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Sample records for cell slick rock

  1. Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Appendix C to Attachment 3, Calculations. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains calculations for: Slick Rock processing sites background ground water quality; Slick Rock processing sites lysimeter water quality; Slick Rock processing sites on-site and downgradient ground water quality; Slick Rock disposal site background water quality; Burro Canyon disposal site, Slick Rock, Colorado, average hydraulic gradients and average liner ground water velocities in the upper, middle, and lower sandstone units of the Burro Canyon formation; Slick Rock--Burro Canyon disposal site, Burro Canyon pumping and slug tests--analyses; water balance and surface contours--Burro Canyon disposal cell; and analytical calculation of drawdown in a hypothetical well completed in the upper sandstone unit of the Burro Canyon formation

  2. Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Appendix C to Attachment 3, Calculations. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This volume contains calculations for: Slick Rock processing sites background ground water quality; Slick Rock processing sites lysimeter water quality; Slick Rock processing sites on-site and downgradient ground water quality; Slick Rock disposal site background water quality; Burro Canyon disposal site, Slick Rock, Colorado, average hydraulic gradients and average liner ground water velocities in the upper, middle, and lower sandstone units of the Burro Canyon formation; Slick Rock--Burro Canyon disposal site, Burro Canyon pumping and slug tests--analyses; water balance and surface contours--Burro Canyon disposal cell; and analytical calculation of drawdown in a hypothetical well completed in the upper sandstone unit of the Burro Canyon formation.

  3. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the sites and on vicinity properties (VP) associated with the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contained measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial actions at the Slick Rock sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

  4. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future.

  5. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U3O8 whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future

  6. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U3O8 whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plant (LTSP) describes the US Department of energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action (UMTRA) Project's burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. No ground water monitoring will be required at the Burro Canyon disposal cell because the ground water protection strategy is supplemental standards based on low-yield from the upper-most aquifer

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. Before each disposal cell is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  9. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Burro Canyon disposal cell. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination that remedial action is complete at the Burro Canyon disposal cell and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. Attachment 1 contains the concurrence letters from NRC. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. Ground water monitoring will not be required at the Burro Canyon disposal cell because the ground water protection strategy is supplemental standards based on low yield from the uppermost aquifer

  10. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Burro Canyon disposal cell. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination that remedial action is complete at the Burro Canyon disposal cell and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. Attachment 1 contains the concurrence letters from NRC. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE has implemented to ensure that the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. Ground water monitoring will not be required at the Burro Canyon disposal cell because the ground water protection strategy is supplemental standards based on low yield from the uppermost aquifer. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project's long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR 40.27(b) and 40 CFR 192.03

  11. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the processing sites and on vicinity properties (VPs) associated with the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contained measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect the ground water from further degradation. The sites contain concrete foundations of mill buildings, tailings piles, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive tailings materials. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designated site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the processing sites on land administered by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Remediation would be performed by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project.

  12. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (42 USC section 7901 et seq.), hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miquel County. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 63 acres of the Union Carbide (UC) processing site and 15 ac of the North Continent (NC) processing site. The sites are within 1 mile of each other and are adjacent to the Dolores River. The sites contain concrete foundations of mill buildings, tailings piles, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive tailings materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 621,300 cubic yards (yd3). In addition to the contamination in the two processing site areas, four VPs were found to contain contamination. As a result of the tailings being exposed to the environment, contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into shallow ground water. Surface water has not been affected. The closest residence is approximately 0.3 air mi from either site. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designing site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi northeast of the sites on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM)

  13. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the processing sites and on vicinity properties (VPs) associated with the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contained measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect the ground water from further degradation. The sites contain concrete foundations of mill buildings, tailings piles, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive tailings materials. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designated site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the processing sites on land administered by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Remediation would be performed by the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

  14. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the slick rock Uranium Mill Tailings sites Slick Rock, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (42 USC {section} 7901 et seq.), hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the sites and on vicinity properties (VPs) associated with the sites. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 55 acres of the Union Carbide (UC) processing site and 12 ac of the North Continent (NC) processing site. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 61 8,300 cubic yards. In addition to the contamination in the two processing site areas, four VPs were found to contain contamination. As a result of the tailings being exposed to the environment, contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into shallow ground water. Surface water has not been affected. The closest residence is approximately 0.3 air mi from either site. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designated site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the sites on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Remediation would be performed by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. All solid contaminated materials would be buried under 5 feet (ft) of rock and soil materials. The proposed disposal site area is currently used by ranchers for cattle grazing over a 7-month period. The closest residence to the proposed disposal site is 2 air mi. An estimated 44 ac of land would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future use.

  15. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the slick rock Uranium Mill Tailings sites Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (42 USC section 7901 et seq.), hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the sites and on vicinity properties (VPs) associated with the sites. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 55 acres of the Union Carbide (UC) processing site and 12 ac of the North Continent (NC) processing site. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 61 8,300 cubic yards. In addition to the contamination in the two processing site areas, four VPs were found to contain contamination. As a result of the tailings being exposed to the environment, contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into shallow ground water. Surface water has not been affected. The closest residence is approximately 0.3 air mi from either site. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designated site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the sites on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Remediation would be performed by the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. All solid contaminated materials would be buried under 5 feet (ft) of rock and soil materials. The proposed disposal site area is currently used by ranchers for cattle grazing over a 7-month period. The closest residence to the proposed disposal site is 2 air mi. An estimated 44 ac of land would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future use

  16. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites Slick Rock, Colorado. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the sites and on vicinity properties (VP) associated with the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contained measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial actions at the Slick Rock sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  17. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (42 USC {section}7901 et seq.), hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miquel County. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 63 acres of the Union Carbide (UC) processing site and 15 ac of the North Continent (NC) processing site. The sites are within 1 mile of each other and are adjacent to the Dolores River. The sites contain concrete foundations of mill buildings, tailings piles, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive tailings materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 621,300 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}). In addition to the contamination in the two processing site areas, four VPs were found to contain contamination. As a result of the tailings being exposed to the environment, contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into shallow ground water. Surface water has not been affected. The closest residence is approximately 0.3 air mi from either site. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designing site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi northeast of the sites on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

  18. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the two millsites in Slick Rock, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. The Union Carbide site has 350,000 tons of tailings and the North Continent site now owned by Union Carbide has 37,000 tons of tailings. Both tailings piles have been stabilized in accordance with regulations of the State of Colorado. Radon gas release from the tailings on the sites constitute the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact. Hence the three alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the sites (Option I), and returning the windblown tailings to the piles and stabilizing the piles with cover material (Option II), and consolidating the two piles on the UC site and stabilizing with 2 ft of cover (Option III). Fencing around the tailings piles is included in all options. Options II and III provide 2 ft of cover material on the tailings. Costs of the options range from $370,000 to $1,100,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is not economically feasible.

  19. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the two millsites in Slick Rock, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. The Union Carbide site has 350,000 tons of tailings and the North Continent site now owned by Union Carbide has 37,000 tons of tailings. Both tailings piles have been stabilized in accordance with regulations of the State of Colorado. Radon gas release from the tailings on the sites constitute the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact. Hence the three alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the sites (Option I), and returning the windblown tailings to the piles and stabilizing the piles with cover material (Option II), and consolidating the two piles on the UC site and stabilizing with 2 ft of cover (Option III). Fencing around the tailings piles is included in all options. Options II and III provide 2 ft of cover material on the tailings. Costs of the options range from $370,000 to $1,100,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is not economically feasible

  20. Remedial action and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents geologic considerations that are pertinent to the Remedial Action Plan for Slick Rock mill tailings. Topics covered include regional geology, site geology, geologic stability, and geologic suitability

  1. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites are located near the small town of Slick Rock, in San Miguel County, Colorado. There are two designated UMTRA sites at Slick Rock, the Union Carbide (UC) site and the North Continent (NC) site. Both sites are adjacent to the Dolores River. The UC site is approximately 1 mile (mi) [2 kilometers (km)] downstream of the NC site. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 55 acres (ac) [22 hectares (ha)] at the UC site and 12 ac (4.9 ha) at the NC site. The sites contain former mill building concrete foundations, tailings piles, demolition debris, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 620, 000 cubic yards (yd3) [470,000 cubic meters (m3)]. In addition to the contamination at the two processing site areas, four vicinity properties were contaminated. Contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into groundwater

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, evaluates potential public health and environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former North Continent (NC) and Union Carbide (UC) uranium mill processing sites. The tailings at these sites will be placed in a disposal cell at the proposed Burro Canyon, Colorado, site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates the start of the first phase remedial action by the spring of 1995 under the direction of the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project will evaluate ground water contamination. This baseline risk assessment is the first site-specific document for these sites under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the compliance strategy for contaminated ground water at the site. In addition, surface water and sediment are qualitatively evaluated in this report

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, evaluates potential public health and environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former North Continent (NC) and Union Carbide (UC) uranium mill processing sites. The tailings at these sites will be placed in a disposal cell at the proposed Burro Canyon, Colorado, site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates the start of the first phase remedial action by the spring of 1995 under the direction of the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project will evaluate ground water contamination. This baseline risk assessment is the first site-specific document for these sites under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the compliance strategy for contaminated ground water at the site. In addition, surface water and sediment are qualitatively evaluated in this report.

  4. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado. A summary of the Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the two millsites in Slick Rock, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. The Union Carbide site has 350,000 tons of tailings and the North Continent site now owned by Union Carbide has 37,000 tons of tailings. Both tailings piles have been stabilized in accordance with regulations of the State of Colorado. Radon gas release from the tailings on the sites constitute the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact. Hence the three alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the sites (Option I), and returning the windblown tailings to the piles and stabilizing the piles with cover material (Option II), and consolidating the two piles on the UC site and stabilizing with 2 ft of cover (Option III). Fencing around the tailings piles is included in all options. Options II and III provide 2 ft of cover material on the tailings. Costs of the options range from $370,000 to $1,100,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is not economically feasible

  5. Remedial action and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Attachment 2, Geology report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This report presents geologic considerations that are pertinent to the Remedial Action Plan for Slick Rock mill tailings. Topics covered include regional geology, site geology, geologic stability, and geologic suitability.

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two UMTRA (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action) Project sites are near Slick Rock, Colorado: the North Continent site and the Union Carbide site. Currently, no one uses the contaminated ground water at either site for domestic or agricultural purposes. However, there may be future land development. This risk assessment evaluates possible future health problems associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Since some health problems could occur, it is recommended that the contaminated ground water not be used as drinking water

  7. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Two UMTRA (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action) Project sites are near Slick Rock, Colorado: the North Continent site and the Union Carbide site. Currently, no one uses the contaminated ground water at either site for domestic or agricultural purposes. However, there may be future land development. This risk assessment evaluates possible future health problems associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Since some health problems could occur, it is recommended that the contaminated ground water not be used as drinking water.

  8. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a radiological survey of two inactive mill sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in April 1976 are presented. One mill, referred to in this report as North Continent (NC), was operated primarily for recovery of radium and vanadium and, only briefly, uranium. The Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) mill produced a uranium concentrate for processing elsewhere and, although low-level contamination with 226Ra was widespread at this site, the concentration of this nuclide in tailings was much lower than at the NC site. The latter site also has an area with a high above-ground gamma dose rate (2700 μR/hr) and a high-surface 226Ra concentration (5800 pCi/g). This area, which is believed to have been a liquid disposal location during plant operations, is contained within a fence. A solid disposal area outside the present fence contains miscellaneous contaminated debris. The estimated concentration of 226Ra as a function of depth, based on gamma hole-logging data, is presented for 27 holes drilled at the two sites

  9. Cell volume changes regulate slick (Slo2.1, but not slack (Slo2.2 K+ channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Tejada

    Full Text Available Slick (Slo2.1 and Slack (Slo2.2 channels belong to the family of high-conductance K+ channels and have been found widely distributed in the CNS. Both channels are activated by Na+ and Cl- and, in addition, Slick channels are regulated by ATP. Therefore, the roles of these channels in regulation of cell excitability as well as ion transport processes, like regulation of cell volume, have been hypothesized. It is the aim of this work to evaluate the sensitivity of Slick and Slack channels to small, fast changes in cell volume and to explore mechanisms, which may explain this type of regulation. For this purpose Slick and Slack channels were co-expressed with aquaporin 1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes and cell volume changes of around 5% were induced by exposure to hypotonic or hypertonic media. Whole-cell currents were measured by two electrode voltage clamp. Our results show that Slick channels are dramatically stimulated (196% of control by cell swelling and inhibited (57% of control by a decrease in cell volume. In contrast, Slack channels are totally insensitive to similar cell volume changes. The mechanism underlining the strong volume sensitivity of Slick channels needs to be further explored, however we were able to show that it does not depend on an intact actin cytoskeleton, ATP release or vesicle fusion. In conclusion, Slick channels, in contrast to the similar Slack channels, are the only high-conductance K+ channels strongly sensitive to small changes in cell volume.

  10. Comment and response document for the final remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document for the final remedial action plan and site design has been prepared for US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Division as part of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action plan. Comments and responses are included for the site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado

  11. Finding of no significant impact proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0339) of the proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock in San Miguel County, Colorado. These sites contain radioactively contaminated materials that would be removed and stabilized at a remote location. Based on the information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (ONSI).

  12. Finding of no significant impact proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0339) of the proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock in San Miguel County, Colorado. These sites contain radioactively contaminated materials that would be removed and stabilized at a remote location. Based on the information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (ONSI)

  13. Remedial action and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Attachment 2, Geology report: Appendix B, Preliminary final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    Detailed investigations of geologic, geomorphic, and seismic conditions at the Burro Canyon site were conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a disposal site for the tailings at two processing sites near the Slick Rock, Colorado, post office. The purposes of these studies are basic site characterization and identification of potential geologic hazards that could affect long-term site stability. Subsequent engineering studies (e.g., analyses of hydrologic and liquefaction hazards) used the data developed in these studies. The geomorphic analysis was employed in the design of effective erosion protection. Studies of the regional and local seismotectonic setting, which included a detailed search for possible capable faults within a 65-km radius of the site, provided the basis for seismic design parameters.

  14. Remedial Action Plan and Site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Revision 1. Remedial action selection report, Attachment 2, geology report, Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report, Attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites are located near the small community of Slick Rock, in San Miguel County, Colorado. There are two designated Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites at Slick Rock: the Union Carbide site and the North Continent site. Both sites are adjacent to the Dolores River. The sites contain former mill building concrete foundations, tailings piles, demolition debris, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 621,000 cubic yards (475,000 cubic meters). In addition to the contamination at the two processing site areas, 13 vicinity properties were contaminated. Contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into ground water. Pursuant to the requirements of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC section 7901 et seq.), the proposed remedial action plan (RAP) will satisfy the final US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards in 40 CFR Part 192 (60 FR 2854) for cleanup, stabilization, and control of the residual radioactive material (RRM) (tailings and other contaminated materials) at the disposal site at Burro Canyon. The requirements for control of the RRM (Subpart A) will be satisfied by the construction of an engineered disposal cell. The proposed remedial action will consist of relocating the uranium mill tailings, contaminated vicinity property materials, demolition debris, and windblown/weaterborne materials to a permanent repository at the Burro Canyon disposal site. The site is approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the mill sites on land recently transferred to the DOE by the Bureau of Land Management

  15. Remedial Action Plan and Site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Revision 1. Remedial action selection report, Attachment 2, geology report, Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report, Attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites are located near the small community of Slick Rock, in San Miguel County, Colorado. There are two designated Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites at Slick Rock: the Union Carbide site and the North Continent site. Both sites are adjacent to the Dolores River. The sites contain former mill building concrete foundations, tailings piles, demolition debris, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 621,000 cubic yards (475,000 cubic meters). In addition to the contamination at the two processing site areas, 13 vicinity properties were contaminated. Contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into ground water. Pursuant to the requirements of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC {section}7901 et seq.), the proposed remedial action plan (RAP) will satisfy the final US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards in 40 CFR Part 192 (60 FR 2854) for cleanup, stabilization, and control of the residual radioactive material (RRM) (tailings and other contaminated materials) at the disposal site at Burro Canyon. The requirements for control of the RRM (Subpart A) will be satisfied by the construction of an engineered disposal cell. The proposed remedial action will consist of relocating the uranium mill tailings, contaminated vicinity property materials, demolition debris, and windblown/weaterborne materials to a permanent repository at the Burro Canyon disposal site. The site is approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the mill sites on land recently transferred to the DOE by the Bureau of Land Management.

  16. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1, Volume 3. Calculations, Final design for construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume three contains calculations for: site hydrology--rainfall intensity, duration, and frequency relations; site hydrology-- probable maximum precipitation; erosion protection--rock quality evaluation; erosion protection--embankment top and side slope; erosion protection--embankment toe apron; erosion protection-- gradations and layer thicknesses; Union Carbide site--temporary drainage ditch design; Union Carbide site--retention basin sediment volume; Union Carbide site--retention basin sizing; Burro Canyon site temporary drainage--temporary drainage facilities; and Union Carbide site temporary drainage--water balance

  17. The slick that never was

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.

    of social problem in getting quick, appropri- ate responses to spills. DEREK ELLIS Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 21, No. 2, p. 50, 1990. Printed in Great Britain. 0025-326X/90 $3.00+0.00 © 1990 Pergamon Press plc The Slick that Never Was On 28... with viruses. Ultraviolet systems, however, are less cost-effective in big installations. Other systems reviewed included lime treatment, whicfi was shown to be expensive and produced large quantities of sludge, various experimental disinfectants 50 ...

  18. Sea surface slicks measured by SAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system capability to detect and characterize marine surface slicks was tested during the SAR-580 experiment in the northern Adriatic Sea, offshore the Venice coast, in October 1990. Two small artificial slicks of oleyl alcohol were produced in an area around the oceanographic platform of the Italian National Research Council (CNR). The oleyl alcohol produces a damping of the sea centimetric waves, which has been measured by an airborne two band (C and X) SAR, by a tower based 3 band (L, S and C) scatterometer and by a wave gauge, installed on board the platform, which measures the instantaneous sea surface elevation in the range form gravity up to capillary waves. The good agreement among measures proves that multi-frequency SAR is able to detect and characterized sea surface films. Slicks in SAR images taken during SIR-C/X-SAR mission in 1994 have been analysed on the basis of these results and L-band measurements of spatial attenuation near the borders of the slicks have been done, in order to test the slicks detectability using single-band SAR images

  19. Differential distribution of the sodium-activated potassium channels slick and slack in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Sandra; Knaus, Hans-Günther; Schwarzer, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    The sodium-activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are high-conductance potassium channels of the Slo family. In neurons, Slick and Slack channels are involved in the generation of slow afterhyperpolarization, in the regulation of firing patterns, and in setting and stabilizing the resting membrane potential. The distribution and subcellular localization of Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain have not yet been established in detail. The present study addresses this issue through in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Both channels were widely distributed and exhibited distinct distribution patterns. However, in some brain regions, their expression overlapped. Intense Slick channel immunoreactivity was observed in processes, varicosities, and neuronal cell bodies of the olfactory bulb, granular zones of cortical regions, hippocampus, amygdala, lateral septal nuclei, certain hypothalamic and midbrain nuclei, and several regions of the brainstem. The Slack channel showed primarily a diffuse immunostaining pattern, and labeling of cell somata and processes was observed only occasionally. The highest Slack channel expression was detected in the olfactory bulb, lateral septal nuclei, basal ganglia, and distinct areas of the midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellar cortex. In addition, comparing our data obtained from mouse brain with a previously published study on rat brain revealed some differences in the expression and distribution of Slick and Slack channels in these species. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2093-2116, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26587966

  20. Experimental study on spectral responses of offshore oil slick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU YingCheng; TIAN QingJiu; WANG JingJing; WANG XiangCheng; QI XiaoPing

    2008-01-01

    Using the seawater taken from Liaodong Bay and crude oil taken from Liaohe Oilfield, a laboratory experiment was designed to study the change of reflectance spectrum of artificial offshore oil slick with its thickness and to identify the spectrum ranges suitable for quantifying the thickness of the oil slick.During the experiment, crude oil was continuously dropped into the seawater to generate artificial oil slick with different thicknesses. After every drop of crude oil was added, reflectance spectrum of the oil slick was measured with a high resolution spectroradiometer (ASD FieldSpec Pro FR). The influence of oil slick thickness on its reflectance spectrum was explored through statistical analysis. The results show that the reflectance of oil slick changes marginally with oil slick thickness and higher than that of seawater in infrared band from 1150 to 2500 nm. This spectrum range can be practically used to distinguish oil slick from seawater. In the spectrum range from 400 to 1150 nm, the reflectance of oil slick decreases with its thickness. The negative power function is the best-fit function expressing the relationship between the reflectance and thickness. The spectral characteristics of oil slick are very distinct at 550 and 645 nm. They are the best wavelengths for monitoring the existence of offshore oil slick and estimating its thickness.

  1. Effectiveness of dispersants on thick oil slicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the relationship between dispersant effectiveness and oil slick thickness, and thereby determine the optimum time for applying dispersant onto spilled oil at sea. Tests were completed at a lab-scale level by varying the three parameters of oil type, dispersant application, and oil thickness. The tests were intended to be comparative only. The primary oils used were Alberta sweet mix blend and Hibernia B-27 crude. The dispersant, Corexit 9527, was applied either premixed with the oil, dropwise in one application, or dropwise in multiple applications to simulate a multi-hit aircraft operation. The apparatus used in the experiment was an oscillating hoop tank, with oil-containing rings used to obtain and maintain uniform slick thickness. The results indicate that the effectiveness potential of a chemical dispersant does not decrease as slick thickness increases. In fact, results of the tests involving Hibernia oil suggest that oils that tend to herd easily would be treated more effectively if dispersant were applied when the oil was relatively thick (1 mm or greater) to avoid herding problems. The oil slicks premixed with dispersant did not disperse well in the thick oil tests, not because of dispersant-oil interaction problems but because of reduced mixing energy. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Oil Slick Characterization Using Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Breivik, O.; Brekke, C.; Skrunes, S.; Holt, B.

    2015-12-01

    Oil spills are a hazard worldwide with potential of causing high impact disasters, and require an active oil spill response capability to protect personnel, the ecosystem, and the energy supply. As the amount of oil in traditionally accessible reserves decline, there will be increasing oil extraction from the Arctic and deep-water wells, both new sources with high risk and high cost for monitoring and response. Although radar has long been used for mapping the spatial extent of oil slicks, it is only since the Deepwater Horizon spill that synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been shown capable of characterizing oil properties within a slick, and therefore useful for directing response to the recoverable thicker slicks or emulsions. Here we discuss a 2015 Norwegian oil-on-water spill experiment in which emulsions of known quantity and water-to-oil ratio along with a look-alike slick of plant oil were released in the North Sea and imaged with polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) by NASA's UAVSAR instrument for several hours following release. During the experiment, extensive in situ measurements were made from ship or aircraft with meteorological instruments, released drift buoys, and optical/IR imagers. The experiment was designed to provide validation data for development of a physical model relating polarization-dependent electromagnetic scattering to the dielectric properties of oil mixed with ocean water, which is the basis for oil characterization with SAR. Data were acquired with X-, C-, and L-band satellite-based SARs to enable multi-frequency comparison of characterization capabilities. In addition, the data are used to develop methods to differentiate mineral slicks from biogenic look-alikes, and to better understand slick weathering and dispersion. The results will provide a basis for modeling oil-in-ice spills, currently a high priority for nations involved in Arctic oil exploration. Here we discuss the Norwegian experiment, the validation data, and the results of

  3. Radarsat observations and forecasting of oil slick trajectory movements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maged Marghany

    2004-01-01

    RADARSAT data have a potential role for coastal pollution monitoring. This study presents a new approach to detect and forecast oil slick trajectory movements. The oil slick trajectory movements is based on the tidal current effects and Fay's algorithm for oil slick spreading mechanisms. The oil spill trajectory model contains the integration between Doppler frequency shift model and Lagrangian model. Doppler frequency shift model implemented to simulate tidal current pattern from RADARSAT data while the Lagrangian model used to predict oil spill spreading pattern. The classical Fay's algorithm was implemented with the two models to simulate the oil spill trajectory movements.The study shows that the slick lengths are effected by tidal current V component with maximum velocity of 1.4 m/s. This indicates thatoil slick trajectory path is moved towards the north direction. The oil slick parcels are accumulated along the coastline after 48 h. Theanalysis indicated that tidal current V components were the dominant forcing for oil slick spreading.

  4. Natural and unnatural oil slicks in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Garcia-Pineda, O.; Beet, A.; Daneshgar Asl, S.; Feng, L.; Graettinger, G.; French-McCay, D.; Holmes, J.; Hu, C.; Huffer, F.; Leifer, I.; Muller-Karger, F.; Solow, A.; Silva, M.; Swayze, G.

    2015-12-01

    When wind speeds are 2-10 m s-1, reflective contrasts in the ocean surface make oil slicks visible to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) under all sky conditions. Neural network analysis of satellite SAR images quantified the magnitude and distribution of surface oil in the Gulf of Mexico from persistent, natural seeps and from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) discharge. This analysis identified 914 natural oil seep zones across the entire Gulf of Mexico in pre-2010 data. Their ˜0.1 µm slicks covered an aggregated average of 775 km2. Assuming an average volume of 77.5 m3 over an 8-24 h lifespan per oil slick, the floating oil indicates a surface flux of 2.5-9.4 × 104 m3 yr-1. Oil from natural slicks was regionally concentrated: 68%, 25%, 7%, and ecological impact. The most likely causes were increased applications of dispersant and surface burning operations.

  5. Origins and features of oil slicks in the Bohai Sea detected from satellite SAR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Cao, Conghua; Huang, Juan; Song, Yan; Liu, Guiyan; Wu, Lingjuan; Wan, Zhenwen

    2016-05-15

    Oil slicks were detected using satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images in 2011. We investigated potential origins and regional and seasonal features of oil slick in the Bohai Sea. Distance between oil slicks and potential origins (ships, seaports, and oil exploitation platforms) and the angle at which oil slicks move relative to potential driving forces were evaluated. Most oil slicks were detected along main ship routes rather than around seaports and oil exploitation platforms. Few oil slicks were detected within 20km of seaports. Directions of oil slicks movement were much more strongly correlated with directions of ship routes than with directions of winds and currents. These findings support the premise that oil slicks in the Bohai Sea most likely originate from illegal disposal of oil-polluted wastes from ships. Seasonal variation of oil slicks followed an annual cycle, with a peak in August and a trough in December. PMID:26988390

  6. Space Radar Image of Oil Slicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of an offshore drilling field about 150 km (93 miles) west of Bombay, India, in the Arabian Sea. The dark streaks are extensive oil slicks surrounding many of the drilling platforms, which appear as bright white spots. Radar images are useful for detecting and measuring the extent of oil seepages on the ocean surface, from both natural and industrial sources. The long, thin streaks extending from many of the platforms are spreading across the sea surface, pushed by local winds. The larger dark patches are dispersed slicks that were likely discharged earlier than the longer streaks, when the winds were probably from a different direction. The dispersed oil will eventually spread out over the more dense water and become a layer which is a single molecule thick. Many forms of oil, both from biological and from petroleum sources, smooth out the ocean surface, causing the area to appear dark in radar images. There are also two forms of ocean waves shown in this image. The dominant group of large waves (upper center) are called internal waves. These waves are formed below the ocean surface at the boundary between layers of warm and cold water and they appear in the radar image because of the way they change the ocean surface. Ocean swells, which are waves generated by winds, are shown throughout the image but are most distinct in the blue area adjacent to the internal waves. Identification of waves provide oceanographers with information about the smaller scale dynamic processes of the ocean. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 9, 1994. The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: Red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is the average of L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received and C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; blue is C

  7. Oil-eating microbes control oil slicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers with Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) have demonstrated a new environmentally safe method that uses a naturally occurring seawater microbe, powdered clay, and fertilizer to contain and break down oil spills. The philosophy is to accelerate nature and use natural organisms to break down the oil. While the concept of using oil-eating microbes is not new, this process involves applying a powdered clay, called Petro-Lock, to the slick to coagulate the oil and prevent it from sinking. The microbe, Marine-D, is applied with a nitrogen-based fertilizer to begin digesting the oil. The fertilizer provides nutrients for the microbes, which secrete a fatty acid that can be eaten by plankton. When the microbes have digested all of the oil, they die, sink to the ocean floor, and decompose. Bench and large scale testing results indicate that the microbes digest about 75% of the oil after 36 days. Further testing will incorporate wave action and will simulate deep-water and beach conditions

  8. Oil-eating microbes control oil slicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J. (Lockheed Missiles Space Co., Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States))

    1992-04-01

    Researchers with Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) have demonstrated a new environmentally safe method that uses a naturally occurring seawater microbe, powdered clay, and fertilizer to contain and break down oil spills. The philosophy is to accelerate nature and use natural organisms to break down the oil. While the concept of using oil-eating microbes is not new, this process involves applying a powdered clay, called Petro-Lock, to the slick to coagulate the oil and prevent it from sinking. The microbe, Marine-D, is applied with a nitrogen-based fertilizer to begin digesting the oil. The fertilizer provides nutrients for the microbes, which secrete a fatty acid that can be eaten by plankton. When the microbes have digested all of the oil, they die, sink to the ocean floor, and decompose. Bench and large scale testing results indicate that the microbes digest about 75% of the oil after 36 days. Further testing will incorporate wave action and will simulate deep-water and beach conditions.

  9. Cytotoxicity study of rock wool by cell magnetometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yuichiro; Kotani, Makoto; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2009-11-01

    The cytotoxicity of rock wool (RW), an asbestos substitute, was evaluated by cell magnetometry. Alveolar macrophages were isolated from male Fisher rats. Following addition of triiron tetraoxide (Fe(3)O(4)) to macrophages, RW was added. Then, the remnant magnetic field strength was measured for 20min after magnetization by an external field. Relaxation, an indicator of decay of cytotoxicity, was observed by cell magnetometry immediately postmagnetization in the group to which RW was added. In general, materials phagocytosed by macrophages are ingested into phagosomes and digested while migrating. This migration of phagosomes occurs by polymerization and depolymerization of the cytoskeleton. As a result of evaluation, relaxation was not delayed by addition of RW, since RW caused no effect on the cytoskeleton. It was suggested that RW has no cytotoxicity as evaluated by cell magnetometry. PMID:19559064

  10. PIP2 modulation of slick and slack K+ channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejada, Maria de los Angeles; Jensen, Lars Jørn; Klærke, Dan Arne

    2012-01-01

    Slick and Slack are members of the Slo family of high-conductance potassium channels. These channels are activated by Na(+) and Cl(-) and are highly expressed in the CNS, where they are believed to contribute to the resting membrane potential of neurons and the control of excitability. Herein, we...... provide evidence that Slick and Slack channels are regulated by the phosphoinositide PIP(2). Two stereoisomers of PIP(2) were able to exogenously activate Slick and Slack channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and in addition, it is shown that Slick and Slack channels are modulated by endogenous PIP(2......). The activating effect of PIP(2) appears to occur by direct interaction with lysine 306 in Slick and lysine 339 in Slack, located at the proximal C-termini of both channels. Overall, our data suggest that PIP(2) is an important regulator of Slick and Slack channels, yet it is not involved in the...

  11. Table ronde/forum de Washington state of the art for existing oil slick prediction models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models for predicting oil slick spreading are discussed. These models take into account the spreading of the slick, the transport on the sea surface, and the physicochemical behavior of the slick such as evaporation, emulsification, and natural dispersion. Existing models for assessing the oil slick drift and behavior are quite good. Differences are in the conversational aspects and mainly the possibility of using the world map, data banks on currents, including tidal currents, the sensitive areas, and different objects such as platforms and fishing operations

  12. Thermal infrared emissivity spectrum and its characteristics of crude oil slick covered seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Pan; Gu, Xing-Fai; Yu, Taol; Meng, Qing-Yan; Li, Jia-Guoi; Shi, Ji-xiang; Cheng, Yang; Wang, Liang; Liu, Wen-Song; Liu, Qi-Yuei; Zhao, Li-Min

    2014-11-01

    Detecting oil slick covered seawater surface using the thermal infrared remote sensing technology exists the advantages such as: oil spill detection with thermal infrared spectrum can be performed in the nighttime which is superior to visible spectrum, the thermal infrared spectrum is superior to detect the radiation characteristics of both the oil slick and the seawater compared to the mid-wavelength infrared spectrum and which have great potential to detect the oil slick thickness. And the emissivity is the ratio of the radiation of an object at a given temperature in normal range of the temperature (260-320 K) and the blackbody radiation under the same temperature , the emissivity of an object is unrelated to the temperature, but only is dependent with the wavelength and material properties. Using the seawater taken from Bohai Bay and crude oil taken from Gudao oil production plant of Shengli Oilfield in Dongying city of Shandong Province, an experiment was designed to study the characteristics and mechanism of thermal infrared emissivity spectrum of artificial crude oil slick covered seawater surface with its thickness. During the experiment, crude oil was continuously dropped into the seawater to generate artificial oil slick with different thicknesses. By adding each drop of crude oil, we measured the reflectivity of the oil slick in the thermal infrared spectrum with the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (102F) and then calculated its thermal infrared emissivity. The results show that the thermal infrared emissivity of oil slick changes significantly with its thickness when oil slick is relatively thin (20-120 μm), which provides an effective means for detecting the existence of offshore thin oil slick In the spectrum ranges from 8 to 10 μm and from 13. 2 to 14 μm, there is a steady emissivity difference between the seawater and thin oil slick with thickness of 20 μm. The emissivity of oil slick changes marginally with oil slick thickness and

  13. Natural oil slicks in the Gulf of Mexico visible from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Guinasso, N. L.; Ackleson, S. G.; Amos, J. F.; Duckworth, R.; Sassen, R.; Brooks, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Natural oil seepage in the Gulf of Mexico causes persistent surface slicks that are visible from space in predictable locations. A photograph of the sun glint pattern offshore from Louisiana taken from the space shuttle Atlantis on May 5, 1989, shows at least 124 slicks in an area of about 15,000 km2; a thematic mapper (TM) image collected by the Landsat orbiter on July 31, 1991, shows at least 66 slicks in a cloud-free area of 8200 km2 that overlaps the area of the photograph. Samples and descriptions made from a surface ship, from aircraft, and from a submarine confirmed the presence of crude oil in floating slicks. The imagery data show surface slicks near eight locations where chemosynthetic communities dependent upon seeping hydrocarbons are known to occur on the seafloor. Additionally, a large surface slick above the location of an active mud volcano was evident in the TM image. In one location the combined set of observations confirmed the presence of a flourishing chemosynthetic community, active seafloor oil and gas seepage, crude oil on the sea surface, and slick features that were visible in both images. We derived an analytical expression for the formation of floating slicks based on a parameterization of seafloor flow rate, downstream movement on the surface, half-life of floating oil, and threshold thickness for detection. Applying this equation to the lengths of observed slicks suggested that the slicks in the Atlantis photograph and in the TM image represent seepage rates of 2.2-30 m3 1000 km-2 d-1 and 1.4-18 m3 1000 km-2 d-1, respectively. Generalizing to an annual rate suggests that total natural seepage in this region is of the order of at least 20,000 m3 yr-1 (120,000 barrels yr-1).

  14. The effect of ROCK-1 activity change on the adhesive and invasive ability of Y79 retinoblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retinoblastoma (Rb) is the most common intraocular tumor in childhood worldwide. It is a deadly pediatric eye cancer. The main cause of death in Rb patients is intracranial and systemic metastasis. ROCK is the main downstream effector of Ras-homologous (Rho) family of GTPases which are involved in many cellular functions, such as cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Overexpression of ROCK promotes invasion and metastasis of many solid tumors. However, the effect of ROCK in Rb is largely unknown. ROCK-1 and ROCK-2 mRNA expression in Y79 cell lines were examined by RT-PCR. Protein expression in the Y79 cell line were examined by western blot analyses. ROCK-1 and ROCK-2 siRNA were transfected into Y79 cells with Lipofectamine 2000. Cell proliferation was evaluated by CCK-8 assay after exposure to ROCK inhibitor (Y-27632). We examined the effect of ROCK inhibitors (Y-27632, ROCK-1 and ROCK-2 siRNA) on Y79 cell adhesive capacity by cell adhesion assay. Cell invasion assay through matrigel was used to study the effect of ROCK inhibitors on Y79 cell invasive capacity. The expression of mRNA of ROCK-1 was more than that of ROCK-2 in the Y79 cell line. The protein expression levels of ROCK-1 and ROCK-2 were downregulated in the cells transfected with siRNA. Y-27632 treatment didn’t lead to any changes of Y79 cells proliferation. Adhesive ability of Y79 cells was enhanced following Y-27632 or ROCK-1 siRNA treatment. The invasive capacity of Y79 cells showed an inverse relationship with increasing Y-27632 concentration. Invasiveness of Y79 cells also decreased in Y79 cells transfected with ROCK-1 siRNA. However, there was no change in adhesive ability or invasive capacity in Y79 cells transfected with siRNA against ROCK-2. The findings of this study demonstrate that ROCK-1 protein plays a key role in regulating metastasis and invasion of Y79 cells, suggesting that the ROCK-1 dependent pathway may be a potential target for therapy of Rb

  15. Slick Nanoparticles and Other Gleanings from Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinhorst, Sabine; Cannon, Gordon C.

    1997-09-01

    The total synthesis of a new class of compounds that promise to be cancer chemotherapeutic agents at least as effective as taxol was presented in the May 15 issue (Vol. 387, pp 238-239) as a "News and Views" article. Although structurally unrelated, epothilones, like taxol, target the microtubules of the cytoskeleton and inhibit cancer cell growth by polymerizing these subcellular structures. Future research will have to determine which derivatives of natural epothilones are effective and which functional groups hold the key to the compounds' biological activity. An article by Deshpande and Danishefsky (May 8 issue of Vol. 387, pp 164-166) details the successful chemical synthesis of an oligosaccharide that is frequently found on the surface of colon adenocarcinomas. While the small quantities of this cancer antigen that can be purified from natural sources preclude its usefulness as an immunological tool, the synthetic compound and an analog that can be linked to a carrier molecule for biological delivery have potential as vaccines for several human cancers.

  16. Natural oil slicks fuel surface water microbial activities in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eZiervogel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a series of roller tank incubations with surface seawater from the Green Canyon oil reservoir, northern Gulf of Mexico, amended with either a natural oil slick (GCS-oil or pristine oil. The goal was to test whether bacterial activities of natural surface water communities facilitate the formation of oil-rich marine snow (oil snow. Although oil snow did not form during any of our experiments, we found specific bacterial metabolic responses to the addition of GCS-oil that profoundly affected carbon cycling within our 4-days incubations. Peptidase and -glucosidase activities indicative of bacterial enzymatic hydrolysis of peptides and carbohydrates, respectively, were suppressed upon the addition of GCS-oil relative to the non-oil treatment, suggesting that ascending oil and gas initially inhibits bacterial metabolism in surface water. Biodegradation of physically dispersed GCS-oil components indicated by the degradation of lower molecular weight n-alkanes as well as the rapid transformation of particulate oil-carbon (C: N >40 into the DOC pool, led to the production of carbohydrate- and peptide-rich degradation byproducts and bacterial metabolites such as transparent exopolymer particles (TEP. TEP formation was highest at day 4 in the presence of GCS-oil; in contrast, TEP levels in the non-oil treatment already peaked at day 2. Cell-specific enzymatic activities closely followed TEP concentrations in the presence and absence of GCS-oil. These results demonstrate that the formation of oil slicks and activities of oil-degrading bacteria result in a temporal offset of microbial cycling of organic matter, affecting food web interactions and carbon cycling in surface waters over cold seeps.

  17. ROCK inhibition enhances neurite outgrowth in neural stem cells by upregulating YAP expression in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xu-feng; Ye, Fei; Wang, Yan-bo; Feng, Da-xiong

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous axonal regeneration of neurons does not occur after spinal cord injury because of inhibition by myelin and other inhibitory factors. Studies have demonstrated that blocking the Rho/Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway can promote neurite outgrowth in spinal cord injury models. In the present study, we investigated neurite outgrowth and neuronal differentiation in neural stem cells from the mouse subventricular zone after inhibition of ROCK in vitro. Inhibition of ROCK with Y-27632 increased neurite length, enhanced neuronal differentiation, and upregulated the expression of two major signaling pathway effectors, phospho-Akt and phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the Hippo pathway effector YAP. These results suggest that inhibition of ROCK mediates neurite outgrowth in neural stem cells by activating the Hippo signaling pathway. PMID:27482229

  18. ROCK inhibition enhances neurite outgrowth in neural stem cells by upregulating YAP expressionin vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-feng Jia; Fei Ye; Yan-bo Wang; Da-xiong Feng

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous axonal regeneration of neurons does not occur after spinal cord injury because of inhibition by myelin and other inhibitory factors. Studies have demonstrated that blocking the Rho/Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway can promote neurite outgrowth in spinal cord injury models. In the present study, we investigated neurite outgrowth and neuronal differentiation in neural stem cells from the mouse subventricular zone after inhibition of ROCK in vitro. Inhibition of ROCK with Y-27632 increased neurite length, enhanced neuronal differentiation, and upregulated the expression of two major signaling pathway effectors, phospho-Akt and phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the Hippo pathway effector YAP. These results suggest that inhibition of ROCK mediates neurite outgrowth in neural stem cells by activating the Hippo signaling pathway.

  19. Mississippi River and sea surface height effects on oil slick migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcini, Frederico; Jerolmack, Douglas J; Nardelli, Bruno Buongiorno

    2012-01-01

    Millions of barrels of oil escaped into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) after the 20 April, 2010 explosion of Deepwater Horizon (DH). Ocean circulation models were used to forecast oil slick migration in the GoM, however such models do not explicitly treat the effects of secondary eddy-slopes or Mississippi River (MR) hydrodynamics. Here we report oil front migration that appears to be driven by sea surface level (SSL) slopes, and identify a previously unreported effect of the MR plume: under conditions of relatively high river discharge and weak winds, a freshwater mound can form around the MR Delta. We performed temporal oil slick position and altimeter analysis, employing both interpolated altimetry data and along-track measurements for coastal applications. The observed freshwater mound appears to have pushed the DH oil slick seaward from the Delta coastline. We provide a physical mechanism for this novel effect of the MR, using a two-layer pressure-driven flow model. Results show how SSL variations can drive a cross-slope migration of surface oil slicks that may reach velocities of order km/day, and confirm a lag time of order 5-10 days between mound formation and slick migration, as observed form the satellite analysis. Incorporating these effects into more complex ocean models will improve forecasts of slick migration for future spills. More generally, large SSL variations at the MR mouth may also affect the dispersal of freshwater, nutrients and sediment associated with the MR plume. PMID:22558317

  20. Mississippi River and Sea Surface Height Effects on Oil Slick Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcini, Frederico; Jerolmack, Douglas J.; Buongiorno Nardelli, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Millions of barrels of oil escaped into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) after the 20 April, 2010 explosion of Deepwater Horizon (DH). Ocean circulation models were used to forecast oil slick migration in the GoM, however such models do not explicitly treat the effects of secondary eddy-slopes or Mississippi River (MR) hydrodynamics. Here we report oil front migration that appears to be driven by sea surface level (SSL) slopes, and identify a previously unreported effect of the MR plume: under conditions of relatively high river discharge and weak winds, a freshwater mound can form around the MR Delta. We performed temporal oil slick position and altimeter analysis, employing both interpolated altimetry data and along-track measurements for coastal applications. The observed freshwater mound appears to have pushed the DH oil slick seaward from the Delta coastline. We provide a physical mechanism for this novel effect of the MR, using a two-layer pressure-driven flow model. Results show how SSL variations can drive a cross-slope migration of surface oil slicks that may reach velocities of order km/day, and confirm a lag time of order 5–10 days between mound formation and slick migration, as observed form the satellite analysis. Incorporating these effects into more complex ocean models will improve forecasts of slick migration for future spills. More generally, large SSL variations at the MR mouth may also affect the dispersal of freshwater, nutrients and sediment associated with the MR plume. PMID:22558317

  1. LPA Induces Colon Cancer Cell Proliferation through a Cooperation between the ROCK and STAT-3 Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Leve

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA plays a critical role in the proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells; however, the downstream signaling events underlying these processes remain poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the signaling pathways triggered by LPA to regulate the mechanisms involved in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC. We have used three cell line models of CRC, and initially analyzed the expression profile of LPA receptors (LPAR. Then, we treated the cells with LPA and events related to their tumorigenic potential, such as migration, invasion, anchorage-independent growth, proliferation as well as apoptosis and cell cycle were evaluated. We used the Chip array technique to analyze the global gene expression profiling that occurs after LPA treatment, and we identified cell signaling pathways related to the cell cycle. The inhibition of these pathways verified the conclusions of the transcriptomic analysis. We found that the cell lines expressed LPAR1, -2 and -3 in a differential manner and that 10 μM LPA did not affect cell migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth, but it did induce proliferation and cell cycle progression in HCT-116 cells. Although LPA in this concentration did not induce transcriptional activity of β-catenin, it promoted the activation of Rho and STAT-3. Moreover, ROCK and STAT-3 inhibitors prevented LPA-induced proliferation, but ROCK inhibition did not prevent STAT-3 activation. Finally, we observed that LPA regulates the expression of genes related to the cell cycle and that the combined inhibition of ROCK and STAT-3 prevented cell cycle progression and increased the LPA-induced expression of cyclins E1, A2 and B1 to a greater degree than either inhibitor alone. Overall, these results demonstrate that LPA increases the proliferative potential of colon adenocarcinoma HCT-116 cells through a mechanism involving cooperation between the Rho-ROCK and STAT3 pathways

  2. Biological energy from the igneous rock enhances cell growth and enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Y.-L. E-mail: yllin@tmc.edu.tw; Kuo, H.-S; Chen, C.-T.; Kuo, S.-C

    2000-06-01

    Some effects from natural resources might be ignored and unused by humans. Environmental hormesis could be a phenomena necessary to bio-organism existence on earth. Since 1919, radiation and some heavy metal hormesis from the environment were proved in various reports. In this study, igneous rock with very low radioactivity and high ferrous activity was measured by multichannel analyzer and inductively coupled plasma analyzer. The water treated by igneous rock, both directly soaked or indirectly in contact, induced increased activities of glucose oxidase, catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It also increased cell growth of SC-M1, HCT-15, Raji, and fibroblast cell lines. The water after treatment of igneous rock had no change in pH values, but displayed decreased conductivity values. We assume that the igneous rock could transfer energy to water to change the molecular structure or conformation of water cluster, or by radiation hormesis effect could then induce increased enzyme activity and cell growth. It is also possible that the energy from rock may combine radiation hormesis with other transferable biological energy forms to change water cluster conformation.

  3. Biological energy from the igneous rock enhances cell growth and enzyme activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some effects from natural resources might be ignored and unused by humans. Environmental hormesis could be a phenomena necessary to bio-organism existence on earth. Since 1919, radiation and some heavy metal hormesis from the environment were proved in various reports. In this study, igneous rock with very low radioactivity and high ferrous activity was measured by multichannel analyzer and inductively coupled plasma analyzer. The water treated by igneous rock, both directly soaked or indirectly in contact, induced increased activities of glucose oxidase, catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It also increased cell growth of SC-M1, HCT-15, Raji, and fibroblast cell lines. The water after treatment of igneous rock had no change in pH values, but displayed decreased conductivity values. We assume that the igneous rock could transfer energy to water to change the molecular structure or conformation of water cluster, or by radiation hormesis effect could then induce increased enzyme activity and cell growth. It is also possible that the energy from rock may combine radiation hormesis with other transferable biological energy forms to change water cluster conformation

  4. Cell-body rocking is a dominant mechanism for flagellar synchronization in a swimming alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Veikko F; Jülicher, Frank; Howard, Jonathon; Friedrich, Benjamin M

    2013-11-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas swims with two flagella that can synchronize their beat. Synchronized beating is required to swim both fast and straight. A long-standing hypothesis proposes that synchronization of flagella results from hydrodynamic coupling, but the details are not understood. Here, we present realistic hydrodynamic computations and high-speed tracking experiments of swimming cells that show how a perturbation from the synchronized state causes rotational motion of the cell body. This rotation feeds back on the flagellar dynamics via hydrodynamic friction forces and rapidly restores the synchronized state in our theory. We calculate that this "cell-body rocking" provides the dominant contribution to synchronization in swimming cells, whereas direct hydrodynamic interactions between the flagella contribute negligibly. We experimentally confirmed the two-way coupling between flagellar beating and cell-body rocking predicted by our theory. PMID:24145440

  5. Fracture toughness measurements on igneous rocks using a high-pressure, high-temperature rock fracture mechanics cell

    OpenAIRE

    Balme, M.R.; Rocchi, V; Jones, C.; Sammonds, P.R.; Meredith, P.G.; Boon, S.

    2004-01-01

    A sound knowledge of mechanical properties of rocks at high temperatures and pressures is essential for modelling volcanological problems such as fracture of lava flows and dike emplacement. In particular, fracture toughness is a scale-invariant material property of a rock that describes its resistance to tensile failure. A new fracture mechanics apparatus has been constructed enabling fracture toughness measurements on large (60 mm diameter) rock core samples at temperatures up to 750–C and ...

  6. The visibility and detectability of oil slicks and oil discharges on water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature on the visibility of oil slicks and oil discharges on water are reviewed. Except for some work done recently, the literature on oil slick visibility is very old, dating back to the early part of this century. Considerable differences were found between recent experiments and some of the older thickness-visibility relationship tables. This finding was attributed to the the fact that evaporation and inhomogeneity of the slick were ignored in the early studies. Literature on the visibility of oil discharges was also reviewed and compared to slick visibility results. Some correlation was achieved in converting discharge to approximate slick thickness. A new correlation table relating wind speed and vessel discharge speed wth the visibility threshold is also presented. Overall, the data indicated that the minimum visible threshold for discharge is about 100 ppm oil in water, except for a calm situation at two knots where it may be as little as 50 ppm. Data collected on remote sensing thresholds showed that the thresholds could be lowered somewhat by both video and traditional photography. 33 refs., 6 tabs

  7. Aerial spraying of demulsifiers to enhance the natural dispersion of oil slicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-scale sea trials were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the aerial application of demulsifiers and the potential of this process in oil spill response. Preliminary tests were first conducted to verify the effectiveness of the Shell demulsifier LA 1834 diluted with Shell Surdyne X113 solvent and to determine the range of swath widths and discharge rates of the aerial spraying system. Four trials were carried out in the southern North Sea using either crude oil or medium fuel oil/gas oil mixes to simulate the oil spill. Infrared, ultraviolet, and video sensing data were obtained during all trials with emphasis on direct comparison between control slicks and slicks treated with aerially sprayed demulsifier. Results show that application of demulsifier solution has enhanced the natural dispersion of both fresh and emulsified oil to a greater degree than the adjacent control slicks. The demulsifier appeared to remain with the treated slicks after aerial application, influencing slick behavior for a considerable time. 5 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Numerical simulation of interactions of the oil slick and currents under ice cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, Y. [Port and Airport Research Inst., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Sakai, S. [Iwate Univ., Morioka, Iwate (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    If an oil spill should occur offshore Sakhalin Island where oil and gas operations have recently started, the coastal area along the Sea of Okhotsk in Hokkaido Japan would be at risk of serious environmental damage because of the strong southward ocean current. In addition, it would be impossible to find the spilled oil in winter when the sea surface area is covered by ice. This paper presented a study in which a numerical simulation was developed to treat the interactions of oil slicks and currents. The simulation method simulated experimental results of the deformation and movement of an oil slick under ice cover and ice bottom configurations. It was shown that the characteristics of the deformation and movement of the oil slick by currents under the ice depend on the properties of the oil, such as density, the oil-water interfacial tension, and viscosity. 3 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  9. Mississippi River and sea surface height effects on oil slick migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Falcini

    Full Text Available Millions of barrels of oil escaped into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM after the 20 April, 2010 explosion of Deepwater Horizon (DH. Ocean circulation models were used to forecast oil slick migration in the GoM, however such models do not explicitly treat the effects of secondary eddy-slopes or Mississippi River (MR hydrodynamics. Here we report oil front migration that appears to be driven by sea surface level (SSL slopes, and identify a previously unreported effect of the MR plume: under conditions of relatively high river discharge and weak winds, a freshwater mound can form around the MR Delta. We performed temporal oil slick position and altimeter analysis, employing both interpolated altimetry data and along-track measurements for coastal applications. The observed freshwater mound appears to have pushed the DH oil slick seaward from the Delta coastline. We provide a physical mechanism for this novel effect of the MR, using a two-layer pressure-driven flow model. Results show how SSL variations can drive a cross-slope migration of surface oil slicks that may reach velocities of order km/day, and confirm a lag time of order 5-10 days between mound formation and slick migration, as observed form the satellite analysis. Incorporating these effects into more complex ocean models will improve forecasts of slick migration for future spills. More generally, large SSL variations at the MR mouth may also affect the dispersal of freshwater, nutrients and sediment associated with the MR plume.

  10. Using optical remote sensing model to estimate oil slick thickness based on satellite image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optical remote sensing model has been established based on two-beam interference theory to estimate marine oil slick thickness. Extinction coefficient and normalized reflectance of oil are two important parts in this model. Extinction coefficient is an important inherent optical property and will not vary with the background reflectance changed. Normalized reflectance can be used to eliminate the background differences between in situ measured spectra and remotely sensing image. Therefore, marine oil slick thickness and area can be estimated and mapped based on optical remotely sensing image and extinction coefficient

  11. A hybrid waveguide cell for the dielectric properties of reservoir rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid waveguide cell is described for broad-band measurements of the dielectric properties of hydrocarbon reservoir rocks. The cell is designed to operate in the radio frequency range of 1 MHz to 1 GHz. The waveguide consists of 50 Ω coaxial lines feeding into a central cylindrical section which contains the sample under test. The central portion of the waveguide acts as a circular waveguide and can accept solid core plugs of 38 mm diameter and lengths from 2 to 150 mm. The central section can also be used as a conventional coaxial waveguide when a central electrode with spring-loaded end collets is installed. In the latter mode the test samples are required to be in the form of hollow cylinders. An additional feature of the cell is that the central section is designed to telescope over a limited range of 1–2 mm with the application of an axial load. Effective pressures up to 35 MPa can be applied to the sample under the condition of uniaxial strain. The theoretical basis of the hybrid waveguide cell is discussed together with calibration results. Two reservoir rocks, a Donnybrook sandstone and a kaolin rich clay, are then tested in the cell, both as hollow cylinders in coaxial mode and in the form of solid core plugs. The complex dielectric properties of the two materials over the bandwidth of 1 MHz to 1 GHz are compared with the results of the two testing methods

  12. Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibition reverses low cell activity on hydrophobic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrophobic polymers do not offer an adequate scaffold surface for cells to attach, migrate, proliferate, and differentiate. Thus, hydrophobic scaffolds for tissue engineering have traditionally been physicochemically modified to enhance cellular activity. However, modifying the surface by chemical or physical treatment requires supplementary engineering procedures. In the present study, regulation of a cell signal transduction pathway reversed the low cellular activity on a hydrophobic surface without surface modification. Inhibition of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) by Y-27632 markedly enhanced adhesion, migration, and proliferation of osteoblastic cells cultured on a hydrophobic polystyrene surface. ROCK inhibition regulated cell-cycle-related molecules on the hydrophobic surface. This inhibition also decreased expression of the inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases such as p21cip1 and p27kip1 and increased expression of cyclin A and D. These results indicate that defective cellular activity on the hydrophobic surface can be reversed by the control of a cell signal transduction pathway without physicochemical surface modification.

  13. An assessment of plant biointrusion at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project rock-covered disposal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    This study is one of a number of special studies that have been conducted regarding various aspects of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This special study was proposed following routine surveillance and maintenance surveys and observations reported in a special study of vegetative covers (DOE, 1988), in which plants were observed growing up through the rock erosion layer at recently completed disposal cells. Some of the plants observed were deep-rooted woody species, and questions concerning root intrusion into disposal cells and the need to control plant growth were raised. The special study discussed in this report was designed to address some of the ramifications of plant growth on disposal cells that have rock covers. The NRC has chosen rock covers over vegetative covers in the arid western United States because licenses cannot substantiate that the vegetative covers will be significantly greater than 30 percent and preferably 70 percent,'' which is the amount of vegetation required to reduce flow to a point of stability.'' The potential impacts of vegetation growing in rock covers are not addressed by the NRC (1990). The objectives, then, of this study were to determine the species of plants growing on two rock-covered disposal cells, study the rooting pattern of plants on these cells, and identify possible impacts of plant root penetration on these and other UMTRA Project rock-covered cells.

  14. An assessment of plant biointrusion at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project rock-covered disposal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is one of a number of special studies that have been conducted regarding various aspects of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This special study was proposed following routine surveillance and maintenance surveys and observations reported in a special study of vegetative covers (DOE, 1988), in which plants were observed growing up through the rock erosion layer at recently completed disposal cells. Some of the plants observed were deep-rooted woody species, and questions concerning root intrusion into disposal cells and the need to control plant growth were raised. The special study discussed in this report was designed to address some of the ramifications of plant growth on disposal cells that have rock covers. The NRC has chosen rock covers over vegetative covers in the arid western United States because licenses cannot substantiate that the vegetative covers ''will be significantly greater than 30 percent and preferably 70 percent,'' which is the amount of ''vegetation required to reduce flow to a point of stability.'' The potential impacts of vegetation growing in rock covers are not addressed by the NRC (1990). The objectives, then, of this study were to determine the species of plants growing on two rock-covered disposal cells, study the rooting pattern of plants on these cells, and identify possible impacts of plant root penetration on these and other UMTRA Project rock-covered cells

  15. Natural and man-made sea slicks in the North Sea investigated by a helicopter-borne 5-frequency radar scatterometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 1994 natural sea slicks and five man-made slicks, which were spread as a pure substance and from two different spreading solvents, n-hexane and ethanol, respectively, were overflown by a helicopter carrying a five-frequency multi-polarization radar scatterometer, the so-called Heliscat. For the first time, natural sea slicks were successfully simulated by spreading hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (palmitic acid methyl ester (PME)), representing the fatty acid fraction of biogenic slicks, from the spreading solvent ethanol. It is shown that the different slick generation procedures (pure substance, spreading solvents n-hexane or ethanol) give rise to different influences on backscattered radar signals: a PME slick spread from ethanol induces slightly stronger suppressions of the radar backscattering than a PME slick spread from n-hexane; the wave damping maximum of oleyl alcohol (OLA) spread as a pure substance is shifted to higher wave numbers as compared to OLA slicks spread from solvents, and the backscattered radar power measured over both PME and OLA slicks spread from solvents show a dependence on the incidence angle, while no angular dependence was observed over OLA slicks spread without a spreading solvent. (UK)

  16. Topography induces differential sensitivity on cancer cell proliferation via Rho-ROCK-Myosin contractility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Parthiv Kant; Pan, Catherine Qiurong; Low, Boon Chuan; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2016-01-01

    Although the role of stiffness on proliferative response of cancer cells has been well studied, little is known about the effect of topographic cues in guiding cancer cell proliferation. Here, we examined the effect of topographic cues on cancer cell proliferation using micron scale topographic features and observed that anisotropic features like microgratings at specific dimension could reduce proliferation of non-cancer breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) but not that for malignant breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7). However, isotropic features such as micropillars did not affect proliferation of MCF-10A, indicating that the anisotropic environmental cues are essential for this process. Interestingly, acto-myosin contraction inhibitory drugs, Y-27632 and blebbistatin prevented micrograting-mediated inhibition on proliferation. Here, we propose the concept of Mechanically-Induced Dormancy (MID) where topographic cues could activate Rho-ROCK-Myosin signaling to suppress non-cancerous cells proliferation whereas malignant cells are resistant to this inhibitory barrier and therefore continue uncontrolled proliferation. PMID:26795068

  17. MicroRNA-126 inhibits tumor cell invasion and metastasis by downregulating ROCK1 in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-Ming; Luo, Lei; Ding, Xue-Mei; Dong, Da-Hai; Li, Bin; Ma, Xiao-Cheng; Sun, Li-Jiang

    2016-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in cancer development and progression. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) frequently undergoes metastasis and has a high mortality rate. The current study measured miRNA‑126 (miR‑126) expression levels in 128 pairs of clear cell RCC and adjacent normal kidney tissue samples by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and analyzed the association between miR‑126 and various clinicopathological parameters. In addition, cell proliferation, wound healing and cell invasion assays were conducted using RCC cells overexpressing miR‑126. Potential miR‑126 target genes and the signaling pathways that may be regulated by miR‑126 were then examined. miR‑126 expression was significantly reduced in patients with metastatic RCC compared with patients without metastasis. Consistently, overexpression of miR‑126 in RCC cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro compared with negative control miRNA. A luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR‑126 targets Rho associated coiled‑coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) by directly binding the 3'‑untranslated region. Furthermore, western blotting identified miR‑126 as an important regulator of the AKT and extracellular signal‑regulated 1/2 signaling pathways. The results of the present study indicate that miR‑126 inhibits RCC cell proliferation, migration and invasion by downregulating ROCK1. These findings suggest that miR‑126 may be valuable as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in RCC. PMID:27108693

  18. On discrimination between film slicks and "look-alikes" on the sea surface in multifrequency radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergievskaya, Irina; Ermakov, Stanislav A.; Kapustin, Ivan

    2015-10-01

    Slicks on the sea surface are characterized by attenuation of short wind waves and appear in radar imagery at moderate incidence angles as areas of reduced intensity. In the proximity of oil platforms, ship routes, fish farms, etc. marine slicks are often identified as oil spills or biogenic films. However, probability of false alarm when detecting film slicks is very high because of the occurrence of structures in radar images looking similar but not related to surface films ("lookalikes"). One of the most frequent "look-alikes" is wind depression areas (WDAs) where the wind excitation of short surface waves is reduced compared to the ambient background. Results of field observations of films slicks and WDA are described and differences in character of wind wave attenuation in different parts of the wind wave spectrum are revealed. Model calculations of wave damping degree (contrast) in film slick and in WDA are carried out and are shown to be in general agreement with experiment. Capabilities of dual-polarization and multi-band microwave radar for discrimination between film slicks and "look-alikes" are analyzed based on experiment and model results.

  19. Rho Kinase ROCK2 Mediates Acid-Induced NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S Expression in Human Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hong

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of the progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA are not fully understood. We have shown that NOX5-S may be involved in this progression. However, how acid upregulates NOX5-S is not well known. We found that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression was significantly decreased by the Rho kinase (ROCK inhibitor Y27632 in BE mucosal biopsies and FLO-1 EA cells. In addition, acid treatment significantly increased the Rho kinase activity in FLO-1 cells. The acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production was significantly decreased by knockdown of Rho kinase ROCK2, but not by knockdown of ROCK1. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active ROCK2, but not the constitutively active ROCK1, significantly enhanced the NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production. Moreover, the acid-induced increase in Rho kinase activity and in NOX5-S mRNA expression was blocked by the removal of calcium in both FLO-1 and OE33 cells. The calcium ionophore A23187 significantly increased the Rho kinase activity and NOX5-S mRNA expression. We conclude that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production may depend on the activation of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, in EA cells. The acid-induced activation of Rho kinase may be mediated by the intracellular calcium increase. It is possible that persistent acid reflux present in BE patients may increase the intracellular calcium, activate ROCK2 and thereby upregulate NOX5-S. High levels of reactive oxygen species derived from NOX5-S may cause DNA damage and thereby contribute to the progression from BE to EA.

  20. Rho Kinase ROCK2 Mediates Acid-Induced NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S Expression in Human Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weibiao

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms of the progression from Barrett’s esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) are not fully understood. We have shown that NOX5-S may be involved in this progression. However, how acid upregulates NOX5-S is not well known. We found that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression was significantly decreased by the Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y27632 in BE mucosal biopsies and FLO-1 EA cells. In addition, acid treatment significantly increased the Rho kinase activity in FLO-1 cells. The acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production was significantly decreased by knockdown of Rho kinase ROCK2, but not by knockdown of ROCK1. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active ROCK2, but not the constitutively active ROCK1, significantly enhanced the NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production. Moreover, the acid-induced increase in Rho kinase activity and in NOX5-S mRNA expression was blocked by the removal of calcium in both FLO-1 and OE33 cells. The calcium ionophore A23187 significantly increased the Rho kinase activity and NOX5-S mRNA expression. We conclude that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production may depend on the activation of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, in EA cells. The acid-induced activation of Rho kinase may be mediated by the intracellular calcium increase. It is possible that persistent acid reflux present in BE patients may increase the intracellular calcium, activate ROCK2 and thereby upregulate NOX5-S. High levels of reactive oxygen species derived from NOX5-S may cause DNA damage and thereby contribute to the progression from BE to EA. PMID:26901778

  1. Refinement of the critical angle calculation for the contrast reversal of oil slicks under sunglint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingcheng; Sun, Shaojie; Zhang, Minwei; Murch, Brock; Hu, Chuanmin

    2016-01-01

    It has long been observed that oil slicks under sunglint can reverse their optical contrast against nearby oil-free seawater. Such a phenomenon has been described through both empirical statistical analysis of the sunglint strength and modeled theoretically using a critical angle concept. The critical angle, in this model, is the angle at which the image pixels show no or negligible contrast between oiled and nonoiled seawater. Pixels away from this critical angle show either positive or negative contrast from the oil-free pixels. Although this concept has been fully demonstrated in the published literature, its calculation needs to be further refined to take into account: (1) the different refractive indices of oil slicks (from natural seeps) and seawater and (2) atmospheric effects in the sensor-measured radiance. Using measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) over oil films in the Gulf of Mexico, we show improvement in the modeled and MODIS-derived reflectance over oil slicks originated from natural seeps after incorporating these two factors in the model. Specifically, agreement between modeled and measured sunglint reflectance is found for both negative and positive-contrasting oil slicks. These results indicate that surface roughness and reflectance from oil films can be estimated given any solar/viewing geometry and surface wind. Further, this model might be used to correct the sunglint effect on thick oil under similar illumination conditions. Once proven possible, it may allow existing laboratory-based models, which estimate oil thickness after such corrections, to be applied to remote sensing imagery.

  2. Critical study of the method of calculating virgin rock stresses from measurement results of the CSIR triaxial strain cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreede, F. A.

    1981-05-01

    The manual of instructions for the user of the CSIR triaxial rock stress measuring equipment is critically examined. It is shown that the values of the rock stresses can be obtained from the strain gauge records by means of explicit formulae, which makes the manual's computer program obsolete. Furthermore statistical methods are proposed to check for faulty data and inhomogeneity in rock properties and virgin stress. The possibility of non-elastic behavior of the rock during the test is also checked. A new computer program based on the explicit functions and including the check calculations is presented. It is much more efficient than the one in the manual since it does not require computer sub-routines, allowing it to be used directly on any modern computer. The output of the new program is in a format suitable for direct inclusion in the report of an investigation using strain cell results.

  3. Improving viability and transfection efficiency with human umbilical cord wharton's jelly cells through use of a ROCK inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, Adam J; Godsey, Megan E; Shinogle, Heather E; Moore, David S; Forrest, M Laird; Detamore, Michael S

    2014-04-01

    Differentiating stem cells using gene delivery is a key strategy in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Nonviral gene delivery bypasses several safety concerns associated with viral gene delivery; however, leading nonviral techniques, such as electroporation, subject cells to high stress and can result in poor cell viabilities. Inhibition of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) has been shown to mitigate apoptotic mechanisms associated with detachment and freezing of induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells; however, inhibiting ROCK in mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for improving gene delivery applications has not been reported previously. In this study, we hypothesized that ROCK Inhibitor (RI) would improve cell viability and gene expression in primary human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (hUCMSCs) when transfected via Nucleofection™. As hypothesized, the pre-treatment and post-treatment of hUCMSCs transfected via nucleofection with Y-27632-RI significantly improved survival rates of hUCMSCs and gene expression as measured by green fluorescent protein intensity. This study provides the first comparative look at the effect of Y-27632-RI on hUCMSCs that underwent transfection via nucleofection and shows that using Y-27632-RI in concert with nucleofection could greatly enhance the utility of differentiating and reprogramming hUCMSCs for tissue engineering applications. PMID:24552552

  4. See võid sina olla. See võib olla sinu kloon. Sina võid olla kloon / Gregory Slick ; interv. Eero Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Slick, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    USA fotograaf G. Slick, kellel lõppes residentuur EKL külalisateljees, endast, oma loomingust, Eestist jm. G. Slick jätkas Eestis tööd seeriatega "Natural Histories" ja "Humans vs Space". Intervjuu on antud "Vikerraadio" saate "Kultuurikaja" jaoks

  5. New herding agents for thickening oil slicks in drift ice for in-situ burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.S. Navy cold-water herder formulation is known to effectively contract fluid crude and refined oil slicks in brash and slush ice concentrations of up to 70 per cent. The herding agents allow thickening of an oil slicks for subsequent in situ burning in drift ice. Those herding agents were developed in the 1970s and used hydrocarbon-based surfactants as the active ingredient. This paper reported on a multi-year joint industry project that evaluated the use of next-generation surfactants, notably two classes of superwetter surfactants known as fluorosurfactants and silicone-based surfactants. Tests were carried out in 2007 and 2008 to compare the efficacy of the U.S. Navy cold-water herder formulation and these newer surfactants. The fluorosurfactant-based herders did not perform much better than the U.S. Navy herder. The use of a silicone-surfactant based herder in static tests produced higher herded slick thicknesses initially, but declined back to the thickness of the U.S. Navy herder over a one-hour test period. Laboratory experiments were also conducted in 2009 using 3 new silicon-based surfactant herder formulations. One of the new silicone surfactant formulations was found to outperform the U.S. Navy herder formulation considerably. The next steps in continuing to develop herders as an operational tool for spill response in drift ice are to perform burn tests on salt water in quiescent conditions to compare oil removal efficiency; test the spray application technique; commercialize the herder for use in North America; and evaluate the feasibility of using the herders to enable in situ burning in open water. 6 refs., 5 tabs., 18 figs.

  6. Interpreting sea surface slicks on the basis of the normalized radar cross-section model using RADARSAT-2 copolarization dual-channel SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivonin, D. V.; Skrunes, S.; Brekke, C.; Ivanov, A. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    A simple automatic multipolarization technique for discrimination of main types of thin oil films (of thickness less than the radio wave skin depth) from natural ones is proposed. It is based on a new multipolarization parameter related to the ratio between the damping in the slick of specially normalized resonant and nonresonant signals calculated using the normalized radar cross-section model proposed by Kudryavtsev et al. (2003a). The technique is tested on RADARSAT-2 copolarization (VV/HH) synthetic aperture radar images of slicks of a priori known provenance (mineral oils, e.g., emulsion and crude oil, and plant oil served to model a natural slick) released during annual oil-on-water exercises in the North Sea in 2011 and 2012. It has been shown that the suggested multipolarization parameter gives new capabilities in interpreting slicks visible on synthetic aperture radar images while allowing discrimination between mineral oil and plant oil slicks.

  7. The Effect of Sea Surface Slicks on the Doppler Spectrum Width of a Backscattered Microwave Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Eugeny Meshkov; Mikhail Kanevsky; Vladimir Karaev

    2008-01-01

    The influence of a surface-active substance (SAS) film on the Doppler spectrum width at small incidence angles is theoretically investigated for the first time for microwave radars with narrow-beam and knife-beam antenna patterns. It is shown that the requirements specified for the antenna system depend on the radar motion velocity. A narrow-beam antenna pattern should be used to detect slicks by an immobile radar, whereas radar with a knife-beam antenna pattern is needed for diagnostics from...

  8. Research on using oil herding surfactants to thicken oil slicks in pack ice for in situ burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buist, I.; Morrison, J. [S.L. Ross Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The severe limitations of conventional containment and recovery systems for oil spills in pack ice have been demonstrated during skimmer tests conducted in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. In-situ burning may be one of the few viable alternatives to quickly remove oil spilled in pack ice, but the slicks are often too thin, preventing effective ignition or burning. This study examined ways to thicken the slicks to the 2- to 5-mm range so that effective burns could be carried out. Specific chemical surface-active agents known as oil herders or oil collecting agents can be used to clear and contain oil slicks on water surfaces. Since these agents can spread quickly on water, only a small quantity is needed to clear thin films of oil from large areas of water. Applying a chemical herder around the periphery of spilled oil can contract the oil into a thicker slick. Two chemical products were developed and tested in the 1970s and 1980s: Shell Herder and Exxon OC-5 Oil Collector. However, they are no longer used because they were effective only in very calm conditions. Corexit EC9580 which exhibits similar slick herding abilities and which has a spreading pressure of 39.5 mN/m is still commercially available. This study tested formulations of herding agents for use in pack ice. Concerns regarding the potential toxicity risk of using these agents in pack ice were also addressed. The agents should not harm the environment because they have low toxicity and only very small quantities are used. Two series of tests conducted to assess the potential for herding agents to help ignite and effectively burn thin oil slicks in loose pack ice conditions. The agents proved to be effective on cold water and on thick slicks. The composition of the oil played an important role in determining potential efficiency. It was concluded that applying herders to thin oil slicks in pack ice shows considerable promise for thickening them for in-situ burning. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 17 figs.

  9. Research on using oil herding surfactants to thicken oil slicks in pack ice for in situ burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The severe limitations of conventional containment and recovery systems for oil spills in pack ice have been demonstrated during skimmer tests conducted in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. In-situ burning may be one of the few viable alternatives to quickly remove oil spilled in pack ice, but the slicks are often too thin, preventing effective ignition or burning. This study examined ways to thicken the slicks to the 2- to 5-mm range so that effective burns could be carried out. Specific chemical surface-active agents known as oil herders or oil collecting agents can be used to clear and contain oil slicks on water surfaces. Since these agents can spread quickly on water, only a small quantity is needed to clear thin films of oil from large areas of water. Applying a chemical herder around the periphery of spilled oil can contract the oil into a thicker slick. Two chemical products were developed and tested in the 1970s and 1980s: Shell Herder and Exxon OC-5 Oil Collector. However, they are no longer used because they were effective only in very calm conditions. Corexit EC9580 which exhibits similar slick herding abilities and which has a spreading pressure of 39.5 mN/m is still commercially available. This study tested formulations of herding agents for use in pack ice. Concerns regarding the potential toxicity risk of using these agents in pack ice were also addressed. The agents should not harm the environment because they have low toxicity and only very small quantities are used. Two series of tests conducted to assess the potential for herding agents to help ignite and effectively burn thin oil slicks in loose pack ice conditions. The agents proved to be effective on cold water and on thick slicks. The composition of the oil played an important role in determining potential efficiency. It was concluded that applying herders to thin oil slicks in pack ice shows considerable promise for thickening them for in-situ burning. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 17 figs

  10. Comparisons of Circular Transmit and Linear Receive Compact Polarimetric SAR Features for Oil Slicks Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compact polarimetric (CP synthetic aperture radar (SAR has proven its potential in distinguishing oil slicks and look-alikes. Polarimetric information can be retrieved directly from scattering vector or from reconstructed pseudo-Quad-Pol covariance matrix of CP SAR data. In this paper, we analysed features from Circular Transmit and Linear Receive (CTLR CP SAR data that are derived by taking both of these two methods. K-means clustering followed by accuracy assessment was also implemented for performance evaluation. Through experiments that were conducted based on L-band UAVSAR fully polarimetric data, it was found that optimum extraction methods varied for different features. The histogram analysis and segmentation results also demonstrated the comparable performance of CP SAR features in distinguishing different damping properties within oil slicks. This study proposed a framework of statistically analyzing polarimetric SAR (Pol-SAR features and provided guidelines for determining optimum feature extraction methods from CP SAR data and for marine oil-spills detection and classification.

  11. Prediction model of oil slick movement in the Nemunas river (Lithuania)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Oil products (petroleum products) were used to fuel airplanes, cars and trucks, to heat the houses, and to make products like medicines and plastics. Even petroleum products make life easier, but extraction, production, movement, and use of them cause environment pollution in air, soil and water. There are several sources of water pollution, like ship traffic, oil refineries and other industry, which together deteriorate the river water quality and disturb the life within rivers and lakes. Rain as it falls through the air, or drains from urban areas and farmland, absorbs contaminants. The model has been developed based on the solution of the governing partial differential equations of flow and oil products for predicting the oil slick transformation in the rivers. In the present model, the processes included are advection, diffusion, evaporation and dissolution. The model can take into account all losses of oil products during the movement of oil slick. It can be used either as a real time basis to predict the movement of oil spill or as a scenario model to analyse to possible impact of accidental oil spill in to the rivers

  12. Abnormal Activation of RhoA/ROCK-I Signaling in Junctional Zone Smooth Muscle Cells of Patients With Adenomyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Duan, H; Zhang, Y; Sun, F Q

    2016-03-01

    Adenomyosis (ADS) is a common estrogen-dependent gynecological disease with unknown etiology. The RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway is involved in various cellular functions, including migration, proliferation, and smooth muscle contraction. Here we examined the potential role of this pathway in junctional zone (JZ) contraction in women with and without ADS. We demonstrated that in the normal JZ, RhoA and ROCK-I messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression was significantly higher in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle than in the secretory phase. Expression of RhoA and ROCK-I in the JZ from women with ADS was significantly higher than in the control women and showed no significant differences across the menstrual cycle. Treatment of JZ smooth muscle cells (JZSMCs) with estrogen at 0, 1, 10, or 100 nmol/L for 24 hours resulted in increased expression of RhoA, ROCK-I, and myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation (p-MLC) in a dose-dependent manner. In parallel to its effects on p-MLC, estrogen-mediated, dose-dependent contraction responses in JZSMCs. Estrogen-mediated contraction in the ADS group was significantly higher than in the controls and also showed no significant differences across the menstrual cycle. These effects were suppressed in the presence of ICI 182780 or Y27632, supporting an estrogen receptor-dependent and RhoA activation-dependent mechanism. Our results indicate that the level of RhoA and ROCK-I increases in patients with ADS and the cyclic change is lost. Estrogen may affect uterine JZ contraction of ADS by enhancing RhoA/ ROCK-I signaling. PMID:26335177

  13. The ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 improves recovery of human embryonic stem cells after fluorescence-activated cell sorting with multiple cell surface markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil Emre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to the inherent sensitivity of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs to manipulations, the recovery and survival of hESCs after fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS can be low. Additionally, a well characterized and robust methodology for performing FACS on hESCs using multiple-cell surface markers has not been described. The p160-Rho-associated coiled kinase (ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, previously has been identified as enhancing survival of hESCs upon single-cell dissociation, as well as enhancing recovery from cryopreservation. Here we examined the application of Y-27632 to hESCs after FACS to improve survival in both feeder-dependent and feeder-independent growth conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HESCs were sorted using markers for SSEA-3, TRA-1-81, and SSEA-1. Cells were plated after sorting for 24 hours in either the presence or the absence of Y-27632. In both feeder-dependent and feeder-independent conditions, cell survival was greater when Y-27632 was applied to the hESCs after sort. Specifically, treatment of cells with Y-27632 improved post-sort recovery up to four fold. To determine the long-term effects of sorting with and without the application of Y-27632, hESCs were further analyzed. Specifically, hESCs sorted with and without the addition of Y-27632 retained normal morphology, expressed hESC-specific markers as measured by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, and maintained a stable karyotype. In addition, the hESCs could differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo in both feeder-dependent and feeder-independent growth conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The application of Y-27632 to hESCs after cell sorting improves cell recovery with no observed effect on pluripotency, and enables the consistent recovery of hESCs by FACS using multiple surface markers. This improved methodology for cell sorting of hESCs will aid many applications such as removal of hESCs from secondary cell types

  14. Comparative cytotoxicity study of rock wool and chrysotile by cell magnetometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yuichiro; Watanabe, Mitsuyasu; Okada, Mitsushi; Shinji, Hisako; Niitsuya, Masato; Satoh, Toshihiko; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Kohyama, Norihiko; Kotani, Makoto; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2003-11-01

    Rock wool (RW), a type of man-made mineral fiber (MMMF), is a building material used as an asbestos substitute for heat insulation, fire resistance, and reinforcement. RW is included in group 3 of the IARC classification. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of RW was investigated by cell magnetometry, enzyme assay, DNA ladder detection, and electron microscopic morphological evaluation in comparison with chrysotile fibers (CF). Specimens were prepared by 18-h incubation of Fischer rat alveolar macrophages in the presence of RW fibers as the study material, CF as positive control, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as negative control, together with a relaxation indicator, Fe3O4, except for morphological evaluation, followed by additional procedures of external magnetization and subsequent 20-min remanent magnetic field measurement for magnetometric evaluation, and macrophage DNA extraction for evaluating possible apoptosis by DNA ladder detection. In magnetometry, relaxation, a marker of cytotoxicity, was rapid in both the RW- and PBS-treated groups, while it was delayed in both the long and short CF-treated groups. Differences in percent lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release between the RW-treated group and PBS-treated group were not significant, but those between the RW-treated group and short CF-treated group were statistically significant. A DNA ladder was not detected in any of the study groups. Electron micrographs showed that RW did not cause any change, but CF caused changes in macrophages. Thus, magnetometric measurements suggested no cytotoxicity of RW. We plan, in the future, to evaluate the safety of RW by magnetometric measurement and morphological observation of the lungs in in vivo inhalation experiments. PMID:14569493

  15. Rho-ROCK and Rac-PAK signaling pathways have opposing effects on the cell-to-cell spread of Marek's Disease Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Richerioux

    Full Text Available Marek's Disease Virus (MDV is an avian alpha-herpesvirus that only spreads from cell-to-cell in cell culture. While its cell-to-cell spread has been shown to be dependent on actin filament dynamics, the mechanisms regulating this spread remain largely unknown. Using a recombinant BAC20 virus expressing an EGFPVP22 tegument protein, we found that the actin cytoskeleton arrangements and cell-cell contacts differ in the center and periphery of MDV infection plaques, with cells in the latter areas showing stress fibers and rare cellular projections. Using specific inhibitors and activators, we determined that Rho-ROCK pathway, known to regulate stress fiber formation, and Rac-PAK, known to promote lamellipodia formation and destabilize stress fibers, had strong contrasting effects on MDV cell-to-cell spread in primary chicken embryo skin cells (CESCs. Inhibition of Rho and its ROCKs effectors led to reduced plaque sizes whereas inhibition of Rac or its group I-PAKs effectors had the adverse effect. Importantly, we observed that the shape of MDV plaques is related to the semi-ordered arrangement of the elongated cells, at the monolayer level in the vicinity of the plaques. Inhibition of Rho-ROCK signaling also resulted in a perturbation of the cell arrangement and a rounding of plaques. These opposing effects of Rho and Rac pathways in MDV cell-to-cell spread were validated for two parental MDV recombinant viruses with different ex vivo spread efficiencies. Finally, we demonstrated that Rho/Rac pathways have opposing effects on the accumulation of N-cadherin at cell-cell contact regions between CESCs, and defined these contacts as adherens junctions. Considering the importance of adherens junctions in HSV-1 cell-to-cell spread in some cell types, this result makes of adherens junctions maintenance one potential and attractive hypothesis to explain the Rho/Rac effects on MDV cell-to-cell spread. Our study provides the first evidence that MDV cell-to-cell

  16. Importance of the slick thickness for effective in-situ burning of crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Brogaard, Nicholas L.; Sørensen, Martin X.;

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the potential of in-situ burning (ISB), the importance of the oil slick thickness on two pure oils (n-octane and dodecane) and two fresh crude oils (Grane and REBCO) was studied in relation to the regression rate, boilover tendency, mass loss rate, burning efficiency and flame...... height. The experiments were performed in a new experimental apparatus, the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus (COFA), which has been developed to study ISB of oil on water in a controlled laboratory environment with large water-to-oil ratios. The regression rate, average mass loss rate and burning...... above 75% for the crude oils, showing that it only has a limited effect on the burning efficiency as higher burning efficiencies have been reported for larger scales. Furthermore, the results showed that the burning mechanisms differ for pure and crude oil, indicating that the hydrocarbon mixture...

  17. RhoA/ROCK pathway regulates hypoxia-induced myocardial cell apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Huang; Jiang-bin Chen; Bo Yang; Hui Shen; Jin-Jun Liang; Qiong Luo

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the regulatory effects of RhoA/ROCK pathway on the apoptosis of cardiac myocyte induced by anoxia and its mechanism. Methods:The model of cardiac myocyte anoxia was established. The beat pulsations and apoptosis rates after 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 9 h and 12 h of anoxia were recorded and the expressions of RhoA, ROCK1/2, p-PI3K, p-AKT and caspae-3 were detected, too. The apoptosis and the expressions of related proteins were detected after RNAi of RhoA and the inhibition of ROCK by Y-27632. Results:The beat pulsations after 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 9 h and 12 h decreased gradually but the apoptosis rates increased gradually, and the expressions of RhoA, ROCK1/2, p-PI3K, p-AKT and caspase-3 were increasing along with the increasing duration of anoxia. The apoptotic rates after 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 9 h and 12 h of anoxia were (4.36±0.98)%, (8.36±2.12)%, (15.32±3.62)%, (18.68±4.83)%and (24.56±6.22)%, respectively and decreased more significantly than control group in different time points of anoxia (P<0.05), and the expressions of RhoA, ROCK1/2, p-PI3K, p-AKT and caspase-3 decreased significantly (P<0.05). The apoptosis rate and the expressions of RhoA, ROCK1/2, p-PI3K, p-AKT and caspase-3 decreased significantly (P<0.05) after the inhibition of ROCK by Y-27632 (P<0.05). Conclusions:RhoA/ROCK pathway plays a critical role in the regulation of the apoptosis of cardiac myocyte induced by anoxia, which may be accompanied by regulating the activity of PI3K/AKT/Caspase-3 pathway.

  18. High cell density cultivation and recombinant protein production with Escherichia coli in a rocking-motion-type bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Thorsten

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-use rocking-motion-type bag bioreactors provide advantages compared to standard stirred tank bioreactors by decreased contamination risks, reduction of cleaning and sterilization time, lower investment costs, and simple and cheaper validation. Currently, they are widely used for cell cultures although their use for small and medium scale production of recombinant proteins with microbial hosts might be very attractive. However, the utilization of rocking- or wave-induced motion-type bioreactors for fast growing aerobic microbes is limited because of their lower oxygen mass transfer rate. A conventional approach to reduce the oxygen demand of a culture is the fed-batch technology. New developments, such as the BIOSTAT® CultiBag RM system pave the way for applying advanced fed-batch control strategies also in rocking-motion-type bioreactors. Alternatively, internal substrate delivery systems such as EnBase® Flo provide an opportunity for adopting simple to use fed-batch-type strategies to shaken cultures. Here, we investigate the possibilities which both strategies offer in view of high cell density cultivation of E. coli and recombinant protein production. Results Cultivation of E. coli in the BIOSTAT® CultiBag RM system in a conventional batch mode without control yielded an optical density (OD600 of 3 to 4 which is comparable to shake flasks. The culture runs into oxygen limitation. In a glucose limited fed-batch culture with an exponential feed and oxygen pulsing, the culture grew fully aerobically to an OD600 of 60 (20 g L-1 cell dry weight. By the use of an internal controlled glucose delivery system, EnBase® Flo, OD600 of 30 (10 g L-1 cell dry weight is obtained without the demand of computer controlled external nutrient supply. EnBase® Flo also worked well in the CultiBag RM system with a recombinant E. coli RB791 strain expressing a heterologous alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH to very high levels, indicating that

  19. Rock stresses (Grimsel rock laboratory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the research and development project 'Rock Stress Measurements' the BGR has developed and tested several test devices and methods at GTS for use in boreholes at a depth of 200 m and has carried out rock mechanical and engineering geological investigations for the evaluation and interpretation of the stress measurements. The first time a computer for data processing was installed in the borehole together with the BGR-probe. Laboratory tests on hollow cylinders were made to study the stress-deformation behavior. To validate and to interprete the measurement results some test methods were modelled using the finite-element method. The dilatometer-tests yielded high values of Young's modulus, whereas laboratory tests showed lower values with a distinct deformation anisotropy. Stress measurements with the BGR-probe yielded horizontal stresses being higher than the theoretical overburden pressure and vertical stresses which agree well with the theoretical overburden pressure. These results are comparable to the results of the hydraulic fracturing tests, whereas stresses obtained with CSIR-triaxial cells are generally lower. The detailed geological mapping of the borehole indicated relationships between stress and geology. With regard to borehole depth different zones of rock structure joint frequency, joint orientation, and orientation of microfissures as well as stress magnitude, stress direction, and degree of deformation anisotropy could be distinguished. (orig./HP)

  20. Metastasis of aggressive amoeboid sarcoma cells is dependent on Rho/ROCK/MLC signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosla, Jan; Paňková, D.; Plachý, Jiří; Tolde, O.; Bicanova, K.; Dvořák, Michal; Rosel, D.; Brabek, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2013), s. 51. ISSN 1478-811X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06061 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : metastasis * sarcoma * rhoA * ROCK * MLC * amoeboid invasiveness * 3D environment * chicken model Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.672, year: 2013

  1. Field research on using oil herding surfactants to thicken oil slicks in pack ice for in-situ burning. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory and field studies have been performed in recent years to determine the capability of herding agents to thicken oil slicks among loose pack ice for the purpose of in situ burning. In loose pack ice conditions where booms are not practical, effective in situ burns may be possible if thin slicks could be thickened to the 2 to 5 mm range. However, specific chemical surface-active agents known as herders are need to clear and contain oil slicks on an open water surface. The agents spread quickly over a water surface into a monomolecular layer due to their high spreading coefficients. The best agents have spreading pressures in the mid 40 mN/m range. As such, only small quantities of these surfactants are needed to clear thin films of oil from large areas of water surface, and to contract it into thicker slicks. This paper summarized the previous studies that evaluated shoreline-cleaning agents with oil herding properties. However, the main focus of this paper was on the final phase of testing conducted at the Prudhoe Bay Fire Training Grounds in November 2006 in which a series of outdoor burns were conducted at the scale of 30 m2 with herders and crude oil in a test pool containing pieces of ice. The tests revealed that when a herder was used on crude oil slicks that were otherwise unignitable, the slicks could be ignited and burned in situ in brash and slush ice conditions at temperatures as low as -17 degrees C. Both the removal rate and efficiencies for the herded slicks were comparable to the theoretical maximum achievable for mechanically contained slicks on open water. 13 refs., 1 tab., 18 figs

  2. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Volume 1, Calculations, Final design for construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume one contains calculations for: embankment design--embankment material properties; Union Carbide site--bedrock contours; vicinity properties--origin of contamination; North Continent and Union Carbide sites contaminated materials--excavation quantities; and demolition debris--quantity estimate

  3. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Bid schedule, special conditions, specifications, and subcontract drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains: bidding requirements; terms and conditions; specifications for Division 1 -- general requirements; specifications for Division 2 -- sitework; specifications for Divisions 5 -- metals; subcontract drawings, (general, Union Carbide processing site, North Continent processing site, and Burro Canyon disposal site)

  4. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1, Volume 4. Calculations, Final design for construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume four contains calculations for: Borrow areas--site evaluation; temporary facilities--material quantities; embankment quantities--excavation and cover materials; Burro Canyon site excavation quantities--rippable and unrippable materials; site restoration--earthwork quantities and seeding; and bid schedule quantities and material balance

  5. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Volume 2, Calculations, Final design for construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Volume two contains calculations for: embankment design--slope stability analysis; embankment design--excavation stability; embankment design--settlement and cover cracking analysis; radon barrier design--statistical analysis of ra-226 concentrations for North Continent and Union Carbide sites; radon barrier design--RAECOM input data; radon barrier design--design thickness; and cover design--frost penetration depth.

  6. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Bid schedule, special conditions, specifications, and subcontract drawings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This volume contains: bidding requirements; terms and conditions; specifications for Division 1 -- general requirements; specifications for Division 2 -- sitework; specifications for Divisions 5 -- metals; subcontract drawings, (general, Union Carbide processing site, North Continent processing site, and Burro Canyon disposal site).

  7. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Volume 2, Calculations, Final design for construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume two contains calculations for: embankment design--slope stability analysis; embankment design--excavation stability; embankment design--settlement and cover cracking analysis; radon barrier design--statistical analysis of ra-226 concentrations for North Continent and Union Carbide sites; radon barrier design--RAECOM input data; radon barrier design--design thickness; and cover design--frost penetration depth

  8. ROCK2 signaling is required to induce a subset of T follicular helper cells through opposing effects on STATs in autoimmune settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan M; Chen, Wei; Nyuydzefe, Melanie S; Trzeciak, Alissa; Flynn, Ryan; Tonra, James R; Marusic, Suzana; Blazar, Bruce R; Waksal, Samuel D; Zanin-Zhorov, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Rho-associated kinase 2 (ROCK2) determines the balance between human T helper 17 (TH17) cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells. We investigated its role in the generation of T follicular helper (TFH) cells, which help to generate antibody-producing B cells under normal and autoimmune conditions. Inhibiting ROCK2 in normal human T cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) decreased the number and function of TFH cells induced by activation ex vivo. Moreover, inhibition of ROCK2 activity decreased the abundance of the transcriptional regulator Bcl6 (B cell lymphoma 6) and increased that of Blimp1 by reducing the binding of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and increasing that of STAT5 to the promoters of the genes Bcl6 and PRDM1, respectively. In the MRL/lpr murine model of SLE, oral administration of the selective ROCK2 inhibitor KD025 resulted in a twofold reduction in the numbers of TFH cells and antibody-producing plasma cells in the spleen, as well as a decrease in the size of splenic germinal centers, which are the sites of interaction between TFH cells and B cells. KD025-treated mice showed a substantial improvement in both histological and clinical scores compared to those of untreated mice and had reduced amounts of Bcl6 and phosphorylated STAT3, as well as increased STAT5 phosphorylation. Together, these data suggest that ROCK2 signaling plays a critical role in controlling the development of TFH cells induced by autoimmune conditions through reciprocal regulation of STAT3 and STAT5 activation. PMID:27436361

  9. Quantitative determination of oil films/slicks from water surfaces using a modified solid-phase extraction (SPE) sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to quantify oil films and slicks floating on water surfaces has been developed using a modified solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure using C-18 disks. SPE is a commonly used method for isolating hydrophobic organic compounds from aqueous solutions in preparation for analysis. The objective of the study was to determine if surface sampling of oil slicks using this procedure is linear, precise and consistently yields quantitative recoveries of oil per unit area. The effectiveness of oil removal from a sandy beach in meso-scale wave tanks using different shoreline cleaner products was also assessed. Nine oil loadings were sampled with C18-SPE disks in replicates from the surface of 1 litre beakers. The results of these controlled laboratory experiments indicated that the sampling efficiency was strongly linear over the whole range tested, the variability was below 10 per cent and the oil was collected by the SPE disks in a 1:1 ratio relative to the water surface loadings. It was concluded that this method is a promising means by which to quantify and identifying oils present in meso-scale to large-scale slick in both experimental and natural settings. 17 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  10. Rock Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国平

    2000-01-01

    Around the world young people are spending unbelievable sums of money to listen to rock music. Forbes Magazine reports that at least fifty rock stars have incomes between two million and six million dollars per year.

  11. KREEP Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹永廖; 徐琳; 欧阳自远

    2004-01-01

    KREEP rocks with high contents of K, REE and P were first recognized in Apollo-12 samples, and it was confirmed later that there were KREEP rock fragments in all of the Apollo samples, particularly in Apollo-12 and-14 samples. The KREEP rocks distributed on the lunar surface are the very important objects of study on the evolution of the moon, as well as to evaluate the utilization prospect of REE in KREEP rocks. Based on previous studies and lunar exploration data, the authors analyzed the chemical and mineral characteristics of KREEP rocks, the abundance of Th on the lunar surface materials, the correlation between Th and REE of KREEP rocks in abundance, studied the distribution regions of KREEP rocks on the lunar surface, and further evaluated the utilization prospect of REE in KREEP rocks.

  12. The role of NgR-Rhoa-Rock signal pathway in retinal ganglion cell apoptosis of early diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jie Fu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the function and mechanism of the NgR-Rhoa-Rock signal pathways which exists in the retinal ganglion cells apoptosis in diabetes mellitus(DMrats. METHODS: Some healthy SD rats were operated by means of single intraperitoneal injection of 1% streptozotocin based on the standard of 50mg/kg wight, after that the blood sugar value was greater than 16.7mmol/L as DM model, then randomly divided into 3 groups, each group was 10 rats. In addition to take 10 healthy SD rats as control group. Four groups of rats were bilaterally eyeball intravitreal injection in turn with NgR-siRNA virus 10μL(siRNA group, NgR-siRNA virus diluted 10μL(DM group, NgR-siRNA virus-negative-control solution 10μL(siRNA blank group, NgR-siRNA virus diluted 10μL(normal control group, and fed normally. During that time, some life indexes like blood glucose, body mass, etc. were measured and recorded. After 12wk, the expression of NgR and Rhoa, HE staining, and TUNNEL staining were detected by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Western blot analysis: compared with normal control group, the expression of NgR and Rhoa in DM group and siRNA blank group increased significantly(PP>0.05; compared with DM group and siRNA blank group, the expression of those proteins significantly lowered in siRNA group. HE staining: compared with normal control group, some extent ganglion cells arranged disorder, irregular shape, spacing not consistent were all found in three groups of model rats; compared with DM group and siRNA blank group, there was some improvement in siRNA group of ganglion cells about the order and shape size. TUNEL staining: compared with normal control group, there were retinal ganglion cells apoptosis in all of three groups of model rats. Compared with DM group and siRNA blank group, the number of retinal ganglion cells apoptotic cells was less, and the shape of cells had improved significantly in siRNA group. CONCLUSION: In the DM phase, the expression of NgR and

  13. Effects of sediment amended with Deepwater Horizon incident slick oil on the infaunal amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotufo, Guilherme R; Farrar, J Daniel; Biedenbach, James M; Laird, Jennifer G; Krasnec, Michelle O; Lay, Claire; Morris, Jeffrey M; Gielazyn, Michel L

    2016-08-15

    Crude oil released from the Deepwater Horizon disaster into the Gulf of Mexico posed potential impacts to infaunal invertebrates inhabiting near shore habitats. The effects of sediment-associated weathered slick oil on the amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus was assessed using 28-d exposures to total PAH sediment concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 24mg/kg (sum of 50 PAHs or tPAH50). Survival and growth rate were significantly decreased in the 2.6, 11.4 and 24.2mg/kg treatments, but only growth in 5.5mg/kg. Offspring production was dramatically decreased but was variable and significantly different only for 24.2mg/kg. The concentrations associated with 20% decreases relative to reference were 1.05 (95% CI=0-2.89) mg/kg tPAH50 for growth rate and 0.632 (95% CI=0.11-2.15) mg/kg tPAH50 for offspring production. The concentrations of PAHs affecting amphipods are within the range of concentrations measured in marsh areas reportedly impacted by DWH oil after its release. PMID:27267114

  14. The hippocampus of the eastern rock sengi: cytoarchitecture, markers of neuronal function, principal cell numbers, and adult neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomianka, Lutz; Drenth, Tanja; Cavegn, Nicole; Menges, Dominik; Lazic, Stanley E; Phalanndwa, Mashudu; Chimimba, Christian T; Amrein, Irmgard

    2013-01-01

    The brains of sengis (elephant shrews, order Macroscelidae) have long been known to contain a hippocampus that in terms of allometric progression indices is larger than that of most primates and equal in size to that of humans. In this report, we provide descriptions of hippocampal cytoarchitecture in the eastern rock sengi (Elephantulus myurus), of the distributions of hippocampal calretinin, calbindin, parvalbumin, and somatostatin, of principal neuron numbers, and of cell numbers related to proliferation and neuronal differentiation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Sengi hippocampal cytoarchitecture is an amalgamation of characters that are found in CA1 of, e.g., guinea pig and rabbits and in CA3 and dentate gyrus of primates. Correspondence analysis of total cell numbers and quantitative relations between principal cell populations relate this sengi to macaque monkeys and domestic pigs, and distinguish the sengi from distinct patterns of relations found in humans, dogs, and murine rodents. Calretinin and calbindin are present in some cell populations that also express these proteins in other species, e.g., interneurons at the stratum oriens/alveus border or temporal hilar mossy cells, but neurons expressing these markers are often scarce or absent in other layers. The distributions of parvalbumin and somatostatin resemble those in other species. Normalized numbers of PCNA+ proliferating cells and doublecortin-positive (DCX+) differentiating cells of neuronal lineage fall within the overall ranges of murid rodents, but differed from three murid species captured in the same habitat in that fewer DCX+ cells relative to PCNA+ were observed. The large and well-differentiated sengi hippocampus is not accompanied by correspondingly sized cortical and subcortical limbic areas that are the main hippocampal sources of afferents and targets of efferents. This points to intrinsic hippocampal information processing as the selective advantage of the large sengi hippocampus

  15. The hippocampus of the eastern rock sengi: cytoarchitecture, markers of neuronal function, principal cell numbers and adult neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz eSlomianka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The brains of sengis (elephant shrews, order Macroscelidae have long been known to contain a hippocampus that in terms of allometric progression indices is larger than that of most primates and equal in size to that of humans. In this report, we provide descriptions of hippocampal cytoarchitecture in the eastern rock sengi (Elephantulus myurus, of the distributions of hippocampal calretinin, calbindin, parvalbumin and somatostatin, of principal neuron numbers and of cell numbers related to proliferation and neuronal differentiation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Sengi hippocampal cytoarchitecture is an amalgamation of characters that are found in CA1 of, e.g., guinea pig and rabbits and in CA3 and dentate gyrus of primates. Correspondence analysis of total cell numbers and quantitative relations between principal cell populations relate this sengi to macaque monkeys and domestic pigs, and distinguish the sengi from distinct patterns of relations found in humans, dogs and murine rodents. Calretinin and calbindin are present in some cell populations that also express these proteins in other species, e.g., interneurons at the stratum oriens/alveus border or temporal hilar mossy cells, but neurons expressing these markers are often scarce or absent in other layers. The distributions of parvalbumin and somatostatin resemble those in other species. Normalized numbers of PCNA+ proliferating cells and doublecortin+ differentiating cells of neuronal lineage fall within the overall ranges of murid rodents, but differed from three murid species captured in the same habitat in that fewer doublecortin+ cells relative to PCNA+ were observed . The large and well-differentiated sengi hippocampus is not accompanied by correspondingly sized cortical and subcortical limbic areas that are the main hippocampal sources of afferents and targets of efferents. This points to intrinsic hippocampal information processing as the selective advantage of the large sengi

  16. HIV-1 Tat Regulates Occludin and Aβ Transfer Receptor Expression in Brain Endothelial Cells via Rho/ROCK Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanlan; Jiang, Wenlin; Wu, Xianghong; Ye, Biao; Zhou, Xiaoting

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 transactivator protein (Tat) has been shown to play an important role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between occludin and amyloid-beta (Aβ) transfer receptors in human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) in the context of HIV-1-related pathology. The protein expressions of occludin, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) in hCMEC/D3 cells were examined using western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. The mRNA levels of occludin, RAGE, and LRP1 were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. HIV-1 Tat at 1 µg/mL and the Rho inhibitor hydroxyfasudil (HF) at 30 µmol/L, with 24 h exposure, had no significant effect on hCMEC/D3 cell viability. Treatment with HIV-1 Tat protein decreased mRNA and protein levels of occludin and LRP1 and upregulated the expression of RAGE; however, these effects were attenuated by HF. These data suggest that the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway is involved in HIV-1 Tat-mediated changes in occludin, RAGE, and LRP1 in hCMEC/D3 cells. HF may have a beneficial influence by protecting the integrity of the blood-brain barrier and the expression of Aβ transfer receptors.

  17. On the role of RhoA/ROCK signaling in contact guidance of bone-forming cells on anisotropic Ti6Al4V surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzado-Martín, A; Méndez-Vilas, A; Multigner, M; Saldaña, L; González-Carrasco, J L; González-Martín, M L; Vilaboa, N

    2011-04-01

    Patterned surfaces direct cell spatial dynamics, yielding cells oriented along the surface geometry, in a process known as contact guidance. The Rho family of GTPases controls the assembly of focal adhesions and cytoskeleton dynamics, but its role in modulating bone-cell alignment on patterned surfaces remains unknown. This article describes the interactions of two human cell types involved in osseointegration, specifically mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblasts, with submicron- or nano-scale Ti6Al4V grooved surfaces generated by mechanical abrasion. The surface chemistry of the alloy was not affected by grinding, ensuring that the differences found in cellular responses were exclusively due to changes in topography. Patterned surfaces supported cell growth and stimulated mesenchymal stem cell viability. Anisotropic surfaces promoted cell orientation and elongation along the grates. Both cell types oriented on nanometric surfaces with grooves of 150 nm depth and 2 μm width. The number of aligned cells increased by approximately 30% on submicrometric grooves with sizes of about 1 μm depth and 10 μm width. Cells were treated with drugs that attenuate the activities of the GTPase RhoA and one of its downstream effectors, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), and contact guidance of treated cells on the grooved surfaces was investigated. The data indicate that the RhoA/ROCK pathway is a key modulator of both mesenchymal stem cell and osteoblast orientation on nanometric surface features. RhoA and its effector participate in the alignment of mesenchymal stem cells on submicrometric grooves, but not of osteoblasts. These findings show that RhoA/ROCK signaling is involved in contact guidance of bone-related cells on metallic substrates, although to a varying extent depending on the specific cell type and the dimensions of the pattern. PMID:21115140

  18. Space-based laser-powered orbital transfer vehicle (Project SLICK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A conceptual design study of a laser-powered orbital transfer vehicle (LOTV) is presented. The LOTV, nicknamed SLICK (Space Laser Interorbital Cargo Kite), will be utilized for the transfer of 16000 kg of cargo between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and either Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) or Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). This design concentrates primarily on the LEO/GEO scenario, which will have typical LEO-to-GEO trip time of 6 days and two return versions. One version uses an all propulsive return while the other utilizes a ballute aerobrake for the return trip. Furthermore, three return cargo options of 16000 kg, 5000 kg (standard option), and 1600 kg are considered for this scenario. The LEO/LLO scenario uses only a standard, aerobraked version. The basic concept behind the LOTV is that the power for the propulsion system is supplied by a source separate from the LOTV itself. For the LEO/GEO scenario the LOTV utilizes a direct solar-pumped iodide laser and possibly two relay stations, all orbiting at an altitude of one Earth radius and zero inclination. An additional nuclear-powered laser is placed on the Moon for the LEO/LLO scenario. The propulsion system of the LOTV consists of a single engine fueled with liquid hydrogen. The laser beam is captured and directed by a four mirror optical system through a window in the thrust chamber of the engine. There, seven plasmas are created to convert the laser beam energy into thermal energy at an efficiency of at least 50 percent. For the LEO/LLO scenario the laser propulsion is supplemented by LH2/LOX chemical thrusters.

  19. Lung epithelial cell-derived extracellular vesicles activate macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses via ROCK1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, H-G; Cao, Y; Yang, J; Lee, J H; Choi, H S; Jin, Y

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains poorly understood, thus impeding the development of effective treatment. Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) and lung epithelial cell death are prominent features of ARDS. Lung epithelial cells are the first line of defense after inhaled stimuli, such as in the case of hyperoxia. We hypothesized that lung epithelial cells release 'messenger' or signaling molecules to adjacent or distant macrophages, thereby initiating or propagating inflammatory responses after noxious insult. We found that, after hyperoxia, a large amount of extracellular vesicles (EVs) were generated and released into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). These hyperoxia-induced EVs were mainly derived from live lung epithelial cells as the result of hyperoxia-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. These EVs were remarkably different from epithelial 'apoptotic bodies', as reflected by the significantly smaller size and differentially expressed protein markers. These EVs fall mainly in the size range of the exosomes and smaller microvesicles (MVs) (50-120 nm). The commonly featured protein markers of apoptotic bodies were not found in these EVs. Treating alveolar macrophages with hyperoxia-induced, epithelial cell-derived EVs led to an increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2). Robustly increased macrophage and neutrophil influx was found in the lung tissue of the mice intranasally treated with hyperoxia-induced EVs. It was determined that EV-encapsulated caspase-3 was largely responsible for the alveolar macrophage activation via the ROCK1 pathway. Caspase-3-deficient EVs induced less cytokine/MIP-2 release, reduced cell counts in BALF, less neutrophil infiltration and less inflammation in lung parenchyma, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the serum circulating EVs were increased and mainly derived from lung epithelial cells after

  20. Diavik Waste Rock Project: Evolution of Mineral Weathering, Element Release, and Acid Generation and Neutralization during a Five-Year Humidity Cell Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff B. Langman; Mandy L. Moore; Carol J. Ptacek; Leslie Smith; David Sego; David W. Blowes

    2014-01-01

    A five-year, humidity-cell experiment was used to study the weathering evolution of a low-sulfide, granitic waste rock at 5 and 22 °C. Only the rock with the highest sulfide content (0.16 wt %) released sufficient acid to overcome a limited carbonate acid-neutralization capacity and produce a substantial decline in pH. Leached SO4 and Ca quickly increased then decreased during the first two years of weathering. Sulfide oxidation continued to release acid and SO4 after carbonate depletion, res...

  1. Cell body rocking is a dominant mechanism for flagellar synchronization in a swimming alga

    OpenAIRE

    Geyer, Veikko F.; Jülicher, Frank; Howard, Jonathon; Friedrich, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    The unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas swims with two flagella, which can synchronize their beat. Synchronized beating is required to swim both fast and straight. A long-standing hypothesis proposes that synchronization of flagella results from hydrodynamic coupling, but the details are not understood. Here, we present realistic hydrodynamic computations and high-speed tracking experiments of swimming cells that show how a perturbation from the synchronized state causes rotational motion o...

  2. A collapsin response mediator protein 2 isoform controls myosin II-mediated cell migration and matrix assembly by trapping ROCK II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoneda, Atsuko; Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wait, Robin;

    2012-01-01

    Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) is known as a regulator of neuronal polarity and differentiation through microtubule assembly and trafficking. Here, we show that CRMP-2 is ubiquitously expressed and a splice variant (CRMP-2L), which is expressed mainly in epithelial cells among...... binding domains but also trapped and inhibited the kinase. CRMP-2L protein levels profoundly affected haptotactic migration and the actin-myosin cytoskeleton of carcinoma cells as well as nontransformed epithelial cell migration in a ROCK activity-dependent manner. Moreover, the ectopic expression of CRMP...

  3. Protective effect of Ac-SDKP on alveolar epithelial cells through inhibition of EMT via TGF-β1/ROCK1 pathway in silicosis in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Haijing; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Xianghong; Sun, Yue; Wang, Ruimin; Brann, Darrell; Yang, Fang

    2016-03-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical stage during the development of silicosis fibrosis. In the current study, we hypothesized that the anti-fibrotic tetrapeptide, N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) may exert its anti-fibrotic effects via activation of the TGF-β1/ROCK1 pathway, leading to inhibition of EMT. To address this hypothesis, we first examined the effect of Ac-SDKP upon EMT using an in vivo rat silicosis model, as well as in an in vitro model of TGF-β1-induced EMT. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to examine colocalization of surfactant protein A (SP-A), fibroblast specific protein-1 (FSP-1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in vivo. Western blot analysis was used to examine for changes in the protein levels of E-cadherin (E-cad) and SP-A (epithelial cell markers), vimentin (mesenchymal cell marker), α-SMA (active myofibroblast marker), and collagen I and III in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Secondly, we utilized Western blot analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine the protein expression of TGF-β1 and ROCK1 in in vivo and in vitro studies. The results revealed that Ac-SDKP treatment prevented increases in the expression of mesenchymal markers as well as TGF-β1, ROCK1, collagen I and III. Furthermore, Ac-SDKP treatment prevented decreases in the expression of epithelial cell markers in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Based on the results, we conclude that Ac-SDKP inhibits the transition of epithelial cell-myofibroblast in silicosis via activation of the TGF-β1/ROCK1 signaling pathway, which may serve as a novel mechanism by which it exerts its anti-fibrosis properties. PMID:26785300

  4. Oil-slick instability near an oil boom: The influence of free-slip and exact free-surface conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of an oil spill, oil booms are often used to contain the oil before attempting to skim the oil by using oil-skimmers. Under certain conditions, the oil droplets can leave the oil slick and enter the water. A simple balance of hydrodynamic forces on such a droplet results in an instability criterion which determines whether the droplets will be swept past the boom or not. This criterion depends on the pressure gradient along the boom. In this study, the solution of viscous flow past an oil boom problem by the fractional-step method in a curvilinear coordinate system is used to calculate the pressure gradient and to study the effectiveness of oil-containment by booms. The influence of approximate free-surface conditions, such as rigid-lid no-slip, rigid-lid free-slip, and the exact free-surface condition on the instability criterion is investigated

  5. Impact assessment of artificial recharge and geo-chemical characterization of the waters of the slick Tebolba (Eastern Tunisia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study concerned the impact assessment of artificial recharge of a coastal aquifer (Tebolba) from the waters of the dam Nebhana and chemical characterization of its waters. The analysis maps piezometric drawn and salinity at various dates since 1940, the establishment of chronic recharge from the years 1992 to 2006, as well as geochemical study of groundwater in the slick Tebolba have enabled us to reach the many results. This study using a multidisciplinary approach (hydrodynamics and geochemical) seeks an assessment of impacts of recharging the water table in Tebolba from the waters of the dam Nebhana through the history of the qualitative and quantitative water the water and a hydro-geochemical study the current state of the waters of the water. (Author). 45 refs

  6. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  7. Regulation of ROCK Activity in Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wewer, Ulla M; Yoneda, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    , these findings demonstrate additional modes to regulate ROCK activity. This review describes the molecular mechanisms of ROCK activity regulation in cancer, with emphasis on ROCK isoform-specific regulation and interaction partners, and discusses the potential of ROCKs as therapeutic targets in cancer.......Cancer-associated changes in cellular behavior, such as modified cell-cell contact, increased migratory potential, and generation of cellular force, all require alteration of the cytoskeleton. Two homologous mammalian serine/threonine kinases, Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II), are key...... regulators of the actin cytoskeleton acting downstream of the small GTPase Rho. ROCK is associated with cancer progression, and ROCK protein expression is elevated in several types of cancer. ROCKs exist in a closed, inactive conformation under quiescent conditions, which is changed to an open, active...

  8. Self-Assembled Tetrahedral DNA Nanostructures Promote Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Migration via lncRNA XLOC 010623 and RHOA/ROCK2 Signal Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sirong; Peng, Qiang; Shao, Xiaoru; Xie, Jing; Lin, Shiyu; Zhang, Tao; Li, Qianshun; Li, Xiaolong; Lin, Yunfeng

    2016-08-01

    Self-assembled tetrahedral DNA nanostructures (TDNs) with precise sizes have been extensively applied in various fields owing to their exceptional mechanical rigidity, structural stability, and modification versatility. In addition, TDNs can be internalized by mammalian cells and remain mainly intact within the cytoplasm by escaping degradation by nucleases. Here, we studied the effects of TDNs on cell migration and the underlying molecular mechanisms. TDNs remarkably enhanced the migration of rat adipose-derived stem cells and down-regulated the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) XLOC 010623 to activate the mRNA expression of Tiam1 and Rac1. Furthermore, TDNs highly up-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of RHOA, ROCK2, and VCL. These results indicate that TDNs suppressed the transcription of lncRNA XLOC 010623 and activated the TIAM1/RAC1 and RHOA/ROCK2 signaling pathways to promote cell migration. On the basis of these findings, TDNs show a high potential for application in tissue repair and regenerative medicine as a functional three-dimensional DNA nanomaterial. PMID:27403707

  9. Vincristine enhances amoeboid-like motility via GEF-H1/RhoA/ROCK/Myosin light chain signaling in MKN45 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitaki Masato

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-cancer drugs are widely used in cancer treatment frequently combined with surgical therapy and/or radiation therapy. Although surgery and radiation have been suggested to facilitate invasion and metastasis of tumor cells in some cases, there is so far little information about the effect of anti-cancer drugs on cellular invasive ability and metastasis. In this study, using four different anti-cancer drugs (vincristine, paclitaxel, cisplatin and etoposide, we examined whether these drugs influence the invasive ability of tumor cells. Methods Human gastric adenocarcinoma MKN45 cells were used to evaluate the effect of anti-cancer drugs. After drug treatment, cellular invasive ability was assessed using the Matrigel invasion chamber. Cytoskeletal changes after treatment were examined microscopically with F-actin staining. In addition, we monitored cellular motility in 3D matrigel environment by time-lapse microscopic analysis. The drug-induced activation of RhoA and ROCK was evaluated by pull-down assay and Western blotting using an antibody against phosphorylated myosin light chain (MLC, respectively. Where necessary, a ROCK inhibitor Y27632 and siRNA for guanine nucleotide exchange factor-H1 (GEF-H1 were applied. Results Among all drugs tested, only vincristine stimulated the invasive ability of MKN45 cells. Microscopic analysis revealed that vincristine induced the formation of non-apoptotic membrane blebs and amoeboid-like motility. Vincristine significantly enhanced RhoA activity and MLC phosphorylation, suggesting the involvement of RhoA/ROCK pathway in the vincristine-induced cytoskeletal reorganization and cellular invasion. Furthermore, we found that Y27632 as well as the siRNA for GEF-H1, a RhoA-specific activator, attenuated MLC phosphorylation, the formation of membrane blebs and the invasive ability after vincristine treatment. Conclusions These results indicate that vincristine activates GEF-H1/RhoA/ROCK

  10. Diavik Waste Rock Project: Evolution of Mineral Weathering, Element Release, and Acid Generation and Neutralization during a Five-Year Humidity Cell Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff B. Langman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A five-year, humidity-cell experiment was used to study the weathering evolution of a low-sulfide, granitic waste rock at 5 and 22 °C. Only the rock with the highest sulfide content (0.16 wt % released sufficient acid to overcome a limited carbonate acid-neutralization capacity and produce a substantial decline in pH. Leached SO4 and Ca quickly increased then decreased during the first two years of weathering. Sulfide oxidation continued to release acid and SO4 after carbonate depletion, resulting in an increase in acid-soluble elements, including Cu and Zn. With the dissolution of Al-bearing minerals, the pH stabilized above 4, and sulfide oxidation continued to decline until the end of the experiment. The variation in activation energy of sulfide oxidation correlates with changes in sulfide availability, where the lowest activation energies occurred during the largest releases of SO4. A decrease in sulfide availability was attributed to consumption of sulfide and weathered rims on sulfide grains that reduced the oxidation rate. Varying element release rates due to changing carbonate and sulfide availability provide identifiable geochemical conditions that can be viewed as neutralization sequences and may be extrapolated to the field site for examining the evolution of mineral weathering of the waste rock.

  11. Oil slick morphology derived from AVIRIS measurements of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: Implications for spatial resolution requirements of remote sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shaojie; Hu, Chuanmin; Feng, Lian; Swayze, Gregg A; Holmes, Jamie; Graettinger, George; MacDonald, Ian; Garcia, Oscar; Leifer, Ira

    2016-02-15

    Using fine spatial resolution (~7.6m) hyperspectral AVIRIS data collected over the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, we statistically estimated slick lengths, widths and length/width ratios to characterize oil slick morphology for different thickness classes. For all AVIRIS-detected oil slicks (N=52,100 continuous features) binned into four thickness classes (≤50μm but thicker than sheen, 50-200μm, 200-1000μm, and >1000μm), the median lengths, widths, and length/width ratios of these classes ranged between 22 and 38m, 7-11m, and 2.5-3.3, respectively. The AVIRIS data were further aggregated to 30-m (Landsat resolution) and 300-m (MERIS resolution) spatial bins to determine the fractional oil coverage in each bin. Overall, if 50% fractional pixel coverage were to be required to detect oil with thickness greater than sheen for most oil containing pixels, a 30-m resolution sensor would be needed. PMID:26725867

  12. Using SAR images to delineate ocean oil slicks with a texture-classifying neural network algorithm (TCNNA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is used to detect surfactant layers produced by floating oil on the ocean surface. This study presented details of a texture-classifying neural network algorithm (TCNNA) designed to process SAR data from a wide selection of beam modes. Patterns from SAR imagery were extracted in a semi-supervised procedure using a combination of edge-detection filters; texture descriptors; collection information; and environmental data. Various natural oil seeps in the Gulf of Mexico were used as case studies. An analysis of the case studies demonstrated that the TCNNA was able to extract targets and rapidly interpret images collected under a range of environmental conditions. Results presented by the TCNNA were used to evaluate the effects of different environmental conditions on the expressions of oil slicks detected by the data. Optimal incidence angle ranges and wind speed ranges for surfactant film detection were also presented. Results obtained by the TCNNA can be stored and manipulated in geographic information system (GIS) data layers. 26 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  13. Water - rock interaction in different rock environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study assesses the groundwater geochemistry and geological environment of 44 study sites for radioactive waste disposal. Initially, the study sites were divided by rock type into 5 groups: (1) acid - intermediate rocks, (2) mafic - ultramafic rocks, (3) gabbros, amphibolites and gneisses that contain calc-silicate (skarn) rocks, (4) carbonates and (5) sandstones. Separate assessments are made of acid - intermediate plutonic rocks and of a subgroup that comprises migmatites, granite and mica gneiss. These all belong to the group of acid - intermediate rocks. Within the mafic -ultramafic rock group, a subgroup that comprises mafic - ultramafic plutonic rocks, serpentinites, mafic - ultramafic volcanic rocks and volcanic - sedimentary schists is also evaluated separately. Bedrock groundwaters are classified by their concentration of total dissolved solids as fresh, brackish, saline, strongly saline and brine-class groundwaters. (75 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.)

  14. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2-Induced Signaling and Osteogenesis Is Regulated by Cell Shape, RhoA/ROCK, and Cytoskeletal Tension

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yang-Kao; Yu, Xiang; Cohen, Daniel M.; Wozniak, Michele A.; Yang, Michael T.; Gao, Lin; Eyckmans, Jeroen; Chen, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is classically thought to be mediated by different cytokines such as the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Here, we report that cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM), and its effects on cell shape and cytoskeletal mechanics, regulates BMP-induced signaling and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Using micropatterned substrates to progressively restrict cell spreading and flattening against ECM, we demonstrated that BM...

  15. CERN Rocks

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The 15th CERN Hardronic Festival took place on 17 July on the terrace of Rest 3 (Prévessin). Over 1000 people, from CERN and other International Organizations, came to enjoy the warm summer night, and to watch the best of the World's High Energy music. Jazz, rock, pop, country, metal, blues, funk and punk blasted out from 9 bands from the CERN Musiclub and Jazz club, alternating on two stages in a non-stop show.  The night reached its hottest point when The Canettes Blues Band got everybody dancing to sixties R&B tunes (pictured). Meanwhile, the bars and food vans were working at full capacity, under the expert management of the CERN Softball club, who were at the same time running a Softball tournament in the adjacent "Higgs Field". The Hardronic Festival is the main yearly CERN music event, and it is organized with the support of the Staff Association and the CERN Administration.

  16. Comment and response document for the final remedial action plan site design for stabilization of the Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Sites at Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document consists of comments and responses; the reviewers are the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Colorado Dept. of Public Health and Environment, and the remedial action contractor (RAC)

  17. Intercellular Adhesion-Dependent Cell Survival and ROCK-Regulated Actomyosin-Driven Forces Mediate Self-Formation of a Retinal Organoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Albert; Harris, Raven; Bhansali, Punita; Cvekl, Ales; Liu, Wei

    2016-05-10

    In this study we dissected retinal organoid morphogenesis in human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cultures and established a convenient method for isolating large quantities of retinal organoids for modeling human retinal development and disease. Epithelialized cysts were generated via floating culture of clumps of Matrigel/hESCs. Upon spontaneous attachment and spreading of the cysts, patterned retinal monolayers with tight junctions formed. Dispase-mediated detachment of the monolayers and subsequent floating culture led to self-formation of retinal organoids comprising patterned neuroretina, ciliary margin, and retinal pigment epithelium. Intercellular adhesion-dependent cell survival and ROCK-regulated actomyosin-driven forces are required for the self-organization. Our data supports a hypothesis that newly specified neuroretina progenitors form characteristic structures in equilibrium through minimization of cell surface tension. In long-term culture, the retinal organoids autonomously generated stratified retinal tissues, including photoreceptors with ultrastructure of outer segments. Our system requires minimal manual manipulation, has been validated in two lines of human pluripotent stem cells, and provides insight into optic cup invagination in vivo. PMID:27132890

  18. Reduced Expression of Galectin-9 Contributes to a Poor Outcome in Colon Cancer by Inhibiting NK Cell Chemotaxis Partially through the Rho/ROCK1 Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Sun, Jintang; Ma, Chao; Gao, Wenjuan; Song, Bingfeng; Xue, Hao; Chen, Weiliang; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Yun; Shao, Qianqian; Wang, Qingjie; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Jia; Wang, Xiuwen; Wang, Huayang; Zhang, Yun; Yang, Meixiang; Qu, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-9 is a widely expressed protein that is involved in immune regulation and tumorpathogenesis and serves as a marker of a poor prognosis in various types of cancers. However, the clinical impact and the precise mechanism by which this protein contributes to colon tumor progression are unclear. In the present study, we detected the expression of galectin-9 and CD56 cells using immunohistochemistry. Spearman's rank correlation was used to clarify the association between galectin-9 expression and natural killer (NK) cell infiltration. The influence of galectin-9 on NK-92 cell migration was evaluated in vitro using transwell chemotaxis assays. The role of rh-galectin-9 in F-actin polarization in NK-92 cells was investigated using laser scanning confocal microscopy. We showed that galectin-9 was expressed in 101 (78.91%) colon tumor tissues and that was expressed at lower levels in these tissues than in para-tumor tissues. Low levels of galectin-9 expression were positively correlated with a poor histological grade and lymph node metastasis (Ppolarization through the Rho/ROCK1 signaling pathway. These results suggest that galectin-9 expression potentially represents a novel mechanism for tumors to escape immune surveillance in colon tumors. PMID:27028892

  19. Determination of the thermal efficiency of pre-boilover burning of a slick of oil on water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The burning rate of a slick of oil on a water bed is calculated by a simple expression derived from a one dimensional heat conduction equation. Heat feedback from the flame to the surface is assumed to be a constant fraction of the total energy released by the combustion reaction. The constant fraction (χ) is named the burning efficiency and represent an important tool in assessing the potential of in situ burning as a counter-measure to an oil-spill. The total heat release, as a function of the pool diameter, is obtained from an existing correlation. It is assumed that radiative heat is absorbed close to the fuel surface, that conduction is the dominant mode of heat transfer in the liquid phase and that the fuel boil temperature remains constant. By matching the characteristic thermal penetration length scale for the fuel/water systems and an equivalent single layer system, a combined thermal diffusivity can be calculated and used to obtain an analytical solution for the burning rate. Theoretical expressions were correlate with crude oil and heating oil, for a number of pool diameters and initial fuel layer thickness. Experiments were also conducted with emulsified and weathered crude oil. The simple analytical expression describes well the effects of pool diameter and initial fuel layer thickness permitting a better observation of the effects of weathering, emulsification and net heat feedback to the fuel surface. Experiments showed that only a small fraction of the heat released by the flame is retained by the fuel layer and water bed (of the order of 1%). The effect of weathering on the burning rate decreases with the weathering period and that emulsification results in a linear decrease of the burning rate with water content. (Author)

  20. AB250. Annexin V-induced rat Leydig cell proliferation involves Ect2 via RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effect of annexin V on the proliferation of primary rat Leydig cells and the potential mechanism. Methods The primary rat Leydig cells were cultured in vitro and treated with 1 nmol/L annexin 5 and with siRNA–Ect2 transfection. The cell proliferation rate was measured by MTT assay. Phase distribution of cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of Ect2 in protein level were detected by western blotting. RhoA activity was measured by Rho a...

  1. Traction force microscopy in rapidly moving cells reveals separate roles for ROCK and MLCK in the mechanics of retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Timothy R; Ghassem-Zadeh, Sean A; Lee, Juliet

    2014-08-15

    Retraction is a major rate-limiting step in cell motility, particularly in slow moving cell types that form large stable adhesions. Myosin II dependent contractile forces are thought to facilitate detachment by physically pulling up the rear edge. However, retraction can occur in the absence of myosin II activity in cell types that form small labile adhesions. To investigate the role of contractile force generation in retraction, we performed traction force microscopy during the movement of fish epithelial keratocytes. By correlating changes in local traction stress at the rear with the area retracted, we identified four distinct modes of retraction. "Recoil" retractions are preceded by a rise in local traction stress, while rear edge is temporarily stuck, followed by a sharp drop in traction stress upon detachment. This retraction type was most common in cells generating high average traction stress. In "pull" type retractions local traction stress and area retracted increase concomitantly. This was the predominant type of retraction in keratocytes and was observed mostly in cells generating low average traction stress. "Continuous" type retractions occur without any detectable change in traction stress, and are seen in cells generating low average traction stress. In contrast, to many other cell types, "release" type retractions occur in keratocytes following a decrease in local traction stress. Our identification of distinct modes of retraction suggests that contractile forces may play different roles in detachment that are related to rear adhesion strength. To determine how the regulation of contractility via MLCK or Rho kinase contributes to the mechanics of detachment, inhibitors were used to block or augment these pathways. Modulation of MLCK activity led to the most rapid change in local traction stress suggesting its importance in regulating attachment strength. Surprisingly, Rho kinase was not required for detachment, but was essential for localizing

  2. THE INVESTIGATION ON INTERFACE CHARACTERISTIC OF CERAMIC SEALANTS PRODUCED FROM NATURAL ROCKS FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Çiçekli, A Elif; ERCENK, Ediz; Yılmaz, Şenol

    2015-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which are green electrochemical devices, transform directly chemical energy of fuel to electricity, and striking heat energy by using solid fuels as electrolyte [1-3].One of the essential problems for SOFC is to mix the gases, which used in anode and cathode, reacting electrochemically at high temperature before the reaction and/or the gas infiltration to outside of SOFC. It makes security problem and low efficiency. To use safe sealing material for SOFC is very...

  3. A Laboratory Shear Cell Used for Simulation of Shear Strength and Asperity Degradation of Rough Rock Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, M. S.; Rasouli, V.; Barla, G.

    2013-07-01

    Different failure modes during fracture shearing have been introduced including dilation, sliding, asperity cut-off and degradation. Several laboratory studies have reported the complexity of these failure modes during shear tests performed under either constant normal load (CNL) or constant normal stiffness (CNS) conditions. This paper is concerned with the mechanical behaviour of synthetic fractures during direct shear tests using a modified shear cell and related numerical simulation studies. The modifications made to an existing true triaxial stress cell (TTSC) in order to use it for performing shear tests under CNL conditions are presented. The large loading capacity and the use of accurate hydraulic pumps capable of applying a constant shear velocity are the main elements of this cell. Synthetic mortar specimens with different fracture surface geometries are tested to study the failure modes, including fracture sliding, asperity degradation, and to understand failure during shearing. A bonded particle model of the direct shear test with the PFC2D particle flow code is used to mimic the tests performed. The results of a number of tests are presented and compared with PFC2D simulations. The satisfactory results obtained both qualitatively and quantitatively are discussed.

  4. Mechanical stimulation of cyclic tensile strain induces reduction of pluripotent related gene expressions via activation of Rho/ROCK and subsequent decreasing of AKT phosphorylation in human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teramura, Takeshi, E-mail: teramura@med.kindai.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Clinical Medicine, Kinki University, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Takehara, Toshiyuki; Onodera, Yuta [Institute of Advanced Clinical Medicine, Kinki University, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Nakagawa, Koichi; Hamanishi, Chiaki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kinki University, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Fukuda, Kanji [Institute of Advanced Clinical Medicine, Kinki University, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kinki University, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanical stimulation is an important factor for regulation of stem cell fate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyclic stretch to human induced pluripotent stem cells activated small GTPase Rho. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rho-kinase activation attenuated pluripotency via inhibition of AKT activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This reaction could be reproduced only by transfection of dominant active Rho. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rho/ROCK are important molecules in mechanotransduction and control of stemness. -- Abstract: Mechanical stimulation has been shown to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. However, the effects of the mechanical stress on the stemness or related molecular mechanisms have not been well determined. Pluripotent stem cells such as embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are used as good materials for cell transplantation therapy and research of mammalian development, since they can self-renew infinitely and differentiate into various cell lineages. Here we demonstrated that the mechanical stimulation to human iPS cells altered alignment of actin fibers and expressions of the pluripotent related genes Nanog, POU5f1 and Sox2. In the mechanically stimulated iPS cells, small GTPase Rho was activated and interestingly, AKT phosphorylation was decreased. Inhibition of Rho-associated kinase ROCK recovered the AKT phosphorylation and the gene expressions. These results clearly suggested that the Rho/ROCK is a potent primary effector of mechanical stress in the pluripotent stem cells and it participates to pluripotency-related signaling cascades as an upper stream regulator.

  5. The rock diet

    OpenAIRE

    Fordyce, Fiona; Johnson, Chris

    2002-01-01

    You may think there is little connection between rocks and our diet, indeed a serving of rocks may sound very unappetising! But rocks are a vital source of the essential elements and minerals we need to keep us healthy, such as calcium for healthy teeth and bones.

  6. My Pet Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  7. Rock History and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Two ambitious works written by French-speaking scholars tackle rock music as a research object, from different but complementary perspectives. Both are a definite must-read for anyone interested in the contextualisation of rock music in western popular culture. In Une histoire musicale du rock (i.e. A Musical History of Rock), rock music is approached from the point of view of the people – musicians and industry – behind the music. Christophe Pirenne endeavours to examine that field from a m...

  8. A quasi-exclusive European ancestry in the Senepol tropical cattle breed highlights the importance of the slick locus in tropical adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Flori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Senepol cattle breed (SEN was created in the early XX(th century from a presumed cross between a European (EUT breed (Red Poll and a West African taurine (AFT breed (N'Dama. Well adapted to tropical conditions, it is also believed trypanotolerant according to its putative AFT ancestry. However, such origins needed to be verified to define relevant husbandry practices and the genetic background underlying such adaptation needed to be characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We genotyped 153 SEN individuals on 47,365 SNPs and combined the resulting data with those available on 18 other populations representative of EUT, AFT and Zebu (ZEB cattle. We found on average 89% EUT, 10.4% ZEB and 0.6% AFT ancestries in the SEN genome. We further looked for footprints of recent selection using standard tests based on the extent of haplotype homozygosity. We underlined i three footprints on chromosome (BTA 01, two of which are within or close to the polled locus underlying the absence of horns and ii one footprint on BTA20 within the slick hair coat locus, involved in thermotolerance. Annotation of these regions allowed us to propose three candidate genes to explain the observed signals (TIAM1, GRIK1 and RAI14. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results do not support the accepted concept about the AFT origin of SEN breed. Initial AFT ancestry (if any might have been counter-selected in early generations due to breeding objectives oriented in particular toward meat production and hornless phenotype. Therefore, SEN animals are likely susceptible to African trypanosomes which questions the importation of SEN within the West African tsetse belt, as promoted by some breeding societies. Besides, our results revealed that SEN breed is predominantly a EUT breed well adapted to tropical conditions and confirmed the importance in thermotolerance of the slick locus.

  9. Hungry for Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit hazard identification camera shows the rover's perspective just before its first post-egress drive on Mars. On Sunday, the 15th martian day, or sol, of Spirit's journey, engineers drove Spirit approximately 3 meters (10 feet) toward its first rock target, a football-sized, mountain-shaped rock called Adirondack (not pictured). In the foreground of this image are 'Sashimi' and 'Sushi' - two rocks that scientists considered investigating first. Ultimately, these rocks were not chosen because their rough and dusty surfaces are ill-suited for grinding.

  10. Influence of reactive oxygen species and RhoA/ROCK pathway on calcium concentration and calcium sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle cells%活性氧与 RhoA/ROCK 信号通路对血管平滑肌细胞钙浓度及钙敏感性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫莹; 杨朝; 汪涛

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)is an important class of second messengers in vivo,and can be induced greatly by ischemia and hypoxia.Hypoxia signal can trigger the contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells by regulating the cytoplasmic free calcium concentration via ROS,hypoxia may also activate RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway by ROS and then regulate the calcium sensitivity.Deep research on ROS and RhoA/ROCK pathway will illustrate the pathogenesis of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and pulmonary hypertension,providing new ideas for the treatment of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.%活性氧(ROS)是体内一类重要的第二信使,能在缺血缺氧的诱导下大量产生。缺氧信号能通过 ROS 调节血管平滑肌细胞内的钙浓度,从而引起其收缩反应;缺氧还有可能通过 ROS 激活 RhoA/ROCK 信号通路,对钙敏感性进行调节。对 ROS 以及 RhoA/ROCK 信号通路进行深入的研究,可以阐明缺氧性肺血管收缩以及肺动脉高压的发病机制,为缺氧性肺动脉高压的治疗提供新的思路。

  11. Soft rocks in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giambastiani; Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Soft rocks are a still fairly unexplored chapter in rock mechanics. Within this category are the clastic sedimentary rocks and pyroclastic volcanic rocks, of low to moderate lithification (consolidation, cemen-tation, new formed minerals), chemical sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks formed by minerals with Mohs hardness less than 3.5, such as limestone, gypsum, halite, sylvite, between the first and phyllites, graphitic schist, chloritic shale, talc, etc., among the latter. They also include any type of rock that suffered alteration processes (hydrothermal or weathering). In Argentina the study of low-strength rocks has not received much attention despite having extensive outcrops in the Andes and great impact in the design criteria. Correlation between geomechanical properties (UCS, deformability) to physical index (porosity, density, etc.) has shown promising results to be better studied. There are many studies and engineering projects in Argentina in soft rock geological environments, some cited in the text (Chihuído dam, N. Kirchner dam, J. Cepernic Dam, etc.) and others such as International Tunnel in the Province of Mendoza (Corredor Bioceánico), which will require the valuable contribution from rock mechanics. The lack of consistency between some of the physical and mechanical parameters explored from studies in the country may be due to an insufficient amount of information and/or non-standardization of criteria for testing materials. It is understood that more and better academic and professional efforts in improv-ing techniques will result in benefits to the better understanding of the geomechanics of weak rocks.

  12. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  13. Hydraulic and gas transfer numerical simulations at cell and module scale of a clay host rock repository in the Forge project framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The multiple barrier disposal concept is the cornerstone of all proposed schemes for geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The concept is based on a series of passive complementary barriers, both engineered and natural, that act to achieve the required level of safety for radioactive waste disposed in a geological repository. Demonstrating an appropriate understanding of gas generation and migration is a key component in a safety case for a geological repository for radioactive waste. On the basis of work to date, the overall behaviour of waste-derived gas and its influences on repository system performance require improved understanding. Key issues to be further examined relating to an enhanced understanding of gas-related processes include: dilational versus visco-capillary flow mechanisms; long-term integrity of seals, in particular gas flow along contacts; role of the EDZ as a conduit for preferential flow; and laboratory to field up-scaling. Such issues are the focus of the integrated, multi-disciplinary European Commission FORGE project. The FORGE project links international radioactive waste management organisations, regulators and academia, and is specifically designed to tackle the key research issues associated with the generation and movement of repository gases associated with waste disposed in a geological repository. Of particular importance are the long-term performance of bentonite buffers, plastic clays, indurated mud-rocks and crystalline formations. This presentation will focus on the numerical simulation work done by Andra in the FORGE framework, especially at the cell and module scales. One of the main problems in dealing with different teams from different countries, who have different disposal concepts, is to find a common representation as a basis for the benchmark. This implies simplifications are necessary to real concepts, in order that they be represented at a basic level that has

  14. Folding at two different scales of the Paradox anticline in the Ordovician Cool Creek Formation, Arbuckle Group, Slick Hills, southwestern Oklahoma: A paleomagnetic fold test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannalal, S. J.; Zechmeister, M. S.; Elmore, D. R.

    2007-12-01

    The carbonates in the Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group, part of the southern Oklahoma aulacogen, has been the subject of previous paleomagnetic studies with a focus primarily on their origin of the magnetizations. Most previous studies indicate late Paleozoic magnetizations that reside in hematite. However, Elmore et al. (1988) conducted a paleomagnetic study of the Arbuckle Group carbonates from the Slick Hills area utilizing six sites from a north-plunging tightly folded Paradox anticline. Alternating field and thermal demagnetization results from their study indicated a post-tilting remanence that resides primarily in magnetite. Also, based on the difference between the observed and expected remanence directions, they suggested a possible 30° block rotation. As a continuation of their work, this paleomagnetic study was conducted to corroborate the observed 30° rotations utilizing more sites from the Paradox anticline and the use of a more sensitive 2G Cryogenic magnetometer. In addition, the major focus of this paleomagnetic study is to examine the relationship between the timing of remanence acquisition with respect to the primary (F1) and the secondary (F2) folds of the Paradox anticline. To this extent, oriented samples of carbonates have been collected from the Ordovician Cool Creek Formation of the Paradox anticline from the Slick Hills area from both the F1 and the F2 folds. Low temperature demagnetization protocols have been carried out on these samples to remove the effects of multidomain magnetite grains thereby isolating better the characteristic remanence components. Post-low temperature cleaning, the thermal step-demagnetization procedure isolates primarily two components: 1.) a low-temperature steep downward viscous remanent magnetization; and, 2.) a high-temperature characteristic remanent magnetization component, residing primarily in magnetite, with shallow remanence directions scattered towards the east-south-east to south-east. Fold test

  15. CRITERIA FOR ROCK ENGINEERING FAILURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUDeren; ZHANGYuzhuo

    1995-01-01

    A great number of underground rock projects are maintained in the rock mass which is subject to rock damage and failure development. In many cases, the rock. engineering is still under normal working conditions even though rock is already fails to some extent. This paper introduces two different concepts: rock failure and rock engineering failure. Rock failure is defined as a mechanical state under which an applicable characteristic is changed or lost.However, the rock engineering failure is an engineering state under which an applicable function is changed or lost. The failure of surrounding rocks is the major reason of rock engineering failure. The criterion of rock engineering failure depends on the limit of applicable functions. The rock engineering failure state possesses a corresponding point in rock failure state. In this paper, a description of rock engineering failure criterion is given by simply using a mechanical equation or expression. It is expected that the study of rock engineering failure criterion will be an optimal approach that combines research of rock mechanics with rock engineering problems.

  16. Pop & rock / Berk Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-

    2001-01-01

    Uute heliplaatide Redman "Malpractice", Brian Eno & Peter Schwalm "Popstars", Clawfinger "A Whole Lot of Nothing", Dario G "In Full Color", MLTR e. Michael Learns To Rock "Blue Night" lühitutvustused

  17. Rock kinoekraanil / Katrin Rajasaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajasaare, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    7.-11. juulini kinos Sõprus toimuval filminädalal "Rock On Screen" ekraanile jõudvatest rockmuusikuid portreteerivatest filmidest "Lou Reed's Berlin", "The Future Is Unwritten: Joe Strummer", "Control: Joy Division", "Hurriganes", "Shlaager"

  18. Herpesvirus infections in rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeota, Judith A; Napier, Julia E; Armstrong, Douglas L; Riethoven, Jean-Jack; Rogers, Douglas G

    2009-07-01

    Seven juveniles and 3 adults from a closed group of 19 rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) housed in a zoo's indoor rock exhibit died or were euthanized after developing blepharoconjunctivitis and orofacial ulcers over a 2-week period. Histopathologic examination of dermal ulcers and ulcerated tongues revealed amphophilic to basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells bordering ulcers. Epithelial cells with inclusion bodies were often characterized by cytomegaly and karyomegaly, and many cells had formed syncytia. Examination of inclusion bodies in tongue epithelium by transmission electron microscopy revealed icosahedral nucleocapsids, approximately 80-95 nm in diameter, with morphologic features consistent with herpesvirus. Cytopathic effect (CPE) typical of alphaherpesvirus infection was seen in bovine turbinate, equine dermal, and Vero cell monolayers after inoculation with homogenates of the skin lesions, but CPE was not seen after inoculation onto Madin-Darby canine kidney or swine testicle cell monolayers. Polymerase chain reaction analysis using degenerate primers that targeted a portion of the herpesvirus polymerase gene generated a product of approximately 227 base pairs. The product was cloned, sequenced, and then analyzed using BLAST. At the nucleotide level, there was 86%, 77%, and 76% shared identity with Eidolon herpesvirus 1, Human herpesviruses 1 and 2, and Cercopithecine herpesvirus 2, respectively. Herpesvirus infections in rock hyraxes have not been characterized. The data presented in the current study suggest that a novel alphaherpesvirus caused the lesions seen in these rock hyraxes. The molecular characteristics of this virus would tentatively support its inclusion in the genus Simplexvirus. PMID:19564505

  19. Rock magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1978 the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program began the long task of site selection and evaluation for nuclear waste disposal. The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, administered by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Research Company has provided the geophysicist with the unique opportunity to evaluate many modes of geophysical investigation in conjunction with detailed geologic mapping at a number of research areas. Of particular interest is research area RA-7, East Bull Lake, Algoma District, Ontario. Geophysical survey methods applied to the study of this included detailed gravity, ground magnetics, VLF, an airborne magnetic gradiometer survey and an airborne helicopter magnetic and EM survey. A comprehensive suite of rock property studies was also undertaken providing information on rock densities and magnetic rock properties. Preliminary modeling of the magnetic data sets assuming only induced magnetization illustrated the difficulty of arriving at a magnetic source geometry consistent with the mapped surficial and borehole geology. Integration of the magnetic rock properties observations and industry standard magnetic modelling techniques provides a source model geometry that is consistent with other geophysical/geological data sets, e.g. gravity and observed geology. The genesis of individual magnetic signatures in the East Bull Lake gabbro-anorthosite record the intrusion, metamorphism and fracture alteration of the pluton. As shown by this paper, only by understanding the rock magnetic signatures associated with each of these events is it possible to obtain geologically meaningful interpretative models

  20. Groundwater in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of published chemical analyses of ground waters found in granitic rocks from a variety of locations shows that their compositions fall into two distinct classes. Ground waters from shallow wells and springs have a high bicarbonate/chloride ratio resulting from the neutralization of carbonic acid (dissolved CO2) by weathering reactions. The sodium, potassium, and silica released by weathering reactions drive the solutions away from equilibrium with the dominant minerals in the granites (i.e., quartz, muscovite, potassium feldspar, and albite). On the other hand, ground waters from deep wells and excavations are rich in chloride relative to bicarbonate. Their Na, K, H, and silica activities indicate that they are nearly equilibrated with the granite minerals suggesting a very long residence time in the host rock. These observations furnish the basis for a powerful tool to aid in selecting sites for radioactive waste disposal in granitic rocks. When water-bearing fractures are encountered in these rocks, a chemical analysis of the solutions contained within the fracture can determine whether the water came from the surface, i.e., is bicarbonate rich and not equilibrated, or whether it is some sort of connate water that has resided in the rock for a long period, i.e., chloride rich and equilibrated. This technique should allow immediate recognition of fracture systems in granitic radioactive waste repositories that would allow radionuclides to escape to the surface

  1. Experimental deformation of polyphase rock analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bons, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis presents an investigation into the mechanical properties of ductile polyphase materials, which were studied by a number of different techniques. The first approach was to do creep tests and transparent deformation cell experiments with two-phase composites of organic crystalline rock-ana

  2. Digital carbonate rock physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, Erik H.; Vialle, Stephanie; Lebedev, Maxim; Uribe, David; Osorno, Maria; Duda, Mandy; Steeb, Holger

    2016-08-01

    Modern estimation of rock properties combines imaging with advanced numerical simulations, an approach known as digital rock physics (DRP). In this paper we suggest a specific segmentation procedure of X-ray micro-computed tomography data with two different resolutions in the µm range for two sets of carbonate rock samples. These carbonates were already characterized in detail in a previous laboratory study which we complement with nanoindentation experiments (for local elastic properties). In a first step a non-local mean filter is applied to the raw image data. We then apply different thresholds to identify pores and solid phases. Because of a non-neglectable amount of unresolved microporosity (micritic phase) we also define intermediate threshold values for distinct phases. Based on this segmentation we determine porosity-dependent values for effective P- and S-wave velocities as well as for the intrinsic permeability. For effective velocities we confirm an observed two-phase trend reported in another study using a different carbonate data set. As an upscaling approach we use this two-phase trend as an effective medium approach to estimate the porosity-dependent elastic properties of the micritic phase for the low-resolution images. The porosity measured in the laboratory is then used to predict the effective rock properties from the observed trends for a comparison with experimental data. The two-phase trend can be regarded as an upper bound for elastic properties; the use of the two-phase trend for low-resolution images led to a good estimate for a lower bound of effective elastic properties. Anisotropy is observed for some of the considered subvolumes, but seems to be insignificant for the analysed rocks at the DRP scale. Because of the complexity of carbonates we suggest using DRP as a complementary tool for rock characterization in addition to classical experimental methods.

  3. Rock Hellsinki, Marketing Research

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Roosa; Jalkanen, Katariina

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a qualitative research about rock and heavy metal music tourism in the capital city of Finland, Helsinki. As Helsinki can be considered the city of contrasts, the silent nature city mixed with urban activities, it is important to also use the potential of the loud rock and heavy metal music contrasting the silence. Finland is known abroad for bands such as HIM, Nightwish, Korpiklaani and Children of Bodom so it would make sense to utilize these in the tourism sector as well. The...

  4. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  5. Rock engineering applications, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book demonstrates how to apply the theories and principles of rock engineering to actual engineering and construction tasks. It features insights on geology for mining and tunnelling applications. It is practical resource that focuses on the latest technological innovation and examines up-to-date procedures used by engineers for coping with complex rock conditions. The authors also discuss question related to underground space, from design approaches to underground housing and storage. And they cover the monitoring of storage caverns for liquid and gaseous products or toxic and radioactive wastes

  6. Rocking and Rolling Rattlebacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    A rattleback is a well-known physics toy that has a preferred direction of rotation. If it is spun about a vertical axis in the "wrong" direction, it will slow down, start rocking from end to end, and then spin in the opposite (i.e. preferred) direction. Many articles have been written about rattlebacks. Some are highly mathematical and…

  7. Stanford Rock Physics database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolen-Hoeksema, R. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Hart, C. (Envision Systems, Inc., Fremont, CA (United States))

    The authors have developed a relational database for the Stanford Rock Physics (SRP) Laboratory. The database is a flexible tool for helping researchers find relevant data. It significantly speeds retrieval of data and facilitates new organizations of rock physics information to get answers to research questions. The motivation for a database was to have a computer data storage, search, and display capability to explore the sensitivity of acoustic velocities to changes in the properties and states of rocks. Benefits include data exchange among researchers, discovery of new relations in existing data, and identification of new areas of research. The authors' goal was to build a database flexible enough for the dynamic and multidisciplinary research environment of rock physics. Databases are based on data models. A flexible data model must: (1) Not impose strong, prior constraints on the data; (2) not require a steep learning curve of the database architecture; and (3) be easy to modify. The authors' choice of the relational data model reflects these considerations. The database and some hardware and software considerations were influenced by their choice of data model, and their desire to provide a user-friendly interface for the database and build a distributed database system.

  8. Rock solid energy solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientists believe naturally radioactive rocks below the earth's surface could provide an inexhaustible and environmentally friendly power source. And Australia could be a geological hotbed should the concept get off the ground. Despite the scale, the concept itself is simple. The Earth's reserves of heat in naturally radioactive rocks could provide an effectively inexhaustible and environmentally friendly source of power. No greenhouse gas emissions, little water usage and minimal pollution. Natural hot springs are already used to make power in some parts of the world, such as Iceland, but creating artificial hot springs by drilling deep into granite -the hardest of rocks - is a much more ambitious concept. One cubic kilometre of hot granite at 250 deg C has the stored energy equivalent of 40 million barrels of oil. In a nutshell, water is pumped into the hot zone - some 3km to 5km down in Australian conditions - and spreads through a 'reservoir' of hot, cracked rocks. Once superheated, it returns to the surface as steam through a separate production well to spin turbines and generate electricity. The water can then be recaptured and reused, with test sites around the world recovering up to around 90 per cent

  9. Umhlanga Rocks coastal defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, L.; De Jong, B.; Ivanova, M.; Gerritse, A.; Rietberg, D.; Dorrepaal, S.

    2014-01-01

    The eThekwini coastline is a vulnerable coastline subject to chronic erosion and damage due to sea level rise. In 2007 a severe storm caused major physical and economic damage along the coastline, proving the need for action. Umhlanga Rocks is a densely populated premium holiday destination on the e

  10. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has sign

  11. Adiponectin attenuates angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell remodeling through nitric oxide and the RhoA/ROCK pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wared eNour-Eldine

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adiponectin (APN, an adipocytokine, exerts protective effects on cardiac remodeling, while angiotensin II (Ang II induces hypertension and vascular remodeling. The potential protective role of APN on the vasculature during hypertension has not been fully elucidated yet. Here, we evaluate the molecular mechanisms of the protective role of APN in the physiological response of the vascular wall to Ang II.METHODS AND RESULTS: Rat aortic tissues were used to investigate the effect of APN on Ang II-induced vascular remodeling and hypertrophy. We investigated whether nitric oxide (NO, the RhoA/ROCK pathway, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and reactive oxygen species (ROS mediate the anti-hypertrophic effect of APN. Ang II-induced protein synthesis was attenuated by pre-treatment with APN, NO donor (SNAP, or cGMP. The hypertrophic response to Ang II was associated with a significant increase in RhoA activation and vascular force production, which were prevented by APN and SNAP. NO was also associated with inhibition of Ang II-induced phosphorylation of cofilin. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed that 24 hr Ang II treatment increased the F- to G-actin ratio, an effect that was inhibited by SNAP. Ang II-induced ROS formation and upregulation of p22phox mRNA expression were inhibited by APN and NO. Both compounds failed to inhibit Nox1 and p47phox expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the anti-hypertrophic effects of APN are due, in part, to NO-dependent inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK pathway and ROS formation.

  12. Joint Commission on rock properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    A joint commission on Rock Properties for Petroleum Engineers (RPPE) has been established by the International Society of Rock Mechanics and the Society of Petroleum Engineers to set up data banks on the properties of sedimentary rocks encountered during drilling. Computer-based data banks of complete rock properties will be organized for sandstones (GRESA), shales (ARSHA) and carbonates (CARCA). The commission hopes to access data sources from members of the commission, private companies and the public domain.

  13. Phosphorylation and mRNA splicing of collapsin response mediator protein-2 determine inhibition of rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) II function in carcinoma cell migration and invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Couchman, John R; Yoneda, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    The Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II) are central regulators of important cellular processes such as migration and invasion downstream of the GTP-Rho. Recently, we reported collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP)-2 as an endogenous ROCK II inhibitor. To reveal how the CRMP-2-ROCK II...

  14. Interaction of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633 and Bacteriophage gh-1 in Berea Sandstone Rock

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Philip Lee; Yen, Teh Fu

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the passage of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633 and a phage-resistant mutant through Berea sandstone rock were made. When bacteriophage gh-1 was adsorbed within the rock matrix, a reduction in the passage of the susceptible but not the resistant cells through the rock was observed.

  15. Interaction of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633 and Bacteriophage gh-1 in Berea Sandstone Rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P L; Yen, T F

    1985-12-01

    Measurements of the passage of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633 and a phage-resistant mutant through Berea sandstone rock were made. When bacteriophage gh-1 was adsorbed within the rock matrix, a reduction in the passage of the susceptible but not the resistant cells through the rock was observed. PMID:16346956

  16. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  17. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  18. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  19. Limados : Rock peruano

    OpenAIRE

    García Morete, Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    Incentivado por la corriente nuevaolera que llegaba de México, fue señalado por especialistas como pionero del punk. Aunque el plan, era tocar con lo que hubiera. Un recodo ínfimo de un período breve pero sorprendentemente poderoso, los 60 en un país que hizo del rock una expresión propia de su cultura.

  20. Deformations of fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the DBM and FEM analysis in this study indicate that a suitable rock mass for repository of radioactive waste should be moderately jointed (about 1 joint/m2) and surrounded by shear zones of the first order. This allowes for a gentle and flexible deformation under tectonic stresses and prevent the development of large cross-cutting failures in the repository area. (author)

  1. Rock in Rio: forever young

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas; Flávio Lins Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark ...

  2. Rock in Rio: forever young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark of past festivals around the world. Thus, the musical expands the possibilities of growth for the brand.

  3. Targeted Disruption of ROCK1 Causes Insulin Resistance in Vivo*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dae Ho; Shi, Jianjian; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Kim, Min Seon; Zabolotny, Janice M.; Lee, Sam W.; White, Morris F.; Wei, Lei; Kim, Young-Bum

    2009-01-01

    Insulin signaling is essential for normal glucose homeostasis. Rho-kinase (ROCK) isoforms have been shown to participate in insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in cultured cell lines. To investigate the physiological role of ROCK1 in the regulation of whole body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in vivo, we studied mice with global disruption of ROCK1. Here we show that, at 16–18 weeks of age, ROCK1-deficient mice exhibited insulin resistance, as reveale...

  4. Musical Structure as Narrative in Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fernando Encarnacao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to take a fresh look at the analysis of form in rock music, this paper uses Susan McClary’s (2000 idea of ‘quest narrative’ in Western art music as a starting point. While much pop and rock adheres to the basic structure of the establishment of a home territory, episodes or adventures away, and then a return, my study suggests three categories of rock music form that provide alternatives to common combinations of verses, choruses and bridges through which the quest narrative is delivered. Labyrinth forms present more than the usual number of sections to confound our sense of ‘home’, and consequently of ‘quest’. Single-cell forms use repetition to suggest either a kind of stasis or to disrupt our expectations of beginning, middle and end. Immersive forms blur sectional divisions and invite more sensual and participatory responses to the recorded text. With regard to all of these alternative approaches to structure, Judy Lochhead’s (1992 concept of ‘forming’ is called upon to underline rock music forms that unfold as process, rather than map received formal constructs. Central to the argument are a couple of crucial definitions. Following Theodore Gracyk (1996, it is not songs, as such, but particular recordings that constitute rock music texts. Additionally, narrative is understood not in (direct relation to the lyrics of a song, nor in terms of artists’ biographies or the trajectories of musical styles, but considered in terms of musical structure. It is hoped that this outline of non-narrative musical structures in rock may have applications not only to other types of music, but to other time-based art forms.

  5. Biomarkers and Microbial Fossils In Antarctic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchos, J.; Ascaso, C.

    Lithobiontic microbial communities living within Antarctic rocks are an example of survival in an extremely cold and dry environment. Any unfavourable change in ex- ternal conditions can result in the death and disappearance of microscopic organisms, and this may be followed by the appearance of trace biomarkers and microbial fossils. The extinction of these microorganisms in some zones of the Ross Desert, probably provoked by the hostile environment, might be considered a good terrestrial analogue of the first stage of the disappearance of possible life on early Mars. Granite samples from maritime Antarctica (Granite Harbour) and sandstone rocks from the continental Ross Desert were collected with the aim of searching for biomarkers and microbial fossils at the microscopic level of observation. To this end, a novel in situ applica- tion of scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron imaging was com- bined with the simultaneous use of X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy techniques. Our findings confirm the existence of inorganic biomarkers in the form of physico- chemically bioweathered minerals within the granitic rocks. The presence of Fe-rich diagenetic minerals, such as iron hydroxide nanocrystals and biogenic clays around chasmoendolithic hyphae and bacterial cells was also observed. Others biomarkers, including inorganic deposits such as calcium oxalates and silica accumulations, are clear signs of endolithic microorganism activity. The interior of the sandstone rocks (Ross Desert, Mt. Fleming) reveal the presence of microbial fossils of algae and other endolithic microorganisms. These microbial fossils, detected for the first time within Antarctic rocks, contain well preserved and morphologically distinguishable relics of ultrastructural cytoplasm elements, such as cell walls, chloroplast membranes, and oc- casionally, pyrenoids and traces of organic matter. These structures are similar to those observed in live cells also found in Antarctic

  6. Rock bolts - Improved design and possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas-Lepine, Capucine

    2012-01-01

    SummaryRock Bolts, improved design and possibilitiesMaster thesis NTNU 2012Student : Capucine Thomas-LepineSupervisor : Leif LiaKey words : rock foundation, small concrete dam, rock mass classification, rock joints, shear strength of rock discontinuities, fully grouted passive rock bolts designMasters Thesis : “Rock bolts, improved design and possibilities” is a continuation from the Masters Thesis NTNU 2011 “Rock bolts in dams, expected capacity” by Lars Kristian Neby. In...

  7. Rock Pore Structure as Main Reason of Rock Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrášik, Martin; Kopecký, Miloslav

    2014-03-01

    Crashed or dimensional rocks have been used as natural construction material, decoration stone or as material for artistic sculptures. Especially old historical towns not only in Slovakia have had experiences with use of stones for construction purposes for centuries. The whole buildings were made from dimensional stone, like sandstone, limestone or rhyolite. Pavements were made especially from basalt, andesite, rhyolite or granite. Also the most common modern construction material - concrete includes large amounts of crashed rock, especially limestone, dolostone and andesite. However, rock as any other material if exposed to exogenous processes starts to deteriorate. Especially mechanical weathering can be very intensive if rock with unsuitable rock properties is used. For long it had been believed that repeated freezing and thawing in relation to high absorption is the main reason of the rock deterioration. In Slovakia for many years the high water absorption was set as exclusion criterion for use of rocks and stones in building industry. Only after 1989 the absorption was accepted as merely informational rock property and not exclusion. The reason of the change was not the understanding of the relationship between the porosity and rock deterioration, but more or less good experiences with some high porous rocks used in constructions exposed to severe weather conditions and proving a lack of relationship between rock freeze-thaw resistivity and water absorption. Results of the recent worldwide research suggest that understanding a resistivity of rocks against deterioration is hidden not in the absorption but in the structure of rock pores in relation to thermodynamic properties of pore water and tensile strength of rocks and rock minerals. Also this article presents some results of research on rock deterioration and pore structure performed on 88 rock samples. The results divide the rocks tested into two groups - group N in which the pore water does not freeze

  8. Surface slick trajectories and risk analysis to oil spill and its derivates, caused by vessel in the Vitoria Bay and Espirito Santo Bay; Analise da trajetoria e dos riscos do derrame de petroleo e seus derivados proveniente da area de fundeio dos portos situados nas baias de Vitoria e do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, A.R. [Espirito Santo Univ., Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Ambiental]. E-mail: arfont@terra.com.br; Sarmento, R. [Espirito Santo Univ., Vitoria, ES (Brazil)]. E-mail: robsar@npd.ufes.br

    2003-07-01

    This report presents information of surface slick trajectories and risk analysis to oil spill, provoked by vessel in the Vitoria Bay and Espirito Santo Bay anchorage port area. The trajectory has been simulated by mathematical modeling surface spill trajectory, pushed by wind and tidal currents. Those information are a contribution to elaborate contingency plans to the ports activities in this region. (author)

  9. ROCK1 as a novel prognostic marker in vulvar cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akagi, Erica M; Lavorato-Rocha, André M; Maia, Beatriz de Melo;

    2014-01-01

    infection, but most cases develop in women aged over 50 years through poorly understood genetic mechanisms. Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) has been implicated in many cellular processes, but its function in vulvar cancer has never been examined. In this study, we aimed to...... determine the prognostic value of ROCK1 gene and protein analysis in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). METHODS: ROCK1 expression levels were measured in 16 vulvar tumour samples and adjacent normal tissue by qRT-PCR. Further, 96 VSCC samples were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to confirm the...... involvement of ROCK1 in the disease. The molecular and pathological results were correlated with the clinical data of the patients. Sixteen fresh VSCC samples were analyzed by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). RESULTS: In each pair of samples, ROCK1 levels were higher by qRT-PCR in normal...

  10. Rock mechanics for hard rock nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mined geologic burial of high level nuclear waste is now the favored option for disposal. The US National Waste Terminal Storage Program designed to achieve this disposal includes an extensive rock mechanics component related to the design of the wastes repositories. The plan currently considers five candidate rock types. This paper deals with the three hard rocks among them: basalt, granite, and tuff. Their behavior is governed by geological discontinuities. Salt and shale, which exhibit behavior closer to that of a continuum, are not considered here. This paper discusses both the generic rock mechanics R and D, which are required for repository design, as well as examples of projects related to hard rock waste storage. The examples include programs in basalt (Hanford/Washington), in granitic rocks (Climax/Nevada Test Site, Idaho Springs/Colorado, Pinawa/Canada, Oracle/Arizona, and Stripa/Sweden), and in tuff

  11. Session: Hot Dry Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Duchane, David V.; Ponden, Raymond F.; Brown, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Hot Dry Rock - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''HDR Opportunities and Challenges Beyond the Long Term Flow Test'' by David V. Duchane; ''Start-Up Operations at the Fenton Hill HDR Pilot Plant'' by Raymond F. Ponden; and ''Update on the Long-Term Flow Testing Program'' by Donald W. Brown.

  12. Sealing of fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper consists of a presentation of the third phase of the Stripa Project. This phase was dedicated to fracture sealing. First of all it has been necessary to show that fine-grained grouts could effectively be injected in relatively fine cracks, and that the fluidity of bentonite could also be enhanced. The field tests comprised investigation of excavation-induced disturbance and attempts to seal disturbed rock, and, in separate tests, grouting of deposition holes and a natural fine-fracture zone. (TEC). 12 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs

  13. From stones to rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, Marie-Astrid; Jean-Leroux, Kathleen; Cirio, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    With the Aquila earthquake in 2009, earthquake prediction is more and more necessary nowadays, and people are waiting for even more accurate data. Earthquake accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to the understanding of how oceanic expansion works and significant development of numerical seismic prediction models. Despite the improvements, the location and the magnitude can't be as accurate as citizen and authorities would like. The basis of anticipating earthquakes requires the understanding of: - The composition of the earth, - The structure of the earth, - The relations and movements between the different parts of the surface of the earth. In order to answer these questions, the Alps are an interesting field for students. This study combines natural curiosity about understanding the predictable part of natural hazard in geology and scientific skills on site: observing and drawing landscape, choosing and reading a representative core drilling, replacing the facts chronologically and considering the age, the length of time and the strength needed. This experience requires students to have an approach of time and space radically different than the one they can consider in a classroom. It also limits their imagination, in a positive way, because they realize that prediction is based on real data and some of former theories have become present paradigms thanks to geologists. On each location the analyzed data include landscape, core drilling and the relation established between them by students. The data is used by the students to understand the meaning, so that the history of the formation of the rocks tells by the rocks can be explained. Until this year, the CBGA's perspective regarding the study of the Alps ground allowed students to build the story of the creation and disappearance of the ocean, which was a concept required by French educational authorities. But not long ago, the authorities changed their scientific expectations. To meet the

  14. Rock mechanics data package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This data package provides a summary of available laboratory and in situ stress field test results from site characterization investigations by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project Modeling and Analysis Group. The objective is to furnish rock mechanics information for use by Rockwell Hanford Operations and their subcontractors in performance assessment and engineering studies. This release includes Reference Repository Location (RRL) site specific laboratory and field test data from boreholes RRL-2, RRL-6, and RRL-14 as well as previous Hanford wide data available as of April, 1985. 25 refs., 9 figs., 16 tabs

  15. Rock Properties Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this model report is to document the Rock Properties Model version 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties model provides mean matrix and lithophysae porosity, and the cross-correlated mean bulk density as direct input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'', MDL-NBS-HS-000021, REV 02 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in Section 6.6 and 8.2. Model validation accomplished by corroboration with data not cited as direct input is discussed in Section 7. The revision of this model report was performed as part of activities being conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan for: The Integrated Site Model, Revision 05'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169635]). The purpose of this revision is to bring the report up to current procedural requirements and address the Regulatory Integration Team evaluation comments. The work plan describes the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and procedures for this process

  16. Overview: Hard Rock Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.C.

    1992-08-01

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  17. Overview: Hard Rock Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  18. Overview - Hard Rock Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, James C.

    1992-03-24

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling Organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  19. Rock Properties Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Lum

    2004-09-16

    The purpose of this model report is to document the Rock Properties Model version 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties model provides mean matrix and lithophysae porosity, and the cross-correlated mean bulk density as direct input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'', MDL-NBS-HS-000021, REV 02 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in Section 6.6 and 8.2. Model validation accomplished by corroboration with data not cited as direct input is discussed in Section 7. The revision of this model report was performed as part of activities being conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan for: The Integrated Site Model, Revision 05'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169635]). The purpose of this revision is to bring the report up to current procedural requirements and address the Regulatory Integration Team evaluation comments. The work plan describes the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and procedures for this process.

  20. Big Rock Point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Big Rock Point Nuclear Plant is the second oldest operating nuclear power plant in the United States. Its 25-yr history is an embodiment of the history of commercial nuclear power. In some respects, its situation today - 5 yr past the midpoint of its design life - can provide operators of other nuclear plants a glimpse of where they will be in another decade. Construction on Big Rock Point began in 1960. It was completed just 2 1/2 yr later at a cost of $27 million. The plant is a General Electric (GE)-designed boiling water direct cycle, forced circulation, high power density reactor. Its construction was undertaken by Consumers Power under the third round of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's (AEC's) Power Demonstration Reactor Program. It was an advanced version of GE's Vallecitos boiling water reactor. The plant's fuel was GE's responsibility and, under contract with the AEC, it conducted a fuel research and development (RandD) program involving the plant. Although the plant was designed for research - its original electrical capacity was set at 50 MW(electric) - the unit was subsequently uprated to 69 MW(net electric). The original plant staff included only 44 people and minimal security. Mirroring the industry experience, the number of people on-site had quadrupled

  1. A smart rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressel, Phil

    2014-12-01

    This project was to design and build a protective weapon for a group of associations that believed in aliens and UFO's. They collected enough contributions from societies and individuals to be able to sponsor and totally fund the design, fabrication and testing of this equipment. The location of this facility is classified. It also eventually was redesigned by the Quartus Engineering Company for use at a major amusement park as a "shoot at targets facility." The challenge of this project was to design a "smart rock," namely an infrared bullet (the size of a gallon can of paint) that could be shot from the ground to intercept a UFO or any incoming suspicious item heading towards the earth. Some of the challenges to design this weapon were to feed cryogenic helium at 5 degrees Kelvin from an inair environment through a unique rotary coupling and air-vacuum seal while spinning the bullet at 1500 rpm and maintain its dynamic stability (wobble) about its spin axis to less than 10 micro-radians (2 arc seconds) while it operated in a vacuum. Precision optics monitored the dynamic motion of the "smart rock."

  2. Rock critics as 'Mouldy Modernists'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Shepherd

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary rock criticism appears to be firmly tied to the past. The specialist music press valorise rock music of the 1960s and 1970s, and new emerging artists are championed for their ‘retro’ sounding music by journalists who compare the sound of these new artists with those included in the established ‘canon’ of rock music. This article examines the narrative tropes of authenticity and nostalgia that frame the retrospective focus of this contemporary rock writing, and most significantly, the maintenance of the rock canon within contemporary popular culture. The article concludes by suggesting that while contemporary rock criticism is predominately characterised by nostalgia, this nostalgia is not simply a passive romanticism of the past. Rather, this nostalgia fuels a process of active recontextualisation within contemporary popular culture.

  3. [Hearing disorders and rock music].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhardt, Bjarne Orskov

    2008-12-15

    Only few studies have investigated the frequency of hearing disorders in rock musicians. Performing rock music is apparently associated with a hearing loss in a fraction of musicians. Tinnitus and hyperacusis are more common among rock musicians than among the background population. It seems as if some sort of resistance against further hearing loss is developed over time. The use of ear protection devices have not been studied systematically but appears to be associated with diminished hearing loss. PMID:19128557

  4. Cigarette smoke extract-induced p120-mediated NF-κB activation in human epithelial cells is dependent on the RhoA/ROCK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Qin, Shenghui; Qin, Lingzhi; Liu, Liwei; Sun, Wenjia; Li, Xiyu; Li, Naping; Wu, Renliang; Wang, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the underlying molecular inflammatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. Previous studies have found that smoke disrupts cell-cell adhesion by inducing epithelial barrier damage to the adherens junction proteins, primarily E-cadherin (E-cad) and p120-catenin (p120). Recently, the anti-inflammatory role of p120 has drawn increasing attention. In this study, we demonstrate that p120 has a role in the cigarette smoke extract-induced inflammatory response, presumably by regulating NF-κB signaling activation. Mechanistically, we show that p120-mediated NF-κB signaling activation in airway epithelial inflammation is partially RhoA dependent and is independent of E-cad. These results provide novel evidence for the role of p120 in the anti-inflammatory response. PMID:27586697

  5. Remote sensing of oil slicks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    , passive microwave radiometer, laser beam fluorosensor and laser-illuminated active gated television. These sensors provide more objective information for detection, quantification and classification of oil as well as identification of a polluting vessel. A...

  6. Ready to Rock and Roll

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit hazard-identification camera shows the rover's perspective just before its first post-egress drive on Mars. On Sunday, the 15th martian day, or sol, of Spirit's journey, engineers drove Spirit approximately 3 meters (10 feet)toward its first rock target, a football-sized, mountain-shaped rock called Adirondack (not pictured). In the foreground of this image are 'Sashimi' and 'Sushi' - two rocks that scientists considered investigating first. Ultimately, these rocks were not chosen because their rough and dusty surfaces are ill-suited for grinding.

  7. Electromagnetic emissions during rock blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, S. G.; Thiel, D. V.

    1991-05-01

    Radio emissions during quarry blasting have been recorded in the audio frequency band. Three distinct mechanisms are suggested to explain the observed results; rock fracture at the time of the explosion, charged rocks discharging on impact with the pit floor and micro-fracture of the remaining rock wall due to pressure adjustment of the bench behind the blast. The last mechanism was evident by a train of discrete impulses recorded for up to one minute after the blast. It is assumed that during this time the rock behind the blast was subjected to a significant change in pressure. This may be related to ELF observations during earthquakes.

  8. Petrology of the igneous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccallum, I. S.

    1987-01-01

    Papers published during the 1983-1986 period on the petrology and geochemistry of igneous rocks are discussed, with emphasis on tectonic environment. Consideration is given to oceanic rocks, subdivided into divergent margin suites (mid-ocean ridge basalts, ridge-related seamounts, and back-arc basin basalts) and intraplate suites (oceanic island basalts and nonridge seamounts), and to igneous rocks formed at convergent margins (island arc and continental arc suites), subdivided into volcanic associations and plutonic associations. Other rock groups discussed include continental flood basalts, layered mafic intrusions, continental alkalic associations, komatiites, ophiolites, ash-flow tuffs, anorthosites, and mantle xenoliths.

  9. Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for Stabilization of the Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Appendix B to Attachment 3, Lithologic logs and monitor well construction information. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains lithology logs and monitor well construction information for: NC processing site; UC processing site; and Burro Canyon disposal site. This information pertains to the ground water hydrology investigations which is attachment 3 of this series of reports

  10. Bacterial Life and Dinitrogen Fixation at a Gypsum Rock

    OpenAIRE

    Boison, Gudrun; Mergel, Alexander; Jolkver, Helena; Bothe, Hermann

    2004-01-01

    The organisms of a bluish-green layer beneath the shards of a gypsum rock were characterized by molecular techniques. The cyanobacterial consortium consisted almost exclusively of Chroococcidiopsis spp. The organisms of the shards expressed nitrogenase activity (C2H2 reduction) aerobically and in light. After a prolonged period of drought at the rock, the cells were inactive, but they resumed nitrogenase activity 2 to 3 days after the addition of water. In a suspension culture of Chroococcidi...

  11. Rock.XML - Towards a library of rock physics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Erling Hugo; Hauge, Ragnar; Ulvmoen, Marit; Johansen, Tor Arne; Drottning, Åsmund

    2016-08-01

    Rock physics modelling provides tools for correlating physical properties of rocks and their constituents to the geophysical observations we measure on a larger scale. Many different theoretical and empirical models exist, to cover the range of different types of rocks. However, upon reviewing these, we see that they are all built around a few main concepts. Based on this observation, we propose a format for digitally storing the specifications for rock physics models which we have named Rock.XML. It does not only contain data about the various constituents, but also the theories and how they are used to combine these building blocks to make a representative model for a particular rock. The format is based on the Extensible Markup Language XML, making it flexible enough to handle complex models as well as scalable towards extending it with new theories and models. This technology has great advantages as far as documenting and exchanging models in an unambiguous way between people and between software. Rock.XML can become a platform for creating a library of rock physics models; making them more accessible to everyone.

  12. Electrochemistry of lunar rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Electrolysis of silicate melts has been shown to be an effective means of producing metals from common silicate materials. No fluxing agents need be added to the melts. From solution in melts of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) composition, the elements Si, Ti, Ni, and Fe have been reduced to their metallic states. Platinum is a satisfactory anode material, but other cathode materials are needed. Electrolysis of compositional analogs of lunar rocks initially produces iron metal at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Utilizing mainly heat and electricity which are readily available from sunlight, direct electrolysis is capable of producing useful metals from common feedstocks without the need for expendable chemicals. This simple process and the products obtained from it deserve further study for use in materials processing in space.

  13. Rock and soil rheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the Euromech Colloquium 196 devoted to Rock and Soil Rheology is to review some of the main results obtained in the last years in this field of research and also to formulate some of the major not yet solved problems which are now under consideration. Exchange of opinions and scientific discussions are quite helpful mainly in those areas where some approaches are controversial and the progress made is quite fast. That is especially true for the rheology of geomaterials, domain of great interest for mining and petroleum engineers, engineering geology, seismology, geophysics, civil engineering, nuclear and industrial waste storage, geothermal energy storage, caverns for sports, culture, telecommunications, storage of goods and foodstuffs (cold, hot and refrigerated storages), underground oil and natural gas reservoirs etc. Some of the last obtained results are mentioned in the present volume. (orig./HP)

  14. Rock the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Created in 2005, the Swiss rock band "Wind of Change" is now candidate for the Eurovision Song Contest 2011 with a new song " Night & Light " with the music video filmed at CERN.   With over 20 gigs under their belt and two albums already released, the five members of the band (Alex Büchi, vocals; Arthur Spierer, drums; David Gantner, bass; Romain Mage and Yannick Gaudy, guitar) continue to excite audiences. For their latest composition "Night & Light", the group filmed their music video in the Globe of Science and Innovation. Winning the Eurovision contest would be a springboard in their artistic career for these young musicians. The selection results will be available December 11, 2010.      

  15. Motion analysis of waste rock in gas-solids fluidized bed in coal dry beneficiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭迎福; 陈安华; 张永忠; 邓志鹏; 毛树楷

    2002-01-01

    Through the analysis of forces acting on the waste rock in the gas-solid fluidized bed, the waste rock velocity equations and displacement equations in the gas-solids fluidized bed were achieved and the influential factors of the waste rock motion in the fluidized bed were studied in this paper. The conclusions show that the primary factors influencing the waste rock motion are the waste rock grain size and the scraper velocity according to the computer simulation. This has provided the theoretical foundation both for improving the separating effect and ascertaining the length of the separating cell.

  16. Preparation of resistance reducing agent in slick-water fracturing and characteristic research%滑溜水压裂液中减阻剂的制备及特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘通义; 向静; 赵众从; 林波; 戴秀兰; 黄趾海; 张立丰

    2013-01-01

    采用反相微乳液法制备了一种用于滑溜水压裂液中的水溶性减阻剂,对减阻剂的粒径大小分布、重均分子量、降阻率和悬砂能力进行了测试.结果表明,减阻剂粒径小,分布窄,分子量高[Mw=(2.08±0.65)×107 g/mol],具备高分子减阻的特性;向清水中加入0.05%的减阻率,减阻率可达55%,并且具有一定的携砂能力.因此,该减阻剂的应用能很好的降低压裂施工摩阻、减小泵功、适当提高砂比,有助于非常规低渗储层的开采.%A water soluble DRA is prepared by inverse micro-emulsion polymerization, which can be applied to slick-water fracturing. The particle size distribution of DRA, weight average molecular weight,drag reduction efficiency and suspension property were tested. The results showed that the DRA has small size and narrow size distribution,higher molecular weight[Mw = (2.08 ±0.65) × 107 g/mol] ,it has drag reduction characteristics of polymer; the resistance-reducing is about 55% when addition of 0. 05% DRA to clean water can reduce friction and it also has the prop-carrying capacity. Therefore, the DRA can applied to slick-water fracturing quite well, thus it can reduce fracturing friction, decrease pump power, properly increasing sand ratio,this performance helpful to the development of low permeable formation.

  17. 'Mister Badger' Pushing Mars Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Viking's soil sampler collector arm successfully pushed a rock on the surface of Mars during the afternoon of Friday, October 8. The irregular-shaped rock was pushed several inches by the Lander's collector arm, which displaced the rock to the left of its original position, leaving it cocked slightly upward. Photographs and other information verified the successful rock push. Photo at left shows the soil sampler's collector head pushing against the rock, named 'Mister Badger' by flight controllers. Photo at right shows the displaced rock and the depression whence it came. Part of the soil displacement was caused by the collector s backhoe. A soil sample will be taken from the site Monday night, October 11. It will then be delivered to Viking s organic chemistry instrument for a series of analyses during the next few weeks. The sample is being sought from beneath a rock because scientists believe that, if there are life forms on Mars, they may seek rocks as shelter from the Sun s intense ultraviolet radiation.

  18. Rock Segmentation through Edge Regrouping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burl, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Rockster is an algorithm that automatically identifies the locations and boundaries of rocks imaged by the rover hazard cameras (hazcams), navigation cameras (navcams), or panoramic cameras (pancams). The software uses edge detection and edge regrouping to identify closed contours that separate the rocks from the background.

  19. Rock Art in Kurdistan Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Lahafian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kurdistan, with great potential and prehistoric resources, has numerous petroglyphs in different areas of the province. During the last 14 years of extensive field study, more than 30 sites of rock art have been identified and introduced by the author. In this article, we summarize these rock art areas in Iranian Kurdistan.

  20. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel

  1. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  2. Experiments at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , known as colloids, transport radionuclides up to the ground surface? RNR Experiment: An exchangeable cell in a specially built probe makes it possible to conduct experiments on how radionuclides move. True: Tracer tests are supposed to increase our understanding of how radionuclides are transported and answer the question whether results obtained on one scale are also valid on another. LTDE: To what extent can radionuclides migrate out into micropores in the rock? And how long do they stay there? Matrix Fluid Chemistry Experiment: The water in the rock's pores can differ in terms of composition and changes from the water running in the fractures. Rex Project: Approximately one year after the repository has been closed, all oxygen will have been consumed by the minerals and bacteria in the rock. The bacteria in particular are responsible for this consumption. Microbe Project: Can subterranean microbes keep a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel oxygen-free and how do they influence radionuclide transport?

  3. Research on Mechanism of Rock Burst Generation and Development for High Stress Rock Tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高全臣; 赫建明; 王代华

    2001-01-01

    Through the investigation and analysis of high stress distribution in surrounding rock during the excavation of rock tunnels,the key factors to cause rock burst and the mechanism of rock burst generation and development are researched. The result shows that the scale and range of rock burst are related with elastic deformation energy storied in rock mass and the characteristics of unloading stress waves. The measures of preventing from rock burst for high stress rock tunnels are put forward.

  4. ACID ROCK DRAINAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Ionce

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Acid rock drainage (ARD is an particularly important aspect for the evaluation of the decantation ponds’ safety, and which has been only once taken into consideration at the Tarnicioara decantation pond, year 2002, as a consequence of the apparition of a strong seepage on the deposit’s dump, that has chemically de-purified the water from the river Brateasa. We have observed ARD, which implies the release of acid solutions from the mining sterile deposits, from the underground mining works and from the quarries, in the following tailings dams: Tarnicioara, Valea Strajii, Poarta Veche- which served Tarniţa Preparation Enterprise and in the Dealu Negru and Paraul Cailor ponds- which, at their time served Fundu Moldovei Preparation Enterprise, both during the period of their functioning and the period after their closure. For the decantation pond Dumitrelu which served the Calimani preparation enterprise, acid seepages from the deposit were mentioned in a study made by SC ICPM SA Baia Mare in 1993. Subsequently to the closure of the objective such seepage did not take place anymore. Instead, by raining, there is a frequent plant sterile dragging from the contour retaining wall down to the trouble pond, situated upstream.

  5. They will rock you!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On 30 September, CERN will be the venue for one of the most prestigious events of the year: the concert for the Bosons&More event, the Organization’s celebration of the remarkable performance of the LHC and all its technical systems, as well as the recent fundamental discoveries. Topping the bill will be the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, the CERN Choir, the Zürcher Sing-Akademie and the Alan Parsons Live Project rock group, who have joined forces to create an unforgettable evening’s entertainment.   The Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, directed by Maestro Neeme Järvi, artistic and musical director of the OSR. (Image: Grégory Maillot). >>> From the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande… Henk Swinnen, General Manager of the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (OSR), answers some questions for the CERN Bulletin, just a few days before the event. How did this project come about? When CERN invited us to take part in the B...

  6. Research into basic rocks types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) has carried out research into basic rock types in Finland. The research programme has been implemented in parallel with the preliminary site investigations for radioactive waste disposal in 1991-1993. The program contained two main objectives: firstly, to study the properties of the basic rock types and compare those with the other rock types under the investigation; secondly, to carry out an inventory of rock formations consisting of basic rock types and suitable in question for final disposal. A study of environmental factors important to know regarding the final disposal was made of formations identified. In total 159 formations exceeding the size of 4 km2 were identified in the inventory. Of these formations 97 were intrusive igneous rock types and 62 originally extrusive volcanic rock types. Deposits consisting of ore minerals, industrial minerals or building stones related to these formations were studied. Environmental factors like natural resources, protected areas or potential for restrictions in land use were also studied

  7. Rock Dusting Leaves 'Mickey Mouse' Mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rock dubbed 'Humphrey' and the circular areas on the rock that were wiped off by the rover. The rover used a brush on its rock abrasion tool to clean these spots before examining them with its miniature thermal emission spectrometer. Later, the rover drilled into the rock with its rock abrasion tool, exposing fresh rock underneath.

  8. Dynamic rock fragmentation: thresholds for long runout rock avalanches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Bowman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic fragmentation of rock within rock avalanches is examined using the fragmentation concepts introduced by Grady and co-workers. The analyses use typical material values for weak chalk and limestone in order to determine theoretical strain rate thresholds for dynamic fragmentation and resulting fragment sizes. These are found to compare favourably with data obtained from field observations of long runout rock avalanches and chalk cliff collapses in spite of the simplicity of the approach used. The results provide insight as to the energy requirements to develop long runout behaviour and hence may help to explain the observed similarities between large rock avalanches and much smaller scale chalk cliff collapses as seen in Europe.

  9. Teaching Poetry Through Rock Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Tony

    1971-01-01

    As a bridge process, to take unwilling classes onto more conventional poetry, the study of rock lyrics can be very useful. Article discusses methods, objectives, values and materials used. (Author/RB)

  10. Plastic deformations in mine rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryazantsev, N.A.; Nosach, A.K. (Donetskii Politekhnicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1990-12-01

    Presents results of investigations into plastic deformation of sandstone and coal samples. Tests were conducted on a triaxial compression testing machine with unequal components. Graphs of rock strength and deformation depending on lateral pressure are shown. It was found that rock strength and plasticity increase and decrease periodically as lateral pressure rises. The indicator of deformation localization is analyzed and calculation formulae are given. Experimental data testify to the fact that in the process of plastic deformation the deformation vector rotates by an angle of up to 60 degrees. On the basis of the uncovered effects of differential rotation and directional mass transfer that result from deformation localization the progress of a rock burst process is explained. The regularities found can explain many processes that occur in rock body, e.g. occurrence of disintegration zones around workings.

  11. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a detailed study of the effect of thermal heating by the spent nuclear fuel containers on the in situ rock stress, any potential rock failure, and associated rock reinforcement strategies for the Olkiluoto underground repository. The modelling approach and input data are presented together repository layout diagrams. The numerical codes used to establish the effects of heating on the in situ stress field are outlined, together with the rock mass parameters, in situ stress values, radiogenic temperatures and reinforcement structures. This is followed by a study of the temperature and stress evolution during the repository's operational period and the effect of the heating on the reinforcement structures. It is found that, during excavation, the maximum principal stress is concentrated at the transition areas where the profile changes and that, due to the heating from the deposition of spent nuclear fuel, the maximum principal stress rises significantly in the tunnel arch area of NW/SW oriented central tunnels. However, it is predicted that the rock's crack damage (CD, short term strength) value of 99 MPa will not be exceeded anywhere within the model. Loads onto the reinforcement structures will come from damaged and loosened rock which is assumed in the modelling as a free rock wedge - but this is very much a worst case scenario because there is no guarantee that rock cracking would form a free rock block. The structural capacity of the reinforcement structures is described and it is predicted that the current quantity of the rock reinforcement is strong enough to provide a stable tunnel opening during the peak of the long term stress state, with damage predicted on the sprayed concrete liner. However, the long term stability and safety can be improved through the implementation of the principles of the Observational Method. The effect of ventilation is also considered and an additional study of the radiogenic heating effect on the brittle

  12. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L. [Rockplan, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.

    2014-07-15

    This report describes a detailed study of the effect of thermal heating by the spent nuclear fuel containers on the in situ rock stress, any potential rock failure, and associated rock reinforcement strategies for the Olkiluoto underground repository. The modelling approach and input data are presented together repository layout diagrams. The numerical codes used to establish the effects of heating on the in situ stress field are outlined, together with the rock mass parameters, in situ stress values, radiogenic temperatures and reinforcement structures. This is followed by a study of the temperature and stress evolution during the repository's operational period and the effect of the heating on the reinforcement structures. It is found that, during excavation, the maximum principal stress is concentrated at the transition areas where the profile changes and that, due to the heating from the deposition of spent nuclear fuel, the maximum principal stress rises significantly in the tunnel arch area of NW/SW oriented central tunnels. However, it is predicted that the rock's crack damage (CD, short term strength) value of 99 MPa will not be exceeded anywhere within the model. Loads onto the reinforcement structures will come from damaged and loosened rock which is assumed in the modelling as a free rock wedge - but this is very much a worst case scenario because there is no guarantee that rock cracking would form a free rock block. The structural capacity of the reinforcement structures is described and it is predicted that the current quantity of the rock reinforcement is strong enough to provide a stable tunnel opening during the peak of the long term stress state, with damage predicted on the sprayed concrete liner. However, the long term stability and safety can be improved through the implementation of the principles of the Observational Method. The effect of ventilation is also considered and an additional study of the radiogenic heating effect on the

  13. Institute for Rock Magnetism established

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Subir K.

    There is a new focal point for cooperative research in advanced rock magnetism. The University of Minnesota in Minneapolis has established an Institute for Rock Magnetism (IRM) that will provide free access to modern equipment and encourage visiting fellows to focus on important topics in rock magnetism and related interdisciplinary research. Funding for the first three years has been secured from the National Science Foundation, the W.M. Keck Foundation, and the University of Minnesota.In the fall of 1986, the Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism (GP) section of the AGU held a workshop at Asilomar, Calif., to pinpoint important and emerging research areas in paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, and the means by which to achieve them. In a report of this workshop published by the AGU in September 1987, two urgent needs were set forth. The first was for interdisciplinary research involving rock magnetism, and mineralogy, petrology, sedimentology, and the like. The second need was to ease the access of rock magnetists and paleomagnetists around the country to the latest equipment in modern magnetics technology, such as magneto-optics or electronoptics. Three years after the publication of the report, we announced the opening of these facilities at the GP section of the AGU Fall 1990 Meeting. A classified advertisement inviting applications for visiting fellowships was published in the January 22, 1991, issue of Eos.

  14. Seismic response of rock joints and jointed rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term stability of emplacement drifts and potential near-field fluid flow resulting from coupled effects are among the concerns for safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). A number of factors can induce drift instability or change the near-field flow patterns. Repetitive seismic loads from earthquakes and thermal loads generated by the decay of emplaced waste are two significant factors. One of two key technical uncertainties (KTU) that can potentially pose a high risk of noncompliance with the performance objectives of 10 CFR Part 60 is the prediction of thermal-mechanical (including repetitive seismic load) effects on stability of emplacement drifts and the engineered barrier system. The second KTU of concern is the prediction of thermal-mechanical-hydrological (including repetitive seismic load) effects on the host rock surrounding the engineered barrier system. The Rock Mechanics research project being conducted at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) is intended to address certain specific technical issues associated with these two KTUs. This research project has two major components: (i) seismic response of rock joints and a jointed rock mass and (ii) coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological (TMH) response of a jointed rock mass surrounding the engineered barrier system (EBS). This final report summarizes the research activities concerned with the repetitive seismic load aspect of both these KTUs

  15. Seismic response of rock joints and jointed rock mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, A.; Hsiung, S.M.; Chowdhury, A.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1996-06-01

    Long-term stability of emplacement drifts and potential near-field fluid flow resulting from coupled effects are among the concerns for safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). A number of factors can induce drift instability or change the near-field flow patterns. Repetitive seismic loads from earthquakes and thermal loads generated by the decay of emplaced waste are two significant factors. One of two key technical uncertainties (KTU) that can potentially pose a high risk of noncompliance with the performance objectives of 10 CFR Part 60 is the prediction of thermal-mechanical (including repetitive seismic load) effects on stability of emplacement drifts and the engineered barrier system. The second KTU of concern is the prediction of thermal-mechanical-hydrological (including repetitive seismic load) effects on the host rock surrounding the engineered barrier system. The Rock Mechanics research project being conducted at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) is intended to address certain specific technical issues associated with these two KTUs. This research project has two major components: (i) seismic response of rock joints and a jointed rock mass and (ii) coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological (TMH) response of a jointed rock mass surrounding the engineered barrier system (EBS). This final report summarizes the research activities concerned with the repetitive seismic load aspect of both these KTUs.

  16. Analysis of rock stress and rock stress measurements with application to Aespoe HRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of choosing a site for a nuclear waste repository means that many aspects have to be taken into consideration. One of these is that the repository has to be mechanically stable for a long time. The mechanical stability of the rock is very difficult to determine. One of several factors, which determine the mechanical stability, is the virgin state of stress. The thesis project consists of two parts. In the first part the state of stress at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory had to be defined. This was done based on earlier rock stress measurements conducted during the years 1988 to 1997. Two different measurement techniques have been used, hydraulic fracturing and overcoring. During the overcoring two types of cells have been used, CSIRO HI-cell and a cell developed by the Swedish State Power Board (SSPB). In the second part of the project, investigation of the correlation between the stress and geological structures are made using numerical modelling tools such as FLAC, UDEC and 3DEC. The rock stress measurements using the hydraulic fracturing gave orientations of the horizontal stress that coincide with earlier hydraulic fracturing measurements conducted in Scandinavia. The magnitudes of rock stresses are slightly lower than the earlier reported stress magnitudes for the Scandinavian part of the earth crust. The rock stresses obtained from the overcoring resulted in higher stresses than what was predicted by the hydraulic fracturing measurements. However, the orientation of the maximum horizontal stresses coincides well between the two techniques. The orientation is also more or less constant with respect to increasing depth. The state of stress at Aespoe is defined by using the results from the hydraulic fracturing and the measurements conducted by SSPB-cell. The measurements from the SSPB-cell are used since these have a Poisson's ratio that corresponds well with the uniaxial tests of rock samples and since the measurements have been done at a distance from

  17. 30 CFR 57.3203 - Rock fixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... grouting material shall not be used. (f) When rock bolts tensioned by torquing are used as a means of... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock fixtures. 57.3203 Section 57.3203 Mineral... Support-Surface and Underground § 57.3203 Rock fixtures. (a) For rock bolts and accessories addressed...

  18. Heterogeneous Impact of ROCK2 on Carotid and Cerebrovascular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, T Michael; Kinzenbaw, Dale A; Modrick, Mary L; Reinhardt, Lindsey D; Faraci, Frank M

    2016-09-01

    Rho kinase (ROCK) has been implicated in physiological and pathophysiological processes, including regulation of vascular function. ROCK signaling is thought to be a critical contributor to cardiovascular disease, including hypertension and effects of angiotensin II (Ang II). Two isoforms of ROCK (1 and 2) have been identified and are expressed in vascular cells. In this study, we examined the importance of ROCK2 in relation to vessel function using several models and a novel inhibitor of ROCK2. First, incubation of carotid arteries with the direct RhoA activator CN-03 or Ang II impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation by ≈40% to 50% (PROCK isoforms) or the selective ROCK2 inhibitor SLX-2119. In contrast, SLX-2119 had little effect on contraction of carotid arteries to receptor-mediated agonists (serotonin, phenylephrine, vasopressin, or U46619). Second, in basilar arteries, SLX-2119 inhibited constriction to Ang II by ≈90% without significantly affecting responses to serotonin or KCl. Third, in isolated pressurized brain parenchymal arterioles, SLX-2119 inhibited myogenic tone in a concentration-dependent manner (eg, 1 μmol/L SLX-2119 dilated by 79±4%). Finally, SLX-2119 dilated small pial arterioles in vivo, an effect that was augmented by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. These findings suggest that ROCK2 has major, but heterogeneous, effects on function of endothelium and vascular muscle. The data support the concept that aberrant ROCK2 signaling may be a key contributor to select aspects of large and small vessel disease, including Ang II-induced endothelial dysfunction. PMID:27432870

  19. Two functional polymorphisms of ROCK2 enhance arterial stiffening through inhibiting its activity and expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi-Chu; Liu, Ping-Yen; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Lin, Wen-Yi; Liao, James K.; Juo, Suh-Hang H.

    2016-01-01

    Derangement of Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) has been related to coronary artery disease and stroke. ROCK2, rather than ROCK1, plays a predominant role in vascular contractility. The present study aims to test (1) the associations between ROCK2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and arterial stiffness, and (2) the molecular mechanism accounting for their effects. Stiffness parameters including beta (β), elasticity modulus (Ep) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were obtained by carotid ultrasonography. Seven tagging SNPs of ROCK2 were initially genotyped in 856 subjects and significant SNPs were replicated in another group of 527 subjects. Two SNPs in complete linkage disequilibrium were found to be significantly associated with arterial stiffness. The major alleles of rs978906 (A allele) and rs9808232 (C allele) were associated with stiffer arteries. SNP rs978906 was predicted to influence microRNA(miR)-1183 binding to ROCK2, while rs9808232 causes amino acid substitution. To determine their functional impact, plasmid constructs carrying different alleles of the significant SNPs were created. Compared to rs978906G-allele constructs, cells transfected with rs978906A-allele constructs had higher baseline luciferase activities and were less responsive to miR-1183 changes. Oxidized-low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) suppressed miR-1183 levels and increased ROCK2 protein amounts. For rs9808232, cells transfected with C-allele constructs had significantly higher ROCK activities than those with A-allele constructs. Leukocyte ROCK activities were further measured in 52 healthy subjects. The average ROCK activity was highest in human subjects with CC genotype at rs9808232, followed by those with AC and lowest in AA. Taken together, the present study showed that two functional SNPs of ROCK2 increase susceptibility of arterial stiffness in the Chinese population. Non-synonymous SNP rs9808232 influences ROCK2 activity, while 3' UTR SNP rs978906 affects the ROCK2 protein

  20. Engineering of Rocking Nut Maker Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Sulharman

    2016-01-01

    There had been mechanically conducted an engineering of Rocking Nut Maker Tools for rocking nut small industry. The objective is to engineer a maker tool for rocking nut which can work with the assistance of motor without using manpower, thus it will increase the production of rocking nut. Making method on rocking nut maker tool includes: (1) Designing tool; (2) tool making; (3) Tool testing. According to the result of engineering tool, there were obtained: frame for tray that was made from a...

  1. Silicate rock and rock forming mineral neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron-activation scheme for the determination of nine rare earths and other trace elements in various rock forming minerals (feldspars, ilmenite, magnetite, pyroxenes) and silicate rocks is presented. The procedure is based on three different irradiations involving three separate samples: - epithermal neutron irradiation (2 days) followed by nondestructive analysis; - thermal neutron irradiation (1 day) followed by instrumental analysis; - thermal neutron irradiation (1 week) followed by radiochemical analysis (precipitation, anion exchange separation, liquid-liquid extraction). Two USGS reference samples - granite G-2 and andesite AGV-1 - have been analysed in order to assess the accuracy of the proposed procedure. Our results agree with previous neutron-activation data. (orig.)

  2. Rocks in the Water : The Liancourt Rocks Dispute

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The Liancourt Rocks, known also by the name ‘Dokdo’ in Korean, and ‘Takeshima’ in Japanese, are two tiny islets situated between Japan and the Korean Peninsula in the Sea of Japan. The islets have been the source of bilateral tension and conflict due to the fact that both Japan and the Republic of Korea claim sovereign title. In a time of imperialist progress and expansionism, Japan incorporated Liancourt Rocks in its territory in 1905, well before the conclusion of the Shimonoseki and Eu...

  3. Fracture characteristics in Japanese rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is crucial for the performance assessment of geosphere to evaluate the characteristics of fractures that can be dominant radionuclide migration pathways from a repository to biosphere. This report summarizes the characteristics of fractures obtained from broad literature surveys and the fields surveys at the Kamaishi mine in northern Japan and at outcrops and galleries throughout the country. The characteristics of fractures described in this report are fracture orientation, fracture shape, fracture frequency, fracture distribution in space, transmissivity of fracture, fracture aperture, fracture fillings, alteration halo along fracture, flow-wetted surface area in fracture, and the correlation among these characteristics. Since granitic rock is considered the archetype fractured media, a large amount of fracture data is available in literature. In addition, granitic rock has been treated as a potential host rock in many overseas programs, and has JNC performed a number of field observations and experiments in granodiorite at the Kamaishi mine. Therefore, the characteristics of fractures in granitic rock are qualitatively and quantitatively clarified to some extent in this report, while the characteristics of fractures in another rock types are not clarified. (author)

  4. Nuclear migration: rock and roll facilitated by dynein and kinesin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochang; Han, Min

    2010-12-01

    The nucleus encounters other organelles as well as high cytoplasmic pressures during its migration within the cell. A new study describes how the action of kinesin and dynein motors is coordinated at the nuclear envelope to rock and roll the nucleus in Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:21145020

  5. Polygon/Cracked Sedimentary Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    4 December 2004 Exposures of sedimentary rock are quite common on the surface of Mars. Less common, but found in many craters in the regions north and northwest of the giant basin, Hellas, are sedimentary rocks with distinct polygonal cracks in them. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example from the floor of an unnamed crater near 21.0oS, 311.9oW. Such cracks might have formed by desiccation as an ancient lake dried up, or they might be related to ground ice freeze/thaw cycles or some other stresses placed on the original sediment or the rock after it became lithified. The 300 meter scale bar is about 328 yards long. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  6. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured

  7. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Andrea E., E-mail: andrea.ulrich@env.ethz.ch [Institute for Environmental Decisions (IED), Natural and Social Science Interface, ETH Zurich Universitässtrasse 22, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland); Schnug, Ewald, E-mail: e.schnug@tu-braunschweig.de [Department of Life Sciences, Technical University of Braunschweig, Pockelsstraße 14, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Prasser, Horst-Michael, E-mail: prasser@lke.mavt.ethz.ch [Institute of Energy Technology, Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Systems, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Frossard, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.frossard@usys.ethz.ch [Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland)

    2014-04-01

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured.

  8. Some rock mass assessment procedures for discontinuous crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground radioactive waste repositories place especially stringent demands on rock mass assessment and excavation design methodologies. As part of the Building Research Establishment's programme of research into geotechnical site assessment methodology, experiments were undertaken at an underground test site in granite at Troon, Cornwall, and in the Imperial College Laboratories. The results of discontinuity surveys showed that the borehole impression packer probe technique can provide an important source of information for radioactive waste repository site assessment. Similarly, borehole pressure tests can provide valuable data on discontinuity apertures and hydraulic conductivities and on rock mass permeabilities. A versatile, modular borehole pressure test system for use from restricted underground locations was developed and used successfully. Field tests gave values of equivalent parallel plate apertures and discontinuity hydraulic conductivities in similar ranges to those measured in laboratory tests on samples recovered from the site. Discontinuity normal stiffnesses were also measured successfully using the Terra Tek Geothermal Rock Mechanics Test System which proved itself capable of providing laboratory test data required to support geotechnical site assessment procedures for radioactive waste repositories in discontinuous rock. (author)

  9. Magnetic coupling at perovskite and rock-salt structured interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study magnetic coupling between hole-doped manganite layers separated by either a perovskite or a rock-salt barrier of variable thickness. Both the type and the quality of the interface have a strong impact on the minimum critical barrier thickness where the manganite layers become magnetically decoupled. A rock-salt barrier layer only 1 unit cell (0.5 nm) thick remains insulating and is able to magnetically de-couple the electrode layers. The technique can therefore be used for developing high-performance planar oxide electronic devices such as magnetic tunnel junctions and quantum well structures that depend on magnetically and electronically sharp heterointerfaces

  10. Magnetic coupling at perovskite and rock-salt structured interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matvejeff, M., E-mail: mikko.matvejeff@picosun.com [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8581 Chiba (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, Kemistintie 1, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Ahvenniemi, E. [Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, Kemistintie 1, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Takahashi, R.; Lippmaa, M. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8581 Chiba (Japan)

    2015-10-05

    We study magnetic coupling between hole-doped manganite layers separated by either a perovskite or a rock-salt barrier of variable thickness. Both the type and the quality of the interface have a strong impact on the minimum critical barrier thickness where the manganite layers become magnetically decoupled. A rock-salt barrier layer only 1 unit cell (0.5 nm) thick remains insulating and is able to magnetically de-couple the electrode layers. The technique can therefore be used for developing high-performance planar oxide electronic devices such as magnetic tunnel junctions and quantum well structures that depend on magnetically and electronically sharp heterointerfaces.

  11. FSD-C10: A more promising novel ROCK inhibitor than Fasudil for treatment of CNS autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yan-Le; Yu, Jie-Zhong; Yang, Xin-Wang; Liu, Chun-Yun; Li, Yan-Hua; Feng, Ling; Chai, Zhi; Yang, Wan-Fang; Wang, Qing; Jiang, Wei-Jia; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Xiao, Bao-Guo; Ma, Cun-Gen

    2015-01-01

    Rho-Rho kinase (Rho-ROCK) triggers an intracellular signalling cascade that regulates cell survival, death, adhesion, migration, neurite outgrowth and retraction and influences the generation and development of several neurological disorders. Although Fasudil, a ROCK inhibitor, effectively suppressed encephalomyelitis (EAE), certain side effects may limit its clinical use. A novel and efficient ROCK inhibitor, FSD-C10, has been explored. In the present study, we present chemical synthesis and structure of FSD-C10, as well as the relationship between compound concentration and ROCK inhibition. We compared the inhibitory efficiency of ROCKI and ROCK II, the cell cytotoxicity, neurite outgrowth and dendritic formation, neurotrophic factors and vasodilation between Fasudil and FSD-C10. The results demonstrated that FSD-C10, like Fasudil, induced neurite outgrowth of neurons and dendritic formation of BV-2 microglia and enhanced the production of neurotrophic factor brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). However, the cell cytotoxicity and vasodilation of FSD-C10 were relatively small compared with Fasudil. Although Fasudil inhibited both ROCK I and ROCK II, FSD-C10 more selectively suppressed ROCK II, but not ROCK I, which may be related to vasodilation insensitivity and animal mortality. Thus, FSD-C10 may be a safer and more promising novel ROCK inhibitor than Fasudil for the treatment of several neurological disorders. PMID:26223433

  12. Investigations of some rock stress measuring techniques and the stress field in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, Tor Harald

    1997-12-31

    Rock stresses are important to the safe construction and operation of all man-made structures in rock, whether In mining, civil or petroleum engineering. The crucial issue is their relative magnitude and orientation. This thesis develops equipment and methods for further rock stress assessment and reevaluates existing overcoring rock stress measurements, and relates this information to the present geological setting. Both laboratory work and field work are involved. In the field, rock stresses are measured by the overcoring and the hydraulic fracturing technique. An observation technique for assessing likely high stresses is developed. The field data refer to several hydropower projects and to some offshore hydrocarbon fields. The principal sections are: (1) Tectonic setting in the western Fennoscandia, (2) Triaxial rock stress measurements by overcoring using the NTH cell (a strain gauge cell developed at the Norwegian technical university in Trondheim and based on the CSIR cell of the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research), (3) Laboratory testing of the NTH cell, (4) Quality ranking of stresses measured by the NTH cell, (4) Recalculated rock stresses and implications to the regional stress field, (5) Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements. 113 refs., 98 figs., 62 tabs.

  13. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140786Deng Zhenping(Institute of Karst Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Guilin 541004,China);Yang Wen-qiong Application of Stripping Voltammetry with a Solid Amalgam Electrode for Determination of Copper in a Tracer and Groundwater Tracing Experiment(Rock and Mineral Analy-

  14. Grouting methodology in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For this paper, an initial literature review was conducted to investigate the potential applications of grouting technology for geological disposal of high level radioactive waste (hereafter called geological disposal), and the potential grouting material for each application. The results show the necessity of using suspension grout, such as cement-based grout, during excavation work, especially deep underground. Next, the method to achieve highly effective seals in crystalline rock with cement grout is studied. To enhance the sealing quality, cement grout should penetrate into very fine fractures, e.g. less than 100 μm aperture. In the case of suspension grout, clogging with grout at the openings of rock fractures, especially fine fractures, tends to occur, which results in poor grout penetration. A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the clogging phenomenon; the results suggest that high injection pressures could be effective to prevent clogging. Finally, focusing on pre-excavation grouting for horizontal tunnels in crystalline rock, the effective grout hole patterns for achieving high quality sealing was studied. A series of theoretical calculations for water inflow and cost studies were conducted. The results indicate that a dense arrangement of grout holes in a relatively narrow area around a tunnel section, as practised in the Nordic countries, is favorable in hard crystalline rock. (author)

  15. Contaminant migration in rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with fractured rock as a host for deposits of hazardous waste. A literature review of modelling approaches and methods for field investigations concerning flow and migration in fractured rock is given. The literature study on field observations shows that the water flow in fractured rock is unevenly distributed, which contradicts the porous medium approach. Some idealized examples are given to investigate where to find low hydraulic gradients. The ability of a laminar pipe-flow model to reproduce the hydrodynamic transport of contaminated groundwater in fractured rock is investigated. It is assumed that the cross-section areas in an ensemble of tubes have a gamma distribution. The model is applied to field tracer experiments at two sites. An attempt is made to model a fracture with irregular aperture as a two-dimensional stochastic process with known correlation structure. It is assumed that the fracture aperture is lognormally distributed, and that the flow is laminar. A particle following algorithm is applied. A comparison with the porous medium approach, and with the laminar pipe flow model is made. 135 refs, 41 figs, 4 tabs

  16. Texture of Rock at 'Jibsheet'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A bulbous texture is evident in this rock target at the outcrop called 'Jibsheet' in this view from the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. Frames making up this mosaic image of a target dubbed 'Reef' were taken during the rover's 481st martian day, or sol (May 11, 2005).

  17. A new-type flexible rock-shed under the impact of rock block: experimental investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main disadvantage of conventional concrete rock-shed is the need for a massive foundation due to the deadweight of the structure. In order to overcome such construction difficulty and to reduce costs, a new concept of flexible rock-shed is proposed in this paper. The flexible rock-shed is made of flexible nets held up by specially designed steel vaulted structure. An 1:1 prototype is manufactured and tested for functional evaluation with impact experiment. It is shown that the structure can stand for an impact energy of about 250 kJ without observable rupture of the flexible nets or cables and can be put into service again with some maintenances on the steel vaulted structure. Expermental data such as local strains, peak loads and impact times are recorded by dynamic strain gauges, load cells and high speed camera for structural analysis and some complementary suggestions of improving and designing are offered with respect to the joints and components.

  18. Gas migration through crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractured rocks have been considered as potential host rocks for the deep disposal of radioactive waste in a number of countries. The representative repository concepts involved: a) Low- and intermediate-level waste in water-saturated fractured rock. b) Spent fuel (or HLW) in water-saturated fractured rock. c) Spent fuel in unsaturated fractured tuff (Yucca Mountain). The key gas-related issues are likely to be different for these three repository concepts. Concept (a) typically involves the emplacement of packaged wastes in caverns or tunnels, probably backfilled with a cement grout, and perhaps involving structural concrete lining. The quantities of gas produced for a given volume of waste are expected to be larger than for spent fuel or high-level waste and may include radioactive gases whose release at the surface requires assessment for its potential radiological consequences. For this concept, understanding the mechanisms and effects of gas migration through the geosphere is important in repository performance assessment. For concept (b), the waste is typically contained in long-lasting canisters emplaced in holes lined with compacted bentonite. The bentonite barriers are intended to provide the main barrier to groundwater access to the waste, and the quantities of gas expected to be produced are predicted to be sufficiently small that the host rock is not expected to provide a serious obstacle to gas escape from the region of the canister. In this concept, the main barrier to gas migration is considered to be the bentonite buffer; gas migration through this is discussed in a companion paper. Concept (c) is unique in involving emplacement of wastes in unsaturated rock, well above the water table, in a semi-arid region at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. Here the two-phase flow issues relate primarily to the infiltration of water through the fractured rock from the surface, which may involve flow channelling and intermittent flow, and the generation of strongly heat

  19. Double-Edge Sword of Sustained ROCK Activation in Prion Diseases through Neuritogenesis Defects and Prion Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleaume-Butaux, Aurélie; Nicot, Simon; Pietri, Mathéa; Baudry, Anne; Dakowski, Caroline; Tixador, Philippe; Ardila-Osorio, Hector; Haeberlé, Anne-Marie; Bailly, Yannick; Peyrin, Jean-Michel; Launay, Jean-Marie; Kellermann, Odile; Schneider, Benoit

    2015-08-01

    In prion diseases, synapse dysfunction, axon retraction and loss of neuronal polarity precede neuronal death. The mechanisms driving such polarization defects, however, remain unclear. Here, we examined the contribution of RhoA-associated coiled-coil containing kinases (ROCK), key players in neuritogenesis, to prion diseases. We found that overactivation of ROCK signaling occurred in neuronal stem cells infected by pathogenic prions (PrPSc) and impaired the sprouting of neurites. In reconstructed networks of mature neurons, PrPSc-induced ROCK overactivation provoked synapse disconnection and dendrite/axon degeneration. This overactivation of ROCK also disturbed overall neurotransmitter-associated functions. Importantly, we demonstrated that beyond its impact on neuronal polarity ROCK overactivity favored the production of PrPSc through a ROCK-dependent control of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) activity. In non-infectious conditions, ROCK and PDK1 associated within a complex and ROCK phosphorylated PDK1, conferring basal activity to PDK1. In prion-infected neurons, exacerbated ROCK activity increased the pool of PDK1 molecules physically interacting with and phosphorylated by ROCK. ROCK-induced PDK1 overstimulation then canceled the neuroprotective α-cleavage of normal cellular prion protein PrPC by TACE α-secretase, which physiologically precludes PrPSc production. In prion-infected cells, inhibition of ROCK rescued neurite sprouting, preserved neuronal architecture, restored neuronal functions and reduced the amount of PrPSc. In mice challenged with prions, inhibition of ROCK also lowered brain PrPSc accumulation, reduced motor impairment and extended survival. We conclude that ROCK overactivation exerts a double detrimental effect in prion diseases by altering neuronal polarity and triggering PrPSc accumulation. Eventually ROCK emerges as therapeutic target to combat prion diseases. PMID:26241960

  20. ROCK inhibition abolishes the establishment of the aquiferous system in Ephydatia muelleri (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkelaars, Quentin; Quintero, Omar; Hall, Chelsea; Fierro-Constain, Laura; Renard, Emmanuelle; Borchiellini, Carole; Hill, April L

    2016-04-15

    The Rho associated coiled-coil protein kinase (ROCK) plays crucial roles in development across bilaterian animals. The fact that the Rho/Rock pathway is required to initiate epithelial morphogenesis and thus to establish body plans in bilaterians makes this conserved signaling pathway key for studying the molecular mechanisms that may control early development of basally branching metazoans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether or not the main components of this signaling pathway exist in sponges, and if present, to investigate the possible role of the regulatory network in an early branching non-bilaterian species by evaluating ROCK function during Ephydatia muelleri development. Molecular phylogenetic analyses and protein domain predictions revealed the existence of Rho/Rock components in all studied poriferan lineages. Binding assays revealed that both Y-27632 and GSK429286A are capable of inhibiting Em-ROCK activity in vitro. Treatment with both drugs leads to impairment of growth and formation of the basal pinacoderm layer in the developing sponge. Furthermore, inhibition of Em-Rock prevents the establishment of a functional aquiferous system, including the absence of an osculum. In contrast, no effect of ROCK inhibition was observed in juvenile sponges that already possess a fully developed and functional aquiferous system. Thus, the Rho/Rock pathway appears to be essential for the proper development of the freshwater sponge, and may play a role in various cell behaviors (e.g. cell proliferation, cell adhesion and cell motility). Taken together, these data are consistent with an ancestral function of Rho/Rock signaling in playing roles in early developmental processes and may provide a new framework to study the interaction between Wnt signaling and the Rho/Rock pathway. PMID:26944094

  1. Epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks at deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notions are explained, and technique for studying epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks at uranium deposits is described. Main types of epigenetic transformations and their mineralogic-geochemical characteristics are considered. Rock alterations, accompanying uranium mineralization, can be related to 2 types: oxidation and reduction. The main mineralogic-geochemical property of oxidation transformations is epigenetic limonitization. Stratal limonitization in primary grey-coloured terrigenic rocks and in epigenetically reduced (pyritized) rocks, as well as in rock, subjected to epigenetic gleying, are characterized. Reduction type of epigenetic transformations is subdivided into sulphidic and non-sulphidic (gley) subtypes. Sulphidic transformations in grey-coloured terrigenic rocks with organic substance of carbonic row, in rocks, containing organic substance of oil row, sulphide transformations of sedimentary rocks, as well as gley transformations, are considered

  2. The Rho GTPase Effector ROCK Regulates Cyclin A, Cyclin D1, and p27Kip1 Levels by Distinct Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Croft, Daniel R.; Olson, Michael F.

    2006-01-01

    The members of the Rho GTPase family are well known for their regulation of actin cytoskeletal structures. In addition, they influence progression through the cell cycle. The RhoA and RhoC proteins regulate numerous effector proteins, with a central and vital signaling role mediated by the ROCK I and ROCK II serine/threonine kinases. The requirement for ROCK function in the proliferation of numerous cell types has been revealed by studies utilizing ROCK-selective inhibitors such as Y-27632. H...

  3. Differentiation and analysis on rock breaking characteristics of TBM disc cutter at different rock temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭青; 张桂菊; 夏毅敏; 李建芳

    2015-01-01

    In order to study rock breaking characteristics of tunnel boring machine (TBM) disc cutter at different rock temperatures, thermodynamic rock breaking mathematical model of TBM disc cutter was established on the basis of rock temperature change by using particle flow code theory and the influence law of interaction mechanism between disc cutter and rock was also numerically simulated. Furthermore, by using the linear cutting experiment platform, rock breaking process of TBM disc cutter at different rock temperatures was well verified by the experiments. Finally, rock breaking characteristics of TBM disc cutter were differentiated and analyzed from microscale perspective. The results indicate the follows. 1) When rock temperature increases, the mechanical properties of rock such as hardness, and strength, were greatly reduced, simultaneously the microcracks rapidly grow with the cracks number increasing, which leads to rock breaking load decreasing and improves rock breaking efficiency for TBM disc cutter. 2) The higher the rock temperature, the lower the rock internal stress. The stress distribution rules coincide with the Buzin Neske stress circle rules: the maximum stress value is below the cutting edge region and then gradually decreases radiant around; stress distribution is symmetrical and the total stress of rock becomes smaller. 3) The higher the rock temperature is, the more the numbers of micro, tensile and shear cracks produced are by rock as well as the easier the rock intrusion, along with shear failure mode mainly showing. 4) With rock temperature increasing, the resistance intrusive coefficients of rock and intrusion power decrease obviously, so the specific energy consumption that TBM disc cutter achieves leaping broken also decreases subsequently. 5) The acoustic emission frequency remarkably increases along with the temperature increasing, which improves the rock breaking efficiency.

  4. Kimberley rock art dating project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The art's additional value, unequalled by traditionally recognised artefacts, is its permanent pictorial documentation presenting a 'window' into the otherwise intangible elements of perceptions, vision and mind of pre-historic cultures. Unfortunately it's potential in establishing Kimberley archaeological 'big picture' still remains largely unrecognised. Some of findings of the Kimberley Rock Art Dating Project, using AMS and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques, are outlined. It is estimated that these findings will encourage involvement by a greater diversity of specialist disciplines to tie findings into levels of this art sequence as a primary reference point. The sequence represents a sound basis for selecting specific defined images for targeting detailed studies by a range of dating technique. This effectively removes the undesirable ad hoc sampling of 'apparently old paintings'; a process which must unavoidably remain the case with researchers working on most global bodies of rock art

  5. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  6. Mechanism of Rock Burst Occurrence in Specially Thick Coal Seam with Rock Parting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-chao; Jiang, Fu-xing; Meng, Xiang-jun; Wang, Xu-you; Zhu, Si-tao; Feng, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Specially thick coal seam with complex construction, such as rock parting and alternative soft and hard coal, is called specially thick coal seam with rock parting (STCSRP), which easily leads to rock burst during mining. Based on the stress distribution of rock parting zone, this study investigated the mechanism, engineering discriminant conditions, prevention methods, and risk evaluation method of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP through setting up a mechanical model. The main conclusions of this study are as follows. (1) When the mining face moves closer to the rock parting zone, the original non-uniform stress of the rock parting zone and the advancing stress of the mining face are combined to intensify gradually the shearing action of coal near the mining face. When the shearing action reaches a certain degree, rock burst easily occurs near the mining face. (2) Rock burst occurrence in STCSRP is positively associated with mining depth, advancing stress concentration factor of the mining face, thickness of rock parting, bursting liability of coal, thickness ratio of rock parting to coal seam, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal, whereas negatively associated with shear strength. (3) Technologies of large-diameter drilling, coal seam water injection, and deep hole blasting can reduce advancing stress concentration factor, thickness of rock parting, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal to lower the risk of rock burst in STCSRP. (4) The research result was applied to evaluate and control the risk of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP.

  7. Punk rock as popular theatre

    OpenAIRE

    Double, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Punk rock performance consciously draws on popular theatre forms like music hall and stand-up comedy, as exemplified by the occasion when Max Wall appeared with Ian Dury at the Hammersmith Odeon. Oliver Double traces the historical and stylistic connections between punk, music hall and stand-up, and argues that punk shows can be considered a form of popular theatre in their own right. He examines a wide range of punk bands and performers- including Sex Pistols, Iggy Pop, Devo, ...

  8. Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark D. Habana

    2002-06-30

    Contemporary understanding of multiphase flow through fractures is limited. Different studies using synthetic fractures and various fluids have yielded different relative permeability-saturation relations. This study aimed to extend the understanding of multiphase flow by conducting nitrogen-water relative permeability experiments on a naturally-fractured rock from The Geysers geothermal field. The steady-state approach was used. However, steady state was achieved only at the endpoint saturations. Several difficulties were encountered that are attributed to phase interference and changes in fracture aperture and surface roughness, along with fracture propagation/initiation. Absolute permeabilities were determined using nitrogen and water. The permeability values obtained change with the number of load cycles. Determining the absolute permeability of a core is especially important in a fractured rock. The rock may change as asperities are destroyed and fractures propagate or st rain harden as the net stresses vary. Pressure spikes occurred in water a solute permeability experiments. Conceptual models of an elastic fracture network can explain the pressure spike behavior. At the endpoint saturations the water relative permeabilities obtained are much less than the nitrogen gas relative permeabilities. Saturations were determined by weighing and by resistivity calculations. The resistivity-saturation relationship developed for the core gave saturation values that differ by 5% from the value determined by weighing. Further work is required to complete the relative permeability curve. The steady-state experimental approach encountered difficulties due to phase interference and fracture change. Steady state may not be reached until an impractical length of time. Thus, unsteady-state methods should be pursued. In unsteady-state experiments the challenge will be in quantifying rock fracture change in addition to fluid flow changes.

  9. Uranium deposits in volcanic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-eight papers were presented at the meeting and two additional papers were provided. Three panels were organized to consider the specific aspects of the genesis of uranium deposits in volcanic rocks, recognition criteria for the characterization of such deposits, and approaches to exploration. The papers presented and the findings of the panels are included in the Proceedings. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of these papers

  10. Gas migration through salt rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt as a host rock for a repository for radioactive waste may appear as a layered formation as observed at the WIPP site in the USA or as domed salt, which is abundant in the northern part of central Europe. Planned or actual repository sites like Gorleben, Morsleben or Asse in Germany are located in such salt domes. They have risen up in geological time from Permian salt beds until their upward movement has come to an end. Rock salt exists under geological conditions as an extremely dry material with a residual moisture content well below 1 %. Due to its crystalline nature, its permeability and porosity are very low. In addition, because of its plastic behaviour under stress salt has a high self-healing capacity. In fact, under undisturbed conditions, rock salt is considered as impermeable (permeability less than 10-22 m2). This is demonstrated impressively by brine inclusions which have been included millions of years ago and are kept in place until today. Thus, in considering conditions for two phase flow, undisturbed salt neither offers sufficient water nor appropriate hydraulic properties for scenarios involving normal two-phase flow to occur. Therefore, there is a fundamental difference to other host rock material, in that long term safety analyses for waste repositories in salt have, in general, to assume accident scenarios or some kind of faulted conditions to produce a scenario where gas production and two-phase flow become relevant. The main focus of those safety analyses is on compacted crushed salt as backfill material, possibly on seals and plugs for emplacement rooms or borehole closures and on the engineering disturbed zone (EDZ). (author)

  11. Martian rocks, minerals, and mantles

    OpenAIRE

    Albee, Arden

    2002-01-01

    The variable nature of Mars was first observed almost 400 years ago and modern observations began almost 40 years ago, culminating with the flotilla of spacecraft now at or heading for Mars. We now know that the atmosphere, which produced the visible variation of Mars, has also covered it with a mantle that makes difficult any detailed investigation of the rocks and minerals of Mars.

  12. Uranium leaching from phosphate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium in phosphate rock was removed by means of alkaline leach solutions. Ammonium carbonate/bicarbonate solution produced a very stable uranyl carbonate compound which was separated by centrifugation. Radiometric analysis showed that about 40% of uranium was solubilized and it can be recuperated. This process could be used before the manufacture of phosphatic fertilizers and the final products would contain smaller uranium quantities. (author). 8 refs., 4 figs

  13. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  14. Dispersivity as an oil reservoir rock characteristic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzie, D.E.; Dutta, S.

    1989-12-01

    The main objective of this research project is to establish dispersivity, {alpha}{sub d}, as an oil reservoir rock characteristic and to use this reservoir rock property to enhance crude oil recovery. A second objective is to compare the dispersion coefficient and the dispersivity of various reservoir rocks with other rock characteristics such as: porosity, permeability, capillary pressure, and relative permeability. The dispersivity of a rock was identified by measuring the physical mixing of two miscible fluids, one displacing the other in a porous medium. 119 refs., 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. The physical principles of rock magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Frank

    1974-01-01

    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 5: The Physical Principles of Rock Magnetism explores the physical principles of rock magnetism, with emphasis on the properties of finely divided magnetic materials. It discusses the origin and stability of rock magnetizations, the role of remanent magnetism in interpreting magnetic surveys, magnetic anisotropy as an indicator of rock fabric, and the relationship between piezomagnetic changes and seismic activity. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume discusses the properties of solids, magnetite and hematite grains, and rocks with magnetite grains

  16. Thermal and chemical characterisation of charnockite rock formations of Kalpakkam as repository host rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock samples from Kokilamedu region near Kalpakkam in Tamilnadu have been examined using simultaneous TG-DTA-EGA and chemical analysis to characterise them as repository host rock formation. The studies undertaken revealed the presence of carbonate and sulphate minerals in the rock, which is essentially granitic in nature. These results are indicative of the presence of fractures or cracks in the rock through which water, carbon dioxide, etc. can diffuse into the rock and initiate chemical changes. (author)

  17. Geochemical characterization of geologic materials beneath the proposed Burro Canyon uranium mill tailing disposal cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geologic materials from beneath the proposed Burro Canyon uranium mill tailings disposal site near Slick Rock, Colorado, were characterized to determine hydraulic and geochemical properties. These parameters are crucial to predict if uranium mill tailings leachate represents a potential threat to underlying groundwater resources. Batch tests were conducted to determine the reactivity of geologic materials with respect to molybdenum, selenium, and uranium. Distribution coefficients for Se, Mo, and U are less than 1, indicating low attenuation. Analysis of the -2 μ fraction of the Burro Canyon Formation mudstone indicates that illites and glauconite are the major phases with minor montmorillonite and kaolinite. Adsorption of Mo, Se, and U onto clay minerals as a mechanism of attenuation is discussed. (author)

  18. Rock support system development test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Test Plan has been prepared to support design activities for the development of a rock support system for a Nuclear Waste Repository in Basalt (NWRB). The rock support system is assumed to consist of a combination of shotcrete and rock bolts. The seven testing activities include mix development and physical testing of shotcrete, durability testing of shotcrete, durability testing of rock bolt grouts, field tests on rock bolts, field testing of shotcrete, and heated room test. The objective of the Test Plan is to develop required data through combined laboratory, field, and office studies for design and design validation of the rock support system. The overall Test Plan is developed to provide a logical progression from laboratory tests performed to characterize fundamental thermomechanical properties of shotcrete and grouts, to field tests on rock bolts and shotcrete, and in situ performance tests. 21 refs., 15 figs., 33 tabs

  19. Diffusion in the matrix of granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A migration experiment in the rock matrix is presented. The experiment has been carried out in undisturbed rock, that is rock under its natural stress environment. Since the experiment was performed at the 360 m-level (in the Stripa mine), the rock had nearly the same conditions as the rock surrounding a nuclear waste storage. The results show that all three tracers (Uranine, Cr-EDTA and I-) have passed the disturbed zone from the injection hole and migrated into undisturbed rock. At the distance of 11 cm from the injection hole 5-10 percent of the injection concentration was found. The results also indicate that the tracer have passed through fissure filling material. These results indicate that it is possible for tracers (and therefore radionuclides) to migrate from a fissure, through fissure filling material, and into the undisturbed rock matrix. (Authors)

  20. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  1. Hydraulic testing in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedish Geolocical Company (SGAB) conducted and carried out single-hole hydraulic testing in borehole Fi 6 in the Finnsjoen area of central Sweden. The purpose was to make a comprehensive evaluation of different methods applicable in crystalline rocks and to recommend methods for use in current and scheduled investigations in a range of low hydraulic conductivity rocks. A total of eight different methods of testing were compared using the same equipment. This equipment was thoroughly tested as regards the elasticity of the packers and change in volume of the test section. The use of a hydraulically operated down-hole valve enabled all the tests to be conducted. Twelve different 3-m long sections were tested. The hydraulic conductivity calculated ranged from about 5x10-14 m/s to 1x10-6 m/s. The methods used were water injection under constant head and then at a constant rate-of-flow, each of which was followed by a pressure fall-off period. Water loss, pressure pulse, slug and drill stem tests were also performed. Interpretation was carried out using standard transient evaluation methods for flow in porous media. The methods used showed themselves to be best suited to specific conductivity ranges. Among the less time-consuming methods, water loss, slug and drill stem tests usually gave somewhat higher hydraulic conductivity values but still comparable to those obtained using the more time-consuming tests. These latter tests, however, provided supplementary information on hydraulic and physical properties and flow conditions, together with hydraulic conductivity values representing a larger volume of rock. (orig./HP)

  2. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150204 Abaydulla Alimjan(Department of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences,Kashgar Teachers College,Kashgar 844006,China);Cheng Chunying Non-Metallic Element Composition Analysis of Non-Ferrous Metal Ores from Oytagh Town,Xinjiang(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,33(1),2014,p.44-50,5illus.,4tables,28refs.)Key words:nonferrous metals ore,nonmetals,chemical analysis,thermogravimetric analysis Anions in non-ferrous ore materials

  3. Numerical study of rock blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, Yu. P.; Bakeev, R. A.; Yudin, A. S.; Kuznetsova, N. S.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents numerical simulation results on fracture of a concrete block due to dynamic explosive loads applied to the walls of a blast hole. Considered in the study is the influence of the pulse shape and rock properties on the pattern of irreversible deformation and cracking. It is found that a fractured zone bounded by a plastically deformed contour always arises around the explosion site. Comparison of elastoplastic deformation and fracture induced in the concrete block by explosion pulses of different durations and amplitudes shows that shorter pulses with higher amplitudes and steeper rise times provide a higher blasting efficiency.

  4. Big Bang Day : Physics Rocks

    CERN Multimedia

    Brian Cox; John Barrowman; Eddie Izzard

    2008-01-01

    Is particle physics the new rock 'n' roll? The fundamental questions about the nature of the universe that particle physics hopes to answer have attracted the attention of some very high profile and unusual fans. Alan Alda, Ben Miller, Eddie Izzard, Dara O'Briain and John Barrowman all have interests in this branch of physics. Brian Cox - CERN physicist, and former member of 90's band D:Ream, tracks down some very well known celebrity enthusiasts and takes a light-hearted look at why this subject can appeal to all of us.

  5. Rock drain research program: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock drains are zones of coarse rockfill capable of transmitting normal streamflows which are commonly constructed in mountain valleys for conveying streams along the bottom of waste rock dumps at mines. This report describes research conducted to evaluate issues related to the long-term performance of rock drains in the mining industry. Field research and monitoring was conducted at the Manalta Coal Line Creek Mine in British Columbia, where the mine's main rock drain began construction in 1989. Baseline data were also collected prior to construction. Other research activities included examination of waste rock properties, streamflow monitoring, flow-through tracer tests, sampling of suspended solids and bed load, rock drain flow-through modeling, water temperature and chemistry monitoring, and sampling of aquatic invertebrates. The report findings are presented for three main areas of study: Physical characteristics of rock drains, including drain design and construction, waste rock properties, and geophysical investigation of rock dumps; flow-through characteristics, drain hydrology, water levels, and model results; and environmental effects of rock drains on water temperature, water chemistry, and aquatic invertebrates

  6. Microcraters on Apollo 15 and 16 rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. A.; Mckay, D. S.; Fruland, R. M.; Moore, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    Microcrater frequency distributions, determined for 11 Apollo 16 rocks and three Apollo 15 rocks, fall into four categories. Category 1 rocks (68415, 68416, 62235) are angular, cratered on one side only, and have moderate crater densities. Category 2 rocks (60016, 66075, 61175) are subrounded, cratered on all sides, and have distributions suggestive of the steady state. Category 3 rocks (61015, 62295) are subangular and cratered on only one side, but the crater frequency distributions have some of the characteristics of category 2 rocks. Category 4 rocks (15015, 15017, 15076, 60335) are angular, cratered on only one side, and have moderated to very low crater densities. The crater frequency distributions of categories 1 and 4 have properties indicating the possibility of estimating the time they were exposed to micrometeor bombardment. Category 1 rocks appear to have been exposed for 2 to 3 m.y. These rocks, particularly 68415, 68416, and 69935, may be ejecta from South Ray Crater, indicating an age of 2 to 3 m.y. for South Ray Crater. Category 4 rocks have been exposed for much shorter periods.

  7. Infiltration Flow Path Distributions in Unsaturated Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Olson, K. R.; Wan, J.

    2004-12-01

    Spatial distributions of infiltration flow paths through rock formations are complex networks that determine flow velocities, control rates of natural geochemical reactions in the subsurface, as well as rates of contaminant transport to underlying groundwater. Despite these important consequences, distributions of infiltration paths and locally fast seepage rates through rocks are not well understood. Laboratory-based studies on fractured rocks cannot easily be conducted on systems large enough to include sufficient fracture network complexity, so that inferences of field-scale flux distributions cannot be reliably made. Field-based studies to date have permitted quantification of only a small fraction of the flow distribution, typically while imposing extremely high fluxes, and therefore have not allowed comprehensive delineation of flow distributions expected under natural recharge. Based on hydraulic scaling considerations, we hypothesize that unsaturated flow path distributions in rock deposits will be similar to those occurring in fractured rock formations under low overall infiltration rates. Talus rock deposits and mine waste rock piles control flow and transport into their respective underlying groundwaters. All of these reasons motivated infiltration experiments in rock packs. Experiments have been conducted on 4 different rock types and system scales ranging from 1 to 46 rock layers. Our experiments showed that infiltration through rocks conforms to no previously reported behavior in soils, and that flow paths do not progressively converge into fewer and fewer flow paths. Instead, a fundamentally different hydraulic structure develops, having an exponential (geometric) flux distribution, with the characteristic scale determined by the characteristic rock size. Although the phenomena are very different, the evolution of flow path distributions and local seepage rate distributions is predictable based on a statistical mechanical model for energy

  8. ROCK inhibition as a therapy for spinal muscular atrophy: understanding the repercussions on multiple cellular targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle eCoque

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is the most common genetic disease causing infant death, due to an extended loss of motoneurons. This neuromuscular disorder results from deletions and/or mutations within the surviving motor neuron 1 (SMN1 gene, leading to a pathological decreased expression of functional full-length SMN protein. Emerging studies suggest that the small GTPase RhoA and its major downstream effector Rho kinase (ROCK, which both play an instrumental role in cytoskeleton organization, contribute to the pathology of motoneuron diseases. Indeed, an enhanced activation of RhoA and ROCK has been reported in the spinal cord of an SMA mouse model. Moreover, the treatment of SMA mice with ROCK inhibitors leads to an increased lifespan as well as improved skeletal muscle and neuromuscular junction pathology, without preventing motoneuron degeneration. Although motoneurons are the primary target in SMA, an increasing number of reports show that other cell types inside and outside the central nervous system contribute to SMA pathogenesis. As administration of ROCK inhibitors to SMA mice was systemic, the improvement in survival and phenotype could therefore be attributed to specific effects on motoneurons and/or on other non-neuronal cell types. In the present review, we will present the various roles of the RhoA/ROCK pathway in several SMA cellular targets including neurons, myocytes, glial cells, cardiomyocytes and pancreatic cells as well as discuss how ROCK inhibition may ameliorate their health and function. It is most likely a concerted influence of ROCK modulation on all these cell types that ultimately lead to the observed benefits of pharmacological ROCK inhibition in SMA mice.

  9. Aespoe hard rock laboratory Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory is to demonstrate state of the art of technology and evaluation methods before the start of actual construction work on the planned deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The nine country OECD/NEA project in the Stripa mine in Sweden has been an excellent example of high quality international research co-operation. In Sweden the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory will gradually take over and finalize this work. SKB very much appreciates the continued international participation in Aespoe which is of great value for the quality efficiency, and confidence in this kind of work. We have invited a number of leading experts to this first international seminar to summarize the current state of a number of key questions. The contributions show the great progress that has taken place during the years. The results show that there is a solid scientific basis for using this knowledge on site specific preparation and work on actual repositories. (au)

  10. Hydraulic gradients in rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with fractured rock as a host for deposits of hazardous waste. In this context the rock, with its fractures containing moving groundwater, is called the geological barrier. The desired properties of the geological barrier are low permeability to water, low hydraulic gradients and ability to retain matter dissolved in the water. The hydraulic gradient together with the permeability and the porosity determines the migration velocity. Mathematical modelling of the migration involves calculation of the water flow and the hydrodynamic dispersion of the contaminant. The porous medium approach can be used to calculate mean flow velocities and hydrodynamic dispersion of a large number of fractures are connected, which means that a large volume have to be considered. It is assumed that the porous medium approach can be applied, and a number of idealized examples are shown. It is assumed that the groundwater table is replenished by percolation at a constant rate. One-dimensional analytical calculations show that zero hydraulic gradients may exist at relatively large distance from the coast. Two-dimensional numerical calculations show that it may be possible to find areas with low hydraulic gradients and flow velocities within blocks surrounded by areas with high hydraulic conductivity. (au)

  11. Recent progress in rock magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtillot, Vincent

    Availability of affordable high-performance computers has spurred research into the mathematical modelling of magnetic domain structures, stability of magnetic remanences and their experimental verification. Further, a recently substantially increased amount of observations of magnetic minerals other than magnetite in natural rocks has intitiated studies of their fundamental magnetic properties. To provide a forum for discussion of the latest developments covering these important subjects, two symposia were organized at the XXI General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (Boulder, Colorado, USA, July 2-14, 1995): New Approaches in Rock Magnetism (convened by S.L. Halgedahl and F. Heider) and Properties of minor magnetic minerals (convened by MJ. Dekkers and E. McClelland). In total 62 contributions were presented. This special section of Geophysical Research Letters comprises 19 papers, meeting, hopefully some of the most significant. The four convenors assisted me as associate-editors in preparing this special issue, and I would like to thank them. The time taken by many reviewers is also appreciated. I hope the reader will get a feeling of the excitement that was evident during the Boulder meeting and will find this a useful collection of articles for later use.

  12. Laboratory characterization of rock joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory characterization of the Apache Leap tuff joints under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loads has been undertaken to obtain a better understanding of dynamic joint shear behavior and to generate a complete data set that can be used for validation of existing rock-joint models. Study has indicated that available methods for determining joint roughness coefficient (JRC) significantly underestimate the roughness coefficient of the Apache Leap tuff joints, that will lead to an underestimation of the joint shear strength. The results of the direct shear tests have indicated that both under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loadings the joint resistance upon reverse shearing is smaller than that of forward shearing and the joint dilation resulting from forward shearing recovers during reverse shearing. Within the range of variation of shearing velocity used in these tests, the shearing velocity effect on rock-joint behavior seems to be minor, and no noticeable effect on the peak joint shear strength and the joint shear strength for the reverse shearing is observed

  13. Laboratory characterization of rock joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiung, S.M.; Kana, D.D.; Ahola, M.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.; Ghosh, A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1994-05-01

    A laboratory characterization of the Apache Leap tuff joints under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loads has been undertaken to obtain a better understanding of dynamic joint shear behavior and to generate a complete data set that can be used for validation of existing rock-joint models. Study has indicated that available methods for determining joint roughness coefficient (JRC) significantly underestimate the roughness coefficient of the Apache Leap tuff joints, that will lead to an underestimation of the joint shear strength. The results of the direct shear tests have indicated that both under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loadings the joint resistance upon reverse shearing is smaller than that of forward shearing and the joint dilation resulting from forward shearing recovers during reverse shearing. Within the range of variation of shearing velocity used in these tests, the shearing velocity effect on rock-joint behavior seems to be minor, and no noticeable effect on the peak joint shear strength and the joint shear strength for the reverse shearing is observed.

  14. Interplay of bacteria, bacteriophage, and Berea sandstone rock in relation to enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, P.L.

    1986-01-01

    Much research and development is needed to recovery oil reserves presently unattainable, and biologically enhanced oil recovery is a technology that may be used for this purpose. To address the problem of bacterial contamination in an oil field injection well region, each end of a Teflon-sleeved Berea sandstone rock was connected to a flask containing nutrient medium. By inoculation one flask with Escherichia coli B, observations of the bacterial growth in the uninoculated flask resulting from the transport and establishment of cells across the rock could be made. Differences in bacterial populations occurred depending on whether bacteriophage T4D was first adsorbed to the rock. The results of these experiments indicate that the inhibition of bacterial establishment within a rock matrix is possible via lytic interaction. Some nonlytic effects are also implied by experiments with B/4 cells, which are T4D-resistant mutants of E. coli B. A 10 to 40% retention of T4 by the rock occurred when it was loaded with 10/sup 5/ to 10/sup 6/ PFU. Also proposed is a lysogenic system for possible use in biologically enhanced oil recovery techniques. In addition to the model bacteria and phage system described above, measurements of the passage of Pseudomonas putida. 12633 and a phage-resistant mutant through Berea sandstone rock were also made. When bacteriophage gh-1 was adsorbed within the rock matrix, a reduction in the passage of the susceptible but no the resistant cells through the rock was observed. The use of P. putida and gh-1 represents a more realistic group of experiments since these pseudomonas are ubiquitous soil bacteria commonly found in oil rock regions. Preliminary work on the degradation of certain nitrogen compounds in the context of biologically enhanced oil recovery is also described in this dissertation.

  15. Geochemical Characteristics and Metallogenesis of Volcanic Rocks as Exemplified by Volcanic Rocks in Ertix,Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铁庚; 叶霖

    1997-01-01

    Volcanic rocks in Ertix,Xinjiang,occurring in the collision zone between the Siberia Plate and the Junggar Plate,are distributed along the Eritix River Valley in northern Xinjiang.The volcanic rocks were dated at Late Paleozoic and can be divided into the spilite-keratophyre series and the basalt-andesite series.The spilite-keratophyre series volcanic rocks occur in the Altay orogenic belt at the southwest margin of the Siberia Plate.In addition to sodic volcanic rocks.There are also associated potassic-sodic volcanic rocks and potassic volcanic rocks.The potassic-sodic volcanic rocks occur at the bottom of the eruption cycle and control the distribution of Pb and Zn deposits.The potassic volcanic rocks occur at the top of the eruption cycle and are associated with Au and Cu mineralizations.The sodic volcanic rocks occur in the middle stage of eruption cycle and control the occurrence of Cu(Zn) deposits.The basalt-andesite series volcanic rocks distributed in the North Junggar orogenic belt at the north margin of the Junggar-Kazakstan Plate belong to the potassic sodic volcain rocks.The volcanic rocks distributed along the Ulungur fault are relatively rich in sodium and poor in potassium and are predominated by Cu mineralization and associated with Au mineralization.Those volcanic rocks distributed along the Ertix fault are relatively rich in K and poor in Na,with Au mineralization being dominant.

  16. ROCK GLACIERS IN THE KOLYMA HIGHLAND

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Galanin

    2015-01-01

    Based on remote mapping and field studies inGrand Rapids, Tumansky,Hasynsky,Del-Urechen Ridges as well as Dukchinsky and Kilgansky Mountain Massifs there were identified about 1160 landforms which morphologically are similar to the rock glaciers or they develop in close association with them. Besides tongue-shaped cirque rock glaciers originated due to ablation, a large number of lobate-shaped slope-associated rock glaciers were recognized. Significant quantity of such forms are developing wi...

  17. Wave generations from confined explosions in rocks

    OpenAIRE

    C. L. Liu; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1998-01-01

    In order to record P- and S-waves generated from confined explosions in rocks in the laboratory, a method is developed based on the interactions between incident P- and SV-waves and free-surfaces of rocks. The relations between particle displacements of incident P- and SV-waves, and the strains measured using strain gauges attached on free-surfaces of rocks are analytically derived. P- and SV-waves generated from confined explosions in Bedford limestone are recorded.

  18. Toe rock stability for rubble mound breakwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Baart, S.; Ebbens, R.; Nammuni-Krohn, J.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Present design tools, as found in the Rock Manual or Coastal Engineering Manual, for the determination of toe rock size for rubble mound breakwaters are based on test data with a large spread: data is relatively dispersed around the centre and descriptive equations have limited applicability ranges. New research has been undertaken to contribute to a more accurate description of toe rock stability. Flume tests have lead to an empirical design criterion for toe bunds in very shallow water base...

  19. The rock resources of the Northern Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive; Styles, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The Rock Resources of the Northern Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has vast resources of limestone and hard rock in the northern Emirates. These are currently exploited by quarrying companies to produce construction aggregate and raw material for the manufacture of cement, with a small amount being used to produce rock wool, dimension stone and mineral filler. The demand by industry for higher value mineral products that could be produced from these resources is mostly met by impor...

  20. Temporal evolution of a granitic rock under thermal loads generated by fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A parametric study of the thermal history of a granitic mass under thermal loads originating in terminal subproducts of the fuel cycle is performed. Variations of the conductivity and density of the rock and the unit cell dimensions are considered. In this way it was tried to delimit (for short time intervals of the order of 100 years) the influence of possible uncertainties in the rock's knowledge on the results of interest for the engineering design. In the reasonable situations considered, the maximum temperature in the rock did not rise over 80 deg C. (Author)

  1. Roof sounding device - A loose rock detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Bureau of Mines has developed a method and device designed to detect loose rock material in underground mines. The technology is designed to be an aid to mine workers in detecting hazardous roof conditions in underground mines which can complement or replace the traditional roof sounding techniques where the miner relies on experience to determine whether rock conditions are sound. The leading cause of accidents and fatalities in underground mines is falls of loose rock pieces or rock slabs from the mine roof. In previous research the Bureau of Mines found that loose rock, when impacted, vibrates at a much lower frequency than intact rock material. A major problem in determining rock stability using this technique has been the repeatability of the impact signal. This difficulty has been greatly reduced in the current design by measuring the power spectra contained in two separate frequency bands of the signal produced by striking the rock in question. The ratio of the energy contained in each band is computed. This process minimizes any striking force differences, producing accurate, repeatable results for solid rock as well as loose, drummy material. The prototype has been successfully tested in a variety of underground environments including coal, uranium, molybdenum, silver, and salt. The technology has ben investigated by the US Mine Health and Safety Administration and the Department of Energy for use in detecting detached tunnel lining areas in nuclear repositories. The paper will discuss the technique, applicable results, and future applications

  2. Remarks on some rock neutron parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to calculate the thermal neutron parameters (absorption cross-section, diffusion coefficient and diffusion length) of rocks is given. It is based on a proper energy averaging of cross-sections for all rock matrix and rock saturating liquid constituents. Special emphasis is given to the presence of hydrogen. The diffusion lengths in different lithologies in the function of the variable rock porosity have been calculated. An influence of the thermal neutron spectrum on the shape of the porosity calibration curves for the dual spacing neutron method is shown. This influence has been estimated on two porosity units, on average. (author)

  3. Kissing Mars Rocks with the Rover's RATs: An Educational Exercise to Understand Drilling Rocks on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. A.; Whelley, P. L.; Bleacher, J. E.; Cave, S. R.; Zabala-Aliberto, V. A.; Zabala, A. A.; Greeley, R.

    2007-03-01

    This abstract discusses an E/PO exercise we created for elementary school children that uses Hershey Kisses and straws to simulate the drilling of different rocks on Mars by the MER Rock Abrasion Tool.

  4. Rock stress measurements using the LUT-Gauge overcoring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With overcoring techniques, rock stresses are determined indirectly from measurements of the dimensional changes of a borehole, occurring when the rock volume surrounding the hole is isolated from the stresses in the host rock. This thesis describes the development and application of an overcoring technique. The key-component of the instrumentation that has been developed is a triaxial borehole strain cell, referred to as the LUT-Gauge. Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of the instrumentation. Special emphasis was given to determining temperature sensitivity of the measuring system since this was identified as a potential source of measurement error. Results indicated good instrument reliability and that the measurement error due to temperature variations typically experienced under field conditions is ± 1 MPa or less. The technique was also evaluated by a series of field tests. Comparison of the results obtained by the different methods showed satisfactory agreement. Analysis of the comprehensive field data collected showed that the confidence that can be attached to an overcoring test is largely governed by the mechanical characteristics of the overcored specimen. Expressed as the standard deviation of the mean stress magnitude, the scatter obtained from repeated testing within a borehole section of about 10 m in length, is found to be ± 4 MPa or less. Rock engineering investigations typically refer to a scale of hundreds of metres or more. This study has demonstrated the existence of significant variations of the stress field on this scale. These variations thus impose difficulties in the application of stress data to the analysis of problems in rock engineering, since the pointwise results obtained from stress measurements cannot be extrapolated with good confidence. (30 refs.) (author)

  5. Aperture distribution of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis concerns the properties of the fracture void geometry of single rock fractures. It is suggested that the parameter aperture be used to describe the fracture void geometry and a definition of the aperture is proposed. The relation between void geometry and other fracture properties such as roughness, stiffness, conductivity and channelling are discussed. Different experimental techniques for aperture measurement have been developed in this work. The methods are applicable to fractures of different nature and size. A compilation of measurement results indicates that the spatial correlation (range) of fracture apertures increases with increasing mean aperture and that the range is correlated with the coefficient of variation. The existing data from aperture measurements and fracture flow experiments are still very scarce, in particular for fractures with large apertures. For future research, additional aperture measurements from fractures of different types is recommended. A further development of aperture measurement techniques suitable for field investigation is also suggested. 31 refs, 18 figs

  6. On wettability of shale rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, H; Al-Yaseri, A Z; Sarmadivaleh, M; Iglauer, S

    2016-08-01

    The low recovery of hydraulic fracturing fluid in unconventional shale reservoirs has been in the centre of attention from both technical and environmental perspectives in the last decade. One explanation for the loss of hydraulic fracturing fluid is fluid uptake by the shale matrix; where capillarity is the dominant process controlling this uptake. Detailed understanding of the rock wettability is thus an essential step in analysis of loss of the hydraulic fracturing fluid in shale reservoirs, especially at reservoir conditions. We therefore performed a suit of contact angle measurements on a shale sample with oil and aqueous ionic solutions, and tested the influence of different ion types (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, CaCl2), concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1M), pressures (0.1, 10 and 20MPa) and temperatures (35 and 70°C). Furthermore, a physical model was developed based on the diffuse double layer theory to provide a framework for the observed experimental data. Our results show that the water contact angle for bivalent ions is larger than for monovalent ions; and that the contact angle (of both oil and different aqueous ionic solutions) increases with increase in pressure and/or temperature; these increases are more pronounced at higher ionic concentrations. Finally, the developed model correctly predicted the influence of each tested variable on contact angle. Knowing contact angle and therefore wettability, the contribution of the capillary process in terms of water uptake into shale rocks and the possible impairment of hydrocarbon production due to such uptake can be quantified. PMID:27156090

  7. Hydraulic conductivity of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada contains numerous geological units that are highly fractured. A clear understanding of the hydraulic conductivity of fractures has been identified as an important scientific problem that must be addressed during the site characterization process. The problem of the flow of a single-phase fluid through a rough-walled rock fracture is discussed within the context of rigorous fluid mechanics. The derivation of the cubic law is given as the solution to the Navier-Stokes equations for flow between smooth, parallel plates, the only fracture geometry that is amenable to exact treatment. The various geometric and kinetic conditions that are necessary in order for the Navier-Stokes equations to be replaced by the more tractable lubrication or Hele-Shaw equations are studied and quantified. Various analytical and numerical results are reviewed pertaining to the problem of relating the effective hydraulic aperture to the statistics of the aperture distribution. These studies all lead to the conclusion that the effective hydraulic aperture is always less than the mean aperture, by a factor that depends on the ratio of the mean value of the aperture to its standard deviation. The tortuosity effect caused by regions where the rock walls are in contact with each other is studied using the Hele-Shaw equations, leading to a simple correction factor that depends on the area fraction occupied by the contact regions. Finally, the predicted hydraulic apertures are compared to measured values for eight data sets from the literature for which aperture and conductivity data were available on the same fracture. It is found that reasonably accurate predictions of hydraulic conductivity can be made based solely on the first two moments of the aperture distribution function, and the proportion of contact area. 68 refs

  8. Hydraulic sealing of fractured argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra) has chosen Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) clay-stone, an argillaceous formation in east of France, to sit the future deep geological disposal for intermediate and high level long-lived waste. Among the main reasons of this choice are the low water permeability (less than 10-19 m2) and the high retention properties of the formation towards radionuclides (RN) which ensure a strong confinement of the radioactive waste. Tunnel excavation will cause hydro-mechanical perturbations in the surrounding host rock and will induce a fractured zone localized around the underground openings. This zone where hydro-mechanical and geochemical modifications occur, could lead to significant change in flow and transport properties. Prediction of evolution for the Excavation damaged zone (EDZ) is very important in regards to long-term safety performances of the geological disposal. Observations performed at the main level of the underground research laboratory (-490 m) located in Bure, permitted to achieve an understanding of the fracture network structure and showed different kind of fractures. Those fractures which could be very conductive for some of them become less hydraulically active function of time and after water saturation occurs. Few studies report such sealing of fractures which is expected in argillaceous rocks due to combined effects of rock compression, backfill resistance, water saturation and clay swelling during the post-closure phase. Moreover, Andra has recently proposed an experimental program on these phenomena in partnership with different laboratories (GL Transfert de Gaz). The aim of the present study is to understand and quantify the sealing behaviour of fractures in Cox clay-stone through experimental investigations under relevant thermo-hydro-mechanical conditions. Therefore, laboratory tests were carried out on artificially-fractured cylindrical

  9. Toe rock stability for rubble mound breakwaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, S.; Ebbens, R.; Nammuni-Krohn, J.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Present design tools, as found in the Rock Manual or Coastal Engineering Manual, for the determination of toe rock size for rubble mound breakwaters are based on test data with a large spread: data is relatively dispersed around the centre and descriptive equations have limited applicability ranges.

  10. Permeability Evolution and Rock Brittle Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Qiang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an experimental study of the evolution of permeability during rock brittle failure and a theoretical analysis of rock critical stress level. It is assumed that the rock is a strain-softening medium whose strength can be described by Weibull’s distribution. Based on the two-dimensional renormalization group theory, it is found that the stress level λ c (the ratio of the stress at the critical point to the peak stress depends mainly on the homogeneity index or shape parameter m in the Weibull’s distribution for the rock. Experimental results show that the evolution of permeability is closely related to rock deformation stages: the permeability has a rapid increase with the growth of cracks and their surface areas (i.e., onset of fracture coalescence point, and reaches the maximum at rock failure. Both the experimental and analytical results show that this point of rapid increase in permeability on the permeabilitypressure curve corresponds to the critical point on the stress-strain curve; for rock compression, the stress at this point is approximately 80% of the peak strength. Thus, monitoring the evolution of permeability may provide a new means of identifying the critical point of rock brittle fracture

  11. High-temperature carbidization of carboniferous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, B. A.; Grass, V. E.; Nadutkin, A. V.; Nazarova, L. Yu.

    2009-08-01

    Processes of thermal metamorphism of carboniferous rocks have been studied experimentally. The conditions of high-temperature interaction of shungite carbon with components of the contained rocks, leading to formation of carbide compounds, have been determined. The results of this investigation contribute to the works on searching for new raw material for prospective material production.

  12. Rock avalanches caused by earthquakes: source characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, D K

    1984-03-23

    Study of a worldwide sample of historical earthquakes showed that slopes most susceptible to catastrophic rock avalanches were higher than 150 meters and steeper than 25 degrees. The slopes were undercut by fluvial or glacial erosion, were composed of intensely fractured rock, and exhibited at least one other indicator of low strength or potential instability. PMID:17759365

  13. Rock Plasticity from Microtomography and Upscaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Liu; Reem Freij-Ayoub; Klaus Regenauer-Lieb

    2015-01-01

    We present a workflow for upscaling of rock properties using microtomography and percolation theory. In this paper we focus on a pilot study for assessing the plastic strength of rocks from a digital rock image. Firstly, we determine the size of mechanical representative volume ele-ment (RVE) by using upper/lower bound dissipation computations in accordance with thermody-namics. Then the mechanical RVE is used to simulate the rock failure at micro-scale using FEM. Two cases of different pressures of linear Drucker-Prager plasticity of rocks are computed to com-pute the macroscopic cohesion and the angle of internal friction of the rock. We also detect the criti-cal exponents of yield stress for scaling laws from a series of derivative models that are created by a shrinking/expanding algorithm. We use microtomographic data sets of two carbonate samples and compare the results with previous results. The results show that natural rock samples with irregular structures may have the critical exponent of yield stress different from random models. This unex-pected result could have significant ramifications for assessing the stability of solid materials with internal structure. Therefore our pilot study needs to be extended to investigate the scaling laws of strength of many more natural rocks with irregular microstructure.

  14. Sulphation capacity of Swedish carbonate rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamer, C.A.

    1983-09-01

    Eight carbonate rocks, which had been evaluated as SO/SUB/2 sorbents by the thermogravimetric analysis method at the Chalmers University of Technology, Goteburg, were evaluated at CANMET in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor. Although the absolute values of the sulphation capacity were different for the two methods (the reactor results being lower), the ranking of the carbonate rocks was identical.

  15. Acoustics in rock and pop music halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of rhythmic music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of twenty rock music venues in...

  16. Proceedings of hot dry rock geothermal workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, D.B. (comp.)

    1978-09-01

    Abstracts of 38 papers are included on the following subjects: rock mechanics, part 1: hydraulic fracturing; fracture imaging and borehole surveying; fluid flow-pressure analyses; rock mechanics, part 2: hydraulic fracturing and thermal cracking; geochemistry; heat extraction modeling; and economics and energy conversion. (MHR)

  17. Study on long-term behavior of weak rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the boring core obtained in the Horonobe region, the beta in triaxial compression stress state was acquired, and the examination was carried out on the effect of the confirming pressure on long-term deformation or stability of the sample rock. At first, triaxial compression tests were carried out. In the test, loading rate (strain rate) was changed several times to obtain viscoelastic properties of the sample rock. Multi-stage creep tests were also performed in triaxial compression stress. The parameter set of a constitutive equation of variable compliance type was obtained based on the testing results. In this study, a transparent triaxial cell recently developed by this author was used. The external cylinder of this vessel was made of the transparent acrylic resin. Therefore, gradual deformation of the sample under testing was easily and clearly observed. (author)

  18. Sorption of cesium in intact rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puukko, E. [Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Chemistry (Finland)

    2014-04-15

    The mass distribution coefficient K{sub d} is used in performance assessment (PA) to describe sorption of a radionuclide on rock. The R{sub d} is determined using crushed rock which causes uncertainty in converting the R{sub d} values to K{sub d} values for intact rock. This work describes a method to determine the equilibrium of sorption on intact rock. The rock types of the planned Olkiluoto waste disposal site were T-series mica gneiss (T-MGN), T-series tonalite granodiorite granite gneiss (T-TGG), P-series tonalite granodiorite granite gneiss (P-TGG) and pegmatitic granite (PGR). These rocks contain different amount of biotite which is the main sorbing mineral. The sorption of cesium on intact rock slices was studied by applying an electrical field to speed up migration of cesium into the rock. Cesium is in the solution as a noncomplex cation Cs{sup +} and it is sorbed by ion exchange. The tracer used in the experiments was {sup 134}Cs. The experimental sorption on the intact rock is compared with values calculated using the in house cation exchange sorption model (HYRL model) in PHREEQC program. The observed sorption on T-MGN and T-TGG rocks was close to the calculated values. Two PGR samples were from a depth of 70 m and three samples were from a depth of 150 m. Cesium sorbed more than predicted on the two 70 m PGR samples. The sorption of Cs on the three 150 m PGR samples was small which was consistent with the calculations. The pegmatitic granite PGR has the smallest content of biotite of the four rock types. In the case of P-TGG rock the observed values of sorption were only half of the calculated values. Two kind of slices were cut from P-TGG drill core. The slices were against and to the direction of the foliation of the biotite rims. The sorption of cesium on P-TGG rock was same in both cases. The results indicated that there was no effect of the directions of the electric field and the foliation of biotite in the P-TGG rock. (orig.)

  19. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of rock surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza

    There are many examples of rock surfaces, rock art and stone structures whose ages are of great importance to the understanding of various phenomena in geology, climatology and archaeology. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is a well-established chronological tool that has successfully...... of rock surfaces is successfully tested by application to two different quartz-rich rock types (sandstone and quartzite). Together with the measurement of infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals as a function of depth into the surface of different granites it is clear that both OSL and IRSL can....... Based on the studies of residual luminescence as a function of depth into a rock surface discussed above, a model is developed that relates this increase in residual luminescence to the exposure time. The model is then further developed using the quartz OSL signal from buried quartzite cobbles...

  20. A study of rock bolting failure modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Chen; Jan Nemcik; Ren Ting; Naj Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Rock bolting has advanced rapidly during the past 4 decades due to a better understanding of load transfer mechanisms and advances made in the bolt system technology.Bolts are used as permanent and temporary support systems in tunnelling and mining operations.A review of has indicated that three systems of reinforcement devices have evolved as part of rock bolt and ground anchor while the rock is not generally thought of as being a component of the reinforcement system.A classification of rock bolting reinforcement systems is presented,followed by the fundamental theory of the load transfer mechanism.The failure mode of two phases of rock bolting system is formularised.The failure modes of cable bolting are discussed using a bond strength model as well as an iterative method.Finally,the interfacial shear stress model for ribbed bar is introduced and a closed form solution is obtained using a tri-line stress strain relationship.

  1. Rock avalanches: significance and progress (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    1. The probability distribution of landslide volumes follows a power-law indicating that large rock avalanches dominate the terrestrial sediment supply from mountains, and that their source area morphologies dominate mountain topography. 2. Large rock slope failures (~ 106 m3 or greater) often mobilise into rock avalanches, which can travel extraordinarily long distances with devastating effect. This hypermobility has been the subject of many investigations; we have demonstrated that it can be explained quantitatively and accurately by considering the energetics of the intense rock fragmentation that always occurs during motion of a large rock mass. 3. Study of rock avalanche debris psd shows that the energy used in creating new rock surface area during fragmentation is not lost to surface energy, but is recycled generating a high-frequency elastic energy field that reduces the frictional resistance to motion during runout. 4. Rock avalanches that deposit on glaciers can eventually form large terminal moraines that have no connection with any climatic event; unless these are identified as rock-avalanche-influenced they can confuse palaeoclimatic inferences drawn from moraine ages. Rock-avalanche-derived fines, however, can be identified in moraine debris up to ten thousand years old by the characteristic micron-scale agglomerates that form during intense fragmentation, and which are absent from purely climatically-induced moraines; there is thus a strong case for re-examining existing palaeoclimatic databases to eliminate potentially rock-avalanche-influenced moraine ages. 5. Rock avalanches (especially coseismic ones) are a serious hazard, being very destructive in their own right; they also block river valleys, forming landslide dams and potentially devastating dambreak floods, and subsequent severe decade-scale aggradation of downstream fans and floodplains. Rock avalanches falling into lakes or fiords can cause catastrophic tsunami that pose a serious risk to

  2. Selection of Bacteria with Favorable Transport Properties Through Porous Rock for the Application of Microbial-Enhanced Oil Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Long-Kuan; Chang, Philip W.; Findley, John E.; Yen, Teh Fu

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a bench-scale study on the transport in highly permeable porous rock of three bacterial species—Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas putida, and Clostridium acetobutylicum—potentially applicable in microbial-enhanced oil recovery processes. The transport of cells during the injection of bacterial suspension and nutrient medium was simulated by a deep bed filtration model. Deep bed filtration coefficients and the maximum capacity of cells in porous rock were measured. Low to inte...

  3. Turning Bread into Rocks: A Multisensory Unit Opener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shaw

    2000-01-01

    Presents an earth science activity on rocks to demonstrate the vital links between minerals and rocks. Uses different kinds of breads to demonstrate that rocks, like breads, are composed of various ingredients in different proportions. (ASK)

  4. Rock stars for the day

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    After a two-year hiatus, the CERN Hardronic Festival is back! On 8 August, ten CERN MusiClub bands will take to the stage for the popular event. As usual, the non-stop show will take place on the terrace of Restaurant 3 and will run until after midnight.   The Canettes Blues Band, part of the CERN MusiClub, performing live on the Music In The Park stage at the Montreux Jazz Festival, on 18 July 2013. A large range of musical styles will entertain the audience: from Irish folk, via 70s/80s/90s rock, to pop, blues and R&B. Alongside the music there will be activities for kids and food and drink stands. This year, the income from food sales will be donated to charity. The spirit that has characterised the festival ever since the first event in 1989 is that of a staff party. Any band who volunteers to play also helps to organise the event and set up the stage. “This is a really good thing because a festival that has been growing for many years requires a considerable amount of har...

  5. Rock weathering and Carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozza, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    In the history of the Earth system, we can find indicators of hot or glacial periods, as well as brutal climatic change… How can we explain those climate variations on a geological timescale ? One of the causative agents is probably the fluctuation of atmospheric CO2 amounts, (gas responsible for the greenhouse effect). A concrete study of some CO2 fluxes between Earth system reservoirs (atmo, hydro and lithosphere) is proposed in this poster. Hydrogencarbonate is the major ion in river surface waters and its amount is so high that it can not be explained by a simple atmospheric Carbon diffusion. From a simple measurement of river HCO3- concentration, we can estimate the consumption of atmospheric CO2 that arises from carbonate and silicate weathering processes. Practical experiments are proposed. These are carried out in the local environment, and are conform to the curriculums of Chemistry and Earth sciences. These tests enable us to outline long-term Carbon cycles and global climatic changes. Key words : Erosion, rock weathering, CO2 cycle, Hydrogencarbonate in waters, climatic changes

  6. Rocks in motion: a one parameter description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, O. T.; Rosenau, M.; Leever, K.; Oncken, O.

    2013-12-01

    Rock fall, slide and avalanches are dynamically different phenomena of rocks in motion: falls are mostly dominated by free fall and elastic impacts, slides by friction at their base and avalanches by granular flow. Despite these dynamical differences, the properties of the material involved can be viewed similar, and the main (and only?) difference is typically the size of the systems (falls: 10 meters, slides: 102 meters, avalanches: 103 meters). If only size matters: can gravitational rock movements be described in a simple quantitative framework without losing any underlying physics? To explore the dynamics of gravitational rock movements we performed a dimensional analysis combined with experimental validation. Dimensional analysis suggests 9 dimensionless parameters that describe the system, one of which is Π = C/ρgh, where ρ is density, h height and C cohesion of the material and g is the gravitational acceleration. This dimensionless number describes how strong the material is compared to its size, and varies from falls to > 10-4 for rock avalanches. Can this parameter be used to describe the spectrum of dynamics for rocks in motions in a physically meaningful way? To test this, we performed experiments using labscale rock analogues. Gravitational rock movements are modeled under normal gravity conditions, by releasing material down a 1 meter planar slope at an angle of 45°. The material used is a cemented granular material, the cohesion of which can be controlled over several order of magnitude (101 to 106 Pa). The experiments are monitored using a 50 Hz digital camera. Surface velocities are quantified using a Particle Image Velocimetry while other physical parameters (fragment size distribution, position, friction) are measured using optical image analysis. We perform experiments where the initial value of Π (Π0) is varied over 7 orders of magnitude (10-2 to 104), mapping a parameters space large enough to study a wide range of gravitational rock

  7. Uranium deposits in magmatic and metamorphic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association of uranium with certain types of magmatic and metamorphic rocks is well known. They have consequently been explored and studied quite extensively. In recent years interest in them has been eclipsed by the discovery of larger, lower cost deposits in other geological environments. Nonetheless, magmatic and metamorphic rocks continue to be important sources of uranium and large areas of the Earth's crust with such rocks are prospective locations for additional discoveries. As future exploration and development could be more difficult the full importance of individual deposits may not be recognized until after many years of investigation and experience. In addition to being important host rocks, magmatic and metamorphic rocks have been of considerable interest to uranium geologists as they are considered to be important source rocks for uranium and thus can lead to deposits nearby in other environments. Furthermore, these rocks provide important information on the geochemical cycle of uranium in the Earth's crust and mantle. Such information can lead to identification of uranium provinces and districts and to a basic understanding of processes of formation of uranium deposits. The International Atomic Energy Agency convened a Technical Committee Meeting on Uranium Deposits in Magmatic and Metamorphic Rocks. The meeting was held in Salamanca, Spain, from 29 September to 3 October 1986. It was followed by a two day field trip to uranium deposits in the Ciudad Rodrigo and Don Benito areas. The meeting was attended by 48 participants from 22 countries. Two panels were organized for discussion of the following topics: (1) ore deposit genesis and characterization and (2) exploration and resource assessment. The technical papers together with the panel reports form this publication. The scope and variety of the papers included and the panel reports provide a good coverage of current knowledge and thinking on uranium in magmatic and metamorphic rocks

  8. Classifying rock lithofacies using petrophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omair, Osamah; Garrouch, Ali A.

    2010-09-01

    This study automates a type-curve technique for estimating the rock pore-geometric factor (λ) from capillary pressure measurements. The pore-geometric factor is determined by matching the actual rock capillary pressure versus wetting-phase saturation (Pc-Sw) profile with that obtained from the Brooks and Corey model (1966 J. Irrigation Drainage Proc. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. 61-88). The pore-geometric factor values are validated by comparing the actual measured rock permeability to the permeability values estimated using the Wyllie and Gardner model (1958 World Oil (April issue) 210-28). Petrophysical data for both carbonate and sandstone rocks, along with the pore-geometric factor derived from the type-curve matching, are used in a discriminant analysis for the purpose of developing a model for rock typing. The petrophysical parameters include rock porosity (phi), irreducible water saturation (Swi), permeability (k), the threshold capillary-entry-pressure (Pd), a pore-shape factor (β), and a flow-impedance parameter (n) which is a property that reflects the flow impedance caused by the irreducible wetting-phase saturation. The results of the discriminant analysis indicate that five of the parameters (phi, k, Pd, λ and n) are sufficient for classifying rocks according to two broad lithology classes: sandstones and carbonates. The analysis reveals the existence of a significant discriminant function that is mostly sensitive to the pore-geometric factor values (λ). A discriminant-analysis classification model that honours both static and dynamic petrophysical rock properties is, therefore, introduced. When tested on two distinct data sets, the discriminant-analysis model was able to predict the correct lithofacies for approximately 95% of the tested samples. A comprehensive database of the experimentally collected petrophysical properties of 215 carbonate and sandstone rocks is provided with this study.

  9. Determination and applications of rock quality designation (RQD)

    OpenAIRE

    Lianyang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of rock masses and evaluation of their mechanical properties are important and challenging tasks in rock mechanics and rock engineering. Since in many cases rock quality designation (RQD) is the only rock mass classification index available, this paper outlines the key aspects on determination of RQD and evaluates the empirical methods based on RQD for determining the deformation modulus and unconfined compressive strength of rock masses. First, various methods for determinin...

  10. THEORIES OF ROCK BREAKAGE WITH EXPLOSIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinko Škrlec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The prediction and observation of the nature and dimensions of damaged zones in the surrounding rock mass and understanding the mechanisms of fracturing and crushing of the rock mass with explosives is one of the most important parameters in blasting design in order to obtain preferred granulation and reduce damaging effects of blasting on the environment. An overview of existing rock breakage theories with the energy released by the detonation of explosives is given in this paper (the paper is published in Croatian.

  11. Physical properties of rocks. Subvol. a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geophysical data of solid earth are compiled in the first two volumes of group V in the New Series of Landolt-Boernstein. V/1 contains a compilation of the physical properties of rocks while vol. V/2 treats physics of the earth as a whole. The present subvolume V/1a includes an introduction on the rocks of the earth, and data tables on the following properties of rocks and minerals: density, porosity, permeability, elasticity and inelasticity, thermal properties (thermal conductivity, specific heat, melting points, radioactive heat generation). (GSCH)

  12. Acoustics in rock and pop music halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of rhythmic music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of twenty rock music venues in...... Denmark and a questionnaire was used in a subjective assessment of those venues with professional rock musicians and sound engineers. Correlations between the objective and subjective results lead, among others, to a recommendation for reverberation time as a function of hall volume. Since the bass...

  13. Laboratory measurements of rock thermal properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bording, Thue Sylvester; Balling, N.; Nielsen, S.B.

    The thermal properties of rocks are key elements in understanding and modelling the temperature field of the subsurface. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity can be measured in the laboratory if rock samples can be provided. We have introduced improvements to the divided bar and needle...... probe methods to be able to measure both thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. The improvements we implement include, for both methods, a combination of fast numerical finite element forward modelling and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion scheme for estimating rock thermal parameters...

  14. Sliding rocks on Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park: first observation of rocks in motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Norris

    Full Text Available The engraved trails of rocks on the nearly flat, dry mud surface of Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park, have excited speculation about the movement mechanism since the 1940s. Rock movement has been variously attributed to high winds, liquid water, ice, or ice flotation, but has not been previously observed in action. We recorded the first direct scientific observation of rock movements using GPS-instrumented rocks and photography, in conjunction with a weather station and time-lapse cameras. The largest observed rock movement involved > 60 rocks on December 20, 2013 and some instrumented rocks moved up to 224 m between December 2013 and January 2014 in multiple move events. In contrast with previous hypotheses of powerful winds or thick ice floating rocks off the playa surface, the process of rock movement that we have observed occurs when the thin, 3 to 6 mm, "windowpane" ice sheet covering the playa pool begins to melt in late morning sun and breaks up under light winds of -4-5 m/s. Floating ice panels 10 s of meters in size push multiple rocks at low speeds of 2-5 m/min. along trajectories determined by the direction and velocity of the wind as well as that of the water flowing under the ice.

  15. Mechanical recovery of chemically treated oil slicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternative or supplement to the mechanical recovery of oil spilled at sea, was discussed. In certain oil spill situations, dispersant (or surfactant) treatment could play an active role in the cleanup process. Laboratory and flume studies were conducted to evaluate how a skimmer's recovery rate of various emulsified oils was influenced by the addition of a low efficiency dispersant prior to mechanical treatment. The purpose of using dispersants is to remove spilled oil from the surface by conversion into small droplets, at a faster rate than occurs naturally. Normally, dispersant applications disperse the treated oil into the water column within 1 to 3 hours after treatment. However, dispersant treatment can result in a slower oil dispersion rate (up to several days) due to insufficient dispersant being used, too low surface energy conditions, or too high degree of weathering of the oil. Studies showed that contrary to some expert opinion, a low efficiency dispersant treatment will not have a negative influence on the later mechanical recovery of oil. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  16. Kansas State's Slick Willie Robot Software

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafson, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Robotics Team 1 from Kansas State University was the team that perfectly completed the Office Navigation event in the shortest time at the fifth Annual AAAI Mobile Robot Competition and Exhibition, held as part of the Thirteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence. The team, consisting of Michael Novak and Darrel Fossett, developed its code in an undergraduate software-engineering course. Its C++ code used multiple threads to provide separate autonomous agents to solve the meeting ...

  17. Bacterial life and dinitrogen fixation at a gypsum rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boison, Gudrun; Mergel, Alexander; Jolkver, Helena; Bothe, Hermann

    2004-12-01

    The organisms of a bluish-green layer beneath the shards of a gypsum rock were characterized by molecular techniques. The cyanobacterial consortium consisted almost exclusively of Chroococcidiopsis spp. The organisms of the shards expressed nitrogenase activity (C2H2 reduction) aerobically and in light. After a prolonged period of drought at the rock, the cells were inactive, but they resumed nitrogenase activity 2 to 3 days after the addition of water. In a suspension culture of Chroococcidiopsis sp. strain PCC7203, C2H2 reduction required microaerobic conditions and was strictly dependent on low light intensities. Sequencing of a segment of the nitrogenase reductase gene (nifH) indicated that Chroococcidiopsis possesses the alternative molybdenum nitrogenase 2, expressed in Anabaena variabilis only under reduced O2 tensions, rather than the widespread, common molybdenum nitrogenase. The shards apparently provide microsites with reduced light intensities and reduced O2 tension that allow N2 fixation to proceed in the unicellular Chroococcidiopsis at the gypsum rock, unless the activity is due to minute amounts of other, very active cyanobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis of nifH sequences tends to suggest that molybdenum nitrogenase 2 is characteristic of those unicellular or filamentous, nonheterocystous cyanobacteria fixing N2 under microaerobic conditions only. PMID:15574902

  18. Volcanic and sedimentary-rock aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Volcanic and sedimentary-rock aquifers in the states of Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Nevada, California, Oregon, and...

  19. 1981 rock ptarmigan census, Adak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Most of the Aleutian Islands support populations of rock ptarmigan Lagopus mutus, where their abundance is believed to be greatly influenced by the abundance of...

  20. ROCK GLACIERS IN THE KOLYMA HIGHLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Galanin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on remote mapping and field studies inGrand Rapids, Tumansky,Hasynsky,Del-Urechen Ridges as well as Dukchinsky and Kilgansky Mountain Massifs there were identified about 1160 landforms which morphologically are similar to the rock glaciers or they develop in close association with them. Besides tongue-shaped cirque rock glaciers originated due to ablation, a large number of lobate-shaped slope-associated rock glaciers were recognized. Significant quantity of such forms are developing within the active neotectonic areas, in zones of seismic-tectonic badland and in association with active earthquakes-controlling faults. Multiplication of regional data on volcanic-ash-chronology, lichenometry, Schmidt Hammer Test, pollen spectra and single radiocarbon data, most of the active rock glaciers were preliminary attributed to the Late Holocene.

  1. Red Rock Lakes Wildlife Refuge : Reports : 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge during 1939 contains and inventory of migratory waterfowl, as well as weather reports, and general remarks...

  2. Device for determining permeability of rock massif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, A.A.; Svintsov, I.S.

    1982-01-01

    A technique and device are described for filtering tests of rocks in a massif. The technique is based on determination of consumption of air injected into the control section of the hermetically sealed well of small diameter.

  3. Mechanical dispersion in fractured crystalline rock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report compiles and evaluates the hydrogeologic parameters describing the flow of groundwater and transport of solutes in fractured crystalline rocks. This report describes the processes of mechanical dispersion in fractured crystalline rocks, and compiles and evaluates the dispersion parameters determined from both laboratory and field tracer experiments. The compiled data show that extrapolation of the reliable test results performed over intermediate scales (10's of m and 10's to 100's of hours) to larger spatial and temporal scales required for performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository in crystalline rock is not justified. The reliable measures of longitudinal dispersivity of fractured crystalline rock are found to range between 0.4 and 7.8 m

  4. Rock bed heat accumulators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riaz, M.

    1977-12-01

    The principal objectives of the research program on rock bed heat accumulators (or RBHA) are: (1) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of storing large amounts of thermal energy (in the tens of MWt range) at high temperature (up to 500/sup 0/C) over extended periods of time (up to 6 months) using native earth or rock materials; (2) to conduct studies to establish the performance characteristics of large rock bed heat accumulators at various power and temperature levels compatible with thermal conversion systems; and (3) to assess the materials and environmental problems associated with the operation of such large heat accumulators. Results of the study indicate that rock bed heat accumulators for seasonal storage are both technically and economically feasible, and hence could be exploited in various applications in which storage plays an essential role such as solar power and total energy systems, district and cogeneration heating systems.

  5. Pre-Eocene rocks of Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketner, Keith B.; Kastowo; Modjo, Subroto; Naeser, C.W.; Obradovich, J.D.; Robinson, Keith; Suptandar, Tatan; Wikarno

    1976-01-01

    The exposed pre-Eocene rocks of Java can be divided into two compound units for purposes of reconnaissance mapping and structural interpretation: a sedimentary sequence and melange. The sedimentary sequence consists of moderately deformed and little-metamorphosed conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone, claystone, chert, and limestone. The melange consists of a chaotic mechanical mixture of rocks identical to those of the sedimentary sequence and their metamorphic equivalents, such as schist, phyllite, quartzite, and marble. In addition, it contains a large proportion of quartz porphyry and smaller amounts of granite, basalt, gabbro, peridotite, pyroxenite, and serpentinite. The sedimentary sequence is at least partly of Early Cretaceous age and the melange is of Early Cretaceous to very early Paleocene age. They are overlain unconformably by Eocene rocks. The presence in the melange of blocks of quartz porphyry and granite is not easily reconcilable with current plate tectonic concepts in which the sites of formation of melange and plutonic rocks should be hundreds of kilometres apart.

  6. Characterization and behaviour of argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main activities concerning characterization and behaviour of argillaceous rocks and their environment are presented. The studies are related to the technico-economic feasibility and the long-term safety of disposal of radioactive waste in argillaceous media. (author)

  7. Geology and Geochemistry of Reworking Gold Deposits in Intrusive Rocks of China—Ⅰ. Features of the Intrusive Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀璋; 程景平; 等

    1998-01-01

    Most gold deposits in intrusive rocks were formed as a result of reworking processes.the intrusive rocks containing gold deposits and consisting of ultramafic-mafic,intermediateacid and alkaline rocks of the Archean,Proterozoic,Caledonian,Hercynian and Yenshanian periods occur in cratons,activated zones of cratons and fold belts.Among them,ultramaficmafic rocks,diorite,alkaline rocks,and anorthosite are products of remelting in the mantle or mantle-crust or mantle with crustal contamination,However,auriferous intermediate-acid rocks are products of metasomatic-remelting in auriferous volcainc rocks or auriferous volcanosedimentary rocks in the deep crust.

  8. Pore-scale analysis of electrical properties in thinly bedded rock using digital rock physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the electrical properties of laminated rock consist of macro-porous layers and micro-porous layers based on digital rock technology. Due to the bedding effect and anisotropy, traditional Archie equations cannot well describe the electrical behavior of laminated rock. The RI-Sw curve of laminated rock shows a nonlinear relationship. The RI-Sw curve can be divided into two linear segments with different saturation exponent. Laminated sand-shale sequences and laminated sands of different porosity or grain size will yield macroscopic electrical anisotropy. Numerical simulation and theoretical analysis lead to the conclusion that electrical anisotropy coefficient of laminated rock is a strong function of water saturation. The function curve can be divided into three segments by the turning point. Therefore, the electrical behavior of laminated rock should be considered in oil exploration and development. (paper)

  9. Relating rock avalanche morphology to emplacement processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Anja; Prager, Christoph; Bösmeier, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The morphology, structure and sedimentological characteristics of rock avalanche deposits reflect both internal emplacement processes and external influences, such as runout path characteristics. The latter is mainly predisposed by topography, substrate types, and hydrogeological conditions. Additionally, the geological setting at the source slope controls, e.g. the spatial distribution of accumulated lithologies and hence material property-related changes in morphology, or the maximum clast size and amount of fines of different lithological units. The Holocene Tschirgant rock avalanche (Tyrol, Austria) resulted from failure of an intensely deformed carbonate rock mass on the southeast face of a 2,370-m-high mountain ridge. The initially sliding rock mass rapidly fragmented as it moved towards the floor of the Inn River valley. Part of the 200-250 x 106 m3 (Patzelt 2012) rock avalanche debris collided with and moved around an opposing bedrock ridge and flowed into the Ötz valley, reaching up to 6.3 km from source. Where the Tschirgant rock avalanche spread freely it formed longitudinal ridges aligned along motion direction as well as smaller hummocks. Encountering high topography, it left runup ridges, fallback patterns (i.e. secondary collapse), and compressional morphology (successively elevated, transverse ridges). Further evidence for the mechanical landslide behaviour is given by large volumes of mobilized valley-fill sediments (polymict gravels and sands). These sediments indicate both shearing and compressional faulting within the rock avalanche mass (forming their own morphological units through, e.g. in situ bulldozing or as distinctly different hummocky terrain), but also indicate extension of the spreading landslide mass (i.e. intercalated/injected gravels encountered mainly in morphological depressions between hummocks). Further influences on its morphology are given by the different lithological units. E.g. the transition from massive dolomite

  10. ONKALO rock mechanics model (RMM). Version 2.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haekkinen, T.; Merjama, S.; Moenkkoenen, H. [WSP Finland, Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-07-15

    The Rock Mechanics Model of the ONKALO rock volume includes the most important rock mechanics features and parameters at the Olkiluoto site. The main objective of the model is to be a tool to predict rock properties, rock quality and hence provide an estimate for the rock stability of the potential repository at Olkiluoto. The model includes a database of rock mechanics raw data and a block model in which the rock mechanics parameters are estimated through block volumes based on spatial rock mechanics raw data. In this version 2.3, special emphasis was placed on refining the estimation of the block model. The model was divided into rock mechanics domains which were used as constraints during the block model estimation. During the modelling process, a display profile and toolbar were developed for the GEOVIA Surpac software to improve visualisation and access to the rock mechanics data for the Olkiluoto area. (orig.)

  11. ONKALO rock mechanics model (RMM). Version 2.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rock Mechanics Model of the ONKALO rock volume includes the most important rock mechanics features and parameters at the Olkiluoto site. The main objective of the model is to be a tool to predict rock properties, rock quality and hence provide an estimate for the rock stability of the potential repository at Olkiluoto. The model includes a database of rock mechanics raw data and a block model in which the rock mechanics parameters are estimated through block volumes based on spatial rock mechanics raw data. In this version 2.3, special emphasis was placed on refining the estimation of the block model. The model was divided into rock mechanics domains which were used as constraints during the block model estimation. During the modelling process, a display profile and toolbar were developed for the GEOVIA Surpac software to improve visualisation and access to the rock mechanics data for the Olkiluoto area. (orig.)

  12. Rock Bar BTR -liiketoimintasuunnitelma baariyrityksen perustamiseksi

    OpenAIRE

    Rieppo, Jani

    2015-01-01

    Laurea-ammattikorkeakoulu Tiivistelmä Laurea Leppävaara Hotelli- ja ravintola-alan liikkeenjohdon koulutusohjelma Rieppo, Jani Rock Bar BTR -liiketoimintasuunnitelma baariyrityksen perustamiseksi Vuosi 2015 Sivumäärä 58 Tämän toiminnallisen opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on liiketoimintasuunnitelman laatiminen uudelle rock-baarille, jonka avaaminen Joensuuhun on suunnitelman laatijan toimesta mahdollista joskus tulevaisuudessa. Tavo...

  13. Rock mass response during high pressure grouting

    OpenAIRE

    Gothäll, Rikard

    2006-01-01

    The sealing of hard jointed rock by grouting involves several complicated mechanical systems. The result is a complex coupled system of hydro- logical and mechanical precesses. In order to determine the higher order effects of the resulting system the fracture deformations must be assessed. This requires a model that mimics the mechanical behaviour of not only fractures under normal load but also the entire rock mass system. This model indicates that there are two dominant regimes involved; a...

  14. Developing a Virtual Rock Deformation Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Ougier-simonin, A.; Lisabeth, H. P.; Banker, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental rock physics plays an important role in advancing earthquake research. Despite its importance in geophysics, reservoir engineering, waste deposits and energy resources, most geology departments in U.S. universities don't have rock deformation facilities. A virtual deformation laboratory can serve as an efficient tool to help geology students naturally and internationally learn about rock deformation. Working with computer science engineers, we built a virtual deformation laboratory that aims at fostering user interaction to facilitate classroom and outreach teaching and learning. The virtual lab is built to center around a triaxial deformation apparatus in which laboratory measurements of mechanical and transport properties such as stress, axial and radial strains, acoustic emission activities, wave velocities, and permeability are demonstrated. A student user can create her avatar to enter the virtual lab. In the virtual lab, the avatar can browse and choose among various rock samples, determine the testing conditions (pressure, temperature, strain rate, loading paths), then operate the virtual deformation machine to observe how deformation changes physical properties of rocks. Actual experimental results on the mechanical, frictional, sonic, acoustic and transport properties of different rocks at different conditions are compiled. The data acquisition system in the virtual lab is linked to the complied experimental data. Structural and microstructural images of deformed rocks are up-loaded and linked to different deformation tests. The integration of the microstructural image and the deformation data allows the student to visualize how forces reshape the structure of the rock and change the physical properties. The virtual lab is built using the Game Engine. The geological background, outstanding questions related to the geological environment, and physical and mechanical concepts associated with the problem will be illustrated on the web portal. In

  15. Preliminary rock mechanics laboratory: Investigation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the rationale for rock mechanics laboratory testing (including the supporting analysis and numerical modeling) planned for the site characterization of a nuclear waste repository in salt. This plan first identifies what information is required for regulatory and design purposes, and then presents the rationale for the testing that satisfies the required information needs. A preliminary estimate of the minimum sampling requirements for rock laboratory testing during site characterization is also presented. Periodic revision of this document is planned

  16. Nuclear power in rock. Principal report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 1975 the Swedish Government directed the Swedish State Power Board to study the question of rock-siting nuclear power plants. The study accounted for in this report aims at clarifying the advantages and disadvantages of siting a nuclear power plant in rock, compared to siting on ground level, considering reactor safety, war protection and sabotage. The need for nuclear power production during war situations and the closing down of nuclear power plants after terminated operation are also dealt with. (author)

  17. Seismic effect of destress rock blasting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koníček, Petr; Ptáček, Jiří; Przeczek, A.

    Vol. 4/2. Katowice: Glowny Instytut Górnictwa, 2009 - (Lipowcan, A.), s. 110-119. (Prace naukowe GIG. Górnictwo i Śródowisko). ISSN 1643-7608. [Górnicze zagrozenia naturalne 2009. And rzychów (PL), 03.11.2009-06.11.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : underground coal mining * rock burst * destress rock blasting Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining

  18. Quantitative Chemical Indices of Weathered Igneous Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of different weathering indices for characterising weathered igneous rocks of Hong Kong. Among eight chemical indices evaluated in this study, the Parker index has been found most suitable for a quantitative description of state of weathering. Based on geochemical results of 174 samples, the index decreases almost linearly with an increasing extent of weathering. The results enable a better understanding of the modification of geotechnical properties of igneous rocks associated with weathering processes.

  19. Petrologic and REE Geochemical Characters of Burnt Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Lei; LIU Chiyang; YANG Lei; ZHAO Junfeng; FANG Jianjun

    2008-01-01

    The study of burnt rocks is beneficial to the discussion on the tectonic movement,paleoclimate and paleogeography that coal seams are subjected to after they were formed. In order to obtain the basic data on the features of the burnt rocks, a systematic study of petrology and REE geochemistry on burnt rocks in Shenmu, Northern Shaanxi Province has been done, using the methods of SEM, EDS, susceptibility measurements and ICP-MS. The burnt rocks are divided into two series in the section: the melted rocks and the baked rocks. SEM and EDS analyses reveal that all the minerals show burnt and melted traces, and there are no clay minerals except iliite found in the burnt rocks. Susceptibility measurements reveal that the burnt rocks have abnormally high susceptibility values,whereas a geochemical analysis shows that the REE distribution pattern of burnt rocks is similar to that of sedimentary rocks (initial rocks). In the longitudinal section, with increasing degree of burning (from baked rocks to melted rocks), the ΣREE gradually decreases, and the total REE of melted rocks is obviously lower than that of baked rocks. Besides, the melted rocks show apparent negative Ce anomalies, while the baked rocks show no anomaly of Ce, and sometimes even show positive anomalies.

  20. Impact of rock anisotropy on fracture development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianbo Zeng; Jiyong Zhao; Shengju Zhu; Weiliang Xiong; Yonghong He; Jianwen Chen

    2008-01-01

    Experiments on uniaxial and triaxial rock mechanics and rock acoustic emissions have been conducted for research on the impact of rock anisotropy on the development of the fractures of different directions by taking as an example the ultra-low-permeability sandstone reservoir in the Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation within the Ordos Basin. The experimental results prove the existence of anisotropy of the rock mechanical property in the different directions on the plane, which is the chief reason for the production of impacts on the development of different assemblages of fractures in the geological periods. The rock anisotropy usually restricts the development of one assemblage of conjugate shear fractures. The fractures in the Yanchang Formation within the Ordos Basin are mainly shear fractures that formed under two tectonic actions. Theoretically, here, four assemblages of shear fractures should have developed, but due to the effect of a strong rock anisotropy, in each period one assemblage of fractures chiefly developed. Thus, two assemblages of fractures are usually developed in every part at present.

  1. Investigation of the porosity of rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for characterizing the nature of rock porosity in conjunction with diffusion experiments, are amongst the primary tools used in repository-site selection investigations. At this time no experimental method, alone, is capable of giving an unambiguous picture of the narrow-aperture pore space in crystalline rock. Methods giving information on overall properties must be complemented by those having high spatial resolution; then the lateral distribution of porosity within the matrix and its association with particular mineral phases or features, such as microfissures, fissure fillings, weathered or altered mineral phases etc, and the identification of diffusion pathways in inhomogeneous rock matrices can be determined. Nonsorbing, nonelectrolytic tracers should be used when one wants to determine rock-typical properties of the internal porosity without interference of interactions with surfaces. Preliminary information on a new method fulfilling these criteria is given. Impregnating rock samples with methylmethacrylate labeled with carbon-14 which, after impregnation, was polymerized by gamma radiation, gave specimens that made preparation of sections suitable for quantification by autoradiographic methods easy. Diffusion experiments can be conducted so that labeled MMA diffuses out of rock specimens into inactive free, MMA. Additional information may be gained by leaching PMMA fractions of lower molecular weight from the matrix

  2. Kinematics analysis of a robotic rock grinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With the aim to discover water, life and resources in other planets, robotic sampling instrument is a crucial part of the space exploration robot. To remove dusty and weathered surfaces and expose the fresh rock underneath the planetary surface, a robotic rock grinder is considered to replace the geologist's rock hammer to carry out the geological investigation. A primary prototype of the robotic rock grinder with three degrees of freedom has been developed in this paper. Planetary transmission system is used in the grinding driving system with two inputs (rotation motor and revolution motor) and two outputs (grinding wheel and cutting brush). The grinding wheel with two teeth has been used to abrade the rock. The cutting brush is used to sweep the debris. The third actuator is to feed the grinding system. Kinematics of the grinding system has been analyzed. To get a continuous and smooth fresh face over the rock, grinding trajectory of the grinding wheel has been discussed and planned. Lastly, abrasion experiments have been made to testify the feasibility and the basic function of this system.

  3. Quantification of rock fall processes on recently deglaciated rock slopes, Gepatsch glacier, Tyrol (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehling, Lucas; Rohn, Joachim; Moser, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The recently deglaciated area in alpine glacier forefields is characterized by intensified mass movement processes in particular debris flows, shallow landslides and rockfalls. Due to enhanced geomorphic activity, rock slopes adjacent to shrinking glaciers contribute in a substantial way to the sediment budget. In this study, direct measurements of rock fall intensity are conducted by rock fall collector nets and natural sediment traps. The study area is a high mountain (1750-3520m a.s.l) catchment, which is recently about 30% glaciated. The extension of the Gepatsch glacier has been reducing since the little ice age maximum in the mid of the 19th century with an average annual shrinking rate of a few decameters at its tongue. The first results of the direct measurements demonstrate that on the recently deglaciated rock slopes, rock fall intensity is at least one order of magnitude higher (2,38-6,64 g/m2/d - corresponding backweathering rate: 0,3-0,9 mm/a) than on rock slopes which had has ice free since the last Pleistocene deglaciation (0,04-0,38 g/m2/d - backweathering rate: 0,005-0,05 mm/a). The highest rock fall intensity is attributed to the recent deglaciated rock slopes which are located close to larger fault systems (>60 g/m2/d - backweathering rate: >8 mm/a). Rock fall intensity shows also considerable intra-annual variations which are related to cold climate weathering processes and rainstorm activity.

  4. Caspase-3 dependent nitrergic neuronal apoptosis following cavernous nerve injury is mediated via RhoA and ROCK activation in major pelvic ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Johanna L; Matsui, Hotaka; Sopko, Nikolai A; Liu, Xiaopu; Weyne, Emmanuel; Albersen, Maarten; Watson, Joseph W; Hoke, Ahmet; Burnett, Arthur L; Bivalacqua, Trinity J

    2016-01-01

    Axonal injury due to prostatectomy leads to Wallerian degeneration of the cavernous nerve (CN) and erectile dysfunction (ED). Return of potency is dependent on axonal regeneration and reinnervation of the penis. Following CN injury (CNI), RhoA and Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) increase in penile endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Previous studies indicate that nerve regeneration is hampered by activation of RhoA/ROCK pathway. We evaluated the role of RhoA/ROCK pathway in CN regulation following CNI using a validated rat model. CNI upregulated gene and protein expression of RhoA/ROCK and caspase-3 mediated apoptosis in the major pelvic ganglion (MPG). ROCK inhibitor (ROCK-I) prevented upregulation of RhoA/ROCK pathway as well as activation of caspase-3 in the MPG. Following CNI, there was decrease in the dimer to monomer ratio of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) protein and lowered NOS activity in the MPG, which were prevented by ROCK-I. CNI lowered intracavernous pressure and impaired non-adrenergic non-cholinergic-mediated relaxation in the penis, consistent with ED. ROCK-I maintained the intracavernous pressure and non-adrenergic non-cholinergic-mediated relaxation in the penis following CNI. These results suggest that activation of RhoA/ROCK pathway mediates caspase-3 dependent apoptosis of nitrergic neurons in the MPG following CNI and that ROCK-I can prevent post-prostatectomy ED. PMID:27388816

  5. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    In recent weeks, as NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has driven through the basin south of 'Husband Hill,' it has been traversing mainly sand and dune deposits. This week, though, Spirit has been maneuvering along the edge of an arc-shaped feature called 'Lorre Ridge' and has encountered some spectacular examples of basaltic rocks with striking textures. This panoramic camera (Pancam) image shows a group of boulders informally named 'FuYi.' These basaltic rocks were formed by volcanic processes and may be a primary constituent of Lorre Ridge and other interesting landforms in the basin. Spirit first encountered basalts at its landing site two years ago, on a vast plain covered with solidified lava that appeared to have flowed across Gusev Crater. Later, basaltic rocks became rare as Spirit climbed Husband Hill. The basaltic rocks that Spirit is now seeing are interesting because they exhibit many small holes or vesicles, similar to some kinds of volcanic rocks on Earth. Vesicular rocks form when gas bubbles are trapped in lava flows and the rock solidifies around the bubbles. When the gas escapes, it leaves holes in the rock. The quantity of gas bubbles in rocks on Husband Hill varies considerably; some rocks have none and some, such as several here at FuYi, are downright frothy. The change in textures and the location of the basalts may be signs that Spirit is driving along the edge of a lava flow. This lava may be the same as the basalt blanketing the plains of Spirit's landing site, or it may be different. The large size and frothy nature of the boulders around Lorre Ridge might indicate that eruptions once took place at the edge of the lava flow, where the lava interacted with the rocks of the basin floor. Scientists hope to learn more as Spirit continues to investigate these rocks. As Earth approaches the Chinese New Year (The Year of the Dog), the Athena science team decided to use nicknames representing Chinese culture and geography to identify rocks and

  6. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (3-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    In recent weeks, as NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has driven through the basin south of 'Husband Hill,' it has been traversing mainly sand and dune deposits. This week, though, Spirit has been maneuvering along the edge of an arc-shaped feature called 'Lorre Ridge' and has encountered some spectacular examples of basaltic rocks with striking textures. This panoramic camera (Pancam) image shows a group of boulders informally named 'FuYi.' These basaltic rocks were formed by volcanic processes and may be a primary constituent of Lorre Ridge and other interesting landforms in the basin. Spirit first encountered basalts at its landing site two years ago, on a vast plain covered with solidified lava that appeared to have flowed across Gusev Crater. Later, basaltic rocks became rare as Spirit climbed Husband Hill. The basaltic rocks that Spirit is now seeing are interesting because they exhibit many small holes or vesicles, similar to some kinds of volcanic rocks on Earth. Vesicular rocks form when gas bubbles are trapped in lava flows and the rock solidifies around the bubbles. When the gas escapes, it leaves holes in the rock. The quantity of gas bubbles in rocks on Husband Hill varies considerably; some rocks have none and some, such as several here at FuYi, are downright frothy. The change in textures and the location of the basalts may be signs that Spirit is driving along the edge of a lava flow. This lava may be the same as the basalt blanketing the plains of Spirit's landing site, or it may be different. The large size and frothy nature of the boulders around Lorre Ridge might indicate that eruptions once took place at the edge of the lava flow, where the lava interacted with the rocks of the basin floor. Scientists hope to learn more as Spirit continues to investigate these rocks. As Earth approaches the Chinese New Year (The Year of the Dog), the Athena science team decided to use nicknames representing Chinese culture and geography to identify rocks and

  7. Soil Genesis and Development, Lesson 1 - Rocks and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    All soil ultimately forms from rocks or their weathering products. Geologists classify rocks according to their origins. General rock types can weather to give soils with distinctive properties. The objectives of this lesson are: 1. To be able to classify rocks based on visual characteristics accord...

  8. Politics Revisited: Metatextual Implications of Rock and Roll Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James R.

    1988-01-01

    By viewing rock lyrics as a vehicle that demands a sociopolitical response, rock and roll critics place in the hands of rock artists a responsibility that is not warranted. Particularly with regard to political messages, rock and roll should be viewed from a more individualized perspective. (BJV)

  9. New Rock Physical Properties Assessments From the Mars Exploration Rover Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, P. W.; Basso, B.; Kusack, A.; Wilson, J.; Zacny, K.

    2005-12-01

    The Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) serves as the sample preparation device on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) science payload. The RAT grinds a circular area 45 millimeter in diameter, and on the order of a few millimeters deep, into a rock face. This process removes surface fines and weathered layers in preparation for imaging and spectral observations of the rock. As of September 2005, 15 grinding operations have been performed at Gusev Crater and 26 at Meridiani Planum. Since the RAT performs a mechanical operation on a rock, deductions can be made via the RAT's engineering data about the rock's physical properties. For each grinding operation, the energy consumed while grinding is converted to provide a physically relevant Specific Grind Energy (SGE) in terms of Joules per cubic millimeter of rock removed. The calculation is performed over the last 0.25 millimeter of a grinding operation, where it is possible, by taking measurements from Microscopic Imager images of the abraded area, to make an accurate estimate of the volume of rock removed. Progress is presented on recent refinement of the SGE calculation methods including decoupling of artifacts. Environmental factors and differing parameters used to command the RAT operations are among the key artifacts recently analyzed. Progress is also presented on further characterization of the dynamics and wear mechanics involved in the grinding process, and how they influence SGE. A library of Earth rocks has been assembled and it is being used with the RAT Engineering Model to create a set of similar SGE data products that can be compared to Mars rocks in order to contribute to physical properties assessments of the Mars rocks. Initial results indicate that the Martian rocks are analogous to a range of Earth rocks, from gypsum to low-strength basalt in terms of grindability; however, caution needs to be exercised in making a direct comparison of grinding energies. This is because the grindability of rocks was found to

  10. Impact of fluid-rock chemical interactions on tracer transport in fractured rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Liu, H.-H.; Spycher, N.; Kennedy, B. M.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of chemical interactions, in the form of mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions, on tracer transport in fractured rocks. When a tracer is introduced in fractured rocks, it moves through the fracture primarily by advection and it also enters the stagnant water of the surrounding rock matrix through diffusion. Inside the porous rock matrix, the tracer chemically interacts with the solid materials of the rock, where it can precipitate depending on the local equilibrium conditions. Alternatively, it can be dissolved from the solid phase of the rock matrix into the matrix pore water, diffuse into the flowing fluids of the fracture and is advected out of it. We show that such chemical interactions between the fluid and solid phases have significant impact on tracer transport in fractured rocks. We invoke the dual-porosity conceptualization to represent the fractured rocks and develop a semi-analytical solution to describe the transient transport of tracers in interacting fluid-rock systems. To test the accuracy and stability of the semi-analytical solution, we compare it with simulation results obtained with the TOUGHREACT simulator. We observe that, in a chemically interacting system, the tracer breakthrough curve exhibits a pseudo-steady state, where the tracer concentration remains more or less constant over a finite period of time. Such a pseudo-steady condition is not observed in a non-reactive fluid-rock system. We show that the duration of the pseudo-state depends on the physical and chemical parameters of the system, and can be exploited to extract information about the fractured rock system, such as the fracture spacing and fracture-matrix interface area.

  11. Performance Assessment of Hard Rock TBM and Rock Boreability Using Punch Penetration Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ho-Young; Cho, Jung-Woo; Jeon, Seokwon; Rostami, Jamal

    2016-04-01

    Rock indentation tests are often called punch penetration tests and are known to be related to penetration rates of drilling equipment and hard rock tunnel boring machines (TBMs). Various indices determined from analysis of the force-penetration plot generated from indentation tests have been used to represent the drillability, boreability, and brittleness of rocks. However, no standard for the punch penetration test procedure or method for calculating the related indices has been suggested or adopted in the rock mechanics community. This paper introduces new indices based on the punch test to predict the performance of hard rock TBMs. A series of punch tests was performed on rock specimens representing six rock formations in Korea with different dimensions, i.e., the core specimens had different lengths and diameters. Of the indices obtained from the punch tests, the peak load index and mean load index showed good correlations with the cutting forces measured in full-scale linear cutting machine tests on the same rock types. The indices also showed good linear correlations with the ratio of uniaxial strength to Brazilian tensile strength, which indicates the brittleness of rock. The scale effect of using core specimens was investigated, and a preferred dimension for the punch test specimens is proposed. This paper also discusses the results of the punch test and full-scale rock cutting tests using LCM. The results of this study confirm that the proposed indices from the punch tests can be used to provide a reliable prediction of the cutting forces that act on a disc cutter. The estimated cutting forces can then be used for optimization of cutter-head design and performance prediction of hard rock TBMs.

  12. Rock Tea extract (Jasonia glutinosa) relaxes rat aortic smooth muscle by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Marta Sofía; Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Garrido, Irene; Langa, Elisa; Berzosa, César; López, Víctor; Gómez-Rincón, Carlota; Murillo, María Divina; Köhler, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    In traditional herbal medicine, Rock Tea (Jasonia glutinosa) is known for its prophylactic and therapeutic value in various disorders including arterial hypertension. However, the mechanism by which Rock Tea exerts blood pressure-lowering actions has not been elucidated yet. Our aim was to demonstrate vasorelaxing effects of Rock Tea extract and to reveal its possible action mechanism. Isometric myography was conducted on high-K+-precontracted rings from rat thoracic aorta and tested extracts at concentrations of 0.5-5 mg/ml. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments were performed in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (line A7r5) to determine blocking effects on L-type Ca(2+) channels. Rock Tea extract relaxed the aorta contracted by high [K+] concentration dependently with an EC50 of ≈2.4 mg/ml and produced ≈75 % relaxation at the highest concentration tested. The L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, verapamil (10(-6) M), had similar effects. Rock Tea extract had no effect in nominally Ca(2+)-free high-K(+) buffer but significantly inhibited contractions to re-addition of Ca(2+). Rock Tea extract inhibited the contractions induced by the L-type Ca(2+) channel activator Bay K 8644 (10(-5) M) and by phenylephrine (10(-6) M). Rock Tea extract and Y-27632 (10(-6) M), Rho-kinase inhibitor, had similar effects and the respective effects were not additive. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that Rock Tea extract (2.5 mg/ml) virtually abolished L-type Ca(2+) currents in A7r5. We conclude that Rock Tea extract produced vasorelaxation of rat aorta and that this relaxant effect is mediated by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels. Rock Tea extracts may be of phytomedicinal value for prevention and adjuvant treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26464340

  13. Dynamic elastic moduli of rocks under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elastic moduli are determined as a function of confining pressure to 10 kb on rocks in which Plowshare shots are to be fired. Numerical simulation codes require accurate information on the mechanical response of the rock medium to various stress levels in order to predict cavity dimensions. The theoretical treatment of small strains in an elastic medium relates the propagation velocity of compressional and shear waves to the elastic moduli. Velocity measurements can provide, as unique code input data, the rigidity modulus, Poisson' ratio and the shear wave velocity, as well as providing checks on independent determinations of the other moduli. Velocities are determined using pulsed electro-mechanical transducers and measuring the time-of-flight in the rock specimen. A resonant frequency of 1 MHz is used to insure that the wavelength exceeds the average grain dimension and is subject to bulk rock properties. Data obtained on a variety of rock types are presented and analyzed. These data are discussed in terms of their relationship to moduli measured by static methods as well as the effect of anisotropy, porosity, and fractures. In general, fractured rocks with incipient cracks show large increases in velocity and moduli in the first 1 to 2 kb of compression as a result of the closing of these voids. After this, the velocities increase much more slowly. Dynamic moduli for these rocks are often 10% higher than corresponding static moduli at low pressure, but this difference decreases as the voids are closed until the moduli agree within experimental error. The discrepancy at low pressure is a result of the elastic energy in the wave pulse being propagated around cracks, with little effect on propagation velocity averaged over the entire specimen. (author)

  14. Measurement of diffusive properties of intact rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Postclosure Assessment of a Reference System for the Disposal of Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste (Goodwin et al. 1994) the disposal vault is assumed to be surrounded by a zone of intact rock, referred to as the 'exclusion zone.' A sensitivity analysis of the relative effectiveness of the several engineered and natural barriers that contribute to the safety of the reference disposal system has shown that this zone of intact rock is the most effective of these barriers to the movement of radionuclides through the reference system. Peer review of the geosphere model used in the case study for the EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program has identified the need to quantify the properties of the intact rock surrounding the disposal vault that would control the transport of radionuclides by diffusion. The Postclosure Assessment also identified the need for appropriate values of the free water diffusion coefficient (Do) for 1291 and 14C. The measurement of rock resistivity allows the calculation of the Formation Factor for a rock This review describes the Formation Factor, diffusivity, permeability, and porosity, and how these properties might be measured or inferred for insitu rock under the conditions that apply to the intact rock surrounding a potential disposal vault. The importance of measuring the intrinsic diffusion coefficient (Di) of diffusing species under solution salinities simulating those of groundwaters is emphasised, and a method of measurement is described that is independent of the diffusing medium, and which would be appropriate for measurements made in chemically complex media such as groundwaters. (author). 95 refs., 4 tabs., 39 figs

  15. Compact rock material gas permeability properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural compact rocks, such as sandstone, granite, and rock salt, are the main materials and geological environment for storing underground oil, gas, CO2, shale gas, and radioactive waste because they have extremely low permeabilities and high mechanical strengths. Using the inert gas argon as the fluid medium, the stress-dependent permeability and porosity of monzonitic granite and granite gneiss from an underground oil storage depot were measured using a permeability and porosity measurement system. Based on the test results, models for describing the relationships among the permeability, porosity, and confining pressure of rock specimens were analyzed and are discussed. A power law is suggested to describe the relationship between the stress-dependent porosity and permeability; for the monzonitic granite and granite gneiss (for monzonitic granite (A-2), the initial porosity is approximately 4.05%, and the permeability is approximately 10−19 m2; for the granite gneiss (B-2), the initial porosity is approximately 7.09%, the permeability is approximately 10−17 m2; and the porosity-sensitivity exponents that link porosity and permeability are 0.98 and 3.11, respectively). Compared with moderate-porosity and high-porosity rocks, for which φ > 15%, low-porosity rock permeability has a relatively lower sensitivity to stress, but the porosity is more sensitive to stress, and different types of rocks show similar trends. From the test results, it can be inferred that the test rock specimens’ permeability evolution is related to the relative particle movements and microcrack closure

  16. Compact rock material gas permeability properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanling; Xu, Weiya; Zuo, Jing

    2014-09-01

    Natural compact rocks, such as sandstone, granite, and rock salt, are the main materials and geological environment for storing underground oil, gas, CO2, shale gas, and radioactive waste because they have extremely low permeabilities and high mechanical strengths. Using the inert gas argon as the fluid medium, the stress-dependent permeability and porosity of monzonitic granite and granite gneiss from an underground oil storage depot were measured using a permeability and porosity measurement system. Based on the test results, models for describing the relationships among the permeability, porosity, and confining pressure of rock specimens were analyzed and are discussed. A power law is suggested to describe the relationship between the stress-dependent porosity and permeability; for the monzonitic granite and granite gneiss (for monzonitic granite (A-2), the initial porosity is approximately 4.05%, and the permeability is approximately 10-19 m2; for the granite gneiss (B-2), the initial porosity is approximately 7.09%, the permeability is approximately 10-17 m2; and the porosity-sensitivity exponents that link porosity and permeability are 0.98 and 3.11, respectively). Compared with moderate-porosity and high-porosity rocks, for which φ > 15%, low-porosity rock permeability has a relatively lower sensitivity to stress, but the porosity is more sensitive to stress, and different types of rocks show similar trends. From the test results, it can be inferred that the test rock specimens' permeability evolution is related to the relative particle movements and microcrack closure.

  17. Cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans and captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Kazunari; Segawa, Takahiro; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Murata, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Preservation of indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota is deemed to be critical for successful captive breeding of endangered wild animals, yet its biology is poorly understood. Here, we investigated cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta japonica) and compared them with those in Svalbard rock ptarmigans (L. m. hyperborea) in captivity. Ultra-deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene indicated that the community structure of cecal microbiota in wild rock ptarmigans was remarkably different from that in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Fundamental differences between bacterial communities in the two groups of birds were detected at the phylum level. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes were the major phyla detected in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans, whereas Firmicutes alone occupied more than 80% of abundance in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Furthermore, unclassified genera of Coriobacteriaceae, Synergistaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Actinomycetaceae, Veillonellaceae and Clostridiales were the major taxa detected in wild individuals, whereas in zoo-reared birds, major genera were Ruminococcus, Blautia, Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia. Zoo-reared birds seemed to lack almost all rock ptarmigan-specific bacteria in their intestine, which may explain the relatively high rate of pathogenic infections affecting them. We show evidence that preservation and reconstitution of indigenous cecal microflora are critical for successful ex situ conservation and future re-introduction plan for the Japanese rock ptarmigan. PMID:26468217

  18. THM-coupled modeling of selected processes in argillaceous rock relevant to rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific investigations in European countries other than Germany concentrate not only on granite formations (Switzerland, Sweden) but also on argillaceous rock formations (France, Switzerland, Belgium) to assess their suitability as host and barrier rock for the final storage of radioactive waste. In Germany, rock salt has been under thorough study as a host rock over the past few decades. According to a study by the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, however, not only salt deposits but also argillaceous rock deposits are available at relevant depths and of extensions in space which make final storage of high-level radioactive waste basically possible in Germany. Equally qualified findings about the suitability/unsuitability of non-saline rock formations require fundamental studies to be conducted nationally because of the comparatively low level of knowledge. The article presents basic analyses of coupled mechanical and hydraulic properties of argillaceous rock formations as host rock for a repository. The interaction of various processes is explained on the basis of knowledge derived from laboratory studies, and open problems are deduced. For modeling coupled processes, a simplified analytical computation method is proposed and compared with the results of numerical simulations, and the limits to its application are outlined. (orig.)

  19. Heterogeneity of Parent Rocks and Its Constraints on Geochemical Criteria in Weathering Crusts of Carbonate Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shijie; FENG Zhigang

    2004-01-01

    Owing to the low contents of their acid-insoluble components, carbonate rocks tend to decrease sharply in volume in association with the formation of weathering crust. The formation of a 1 m-thick weathering crust would usually consume more than ten meters to several tens of meters of thickness of parent rocks. The knowledge of how to identify the homogeneity of parent rocks is essential to understand the formation mechanism of weathering crust in karst regions,especially that of thick-layered red weathering crust. In this work the grain-size analyses have demonstrated that the three profiles studied are the residual weathering crust of carbonate rocks and further showed that there objectively exists the heterogeneity of parent rocks in the three studied weathering crusts. The heterogeneity of parent rocks can also be reflected in geochemical parameters of major elements, just as the characteristics of frequency plot of grain-size distribution.Conservative trace element ratios Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta are proven to be unsuitable for tracing the heterogeneity of parent rocks of weathering crust, but its geochemical mechanism is unclear. The authors strongly suggest in this paper that the identification of the homogeneity of parent rocks of weathering crust in karst regions is of prime necessity.

  20. Resources of Kaolinite Rocks in China Coal Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The proved reserve of kaolinite rocks in China coal measures is about 1. 673 billion tons. The types of kaolinite rocks contain tonstein, flintclay and soft kaolin. Their origin modes include alteration of volcanic ash, terrigenous clay deposit and weathering of coal and adjacent rocks. The organic matter and organic acid play an important role in the formation of kaolinite rocks of coal measures. The difference in properties between kaolinite rock and traditional kaolin requires different processing technologies.

  1. Perception of the Hard Rock Brand by Czech University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Polák, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to understand perception of the Hard Rock brand in the Czech Republic among university students. Hard Rock Cafe Prague is a combination of a restaurant, bar, and rock club operated by the hospitality corporation Hard Rock International. The studied segment can be seen as a group of potential customers in long term, and this research should identify opportunities for growth of Czech guests. The thesis presents the process and results of Hard Rock brand research on th...

  2. Experimental Study on the Fractal Characteristics of Rocks Crushing

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Gaipin; Xiong Yang; Lin Longfei

    2015-01-01

    A fractal model for the size distribution was proposed based on the fractal character of the crushing granularity of rocks. The crushing tests of three different rocks were conducted. And the test results of rock size distribution were used to conduct a statistical analysis. The results indicate that the fractal characteristics of rock are universal. The fractal dimension is one of perfect indicators to evaluate crushing, reflecting the whole process of the rock crushing. Subsequently, the re...

  3. Theoretical Modeling of Rock Breakage by Hydraulic and Mechanical Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Hongxiang Jiang; Changlong Du; Songyong Liu; Liping Wang

    2014-01-01

    Rock breakage by coupled mechanical and hydraulic action has been developed over the past several decades, but theoretical study on rock fragmentation by mechanical tool with water pressure assistance was still lacking. The theoretical model of rock breakage by mechanical tool was developed based on the rock fracture mechanics and the solution of Boussinesq’s problem, and it could explain the process of rock fragmentation as well as predicating the peak reacting force. The theoretical model o...

  4. Phosphate rock costs, prices and resources interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mew, M C

    2016-01-15

    This article gives the author's views and opinions as someone who has spent his working life analyzing the international phosphate sector as an independent consultant. His career spanned two price hike events in the mid-1970's and in 2008, both of which sparked considerable popular and academic interest concerning adequacy of phosphate rock resources, the impact of rising mining costs and the ability of mankind to feed future populations. An analysis of phosphate rock production costs derived from two major industry studies performed in 1983 and 2013 shows that in nominal terms, global average cash production costs increased by 27% to $38 per tonne fob mine in the 30 year period. In real terms, the global average cost of production has fallen. Despite the lack of upward pressure from increasing costs, phosphate rock market prices have shown two major spikes in the 30 years to 2013, with periods of less volatility in between. These price spike events can be seen to be related to the escalating investment cost required by new mine capacity, and as such can be expected to be repeated in future. As such, phosphate rock price volatility is likely to have more impact on food prices than rising phosphate rock production costs. However, as mining costs rise, recycling of P will also become increasingly driven by economics rather than legislation. PMID:26412420

  5. Mining technology development in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM), under sponsorship of the Department of Energy through the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), has established a hard-rock research facility at its experimental mine. Even through this site will not become a nuclear waste repository, the CSM has established and maintains an underground test room for use by its own personnel and ONWI and its contractors to conduct in situ investigations. Furthermore, CSM is designing, conducting, and reporting on a series of field research programs to develop site evaluation procedures, excavation techniques, and instrumentation required for nuclear waste repository siting, construction, and monitoring (Hustrulid, 1981). This facility is presently being used to: evaluate and develop techniques for careful excavation of hard rock; develop the mapping techniques required to describe adequately the structural geology; evaluate the structural continuity in the granitic gneiss at the CSM site; evaluate the structural damage done to the rock mass by blasting; develop techniques for evaluating fracture permeability; evaluate permeability changes in the rock mass as a result of blasting. Although specifically oriented toward nuclear waste storage and disposal, the techniques and procedures being developed and evaluated have wide applicability to all underground excavations in hard rock

  6. Cellular regulation of basal tone in internal anal sphincter smooth muscle by RhoA/ROCK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag A; Rattan, Satish

    2007-06-01

    Sustained contractions of smooth muscle cells (SMC) maintain basal tone in the internal anal sphincter (IAS). To examine the molecular bases for the myogenic tone in the IAS, the present studies focused on the role of RhoA/ROCK in the SMC isolated from the IAS vs. the adjoining phasic tissues of the rectal smooth muscle (RSM) and anococcygeus smooth muscle (ASM) of rat. We also compared cellular distribution of RhoA/ROCK, levels of RhoA-GTP, RhoA-Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) complex formation, levels of p(Thr696)-MYPT1, and SMC relaxation caused by RhoA inhibition. Levels of RhoA/ROCK were higher at the cell membrane in the IAS SMC compared with those from the RSM and ASM. C3 exoenzyme (RhoA inhibitor) and Y 27632 (ROCK inhibitor) caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of the IAS SMC. In addition, active ROCK-II (primary isoform of ROCK in SMC) caused further shortening in the IAS SMC. C3 exoenzyme increased RhoA-RhoGDI binding and reduced the levels of RhoA-GTP and p(Thr696)-MYPT1. ROCK inhibitor attenuated PKC-induced contractions in IAS SMC. Conversely, a PKC inhibitor (Gö 6850, which causes partial relaxation of the SMC) had no significant effect on ROCK-II-induced contractions. Further experiments showed the highest levels of RhoA, active form of RhoA (RhoA-GTP), ROCK-II, 20-kDa myosin regulatory light chain (MLC(20)), phospho-MYPT1, and phospho-MLC(20) in the IAS vs. RSM and ASM SMC. However, the trend was the reverse with the levels of inactive RhoA (GDP-RhoA-RhoGDI complex) and MYPT1. We conclude that RhoA/ROCK play a critical role in maintenance of spontaneous tone in the IAS SMC via inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase. PMID:17379756

  7. NEW THEORY IN TUNNEL STABLILITY CONTROL OF SOFT ROCK ——MECHANICS OF SOFT ROCK ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何满朝

    1996-01-01

    Tunnel stability control is a world-wide difficult problem. For the sake of solving it,the new theory of soft rock engineering mechanics has been estabilished. Some key points,such as the definition and classification of soft rock, mechanical deformation mechanism of a soft rock tunnel, the critical support technique of soft rock tunnel and the new theory of the soft rock tunnel stability control are proposed in this paper.

  8. Rock displacements measured during URL shaft sinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During sinking of the Canadian Underground Research Laboratory (URL) shaft, borehole extensometers were used to obtain rock displacement measurements and a tape extensometer was used to measure total convergences. The instruments, instrument modifications, and methods used are described. The measurements are summarized and assessed, with particular emphasis on the influence of natural fractures on rock-mass response and the performance of the instrumentation. Displacements varied from 0.09 mm to 1.75 mm. The frequency of sub-vertical fractures in the rock appeared to be the main factor causing the variation in the measured displacements. Although the displacement instrumentation met certain operational requirement well, lack of precision was a problem. Displacement instrumentation used in future URL experiments should have more measuring points, greater sensitivity, and greater accuracy to better measure small displacements

  9. Rocks of the early lunar crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, O. B.

    1980-01-01

    Data are summarized which suggest a model for the early evolution of the lunar crust. According to the model, during the final stages of accretion, the outer part of the moon melted to form a magma ocean approximately 300 km deep. This ocean fractionated to form mafic and ultramafic cumulates at depth and an overlying anorthositic crust made up of ferroan anorthosites. Subsequent partial melting in the primitive mantle underlying the crystallized magma ocean produced melts which segregated, moved upward, intruded the primordial crust, and crystallized to form layered plutons consisting of Mg-rich plutonic rocks. Intense impact bombardment at the lunar surface mixed and melted the rocks of the two suites to form a thick layer of granulated debris, granulitic breccias, and impact-melt rocks.

  10. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is being constructed in preparation for the deep geological repository of spent fuel in Sweden. This Annual Report 1993 for the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory contains an overview of the work conducted. Present work is focused on verification of pre-investigation methods and development of the detailed investigation methodology. Construction of the facility and investigation of the bedrock are carried out in parallel. As of December 1993, 2760 m of the tunnel had been excavated to a depth of 370 m below the surface. An important and integral part of the work is further refinement of conceptual and numerical models for groundwater flow and radionuclide migration. Detailed plans have been prepared for several experiments to be conducted after the end of the construction work. Eight organizations from seven countries are now participating in the work at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and are contributing in different ways to the results being achieved

  11. Radiometric dating of rocks. Chapter 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the abundances and variations in the isotopes of several elements both stable and unstable has become an indispensable approach in earth sciences that helps in understanding the problems related to the age of the rocks and minerals, petrogenesis of a suite of rocks, provenance studies and others. In this article, some commonly used dating methods have been discussed with emphasis on their applications, experimental techniques and instrumentation. Zircon chronology which has now developed as a specialized branch of geochronology is discussed

  12. First look at rock & soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The earliest survey of spectral properties of the rocks and soils surrounding Pathfinder was acquired as a narrow strip covering the region just beyond the where the rover made its egress from the lander. The wavelength filters used, all in the binocular camera's right eye, cover mainly visible wavelengths. These data reveal at least five kinds of rocks and soil in the immediate vicinity of the lander. All of the spectra are ratioed to the mean spectrum of bright red drift to highlight the differences. Different occurrences of drift (pink spectra) are closely similar. Most of the rocks (black spectra) have a dark gray color, and are both darker and less red than the drift, suggesting less weathering. Typical soils (green spectra) are intermediate in properties to the rocks and drift. Both these data and subsequent higher resolution images show that the typical soil consists of a mixture of drift and small dark gray particles resembling the rock. However, two other kinds of materials are significantly different from the rocks and drift. Pinkish or whitish pebbles and crusts on some of the rocks (blue spectra) are brighter in blue light and darker in near-infrared light than is the drift, and they lack the spectral characteristics closely associated with iron minerals. Dark red soils in the lee of several rocks are about as red as the drift, but consistently darker. The curvature in the spectrum at visible wavelengths suggests either more ferric iron minerals than in the drift or a larger particle size.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of

  13. Correlation between roughness and porosity in rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, M. A.; Hogert, E. N.; Albano, J.; Raffo, C. A.; Gaggioli, N. G.

    1996-02-01

    The porosity of rocks is a very important parameter in the determination of the performance of oil wells. Optical methods allow us to study surface roughness and different materials that have surface properties with random characteristics. Therefore, we have extended these applications to porosity analysis. In our method, we have used the speckle produced by the scattered light from a porous rock, illuminated by a laser beam, and found a linear relationship between the decorrelation of the speckle intensity distribution and the porosity magnitude. In this paper we present the results for samples extracted from oil wells in Argentina.

  14. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. The TRUE -1 experiment including tests with sorbing radioactive tracers in a single fracture over a distance of about 5 m has been completed. Diffusion and sorption in the rock matrix is the dominant retention mechanism over the time scales of the experiments. The main objective of the TRUE Block Scale Experiment is to increase understanding and our ability to predict tracer transport in a fracture network over spatial scales of 10 to 50 m. In total six boreholes have been drilled into the experimental volume located at the 450 m level. The Long-Term Diffusion Experiment is intended as a complement to the dynamic in-situ experiments and the laboratory experiments performed in the TRUE Programme. Diffusion from a fracture into the rock matrix will be studied in situ. The REX project focuses on the reduction of oxygen in a repository after closure due to reactions with rock minerals and microbial activity. Results show that oxygen is consumed within a few days both for the field and laboratory experiments. A new site for the CHEMLAB experiments was selected and prepared during 1999. All future experiment will be conducted in the J niche at 450 m depth. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full-scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and instrumented. Characterisation of the rock mass in the area of the Prototype repository is completed and the six deposition holes have been drilled. The Backfill and

  15. Petrological studies of plutonic rocks of Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feldspars of many tonalitic plutonic rocks in the coastal regions and West Andean regions are zoned. This leads to the conclusion that they are relatively flat intrusions and to some extent transition rocks in the subvulcanite direction. This is in accordance with the genetic and chronological relationship between plutonites and the surrounding vulcanites of the Basic Igreous Complex (BIC). The composition of representative minerals, e.g. alkali feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, biotite, chlorite, and amphibole has been determined as well as the age of plutonite samples by the K/Ar dating method. (DG)

  16. Monitoring and analysis of rock blocks deformations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cacoń, S.; Kontny, B.; Košťák, Blahoslav

    Lisbon: FIG, 2008, s. 1-12. [FIG 13th Symposium on Deformation Measurement and Analysis and the IAG 4th Symposium on Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering. Lisbon, Portugal, 12-15 May 2008. Lisbon (PT), 12.05.2008-15.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/1828 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : rock deformation monitoring * rock deformation model Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure http://www.fig.net/commission6/lisbon_2008/.

  17. Migration of radionuclides in fissured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some computed results of radionuclide migration in fissured rock are presented. The computations are based on a model which describes flow as occurring in a multitude of independent fissures (stratified flow). This gives rise to strong dispersion of channeling. The radionuclide migration in the individual fissures is modelled by the advection equation on a parallel walled channel with porous walls. The nuclides may diffuse into the pores and sorb reversibly on the pore surfaces. The effluent rates of 23 important nuclides are presented as functions of distance and time for various of important parameters such as rock permeability, diffusion coefficients, release rates, time of first release, fissure spacing and fissure width distribution. (Author)

  18. Rock et Cinéma

    OpenAIRE

    Bart, Christian Le; Didelot, Jérôme; Eizykman, Claudine; Gorin, François; Grünberg, Serge; Jousse, Thierry; Juiller, Laurent; Le Guern, Philippe; Leveratto, Jean-Marc; Neyrat, Cyril; ribac, françois; Siclier, Sylvain

    2006-01-01

    This special issue of Volume ! is dedicated to the relationships between rock music and cinema. It was published during the second edition of the Paris-Cinéma Festival. Its articles analyze the use of rock 'n' roll in various films: Phantom of Paradise by Brian De Palma, Exploding Plastic Inevitable by Andy Warhol with The Velvet Underground's music, A Hard Day's Night by Richard Lester, David Lynch movies, as well as Frank Zappa, Aphex Twin and "kinok". Ce hors-série de Volume ! est consa­c...

  19. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. The TRUE -1 experiment including tests with sorbing radioactive tracers in a single fracture over a distance of about 5 m has been completed. Diffusion and sorption in the rock matrix is the dominant retention mechanism over the time scales of the experiments. The main objective of the TRUE Block Scale Experiment is to increase understanding and our ability to predict tracer transport in a fracture network over spatial scales of 10 to 50 m. In total six boreholes have been drilled into the experimental volume located at the 450 m level. The Long-Term Diffusion Experiment is intended as a complement to the dynamic in-situ experiments and the laboratory experiments performed in the TRUE Programme. Diffusion from a fracture into the rock matrix will be studied in situ. The REX project focuses on the reduction of oxygen in a repository after closure due to reactions with rock minerals and microbial activity. Results show that oxygen is consumed within a few days both for the field and laboratory experiments. A new site for the CHEMLAB experiments was selected and prepared during 1999. All future experiment will be conducted in the J niche at 450 m depth. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full-scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and instrumented. Characterisation of the rock mass in the area of the Prototype repository is completed and the six deposition holes have been drilled. The Backfill and

  20. Simulation of fluorescence lidar for detecting oil slick%荧光激光雷达技术探测水面油污染系统仿真研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景敏; 华灯鑫; 乐静

    2016-01-01

    为实现对水面油污染的探测,根据荧光激光雷达系统的发展趋势,采用激光诱导荧光技术,建立了适用于水面油污染探测荧光激光雷达的系统模型。提出采用单激光器结合增强电荷耦合器件的小型荧光激光雷达探测系统,通过分析激光器单脉冲能量与探测浓度之间的关系,结合荧光激光雷达系统参数,对系统模型的探测能力与信噪比等进行了数值仿真。结果表明,系统选用单脉冲能量50µJ的355 nm Nd:YAG激光器作为激发光源,白天在7 m的距离处探测信噪比可以达到10,满足实验室搭建模拟系统的要求。针对实际探测水面油污染,提出采用增大激光器功率的方法,并通过模拟计算验证了采用50 mJ的单脉冲能量激光器在230 m的探测距离处可得到与实验室相同的结果,对实际系统的搭建具有指导意义。%In order to measure the oil pollution on water surface, a fluorescence lidar model system based on laser induced fluorescence is put forward for detecting oil slick. The system model and fluorescence detecting principle are described in detail. According to the properties of detected material, wavelength of laser and filter of receiving system are adopted to ensure that the lidar system is operated at the peak wavelength. Following the development trend of miniaturization in the world, using single laser and intensified charge-coupled devices, a small fluorescence detecting system is designed. FTSS 350-50 laser made by CRYLAS company, with compact dimension, low weight and excellent energy efficiency, and PI-MAX4 intensified charge-couple devices made by Princeton Instruments company, with good time resolution characteristic, are selected to produce laser as a launch device and to inspect fluorescence lifetime and capture image as a receiving device, respectively. The laser excitation wavelength, the energy of laser, the center wavelength and bandwidth of filter, the received echo

  1. ONKALO rock mechanics model (RMM). Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rock Mechanics Model of the ONKALO rock volume is a description of the significant features and parameters related to rock mechanics. The main objective is to develop a tool to predict the rock quality and the potential for stress failure which can then be used for continuing design of the ONKALO and the repository. This is the first implementation of the Rock Mechanics Model and it includes submodels of the intact rock strength, rock mass spalling strength, in situ stress, potential for stress failure, seismic velocities, thermal properties, major fracture sets, rock mass quality and properties of the brittle deformation zones. Because of the varying quantities of available data for the different parameters, the types of presentations also vary: some data sets can be presented in the style of a 3D block model but, in other cases, a single distribution represents the whole rock volume hosting the ONKALO. (orig.)

  2. Influence Mechanism of Grouting on Mechanical Characteristics of Rock Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jixun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouting technology has been widely used in all fields of geotechnical and civil engineering. Prospective engineering objectives including reinforcement of rock mass and groundwater leakage treatment can be achieved by grouting which will change the mechanical parameters of rock mass such as strength, elastic modulus, and coefficient of permeability. In this paper, rock mass is assumed as a composite material consisting of rock particles and random microcracks initially. Since part or all of the cracks will be filled with cement slurry after grouting, rock mass consists of rock particles, grout condensate, and some or no random microcracks after grouting. The damage constitutional law of the mesoscopic element is established based on the theory of mesoscopic damage mechanics. With the heterogeneity of the components of rock mass considered, the variation of mechanical characteristics of rock mass is studied before and after grouting. And the influence mechanism of grouting on rock mass is investigated at mesoscale level.

  3. Integration of rock typing methods for carbonate reservoir characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reservoir rock typing is the most important part of all reservoir modelling. For integrated reservoir rock typing, static and dynamic properties need to be combined, but sometimes these two are incompatible. The failure is due to the misunderstanding of the crucial parameters that control the dynamic behaviour of the reservoir rock and thus selecting inappropriate methods for defining static rock types. In this study, rock types were defined by combining the SCAL data with the rock properties, particularly rock fabric and pore types. First, air-displacing-water capillary pressure curues were classified because they are representative of fluid saturation and behaviour under capillary forces. Next the most important rock properties which control the fluid flow and saturation behaviour (rock fabric and pore types) were combined with defined classes. Corresponding petrophysical properties were also attributed to reservoir rock types and eventually, defined rock types were compared with relative permeability curves. This study focused on representing the importance of the pore system, specifically pore types in fluid saturation and entrapment in the reservoir rock. The most common tests in static rock typing, such as electrofacies analysis and porosity–permeability correlation, were carried out and the results indicate that these are not appropriate approaches for reservoir rock typing in carbonate reservoirs with a complicated pore system. (paper)

  4. Interim rock mass properties and conditions for analyses of a repository in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of rock properties for generic crystalline rock is compiled from literature sources to provide the input data for analyses of a conceptual repository in crystalline rock. Frequency histograms, mean values and ranges of physical, mechanical, thermal, and thermomechanical properties, and the dependence of these properties on temperature are described. A description of the hydrogeologic properties of a crystalline rock mass and their dependence on depth is provided. In addition, the temperature gradients, mean annual surface temperature, and in situ stress conditions are summarized for the three regions of the United States currently under consideration to host a crystalline repository; i.e., the North Central, Northeastern, and Southeastern. Brief descriptions of the regional geology are also presented. Large-scale underground experiments in crystalline rock at Stripa, Sweden, and in Climax Stock in Nevada, are reviewed to assess whether the rock properties presented in this report are representative of in situ conditions. The suitability of each rock property and the sufficiency of its data base are described. 110 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Theoretical study of rock mass investigation efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmen, Johan G.; Outters, Nils [Golder Associates, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    The study concerns a mathematical modelling of a fractured rock mass and its investigations by use of theoretical boreholes and rock surfaces, with the purpose of analysing the efficiency (precision) of such investigations and determine the amount of investigations necessary to obtain reliable estimations of the structural-geological parameters of the studied rock mass. The study is not about estimating suitable sample sizes to be used in site investigations.The purpose of the study is to analyse the amount of information necessary for deriving estimates of the geological parameters studied, within defined confidence intervals and confidence level In other words, how the confidence in models of the rock mass (considering a selected number of parameters) will change with amount of information collected form boreholes and surfaces. The study is limited to a selected number of geometrical structural-geological parameters: Fracture orientation: mean direction and dispersion (Fisher Kappa and SRI). Different measures of fracture density (P10, P21 and P32). Fracture trace-length and strike distributions as seen on horizontal windows. A numerical Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) was used for representation of a fractured rock mass. The DFN-model was primarily based on the properties of an actual fracture network investigated at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The rock mass studied (DFN-model) contained three different fracture sets with different orientations and fracture densities. The rock unit studied was statistically homogeneous. The study includes a limited sensitivity analysis of the properties of the DFN-model. The study is a theoretical and computer-based comparison between samples of fracture properties of a theoretical rock unit and the known true properties of the same unit. The samples are derived from numerically generated boreholes and surfaces that intersect the DFN-network. Two different boreholes are analysed; a vertical borehole and a borehole that is

  6. Theoretical study of rock mass investigation efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study concerns a mathematical modelling of a fractured rock mass and its investigations by use of theoretical boreholes and rock surfaces, with the purpose of analysing the efficiency (precision) of such investigations and determine the amount of investigations necessary to obtain reliable estimations of the structural-geological parameters of the studied rock mass. The study is not about estimating suitable sample sizes to be used in site investigations.The purpose of the study is to analyse the amount of information necessary for deriving estimates of the geological parameters studied, within defined confidence intervals and confidence level In other words, how the confidence in models of the rock mass (considering a selected number of parameters) will change with amount of information collected form boreholes and surfaces. The study is limited to a selected number of geometrical structural-geological parameters: Fracture orientation: mean direction and dispersion (Fisher Kappa and SRI). Different measures of fracture density (P10, P21 and P32). Fracture trace-length and strike distributions as seen on horizontal windows. A numerical Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) was used for representation of a fractured rock mass. The DFN-model was primarily based on the properties of an actual fracture network investigated at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The rock mass studied (DFN-model) contained three different fracture sets with different orientations and fracture densities. The rock unit studied was statistically homogeneous. The study includes a limited sensitivity analysis of the properties of the DFN-model. The study is a theoretical and computer-based comparison between samples of fracture properties of a theoretical rock unit and the known true properties of the same unit. The samples are derived from numerically generated boreholes and surfaces that intersect the DFN-network. Two different boreholes are analysed; a vertical borehole and a borehole that is

  7. Inhibition of ROCK activity allows InlF-mediated invasion and increased virulence of Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchner, Marieluise; Higgins, Darren E.

    2008-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes life-threatening disease. The mechanisms used by L. monocytogenes to invade non-professional phagocytic cells are not fully understood. In addition to the requirement of bacterial determinants, host cell conditions profoundly influence infection. Here, we have shown that inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK pathway by pharmacological inhibitors or RNA interference (RNAi) results in increased L. monocytogenes invasion of murine f...

  8. Field tests of stress measurement techniques in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three underground field tests were performed in southeastern New Mexico as part of the US Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Research and Development Program. These tests, one in potash-rich halite and two in relatively pure halite (rock salt), investigated the feasibility of using borehole inclusion stressmeters to measure in situ stress and stress changes in salt. The tests provided a comparison of inclusion stressmeters and demonstrated various qualities of gage response, including time-dependent characteristics, repeatability, and the effects of preload. Three gage types comprising five gages were used: (1) the strain-gaged stressmeter (SGS); (2) two US Bureau of Mines (USBM) hydraulic pressure cells called the borehole pressure cell (BPC) and the cylindrical pressure cell (CPC); and (3) two development pressure cells called the USBMX and the Sandia Pressure Cell (SPC). Gage response has been reasonably consistent. However, further study is required of the correlations between gage types and between gage output and the in situ state of stress. 13 references, 16 figures, 2 tables

  9. Initial settlements of rock fills on soft clay

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Truls Martens

    2012-01-01

    Rock fills that hit the seabed will remold the underlying material. If this material is a clay with sufficiently low shear strength, it will adopt rheological properties, causing flow through the rock fill, and contributing to the initial settlements of the rock fill in addition to conventional consolidation theory. The settlements of the rocks depend upon the height of the rock fill and how the rocks have been laid out. This is due to the viscosity of the clay, and the fact that clay is thix...

  10. Fluorine geochemistry in volcanic rock series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Ole

    1998-01-01

    A new analytical procedure has been established in order to determine low fluorine concentrations (30–100 ppm F) in igneous rocks, and the method has also proven successful for higher concentrations (100–4000 ppm F). Fluorine has been measured in a series of olivine tholeiites from the Reykjanes ...

  11. Accurate phase-shift velocimetry in rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Matsyendra Nath; Vallatos, Antoine; Phoenix, Vernon R.; Holmes, William M.

    2016-06-01

    Spatially resolved Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) velocimetry techniques can provide precious information concerning flow through opaque systems, including rocks. This velocimetry data is used to enhance flow models in a wide range of systems, from oil behaviour in reservoir rocks to contaminant transport in aquifers. Phase-shift velocimetry is the fastest way to produce velocity maps but critical issues have been reported when studying flow through rocks and porous media, leading to inaccurate results. Combining PFG measurements for flow through Bentheimer sandstone with simulations, we demonstrate that asymmetries in the molecular displacement distributions within each voxel are the main source of phase-shift velocimetry errors. We show that when flow-related average molecular displacements are negligible compared to self-diffusion ones, symmetric displacement distributions can be obtained while phase measurement noise is minimised. We elaborate a complete method for the production of accurate phase-shift velocimetry maps in rocks and low porosity media and demonstrate its validity for a range of flow rates. This development of accurate phase-shift velocimetry now enables more rapid and accurate velocity analysis, potentially helping to inform both industrial applications and theoretical models.

  12. Electromagnetic emission in mineral and rock dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salnikov, V.; Popov, V.; Terre, D.

    2016-03-01

    The article considers regularities of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from minerals and rocks, with samples being heated in a vacuum to 20° C- 1000° C. The examples of electromagnetic emission correlation with electric conductivity, thermoluminescence and thermographic analysis during physic-chemical processes resulting from diagenesis, catagenesis and metagenesis have been provided.

  13. Prestudy Oskarshamn. Soils, rocks and deformation zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil and geology of the Oskarshamn area are described, as well as deformation zones and seismicity. Several areas of the inland are judged to be potentially well suited for a spent fuel repository. In the Simpevarp peninsula, it may be difficult to locate a rock mass big enough, between the fracture zones, to host a repository

  14. Waste package performance in unsaturated rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unsaturated rock and near-atmospheric pressure of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain present new problems of predicting waste package performance. In this paper we present some illustrations of predictions of waste package performance and discuss important data needs. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  15. Uncertainty in hydraulic tests in fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interpretation of hydraulic tests in fractured rock has uncertainty because of the different hydraulic properties of a fractured rock to a porous medium. In this study, we reviewed several interesting phenomena which show uncertainty in a hydraulic test at a fractured rock and discussed their origins and the how they should be considered during site characterisation. Our results show that the estimated hydraulic parameters of a fractured rock from a hydraulic test are associated with uncertainty due to the changed aperture and non-linear groundwater flow during the test. Although the magnitude of these two uncertainties is site-dependent, the results suggest that it is recommended to conduct a hydraulic test with a little disturbance from the natural groundwater flow to consider their uncertainty. Other effects reported from laboratory and numerical experiments such as the trapping zone effect (Boutt, 2006) and the slip condition effect (Lee, 2014) can also introduce uncertainty to a hydraulic test, which should be evaluated in a field test. It is necessary to consider the way how to evaluate the uncertainty in the hydraulic property during the site characterisation and how to apply it to the safety assessment of a subsurface repository. (authors)

  16. Simulation of failure process of jointed rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A modified discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA) algorithm was proposed to simulate the failure behavior of jointed rock.In the proposed algorithm,by using the Monte-Carlo technique,random joint network was generated in the domain of interest.Based on the joint network,the triangular DDA block system was automatically generated by adopting the advanced front method.In the process of generating blocks,numerous artificial joints came into being,and once the stress states at some artificial joints satisfy the failure criterion given beforehand,artificial joints will turn into real joints.In this way,the whole fragmentation process of rock mass can be replicated.The algorithm logic was described in detail,and several numerical examples were carried out to obtain some insight into the failure behavior of rock mass containing random joints.From the numerical results,it can be found that the crack initiates from the crack tip,the growth direction of the crack depends upon the loading and constraint conditions,and the proposed method can reproduce some complicated phenomena in the whole process of rock failure.

  17. Diffusion of uranium in the granite rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the safety assessment of high level radioactive waste disposal, a significant retardation factor of radionuclides leaking from an underground repository can be expected. When radionuclides released from an underground repository are transported with the moving groundwater along cracks in the rock, the radionuclides will be retarded by not only adsorption on the surface of the cracks but also by process diffusion into submicron pores of rock matrix. In this experiments have been performed by process diffusion of uranium in water saturated granite. The measured penetration profile of uranium was composed of two parts. This profile was successfully explained by considering two diffusion paths in granite rock. One diffusion path was possibly a fissure with a width of few microns and another was a submicron pores of granite rock. The orders of magnitude of diffusivities for uranium were 10-12 m2/sec through the fissure and 1015 m2/sec through the submicron pores. The difference between the diffusivities of two path is thought to be caused by small geometrical factor of submicron pores, if to compared with fissures. (author)

  18. Life Found Lurking under Arctic Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah Graham; 刘晓

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Arctic tundra② would not appear a welcoming environment for life. But a paper published today in the journal Nature suggests that polar deserts may house photosynthetic③ organisms in a very unlikely place--under rocks. The discovery of the photosynthetic cyanobacteria④ could potentially double estimates of the carbon sequestration⑤ potential in these extreme environments.

  19. Insights on surface spalling of rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarokh, Ali; Kao, Chu-Shu; Fakhimi, Ali; Labuz, Joseph F.

    2016-07-01

    Surface spalling is a complex failure phenomenon that features crack propagation and detachment of thin pieces of rock near free surfaces, particularly in brittle rock around underground excavations when large in situ stresses are involved. A surface instability apparatus was used to study failure of rock close to a free surface, and damage evolution was monitored by digital image correlation (DIC). Lateral displacement at the free face was used as the feedback signal to control the post-peak response of the specimen. DIC was implemented in order to obtain the incremental displacement fields during the spalling process. Displacement fields were computed in the early stage of loading as well as close to the peak stress. Fracture from the spalling phenomenon was revealed by incremental lateral displacement contours. The axial and lateral displacements suggested that the displacement gradient was uniform in both directions at early loading stages and as the load increased, the free-face effect started to influence the displacements, especially the lateral displacement field. A numerical approach, based on the discrete element method, was developed and validated from element testing. Damage evolution and localization observed in numerical simulations were similar to those observed in experiments. By performing simulations in two- and three-dimensions, it was revealed that the intermediate principal stress and platen-rock interfaces have important effects on simulation of surface spalling.

  20. Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G. (ed.)

    1982-04-01

    The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

  1. Paleo, rock and environmental magnetism. Preface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böhnel, H. (ed.); Hounslow, M. (ed.); Morris, A. (ed.); Petrovský, Eduard (ed.)

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 29, 13/14 (2004), s. 849-849. ISSN 1474-7065 Grant ostatní: EU(XE) MAGPROX EVK2-CT-1999-00019; EU(XE) MAGNET Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : rock magnetism * paleomagnetism * environmental magnetism Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.577, year: 2004

  2. The riddles of rock and roll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.M. d' Anjou (Leo)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractRock and roll has often been equated with rebellion. The genre, though, is just a form of popular music and many of the important players in the game of promoting it were, like the saying goes, only in it for the money. As a rule, music like that will be supportive of the social order ra

  3. Diversity of cyanobacteria on rock surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hauer, Tomáš; Mühlsteinová, Radka; Bohunická, Markéta; Kaštovský, J.; Mareš, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2015), s. 759-779. ISSN 0960-3115 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-11912S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : cyanobacteria * diversity * rock surfaces Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.365, year: 2014

  4. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents progress made on a technique for 14C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions

  5. Investigation of sport rock climbers’ handgrip strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Gürer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate handgrip strengths of elite sportsmen who are involved in sport rock climbing. Study group was composed of 144 sportsmen from 22 countries who participated in Petzl Roc Trip sport rock climbing festival held in Turkey between 14 and 19 October 2014. Data were collected by using Takei Grip-D brand hand dynamometer. The data collected were analyzed and interpreted by statistical package programme (SPSS 16.0. Results show meaningful differences between sportsmen’s right handgrip strength and left handgrip strength. Sportsmen’s right handgrip strength was found to be higher. Results differed based on gender as well. Left and right handgrip strength of males was found to be higher to those of females. No significant relationships were detected based on nationality, age, history of climbing and period of experience in climbing. Relationships were observed between Turkish male and female climbers’ right and left handgrip strengths. As a result, it can be claimed that right hand is used more often in sport rock climbing compared to the left hand. It is also believed that fingers and technique are crucial in sport rock climbing. Practices to develop finger strength and techniques are suggested.

  6. Towards systematic revision of rock rats (Aethomys)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, Ondřej; Mazoch, V.; Patzenhauerová, Hana; Šumbera, R.; Bryja, Josef

    Paris : Université P. et M. Curie, 2011. s. 80 [European Congress of Mammalogy /7./. 19.07.2011-23.07.2011, Paris] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : rock rats * Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.alphavisa.com/ecm2011/pdf/ECM2011-Abstract_Book.pdf

  7. Fractures and Rock Mechanics, Phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havmøller, Ole; Krogsbøll, Anette

    1997-01-01

    The main objectives of the project are to combine geological description of fractures, chalk types and rock mechanical properties, and to investigate whether the chosen outcrops can be used as analogues to reservoir chalks. Five chalk types, representing two outcrop localities: Stevns and...

  8. Nonlinear Analysis of Cavities in Rock Salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, N. S.; Krenk, Steen

    1979-01-01

    The paper covers some material and computational aspects of the rock mechanics of leached cavities in salt. A material model is presented in which the instantaneous stiffness of the salt is obtained by interpolation between the unloaded state and a relevant failure state. The model enables...

  9. Rock `n' Roll Physics Sing-Along

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like to learn new favorites? Wish you had some snappy songs that teach physics? Just want to sing and laugh or listen and laugh? Join us for an evening of fun physics tunes set to familiar rock, blues, and swing tunes. Light refreshments will be served.

  10. Youth, Rock 'n' Roll, and Electronic Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Rock 'n' Roll as a form of electronic communication is central to youth culture. There are procedural rules similar to grammatical structures which allow meaningful interpretation of this musical experience. As new forms of communication appear both youth culture and the meaning of music are altered to encompass the changes. (VM)

  11. Measurement of Discontinuity Characteristics in Rock Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It ranges in the base rock discontinuity surface (insulation) until currently as one of the variation past record which is recorded in the objective base rock, specially in about these geometric school register distribution quality research depth it makes be from the enterprise which demands the underground water flow interpretation of epidemiology stability and adiabatic watch concept of the base rock and it is made to accomplish and it is come. Discontinuity surface us from geological features site records the thing so is not the simple task. Discontinuity surface first of all, with the directivity which it specifies spatial it has the size of grudge together, according to site circumstance the case where the full investigation is difficult is numerous. Also, discontinuity surface it is measured from site if data the index outcrop, discontinuity surface the tunnel wall panel or the drill nose Oh it intersects discontinuity surface as not passing these people it has optional directivity within space of the base rock an only thing in the part comes seeming it is. It joins in and interpretation process of data from the population of the data which is investigated with parameter by presenting a representative value in what kind of form about also the consideration is necessary

  12. Anthropometry of young competitive sport rock climbers

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, P.; Joubert, L; Lish, A; Van der Mast, J.; Wilkins, B.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Adult elite competitive rock climbers are small in stature with low body mass and very low body fat percentage. These characteristics have generated concern that young climbers may attempt body mass reduction to extreme levels with adverse consequences for health and performance. No published anthropometry data for young competitive climbers exist.

  13. A laboratory apparatus for forced-oscillation experiments on partially saturated rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musialak, Jana; Renner, Jörg; Steeb, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Seismic wave attenuation in partially saturated reservoir rocks is influenced by the physical properties of the porous rock and of the inherent pore fluids, including their local saturation state. Therefore, wave attenuation, when studied over a range of frequencies, can be useful to obtain valuable information on the morphology of partially saturated rocks. Quantitative estimates for pore-fluid content and saturation degree as well as fracture density are crucial for a substantial characterization of geothermal reservoirs and monitoring of processes in subsurface fluid-rock systems. Reservoir rocks, such as sandstones, can show heterogeneities of various sizes, starting from micro-cracks on the grain or micrometer scale to faults with several kilometers in length. Solid and fluid heterogeneities may lead to a patch-wise saturation state on the mesoscopic scale, i.e. the characteristic length scale of the patches is much larger than the dominant grain or pore size. The length scales of heterogeneities affect the characteristics of seismic attenuation. Studying this effect is important for the interpretation of seismic data, as obtained for geothermal reservoirs. Thus, we developed a new experimental setup to measure the effective hydro-mechanical properties of partially and fully saturated rock samples under realistic reservoir stress states in the seismic frequency range. This forced-oscillation apparatus is suitable for cylindrical rock samples with a diameter of 30 mm and a length of 75 mm. It is composed of a high-pressure triaxial cell which permits multistep in- and outflow of two different pore fluids under in situ pressure conditions, and a dynamic excitation device. This preloaded piezoelectric actuator with DMS-position sensor can generate a sinusoidal axial displacement that subjects the triaxially loaded sample to an additional harmonic stress with a frequency up to 1 kHz. The applied force is measured externally as well as inside the triaxial cell by a

  14. Definition and description of parameters for geologic, geophysical and rock mechanical mapping of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents how geologic parameters should be used in SKB rock mappings. Geologic parameters dominate, but some parameters can be seen as geophysical or mechanical. The report is structured in the main areas Rock type, Plastic structures and Brittle structures, according to the parameter grouping that specifies how the bedrock should be characterized at the SKB site investigations. Each parameter is presented in a common structure: Name in Swedish and English; Definition; Description; Determination; Classification; and Presentation form (in particular graphic)

  15. MicroRNA-146a suppresses ROCK1 allowing hyperphosphorylation of tau in Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Huang, Yue; Wang, Li-Ling; Zhang, Yong-Fang; Xu, Jing; Zhou, Yi; Lourenco, Guinevere F.; Zhang, Bei; Wang, Ying; Ren, Ru-Jing; Halliday, Glenda M.; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-146a is upregulated in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we show that the rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) is a target of microRNA-146a in neural cells. Knockdown of ROCK1 mimicked the effects of microRNA-146a overexpression and induced abnormal tau phosphorylation, which was associated with inhibition of phosphorylation of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). The ROCK1/PTEN pathway has been implicated in the neuronal hyperphosphorylation of tau that occurs in AD. To determine the function of ROCK1 in AD, brain tissue from 17 donors with low, intermediate or high probability of AD pathology were obtained and analyzed. Data showed that ROCK1 protein levels were reduced and ROCK1 colocalised with hyperphosphorylated tau in early neurofibrillary tangles. Intra-hippocampal delivery of a microRNA-146a specific inhibitor (antagomir) into 5xFAD mice showed enhanced hippocampal levels of ROCK1 protein and repressed tau hyperphosphorylation, partly restoring memory function in the 5xFAD mice. Our in vitro and in vivo results confirm that dysregulation of microRNA-146a biogenesis contributes to tau hyperphosphorylation and AD pathogenesis, and inhibition of this microRNA could be a viable novel in vivo therapy for AD. PMID:27221467

  16. Petrological modeling of basaltic rocks from Venus: a case for the presence of silicic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, J. G.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of highly evolved igneous rocks on Venus is debated. The formation of highland terranes and pancake domes are the two principle tectonic and volcanic features which argue in favor of the presence of silicic igneous rocks; however, the lack of water on Venus casts doubt on whether or not granites and rhyolites can form. Data returned to Earth from the Venera 13 and 14 landers show that the surface of Venus is comprised of basaltic rocks similar in composition to those found on Earth. Here is it shown that anhydrous and hydrous fractional crystallization modeling using the Venera 13 and 14 data as starting materials can produce compositions similar to terrestrial phonolites and rhyolites. It is suggested that at shallow crustal levels (i.e. ≤ 0.1 GPa) mafic magmas can differentiate into silicic magmas resembling phonolites or rhyolites which may or may not erupt. Furthermore, the hydrous equilibrium partial melting models can produce rocks similar to terrestrial andesites and rhyolites whereas anhydrous models suggest there may be a uniquely Venusian type of silicic rock. The silicic rocks, if present, could act as ';continental nucleation' sites and/or their presence may facilitate preferential sites of shearing and deformation of the Venusian crust.

  17. Rock Drilling Performance Evaluation by an Energy Dissipation Based Rock Brittleness Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, H.; Taheri, A.; Chanda, E. K.

    2016-08-01

    To reliably estimate drilling performance both tool-rock interaction laws along with a proper rock brittleness index are required to be implemented. In this study, the performance of a single polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutter cutting and different drilling methods including PDC rotary drilling, roller-cone rotary drilling and percussive drilling were investigated. To investigate drilling performance by rock strength properties, laboratory PDC cutting tests were performed on different rocks to obtain cutting parameters. In addition, results of laboratory and field drilling on different rocks found elsewhere in literature were used. Laboratory and field cutting and drilling test results were coupled with values of a new rock brittleness index proposed herein and developed based on energy dissipation withdrawn from the complete stress-strain curve in uniaxial compression. To quantify cutting and drilling performance, the intrinsic specific energy in rotary-cutting action, i.e. the energy consumed in pure cutting action, and drilling penetration rate values in percussive action were used. The results show that the new energy-based brittleness index successfully describes the performance of different cutting and drilling methods and therefore is relevant to assess drilling performance for engineering applications.

  18. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2009 is given below. Geoscience Geoscientific research is a basic activity at Aespoe HRL. The aim of the current studies is to develop geoscientific models of the Aespoe HRL and increase the understanding of the rock mass properties as well as knowledge of applicable methods of measurement. A main task within the geoscientific field is the development of the Aespoe Site Descriptive Model (SDM) integrating information from the different fields. The main activities in the geoscientific fields have been: (1) Geology evaluation of geological mapping techniques leading to the decision to develop a SKB mapping system and finalization of the mapping of rock surfaces in the new tunnel, (2) Hydrogeology monitoring and storage of data in the computerised Hydro Monitoring System, (3) Geochemistry sampling of groundwater in the yearly campaign and for specific experiments and (4) Rock Mechanics finalised the field tests on thermally-induced spalling in deposition holes and evaluated the effect of counterforce in the deposition holes. Natural barriers At Aespoe HRL, experiments are

  19. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory constitutes an important component of SKB's work to design, construct, and implement a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of selected repository sites. The retention effect of the rock has been studied by tracer tests in the Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE) and the TRUE Block Scale (TRUE BS). These tests are supplemented by the new Long Term Diffusion Experiment (LTDE). During year 2000 the field experiments of TRUE BS (50 m scale) were completed and preparations made for the LTDE (migration through a fracture wall and into the rock), including boring of approximately 10 m deep hole with 300 mm diameter. Laboratory investigations have difficulties in simulating natural conditions and need supplementary field studies to support validation exercises. A special borehole probe, CHEMLAB, has therefore been designed for different kinds of validation experiments where data can be obtained representative for the in-situ properties of groundwater at repository depth. During 2000 migration experiments were made with actinides (Am, Np and Pu) in CHEMLAB 2, the simplified supplement to CHEMLAB 1. Colloids of nuclides as well as of bentonite might affect the migration of released radionuclides and a separate project was planned during 2000 to assess the existence, stability and mobility of colloids. The development of numerical modelling tools continues with the general objective to improve the numerical models in terms of flow and transport and to update the site-scale and laboratory scale models for the Aespoe HRL. The Matrix Fluid Chemistry project aims at determining the origin and age of matrix fluids and the experiment has been designed to sample matrix fluids from predetermined, isolated borehole sections by specialised equipment. The Aespoe HRL also has the task to demonstrate and perform full scale tests of the function of different components of the

  20. Elu on Rock 'n' roll! / Mari Hiiemäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiiemäe, Mari

    2007-01-01

    Üritusesarjast "The 1st Tallinn Rocknroll Weekend Party" (korraldaja Eero Palusalu) Tallinnas Rock Cafés. Inglise rockansamblitest Matchbox ja Crazy Cavan & The Rhythm Rockers (kontsert 15. sept. Rock Cafés)

  1. ONKALO rock mechanics model (RMM) - Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moenkkoenen, H. [WSP Finland Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Paananen, M.; Laine, E. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-02-15

    The Rock Mechanics Model of the ONKALO rock volume is a description of the significant features and parameters related to rock mechanics. The main objective is to develop a tool to predict the rock properties, quality and hence the potential for stress failure which can then be used for continuing design of the ONKALO and the repository. This is the second implementation of the Rock Mechanics Model and it includes sub-models of the intact rock strength, in situ stress, thermal properties, rock mass quality and properties of the brittle deformation zones. Because of the varying quantities of available data for the different parameters, the types of presentations also vary: some data sets can be presented in the style of a 3D block model but, in other cases, a single distribution represents the whole rock volume hosting the ONKALO. (orig.)

  2. Microstructural insight into the nonlinear swelling of argillaceous rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, L. L.; Bornert, Michel; Yang, D S; HERIPRE, E; CHANCHOLE, S; HALPHEN, B.; Pouya, Ahmad; Caldemaison, D

    2015-01-01

    Argillaceous rocks are chosen as possible host rocks for underground radioactive nuclear waste disposal. These rocks exhibit complex coupled thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical behavior, the description of which would strongly benefit from an improved experimental insight on micro-scale. In this work we present some recent observations of the evolution of these rocks upon swelling on the scale of their composite microstructure, essentially made of a clay matrix with embedded grains of calcite and q...

  3. Effect Of Drilling Fluids Contaminations On Saudi Reservoir Rock Wettability

    OpenAIRE

    El Sayed, Abdel Alim H.; Al-Awad, Mosaed N. J.; Al-Sadiqqi, M. A.; Al-Blehed, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Wettability is a key parameter that affects the petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks. Mud nitrate during drilling pay zone causes a significant change in rock wettability that will affect the oil production and enhanced oil recovery. This change depends on the mud filtrate and the oil rock systems studied. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of water base mud, oil base mud, and Partially Hydroxide Polyacrylamide (PHPA) mud filtrate on the reservoir rocks wettabi...

  4. GRAPHITIZATION OF METASEDIMENTARY ROCKS IN THE WESTERN KONYA

    OpenAIRE

    Hüseyin KURT; Yaşar EREN

    2000-01-01

    The Paleozoic-Mesozoic metasedimentary rocks in the study area are metacarbonate, metachert, metapelite, metasandstone and metaconglomerate. Graphite layers are 1cm to 2m thick, extend laterally for tens of meters and are intercalated with metasedimentary rocks. Generally, the graphite is black in color, with a well developed cleavage which is concordant with the cleavage of the host rocks. In addition, the crystal and flake graphites formed in metasedimentary rocks are mostly aligned paralle...

  5. Rock mass classification and tunnel support design in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wangh, SJ; Lee, CF; Kwong, AKL

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the two recently established rock mass classification systems in China, namely the Basic Quality (BQ) and Host Rock Rating (HRR) systems. The establishment of the BQ and HRR rock mass classification systems in China is based on huge amount of experiences gathered in the design stages and later verified in the construction of rock tunnels and underground structures in China. The BQ system was originally used for classification ...

  6. Latest progress of soft rock mechanics and engineering in China

    OpenAIRE

    Manchao He

    2014-01-01

    The progress of soft rock mechanics and associated technology in China is basically accompanied by the development of mining engineering and the increasing disasters of large rock deformation during construction of underground engineering. In this regard, Chinese scholars proposed various concepts and classification methods for soft rocks in terms of engineering practices. The large deformation mechanism of engineering soft rocks is to be understood through numerous experiments; and thus a co...

  7. Image Segmentation for rock fractures based on ARMA model

    OpenAIRE

    P. Seetal,; N.Natarajan

    2010-01-01

    Rock fracture mapping is very important in many applications related to rock mechanics. The toughest task is the extraction of the fractures from the images of the rocks. Time series model has been used in this paper for segmentation of fractures from the rock images. The model is compared with orthodox edge detection algorithms. A first order autoregressive image model has been implemented. The model has been applied for both rough as well as smooth fractures. The model was observed to perfo...

  8. Influence Mechanism of Grouting on Mechanical Characteristics of Rock Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Jixun; Shu Jiaqing; Ren Xuhua; Ren Hongyun

    2013-01-01

    Grouting technology has been widely used in all fields of geotechnical and civil engineering. Prospective engineering objectives including reinforcement of rock mass and groundwater leakage treatment can be achieved by grouting which will change the mechanical parameters of rock mass such as strength, elastic modulus, and coefficient of permeability. In this paper, rock mass is assumed as a composite material consisting of rock particles and random microcracks initially. Since part or all of ...

  9. Stress analysis of single joint rock mass under triaxial compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin-rong(刘新荣); JIANG Shu-ping(蒋树屏); LI Xiao-hong(李晓红); BAO Tai(包太)

    2004-01-01

    Based on the fundamental principle of rock mechanics, the stresses of single joint rock mass under three-dimensional compression were analyzed. The effect of the intermediate principle stress on the strength of single joint rock mass were discussed in particular. It is found that the strength of single joint rock are affected by the intermediate principal stress, which may be the main factor in some conditions.

  10. Rock and Mineral Bingo: Applying and Assessing Student Rock and Mineral Knowledge and Identification Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    A rock and mineral "Bingo" that is based on knowledge and identification skills (not luck) was developed to help teachers and introductory as well as more advanced-level students develop and improve rock and mineral identification skills. The game was initially designed to use a rock and mineral kit provided to all students in Lab Classes, but could be adapted for any suite of samples. The rock and mineral kits include 13 mineral samples (olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, biotite, muscovite, potassium feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, galena, gypsum, hematite, pyrite, calcite), 7 igneous rock samples (rhyolite, granite, andesite, diorite, basalt, gabbro, peridotite), 3 sedimentary rock samples (sandstone, shale, limestone), and 5 metamorphic rock samples (slate, mica schist, gneiss, marble, quartzite). The kit also includes a small magnifying glass, a streak plate and a tempered steel nail. The Bingo cards are composed of 9 squares ("questions") each. A total of 8 groups of questions have been developed to encompass introductory through more advanced levels. The question sets developed so far are: (a) General distinction between rocks and minerals; (b) Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks; (c) Mineral luster; (d) Mineral fracture and cleavage; (e) Mineral crystal form; (f) Mineral chemistry; (g) General mineralogy; (h) Geologic Context. Each square on the card is numbered (1-9). The same card is used for each group of questions. The questions are written on a separate set of small question cards that are color-coded (according to question set) and numbered. These cards are pulled out of the `bag' by the caller, and a copy of the question is posted for all to see. The players need to choose the sample from their collection that best fits the question or description given by the caller. The questions are set up so that some samples fit more than one answer, which requires the students to review their choices. The first person or group to win presents their board and

  11. Study on interactions of radionuclides with minerals and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide migration through natural granite fractures under in situ geochemical conditions and diffusion of radionuclides into rock matrix were studied. Assumptions used in analysis of radionuclide migration through fractured rocks surrounding a geologic disposal of radioactive wastes were examined. Thermodynamic data of radionuclides were obtained and compiled in a database, which provide scientific basis for understanding interactions of radionuclides with minerals and rocks. (author)

  12. Dredging Processes I: The Cutting of Sand, Clay & Rock - Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    This book gives an overview of cutting theories. It starts with a generic model, which is valid for all types of soil (sand, clay and rock) after which the specifics of dry sand, water saturated sand, clay, rock and hyperbaric rock are covered. For each soil type small blade angles and large blade a

  13. Destress rock blasting as a rockburst control technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koníček, Petr; Konečný, Petr; Ptáček, Jiří

    London : CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group, Balkema, 2011 - (Qian, Q.; Zhou, Y.), s. 1-6 ISBN 978-0-415-80444-8. [International Congress on Rock Mechanics/12./. Beijing (CN), 18.10.2011-21.10.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : underground coal mining * rock burst * destress rock blasting Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining

  14. Study on mechanical parameters of fractured rock masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The equivalent strength parameters of fractured rock masses are prerequisite for stability analysis of geotechnical engineering projects constructed in fractured rock masses which are encountered frequently in western china.Based on generated mesh of fractured rock masses,combined with statistic damage constitutive model of intact rock and damage model of structural plane,progressive failure of fractured rock masses is studied using finite element method(FEM) .Furthermore,Scale effect and anisotropy of compressive strength of fractured rock masses are studied.Study results show that the strength decreases and tend towards stability rapidly from intact rock to fractured rock masses,and the anisotropy of strength of fractured rock masses is not significant.At last,based on numerical simulation conducted on 10 m scale rock masses under different confining pressures,the equivalent strength parameters of fractured rock masses are gained and the results are compared with Hoek-Brown criteria.The method developed is helpful for determination of strength parameters of fractured rock masses.

  15. Introduction to the Apollo collections. Part 1: Lunar igneous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgee, P. E.; Warner, J. L.; Simonds, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    The basic petrographic, chemical, and age data is presented for a representative suite of igneous rocks gathered during the six Apollo missions. Tables are given for 69 samples: 32 igneous rocks and 37 impactites (breccias). A description is given of 26 basalts, four plutonic rocks, and two pyroclastic samples. The textural-mineralogic name assigned each sample is included.

  16. Rock mechanics activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of rock mechanics at nuclear waste repositories is a true multidisciplinary effort. A description and historical summary of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is presented. Rock mechanics programs at the WIPP are outlined, and the current rock mechanics modeling philosophy of the Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division is discussed

  17. Upscaling of permeability field of fractured rock system: Numerical examples

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, K.

    2012-01-01

    When the permeability field of a given porous medium domain is heterogeneous by the existence of randomly distributed fractures such that numerical investigation becomes cumbersome, another level of upscaling may be required. That is such complex permeability field could be relaxed (i.e., smoothed) by constructing an effective permeability field. The effective permeability field is an approximation to the real permeability field that preserves certain quantities and provides an overall acceptable description of the flow field. In this work, the effective permeability for a fractured rock system is obtained for different coarsening scenarios starting from very coarse mesh all the way towards the fine mesh simulation. In all these scenarios, the effective permeability as well as the pressure at each cell is obtained. The total flux at the exit boundary is calculated in all these cases, and very good agreement is obtained.

  18. Retraction statement: 'Formin-like2 regulates Rho/ROCK pathway to promote actin assembly and cell invasion of colorectal cancer' by Yuanfeng Zeng, Huijun Xie, Yudan Qiao, Jianmei Wang, Xiling Zhu, Guoyang He, Yuling Li, Xiaoli Ren, Feifei Wang, Li Liang and Yanqing Ding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The above article in Cancer Science (doi: 10.1111/cas.12768), published online on 26 October 2015 in Wiley Online Library (http://wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Yusuke Nakamura, and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. The retraction has been agreed as Panels +C3 and +Y27632 of SW480 Mock shown in Figure 2a appear to have been taken from the same image, Panels + C3 and +Y27632 of HT29 FMNL2 shown in Figure 2a appear to have been taken from the same image, Panels shFMNL2-1 and shmDial1-1 in Figure 3a appear to have been taken from the same image, shFMNL2-2 and shmDial1-2 in Figure 3a appear to have been taken from the same image, Panels of shFMNL2-1 + shmDial1-1 and shFMNL2-1 + shmDial1-2 of +LPA appear to have been taken from the same image, gel bands of FLAG in Figure 4e appear to have been have been manipulated by erasing gel bands. Reference Zeng Y, Xie H, Qiao Y, Wang J, Zhu X, He G, Li Y, Ren X, Wang F, Liang L, Ding Y. Formin-like2 regulates Rho/ROCK pathway to promote actin assembly and cell invasion of colorectal cancer. Cancer Sci 2015; 106: 1385-93. doi: 10.1111/cas.12768. PMID:27420476

  19. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2010 is given below

  20. Calculation of gas migration in fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations are presented for rock properties characteristic to the Forsmark area. The rock permeability was determined by flow tests in vertical boreholes. It is assumed that the permeability distribution obtained from these boreholes is representative also for the permeability distribution along the repository cavern. Calculations were worked out for two different types of boundary conditions, one in which a constant gas flow rate equivalent to a gas production of 33000 kg/year was assumed and the other in which a constant gas cushion of 0.5 metres was assumed. For the permeability distribution considered, the breakthrough at the sea bottom occurred within one hour. The gaswater displacement took place mainly through the fractures of high permeability and practically no flow took place in the fractures of low permeability. (orig./DG)

  1. A Phased Array Approach to Rock Blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Gertsch; Jason Baird

    2006-07-01

    A series of laboratory-scale simultaneous two-hole shots was performed in a rock simulant (mortar) to record the shock wave interference patterns produced in the material. The purpose of the project as a whole was to evaluate the usefulness of phased array techniques of blast design, using new high-precision delay technology. Despite high-speed photography, however, we were unable to detect the passage of the shock waves through the samples to determine how well they matched the expected interaction geometry. The follow-up mine-scale tests were therefore not conducted. Nevertheless, pattern analysis of the vectors that would be formed by positive interference of the shockwaves from multiple charges in an ideal continuous, homogeneous, isotropic medium indicate the potential for powerful control of blast design, given precise characterization of the target rock mass.

  2. Look! It's Rock'n'roll!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelof, Anja

    2007-01-01

    third, the musicianship. I argue that television helped shape a heightened awareness of genre distinction within the field of popular music by emphasizing differences in visual impressions and performance attitudes, even before an awareness of genre became manifest stylistically in the music itself....... Project MUSE® - View CitationMLAAPAChicagoEndnote -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Anja Mølle Lindelof. "Look! It's Rock'n'roll! How television participated in shaping the visual genre conventions of popular music." Music, Sound, and the Moving Image 1......, and dates. Consult your library or click here for more information on citing sources. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Anja Mølle Lindelof. (2007). Look! it's rock'n'roll! how television participated in shaping the visual genre conventions of popular...

  3. The physics of rock failure and earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Ohnaka, Mitiyasu

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant advances in the understanding of earthquake generation processes and derivation of underlying physical laws, controversy remains regarding the constitutive law for earthquake ruptures and how it should be formulated. Laboratory experiments are necessary to obtain high-resolution measurements that allow the physical nature of shear rupture processes to be deduced, and to resolve the controversy. This important book provides a deeper understanding of earthquake processes from nucleation to their dynamic propagation. Its key focus is a deductive approach based on laboratory-derived physical laws and formulae, such as a unifying constitutive law, a constitutive scaling law, and a physical model of shear rupture nucleation. Topics covered include: the fundamentals of rock failure physics, earthquake generation processes, physical scale dependence, and large-earthquake generation cycles. Designed for researchers and professionals in earthquake seismology, rock failure physics, geology and earthq...

  4. Organic Petrological Studies on Immature Source Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贤庆; 熊波; 钟宁宁; 马安来; 王铁冠; 张爱云

    2004-01-01

    Organic petrology is a marginal science that is quite practicable. At present, it has developed into a routine research tool that is widely applied in petroleum exploration and assessment. Based on several years' research of the authors, this paper presents the advances in organic petrological studies on immature source rocks, including the classification and characteristics of macerals, the composition of macerals and types of organic matter, the abundance and evolution of organic matter, oil-prone macerals, hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. All these results show that organic petrology is of considerable value pertaining to its application in the assessment of immature oil and gas. The immature source rocks consist of various macerals with obvious heterogeneity, contain different hydrocarbon-generating macerals with different oil thresholds and oil peaks, and show a two-staged evolutionary pattern of organic matter.

  5. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2010 is given below

  6. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2011 is given below.

  7. Rupture by Damage Accumulation in Rocks

    CERN Document Server

    Amitrano, David

    2006-01-01

    The deformation of rocks is associated with microcracks nucleation and propagation, i.e. damage. The accumulation of damage and its spatial localization lead to the creation of a macroscale discontinuity, so-called "fault" in geological terms, and to the failure of the material, i.e. a dramatic decrease of the mechanical properties as strength and modulus. The damage process can be studied both statically by direct observation of thin sections and dynamically by recording acoustic waves emitted by crack propagation (acoustic emission). Here we first review such observations concerning geological objects over scales ranging from the laboratory sample scale (dm) to seismically active faults (km), including cliffs and rock masses (Dm, hm). These observations reveal complex patterns in both space (fractal properties of damage structures as roughness and gouge), time (clustering, particular trends when the failure approaches) and energy domains (power-law distributions of energy release bursts). We use a numerical...

  8. Radionuclide retardation in crystalline rock fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelttae, P.; Hakanen, M.; Siitari-Kauppi, M. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Radiochemistry; Hautojaervi, A.

    1995-12-31

    Transport and retardation of slightly sorbing sodium was studied in Syyry area SY-KR7 mica gneiss and in altered porous tonalite. Experiments were performed using dynamic fracture and crushed rock column methods and the static batch method. Flow conditions in the column were determined using tritiated water and chloride as non-sorbing tracers. {sup 14}C-PMMA method was used to study the pore structure of matrices and the surface areas were determined by B.E.T. method. Sodium was retarded strongly in altered tonalite owing to homogeneous porous matrix structure and the composition of alteration minerals. An agreement between retardation values in batch and crushed rock column experiments as well as in fracture column experiments was good.

  9. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aespoe hard rock laboratory is being constructed in preparation for the deep geological repository of spent fuel in Sweden. This Annual report 1992 for the Aespoe hard rock laboratory contains an overview of the work conducted. Present work is focused on verification of pre-investigation methods and development of the detailed investigation methodology. Construction of the facility and investigation of the bedrock are being carried out in parallel. December 1992 1925 m of the tunnel has been excavated to a depth of 255 m below surface. An important and integrated part of the work is further refinement of conceptual and numerical models for groundwater flow and radionuclide migration. This work is carried out in cooperation with seven organizations from six countries that participate in the project. (25 refs.)

  10. Relationship between carbonaceous rocks and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between carboniferous materials in the rocks and the formation of hydrothermal uranium mineralization has been discussed with the example of super-large hydrothermal uranium deposits (such as Canada's Athabasca, Australia's East Alligator River, Germany's Schlema-Alberoda and Roenneberg, Gabon's Franceville). According to the thermodynamic data, it has been emphasized that the interaction between carbon and water causes the formation of gaseous reductants (such as CO2, CO, H2 and CH4) under the condition of higher temperature and lower pressure. It has been indicated that CH4 should be the main gaseous reductants under the temperature (150-200 degree C) and pressure (50-100 MPa) which are suitable to the uranium metallogenesis. This conclusion accords with the practical situation observed in the deposits mentioned above, at the same time disaffirms the traditional points of view that the carbonaceous rocks can be the uranium sources during the formation of hydrothermal uranium deposits. (authors)

  11. MODELING UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE VULNERABILITY IN JOINTED ROCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. SWIFT; D. STEEDMAN

    2001-02-01

    The vulnerability of underground structures and openings in deep jointed rock to ground shock attack is of chief concern to military planning and security. Damage and/or loss of stability to a structure in jointed rock, often manifested as brittle failure and accompanied with block movement, can depend significantly on jointed properties, such as spacing, orientation, strength, and block character. We apply a hybrid Discrete Element Method combined with the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics approach to simulate the MIGHTY NORTH event, a definitive high-explosive test performed on an aluminum lined cylindrical opening in jointed Salem limestone. Representing limestone with discrete elements having elastic-equivalence and explicit brittle tensile behavior and the liner as an elastic-plastic continuum provides good agreement with the experiment and damage obtained with finite-element simulations. Extending the approach to parameter variations shows damage is substantially altered by differences in joint geometry and liner properties.

  12. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2011 is given below

  13. Retention processes in clay-rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Tournassat, Christophe; Grangeon, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    International audience Within the context of the clay barrier concept for underground nuclear waste storage, montmorillonite and bentonite have been widely used as reference materials for radionuclides (RN) retention studies. Associated modeling work aims at understanding and predicting the retention of RN in clay-rocks where clay minerals are assumed to be representative of the most reactive phases. This " bottom-up " approach relies on a good confidence in the mechanistic understanding o...

  14. Mining technology development for hard rock excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research facility has been established in the granitic gneiss of the CSM Experimental Mine at Idaho Springs, Colorado, for the purpose of evaluating/developing mining, geologic and geotechnical procedures appropriate for use in establishing nuclear waste repositories in hard rock. An experimental room has been excavated using careful blasting procedures. The extent and magnitude of blast damage is being evaluated. Structural geology is being mapped to assess continuity

  15. Rock Slopes from Mechanics to Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Einstein, H.H.; Sousa, R.L.; Karam, K.; Manzella, Irène; Kveldsvik, V.

    2010-01-01

    Rock slope instabilities are discussed in the context of decision making for risk assessment and management. Hence, the state of the slope and possible failure mechanism need to be defined first. This is done with geometrical and mechanical models for which recent developments are presented. This leads with appropriate consideration of uncertainties to risk determination and to the description of tools for risk management through active and passive countermeasures, including warning systems. ...

  16. Fractures and Rock Mechanics, Phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette; Jakobsen, Finn; Madsen, Lena

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to combine geological descriptions of fractures, chalk types and rock mechanical properties in order to investigate whether the chosen outcrops can be used as analogues to reservoir chalks. This report deals with 1) geological descriptions of outcrop locality ...... Hillerslev quarry, 2) Classification and description of all samples (normal and large scale) and 3) Evaluation of stress- and deformation history....

  17. Islands and Islandness in Rock Music Lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mezzana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a first exploration, qualitative in character, based on a review of 412 songs produced in the period 1960-2009, about islands in rock music as both social products and social tools potentially contributing to shaping ideas, emotions, will, and desires. An initial taxonomy of 24 themes clustered under five meta-themes of space, lifestyle, emotions, symbolism, and social-political relations is provided, together with some proposals for further research.

  18. El rock como conformador de identidades juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián de Garay

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available El autor analiza la relación entre el rock y las identidades juveniles, a partir del abordaje de cinco “estilos” que se pueden identificar como constitutivos de éstas identidades. Ellos son: la jerga, la estética, las producciones culturales, los no-lugares y el territorio. Finaliza el artículo señalando algunos hitos importantes de la culturarockera en la ciudad de México.

  19. Stoke's efficiency of temporally rocked ratchets

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Raishma; Chacko, Jim; Sahoo, Mamata; Jayannavar, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    We study the generalized efficiency of an adiabatically rocked ratchet with both spatial and temporal asymmetry. We obtain an analytical expression for the generalized efficiency in the deterministic case. Generalized efficiency of the order of 50% is obtained by fine tuning of the parameter range. This is unlike the case of thermodynamic efficiency where we could readily get an enhanced efficiency of upto 90%. The observed higher values of generalized efficiency is attributed to be due to th...

  20. Low Pore Connectivity in Natural Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.; Dultz, Stefan

    2012-05-15

    As repositories for CO₂ and radioactive waste, as oil and gas reservoirs, and as contaminated sites needing remediation, rock formations play a central role in energy and environmental management. The connectivity of the rock's porespace strongly affects fluid flow and solute transport. This work examines pore connectivity and its implications for fluid flow and chemical transport. Three experimental approaches (imbibition, tracer concentration profiles, and imaging) were used in combination with network modeling. In the imbibition results, three types of imbibition slope [log (cumulative imbibition) vs. log (imbibition time)] were found: the classical 0.5, plus 0.26, and 0.26 transitioning to 0.5. The imbibition slope of 0.26 seen in Indiana sandstone, metagraywacke, and Barnett shale indicates low pore connectivity, in contrast to the slope of 0.5 seen in the well-connected Berea sandstone. In the tracer profile work, rocks exhibited different distances to the plateau porosity, consistent with the pore connectivity from the imbibition tests. Injection of a molten metal into connected pore spaces, followed by 2-D imaging of the solidified alloy in polished thin sections, allowed direct assessment of pore structure and lateral connection in the rock samples. Pore-scale network modeling gave results consistent with measurements, confirming pore connectivity as the underlying cause of both anomalous behaviors: imbibition slope not having the classical value of 0.5, and accessible porosity being a function of distance from the edge. A poorly connected porespace will exhibit anomalous behavior in fluid flow and chemical transport, such as a lower imbibition slope (in air–water system) and diffusion rate than expected from classical behavior.

  1. Low pore connectivity in natural rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P; Dultz, Stefan

    2012-05-15

    As repositories for CO(2) and radioactive waste, as oil and gas reservoirs, and as contaminated sites needing remediation, rock formations play a central role in energy and environmental management. The connectivity of the rock's porespace strongly affects fluid flow and solute transport. This work examines pore connectivity and its implications for fluid flow and chemical transport. Three experimental approaches (imbibition, tracer concentration profiles, and imaging) were used in combination with network modeling. In the imbibition results, three types of imbibition slope [log (cumulative imbibition) vs. log (imbibition time)] were found: the classical 0.5, plus 0.26, and 0.26 transitioning to 0.5. The imbibition slope of 0.26 seen in Indiana sandstone, metagraywacke, and Barnett shale indicates low pore connectivity, in contrast to the slope of 0.5 seen in the well-connected Berea sandstone. In the tracer profile work, rocks exhibited different distances to the plateau porosity, consistent with the pore connectivity from the imbibition tests. Injection of a molten metal into connected pore spaces, followed by 2-D imaging of the solidified alloy in polished thin sections, allowed direct assessment of pore structure and lateral connection in the rock samples. Pore-scale network modeling gave results consistent with measurements, confirming pore connectivity as the underlying cause of both anomalous behaviors: imbibition slope not having the classical value of 0.5, and accessible porosity being a function of distance from the edge. A poorly connected porespace will exhibit anomalous behavior in fluid flow and chemical transport, such as a lower imbibition slope (in air-water system) and diffusion rate than expected from classical behavior. PMID:22507286

  2. Low pore connectivity in natural rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.; Dultz, Stefan

    2012-05-01

    As repositories for CO2 and radioactive waste, as oil and gas reservoirs, and as contaminated sites needing remediation, rock formations play a central role in energy and environmental management. The connectivity of the rock's porespace strongly affects fluid flow and solute transport. This work examines pore connectivity and its implications for fluid flow and chemical transport. Three experimental approaches (imbibition, tracer concentration profiles, and imaging) were used in combination with network modeling. In the imbibition results, three types of imbibition slope [log (cumulative imbibition) vs. log (imbibition time)] were found: the classical 0.5, plus 0.26, and 0.26 transitioning to 0.5. The imbibition slope of 0.26 seen in Indiana sandstone, metagraywacke, and Barnett shale indicates low pore connectivity, in contrast to the slope of 0.5 seen in the well-connected Berea sandstone. In the tracer profile work, rocks exhibited different distances to the plateau porosity, consistent with the pore connectivity from the imbibition tests. Injection of a molten metal into connected pore spaces, followed by 2-D imaging of the solidified alloy in polished thin sections, allowed direct assessment of pore structure and lateral connection in the rock samples. Pore-scale network modeling gave results consistent with measurements, confirming pore connectivity as the underlying cause of both anomalous behaviors: imbibition slope not having the classical value of 0.5, and accessible porosity being a function of distance from the edge. A poorly connected porespace will exhibit anomalous behavior in fluid flow and chemical transport, such as a lower imbibition slope (in air-water system) and diffusion rate than expected from classical behavior.

  3. Radionuclide sorption on generic rock types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out of the sorption of the elements chlorine, nickel, selenium, iodine, lead, uranium and neptunium onto generic rock types. These elements all have isotopes that might be of radiological significance in the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes. The investigation has included preliminary work on the effects on sorption of near-field derived materials such as organic degradation products and high calcium and hydroxyl ion concentrations. (author)

  4. Sondierbohrung Boettstein: Hydrogeological testing of crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to comprehensive studies in geology, geophysics, hydrochemistry and rock mechanics, a three-phased program for (1) drilling (2) testing and (3) monitoring of the twelve boreholes was proposed. The Boettstein borehole is located in the central part of the target areas. It was the first borehole to be drilled. Drilling in the crystalline granitic basement rocks started at a depth of 315 m below ground surface in November 1982 and was completed in December 1983. The monitoring phase is on-going at this time. The study reported herein describes the hydrogeologic testing of the crystalline rocks and results of the work done by Gartner Lee AG (GLAG) in the Boettstein borehole on behalf of Nationale Genossenschaft Fuer Die Lagerung Radioaktiver Abfaelle (NAGRA). This report describes testing equipment and performance. Also included are sections on the testing and analysis methods that were used to determine the hydrogeologic results. Testing was conducted using single and double packer tools with associated down hole and surface electronic equipment. Down hole information from pressure transducers and thermistors were converted from frequency signals to pressure and temperature readings that were printed, plotted and stored on magnetic tape at the surface facility. All the testing equipment worked well. In summary, the hydrogeologic testing activities at the Boettstein borehole were successful in providing information for NAGRA's regional assessment of the crystalline basement rocks. In addition, water samples could be obtained from discrete intervals for geochemical characterization. Continuing ground water monitoring activities at this borehole will add to the data base provided by this report. (author)

  5. Rocks From Space: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald K.

    2013-10-01

    The notion that rocks could fall to Earth from space was not seriously considered until the early nineteenth century. The impact origin of the lunar craters reached a scientific consensus only in the mid twentieth century and a wide understanding that the Earth’s neighborhood is crowded with millions of near-Earth asteroids that could cause impact damage to Earth is less than a few decades old. In the late seventeenth century, even such notable scientists as Robert Hooke and Isaac Newton ruled out the existence of small bodies in space. In 1794, the German physicist and father of acoustics Ernst F.F. Chladni published a short list of fireball events and effectively argued that these events and the meteorites they dropped could not have been atmospheric and were likely due to cosmic rocks entering the Earth’s atmosphere. In 1802 the British chemist Edward Charles Howard showed that several meteoritic stones had similar chemical compositions and that nickel, which is seldom present in terrestrial rocks except in trace amounts, was common to all of them. These two pivotal works, along with a number of early nineteenth century falls, slowly strengthened the notion that fireball events and the stones they dropped were of celestial, rather than atmospheric, origin. Even so, it was well into the mid twentieth century before Meteor Crater in particular and the obvious lunar craters in general were widely considered as impact phenomena rather than being due to volcanic eruptions or steam generated explosions. It seems that despite Mother Nature’s best attempts to point out the importance of impact events in the solar system and the existence of a vast population of near-Earth asteroids, much of the scientific community reached these viewpoints rather late. Likely reasons for this slow acceptance of rocks from space will be discussed.

  6. Rock cutting by pulsing water jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foldyna, Josef; Sitek, Libor; Martinec, Petr; Ščučka, Jiří; Jekl, Pavel; Mlynarczuk, M.

    Leiden : A.A.Balkema Publishers, 2005 - (Konečný, P.), s. 129-134 ISBN 04-1538-042-1. [Eurock 2005. Impact of Human Activity on the Geological Environment. Brno (CZ), 18.05.2005-20.05.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/03/0183 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : rock cutting * pulsing water jet Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  7. Influence of heating to rock samples fracturing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudajev, Vladimír; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Vasin, R.N.; Nikitin, A. N.

    Prague : Institute of Geology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i, 2011 - (Rudajev, V.; Živor, R.). s. 23-23 ISBN 978-80-87443-04-0. [Polish-Czech-Slovak Symposium on Mining and Environmental Geophysics /33./. 19.09.2011-22.09.2011, Staré Splavy] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : acoustic emission * ultrasonic wave velocity * rock heating Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  8. Epigenetic repression of ribosomal RNA transcription by ROCK-dependent aberrant cytoskeletal organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tse-Hsiang; Kuo, Yuan-Yeh; Lee, Hsiao-Hui; Kuo, Jean-Cheng; Ou, Meng-Hsin; Chang, Zee-Fen

    2016-01-01

    It is known that ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis is regulated by cellular energy and proliferation status. In this study, we investigated rRNA gene transcription in response to cytoskeletal stress. Our data revealed that the cell shape constrained by isotropic but not elongated micropatterns in HeLa cells led to a significant reduction in rRNA transcription dependent on ROCK. Expression of a dominant-active form of ROCK also repressed rRNA transcription. Isotropic constraint and ROCK over-activation led to different types of aberrant F-actin organization, but their suppression effects on rRNA transcription were similarly reversed by inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) or overexpression of a dominant negative form of Nesprin, which shields the signal transmitted from actin filament to the nuclear interior. We further showed that the binding of HDAC1 to the active fraction of rDNA genes is increased by ROCK over-activation, thus reducing H3K9/14 acetylation and suppressing transcription. Our results demonstrate an epigenetic control of active rDNA genes that represses rRNA transcription in response to the cytoskeletal stress. PMID:27350000

  9. Argillaceous rock as host rock for final storage of radioactive waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology (BMWi), the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Raw Materials (BGR) in a study described argillaceous rock formations as potential host rock for repositories in some areas of Germany, and evaluated them. The study was based on available and usable data derived from maps, archives, and approx. 25,000 drillings. No additional field tests or laboratory examinations were conducted. The study was published in April 2007 under the title of 'Untersuchung und Bewertung von Tongesteinsformationen' (www.bgr.bund.de). The exclusion criteria and minimum requirements recommended by the Working Group on Repository Sites (AkEnd) in 2002 served as a basis for defining the subareas eligible for further study. In addition, internationally acknowledged selection criteria as well as weighting criteria to be taken into account especially under German conditions were applied. The result of the study is not a representation of repository sites. However, the investigations show that argillaceous rock meeting host rock requirements occurs in the Lower Cretacious as well as in rock formations of the Lower and Middle Jurassic of Northern Germany. In Southern Germany, rock of the Middle Jurassic was found to be worthy of examination. The clay formations of the Tertiary are not considered in the study because of their relatively adverse mechanical properties in Germany. The areas highlighted are situated mainly in Lower Saxony, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saxony-Anhalt, Baden-Wuerttemberg and, to a lesser extent, also im Bavaria, Brandenburg, and North Rhine-Westphalia. Other regional restrictions are mentioned in the study. Any further assessment of the argillaceous rock in the study would require an extensive program of investigations with a view to selecting sites for the final storage of high-level radioactive waste. (orig.)

  10. Thermal conductivity of the rocks in the Bureau of Mines Standard Rock Suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal conductivities of eight rocks from the Bureau of Mines Standard Rock Suite were measured in air over the temperature range 373 to 5330K (100 to 2600C). The thermal conductivities of these rocks were measured to furnish standards for future comparisons with host rock from prospective nuclear waste repository sites. The thermal conductivity at a given temperature decreased by as much as 9% after a specimen had been heated to the maximum temperature (5330K), but additional heating cycles had no further effect. This decrease was smallest in the igneous rocks and largest in the sedimentary types. Variations due to orientation were within the precision of measurements (+- 5%). In most cases the thermal conductivities were linear with the reciprocal of the temperature and were within 14% of published data obtained by other methods. Measurements were made by a cut-bar comparison method in which the sample was sandwiched between two reference or metering bars made of Pyroceram 9606 glass-ceramic. The apparatus consisted of a Dynatech Model TCFCM-N20 comparative thermal conductivity analyzer controlled by a Hewlett Packard Model 3052A data acquisition system. A program was written to increment and cycle the temperature in steps between predetermined initial and maximum values. At each step the thermal conductivity was measured after steady-state conditions were established. The rocks furnished by the Bureau of Mines were quarried in large and fairly homogeneous lots for use by researchers at various laboratories. To investigate any anisotropy, cores were taken from each rock cube perpendicular to each of the cube faces. Samples 2 in. in diameter and approx. 0.75 in. thick were prepared from the cores and were dried in a vacuum oven for at least one month prior to taking measurements

  11. Modulation of statin-activated shedding of Alzheimer APP ectodomain by ROCK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Pedrini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statins are widely used cholesterol-lowering drugs that act by inhibiting HMGCoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. Recent evidence suggests that statin use may be associated with a decreased risk for Alzheimer disease, although the mechanisms underlying this apparent risk reduction are poorly understood. One popular hypothesis for statin action is related to the drugs' ability to activate alpha-secretase-type shedding of the alpha-secretase-cleaved soluble Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein ectodomain (sAPP(alpha. Statins also inhibit the isoprenoid pathway, thereby modulating the activities of the Rho family of small GTPases-Rho A, B, and C-as well as the activities of Rac and cdc42. Rho proteins, in turn, exert many of their effects via Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCKs. Several cell-surface molecules are substrates for activated alpha-secretase-type ectodomain shedding, and regulation of shedding typically occurs via activation of protein kinase C or extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinases, or via inactivation of protein phosphatase 1 or 2A. However, the possibility that these enzymes play a role in statin-stimulated shedding has been excluded, leading us to investigate whether the Rho/ROCK1 protein phosphorylation pathway might be involved. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We found that both atorvastatin and simvastatin stimulated sAPP(alpha shedding from a neuroblastoma cell line via a subcellular mechanism apparently located upstream of endocytosis. A farnesyl transferase inhibitor also increased sAPP(alpha shedding, as did a dominant negative form of ROCK1. Most conclusively, a constitutively active ROCK1 molecule inhibited statin-stimulated sAPP(alpha shedding. CONCLUSION: Together, these data suggest that statins exert their effects on shedding of sAPP(alpha from cultured cells, at least in part, by modulation of the isoprenoid pathway and ROCK1.

  12. Modulation of Statin-Activated Shedding of Alzheimer APP Ectodomain by ROCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedrini Steve

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Statins are widely used cholesterol-lowering drugs that act by inhibiting HMGCoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. Recent evidence suggests that statin use may be associated with a decreased risk for Alzheimer disease, although the mechanisms underlying this apparent risk reduction are poorly understood. One popular hypothesis for statin action is related to the drugs' ability to activate alpha-secretase-type shedding of the alpha-secretase-cleaved soluble Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein ectodomain (sAPPalpha. Statins also inhibit the isoprenoid pathway, thereby modulating the activities of the Rho family of small GTPases-Rho A, B, and C-as well as the activities of Rac and cdc42. Rho proteins, in turn, exert many of their effects via Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCKs. Several cell-surface molecules are substrates for activated alpha-secretase-type ectodomain shedding, and regulation of shedding typically occurs via activation of protein kinase C or extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinases, or via inactivation of protein phosphatase 1 or 2A. However, the possibility that these enzymes play a role in statin-stimulated shedding has been excluded, leading us to investigate whether the Rho/ROCK1 protein phosphorylation pathway might be involved. Methods and Findings We found that both atorvastatin and simvastatin stimulated sAPPalpha shedding from a neuroblastoma cell line via a subcellular mechanism apparently located upstream of endocytosis. A farnesyl transferase inhibitor also increased sAPPalpha shedding, as did a dominant negative form of ROCK1. Most conclusively, a constitutively active ROCK1 molecule inhibited statin-stimulated sAPPalpha shedding. Conclusion Together, these data suggest that statins exert their effects on shedding of sAPPalpha from cultured cells, at least in part, by modulation of the isoprenoid pathway and ROCK1.

  13. No Reprieve for Tasmanian Rock Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Sims

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Australian State of Tasmania, at latitude 42 degrees south, became an island about 8,000 years ago when the sea rose to its present level, following the melting of polar and glacial ice that covered much of the land mass. After that time, the Tasmanian Aboriginal rock art developed independently of mainland Australia, with its form being basically linear with some naturalistic figures and a predominance of cupules. The petroglyphs with one lithophone site occur on various rock substrates varying in hardness from granite to sandstone. Many sites exist along the western coastline that borders the Southern Ocean where the landscape in some places has changed little since the arrival of Europeans in 1803. The significance of this Tasmanian Aboriginal cultural heritage along what is now known as the Tarkine Coast, named after an Aboriginal band that once inhabited this area, was recognised by the Australian Government in February 2013 when a 21,000 ha strip, 2 km wide, was inscribed on its National Heritage Register, being one of 98 special places listed in the country. However, politics and racism hamper its management. This paper is based on the results of 40 years of field recording of the Tasmanian Aboriginal rock art sites, many of which remain unpublished.

  14. Diffusivity and porosity studies in rock matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion of radionuclides in the pores of rock adjacent to fractures is an important retardation mechanism in the far-field of the repository of nuclear waste. The nature of diffusivity and porosity in rock was studied as a function of various parameters. The phenomena of main interest were dead-end porosity, ion-exclusion and sorption. The rock types studied were rapakivi granite, granite and gneiss, tracer techniques was used as a research method. An analytical solution for outdiffusion from a porous cylinder was developed by applying a corrected form of Fick's second law for a case where part of the pores are so-called dead-end pores. With this model the theoretical curve could be closely fitted to the measured values. Matrix diffusion was studied in the nature in the island of Haestholmen on the coast of the Gulf of Finland, which due to postglacial land uplift started to rise from the Baltic Sea some 5000 years ago; the land uplift is some 3 mm per year. Rainwater has formed a layer of fresh groundwater floating on top of the saline layer. The coarse- grained granite bedrock of Haestholmen has been investigated for suitability of an underground repository for reactor wastes

  15. Rock bed thermal storage: Concepts and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kenneth; von Backström, Theodor; Joubert, Eugene; Gauché, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Thermal storage enables concentrating solar power (CSP) plants to provide baseload or dispatchable power. Currently CSP plants use two-tank molten salt thermal storage, with estimated capital costs of about 22-30 /kWhth. In the interests of reducing CSP costs, alternative storage concepts have been proposed. In particular, packed rock beds with air as the heat transfer fluid offer the potential of lower cost storage because of the low cost and abundance of rock. Two rock bed storage concepts which have been formulated for use at temperatures up to at least 600 °C are presented and a brief analysis and cost estimate is given. The cost estimate shows that both concepts are capable of capital costs less than 15 /kWhth at scales larger than 1000 MWhth. Depending on the design and the costs of scaling containment, capital costs as low as 5-8 /kWhth may be possible. These costs are between a half and a third of current molten salt costs.

  16. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. The work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2006 is in this report described in six chapters: Geo-science - experiments, analysis and modelling to increase the knowledge of the surrounding rock; Natural barriers - experiments, analysis and modelling to increase the knowledge of the repository barriers under natural conditions; Engineered barriers - demonstration of technology for and function of important engineered parts of the repository barrier system; Aespoe facility - operation, maintenance, data management, monitoring, public relations etc; Environmental research; and finally, International co-operation.

  17. CERN’s Summer of Rock

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    When a rock star visits CERN, they don’t just bring their entourage with them. Along for the ride are legions of fans across the world – many of whom may not be the typical CERN audience. In July alone, four big acts paid CERN a visit, sharing their experience with the world: Scorpions, The Script, Kings of Leon and Patti Smith.   @TheScript tweeted: #paleofestival we had the best time! Big love. #CERN (Image: Twitter).   It all started with the Scorpions, the classic rock band whose “Wind of Change” became an anthem in the early 1990s. On 19 July, the band braved the 35-degree heat to tour the CERN site on foot – visiting the Synchrocyclotron and the new Microcosm exhibition. The rockers were very enthusiastic about the research carried out at CERN, and talked about returning in the autumn during their next tour stop. The Scorpions visit Microcosm. Two days later, The Script rolled in. This Irish pop-rock band has been hittin...

  18. Mathematical simulation of a waste rock heap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer model has been developed to simulate the generation of acidic drainage in waste rock piles. The model considers the kinetic rates of biological and chemical oxidation of sulfide minerals (pyrite, pyrrhotite) present as fines and rock particles, as well as chemical processes such as dissolution (kinetic or equilibrium controlled), complexation (from equilibrium and stoichiometry of several complexes), and precipitation (formation of complexes and secondary minerals). Through mass balance equations and solubility constraints (e.g., pH, phase equilibria) the model keeps track of the movement of chemical species through the waste pile and provides estimates of the quality of seepage (pH, sulfate, iron, acidity, etc.) leaving the heap. The model has been expanded to include the dissolution (thermodynamic and sorption equilibrium), adsorption and coprecipitation of uranium and radium. The model was applied to simulate waste rock heaps in British Columbia, Canada and in Thueringia, Germany. To improve the accuracy and confidence of long-term predictions of seepage quality, the entire history of the heaps was simulated. Cumulative acidity loads and water treatment considerations were used as a basis for evaluation of various decommissioning alternatives. Simulation of the technical leaching history of a heap in Germany showed it will generate contaminated leachate requiring treatment for acidity and radioactivity for several hundred years; cover installation was shown to provide a significant reduction of potential burdens, although chemical treatment would still be required beyond 100 years

  19. The effects of bacteria on crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many reactions involving inorganic minerals at water-rock interfaces have now been recognized to be bacterially mediated; these reactions could have a significant effect in the excavation of vaults for toxic and radioactive waste disposal. To investigate the role that bacteria play in the natural aqueous environment of crystalline rock the microbial growth factors of nutrition, energy and environment are described. Microbial activity has been investigated in Atomic Energy of Canada's Underground Research Laboratory (URL), situated in the Archean granitic Lac du Bonnet Batholith, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Faults, initiated in the Early Proterozoic, and later-formed fractures, provide ground-water pathways. Planktonic bacteria, free-swimming in the groundwater, have been observed in over 100 underground borehole samples. The number of bacteria varied from 103 to 105 mL-1 and appeared to decrease with depth and with increased salinity of the water. However, in the natural environment of deep (100-500 m) crystalline rocks, where nutrition is limited, formation of biofilms by sessile bacteria is a successful survival strategy. Natural biofilms at the URL and biofilms grown in bioreactors have been studied. The biofilms can accumulate different elements, depending upon the local environment. Precipitates of iron have been found in all the biofilms studied, where they are either passively accumulated or utilized as an energy source. Within the biofilm active and extensive biogeochemical immobilization of dissolved elements is controlled by distinct bacterial activities which are sufficiently discrete for hematite and siderite to be precipitated in close proximity

  20. Surface energy characterization of sandstone rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsalan, Naveed; Palayangoda, Sujeewa S.; Burnett, Daniel J.; Buiting, Johannes J.; Nguyen, Quoc P.

    2013-08-01

    The fundamental forces of adhesion are responsible for the spreading of fluids such as crude oil/brine on the reservoir rock surface. These physico-chemical interactions determine the surface energetics of a reservoir and thus their wetting phenomena. Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC) is introduced to characterize the surface energy of sandstones (Ottawa sand and Berea sandstone). The surface chemistry of the sandstone rocks is further elucidated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The behavior of the polar and non-polar interaction forces was investigated at varying water coverage and at different temperatures. The results indicated that in general as the water coverage increased, the Lifshitz-van der Waals component of surface energy decreased to nearly that of the bulk water, while the acid-base component also showed a decreasing trend. The Lifshitz-van der Waals component of surface energy always decreased with increase in temperature, while the acid-base properties showed contrasting trends in line with changes in surface chemistry of the sandstones, due to the change in temperature. Finally, the wetting properties arising in reservoir sandstones were related to the surface chemistry of the reservoir fluids and their interactions with the reservoir rock surface.