Cardiac Lineage Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Irene; Marcy, Guillaume; Chen, Jiaxuan; Divakar, Ushashree; Kumar, Vibhor; John-Sanchez, Daniel; Rahmani, Mehran; Buckley, Noel J; Stanton, Lawrence W

    2016-04-01

    During development, lineage specification is controlled by several signaling pathways involving various transcription factors (TFs). Here, we studied the RE-1-silencing transcription factor (REST) and identified an important role of this TF in cardiac differentiation. Using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) to model development, we found that REST knockout cells lost the ability to differentiate into the cardiac lineage. Detailed analysis of specific lineage markers expression showed selective downregulation of endoderm markers in REST-null cells, thus contributing to a loss of cardiogenic signals. REST regulates cardiac differentiation of ESCs by negatively regulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and positively regulating the cardiogenic TF Gata4. We propose here a new role for REST in cell fate specification besides its well-known repressive role of neuronal differentiation. PMID:26864965

  11. Assessment of Newcastle Disease specific T cell proliferation in different inbred MHC chicken lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Liselotte Rothmann; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Pedersen, Asger Roer;

    2011-01-01

    In this study we have described the establishment of an antigen-specific T cell proliferation assay based on recall stimulation with Newcastle disease (ND) antigen; further, we have described the results obtained after recall stimulation of animals containing different Major Histocompatibility...... Complex (MHC) haplotypes, vaccinated against ND. First optimization of the assay was performed to lower unspecific proliferation and to enhance antigen-specific T cell proliferation. These two issues were achieved using ethylene diamine tetra acetic-acid as stabilizing agent in blood samples and...... autologous immune serum in culture medium. The optimized assay was used to screen chickens with different MHC haplotypes for their ability to perform T cell proliferation. Results showed that the antigen-specific response of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from B12 chickens was generally low, whereas B13, B130 and B...

  12. Host cell cytotoxicity, cellular repopulation dynamics, and phase-specific cell survival in X-irradiated rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postirradiation tumor volume response, cellular repopulation dynamics, cell-cycle perturbations, and phase-specific cell survival were characterized in rat rhabdomyosarcoma R-1 tumors (the R2C5 subline) following an in situ 10-Gy dose of 225-kVp X rays. This X-ray dose produced a 7.5-day delay in tumor growth to twice the volume measured at the time of irradiation, and reduced the initial surviving fraction of R2C5 cells to 0.17 as measured by the excision assay procedure. The surviving fraction of R2C5 cells returned to unity by the 16th day after tumor irradiation. On the basis of flow cytometry measurements of DNA content in tumor cells stained with a noncytotoxic concentration of Hoechst 33342, a transient G2 block was observed 1 day after irradiation. Flow cytometry measurements also demonstrated that the tetraploid R2C5 cells constituted only 30% of the total tumor cell population, with the remainder being diploid host cells comprised of macrophages, monocytes, lymphocytes, and granulocytes. Large numbers of host cells infiltrated the irradiated tumors, leading to an increase in the percentage of diploid cells by Day 2 and reaching a level of more than 80% of the total tumor cell population by 4 to 8 days after irradiation. The influx of host cells into irradiated tumors was correlated temporally with a significant 12-fold decrease in the surviving fraction of R2C5 cells that occurred between Days 2 and 4 postirradiation. When the diploid host cell population was removed by cell sorting procedures, the surviving fraction of R2C5 cells at Day 4 substantially greater than that in the presence of the host cells. Experiments involving the mixing of 4/1 and 12/1 ratios of diploid host cells and tetraploid tumor cells isolated from irradiated and unirradiated tumors demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect of the host cells was specific for the irradiated tumor cells

  13. Human B cells produce chemokine CXCL10 in the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Soren T; Salman, Ahmed M; Ruhwald, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of B cells in human host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is still controversial, but recent evidence suggest that B cell follicle like structures within the lung may influence host responses through regulation of the local cytokine environment. A...... candidate for such regulation could be the chemokine CXCL10. CXCL10 is mainly produced by human monocytes, but a few reports have also found CXCL10 production by human B cells. The objective of this study was to investigate CXCL10 production by human B cells in response to in vitro stimulation with Mtb...... antigens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed human blood samples from 30 volunteer donors using multiparameter flow cytometry, and identified a subgroup of B cells producing CXCL10 in response to in vitro stimulation with antigens. T cells did not produce CXCL10, but CXCL10 production by B cells...

  14. Ontogenesis and cell specific localization of Fas ligand expression in the rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abrizio, Piera; Baldini, Enke; Russo, Paola F; Biordi, Leda; Graziano, Filomena M; Rucci, Nadia; Properzi, Giuliana; Francavilla, Sandro; Ulisse, Salvatore

    2004-10-01

    Over the past few years, a number of experimental evidences suggested the involvement of Fas Ligand (FasL) expressing Sertoli cells to induce apoptosis of Fas bearing germ cells. However, the FasL expression during testicular development and its cell specific localization within the testis is still a matter of debate. In the present study, we have monitored FasL expression during rat testis development by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and evaluated cell specific localization of FasL expression, by in situ RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, on adult rat testis. RT-PCR analysis, performed on total RNA from rat testes obtained from 1 day up to 1-year-old animals, demonstrated the presence of FasL transcripts at all developmental stages examined. In situ RT-PCR analysis clearly indicated the presence of FasL mRNA in Sertoli cells of adult testis, while we could never detect FasL transcripts in germ cells. Immunohistochemistry experiments showed a strong immunostaining for FasL in Sertoli cells of adult testis and again, no immunopositivity was observed in germ cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that FasL expression in rat testis is present from the early postnatal days up to the adult, and the Sertoli cells is the main FasL expressing cell within the seminiferous tubule. PMID:15379972

  15. Gene expression profiles of hepatic cell-type specific marker genes in progression of liver fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiyuki Takahara; Mitsuo Takahashi; Hiroki Wagatsuma; Fumihiko Yokoya; Qing-Wei Zhang; Mutsuyo Yamaguchi; Hiroyuki Aburatani; Norifumi Kawada

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the gene expression profile data for the whole liver during development of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced hepatic fibrosis.METHODS: Marker genes were identified for different types of hepatic cells, including hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), Kupffer cells (including other inflammatory cells),and hepatocytes, using independent temporal DNA microarray data obtained from isolated hepatic cells.RESULTS: The cell-type analysis of gene expression gave several key results and led to formation of three hypotheses: (1) changes in the expression of HSCspecific marker genes during fibrosis were similar to gene expression data in in vitro cultured HSCs, suggesting a major role of the self-activating characteristics of HSCs in formation of fibrosis; (2) expression of mast cell-specific marker genes reached a peak during liver fibrosis,suggesting a possible role of mast cells in formation of fibrosis; and (3) abnormal expression of hepatocytespecific marker genes was found across several metabolic pathways during fibrosis, including sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and drug metabolism, suggesting a mechanistic relationship between these abnormalities and symptoms of liver fibrosis.CONCLUSION: Analysis of marker genes for specific hepatic cell types can identify the key aspects of fibrogenesis. Sequential activation of inflammatory cells and the self-supporting properties of HSCs play an important role in development of fibrosis.

  16. Cancer cell specific cytotoxic gene expression mediated by ARF tumor suppressor promoter constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurayoshi, Kenta; Ozono, Eiko; Iwanaga, Ritsuko; Bradford, Andrew P; Komori, Hideyuki; Ohtani, Kiyoshi

    2014-07-18

    In current cancer treatment protocols, such as radiation and chemotherapy, side effects on normal cells are major obstacles to radical therapy. To avoid these side effects, a cancer cell-specific approach is needed. One way to specifically target cancer cells is to utilize a cancer specific promoter to express a cytotoxic gene (suicide gene therapy) or a viral gene required for viral replication (oncolytic virotherapy). For this purpose, the selected promoter should have minimal activity in normal cells to avoid side effects, and high activity in a wide variety of cancers to obtain optimal therapeutic efficacy. In contrast to the AFP, CEA and PSA promoters, which have high activity only in a limited spectrum of tumors, the E2F1 promoter exhibits high activity in wide variety of cancers. This is based on the mechanism of carcinogenesis. Defects in the RB pathway and activation of the transcription factor E2F, the main target of the RB pathway, are observed in almost all cancers. Consequently, the E2F1 promoter, which is mainly regulated by E2F, has high activity in wide variety of cancers. However, E2F is also activated by growth stimulation in normal growing cells, suggesting that the E2F1 promoter may also be highly active in normal growing cells. In contrast, we found that the tumor suppressor ARF promoter is activated by deregulated E2F activity, induced by forced inactivation of pRB, but does not respond to physiological E2F activity induced by growth stimulation. We also found that the deregulated E2F activity, which activates the ARF promoter, is detected only in cancer cell lines. These observations suggest that ARF promoter is activated by E2F only in cancer cells and therefore may be more cancer cell-specific than E2F1 promoter to drive gene expression. We show here that the ARF promoter has lower activity in normal growing fibroblasts and shows higher cancer cell-specificity compared to the E2F1 promoter. We also demonstrate that adenovirus expressing HSV

  17. Rituximab therapy reduces organ-specific T cell responses and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L Monson

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials have established B cell depletion by the anti-CD20 chimeric antibody Rituximab as a beneficial therapy for patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS. The impact of Rituximab on T cell responses remains largely unexplored. In the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model of MS in mice that express human CD20, Rituximab administration rapidly depleted peripheral B cells and strongly reduced EAE severity. B cell depletion was also associated with diminished Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH and a reduction in T cell proliferation and IL-17 production during recall immune response experiments. While Rituximab is not considered a broad immunosuppressant, our results indicate a role for B cells as a therapeutic cellular target in regulating encephalitogenic T cell responses in specific tissues.

  18. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 regulates differentiation onset and migration of trophoblast stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongmei; Hölz, Stefanie; Metzger, Eric; Pavlovic, Mihael; Jandausch, Anett; Jilg, Cordula; Galgoczy, Petra; Herz, Corinna; Moser, Markus; Metzger, Daniel; Günther, Thomas; Arnold, Sebastian J.; Schüle, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Propagation and differentiation of stem cell populations are tightly regulated to provide sufficient cell numbers for tissue formation while maintaining the stem cell pool. Embryonic parts of the mammalian placenta are generated from differentiating trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) invading the maternal decidua. Here we demonstrate that lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1) regulates differentiation onset of TSCs. Deletion of Lsd1 in mice results in the reduction of TSC number, diminished formation of trophectoderm tissues and early embryonic lethality. Lsd1-deficient TSCs display features of differentiation initiation, including alterations of cell morphology, and increased migration and invasion. We show that increased TSC motility is mediated by the premature expression of the transcription factor Ovol2 that is directly repressed by Lsd1 in undifferentiated cells. In summary, our data demonstrate that the epigenetic modifier Lsd1 functions as a gatekeeper for the differentiation onset of TSCs, whereby differentiation-associated cell migration is controlled by the transcription factor Ovol2.

  19. Peptide specific expansion of CD8(+) T cells by recombinant plate bound MHC/peptide complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Esben G W; Buus, Soren; Thorn, Mette;

    2009-01-01

    in vitro T cell stimulation was investigated. By use of an antigenic peptide derived from the cytomegalovirus (CMVp) we tested the stimulatory efficacy of recombinant plate bound MHC molecules (PB-MHC), being immobilized in culture plates. A single stimulation of non-adherent peripheral blood...... effect of new stimulatory cocktails, e.g. cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules, by use of the present rapid and easy-to-use method of expanding peptide specific T cells.......Development of methods for efficient in vitro stimulation and expansion of peptide specific CD8(+) T cells is compelling not only with respect to adoptive T cell therapy but also regarding analysis of T cell responses and search for new immunogenic peptides. In the present study, a new approach to...

  20. Parallel detection of antigen-specific T cell responses by combinatorial encoding of MHC multimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sick; Kvistborg, Pia; Frøsig, Thomas Mørch;

    2012-01-01

    -dimensional combinatorial matrix, these eight fluorochromes are combined to generate 28 unique two-color codes. By the use of combinatorial encoding, a large number of different T cell populations can be detected in a single sample. The method can be used for T cell epitope mapping, and also for the monitoring of CD8......Fluorescently labeled multimeric complexes of peptide-MHC, the molecular entities recognized by the T cell receptor, have become essential reagents for detection of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells by flow cytometry. Here we present a method for high-throughput parallel detection of antigen......-specific T cells by combinatorial encoding of MHC multimers. Peptide-MHC complexes are produced by UV-mediated MHC peptide exchange and multimerized in the form of streptavidin-fluorochrome conjugates. Eight different fluorochromes are used for the generation of MHC multimers and, by a two...

  1. Comparison of Whole-Cell SELEX Methods for the Identification of Staphylococcus Aureus-Specific DNA Aptamers

    OpenAIRE

    Jihea Moon; Giyoung Kim; Saet Byeol Park; Jongguk Lim; Changyeun Mo

    2015-01-01

    Whole-cell Systemic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment (SELEX) is the process by which aptamers specific to target cells are developed. Aptamers selected by whole-cell SELEX have high affinity and specificity for bacterial surface molecules and live bacterial targets. To identify DNA aptamers specific to Staphylococcus aureus, we applied our rapid whole-cell SELEX method to a single-stranded ssDNA library. To improve the specificity and selectivity of the aptamers, we designed, s...

  2. Optimization of Invasion-Specific Effects of Betulin Derivatives on Prostate Cancer Cells through Lead Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Johannes; Ahonen, Ilmari; Schukov, Hannu-Pekka; Alakurtti, Sami; Purev, Enkhee; Rischer, Heiko; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Moreira, Vânia M.; Nees, Matthias; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja

    2015-01-01

    The anti-invasive and anti-proliferative effects of betulins and abietane derivatives was systematically tested using an organotypic model system of advanced, castration-resistant prostate cancers. A preliminary screen of the initial set of 93 compounds was performed in two-dimensional (2D) growth conditions using non-transformed prostate epithelial cells (EP156T), an androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP), and the castration-resistant, highly invasive cell line PC-3. The 25 most promising compounds were all betulin derivatives. These were selected for a focused secondary screen in three-dimensional (3D) growth conditions, with the goal to identify the most effective and specific anti-invasive compounds. Additional sensitivity and cytotoxicity tests were then performed using an extended cell line panel. The effects of these compounds on cell cycle progression, mitosis, proliferation and unspecific cytotoxicity, versus their ability to specifically interfere with cell motility and tumor cell invasion was addressed. To identify potential mechanisms of action and likely compound targets, multiplex profiling of compound effects on a panel of 43 human protein kinases was performed. These target de-convolution studies, combined with the phenotypic analyses of multicellular organoids in 3D models, revealed specific inhibition of AKT signaling linked to effects on the organization of the actin cytoskeleton as the most likely driver of altered cell morphology and motility. PMID:25965345

  3. Optimization of Invasion-Specific Effects of Betulin Derivatives on Prostate Cancer Cells through Lead Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Härmä

    Full Text Available The anti-invasive and anti-proliferative effects of betulins and abietane derivatives was systematically tested using an organotypic model system of advanced, castration-resistant prostate cancers. A preliminary screen of the initial set of 93 compounds was performed in two-dimensional (2D growth conditions using non-transformed prostate epithelial cells (EP156T, an androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP, and the castration-resistant, highly invasive cell line PC-3. The 25 most promising compounds were all betulin derivatives. These were selected for a focused secondary screen in three-dimensional (3D growth conditions, with the goal to identify the most effective and specific anti-invasive compounds. Additional sensitivity and cytotoxicity tests were then performed using an extended cell line panel. The effects of these compounds on cell cycle progression, mitosis, proliferation and unspecific cytotoxicity, versus their ability to specifically interfere with cell motility and tumor cell invasion was addressed. To identify potential mechanisms of action and likely compound targets, multiplex profiling of compound effects on a panel of 43 human protein kinases was performed. These target de-convolution studies, combined with the phenotypic analyses of multicellular organoids in 3D models, revealed specific inhibition of AKT signaling linked to effects on the organization of the actin cytoskeleton as the most likely driver of altered cell morphology and motility.

  4. Mechanism of arctigenin-mediated specific cytotoxicity against human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, Siti; Iwasaki, Hironori; Inafuku, Masashi; Taira, Naoyuki; Oku, Hirosuke

    2013-12-15

    The lignan arctigenin (ARG) from the herb Arctium lappa L. possesses anti-cancer activity, however the mechanism of action of ARG has been found to vary among tissues and types of cancer cells. The current study aims to gain insight into the ARG mediated mechanism of action involved in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in lung adenocarcinoma cells. This study also delineates the cancer cell specificity of ARG by comparison with its effects on various normal cell lines. ARG selectively arrested the proliferation of cancer cells at the G0/G1 phase through the down-regulation of NPAT protein expression. This down-regulation occurred via the suppression of either cyclin E/CDK2 or cyclin H/CDK7, while apoptosis was induced through the modulation of the Akt-1-related signaling pathway. Furthermore, a GSH synthase inhibitor specifically enhanced the cytotoxicity of ARG against cancer cells, suggesting that the intracellular GSH content was another factor influencing the susceptibility of cancer cells to ARG. These findings suggest that specific cytotoxicity of ARG against lung cancer cells was explained by its selective modulation of the expression of NPAT, which is involved in histone biosynthesis. The cytotoxicity of ARG appeared to be dependent on the intracellular GSH level. PMID:24021157

  5. Glutamine synthetase is a genetic determinant of cell type-specific glutamine independence in breast epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Ni Kung

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although significant variations in the metabolic profiles exist among different cells, little is understood in terms of genetic regulations of such cell type-specific metabolic phenotypes and nutrient requirements. While many cancer cells depend on exogenous glutamine for survival to justify the therapeutic targeting of glutamine metabolism, the mechanisms of glutamine dependence and likely response and resistance of such glutamine-targeting strategies among cancers are largely unknown. In this study, we have found a systematic variation in the glutamine dependence among breast tumor subtypes associated with mammary differentiation: basal- but not luminal-type breast cells are more glutamine-dependent and may be susceptible to glutamine-targeting therapeutics. Glutamine independence of luminal-type cells is associated mechanistically with lineage-specific expression of glutamine synthetase (GS. Luminal cells can also rescue basal cells in co-culture without glutamine, indicating a potential for glutamine symbiosis within breast ducts. The luminal-specific expression of GS is directly induced by GATA3 and represses glutaminase expression. Such distinct glutamine dependency and metabolic symbiosis is coupled with the acquisition of the GS and glutamine independence during the mammary differentiation program. Understanding the genetic circuitry governing distinct metabolic patterns is relevant to many symbiotic relationships among different cells and organisms. In addition, the ability of GS to predict patterns of glutamine metabolism and dependency among tumors is also crucial in the rational design and application of glutamine and other metabolic pathway targeted therapies.

  6. A nanocomplex that is both tumor cell-selective and cancer gene-specific for anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu Youli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many in vitro studies have demonstrated that silencing of cancerous genes by siRNAs is a potential therapeutic approach for blocking tumor growth. However, siRNAs are not cell type-selective, cannot specifically target tumor cells, and therefore have limited in vivo application for siRNA-mediated gene therapy. Results In this study, we tested a functional RNA nanocomplex which exclusively targets and affects human anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL by taking advantage of the abnormal expression of CD30, a unique surface biomarker, and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK gene in lymphoma cells. The nanocomplexes were formulated by incorporating both ALK siRNA and a RNA-based CD30 aptamer probe onto nano-sized polyethyleneimine-citrate carriers. To minimize potential cytotoxicity, the individual components of the nanocomplexes were used at sub-cytotoxic concentrations. Dynamic light scattering showed that formed nanocomplexes were ~140 nm in diameter and remained stable for more than 24 hours in culture medium. Cell binding assays revealed that CD30 aptamer probes selectively targeted nanocomplexes to ALCL cells, and confocal fluorescence microscopy confirmed intracellular delivery of the nanocomplex. Cell transfection analysis showed that nanocomplexes silenced genes in an ALCL cell type-selective fashion. Moreover, exposure of ALCL cells to nanocomplexes carrying both ALK siRNAs and CD30 RNA aptamers specifically silenced ALK gene expression, leading to growth arrest and apoptosis. Conclusions Taken together, our findings indicate that this functional RNA nanocomplex is both tumor cell type-selective and cancer gene-specific for ALCL cells.

  7. SV40 large T antigen-specific human T cell memory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Sharon; Gibbs, Allen; Butchart, Eric; Mason, Malcolm D; Jasani, Bharat; Tabi, Zsuzsanna

    2008-08-01

    The continued presence of simian virus 40 (SV40), a monkey polyomavirus, in man is confirmed by the regular detection of SV40-specific antibodies in 5-10% of children who are unlikely to have received contaminated polio-vaccines. The aim of our experiments was to find cellular immunological evidence of SV40 infection in humans by testing memory T cell responses to SV40 large T antigen (Tag). As there is some indication that the virus may be present in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells, we analyzed T cell responses in MPM patients and in healthy donors. The frequencies of responding T cells to overlapping Tag peptides were tested by cytokine flow cytometry. CD8+ T cells from 4 of 32 MPM patients responded (above twofold of control) to SV40 Tag peptides, while no positive responses were detected in 12 healthy donors. Within SV40 Tag we identified three 15 amino acid-long immunogenic sequences and one 9 amino acid-long T cell epitope (p138) (138FPSELLSFL146), the latter including a HLA-B7-restriction motif. T cell responses to p138 were SV40-specific as T cells stimulated with p138 did not cross-react with the corresponding sequences of Tag of human polyomaviruses BKV and JCV. Similarly, the relevant BKV and JCV Tag peptides did not generate T cell responses against SV40 TAg p138. Peptide-stimulated T cells also killed SV40 Tag-transfected target cells. This article demonstrates the presence, and provides a detailed analysis, of SV40-specific T cell memory in man. PMID:18551603

  8. Stat3 Programs Th17-Specific Regulatory T Cells to Control GN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Malte A.; Luig, Michael; Wegscheid, Claudia; Goerke, Boeren; Paust, Hans-Joachim; Brix, Silke R.; Yan, Isabell; Mittrücker, Hans-Willi; Hagl, Beate; Renner, Ellen D.; Tiegs, Gisa; Wiech, Thorsten; Stahl, Rolf A.K.; Panzer, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    A pathogenic role for Th17 cells in inflammatory renal disease is well established. The mechanisms underlying their counter-regulation are, however, largely unknown. Recently, Th17 lineage-specific regulatory T cells (Treg17) that depend on activation of the transcription factor Stat3 were identified. We studied the function of Treg17 in the nephrotoxic nephritis (NTN) model of crescentic GN. The absence of Treg17 cells in Foxp3Cre×Stat3fl/fl mice resulted in the aggravation of NTN and skewing of renal and systemic immune responses toward Th17. Detailed analysis of Stat3-deficient Tregs revealed that the survival, activation, proliferation, and suppressive function of these cells remained intact. However, Tregs from Foxp3Cre×Stat3fl/fl mice lacked surface expression of the chemokine receptor CCR6, which resulted in impaired renal trafficking. Furthermore, aggravation of NTN was reversible in the absence of Th17 responses, as shown in CD4Cre×Stat3fl/fl mice lacking both Treg17 and Th17 cells, suggesting that Th17 cells are indeed the major target of Treg17 cells. Notably, immunohistochemistry revealed CCR6-bearing Treg17 cells in kidney biopsy specimens of patients with GN. CCR6 expression on human Treg17 cells also appears dependent on STAT3, as shown by analysis of Tregs from patients with dominant-negative STAT3 mutations. Our data indicate the presence and involvement of Stat3/STAT3-dependent Treg17 cells that specifically target Th17 cells in murine and human crescentic GN, and suggest the kidney-specific action of these Treg17 cells is regulated by CCR6-directed migration into areas of Th17 inflammation. PMID:24511136

  9. CD8α− Dendritic Cells Induce Antigen-Specific T Follicular Helper Cells Generating Efficient Humoral Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsik Shin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on T follicular helper (Tfh cells have significantly advanced our understanding of T cell-dependent B cell responses. However, little is known about the early stage of Tfh cell commitment by dendritic cells (DCs, particularly by the conventional CD8α+ and CD8α− DC subsets. We show that CD8α− DCs localized at the interfollicular zone play a pivotal role in the induction of antigen-specific Tfh cells by upregulating the expression of Icosl and Ox40l through the non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathway. Tfh cells induced by CD8α− DCs function as true B cell helpers, resulting in significantly increased humoral immune responses against various human pathogenic antigens, including Yersinia pestis LcrV, HIV Gag, and hepatitis B surface antigen. Our findings uncover a mechanistic role of CD8α− DCs in the initiation of Tfh cell differentiation and thereby provide a rationale for investigating CD8α− DCs in enhancing antigen-specific humoral immune responses for improving vaccines and therapeutics.

  10. HIV-dependent depletion of influenza-specific memory B cells impacts B cell responsiveness to seasonal influenza immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Adam K; Kristensen, Anne B; Lay, William N; Kent, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Infection with HIV drives significant alterations in B cell phenotype and function that can markedly influence antibody responses to immunisation. Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) can partially reverse many aspects of B cell dysregulation, however complete normalisation of vaccine responsiveness is not always observed. Here we examine the effects of underlying HIV infection upon humoral immunity to seasonal influenza vaccines. Serological and memory B cell responses were assessed in 26 HIV+ subjects receiving ART and 30 healthy controls immunised with the 2015 Southern Hemisphere trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3). Frequencies and phenotypes of influenza hemagglutinin (HA)-specific B cells were assessed by flow cytometry using recombinant HA probes. Serum antibody was measured using hemagglutination inhibition assays. Serological responses to IIV3 were comparable between HIV+ and HIV- subjects. Likewise, the activation and expansion of memory B cell populations specific for vaccine-component influenza strains was observed in both cohorts, however peak frequencies were diminished in HIV+ subjects compared to uninfected controls. Lower circulating frequencies of memory B cells recognising vaccine-component and historical influenza strains were observed in HIV+ subjects at baseline, that were generally restored to levels comparable with HIV- controls post-vaccination. HIV infection is therefore associated with depletion of selected HA-specific memory B cell pools. PMID:27220898

  11. HIV-dependent depletion of influenza-specific memory B cells impacts B cell responsiveness to seasonal influenza immunisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Adam K.; Kristensen, Anne B.; Lay, William N.; Kent, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Infection with HIV drives significant alterations in B cell phenotype and function that can markedly influence antibody responses to immunisation. Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) can partially reverse many aspects of B cell dysregulation, however complete normalisation of vaccine responsiveness is not always observed. Here we examine the effects of underlying HIV infection upon humoral immunity to seasonal influenza vaccines. Serological and memory B cell responses were assessed in 26 HIV+ subjects receiving ART and 30 healthy controls immunised with the 2015 Southern Hemisphere trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3). Frequencies and phenotypes of influenza hemagglutinin (HA)-specific B cells were assessed by flow cytometry using recombinant HA probes. Serum antibody was measured using hemagglutination inhibition assays. Serological responses to IIV3 were comparable between HIV+ and HIV− subjects. Likewise, the activation and expansion of memory B cell populations specific for vaccine-component influenza strains was observed in both cohorts, however peak frequencies were diminished in HIV+ subjects compared to uninfected controls. Lower circulating frequencies of memory B cells recognising vaccine-component and historical influenza strains were observed in HIV+ subjects at baseline, that were generally restored to levels comparable with HIV− controls post-vaccination. HIV infection is therefore associated with depletion of selected HA-specific memory B cell pools. PMID:27220898

  12. Characteristics and functions of Sendai virus-specific T-cell clones.

    OpenAIRE

    Ertl, H C; Finberg, R W

    1984-01-01

    Several murine Sendai virus-specific T-cell clones were characterized in vitro and in vivo. All T-cell clones were phenotypically Thy-1.2+, and most clones were Lyt-1+,2-; one T-cell clone was Lyt-1-,2-. Some of the clones proliferated in response to antigen presented on I region-compatible stimulator cells. Proliferation could be inhibited by monoclonal antibodies directed against class II antigens. Clones which proliferated in response to antigen secreted lymphokines which could be identifi...

  13. Dendritic cells engineered to express defined allo-HLA peptide complexes induce antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells efficiently killing tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stronen, E; Abrahamsen, I W; Gaudernack, G; Wälchli, S; Munthe, E; Buus, S; Johansen, F-E; Lund-Johansen, F; Olweus, J

    2009-01-01

    , efficiently present externally loaded peptides from the antigen, Melan-A/MART-1 to T cells from HLA-A*0201-negative donors. CD8(+) T cells binding HLA-A*0201/MART-1 pentamers were detected already after 12 days of co-culture in 11/11 donors. The majority of cells from pentamer(+) cell lines were CTL and...... efficiently killed HLA-A*0201(+) melanoma cells, whilst sparing HLA-A*0201(+) B-cells. Allo-restricted CTL specific for peptides from the leukaemia-associated antigens CD33 and CD19 were obtained with comparable efficiency. Collectively, the results show that dendritic cells engineered to express defined allo...

  14. Versatile strategy for controlling the specificity and activity of engineered T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jennifer S Y; Kim, Ji Young; Kazane, Stephanie A; Choi, Sei-Hyun; Yun, Hwa Young; Kim, Min Soo; Rodgers, David T; Pugh, Holly M; Singer, Oded; Sun, Sophie B; Fonslow, Bryan R; Kochenderfer, James N; Wright, Timothy M; Schultz, Peter G; Young, Travis S; Kim, Chan Hyuk; Cao, Yu

    2016-01-26

    The adoptive transfer of autologous T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) has emerged as a promising cancer therapy. Despite impressive clinical efficacy, the general application of current CAR-T--cell therapy is limited by serious treatment-related toxicities. One approach to improve the safety of CAR-T cells involves making their activation and proliferation dependent upon adaptor molecules that mediate formation of the immunological synapse between the target cancer cell and T-cell. Here, we describe the design and synthesis of structurally defined semisynthetic adaptors we refer to as "switch" molecules, in which anti-CD19 and anti-CD22 antibody fragments are site-specifically modified with FITC using genetically encoded noncanonical amino acids. This approach allows the precise control over the geometry and stoichiometry of complex formation between CD19- or CD22-expressing cancer cells and a "universal" anti-FITC-directed CAR-T cell. Optimization of this CAR-switch combination results in potent, dose-dependent in vivo antitumor activity in xenograft models. The advantage of being able to titrate CAR-T-cell in vivo activity was further evidenced by reduced in vivo toxicity and the elimination of persistent B-cell aplasia in immune-competent mice. The ability to control CAR-T cell and cancer cell interactions using intermediate switch molecules may expand the scope of engineered T-cell therapy to solid tumors, as well as indications beyond cancer therapy. PMID:26759368

  15. Cell-Autonomous Gβ Signaling Defines Neuron-Specific Steady State Serotonin Synthesis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lu; Choi, Sunju; Xie, Yusu; Sze, Ji Ying

    2015-09-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins regulate a vast array of cellular functions via specific intracellular effectors. Accumulating pharmacological and biochemical studies implicate Gβ subunits as signaling molecules interacting directly with a wide range of effectors to modulate downstream cellular responses, in addition to their role in regulating Gα subunit activities. However, the native biological roles of Gβ-mediated signaling pathways in vivo have been characterized only in a few cases. Here, we identified a Gβ GPB-1 signaling pathway operating in specific serotonergic neurons to the define steady state serotonin (5-HT) synthesis, through a genetic screen for 5-HT synthesis mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that signaling through cell autonomous GPB-1 to the OCR-2 TRPV channel defines the baseline expression of 5-HT synthesis enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase tph-1 in ADF chemosensory neurons. This Gβ signaling pathway is not essential for establishing the serotonergic cell fates and is mechanistically separated from stress-induced tph-1 upregulation. We identified that ADF-produced 5-HT controls specific innate rhythmic behaviors. These results revealed a Gβ-mediated signaling operating in differentiated cells to specify intrinsic functional properties, and indicate that baseline TPH expression is not a default generic serotonergic fate, but is programmed in a cell-specific manner in the mature nervous system. Cell-specific regulation of TPH expression could be a general principle for tailored steady state 5-HT synthesis in functionally distinct neurons and their regulation of innate behavior. PMID:26402365

  16. Differentiation of human bone marrow stem cells into cells with a neural phenotype: diverse effects of two specific treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Maria

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has recently been demonstrated that the fate of adult cells is not restricted to their tissues of origin. In particular, it has been shown that bone marrow stem cells can give rise to cells of different tissues, including neural cells, hepatocytes and myocytes, expanding their differentiation potential. Results In order to identify factors able to lead differentiation of stem cells towards cells of neural lineage, we isolated stromal cells from human adult bone marrow (BMSC. Cells were treated with: (1 TPA, forskolin, IBMX, FGF-1 or (2 retinoic acid and 2-mercaptoethanol (BME. Treatment (1 induced differentiation into neuron-like cells within 24 hours, while a longer treatment was required when using retinoic acid and BME. Morphological modifications were more dramatic after treatment (1 compared with treatment (2. In BMSC both treatments induced the expression of neural markers such as NF, GFAP, TUJ-1 and neuron-specific enolase. Moreover, the transcription factor Hes1 increased after both treatments. Conclusion Our study may contribute towards the identification of mechanisms involved in the differentiation of stem cells towards cells of neural lineage.

  17. Cell-cycle specific expression of a small proline-rich protein in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squamous metaplasia of the bronchial epithelium is generally believed to be involved in the neoplastic progression toward squamous cell carcinomas. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms controlling this type of differentiation. The induction of two families of cDNAs encoding a small proline-rich protein (sPRP), sprI and sprII, was first identified in human keratinocytes exhibiting squamous differentiation. cDNAs similar to sprI have also been identified in cultured tracheal epithelial cells undergoing squamous differentiation. The first step during the squamous differentiation process is the inhibition of cell growth; it has also been noted that a sPRP mRNA in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells is induced 10-fold just before the cultures reach confluence. Thus, sPRP may stop cell division in cells undergoing squamous differentation. In support of this possibility are the recent investigations correlating expression of sPRP with cell morphology. Specific immunoreactivity to sPRP, using affinity-purified antibodies, showed a strong immunostaining in cells with a round configuration, while less staining was observed in other cells. The major part of the CHO population showed no immunoreactivity. One interpretation of this observation is that the expression of sPRP may be cell-cyle regulated. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the phase of the cell cycle where induced synthesis of sPRP mRNA occurs

  18. Towards an understanding of cell-specific functions of signal-dependent transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dawn X; Glass, Christopher K

    2013-12-01

    The ability to regulate gene expression in a cell-specific manner is a feature of many broadly expressed signal-dependent transcription factors (SDTFs), including nuclear hormone receptors and transcription factors that are activated by cell surface receptors for extracellular signals. As the most plastic cells of the hematopoietic system, macrophages are responsive to a wide spectrum of regulatory molecules and provide a robust model system for investigation of the basis for cell-specific transcriptional responses at a genome-wide level. Here, focusing on recent studies in macrophages, we review the evidence suggesting a model in which cell-specific actions of SDTFs are the consequence of priming functions of lineage determining transcription factors. We also discuss recent findings relating lineage-determining and SDTF activity to alterations in the epigenetic landscape as well as the production and function of enhancer RNAs. These findings have implications for the understanding of how natural genetic variation impacts cell-specific programs of gene expression and suggest new approaches for altering gene expression in vivo. PMID:24130129

  19. Phenotype-based cell-specific metabolic modeling reveals metabolic liabilities of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizhak, Keren; Gaude, Edoardo; Le Dévédec, Sylvia; Waldman, Yedael Y; Stein, Gideon Y; van de Water, Bob; Frezza, Christian; Ruppin, Eytan

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing molecular data to derive functional physiological models tailored for specific cancer cells can facilitate the use of individually tailored therapies. To this end we present an approach termed PRIME for generating cell-specific genome-scale metabolic models (GSMMs) based on molecular and phenotypic data. We build >280 models of normal and cancer cell-lines that successfully predict metabolic phenotypes in an individual manner. We utilize this set of cell-specific models to predict drug targets that selectively inhibit cancerous but not normal cell proliferation. The top predicted target, MLYCD, is experimentally validated and the metabolic effects of MLYCD depletion investigated. Furthermore, we tested cell-specific predicted responses to the inhibition of metabolic enzymes, and successfully inferred the prognosis of cancer patients based on their PRIME-derived individual GSMMs. These results lay a computational basis and a counterpart experimental proof of concept for future personalized metabolic modeling applications, enhancing the search for novel selective anticancer therapies. PMID:25415239

  20. Antigen-specific T8+ human clone of cells with a nonspecific augmenting function on the T4 cell-B cell helper interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors isolated a T8+ T3+ Ia+ clone of cells from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy subject. The clone was expanded and maintained with autologous feed cells, interleukin 2, and a streptococcal antigen. The T8+ clone of cells responded specifically to the streptococcal antigen, in the absence of accessory cells,and released a soluble factor. Both the cloned cells and the corresponding soluble factor expressed augmenting helper but not suppressor activity. The augmenting helper activity for B cell antibody synthesis was demonstrable only in the presence of autologous T 4 cells. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure antibodies. Although stimulation of the T8+ cloned cells was antigen-specific, the resulting soluble factor elicited nonspecific antibody synthesis in the presence of T4 and B cells. The T8+ cloned cell-derived factor was adsorbed by B cells but not by T4 cells. Preliminary studies suggest that the factor has the properties of a B cell growth factor. They suggest that the T8+ population consists of functionally heterogeneous cell subsets, some that have suppressor function and others that augment the T4+ helper-inducer activity in B cell antibody synthesis

  1. Phospho-specific flow cytometry identifies aberrant signaling in indolent B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blix Egil S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about signaling pathways in malignant cells may provide prognostic and diagnostic information in addition to identify potential molecular targets for therapy. B-cell receptor (BCR and co-receptor CD40 signaling is essential for normal B cells, and there is increasing evidence that signaling via BCR and CD40 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphoma. The aim of this study was to investigate basal and induced signaling in lymphoma B cells and infiltrating T cells in single-cell suspensions of biopsies from small cell lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia (SLL/CLL and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL patients. Methods Samples from untreated SLL/CLL and MZL patients were examined for basal and activation induced signaling by phospho-specific flow cytometry. A panel of 9 stimulation conditions targeting B and T cells, including crosslinking of the B cell receptor (BCR, CD40 ligand and interleukins in combination with 12 matching phospho-protein readouts was used to study signaling. Results Malignant B cells from SLL/CLL patients had higher basal levels of phosphorylated (p-SFKs, p-PLCγ, p-ERK, p-p38, p-p65 (NF-κB, p-STAT5 and p-STAT6, compared to healthy donor B cells. In contrast, anti-BCR induced signaling was highly impaired in SLL/CLL and MZL B cells as determined by low p-SFK, p-SYK and p-PLCγ levels. Impaired anti-BCR-induced p-PLCγ was associated with reduced surface expression of IgM and CD79b. Similarly, CD40L-induced p-ERK and p-p38 were also significantly reduced in lymphoma B cells, whereas p-p65 (NF-κB was equal to that of normal B cells. In contrast, IL-2, IL-7 and IL-15 induced p-STAT5 in tumor-infiltrating T cells were not different from normal T cells. Conclusions BCR signaling and CD40L-induced p-p38 was suppressed in malignant B cells from SLL/CLL and MZL patients. Single-cell phospho-specific flow cytometry for detection of basal as well as activation

  2. Mathematical model for HIV dynamics in HIV-specific helper cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Carla M. A.; Carvalho, Ana

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we study a delay mathematical model for the dynamics of HIV in HIV-specific CD4 + T helper cells. We modify the model presented by Roy and Wodarz in 2012, where the HIV dynamics is studied, considering a single CD4 + T cell population. Non-specific helper cells are included as alternative target cell population, to account for macrophages and dendritic cells. In this paper, we include two types of delay: (1) a latent period between the time target cells are contacted by the virus particles and the time the virions enter the cells and; (2) virus production period for new virions to be produced within and released from the infected cells. We compute the reproduction number of the model, R0, and the local stability of the disease free equilibrium and of the endemic equilibrium. We find that for values of R01, the model approximates asymptotically the endemic equilibrium. We observe numerically the phenomenon of backward bifurcation for values of R0⪅1. This statement will be proved in future work. We also vary the values of the latent period and the production period of infected cells and free virus. We conclude that increasing these values translates in a decrease of the reproduction number. Thus, a good strategy to control the HIV virus should focus on drugs to prolong the latent period and/or slow down the virus production. These results suggest that the model is mathematically and epidemiologically well-posed.

  3. One size does not fit all: developing a cell-specific niche for in vitro study of cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovic, Milos; Block, Travis J; Rakian, Rubie; Li, Qihong; Wang, Exing; Reilly, Matthew A; Dean, David D; Chen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    For more than 100years, cells and tissues have been studied in vitro using glass and plastic surfaces. Over the last 10-20years, a great body of research has shown that cells are acutely sensitive to their local environment (extracellular matrix, ECM) which contains both chemical and physical cues that influence cell behavior. These observations suggest that modern cell culture systems, using tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) surfaces, may fail to reproduce authentic cell behavior in vitro, resulting in "artificial outcomes." In the current study, we use bone marrow (BM)- and adipose (AD)-derived stromal cells to prepare BM-ECM and AD-ECM, which are decellularized after synthesis by the cells, to mimic the cellular niche for each of these tissues. Each ECM was characterized for its ability to affect BM- and AD-mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation, as well as proliferation of three cancer cell lines (HeLa, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231), modulate cell spreading, and direct differentiation relative to standard TCP surfaces. We found that both ECMs promoted the proliferation of MSCs, but that this effect was enhanced when the tissue-origin of the cells matched that of the ECM (i.e. BM-ECM promoted the proliferation of BM-MSCs over AD-MSCs, and vice versa). Moreover, BM- and AD-ECM were shown to preferentially direct MSC differentiation towards either osteogenic or adipogenic lineage, respectively, suggesting that the effects of the ECM were tissue-specific. Further, each ECM influenced cell morphology (i.e. circularity), irrespective of the origin of the MSCs, lending more support to the idea that effects were tissue specific. Interestingly, unlike MSCs, these ECMs did not promote the proliferation of the cancer cells. In an effort to further understand how these three culture substrates influence cell behavior, we evaluated the chemical (protein composition) and physical properties (architecture and mechanical) of the two ECMs. While many structural proteins (e

  4. Prolonged activation of virus-specific CD8+T cells after acute B19 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human parvovirus B19 (B19 is a ubiquitous and clinically significant pathogen, causing erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, transient aplastic crisis, and intrauterine fetal death. The phenotype of CD8+ T cells in acute B19 infection has not been studied previously. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The number and phenotype of B19-specific CD8+ T cell responses during and after acute adult infection was studied using HLA-peptide multimeric complexes. Surprisingly, these responses increased in magnitude over the first year post-infection despite resolution of clinical symptoms and control of viraemia, with T cell populations specific for individual epitopes comprising up to 4% of CD8+ T cells. B19-specific T cells developed and maintained an activated CD38+ phenotype, with strong expression of perforin and CD57 and downregulation of CD28 and CD27. These cells possessed strong effector function and intact proliferative capacity. Individuals tested many years after infection exhibited lower frequencies of B19-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, typically 0.05%-0.5% of CD8+ T cells, which were perforin, CD38, and CCR7 low. CONCLUSION: This is the first example to our knowledge of an "acute" human viral infection inducing a persistent activated CD8+ T cell response. The likely explanation--analogous to that for cytomegalovirus infection--is that this persistent response is due to low-level antigen exposure. CD8+ T cells may contribute to the long-term control of this significant pathogen and should be considered during vaccine development.

  5. Specific visualization of glioma cells in living low-grade tumor tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven R Kantelhardt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current therapy of malignant gliomas is based on surgical resection, radio-chemotherapy and chemotherapy. Recent retrospective case-series have highlighted the significance of the extent of resection as a prognostic factor predicting the course of the disease. Complete resection in low-grade gliomas that show no MRI-enhanced images are especially difficult. The aim in this study was to develop a robust, specific, new fluorescent probe for glioma cells that is easy to apply to live tumor biopsies and could identify tumor cells from normal brain cells at all levels of magnification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this investigation we employed brightly fluorescent, photostable quantum dots (QDs to specifically target epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR that is upregulated in many gliomas. Living glioma and normal cells or tissue biopsies were incubated with QDs coupled to EGF and/or monoclonal antibodies against EGFR for 30 minutes, washed and imaged. The data include results from cell-culture, animal model and ex vivo human tumor biopsies of both low-grade and high-grade gliomas and show high probe specificity. Tumor cells could be visualized from the macroscopic to single cell level with contrast ratios as high as 1000: 1 compared to normal brain tissue. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ability of the targeted probes to clearly distinguish tumor cells in low-grade tumor biopsies, where no enhanced MRI image was obtained, demonstrates the great potential of the method. We propose that future application of specifically targeted fluorescent particles during surgery could allow intraoperative guidance for the removal of residual tumor cells from the resection cavity and thus increase patient survival.

  6. Molecular tracking of antigen-specific T cell clones in neurological immune-mediated disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Paolo A.; Wandinger, Klaus-Peter; Bielekova, Bibiana; Gran, Bruno; Marques, Adriana; Utz, Ursula; McFarland, Henry F.; Jacobson, Steve; Martin, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Summary T cells recognizing self or microbial antigens may trigger or reactivate immune-mediated diseases. Monitoring the frequency of specific T cell clonotypes to assess a possible link with the course of disease has been a difficult task with currently available technology. Our goal was to track individual candidate pathogenic T cell clones, selected on the basis of previous extensive studies from patients with immune-mediated disorders of the CNS, including multiple sclerosis, HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/ TSP) and chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis. We developed and applied a highly specific and sensitive technique to track single CD4+ and CD8+ T cell clones through the detection and quantification of T cell receptor (TCR) α or β chain complementarity-determining region 3 transcripts by real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. We examined the frequency of the candidate pathogenic T cell clones in the peripheral blood and CSF during the course of neurological disease. Using this approach, we detected variations of clonal frequencies that appeared to be related to clinical course, significant enrichment in the CSF, or both. By integrating clono-type tracking with direct visualization of antigen-specific staining, we showed that a single T cell clone contributed substantially to the overall recognition of the viral peptide/MHC complex in a patient with HAM/ TSP. T cell clonotype tracking is a powerful new technology enabling further elucidation of the dynamics of expansion of autoreactive or pathogen-specific T cells that mediate pathological or protective immune responses in neurological disorders. PMID:12477694

  7. Induction of antigen-specific TH 9 immunity accompanied by mast cell activation blocks tumor cell engraftment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahid, Aws; Cydzik, Marzena; Prodeus, Aaron; Alwash, Mays; Stanojcic, Mile; Thompson, Megan; Huang, Eric H-B; Shively, John E; Gray-Owen, Scott D; Gariépy, Jean

    2016-08-15

    The engraftment of circulating cancer cells at distal sites represents a key step in the metastatic cascade, yet remains an unexplored target for therapeutic intervention. In this study, we establish that a vaccination strategy yielding an antigen-specific TH 9 response induces long term host surveillance and prevents the engraftment of circulating cancer cells. Specifically, we show that vaccination with a recombinant CEA IgV-like N domain, formulated with the TLR3 ligand poly I:C, elicits a CEA-specific TH 9 response, wherein IL-9 secreting TH cells act in concert with CEA N domain-specific antibodies as well as activated mast cells in preventing tumor cell engraftment. The development of this immune response was dependent on TLR3, since interference with the TLR3-dsRNA complex formation led to a reduction in vaccine-imparted protection and a shift in the resulting immune response toward a TH 2 response. These findings point to the existence of an alternate tumor targeting immune mechanism that can be exploited for the purpose of developing vaccine therapies targeting tumor dissemination and engraftment. PMID:27037842

  8. Multiple Sclerosis Patient-Specific Primary Neurons Differentiated from Urinary Renal Epithelial Cells via Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan G Massa

    Full Text Available As multiple sclerosis research progresses, it is pertinent to continue to develop suitable paradigms to allow for ever more sophisticated investigations. Animal models of multiple sclerosis, despite their continuing contributions to the field, may not be the most prudent for every experiment. Indeed, such may be either insufficient to reflect the functional impact of human genetic variations or unsuitable for drug screenings. Thus, we have established a cell- and patient-specific paradigm to provide an in vitro model within which to perform future genetic investigations. Renal proximal tubule epithelial cells were isolated from multiple sclerosis patients' urine and transfected with pluripotency-inducing episomal factors. Subsequent induced pluripotent stem cells were formed into embryoid bodies selective for ectodermal lineage, resulting in neural tube-like rosettes and eventually neural progenitor cells. Differentiation of these precursors into primary neurons was achieved through a regimen of neurotrophic and other factors. These patient-specific primary neurons displayed typical morphology and functionality, also staining positive for mature neuronal markers. The development of such a non-invasive procedure devoid of permanent genetic manipulation during the course of differentiation, in the context of multiple sclerosis, provides an avenue for studies with a greater cell- and human-specific focus, specifically in the context of genetic contributions to neurodegeneration and drug discovery.

  9. Multiple Sclerosis Patient-Specific Primary Neurons Differentiated from Urinary Renal Epithelial Cells via Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Megan G.; Gisevius, Barbara; Hirschberg, Sarah; Hinz, Lisa; Schmidt, Matthias; Gold, Ralf; Prochnow, Nora; Haghikia, Aiden

    2016-01-01

    As multiple sclerosis research progresses, it is pertinent to continue to develop suitable paradigms to allow for ever more sophisticated investigations. Animal models of multiple sclerosis, despite their continuing contributions to the field, may not be the most prudent for every experiment. Indeed, such may be either insufficient to reflect the functional impact of human genetic variations or unsuitable for drug screenings. Thus, we have established a cell- and patient-specific paradigm to provide an in vitro model within which to perform future genetic investigations. Renal proximal tubule epithelial cells were isolated from multiple sclerosis patients’ urine and transfected with pluripotency-inducing episomal factors. Subsequent induced pluripotent stem cells were formed into embryoid bodies selective for ectodermal lineage, resulting in neural tube-like rosettes and eventually neural progenitor cells. Differentiation of these precursors into primary neurons was achieved through a regimen of neurotrophic and other factors. These patient-specific primary neurons displayed typical morphology and functionality, also staining positive for mature neuronal markers. The development of such a non-invasive procedure devoid of permanent genetic manipulation during the course of differentiation, in the context of multiple sclerosis, provides an avenue for studies with a greater cell- and human-specific focus, specifically in the context of genetic contributions to neurodegeneration and drug discovery. PMID:27158987

  10. CD28 co-stimulation via tumour-specific chimaeric receptors induces an incomplete activation response in Epstein–Barr virus-specific effector memory T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altvater, B; Pscherer, S; Landmeier, S; Niggemeier, V; Juergens, H; Vormoor, J; Rossig, C

    2006-01-01

    Expression of tumour antigen-specific chimaeric receptors in T lymphocytes can redirect their effector functions towards tumour cells. Integration of the signalling domains of the co-stimulatory molecule CD28 into chRec enhances antigen-specific proliferation of polyclonal human T cell populations. While CD28 plays an essential role in the priming of naive CD4+ T cells, its contribution to effector memory T cell responses is controversial. We compared the function of the chRec with and without the CD28 co-stimulatory domain, expressing it in peripheral blood T cells or Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-specific T cell lines. The chimaeric T cell receptors contain an extracellular single-chain antibody domain, to give specificity against the tumour ganglioside antigen GD2. The transduced cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) maintained their specificity for autologous EBV targets and their capacity to proliferate after stimulation with EBV-infected B cells. Intracellular cytokine staining demonstrated efficient and comparable antigen-specific interferon (IFN)-γ secretion by CTL following engagement of both the native and the chimaeric receptor, independent of chimaeric CD28 signalling. Furthermore, tumour targets were lysed in an antigen-specific manner by both chRec. However, while antigen engagement by CD28ζ chRec efficiently induced expansion of polyclonal peripheral blood lymphocytes in an antigen-dependent manner, CD28 signalling did not induce proliferation of EBV–CTL in response to antigen-expressing tumour cells. Thus, the co-stimulatory requirement for the efficient activation response of antigen-specific memory cells cannot be mimicked simply by combining CD28 and ζ signalling. The full potential of this highly cytolytic T cell population for adoptive immunotherapy of cancer requires further exploration of their co-stimulatory requirements. PMID:16734614

  11. CD28 co-stimulation via tumour-specific chimaeric receptors induces an incomplete activation response in Epstein-Barr virus-specific effector memory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altvater, B; Pscherer, S; Landmeier, S; Niggemeier, V; Juergens, H; Vormoor, J; Rossig, C

    2006-06-01

    Expression of tumour antigen-specific chimaeric receptors in T lymphocytes can redirect their effector functions towards tumour cells. Integration of the signalling domains of the co-stimulatory molecule CD28 into chRec enhances antigen-specific proliferation of polyclonal human T cell populations. While CD28 plays an essential role in the priming of naive CD4(+) T cells, its contribution to effector memory T cell responses is controversial. We compared the function of the chRec with and without the CD28 co-stimulatory domain, expressing it in peripheral blood T cells or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific T cell lines. The chimaeric T cell receptors contain an extracellular single-chain antibody domain, to give specificity against the tumour ganglioside antigen G(D2). The transduced cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) maintained their specificity for autologous EBV targets and their capacity to proliferate after stimulation with EBV-infected B cells. Intracellular cytokine staining demonstrated efficient and comparable antigen-specific interferon (IFN)-gamma secretion by CTL following engagement of both the native and the chimaeric receptor, independent of chimaeric CD28 signalling. Furthermore, tumour targets were lysed in an antigen-specific manner by both chRec. However, while antigen engagement by CD28 zeta chRec efficiently induced expansion of polyclonal peripheral blood lymphocytes in an antigen-dependent manner, CD28 signalling did not induce proliferation of EBV-CTL in response to antigen-expressing tumour cells. Thus, the co-stimulatory requirement for the efficient activation response of antigen-specific memory cells cannot be mimicked simply by combining CD28 and zeta signalling. The full potential of this highly cytolytic T cell population for adoptive immunotherapy of cancer requires further exploration of their co-stimulatory requirements. PMID:16734614

  12. Tumor cell-specific photothermal killing by SELEX-derived DNA aptamer-targeted gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Ramya; Lee, Alexander Sheng Wei; Yap, Lim Wei; Jans, David A.; Wagstaff, Kylie M.; Cheng, Wenlong

    2015-12-01

    Despite widespread availability of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, the killing of tumour cells without affecting healthy surrounding tissue remains elusive, although recent developments in terms of plasmonic nanoparticles capable of photothermal killing have some promise. Here we describe novel DNA aptamer-tethered gold nanorods (GNRs) that act as efficient photothermal therapeutics against tumour cells, but not their isogenic normal cell counterparts. A modified Cell-SELEX process was developed to select a novel DNA aptamer (KW16-13) that specifically recognised and was internalised by cells of the MCF10CA1h human breast ductal carcinoma line but not by those of its isogenic normal counterpart (MCF10A). GNRs conjugated to KW16-13 were readily internalized by the MCF10CA1h tumour cells with minimal uptake by MCF10A normal cells. Upon near infrared (NIR) light irradiation, tumour cell death of >96%, could be effected, compared to 71-fold tumor cell death than GNRs-targeted with a previously described aptamer. This demonstrates the significant potential for aptamer functionalised-GNRs to be used effective and above all selective anti-cancer photothermal therapeutics.Despite widespread availability of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, the killing of tumour cells without affecting healthy surrounding tissue remains elusive, although recent developments in terms of plasmonic nanoparticles capable of photothermal killing have some promise. Here we describe novel DNA aptamer-tethered gold nanorods (GNRs) that act as efficient photothermal therapeutics against tumour cells, but not their isogenic normal cell counterparts. A modified Cell-SELEX process was developed to select a novel DNA aptamer (KW16-13) that specifically recognised and was internalised by cells of the MCF10CA1h human breast ductal carcinoma line but not by those of its isogenic normal counterpart (MCF10A). GNRs conjugated to KW16-13 were readily internalized by the MCF10CA1h tumour cells with minimal

  13. The evolutionary emergence of cell type-specific genes inferred from the gene expression analysis of Hydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jung Shan; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Hayakawa, Shiho; Osato, Naoki; Nishimiya-Fujisawa, Chiemi; Ikeo, Kazuho; David, Charles N.; Fujisawa, Toshitaka; Gojobori, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Cell lineages of cnidarians including Hydra represent the fundamental cell types of metazoans and provides us a unique opportunity to study the evolutionary diversification of cell type in the animal kingdom. Hydra contains epithelial cells as well as a multipotent interstitial cell (I-cell) that gives rise to nematocytes, nerve cells, gland cells, and germ-line cells. We used cDNA microarrays to identify cell type-specific genes by comparing gene expression in normal Hydra with animals lacking the I-cell lineage, so-called epithelial Hydra. We then performed in situ hybridization to localize expression to specific cell types. Eighty-six genes were shown to be expressed in specific cell types of the I-cell lineage. An additional 29 genes were expressed in epithelial cells and were down-regulated in epithelial animals lacking I-cells. Based on the above information, we constructed a database (http://hydra.lab.nig.ac.jp/hydra/), which describes the expression patterns of cell type-specific genes in Hydra. Most genes expressed specifically in either I-cells or epithelial cells have homologues in higher metazoans. By comparison, most nematocyte-specific genes and approximately half of the gland cell- and nerve cell-specific genes are unique to the cnidarian lineage. Because nematocytes, gland cells, and nerve cells appeared along with the emergence of cnidarians, this suggests that lineage-specific genes arose in cnidarians in conjunction with the evolution of new cell types required by the cnidarians. PMID:17766437

  14. Specific T-cell epitopes for immunoassay-based diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, I; Weldingh, K; Leyten, EM; Arend, SM; Ravn, Pernille; Andersen, P

    2004-01-01

    recently identified antigens (Rv2653, Rv2654, Rv3873, and Rv3878) from genomic regions that are lacking from the Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine strains as well as from the most common nontuberculous mycobacteria. The fine specificity of potential epitopes in these molecules was...... evaluated by sensitive testing of the T-cell responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from M. bovis BCG-vaccinated healthy individuals to synthesized overlapping peptides. Three of the four molecules contained regions with significant specificity problems (Rv2653, Rv3873, and Rv3878). We...... selected and combined the specific peptide stretches from the four proteins not recognized by M. bovis BCG-vaccinated individuals. These peptide stretches were tested with peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from patients with microscopy- or culture-confirmed tuberculosis and from healthy M. bovis...

  15. Hypoxia- and radiation-inducible, breast cell-specific targeting of retroviral vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To facilitate a more efficient radiation and chemotherapy of mammary tumours, synthetic enhancer elements responsive to hypoxia and ionizing radiation were coupled to the mammary-specific minimal promoter of the murine whey acidic protein (WAP) encoding gene. The modified WAP promoter was introduced into a retroviral promoter conversion (ProCon) vector. Expression of a transduced reporter gene in response to hypoxia and radiation was analysed in stably infected mammary cancer cell lines and an up to 9-fold increase in gene expression demonstrated in comparison to the respective basic vector. Expression analyses in vitro, moreover, demonstrated a widely preserved mammary cell-specific promoter activity. For in vivo analyses, xenograft tumours consisting of infected human mammary adenocarcinoma cells were established in SCID/beige mice. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated a hypoxia-specific, markedly increased WAP promoter-driven expression in these tumours. Thus, this retroviral vector will facilitate a targeted gene therapeutic approach exploiting the unique environmental condition in solid tumours

  16. Accessing complexity: the dynamics of virus-specific T cell responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doherty, P C; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard

    2000-01-01

    The cellular dynamics of the immune system are complex and difficult to measure. Access to this problematic area has been greatly enhanced by the recent development of tetrameric complexes of MHC class I glycoprotein + peptide (tetramers) for the direct staining of freshly isolated, antigen......-specific CD8(+ )T cells. Analysis to date with both naturally acquired and experimentally induced infections has established that the numbers of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells present during both the acute and memory phases of the host response are more than tenfold in excess of previously suspected values....... The levels are such that the virus-specific CD8(+) set is readily detected in the human peripheral blood lymphocyte compartment, particularly during persistent infections. Experimentally, it is now possible to measure the extent of cycling for tetramer (+)CD8(+) T cells during the acute and memory...

  17. Glow in the Dark: Fluorescent Proteins as Cell and Tissue-Specific Markers in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenzislava Ckurshumova; Adriana E. Caragea; Rochelle S. Goldstein; Thomas Berleth

    2011-01-01

    Since the hallmark discovery of Aequorea victoria's Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and its adaptation for efficient use in plants,fluorescent protein tags marking expression profiles or genuine proteins of interest have been used to recognize plant tissues and cell types,to monitor dynamic cell fate selection processes,and to obtain cell type-specific transcriptomes.Fluorescent tagging enabled visualization in living tissues and the precise recordings of dynamic expression pattern changes.The resulting accurate recording of cell fate acquisition kinetics in space and time has strongly stimulated mathematical modeling of self-organizing feedback mechanisms.In developmental studies,the use of fluorescent proteins has become critical,where morphological markers of tissues,cell types,or differentiation stages are either not known or not easily recognizable.In this review,we focus on the use of fluorescent markers to identify and illuminate otherwise invisible cell states in plant development.

  18. Virus-specific regulatory T cells ameliorate encephalitis by repressing effector T cell functions from priming to effector stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxian Zhao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the presence of pathogen-specific Foxp3+ CD4 regulatory T cells (Treg in infected animals, but little is known about where and how these cells affect the effector T cell responses and whether they are more suppressive than bulk Treg populations. We recently showed the presence of both epitope M133-specific Tregs (M133 Treg and conventional CD4 T cells (M133 Tconv in the brains of mice with coronavirus-induced encephalitis. Here, we provide new insights into the interactions between pathogenic Tconv and Tregs responding to the same epitope. M133 Tregs inhibited the proliferation but not initial activation of M133 Tconv in draining lymph nodes (DLN. Further, M133 Tregs inhibited migration of M133 Tconv from the DLN. In addition, M133 Tregs diminished microglia activation and decreased the number and function of Tconv in the infected brain. Thus, virus-specific Tregs inhibited pathogenic CD4 T cell responses during priming and effector stages, particularly those recognizing cognate antigen, and decreased mortality and morbidity without affecting virus clearance. These cells are more suppressive than bulk Tregs and provide a targeted approach to ameliorating immunopathological disease in infectious settings.

  19. Tissue-specific targeting of cell fate regulatory genes by E2f factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, L M; Liu, Y; Pakenham, C A; Dugal-Tessier, D; Ruzhynsky, V; Bae, S; Tsai, S-Y; Leone, G; Slack, R S; Blais, A

    2016-04-01

    Cell cycle proteins are important regulators of diverse cell fate decisions, and in this capacity have pivotal roles in neurogenesis and brain development. The mechanisms by which cell cycle regulation is integrated with cell fate control in the brain and other tissues are poorly understood, and an outstanding question is whether the cell cycle machinery regulates fate decisions directly or instead as a secondary consequence of proliferative control. Identification of the genes targeted by E2 promoter binding factor (E2f) transcription factors, effectors of the pRb/E2f cell cycle pathway, will provide essential insights into these mechanisms. We identified the promoter regions bound by three neurogenic E2f factors in neural precursor cells in a genome-wide manner. Through bioinformatic analyses and integration of published genomic data sets we uncovered hundreds of transcriptionally active E2f-bound promoters corresponding to genes that control cell fate processes, including key transcriptional regulators and members of the Notch, fibroblast growth factor, Wnt and Tgf-β signaling pathways. We also demonstrate a striking enrichment of the CCCTC binding factor transcription factor (Ctcf) at E2f3-bound nervous system-related genes, suggesting a potential regulatory co-factor for E2f3 in controlling differentiation. Finally, we provide the first demonstration of extensive tissue specificity among E2f target genes in mammalian cells, whereby E2f3 promoter binding is well conserved between neural and muscle precursors at genes associated with cell cycle processes, but is tissue-specific at differentiation-associated genes. Our findings implicate the cell cycle pathway as a widespread regulator of cell fate genes, and suggest that E2f3 proteins control cell type-specific differentiation programs by regulating unique sets of target genes. This work significantly enhances our understanding of how the cell cycle machinery impacts cell fate and differentiation, and will

  20. Dendritic cells loaded with killed breast cancer cells induce differentiation of tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early clinical trials, mostly in the setting of melanoma, have shown that dendritic cells (DCs) expressing tumor antigens induce some immune responses and some clinical responses. A major difficulty is the extension to other tumors, such as breast carcinoma, for which few defined tumor-associated antigens are available. We have demonstrated, using both prostate carcinoma and melanoma as model systems, that DCs loaded with killed allogeneic tumor cell lines can induce CD8+ T cells to differentiate into cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for shared tumor antigens. The present study was designed to determine whether DCs would capture killed breast cancer cells and present their antigens to autologous CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We show that killed breast cancer cells are captured by immature DCs that, after induced maturation, can efficiently present MHC class I and class II peptides to CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes. The elicited CTLs are able to kill the target cells without a need for pretreatment with interferon gamma. CTLs can be obtained by culturing the DCs loaded with killed breast cancer cells with unseparated peripheral blood lymphocytes, indicating that the DCs can overcome any potential inhibitory effects of breast cancer cells. Loading DCs with killed breast cancer cells may be considered a novel approach to breast cancer immunotherapy and to identification of shared breast cancer antigens

  1. Yeast mother cell-specific ageing, genetic (in)stability, and the somatic mutation theory of ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Laun, Peter; Bruschi, Carlo V.; Dickinson, J. Richard; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Heeren, Gino; Schwimbersky, Richard; Rid, Raphaela; Breitenbach, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Yeast mother cell-specific ageing is characterized by a limited capacity to produce daughter cells. The replicative lifespan is determined by the number of cell cycles a mother cell has undergone, not by calendar time, and in a population of cells its distribution follows the Gompertz law. Daughter cells reset their clock to zero and enjoy the full lifespan characteristic for the strain. This kind of replicative ageing of a cell population based on asymmetric cell divisions is investigated as...

  2. Recognition of breast cancer cells by CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell clones specific for NY-BR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Epler, Jennifer; Salazar, Lupe G; Riddell, Stanley R

    2006-07-01

    Immunotherapy for breast cancer using cytotoxic T cells (CTL) is hindered by the lack of well-characterized breast cancer antigens that are expressed in most breast tumor cells and recognized by CD8+ CTL. A recently described breast tissue differentiation antigen, NY-BR-1, is expressed in >80% breast tumors and elicits a humoral response in a subset of breast cancer patients. To identify potential NY-BR-1 epitopes that are recognized by CTL, CD8+ T cells were stimulated in vitro with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with NY-BR-1 peptides that were predicted to bind to HLA-A2. In multiple normal female donors and breast cancer patients, specific CD8+ CTL responses were detected by enzyme-linked immunospot assay against several NY-BR-1 peptides after two cycles of stimulation. CD8+ CTL clones against three NY-BR-1 epitopes were isolated and recognized peptide-pulsed target cells with high avidity. T-cell clones specific for one of the NY-BR-1 epitopes (p904) also recognized breast tumor cells expressing NY-BR-1, NY-BR-1(-) cells transfected with a cDNA encoding the NY-BR-1 protein, and autologous dendritic cells pulsed with opsonized NY-BR-1+ breast tumor cells. Taken together, these results show that the p904 epitope derived from NY-BR-1 is efficiently processed and presented endogenously and identify NY-BR-1 as a promising target for T-cell-based immunotherapy for breast cancer. PMID:16818660

  3. In vitro generation of antigen-specific hemolytic plaque-forming cells from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have described a culture and assay system for the sensitization of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with a T cell-dependent antigen, sheep erythrocytes, in the absence of nonspecific stimulatory agents and with the subsequent generation of macroscopic hemolytic plaques. We have shown that the antibody produced by the plaque-forming cells generated in this culture system is specific for the sensitizing antigen, and that the plaques created are not false plaques because their formation is inhibited by cycloheximide. The success of this system can be attributed to several critical factors including large numbers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (5 x 10(6) culture), a prolonged period of incubation (10-11 d), continuous rocking during the entire period of incubation, culturing in large (35-mm) flat-bottomed culture dishes in the presence of human plasma, and the appropriate antigen concentration (5 x 10(6) sheep erythrocytes/culture). Furthermore, the generation of macroscopic hemolytic plaques requires plaquing sensitized peripheral blood mononuclear cells in target cell monolayers fixed in an agarose matrix with an incubation period of 2-3 h. We have further shown that the antigen-specific response measured by this system is dependent on adherent cells and T lymphocytes. At least one population of the helper T cells is sensitive to 2,000 rad irradiation. This system is simple, sensitive, and should serve as an effective tool for the analysis of cellular interactions involved in the generation of human antigen-specific plaque-forming cells, the genetic control the human immune response, and the pathophysiology of altered immunoregulation in disease

  4. PEGylated and targeted extracellular vesicles display enhanced cell specificity and circulation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijmans, S A A; Fliervoet, L A L; van der Meel, R; Fens, M H A M; Heijnen, H F G; van Bergen En Henegouwen, P M P; Vader, P; Schiffelers, R M

    2016-02-28

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are increasingly being recognized as candidate drug delivery systems due to their ability to functionally transfer biological cargo between cells. However, the therapeutic applicability of EVs may be limited due to a lack of cell-targeting specificity and rapid clearance of exogenous EVs from the circulation. In order to improve EV characteristics for drug delivery to tumor cells, we have developed a novel method for decorating EVs with targeting ligands conjugated to polyethylene glycol (PEG). Nanobodies specific for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were conjugated to phospholipid (DMPE)-PEG derivatives to prepare nanobody-PEG-micelles. When micelles were mixed with EVs derived from Neuro2A cells or platelets, a temperature-dependent transfer of nanobody-PEG-lipids to the EV membranes was observed, indicative of a 'post-insertion' mechanism. This process did not affect EV morphology, size distribution, or protein composition. After introduction of PEG-conjugated control nanobodies to EVs, cellular binding was compromised due to the shielding properties of PEG. However, specific binding to EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells was dramatically increased when EGFR-specific nanobodies were employed. Moreover, whereas unmodified EVs were rapidly cleared from the circulation within 10min after intravenous injection in mice, EVs modified with nanobody-PEG-lipids were still detectable in plasma for longer than 60min post-injection. In conclusion, we propose post-insertion as a novel technique to confer targeting capacity to isolated EVs, circumventing the requirement to modify EV-secreting cells. Importantly, insertion of ligand-conjugated PEG-derivatized phospholipids in EV membranes equips EVs with improved cell specificity and prolonged circulation times, potentially increasing EV accumulation in targeted tissues and improving cargo delivery. PMID:26773767

  5. Gene Regulatory Network Analysis Reveals Differences in Site-specific Cell Fate Determination in Mammalian Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan eErtaylan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis - the generation of new neurons - is an ongoing process that persists in the adult mammalian brain of several species, including humans. In this work we analyze two discrete brain regions: the subventricular zone (SVZ lining the walls of the lateral ventricles; and the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in mice and shed light on the SVZ and SGZ specific neurogenesis. We propose a computational model that relies on the construction and analysis of region specific gene regulatory networks from the publicly available data on these two regions. Using this model a number of putative factors involved in neuronal stem cell (NSC identity and maintenance were identified. We also demonstrate potential gender and niche-derived differences based on cell surface and nuclear receptors via Ar, Hif1a and Nr3c1.We have also conducted cell fate determinant analysis for SVZ NSC populations to Olfactory Bulb interneurons and SGZ NSC populations to the granule cells of the Granular Cell Layer. We report thirty-one candidate cell fate determinant gene pairs, ready to be validated. We focus on Ar - Pax6 in SVZ and Sox2 - Ncor1 in SGZ. Both pairs are expressed and localized in the suggested anatomical structures as shown by in situ hybridization and found to physically interact.Finally, we conclude that there are fundamental differences between SGZ and SVZ neurogenesis. We argue that these regulatory mechanisms are linked to the observed differential neurogenic potential of these regions. The presence of nuclear and cell surface receptors in the region specific regulatory circuits indicate the significance of niche derived extracellular factors, hormones and region specific factors such as the oxygen sensitivity, dictating SGZ and SVZ specific neurogenesis.

  6. Transient Numerical Simulation of the Melting and Solidification Behavior of NaNO3 Using a Wire Matrix for Enhancing the Heat Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Koller; Heimo Walter; Michael Hameter

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a transient numerical investigation of the melting and solidification process of sodium nitrate (NaNO3), which is used as phase change material. For enhancing the heat transfer to the sodium nitrate an aluminum wire matrix is used. The numerical simulation of the melting and solidification process was done with the enthalpy-porosity approach. The numerical analysis of the melting process has shown that apart from the first period of the charging process, wher...

  7. Specific action of T4 endonuclease V on damaged DNA in xeroderma pigmentosum cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific action of T4 endonuclease V on damaged DNA in xeroderma pigmentosum cells was examined using an in vivo assay system with hemagglutinating virus of Japan (Sendai virus) inactivated by uv light. A clear dose response was observed between the level of uv-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis of xeroderma pigmentosum cells and the amount of T4 endonuclease V activity added. The T4 enzyme was unstable in human cells, and its half-life was 3 hr. Fractions derived from an extract of Escherichia coli infected with T4v1, a mutant defective in the endonuclease V gene, showed no ability to restore the uv-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis of xeroderma pigmentosum cells. However, fractions derived from an extract of T4D-infected E. coli with endonuclease V activity were effective. The T4 enzyme was effective in xeroderma pigmentosum cells on DNA damaged by uv light but not in cells damaged by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide. The results of these experiments show that the T4 enzyme has a specific action on human cell DNA in vivo. Treatment with the T4 enzyme increased the survival of group A xeroderma pigmentosum cells after uv irradiation

  8. Specific Elimination of Latently HIV-1 Infected Cells Using HIV-1 Protease-Sensitive Toxin Nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Yan, Ming; Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Xie, Yiming; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-retroviral drugs suppress HIV-1 plasma viremia to undetectable levels; however, latent HIV-1 persists in reservoirs within HIV-1-infected patients. The silent provirus can be activated through the use of drugs, including protein kinase C activators and histone deacetylase inhibitors. This “shock” approach is then followed by “kill” of the producing cells either through direct HIV-1-induced cell death or natural immune mechanisms. However, these mechanisms are relatively slow and effectiveness is unclear. Here, we develop an approach to specifically target and kill cells that are activated early in the process of virus production. We utilize a novel nanocapsule technology whereby the ricin A chain is encapsulated in an inactive form within a polymer shell. Specificity for release of the ricin A toxin is conferred by peptide crosslinkers that are sensitive to cleavage by HIV-1 protease. By using well-established latent infection models, J-Lat and U1 cells, we demonstrate that only within an HIV-1-producing cell expressing functional HIV-1 protease will the nanocapsule release its ricin A cargo, shutting down viral and cellular protein synthesis, and ultimately leading to rapid death of the producer cell. Thus, we provide proof of principle for a novel technology to kill HIV-1-producing cells without effects on non-target cells. PMID:27049645

  9. Prolonged activation of virus-specific CD8+T cells after acute B19 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isa, Adiba; Kasprowicz, Victoria; Norbeck, Oscar;

    2005-01-01

    : The number and phenotype of B19-specific CD8+ T cell responses during and after acute adult infection was studied using HLA-peptide multimeric complexes. Surprisingly, these responses increased in magnitude over the first year post-infection despite resolution of clinical symptoms and control of...... and intact proliferative capacity. Individuals tested many years after infection exhibited lower frequencies of B19-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, typically 0.05%-0.5% of CD8+ T cells, which were perforin, CD38, and CCR7 low. CONCLUSION: This is the first example to our knowledge of an "acute...

  10. MEF2C and EBF1 Co-regulate B Cell-Specific Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Nikki R; Davis, Matthew; Chai, Li; Winoto, Astar; Tjian, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells are capable of self-renewal or differentiation along three main lineages: myeloid, erythroid, and lymphoid. One of the earliest lineage decisions for blood progenitor cells is whether to adopt the lymphoid or myeloid fate. Previous work had shown that myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) is indispensable for the lymphoid fate decision, yet the specific mechanism of action remained unclear. Here, we have identified early B cell factor-1 (EBF1) as a co-regulator of gene expression with MEF2C. A genome-wide survey of MEF2C and EBF1 binding sites identified a subset of B cell-specific genes that they target. We also determined that the p38 MAPK pathway activates MEF2C to drive B cell differentiation. Mef2c knockout mice showed reduced B lymphoid-specific gene expression as well as increased myeloid gene expression, consistent with MEF2C's role as a lineage fate regulator. This is further supported by interaction between MEF2C and the histone deacetylase, HDAC7, revealing a likely mechanism to repress the myeloid transcription program. This study thus elucidates both activation and repression mechanisms, identifies regulatory partners, and downstream targets by which MEF2C regulates lymphoid-specific differentiation. PMID:26900922

  11. Human in vitro induced T regulatory cells and memory T cells share common demethylation of specific FOXP3 promoter region

    OpenAIRE

    Bégin, Philippe; Schulze, Janika; Baron, Udo; Olek, Sven; Rebecca N Bauer; Passerini, Laura; Baccheta, Rosa; Nadeau, Kari C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The FOXP3 gene is the master regulator for T regulatory cells and is under tight DNA methylation control at the Treg specific demethylated region (TSDR) in its first intron. This said, methylation of its promoter region, the significance of which is unknown, has also been associated with various immune-related disease states such as asthma, food allergy, auto-immunity and cancer. Here, we used induced T regulatory cells (iTreg) as a target cell population to identify candidate hypo...

  12. Integrative characterization of germ cell-specific genes from mouse spermatocyte UniGene library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Edward M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary regulator of spermatogenesis, a highly ordered and tightly regulated developmental process, is an intrinsic genetic program involving male germ cell-specific genes. Results We analyzed the mouse spermatocyte UniGene library containing 2155 gene-oriented transcript clusters. We predict that 11% of these genes are testis-specific and systematically identified 24 authentic genes specifically and abundantly expressed in the testis via in silico and in vitro approaches. Northern blot analysis disclosed various transcript characteristics, such as expression level, size and the presence of isoform. Expression analysis revealed developmentally regulated and stage-specific expression patterns in all of the genes. We further analyzed the genes at the protein and cellular levels. Transfection assays performed using GC-2 cells provided information on the cellular characteristics of the gene products. In addition, antibodies were generated against proteins encoded by some of the genes to facilitate their identification and characterization in spermatogenic cells and sperm. Our data suggest that a number of the gene products are implicated in transcriptional regulation, nuclear integrity, sperm structure and motility, and fertilization. In particular, we found for the first time that Mm.333010, predicted to contain a trypsin-like serine protease domain, is a sperm acrosomal protein. Conclusion We identify 24 authentic genes with spermatogenic cell-specific expression, and provide comprehensive information about the genes. Our findings establish a new basis for future investigation into molecular mechanisms underlying male reproduction.

  13. Detection and specificity of antibodies secreted by spleen cells in mice immunized with Streptococcus mutans.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, M. W.; Czerkinsky, C; Moldoveanu, Z

    1986-01-01

    Immune responses of mice to Streptococcus mutans serotype c were analyzed by means of the enzyme-linked immunospot assay to determine the predominant specificities of the antibodies developed. In general, the numbers of splenic antibody-secreting cells correlated with serum antibody levels. A low dose (10(8) CFU) of killed whole cells injected twice intraperitoneally induced antibodies mainly against surface protein antigen I/II. A higher dose (10(9) CFU) given two to six times also resulted ...

  14. Cumulus-specific genes are transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer in a mouse model*

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Guo-qing; Heng, Boon-chin; Ng, Soon-chye

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether four cumulus-specific genes: follicular stimulating hormone receptor (FSHr), hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2), prostaglandin synthase 2 (Ptgs2) and steroidogenic acute regulator protein (Star), were correctly reprogrammed to be transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a murine model. Cumulus cells of C57×CBA F1 female mouse were injected into enucleated oocytes, followed by activation in 10 µmol/L strontium chloride for 5 h and sub...

  15. A transgenic mouse model of neuroepithelial cell specific inducible overexpression of dopamine D1-receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, K; Araki, K; McCarthy, D M; Sims, J R; Ren, J Q; Zhang, X; Bhide, P G

    2010-10-27

    Dopamine and its receptors appear in the brain during early embryonic period suggesting a role for dopamine in brain development. In fact, dopamine receptor imbalance resulting from impaired physiological balance between D1- and D2-receptor activities can perturb brain development and lead to persisting changes in brain structure and function. Dopamine receptor imbalance can be produced experimentally using pharmacological or genetic methods. Pharmacological methods tend to activate or antagonize the receptors in all cell types. In the traditional gene knockout models the receptor imbalance occurs during development and also at maturity. Therefore, assaying the effects of dopamine imbalance on specific cell types (e.g. precursor versus postmitotic cells) or at specific periods of brain development (e.g. pre- or postnatal periods) is not feasible in these models. We describe a novel transgenic mouse model based on the tetracycline dependent inducible gene expression system in which dopamine D1-receptor transgene expression is induced selectively in neuroepithelial cells of the embryonic brain at experimenter-chosen intervals of brain development. In this model, doxycycline-induced expression of the transgene causes significant overexpression of the D1-receptor and significant reductions in the incorporation of the S-phase marker bromodeoxyuridine into neuroepithelial cells of the basal and dorsal telencephalon indicating marked effects on telencephalic neurogenesis. The D1-receptor overexpression occurs at higher levels in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) than the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) or cerebral wall (CW). Moreover, although the transgene is induced selectively in the neuroepithelium, D1-receptor protein overexpression appears to persist in postmitotic cells. The mouse model can be modified for neuroepithelial cell-specific inducible expression of other transgenes or induction of the D1-receptor transgene in other cells in specific brain regions by

  16. Concise Review: Guidance in Developing Commercializable Autologous/Patient-Specific Cell Therapy Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Eaker, Shannon; Armant, Myriam; Brandwein, Harvey; Burger, Scott; Campbell, Andrew; Carpenito, Carmine; Clarke, Dominic; Fong, Timothy; Karnieli, Ohad; Niss, Knut; van"t Hof, Wouter; Wagey, Ravenska

    2013-01-01

    In this technical review, members of the International Society for Cell Therapy (ISCT) provide guidance in developing commercializable autologous and patient-specific manufacturing strategies from the perspective of process development. Guidance is provided to help small academic or biotech researchers determine what questions can be addressed at the bench level in order to make their cell therapy products more feasible for commercial-scale production.

  17. Autonomy in specification of primordial germ cells and their passive translocation in the sea urchin

    OpenAIRE

    Yajima, Mamiko; Wessel, Gary M.

    2012-01-01

    The process of germ line determination involves many conserved genes, yet is highly variable. Echinoderms are positioned at the base of Deuterostomia and are crucial to understanding these evolutionary transitions, yet the mechanism of germ line specification is not known in any member of the phyla. Here we demonstrate that small micromeres (SMics), which are formed at the fifth cell division of the sea urchin embryo, illustrate many typical features of primordial germ cell (PGC) specificatio...

  18. The Specification and Maturation of Nociceptive Neurons from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Erin M. Boisvert; Engle, Sandra J; Shawn E. Hallowell; Ping Liu; Zhao-Wen Wang; Xue-Jun Li

    2015-01-01

    Nociceptive neurons play an essential role in pain sensation by transmitting painful stimuli to the central nervous system. However, investigations of nociceptive neuron biology have been hampered by the lack of accessibility of human nociceptive neurons. Here, we describe a system for efficiently guiding human embryonic stem cells into nociceptive neurons by first inducing these cells to the neural lineage. Subsequent addition of retinoic acid and BMP4 at specific time points and concentrati...

  19. Foxp3 exploits a preexistent enhancer landscape for regulatory T cell lineage specification

    OpenAIRE

    Samstein, Robert M.; Arvey, Aaron; Josefowicz, Steven Z.; Peng, Xiao; Reynolds, Alex; Sandstrom, Richard; Neph, Shane; Sabo, Peter; Kim, Jeong M.; Liao, Will; O. Li, Ming; Leslie, Christina; John A. Stamatoyannopoulos; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells, whose identity and function are defined by the transcription factor Foxp3, are indispensable for immune homeostasis. It is unclear whether Foxp3 exerts its Treg lineage specification function through active modification of the chromatin landscape and establishment of new enhancers or by exploiting a pre-existing enhancer landscape. Analysis of the chromatin accessibility of Foxp3-bound enhancers in Treg and Foxp3-negative T cells showed that Foxp3 was bound overwhel...

  20. Direct conversion of C. elegans germ cells into specific neuron types

    OpenAIRE

    Tursun, Baris; Patel, Tulsi; Kratsios, Paschalis; Hobert, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The ability of transcription factors to directly reprogram the identity of cell types is usually restricted and is defined by cellular context. We show here that through ectopic expression of single C. elegans transcription factors, the identity of mitotic germ cells can be directly converted into that of specific neuron types (glutamatergic, cholinergic or GABAergic). This reprogramming event requires the removal of the histone chaperone LIN-53/RbAp48, a component of several histone remodeli...

  1. Drosophila homologs of transcriptional mediator complex subunits are required for adult cell and segment identity specification

    OpenAIRE

    Boube, Muriel; Faucher, Christian; Joulia, Laurent; Cribbs, David L.; Bourbon, Henri-Marc

    2000-01-01

    The origins of specificity in gene expression are a central concern in understanding developmental control. Mediator protein complexes regulate transcriptional initiation, acting as modular adaptors linking specific transcription factors to core RNA polymerase II. Here, we identified the Drosophila homologs of 23 human mediator genes and mutations of two, dTRAP240 and of dTRAP80 (the putative fly homolog of yeast SRB4). Clonal analysis indicates a general role for dTRAP80 necessary for cell v...

  2. Specific initiation by RNA polymerase I in a whole-cell extract from yeast.

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, M C; Choe, S Y; Reeder, R H

    1991-01-01

    A protocol is described for making a soluble whole-cell extract from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) that supports active and specific transcription initiation by RNA polymerases I, II, and III. Specific initiation by polymerase I decreases in high-density cultures, paralleling the decrease in abundance of the endogenous 35S rRNA precursor. This extract should be useful for studying the molecular mechanisms that regulate rRNA transcription in yeast.

  3. Frequencies and specificities of red cell alloantibodies in the Southern Thai population

    OpenAIRE

    Charuporn Promwong; Santi Siammai; Sarunya Hassarin; Jarin Buakaew; Tanongsak Yeela; Patravee Soisangwan; David Roxby

    2013-01-01

    Context: Detailed reports of red cell alloantibody frequencies and specificities in the Thai population are limited. The aims of this study were to determine the specificity and compare the frequency of alloantibodies detected using column agglutination technology (CAT) and conventional tube techniques in blood donors and previously transfused patients. Settings and Design: We retrospectively reviewed antibody screening and identification records for two time periods: January-December 2006 du...

  4. Cancer cell specific cytotoxic gene expression mediated by ARF tumor suppressor promoter constructs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ARF promoter showed higher responsiveness to deregulated E2F activity than the E2F1 promoter. • ARF promoter showed higher cancer cell-specificity than E2F1 promoter to drive gene expression. • HSV-TK driven by ARF promoter showed higher cancer cell-specific cytotoxicity than that driven by E2F1 promoter. - Abstract: In current cancer treatment protocols, such as radiation and chemotherapy, side effects on normal cells are major obstacles to radical therapy. To avoid these side effects, a cancer cell-specific approach is needed. One way to specifically target cancer cells is to utilize a cancer specific promoter to express a cytotoxic gene (suicide gene therapy) or a viral gene required for viral replication (oncolytic virotherapy). For this purpose, the selected promoter should have minimal activity in normal cells to avoid side effects, and high activity in a wide variety of cancers to obtain optimal therapeutic efficacy. In contrast to the AFP, CEA and PSA promoters, which have high activity only in a limited spectrum of tumors, the E2F1 promoter exhibits high activity in wide variety of cancers. This is based on the mechanism of carcinogenesis. Defects in the RB pathway and activation of the transcription factor E2F, the main target of the RB pathway, are observed in almost all cancers. Consequently, the E2F1 promoter, which is mainly regulated by E2F, has high activity in wide variety of cancers. However, E2F is also activated by growth stimulation in normal growing cells, suggesting that the E2F1 promoter may also be highly active in normal growing cells. In contrast, we found that the tumor suppressor ARF promoter is activated by deregulated E2F activity, induced by forced inactivation of pRB, but does not respond to physiological E2F activity induced by growth stimulation. We also found that the deregulated E2F activity, which activates the ARF promoter, is detected only in cancer cell lines. These observations suggest that ARF promoter

  5. Cancer cell specific cytotoxic gene expression mediated by ARF tumor suppressor promoter constructs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurayoshi, Kenta [Department of Bioscience, School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Ozono, Eiko [Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary, University of London, John Vane Science Centre, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ (United Kingdom); Iwanaga, Ritsuko; Bradford, Andrew P. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, 12800 East 19th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Komori, Hideyuki [Center for Stem Cell Biology, Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Ohtani, Kiyoshi, E-mail: btm88939@kwansei.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience, School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • ARF promoter showed higher responsiveness to deregulated E2F activity than the E2F1 promoter. • ARF promoter showed higher cancer cell-specificity than E2F1 promoter to drive gene expression. • HSV-TK driven by ARF promoter showed higher cancer cell-specific cytotoxicity than that driven by E2F1 promoter. - Abstract: In current cancer treatment protocols, such as radiation and chemotherapy, side effects on normal cells are major obstacles to radical therapy. To avoid these side effects, a cancer cell-specific approach is needed. One way to specifically target cancer cells is to utilize a cancer specific promoter to express a cytotoxic gene (suicide gene therapy) or a viral gene required for viral replication (oncolytic virotherapy). For this purpose, the selected promoter should have minimal activity in normal cells to avoid side effects, and high activity in a wide variety of cancers to obtain optimal therapeutic efficacy. In contrast to the AFP, CEA and PSA promoters, which have high activity only in a limited spectrum of tumors, the E2F1 promoter exhibits high activity in wide variety of cancers. This is based on the mechanism of carcinogenesis. Defects in the RB pathway and activation of the transcription factor E2F, the main target of the RB pathway, are observed in almost all cancers. Consequently, the E2F1 promoter, which is mainly regulated by E2F, has high activity in wide variety of cancers. However, E2F is also activated by growth stimulation in normal growing cells, suggesting that the E2F1 promoter may also be highly active in normal growing cells. In contrast, we found that the tumor suppressor ARF promoter is activated by deregulated E2F activity, induced by forced inactivation of pRB, but does not respond to physiological E2F activity induced by growth stimulation. We also found that the deregulated E2F activity, which activates the ARF promoter, is detected only in cancer cell lines. These observations suggest that ARF promoter

  6. Studies on the Specific Degranulation of Mast Cell Sensitized by Several Allergens in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongchao Guo; Zhenxing Li; Hong Lin; Haider Samee; Jamil Khalid

    2009-01-01

    Food allergy is a major health issue worldwide. Mast cells play a very important role in the immediate hypersensitivity for which mast cell degranulation needs to be studied extensively. In this study, an approach was taken to study the characteristics of sensitized mast cell degranulation in vitro, which associated with the study of mast cells and animal models. BALB/c mice were immunized respectively by several food allergens, then blood and peritoneal mast cells were collected at different time points. A dynamic determination was carried out between mast cells and serumal IgE. Comparative analysis on sequential time points showed that there was a close coincidence between mast cell degranulation and IgE antibody titers in sensitized BALB/c mice. Furthermore, it is interesting that sensitized mast cells could implement specific degranulation against the challenges in vitro, but the closely tropomyosins induced mast cell degranulation displayed cross reactions. This is very similar to IgE resisting the allergens in vivo. The study disclosed some characteristics on mast cells, coming from sensitized BALB/c mice, degranulation in vitro. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  7. Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for SOD1-Associated Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Pathogenesis Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestkov, I V; Vasilieva, E A; Illarioshkin, S N; Lagarkova, M A; Kiselev, S L

    2014-01-01

    The genetic reprogramming technology allows one to generate pluripotent stem cells for individual patients. These cells, called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), can be an unlimited source of specialized cell types for the body. Thus, autologous somatic cell replacement therapy becomes possible, as well as the generation of in vitro cell models for studying the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and drug discovery. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder that leads to a loss of upper and lower motor neurons. About 10% of cases are genetically inherited, and the most common familial form of ALS is associated with mutations in the SOD1 gene. We used the reprogramming technology to generate induced pluripotent stem cells with patients with familial ALS. Patient-specific iPS cells were obtained by both integration and transgene-free delivery methods of reprogramming transcription factors. These iPS cells have the properties of pluripotent cells and are capable of direct differentiation into motor neurons. PMID:24772327

  8. Specific silencing of the REST target genes in insulin-secreting cells uncovers their participation in beta cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David; Allagnat, Florent; Gesina, Emilie; Caille, Dorothee; Gjinovci, Asllan; Waeber, Gerard; Meda, Paolo; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine

    2012-01-01

    The absence of the transcriptional repressor RE-1 Silencing Transcription Factor (REST) in insulin-secreting beta cells is a major cue for the specific expression of a large number of genes. These REST target genes were largely ascribed to a function of neurotransmission in a neuronal context, whereas their role in pancreatic beta cells has been poorly explored. To identify their functional significance, we have generated transgenic mice expressing REST in beta cells (RIP-REST mice), and previously discovered that REST target genes are essential to insulin exocytosis. Herein we characterized a novel line of RIP-REST mice featuring diabetes. In diabetic RIP-REST mice, high levels of REST were associated with postnatal beta cell apoptosis, which resulted in gradual beta cell loss and sustained hyperglycemia in adults. Moreover, adenoviral REST transduction in INS-1E cells led to increased cell death under control conditions, and sensitized cells to death induced by cytokines. Screening for REST target genes identified several anti-apoptotic genes bearing the binding motif RE-1 that were downregulated upon REST expression in INS-1E cells, including Gjd2, Mapk8ip1, Irs2, Ptprn, and Cdk5r2. Decreased levels of Cdk5r2 in beta cells of RIP-REST mice further confirmed that it is controlled by REST, in vivo. Using siRNA-mediated knock-down in INS-1E cells, we showed that Cdk5r2 protects beta cells against cytokines and palmitate-induced apoptosis. Together, these data document that a set of REST target genes, including Cdk5r2, is important for beta cell survival. PMID:23029270

  9. Specific silencing of the REST target genes in insulin-secreting cells uncovers their participation in beta cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Martin

    Full Text Available The absence of the transcriptional repressor RE-1 Silencing Transcription Factor (REST in insulin-secreting beta cells is a major cue for the specific expression of a large number of genes. These REST target genes were largely ascribed to a function of neurotransmission in a neuronal context, whereas their role in pancreatic beta cells has been poorly explored. To identify their functional significance, we have generated transgenic mice expressing REST in beta cells (RIP-REST mice, and previously discovered that REST target genes are essential to insulin exocytosis. Herein we characterized a novel line of RIP-REST mice featuring diabetes. In diabetic RIP-REST mice, high levels of REST were associated with postnatal beta cell apoptosis, which resulted in gradual beta cell loss and sustained hyperglycemia in adults. Moreover, adenoviral REST transduction in INS-1E cells led to increased cell death under control conditions, and sensitized cells to death induced by cytokines. Screening for REST target genes identified several anti-apoptotic genes bearing the binding motif RE-1 that were downregulated upon REST expression in INS-1E cells, including Gjd2, Mapk8ip1, Irs2, Ptprn, and Cdk5r2. Decreased levels of Cdk5r2 in beta cells of RIP-REST mice further confirmed that it is controlled by REST, in vivo. Using siRNA-mediated knock-down in INS-1E cells, we showed that Cdk5r2 protects beta cells against cytokines and palmitate-induced apoptosis. Together, these data document that a set of REST target genes, including Cdk5r2, is important for beta cell survival.

  10. Design of tumor-specific immunotherapies using dendritic cells - effect of bromelain on dendritic cell maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Immunotherapy using dendritic cells (DC) has shown promising results in clinical trials, but few relevant successes are recorded. Therefore, the choice of an appropriate DC population is critical for the outcome of this treatment. The DC used today in immunotherapy are often matured with a cytokine cocktail consisting of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and PGE2. These cells have deficits in their cytokine production, and also their migratory capacity in vivo needs improvement. After being introduced to br...

  11. Circulating rotavirus-specific T cells have a poor functional profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Miguel; Herrera, Daniel [Instituto de Genética Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Carrera 7 # 40-62, Bogotá (Colombia); Jácome, María Fernanda; Mesa, Martha C. [Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá (Colombia); Rodríguez, Luz-Stella [Instituto de Genética Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Carrera 7 # 40-62, Bogotá (Colombia); Guzmán, Carolina [Departamento de Pediatría, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá (Colombia); Angel, Juana; Franco, Manuel A. [Instituto de Genética Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Carrera 7 # 40-62, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2014-11-15

    Frequencies of circulating T cells producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2, and percentages of T cells proliferating after stimulation with rotavirus (RV), tetanus toxoid, and influenza were evaluated in PBMC derived from healthy adults and children. In addition, the potential anergic state of RV-specific T cells was analyzed by stimulation of PBMC with RV antigen in the presence of three anergy inhibitors (rIL-2, rIL-12, or DGKα-i). The quality and magnitude of RV-T cell responses were significantly lower than those of tetanus toxoid and influenza antigens. RV-CD4 T cell response was enriched in monofunctional IFN-γ{sup +} cells, while influenza-CD4 and tetanus toxoid-CD4 T cell responses were enriched in multifunctional T cells. Moreover, rIL-2 – unlike rIL-12 or DGKα-i – increased the frequencies of RV-CD4 TNF-α{sup +}, CD4 IFN-γ{sup +}, and CD8 IFN-γ{sup +} cells. Thus, circulating RV-T cells seem to have a relatively poor functional profile that may be partially reversed in vitro by the addition of rIL-2. - Highlights: • The quality and magnitude of circulating RV-T cell responses are relatively poor. • Circulating RV-CD4 T cells are enriched in monofunctional IFN-γ+ cells. • Treatment with rIL-2 increased the frequencies of cytokine secreting RV-T cells.

  12. Maitotoxin-induced cell death cascade in bovine aortic endothelial cells: divalent cation specificity and selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnoskey, Brian J; Estacion, Mark; Schilling, William P

    2004-08-01

    The maitotoxin (MTX)-induced cell death cascade in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs), a model for Ca(2+) overload-induced toxicity, reflects three sequential changes in plasmalemmal permeability. MTX initially activates Ca(2+)-permeable, nonselective cation channels (CaNSC) and causes a massive increase in cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). This is followed by the opening of large endogenous cytolytic/oncotic pores (COP) that allow molecules ionomycin and were significantly delayed in BAPTA-loaded cells. Experiments at the single-cell level revealed that Ba(2+) not only delayed the time to cell lysis but also caused desynchronization of the lytic phase. Last, membrane blebs, which were numerous and spherical in Ca(2+)-containing solutions, were poorly defined and greatly reduced in number in the presence of Ba(2+). Taken together, these results suggest that intracellular high-affinity Ca(2+)-binding proteins are involved in the MTX-induced changes in plasmalemmal permeability that are responsible for cell demise. PMID:15044153

  13. CD69 expression on a-gliadin-specific T cells in coeliac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Perticarari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Coeliac disease (CD is a T-cell mediated immunological disease of the small intestine which is triggered in susceptible individuals by ingestion of gluten. The pathogenic mechanism of coeliac disease, and the role that a-gliadin specific T cells play in mucosal lesions and their involvement in peripheral blood is not yet explained at all. Previous studies have reported proliferative response to a-gliadin measured with the classic assay of 3HTdR incorporation. We analysed the activation antigen CD69 on T cells from CD patients and normal individuals following stimulation with a-gliadin and different antigens (tetanus toxoid, peptides unrelated to gliadin and PHA. CD69 coexpression with T cell CD3+ and proliferation marker Ki67 was evaluated with time. CD69 coexpression with T cell CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ was also evaluated. It was found that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of coeliac patients increased their percentage of CD69 positive T cells when stimulated with a-gliadin, in comparison with cells from controls. Significant T cell activation was found only in subjects not treated with the gluten free diet; a positive response was found also in two coeliac patients with selective IgA deficiency, anti-endomisium negative, without circulat- ing IgA anti a-gliadin or anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies. The CD69 expression after stimulation was compared with the standard method of 3HTdR incorporation. Our data show that CD69 expression is useful to asses a specific T cell response to a-gliadin in coeliac disease. in a very short time. Moreover, the method allows to investigate T cell response at the lymphocyte subsets level, which represents a useful tool in the diagnosis of coeliac disease.

  14. Tracking virus-specific CD4+ T cells during and after acute hepatitis C virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Lucas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CD4+ T cell help is critical in maintaining antiviral immune responses and such help has been shown to be sustained in acute resolving hepatitis C. In contrast, in evolving chronic hepatitis C CD4+ T cell helper responses appear to be absent or short-lived, using functional assays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used a novel HLA-DR1 tetramer containing a highly targeted CD4+ T cell epitope from the hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 4 to track number and phenotype of hepatitis C virus specific CD4+ T cells in a cohort of seven HLA-DR1 positive patients with acute hepatitis C in comparison to patients with chronic or resolved hepatitis C. We observed peptide-specific T cells in all seven patients with acute hepatitis C regardless of outcome at frequencies up to 0.65% of CD4+ T cells. Among patients who transiently controlled virus replication we observed loss of function, and/or physical deletion of tetramer+ CD4+ T cells before viral recrudescence. In some patients with chronic hepatitis C very low numbers of tetramer+ cells were detectable in peripheral blood, compared to robust responses detected in spontaneous resolvers. Importantly we did not observe escape mutations in this key CD4+ T cell epitope in patients with evolving chronic hepatitis C. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: During acute hepatitis C a CD4+ T cell response against this epitope is readily induced in most, if not all, HLA-DR1+ patients. This antiviral T cell population becomes functionally impaired or is deleted early in the course of disease in those where viremia persists.

  15. SPECIFIC UPTAKE OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY-CONJUGATED METHOTREXATE BY HUMAN LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIC B CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhenping; Yang Chunzheng; Tarunendu Ghose; Jaroslav Kralovec

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To analysis the uptake of free MTX and MTX conjugated to tumor specific monoclonal antibody by target and non-target cells. Methods: The folate antagonist methotrexate (MTX) was conjugated to two monoclonal antibodies (Mab) directed against human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), Dal B01 and Dal B02, by an active ester method. Both conjugates were more cytotoxic toward the target tumor cell line D10-1than to the non-target cell line MOLT-3, and Dal B02-MTX conjugate was more inhibitory to D10-1 cells than free MTX in a 6 h pulse exposure assay. Results: Drug uptake studies revealed that D10-1 cells took up much more Dal B01 and Dal B02-conjugated MTX than free MTX. The amounts of drug taken up by D10-1 cells incubated with Dal B01 and Dal B02-conjugated MTX were always 3 to 5-fold higher than that taken up by MOLT-3 cells, although the latter took up more drug when incubated with free MTX. Furthermore, tumor cells incubated with Dal B01 or Dal B02-conjugated MTX retained much larger amounts of drug for a prolonged period of time than those incubated with free MTX.Conclusion: The enhanced specific cytotoxicity of Dal B01 and Dal B02-MTX conjugates toward target tumor cells is therefore likely due to (Ⅰ) delivery of larger amounts of MTX to target cells when the drug is conjugated to Mab;(ii) longer retention of Mab-conjugated MTX by target cells; and (iii) slow, prolonged release of MTX from the surface-bound or endocytosed conjugates, rendering them into a sustained release dosage form.

  16. Embryonic carcinoma cells show specific dielectric resistance profiles during induced differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Öz

    Full Text Available Induction of differentiation in cancer stem cells by drug treatment represents an important approach for cancer therapy. The understanding of the mechanisms that regulate such a forced exit from malignant pluripotency is fundamental to enhance our knowledge of tumour stability. Certain nucleoside analogues, such as 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine and 1β-arabinofuranosylcytosine, can induce the differentiation of the embryonic cancer stem cell line NTERA 2 D1 (NT2. Such induced differentiation is associated with drug-dependent DNA-damage, cellular stress and the proteolytic depletion of stem cell factors. In order to further elucidate the mode of action of these nucleoside drugs, we monitored differentiation-specific changes of the dielectric properties of growing NT2 cultures using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS. We measured resistance values of untreated and retinoic acid treated NT2 cells in real-time and compared their impedance profiles to those of cell populations triggered to differentiate with several established substances, including nucleoside drugs. Here we show that treatment with retinoic acid and differentiation-inducing drugs can trigger specific, concentration-dependent changes in dielectric resistance of NT2 cultures, which can be observed as early as 24 hours after treatment. Further, low concentrations of nucleoside drugs induce differentiation-dependent impedance values comparable to those obtained after retinoic acid treatment, whereas higher concentrations induce proliferation defects. Finally, we show that impedance profiles of substance-induced NT2 cells and those triggered to differentiate by depletion of the stem cell factor OCT4 are very similar, suggesting that reduction of OCT4 levels has a dominant function for differentiation induced by nucleoside drugs and retinoic acid. The data presented show that NT2 cells have specific dielectric properties, which allow the early identification of differentiating

  17. Prostate-Specific Natural Health Products (Dietary Supplements) Radiosensitize Normal Prostate Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Prostate-specific health products (dietary supplements) are taken by cancer patients to alleviate the symptoms linked with poor prostate health. However, the effect of these agents on evidence-based radiotherapy practice is poorly understood. The present study aimed to determine whether dietary supplements radiosensitized normal prostate or prostate cancer cell lines. Methods and Materials: Three well-known prostate-specific dietary supplements were purchased from commercial sources available to patients (Trinovin, Provelex, and Prostate Rx). The cells used in the study included normal prostate lines (RWPE-1 and PWR-1E), prostate tumor lines (PC3, DU145, and LNCaP), and a normal nonprostate line (HaCaT). Supplement toxicity was assessed using cell proliferation assays [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] and cellular radiosensitivity using conventional clonogenic assays (0.5-4Gy). Cell cycle kinetics were assessed using the bromodeoxyuridine/propidium iodide pulse-labeling technique, apoptosis by scoring caspase-3 activation, and DNA repair by assessing γH2AX. Results: The cell growth and radiosensitivity of the malignant PC3, DU145, and LNcaP cells were not affected by any of the dietary prostate supplements (Provelex [2μg/mL], Trinovin [10μg/mL], and Prostate Rx [50 μg/mL]). However, both Trinovin (10μg/mL) and Prostate Rx (6μg/mL) inhibited the growth rate of the normal prostate cell lines. Prostate Rx increased cellular radiosensitivity of RWPE-1 cells through the inhibition of DNA repair. Conclusion: The use of prostate-specific dietary supplements should be discouraged during radiotherapy owing to the preferential radiosensitization of normal prostate cells.

  18. Lineage-specific expression of bestrophin-2 and bestrophin-4 in human intestinal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, Go; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Murano, Tatsuro;

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) regulate the absorption and secretion of anions, such as HCO3(-) or Cl(-). Bestrophin genes represent a newly identified group of calcium-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs). Studies have suggested that, among the four human bestrophin-family genes, bestrophin-2...... (BEST2) and bestrophin-4 (BEST4) might be expressed within the intestinal tissue. Consistently, a study showed that BEST2 is expressed by human colonic goblet cells. However, their precise expression pattern along the gastrointestinal tract, or the lineage specificity of the cells expressing these genes...

  19. Novel strong tissue specific promoter for gene expression in human germ cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin Denis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue specific promoters may be utilized for a variety of applications, including programmed gene expression in cell types, tissues and organs of interest, for developing different cell culture models or for use in gene therapy. We report a novel, tissue-specific promoter that was identified and engineered from the native upstream regulatory region of the human gene NDUFV1 containing an endogenous retroviral sequence. Results Among seven established human cell lines and five primary cultures, this modified NDUFV1 upstream sequence (mNUS was active only in human undifferentiated germ-derived cells (lines Tera-1 and EP2102, where it demonstrated high promoter activity (~twice greater than that of the SV40 early promoter, and comparable to the routinely used cytomegaloviral promoter. To investigate the potential applicability of the mNUS promoter for biotechnological needs, a construct carrying a recombinant cytosine deaminase (RCD suicide gene under the control of mNUS was tested in cell lines of different tissue origin. High cytotoxic effect of RCD with a cell-death rate ~60% was observed only in germ-derived cells (Tera-1, whereas no effect was seen in a somatic, kidney-derived control cell line (HEK293. In further experiments, we tested mNUS-driven expression of a hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposase (SB100X. The mNUS-SB100X construct mediated stable transgene insertions exclusively in germ-derived cells, thereby providing further evidence of tissue-specificity of the mNUS promoter. Conclusions We conclude that mNUS may be used as an efficient promoter for tissue-specific gene expression in human germ-derived cells in many applications. Our data also suggest that the 91 bp-long sequence located exactly upstream NDUFV1 transcriptional start site plays a crucial role in the activity of this gene promoter in vitro in the majority of tested cell types (10/12, and an important role - in the rest two cell lines.

  20. ROW1 maintains quiescent centre identity by confining WOX5 expression to specific cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yuzhou; Jiao, Yue; Liu, Zhaohui; Zhu, Yu-Xian

    2015-01-01

    The quiescent centre (QC) in the Arabidopsis root apical meristem is essential for stem cell organization. Here we show that the loss of REPRESSOR OF WUSCHEL1 (ROW1), a PHD domain-containing protein, leads to QC failure, defects in cell differentiation and ectopic expression of WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 5 (WOX5) in cells that normally express ROW1. The wox5-1/row1-3 double mutants show similar phenotypes to wox5-1 indicating that WOX5 is epistatic to ROW1. ROW1 specifically binds trimethylated...

  1. In Vitro Selection of Cancer Cell-Specific Molecular Recognition Elements from Amino Acid Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ryan M.; Sooter, Letha J.

    2015-01-01

    Differential cell systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) is an in vitro selection method for obtaining molecular recognition elements (MREs) that specifically bind to individual cell types with high affinity. MREs are selected from initial large libraries of different nucleic or amino acids. This review outlines the construction of peptide and antibody fragment libraries as well as their different host types. Common methods of selection are also reviewed. Additionally, examples of cancer cell MREs are discussed, as well as their potential applications. PMID:26436100

  2. Tumor associated antigen specific T-cell populations identified in ex vivo expanded TIL cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Niels; Kvistborg, Pia; Køllgaard, Tania;

    2012-01-01

    Ex vivo expanded tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from malignant melanoma (MM) and head & neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) share a similar oligoclonal composition of T effector memory cells, with HLA class I restricted lysis of tumor cell lines. In this study we show that ex vivo expanded...... TILs from MM and HNSCC demonstrate a heterogeneous composition in frequency and magnitude of tumor associated antigen specific populations by Elispot IFN¿ quantitation. TILs from MM and HNSCC shared reactivity towards NY ESO-1, cyclin B1 and Bcl-x derived peptides. Additionally we show that dominating...

  3. Expression of genes encoding multi-transmembrane proteins in specific primate taste cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Moyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using fungiform (FG and circumvallate (CV taste buds isolated by laser capture microdissection and analyzed using gene arrays, we previously constructed a comprehensive database of gene expression in primates, which revealed over 2,300 taste bud-associated genes. Bioinformatics analyses identified hundreds of genes predicted to encode multi-transmembrane domain proteins with no previous association with taste function. A first step in elucidating the roles these gene products play in gustation is to identify the specific taste cell types in which they are expressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using double label in situ hybridization analyses, we identified seven new genes expressed in specific taste cell types, including sweet, bitter, and umami cells (TRPM5-positive, sour cells (PKD2L1-positive, as well as other taste cell populations. Transmembrane protein 44 (TMEM44, a protein with seven predicted transmembrane domains with no homology to GPCRs, is expressed in a TRPM5-negative and PKD2L1-negative population that is enriched in the bottom portion of taste buds and may represent developmentally immature taste cells. Calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, a component of a novel calcium channel, along with family members CALHM2 and CALHM3; multiple C2 domains; transmembrane 1 (MCTP1, a calcium-binding transmembrane protein; and anoctamin 7 (ANO7, a member of the recently identified calcium-gated chloride channel family, are all expressed in TRPM5 cells. These proteins may modulate and effect calcium signalling stemming from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2B (SV2B, a regulator of synaptic vesicle exocytosis, is expressed in PKD2L1 cells, suggesting that this taste cell population transmits tastant information to gustatory afferent nerve fibers via exocytic neurotransmitter release. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Identification of genes encoding multi-transmembrane domain proteins

  4. Development of Virus-Specific CD4+ and CD8+ Regulatory T Cells Induced by Human Herpesvirus 6 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fang; Chi, Jing; Peng, Guangyong; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Lingyun; Feng, Dongju; Xie, Fangyi; Gu, Bin; Qin, Jian; CHEN, YUN; Yao, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is an important immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory virus. The mechanisms by which HHV-6 establishes latency and immunosuppression in its host are not well understood. Here we characterized HHV-6-specific T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HHV-6-infected donors. Our results showed that HHV-6 infection could induce both CD4+ and CD8+ HHV-6-specific regulatory T (Treg) cells. These HHV-6-specific Treg cells had potent suppressive activity a...

  5. Allele-specific enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic DNA for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, D Y; Ugozzoli, L; B..K. Pal; Wallace, R B

    1989-01-01

    A rapid nonradioactive approach to the diagnosis of sickle cell anemia is described based on an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (ASPCR). This method allows direct detection of the normal or the sickle cell beta-globin allele in genomic DNA without additional steps of probe hybridization, ligation, or restriction enzyme cleavage. Two allele-specific oligonucleotide primers, one specific for the sickle cell allele and one specific for the normal allele, together with another primer co...

  6. Planar cell polarity effector gene Intu regulates cell fate-specific differentiation of keratinocytes through the primary cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, D; Li, L; Huebner, A; Zeng, H; Guevara, E; Claypool, D J; Liu, A; Chen, J

    2013-01-01

    Genes involved in the planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway are essential for a number of developmental processes in mammals, such as convergent extension and ciliogenesis. Tissue-specific PCP effector genes of the PCP signaling pathway are believed to mediate PCP signals in a tissue- and cell type-specific manner. However, how PCP signaling controls the morphogenesis of mammalian tissues remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of inturned (Intu), a tissue-specific PCP effector gene, during hair follicle formation in mice. Tissue-specific disruption of Intu in embryonic epidermis resulted in hair follicle morphogenesis arrest because of the failure of follicular keratinocyte to differentiate. Targeting Intu in the epidermis resulted in almost complete loss of primary cilia in epidermal and follicular keratinocytes, and a suppressed hedgehog signaling pathway. Surprisingly, the epidermal stratification and differentiation programs and barrier function were not affected. These results demonstrate that tissue-specific PCP effector genes of the PCP signaling pathway control the differentiation of keratinocytes through the primary cilia in a cell fate- and context-dependent manner, which may be critical in orchestrating the propagation and interpretation of polarity signals established by the core PCP components. PMID:22935613

  7. Novel Genes Involved in Controlling Specification of Drosophila FMRFamide Neuropeptide Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivik, Caroline; Bahrampour, Shahrzad; Ulvklo, Carina; Nilsson, Patrik; Angel, Anna; Fransson, Fredrik; Lundin, Erika; Renhorn, Jakob; Thor, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    The expression of neuropeptides is often extremely restricted in the nervous system, making them powerful markers for addressing cell specification . In the developing Drosophila ventral nerve cord, only six cells, the Ap4 neurons, of some 10,000 neurons, express the neuropeptide FMRFamide (FMRFa). Each Ap4/FMRFa neuron is the last-born cell generated by an identifiable and well-studied progenitor cell, neuroblast 5-6 (NB5-6T). The restricted expression of FMRFa and the wealth of information regarding its gene regulation and Ap4 neuron specification makes FMRFa a valuable readout for addressing many aspects of neural development, i.e., spatial and temporal patterning cues, cell cycle control, cell specification, axon transport, and retrograde signaling. To this end, we have conducted a forward genetic screen utilizing an Ap4-specific FMRFa-eGFP transgenic reporter as our readout. A total of 9781 EMS-mutated chromosomes were screened for perturbations in FMRFa-eGFP expression, and 611 mutants were identified. Seventy-nine of the strongest mutants were mapped down to the affected gene by deficiency mapping or whole-genome sequencing. We isolated novel alleles for previously known FMRFa regulators, confirming the validity of the screen. In addition, we identified novel essential genes, including several with previously undefined functions in neural development. Our identification of genes affecting most major steps required for successful terminal differentiation of Ap4 neurons provides a comprehensive view of the genetic flow controlling the generation of highly unique neuronal cell types in the developing nervous system. PMID:26092715

  8. Specification of Drosophila corpora cardiaca neuroendocrine cells from mesoderm is regulated by Notch signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangbin Park

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila neuroendocrine cells comprising the corpora cardiaca (CC are essential for systemic glucose regulation and represent functional orthologues of vertebrate pancreatic α-cells. Although Drosophila CC cells have been regarded as developmental orthologues of pituitary gland, the genetic regulation of CC development is poorly understood. From a genetic screen, we identified multiple novel regulators of CC development, including Notch signaling factors. Our studies demonstrate that the disruption of Notch signaling can lead to the expansion of CC cells. Live imaging demonstrates localized emergence of extra precursor cells as the basis of CC expansion in Notch mutants. Contrary to a recent report, we unexpectedly found that CC cells originate from head mesoderm. We show that Tinman expression in head mesoderm is regulated by Notch signaling and that the combination of Daughterless and Tinman is sufficient for ectopic CC specification in mesoderm. Understanding the cellular, genetic, signaling, and transcriptional basis of CC cell specification and expansion should accelerate discovery of molecular mechanisms regulating ontogeny of organs that control metabolism.

  9. Vaccination with lipid core peptides fails to induce epitope-specific T cell responses but confers non-specific protective immunity in a malaria model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon H Apte

    Full Text Available Vaccines against many pathogens for which conventional approaches have failed remain an unmet public health priority. Synthetic peptide-based vaccines offer an attractive alternative to whole protein and whole organism vaccines, particularly for complex pathogens that cause chronic infection. Previously, we have reported a promising lipid core peptide (LCP vaccine delivery system that incorporates the antigen, carrier, and adjuvant in a single molecular entity. LCP vaccines have been used to deliver several peptide subunit-based vaccine candidates and induced high titre functional antibodies and protected against Group A streptococcus in mice. Herein, we have evaluated whether LCP constructs incorporating defined CD4(+ and/or CD8(+ T cell epitopes could induce epitope-specific T cell responses and protect against pathogen challenge in a rodent malaria model. We show that LCP vaccines failed to induce an expansion of antigen-specific CD8(+ T cells following primary immunization or by boosting. We further demonstrated that the LCP vaccines induced a non-specific type 2 polarized cytokine response, rather than an epitope-specific canonical CD8(+ T cell type 1 response. Cytotoxic responses of unknown specificity were also induced. These non-specific responses were able to protect against parasite challenge. These data demonstrate that vaccination with lipid core peptides fails to induce canonical epitope-specific T cell responses, at least in our rodent model, but can nonetheless confer non-specific protective immunity against Plasmodium parasite challenge.

  10. Irradiation specifically sensitises solid tumour cell lines to TRAIL mediated apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand) is an apoptosis inducing ligand with high specificity for malignant cell systems. Combined treatment modalities using TRAIL and cytotoxic drugs revealed highly additive effects in different tumour cell lines. Little is known about the efficacy and underlying mechanistic effects of a combined therapy using TRAIL and ionising radiation in solid tumour cell systems. Additionally, little is known about the effect of TRAIL combined with radiation on normal tissues. Tumour cell systems derived from breast- (MDA MB231), lung- (NCI H460) colorectal- (Colo 205, HCT-15) and head and neck cancer (FaDu, SCC-4) were treated with a combination of TRAIL and irradiation using two different time schedules. Normal tissue cultures from breast, prostate, renal and bronchial epithelia, small muscle cells, endothelial cells, hepatocytes and fibroblasts were tested accordingly. Apoptosis was determined by fluorescence microscopy and western blot determination of PARP processing. Upregulation of death receptors was quantified by flow cytometry. The combined treatment of TRAIL with irradiation strongly increased apoptosis induction in all treated tumour cell lines compared to treatment with TRAIL or irradiation alone. The synergistic effect was most prominent after sequential application of TRAIL after irradiation. Upregulation of TRAIL receptor DR5 after irradiation was observed in four of six tumour cell lines but did not correlate to tumour cell sensitisation to TRAIL. TRAIL did not show toxicity in normal tissue cell systems. In addition, pre-irradiation did not sensitise all nine tested human normal tissue cell cultures to TRAIL. Based on the in vitro data, TRAIL represents a very promising candidate for combination with radiotherapy. Sequential application of ionising radiation followed by TRAIL is associated with an synergistic induction of cell death in a large panel of solid tumour cell lines. However, TRAIL receptor

  11. Foxi3 Deficiency Compromises Hair Follicle Stem Cell Specification and Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokova, Vera; Biggs, Leah C; Jussila, Maria; Ohyama, Takahiro; Groves, Andrew K; Mikkola, Marja L

    2016-07-01

    The hair follicle is an ideal system to study stem cell specification and homeostasis due to its well characterized morphogenesis and stereotypic cycles of stem cell activation upon each hair cycle to produce a new hair shaft. The adult hair follicle stem cell niche consists of two distinct populations, the bulge and the more activation-prone secondary hair germ (HG). Hair follicle stem cells are set aside during early stages of morphogenesis. This process is known to depend on the Sox9 transcription factor, but otherwise the establishment of the hair follicle stem cell niche is poorly understood. Here, we show that that mutation of Foxi3, a Forkhead family transcription factor mutated in several hairless dog breeds, compromises stem cell specification. Further, loss of Foxi3 impedes hair follicle downgrowth and progression of the hair cycle. Genome-wide profiling revealed a number of downstream effectors of Foxi3 including transcription factors with a recognized function in hair follicle stem cells such as Lhx2, Runx1, and Nfatc1, suggesting that the Foxi3 mutant phenotype results from simultaneous downregulation of several stem cell signature genes. We show that Foxi3 displays a highly dynamic expression pattern during hair morphogenesis and cycling, and identify Foxi3 as a novel secondary HG marker. Absence of Foxi3 results in poor hair regeneration upon hair plucking, and a sparse fur phenotype in unperturbed mice that exacerbates with age, caused by impaired secondary HG activation leading to progressive depletion of stem cells. Thus, Foxi3 regulates multiple aspects of hair follicle development and homeostasis. Stem Cells 2016;34:1896-1908. PMID:26992132

  12. Progesterone-specific stimulation of triglyceride biosynthesis in a breast cancer cell line (T-47D)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judge, S.M.; Chatterton, R.T. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the lactogenic response of human mammary cancer cell lines to hormones in vitro. Progesterone was found to stimulate the incorporation of 14C from (14C)acetate into triglycerides (TG) and to promote accumulation of TG with a fatty acid composition similar to that of human milk fat in T-47D cells. Lipid droplets were observed in larger numbers without concomitant accumulation of casein granules in cells incubated with progesterone, but secretion of lipid into the medium did not occur. An effect of progesterone on TG accumulation was detectable after 12 hr and was maximal at 72 hr. Increasing doses of progesterone (10(-9) to 10(-5) M) caused a progressive increase in TG accumulation. The presence of cortisol and/or prolactin did not alter TG formation nor the dose response of the cells to progesterone. The growth rate of T-47D cells was not altered by the presence of progesterone in the medium. Neither of the human mammary cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and HBL-100, nor the human fibroblast cell lines, 28 and 857, responded to progesterone. The data indicate that, while the normally lactogenic hormones do not stimulate milk product biosynthesis in the cell lines tested, progesterone specifically stimulated synthesis and accumulation of TG in the T-47D cells.

  13. Progesterone-specific stimulation of triglyceride biosynthesis in a breast cancer cell line (T-47D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the lactogenic response of human mammary cancer cell lines to hormones in vitro. Progesterone was found to stimulate the incorporation of 14C from [14C]acetate into triglycerides (TG) and to promote accumulation of TG with a fatty acid composition similar to that of human milk fat in T-47D cells. Lipid droplets were observed in larger numbers without concomitant accumulation of casein granules in cells incubated with progesterone, but secretion of lipid into the medium did not occur. An effect of progesterone on TG accumulation was detectable after 12 hr and was maximal at 72 hr. Increasing doses of progesterone (10(-9) to 10(-5) M) caused a progressive increase in TG accumulation. The presence of cortisol and/or prolactin did not alter TG formation nor the dose response of the cells to progesterone. The growth rate of T-47D cells was not altered by the presence of progesterone in the medium. Neither of the human mammary cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and HBL-100, nor the human fibroblast cell lines, 28 and 857, responded to progesterone. The data indicate that, while the normally lactogenic hormones do not stimulate milk product biosynthesis in the cell lines tested, progesterone specifically stimulated synthesis and accumulation of TG in the T-47D cells

  14. Analysis of cell-type-specific gene expression during mouse spermatogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Nielsen, John E; Hansen, Martin Asser;

    2004-01-01

    In rodents, changes in gene expression during spermatogenesis can be monitored by sampling testis from each day during postnatal development. However, changes in gene expression at the tissue level can reflect changes in the concentration of an mRNA in a specific cell type, changes in volume of s...

  15. Cell-specific intracellular anticancer drug delivery from mesoporous silica nanoparticles with pH sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhong; Cai, Kaiyong; Hu, Yan; Zhang, Beilu; Xu, Dawei

    2012-05-01

    A nanoreservoir for efficient intracellular anticancer drug delivery based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles end-capped with lactobionic acid-grafted bovine serum albumin is fabricated. It demonstrates great potential for both cell-specific endocytosis and intracellular pH-responsive controlled release of drugs. A possible endocytosis pathway/mechanism of the smart controlled drug release system is proposed. PMID:23184747

  16. Survivin-specific T-cell reactivity correlates with tumor response and patient survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Jürgen C; Andersen, Mads H; Hofmeister-Müller, Valeska; Wobser, Marion; Frey, Lidia; Sandig, Christiane; Walter, Steffen; Singh-Jasuja, Harpreet; Kämpgen, Eckhart; Opitz, Andreas; Zapatka, Marc; Bröcker, Eva-B; thor Straten, Per; Schrama, David; Ugurel, Selma

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccination directed to induce an anti-tumoral T-cell response is a field of extensive investigation in the treatment of melanoma. However, many vaccination trials in melanoma failed to demonstrate a correlation between the vaccine-specific immune response and therapy outcome. This has...

  17. Identification of heme oxygenase-1-specific regulatory CD8+ T cells in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald; Sørensen, Rikke Baek; Brimnes, Marie K;

    2009-01-01

    the antigens they recognize. Here, we describe what we believe to be the first natural target for CD8+ Tregs. Naturally occurring HLA-A2-restricted CD8+ T cells specific for the antiinflammatory molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were able to suppress cellular immune responses with outstanding efficacy...

  18. Granular cell tumour of the neurohypophysis: a rare sellar tumour with specific radiological and operative features.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aquilina, K

    2012-02-03

    Symptomatic granular cell tumours of the neurohypophysis are rare sellar lesions. Preoperative prediction of the diagnosis on the basis of radiological appearance is useful as these tumours carry specific surgical difficulties. This is possible when the tumour arises from the pituitary stalk, rostral to a normal pituitary gland. This has not been emphasized previously.

  19. Specific Myosins Control Actin Organization, Cell Morphology, and Migration in Prostate Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna A. Makowska; Ruth E. Hughes; Kathryn J. White; Claire M. Wells; Michelle Peckham

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the myosin expression profile in prostate cancer cell lines and found that Myo1b, Myo9b, Myo10, and Myo18a were expressed at higher levels in cells with high metastatic potential. Moreover, Myo1b and Myo10 were expressed at higher levels in metastatic tumors. Using an siRNA-based approach, we found that knockdown of each myosin resulted in distinct phenotypes. Myo10 knockdown ablated filopodia and decreased 2D migration speed. Myo18a knockdown increased circumferential non-mus...

  20. Tumor-specific T cells signal tumor destruction via the lymphotoxin β receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Bernard A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, we reported that adoptively transferred perforin k/o (PKO, and IFN-γ k/o (GKO, or perforin/IFN-γ double k/o (PKO/GKO effector T cells mediated regression of B16BL6-D5 (D5 pulmonary metastases and showed that TNF receptor signaling played a critical role in mediating tumor regression. In this report we investigated the role of lymphotoxin-α (LT-α as a potential effector molecules of tumor-specific effector T cells. Methods Effector T cells were generated from tumor vaccine-draining lymph node (TVDLN of wt, GKO, LT-α deficient (LKO, or PKO/GKO mice and tested for their ability to mediate regression of D5 pulmonary metastases in the presence or absence of LT-βR-Fc fusion protein or anti-IFN-γ antibody. Chemokine production by D5 tumor cells was determined by ELISA, RT-PCR and Chemotaxis assays. Results Stimulated effector T cells from wt, GKO, or PKO/GKO mice expressed ligands for LT-β receptor (LT-βR. D5 tumor cells were found to constitutively express the LT-βR. Administration of LT-βR-Fc fusion protein completely abrogated the therapeutic efficacy of GKO or PKO/GKO but not wt effector T cells (p Conclusion The contribution of LT-α expression by effector T cells to anti-tumor activity in vivo was not discernable when wt effector T cells were studied. However, the contribution of LT-β R signaling was identified for GKO or PKO/GKO effector T cells. Since LT-α does not directly induce killing of D5 tumor cells in vitro, but does stimulate D5 tumor cells to secrete chemokines, these data suggest a model where LT-α expression by tumor-specific effector T cells interacts via cross-linking of the LT-βR on tumor cells to induce secretion of chemokines that are chemotactic for macrophages. While the contribution of macrophages to tumor elimination in our system requires additional study, this model provides a possible explanation for the infiltration of inate effector cells that is seen coincident with tumor

  1. Dual regulatory role for phosphatase and tensin homolog in specification of intestinal endocrine cell subtypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sébastien AB Roy; Marie-Josée Langlois; Julie C Carrier; Fran(c)ois Boudreau; Nathalie Rivard; Nathalie Perreault

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the impact of phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) in the specification of intestinal enteroendocrine subpopulations.METHODS:Using the Cre/IoxP system,a mouse with conditional intestinal epithelial Pten deficiency was generated.Pten mutant mice and controls were sacrificed and small intestines collected for immunofluorescence and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.Blood was collected on 16 h fasted mice by cardiac puncture.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure blood circulating ghrelin,somatostatin (SST) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) levels.RESULTS:Results show an unexpected dual regulatory role for epithelial Pten signalling in the specification/differentiation of enteroendocrine cell subpopulations in the small intestine.Our data indicate that Pten positively regulates chromogranin A (CgA) expressing subpopulations,including cells expressing secretin,ghrelin,gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK).In contrast,Pten negatively regulates the enteroendocrine subtype specification of non-expressing CgA cells such as GIP and SST expressing cells.CONCLUSION:The present results demonstrate that Pten signalling favours the enteroendocrine progenitor to specify into cells expressing CgA including those producing CCK,gastrin and ghrelin.

  2. Regulatory function of cytomegalovirus-specific CD4+CD27-CD28- T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CMV infection is characterized by high of frequencies of CD27-CD28- T cells. Here we demonstrate that CMV-specific CD4+CD27-CD28- cells are regulatory T cells (TR). CD4+CD27-CD28- cells sorted from CMV-stimulated PBMC of CMV-seropositive donors inhibited de novo CMV-specific proliferation of autologous PBMC in a dose-dependent fashion. Compared with the entire CMV-stimulated CD4+ T-cell population, higher proportions of CD4+CD27-CD28- TR expressed FoxP3, TGFβ, granzyme B, perforin, GITR and PD-1, lower proportions expressed CD127 and PD1-L and similar proportions expressed CD25, CTLA4, Fas-L and GITR-L. CMV-CD4+CD27-CD28- TR expanded in response to IL-2, but not to CMV antigenic restimulation. The anti-proliferative effect of CMV-CD4+CD27-CD28- TR significantly decreased after granzyme B or TGFβ inhibition. The CMV-CD4+CD27-CD28- TR of HIV-infected and uninfected donors had similar phenotypes and anti-proliferative potency, but HIV-infected individuals had higher proportions of CMV-CD4+CD27-CD28- TR. The CMV-CD4+CD27-CD28- TR may contribute to the downregulation of CMV-specific and nonspecific immune responses of CMV-infected individuals.

  3. TCR Down-Regulation Controls Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Haks, Mariëlle; Nielsen, Bodil;

    2008-01-01

    The CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif plays a central role in TCR down-regulation. However, little is understood about the role of the CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif in physiological T cell responses. In this study, we show that the expansion in numbers of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells is impaired...... in mice with a mutated CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif. The CD3gamma mutation did not impair early TCR signaling, nor did it compromise recruitment or proliferation of virus-specific T cells, but it increased the apoptosis rate of the activated T cells by increasing down-regulation of the...... antiapoptotic molecule Bcl-2. This resulted in a 2-fold reduction in the clonal expansion of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells during the acute phase of vesicular stomatitis virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. These results identify an important role of CD3gamma-mediated TCR down-regulation in...

  4. TCR down-regulation controls virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Haks, Mariëlle; Nielsen, Bodil;

    2008-01-01

    The CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif plays a central role in TCR down-regulation. However, little is understood about the role of the CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif in physiological T cell responses. In this study, we show that the expansion in numbers of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells is impaired...... in mice with a mutated CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif. The CD3gamma mutation did not impair early TCR signaling, nor did it compromise recruitment or proliferation of virus-specific T cells, but it increased the apoptosis rate of the activated T cells by increasing down-regulation of the...... antiapoptotic molecule Bcl-2. This resulted in a 2-fold reduction in the clonal expansion of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells during the acute phase of vesicular stomatitis virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. These results identify an important role of CD3gamma-mediated TCR down-regulation in...

  5. Alloantigen-specific T-cell hyporesponsiveness induced by dnIKK2 gene-transfected recipient immature dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Cai-bin; Wang, Yi; Wang, Qing-ping; Du, Ke-lin; Wen, Duan-gai; Ouyang, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Immature dendritic cells (iDCs) have been shown to be able to induce peripheral T-cell tolerance through distinct pathways. Here, we investigated the tolerogenic property of recipient iDCs whose maturation was arrested by a dominant negative mutant of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase 2 (dnIKK2) gene. We found that dnIKK2-iDCs presented a typical semi-mature morphology and expressed lower levels of CD80 and CD86, slightly higher MHC-II than untransfected iDCs. The expression of these molecules had no significant change even dnIKK2-iDCs were pulsed by donor antigen. In primary mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR), dnIKK2-iDCs exhibited impaired ability to stimulate allogeneic T-cells, but induced CD4(+)CD25(-) T-cell formation. In co-culture MLR, these CD4(+)CD25(-) T-cells suppressed T-cell alloreaction in an antigen-specific manner. Besides, CD4(+)CD25(-) T-cells inhibited IL-2 and IFN-γ release, whereas promoted IL-10 and TGF-β secretion. These data suggested recipient dnIKK2-iDCs could maintain peripheral tolerance through down-regulating costimulatory molecule expressions and inducing CD4(+)CD25(-) T-cell formation. PMID:26253357

  6. Allele-specific enzymatic amplification of. beta. -globin genomic DNA for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, D.Y.; Ugozzoli, L.; Pal, B.K.; Wallace, B. (Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA (USA))

    1989-04-01

    A rapid nonradioactive approach to the diagnosis of sickle cell anemia is described based on an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (ASPCR). This method allows direct detection of the normal or the sickle cell {beta}-globin allele in genomic DNA without additional steps of probe hybridization, ligation, or restriction enzyme cleavage. Two allele-specific oligonucleotide primers, one specific for the sickle cell allele and one specific for the normal allele, together with another primer complementary to both alleles were used in the polymerase chain reaction with genomic DNA templates. The allele-specific primers differed from each other in their terminal 3{prime} nucleotide. Under the proper annealing temperature and polymerase chain reaction conditions, these primers only directed amplification on their complementary allele. In a single blind study of DNA samples from 12 individuals, this method correctly and unambiguously allowed for the determination of the genotypes with no false negatives or positives. If ASPCR is able to discriminate all allelic variation (both transition and transversion mutations), this method has the potential to be a powerful approach for genetic disease diagnosis, carrier screening, HLA typing, human gene mapping, forensics, and paternity testing.

  7. Boswellia sacra essential oil induces tumor cell-specific apoptosis and suppresses tumor aggressiveness in cultured human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Mahmoud M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gum resins obtained from trees of the Burseraceae family (Boswellia sp. are important ingredients in incense and perfumes. Extracts prepared from Boswellia sp. gum resins have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic effects. Essential oil prepared by distillation of the gum resin traditionally used for aromatic therapy has also been shown to have tumor cell-specific anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. The objective of this study was to optimize conditions for preparing Boswellea sacra essential oil with the highest biological activity in inducing tumor cell-specific cytotoxicity and suppressing aggressive tumor phenotypes in human breast cancer cells. Methods Boswellia sacra essential oil was prepared from Omani Hougari grade resins through hydrodistillation at 78 or 100 oC for 12 hours. Chemical compositions were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; and total boswellic acids contents were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Boswellia sacra essential oil-mediated cell viability and death were studied in established human breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF7, MDA-MB-231 and an immortalized normal human breast cell line (MCF10-2A. Apoptosis was assayed by genomic DNA fragmentation. Anti-invasive and anti-multicellular tumor properties were evaluated by cellular network and spheroid formation models, respectively. Western blot analysis was performed to study Boswellia sacra essential oil-regulated proteins involved in apoptosis, signaling pathways, and cell cycle regulation. Results More abundant high molecular weight compounds, including boswellic acids, were present in Boswellia sacra essential oil prepared at 100 oC hydrodistillation. All three human breast cancer cell lines were sensitive to essential oil treatment with reduced cell viability and elevated cell death, whereas the immortalized normal human breast cell line was more resistant to essential oil

  8. Expression of Pigment Cell-Specific Genes in the Ontogenesis of the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageenko, Natalya V; Kiselev, Konstantin V; Odintsova, Nelly A

    2011-01-01

    One of the polyketide compounds, the naphthoquinone pigment echinochrome, is synthesized in sea urchin pigment cells. We analyzed polyketide synthase (pks) and sulfotransferase (sult) gene expression in embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius from various stages of development and in specific tissues of the adults. We observed the highest level of expression of the pks and sult genes at the gastrula stage. In unfertilized eggs, only trace amounts of the pks and sult transcripts were detected, whereas no transcripts of these genes were observed in spermatozoids. The addition of shikimic acid, a precursor of naphthoquinone pigments, to zygotes and embryos increased the expression of the pks and sult genes. Our findings, including the development of specific conditions to promote pigment cell differentiation of embryonic sea urchin cells in culture, represent a definitive study on the molecular signaling pathways that are involved in the biosynthesis of pigments during sea urchin development. PMID:21804858

  9. Male germ cell-specific expression of a novel Patched-domain containing gene Ptchd3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays an important role in various biological processes, including pattern formation, cell fate determination, proliferation, and differentiation. Hh function is mediated through its membrane receptor Patched. Herein, we have characterized a novel Patched-domain containing gene Ptchd3 in mouse. Messenger RNA of Ptchd3 was exclusively detected in the testis, and existed in two isoforms Ptchd3a and Ptchd3b. The expression of these two mRNA isoforms was shown to be developmentally regulated in testes, and specifically found in male germ cells. Further analysis revealed that the Ptchd3 protein was located on the midpiece of mouse, rat and human sperm. Collectively, these results indicate that Ptchd3 is a novel male germ cell-specific gene and may be involved in the Hh signaling to regulate sperm development and/or sperm function

  10. Biomarker-specific conjugated nanopolyplexes for the active coloring of stem-like cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yoochan; Lee, Eugene; Choi, Jihye; Haam, Seungjoo; Suh, Jin-Suck; Yang, Jaemoon

    2016-06-01

    Stem-like cancer cells possess intrinsic features and their CD44 regulate redox balance in cancer cells to survive under stress conditions. Thus, we have fabricated biomarker-specific conjugated polyplexes using CD44-targetable hyaluronic acid and redox-sensible polyaniline based on a nanoemulsion method. For the most sensitive recognition of the cellular redox at a single nanoparticle scale, a nano-scattering spectrum imaging analyzer system was introduced. The conjugated polyplexes showed a specific targeting ability toward CD44-expressing cancer cells as well as a dramatic change in its color, which depended on the redox potential in the light-scattered images. Therefore, these polyaniline-based conjugated polyplexes as well as analytical processes that include light-scattering imaging and measurements of scattering spectra, clearly establish a systematic method for the detection and monitoring of cancer microenvironments.

  11. Biomarker-specific conjugated nanopolyplexes for the active coloring of stem-like cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yoochan; Lee, Eugene; Choi, Jihye; Haam, Seungjoo; Suh, Jin-Suck; Yang, Jaemoon

    2016-06-01

    Stem-like cancer cells possess intrinsic features and their CD44 regulate redox balance in cancer cells to survive under stress conditions. Thus, we have fabricated biomarker-specific conjugated polyplexes using CD44-targetable hyaluronic acid and redox-sensible polyaniline based on a nanoemulsion method. For the most sensitive recognition of the cellular redox at a single nanoparticle scale, a nano-scattering spectrum imaging analyzer system was introduced. The conjugated polyplexes showed a specific targeting ability toward CD44-expressing cancer cells as well as a dramatic change in its color, which depended on the redox potential in the light-scattered images. Therefore, these polyaniline-based conjugated polyplexes as well as analytical processes that include light-scattering imaging and measurements of scattering spectra, clearly establish a systematic method for the detection and monitoring of cancer microenvironments. PMID:27098318

  12. Towards identifying host cell-type specific response patterns to bacterial endosymbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavrilovic, Srdjan

    view, available techniques have relied heavily on whole organ analyses that disregard specificities of individual cell types. To address this issue we aimed to develop a technology for comparative global analysis of mature mRNA and small RNA populations at the cell type specific level in the model...... plant Lotus japonicus. A powerful approach referred to here as Defined Expression and RNA Affinity co-Purification (DERAP) was developed to study gene expression and small RNA populations in the host roots during early phases of signal exchange at the cell-type level. As a basis for DERAP analysis of......, namely epidermis with elongating root hairs, inner cortex, endodermis, phloem and xylem, were characterized in L. japonicus. In combination with tagged forms of a Ribosomal surface Protein (RP) and the viral small RNA binding protein P19, these promoters were introduced into L. japonicus ecotype Gifu...

  13. Specific Btk inhibition suppresses B cell- and myeloid cell-mediated arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Paolo, Julie A.; Huang, Tao; Balazs, Mercedesz; Barbosa, James; Barck, Kai H.; Bravo, Brandon J.; Carano, Richard A.D.; Darrow, James; Davies, Douglas R.; DeForge, Laura E.; Diehl, Lauri; Ferrando, Ronald; Gallion, Steven L.; Giannetti, Anthony M.; Gribling, Peter; Hurez, Vincent; Hymowitz, Sarah G.; Jones, Randall; Kropf, Jeffrey E.; Lee, Wyne P.; Maciejewski, Patricia M.; Mitchell, Scott A.; Rong, Hong; Staker, Bart L.; Whitney, J. Andrew; Yeh, Sherry; Young, Wendy B.; Yu, Christine; Zhang, Juan; Reif, Karin; Currie, Kevin S. (CGI); (Emerald); (Genentech)

    2011-09-20

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which Btk mediates inflammation are poorly understood. Here we describe the discovery of CGI1746, a small-molecule Btk inhibitor chemotype with a new binding mode that stabilizes an inactive nonphosphorylated enzyme conformation. CGI1746 has exquisite selectivity for Btk and inhibits both auto- and transphosphorylation steps necessary for enzyme activation. Using CGI1746, we demonstrate that Btk regulates inflammatory arthritis by two distinct mechanisms. CGI1746 blocks B cell receptor-dependent B cell proliferation and in prophylactic regimens reduces autoantibody levels in collagen-induced arthritis. In macrophages, Btk inhibition abolishes Fc{gamma}RIII-induced TNF{alpha}, IL-1{beta} and IL-6 production. Accordingly, in myeloid- and Fc{gamma}R-dependent autoantibody-induced arthritis, CGI1746 decreases cytokine levels within joints and ameliorates disease. These results provide new understanding of the function of Btk in both B cell- or myeloid cell-driven disease processes and provide a compelling rationale for targeting Btk in rheumatoid arthritis.

  14. Alveolar epithelial type II cells induce T cell tolerance to specific antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Bernice; Hansen, Søren; Evans, Kathy; Heath, John K; Wright, Jo Rae

    2008-01-01

    The lungs face the immunologic challenge of rapidly eliminating inhaled pathogens while maintaining tolerance to innocuous Ags. A break in this immune homeostasis may result in pulmonary inflammatory diseases, such as allergies or asthma. The observation that alveolar epithelial type II cells (Ty...

  15. A quantitative method for the specific assessment of caspase-6 activity in cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrnhoefer, Dagmar E; Skotte, Niels H; Savill, Jane;

    2011-01-01

    are not well suited to specifically assess caspase-6 activity in the presence of other, confounding protease activities, as often encountered in cell and tissue samples. Here we report the development of a method that overcomes this limitation by using a protein substrate, lamin A, which is highly...... specific for caspase-6 cleavage at amino acid 230. Using a neo-epitope antibody against cleaved lamin A, we developed an electrochemiluminescence-based ELISA assay that is suitable to specifically detect and quantify caspase-6 activity in highly apoptotic cell extracts. The method is more sensitive than......Aberrant activation of caspase-6 has recently emerged as a major contributor to the pathogeneses of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Huntington disease. Commercially available assays to measure caspase-6 activity commonly use the VEID peptide as a substrate. However these methods...

  16. IL-15 induces unspecific effector functions in human peptide-specific CD8+ T-cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrand, S T; Würtzen, P A; Ødum, N; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Röpke, C

    2002-01-01

    Antigen (Ag)-specific CD8+ T cells are a major host defence against viral infections. In the present study, we generated human CD8+ T-cell lines specific towards influenza matrix peptide (IMP)-pulsed Ag-presenting cells. We compared the effect of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-15 on the proliferation...... cultures. Secondary IMP-specific CD8+ T cells were generated by the addition of IL-2 during two cycles of restimulation. From the third restimulation, identical CTL cultures were expanded with either IL-2 or IL-15 in parallel. Cell expansion as well as Ag specificity was considerably reduced after a 5 day...

  17. Receptors for B cell stimulatory factor 2. Quantitation, specificity, distribution, and regulation of their expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taga, T.; Kawanishi, Y.; Hardy, R.R.; Hirano, T.; Kishimoto, T.

    1987-10-01

    B cell stimulatory factor 2 receptors (BSF-2-R) were studied using radioiodinated recombinant BSF-2 with a specific activity of 6.16 X 10(13) cpm/g. Kinetic studies showed that binding of /sup 125/I-BSF-2 to CESS cells reached maximum level within 150 min at 0 degrees C. There was a single class of receptors with high affinity (Kd 3.4 X 10(-10) M) on CESS, and the number of receptors was 2700 per cell. Binding of /sup 125/I-BSF-2 to CESS was competitively inhibited by unlabeled BSF-2 but not by IL-1, IL-2, IFN-beta, IFN-gamma, and G-CSF, indicating the presence of the receptors specific for BSF-2. EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines (CESS, SKW6-CL4, LCL13, and LCL14) expressed BSF-2-R, whereas Burkitt's lines did not. EBV or EBNA2 did not induce the expression of the receptors on Burkitt's cells. The plasma cell lines (ARH-77 and U266) expressed BSF-2-R, fitting the function of BSF-2 as plasma cell growth factor. Several other cell lines, the histiocytic line U937, the promyelocytic line HL60, the astrocytoma line U373 and the glioblastoma line SK-MG-4, in which BSF-2 was inducible with IL-1 or TPA, displayed BSF-2-R with Kd in the range of 1.3-6.4 X 10(-10) M, suggesting the autocrine mechanism in BSF-2 function. The four T cell lines (CEM, HSB, Jurkat, and OM 1) did not express a detectable number of receptors, but normal resting T cells expressed 100-1000 receptors per cell. BSF-2-R were not present on normal resting B cells but expressed on activated B cells with a Kd of 3.6-5.0 X 10(-10) M, fitting the function of BSF-2, which acts on B cells at the final maturation stage to induce immunoglobulin production.

  18. Tissue-specific methylation of human insulin gene and PCR assay for monitoring beta cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed I Husseiny

    Full Text Available The onset of metabolic dysregulation in type 1 diabetes (T1D occurs after autoimmune destruction of the majority of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. We previously demonstrated that the DNA encoding the insulin gene is uniquely unmethylated in these cells and then developed a methylation-specific PCR (MSP assay to identify circulating beta cell DNA in streptozotocin-treated mice prior to the rise in blood glucose. The current study extends to autoimmune non-obese diabetic (NOD mice and humans, showing in NOD mice that beta cell death occurs six weeks before the rise in blood sugar and coincides with the onset of islet infiltration by immune cells, demonstrating the utility of MSP for monitoring T1D. We previously reported unique patterns of methylation of the human insulin gene, and now extend this to other human tissues. The methylation patterns of the human insulin promoter, intron 1, exon 2, and intron 2 were determined in several normal human tissues. Similar to our previous report, the human insulin promoter was unmethylated in beta cells, but methylated in all other tissues tested. In contrast, intron 1, exon 2 and intron 2 did not exhibit any tissue-specific DNA methylation pattern. Subsequently, a human MSP assay was developed based on the methylation pattern of the insulin promoter and human islet DNA was successfully detected in circulation of T1D patients after islet transplantation therapy. Signal levels of normal controls and pre-transplant samples were shown to be similar, but increased dramatically after islet transplantation. In plasma the signal declines with time but in whole blood remains elevated for at least two weeks, indicating that association of beta cell DNA with blood cells prolongs the signal. This assay provides an effective method to monitor beta cell destruction in early T1D and in islet transplantation therapy.

  19. Tissue-Specific Methylation of Human Insulin Gene and PCR Assay for Monitoring Beta Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseiny, Mohamed I.; Kaye, Alexander; Zebadua, Emily; Kandeel, Fouad; Ferreri, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The onset of metabolic dysregulation in type 1 diabetes (T1D) occurs after autoimmune destruction of the majority of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. We previously demonstrated that the DNA encoding the insulin gene is uniquely unmethylated in these cells and then developed a methylation-specific PCR (MSP) assay to identify circulating beta cell DNA in streptozotocin-treated mice prior to the rise in blood glucose. The current study extends to autoimmune non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and humans, showing in NOD mice that beta cell death occurs six weeks before the rise in blood sugar and coincides with the onset of islet infiltration by immune cells, demonstrating the utility of MSP for monitoring T1D. We previously reported unique patterns of methylation of the human insulin gene, and now extend this to other human tissues. The methylation patterns of the human insulin promoter, intron 1, exon 2, and intron 2 were determined in several normal human tissues. Similar to our previous report, the human insulin promoter was unmethylated in beta cells, but methylated in all other tissues tested. In contrast, intron 1, exon 2 and intron 2 did not exhibit any tissue-specific DNA methylation pattern. Subsequently, a human MSP assay was developed based on the methylation pattern of the insulin promoter and human islet DNA was successfully detected in circulation of T1D patients after islet transplantation therapy. Signal levels of normal controls and pre-transplant samples were shown to be similar, but increased dramatically after islet transplantation. In plasma the signal declines with time but in whole blood remains elevated for at least two weeks, indicating that association of beta cell DNA with blood cells prolongs the signal. This assay provides an effective method to monitor beta cell destruction in early T1D and in islet transplantation therapy. PMID:24722187

  20. Label-free continuous cell sorter with specifically adhesive oblique micro-grooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the development of a label-free continuous cell sorting method based on specific adhesivity between cells and surface-immobilized adhesion molecules. The separation of cells is induced by cross-flow adhesive force on micron-sized stripes with adhesion molecules immobilized on the surface. In order to accurately form the adhesive stripes on a microchannel wall, 1 µm wide micro-grooves are fabricated at a certain angle with respect to the flow direction using direct electron-beam lithography. Amino-functionalized parylene is used as the groove surface material, and streptavidin is immobilized on the entire surface, resulting in a surface with periodic adhesive patterns. The effectiveness of the proposed cell sorting principle is verified by flow-through experiments using functionalized particles as model cells. Measurements of the motion of biotin-coated microparticles show that the particles decelerated by specific adhesivity are displaced in the cross-flow direction. The observed cross-flow displacement is around 0.8% of the streamwise travelling distance. It is also shown that the rate of cross-flow displacement is independent of the flow rate or the stripe angle. Finally, it is demonstrated that a mixture of streptavidin- and biotin-coated microparticles can be completely separated after flowing over a 20 mm long patterned surface. The proposed label-free continuous lateral separation scheme has a wide range of potential applications for separation of cells which could not be distinguished by size or separated using dielectric forces

  1. A versatile method for cell-specific profiling of translated mRNAs in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Thomas

    Full Text Available In Drosophila melanogaster few methods exist to perform rapid cell-type or tissue-specific expression profiling. A translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP method to profile actively translated mRNAs has been developed for use in a number of multicellular organisms although it has only been implemented to examine limited sets of cell- or tissue-types in these organisms. We have adapted the TRAP method for use in the versatile GAL4/UAS system of Drosophila allowing profiling of almost any tissue/cell-type with a single genetic cross. We created transgenic strains expressing a GFP-tagged ribosomal protein, RpL10A, under the control of the UAS promoter to perform cell-type specific translatome profiling. The GFP::RpL10A fusion protein incorporates efficiently into ribosomes and polysomes. Polysome affinity purification strongly enriches mRNAs from expected genes in the targeted tissues with sufficient sensitivity to analyze expression in small cell populations. This method can be used to determine the unique translatome profiles in different cell-types under varied physiological, pharmacological and pathological conditions.

  2. The Influence of Immunization Route, Tissue Microenvironment, and Cytokine Cell Milieu on HIV-Specific CD8+ T Cells Measured Using Fluidigm Dynamic Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Shubhanshi; Ranasinghe, Charani

    2015-01-01

    Thirty different genes including cytokines, chemokines, granzymes, perforin and specifically integrins were evaluated in Peyer's patch-KdGag197–205-specific CD8+ T cells (pools of 100 cells) using Fluidigm 48.48 Dynamic arrays following three different prime-boost immunization strategies. Data revealed that the route of prime or the booster immunization differentially influenced the integrin expression profile on gut KdGag197–205-specific CD8+ T cells. Specifically, elevated numbers of integr...

  3. Cell-line-specific stimulation of tumor cell aggressiveness by wound healing factors – a central role for STAT3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local recurrence is a major factor affecting survival after treatment for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). It is possible that the normal processes involved in wound healing after surgical removal of a primary tumor can boost the regrowth of residual cancer cells, thereby contributing to the recurrent growth. In this work, we collected human wound fluids and used them to investigate the effect of wound healing factors on HNSCC cell lines in vitro. Wound fluids were collected from thyroidectomized patients diagnosed with benign disease and were included in assays of cell proliferation, migration, cell scattering, and invasion. The involvement of intracellular signaling pathways and membrane receptors were investigated by western blotting and the inclusion of specific inhibitors. One out of four cell lines was greatly stimulated in proliferation, migration, cell scattering, and invasion by the addition of wound fluid as compared with addition of fetal bovine or human serum. These effects were accompanied by a sharp increase in activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Inhibition of STAT3 activation abolished the wound fluid response, showing that STAT3 plays an important role in the wound healing response. Several of the observed phenotypic changes were epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like, but the appropriate changes were not seen in any of the EMT markers investigated. The involvement of c-Met or epidermal growth factor receptor family members was excluded, while the interleukin-6 receptor was found to be partly responsible for the activation of STAT3. In conclusion, we found cell-line-specific effects of wound healing factors on HNSCC, setting the stage for therapy development and predictive opportunities

  4. Cell-line-specific stimulation of tumor cell aggressiveness by wound healing factors – a central role for STAT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekblad Lars

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local recurrence is a major factor affecting survival after treatment for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. It is possible that the normal processes involved in wound healing after surgical removal of a primary tumor can boost the regrowth of residual cancer cells, thereby contributing to the recurrent growth. In this work, we collected human wound fluids and used them to investigate the effect of wound healing factors on HNSCC cell lines in vitro. Methods Wound fluids were collected from thyroidectomized patients diagnosed with benign disease and were included in assays of cell proliferation, migration, cell scattering, and invasion. The involvement of intracellular signaling pathways and membrane receptors were investigated by western blotting and the inclusion of specific inhibitors. Results One out of four cell lines was greatly stimulated in proliferation, migration, cell scattering, and invasion by the addition of wound fluid as compared with addition of fetal bovine or human serum. These effects were accompanied by a sharp increase in activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3. Inhibition of STAT3 activation abolished the wound fluid response, showing that STAT3 plays an important role in the wound healing response. Several of the observed phenotypic changes were epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT-like, but the appropriate changes were not seen in any of the EMT markers investigated. The involvement of c-Met or epidermal growth factor receptor family members was excluded, while the interleukin-6 receptor was found to be partly responsible for the activation of STAT3. Conclusions In conclusion, we found cell-line-specific effects of wound healing factors on HNSCC, setting the stage for therapy development and predictive opportunities.

  5. A novel system of artificial antigen-presenting cells efficiently stimulates Flu peptide-specific cytotoxic T cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Adoptive immunotherapy depends on relevant numbers of cytolytic T lymphocytes. → An ideal artificial APCs system was successfully prepared in vivo. → Controlled release of IL-2 leads to much more T-cell expansion. → This system is better than general cellular APCs on T-cell expansion. -- Abstract: Therapeutic numbers of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are key effectors in successful adoptive immunotherapy. However, efficient and reproducible methods to meet the qualification remain poor. To address this issue, we designed the artificial antigen-presenting cell (aAPC) system based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). A modified emulsion method was used for the preparation of PLGA particles encapsulating interleukin-2 (IL-2). Biotinylated molecular ligands for recognition and co-stimulation of T cells were attached to the particle surface through the binding of avidin-biotin. These formed the aAPC system. The function of aAPCs in the proliferation of specific CTLs against human Flu antigen was detected by enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) and MTT staining methods. Finally, we successfully prepared this suitable aAPC system. The results show that IL-2 is released from aAPCs in a sustained manner over 30 days. This dramatically improves the stimulatory capacity of this system as compared to the effect of exogenous addition of cytokine. In addition, our aAPCs promote the proliferation of Flu antigen-specific CTLs more effectively than the autologous cellular APCs. Here, this aAPC platform is proved to be suitable for expansion of human antigen-specific T cells.

  6. A novel system of artificial antigen-presenting cells efficiently stimulates Flu peptide-specific cytotoxic T cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hui [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Peking University People' s Hospital, Beijing 100044 (China); Peng, Ji-Run, E-mail: pengjr@medmail.com.cn [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Peking University People' s Hospital, Beijing 100044 (China); Chen, Peng-Cheng; Gong, Lei [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Peking University People' s Hospital, Beijing 100044 (China); Qiao, Shi-Shi [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Wang, Wen-Zhen; Cui, Zhu-Qingqing; Yu, Xin; Wei, Yu-Hua [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Peking University People' s Hospital, Beijing 100044 (China); Leng, Xi-Sheng, E-mail: lengxs2003@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Peking University People' s Hospital, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Adoptive immunotherapy depends on relevant numbers of cytolytic T lymphocytes. {yields} An ideal artificial APCs system was successfully prepared in vivo. {yields} Controlled release of IL-2 leads to much more T-cell expansion. {yields} This system is better than general cellular APCs on T-cell expansion. -- Abstract: Therapeutic numbers of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are key effectors in successful adoptive immunotherapy. However, efficient and reproducible methods to meet the qualification remain poor. To address this issue, we designed the artificial antigen-presenting cell (aAPC) system based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). A modified emulsion method was used for the preparation of PLGA particles encapsulating interleukin-2 (IL-2). Biotinylated molecular ligands for recognition and co-stimulation of T cells were attached to the particle surface through the binding of avidin-biotin. These formed the aAPC system. The function of aAPCs in the proliferation of specific CTLs against human Flu antigen was detected by enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) and MTT staining methods. Finally, we successfully prepared this suitable aAPC system. The results show that IL-2 is released from aAPCs in a sustained manner over 30 days. This dramatically improves the stimulatory capacity of this system as compared to the effect of exogenous addition of cytokine. In addition, our aAPCs promote the proliferation of Flu antigen-specific CTLs more effectively than the autologous cellular APCs. Here, this aAPC platform is proved to be suitable for expansion of human antigen-specific T cells.

  7. Cell-type specific roles for PTEN in establishing a functional retinal architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cantrup

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The retina has a unique three-dimensional architecture, the precise organization of which allows for complete sampling of the visual field. Along the radial or apicobasal axis, retinal neurons and their dendritic and axonal arbors are segregated into layers, while perpendicular to this axis, in the tangential plane, four of the six neuronal types form patterned cellular arrays, or mosaics. Currently, the molecular cues that control retinal cell positioning are not well-understood, especially those that operate in the tangential plane. Here we investigated the role of the PTEN phosphatase in establishing a functional retinal architecture. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the developing retina, PTEN was localized preferentially to ganglion, amacrine and horizontal cells, whose somata are distributed in mosaic patterns in the tangential plane. Generation of a retina-specific Pten knock-out resulted in retinal ganglion, amacrine and horizontal cell hypertrophy, and expansion of the inner plexiform layer. The spacing of Pten mutant mosaic populations was also aberrant, as were the arborization and fasciculation patterns of their processes, displaying cell type-specific defects in the radial and tangential dimensions. Irregular oscillatory potentials were also observed in Pten mutant electroretinograms, indicative of asynchronous amacrine cell firing. Furthermore, while Pten mutant RGC axons targeted appropriate brain regions, optokinetic spatial acuity was reduced in Pten mutant animals. Finally, while some features of the Pten mutant retina appeared similar to those reported in Dscam-mutant mice, PTEN expression and activity were normal in the absence of Dscam. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that Pten regulates somal positioning and neurite arborization patterns of a subset of retinal cells that form mosaics, likely functioning independently of Dscam, at least during the embryonic period. Our findings thus reveal an unexpected

  8. Rare amplicons implicate frequent deregulation of cell fate specification pathways in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Antoine M; Schmidt, Brian L; Fridlyand, Jane; Dekker, Nusi; Pinkel, Daniel; Jordan, Richard C K; Albertson, Donna G

    2005-06-16

    Genomes of solid tumors are characterized by gains and losses of regions, which may contribute to tumorigenesis by altering gene expression. Often the aberrations are extensive, encompassing whole chromosome arms, which makes identification of candidate genes in these regions difficult. Here, we focused on narrow regions of gene amplification to facilitate identification of genetic pathways important in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development. We used array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) to define minimum common amplified regions and then used expression analysis to identify candidate driver genes in amplicons that spanned LAMA3, MMP7), as well as members of the hedgehog (GLI2) and notch (JAG1, RBPSUH, FJX1) pathways to be amplified and overexpressed. Deregulation of these and other members of the hedgehog and notch pathways (HHIP, SMO, DLL1, NOTCH4) implicates deregulation of developmental and differentiation pathways, cell fate misspecification, in oral SCC development. PMID:15824737

  9. Dendritic cells as controllers of antigen-specific Foxp3+ regulatory T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yamazaki, Sayuri; Steinman, Ralph M.

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) are a subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that maintain immunological self-tolerance in the periphery. T reg also regulate or suppress other classes of immune response such as allograft rejection, allergy, tumor immunity, and responses to microbes. Treg express the Foxp3 transcription factor and CD25, the high affinity interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R). T reg are divided into two types: naturally occurring Treg derived from thymus (natural Treg) and Treg induced from Foxp...

  10. Laminin isoform-specific promotion of adhesion and migration of human bone marrow progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu-Chen; Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Tryggvason, Karl; Persson, Jenny; Ekblom, Peter; Jacobsen, Sten-Eirik; Ekblom, Marja

    2003-02-01

    Laminins are alphabetagamma heterotrimeric extracellular proteins that regulate cellular functions by adhesion to integrin and nonintegrin receptors. Laminins containing alpha4 and alpha5 chains are expressed in bone marrow, but their interactions with hematopoietic progenitors are unknown. We studied human bone marrow cell adhesion to laminin-10/11 (alpha5beta1gamma1/alpha5beta2gamma1), laminin-8 (alpha4beta1gamma1), laminin-1 (alpha1beta1gamma1), and fibronectin. About 35% to 40% of CD34(+) and CD34(+)CD38(-) stem and progenitor cells adhered to laminin-10/11, and 45% to 50% adhered to fibronectin, whereas they adhered less to laminin-8 and laminin-1. Adhesion of CD34(+)CD38(-) cells to laminin-10/11 was maximal without integrin activation, whereas adhesion to other proteins was dependent on protein kinase C activation by 12-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting (FACS) analysis showed expression of integrin alpha6 chain on most CD34(+) and CD34(+)CD38(-) cells. Integrin alpha6 and beta1 chains were involved in binding of both cell fractions to laminin-10/11 and laminin-8. Laminin-10/11 was highly adhesive to lineage-committed myelomonocytic and erythroid progenitor cells and most lymphoid and myeloid cell lines studied, whereas laminin-8 was less adhesive. In functional assays, both laminin-8 and laminin-10/11 facilitated stromal-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha)-stimulated transmigration of CD34(+) cells, by an integrin alpha6 receptor-mediated mechanism. In conclusion, we demonstrate laminin isoform-specific adhesive interactions with human bone marrow stem, progenitor, and more differentiated cells. The cell-adhesive laminins affected migration of hematopoietic progenitors, suggesting a physiologic role for laminins during hematopoiesis. PMID:12393739

  11. A deterministic map of Waddington's epigenetic landscape for cell fate specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Melvin E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The image of the "epigenetic landscape", with a series of branching valleys and ridges depicting stable cellular states and the barriers between those states, has been a popular visual metaphor for cell lineage specification - especially in light of the recent discovery that terminally differentiated adult cells can be reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells or into alternative cell lineages. However the question of whether the epigenetic landscape can be mapped out quantitatively to provide a predictive model of cellular differentiation remains largely unanswered. Results Here we derive a simple deterministic path-integral quasi-potential, based on the kinetic parameters of a gene network regulating cell fate, and show that this quantity is minimized along a temporal trajectory in the state space of the gene network, thus providing a marker of directionality for cell differentiation processes. We then use the derived quasi-potential as a measure of "elevation" to quantitatively map the epigenetic landscape, on which trajectories flow "downhill" from any location. Stochastic simulations confirm that the elevation of this computed landscape correlates to the likelihood of occurrence of particular cell fates, with well-populated low-lying "valleys" representing stable cellular states and higher "ridges" acting as barriers to transitions between the stable states. Conclusions This quantitative map of the epigenetic landscape underlying cell fate choice provides mechanistic insights into the "forces" that direct cellular differentiation in the context of physiological development, as well as during artificially induced cell lineage reprogramming. Our generalized approach to mapping the landscape is applicable to non-gradient gene regulatory systems for which an analytical potential function cannot be derived, and also to high-dimensional gene networks. Rigorous quantification of the gene regulatory circuits that govern cell

  12. Specific binding of phorbol esters to Friend erythroleukemia cells--general properties, down regulation and relationship to cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific and saturable binding sites for [20-3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate ([3H]PDBu) were demonstrated in tact Friend erythroleukemia cells (FELC), in which inducible erythroid differentiation is reversibly inhibited by phorbol esters. The binding of [3H]PDBu to intact cells was maximal within only 15 min of incubation at 37 degrees C, after which there was a gradual decrease; binding at 4 degrees C however, was alow process, requiring greater than 180 min for maximal binding. A Scatchard analysis showed that the dissociation constant for binding of [3H]PDBu is 8.3 nM; at saturation, approximately 1.75 x 10(5) molecules of [3H]PDBu are bound per cell. When FELC were induced to differentiate with 4mM hexameethylene bisacetamide (approximately 80% of cells were benzidine-positive), a slight decrease (10-20%) in the number of binding sites at saturation was seen, but the dissociation constant was not changed. When the cells were precultured with non-radioactive phorbol esters, a significant decrease in [3H]PDBu binding was observed, suggesting a homologous down regulation of phorbol ester receptors. Scatchard analysis indicated that the decrease in [3H]PDBu binding was due to a decrease in the number of binding sites and not to a change in affinity. Such specific phorbol ester binding sites might mediate a number of biochemical and biological effects of phorbol esters on FELC

  13. Dengue virus-specific, human CD4+ CD8- cytotoxic T-cell clones: multiple patterns of virus cross-reactivity recognized by NS3-specific T-cell clones.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurane, I; Brinton, M A; Samson, A L; Ennis, F A

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen dengue virus-specific, cytotoxic CD4+ CD8- T-cell clones were established from a donor who was infected with dengue virus type 3. These clones were examined for virus specificity and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) restriction in cytotoxic assays. Six patterns of virus specificities were determined. Two serotype-specific clones recognized only dengue virus type 3. Two dengue virus subcomplex-specific clones recognized dengue virus types 2, 3, and 4, and one subcomplex-specific clone re...

  14. Tuberculosis-specific CD8 cells in HLA A*02-positive TB- and LTBI patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløe, Andreas; Brix, Liselotte; Wejse, Christian;

    Background: Understanding the CD8+ response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) may be a key to improved TB diagnostics and vaccine development. Aims and Objectives: To detect a CD8+ T-cell response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in active tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB (LTBI), in...... candidates, from which we constructed MHC multimers (Dextramers). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 7 TB-patients, 16 LTBI patients and 8 MTB-exposed, IGRA-negative, healthy subjects (HE), all HLA A*02 positive, were stained with the Dextramers and with anti-CD8 and anti-CD3, and analyzed on a...... flow cytometer. The MTB epitopes were analyzed in 5 pools (3-7 epitopes each). Positive responses included >0.001 % of CD8+, CD3+ cells, supported by inspection of flow cytometry plots. Results: MTB-specific CD8+ T-cells were detected more often in TB patients (57%) than in LTBI patients (41%) and in...

  15. B7-H3 is a new cancer-specific endothelial marker in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Qin XJ; Zhang HL; Ye DW; Dai B; Zhu Y; Shi GH

    2013-01-01

    Xiaojian Qin,1,2 Hailiang Zhang,1,2 Dingwei Ye,1,2 Bo Dai,1,2 Yao Zhu,1,2 Guohai Shi1,2 1Department of Urology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai, People's Republic of China Background: The purpose of this study was to validate B7-H3 as a new cancer-specific endothelial marker in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Methods: B7-H3 expression patterns were compared betw...

  16. Production of antigen-specific suppressive T cell factor by radiation leukemia virus-transformed suppressor T cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Ricciardi-Castagnoli, P; Doria, G; Adorini, L

    1981-01-01

    Hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL)-specific suppressor T cells induced in C57BL/6 mice have been selected by sequential passage over plates coated with goat anti-mouse Ig and HEL. These suppressor T cells, 80% I-J+, were infected in vitro with radiation leukemia virus (RadLV/Nu1) and injected intravenously into sublethally irradiated syngeneic recipients. After 4-6 months, 6 out of 20 injected mice developed thymic lymphomas, which were maintained by transplantation into histocompatible hosts and s...

  17. Specific T-cell epitopes for immunoassay-based diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, I; Weldingh, K; Leyten, EM; Arend, SM; Ravn, Pernille; Andersen, P

    2004-01-01

    Specific T-cell epitopes for immunoassay-based diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.Brock I, Weldingh K, Leyten EM, Arend SM, Ravn P, Andersen P. Department of Infectious Disease Immunology, Statens Serum Institute, Artillerivej 5, DK-2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. The currently used...... method for immunological detection of tuberculosis infection, the tuberculin skin test, has low specificity. Antigens specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to replace purified protein derivative are therefore urgently needed. We have performed a rigorous assessment of the diagnostic potential of four...... recently identified antigens (Rv2653, Rv2654, Rv3873, and Rv3878) from genomic regions that are lacking from the Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine strains as well as from the most common nontuberculous mycobacteria. The fine specificity of potential epitopes in these molecules was...

  18. Surface engineered magnetic nanoparticles for specific immunotargeting of cadherin expressing cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moros, Maria; Delhaes, Flavien; Puertas, Sara; Saez, Berta; de la Fuente, Jesús M.; Grazú, Valeria; Feracci, Helene

    2016-02-01

    In spite of historic advances in cancer biology and recent development of sophisticated chemotherapeutics, the outlook for patients with advanced cancer is still grim. In this sense nanoparticles (NPs), through their unique physical properties, enable the development of new approaches for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Thus far the most used active targeting scheme involves NPs functionalization with antibodies specific to molecules overexpressed on cancer cell’s surface. Therefore, such active targeting relies on differences in NPs uptake kinetics rates between tumor and healthy cells. Many cancers of epithelial origin are associated with the inappropriate expression of non-epithelial cadherins (e.g. N-, P-, -11) with concomitant loss of E-cadherin. Such phenomenon named cadherin switching favors tumor development and metastasis via interactions of tumor cells with stromal components. That is why we optimized the oriented functionalization of fluorescently labelled magnetic NPs with a novel antibody specific for the extracellular domain of cadherin-11. The obtained Ab-NPs exhibited high specificity when incubated with two cell lines used as models of tumor and healthy cells. Thus, cadherin switching offers a great opportunity for the development of active targeting strategies aimed to improve the early detection and treatment of cancer.

  19. Alarmin IL-33 elicits potent TB-specific cell-mediated responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Daniel O; Siefert, Rebekah J; Weiner, David B

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) still remains a major public health issue despite the current available vaccine for TB, Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG). An effective vaccine against TB remains a top priority in the fight against this pandemic bacterial infection. Adequate protection against TB is associated with the development of TH1-type and CD8(+) T cell responses. One alarmin cytokine, interleukin 33 (IL-33), has now been implicated in the development of both CD4(+) TH1 and CD8(+) T cell immunity. In this study, we determined whether the administration of IL-33 as an adjuvant, encoded in a DNA plasmid, could enhance the immunogenicity of a TB DNA vaccine. We report that the co-immunization of IL-33 with a DNA vaccine expressing the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (Mtb) antigen 85B (Ag85B) induced robust Ag85B-specific IFNγ responses by ELISpot compared to Ag85B alone. Furthermore, these enhanced responses were characterized by higher frequencies of Ag85B-specific, multifunctional CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Vaccination with IL-33 also increased the ability of the Ag85B-specific CD8(+) T cells to undergo degranulation and to secrete IFNγ and TNFα cytokines. These finding highlights IL-33 as a promising adjuvant to significantly improve the immunogenicity of TB DNA vaccines and support further study of this effective vaccine strategy against TB. PMID:26091147

  20. GFAP promoter directs lacZ expression specifically in a rat hepatic stellate cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gunter Maubach; Michelle Chin Chia Lim; Chun-Yan Zhang; Lang Zhuo

    2006-01-01

    AIM: The GFAP was traditionally considered to be a biomarker for neural glia (mainly astrocytes and nonmyelinating Schwann cells). Genetically, a 2.2-kb human GFAP promoter has been successfully used to target astrocytes in vitro and in vivo. More recently, GFAP was also established as one of the several makers for identifying hepatic stellate cells (HSC). In this project,possible application of the same 2.2-kb human GFAP promoter for targeting HSC was investigated.METHODS: The GFAP-lacZ transgene was transfected into various cell lines (HSC, hepatocyte, and other nonHSC cell types). The transgene expression specificity was determined by X-gal staining of the β-galactosidase activity. And the responsiveness of the transgene was tested with a typical pro-fibrotic cytokine TGF-β1. The expression of endogenous GFAP gene was assessed by real-time RT-PCR, providing a reference for the transgene expression.RESULTS: The results demonstrated for the first time that the 2.2 kb hGFAP promoter was not only capable of directing HSC-specific expression, but also responding to a known pro-fibrogenic cytokine TGF-β1 by upregulation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, similar to the endogenous GFAP.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, these findings suggested novel utilities for using the GFAP promoter to specifically manipulate HSC for therapeutic purpose.

  1. The "ABC" of Virus-Specific T Cell Immunity in Solid Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sester, M; Leboeuf, C; Schmidt, T; Hirsch, H H

    2016-06-01

    Transplant patients are at increased risk of viral complications due to impaired control of viral replication, resulting from HLA mismatching between graft and host and the immunosuppression needed to avert alloimmune reactions. In the past decade, quantitative viral load measurements have become widely available to identify patients at risk and to inform treatment decisions with respect to immunosuppressive drugs and antiviral therapies. Because viral loads are viewed as the result of viral replication and virus-specific immune control, virus-specific T cell monitoring has been explored to optimize management of adenovirus, BK polyomavirus and cytomegalovirus ("ABC") in transplant patients. Although most studies are descriptive using different technologies, the overall results show that the quantity and quality of virus-specific T cells inversely correlate with viral replication, whereby strong cellular immune responses are associated with containment of viral replication. The key obstacles to the introduction of assays for virus-specific T cells into clinical practice is the definition of reliable cutoffs for clinical decision making, the poor negative predictive value of some assays, and the absence of interventional trials justifying changes of antiviral treatment or immunosuppression. More clinical research is needed using optimized assays and targets before standardization and commutability can be envisaged as achieved for viral load testing. PMID:26699950

  2. Canonical Wnt signaling promotes early hematopoietic progenitor formation and erythroid specification during embryonic stem cell differentiation.

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    Anuradha Tarafdar

    Full Text Available The generation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs during development is a complex process linked to morphogenic signals. Understanding this process is important for regenerative medicine applications that require in vitro production of HSC. In this study we investigated the effects of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling during early embryonic differentiation and hematopoietic specification using an embryonic stem cell system. Our data clearly demonstrates that following early differentiation induction, canonical Wnt signaling induces a strong mesodermal program whilst maintaining a degree of stemness potential. This involved a complex interplay between β-catenin/TCF/LEF/Brachyury/Nanog. β-catenin mediated up-regulation of TCF/LEF resulted in enhanced brachyury levels, which in-turn lead to Nanog up-regulation. During differentiation, active canonical Wnt signaling also up-regulated key transcription factors and cell specific markers essential for hematopoietic specification, in particular genes involved in establishing primitive erythropoiesis. This led to a significant increase in primitive erythroid colony formation. β-catenin signaling also augmented early hematopoietic and multipotent progenitor (MPP formation. Following culture in a MPP specific cytokine cocktail, activation of β-catenin suppressed differentiation of the early hematopoietic progenitor population, with cells displaying a higher replating capacity and a propensity to form megakaryocytic erythroid progenitors. This bias towards erythroid lineage commitment was also observed when hematopoietic progenitors were directed to undergo myeloid colony formation. Overall this study underscores the importance of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mesodermal specification, primitive erythropoiesis and early hematopietic progenitor formation during hematopoietic induction.

  3. Decline of influenza-specific CD8+ T cell repertoire in healthy geriatric donors

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    Ramachandra Lakshmi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While influenza vaccination results in protective antibodies against primary infections, clearance of infection is primarily mediated through CD8+ T cells. Studying the CD8+ T cell response to influenza epitopes is crucial in understanding the disease associated morbidity and mortality especially in at risk populations such as the elderly. We compared the CD8+ T cell response to immunodominant and subdominant influenza epitopes in HLA-A2+ control, adult donors, aged 21-42, and in geriatric donors, aged 65 and older. Results We used a novel artificial Antigen Presenting Cell (aAPC based stimulation assay to reveal responses that could not be detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot. 14 younger control donors and 12 geriatric donors were enrolled in this study. The mean number of influenza-specific subdominant epitopes per control donor detected by ELISpot was only 1.4 while the mean detected by aAPC assay was 3.3 (p = 0.0096. Using the aAPC assay, 92% of the control donors responded to at least one subdominant epitopes, while 71% of control donors responded to more than one subdominant influenza-specific response. 66% of geriatric donors lacked a subdominant influenza-specific response and 33% of geriatric donors responded to only 1 subdominant epitope. The difference in subdominant response between age groups is statistically significant (p = 0.0003. Conclusion Geriatric donors lacked the broad, multi-specific response to subdominant epitopes seen in the control donors. Thus, we conclude that aging leads to a decrease in the subdominant influenza-specific CTL responses which may contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality in older individuals.

  4. Th2 cell-specific cytokine expression and allergen-induced airway inflammation depend on JunB

    OpenAIRE

    Hartenstein, Bettina; Teurich, Sibylle; Hess, Jochen; Schenkel, Johannes; Schorpp-Kistner, Marina; Angel, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Naïve CD4+ T cells differentiate into effector T helper 1 (Th1) or Th2 cells, which are classified by their specific set of cytokines. Here we demonstrate that loss of JunB in in vitro polarized Th2 cells led to a dysregulated expression of the Th2-specific cytokines IL-4 and IL-5. These cells produce IFN-γ and express T-bet, the key regulator of Th1 cells. In line with the essential role of Th2 cells in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma, mice with JunB-deficient CD4+ T cells exhibited an i...

  5. Molecular Anatomy and Number of Antigen Specific CD8 T Cells Required to Cause Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Oldstone, Michael B.A.; Edelmann, Kurt H; McGavern, Dorian B.; Cruite, Justin T.; Welch, Megan J.

    2012-01-01

    We quantified CD8 T cells needed to cause type 1 diabetes and studied the anatomy of the CD8 T cell/beta (β) cell interaction at the immunologic synapse. We used a transgenic model, in situ tetramer staining to distinguish antigen specific CD8 T cells from total T cells infiltrating islets and a variety of viral mutants selected for functional deletion(s) of various CD8 T cell epitopes. Twenty percent of CD8 T cells in the spleen were specific for all immunodominant and subdominant viral glyc...

  6. Monitoring Antigen-Specific T Cell Responses Using Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Devin B.; Taylor, Jennifer L.; Storkus, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry-, ELISA-, and ELISpot-based in vitro assays have played important roles in assessing the frequencies and functional competence of antigen-specific T cells in the setting of infectious disease and cancer. Such methods have helped in the development of antigen-specific vaccines for human disease prevention/treatment and have also served as a foundation for the monitoring of patients’ immune responsiveness based on antigen-induced T cell expression of effector molecules (such as cytokines, chemokines, or proteins associated with cytolysis) as a consequence of therapeutic intervention. The following method outlines a protocol employing quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) with SYBR® green technology to examine antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses based on their rapid up-regulation of IFN-γ mRNA transcription following in vitro stimulation with peptide (antigen)-loaded, autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The advantages of the current qRT-PCR approach over protein-based detection methods include the sensitivity to distinguish resident CD8+ T cell responses against multiple antigens without the need to artificially pre-expand T cell numbers ex vivo, as is commonly required for the latter in vitro assay systems. Following qRT-PCR setup and run, the level of human IFN-γ transcript is normalized to CD8 transcript expression level, with data reported as the relative fold change in this index versus a patient-matched PBMC sample stimulated with a negative control peptide (e.g., HIV NEF). PMID:25149303

  7. Identification of fluorescent compounds with non-specific binding property via high throughput live cell microscopy.

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    Sangeeta Nath

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Compounds exhibiting low non-specific intracellular binding or non-stickiness are concomitant with rapid clearing and in high demand for live-cell imaging assays because they allow for intracellular receptor localization with a high signal/noise ratio. The non-stickiness property is particularly important for imaging intracellular receptors due to the equilibria involved. METHOD: Three mammalian cell lines with diverse genetic backgrounds were used to screen a combinatorial fluorescence library via high throughput live cell microscopy for potential ligands with high in- and out-flux properties. The binding properties of ligands identified from the first screen were subsequently validated on plant root hair. A correlative analysis was then performed between each ligand and its corresponding physiochemical and structural properties. RESULTS: The non-stickiness property of each ligand was quantified as a function of the temporal uptake and retention on a cell-by-cell basis. Our data shows that (i mammalian systems can serve as a pre-screening tool for complex plant species that are not amenable to high-throughput imaging; (ii retention and spatial localization of chemical compounds vary within and between each cell line; and (iii the structural similarities of compounds can infer their non-specific binding properties. CONCLUSION: We have validated a protocol for identifying chemical compounds with non-specific binding properties that is testable across diverse species. Further analysis reveals an overlap between the non-stickiness property and the structural similarity of compounds. The net result is a more robust screening assay for identifying desirable ligands that can be used to monitor intracellular localization. Several new applications of the screening protocol and results are also presented.

  8. Transcription factor co-localization patterns affect human cell type-specific gene expression

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    Wang Dennis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular development requires the precise control of gene expression states. Transcription factors are involved in this regulatory process through their combinatorial binding with DNA. Information about transcription factor binding sites can help determine which combinations of factors work together to regulate a gene, but it is unclear how far the binding data from one cell type can inform about regulation in other cell types. Results By integrating data on co-localized transcription factor binding sites in the K562 cell line with expression data across 38 distinct hematopoietic cell types, we developed regression models to describe the relationship between the expression of target genes and the transcription factors that co-localize nearby. With K562 binding sites identifying the predictors, the proportion of expression explained by the models is statistically significant only for monocytic cells (p-valueFOS, TAF1 and YY1 to a sparsely studied gene LRIG2. We also find that the activity of a transcription factor may be different depending on the cell type and the identity of other co-localized factors. Conclusion Our approach shows that gene expression can be explained by a modest number of co-localized transcription factors, however, information on cell-type specific binding is crucial for understanding combinatorial gene regulation.

  9. A novel human astrocyte cell line (A735) with astrocyte-specific neurotransmitter function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T N; Burke, J F; Mayne, L V

    1999-05-01

    Studies of brain cell function and physiology are hampered by the limited availability of immortal human brain-derived cell lines, as a result of the technical difficulties encountered in establishing immortal human cells in culture. In this study, we demonstrate the application of recombinant DNA vectors expressing SV40 T antigen for the development of immortal human cell cultures, with morphological, growth, and functional properties of astrocytes. Primary human astrocytes were transfected with the SV40 T antigen expression vectors, pSV3neo or p735.6, and cultures were established with an extended lifespan. One of these cultures gave rise to an immortal cell line, designated A735. All the human SV40-derived lines retained morphological features and growth properties of type 1 astrocytes. Immunohistochemical studies and Western blot analysis of the intermediate filament proteins and glutamine synthetase demonstrated a differentiated but immature astrocyte phenotype. Transport of gamma-amino butyric acid and glutamate were examined and found to be by a glial-specific mechanism, consistent with the cell lines' retaining aspects of normal glial function. We conclude that methods based on the use of SV40 T antigen can successfully immortalize human astrocytes, retaining key astrocyte functions, but T antigen-induced proliferation appeared to interfere with expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein. We believe A735 is the first documented nontumor-derived human glial cell line which is immortal. PMID:10475274

  10. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to regional specific neural precursors in chemically defined medium conditions.

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    Slaven Erceg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells (hESC provide a unique model to study early events in human development. The hESC-derived cells can potentially be used to replace or restore different tissues including neuronal that have been damaged by disease or injury. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cells of two different hESC lines were converted to neural rosettes using adherent and chemically defined conditions. The progenitor cells were exposed to retinoic acid (RA or to human recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF in the late phase of the rosette formation. Exposing the progenitor cells to RA suppressed differentiation to rostral forebrain dopamine neural lineage and promoted that of spinal neural tissue including motor neurons. The functional characteristics of these differentiated neuronal precursors under both, rostral (bFGF and caudalizing (RA signals were confirmed by patch clamp analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that our differentiation protocol has the capacity to generate region-specific and electrophysiologically active neurons under in vitro conditions without embryoid body formation, co-culture with stromal cells and without presence of cells of mesodermal or endodermal lineages.

  11. DCD – a novel plant specific domain in proteins involved in development and programmed cell death

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    Doerks Tobias

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition of microbial pathogens by plants triggers the hypersensitive reaction, a common form of programmed cell death in plants. These dying cells generate signals that activate the plant immune system and alarm the neighboring cells as well as the whole plant to activate defense responses to limit the spread of the pathogen. The molecular mechanisms behind the hypersensitive reaction are largely unknown except for the recognition process of pathogens. We delineate the NRP-gene in soybean, which is specifically induced during this programmed cell death and contains a novel protein domain, which is commonly found in different plant proteins. Results The sequence analysis of the protein, encoded by the NRP-gene from soybean, led to the identification of a novel domain, which we named DCD, because it is found in plant proteins involved in development and cell death. The domain is shared by several proteins in the Arabidopsis and the rice genomes, which otherwise show a different protein architecture. Biological studies indicate a role of these proteins in phytohormone response, embryo development and programmed cell by pathogens or ozone. Conclusion It is tempting to speculate, that the DCD domain mediates signaling in plant development and programmed cell death and could thus be used to identify interacting proteins to gain further molecular insights into these processes.

  12. General and cell-type specific mechanisms target TRPP2/PKD-2 to cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young-Kyung; Qin, Hongmin; Knobel, Karla M; Hu, Jinghua; Rosenbaum, Joel L; Barr, Maureen M

    2006-10-01

    Ciliary localization of the transient receptor potential polycystin 2 channel (TRPP2/PKD-2) is evolutionarily conserved, but how TRPP2 is targeted to cilia is not known. In this study, we characterize the motility and localization of PKD-2, a TRPP2 homolog, in C. elegans sensory neurons. We demonstrate that GFP-tagged PKD-2 moves bidirectionally in the dendritic compartment. Furthermore, we show a requirement for different molecules in regulating the ciliary localization of PKD-2. PKD-2 is directed to moving dendritic particles by the UNC-101/adaptor protein 1 (AP-1) complex. When expressed in non-native neurons, PKD-2 remains in cell bodies and is not observed in dendrites or cilia, indicating that cell-type specific factors are required for directing PKD-2 to the dendrite. PKD-2 stabilization in cilia and cell bodies requires LOV-1, a functional partner and a TRPP1 homolog. In lov-1 mutants, PKD-2 is greatly reduced in cilia and forms abnormal aggregates in neuronal cell bodies. Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is not essential for PKD-2 dendritic motility or access to the cilium, but may regulate PKD-2 ciliary abundance. We propose that both general and cell-type-specific factors govern TRPP2/PKD-2 subcellular distribution by forming at least two steps involving somatodendritic and ciliary sorting decisions. PMID:16943275

  13. Removal of damaged proteins during ES cell fate specification requires the proteasome activator PA28

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernebring, Malin; Fredriksson, Asa; Liljevald, Maria; Cvijovic, Marija; Norrman, Karin; Wiseman, John; Semb, Tor Henrik; Nyström, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In embryonic stem cells, removal of oxidatively damaged proteins is triggered upon the first signs of cell fate specification but the underlying mechanism is not known. Here, we report that this phase of differentiation encompasses an unexpected induction of genes encoding the proteasome activato...... that PA28aß has a hitherto unidentified role required for resetting the levels of protein damage at the transition from self-renewal to cell differentiation.......In embryonic stem cells, removal of oxidatively damaged proteins is triggered upon the first signs of cell fate specification but the underlying mechanism is not known. Here, we report that this phase of differentiation encompasses an unexpected induction of genes encoding the proteasome activator...... PA28aß (11S), subunits of the immunoproteasome (20Si), and the 20Si regulator TNFa. This induction is accompanied by assembly of mature PA28-20S(i) proteasomes and elevated proteasome activity. Inhibiting accumulation of PA28a using miRNA counteracted the removal of damaged proteins demonstrating...

  14. Drosophila homologs of transcriptional mediator complex subunits are required for adult cell and segment identity specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boube, Muriel; Faucher, Christian; Joulia, Laurent; Cribbs, David L.; Bourbon, Henri-Marc

    2000-01-01

    The origins of specificity in gene expression are a central concern in understanding developmental control. Mediator protein complexes regulate transcriptional initiation, acting as modular adaptors linking specific transcription factors to core RNA polymerase II. Here, we identified the Drosophila homologs of 23 human mediator genes and mutations of two, dTRAP240 and of dTRAP80 (the putative fly homolog of yeast SRB4). Clonal analysis indicates a general role for dTRAP80 necessary for cell viability. The dTRAP240 gene is also essential, but cells lacking its function are viable and proliferate normally. Clones reveal localized developmental activities including a sex comb cell identity function. This contrasts with the ubiquitous nuclear accumulation of dTRAP240 protein in imaginal discs. Synergistic genetic interactions support shared developmental cell and segment identity functions of dTRAP240 and dTRAP80, potentially within a common complex. Further, they identify the homeotic Sex combs reduced product, required for the same cell/tissue identities, as a functional partner of these mediator proteins. PMID:11090137

  15. The Identification of Senescence-Specific Genes during the Induction of Senescence in Prostate Cancer Cells

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    Steven R. Schwarze

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Classic mechanisms of tumor response to chemotherapy include apoptosis, mitotic catastrophe. Recent studies have suggested that cellular senescence, a terminal proliferation arrest seen in vitro, may be invoked during the exposure of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. To identify markers associated specifically with the cellular senescence phenotype, we utilized expression data from cDNA microarray experiments identifying transcripts whose expression levels increased as human prostate epithelial cells progressed to senescence. When screened against other growth-inhibitory conditions, including quiescence, apoptosis, many of these transcripts were also upregulated, indicating that similar pathways occur between apoptosis, senescence. A senescent-like phenotype was then induced in several prostate cancer cell lines using 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, doxorubicin, or Docetaxel. Treatment with these agents resulted in a significant increase in the induction of senescence-specific genes when compared to nonsenescent conditions. The performance of the panel was improved with fluorescence-activated cell sorting using PKH26 to isolate nonproliferating, viable, drug-treated populations, indicating that a heterogeneous response occurs with chemotherapy. We have defined an RNA-based gene panel that characterizes the senescent phenotype induced in cancer cells by drug treatment. These data also indicate that a panel of genes, rather than one marker, needs to be utilized to identify senescence.

  16. Embryonic Stem Cell (ES)-Specific Enhancers Specify the Expression Potential of ES Genes in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aran, Dvir; Abu-Remaileh, Monther; Levy, Revital; Meron, Nurit; Toperoff, Gidon; Edrei, Yifat; Bergman, Yehudit; Hellman, Asaf

    2016-02-01

    Cancers often display gene expression profiles resembling those of undifferentiated cells. The mechanisms controlling these expression programs have yet to be identified. Exploring transcriptional enhancers throughout hematopoietic cell development and derived cancers, we uncovered a novel class of regulatory epigenetic mutations. These epimutations are particularly enriched in a group of enhancers, designated ES-specific enhancers (ESSEs) of the hematopoietic cell lineage. We found that hematopoietic ESSEs are prone to DNA methylation changes, indicative of their chromatin activity states. Strikingly, ESSE methylation is associated with gene transcriptional activity in cancer. Methylated ESSEs are hypermethylated in cancer relative to normal somatic cells and co-localized with silenced genes, whereas unmethylated ESSEs tend to be hypomethylated in cancer and associated with reactivated genes. Constitutive or hematopoietic stem cell-specific enhancers do not show these trends, suggesting selective reactivation of ESSEs in cancer. Further analyses of a hypomethylated ESSE downstream to the VEGFA gene revealed a novel regulatory circuit affecting VEGFA transcript levels across cancers and patients. We suggest that the discovered enhancer sites provide a framework for reactivation of ES genes in cancer. PMID:26886256

  17. Targeting the hemangioblast with a novel cell type-specific enhancer

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    Teixeira Vera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemangioblasts are known as the common precursors for primitive hematopoietic and endothelial lineages. Their existence has been supported mainly by the observation that both cell types develop in close proximity and by in vitro differentiation and genetic studies. However, more compelling evidence will arise from tracking their cell fates using a lineage-specific marker. Results We report the identification of a hemangioblast-specific enhancer (Hb located in the cis-regulatory region of chick Cerberus gene (cCer that is able to direct the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP to the precursors of yolk sac blood and endothelial cells in electroporated chick embryos. Moreover, we present the Hb-eGFP reporter as a powerful live imaging tool for visualizing hemangioblast cell fate and blood island morphogenesis. Conclusions We hereby introduce the Hb enhancer as a valuable resource for genetically targeting the hemangioblast population as well as for studying the dynamics of vascular and blood cell development.

  18. Chromatin remodeling by cell cycle stage-specific extracts from Physarum polycephalum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiriet, C; Hayes, J J

    1999-03-01

    Remodeling of chromatin is an essential process allowing the establishment of specific genetic programs. The slime mold Physarum polycephalum presents the attractive advantage of natural synchrony of the cell cycle in several million nuclei. Whole-cell extracts prepared at precise stages during the cell cycle were tested for the ability to induce remodeling in erythrocyte nuclei as monitored by microscopy, protamine competition assays, micrococcal nuclease digestions, and release of histone H5. Extracts derived from two specific cell cycle stages caused opposite types of changes in erythrocyte nuclei. An increase in chromatin compaction was imparted by extracts prepared during S-phase while extracts harvested at the end of G2-phase caused increases in nuclear volume, DNA accessibility, and release of linker histone. We also found that late G2 extracts had the ability to alter the DNase I digestion profile of mononucleosomes reconstituted in vitro in a classical nucleosomes remodeling assay. The relevance of these finding to the Physarum cell cycle is discussed. PMID:10219572

  19. Selection of apoptotic cell specific human antibodies from adult bone marrow.

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    Caroline Grönwall

    Full Text Available Autoreactive antibodies that recognize neo-determinants on apoptotic cells in mice have been proposed to have protective, homeostatic and immunoregulatory properties, although our knowledge about the equivalent antibodies in humans has been much more limited. In the current study, human monoclonal antibodies with binding specificity for apoptotic cells were isolated from the bone marrow of healthy adults using phage display technology. These antibodies were shown to recognize phosphorylcholine (PC-associated neo-determinants. Interestingly, three of the four identified apoptotic cell-specific antibody clones were encoded by VH3 region rearrangements with germline or nearly germline configuration without evidence of somatic hypermutation. Importantly, the different identified antibody clones had diverse heavy chain CDR3 and deduced binding surfaces as suggested by structure modeling. This may suggest a potentially great heterogeneity in human antibodies recognizing PC-related epitopes on apoptotic cells. To re-construct the postulated structural format of the parental anti-PC antibody, the dominant clone was also expressed as a recombinant human polymeric IgM, which revealed a substantially increased binding reactivity, with dose-dependent and antigen-inhibitable binding of apoptotic cells. Our findings may have implication for improved prognostic testing and therapeutic interventions in human inflammatory disease.

  20. Protein conservation and variation suggest mechanisms of cell type-specific modulation of signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H Schaefer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins and signaling pathways are present in most cell types and tissues and yet perform specialized functions. To elucidate mechanisms by which these ubiquitous pathways are modulated, we overlaid information about cross-cell line protein abundance and variability, and evolutionary conservation onto functional pathway components and topological layers in the pathway hierarchy. We found that the input (receptors and the output (transcription factors layers evolve more rapidly than proteins in the intermediary transmission layer. In contrast, protein expression variability decreases from the input to the output layer. We observed that the differences in protein variability between the input and transmission layer can be attributed to both the network position and the tendency of variable proteins to physically interact with constitutively expressed proteins. Differences in protein expression variability and conservation are also accompanied by the tendency of conserved and constitutively expressed proteins to acquire somatic mutations, while germline mutations tend to occur in cell type-specific proteins. Thus, conserved core proteins in the transmission layer could perform a fundamental role in most cell types and are therefore less tolerant to germline mutations. In summary, we propose that the core signal transmission machinery is largely modulated by a variable input layer through physical protein interactions. We hypothesize that the bow-tie organization of cellular signaling on the level of protein abundance variability contributes to the specificity of the signal response in different cell types.

  1. Modulation of mouse Leydig cell steroidogenesis through a specific arginine-vasopressin receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahri-Joutei, A.; Pointis, G.

    1988-01-01

    Characterization of specific vasopressin binding sites was investigated in purified mouse Leydig cells using tritiated arginine-vasopressin. Binding of radioligand was saturable, time- and temperature-dependent and reversible. (/sup 3/H)-AVP was found to bind to a single class of sites with high affinity and low capacity. Binding displacements with specific selection analogs of AVP indicated the presence of V/sub 1/ subtype receptors on Leydig cells. The ability of AVP to displace (/sup 3/H)-AVP binding was greater than LVP and oxytocin. The unrelated peptides, somatostatin and substance P, were less potent, while neurotensin and LHRH did not displace (/sup 3/H)-AVP binding. The time-course effects of AVP-pretreatment on basal and hCG-stimulated testosterone and cAMP accumulations were studied in primary culture of Leydig cells. Basal testosterone accumulation was significantly increased by a 24 h AVP-pretreatment of Leydig cells. This effect was potentiated by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor (MIX) and was concomitantly accompanied by a slight but significant increase in cAMP accumulation. AVP-pretreatment of the cells for 72 h had no effect on basal testosterone accumulation, but exerted a marked inhibitory effect on the hCG-stimulated testosterone accumulation. This reduction of testosterone accumulation occurred even in the presence of MIX and was not accompanied by any significant change of cAMP levels.

  2. Protein conservation and variation suggest mechanisms of cell type-specific modulation of signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Martin H; Yang, Jae-Seong; Serrano, Luis; Kiel, Christina

    2014-06-01

    Many proteins and signaling pathways are present in most cell types and tissues and yet perform specialized functions. To elucidate mechanisms by which these ubiquitous pathways are modulated, we overlaid information about cross-cell line protein abundance and variability, and evolutionary conservation onto functional pathway components and topological layers in the pathway hierarchy. We found that the input (receptors) and the output (transcription factors) layers evolve more rapidly than proteins in the intermediary transmission layer. In contrast, protein expression variability decreases from the input to the output layer. We observed that the differences in protein variability between the input and transmission layer can be attributed to both the network position and the tendency of variable proteins to physically interact with constitutively expressed proteins. Differences in protein expression variability and conservation are also accompanied by the tendency of conserved and constitutively expressed proteins to acquire somatic mutations, while germline mutations tend to occur in cell type-specific proteins. Thus, conserved core proteins in the transmission layer could perform a fundamental role in most cell types and are therefore less tolerant to germline mutations. In summary, we propose that the core signal transmission machinery is largely modulated by a variable input layer through physical protein interactions. We hypothesize that the bow-tie organization of cellular signaling on the level of protein abundance variability contributes to the specificity of the signal response in different cell types. PMID:24922536

  3. Tissue-specific promoters active in CD44+CD24-/low breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerschmitz, Gerd J; Ranki, Tuuli; Kangasniemi, Lotta; Ribacka, Camilla; Eriksson, Minna; Porten, Marius; Herrmann, Isabell; Ristimäki, Ari; Virkkunen, Pekka; Tarkkanen, Maija; Hakkarainen, Tanja; Kanerva, Anna; Rein, Daniel; Pesonen, Sari; Hemminki, Akseli

    2008-07-15

    It has been proposed that human tumors contain stem cells that have a central role in tumor initiation and posttreatment relapse. Putative breast cancer stem cells may reside in the CD44(+)CD24(-/low) population. Oncolytic adenoviruses are attractive for killing of these cells because they enter through infection and are therefore not susceptible to active and passive mechanisms that render stem cells resistant to many drugs. Although adenoviruses have been quite safe in cancer trials, preclinical work suggests that toxicity may eventually be possible with more active agents. Therefore, restriction of virus replication to target tissues with tissues-specific promoters is appealing for improving safety and can be achieved without loss of efficacy. We extracted CD44(+)CD24(-/low) cells from pleural effusions of breast cancer patients and found that modification of adenovirus type 5 tropism with the serotype 3 knob increased gene delivery to CD44(+)CD24(-/low) cells. alpha-Lactalbumin, cyclo-oxygenase 2, telomerase, and multidrug resistance protein promoters were studied for activity in CD44(+)CD24(-/low) cells, and a panel of oncolytic viruses was subsequently constructed. Each virus featured 5/3 chimerism of the fiber and a promoter controlling expression of E1A, which was also deleted in the Rb binding domain for additional tumor selectivity. Cell killing assays identified Ad5/3-cox2L-d24 and Ad5/3-mdr-d24 as the most active agents, and these viruses were able to completely eradicate CD44(+)CD24(-/low) cells in vitro. In vivo, these viruses had significant antitumor activity in CD44(+)CD24(-/low)-derived tumors. These findings may have relevance for elimination of cancer stem cells in humans. PMID:18632604

  4. Gene Expression Programs in Response to Hypoxia: Cell Type Specificity and Prognostic Significance in Human Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inadequate oxygen (hypoxia triggers a multifaceted cellular response that has important roles in normal physiology and in many human diseases. A transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF, plays a central role in the hypoxia response; its activity is regulated by the oxygen-dependent degradation of the HIF-1alpha protein. Despite the ubiquity and importance of hypoxia responses, little is known about the variation in the global transcriptional response to hypoxia among different cell types or how this variation might relate to tissue- and cell-specific diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed the temporal changes in global transcript levels in response to hypoxia in primary renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, breast epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells with DNA microarrays. The extent of the transcriptional response to hypoxia was greatest in the renal tubule cells. This heightened response was associated with a uniquely high level of HIF-1alpha RNA in renal cells, and it could be diminished by reducing HIF-1alpha expression via RNA interference. A gene-expression signature of the hypoxia response, derived from our studies of cultured mammary and renal tubular epithelial cells, showed coordinated variation in several human cancers, and was a strong predictor of clinical outcomes in breast and ovarian cancers. In an analysis of a large, published gene-expression dataset from breast cancers, we found that the prognostic information in the hypoxia signature was virtually independent of that provided by the previously reported wound signature and more predictive of outcomes than any of the clinical parameters in current use. CONCLUSIONS: The transcriptional response to hypoxia varies among human cells. Some of this variation is traceable to variation in expression of the HIF1A gene. A gene-expression signature of the cellular response to hypoxia is associated with a significantly poorer prognosis

  5. Dengue virus specific dual HLA binding T cell epitopes induce CD8+ T cell responses in seropositive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, Joseph D; Karabudak, Aykan; Huang, Xiaofang; Piazza, Paolo A; Marques, Ernesto T A; Philip, Ramila

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus infects an estimated 300 million people each year and even more are at risk of becoming infected as the virus continues to spread into new areas. Despite the increase in viral prevalence, no anti-viral medications or vaccines are approved for treating or preventing infection. CD8+ T cell responses play a major role in viral clearance. Therefore, effective vaccines that induce a broad, multi-functional T cell response with substantial cross-reactivity between all virus serotypes can have major impacts on reducing infection rates and infection related complications. Here, we took an immunoproteomic approach to identify novel MHC class I restricted T cell epitopes presented by dengue virus infected cells, representing the natural and authentic targets of the T cell response. Using this approach we identified 4 novel MHC-I restricted epitopes: 2 with the binding motif for HLA-A24 molecules and 2 with both HLA-A2 and HLA-A24 binding motifs. These peptides were able to activate CD8+ T cell responses in both healthy, seronegative individuals and in seropositive individuals who have previously been infected with dengue virus. Importantly, the dual binding epitopes activated pre-existing T cell precursors in PBMCs obtained from both HLA-A2+ and HLA-A24+ seropositive individuals. Together, the data indicate that these epitopes are immunologically relevant T cell activating peptides presented on infected cells during a natural infection and therefore may serve as candidate antigens for the development of effective multi-serotype specific dengue virus vaccines. PMID:25668665

  6. Cell specific effects of PCB 126 on aryl hydrocarbone receptors in follicular cells of porcine ovaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtowicz, A.; Augustowska, K.; Gregoraszczuk, E. [Lab. of Physiology and Toxicology of Reproduction, Dept. of Animal Physiology, Inst. of Zoology, Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs) like other endocrine disrupters could interfere with natural hormones by binding to their receptors and thus mimicking the cellular response to them. They are known to possess either estrogenic or antiestrogenic properties. In our previous papers we demonstrated that PCBs are able to disrupt ovarian steroidogenesis. We found that the coplanar PCB 126 caused the decrease in estradiol secretion in whole cultured pig ovarian follicles. PCB 126 congener is structurally related to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Since TCDD effects are known to be mediated by aryl hydrocarbone receptors (AhRs), we decided to determine if PCB 126 affects signal transduction pathway activated by these receptors. It has been reported that the functional AhR is present in ovary including oocytes, granulosa and theca cells of rat, mouse, rhesus monkey and human ovary. Moreover, the expression of AhR in the rat ovary appeared to be estrous cycle-dependent, thus suggesting that AhR expression may be regulated by fluctuating hormone levels. This study was designed to investigate the effects of the non-ortho-substituted 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) on the AhR activation, localization and protein level in pig ovarian follicle cells.

  7. Specific Btk inhibition suppresses B cell- and myeloid cell-mediated arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Paolo, Julie A; Huang, Tao; Balazs, Mercedesz; Barbosa, James; Barck, Kai H; Bravo, Brandon J; Carano, Richard A.D.; Darrow, James; Davies, Douglas R; DeForge, Laura E; Diehl, Lauri; Ferrando, Ronald; Gallion, Steven L; Giannetti, Anthony M; Gribling, Peter; Hurez, Vincent; Hymowitz, Sarah G; Jones, Randall; Kropf, Jeffrey E; Lee, Wyne P; Maciejewski, Patricia M; Mitchell, Scott A; Rong, Hong; Staker, Bart L; Whitney, J Andrew; Yeh, Sherry; Young, Wendy B; Yu, Christine; Zhang, Juan; Reif, Karin; Currie, Kevin S [CGI; (Emerald); (Genentech)

    2011-08-29

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which Btk mediates inflammation are poorly understood. Here we describe the discovery of CGI1746, a small-molecule Btk inhibitor chemotype with a new binding mode that stabilizes an inactive nonphosphorylated enzyme conformation. CGI1746 has exquisite selectivity for Btk and inhibits both auto- and transphosphorylation steps necessary for enzyme activation. Using CGI1746, we demonstrate that Btk regulates inflammatory arthritis by two distinct mechanisms. CGI1746 blocks B cell receptor–dependent B cell proliferation and in prophylactic regimens reduces autoantibody levels in collagen-induced arthritis. In macrophages, Btk inhibition abolishes FcγRIII-induced TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 production. Accordingly, in myeloid- and FcγR-dependent autoantibody-induced arthritis, CGI1746 decreases cytokine levels within joints and ameliorates disease. These results provide new understanding of the function of Btk in both B cell– or myeloid cell–driven disease processes and provide a compelling rationale for targeting Btk in rheumatoid arthritis.

  8. Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells Recognize Epitopes of Protective Antigen following Vaccination with an Anthrax Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Laughlin, Elsa M.; Miller, Joseph D.; James, Eddie; Fillos, Dimitri; Ibegbu, Chris C.; Mittler, Robert S.; Akondy, Rama; Kwok, William; Ahmed, Rafi; Nepom, Gerald,

    2007-01-01

    Detection of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells is facilitated by the use of fluorescently labeled soluble peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) multimers which mirror the antigen specificity of T-cell receptor recognition. We have used soluble peptide-MHC class II tetramers containing peptides from the protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis to detect circulating T cells in peripheral blood of subjects vaccinated with an anthrax vaccine. PA-specific HLA class II-restricted T lympho...

  9. Functional capacity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T cell responses in humans is associated with mycobacterial load1

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Cheryl L.; Abrahams, Deborah A.; Lerumo, Lesedi; van Rensburg, Esme Janse; Stone, Lynnett; O’rie, Terrence; Pienaar, Bernadette; de Kock, Marwou; Kaplan, Gilla; Mahomed, Hassan; Dheda, Keertan; Hanekom, Willem A.

    2011-01-01

    High antigen load in chronic viral infections has been associated with impairment of antigen-specific T cell responses; however, the relationship between antigen load in chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection and functional capacity of Mtb-specific T cells in humans is not clear. We compared Mtb-specific T cell-associated cytokine production and proliferative capacity in peripheral blood from adults with progressively higher mycobacterial loads, i.e., persons with latent Mtb infec...

  10. Accessory signals in T-T cell interactions between antigen- and alloantigen-specific, human memory T cells generated in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, N; Ryder, L P; Georgsen, J;

    1990-01-01

    ), or a calcium ionophore (A23187) enabled Ta to elicit alloantigen-specific memory T-cell responses and to present purified protein derivative (PPD) to PPD-specific T-cell lines. The addition of irradiated, Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-cell lines (EBV-LCL) (but not their supernatants) had a similar but less...

  11. Tcf7l1 prepares epiblast cells in the gastrulating mouse embryo for lineage specification

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Jackson A.; Wu, Chun-I; Merrill, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    The core gene regulatory network (GRN) in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) integrates activities of the pro-self-renewal factors Oct4 (Pou5f1), Sox2 and Nanog with that of an inhibitor of self-renewal, Tcf7l1 (Tcf3). The inhibitor function of Tcf7l1 causes dependence on extracellular Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity, making its embryonic role within the ESC GRN unclear. By analyzing intact mouse embryos, we demonstrate that the function of Tcf7l1 is necessary for specification of cell lineages to ...

  12. Angiostatin and endostatin: endothelial cell-specific endogenous inhibitors of angiogenesis and tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, B K

    1998-01-01

    Angiostatin and Endostatin are potent inhibitors of angiogenesis. These proteins are endogenously produced and specifically target endothelial cells resulting in angiogenesis inhibition. Recombinant preparations of these proteins inhibit the growth of metastases and regress primary tumors to dormant microscopic lesions. A variety of murine tumors as well as human breast, prostate and colon tumors in human xenograft models regress when treated with Angiostatin or Endostatin. Regression of tumors upon systemic treatment with these proteins is in part due to increased tumor cell apoptosis. Repeated cycles of Endostatin therapy lead to prolonged tumor dormancy without further treatment and are not associated with any apparent toxicity or acquired drug resistance. PMID:14517374

  13. bcl-2-specific siRNAs restore Gemcitabine sensitivity in human pancreatic cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Kinya; Ocker, Matthias; Neureiter, Daniel; Dietze, Otto; Zopf, Steffen; Hahn, Eckhart G; Herold, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Gemcitabine has been shown to ameliorate disease related symptoms and to prolong overall survival in pancreatic cancer.Yet, resistance to Gemcitabine is commonly observed in this tumour entity and has been linked to increased expression of anti-apoptotic bcl-2. We therefore investigated if and to what extend silencing of bcl-2 by specific siRNAs (siBCL2) might enhance Gemcitabine effects in human pancreatic carcinoma cells. siBCL2 was transfected into the pancreatic cancer cell line ...

  14. Engineering a prostate-specific membrane antigen-activated tumor endothelial cell prodrug for cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denmeade, Samuel R; Mhaka, Annastasiah M; Rosen, D Marc;

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous expression of drug target proteins within tumor sites is a major mechanism of resistance to anticancer therapies. We describe a strategy to selectively inhibit, within tumor sites, the function of a critical intracellular protein, the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium...... adenosine triphosphatase (SERCA) pump, whose proper function is required by all cell types for viability. To achieve targeted inhibition, we took advantage of the unique expression of the carboxypeptidase prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) by tumor endothelial cells within the microenvironment of...

  15. Distinct modulation of allergic T cell responses by subcutaneous versus sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulten, Véronique; Tripple, Victoria; Andersen, Kristian Aasbjerg; Backer, Vibeke; Lund, Gitte; Würtzen, Peter Adler; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern

    2016-01-01

    mechanisms involved have not been fully explored. OBJECTIVE: To compare changes in the allergen-specific T cell response induced by subcutaneous versus sublingual administration of allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). METHODS: Grass pollen allergic patients were randomized into groups receiving either SCIT......: The most dominant immunological changes on a cellular level was a decrease in IL-5 in the SCIT group and a significant, transient increase of IL-10 observed after 10 months of treatment in both treated groups. The distinct routes of AIT administration may induce different immune-modulatory mechanisms...

  16. Genes of pyelonephritogenic E. coli required for digalactoside-specific agglutination of human cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, F P; Lund, B; Normark, S

    1984-01-01

    Most pyelonephritic Escherichia coli strains bind to digalactoside-containing glycolipids on uroepithelial cells. Purified Pap pili (pili associated with pyelonephritis) show the same binding specificity. A non-polar mutation early in the papA pilin gene abolishes formation of Pap pili but does not affect the degree of digalactoside-specific hemagglutination. Three novel pap genes, papE , papF and papG are defined in this report. The papF and papG gene products are both required for digalacto...

  17. A missing PD-L1/PD-1 coinhibition regulates diabetes induction by preproinsulin-specific CD8 T-cells in an epitope-specific manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Schuster

    Full Text Available Coinhibitory PD-1/PD-L1 (B7-H1 interactions provide critical signals for the regulation of autoreactive T-cell responses. We established mouse models, expressing the costimulator molecule B7.1 (CD80 on pancreatic beta cells (RIP-B7.1 tg mice or are deficient in coinhibitory PD-L1 or PD-1 molecules (PD-L1(-/- and PD-1(-/- mice, to study induction of preproinsulin (ppins-specific CD8 T-cell responses and experimental autoimmune diabetes (EAD by DNA-based immunization. RIP-B7.1 tg mice allowed us to identify two CD8 T-cell specificities: pCI/ppins DNA exclusively induced K(b/A(12-21-specific CD8 T-cells and EAD, whereas pCI/ppinsΔA(12-21 DNA (encoding ppins without the COOH-terminal A(12-21 epitope elicited K(b/B(22-29-specific CD8 T-cells and EAD. Specific expression/processing of mutant ppinsΔA(12-21 (but not ppins in non-beta cells, targeted by intramuscular DNA-injection, thus facilitated induction of K(b/B(22-29-specific CD8 T-cells. The A(12-21 epitope binds K(b molecules with a very low avidity as compared with B(22-29. Interestingly, immunization of coinhibition-deficient PD-L1(-/- or PD-1(-/- mice with pCI/ppins induced K(b/A(12-21-monospecific CD8 T-cells and EAD but injections with pCI/ppinsΔA(12-21 did neither recruit K(b/B(22-29-specific CD8 T-cells into the pancreatic target tissue nor induce EAD. PpinsΔA(12-21/(K(b/B(22-29-mediated EAD was efficiently restored in RIP-B7.1(+/PD-L1(-/- mice, differing from PD-L1(-/- mice only in the tg B7.1 expression in beta cells. Alternatively, an ongoing beta cell destruction and tissue inflammation, initiated by ppins/(K(b/A(12-21-specific CD8 T-cells in pCI/ppins+pCI/ppinsΔA(12-21 co-immunized PD-L1(-/- mice, facilitated the expansion of ppinsΔA(12-21/(K(b/B(22-29-specific CD8 T-cells. CD8 T-cells specific for the high-affinity K(b/B(22-29- (but not the low-affinity K(b/A(12-21-epitope thus require stimulatory help from beta cells or inflamed islets to expand in PD-L1-deficient mice. The

  18. A new cell line for high throughput HIV-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and cell-to-cell virus transmission studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, Chiara; Flinko, Robin; Lewis, George K.

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (Wren et al., 2013) is important in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. Namely, ADCC is induced during natural HIV-1 infection or in HIV-1 vaccine studies, the latter demonstrated by the RV144 vaccine trial. To expedite the assessment of ADCC in studies of HIV, we have developed a high throughput assay. We have optimized the rapid fluorometric antibody-mediated cytotoxicity assay (RFADCC) by transfecting the EGFP-CEM-NKr cell line to constitutively express SNAP-tagged CCR5. This cell line can then serve as a source of HIV-specific targets when coated with monomeric gp120, spinoculated with inactivated intact virions, infected by cell-free viral diffusion or infected by cell-to-cell transmission of virus. The optimized strategy has two significant advantages over the original RFADCC method: First, the preparation of detectable target cells is less labor intensive and faster as it does not rely on multiple staining and washing steps for target cells. Second, because the target cell markers GFP and SNAP are constitutively expressed, the assay provides highly reproducible data. These strengths make the optimized RFADCC assay suitable not only for studies of HIV-1 specific cytotoxicity but also for studies of cell–cell transmission of virus. In conclusion, this assay provides a new generation T cell line that can expedite large clinical studies as well as research studies in humans or non-human primates. PMID:26969387

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of tritiated thymidine incorporation and ELISPOT assays in identifying antigen specific T cell immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod Beth; Slota Meredith; dela Rosa Corazon; Goodell Vivian; Disis Mary L

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Standardization of cell-based immunologic monitoring is becoming increasingly important as methods for measuring cellular immunity become more complex. We assessed the ability of two commonly used cell-based assays, tritiated thymidine incorporation (proliferation) and IFN-gamma ELISPOT, to predict T cell responses to HER-2/neu, tetanus toxoid (tt), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigens. These antigens were determined to be low (HER-2/neu), moderate (tt), and robustly (CMV) i...

  20. Selective Priming and Expansion of Antigen-Specific Foxp3- CD4+ T cells during Listeria monocytogenes infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ertelt, James M.; Rowe, Jared H.; Johanns, Tanner M.; Lai, Joseph C.; McLachlan, James B.; Way, Sing Sing

    2009-01-01

    The Foxp3-expressing subset of regulatory CD4+ T cells have defined antigen-specificity and play essential roles in maintaining peripheral tolerance by suppressing the activation of self-reactive T cells. Similarly during chronic infection, pathogen-specific Foxp3-expressing CD4+ T cells expand and actively suppress pathogen-specific effector T cells. Herein, we used MHC class II tetramers and Foxp3gfp knock-in mice to track the kinetics and magnitude whereby pathogen-specific Foxp3+CD4+ and ...

  1. Live cell imaging with chemical specificity using dual frequency CARS microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Iestyn; Langbein, Wolfgang; Borri, Paola; Watson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Live cell microscopy using fluorescent proteins and small fluorescent probes is a well-established and essential tool for cell biology; however, there is a considerable need for noninvasive techniques able to study tissue and cell dynamics without the need to introduce chemical or genetically encoded probes. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is an emerging tool for cell biologists to examine live cell dynamics with chemical specificity in a label-free, noninvasive way. CARS is a multiphoton process offering intrinsic three-dimensional submicron resolution, where the image contrast is obtained from light inelastically scattered by the vibrations of endogenous chemical bonds. CARS is particularly well suited to study lipid biology, since the CARS signal of localized lipids (exhibiting a large amount of identical bonds in the focal volume) is very strong. Conversely, photostable, lipid-specific markers for fluorescence microscopy are difficult to produce and the process of labeling often affects lipid localization and function, making imaging lipids in live cells challenging, and accurate quantification often impossible. Here, we describe in detail the principles behind our experimental setup for performing CARS microscopy of lipid droplets on live cells. Since typical vibrational resonances in liquid have coherence times in the picosecond range, CARS is preferably implemented with picosecond lasers which are however expensive and less efficient than femtosecond lasers, which could also be used for other multiphoton techniques such as two-photon fluorescence. In our setup, we show that femtosecond lasers can be spectrally focused in a simple, alignment insensitive, and cost-effective way to achieve a vibrational excitation similar to picosecond lasers. This opens the way to integrate CARS and two-photon fluorescence in a single multimodal instrument for its widespread application. We also describe our dual frequency CARS system which eliminates

  2. Cell line specific modulation of extracellular aβ42 by Hsp40.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carnini

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (Hsps are a set of molecular chaperones involved in cellular repair. They provide protective mechanisms that allow cells to survive potentially lethal insults, In response to a conditioning stress their expression is increased. Here we examined the connection between Hsps and Aβ(42, the amyloid peptide involved in the pathological sequence of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Extracellular Aβ(42 associates with neuronal cells and is a major constituent of senile plaques, one of the hallmarks of AD. Although Hsps are generally thought to prevent accumulation of misfolded proteins, there is a lack of mechanistic evidence that heat shock chaperones directly modulate Aβ(42 toxicity. In this study we show that neither extracellular Aβ(42 nor Aβ(42/PrP(C trigger the heat shock response in neurons. To address the influence of the neuroprotective heat shock response on cellular Aβ(42, Western analysis of Aβ(42 was performed following external Aβ(42 application. Five hours after a conditioning heat shock, Aβ(42 association with CAD cells was increased compared to control neurons. However, at forty-eight hours following heat shock Aβ(42 levels were reduced compared to that found for control cells. Moreover, transient transfection of the stress induced Hsp40, decreased CAD levels of Aβ(42. In contrast to CAD cells, hippocampal neurons transfected with Hsp40 retained Aβ(42 indicating that Hsp40 modulation of Aβ(42 proteostasis is cell specific. Mutation of the conserved HPD motif within Hsp40 significantly reduced the Hsp40-mediated Aβ(42 increase in hippocampal cultures indicating the importance of this motif in regulating cellular Aβ(42. Our data reveal a biochemical link between Hsp40 expression and Aβ(42 proteostasis that is cell specific. Therefore, increasing Hsp40 therapeutically with the intention of interfering with the pathogenic cascade leading to neurodegeneration in AD should be pursued with caution.

  3. Differentiation of Human Parthenogenetic Pluripotent Stem Cells Reveals Multiple Tissue- and Isoform-Specific Imprinted Transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonatan Stelzer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Parental imprinting results in monoallelic parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. However, many imprinted genes identified by differential methylation do not exhibit complete monoallelic expression. Previous studies demonstrated complex tissue-dependent expression patterns for some imprinted genes. Still, the complete magnitude of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. By differentiating human parthenogenetic induced pluripotent stem cells into different cell types and combining DNA methylation with a 5′ RNA sequencing methodology, we were able to identify tissue- and isoform-dependent imprinted genes in a genome-wide manner. We demonstrate that nearly half of all imprinted genes express both biallelic and monoallelic isoforms that are controlled by tissue-specific alternative promoters. This study provides a global analysis of tissue-specific imprinting in humans and suggests that alternative promoters are central in the regulation of imprinted genes.

  4. Triple phase boundary specific pathway analysis for quantitative characterization of solid oxide cell electrode microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Ebbehøj, Søren Lyng; Hauch, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The density and percolation of Triple phase boundary sites are important quantities in analyzing microstructures of solid oxide fuel cell electrodes from tomography data. However, these measures do not provide descriptions of the quality of the TPB sites in terms of the length and radius of the...... pathways through which they can be reached. New methods for performing TPB specific pathway analysis on 3D image data are introduced, analyzing the pathway properties of each TPB site in the electrode structure. The methods seek to provide additional information beyond whether the TPB sites are percolating...... or not by also analyzing the pathway length to the TPB sites and the bottleneck radius of the pathway. We show how these methods can be utilized in quantifying and relating the TPB specific results to cell test data of an electrode reduction protocol study for Ni/Scandia-and-Yttria-doped-Zirconia (Ni...

  5. Docking of B-cell epitope antigen to specific hepatitis B antibody

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Rajkannan; E J Padma Malar

    2007-09-01

    The interaction of pres1 region of hepatitis B virus B-cell epitope antigen with specific hepatitis B neutralizing monoclonal antibody was examined by docking study. We modelled the 3D complex structure of B-cell epitope antigen residues CTTPAQGNSMFPSCCCTKPTDGNCY by homology modelling and docked it with the crystal structure of monoclonal antibody specific for the pres1 region of the hepatitis B virus. At the optimized docked conformation, the interactions between the amino acids of antigen and antibody were examined. It is found that the docked complex is stabilized by 59.3 kcal/mol. The stability of the docked antigen-antibody complex is due to hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. The amino acids of the antigen and antibody responsible for the interaction were identified.

  6. Immunohistochemical visualization of neurons and specific glial cells for stereological application in the porcine neocortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, Lise; Jelsing, Jacob; Jensen, Pia Søndergaard;

    2006-01-01

    The pig is becoming an increasingly used non-primate model in basic experimental studies of human neurological diseases. In spite of the widespread use of immunohistochemistry and cell type specific markers, the application of immunohistochemistry in the pig brain has not been systematically...... described. Therefore, to facilitate future stereological studies of the neuronal and glial cell populations in experimental neurological diseases in the pig, we established a battery of immunohistochemical protocols for staining of perfusion fixed porcine brain tissue processed as free floating cryostat......-, vibratome- or paraffin sections. Antibodies against NeuN, GFAP, S100-protein, MBP, CNPase, CD11b, CD68 (KP1), CD45 and Ki67 were evaluated, and all except CD68 and CD45 resulted in staining of high quality in either type of tissue. Each staining was evaluated with respect to specificity and sensitivity in...

  7. An Epigenetic Mechanism of High Gdnf Transcription in Glioma Cells Revealed by Specific Sequence Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao-Le; Liu, Jie; Lei, Yu; Xiong, Ye; Li, Heng; Lin, Xiaoqian; Yao, Rui-Qin; Gao, Dian-Shuai

    2016-09-01

    Glioma cells express high levels of GDNF. When investigating its transcriptional regulation mechanism, we observed increased or decreased methylation of different cis-acting elements in the gdnf promoter II. However, it is difficult to determine the contributions of methylation changes of each cis-acting element to the abnormally high transcription of gdnf gene. To elucidate the contributions of methylation changes of specific cis-acting elements to the regulation of gdnf transcription, we combined gene site-directed mutation, molecular cloning, and dual luciferase assay to develop the "specific sequence methylation followed by plasmid recircularization" method to alter methylation levels of specific cis-acting elements in the gdnf promoter in living cells and assess gene transcriptional activity. This method successfully introduced artificial changes in the methylation of different cis-acting elements in the gdnf promoter II. Moreover, compared with unmethylated gdnf promoter II, both silencer II hypermethylation plus enhancer II unmethylation and hypermethylation of the entire promoter II (containing enhancer II and silencer II) significantly enhanced gdnf transcriptional activity (P  0.05). Enhancer II hypermethylation plus silencer II unmethylation did not significantly affect gene transcription (P > 0.05). Furthermore, we found significantly increased DNA methylation in the silencer II of the gdnf gene in high-grade astroglioma cells with abnormally high gdnf gene expression (P < 0.01). The absence of silencer II significantly increased gdnf promoter II activity in U251 cells (P < 0.01). In conclusion, our specific sequence methylation followed by plasmid recircularization method successfully altered the methylation levels of a specific cis-acting element in a gene promoter in living cells. This method allows in-depth investigation of the impact of methylation changes of different cis-acting elements in the same promoter on gene transcriptional

  8. Protein carbonylation after traumatic brain injury: cell specificity, regional susceptibility, and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Rachel C; Buonora, John E; Jacobowitz, David M; Mueller, Gregory P

    2015-01-01

    Protein carbonylation is a well-documented and quantifiable consequence of oxidative stress in several neuropathologies, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer׳s disease, and Parkinson׳s disease. Although oxidative stress is a hallmark of traumatic brain injury (TBI), little work has explored the specific neural regions and cell types in which protein carbonylation occurs. Furthermore, the effect of gender on protein carbonylation after TBI has not been studied. The present investigation was designed to determine the regional and cell specificity of TBI-induced protein carbonylation and how this response to injury is affected by gender. Immunohistochemistry was used to visualize protein carbonylation in the brains of adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) as an injury model of TBI. Cell-specific markers were used to colocalize the presence of carbonylated proteins in specific cell types, including astrocytes, neurons, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. Results also indicated that the injury lesion site, ventral portion of the dorsal third ventricle, and ventricular lining above the median eminence showed dramatic increases in protein carbonylation after injury. Specifically, astrocytes and limited regions of ependymal cells adjacent to the dorsal third ventricle and the median eminence were most susceptible to postinjury protein carbonylation. However, these patterns of differential susceptibility to protein carbonylation were gender dependent, with males showing significantly greater protein carbonylation at sites distant from the lesion. Proteomic analyses were also conducted and determined that the proteins most affected by carbonylation in response to TBI include glial fibrillary acidic protein, dihydropyrimidase-related protein 2, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A. Many other proteins, however, were not carbonylated by CCI. These findings indicate that there is both regional

  9. Immediate in vivo target-specific cancer cell death after near infrared photoimmunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsunaga Makoto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Near infrared (NIR photoimmunotherapy (PIT is a new type of cancer treatment based on a monoclonal antibody (mAb-NIR phthalocyanine dye, (IR700 conjugate. In vitro cancer-specific cell death occurs during NIR light exposure in cells previously incubated with mAb-IR700 conjugates. However, documenting rapid cell death in vivo is more difficult. Methods A luciferase-transfected breast cancer cell (epidermal growth factor receptor+, MDA-MB-468luc cells was produced and used for both in vitro and in vivo experiments for monitoring the cell killing effect of PIT. After validation of cytotoxicity with NIR exposure up to 8 J/cm2in vitro, we employed an orthotopic breast cancer model of bilateral MDA-MB-468luc tumors in female athymic mice, which subsequently received a panitumumab-IR700 conjugate in vivo. One side was used as a control, while the other was treated with NIR light of dose ranging from 50 to 150 J/cm2. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI was performed before and after PIT. Results Dose-dependent cell killing and regrowth was successfully monitored by the BLI signal in vitro. Although tumor sizes were unchanged, BLI signals decreased by >95% immediately after PIT in vivo when light intensity was high (>100 J/cm2, however, in mice receiving lower intensity NIR (50 J/cm2, tumors recurred with gradually increasing BLI signal. Conclusion PIT induced massive cell death of targeted tumor cells immediately after exposure of NIR light that was demonstrated with BLI in vivo.

  10. A Specific Transcriptome Signature for Guard Cells from the C4 Plant Gynandropsis gynandra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, Sylvain; Aresheva, Olga; Reyna-Llorens, Ivan; Smith-Unna, Richard D; Hibberd, Julian M; Genty, Bernard

    2016-03-01

    C4 photosynthesis represents an excellent example of convergent evolution that results in the optimization of both carbon and water usage by plants. In C4 plants, a carbon-concentrating mechanism divided between bundle sheath and mesophyll cells increases photosynthetic efficiency. Compared with C3 leaves, the carbon-concentrating mechanism of C4 plants allows photosynthetic operation at lower stomatal conductance, and as a consequence, transpiration is reduced. Here, we characterize transcriptomes from guard cells in C3 Tareneya hassleriana and C4 Gynandropsis gynandra belonging to the Cleomaceae. While approximately 60% of Gene Ontology terms previously associated with guard cells from the C3 model Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) are conserved, there is much less overlap between patterns of individual gene expression. Most ion and CO2 signaling modules appear unchanged at the transcript level in guard cells from C3 and C4 species, but major variations in transcripts associated with carbon-related pathways known to influence stomatal behavior were detected. Genes associated with C4 photosynthesis were more highly expressed in guard cells of C4 compared with C3 leaves. Furthermore, we detected two major patterns of cell-specific C4 gene expression within the C4 leaf. In the first, genes previously associated with preferential expression in the bundle sheath showed continually decreasing expression from bundle sheath to mesophyll to guard cells. In the second, expression was maximal in the mesophyll compared with both guard cells and bundle sheath. These data imply that at least two gene regulatory networks act to coordinate gene expression across the bundle sheath, mesophyll, and guard cells in the C4 leaf. PMID:26818731

  11. Immediate in vivo target-specific cancer cell death after near infrared photoimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near infrared (NIR) photoimmunotherapy (PIT) is a new type of cancer treatment based on a monoclonal antibody (mAb)-NIR phthalocyanine dye, (IR700) conjugate. In vitro cancer-specific cell death occurs during NIR light exposure in cells previously incubated with mAb-IR700 conjugates. However, documenting rapid cell death in vivo is more difficult. A luciferase-transfected breast cancer cell (epidermal growth factor receptor+, MDA-MB-468luc cells) was produced and used for both in vitro and in vivo experiments for monitoring the cell killing effect of PIT. After validation of cytotoxicity with NIR exposure up to 8 J/cm2in vitro, we employed an orthotopic breast cancer model of bilateral MDA-MB-468luc tumors in female athymic mice, which subsequently received a panitumumab-IR700 conjugate in vivo. One side was used as a control, while the other was treated with NIR light of dose ranging from 50 to 150 J/cm2. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was performed before and after PIT. Dose-dependent cell killing and regrowth was successfully monitored by the BLI signal in vitro. Although tumor sizes were unchanged, BLI signals decreased by >95% immediately after PIT in vivo when light intensity was high (>100 J/cm2), however, in mice receiving lower intensity NIR (50 J/cm2), tumors recurred with gradually increasing BLI signal. PIT induced massive cell death of targeted tumor cells immediately after exposure of NIR light that was demonstrated with BLI in vivo

  12. A Specific Transcriptome Signature for Guard Cells from the C4 Plant Gynandropsis gynandra1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresheva, Olga; Reyna-Llorens, Ivan; Genty, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    C4 photosynthesis represents an excellent example of convergent evolution that results in the optimization of both carbon and water usage by plants. In C4 plants, a carbon-concentrating mechanism divided between bundle sheath and mesophyll cells increases photosynthetic efficiency. Compared with C3 leaves, the carbon-concentrating mechanism of C4 plants allows photosynthetic operation at lower stomatal conductance, and as a consequence, transpiration is reduced. Here, we characterize transcriptomes from guard cells in C3 Tareneya hassleriana and C4 Gynandropsis gynandra belonging to the Cleomaceae. While approximately 60% of Gene Ontology terms previously associated with guard cells from the C3 model Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) are conserved, there is much less overlap between patterns of individual gene expression. Most ion and CO2 signaling modules appear unchanged at the transcript level in guard cells from C3 and C4 species, but major variations in transcripts associated with carbon-related pathways known to influence stomatal behavior were detected. Genes associated with C4 photosynthesis were more highly expressed in guard cells of C4 compared with C3 leaves. Furthermore, we detected two major patterns of cell-specific C4 gene expression within the C4 leaf. In the first, genes previously associated with preferential expression in the bundle sheath showed continually decreasing expression from bundle sheath to mesophyll to guard cells. In the second, expression was maximal in the mesophyll compared with both guard cells and bundle sheath. These data imply that at least two gene regulatory networks act to coordinate gene expression across the bundle sheath, mesophyll, and guard cells in the C4 leaf. PMID:26818731

  13. Induction of site-specific chromosomal translocations in embryonic stem cells by CRISPR/Cas9

    OpenAIRE

    Junfeng Jiang; Li Zhang; Xingliang Zhou; Xi Chen; Guanyi Huang; Fengsheng Li; Ruizhe Wang; Nancy Wu; Youzhen Yan; Chang Tong; Sankalp Srivastava; Yue Wang; Houqi Liu; Qi-Long Ying

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocation is the most common form of chromosomal abnormality and is often associated with congenital genetic disorders, infertility, and cancers. The lack of cellular and animal models for chromosomal translocations, however, has hampered our ability to understand the underlying disease mechanisms and to develop new therapies. Here, we show that site-specific chromosomal translocations can be generated in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) via CRISPR/Cas9. Mouse ESCs carrying ...

  14. The mouse B cell repertoire : antibody specificities and immunoglobulin (sub) class distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Hooijkaas, Herbert

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe total number of different immunoglobulin (I g) molecules that the immune system produces is often called the antibody specificity repertoire orB cell repertoire (Chapter 1). This repertoire can be subdivided into three categories: the potential, the available and the actual repertoires. The potential repertoire is determined by the number, structure and mechanisms of expression of the germl ine genes encoding lg molecules plus the possible somatic variants derived from them an...

  15. Expression of Pigment Cell-Specific Genes in the Ontogenesis of the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya V. Ageenko; Konstantin V. Kiselev; Odintsova, Nelly A.

    2011-01-01

    One of the polyketide compounds, the naphthoquinone pigment echinochrome, is synthesized in sea urchin pigment cells. We analyzed polyketide synthase (pks) and sulfotransferase (sult) gene expression in embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius from various stages of development and in specific tissues of the adults. We observed the highest level of expression of the pks and sult genes at the gastrula stage. In unfertilized eggs, only trace amounts of the pks and sul...

  16. Opposing Fgf and Bmp activities regulate the specification of olfactory sensory and respiratory epithelial cell fates

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Esther; von Hofsten, Jonas; Nord, Hanna; Fernandes, Marie; Paek, Hunki; Hébert, Jean M.; Gunhaga, Lena

    2010-01-01

    The olfactory sensory epithelium and the respiratory epithelium are derived from the olfactory placode. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating the differential specification of the sensory and the respiratory epithelium have remained undefined. To address this issue, we first identified Msx1/2 and Id3 as markers for respiratory epithelial cells by performing quail chick transplantation studies. Next, we established chick explant and intact chick embryo assays of sensory/respiratory epit...

  17. Cell Type-Specific Manipulation with GFP-Dependent Cre Recombinase

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jonathan C. Y.; Rudolph, Stephanie; Dhande, Onkar S.; Abraira, Victoria E.; Choi, Seungwon; Lapan, Sylvain; Drew, Iain R.; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Huberman, Andrew D.; Regehr, Wade G.; Cepko, Constance L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary There are many transgenic GFP reporter lines that allow visualization of specific populations of cells. Using such lines for functional studies requires a method that transforms GFP into a molecule that enables genetic manipulation. Here we report the creation of a method that exploits GFP for gene manipulation, Cre Recombinase Dependent on GFP (CRE-DOG), a split component system that uses GFP and its derivatives to directly induce Cre/loxP recombination. Using plasmid electroporation...

  18. HPMA Polymer-based Site-specific Delivery of Oligonucleotides to Hepatic Stellate Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ningning; Ye, Zhaoyang; Li, Feng; Mahato, Ram I.

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether bioconjugation of type I collagen specific triplex forming oligonucleotide (TFO) to N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) containing tetrapeptide Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly (GFLG) and mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) can provide their targeted delivery to hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Following bioconjugation, M6P-GFLG-HPMA-GFLG-32P-TFO was characterized by PAGE, HPLC and GPC, and then its biodistribution was determined. TFO was dissociated from the conjugate when in...

  19. Neurochemical phenotype and birthdating of specific cell populations in the chick retina

    OpenAIRE

    Karin da Costa calaza; Patricia F. Gardino

    2010-01-01

    The chick embryo is one of the most traditional models in developing neuroscience and its visual system has been one of the most exhaustively studied. The retina has been used as a model for studying the development of the nervous system. Here, we describe the morphological features that characterize each stage of the retina development and studies of the neurogenesis period of some specific neurochemical subpopulations of retinal cells by using a combination of immunohistochemistry and autor...

  20. The utility of patient specific induced pluripotent stem cells for the modelling of Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Cocks, Graham; Curran, Sarah; Gami, Priya; Uwanogho, Dafe; Jeffries, Aaron R.; Kathuria, Annie; Lucchesi, Walter; Wood, Victoria; Dixon, Rosemary; Ogilvie, Caroline; Steckler, Thomas; Price, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Until now, models of psychiatric diseases have typically been animal models. Whether they were to be used to further understand the pathophysiology of the disorder, or as drug discovery tools, animal models have been the choice of preference in mimicking psychiatric disorders in an experimental setting. While there have been cellular models, they have generally been lacking in validity. This situation is changing with the advent of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In t...

  1. Response-dependent dynamics of cell-specific inhibition in cortical networks in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    El-Boustani, Sami; Sur, Mriganka

    2014-01-01

    In the visual cortex, inhibitory neurons alter the computations performed by target cells via combination of two fundamental operations, division and subtraction. The origins of these operations have been variously ascribed to differences in neuron classes, synapse location or receptor conductances. Here, by utilizing specific visual stimuli and single optogenetic probe pulses, we show that the function of ​parvalbumin-expressing and ​somatostatin-expressing neurons in mice in vivo is governe...

  2. Mutagenic specificity of solar UV light in nucleotide excision repair-deficient rodent cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Sage, E.; Lamolet, B; Brulay, E; Moustacchi, E; Chteauneuf, A; Drobetsky, E A

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the role of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in the cellular processing of carcinogenic DNA photoproducts induced by defined, environmentally relevant portions of the solar wavelength spectrum, we have determined the mutagenic specificity of simulated sunlight (310-1100 nm), UVA (350-400 nm), and UVB (290-320 nm), as well as of the "nonsolar" model mutagen 254-nm UVC, at the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (aprt) locus in NER-deficient (ERCC1) Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell...

  3. An efficient strategy to induce and maintain in vitro human T cells specific for autologous non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Canderan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The efficient expansion in vitro of cytolytic CD8+ T cells (CTLs specific for autologous tumors is crucial both for basic and translational aspects of tumor immunology. We investigated strategies to generate CTLs specific for autologous Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC, the most frequent tumor in mankind, using circulating lymphocytes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Classic Mixed Lymphocyte Tumor Cultures with NSCLC cells consistently failed to induce tumor-specific CTLs. Cross-presentation in vitro of irradiated NSCLC cells by autologous dendritic cells, by contrast, induced specific CTL lines from which we obtained a high number of tumor-specific T cell clones (TCCs. The TCCs displayed a limited TCR diversity, suggesting an origin from few tumor-specific T cell precursors, while their TCR molecular fingerprints were detected in the patient's tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, implying a role in the spontaneous anti-tumor response. Grafting NSCLC-specific TCR into primary allogeneic T cells by lentiviral vectors expressing human V-mouse C chimeric TCRalpha/beta chains overcame the growth limits of these TCCs. The resulting, rapidly expanding CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lines stably expressed the grafted chimeric TCR and specifically recognized the original NSCLC. CONCLUSIONS: This study defines a strategy to efficiently induce and propagate in vitro T cells specific for NSCLC starting from autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes.

  4. Autoantibodies against complement C1q specifically target C1q bound on early apoptotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Cornelia; Schaller, Monica; Perahud, Iryna; Osthoff, Michael; Trendelenburg, Marten

    2009-09-01

    Autoantibodies against complement C1q (anti-C1q) are frequently found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). They strongly correlate with the occurrence of severe lupus nephritis, suggesting a pathogenic role in SLE. Because anti-C1q are known to recognize a neoepitope on bound C1q, but not on fluid-phase C1q, the aim of this study was to clarify the origin of anti-C1q by determining the mechanism that renders C1q antigenic. We investigated anti-C1q from serum and purified total IgG of patients with SLE and hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis as well as two monoclonal human anti-C1q Fab from a SLE patient generated by phage display. Binding characteristics, such as their ability to recognize C1q bound on different classes of Igs, on immune complexes, and on cells undergoing apoptosis, were analyzed. Interestingly, anti-C1q did not bind to C1q bound on Igs or immune complexes. Neither did we observe specific binding of anti-C1q to C1q bound on late apoptotic/necrotic cells when compared with binding in the absence of C1q. However, as shown by FACS analysis and confocal microscopy, anti-C1q specifically targeted C1q bound on early apoptotic cells. Anti-C1q were found to specifically target C1q bound on cells undergoing apoptosis. Our observations suggest that early apoptotic cells are a major target of the autoimmune response in SLE and provide a direct link between human SLE, apoptosis, and C1q. PMID:19648280

  5. Long-term nonprogression and broad HIV-1-specific proliferative T-cell responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrina eImami

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex mechanisms underlying the maintenance of fully functional, proliferative, HIV-1-specific T-cell responses involve processes from early T-cell development through to the final stages of T-cell differentiation and antigen recognition. Virus-specific proliferative CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses, important for the control of infection, are observed in some HIV-1+ patients during early stages of disease, and are maintained in long-term nonprogressing subjects. In the vast majority of HIV-1+ patients, full immune functionality is lost when proliferative HIV-1-specific T-cell responses undergo a variable progressive decline throughout the course of chronic infection. This appears irreparable despite administration of potent combination antiretroviral therapy, which to date is non-curative, necessitating life-long administration and the development of effective, novel, therapeutic interventions. While a sterilising cure, involving clearance of virus from the host, remains a primary aim, a functional cure may be a more feasible goal with considerable impact on worldwide HIV-1 infection. Such an approach would enable long-term co-existence of host and virus in the absence of toxic and costly drugs. Effective immune homeostasis coupled with a balanced response appropriately targeting conserved viral antigens, in a manner that avoids hyperactivation and exhaustion, may prove to be the strongest correlate of durable viral control. This review describes novel concepts underlying full immune functionality in the context of HIV-1 infection, which may be utilised in future strategies designed to improve upon existing therapy. The aim will be to induce long-term nonprogressor or elite controller status in every infected host, through immune-mediated control of viraemia and reduction of viral reservoirs, leading to lower HIV-1 transmission rates.

  6. The long noncoding RNA RNCR2 directs mouse retinal cell specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackshaw Seth

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent work has identified that many long mRNA-like noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are expressed in the developing nervous system. Despite their abundance, the function of these ncRNAs has remained largely unexplored. We have investigated the highly abundant lncRNA RNCR2 in regulation of mouse retinal cell differentiation. Results We find that the RNCR2 is selectively expressed in a subset of both mitotic progenitors and postmitotic retinal precursor cells. ShRNA-mediated knockdown of RNCR2 results in an increase of both amacrine cells and Müller glia, indicating a role for this lncRNA in regulating retinal cell fate specification. We further report that RNCR2 RNA, which is normally nuclear-retained, can be exported from the nucleus when fused to an IRES-GFP sequence. Overexpression of RNCR2-IRES-GFP phenocopies the effects of shRNA-mediated knockdown of RNCR2, implying that forced mislocalization of RNCR2 induces a dominant-negative phenotype. Finally, we use the IRES-GFP fusion approach to identify specific domains of RNCR2 that are required for repressing both amacrine and Müller glial differentiation. Conclusion These data demonstrate that the lncRNA RNCR2 plays a critical role in regulating mammalian retinal cell fate specification. Furthermore, we present a novel approach for generating dominant-negative constructs of lncRNAs, which may be generally useful in the functional analysis of this class of molecules.

  7. Qualification of High Specific Energy Li-Ion Cell VES180SA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defer, M.; Du Peyrat, D.; Prevot, D.; Borthomieu, Y.

    2008-09-01

    In order to improve the competitiveness of future platform by reducing weight and cost of the flight batteries solutions, a high specific energy VES180SA cell has been developed and qualified jointly with ESA, CNES, Astrium and Thales in the frame of Artes8 program. This new generation of cell achieves a specific energy of 155Wh/kg in the same casing as the previous generation of VES140S/SA cells given for 115Wh/kg and takes benefit of:* Use of a Ni based G5 generation electrochemistry already implemented in mass production for industrial application.* Use of return on G4 (VES140) & G5 life tests results as well as VES140S/SA flight experience * Use of SA mechanics i.e. with jelly roll attached in order to sustain more severe mechanical environmentVES180SA cell design is the same as the existing VES140SA cell design except the electrochemistry (jelly-roll) which has evolved in order to deliver more energy. The cell casing is composed by a thin al. tube closed by two al. covers that are welded on the extremities of the tube. During the whole cell lifetime, casing is stressed by combined static loads due to internal gas pressure, in cycling jelly-roll swelling and irreversible jelly roll swelling due to ageing phenomena. In addition to that, static loads are temporarily combined to dynamic loads during the launch phase. Whereas, dynamic loads applied on VES140SA and VES180SA cells are the same, maximal internal gas pressure and jelly-roll swelling are higher in VES180SA cell due to its new electrochemistry. The maximal internal pressure of a cell can be estimated by a Saft numerical model based on pressure measurement and extrapolations. For what concern the jelly roll swelling, such a model was not available at the start of the development of the VES180SA cell. The aim of the cell development phase was therefore to optimize the design by characterizing the casing material and performing adequate tests in order to define the cell worst case mechanical loads as a

  8. Generation of healthy mice from gene-corrected disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Wu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the murine model of tyrosinemia type 1 (fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase [FAH] deficiency; FAH⁻/⁻ mice as a paradigm for orphan disorders, such as hereditary metabolic liver diseases, we evaluated fibroblast-derived FAH⁻/⁻-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells as targets for gene correction in combination with the tetraploid embryo complementation method. First, after characterizing the FAH⁻/⁻ iPS cell lines, we aggregated FAH⁻/⁻-iPS cells with tetraploid embryos and obtained entirely FAH⁻/⁻-iPS cell-derived mice that were viable and exhibited the phenotype of the founding FAH⁻/⁻ mice. Then, we transduced FAH cDNA into the FAH⁻/⁻-iPS cells using a third-generation lentiviral vector to generate gene-corrected iPS cells. We could not detect any chromosomal alterations in these cells by high-resolution array CGH analysis, and after their aggregation with tetraploid embryos, we obtained fully iPS cell-derived healthy mice with an astonishing high efficiency for full-term development of up to 63.3%. The gene correction was validated functionally by the long-term survival and expansion of FAH-positive cells of these mice after withdrawal of the rescuing drug NTBC (2-(2-nitro-4-fluoromethylbenzoyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that both a liver-specific promoter (transthyretin, TTR-driven FAH transgene and a strong viral promoter (from spleen focus-forming virus, SFFV-driven FAH transgene rescued the FAH-deficiency phenotypes in the mice derived from the respective gene-corrected iPS cells. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that a lentiviral gene repair strategy does not abrogate the full pluripotent potential of fibroblast-derived iPS cells, and genetic manipulation of iPS cells in combination with tetraploid embryo aggregation provides a practical and rapid approach to evaluate the efficacy of gene correction of human diseases in mouse models.

  9. The roadmap for estimation of cell-type-specific neuronal activity from non-invasive measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlirova, Hana; Kılıç, Kıvılcım; Tian, Peifang; Sakadžić, Sava; Gagnon, Louis; Thunemann, Martin; Desjardins, Michèle; Saisan, Payam A; Nizar, Krystal; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Hagler, Donald J; Vandenberghe, Matthieu; Djurovic, Srdjan; Andreassen, Ole A; Silva, Gabriel A; Masliah, Eliezer; Kleinfeld, David; Vinogradov, Sergei; Buxton, Richard B; Einevoll, Gaute T; Boas, David A; Dale, Anders M; Devor, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The computational properties of the human brain arise from an intricate interplay between billions of neurons connected in complex networks. However, our ability to study these networks in healthy human brain is limited by the necessity to use non-invasive technologies. This is in contrast to animal models where a rich, detailed view of cellular-level brain function with cell-type-specific molecular identity has become available due to recent advances in microscopic optical imaging and genetics. Thus, a central challenge facing neuroscience today is leveraging these mechanistic insights from animal studies to accurately draw physiological inferences from non-invasive signals in humans. On the essential path towards this goal is the development of a detailed 'bottom-up' forward model bridging neuronal activity at the level of cell-type-specific populations to non-invasive imaging signals. The general idea is that specific neuronal cell types have identifiable signatures in the way they drive changes in cerebral blood flow, cerebral metabolic rate of O2 (measurable with quantitative functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging), and electrical currents/potentials (measurable with magneto/electroencephalography). This forward model would then provide the 'ground truth' for the development of new tools for tackling the inverse problem-estimation of neuronal activity from multimodal non-invasive imaging data.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574309

  10. Human Leukocyte Antigen-G and Regulatory T Cells During Specific Immunotherapy for Pollen Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Louise Torp; Sørensen, Anja Elaine; Johnsen, Claus;

    2013-01-01

    Background: TH2-biased immune responses are important in allergy pathogenesis. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) might include the induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 blocking antibodies, a reduction in the number of effector cells, and skewing of......G4). Methods: Eleven birch and/or grass pollen-allergic patients and 10 healthy nonatopic controls were studied before and during SIT. Tregs, chemokine receptors, soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G), Ig-like transcript (ILT) 2, specific IgE, and IgG4 were studied. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were...... stimulated with pollen extract in vitro and immune factors were evaluated. Results: During SIT, the main changes in the peripheral blood were an increase in CXCR3+CD4+CD25+CD127low/- Tregs and a decrease in CCR4+CD4+CD25+CD127low/- Tregs, an increase in allergen-specific IgG4, and a decrease in sHLA-G during...

  11. A dominant EV71-specific CD4+ T cell epitope is highly conserved among human enteroviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruicheng Wei

    Full Text Available CD4+ T cell-mediated immunity plays a central role in determining the immunopathogenesis of viral infections. However, the role of CD4+ T cells in EV71 infection, which causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD, has yet to be elucidated. We applied a sophisticated method to identify promiscuous CD4+ T cell epitopes contained within the sequence of the EV71 polyprotein. Fifteen epitopes were identified, and three of them are dominant ones. The most dominant epitope is highly conserved among enterovirus species, including HFMD-related coxsackieviruses, HFMD-unrelated echoviruses and polioviruses. Furthermore, the CD4+ T cells specific to the epitope indeed cross-reacted with the homolog of poliovirus 3 Sabin. Our findings imply that CD4+ T cell responses to poliovirus following vaccination, or to other enteroviruses to which individuals may be exposed in early childhood, may have a modulating effect on subsequent CD4+ T cell response to EV71 infection or vaccine.

  12. Patient-specific naturally gene-reverted induced pluripotent stem cells in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolar, Jakub; McGrath, John A; Xia, Lily; Riddle, Megan J; Lees, Chris J; Eide, Cindy; Keene, Douglas R; Liu, Lu; Osborn, Mark J; Lund, Troy C; Blazar, Bruce R; Wagner, John E

    2014-05-01

    Spontaneous reversion of disease-causing mutations has been observed in some genetic disorders. In our clinical observations of severe generalized recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB), a currently incurable blistering genodermatosis caused by loss-of-function mutations in COL7A1 that results in a deficit of type VII collagen (C7), we have observed patches of healthy-appearing skin on some individuals. When biopsied, this skin revealed somatic mosaicism resulting in the self-correction of C7 deficiency. We believe this source of cells could represent an opportunity for translational 'natural' gene therapy. We show that revertant RDEB keratinocytes expressing functional C7 can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and that self-corrected RDEB iPSCs can be induced to differentiate into either epidermal or hematopoietic cell populations. Our results give proof-of-principle that an inexhaustible supply of functional patient-specific revertant cells can be obtained--potentially relevant to local wound therapy and systemic hematopoietic cell transplantation. This technology may also avoid some of the major limitations of other cell therapy strategies, e.g., immune rejection and insertional mutagenesis, which are associated with viral- and nonviral-mediated gene therapy. We believe this approach should be the starting point for autologous cellular therapies using 'natural' gene therapy in RDEB and other diseases. PMID:24317394

  13. Site-specific recombinase strategy to create induced pluripotent stem cells efficiently with plasmid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karow, Marisa; Chavez, Christopher L; Farruggio, Alfonso P; Geisinger, Jonathan M; Keravala, Annahita; Jung, W Edward; Lan, Feng; Wu, Joseph C; Chen-Tsai, Yanru; Calos, Michele P

    2011-11-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have revolutionized the stem cell field. iPSCs are most often produced by using retroviruses. However, the resulting cells may be ill-suited for clinical applications. Many alternative strategies to make iPSCs have been developed, but the nonintegrating strategies tend to be inefficient, while the integrating strategies involve random integration. Here, we report a facile strategy to create murine iPSCs that uses plasmid DNA and single transfection with sequence-specific recombinases. PhiC31 integrase was used to insert the reprogramming cassette into the genome, producing iPSCs. Cre recombinase was then used for excision of the reprogramming genes. The iPSCs were demonstrated to be pluripotent by in vitro and in vivo criteria, both before and after excision of the reprogramming cassette. This strategy is comparable with retroviral approaches in efficiency, but is nonhazardous for the user, simple to perform, and results in nonrandom integration of a reprogramming cassette that can be readily deleted. We demonstrated the efficiency of this reprogramming and excision strategy in two accessible cell types, fibroblasts and adipose stem cells. This simple strategy produces pluripotent stem cells that have the potential to be used in a clinical setting. PMID:21898697

  14. Active Components of Fungus Shiraia bambusiscola Can Specifically Induce BGC823 Gastric Cancer Cell Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shubing; Qiu, Dewen; Liu, Jingjiang; Li, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Objective Gastric cancer is a major health issue worldwide. Using a therapeutic approach, with minor side-effects, is very essential for the treatment of the gastric cancer. Shiraia bambusicola is a parasitic fungus which is widely used in China for curing several diseases with little side-effects. However, the mechanisms are not well understood yet. The aim of this study was to further understand the pharmacological mechanisms of Shiraia bambusicola and investigate whether it can be used for curing gastric cancer. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we mainly tested the effect of active components extracted from Shiraia bambusicola on BGC823, A549 and HepG2 cells. We used MTT assay to test cell viability. We also analyzed morphologic changes caused by apoptosis using Hoechst 33342 fluorescence staining, as well as cell cycle status and apoptosis ratio using flow-cytometer. In addition, protein expression level was tested by Western-blotting assay. Results BGC-823 cell proliferation was specifically inhibited by active components of Shiraia bambusicola. Meanwhile, these active components could induce BGC-823 cells apoptosis and retard the cell cycle in S/G2 phase. We also determined that two critical protein markers cleaved Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), involved in apoptosis process, were regulated by these active components. Conclusion These data shed light on the treatment of human gastric cancer and conclude that Shiraia bambusicola can be a good therapeutic candidate for treatment of this malignancy.

  15. Akt inhibition enhances expansion of potent tumor-specific lymphocytes with memory cell characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Joseph G.; Sukumar, Madhusudhanan; Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Clever, David; Gros, Alena; Eil, Robert; Tran, Eric; Hanada, Ken-ichi; Yu, Zhiya; Palmer, Douglas C.; Kerkar, Sid P.; Michalek, Ryan D.; Upham, Trevor; Leonardi, Anthony; Aquavella, Nicholas; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M.; Gattinoni, Luca; Muranski, Pawel; Sundrud, Mark S.; Klebanoff, Christopher A.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Fearon, Douglas T.; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) using autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) can result in complete regression of advanced cancer in some patients, but the efficacy of this potentially curative therapy might be limited by poor persistence of TIL after adoptive-transfer. Pharmacologic inhibition of the serine/threonine kinase Akt has recently been shown to promote immunologic memory in viral-specific murine models, but whether this approach may enhance features of memory (e.g. long-term persistence) in TIL which are characteristically exhausted and senescent is not established. Here we show that pharmacologic inhibition of Akt enables expansion of TIL with the transcriptional, metabolic and functional properties characteristic of memory T cells. Consequently, Akt inhibition results in enhanced persistence of TIL after adoptive transfer into an immunodeficient animal model and augments anti-tumor immunity of CD8 T cells in a mouse model of cell-based immunotherapy. Pharmacologic inhibition of Akt represents a novel immunometabolomic approach to enhance the persistence of anti-tumor T cells and improve the efficacy of cell-based immunotherapy for metastatic cancer. PMID:25432172

  16. Amiloride enhances antigen specific CTL by faciliting HBV DNA vaccine entry into cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Geng

    Full Text Available The induction of relatively weak immunity by DNA vaccines in humans can be largely attributed to the low efficiency of transduction of somatic cells. Although formulation with liposomes has been shown to enhance DNA transduction of cultured cells, little, if any, effect is observed on the transduction of somatic tissues and cells. To improve the rate of transduction, DNA vaccine delivery by gene gun and the recently developed electroporation techniques have been employed. We report here that to circumvent requirement for such equipment, amiloride, a drug that is prescribed for hypertension treatment, can accelerate plasmid entry into antigen presenting cells (APCs both in vitro and in vivo. The combination induced APCs more dramatically in both maturation and cytokine secretion. Amiloride enhanced development of full CD8 cytolytic function including induction of high levels of antigen specific CTL and expression of IFN-γ+perforin+granzymeB+ in CD8+ T cells. Thus, amiloride is a facilitator for DNA transduction into host cells which in turn enhances the efficiency of the immune responses.

  17. Non-specific chemical inhibition of the Fanconi anemia pathway sensitizes cancer cells to cisplatin

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    Jacquemont Céline

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platinum compounds such as cisplatin and carboplatin are DNA crosslinking agents widely used for cancer chemotherapy. However, the effectiveness of platinum compounds is often tempered by the acquisition of cellular drug resistance. Until now, no pharmacological approach has successfully overcome cisplatin resistance in cancer treatment. Since the Fanconi anemia (FA pathway is a DNA damage response pathway required for cellular resistance to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents, identification of small molecules that inhibit the FA pathway may reveal classes of chemicals that sensitize cancer cells to cisplatin. Results Through a cell-based screening assay of over 16,000 chemicals, we identified 26 small molecules that inhibit ionizing radiation and cisplatin-induced FANCD2 foci formation, a marker of FA pathway activity, in multiple human cell lines. Most of these small molecules also compromised ionizing radiation-induced RAD51 foci formation and homologous recombination repair, indicating that they are not selective toward the regulation of FANCD2. These compounds include known inhibitors of the proteasome, cathepsin B, lysosome, CHK1, HSP90, CDK and PKC, and several uncharacterized chemicals including a novel proteasome inhibitor (Chembridge compound 5929407. Isobologram analyses demonstrated that half of the identified molecules sensitized ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin. Among them, 9 demonstrated increased efficiency toward FA pathway-proficient, cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Six small molecules, including bortezomib (proteasome inhibitor, CA-074-Me (cathepsin B inhibitor and 17-AAG (HSP90 inhibitor, synergized with cisplatin specifically in FA-proficient ovarian cancer cells (2008 + FANCF, but not in FA-deficient isogenic cells (2008. In addition, geldanamycin (HSP90 inhibitor and two CHK1 inhibitors (UCN-01 and SB218078 exhibited a significantly stronger synergism with cisplatin in FA

  18. NaBH4/NaNO3/H2O: A Convenient System for Selective Reduction of Aldehydes VS. Ketones to their Corresponding Alcohols

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    Soheila Ghaderi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available NaBH4 (1.25 equivalents & NaNO3 (3 equivalents reduce a variety of aldehydes in the presence of ketones to their corresponding alcohols. Also, regioselectivity and exclusive 1,2-reduction enals to their corresponding allylic alcohols in high to excellent yields was achieved successfully with this reducing system. The reduction reactions were carried out in water as green solvent in high to excellent yields of the products. A nitrate-borane complex [H3B-NO3]Na is possibly the active reductant in the reaction mixture.

  19. Electrochemical corrosion studies on copper-base waste package container materials in unirradiated 0.1 N NaNO3 at 95 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three candidate materials were investigated in this study in terms of their electrochemical corrosion behavior in unirradiated 0.1 N NaNO3 solutions at 95 degrees C. Anodic polarization experiments were conducted to determine the passive current densities, pitting potentials, and other parameters, together with Cyclic Current Reversal Voltammetry tests to evaluate the stability and protectiveness of the passive oxides formed. X-ray diffraction and Auger Electron Spectroscopy were used for identification of the corrosion products as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy for the surface morphology studies. 2 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Cardiovascular Disease Modeling Using Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Atsushi Tanaka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs has opened up a new scientific frontier in medicine. This technology has made it possible to obtain pluripotent stem cells from individuals with genetic disorders. Because iPSCs carry the identical genetic anomalies related to those disorders, iPSCs are an ideal platform for medical research. The pathophysiological cellular phenotypes of genetically heritable heart diseases such as arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies, have been modeled on cell culture dishes using disease-specific iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. These model systems can potentially provide new insights into disease mechanisms and drug discoveries. This review focuses on recent progress in cardiovascular disease modeling using iPSCs, and discusses problems and future perspectives concerning their use.

  1. Specific inhibition of secreted NRG1 types I-II by heparin enhances Schwann Cell myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshed-Eisenbach, Yael; Gordon, Aaron; Sukhanov, Natalya; Peles, Elior

    2016-07-01

    Primary cultures of mixed neuron and Schwann cells prepared from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are extensively used as a model to study myelination. These dissociated DRG cultures have the particular advantage of bypassing the difficulty in purifying mouse Schwann cells, which is often required when using mutant mice. However, the drawback of this experimental system is that it yields low amounts of myelin. Here we report a simple and efficient method to enhance myelination in vitro. We show that the addition of heparin or low molecular weight heparin to mixed DRG cultures markedly increases Schwann cells myelination. The myelin promoting activity of heparin results from specific inhibition of the soluble immunoglobulin (Ig)-containing isoforms of neuregulin 1 (i.e., NRG1 types I and II) that negatively regulates myelination. Heparin supplement provides a robust and reproducible method to increase myelination in a simple and commonly used culture system. GLIA 2016;64:1227-1234. PMID:27143444

  2. O-Specific Polysaccharide-Specific Memory B Cell Responses in Young Children, Older Children, and Adults Infected with Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Amena; Rahman, M Arifur; Afrin, Sadia; Faruk, M Omar; Uddin, Taher; Akter, Aklima; Sami, M Israk Nur; Yasmin, Tahirah; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I; Leung, Daniel T; LaRocque, Regina C; Charles, Richelle C; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Mandlik, Anjali; Kelly, Meagan; Kováč, Pavol; Xu, Peng; Calderwood, Stephen B; Harris, Jason B; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T

    2016-05-01

    Cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 confers at least 3 to 10 years of protection against subsequent disease regardless of age, despite a relatively rapid fall in antibody levels in peripheral blood, suggesting that memory B cell responses may play an important role in protection. The V. cholerae O1-specific polysaccharide (OSP) component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is responsible for serogroup specificity, and it is unclear if young children are capable of developing memory B cell responses against OSP, a T cell-independent antigen, following cholera. To address this, we assessed OSP-specific memory B cell responses in young children (2 to 5 years, n = 11), older children (6 to 17 years, n = 21), and adults (18 to 55 years, n = 28) with cholera caused by V. cholerae O1 in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We also assessed memory B cell responses against LPS and vibriocidal responses, and plasma antibody responses against OSP, LPS, and cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB; a T cell-dependent antigen) on days 2 and 7, as well as days 30, 90, and 180 after convalescence. In all age cohorts, vibriocidal responses and plasma OSP, LPS, and CtxB-specific responses peaked on day 7 and fell toward baseline over the follow-up period. In comparison, we were able to detect OSP memory B cell responses in all age cohorts of patients with detectable responses over baseline for 90 to 180 days. Our results suggest that OSP-specific memory B cell responses can occur following cholera, even in the youngest children, and may explain in part the age-independent induction of long-term immunity following naturally acquired disease. PMID:27009211

  3. Glucose-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery and their specific interaction with tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Ma, Fang-Kui; Dang, Qi-Feng; Liang, Xing-Guo; Chen, Xi-Guang

    2014-12-01

    A novel targeted drug delivery system, glucose-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles (GCNPs), was developed for specific recognition and interaction with glucose transporters (Gluts) over-expressed by tumor cells. GC was synthesized by using succinic acid as a linker between glucosamine and chitosan (CS), and successful synthesis was confirmed by NMR and elemental analysis. GCNPs were prepared by ionic crosslinking method, and characterized in terms of morphology, size, and zeta potential. The optimally prepared nanoparticles showed spherical shapes with an average particle size of (187.9 ± 3.8) nm and a zeta potential of (- 15.43 ± 0.31) mV. The GCNPs showed negligible cytotoxicity to mouse embryo fibroblast and 4T1 cells. Doxorubicin (DOX) could be efficiently entrapped into GCNPs, with a loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency of 20.11% and 64.81%, respectively. DOX-loaded nanoparticles exhibited sustained-release behavior in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4). In vitro cellular uptake studies showed that the GCNPs had better endocytosis ability than CSNPs, and the antitumor activity of DOX/GCNPs was 4-5 times effectiveness in 4T1 cell killing than that of DOX/CSNPs. All the results demonstrate that nanoparticles decorated with glucose have specific interactions with cancer cells via the recognition between glucose and Gluts. Therefore, Gluts-targeted GCNPs may be promising delivery agents in cancer therapies.

  4. Patients with Multiple Myeloma Develop SOX2-Specific Autoantibodies after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

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    Sebastian Kobold

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of SOX2-specific autoantibodies seems to be associated with an improved prognosis in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS. However, it is unclear if SOX2-specific antibodies also develop in established multiple myeloma (MM. Screening 1094 peripheral blood (PB sera from 196 MM patients and 100 PB sera from healthy donors, we detected SOX2-specific autoantibodies in 7.7% and 2.0% of patients and donors, respectively. We identified SOX2211–230 as an immunodominant antibody-epitope within the full protein sequence. SOX2 antigen was expressed in most healthy tissues and its expression did not correlate with the number of BM-resident plasma cells. Accordingly, anti-SOX2 immunity was not related to SOX2 expression levels or tumor burden in the patients’ BM. The only clinical factor predicting the development of anti-SOX2 immunity was application of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT. Anti-SOX2 antibodies occurred more frequently in patients who had received alloSCT (n=74. Moreover, most SOX2-seropositive patients had only developed antibodies after alloSCT. This finding indicates that alloSCT is able to break tolerance towards this commonly expressed antigen. The questions whether SOX2-specific autoantibodies merely represent an epiphenomenon, are related to graft-versus-host effects or participate in the immune control of myeloma needs to be answered in prospective studies.

  5. Roles of specific lipid species in the cell and their molecular mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tomohiro; Jennings, William; Epand, Richard M

    2016-04-01

    Thousands of different molecular species of lipids are present within a single cell, being involved in modulating the basic processes of life. The vast number of different lipid species can be organized into a number of different lipid classes, which may be defined as a group of lipids with a common chemical structure, such as the headgroup, apart from the nature of the hydrocarbon chains. Each lipid class has unique biological roles. In some cases, a relatively small change in the headgroup chemical structure can result in a drastic change in function. Such phenomena are well documented, and largely understood in terms of specific interactions with proteins. In contrast, there are observations that the entire structural specificity of a lipid molecule, including the hydrocarbon chains, is required for biological activity through specific interactions with membrane proteins. Understanding of these phenomena represents a fundamental change in our thinking of the functions of lipids in biology. There are an increasing number of diverse examples of roles for specific lipids in cellular processes including: Signal transduction; trafficking; morphological changes; cell division. We are gaining knowledge and understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. They are of growing importance in both basic and applied sciences. PMID:26875545

  6. Tissue-Specific Gain of RTK Signalling Uncovers Selective Cell Vulnerability during Embryogenesis.

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    Yannan Fan

    Full Text Available The successive events that cells experience throughout development shape their intrinsic capacity to respond and integrate RTK inputs. Cellular responses to RTKs rely on different mechanisms of regulation that establish proper levels of RTK activation, define duration of RTK action, and exert quantitative/qualitative signalling outcomes. The extent to which cells are competent to deal with fluctuations in RTK signalling is incompletely understood. Here, we employ a genetic system to enhance RTK signalling in a tissue-specific manner. The chosen RTK is the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF receptor Met, an appropriate model due to its pleiotropic requirement in distinct developmental events. Ubiquitously enhanced Met in Cre/loxP-based Rosa26(stopMet knock-in context (Del-R26(Met reveals that most tissues are capable of buffering enhanced Met-RTK signalling thus avoiding perturbation of developmental programs. Nevertheless, this ubiquitous increase of Met does compromise selected programs such as myoblast migration. Using cell-type specific Cre drivers, we genetically showed that altered myoblast migration results from ectopic Met expression in limb mesenchyme rather than in migrating myoblasts themselves. qRT-PCR analyses show that ectopic Met in limbs causes molecular changes such as downregulation in the expression levels of Notum and Syndecan4, two known regulators of morphogen gradients. Molecular and functional studies revealed that ectopic Met expression in limb mesenchyme does not alter HGF expression patterns and levels, but impairs HGF bioavailability. Together, our findings show that myoblasts, in which Met is endogenously expressed, are capable of buffering increased RTK levels, and identify mesenchymal cells as a cell type vulnerable to ectopic Met-RTK signalling. These results illustrate that embryonic cells are sensitive to alterations in the spatial distribution of RTK action, yet resilient to fluctuations in signalling levels of an

  7. Specific residues of the GDP/GTP exchange factor Bud5p are involved in establishment of the cell type-specific budding pattern in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Pil Jung; Lee, Bongyong; Park, Hay-Oak

    2004-07-01

    Cells of the budding yeast undergo oriented cell division by choosing a specific site for growth depending on their cell type. Haploid a and alpha cells bud in an axial pattern whereas diploid a/alpha cells bud in a bipolar pattern. The Ras-like GTPase Rsr1p/Bud1p, its GDP-GTP exchange factor Bud5p, and its GTPase-activating protein Bud2p are essential for selecting the proper site for polarized growth in all cell types. Here we showed that specific residues at the N terminus and the C terminus of Bud5p were important for bipolar budding, while some residues were involved in both axial and bipolar budding. These bipolar-specific mutations of BUD5 disrupted proper localization of Bud5p in diploid a/alpha cells without affecting Bud5p localization in haploid alpha cells. In contrast, Bud5p expressed in the bud5 mutants defective in both budding patterns failed to localize in all cell types. Thus, these results identify specific residues of Bud5p that are likely to be involved in direct interaction with spatial landmarks, which recruit Bud5p to the proper bud site. Finally, we found a new start codon of BUD5, which extends the open reading frame to 210 bp upstream of the previously estimated start site, thus encoding a polypeptide of 608 amino acid residues. Bud5p with these additional N-terminal residues interacted with Bud8p, a potential bipolar landmark, suggesting that the N-terminal region is necessary for recognition of the spatial cues. PMID:15136576

  8. Intracellular lysyl oxidase: Effect of a specific inhibitor on nuclear mass in proliferating cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LOX, the principal enzyme involved in crosslinking of collagen, was the first of several lysyl oxidase isotypes to be characterized. Its active form was believed to be exclusively extracellular. Active LOX was later reported to be present in cell nuclei; its function there is unknown. LOX expression opposes the effect of mutationally activated Ras, which is present in about 30% of human cancers. The mechanism of LOX in countering the action of Ras is also unknown. In the present work, assessment of nuclear protein for possible effects of lysyl oxidase activity led to the discovery that proliferating cells dramatically increase their nuclear protein content when exposed to BAPN (β-aminopropionitrile), a highly specific lysyl oxidase inhibitor that reportedly blocks LOX inhibition of Ras-induced oocyte maturation. In three cell types (PC12 cells, A7r5 smooth muscle cells, and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts), BAPN caused a 1.8-, 1.7-, and 2.1-fold increase in total nuclear protein per cell, respectively, affecting all major components in both nuclear matrix and chromatin fractions. Since nuclear size is correlated with proliferative status, enzyme activity restricting nuclear growth may be involved in the lysyl oxidase tumor suppressive effect. Evidence is also presented for the presence of apparent lysyl oxidase isotype(s) containing a highly conserved LOX active site sequence in the nuclei of PC12 cells, which do not manufacture extracellular lysyl oxidase substrates. Results reported here support the hypothesis that nuclear lysyl oxidase regulates nuclear growth, and thereby modulates cell proliferation.

  9. Early specification of limb muscle precursor cells by the homeobox gene Lbx1h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, K; Braun, T

    1999-10-01

    During vertebrate embryogenesis, myogenic precursor cells of limb muscles delaminate from the ventro-lateral edge of the somitic dermomyotome and migrate to the limb buds, where they congregate into dorsal and ventral muscle masses. It has been proposed that the surrounding connective tissue controls muscle pattern formation in limbs. Regulatory molecules such as receptor tyrosine kinases like c-Met ( ref. 6) and those encoded by homeobox-containing genes, including c-Met (ref. 6), Tbx1 (ref. 7), Mox2 (ref. 8), Six1 and Six2 (ref. 9), Pitx2, Pax3 (refs 10,11) and Lbx1h (refs 12,13), are expressed in migrating limb precursor cells. The role of these genes in the patterning of limb muscles is unknown, although mutation of Pax3 or Met causes disruption of limb muscle development at an initial step, disturbing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of the somitic epithelium. No limb muscle cells form in these mutants, and the early loss of myogenic precursor cells prevented an analysis of later functions of these genes during limb muscle development. Based on quail-chick chimaera studies, it was assumed that a cell-autonomous contribution of myogenic cells to the formation of individual limb muscles is negligible, and that an instructive role of limb mesenchyme is critical in this process. Here we show that Lbx1h determines migratory routes of muscle precursor cells in a cell-autonomous manner, thereby leading to the formation of distinct limb muscle patterns. Inactivation of Lbx1h, which is specifically expressed in migrating muscle precursor cells, led to a lack of extensor muscles in forelimbs and an absence of muscles in hindlimbs. The defect was caused by the failure of all muscle precursor cells of hindlimbs and of precursor cells of extensor muscles of forelimbs to migrate to their corresponding muscle anlagen. Our results demonstrate that Lbx1h is a key regulator of muscle precursor cell migration and is required for the acquisition of dorsal identities of

  10. Vaccine Induction of Lymph Node-Resident Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Env-Specific T Follicular Helper Cells in Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A; Demers, Andrew; Shaw, Julia M; Kang, Guobin; Ball, David; Tuero, Iskra; Musich, Thomas; Mohanram, Venkatramanan; Demberg, Thorsten; Karpova, Tatiana S; Li, Qingsheng; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2016-02-15

    Measurement of Ag-specific T follicular helper (TFH) cell activity in rhesus macaques has not previously been reported. Given that rhesus macaques are the animal model of choice for evaluating protective efficacy of HIV/SIV vaccine candidates and that TFH cells play a pivotal role in aiding B cell maturation, quantifying vaccine induction of HIV/SIV-specific TFH cells would greatly benefit vaccine development. In this study, we quantified SIV Env-specific IL-21-producing TFH cells for the first time, to our knowledge, in a nonhuman primate vaccine study. Macaques were primed twice mucosally with adenovirus 5 host range mutant recombinants encoding SIV Env, Rev, Gag, and Nef followed by two i.m. boosts with monomeric SIV gp120 or oligomeric SIV gp140 proteins. At 2 wk after the second protein boost, we obtained lymph node biopsy specimens and quantified the frequency of total and SIV Env-specific IL-21(+) TFH cells and total germinal center B cells, the size and number of germinal centers, and the frequency of SIV-specific Ab-secreting cells in B cell zones. Multiple correlation analyses established the importance of TFH for development of B cell responses in systemic and mucosally localized compartments, including blood, bone marrow, and rectum. Our results suggest that the SIV-specific TFH cells, initially induced by replicating adenovirus-recombinant priming, are long lived. The multiple correlations of SIV Env-specific TFH cells with systemic and mucosal SIV-specific B cell responses indicate that this cell population should be further investigated in HIV vaccine development as a novel correlate of immunity. PMID:26773147

  11. Quantification of Non-Specific Binding of Magnetic Micro and Nano particles using Cell Tracking Velocimetry: Implication for magnetic cell separation and detection

    OpenAIRE

    Chalmers, J. J.; Xiong, Y; X. Jin; Shao, M.; Tong, X; Farag, S.; Zborowski, M.

    2010-01-01

    The maturation of magnetic cell separation technology places increasing demands on magnetic cell separation performance. While a number of factors can cause suboptimal performance, one of the major challenges can be non-specific binding of magnetic nano or micro particles to non-targeted cells. Depending on the type of separation, this non-specific binding can have a negative effect on the final purity, the recovery of the targeted cells, or both. In this work, we quantitatively demonstrate t...

  12. Dissecting the fission yeast regulatory network reveals phase-specific control elements of its cell cycle

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    Liu Liwen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are among the original model organisms in the study of the cell-division cycle. Unlike budding yeast, no large-scale regulatory network has been constructed for fission yeast. It has only been partially characterized. As a result, important regulatory cascades in budding yeast have no known or complete counterpart in fission yeast. Results By integrating genome-wide data from multiple time course cell cycle microarray experiments we reconstructed a gene regulatory network. Based on the network, we discovered in addition to previously known regulatory hubs in M phase, a new putative regulatory hub in the form of the HMG box transcription factor SPBC19G7.04. Further, we inferred periodic activities of several less known transcription factors over the course of the cell cycle, identified over 500 putative regulatory targets and detected many new phase-specific and conserved cis-regulatory motifs. In particular, we show that SPBC19G7.04 has highly significant periodic activity that peaks in early M phase, which is coordinated with the late G2 activity of the forkhead transcription factor fkh2. Finally, using an enhanced Bayesian algorithm to co-cluster the expression data, we obtained 31 clusters of co-regulated genes 1 which constitute regulatory modules from different phases of the cell cycle, 2 whose phase order is coherent across the 10 time course experiments, and 3 which lead to identification of phase-specific control elements at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in S. pombe. In particular, the ribosome biogenesis clusters expressed in G2 phase reveal new, highly conserved RNA motifs. Conclusion Using a systems-level analysis of the phase-specific nature of the S. pombe cell cycle gene regulation, we have provided new testable evidence for post-transcriptional regulation in the G2 phase of the fission yeast cell cycle

  13. Therapeutic limitations in tumor-specific CD8+ memory T cell engraftment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adoptive immunotherapy with cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) represents an alternative approach to treating solid tumors. Ideally, this would confer long-term protection against tumor. We previously demonstrated that in vitro-generated tumor-specific CTL from the ovalbumin (OVA)-specific OT-I T cell receptor transgenic mouse persisted long after adoptive transfer as memory T cells. When recipient mice were challenged with the OVA-expressing E.G7 thymoma, tumor growth was delayed and sometimes prevented. The reasons for therapeutic failures were not clear. OT-I CTL were adoptively transferred to C57BL/6 mice 21 – 28 days prior to tumor challenge. At this time, the donor cells had the phenotypical and functional characteristics of memory CD8+ T cells. Recipients which developed tumor despite adoptive immunotherapy were analyzed to evaluate the reason(s) for therapeutic failure. Dose-response studies demonstrated that the degree of tumor protection was directly proportional to the number of OT-I CTL adoptively transferred. At a low dose of OT-I CTL, therapeutic failure was attributed to insufficient numbers of OT-I T cells that persisted in vivo, rather than mechanisms that actively suppressed or anergized the OT-I T cells. In recipients of high numbers of OT-I CTL, the E.G7 tumor that developed was shown to be resistant to fresh OT-I CTL when examined ex vivo. Furthermore, these same tumor cells no longer secreted a detectable level of OVA. In this case, resistance to immunotherapy was secondary to selection of clones of E.G7 that expressed a lower level of tumor antigen. Memory engraftment with tumor-specific CTL provides long-term protection against tumor. However, there are several limitations to this immunotherapeutic strategy, especially when targeting a single antigen. This study illustrates the importance of administering large numbers of effectors to engraft sufficiently efficacious immunologic memory. It also demonstrates the importance of targeting several

  14. CHD7 targets active gene enhancer elements to modulate ES cell-specific gene expression.

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    Michael P Schnetz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available CHD7 is one of nine members of the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding domain family of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes found in mammalian cells. De novo mutation of CHD7 is a major cause of CHARGE syndrome, a genetic condition characterized by multiple congenital anomalies. To gain insights to the function of CHD7, we used the technique of chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel DNA sequencing (ChIP-Seq to map CHD7 sites in mouse ES cells. We identified 10,483 sites on chromatin bound by CHD7 at high confidence. Most of the CHD7 sites show features of gene enhancer elements. Specifically, CHD7 sites are predominantly located distal to transcription start sites, contain high levels of H3K4 mono-methylation, found within open chromatin that is hypersensitive to DNase I digestion, and correlate with ES cell-specific gene expression. Moreover, CHD7 co-localizes with P300, a known enhancer-binding protein and strong predictor of enhancer activity. Correlations with 18 other factors mapped by ChIP-seq in mouse ES cells indicate that CHD7 also co-localizes with ES cell master regulators OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG. Correlations between CHD7 sites and global gene expression profiles obtained from Chd7(+/+, Chd7(+/-, and Chd7(-/- ES cells indicate that CHD7 functions at enhancers as a transcriptional rheostat to modulate, or fine-tune the expression levels of ES-specific genes. CHD7 can modulate genes in either the positive or negative direction, although negative regulation appears to be the more direct effect of CHD7 binding. These data indicate that enhancer-binding proteins can limit gene expression and are not necessarily co-activators. Although ES cells are not likely to be affected in CHARGE syndrome, we propose that enhancer-mediated gene dysregulation contributes to disease pathogenesis and that the critical CHD7 target genes may be subject to positive or negative regulation.

  15. Disturbed α-Cell Function in Mice with β-Cell Specific Overexpression of Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

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    Bo Ahrén

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous administration of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP has been shown to inhibit both insulin and glucagon secretion. This study examined α-cell function in mice with β-cell specific overexpression of human IAPP (hIAPP after an oral protein gavage (75 mg whey protein/mouse. Baseline glucagon levels were higher in transgenic mice (41±4.0 pg/mL, n=6 than in wildtype animals (19±5.1 pg/mL, n=5, P=.015. In contrast, the glucagon response to protein was impaired in transgenic animals (21±2.7 pg/mL in transgenic mice versus 38±5.7 pg/mL in wildtype mice at 15 minutes; P=.027. Baseline insulin levels did not differ between the groups, while the insulin response, as the glucagon response, was impaired after protein challenge (P=.018. Glucose levels were not different between the groups and did not change significantly after protein gavage. Acetaminophen was given through gavage to the animals (2 mg/mouse to estimate gastric emptying. The plasma acetaminophen profile was similar in the two groups of mice. We conclude that disturbances in glucagon secretion exist in mice with β-cell specific overexpression of human IAPP, which are not secondary to changes in gastric emptying. The reduced glucagon response to protein challenge may reflect a direct inhibitory influence of hIAPP on glucagon secretion.

  16. P2X7 receptor predicts postoperative cancer-specific survival of patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Liu, Yidong; Xu, Le; An, Huimin; Chang, Yuan; Yang, Yuanfeng; Zhang, Weijuan; Xu, Jiejie

    2015-09-01

    The P2X7 receptor, an ATP-gated plasma membrane ion channel, is involved in inflammation, apoptosis and cell proliferation, and thereby plays a crucial role during oncogenic transformation in various malignancies. This study aims to evaluate the impact of P2X7 receptor expression on postoperative cancer-specific survival of patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). A total of 273 patients with ccRCC undergoing nephrectomy at a single institution were retrospectively enrolled in this study, among which 86 patients died of this disease and six patients died of other causes. Clinicopathologic features and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were recorded. P2X7 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in clinical specimens. Kaplan-Meier method with log rank test was performed to compare survival curves. Cox regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic values of variables on CSS. Concordance index was calculated to assess prognostic accuracy of prognostic models. Median follow-up period was 90 months (range, 11-120 months). Intratumoral P2X7 expression was significantly lower than peritumoral tissues (P independent prognostic factor for CSS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.693; P = 0.034). The prognostic accuracy of TNM stage, UISS and SSIGN scoring models was improved when intratumoral P2X7 expression was added. Intratumoral P2X7 expression is a potential independent adverse prognostic indicator for postoperative CSS of patients with ccRCC. PMID:26179886

  17. Identifying functional cancer-specific miRNA-mRNA interactions in testicular germ cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghat, Nafiseh; Fathy, Mahmood; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein; Shojaie, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men aged between 15 and 35 and more than 90% of testicular neoplasms are originated at germ cells. Recent research has shown the impact of microRNAs (miRNAs) in different types of cancer, including testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT). MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs which affect the development and progression of cancer cells by binding to mRNAs and regulating their expressions. The identification of functional miRNA-mRNA interactions in cancers, i.e. those that alter the expression of genes in cancer cells, can help delineate post-regulatory mechanisms and may lead to new treatments to control the progression of cancer. A number of sequence-based methods have been developed to predict miRNA-mRNA interactions based on the complementarity of sequences. While necessary, sequence complementarity is, however, not sufficient for presence of functional interactions. Alternative methods have thus been developed to refine the sequence-based interactions using concurrent expression profiles of miRNAs and mRNAs. This study aims to find functional cancer-specific miRNA-mRNA interactions in TGCT. To this end, the sequence-based predicted interactions are first refined using an ensemble learning method, based on two well-known methods of learning miRNA-mRNA interactions, namely, TaLasso and GenMiR++. Additional functional analyses were then used to identify a subset of interactions to be most likely functional and specific to TGCT. The final list of 13 miRNA-mRNA interactions can be potential targets for identifying TGCT-specific interactions and future laboratory experiments to develop new therapies. PMID:27235586

  18. Alterations in regulatory T cells induced by specific oligosaccharides improve vaccine responsiveness in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel A Schijf

    Full Text Available Prophylactic vaccinations are generally performed to protect naïve individuals with or without suppressed immune responsiveness. In a mouse model for Influenza vaccinations the specific alterations of CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs in the immune modulation induced by orally supplied oligosaccharides containing scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS was assessed. This dietary intervention increased vaccine specific DTH responses. In addition, a significant increased percentage of T-bet(+ (Th1 activated CD69(+CD4(+ T cells (p<0.001 and reduced percentage of Gata-3(+ (Th2 activated CD69(+CD4(+T cells (p<0.001 was detected in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN of mice receiving scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS compared to control mice. Although no difference in the number or percentage of Tregs (CD4(+Foxp3(+ could be determined after scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS intervention, the percentage of CXCR3 (+ /T-bet(+ (Th1-Tregs was significantly reduced (p<0.05 in mice receiving scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS as compared to mice receiving placebo diets. Moreover, although no absolute difference in suppressive capacity could be detected, an alteration in cytokine profile suggests a regulatory T cell shift towards a reducing Th1 suppression profile, supporting an improved vaccination response.These data are indicative for improved vaccine responsiveness due to reduced Th1 suppressive capacity in the Treg population of mice fed the oligosaccharide specific diet, showing compartmentalization within the Treg population. The modulation of Tregs to control immune responses provides an additional arm of intervention using alternative strategies possibly leading to the development of improved vaccines.

  19. A novel method for monitoring functional lesion-specific recruitment of repair proteins in live cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A method of monitoring lesion-specific recruitment of proteins in vivo is described. • Recruitment of repair enzymes to abasic sites is monitored by co-localization. • Repair protein recruitment is consistent with known protein–protein relationships. • Cells demonstrated complete repair of abasic sites by 90 min. - Abstract: DNA–protein relationships have been studied by numerous methods, but a particular gap in methodology lies in the study of DNA adduct-specific interactions with proteins in vivo, which particularly affects the field of DNA repair. Using the repair of a well-characterized and ubiquitous adduct, the abasic (AP) site, as a model, we have developed a comprehensive method of monitoring DNA lesion-specific recruitment of proteins in vivo over time. We utilized a surrogate system in which a Cy3-labeled plasmid containing a single AP-site was transfected into cells, and the interaction of the labeled DNA with BER enzymes, including APE1, Polβ, LIG1, and FEN1, was monitored by immunofluorescent staining of the enzymes by Alexafluor-488-conjugated secondary antibody. The recruitment of enzymes was characterized by quantification of Cy3-Alexafluor-488 co-localization. To validate the microscopy-based method, repair of the transfected AP-site DNA was also quantified at various time points post-transfection using a real time PCR-based method. Notably, the recruitment time kinetics for each enzyme were consistent with AP-site repair time kinetics. This microscopy-based methodology is reliable in detecting the recruitment of proteins to specific DNA substrates and can be extended to study other in vivo DNA–protein relationships in any DNA sequence and in the context of any DNA structure in transfectable proliferating or quiescent cells. The method may be applied to a variety of disciplines of nucleic acid transaction pathways, including repair, replication, transcription, and recombination

  20. A novel method for monitoring functional lesion-specific recruitment of repair proteins in live cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodrick, Jordan; Gupta, Suhani; Khatkar, Pooja; Dave, Kalpana; Levashova, Darya; Choudhury, Sujata; Elias, Hadi; Saha, Tapas; Mueller, Susette; Roy, Rabindra, E-mail: rr228@georgetown.edu

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • A method of monitoring lesion-specific recruitment of proteins in vivo is described. • Recruitment of repair enzymes to abasic sites is monitored by co-localization. • Repair protein recruitment is consistent with known protein–protein relationships. • Cells demonstrated complete repair of abasic sites by 90 min. - Abstract: DNA–protein relationships have been studied by numerous methods, but a particular gap in methodology lies in the study of DNA adduct-specific interactions with proteins in vivo, which particularly affects the field of DNA repair. Using the repair of a well-characterized and ubiquitous adduct, the abasic (AP) site, as a model, we have developed a comprehensive method of monitoring DNA lesion-specific recruitment of proteins in vivo over time. We utilized a surrogate system in which a Cy3-labeled plasmid containing a single AP-site was transfected into cells, and the interaction of the labeled DNA with BER enzymes, including APE1, Polβ, LIG1, and FEN1, was monitored by immunofluorescent staining of the enzymes by Alexafluor-488-conjugated secondary antibody. The recruitment of enzymes was characterized by quantification of Cy3-Alexafluor-488 co-localization. To validate the microscopy-based method, repair of the transfected AP-site DNA was also quantified at various time points post-transfection using a real time PCR-based method. Notably, the recruitment time kinetics for each enzyme were consistent with AP-site repair time kinetics. This microscopy-based methodology is reliable in detecting the recruitment of proteins to specific DNA substrates and can be extended to study other in vivo DNA–protein relationships in any DNA sequence and in the context of any DNA structure in transfectable proliferating or quiescent cells. The method may be applied to a variety of disciplines of nucleic acid transaction pathways, including repair, replication, transcription, and recombination.

  1. An Enhanced ELISPOT Assay for Sensitive Detection of Antigen-Specific T Cell Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi

    OpenAIRE

    Kellermann, Gottfried H.; Lehmann, Paul V; Diana R. Roen; Chenggang Jin

    2013-01-01

    Lyme Borreliosis is an infectious disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi that is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks. Both B cell-mediated humoral immunity and T cell immunity develop during natural Borrelia infection. However, compared with humoral immunity, the T cell response to Borrelia infection has not been well elucidated. In this study, a novel T cell-based assay was developed and validated for the sensitive detection of antigen-specific T cell response to B....

  2. TIM-4, expressed by medullary macrophages, regulates respiratory tolerance by mediating phagocytosis of antigen-specific T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Albacker, Lee A; Yu, Sanhong; Bedoret, Denis; Lee, Wan-Ling; Umetsu, Sarah E.; Monahan, Sheena; Freeman, Gordon J.; Umetsu, Dale T.; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory exposure to antigen induces T cell tolerance via several overlapping mechanisms that limit the immune response. While the mechanisms involved in the development of Treg cells have received much attention, those that result in T cell deletion are largely unknown. Herein, we show that F4/80+ lymph node medullary macrophages expressing TIM-4, a phosphatidylserine receptor, remove antigen-specific T cells during respiratory tolerance, thereby reducing secondary T cell responses. Block...

  3. Survivin-specific small interfering RNAs enhance sensitivity of glioma U-87MG cells to paclitaxel by promoting apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunliang Xie; Yanbo Liu; Weigao Shen; Bo Zhang; Qun Liu

    2012-01-01

    A survivin siRNA expression vector was transfected into glioma U-87MG cells and these cells were then treated with paclitaxel. The results showed that survivin-specific siRNA combined with paclitaxel treatment synergistically inhibited glioma U-87MG cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis. This treatment also inhibited the expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins, survivin, cyclinD1, c-Myc and CDK4 and enhanced the sensitivity of U-87MG cells to paclitaxel.

  4. Isolated tumor endothelial cells maintain specific character during long-term culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor angiogenesis is necessary for solid tumor progression and metastasis. Increasing evidence indicates that tumor endothelial cells (TECs) are more relevant to the study of tumor angiogenesis than normal endothelial cells (NECs) because their morphologies and gene expression are different from NECs. However, it is challenging to isolate and culture large numbers of pure ECs from tumor tissue since the percentage of ECs is only about 1-2% and tumor cells and fibroblasts easily overgrow them. In addition, there has been concern that isolated TECs may lose their special phenotype once they are dissociated from tumor cells. In this study, we have successfully purified murine TECs from four different human tumor xenografts and NECs from murine dermal tissue. Isolated ECs expressed endothelial markers, such as CD31, VE-cadherin (CD144), and endoglin (CD105), for more than 3 months after isolation. TECs maintained tumor endothelial-specific markers, such as tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) and aminopeptidase N (APN), as in tumor blood vessels in vivo. In addition, TECs were more proliferative and motile than NECs. TECs showed a higher response to VEGF and higher expression of VEGF receptors-1 and -2 than NECs did. Stem cell antigen-1 was up-regulated in all four TECs, suggesting that they have a kind of stemness. Cultured TECs maintain distinct biological differences from NECs as in vivo. In conclusion, it was suggested that TECs are relevant material for tumor angiogenesis research.

  5. Facilitation of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation by a T cell-specific immunotoxin containing daunomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daunomycin coupled via an acid-sensitive spacer to monoclonal Thy-1.2-specific antibody was used to purge T lymphocytes from a 1:1 mixture of murine C57BL/6J bone marrow and spleen cells prior to engraftment in fully allogeneic, irradiated BALB/c recipients. Treatment of bone marrow with the immunotoxin at a concentration used for purging had no effect on the viability of committed hematopoietic progenitor or multipotent stem cells. All of the recipients of purged bone marrow were at least 80% chimeric for donor peripheral blood cells and none developed graft-versus-host disease. Out of 50 chimeras, 49 were still alive more than 200 days posttransplantation. The chimeras were shown to be tolerant to donor tissue as tested by mixed lymphocyte reactivity, cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and skin grafting. The same tests revealed full immunocompetence of chimeras to third-party alloantigens. In vivo IgM and IgG antibody responses to sheep red blood cells were similar in magnitude in allogeneically and syngeneically reconstituted mice

  6. New Functional Signatures for Understanding Melanoma Biology from Tumor Cell Lineage-Specific Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Rambow

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular signatures specific to particular tumor types are required to design treatments for resistant tumors. However, it remains unclear whether tumors and corresponding cell lines used for drug development share such signatures. We developed similarity core analysis (SCA, a universal and unsupervised computational framework for extracting core molecular features common to tumors and cell lines. We applied SCA to mRNA/miRNA expression data from various sources, comparing melanoma cell lines and metastases. The signature obtained was associated with phenotypic characteristics in vitro, and the core genes CAPN3 and TRIM63 were implicated in melanoma cell migration/invasion. About 90% of the melanoma signature genes belong to an intrinsic network of transcription factors governing neural development (TFAP2A, DLX2, ALX1, MITF, PAX3, SOX10, LEF1, and GAS7 and miRNAs (211-5p, 221-3p, and 10a-5p. The SCA signature effectively discriminated between two subpopulations of melanoma patients differing in overall survival, and classified MEKi/BRAFi-resistant and -sensitive melanoma cell lines.

  7. Isolated tumor endothelial cells maintain specific character during long-term culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Kohei [Vascular Biology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, N13 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Oral Pathology and Biology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, N13 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, N13 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Ohga, Noritaka [Vascular Biology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, N13 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Hida, Yasuhiro [Surgical Oncology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N13 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Muraki, Chikara [Oral Pathology and Biology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, N13 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, N13 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Kunihiko [Vascular Biology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, N13 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Renal and Genitourinary Surgery, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N13 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Kurosu, Takuro [Vascular Biology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, N13 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Oral Pathology and Biology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, N13 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, N13 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Akino, Tomoshige [Vascular Biology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, N13 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Renal and Genitourinary Surgery, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N13 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Shih, Shou-Ching [Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); and others

    2010-04-16

    Tumor angiogenesis is necessary for solid tumor progression and metastasis. Increasing evidence indicates that tumor endothelial cells (TECs) are more relevant to the study of tumor angiogenesis than normal endothelial cells (NECs) because their morphologies and gene expression are different from NECs. However, it is challenging to isolate and culture large numbers of pure ECs from tumor tissue since the percentage of ECs is only about 1-2% and tumor cells and fibroblasts easily overgrow them. In addition, there has been concern that isolated TECs may lose their special phenotype once they are dissociated from tumor cells. In this study, we have successfully purified murine TECs from four different human tumor xenografts and NECs from murine dermal tissue. Isolated ECs expressed endothelial markers, such as CD31, VE-cadherin (CD144), and endoglin (CD105), for more than 3 months after isolation. TECs maintained tumor endothelial-specific markers, such as tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) and aminopeptidase N (APN), as in tumor blood vessels in vivo. In addition, TECs were more proliferative and motile than NECs. TECs showed a higher response to VEGF and higher expression of VEGF receptors-1 and -2 than NECs did. Stem cell antigen-1 was up-regulated in all four TECs, suggesting that they have a kind of stemness. Cultured TECs maintain distinct biological differences from NECs as in vivo. In conclusion, it was suggested that TECs are relevant material for tumor angiogenesis research.

  8. Chicken globin gene transcription is cell lineage specific during the time of the switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posttranscriptional silencing of embryonic globin gene expression occurs during hemoglobin switching in chickens. Here the authors use Percoll density gradients to fractionate the red blood cells of 5-9 day embryos in order to determine the cellular source and the timing of this posttranscriptional process. By means of nuclear run-on transcription in vitro they show that it is within mature primitive cells that production of embryonic globin mRNA is terminated posttranscriptionally. In contrast, young definitive cells produce little (or no) embryonic globin mRNA because of regulation at the transcriptional level. Thus the lineage specificity of embryonic and adult globin gene expression is determined transcriptionally, and the posttranscriptional process described by Landes et al. is a property of the senescing primitive cells, not a mechanism operative in the hemoglobin switch. This conclusion is supported by [3H]leucine incorporation experiments on Percoll-fractionated cells which reveal no posttranscriptional silencing of the embryonic genes during the early stages of the switch. In the course of these studies they have noticed a strong transcriptional pause near the second exon of the globin genes which is induced by 5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) and which resembles a natural pause near that position

  9. Napsin A is a specific marker for ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yoriko; Nagasaka, Tetsuro; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Sato, Shinya; Suzuki, Shugo; Toyokuni, Shinya; Ito, Masafumi; Takahashi, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma has a relatively poor prognosis among the ovarian cancer subtypes because of its high chemoresistance. Differential diagnosis of clear cell adenocarcinoma from other ovarian surface epithelial tumors is important for its treatment. Napsin A is a known diagnostic marker for lung adenocarcinoma, and expression of napsin A is reported in a certain portion of thyroid and renal carcinomas. However, napsin A expression in ovarian surface epithelial tumors has not previously been examined. In this study, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that in 71 of 86 ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma patients (83%) and all of the 13 patients with ovarian clear cell adenofibroma, positive napsin A staining was evident. No expression was observed in 30 serous adenocarcinomas, 11 serous adenomas or borderline tumors, 19 endometrioid adenocarcinomas, 22 mucinous adenomas or borderline tumors, 10 mucinous adenocarcinomas, or 3 yolk sac tumors of the ovary. Furthermore, expression of napsin A was not observed in the normal surface epithelium of the ovary, epithelia of the fallopian tubes, squamous epithelium, endocervical epithelium, or the endometrium of the uterus. Therefore, we propose that napsin A is another sensitive and specific marker for distinguishing ovarian clear cell tumors (especially adenocarcinomas) from other ovarian tumors. PMID:24721826

  10. Delineation of glutamate pathways and secretory responses in pancreatic islets with β-cell-specific abrogation of the glutamate dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetterli, Laurène; Carobbio, Stefania; Pournourmohammadi, Shirin; Martin-Del-Rio, Rafael; Skytt, Dorte M; Waagepetersen, Helle S.; Tamarit-Rodriguez, Jorge; Maechler, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    In pancreatic β-cells, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) modulates insulin secretion, although its function regarding specific secretagogues is unclear. This study investigated the role of GDH using a β-cell-specific GDH knockout mouse model, called βGlud1(-/-). The absence of GDH in islets isolated ...

  11. The effect of comorbidity on stage-specific survival in resected non-small cell lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Jakobsen, Erik; Krasnik, Mark; Linklater, Karen M; Mellemgaard, Anders; Møller, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    To quantify the effect of comorbidity on stage-specific survival in resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.......To quantify the effect of comorbidity on stage-specific survival in resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients....

  12. Ligand-specific sequential regulation of transcription factors for differentiation of MCF-7 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyoda Tetsuro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sharing a common ErbB/HER receptor signaling pathway, heregulin (HRG induces differentiation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells while epidermal growth factor (EGF elicits proliferation. Although cell fates resulting from action of the aforementioned ligands completely different, the respective gene expression profiles in early transcription are qualitatively similar, suggesting that gene expression during late transcription, but not early transcription, may reflect ligand specificity. In this study, based on both the data from time-course quantitative real-time PCR on over 2,000 human transcription factors and microarray of all human genes, we identified a series of transcription factors which may control HRG-specific late transcription in MCF-7 cells. Results We predicted that four transcription factors including EGR4, FRA-1, FHL2, and DIPA should have responsibility of regulation in MCF-7 cell differentiation. Validation analysis suggested that one member of the activator protein 1 (AP-1 family, FOSL-1 (FRA-1 gene, appeared immediately following c-FOS expression, might be responsible for expression of transcription factor FHL2 through activation of the AP-1 complex. Furthermore, RNAi gene silencing of FOSL-1 and FHL2 resulted in increase of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation of which duration was sustained by HRG stimulation. Conclusion Our analysis indicated that a time-dependent transcriptional regulatory network including c-FOS, FRA-1, and FHL2 is vital in controlling the ERK signaling pathway through a negative feedback loop for MCF-7 cell differentiation.

  13. Valproic acid triggers differentiation and apoptosis in AML1/ETO-positive leukemic cells specifically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapotocky, Michal; Mejstrikova, Ester; Smetana, Karel; Stary, Jan; Trka, Jan; Starkova, Julia

    2012-06-28

    Valproic acid (VPA) has extensive effects on leukemic blasts through its inhibition of histone deacetylases. The main goal of this study was to identify the subgroup of patients who may benefit most from VPA treatment. We examined the significance of t(8;21) chromosomal aberration for VPA treatment response among acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients by direct comparison of AML1/ETO-negative vs. positive leukemic cell-lines as well as bone marrow blasts from AML patients. In t(8;21) AML, leukemogenesis is supposed to be induced via aberrant recruitment of histone deacetylases. AML cell lines of different genotypes (Kasumi-1, Kasumi-6, MV4;11, K562) and diagnostic bone marrow samples from patients were treated with VPA. VPA induced apoptosis in AML1/ETO-positive and MLL-AF4-positive cells in a dose-dependent manner. Differentiation, as indicated by changes in immunophenotype, was observed only in AML1/ETO-positive cells. VPA increased the expression of AML1 target genes - PU.1, C/EBPa, BPI and IGFBP7 only in AML1/ETO-positive cells. This AML1/ETO-specific effect was confirmed also using patient blasts isolated at the time of diagnosis. AML1/ETO-positive leukemia shows specific mechanism of VPA residing from differentiation followed by apoptosis that is accompanied by an increase in the expression of repressed AML1 target genes. Our data suggest that AML1/ETO-positive patients might derive the greatest benefit from VPA treatment. PMID:22261333

  14. Lim homeobox genes in the Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi: the evolution of neural cell type specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons David K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nervous systems are thought to be important to the evolutionary success and diversification of metazoans, yet little is known about the origin of simple nervous systems at the base of the animal tree. Recent data suggest that ctenophores, a group of macroscopic pelagic marine invertebrates, are the most ancient group of animals that possess a definitive nervous system consisting of a distributed nerve net and an apical statocyst. This study reports on details of the evolution of the neural cell type specifying transcription factor family of LIM homeobox containing genes (Lhx, which have highly conserved functions in neural specification in bilaterian animals. Results Using next generation sequencing, the first draft of the genome of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi has been generated. The Lhx genes in all animals are represented by seven subfamilies (Lhx1/5, Lhx3/4, Lmx, Islet, Lhx2/9, Lhx6/8, and LMO of which four were found to be represented in the ctenophore lineage (Lhx1/5, Lhx3/4, Lmx, and Islet. Interestingly, the ctenophore Lhx gene complement is more similar to the sponge complement (sponges do not possess neurons than to either the cnidarian-bilaterian or placozoan Lhx complements. Using whole mount in situ hybridization, the Lhx gene expression patterns were examined and found to be expressed around the blastopore and in cells that give rise to the apical organ and putative neural sensory cells. Conclusion This research gives us a first look at neural cell type specification in the ctenophore M. leidyi. Within M. leidyi, Lhx genes are expressed in overlapping domains within proposed neural cellular and sensory cell territories. These data suggest that Lhx genes likely played a conserved role in the patterning of sensory cells in the ancestor of sponges and ctenophores, and may provide a link to the expression of Lhx orthologs in sponge larval photoreceptive cells. Lhx genes were later co-opted into patterning more

  15. Sensitivity and specificity of tritiated thymidine incorporation and ELISPOT assays in identifying antigen specific T cell immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLeod Beth

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standardization of cell-based immunologic monitoring is becoming increasingly important as methods for measuring cellular immunity become more complex. We assessed the ability of two commonly used cell-based assays, tritiated thymidine incorporation (proliferation and IFN-gamma ELISPOT, to predict T cell responses to HER-2/neu, tetanus toxoid (tt, and cytomegalovirus (CMV antigens. These antigens were determined to be low (HER-2/neu, moderate (tt, and robustly (CMV immunogenic proteins. Samples from 27 Stage II, III, and IV HER-2/neu positive breast cancer patients, vaccinated against the HER-2/neu protein and tt, were analyzed by tritiated thymidine incorporation and IFN-gamma ELISPOT for T cell response. Results Linear regression analysis indicates that both stimulation index (SI (p = 0.011 and IFN-gamma secreting precursor frequency (p Conclusion These data underscore the importance of taking into consideration the performance characteristics of assays used to measure T cell immunity. This consideration is particularly necessary when determining which method to utilize for assessing responses to immunotherapeutic manipulations in cancer patients.

  16. Activation of the Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor Mediates Cell Cycle Inhibition and Cell Death in Specific Cervical Cancer Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgo, Ryan J.; Braden, Wesley A.; Wells, Susanne I.; Knudsen, Erik S.

    2009-01-01

    High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) encodes two oncoproteins, E6 and E7, which are vital to viral replication and contribute to the development of cervical cancer. HPV16 E7 can target over 20 cellular proteins, but is best known for inactivating the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor. RB functions by restraining cells from entering S-phase of the cell cycle, thus preventing aberrant proliferation. While it is well e