WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell skin cancer

  1. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  2. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Genetics ...

  3. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, neck, hands, and arms. ...

  4. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Genetics ...

  5. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... UVB Skin of Color Tanning Teacher Resources Related: What Is Skin Cancer? | Window Film | Healthy Lifestyle | True Stories Skin Cancer Information Actinic Keratosis Atypical Moles Basal Cell Carcinoma Melanoma Merkel Cell Carcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Skin Cancer ...

  6. Skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the development of skin cancer associated with radiation, focusing on the knowledge of A-bomb radiation-induced skin cancer. Since the discovery of X radiation in 1895, acute and chronic radiation dermatitis has been the first matter of concern. Then, in 1902, skin cancer found among radiological personnel has posed a social problem. In earlier study determining the relationship between skin cancer and A-bomb radiation, there is no increase in the incidence of either skin cancer or precancerous condition during the first 20 years after A-bombing. More recent studies have showed that there is a significant correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and distance from the hypocenter; and the incidence of skin cancer is found to be remarkably increased since 1975 in the group exposed at ≤2,000 m. Excess relative risk is 2.2 at one Gy dose. The incidence of skin cancer is also found to be extremely increased with aging. Relative risk is high in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Histologically, basal cell carcinoma is more senstitive to ionizing radiation than squamous cell carcinoma. (N.K.)

  7. Experience of ReCell in Skin Cancer Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Gilleard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The ReCell system (Avita Medical is a cell culture product that allows the immediate processing of a small split-thickness skin biopsy to produce a complete population of cells including keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells and fibroblasts. This series is the first to highlight the reconstructive applications of ReCell following ablative skin cancer surgery. The ReCell system was utilized for three patients following skin cancer excision. In two cases, the cells were applied to forehead flap donor sites following nasal reconstruction. In one case, the cells were applied to the calvarial periosteum following wide local excision of a melanoma scar. Assessment of the treated area was performed using the patient and observer scar assessment scale after 1 year. The Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS scores for the 2 patients treated with ReCell following forehead flap surgery were 22 and 32. The score for the patient that underwent wide local excision of a melanoma scar was 45. The absence of a donor site, accelerated healing and the satisfactory aesthetic appearance of the mature scars in this series suggest that ReCell may play a useful role in reconstruction following skin cancer excision.

  8. Experience of ReCell in Skin Cancer Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Gilleard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The ReCell system (Avita Medical is a cell culture product that allows the immediate processingof a small split-thickness skin biopsy to produce a complete population of cells includingkeratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells and fibroblasts. This series is the first to highlightthe reconstructive applications of ReCell following ablative skin cancer surgery. The ReCell systemwas utilized for three patients following skin cancer excision. In two cases, the cells were appliedto forehead flap donor sites following nasal reconstruction. In one case, the cells were appliedto the calvarial periosteum following wide local excision of a melanoma scar. Assessment of thetreated area was performed using the patient and observer scar assessment scale after 1 year.The Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS scores for the 2 patients treated withReCell following forehead flap surgery were 22 and 32. The score for the patient that underwentwide local excision of a melanoma scar was 45. The absence of a donor site, accelerated healingand the satisfactory aesthetic appearance of the mature scars in this series suggest that ReCellmay play a useful role in reconstruction following skin cancer excision.

  9. For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted Drug Hits the Mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Research Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Genetics ...

  10. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell skin cancer ENT-organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Volgin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of photodynamic therapy in 96 patients with primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs are represented. For photodynamic therapy the Russian-made photosensitizer Photoditazine at dose of 0.6–1.4 mg/kg was used. Parameters were selected taking into account type and extent of tumor and were as follows: output power – 0.1–3.0 W, power density – 0.1–1.3 W/cm2, light dose – 100–400 J/cm2. The studies showed high efficacy of treatment for primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of nose, ear and external auditory canal – from 87.5 to 94.7% of complete regression. Examples of efficacy of the method are represented in the article. High efficacy and good cosmetic effects allowed to make a conclusion about perspectivity of photodynamic therapy for recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs. 

  11. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R, Taylor SC, Lim HW. Skin cancer and photoprotection in people of color: a review and recommendations ... 4): 663 - 672.e3 19 World Health Organization, Solar ultraviolet radiation: Global burden of disease from solar ...

  12. Epidermal stem cells - role in normal, wounded and pathological psoriatic and cancer skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, M.; Faurschou, A.; Gniadecki, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this review we focus on epidermal stem cells in the normal regeneration of the skin as well as in wounded and psoriatic skin. Furthermore, we discuss current data supporting the idea of cancer stem cells in the pathogenesis of skin carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Epidermal stem cells present...... or transit amplifying cells constitute a primary pathogenetic factor in the epidermal hyperproliferation seen in psoriasis. In cutaneous malignancies mounting evidence supports a stem cell origin in skin carcinoma and malignant melanoma and a possible existence of cancer stem cells Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5...

  13. Basal cell carcinoma-treatments for the commonest skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berking, Carola; Hauschild, Axel; Kölbl, Oliver; Mast, Gerson; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2014-05-30

    With an incidence of 70 to over 800 new cases per 100 000 persons per year, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a very common disease, accounting for about 80% of all cases of non-melanoma skin cancer. It very rarely metastasizes. A variety of treatments are available for the different subtypes and stages of BCC. This review is based on pertinent literature retrieved by a selective search in the Medline database, as well as the American Cancer Society guidelines on BCC and the German guidelines on BCC and skin cancer prevention. The gold standard of treatment is surgical excision with histological control of excision margins, which has a 5-year recurrence rate of less than 3% on the face. For superficial BCC, approved medications such as imiquimod (total remission rate, 82-90%) and topical 5-fluorouracil (80%) are available, as is photodynamic therapy (71-87%). Other ablative methods (laser, cryosurgery) are applicable in some cases. Radiotherapy is an alternative treatment for invasive, inoperable BCC, with 5-year tumor control rates of 89-96%. Recently, drugs that inhibit an intracellular signaling pathway have become available for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic BCC. Phase I and II clinical trials revealed that vismodegib was associated with objective response rates of 30-55% and tumor control rates of 80-90%. This drug was approved on the basis of a non-randomized trial with no control arm. It has side effects ranging from muscle cramps (71%) and hair loss (65%) to taste disturbances (55%) and birth defects. The established, standard treatments are generally highly effective. Vismodegib is a newly approved treatment option for locally advanced BCC that is not amenable to either surgery or radiotherapy.

  14. Towards a more specific therapy: targeting nonmelanoma skin cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeimies, R M; Karrer, S

    2006-05-01

    Epithelial cancers of the skin, e.g. basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are the most common tumours in humans with increasing incidence. Hence the development of new therapeutic strategies is of utmost interest. For many years the most often used conventional therapies for these diseases were surgical procedures such as curettage and electrodesiccation, excision or, with so far the best outcome in terms of remission rates, micrographic surgery. Other ablative treatment modalities are cryotherapy, radiation therapy or the use of lasers (Er:YAG, CO(2)). All those above-mentioned treatments have in common that they are quite unspecific and do not target the tumour itself or its environment, thus leading to unwanted effects in the surrounding tissue such as scar formation or other cosmetically disfiguring events. Therefore, the development of novel, more pathogenesis-based therapies such as the use of retinoids, cyclooxygenase inhibitors, topical immunomodulators, inhibitors of the sonic-hedgehog signalling pathway or photodynamic therapy are challenging new approaches.

  15. p53 modulates the AMPK inhibitor compound C induced apoptosis in human skin cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shi-Wei [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chun-Ying [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Yen-Ting [Department of Medical Research and Education, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kao, Jun-Kai [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chi-Chen; Chang, Chia-Che; Mu, Szu-Wei; Chen, Yu-Yu [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Husan-Wen [Institute of Biotechnology, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chuan-Hsun [Department of Surgical Oncology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nutrition Therapy, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liang, Shu-Mei [Institute of Biotechnology, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yi-Ju [Department of Dermatology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Jau-Ling [Department of Bioscience Technology, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Shieh, Jeng-Jer, E-mail: shiehjj@vghtc.gov.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Education and Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-15

    Compound C, a well-known inhibitor of the intracellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), has been reported to cause apoptotic cell death in myeloma, breast cancer cells and glioma cells. In this study, we have demonstrated that compound C not only induced autophagy in all tested skin cancer cell lines but also caused more apoptosis in p53 wildtype skin cancer cells than in p53-mutant skin cancer cells. Compound C can induce upregulation, phosphorylation and nuclear translocalization of the p53 protein and upregulate expression of p53 target genes in wildtype p53-expressing skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells. The changes of p53 status were dependent on DNA damage which was caused by compound C induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and associated with activated ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Using the wildtype p53-expressing BCC cells versus stable p53-knockdown BCC sublines, we present evidence that p53-knockdown cancer cells were much less sensitive to compound C treatment with significant G2/M cell cycle arrest and attenuated the compound C-induced apoptosis but not autophagy. The compound C induced G2/M arrest in p53-knockdown BCC cells was associated with the sustained inactive Tyr15 phosphor-Cdc2 expression. Overall, our results established that compound C-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells was dependent on the cell's p53 status. - Highlights: ► Compound C caused more apoptosis in p53 wildtype than p53-mutant skin cancer cells. ► Compound C can upregulate p53 expression and induce p53 activation. ► Compound C induced p53 effects were dependent on ROS induced DNA damage pathway. ► p53-knockdown attenuated compound C-induced apoptosis but not autophagy. ► Compound C-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells was dependent on p53 status.

  16. Diagnosis and Management of Hereditary Basal Cell Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, Susan; McCormack, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in Caucasians worldwide and its incidence is rising. It is generally considered a sporadic tumour, most likely to affect fair-skinned individuals exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This chapter focusses on the approach to recognising the relatively few individuals in whom a high-risk hereditary susceptibility may be present. Gorlin syndrome is the main consideration and the gene most commonly mutated is PTCH1, a key regulator of the Hedgehog developmental pathway. Recently, loss of function of another gene in the same pathway, SUFU, has been found to explain a subset of families. Understanding the pathogenesis of familial BCCs has advanced the understanding of the biology of sporadic tumours and led to targeted therapy trials. The management of familial BCCs remains a challenge due to significant unmet needs for non-surgical treatments and a high burden of disease for the individual. Together with the prospect of advances in gene discovery and translation, these challenges highlight the need for ongoing review of at-risk and affected individuals by a multidisciplinary team.

  17. Epidermal stem cells - role in normal, wounded and pathological psoriatic and cancer skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, M.; Faurschou, A.; Gniadecki, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this review we focus on epidermal stem cells in the normal regeneration of the skin as well as in wounded and psoriatic skin. Furthermore, we discuss current data supporting the idea of cancer stem cells in the pathogenesis of skin carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Epidermal stem cells present...... or transit amplifying cells constitute a primary pathogenetic factor in the epidermal hyperproliferation seen in psoriasis. In cutaneous malignancies mounting evidence supports a stem cell origin in skin carcinoma and malignant melanoma and a possible existence of cancer stem cells Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5...... in the basal layer of the interfollicular epidermis and in the bulge region of the hair follicle play a critical role for normal tissue maintenance. In wound healing, multipotent epidermal stem cells contribute to re-epithelization. It is possible that defects in growth control of either epidermal stem cells...

  18. Skin cancer and melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moylan, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter, the author discusses various types of non-melanoma malignant skin cancer, as well as malignant melanoma. Non-melanoma skin cancer, such as basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas, occasionally metastasize, but only late in the course of the disease. On the other hand, even relatively small primary melanomas tend to disseminate to regional lymph nodes and to distant sites. The author presents various treatment plans, including radiation therapy. Cutaneous melanomas have been considered relatively radioresistant. This is the rationale for the use of large fraction radiation therapy in the treatment of melanomas with the fraction sizes varying from 4--8 Gy

  19. Ultraviolet Light and Skin Cancer in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Shannon C.; Bergfeld, Wilma F.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide. Ultraviolet light exposure is the most important risk factor for cutaneous melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Constitutive skin color and genetic factors, as well as immunological factors, play a role in the development of skin cancer. Ultraviolet light also causes sunburn and photoaging damage to the skin.

  20. Cell-type-specific roles for COX-2 in UVB-induced skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschman, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    In human tumors, and in mouse models, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels are frequently correlated with tumor development/burden. In addition to intrinsic tumor cell expression, COX-2 is often present in fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and endothelial cells of the tumor microenvironment, and in infiltrating immune cells. Intrinsic cancer cell COX-2 expression is postulated as only one of many sources for prostanoids required for tumor promotion/progression. Although both COX-2 inhibition and global Cox-2 gene deletion ameliorate ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced SKH-1 mouse skin tumorigenesis, neither manipulation can elucidate the cell type(s) in which COX-2 expression is required for tumorigenesis; both eliminate COX-2 activity in all cells. To address this question, we created Cox-2 flox/flox mice, in which the Cox-2 gene can be eliminated in a cell-type-specific fashion by targeted Cre recombinase expression. Cox-2 deletion in skin epithelial cells of SKH-1 Cox-2 flox/flox;K14Cre + mice resulted, following UVB irradiation, in reduced skin hyperplasia and increased apoptosis. Targeted epithelial cell Cox-2 deletion also resulted in reduced tumor incidence, frequency, size and proliferation rate, altered tumor cell differentiation and reduced tumor vascularization. Moreover, Cox-2 flox/flox;K14Cre + papillomas did not progress to squamous cell carcinomas. In contrast, Cox-2 deletion in SKH-1 Cox-2 flox/flox; LysMCre + myeloid cells had no effect on UVB tumor induction. We conclude that (i) intrinsic epithelial COX-2 activity plays a major role in UVB-induced skin cancer, (ii) macrophage/myeloid COX-2 plays no role in UVB-induced skin cancer and (iii) either there may be another COX-2-dependent prostanoid source(s) that drives UVB skin tumor induction or there may exist a COX-2-independent pathway(s) to UVB-induced skin cancer. PMID:24469308

  1. The circadian clock in skin: implications for adult stem cells, tissue regeneration, cancer, aging, and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plikus, Maksim V.; Van Spyk, Elyse Noelani; Pham, Kim; Geyfman, Mikhail; Kumar, Vivek; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Andersen, Bogi

    2015-01-01

    Historically work on peripheral circadian clocks has been focused on organs and tissues that have prominent metabolic functions, such as liver, fat and muscle. In recent years, skin is emerging as a model for studying circadian clock regulation of cell proliferation, stem cell functions, tissue regeneration, aging and carcinogenesis. Morphologically skin is complex, containing multiple cell types and structures, and there is evidence for a functional circadian clock in most, if not all, of its cell types. Despite the complexity, skin stem cell populations are well defined, experimentally tractable and exhibit prominent daily cell proliferation cycles. Hair follicle stem cells also participate in recurrent, long-lasting cycles of regeneration -- the hair growth cycles. Among other advantages of skin is a broad repertoire of available genetic tools enabling the creation of cell-type specific circadian mutants. Also, due to the accessibility of the skin, in vivo imaging techniques can be readily applied to study the circadian clock and its outputs in real time, even at the single-cell level. Skin provides the first line of defense against many environmental and stress factors that exhibit dramatic diurnal variations such as solar UV radiation and temperature. Studies have already linked the circadian clock to the control of UVB-induced DNA damage and skin cancers. Due to the important role that skin plays in the defense against microorganisms, it represents a promising model system to further explore the role of the clock in the regulation of the body's immune functions. To that end, recent studies have already linked the circadian clock to psoriasis, one of the most common immune-mediated skin disorders. The skin also provides opportunities to interrogate clock regulation of tissue metabolism in the context of stem cells and regeneration. Furthermore, many animal species feature prominent seasonal hair molt cycles, offering an attractive model for investigating the

  2. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are activated in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and in the peritumoural skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Wettergren, Erika Elgstrand; Mourier, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest cancer worldwide. BCC is locally invasive and the surrounding stromal microenvironment is pivotal for tumourigenesis. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the microenvironment are essential for tumour growth in a variety...... of neoplasms but their role in BCC is poorly understood. Methods: Material included facial BCC and control skin from the peritumoural area and from the buttocks. With next-generation sequencing (NGS) we compared mRNA expression between BCC and peritumoural skin. qRT-PCR, immunohistochemical...... markers FAP-α, PDGFR-β and prolyl-4-hydroxylase in BCC. Peritumoural skin (but not buttock skin) also exhibited high expression of PDGFR-β and prolyl-4-hydroxylase but not FAP-α. We found a similar pattern for the CAF-associated chemokines CCL17, CCL18, CCL22, CCL25, CXCL12 and IL6 with high expression...

  3. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are activated in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and in the peritumoural skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Wettergren, Erika Elgstrand; Mollerup, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest cancer worldwide. BCC is locally invasive and the surrounding stromal microenvironment is pivotal for tumourigenesis. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the microenvironment are essential for tumour growth in a variety...... of neoplasms but their role in BCC is poorly understood. METHODS: Material included facial BCC and control skin from the peritumoural area and from the buttocks. With next-generation sequencing (NGS) we compared mRNA expression between BCC and peritumoural skin. qRT-PCR, immunohistochemical...... markers FAP-α, PDGFR-β and prolyl-4-hydroxylase in BCC. Peritumoural skin (but not buttock skin) also exhibited high expression of PDGFR-β and prolyl-4-hydroxylase but not FAP-α. We found a similar pattern for the CAF-associated chemokines CCL17, CCL18, CCL22, CCL25, CXCL12 and IL6 with high expression...

  4. Vismodegib for the treatment of basal cell skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, Laura; Kolesar, Jill M

    2013-06-15

    The pharmacology, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, cost, and place in therapy of vismodegib are reviewed. Vismodegib, the first oral treatment for basal cell carcinoma (BCC), was recently approved for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic BCC whose cancer is refractory to standard treatments or who are not candidates for surgery or radiation. Vismodegib is a small molecule that potently inhibits signal transduction in the hedgehog signaling pathway, demonstrates nonlinear pharmacokinetics, and has a half-life of 13 days. Agents that increase gastrointestinal pH may reduce the solubility and bioavailability of vismodegib. It is effective in both locally advanced and metastatic BCCs, with response rates ranging from 30% to 60% in two clinical trials. Vismodegib is available as a 150-mg capsule, and the approved dosage is 150 mg orally once daily. The most common adverse effects of vismodegib include mild-to-moderate hair loss, muscle cramps, taste disturbance, and weight loss. The estimated cost of one month of treatment with vismodegib is $7500. Vismodegib was recently approved for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic BCC that is refractory to standard treatments or if patients are not candidates for surgery or radiation. Vismodegib may have little effect on the treatment of BCC, given its high cost, the high cure rates achieved with standard therapies, and its unacceptable toxicity profile in patients with a non-life-threatening disease. However, vismodegib's novel mechanism of action, oral dosage form, preliminary efficacy, and tolerability compared with cytotoxic chemotherapy may make it an attractive candidate for the treatment of other cancers.

  5. [Skin cancer incidence in Zacatecas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Vega, José Luis; Castañeda-López, Rosalba; Dávila-Rangel, J Ignacio; Mireles-García, Fernando; Ríos-Martínez, Carlos; López-Saucedo, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent cancer related to ultraviolet radiation. The aim was to estimate the incidence of skin cancer type, melanoma and non-melanoma in Zacatecas, Mexico. An epidemiological study was carried out during the period from 2008 to 2012. The data were obtained from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), Secretaría de Salud de Zacatecas (SSZ) and a private source, the Centro Médico Alameda. The incidence and the global prevalence were estimated. We studied 958 skin cancer cases, histopathologically confirmed. The cases were distributed as: 63.6 % basal cell carcinomas, 25.8 % squamous cell carcinomas, and 10.6 % melanoma. Significantly higher proportions were observed in women in the basal cell carcinomas (60.4 %) and squamous cell carcinomas (53.4 %). However, in the case of melanoma, the major proportion was observed in men (55.9 %). The more frequent skin cancer location was the face and for basal cell carcinoma was the nose (53 %); for squamous cell carcinomas were the lips (36 %), and for melanoma it was also the nose (40 %). The skin cancer incidence was estimated in 20 cases for each 100 000 inhabitants. Linear regression analysis showed that the skin cancer is increasing at an annual rate of 10.5 %. The anatomical location indicates that solar UV radiation is a risk factor, since the face is the zone with major exposure to solar radiation.

  6. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer brochure Is it true that only people with light skin get skin cancer? No. Anyone can get skin cancer. It's more common among people with a light (fair) skin tone, but skin cancer can affect anyone. ...

  7. Sun protection for preventing basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Guillermo; Nova, John; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Andrea Esperanza; Medina, Roger David; Solorzano-Restrepo, Carolina; Gonzalez, Jenny; Olmos, Miguel; Godfrey, Kathie; Arevalo-Rodriguez, Ingrid

    2016-07-25

    'Keratinocyte cancer' is now the preferred term for the most commonly identified skin cancers basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), which were previously commonly categorised as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC). Keratinocyte cancer (KC) represents about 95% of malignant skin tumours. Lifestyle changes have led to increased exposure to the sun, which has, in turn, led to a significant increase of new cases of KC, with a worldwide annual incidence of between 3% and 8%. The successful use of preventive measures could mean a significant reduction in the resources used by health systems, compared with the high cost of the treatment of these conditions. At present, there is no information about the quality of the evidence for the use of these sun protection strategies with an assessment of their benefits and risks. To assess the effects of sun protection strategies (i.e. sunscreen and barrier methods) for preventing keratinocyte cancer (that is, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) of the skin) in the general population. We searched the following databases up to May 2016: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS. We also searched five trial registries and the bibliographies of included studies for further references to relevant trials. We included randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of preventive strategies for keratinocyte cancer, such as physical barriers and sunscreens, in the general population (children and adults), which may provide information about benefits and adverse events related to the use of solar protection measures. We did not include trials focused on educational strategies to prevent KC or preventive strategies in high-risk groups. Our prespecified primary outcomes were BCC or cSCC confirmed clinically or by histopathology at any follow-up and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected studies for eligibility using

  8. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are activated in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and in the peritumoural skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Wettergren, Erika Elgstrand; Mollerup, Sarah; Asplund, Maria; Mourier, Tobias; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Gniadecki, Robert

    2017-10-07

    Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest cancer worldwide. BCC is locally invasive and the surrounding stromal microenvironment is pivotal for tumourigenesis. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the microenvironment are essential for tumour growth in a variety of neoplasms but their role in BCC is poorly understood. Material included facial BCC and control skin from the peritumoural area and from the buttocks. With next-generation sequencing (NGS) we compared mRNA expression between BCC and peritumoural skin. qRT-PCR, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent staining were performed to validate the NGS results and to investigate CAF-related cyto-and chemokines. NGS revealed upregulation of 65 genes in BCC coding for extracellular matrix components pointing at CAF-related matrix remodeling. qRT-PCR showed increased mRNA expression of CAF markers FAP-α, PDGFR-β and prolyl-4-hydroxylase in BCC. Peritumoural skin (but not buttock skin) also exhibited high expression of PDGFR-β and prolyl-4-hydroxylase but not FAP-α. We found a similar pattern for the CAF-associated chemokines CCL17, CCL18, CCL22, CCL25, CXCL12 and IL6 with high expression in BCC and peritumoural skin but absence in buttock skin. Immunofluorescence revealed correlation between FAP-α and PDGFR-β and CXCL12 and CCL17. Matrix remodeling is the most prominent molecular feature of BCC. CAFs are present within BCC stroma and associated with increased expression of chemokines involved in tumour progression and immunosuppression (CXCL12, CCL17). Fibroblasts from chronically sun-exposed skin near tumours show gene expression patterns resembling that of CAFs, indicating that stromal fibroblasts in cancer-free surgical BCC margins exhibit a tumour promoting phenotype.

  9. The influence of photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid on senescent skin cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigalavicius, Mantas; Juraleviciute, Marina; Kwitniewski, Mateusz; Juzeniene, A

    2017-03-01

    Senescent cells, which are resistant to apoptosis, accumulate with age and after ultraviolet (UV) radiation, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Preventing or eliminating senescent cells may be crucial for protection against skin cancer development and improving tumour treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to induce senescence in skin cancer cells and to eliminate senescent cells induced by chemotherapy (bleomycin) or UVA (315-400nm) exposure. WM115 and A431 cells were incubated with 1mM ALA for 2 and 4h, respectively, before exposure to blue light (10mW/cm 2 , 0-80s, 0-0.8J/cm 2 ). WM115 cells were treated once with 106J/cm 2 (58.4mW/cm 2 , 30.25min) UVA 6days before ALA-PDT or with 0.24IU/ml bleomycin for 7days to induce senescence before ALA-PDT. Cell viability was monitored by the MTT colorimetric assay. Senescent cells were detected using senescence-associated-beta-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) staining and morphological changes (enlarged, flat cells). ALA-PDT caused a light dose dependent increase in senescence. ALA-PDT induced senescence very effectively only in WM115 cells but not in A431 cells, while similar cytotoxic effects were observed in both cell lines. After ALA-PDT with 0.4J/cm 2 around 70% of survived WM115 cells were senescent, while only around 5% of A431 cells were senescent after ALA-PDT with 0.8J/cm 2 . ALA-PDT can induce premature senescence and kill senescent cells induced by ALA-PDT itself, UVA and chemotherapy (bleomycin). Light doses must be properly chosen to photoinactivate ALA-PDT-induced senescent cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Occupational skin cancer and precancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifinela Raissa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupational skin cancer and precancerous lesions are skin disorders caused by exposure to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and arsenic, or radiation, such as ultraviolet light and ionizing light in the workplace. Annual increase in skin cancer incidence is believed to be related to various factors such as frequent intense sunlight exposure (i.e. at work, recreational activities, and sun-tanning habit, ozone depletion, an increase in number of geriatric population, and an increase of public awareness in skin cancer. The most common occupational skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Examples of occupational precancerous lesion of the skin are actinic keratosis and Bowen’s disease. Particular diagnostic criteria to diagnose occupational diseases has been developed. Early detection of occupational skin cancer and precancerous lesion is necessary. An effective prevention program consists of primary prevention such as prevention of hazardous material exposure, secondary prevention such as early detection of disease for early intervention, and tertiary prevention such as minimizing long-term impact of the disease.

  11. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  12. Skin Cancer Risk in Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplant Recipients Compared With Background Population and Renal Transplant Recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Gniadecki, Robert; Hædersdal, Merete

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: While a high risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer is well recognized in solid-organ transplant recipients, the risk of skin cancer in hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT) recipients has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of cutaneous cancer in HSCT recipients...... autologous) from 1999 through 2014, 4789 RTRs from 1976 through 2014, and 10 age- and sex-matched nontransplanted individuals for each of the groups from the background population. Person-years at risk were calculated from the time of study inclusion until first cutaneous cancer. To compare the risk of skin...... cancer between transplant recipients and background population, we used a stratified proportional hazard regression model for hazard ratio (HR) estimations. By use of the cumulative incidence, we estimated 5- and 10-year risks of skin cancers. All RTR and HSCT recipients were treated and followed up...

  13. TIG3 tumor suppressor-dependent organelle redistribution and apoptosis in skin cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany M Scharadin

    Full Text Available TIG3 is a tumor suppressor protein that limits keratinocyte survival during normal differentiation. It is also important in cancer, as TIG3 level is reduced in tumors and in skin cancer cell lines, suggesting that loss of expression may be required for cancer cell survival. An important goal is identifying how TIG3 limits cell survival. In the present study we show that TIG3 expression in epidermal squamous cell carcinoma SCC-13 cells reduces cell proliferation and promotes morphological and biochemical apoptosis. To identify the mechanism that drives these changes, we demonstrate that TIG3 localizes near the centrosome and that pericentrosomal accumulation of TIG3 alters microtubule and microfilament organization and organelle distribution. Organelle accumulation at the centrosome is a hallmark of apoptosis and we demonstrate that TIG3 promotes pericentrosomal organelle accumulation. These changes are associated with reduced cyclin D1, cyclin E and cyclin A, and increased p21 level. In addition, Bax level is increased and Bcl-XL level is reduced, and cleavage of procaspase 3, procaspase 9 and PARP is enhanced. We propose that pericentrosomal localization of TIG3 is a key event that results in microtubule and microfilament redistribution and pericentrosomal organelle clustering and that leads to cancer cell apoptosis.

  14. Exploring the Anticancer Activity of Grape Seed Extract on Skin Cancer Cell Lines A431

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mohansrinivasan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, grape seeds were extracted using ethyl acetate and petroleum ether by solvent-solvent extraction method. The phytochemical tests were performed to identify different phytochemical compounds present in the grape seed extract (GSE. Antibacterial activity of the GSE was determined using agar diffusion method against Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis was done to identify the presence of bioactive compounds and their functional groups. The GC-MS results revealed a total of four compounds, known to have potent activity against cancer cells, viz, squalene, the most potent compound found in ethyl acetate extract and diethyl phthalate, ethyl-9- cis -11- trans octadecadienoate and (R-(--14,-methyl-8-Hexadecyn-1-ol in petroleum ether extract. Cytotoxic activity of the GSE was observed against skin cancer cell lines A4321 using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2-5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide MTT assay. The IC50 value of the GSE against A431 skin cancer cell line was 480 µg/mL. This is first such report against A4321 cell lines. The study gives the overall perception about importance of GSE in medicine and nutraceuticals purposes.

  15. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  16. Skin Cancer: NIH Research to Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... train a person's immune cells to attack the skin cancer cells. New melanoma drugs. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently ... immune system cells found in tumors could shrink skin cancer tumors and possibly prolong life. Melanoma increasing among children. Although rare, melanoma among children ...

  17. Burden and Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hollestein, Loes

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractThe incidence of skin cancer is increasing in the Netherlands since 1989, the first year of the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR). In 2010 more than 43,000 patients were newly diagnosed with skin cancer in the Netherlands. During a life time at least 1 in 5 persons living in the Netherlands will develop skin cancer. The most common skin cancer is basal cell carcinoma (BCC), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma. BCC and SCC combined are often referred to as no...

  18. Basal Cell Skin Cancer, Version 1.2016, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichakjian, Christopher K; Olencki, Thomas; Aasi, Sumaira Z; Alam, Murad; Andersen, James S; Berg, Daniel; Bowen, Glen M; Cheney, Richard T; Daniels, Gregory A; Glass, L Frank; Grekin, Roy C; Grossman, Kenneth; Higgins, Susan A; Ho, Alan L; Lewis, Karl D; Lydiatt, Daniel D; Nehal, Kishwer S; Nghiem, Paul; Olsen, Elise A; Schmults, Chrysalyne D; Sekulic, Aleksandar; Shaha, Ashok R; Thorstad, Wade L; Tuli, Malika; Urist, Marshall M; Wang, Timothy S; Wong, Sandra L; Zic, John A; Hoffmann, Karin G; Engh, Anita

    2016-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is the most common cancer, with a higher incidence than all other malignancies combined. Although it is rare to metastasize, patients with multiple or frequently recurring BCC can suffer substantial comorbidity and be difficult to manage. Assessment of risk is a key element of management needed to inform treatment selection. The overall management of BCC primarily consists of surgical approaches, with radiation therapy as an alternate or adjuvant option. Many superficial therapies for BCC have been explored and continue to be developed, including topicals, cryosurgery, and photodynamic therapy. Two hedgehog pathway inhibitors were recently approved by the FDA for systemic treatment of advanced and metastatic BCC, and others are in development. The NCCN Guidelines for Basal Cell Skin Cancer, published in full herein, include recommendations for selecting among the various surgical approaches based on patient-, lesion-, and disease-specific factors, as well as guidance on when to use radiation therapy, superficial therapies, and hedgehog pathway inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  19. Evaluation of chemopreventive potentials of ethanolic extract of Ruta graveolens against A375 skin melanoma cells in vitro and induced skin cancer in mice in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Samrat; Sikdar, Sourav; Mukherjee, Avinaba; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Chemopreventive approach with natural products, particularly plants and plant-derived ones, is receiving increasing attention for their effective role against cancer without any palpable side effects. In this study, efficacy of ethanolic extract of Ruta graveolens (RG) on skin melanoma cells (A375) in vitro and on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin cancer in vivo has been tested in Swiss albino mice. Studies on cell viability, apoptosis and autophagy induction were conducted in vitro. To check apoptosis, assays like alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential, annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay and immunoblot were performed. Fluorescence microscopic and immunoblot assays were performed to confirm autophagy induction. The effects of RG were determined by evaluating body weight, tumor incidence, tumor volume and tumor burden in mice. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status was assessed. The role of some relevant signaling proteins was also analyzed. RG caused death of A375 cells through induction of caspase 3-mediated apoptosis and Beclin-1-associated autophagy. Moreover, RG administration (75 mg/kg body weight) which showed no acute or chronic toxicity, showed significant reduction in the skin tumor burden of DMBA-painted mice. RG also demonstrated potent anti-lipid peroxidative and antioxidant functions during the course of skin cancer induction by DMBA. Chemopreventive potential of RG was demonstrated from overall results of this study, indicating its possible use in therapeutic formulation of an effective drug to treat skin cancer.

  20. Skin cancer (Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma): new cases, treatment practice, and health care costs in new brunswick, Canada, 2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Wilfred; Hayes, Robert; Hanson, Dana W; Zhang, Bin; Boudreau, Bonnie; Leonfellner, Suzanne

    2014-10-01

    In Canada, there is no formal process for registering nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC); thus, the epidemiology, treatment practices, and associated health costs are not well known. To investigate trends in new cases of skin cancer, treatment practices, and health care costs in New Brunswick, Canada. Data were extracted from the Provincial Cancer Registry and New Brunswick administrative health databases for 2002-2010. New cases: Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) was the most common skin cancer diagnosed, and incidence rates significantly increased between 1992 and 2010.Treatment practice: Dermatologists managed the majority (45%) of the overall skin cancer treatments.Health care costs: NMSC accounted for ∼80% of the health care costs for skin cancer and was dominated by BCC. Development of best practice treatment guidelines for NMSC in New Brunswick would improve future health care efficiencies, and standard protocols for registering new cases of NMSC in Canada would strengthen surveillance and reporting capacity.

  1. Therapeutic potential of the anti-diabetic agent metformin in targeting the skin cancer stem cell diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddi, Anand; Powers, Matthew A; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2014-05-01

    Type II diabetes is associated with increased prevalence of cancer including both melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. Emerging evidence from epidemiological studies suggest that diabetic patients on metformin have a lower risk of cancer incidence and mortality in a broad range of neoplasms. In both melanoma and SCC, populations of cancer stem cells (CSC) contribute to tumor initiation and metastasis. We propose that metformin constitutes a new class of targeted therapy that acts on the skin CSC diaspora. We posit that metformin selectively and simultaneously targets CSCs of the primary tumor as well as in metastatic niches thereby disrupting the dynamic dispersal of circulating CSCs between the primary tumor and metastatic site. This hypothesis suggests a new concept in dermato-oncology that treatment of type II diabetes and prevention of skin cancer are two sides of the same coin. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Family history of skin cancer is associated with early-onset basal cell carcinoma independent of MC1R genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Nicholas L; Cartmel, Brenda; Leffell, David J; Bale, Allen E; Mayne, Susan T; Ferrucci, Leah M

    2015-12-01

    As a marker of genetic susceptibility and shared lifestyle characteristics, family history of cancer is often used to evaluate an individual's risk for developing a particular malignancy. With comprehensive data on pigment characteristics, lifestyle factors, and melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene sequence, we sought to clarify the role of family history of skin cancer in early-onset basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Early onset BCC cases (n=376) and controls with benign skin conditions (n=383) under age 40 were identified through Yale dermatopathology. Self-report data on family history of skin cancer (melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer), including age of onset in relatives, was available from a structured interview. Participants also provided saliva samples for sequencing of MC1R. A family history of skin cancer was associated with an increased risk of early-onset BCC (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.80-3.45). In multivariate models, family history remained a strong risk factor for early-onset BCC after adjustment for pigment characteristics, UV exposure, and MC1R genotype (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.74-3.35). Risk for BCC varied based upon the type and age of onset of skin cancer among affected relatives; individuals with a first-degree relative diagnosed with skin cancer prior to age 50 were at highest risk for BCC (OR 4.79, 95% CI 2.90-7.90). Even after taking into account potential confounding effects of MC1R genotype and various lifestyle factors that close relatives may share, family history of skin cancer remained strongly associated with early-onset BCC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Anticarcinogenic properties of medium chain fatty acids on human colorectal, skin and breast cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Amoolya; Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-03-05

    Colorectal cancer, breast cancer and skin cancer are commonly-reported cancer types in the U.S. Although radiation and chemotherapy are routinely used to treat cancer, they produce side effects in patients. Additionally, resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs has been noticed in cancers. Thus, there is a need for effective and safe bioprophylactics and biotherapeutics in cancer therapy. The medicinal value of goat milk has been recognized for centuries and is primarily attributed to three fatty acids, namely capric, caprylic and caproic acids. This research investigates the anticancer property of these fatty acids on human colorectal, skin and mammary gland cancer cells. The cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of fatty acids for 48 h, and cell viability was monitored by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. Additionally, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to elucidate the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of the three fatty acids under investigation. Capric, caprylic and caproic acids reduced cancer cell viability by 70% to 90% (p acids in an appropriate in vivo model.

  4. Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most common types of skin cancer. Find out about risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, prognosis, staging, and treatment for skin cancer.

  5. Skin Cancer and UV Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarbuk Anita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. On the other hand, aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75% of all deaths associated with skin cancer. The primary cause of skin cancer is long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation and family genetics. It is believed that in childhood and adolescence, 80% of UV-R gets absorbed while in the remaining, 20 % gets absorbed later in the lifetime. This suggests that proper and early photoprotection may reduce the risk of subsequent occurrence of skin cancer. Reducing the exposure time to sunlight, using sunscreens and protective textiles are the three ways of UV protection. Most people think that all the clothing will protect them, but it does not provide full sun screening properties. Literature sources claim that only 1/3 of the spring and summer collections tested give off proper UV protection. This is very important during the summer months, when UV index is the highest. Fabric UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such as type of fiber, fabric surface, construction, porosity, density, moisture content, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agents, UV-B protective agents (UV absorbers, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. For all of these reasons, in the present paper, the results of UV protecting ability according to AS/NZS 4399:1996 will be discussed to show that standard clothing materials are not always adequate to prevent effect of UV-R to the human skin; and to suggest the possibilities for its improvement for this purpose enhancing light conversion and scattering. Additionally, the discrepancy in UV protection was investigated in distilled water as well as Adriatic Sea water.

  6. Mast cells express CYP27A1 and CYP27B1 in epithelial skin cancers and psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukinen, Antti; Pelkonen, Jukka; Harvima, Ilkka T

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the vitamin D system are involved in immunosuppression in the skin. Previous in vitro and animal studies suggest a role for mast cells in these mechanisms. To study vitamin D3 metabolizing enzymes, CYP27A1 and CYP27B1, in mast cells in epithelial skin cancers and psoriasis. Biopsies were collected from the non-lesional and lesional skin of patients with actinic keratosis (AK), Bowen's disease/squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and psoriasis. CYP27A1 and CYP27B1 in mast cells were analysed using a sequential double-staining method. The percentage of mast cells containing CYP27A1 was significantly higher in lesional than non-lesional skin in all diseases, especially in SCC and BCC. In addition, the percentage of mast cells containing CYP27B1 was significantly increased in BCC, AK, and psoriatic lesions as well. Interestingly, only about 5-6% and 2% of the mast cells expressed CYP27A1 and CYP27B1, respectively, in the non-lesional skin of psoriatic and AK patients. In contrast, 23-38% and 6-9% of the mast cells were immunopositive for CYP27A1 and CYP27B1, respectively, in the non-lesional skin of BCC and SCC patients. In human LAD2 mast cell cultures, about 30% and 15% of the mast cells showed CYP27A1 and CYP27B1, respectively, though the immunostainings of these enzymes were not markedly affected by UVB irradiation. Increased proportions of mast cells express vitamin D3 metabolizing enzymes in the lesional skin. Therefore, mast cells may promote an immunosuppressive environment, e.g., in skin carcinoma.

  7. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  8. Non Melanoma Skin Cancer Pathogenesis Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didona, Dario; Paolino, Giovanni; Bottoni, Ugo; Cantisani, Carmen

    2018-01-02

    (1) Background: Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in humans. The process of skin carcinogenesis is still not fully understood. However, several studies have been conducted to better explain the mechanisms that lead to malignancy; (2) Methods: We reviewed the more recent literature about the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancer focusing on basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis; (3) Results: Several papers reported genetic and molecular alterations leading to non-melanoma skin cancer. Plenty of risk factors are involved in non-melanoma skin cancer pathogenesis, including genetic and molecular alterations, immunosuppression, and ultraviolet radiation; (4) Conclusion: Although skin carcinogenesis is still not fully understood, several papers demonstrated that genetic and molecular alterations are involved in this process. In addition, plenty of non-melanoma skin cancer risk factors are now known, allowing for an effective prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer development. Compared to other papers on the same topic, our review focused on molecular and genetic factors and analyzed in detail several factors involved in non-melanoma skin cancer.

  9. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States. The two most common types are basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (the names ... You may need a procedure called surgical lymph node biopsy to check if the cancer has spread ...

  10. Non-melanoma Skin Cancer - a Clinicopathological Study of Patients with Basal Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoš, Vladimír; Kullová, Milada

    2017-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy in Caucasians. It mainly includes two major keratinocyte tumors - basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The objective of the study was to analyze and compare the clinicopathological differences between patients with BCC and SCC of the skin. A cohort of 541 patients with a total of 719 BCCs, and 126 patients with a total of 162 SCCs were retrospectively analyzed. While there was virtually the same proportion of men (49.91%) and women (50.09%) in BCC patients, SCCs occurred more frequently in men (68.2%) than in women (31.8%). The mean age of the individuals with BCC and SCC was 70.8 and 78.2 years, resp. The number of BCCs rises from 50 years of age and this increase showed a linear trend up to 80 years, subsequently followed by decline. SCC lesions occur more rapidly from 70 years of age followed by a sharp increase that exhibited an exponential relationship. BCCs and SCCs occurred predominantly on the head and neck region, comprising a total of 69.8% and 81.4% of the cases, resp. However, BCC lesions were seen more often on the face and SCC lesions were diagnosed more frequently on the extra-facial parts of the head. Further, BCCs occurred more frequently on the trunk, and particularly on the back, compared to SCCs. Although BCC and SCC are covered under common term NMSC, they manifest several clinicopathological differences. Despite sharing common etiologic determinants, at least from the onco-epidemiologic perspective, they should be considered separately.Key words: non-melanoma skin cancer - basal cell carcinoma - squamous cell carcinoma.

  11. Patterns in Skin Cancers in Tikur Anbessa Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Background: The ratio of skin cancer in dark skinned population is reported to be 10 -. 20 times lower than lighter- skinned populations. The aim of this study was to assess the anatomic distribution and patterns of skin cancers such as Squamous cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma, and cutaneous melanoma ...

  12. Grape seed proanthocyanidins reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes in human skin cancer cells by targeting epigenetic regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaid, Mudit; Prasad, Ram; Singh, Tripti; Jones, Virginia [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Katiyar, Santosh K., E-mail: skatiyar@uab.edu [Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been shown to have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in in vitro and in vivo models. However, the precise epigenetic molecular mechanisms remain unexplored. This study was designed to investigate whether GSPs reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes following epigenetic modifications in skin cancer cells. For this purpose, A431 and SCC13 human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were used as in vitro models. The effects of GSPs on DNA methylation, histone modifications and tumor suppressor gene expressions were studied in these cell lines using enzyme activity assays, western blotting, dot-blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that treatment of A431 and SCC13 cells with GSPs decreased the levels of: (i) global DNA methylation, (ii) 5-methylcytosine, (iii) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and (iv) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b in these cells. Similar effects were noted when these cancer cells were treated identically with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation. GSPs decreased histone deacetylase activity, increased levels of acetylated lysines 9 and 14 on histone H3 (H3-Lys 9 and 14) and acetylated lysines 5, 12 and 16 on histone H4, and reduced the levels of methylated H3-Lys 9. Further, GSP treatment resulted in re-expression of the mRNA and proteins of silenced tumor suppressor genes, RASSF1A, p16{sup INK4a} and Cip1/p21. Together, this study provides a new insight into the epigenetic mechanisms of GSPs and may have significant implications for epigenetic therapy in the treatment/prevention of skin cancers in humans. -- Highlights: ►Epigenetic modulations have been shown to have a role in cancer risk. ►Proanthocyanidins decrease the levels of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. ►Proanthocyanidins inhibit histone deacetylase activity in skin cancer cells. ►Proanthocyanidins reactivate tumor suppressor genes in skin

  13. Grape seed proanthocyanidins reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes in human skin cancer cells by targeting epigenetic regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaid, Mudit; Prasad, Ram; Singh, Tripti; Jones, Virginia; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2012-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been shown to have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in in vitro and in vivo models. However, the precise epigenetic molecular mechanisms remain unexplored. This study was designed to investigate whether GSPs reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes following epigenetic modifications in skin cancer cells. For this purpose, A431 and SCC13 human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were used as in vitro models. The effects of GSPs on DNA methylation, histone modifications and tumor suppressor gene expressions were studied in these cell lines using enzyme activity assays, western blotting, dot-blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that treatment of A431 and SCC13 cells with GSPs decreased the levels of: (i) global DNA methylation, (ii) 5-methylcytosine, (iii) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and (iv) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b in these cells. Similar effects were noted when these cancer cells were treated identically with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation. GSPs decreased histone deacetylase activity, increased levels of acetylated lysines 9 and 14 on histone H3 (H3-Lys 9 and 14) and acetylated lysines 5, 12 and 16 on histone H4, and reduced the levels of methylated H3-Lys 9. Further, GSP treatment resulted in re-expression of the mRNA and proteins of silenced tumor suppressor genes, RASSF1A, p16 INK4a and Cip1/p21. Together, this study provides a new insight into the epigenetic mechanisms of GSPs and may have significant implications for epigenetic therapy in the treatment/prevention of skin cancers in humans. -- Highlights: ►Epigenetic modulations have been shown to have a role in cancer risk. ►Proanthocyanidins decrease the levels of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. ►Proanthocyanidins inhibit histone deacetylase activity in skin cancer cells. ►Proanthocyanidins reactivate tumor suppressor genes in skin

  14. Skin cancer: From smearing to cutting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.W.J. Kelleners-Smeets (Nicole); M.W. Bekkenk (Marcel); E.R.M. de Haas (Ellen)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe most common skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Conventional excision is still the current treatment of choice for these malignant tumours. Given the many subtypes and high incidence, the treatment of these skin tumours is not only a matter

  15. Effect of voriconazole on risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklinski, Lawrence F; Li, Shufeng; Karagas, Margaret R; Weng, Wen-Kai; Kwong, Bernice Y

    2017-10-01

    Voriconazole has previously been associated with increased risk for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in solid organ transplant recipients. Less is known about the risk in patients after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We evaluated the effect of voriconazole on the risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including SCC and basal cell carcionoma, among those who have undergone allogeneic and autologous HCT. In all, 1220 individuals who had undergone allogeneic HCT and 1418 who had undergone autologous HCT were included in a retrospective cohort study. Multivariate analysis included voriconazole exposure and other known risk factors for NMSC. In multivariate analysis, voriconazole use increased the risk for NMSC (hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.91) among those who had undergone allogeneic HCT, particularly for SCC (hazard ratio, 2.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-3.89). Voriconazole use did not appear to confer increased risk for NMSC among those who had undergone autologous HCT. This is a retrospective study. Voriconazole use represents an independent factor that may contribute to increased risk specifically for SCC in the allogeneic HCT population. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  17. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are activated in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and in the peritumoural skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Wettergren, Erika Elgstrand; Mollerup, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest cancer worldwide. BCC is locally invasive and the surrounding stromal microenvironment is pivotal for tumourigenesis. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the microenvironment are essential for tumour growth in a variety...

  18. Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... left temple. He has spoken out about the importance of regular screening for skin cancer. Photo: Frontpage / ... melanin, which is responsible for skin and hair color. Melanoma can spread very rapidly, and the incidence ...

  19. Melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers in hairy cell leukaemia: a SEER population analysis and the 30-year experience at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Justin M; Kishtagari, Ashwin; Hsu, Meier; Lacouture, Mario E; Postow, Michael A; Park, Jae H; Stein, Eytan M; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Devlin, Sean M; Tallman, Martin S

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) incidence rates after a diagnosis of hairy cell leukaemia (HCL). We assessed 267 HCL patients treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data for melanoma and NMSC incidence rates after HCL. Incidence data from MSKCC patients demonstrated a 10-year combined melanoma and NMSC skin cancer rate of 11.3%, melanoma 4.4% and NMSC 6.9%. Molecular analysis of skin cancers from MSKCC patients revealed activating RAS mutations in 3/9 patients, including one patient with melanoma. Of 4,750 SEER patients with HCL, 55 (1.2%) had a subsequent diagnosis of melanoma. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) did not show that melanoma was more common in HCL patients versus the general population (SIR 1.3, 95% CI 0.78–2.03). Analysis of SEER HCL patients diagnosed before and after 1990 (approximately before and after purine analogue therapy was introduced) showed no evidence of an increased incidence after 1990. A better understanding of any potential association between HCL and skin cancer is highly relevant given ongoing trials using BRAF inhibitors, such as vemurafenib, for relapsed HCL, as RAS-mutant skin cancers could be paradoxically activated in these patients. PMID:26115047

  20. Effect of capping agents on the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in human normal and cancer skin cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netchareonsirisuk, Ponsawan [Chulalongkorn University, Program in Biotechnology, Faculty of Science (Thailand); Puthong, Songchan [Chulalongkorn University, Antibody Production Research Unit, Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Thailand); Dubas, Stephan [Chulalongkorn University, Petroleum and Petrochemical College (Thailand); Palaga, Tanapat [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science (Thailand); Komolpis, Kittinan, E-mail: kittinan.k@chula.ac.th [Chulalongkorn University, Antibody Production Research Unit, Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Thailand)

    2016-11-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are among the most widely used nanomaterials in medical and consumer products. However, safety in the uses of AgNPs is still controversial. The toxicity of AgNPs toward various cell types has been reported to depend on the surface properties of the nanoparticles. In this study, the effect of AgNPs with the average size of 5–15 nm on the viability of the CCD-986SK human normal skin fibroblast cell line and A375 human malignant melanoma cell line was evaluated. Comparative toxicity studies, based on MTT assay, were performed by using either sodium alginate or poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) sodium salt (PSSMA) as capping agent in the nanoparticle preparation. The cytotoxicity tests revealed that AgNO{sub 3} alone was highly toxic to both cell types while both alginate and PSSMA alone were not toxic. AgNPs capped with alginate were selectively toxic to the cancer cell line but not to the normal cell line while AgNPs capped with PSSMA were toxic to both cancer and normal cell lines. Judging from the 50 % inhibition concentration (IC{sub 50}), it was found that the cancer cell line was more sensitive to AgNPs than the normal cell line. Study on the mode of cell death by annexin V and propidium iodide staining revealed that AgNPs induced more apoptotic cell death (84–90 %) than necrosis (8–12 %) in the skin cancer cell line. These results suggest that the toxicity of AgNPs depended on the type of capping agent and the type of cell line.

  1. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke

    2016-01-01

    a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. STUDY POPULATION: The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen......AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents......'s disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. MAIN VARIABLES: Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables...

  2. Pattern of Skin cancer at the National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... should be undertaken by albinos. Public enlightenment towards early recognition of skin cancer will enhance early presentation and ensure adequate and curative treatment. Keywords: Skin cancers, squamous cell carcinoma, late presentation of skin cancer. Nigerian Journal of Plastic Surgery Vol. 4 (1) 2008: pp. 13-18 ...

  3. Chromosomal radiosensitivity during the G2 cell-cycle period of skin fibroblasts from individuals with familial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshad, R.; Sanford, K.K.; Jones, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors reported previously that human cells after neoplastic transformation in culture had acquired an increased susceptibility to chromatid damage induced by x-irradiation during the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Evidence suggested that this results from deficient DNA repair during G2 phase. Cells derived from human tumors also showed enhanced G2-phase chromosomal radiosensitivity. Furthermore, skin fibroblasts from individuals with genetic diseases predisposing to a high risk of cancer, including ataxia-telangiectasia, Bloom syndrome, Fanconi anemia, and xeroderma pigmentosum exhibited enhanced G2-phase chromosomal radiosensitivity. The present study shows that apparently normal skin fibroblasts from individuals with familial cancer--i.e., from families with a history of neoplastic disease--also exhibit enhanced G2-phase chromosomal radiosensitivity. This radiosensitivity appears, therefore, to be associated with both a genetic predisposition to cancer and a malignant neoplastic state. Furthermore, enhanced G2-phase chromosomal radiosensitivity may provide the basis for an assay to detect genetic susceptibility to cancer

  4. Targets for molecular therapy of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cheryl L; Khavari, Paul A

    2004-02-01

    Cancers of the skin encompass the first and second most common neoplasms in the United States, epidermal basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), respectively, as well as the melanocytic malignancy, malignant melanoma (MM). Recently identified alterations in the function of specific genes in these cancers provide new potential therapeutic targets. These alterations affect conserved regulators of cellular proliferation and viability, including the Sonic Hedgehog, Ras/Raf, ARF/p53, p16(INK4A)/CDK4/Rb and NF-kappaB pathways. New modalities designed to target these specific proteins may represent promising approaches to therapy of human skin cancers.

  5. Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of skin cancer — basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma — including information about specific gene mutations and related cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about interventions that may influence the risk of developing skin cancer in individuals who may be genetically susceptible to these syndromes.

  6. Skin cancer and solar UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gruijl, F R

    1999-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight is the most prominent and ubiquitous physical carcinogen in our natural environment. It is highly genotoxic but does not penetrate the body any deeper than the skin. Like all organisms regularly exposed to sunlight, the human skin is extremely well adapted to continuous UV stress. Well-pigmented skin is clearly better protected than white Caucasian skin. The sun-seeking habits of white Caucasians in developed countries are likely to have contributed strongly to the increase in skin cancer observed over the last century. Skin cancer is by far the most common type of cancer in the U.S.A. and Australia, which appears to be the result of an 'unnatural displacement' of people with sun-sensitive skin to sub-tropical regions. Although campaigns have been successful in informing people about the risks of sun exposure, general attitudes and behaviour do not yet appear to have changed to the extent that trends in skin cancer morbidity and the corresponding burden on public healthcare will be reversed. The relationship between skin cancer and regular sun exposure was suspected by physicians in the late 19th century, and subsequently substantiated in animal experiments in the early part of the 20th century. UV radiation was found to be highly genotoxic, and DNA repair proved to be crucial in fending off detrimental effects such as mutagenesis and cell death. In fact, around 1940 it was shown that the wavelength dependence of mutagenicity paralleled the UV absorption by DNA. In the 1970s research on UV carcinogenesis received a new impetus from the arising concern about a possible future depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer: the resulting increases in ambient UV loads were expected to raise skin cancer incidences. Epidemiological studies in the last decades of the 20th century have greatly refined our knowledge on the aetiology of skin cancers. Analyses of gene mutations in skin carcinomas have identified UV radiation as the cause

  7. Raman active components of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xu; Moy, Austin J; Nguyen, Hieu T M; Zhang, Jason; Fox, Matthew C; Sebastian, Katherine R; Reichenberg, Jason S; Markey, Mia K; Tunnell, James W

    2017-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) has shown great potential in noninvasive cancer screening. Statistically based algorithms, such as principal component analysis, are commonly employed to provide tissue classification; however, they are difficult to relate to the chemical and morphological basis of the spectroscopic features and underlying disease. As a result, we propose the first Raman biophysical model applied to in vivo skin cancer screening data. We expand upon previous models by utilizing in situ skin constituents as the building blocks, and validate the model using previous clinical screening data collected from a Raman optical fiber probe. We built an 830nm confocal Raman microscope integrated with a confocal laser-scanning microscope. Raman imaging was performed on skin sections spanning various disease states, and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) analysis was used to resolve the Raman spectra of individual in situ skin constituents. The basis spectra of the most relevant skin constituents were combined linearly to fit in vivo human skin spectra. Our results suggest collagen, elastin, keratin, cell nucleus, triolein, ceramide, melanin and water are the most important model components. We make available for download (see supplemental information) a database of Raman spectra for these eight components for others to use as a reference. Our model reveals the biochemical and structural makeup of normal, nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers, and precancers and paves the way for future development of this approach to noninvasive skin cancer diagnosis.

  8. Rheumatoid arthritis, anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment, and risk of squamous cell and basal cell skin cancer: cohort study based on nationwide prospectively recorded data from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaschou, Pauline; Simard, Julia F; Asker Hagelberg, Charlotte; Askling, Johan

    2016-01-28

    To investigate the risk of squamous cell and basal cell skin cancer in patients with rheumatoid arthritis naive to biologic drugs, in patients starting tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor treatment, and in the general population. Population based cohort study. Nationwide data from Sweden. Cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis naive to biologics (n=46 409), cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis starting TNF inhibitor treatment as first biologic in 1998-2012 (n=12 558), and matched general population comparator cohort, identified through national quality of care and health registers. Hazard ratio of first in situ or invasive squamous cell skin cancer (1998-2012) and first basal cell cancer (2004-12). For basal cell cancer, the hazard ratio was 1.22 (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.41) comparing biologics-naive rheumatoid arthritis patients with the general population and 1.14 (0.98 to 1.33; 236 v 1587 events) comparing TNF inhibitor treated patients with biologics-naive patients. For squamous cell cancer, the hazard ratio was 1.88 (1.74 to 2.03) comparing biologics-naive rheumatoid arthritis patients with the general population and 1.30 (1.10 to 1.55; 191 v 847 events) comparing TNF inhibitors with biologics-naive patients; the latter translated to an annual number needed to harm in the order of 1600. Among people with a history of squamous cell or basal cell cancer, TNF inhibitors did not further increase risks. A small to moderately increased risk of basal cell cancer was seen in biologics-naive rheumatoid arthritis patients, with no further effect of TNF inhibitors. For squamous cell cancer, the risk was nearly doubled in biologics-naive patients, with a further 30% increase in risk among patients treated with TNF inhibitors; this translates to one additional case for every 1600 years of treatment experience, assuming that this association reflected causality. Vigilance regarding skin malignancies may be advisable in rheumatoid arthritis

  9. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beds) over long periods of time. Having a fair complexion, which includes the following: Fair skin that freckles and burns easily, does not ... beds) over long periods of time. Having a fair complexion, which includes the following: Fair skin that ...

  10. Stages of Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beds) over long periods of time. Having a fair complexion, which includes the following: Fair skin that freckles and burns easily, does not ... beds) over long periods of time. Having a fair complexion, which includes the following: Fair skin that ...

  11. Cytogenetics of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carless, Melanie A; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers has revealed recurrent aberrations, the frequency of which is reflective of malignant potential. Highly aberrant karyotypes are seen in melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis, Merkel cell carcinoma and cutaneous lymphomas with more stable karyotypes seen in basal cell carcinoma, keratoacanthoma, Bowen's disease and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Some aberrations are common among a number of skin cancer types including rearrangements and numerical abnormalities of chromosome 1, -3p, +3q, partial or entire trisomy 6, trisomy 7, +8q, -9p, +9q, partial or entire loss of chromosome 10, -17p, +17q and partial or entire gain of chromosome 20. Combination of cytogenetic analysis with other molecular genetic techniques has enabled the identification of not only aberrant chromosomal regions, but also the genes that contribute to a malignant phenotype. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the pertinent cytogenetic aberrations associated with a variety of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers.

  12. Grenz ray-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frentz, G.

    1989-09-01

    In 28 patients, nonmelanoma skin cancers developed in areas previously exposed to grenz rays. In 17 patients who did not have psoriasis, no other relevant carcinogenic exposure could be incriminated. Women were more often affected than men. Most of the tumors were basal cell cancers, and most of the patients had multiple tumors. No threshold dose could be established. The distribution of the latency time among patients without psoriasis was strictly normal (median 18 years). These observations suggest that usual therapeutic doses of grenz rays, as a single agent, are capable of causing skin cancer, but only in those persons who are abnormally sensitive to x-rays. 9 references.

  13. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make sure they are safe to use during radiation therapy. • Eat a balanced diet. If food tastes funny ... melanoma.org Skin Cancer Foundation www.skincancer.org Radiation Therapy Answers www.rtanswers.org LEARNING ABOUT CLINICAL TRIALS ...

  14. Basal cell carcinoma in skin of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Jesleen; Hadjicharalambous, Elena; Mehregan, Darius

    2012-04-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer most commonly affects Caucasians, and only rarely affects darker-skinned individuals. However, skin cancer in these groups is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. Ultraviolet radiation is the major etiologic factor in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and likely plays a pivotal role in the development of other forms of skin cancer. Yet it is commonly thought among patients as well as physicians that darker pigmentation inherently affords complete protection from skin cancer development. This low index of suspicion results in delayed diagnoses and poorer outcomes. This review follows a detailed computer search that cross-matched the diagnosis of BCC with skin color type in a large commercial dermatopathology facility. The reported skin types, all Fitzpatrick skin types IV, V, and VI, and histories were confirmed. A predominance of pigmented BCCs was found in sun-exposed areas of these older individuals. Although less common in darker-skinned ethnic groups, BCC does occur and can pose significant morbidity. Thus, it is essential that dermatologists are familiar with the epidemiology and clinical presentation of all cutaneous malignancies in darker skin so that these patients are fully aware of risks as well as prevention of the disease.

  15. Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of Contents 1. ... to Results / Skin and Sun – Safety First / Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Summer 2013 Issue: Volume 8 Number 2 Page ...

  16. Skin Cancer of the Hand and Upper Extremity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carcinoma (SCC) is the most common type of skin cancer of the hand, followed by basal cell carcinoma and melanoma. There are other, more rare ... high potential to metastasize, especially to lymph nodes. Basal cell carcinoma This type of skin cancer results in small, well-defined nodules with ...

  17. The importance of bystander effects in radiation therapy in melanoma skin-cancer cells and umbilical-cord stromal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Millán, Jaime; Katz, Iana Suly Santos; Farias, Virgínea de Araujo; Linares-Fernández, Jose-Luis; López-Peñalver, Jesús; Ortiz-Ferrón, Gustavo; Ruiz-Ruiz, Carmen; Oliver, Francisco Javier; Ruiz de Almodóvar, José Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine direct and bystander radiation-induced effects in normal umbilical-cord stromal stem cell (HCSSC) lines and in human cancer cells. Materials and methods: The UCSSC lines used in this study were obtained in our laboratory. Two cell lines (UCSSC 35 and UCSSC 37) and two human melanoma skin-cancer cells (A375 and G361) were exposed to ionizing radiation to measure acute radiation-dosage cell-survival curves and radiation-induced bystander cell-death response. Normal cells, although extremely sensitive to ionizing radiation, were resistant to the bystander effect whilst tumor cells were sensitive to irradiated cell-conditioned media, showing a dose–response relationship that became saturated at relatively low doses. We applied a biophysical model to describe bystander cell-death through the binding of a ligand to the cells. This model allowed us to calculate the maximum cell death (χ max ) produced by the bystander effect together with its association constant (K By ) in terms of dose equivalence (Gy). The values obtained for K By in A375 and G361 cells were 0.23 and 0.29 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings help to understand how anticancer therapy could have an additional decisive effect in that the response of sub-lethally hit tumor cells to damage might be required for therapy to be successful because the survival of cells communicating with irradiated cells is reduced.

  18. Aromadendrene oxide 2, induces apoptosis in skin epidermoid cancer cells through ROS mediated mitochondrial pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavithra, P S; Mehta, Alka; Verma, Rama S

    2018-03-15

    Aromadendrene oxide 2 (AO-(2)) is an oxygenated sesquiterpene naturally found as a chemical component of essential oils. In the present study anticancer activity of AO-(2) has been investigated on A431 human epidermoid cancer and precancerous HaCaT cells. Cell viability was used to detect cytotoxic activity. Mechanism of cell death induced by AO-(2) treatments was studied using Annexin V-FITC/PI binding, cell cycle analysis, measurement of MMP and ROS generation by flow cytometry. Expression of apoptosis related proteins was investigated by western blot. AO-(2) inhibited the growth and colony formation ability of A431 and HaCaT cells in concentration dependent manner. It induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis through intracellular ROS accumulation. Inhibition of intracellular ROS by ascorbic acid and N-acetyl cysteine treatment completely blocked apoptotic effect. N-acetyl cysteine treatment significantly reversed G0/G1 arrest induced by AO-(2). AO-(2) treatment caused loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratios, cytochrome c release, activation of caspases (cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9) and PARP cleavage. AO-(2) also significantly inhibited the growth of multicellular tumor spheroids of A431 and HaCaT cells. The results of the present study reveals that AO-(2) a chemical component of essential oils induces apoptosis in A431 and HaCaT cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of atopy and tentative diagnosis of skin cancer - results from occupational skin cancer screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, I; Mohr, P; Zander, N; Fölster-Holst, R; Augustin, M

    2017-12-01

    The relationship between atopic conditions and carcinoma of the skin has been described inconsistently. Population-based data providing information on atopic diseases as well as on skin cancer are sparse. To determine the correlation between atopy and prevalence of precanceroses, non-melanoma skin cancer and malignant melanoma (MM), while taking into account known risk factors for skin cancer. Data from occupational skin cancer screenings were analysed in a cross-sectional study. Dermatologists performed whole body examinations and collected medical histories. Subjects comprised all employees (16-70 years) examined from 2006 to 2014. 'Atopy' was defined by clinical screening diagnosis and/or by participant-reported, pre-existing atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma or other specified allergies confirmed by a physician. Tentative screening diagnoses of skin cancer related to actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. The study cohort comprised 90 265 employees (mean age 43 ± 11 years, 58.5% male), 30.7% of whom were ever diagnosed with an atopic disease. Persons with atopic conditions recorded in their medical history and at the time of screening had a significantly lower prevalence of actinic keratosis (AK), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and MM. After controlling for age, sex and relevant risk factors (skin type, childhood sun burns), atopy remained significantly protective against BCC (OR 0.77) and MM (OR 0.53). Design limitations of the study include that all findings of skin cancer were based on clinical examination only and must therefore be considered tentative diagnoses. Furthermore, owing to the cross-sectional study design, causal pathways cannot be proven. However, analyses of data from such a large and general population-based cohort afford valuable insights into the relationship between atopic diseases and skin cancer. They provide the grounds for prospective cohort studies to evaluate and dissect the underlying mechanism. © 2017

  20. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov; Stender, Ida Marie; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst; Vestergaard, Tine; Thormann, Henrik; Hædersdal, Merete; Dam, Tomas Norman; Olesen, Anne Braae

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables in the NMSC database. Information on recurrence, cosmetic results, and complications are registered at two follow-up visits at 3 months (between 0 and 6 months) and 12 months (between 6 and 15 months) after treatment. In 2014, 11,522 patients with 17,575 tumors were registered in the database. Of tumors with a histological diagnosis, 13,571 were BCCs, 840 squamous cell carcinomas, 504 Bowen's disease, and 173 keratoakanthomas. The NMSC database encompasses detailed information on the type of tumor, a variety of prognostic factors, treatment modalities, and outcomes after treatment. The database has revealed that overall, the quality of care of NMSC in Danish dermatological clinics is high, and the database provides the necessary data for continuous quality assurance.

  1. Previous extensive sun exposure and subsequent vitamin D production in patients with basal cell carcinoma of the skin, has no protective effect on internal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindelöf, Bernt; Krynitz, Britta; Ayoubi, Shiva; Martschin, Christoph; Wiegleb-Edström, Desiree; Wiklund, Kerstin

    2012-05-01

    It has been suggested that sunlight through production of vitamin D might have a protective effect on a number of internal cancers. Consequently, in spite of the well known skin cancer risks, some researchers advocate more exposure to ultraviolet radiation, supported by the solarium industry. We estimated the risk of internal cancer before the patient contracted a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin, the most common cancer in white populations and strongly associated with extensive sun exposure. A nested case control study was undertaken in the whole Swedish population. 115,016 patients with BCC and 987,893 controls were linked to population based registers. The cases had an increased risk of getting another form of cancer before the BCC diagnosis: odds ratio (OR)=1.84; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.81-1.86. This risk was mainly due to skin cancer: OR=4.95; 95% CI 4.81-5.09 but also non-skin cancer risk was elevated: OR=1.37; 95% CI 1.35-1.39. We adjusted the estimates for age, level of income, occupational status in national censuses, place of living and sex, where appropriate. Of the cancers specifically suggested to be related to vitamin D status: colon, prostate, breast, and ovary cancer, all had slightly increased ORs whilst for pancreatic and gastric cancer no increased OR was found. Patients with BCC, a proxy for extensive sun exposure, run an increased risk of other forms of cancer prior to the diagnosis of BCC. The findings in this study contradict that vitamin D production through extensive sun exposure has any protective effect on internal cancer but emphasise the increased risk for skin cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-melanoma Skin Cancer in Canada Chapter 4: Management of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zloty, David; Guenther, Lyn C; Sapijaszko, Mariusz; Barber, Kirk; Claveau, Joël; Adamek, Tamara; Ashkenas, John

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignancy. Growth of BCCs leads to local destruction of neighbouring healthy skin and underlying tissue and can result in significant functional and cosmetic morbidity. To provide guidance to Canadian health care practitioners regarding management of BCCs. Literature searches and development of graded recommendations were carried out as discussed in the accompanying Introduction. Although BCCs rarely metastasize, they can be aggressive and disfiguring. This chapter describes the natural history and prognosis of BCCs. Risk stratification is based on clinical features, including the site and size of the tumour, its histologic subtype (nodular vs sclerosing), and its history of recurrence. Various options should be considered for BCC treatment, including cryosurgery, curettage, and topical or photodynamic approaches, as well as fixed-margin surgery and Mohs micrographic surgery. Stratification of recurrence risk for individual BCCs determines the most appropriate therapeutic course. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. A comparison of the direct medical costs for individuals with or without basal or squamous cell skin cancer: A study from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rowell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The composition of the medical costs incurred by people treated for basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas (hereafter keratinocyte cancers is not adequately understood. We sought to compare the medical costs of individuals with or without keratinocyte cancers. Methods: We used national health insurance data to analyze the direct medical costs of 2000 cases and 2000 controls nested within the QSkin prospective cohort study (n = 43,794 conducted in Australia. We reconstructed the medical history of patients using medical and pharmaceutical item codes and then compared the health service costs of individuals treated for keratinocyte cancers with those not treated for keratinocyte cancers. Results: Individuals treated for keratinocyte cancers consumed on average AUD$1320 per annum more in medical services than those without keratinocyte cancers. Only 23.2% of costs were attributed to the explicit treatment of keratinocyte cancers. The principal drivers of the residual costs were medical attendances, surgical procedures on the skin, and histopathology services. We found significant positive associations between history of treatment for keratinocyte cancers with treatments for other health conditions, including melanoma, cardiovascular disease, lipidemia, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, and tuberculosis. Conclusion: Individuals treated for keratinocyte cancers have substantially higher medical costs overall than individuals without keratinocyte cancers. The direct costs of skin cancer excision account for only one-fifth of this difference.

  4. Non melanoma skin cancer and subsequent cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy R Rees

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown an increased risk of cancer after non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC but the individual risk factors underlying this risk have not been elucidated, especially in relation to sun exposure and skin sensitivity to sunlight.The aim of this study was to examine the individual risk factors associated with the development of subsequent cancers after non melanoma skin cancer.Participants in the population-based New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study provided detailed risk factor data, and subsequent cancers were identified via linkage with the state cancer registry. Deaths were identified via state and national death records. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate risk of subsequent malignancies in NMSC patients versus controls and to assess the potential confounding effects of multiple risk factors on this risk.Among 3584 participants, risk of a subsequent cancer (other than NMSC was higher after basal cell carcinoma (BCC (adjusted HR 1.40 [95% CI 1.15, 1.71] than squamous cell carcinoma (SCC (adjusted HR 1.18 [95% CI 0.95, 1.46] compared to controls (adjusted for age, sex and current cigarette smoking. After SCC, risk was higher among those diagnosed before age 60 (HR 1.96 [95% CI 1.24, 3.12]. An over 3-fold risk of melanoma after SCC (HR 3.62; 95% CI 1.85, 7.11 and BCC (HR 3.28; 95% CI 1.66, 6.51 was observed, even after further adjustment for sun exposure-related factors and family history of skin cancer. In men, prostate cancer incidence was higher after BCC compared to controls (HR 1.64; 95% CI 1.10, 2.46.Our population-based study indicates an increased cancer risk after NMSC that cannot be fully explained by known cancer risk factors.

  5. Non melanoma skin cancer and subsequent cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Judy R; Zens, M Scot; Gui, Jiang; Celaya, Maria O; Riddle, Bruce L; Karagas, Margaret R

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have shown an increased risk of cancer after non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) but the individual risk factors underlying this risk have not been elucidated, especially in relation to sun exposure and skin sensitivity to sunlight. The aim of this study was to examine the individual risk factors associated with the development of subsequent cancers after non melanoma skin cancer. Participants in the population-based New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study provided detailed risk factor data, and subsequent cancers were identified via linkage with the state cancer registry. Deaths were identified via state and national death records. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate risk of subsequent malignancies in NMSC patients versus controls and to assess the potential confounding effects of multiple risk factors on this risk. Among 3584 participants, risk of a subsequent cancer (other than NMSC) was higher after basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (adjusted HR 1.40 [95% CI 1.15, 1.71]) than squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (adjusted HR 1.18 [95% CI 0.95, 1.46]) compared to controls (adjusted for age, sex and current cigarette smoking). After SCC, risk was higher among those diagnosed before age 60 (HR 1.96 [95% CI 1.24, 3.12]). An over 3-fold risk of melanoma after SCC (HR 3.62; 95% CI 1.85, 7.11) and BCC (HR 3.28; 95% CI 1.66, 6.51) was observed, even after further adjustment for sun exposure-related factors and family history of skin cancer. In men, prostate cancer incidence was higher after BCC compared to controls (HR 1.64; 95% CI 1.10, 2.46). Our population-based study indicates an increased cancer risk after NMSC that cannot be fully explained by known cancer risk factors.

  6. Non Melanoma Skin Cancer and Subsequent Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Judy R.; Zens, M. Scot; Gui, Jiang; Celaya, Maria O.; Riddle, Bruce L.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have shown an increased risk of cancer after non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) but the individual risk factors underlying this risk have not been elucidated, especially in relation to sun exposure and skin sensitivity to sunlight. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the individual risk factors associated with the development of subsequent cancers after non melanoma skin cancer. Methods Participants in the population-based New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study provided detailed risk factor data, and subsequent cancers were identified via linkage with the state cancer registry. Deaths were identified via state and national death records. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate risk of subsequent malignancies in NMSC patients versus controls and to assess the potential confounding effects of multiple risk factors on this risk. Results Among 3584 participants, risk of a subsequent cancer (other than NMSC) was higher after basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (adjusted HR 1.40 [95% CI 1.15, 1.71]) than squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (adjusted HR 1.18 [95% CI 0.95, 1.46]) compared to controls (adjusted for age, sex and current cigarette smoking). After SCC, risk was higher among those diagnosed before age 60 (HR 1.96 [95% CI 1.24, 3.12]). An over 3-fold risk of melanoma after SCC (HR 3.62; 95% CI 1.85, 7.11) and BCC (HR 3.28; 95% CI 1.66, 6.51) was observed, even after further adjustment for sun exposure-related factors and family history of skin cancer. In men, prostate cancer incidence was higher after BCC compared to controls (HR 1.64; 95% CI 1.10, 2.46). Conclusions Our population-based study indicates an increased cancer risk after NMSC that cannot be fully explained by known cancer risk factors. PMID:24937304

  7. Eyelid skin cancer: еpidemiology, prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Brovkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on 3597 patients with primary malignant tumors of the visual organ were submitted to the Moscow City Cancer Register of the Moscow Healthcare Department in 2006–2015. Rate of eyelid skin cancer is 75.62 %. Calculated incidence is 3.4 per 100,000 population. The peak of the disease is at 70–80 years of age. The disease was diagnosed in people of age 46–85 years, it was 66.65 % more frequent in women than in men. Basal cell carcinoma comprised 91.14 % of all cases. In 65.7 % of cases the tumor was diagnosed at stage Т1 and Т2, and at stage Т1, when patient can be cured, only in 34 % of cases. Objective. Study of incidence of malignant eyelid tumors of epithelial genesis, their prognostic characteristics using data from Moscow City Ophthalmic Oncology Center and Ophthalmic Oncology Department of the Branch # 1 “Ophthalmology Clinic” of the S.P. Botkin City Clinical Hospital of the Moscow Healthcare Department.

  8. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  9. Hedgehog signalling in skin development and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athar, Mohammad; Tang, Xiuwei; Lee, Juliette L; Kopelovich, Levy; Kim, Arianna L

    2006-09-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignancy, affecting 750,000 Americans each year. The understanding of mutations that are known to activate hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway genes, including PATCHED (PTCH), sonic hedgehog (Shh) and smoothened (Smo), has substantially expanded our current understanding of the genetic basis of BCC development. The Hh signalling pathway is one of the most fundamental signal transduction pathways in embryonic development. In skin, the Shh pathway is crucial for maintaining stem cell population, and for regulating hair follicle and sebaceous gland development. This pathway plays a minimal role in adult tissues, but is known to be activated in many neoplasms, including those arising in the skin. In this review, we attempt to summarize the results of published studies on some important aspects of the Shh pathway and its involvement in skin development and carcinogenesis. We also provide a description of various animal models that have been developed, based on our knowledge of the Shh pathway in human skin cancers. Additionally, we include a brief description of studies conducted in our laboratory and by others on the chemoprevention of BCCs. This review therefore provides a current understanding of the role of the Shh pathway in skin development and neoplasia. It also provides a basis for the molecular target-based chemoprevention and therapeutic management of skin cancer.

  10. XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism is no risk factor for skin cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rouf Maqbool

    Skin cancer, like any other cancer, involves unaccountable growth of skin cells, having ability to invade or spread to other parts of body. It occurs when unrepaired DNA damage to skin cells. (most often caused by ultraviolet radiation from sunshine) triggers mutations, or genetic defects, that lead the skin cells to multiply.

  11. Skin cancer prevention in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, C; Foley, P

    2009-11-01

    Australia has one of the highest skin cancer incidence and mortality rates in the world. The reason for these high rates is due in part to the high ambient UV radiation levels, combined with a predominantly susceptible fair-skinned population. To address this problem, since 1980 Australians have been exposed to social marketing campaigns to raise awareness of skin cancer prevention. These campaigns have used mass media alongside interventions in schools, workplaces, and in community and leisure settings to motivate sun protective behaviour. As a result of these interventions it can be demonstrated that social marketing campaigns can be a very effective method to not only motivate behaviour change, reduce sunburn, and increase awareness but more importantly, reduce melanoma rates and bring positive economic returns to government. However long term investment in this area is required otherwise any population gains in behaviour are very likely to be quickly eroded.

  12. Occupational skin cancer may be underreported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carøe, Tanja Korfitsen; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer may, in some cases, be caused by occupational exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and exposures leading to occupationally induced skin cancers in Denmark during a ten-year period.......Skin cancer may, in some cases, be caused by occupational exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and exposures leading to occupationally induced skin cancers in Denmark during a ten-year period....

  13. Skin cancer concerns particular to women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Al-Dujaili

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The published findings on causation of melanoma skin cancer and non-melanoma skin cancer in females are outlined, as well as current detection methods and treatment options. Furthermore, a variety of preventative measures specific to women that can reduce the chance of being diagnosed with skin cancer are discussed.

  14. Skin cancer concerns particular to women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Al-Dujaili

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The published findings on causation of melanoma skin cancer and non-melanoma skin cancer in females are outlined, as well as current detection methods and treatment options. Furthermore, a variety of preventative measures specific to women that can reduce the chance of being diagnosed with skin cancer are discussed.

  15. Green tea polyphenol, (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, induces toxicity in human skin cancer cells by targeting β-catenin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Tripti [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Katiyar, Santosh K., E-mail: skatiyar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35233 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The green tea polyphenol, (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), has been shown to have anti-carcinogenic effects in several skin tumor models, and efforts are continued to investigate the molecular targets responsible for its cytotoxic effects to cancer cells. Our recent observation that β-catenin is upregulated in skin tumors suggested the possibility that the anti-skin carcinogenic effects of EGCG are mediated, at least in part, through its effects on β-catenin signaling. We have found that treatment of the A431 and SCC13 human skin cancer cell lines with EGCG resulted in reduced cell viability and increased cell death and that these cytotoxic effects were associated with inactivation of β-catenin signaling. Evidence of EGCG-induced inactivation of β-catenin included: (i) reduced accumulation of nuclear β-catenin; (ii) enhanced levels of casein kinase1α, reduced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and increased phosphorylation of β-catenin on critical serine{sup 45,33/37} residues; and (iii) reduced levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, which are down-stream targets of β-catenin. Treatment of cells with prostaglandin E2 (PGE{sub 2}) enhanced the accumulation of β-catenin and enhanced β-catenin signaling. Treatment with either EGCG or an EP2 antagonist (AH6809) reduced the PGE{sub 2}-enhanced levels of cAMP, an upstream regulator of β-catenin. Inactivation of β-catenin by EGCG resulted in suppression of cell survival signaling proteins. siRNA knockdown of β-catenin in A431 and SCC13 cells reduced cell viability. Collectively, these data suggest that induction of cytotoxicity in skin cancer cells by EGCG is mediated by targeting of β-catenin signaling and that the β-catenin signaling is upregulated by inflammatory mediators. - Highlights: • EGCG inhibits cancer cell viability through inactivation of β-catenin signaling. • Inactivation of β-catenin involves the downregulation of inflammatory mediators. • EGCG

  16. Anticancer drugs and the regulation of Hedgehog genes GLI1 and PTCH1, a comparative study in nonmelanoma skin cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Uffe H; Bojesen, Sophie; Gehl, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most common cancer in humans, comprising mainly basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). BCC proliferation is highly dependent on the Hedgehog signaling pathway. We aimed to investigate a panel of anticancer drugs with known activity against skin...... of immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT), BCC (UWBCC1 and BCC77015), and SCC (A431 and SCC25) cell lines. The impact of treatment on the regulation of Hedgehog pathway target genes (GLI1 and PTCH1), measured by real-time PCR, was compared between UWBCC1 and HaCaT. Varying cell line sensitivity profiles...... to the examined anticancer drugs were observed. Generally, 24-h drug exposure was sufficient to reduce cell viability. We found that 5-FU, MTX, and cisplatin significantly downregulated the expression of two genes controlled by the Hedgehog pathway (≤25-, 2.9-, and 12.5-fold, respectively, for GLI1 in UWBCC1...

  17. Skin cancer in Puerto Rico: a multiannual incidence comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre-Lugo, Eneida M; Figueroa, Luz D; Sánchez, Jorge L; Morales-Burgos, Adisbeth; Conde, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    The incidence of skin cancer continues to increase worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico in a selected year (2005) and to compare these findings with those previously reported for Puerto Rico in 1974 and 1981 and with other countries. The data was collected from the pathology reports corresponding to the period of January to December 2005 of 21 participating Pathology Laboratories throughout Puerto Rico. The rate and distribution of the main types of skin cancer was calculated based on sex, age, anatomic location and laterality. The incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico for 2005 was 6,568 cases, which represent a rate of 167.9 per 100,000 inhabitants. The most common type of skin cancer was basal-cell carcinoma. Skin cancer was more common in males except for melanoma, which was more common in females. The incidence increases with age on all types of skin cancer. The head and neck area was the most frequent location, except for melanoma in women, which was more common on the legs. The incidence rate was 41.5/100,000 in 1974, 52.5/100,000 in 1981 and 167.9/100,000 in 2005, a 305% increase. We found an increasing incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico when compared with previous reported data. This analysis provides a comprehensive evaluation of the epidemiology of skin cancer in Puerto Rico.

  18. Consensus for nonmelanoma skin cancer treatment: basal cell carcinoma, including a cost analysis of treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauvar, Arielle N B; Cronin, Terrence; Roenigk, Randall; Hruza, George; Bennett, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in the US population affecting approximately 2.8 million people per year. Basal cell carcinomas are usually slow-growing and rarely metastasize, but they do cause localized tissue destruction, compromised function, and cosmetic disfigurement. To provide clinicians with guidelines for the management of BCC based on evidence from a comprehensive literature review, and consensus among the authors. An extensive review of the medical literature was conducted to evaluate the optimal treatment methods for cutaneous BCC, taking into consideration cure rates, recurrence rates, aesthetic and functional outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of the procedures. Surgical approaches provide the best outcomes for BCCs. Mohs micrographic surgery provides the highest cure rates while maximizing tissue preservation, maintenance of function, and cosmesis. Mohs micrographic surgery is an efficient and cost-effective procedure and remains the treatment of choice for high-risk BCCs and for those in cosmetically sensitive locations. Nonsurgical modalities may be used for low-risk BCCs when surgery is contraindicated or impractical, but the cure rates are lower.

  19. Antiangiogenesis in the treatment of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Vincent W; Li, William W

    2008-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new capillary blood vessels from existing vasculature. Cancers are dependent upon angiogenesis for their growth. Inhibition of angiogenesis can slow, halt, or regress tumors. Angiogenesis inhibition is now validated for the treatment of cancer using a variety of approved biologic, small molecule, multitargeting, and immunomodulatory agents. In the skin, strategies to inhibit angiogenesis-signaling pathways include blockade of COX-2, m-TOR, sonic hedgehog, growth factor receptor activation, and activation of Toll-like receptors (TLR). The agent with the most clinical experience as a topical antiangiogenic therapy is imiquimod. Imiquimod is a TLR agonist, with immune response modifying properties that also stimulates antiangiogenic cytokines, downregulates the expression of proangiogenic factors, upregulates the expression of endogenous inhibitors, and induces endothelial cell apoptosis. By titrating its dosing for angiogenesis inhibitory activity and not for gross inflammation, imiquimod can be applied in an efficacious and well-tolerated fashion to treat skin cancer.

  20. Trends in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer (Basal Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma) in Canada: A Descriptive Analysis of Available Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mariam; Kalia, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Despite its increased incidence and status as the most prevalent cancer in Canada, there is a paucity of epidemiological data on non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). To assess trends of keratinocyte carcinomas (KC) in Canada over 5 decades. Articles published from 1960 to 2015 on NMSC in Canada were identified through MEDLINE. Six articles met our search criteria. Overall, KC has increased. However, the rate of increase in the past decade has slowed down and decreased in younger age cohorts. Men had higher incidences of KC. In both sexes, the basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma ratio was ≥2.5:1. Keratinocyte carcinomas were most commonly located on the head and neck, and increasing rates are occurring on the trunk. The methods of registering skin cancer cases vary among different provinces. Keratinocyte carcinomas incidence is overall increasing; however, there may be evidence that the incidence is leveling off and decreasing in younger age cohorts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Epidemiologic study of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-01-01

    Data from 140 A-bomb survivors with skin cancer were analyzed with the purpose of elucidating the relationship between atomic bombing and skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer was significantly correlated with the distance from the hypocenter (p<0.01), regardless of sex. Basal cell epithelioma was the most predominant, followed by squamous cell carcinoma. Histology of skin cancer seemed independent of the distance. Since 1965, the incidence of skin cancer has been increased with aging in A-bomb survivors exposed at le2500 m from the hypocenter. It has been significantly higher since 1975 in the le2500 m group than in the ge3000 m group. (N.K.).

  2. Early detection of skin cancer: experience of a skin cancer prevention campaign in Piauí-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bandeira Lages

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the correlation between the diagnoses of skin cancer and known risk factors through analysis of data from the National Skin Cancer Prevention Campaign held by Brazilian Society of Dermatology in the state of Piauí, Brazil, in recent years. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive and analytical report using quantitative data obtained from a prevention campaign in the state of Piauí, in 2009 and 2010. Collected data was submitted to a descriptive analysis, and multivariate logistic regression, using as dependent variable the skin cancer diagnosis. Results: In 2009 and 2010, this campaign was responsible for 1141 consultations, diagnosing 122 (10.7% cases of skin cancer: 108 basal cell carcinomas (BCC, 10 squamous cell (SCC and four melanomas. Of those examined, 35.4% were male, 73.1% reported inadequate sun protection, 16.4% had a family history of skin cancer and 7.2% had personal history. Those with history of skin cancer were 5.24 times more likely to have a new diagnosis of cancer, while those presenting non-black skin were 4.91 times more likely to diagnosis. Conclusion: Personal or family history of epithelial neoplasia, non-colored black skin and the male gender were associated to higher chances of developing skin cancer. In addition, unprotected sun exposure remains routine.

  3. Skin Cancer Risk Is Modified by KIR/HLA Interactions That Influence the Activation of Natural Killer Immune Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineretsky, Karin A; Karagas, Margaret R; Christensen, Brock C; Kuriger-Laber, Jacquelyn K; Perry, Ann E; Storm, Craig A; Nelson, Heather H

    2016-01-15

    Natural killer (NK)-cell phenotype is partially mediated through binding of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) with HLA class I ligands. The KIR gene family is highly polymorphic and not well captured by standard genome-wide association study approaches. Here, we tested the hypothesis that variations in KIR gene content combined with HLA class I ligand status is associated with keratinocyte skin cancers using a population-based study of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We conducted an interaction analysis of KIR gene content variation and HLA-B (Bw4 vs. Bw6) and HLA-C (C1 vs. C2). KIR centromeric B haplotype was associated with significant risk of multiple BCC tumors (OR, 2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-5.21), and there was a significant interaction between HLA-C and the activating gene KIR2DS3 for BCC (Pinteraction = 0.005). Furthermore, there was significant interaction between HLA-B and telomeric KIR B haplotype (containing the activating genes KIR3DS1 and KIR2DS1) as well as HLA-B and the activating KIR gene KIR2DS5 (Pinteraction 0.001 and 0.012, respectively). Similar but greatly attenuated associations were observed for SCC. Moreover, previous in vitro models demonstrated that p53 is required for upregulation of NK ligands, and accordingly, we observed there was a strong association between the KIR B haplotype and p53 alteration in BCC tumors, with a higher likelihood that KIR B carriers harbor abnormal p53 (P KIR and HLA modify risks of BCC and SCC and that KIR encoded by the B genes provides selective pressure for altered p53 in BCC tumors. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Anticancer action of lactucopicrin in SKMEL-5 human skin cancer cells is mediated via apoptosis induction, G2/M cell cycle arrest and downregulation of m=TOR/PI3K/AKT signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Lan, Dong; Ning, Shuhua; Ruan, Liwen

    2018-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the cancers responsible for significant morbidity and mortality across the globe. The treatment options for skin cancer are limited and associated with significant toxicity. Therefore, researches have been directed towards exploring molecules that could prove beneficial in the treatment of this disease. Lactucopicrin is an important sesquiterpene lactone with important pharmacological potential. In the present study the anticancer effects of lactucopicrin against human skin SKMEL-5 cancer cell line were investigated. Antiproliferative effects were examined by CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis was detected by DAPI and annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining. Cell cycle analysis was carried out by flow cytometry. Protein expression was determined by western blotting. The results indicated that lactucopicrin exerts significant anticancer effects on the SKMEL-5 cells with an IC50 of 7.5 μM. Its anticancer effects were due to induction of apoptosis. Lactucopicrin could upregulate the expression of Bax which was associated with concomitant downregulation of Bcl-2 expression. Additionally, lactucopicrin induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in SKMEL-5 cells in a dose-dependent manner and also inhibited the m-TOR/PI3K/AKT signalling pathway. These results indicate that lactucopicrin shows potent anticancer action in the tested skin cancer cells and may prove a prospective lead molecule for the treatment of skin cancer.

  5. Targeted Therapy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Spallone

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most prevalent cancer in light-skinned populations, and includes mainly Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCC, representing around 75% of NMSC and Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC. The incidence of these tumors is continuously growing. It was found that the overall number of procedures for NMSC in US rose by 76%, from 1,158,298 in 1992 to 2,048,517 in 2006. Although mortality from NMSC tends to be very low, clearly the morbidity related to these skin cancers is very high. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and nonsurgical interventions. Surgery was considered the gold standard therapy, however, advancements in the knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms of NMSCs led to the identification of key targets for drug intervention and to the consequent development of several targeted therapies. These represent the future in treatment of these common forms of cancer ensuring a high cure rate, preservation of the maximal amount of normal surrounding tissue and optimal cosmetic outcome. Here, we will review recent advancements in NMSC targeted therapies focusing on BCC and SCC.

  6. Targeted Therapy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spallone, Giulia; Botti, Elisabetta; Costanzo, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.costanzo@uniroma2.it [Department of Dermatology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via Montpellier 1, 00199, Rome (Italy)

    2011-05-03

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most prevalent cancer in light-skinned populations, and includes mainly Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCC), representing around 75% of NMSC and Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC). The incidence of these tumors is continuously growing. It was found that the overall number of procedures for NMSC in US rose by 76%, from 1,158,298 in 1992 to 2,048,517 in 2006. Although mortality from NMSC tends to be very low, clearly the morbidity related to these skin cancers is very high. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and nonsurgical interventions. Surgery was considered the gold standard therapy, however, advancements in the knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms of NMSCs led to the identification of key targets for drug intervention and to the consequent development of several targeted therapies. These represent the future in treatment of these common forms of cancer ensuring a high cure rate, preservation of the maximal amount of normal surrounding tissue and optimal cosmetic outcome. Here, we will review recent advancements in NMSC targeted therapies focusing on BCC and SCC.

  7. Basal cell skin cancer and the risk of second primary cancers: a cancer registry-based study in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krilaviciute, Agne; Vincerzevskiene, Ieva; Smailyte, Giedre

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this population-based cohort study was to determine the risk of second primary cancer in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) patients in Lithuania. This analysis was based on patients diagnosed with BCC in Lithuania between 1998 and 2007 and followed until 2011. Standardized incidence ratios for subsequent cancers as a ratio of observed number of cancer cases in people with previous BCC diagnosis to the expected number of cancer cases in the underlying general population were calculated. After diagnosis of BCC, 1442 new cases of selected cancers were diagnosed. Compared with the general population, the incidence of all new primaries combined after BCC was very close to expected. Statistically meaningful increase in developing subsequent cancer was obtained for Hodgkin's lymphoma, prostate cancer, and leukemia in men, and for cancers of the lip, lung, and breast in women. Risk of melanoma and thyroid cancer was significantly elevated in both sexes. Relative risk of cancer of the eye was increased although not significant. In our study, we found increased cancer risk for cancers related to sun exposure. In addition, increased risks were identified for Hodgkin's lymphoma, thyroid cancer, leukemia, prostate, and breast cancer in BCC patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Bmi-1 helix–turn and ring finger domains are required for Bmi-1 antagonism of (–) epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppression of skin cancer cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam; Scharadin, Tiffany M.; Han, Bingshe; Xu, Wen; Eckert, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    The Bmi-1 Polycomb group (PcG) protein is an important epigenetic regulator of chromatin status. Elevated Bmi-1 expression is observed in skin cancer and contributes to cancer cell survival. (–) Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an important green tea-derived cancer prevention agent, reduces Bmi-1 level resulting in reduced skin cancer cell survival. This is associated with increased p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression, reduced cyclin, and cyclin dependent kinase expression, and increased cleavage of apoptotic markers. These EGCG-dependent changes are attenuated by vector-mediated maintenance of Bmi-1 expression. In the present study, we identify Bmi-1 functional domains that are required for this response. Bmi-1 expression reverses the EGCG-dependent reduction in SCC-13 cell survival, but Bmi-1 mutants lacking the helix–turn–helix–turn–helix–turn (Bmi-1ΔHT) or ring finger (Bmi-1ΔRF) domains do not reverse the EGCG impact. The reduction in Ring1B ubiquitin ligase activity, observed in the presence of mutant Bmi-1, is associated with reduced ability of these mutants to interact with and activate Ring1B ubiquitin ligase, the major ligase responsible for the ubiquitination of histone H2A during chromatin condensation. This results in less chromatin condensation leading to increased tumor suppressor gene expression and reduced cell survival; thereby making the cells more susceptible to the anti-survival action of EGCG. We further show that these mutants act in a dominant-negative manner to inhibit the action of endogenous Bmi-1. Our results suggest that the HT and RF domains are required for Bmi-1 ability to maintain skin cancer cell survival in response to cancer preventive agents. PMID:25843776

  9. Roles of the Immune System in Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangwala, S.; Tsai, K.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been increasing interest in understanding the roles of the immune system in the development and progression of cancer. The importance of the immune system in human skin cancer has been long recognised based primarily upon the increased incidence of skin cancers in organ transplant recipients and mechanisms of ultraviolet light-mediated immunomodulation. In this review, we integrate multiple lines of evidence highlighting the roles of the immune system in skin cancer. First, we discuss the concepts of cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting as they might relate to human skin cancers. We then describe the clinical and molecular mechanisms of skin cancer development and progression in the contexts of therapeutic immunosuppression in organ transplant recipients, viral oncogenesis, and ultraviolet light-induced immunomodulation with a primary focus on basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The clinical evidence supporting expanding roles for immunotherapy is also described. Finally, we discuss recent research examining the functions of particular immune cell subsets in skin cancer and how they might contribute to both anti-tumour and pro-tumour effects. A better understanding of the biological mechanisms of cancer immunosurveillance holds the promise of enabling better therapies. PMID:21729024

  10. Burden and Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Hollestein (Loes)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractThe incidence of skin cancer is increasing in the Netherlands since 1989, the first year of the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR). In 2010 more than 43,000 patients were newly diagnosed with skin cancer in the Netherlands. During a life time at least 1 in 5 persons living in

  11. Epidemiology of Skin Cancer: Role of Some Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Monfrecola

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer entities is dramatically increasing worldwide. Exposure to UVB radiation is known to induce basal and squamous cell skin cancer in a dose-dependent way and the depletion of stratospheric ozone has implications for increases in biologically damaging solar UVB radiation reaching the earth’s surface. In humans, arsenic is known to cause cancer of the skin, as well as cancer of the lung, bladder, liver, and kidney. Exposure to high levels of arsenic in drinking water has been recognized in some regions of the world. SCC and BCC (squamous and basal cell carcinoma have been reported to be associated with ingestion of arsenic alone or in combination with other risk factors. The impact of changes in ambient temperature will influence people’s behavior and the time they spend outdoors. Higher temperatures accompanying climate change may lead, among many other effects, to increasing incidence of skin cancer.

  12. Epidemiology of Skin Cancer: Role of Some Environmental Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbrocini, Gabriella, E-mail: gafabbro@unina.it [Department of Systematic Pathology, Division of Dermatology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Triassi, Maria [Department of Preventive Medical Sciences, Division of Hygiene, University of Naples Federico II Naples (Italy); Mauriello, Maria Chiara [Department of Systematic Pathology, Division of Dermatology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Torre, Guglielma [Department of Preventive Medical Sciences, Division of Hygiene, University of Naples Federico II Naples (Italy); Annunziata, Maria Carmela; Vita, Valerio De; Pastore, Francesco; D’Arco, Vincenza; Monfrecola, Giuseppe [Department of Systematic Pathology, Division of Dermatology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy)

    2010-11-24

    The incidence rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer entities is dramatically increasing worldwide. Exposure to UVB radiation is known to induce basal and squamous cell skin cancer in a dose-dependent way and the depletion of stratospheric ozone has implications for increases in biologically damaging solar UVB radiation reaching the earth’s surface. In humans, arsenic is known to cause cancer of the skin, as well as cancer of the lung, bladder, liver, and kidney. Exposure to high levels of arsenic in drinking water has been recognized in some regions of the world. SCC and BCC (squamous and basal cell carcinoma) have been reported to be associated with ingestion of arsenic alone or in combination with other risk factors. The impact of changes in ambient temperature will influence people’s behavior and the time they spend outdoors. Higher temperatures accompanying climate change may lead, among many other effects, to increasing incidence of skin cancer.

  13. Epidemiogic aspects of skin cancer in organ-transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisgerhof, Hermina Christina

    2011-01-01

    The risk of (skin) cancer is highly increased in organ-transplant recipients who are kept on immunesuppressive drugs to prevent graft rejection. This thesis dealt with the epidemiologic aspects and risk factors for cancer focused on cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.

  14. Risk of skin cancer following tamoxifen treatment in more than 16,000 breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstegaard, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Andersson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    diagnosed with breast cancer during 1977–2007 from the nationwide clinical database of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group, was followed for a primary skin cancer [basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or melanoma] in the Danish Cancer Registry supplemented by data on BCC and SCC......Background: Women with breast cancer are at increased risk of developing skin cancer. Little is known about how tamoxifen affects this risk. We aimed to investigate whether tamoxifen treatment following breast cancer is associated with skin cancer. Methods: A cohort consisting of 44,589 women...... from the Danish Pathology Register. We investigated incidence of skin cancer among 16,214 women treated with tamoxifen compared to 28,375 women not treated with tamoxifen by calculating incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in Cox regression models. Results: Tamoxifen users were followed for a median of 2...

  15. Targeted Deletion and Lipidomic Analysis Identify Epithelial Cell COX-2 as a Major Driver of Chemically-induced Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jing; Ishikawa, Tomo-o; Dumlao, Darren S.; Norris, Paul C.; Magyar, Clara E.; Mikulec, Carol; Catapang, Art; Dennis, Edward A.; Fischer, Susan M.; Herschman, Harvey R.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacologic and global gene deletion studies demonstrate that cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2/COX2) plays a critical role in DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumor induction. While many cell types in the tumor microenvironment express COX-2, the cell types in which COX-2 expression is required for tumor promotion are not clearly established. Here, cell-type specific Cox-2 gene deletion reveals a vital role for skin epithelial cell COX-2 expression in DMBA/TPA tumor induction. In contrast, myeloid Cox-2 gene deletion has no effect on DMBA/TPA tumorigenesis. The infrequent, small tumors that develop on mice with an epithelial cell-specific Cox-2 gene deletion have decreased proliferation and increased cell differentiation properties. Blood vessel density is reduced in tumors with an epithelial cell-specific Cox-2 gene deletion, compared to littermate control tumors, suggesting a reciprocal relationship in tumor progression between COX-2 expressing tumor epithelial cells and microenvironment endothelial cells. Lipidomics analysis of skin and tumors from DMBA/TPA-treated mice suggests that the prostaglandins PGE2 and PGF2α are likely candidates for the epithelial cell COX-2-dependent eicosanoids that mediate tumor progression. This study both illustrates the value of cell-type specific gene deletions in understanding the cellular roles of signal-generating pathways in complex microenvironments and emphasizes the benefit of a systems-based lipidomic analysis approach to identify candidate lipid mediators of biological responses. PMID:25063587

  16. Melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers in hairy cell leukaemia: a Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results population analysis and the 30-year experience at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Justin M; Kishtagari, Ashwin; Hsu, Meier; Lacouture, Mario E; Postow, Michael A; Park, Jae H; Stein, Eytan M; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Devlin, Sean M; Tallman, Martin S

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have examined melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) incidence rates after a diagnosis of hairy cell leukaemia (HCL). We assessed 267 HCL patients treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data for melanoma and NMSC incidence rates after HCL. Incidence data from MSKCC patients demonstrated a 10-year combined melanoma and NMSC skin cancer rate of 11·3%, melanoma 4·4% and NMSC 6·9%. Molecular analysis of skin cancers from MSKCC patients revealed activating RAS mutations in 3/9 patients, including one patient with melanoma. Of 4750 SEER patients with HCL, 55 (1·2%) had a subsequent diagnosis of melanoma. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) did not show that melanoma was more common in HCL patients versus the general population (SIR 1·3, 95% CI 0·78-2·03). Analysis of SEER HCL patients diagnosed before and after 1990 (approximately before and after purine analogue therapy was introduced) showed no evidence of an increased incidence after 1990. A better understanding of any potential association between HCL and skin cancer is highly relevant given ongoing trials using BRAF inhibitors, such as vemurafenib, for relapsed HCL, as RAS-mutant skin cancers could be paradoxically activated in these patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Tumor Suppressor Function of CYLD in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Masoumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-related proteins posttranslationally modify substrates, and thereby alter the functions of their targets. The ubiquitination process is involved in various physiological responses, and dysregulation of components of the ubiquitin system has been linked to many diseases including skin cancer. The ubiquitin pathways activated among skin cancers are highly diverse and may reflect the various characteristics of the cancer type. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the most common types of human skin cancer, are instances where the involvement of the deubiquitination enzyme CYLD has been recently highlighted. In basal cell carcinoma, the tumor suppressor protein CYLD is repressed at the transcriptional levels through hedgehog signaling pathway. Downregulation of CYLD in basal cell carcinoma was also shown to interfere with TrkC expression and signaling, thereby promoting cancer progression. By contrast, the level of CYLD is unchanged in squamous cell carcinoma, instead, catalytic inactivation of CYLD in the skin has been linked to the development of squamous cell carcinoma. This paper will focus on the current knowledge that links CYLD to nonmelanoma skin cancers and will explore recent insights regarding CYLD regulation of NF-κB and hedgehog signaling during the development and progression of these types of human tumors.

  18. Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, Ruth M; Cole, Bryan E; Wallace, Vincent P; Pye, Richard J; Arnone, Donald D; Linfield, Edmund H; Pepper, Michael

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) in reflection geometry for the study of skin tissue and related cancers both in vitro and in vivo. The sensitivity of terahertz radiation to polar molecules, such as water, makes TPI suitable for studying the hydration levels in the skin and the determination of the lateral spread of skin cancer pre-operatively. By studying the terahertz pulse shape in the time domain we have been able to differentiate between diseased and normal tissue for the study of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Basal cell carcinoma has shown a positive terahertz contrast, and inflammation and scar tissue a negative terahertz contrast compared to normal tissue. In vivo measurements on the stratum corneum have enabled visualization of the stratum corneum-epidermis interface and the study of skin hydration levels. These results demonstrate the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the study of skin tissue and its related disorders, both in vitro and in vivo

  19. Evidence that arsenite acts as a cocarcinogen in skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossman, Toby G.; Uddin, Ahmed N.; Burns, Fredric J.

    2004-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (arsenite and arsenate) in drinking water has been associated with skin cancers in several countries such as Taiwan, Chile, Argentina, Bangladesh, and Mexico. This association has not been established in the United States. In addition, inorganic arsenic alone in drinking water does not cause skin cancers in animals. We recently showed that concentrations as low as 1.25 mg/l sodium arsenite were able to enhance the tumorigenicity of solar UV irradiation in mice. The tumors were almost all squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). These data suggest that arsenic in drinking water may need a carcinogenic partner, such as sunlight, in the induction of skin cancers. Arsenite may enhance tumorigenicity via effects on DNA repair and DNA damage-induced cell cycle effects, leading to genomic instability. Others have found that dimethlyarsinic acid (DMA), a metabolite of arsenite, can induce bladder cancers at high concentrations in drinking water. In those experiments, skin cancers were not produced. Taken together, these data suggest that arsenite (or possibly an earlier metabolite), and not DMA, is responsible for the skin cancers, but a second genotoxic agent may be a requirement. The differences between the US and the other arsenic-exposed populations with regard to skin cancers might be explained by the lower levels of arsenic in the US, less sun exposure, better nutrition, or perhaps genetic susceptibility differences

  20. Histology of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Cornelia S L

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of skin tumors is increasing among elderly patients, and the multi-morbidities which occur in the elderly are a great challenge for dermatologists. Basis of every treatment of skin cancer patients is a reliable diagnosis. Therefore, histopathology serves as the gold standard in clinical dermatooncology and dermatologic surgery. This chapter provides a comprehensive review on the main types of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers, including precursor lesions.

  1. Radiation Therapy in Elderly Skin Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hee

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the long term results (local control, survival, failure, and complications) after radiation therapy for skin cancer in elderly patients. The study spanned from January 1990 to October 2002. Fifteen elderly patients with skin cancer were treated by radiotherapy at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. The age distribution of the patients surveyed was 72 to 95 years, with a median age of 78.8 years. The pathologic classification of the 15 patients included squamous cell carcinoma (10 patients), basal cell carcinoma (3 patients), verrucous carcinoma (1 patient) and skin adnexal origin carcinoma (1 patient). The most common tumor location was the head (13 patients). The mean tumor diameter was 4.9 cm (range 2 to 9 cm). The radiation dose was delivered via an electron beam of 6 to 15 MeV. The dose range was adjusted to the tumor diameter and depth of tumor invasion. The total radiation dose ranged from 50∼80 Gy (mean: 66 Gy) with a 2 Gy fractional dose prescribed to the 80% isodose line once a day and 5 times a week. One patient with lymph node metastasis was treated with six MV photon beams boosted with electron beams. The length of the follow-up periods ranged from 10 to 120 months with a median follow-up period of 48 months. The local control rates were 100% (15/15). In addition, the five year disease free survival rate (5YDFS) was 80% and twelve patients (80%) had no recurrence and skin cancer recurrence occurred in 3 patients (20%). Three patients have lived an average of 90 months (68∼120 months) without recurrence or metastasis. A total of 9 patients who died as a result of other causes had a mean survival time of 55.8 months after radiation therapy. No severe acute or chronic complications were observed after radiation therapy. Only minor complications including radiation dermatitis was treated with supportive care. The results suggest that radiation therapy is an effective and safe treatment method for the treatment of skin cancer in

  2. Pyrimidine dimer excision in human cells and skin cancer. [Ultraviolet Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regan, James D.; Carrier, W. L.; Smith, D. P.; Waters, Raymond

    1977-01-01

    We have compared three different methods for estimating the induction and removal of uv induced pyrimidine dimers from the DNA of human fibroblasts. Results indicate that after uv doses of 5-20 J/m/sup 2/ 50% of the dimers are removed by 24 hours after irradiation. Almost complete excision can be observed if the cells are incubated for periods not less than 72 hours after 5 J/m/sup 2/. After higher doses it probably takes even longer fr such complete removal to be seen.

  3. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  4. A case report of Muir-Torre syndrome in a woman with breast cancer and MSI-Low skin squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kientz, Caroline; Joly, Marie-Odile; Faivre, Laurence; Clemenson, Alix; Dalac, Sophie; Lepage, Côme; Chapusot, Caroline; Jacquot, Caroline; Schiappa, Renaud; Lebrun, Marine

    2017-01-01

    The tumor spectrum in the Lynch syndrome is well defined, comprising an increased risk of developing colonic and extracolonic malignancies. Muir-Torre syndrome is a variant with a higher risk of skin disease. Patients have been described carrying mutations in the mismatch repair genes and presenting tumors with unusual histology or affected organ not part of the Lynch syndrome spectrum. Hence, the real link between Lynch syndrome, or Muir-Torre syndrome, and these tumors remains difficult to assess. We present the case of a 45-year-old-woman, diagnosed with breast cancer at 39 years of age and skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at 41 years of age, without personal history of colorectal cancer. The microsatellite instability analysis performed on the skin SCC showed a low-level of microsatellite instability (MSI-Low). The immunohistochemical expression analysis of the four DNA mismatch repair proteins MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 showed a partial loss of the expression of MSH2 and MSH6 proteins. Germline deletion was found in MSH2 gene (c.1277-? _1661 + ?del), exon 8 to 10. Then, at 45 years of age, she presented hyperplastic polyps of the colon and a sebaceous adenoma. Squamous cell carcinomas have been described in Lynch syndrome and Muir-Torre syndrome in two studies and two case reports. This new case further supports a possible relationship between Lynch syndrome and squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. Locally advanced skin cancer in an albino, a treatment dilemma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the commonest skin malignancy in this population2,3. In the. African albino the risk of developing this malignancy is up to. 1000-fold higher than in the general population 4,5. The head and neck is the commonest site for squamous cell cancer. This was the case with our patient, whose five cancerous lesions occurred in this ...

  6. Effect of radiotherapy dose and volume on relapse in Merkel cell cancer of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Matthew; Harvey, Jennifer; Porceddu, Sandro; Dickie, Graeme; Hewitt, Susan; Colquist, Shoni; Zarate, Dannie; Poulsen, Michael

    2010-07-01

    To assess the effect of radiotherapy (RT) dose and volume on relapse patterns in patients with Stage I-III Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). This was a retrospective analysis of 112 patients diagnosed with MCC between January 2000 and December 2005 and treated with curative-intent RT. Of the 112 evaluable patients, 88% had RT to the site of primary disease for gross (11%) or subclinical (78%) disease. Eighty-nine percent of patients had RT to the regional lymph nodes; in most cases (71%) this was for subclinical disease in the adjuvant or elective setting, whereas 21 patients (19%) were treated with RT to gross nodal disease. With a median follow-up of 3.7 years, the 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 72% and 53%, respectively, and the 2-year locoregional control rate was 75%. The in-field relapse rate was 3% for primary disease, and relapse was significantly lower for patients receiving >or=50 Gy (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06-0.86). Surgical margins did not affect the local relapse rate. The in-field relapse rate was 11% for RT to the nodes, with dose being significant for nodal gross disease (HR = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07-0.87). Patients who did not receive elective nodal RT had a much higher rate of nodal relapse compared with those who did (HR = 6.03; 95% CI, 1.34-27.10). This study indicates a dose-response for subclinical and gross MCC. Doses of >or=50 Gy for subclinical disease and >or=55 Gy for gross disease should be considered. The draining nodal basin should be treated in all patients. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-coding RNAs in skin cancers: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani B. Kaushik, MD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancers are the most common form of cancer in humans. They can largely be categorized into Melanoma and Non-melanoma skin cancers. The latter mainly includes Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC and Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC, and have a higher incidence than melanomas. There has been a recent emergence of interest in the role of non-coding RNA's in pathogenesis of skin cancers. The transcripts which lack any protein coding capacity are called non-coding RNA. These non-coding RNA are further classified based on their length; small non-coding RNA (200 nucleotides. ncRNA They are involved at multiple transcriptional, post transcriptional and epigenetic levels, modulating cell proliferation, angiogenesis, senescence and apoptosis. Their expression pattern has also been linked to metastases, drug resistance and long term prognosis. They have both diagnostic and prognostic significance for skin cancers, and can also be a target for future therapies for cutaneous malignancies. More research is needed to further utilize their potential as therapeutic targets. Keywords: Skin cancer, Non-coding RNA's, miRNA, Cell proliferation, Invasion, Metastasis

  8. Photodynamic therapy for skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjehpour, Masoud; Julius, Clark E.; Hartman, Donald L.

    1996-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy was used to treat 111 lesions in 27 cases with squamous and basal cell carcinoma. There were 82 squamous cell carcinomas and 29 basal cell carcinomas. Photofrin was administered intravenously at either 1.0 mg/kg or 0.75 mg/kg. An argon/dye laser was used to deliver 630 nm light to the lesion superficially at either 215 J/cm2 or 240 J/cm2. In some cases the laser light was delivered both superficially and interstitially. The laser light was delivered two to four days after the Photofrin injection. There were 105 complete responses and 5 partial responses. One patient was lost to follow-up. Among partial responses were basal cell carcinoma on the tip of the nose and morphea basal cell carcinoma of the left cheek. Another partial response occurred in a basal cell carcinoma patient where insufficient margins were treated due to the proximity to the eye. When 0.75 mg/kg drug dose was used, the selectivity of tumor necrosis was improved. Decreased period of skin photosensitivity was documented in some cases.

  9. Screening for skin cancer: A pilot study in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza M Robati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early detection of skin cancers by screening could be very beneficial to decrease their morbidity or mortality. There is limited study about skin cancer screening in Iran. Aim: This essay was planned as a pilot skin cancer screening campaign in Tehran, Iran to evaluate its profit and failure and further design large-scale screening program more definitely. Materials and Methods: Thirty one public health centers of Shahid Beheshti Medical University were selected in different areas of Tehran. The project was announced via media and invited all the people above 40 years old to come for the whole-body skin examination in a one-week period. Patients with any suspected lesions were referred to the dermatology clinics of the university. Results: 1314 patients, 194 males (14.8% and 120 females (85.2%, with mean age of 51.81 ± 10.28 years participated in this screening campaign. Physicians found suspected lesions in 182 (13.85% of participants. The diagnosis of skin cancer was confirmed in 15 (1.14% patients. These malignancies included 10 (0.76% cases of basal cell carcinoma, 2 (0.15% cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 3 (0.23% cases of malignant melanoma. Conclusion: Skin cancer screening seems to be valuable to detect skin malignancies in their early course. Regarding the considerable amount of facilities needed to perform skin cancer screening program, it might be more beneficial to perform the targeted screening programs for the high-risk groups or emphasis more on public education of skin cancer risk factors and their early signs.

  10. Metal arc welding and the risk of skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltoft, K N; Slagor, R M; Agner, T

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Arc welding produces the full spectrum of ultraviolet radiation and may be a contributory cause of skin cancer; however, there has been little research into this occupational hazard. The aim of this study is to explore if metal arc welding increases the risk of malignant melanoma and....... An external reference group was established including all Danish skilled and unskilled male workers with similar age distribution. Occupational histories were gathered by questionnaires in 1986 and information about skin cancer diagnoses [BCC, SCC, cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), and precancerous....../or basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on skin areas which may possibly be exposed (neck, head, and upper extremities). METHOD: A Danish national company-based historic cohort of 4333 male metal arc welders was followed from 1987 through 2012 to identify the risk of skin cancer...

  11. Metal arc welding and the risk of skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltoft, K N; Slagor, R M; Agner, T

    2017-01-01

    /or basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on skin areas which may possibly be exposed (neck, head, and upper extremities). METHOD: A Danish national company-based historic cohort of 4333 male metal arc welders was followed from 1987 through 2012 to identify the risk of skin cancer......OBJECTIVES: Arc welding produces the full spectrum of ultraviolet radiation and may be a contributory cause of skin cancer; however, there has been little research into this occupational hazard. The aim of this study is to explore if metal arc welding increases the risk of malignant melanoma and....... An external reference group was established including all Danish skilled and unskilled male workers with similar age distribution. Occupational histories were gathered by questionnaires in 1986 and information about skin cancer diagnoses [BCC, SCC, cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), and precancerous...

  12. LTA4H regulates cell cycle and skin carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Naomi; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Langfald, Alyssa; Bai, Ruihua; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang

    2017-07-01

    Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H), a bifunctional zinc metallo-enzyme, is reportedly overexpressed in several human cancers. Our group has focused on LTA4H as a potential target for cancer prevention and/or therapy. In the present study, we report that LTA4H is a key regulator of cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase acting by negatively regulating p27 expression in skin cancer. We found that LTA4H is overexpressed in human skin cancer tissue. Knocking out LTA4H significantly reduced skin cancer development in the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted two-stage skin cancer mouse model. LTA4H depletion dramatically decreased anchorage-dependent and -independent skin cancer cell growth by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. Moreover, our findings showed that depletion of LTA4H enhanced p27 protein stability, which was associated with decreased phosphorylation of CDK2 at Thr160 and inhibition of the CDK2/cyclin E complex, resulting in down-regulated p27 ubiquitination. These findings indicate that LTA4H is critical for skin carcinogenesis and is an important mediator of cell cycle and the data begin to clarify the mechanisms of LTA4H's role in cancer development. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Clinical Application of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in Nonmelanomatous Skin Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joon Kee [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Nonmelanomatous skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, merkel cell carcinoma and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberance. So far, there have been a few reports that {sup 18}F-FDG PET was useful in the evaluation of metastasis and therapeutic response in nonmelanomatous skin cancer, however, those are very weak evidences. Therefore, further studies on the usefulness of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in nonmelanomatous skin cancer are required.

  14. Anatomy of the Skin and the Pathogenesis of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losquadro, William D

    2017-08-01

    Skin is composed of the epidermis, dermis, and adnexal structures. The epidermis is composed of 4 layers-the stratums basale, spinosum, granulosum, and corneum. The dermis is divided into a superficial papillary dermis and deeper reticular dermis. Collagen and elastin within the reticular dermis are responsible for skin tensile strength and elasticity, respectively. The 2 most common kinds of nonmelanoma skin cancers are basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. Both are caused by a host of environmental and genetic factors, although UV light exposure is the single greatest predisposing factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Systematic skin cancer screening in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, Eckhard W; Waldmann, Annika; Nolte, Sandra; Capellaro, Marcus; Greinert, Ruediger; Volkmer, Beate; Katalinic, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide. For decades, opportunistic melanoma screening has been carried out to respond to this burden. However, despite potential positive effects such as reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still a lack of evidence for feasibility and effectiveness of organized skin cancer screening. The main aim of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of systematic skin cancer screening. In 2003, the Association of Dermatological Prevention was contracted to implement the population-based SCREEN project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany) in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. A two-step program addressing malignant melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancer was implemented. Citizens (aged ≥ 20 years) with statutory health insurance were eligible for a standardized whole-body examination during the 12-month study period. Cancer registry and mortality data were used to assess first effects. Of 1.88 million eligible citizens, 360,288 participated in SCREEN. The overall population-based participation rate was 19%. A total of 3103 malignant skin tumors were found. On the population level, invasive melanoma incidence increased by 34% during SCREEN. Five years after SCREEN a substantial decrease in melanoma mortality was seen (men: observed 0.79/100,000 and expected 2.00/100,000; women: observed 0.66/100,000 and expected 1.30/100,000). Because of political reasons (resistance as well as lack of support from major German health care stakeholders), it was not possible to conduct a randomized controlled trial. The project showed that large-scale systematic skin cancer screening is feasible and has the potential to reduce skin cancer burden, including mortality. Based on the results of SCREEN, a national statutory skin cancer early detection program was implemented in Germany in 2008. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  16. Basal cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often to reapply. Be sure to reapply after swimming or sweating. Use sunscreen in winter and on ... Accessed August 28, 2017. US Preventive Services Task Force, Bibbins-Domingo K, Grossman DC, et al. Screening ...

  17. Pancreatic cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheong J; Dosch, Joseph; Simeone, Diane M

    2008-06-10

    Cellular heterogeneity in cancer was observed decades ago by studies in mice which showed that distinct subpopulations of cells within a tumor mass are capable of driving tumorigenesis. Conceptualized from this finding was the stem-cell hypothesis for cancer, which suggests that only a specific subset of cancer cells within each tumor is responsible for tumor initiation and propagation, termed tumor initiating cells or cancer stem cells (CSCs). Recent data has been provided to support the existence of CSCs in human blood cell-derived cancers and solid organ tumors of the breast, brain, prostate, colon, and skin. Study of human pancreatic cancers has also revealed a specific subpopulation of cancer cells that possess the characteristics of CSCs. These pancreatic cancer stem cells express the cell surface markers CD44, CD24, and epithelial-specific antigen, and represent 0.5% to 1.0% of all pancreatic cancer cells. Along with the properties of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation, pancreatic CSCs display upregulation of important developmental genes that maintain self-renewal in normal stem cells, including Sonic hedgehog (SHH) and BMI-1. Signaling cascades that are integral in tumor metastasis are also upregulated in the pancreatic CSC. Understanding the biologic behavior and the molecular pathways that regulate growth, survival, and metastasis of pancreatic CSCs will help to identify novel therapeutic approaches to treat this dismal disease.

  18. P63 marker Expression in Usual Skin Cancers Compared With Non Tumoral Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Esmaili

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-melanoma skin cancers including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common cancers in human. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of P63 marker in usual skin cancers compared with non-tomoral skin lesions. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, sampling was performed from archival blocks of Shahid Mohammadi hospital patients during 2010-2011. 60 samples (including 30 samples of non tumoral skin lesions and 30 samples of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were studied and evaluation of p63 gene expression was done with Immunohistochemistry method. T-test and Chi-square were used for analysis of data. Results: P63 gene were expressed in 4 cases (13.33 % of non tumoral lesions and all tumoral lesions (100 %. In tumoral lesions, 5 cases (16.66 % showed 1+ severity experssion, 11 cases (36.66% 2 + severity experssion and 14 cases (46.66 % 3+severity experssion. All 4 non tumoral lesions shoed 1+ severity experssion of P63gene. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the incidence and severity of gene expression of P63 can be use for differentiation between basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma as well as non-tumoral skin lesions. 

  19. VEGF-A/NRP1 stimulates GIPC1 and Syx complex formation to promote RhoA activation and proliferation in skin cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Yoshida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuropilin-1 (NRP1 has been identified as a VEGF-A receptor. DJM-1, a human skin cancer cell line, expresses endogenous VEGF-A and NRP1. In the present study, the RNA interference of VEGF-A or NRP1 suppressed DJM-1 cell proliferation. Furthermore, the overexpression of the NRP1 wild type restored shNRP1-treated DJM-1 cell proliferation, whereas NRP1 cytoplasmic deletion mutants did not. A co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that VEGF-A induced interactions between NRP1 and GIPC1, a scaffold protein, and complex formation between GIPC1 and Syx, a RhoGEF. The knockdown of GIPC1 or Syx reduced active RhoA and DJM-1 cell proliferation without affecting the MAPK or Akt pathway. C3 exoenzyme or Y27632 inhibited the VEGF-A-induced proliferation of DJM-1 cells. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active form of RhoA restored the proliferation of siVEGF-A-treated DJM-1 cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of VEGF-A/NRP1 signaling upregulated p27, a CDK inhibitor. A cell-penetrating oligopeptide that targeted GIPC1/Syx complex formation inhibited the VEGF-A-induced activation of RhoA and suppressed DJM-1 cell proliferation. In conclusion, this new signaling pathway of VEGF-A/NRP1 induced cancer cell proliferation by forming a GIPC1/Syx complex that activated RhoA to degrade the p27 protein.

  20. Risk of skin cancer in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Ahlström, Magnus Glinvad; Gerstoft, Jan

    2018-01-01

    compared the risk of skin cancer in 4280 HIV-infected patients from the Danish HIV cohort study with a background population cohort, according to the level of immunosuppression and route of transmission. Primary outcomes were time to first basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC......BACKGROUND: The risk of skin cancer in HIV-infected patients has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of skin cancer in HIV-infected patients and compare it with the risk in the background population. METHODS: In a matched, nationwide population-based cohort study we......), or malignant melanoma (MM). RESULTS: HIV-infected patients had an increased risk of BCC and SCC with IRRs of 1.79 (95% CI 1.43 - 2.22) and 5.40 (95% CI 3.07 - 9.52), respectively, compared with the background population. We observed no increased risk of MM. Low nadir CD4 cell count was associated...

  1. [AGE FEATURES OF PREVALENCE, LOCALISATION AND CLINICAL COURSE OF SOME NODULAR-ULCER FORMS OF BASAL CELL SKIN CANCER OF FACE AND HEAD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakhonov, S I; Iordanishvili, A K

    2015-01-01

    During carrying out clinical trial on the base of Leningrad regional clinical hospital the incidence of basal cell skin cancer of the face and scalp has been studied in adults of different age groups, as well as peculiarities of clinical course of this disease in elderly and senile age. The most commonly encountered clinical form of basal cell cancer of the face and scalp in the Leningrad region was nodular-ulcerative, which was diagnosed in clinical practice in 38.3% of cases. The features of clinical course of superficial, nodular and destruida forms in people of middle, elderly and senile age are given. It is shown that the highest frequency of occurence of these clinical forms were in age of 61-70 years.

  2. Statin use and risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnspang, S.; Pottegård, A.; Friis, Søren

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence is conflicting regarding statin use and risk of basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell skin cancer (SCC). METHODS: Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified all patients with incident BCC/SCC during 2005-2009 and matched them to population controls. We computed odds ratios...

  3. Ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer: molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mahmoud R

    2005-03-01

    Every living organism on the surface of the earth is exposed to the ultraviolet (UV) fraction of the sunlight. This electromagnetic energy has both life-giving and life-endangering effects. UV radiation can damage DNA and thus mutagenize several genes involved in the development of the skin cancer. The presence of typical signature of UV-induced mutations on these genes indicates that the ultraviolet-B part of sunlight is responsible for the evolution of cutaneous carcinogenesis. During this process, variable alterations of the oncogenic, tumor-suppressive, and cell-cycle control signaling pathways occur. These pathways include (a) mutated PTCH (in the mitogenic Sonic Hedgehog pathway) and mutated p53 tumor-suppressor gene in basal cell carcinomas, (b) an activated mitogenic ras pathway and mutated p53 in squamous cell carcinomas, and (c) an activated ras pathway, inactive p16, and p53 tumor suppressors in melanomas. This review presents background information about the skin optics, UV radiation, and molecular events involved in photocarcinogenesis.

  4. Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Behavioral Counseling ...

  5. PSN-PC: A Novel Antimicrobial and Anti-Biofilm Peptide from the Skin Secretion of Phyllomedusa-camba with Cytotoxicity on Human Lung Cancer Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhui Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Peptides derived from amphibian skin secretion are promising drug prototypes for combating widespread infection. In this study, a novel peptide belonging to the phylloseptin family of antimicrobial peptides was isolated from the skin secretion of the Phyllomedusa camba, namely phylloseptin-PC (PSN-PC. The biosynthetic precursor was obtained by molecular cloning and the mature peptide sequence was confirmed through tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS fragmentation sequencing in the skin secretion. The synthetic replicate exhibited a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans at concentrations of 2, 2, 8, 32 and 2 µM, respectively. It also showed the capability of eliminating S. aureus biofilm with a minimal biofilm eradication concentration of 8 µM. The haemolysis of this peptide was not significant at low concentrations but had a considerable increase at high concentrations. Additionally, this peptide showed an anti-proliferation effect on the non-small cell lung cancer cell line (NCI-H157, with low cytotoxicity on the human microvascular endothelial cell line (HMEC-1. The discovery of the novel peptide may provide useful clues for new drug discoveries.

  6. Drug Delivery Nanoparticles in Skin Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianzani, Chiara; Zara, Gian Paolo; Maina, Giovanni; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Pizzimenti, Stefania; Rossi, Federica; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Ciamporcero, Eric Stefano; Daga, Martina; Barrera, Giuseppina

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves the engineering of functional systems at nanoscale, thus being attractive for disciplines ranging from materials science to biomedicine. One of the most active research areas of the nanotechnology is nanomedicine, which applies nanotechnology to highly specific medical interventions for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, including cancer disease. Over the past two decades, the rapid developments in nanotechnology have allowed the incorporation of multiple therapeutic, sensing, and targeting agents into nanoparticles, for detection, prevention, and treatment of cancer diseases. Nanoparticles offer many advantages as drug carrier systems since they can improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs, modify pharmacokinetics, increase drug half-life by reducing immunogenicity, improve bioavailability, and diminish drug metabolism. They can also enable a tunable release of therapeutic compounds and the simultaneous delivery of two or more drugs for combination therapy. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in the use of different types of nanoparticles for systemic and topical drug delivery in the treatment of skin cancer. In particular, the progress in the treatment with nanocarriers of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma has been reported. PMID:25101298

  7. Drug Delivery Nanoparticles in Skin Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Dianzani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology involves the engineering of functional systems at nanoscale, thus being attractive for disciplines ranging from materials science to biomedicine. One of the most active research areas of the nanotechnology is nanomedicine, which applies nanotechnology to highly specific medical interventions for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, including cancer disease. Over the past two decades, the rapid developments in nanotechnology have allowed the incorporation of multiple therapeutic, sensing, and targeting agents into nanoparticles, for detection, prevention, and treatment of cancer diseases. Nanoparticles offer many advantages as drug carrier systems since they can improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs, modify pharmacokinetics, increase drug half-life by reducing immunogenicity, improve bioavailability, and diminish drug metabolism. They can also enable a tunable release of therapeutic compounds and the simultaneous delivery of two or more drugs for combination therapy. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in the use of different types of nanoparticles for systemic and topical drug delivery in the treatment of skin cancer. In particular, the progress in the treatment with nanocarriers of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma has been reported.

  8. Obesity as a risk factor for malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, K; Lindgren, T H; Koch, C A; Brodell, Robert T

    2016-09-01

    The dramatic increases in incidence of both obesity and many cancers including skin cancer emphasize the need to better understand the pathophysiology of both conditions and their connections. Melanoma is considered the fastest growing cancer and rates of non-melanoma skin cancer have also increased over the last decade. The molecular mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and skin cancer are not clearly understood but emerging evidence points to changes in the tumor microenvironment including aberrant cell signaling and genomic instability in the chronic inflammatory state many obese individuals experience. This article reviews the literature linking obesity to melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer.

  9. Skin Cancer: ClinicoPathological Study of 204 Patients in Southern Governorates of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZou, Amer Bin; Thabit, Mazen Abood Bin; AlSakkaf, Khalid Abdulla; Basaleem, Huda Omer

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer is a group of heterogeneous malignancies, in general classified into nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma skin cancer (MSC). Incidences are high in many parts in the world with considerable geographical and racial variation. In the Yemen, there has been scarce information about skin cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic characteristics and histological trend of skin cancer in Southern Governorates of Yemen. This retrospective study covered 204 cases of skin cancer at the Modern Histopathology Laboratory and Aden Cancer Registry and Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Aden, for the period 20062013. Data were classified regarding different demographic and tumor related variables and analyzed using CanReg4 for cancer registry and SPSS (version 21). The commonest encountered skin cancer was NMSC (93.1%). Generally, skin cancer appears slightly more frequently in females than males with a 1:1.06 male: female ratio, with a mean age of 62.9 years. Slightly higher than onethird (36.3%) were from Aden governorate. The head and neck proved to be the most common site in both males and females (58%). Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common histological type of skin cancer (50.5%). Skin cancer is a common cancer in patients living in southern governorates of Yemen. The pattern appears nearly similar to the international figures with a low incidence of MSC.

  10. Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A; Thyssen, J P; Gislason, G H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is commonly treated with ultraviolet phototherapy and systemic immunosuppressant drugs, which may confer a risk of skin cancer. Previous studies on the risk of skin cancer in patients with psoriasis have shown conflicting results....... OBJECTIVES: We investigated the risk of new-onset melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), respectively, in a large cohort of patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. METHODS: Data on all Danish individuals aged ≥18 years between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2012 were linked at individual......-level in nationwide registers. Incidence rates per 10 000 person-years were calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated by Poisson regression models. RESULTS: The study comprised 5 559 420 individuals with a maximum follow-up time of 16 years. There were 75 410 patients with psoriasis, and 25 087...

  11. Clinicopathological evaluation of nonmelanoma skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Adinarayan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, in combination, are referred to as nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs. NMSC is not as extensively studied in the Asian population as it is in the Caucasian population. Aim: This study sought to evaluate the clinical and histopathologic aspects of NMSC from cases of cutaneous malignancies. Materials and Methods: The present study is a descriptive analysis of NMSC specimens seen at Department of Pathology, SSIMS and RC, Davangere. Histologically diagnosed NMSC, i.e. BCC and SCC specimens from January 2005 to December 2009 were analyzed according to site distribution, risk factors and histological variants. Results: Of the various specimens received during the 5year study period, 60 were histologically categorized as skin malignancies, of which 31(51.6% cases were of NMSC. SCC was the most common NMSC constituting 26 (83.9% cases and 5 NMSC cases (16.1% were of BCC. The most common incidence was among the age group 60-80 years (80% for BCC and 40-60 years (50% for SCC. Head and neck was the most common site of presentation with predilection for face. Forty-six percent of SCC was histologically categorized as well differentiated, 42.3% as moderately differentiated and 11.5% as poorly differentiated. Most common histological variant of BCC was solid (nodular type. Conclusion: NMSC often associated with greater morbidity, necessitating increased efforts to assess risk factors in individuals, to encourage periodic self-examination and professional evaluation of skin and to optimize strategies for earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Skin Cancer Risk (Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers/Melanoma) in Vitiligo Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    The relative genetic and immune protection against melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers in those with vitiligo is reassuring. The results of recent studies allow us to be cautiously optimistic when discussing the risk of skin cancer caused by therapeutic exposure to narrow-band ultraviolet B light. However, we should continue to recommend sun protection at all other times to avoid burning in vitiliginous skin and to decrease incidental ultraviolet exposure. It is also important to perform full skin checks regularly in light of the prolonged courses of phototherapy required to repigment vitiliginous skin and maintain repigmentation thereafter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Disease management for chronic skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van der Geer-Rutten (Simone)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWorldwide non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is a rapidly rising problem. In this thesis we show that an enormous gap exists between the official first primary figures available at cancer registries and the actual burden in a dermatology practice. NMSC needs to be regarded as a chronic

  14. Sun Exposure, Tanning Beds, and Herbs That Cure: An Examination of Skin Cancer on Pinterest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lu; Park, Sung-Eun

    2017-10-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer affecting the U.S. Pinterest.com, a virtual bookmarking social media site, has the potential to disseminate skin cancer-related information among young women, the group with the fastest increase in skin cancer diagnosis. This article presents a quantitative content analysis of pins about skin cancer on Pinterest guided by agenda-setting theory and the health belief model. Overall, sun exposure and tanning beds were most frequently discussed as the causes of skin cancer, and alternative therapies such as herbal medicine were discussed more than traditional biomedical treatment or prevention. Highly repinned pins tend to include more information than regular pins. Different types of skin cancer (melanoma, squamous-cell carcinoma, and basal-cell carcinoma) received the same amount of coverage; however, pins about nonmelanoma skin cancer (such as squamous-cell carcinoma and basal-cell carcinoma) were often information-poor. They were less likely to include information on the causes, prevention, and the biomedical treatment of skin cancer and were less likely to include health belief constructs associated with the promotion of skin cancer prevention and treatment.

  15. Early detection of skin cancer: experience of a skin cancer prevention campaign in Piauí-Brazil - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2012.p221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bandeira Lages

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the correlation between the diagnoses of skin cancer and known risk factors through analysis of data from the National Skin Cancer Prevention Campaign held by Brazilian Society of Dermatology in the state of Piauí, Brazil, in recent years. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive and analytical report using quantitative data obtained from a prevention campaign in the state of Piauí, in 2009 and 2010. Collected data was submitted to a descriptive analysis, and multivariate logistic regression, using as dependent variable the skin cancer diagnosis. Results: In 2009 and 2010, this campaign was responsible for 1141 consultations, diagnosing 122 (10.7% cases of skin cancer: 108 basal cell carcinomas (BCC, 10 squamous cell (SCC and four melanomas. Of those examined, 35.4% were male, 73.1% reported inadequate sun protection, 16.4% had a family history of skin cancer and 7.2% had personal history. Those with history of skin cancer were 5.24 times more likely to have a new diagnosis of cancer, while those presenting non-black skin were 4.91 times more likely to diagnosis. Conclusion: Personal or family history of epithelial neoplasia, non-colored black skin and the male gender were associated to higher chances of developing skin cancer. In addition, unprotected sun exposure remains routine

  16. Skin manifestations associated with kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Asim; Burgess, Earle F

    2016-06-01

    Kidney cancer is a heterogenous disease encompassing several distinct clinicopathologic entities with different underlying molecular aberrations and clinical outcomes. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been shown to evoke immunologic responses that can impact the natural history of disease and clinical presentation. It is important to recognize atypical presentations of disease, including cutaneous manifestations. The incidence of skin metastases from RCC is low, yet needs to be appreciated in the appropriate setting; clinical presentation for these lesions is reviewed briefly. There are several hereditary syndromes that present with well characterized cutaneous lesions and are associated with an increased risk for RCC, including Von Hippel-Lindau and Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndromes. Given that these skin lesions may be the first presenting sign for RCC, timely recognition is of essence and both are discussed in some detail. Several therapeutic options based on immunomodulation are approved for the treatment of advanced RCC. Dermatologic toxicities observed with these agents are also briefly discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laure Matthey-Giè

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of lymph nodes in nonmelanoma skin cancer patients is currently still debated. Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM, and other rare skin neoplasms have a well-known risk to spread to regional lymph nodes. The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB could be a promising procedure to assess this risk in clinically N0 patients. Metastatic SNs have been observed in 4.5–28% SCC (according to risk factors, in 9–42% MCC, and in 14–57% PEM. We observed overall 30.8% positive SNs in 13 consecutive patients operated for high-risk nonmelanoma skin cancer between 2002 and 2011 in our institution. These high rates support recommendation to implement SLNB for nonmelanoma skin cancer especially for SCC patients. Completion lymph node dissection following positive SNs is also a matter of discussion especially in PEM. It must be remembered that a definitive survival benefit of SLNB in melanoma patients has not been proven yet. However, because of its low morbidity when compared to empiric elective lymph node dissection or radiation therapy of lymphatic basins, SLNB has allowed sparing a lot of morbidity and could therefore be used in nonmelanoma skin cancer patients, even though a significant impact on survival has not been demonstrated.

  18. Recommendations for Solid Organ Transplantation for Transplant Candidates With a Pretransplant Diagnosis of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Merkel Cell Carcinoma and Melanoma: A Consensus Opinion From the International Transplant Skin Cancer Collaborative (ITSCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwald, F; Leitenberger, J; Zeitouni, N; Soon, S; Brewer, J; Arron, S; Bordeaux, J; Chung, C; Abdelmalek, M; Billingsley, E; Vidimos, A; Stasko, T

    2016-02-01

    Advancements in solid organ transplantation successfully extend the lives of thousands of patients annually. The tenet of organ stewardship aims to prevent the futile expenditure of scarce donor organs in patient populations with high mortality risk, to the detriment of potential recipients with greater predicted life expectancy. The development of skin cancer posttransplantation portends tremendous morbidity, adversely affecting quality of life for many transplant recipients. This special article, provided by of members of the International Transplant Skin Cancer Collaborative (ITSCC), will provide the transplant professional with a consensus opinion and recommendations as to an appropriate wait period pretransplantation for transplant candidates with a history of either cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, or Merkel cell carcinoma. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  19. Frequent DPH3 promoter mutations in skin cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, Evgeniya; Heidenreich, Barbara; Nagore, Eduardo; Rachakonda, P Sivaramakrishna; Hosen, Ismail; Akrap, Ivana; Traves, Víctor; García-Casado, Zaida; López-Guerrero, José Antonio; Requena, Celia; Sanmartin, Onofre; Serra-Guillén, Carlos; Llombart, Beatriz; Guillén, Carlos; Ferrando, Jose; Gimeno, Enrique; Nordheim, Alfred; Hemminki, Kari; Kumar, Rajiv

    2015-11-03

    Recent reports suggested frequent occurrence of cancer associated somatic mutations within regulatory elements of the genome. Based on initial exome sequencing of 21 melanomas, we report frequent somatic mutations in skin cancers in a bidirectional promoter of diphthamide biosynthesis 3 (DPH3) and oxidoreductase NAD-binding domain containing 1 (OXNAD1) genes. The UV-signature mutations occurred at sites adjacent and within a binding motif for E-twenty six/ternary complex factors (Ets/TCF), at -8 and -9 bp from DPH3 transcription start site. Follow up screening of 586 different skin lesions showed that the DPH3 promoter mutations were present in melanocytic nevi (2/114; 2%), melanoma (30/304; 10%), basal cell carcinoma of skin (BCC; 57/137; 42%) and squamous cell carcinoma of skin (SCC; 12/31; 39%). Reporter assays carried out in one melanoma cell line for DPH3 and OXNAD1 orientations showed statistically significant increased promoter activity due to -8/-9CC > TT tandem mutations; although, no effect of the mutations on DPH3 and OXNAD1 transcription in tumors was observed. The results from this study show occurrence of frequent somatic non-coding mutations adjacent to a pre-existing binding site for Ets transcription factors within the directional promoter of DPH3 and OXNAD1 genes in three major skin cancers. The detected mutations displayed typical UV signature; however, the functionality of the mutations remains to be determined.

  20. Diet and Skin Cancer: The Potential Role of Dietary Antioxidants in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Katta, Rajani; Brown, Danielle Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Americans. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is the major risk factor for the development of NMSC. Dietary AOs may prevent free radical-mediated DNA damage and tumorigenesis secondary to UV radiation. Numerous laboratory studies have found that certain dietary AOs show significant promise in skin cancer prevention. These results have been substantiated by animal studies. In human studies, researchers have evaluated both oral AO...

  1. A case of radiation-induced skin ulcer, cerebral meningioma and skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Yuki; Yano, Kenji [Kure National Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    We report a case of radiation-induced skin ulcer, cerebral meningioma, and skin cancer in a 69-year-old woman who had undergone local irradiation and application of radium directly to the skin for actinomycosis of the face at the age of twenty. Some forty to fifty years later, a skin ulcer in the preauricular area in the center of the radiodermatitis, cerebral meningioma in the right sphenoid ridge, and a keratotic skin tumor in the right auricle all developed within the previously irradiated region. The cerebral meningioma was extirpated. The skin ulcer was excised and covered with a forearm flap. After the skin tumor was excised and the subcutaneous tumor in the postauricular area was excised, the postoperative histopathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma with lymph node metastasis. It was considered that the squamous cell carcinoma was derived from irradiated keratosis. Four months later, right neck lymph node dissection was performed. Both the meningioma and squamous cell carcinoma satisfied Cahan's criteria for radiation-induced tumors. So we diagnosed these as radiation-induced cerebral meningioma and squamous cell carcinoma. We haven't detected any recurrence of the squamous cell carcinoma for two years. We learned from this case that chronic radiation disturbances cause an irreversible reaction and various radiolesions, including malignancies, can occur after a long period of latency. It is important to never underestimate a small lesion in the irradiated area, to plan early preventive surgical treatment to remove skin that may have been over-subjected to irradiation, and to continue long-term follow-up for patients with chronic radiodermatitis. (author)

  2. Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Lui, Harvey; Kalia, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I.; Lee, Tim K.

    2013-06-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the Western world. In order to accurately detect the disease, especially malignant melanoma-the most fatal form of skin cancer-at an early stage when the prognosis is excellent, there is an urgent need to develop noninvasive early detection methods. We believe that polarization speckle patterns, defined as a spatial distribution of depolarization ratio of traditional speckle patterns, can be an important tool for skin cancer detection. To demonstrate our technique, we conduct a large in vivo clinical study of 214 skin lesions, and show that statistical moments of the polarization speckle pattern could differentiate different types of skin lesions, including three common types of skin cancers, malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and two benign lesions, melanocytic nevus and seborrheic keratoses. In particular, the fourth order moment achieves better or similar sensitivity and specificity than many well-known and accepted optical techniques used to differentiate melanoma and seborrheic keratosis.

  3. Photocarcinogenesis and Skin Cancer Prevention Strategies: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Marie Christine; Seebode, Christina; Lehmann, Janin; Emmert, Steffen

    2018-02-01

    UV radiation is acknowledged as the primary cause of photocarcinogenesis and therefore contributes to the development of skin cancer entities such as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and melanoma. Typical DNA photoproducts and indirect DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species are the result of UV radiation. UV-induced DNA damage is repaired by nucleotide excision repair, which consequently counteracts the development of mutations and skin carcinogenesis. Tumour-suppressor genes are inactivated by mutation and growth-promoting pathways are activated leading to disruption of cell-cycle progression. Depending on the skin cancer entity, some genes are more frequently affected than others. In BCC mutations in Patched or Smoothened are common and affect the Sonic hedgehog pathway. In SCC, cell regulator protein p53 (TP53) mutations are prevalent, as well as mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cyclin-dependent kinase 2A (CDKN2A), Rat sarcoma (RAS), or the tyrosine kinase Fyn (FYN). UV-induced mutations in TP53 and CDKN2A are frequent in melanoma. UV-induced inflammatory processes also facilitate photocarcinogenesis. Recent studies showed a connection between photocarcinogenesis and citrus consumption, phytochemicals, alcohol consumption, hormone replacement therapy, as well as oral contraceptive use. Preventative measures include adequate use of sun protection and skin cancer screening at regular intervals, as well as the use of chemopreventative agents. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  4. Interaction of dermatologically relevant nanoparticles with skin cells and skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Annika; Rancan, Fiorenza; Ahlberg, Sebastian; Nazemi, Berouz; Choe, Chun Sik; Darvin, Maxim E; Hadam, Sabrina; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Loza, Kateryna; Diendorf, Jörg; Epple, Matthias; Graf, Christina; Rühl, Eckart; Meinke, Martina C; Lademann, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of nanoparticle interactions with tissues is complex. High levels of standardization, ideally testing of different material types in the same biological model, and combinations of sensitive imaging and detection methods are required. Here, we present our studies on nanoparticle interactions with skin, skin cells, and biological media. Silica, titanium dioxide and silver particles were chosen as representative examples for different types of skin exposure to nanomaterials, e.g., unintended environmental exposure (silica) versus intended exposure through application of sunscreen (titanium dioxide) or antiseptics (silver). Because each particle type exhibits specific physicochemical properties, we were able to apply different combinations of methods to examine skin penetration and cellular uptake, including optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy on cells and tissue sections, flow cytometry of isolated skin cells as well as Raman microscopy on whole tissue blocks. In order to assess the biological relevance of such findings, cell viability and free radical production were monitored on cells and in whole tissue samples. The combination of technologies and the joint discussion of results enabled us to look at nanoparticle-skin interactions and the biological relevance of our findings from different angles.

  5. Interaction of dermatologically relevant nanoparticles with skin cells and skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Vogt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of nanoparticle interactions with tissues is complex. High levels of standardization, ideally testing of different material types in the same biological model, and combinations of sensitive imaging and detection methods are required. Here, we present our studies on nanoparticle interactions with skin, skin cells, and biological media. Silica, titanium dioxide and silver particles were chosen as representative examples for different types of skin exposure to nanomaterials, e.g., unintended environmental exposure (silica versus intended exposure through application of sunscreen (titanium dioxide or antiseptics (silver. Because each particle type exhibits specific physicochemical properties, we were able to apply different combinations of methods to examine skin penetration and cellular uptake, including optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy on cells and tissue sections, flow cytometry of isolated skin cells as well as Raman microscopy on whole tissue blocks. In order to assess the biological relevance of such findings, cell viability and free radical production were monitored on cells and in whole tissue samples. The combination of technologies and the joint discussion of results enabled us to look at nanoparticle–skin interactions and the biological relevance of our findings from different angles.

  6. Raman active components of skin cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xu; Moy, Austin J; Nguyen, Hieu T. M.; Zhang, Jason; Fox, Matthew C.; Sebastian, Katherine R.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Markey, Mia K.; Tunnell, James W.

    2017-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) has shown great potential in noninvasive cancer screening. Statistically based algorithms, such as principal component analysis, are commonly employed to provide tissue classification; however, they are difficult to relate to the chemical and morphological basis of the spectroscopic features and underlying disease. As a result, we propose the first Raman biophysical model applied to in vivo skin cancer screening data. We expand upon previous models by utilizing in situ...

  7. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFICACY OF PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY OF BASAL CELL SKIN CANCER WITH THE INTRALESIONAL ADMINISTRATION OF RADACHLORIN AND FOTODITAZIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Sukhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT is increasingly used for non-invasive destruction of basal cell skin cancer mediated by a photochemical reaction. There is no evidence-based data on its efficacy. Aim: To compare the objective response of basal cell skin cancer of various clinical types, stages, histological types, course and localization to PDT with the intralesional administration of photosensitizers Radachlorin and Fotoditazin. Materials and methods: From March 2007 to March 2010, the study recruited 74  patients with primary and relapsing solid basal skin cancer (ulcerated, 40.5%  of patients, superficial, 24%, nodular, 21.5%, scleroderma-like, 14%, stage  Ι–ΙI (mostly Т₂N₀M₀; with localization that was unfavorable in terms of relapses and inconvenient for treatment application. The tumors were of a uniform complex histological type and of a morphea type. The patients were administered one course of PDT with an intralesional administration of chlorine photosensitizers. The group I (n=45 was administered Radachlorin (0.5–1 mL per 1 cm² of the tumor surface, group II (n=34 was administered Fotoditazin (0.3–0.5  mL per 1  cm² of the tumor surface. For all patients the light dose was chosen at 300 J/cm², the light source being the medical laser device LAMI with a wave length of 662±3 nm, class II А. Clinical and cytological regression of the lesions at 3 months after treatment was chosen as a  primary study endpoint. The secondary endpoints were a  stable clinical and cytological response at 12 months after treatment. Thereafter, a relapse-free period was assessed annually up to 5 years after treatment. In addition, adverse reactions to treatment were registered up to 2 months and cosmetic results were assessed at 12 months after PDT. The treatment results were assessed in all patients. Results: Complete regression of basal cell skin cancer was found in 43 (95.5% of patients from the group I  and

  8. Viral oncogenesis and its role in nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tuttleton Arron, S

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, the contribution of viruses to cutaneous oncogenesis has steadily gained recognition. The archetype is human herpesvirus 8, which is well established as the causative agent in Kaposi sarcoma. Other viruses believed to play a role in nonmelanoma skin cancer include human papillomavirus and the recently described Merkel cell polyomavirus. We review the mechanisms by which these three viruses interact with the host cell, ultraviolet radiation and immunosuppression to result in carcinogenesis.

  9. Initial basal cell carcinomas diagnosed in the National Campaign for Skin Cancer Prevention are smaller than those identified by the conventional medical referral system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakiyama, Thweicyka Pinheiro; França, Maria Laura Marconi; Carvalho, Larissa Pierri; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Miot, Hélio Amante; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the malignant tumor most often diagnosed in the National Campaign for Skin Cancer Prevention (NCSCP). Little is known about the profile of these lesions compared to the profile of lesions diagnosed by conventional routes of public dermatological care. To identify if basal cell carcinomas identified in prevention campaigns and referred to surgery are smaller than those routinely removed in a same medical institution. Cross-sectional study including tumors routed from 2011-2014 campaigns and 84 anatomopathological reports of outpatients. The campaigns identified 223 individuals with suspicious lesions among 2,531 examinations (9%), with 116 basal cell carcinomas removed. Anatomopathological examinations revealed that the primary lesions identified in the national campaigns were smaller than those referred to surgery by the conventional routes of public health care (28 [13-50] x 38 [20-113] mm2, p basal cell carcinoma lesions. Retrospective study and inaccuracies in the measurements of the lesions. The NCSCP promotes an earlier treatment of basal cell carcinomas compared to patients referred to surgery by the conventional routes of public health care, which can result in lower morbidity rates and better prognosis.

  10. Vitamin D for combination photodynamic therapy of skin cancer in individuals with vitamin D deficiency: Insights from a preclinical study in a mouse model of squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sanjay; Thomas, Erik; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.

    2016-03-01

    Combination photodynamic therapy (cPDT) in which vitamin D (VD) is given prior to aminolevulinate, a precursor (pro-drug) for protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), is an approach developed in our laboratory. We previously showed that 1α,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), given prior to PDT, enhances accumulation of PpIX and improves cell death post-PDT in a mouse skin cancer model. However, since calcitriol poses a risk for hypercalcemia, we replaced systemic calcitriol with oral cholecalciferol (D3), administered as a high (tenfold, "10K") diet over a ten-day period. Here, we ask whether VD deficiency might alter the response to cPDT. Nude mice were fed a VD-deficient diet for at least 4 weeks ("deficient"); controls were fed a normal 1,000 IU/kg diet ("1K"). Human A431 cells were implanted subcutaneously and mice were switched to the 10K diet or continued on their baseline diets (controls). In other experiments, mice received a human equivalent dose of 50,000 IU D3 by oral gavage, to simulate administration of a single, high-dose VD pill. At various times, tumors were harvested and serum was collected to measure levels of VD metabolic intermediates. A significant increase in PpIX levels and in the expression of differentiation and proliferation markers in tumor tissue was observed after VD supplementation of both the deficient and 1K mice. Further results describing mechanistic details of PpIX enhancement through alteration of heme- and VD-metabolic enzyme levels will be presented. Based on these results, a clinical study using oral vitamin D prior to PDT for human skin cancer should be performed.

  11. Skin manifestations of gefitinib and the association with survival of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiou-Han Wang

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion: Paronychia is the most indicative survival predictive factor among the skin manifestations, and it correlates with age, gender, and xerosis. Elucidation of the relationship between cutaneous reactions can provide information on the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling mechanism of skin.

  12. Non-melanoma skin cancer in Portuguese kidney transplant recipients - incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, André; Gouveia, Miguel; Cardoso, José Carlos; Xavier, Maria Manuel; Vieira, Ricardo; Alves, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is currently among the three leading causes of death after solid organ transplantation and its incidence is increasing. Non-melanoma skin cancer - squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma - is the most common malignancy found in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in KTRs has not been extensively studied in Portugal. To determine the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in KTRs from the largest Portuguese kidney transplant unit; and to study risk factors for non-melanoma skin cancer. Retrospective analysis of clinical records of KTRs referred for the first time for a dermatology consultation between 2004 and 2013. A case-control study was performed on KTRs with and without non-melanoma skin cancer. We included 288 KTRs with a median age at transplantation of 47 years, a male gender predominance (66%) and a median transplant duration of 3.67 years. One fourth (n=71) of KTRs developed 131 non-melanoma skin cancers, including 69 (53%) squamous cell carcinomas and 62 (47%) basal cell carcinomas (ratio squamous cell carcinoma: basal cell carcinoma 1.11), with a mean of 1.85 neoplasms per patient. Forty percent of invasive squamous cell carcinomas involved at least two clinical or histological high-risk features. The following factors were associated with a higher risk of non-melanoma skin cancer: an older age at transplantation and at the first consultation, a longer transplant duration and the presence of actinic keratosis. KTRs treated with azathioprine were 2.85 times more likely to develop non-melanoma skin cancer (p=0.01). Non-melanoma skin cancer was a common reason for dermatology consultation in Portuguese KTRs. It is imperative for KTRs to have access to specialized dermatology consultation for early referral and treatment of skin malignancies.

  13. Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  14. Mast cell distribution in normal adult skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Janssens (Artiena Soe); R. Heide (Rogier); J.C. den Hollander (Jan); P.G.M. Mulder (P. G M); B. Tank (Bhupendra); A.P. Oranje (Arnold)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstract__AIMS:__ To investigate mast cell distribution in normal adult skin to provide a reference range for comparison with mastocytosis. __METHODS:__ Mast cells (MCs) were counted in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders in adults.

  15. Skin self-exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Cancer Institute. What You Need To Know About Melanoma and Other Skin Cancers: How To Check Your Skin. (NIH Publication No. ...

  16. Carcinoembryonic Antigen Serum Levels in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saverio Latteri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA is a glycoprotein, which is present in the foetal colon, some benign conditions and different malignancies, particularly in colon adenocarcinoma. We focused this study on non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC. NMSC is a common malignancy and it is an important source of morbidity and death in the world. In this study we evaluated whether CEA level increases in NMSC. Patients and Methods: A total of 566 patients with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC were enrolled; 286 patients with NMSC showed CEA levels above normal values, and 280 showed CEA levels below normal values. Patients with high levels of CEA underwent abdominal ultrasound, gastro endoscopy, colonoscopy, and abdominal CT scans. Results: We studied 566 patients, 286 were positive to CEA and 280 were negative. Of the 286 patients positive to CEA, 132 had basal cell carcinoma (64 patients had an associated cancer and 154 had squamous cell carcinoma (75 patients were affected by cancer. Of the 280 patients negative to CEA, 130 had basal cell carcinoma (12 were associated with cancer, and 150 had squamous cell carcinoma (18 were associated with cancer. The mean age of the 566 case control subjects were 65–81 years. Of the 10 subjects that were the positive control for CEA, two had cancer. Of the 556 subjects that were the negative control for CEA, three had cancer. Conclusions: In patients that present high serum levels of CEA, we give attention to adenocarcinoma tumour first. The pattern of association may be attributable to bias because the group with NMSC were frequently evaluated than those with no history of NMSC. Our results showed that out of 286 patients that were CEA-positive, 139 had cancer, and of the 280 that were CEA-negative, 30 had cancer. Therefore, 20% of patients do not follow the trend. Other markers should be investigated.

  17. UV-radiation and skin cancer dose effect curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, T.; Dahlback, A.; Larsen, S.H.

    1988-08-01

    Norwegian skin cancer data were used in an attempt to arrive at the dose effect relationship for UV-carcinogenesis. The Norwegian population is relatively homogenous with regard to skin type and live in a country where the annual effective UV-dose varies by approximately 40 percent. Four different regions of the country, each with a broadness of 1 o in latitude (approximately 111 km), were selected . The annual effective UV-doses for these regions were calculated assuming normal ozone conditions throughout the year. The incidence of malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (mainly basal cell carcinoma) in these regions were considered and compared to the annual UV-doses. For both these types of cancer a quadratic dose effect curve seems to be valid. Depletions of the ozone layer results in larger UV-doses which in turn may yield more skin cancer. The dose effect curves suggest that the incidence rate will increase by an ''amplification factor'' of approximately 2

  18. Raman spectroscopy for skin cancer diagnosis and characterisation of thin supported lipid films

    OpenAIRE

    Larraona-Puy, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool in oncological imaging. Optical biopsies in which an accurate diagnosis of the tumour areas is spectroscopically performed are especially interesting for application to skin cancer treatments. In the first part of this dissertation a study on automated Raman spectral imaging allowed accurate diagnosis and delineation of the borders of a common type of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Automated detection and imaging of BCC in skin sections exci...

  19. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  20. Ultraviolet responses of Gorlin syndrome primary skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brellier, F; Valin, A; Chevallier-Lagente, O; Gorry, P; Avril, M-F; Magnaldo, T

    2008-08-01

    Gorlin syndrome, or naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with mutations in the PTCH1 gene, which encodes the receptor of SONIC HEDGEHOG. In addition to developmental abnormalities, patients with NBCCS are prone to basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most frequent type of nonmelanoma skin cancer in humans. As ultraviolet (UV) exposure plays a prominent role in the development of sporadic BCC, we aimed to determine whether primary NBCCS skin cells exhibit differential responses to UV exposure compared with wild-type (WT) skin cells. Primary fibroblast and keratinocyte strains were isolated from nonlesional skin biopsies of 10 patients with characteristic NBCCS traits. After identification of PTCH1 mutations, capacities of NBCCS cells to repair UV-induced DNA lesions and to survive after UV irradiation, as well as p53 responses, were compared with those of WT skin cells. The c1763insG PTCH1 mutation is described for the first time. DNA repair and cell survival analyses following UV irradiation revealed no obvious differences between responses of NBCCS and WT fibroblasts and keratinocytes. However, p53 accumulation after UV irradiation was abnormally persistent in all NBCCS primary keratinocyte strains compared with WT keratinocytes. Our observations that NBCCS cells harbour normal DNA repair and survival capacities following UV irradiation better explain that BCC proneness of patients with NBCCS does not solely concern body areas exposed to sunlight and suggest rather that it might be due to cell cycle alterations.

  1. Study to determine whether intraoperative frozen section biopsy improves surgical treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer

    OpenAIRE

    NICOLETTI, GIOVANNI; BRENTA, FEDERICA; MALOVINI, ALBERTO; MUSUMARRA, GAETANO; SCEVOLA, SILVIA; FAGA, ANGELA

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancers are the most common types of cancer and their incidence has shown an increase of ∼4 to 8% per year over the last 40 years. The majority of skin cancers (∼97%) are non-melanoma skin cancers, mainly represented by basal cell (80%) and squamous cell carcinomas (20%). The use of intra-operative frozen section remains controversial in the surgical treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer, being commonly considered an optional tool, the reliability and effectiveness of which remain questi...

  2. Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Malignant disease involving the skin represents a significant work load to the general radiotherapist and can involve interesting diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Primary skin cancer is also relatively common and there is a need to provide an efficient service in which the first treatment is successful in the majority of patients. The reward for careful attention to technique is very considerable both in terms of clinical cancer control and functional results. Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and intra-epidermal carcinoma constitute the majority of the lesions dealt with clinically, but metastatic disease, lymphomas, and malignant melanomas are also referred regularly for opinions and may require radiotherapy. The general principle of the techniques of assessment and radiotherapeutic management to be described are equally applicable to any malignant skin tumour once the decision has been made to accept it for radiotherapy. Dosage and fractionation may have to be adjusted to allow for the nature of the disease process and the intent of the treatment

  3. Diagnosis of skin cancer by correlation and complexity analyses of damaged DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Hamidreza; Kulish, Vladimir V.; Delaviz, Fatemeh; Delaviz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is a common, low-grade cancerous (malignant) growth of the skin. It starts from cells that begin as normal skin cells and transform into those with the potential to reproduce in an out-of-control manner. Cancer develops when DNA, the molecule found in cells that encodes genetic information, becomes damaged and the body cannot repair the damage. A DNA walk of a genome represents how the frequency of each nucleotide of a pairing nucleotide couple changes locally. In this research in order to diagnose the skin cancer, first DNA walk plots of genomes of patients with skin cancer were generated. Then, the data so obtained was checked for complexity by computing the fractal dimension. Furthermore, the Hurst exponent has been employed in order to study the correlation of damaged DNA. By analysing different samples it has been found that the damaged DNA sequences are exhibiting higher degree of complexity and less correlation compared to normal DNA sequences. This investigation confirms that this method can be used for diagnosis of skin cancer. The method discussed in this research is useful not only for diagnosis of skin cancer but can be applied for diagnosis and growth analysis of different types of cancers. PMID:26497203

  4. Evaluation of the National Skin Cancer Campaign: a Swiss experience of Euromelanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberherr, Sven; Seyed Jafari, S Morteza; Cazzaniga, Simone; Bianchi, Enrica; Schlagenhauff, Bettina; Tscharner, Gion; Hafner, Jürg; Mainetti, Carlo; Lapointe, Anne-Karine; Hunger, Robert E

    2017-10-24

    Skin cancer is a burden to healthcare and patients worldwide. The incidence of skin cancer has been rising during recent decades and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Numerous risk factors have been identified and prevention strategies developed. The Euromelanoma campaign is a pan-European skin cancer prevention programme, targeted to both primary and secondary prevention of malignant melanoma. The current study aimed to evaluate the results of the Swiss skin cancer screening day 2016. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on characteristics and suspected skin cancers of all participants. Follow-up of patients with suspicious lesions was performed 3 to 6 months later. During the campaign, 2795 people were screened. Of the screened individuals, 157 participants (58% female, 42% male; mean age 58.8 years) underwent further evaluations; 6 cutaneous malignant melanomas, 21 basal cell carcinomas and 2 squamous cell carcinomas were detected. Detection rates were 0.21% for cutaneous melanoma, 0.75% for basal cell carcinoma and 0.07% for squamous cell carcinoma. Our study provides an up-to-date evaluation of the Swiss Euromelanoma campaign 2016. The results are mostly in line with data from other European studies. Considering the morbidity, mortality and financial and social impact of skin cancer, the capacity to raise awareness of risk factors, skin cancer prevention methods and educating high-risk and at-risk individuals, we may assume that a National Screening Day has a crucial impact on the public health system.

  5. mTHPC Mediated, Systemic Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers : Case and Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, Rudolf K.; Terra, Jorrit B.; Witjes, Max J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Patients with multiple nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), like immunosuppressed or nevoid basal cell carcinomas, offer a therapeutic challenge. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using the systemic photosensitizer meta-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (mTHPC) has the ability to treat

  6. Metal arc welding and the risk of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heltoft, K N; Slagor, R M; Agner, T; Bonde, J P

    2017-11-01

    Arc welding produces the full spectrum of ultraviolet radiation and may be a contributory cause of skin cancer; however, there has been little research into this occupational hazard. The aim of this study is to explore if metal arc welding increases the risk of malignant melanoma and/or basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on skin areas which may possibly be exposed (neck, head, and upper extremities). A Danish national company-based historic cohort of 4333 male metal arc welders was followed from 1987 through 2012 to identify the risk of skin cancer. An external reference group was established including all Danish skilled and unskilled male workers with similar age distribution. Occupational histories were gathered by questionnaires in 1986 and information about skin cancer diagnoses [BCC, SCC, cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), and precancerous conditions, actinic keratosis (AK)] were gathered from the Danish Cancer Registry supplemented by the data from the Danish Pathology Register. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated in the follow-up period from 1987 until 2012 using Cox regression analysis and adjusted for baseline data regarding age and social group. The adjusted HR and 95% confidence interval (CI) for skin cancer (all types) were 0.99 (CI 0.94-1.04) for welders. The adjusted HR for AK and BCC located only at neck was 2.49 (CI 1.03-5.99) for welders exposed >20 years (n = 5) and 2.46 (CI 1.02-5.94), respectively, for welders exposed >30 years (n = 5). No statistically significant difference was observed for SCC. The risk of CMM at the neck was also significantly elevated after 30 years of welding, but this is based upon only one exposed case. This study indicates that long-term exposure to metal arc welding may be related to increased risk of BCC and AK located exclusively at the neck. The study provides no support for the hypothesis that welding exposure increases the risk for skin cancer at other locations.

  7. Review of Natural Compounds for Potential Skin Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawona N. Chinembiri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Most anti-cancer drugs are derived from natural resources such as marine, microbial and botanical sources. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, with a high mortality rate. Various treatments for malignant melanoma are available, but due to the development of multi-drug resistance, current or emerging chemotherapies have a relatively low success rates. This emphasizes the importance of discovering new compounds that are both safe and effective against melanoma. In vitro testing of melanoma cell lines and murine melanoma models offers the opportunity for identifying mechanisms of action of plant derived compounds and extracts. Common anti-melanoma effects of natural compounds include potentiating apoptosis, inhibiting cell proliferation and inhibiting metastasis. There are different mechanisms and pathways responsible for anti-melanoma actions of medicinal compounds such as promotion of caspase activity, inhibition of angiogenesis and inhibition of the effects of tumor promoting proteins such as PI3-K, Bcl-2, STAT3 and MMPs. This review thus aims at providing an overview of anti-cancer compounds, derived from natural sources, that are currently used in cancer chemotherapies, or that have been reported to show anti-melanoma, or anti-skin cancer activities. Phytochemicals that are discussed in this review include flavonoids, carotenoids, terpenoids, vitamins, sulforaphane, some polyphenols and crude plant extracts.

  8. Be vigilant for skin manifestations of inherited cancer syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidman, Alice SM

    2017-01-01

    More than 200 hereditary cancer susceptibility syndromes have been described, and it is thought that they account for 5-10% of all cancers. Many have dermatological manifestations (usually lesions, occasionally rashes) which frequently precede other systemic pathology. Dermatological signs are usually non-specific and often trivial in appearance, making their significance easy to overlook and a clinical diagnosis challenging. Histological examination is often required to differentiate lesions. They are usually benign and pathologically unrelated to the primary tumours, with the exception of the atypical moles of the dysplastic naevus syndrome, and may present simply as a cosmetic problem for the patient. However, a number of cancer syndromes exhibit an increased risk of developing malignant skin lesions. For instance, Gorlin syndrome (nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome) which typically results in the development of multiple basal cell carcinomas, within the first few decades of life. The majority of cancer syndromes with skin signs are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern demonstrating complete penetrance before the age of 70. Once a cancer syndrome has been diagnosed, the cornerstone of management is frequent surveillance for the early detection and treatment of malignancy. Genetic testing and counselling should be offered to family members.

  9. The role of optical radiations in skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Fabrizio; Palla, Marco; Di Trolio, Rossella; Mozzillo, Nicola; Ascierto, Paolo A

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Electromagnetic radiation with wavelength in the range 100 nm to 1 mm is known as optical radiation and includes ultraviolet radiation, the visible spectrum, and infrared radiation. The deleterious short- and long-term biological effects of ultraviolet radiation, including melanoma and other skin cancers, are well recognized. Infrared radiation may also have damaging biological effects. Methods. The objective of this review was to assess the literature over the last 15 years and to summarize correlations between exposure to optical radiation and the risk of melanoma and other cancers. Results. There is a clear correlation between exposure to UV radiation and the development of skin cancer. Most importantly, a strong association between artificial UV radiation exposure, for example, tanning devices, and the risk of melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma has been clearly demonstrated. There is no clear evidence that exposure to IR and laser radiation may increase the risk of skin cancer, although negative health effects have been observed. Conclusions. Preventative strategies that involve provision of public information highlighting the risks associated with exposure to sunlight remain important. In addition, precautionary measures that discourage exposure to tanning appliances are required, as is legislation to prevent their use during childhood.

  10. [Ultrasound in the management of non-melanoma skin cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Ibáñez, C; Aguilar Bernier, M; de Troya Martín, M

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous ultrasound plays an important role in the study and management of non-melanoma skin cancer. Among other factors, this technique contributes to the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of these tumours, the establishment of their size and relation to neighbouring structures, the delimitation of surgical margins, and the detection of subclinical and recurrent lesions. The present article analyses the role of cutaneous ultrasound in the field of non-melanoma skin cancer (basal and squamous cell carcinomas, lymphomas and dermatofibrosarcoma) through a literature review. Copyright © 2015 Academia Española de Dermatología y Venereología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Skin cancer in rural workers: nursing knowledge and intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVETo identify the exposure of rural workers to the sun's ultraviolet radiation and pesticides; to identify previous cases of skin cancer; and to implement clinical and communicative nursing actions among rural workers with a previous diagnosis of skin cancer.METHODObservational-exploratory study conducted with rural workers exposed to ultraviolet radiation and pesticides in a rural area in the extreme south of Brazil. A clinical judgment and risk communication model properly adapted was used to develop interventions among workers with a previous history of skin cancer.RESULTSA total of 123 (97.7% workers were identified under conditions of exposure to the sun's ultraviolet radiation and pesticides; seven (5.4% were identified with a previous diagnosis of skin cancer; four (57.1% of these presented potential skin cancer lesions.CONCLUSIONThis study's results enabled clarifying the combination of clinical knowledge and risk communication regarding skin cancer to rural workers.

  12. Changing Trends of Skin Cancer: A Tertiary Care Hospital Study in Malwa Region of Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Sonal Tina; Banipal, Raja Paramjeet Singh; Bhatti, Deepak John; Yadav, Hanuman Prasad

    2016-06-01

    Skin cancer constitutes a small but significant proportion of patients with cancer. Although the presence of eumelanin in dark skin is protective against the development of skin cancer, it is increasingly being diagnosed in the Indian population. To study the profile of skin cancer patients presenting to a tertiary hospital in Malwa area of Punjab, India. Retrospective study was done to analyse the profile of skin cancer patients who attended the institution over one year from 1(st) December 2013 to 30(th) November 2014. A comprehensive review of aetiology and related risk factors was done to correlate the environmental factors with high skin cancer prevalence in this region. Skin cancer constituted (3.18%) 84 out of 2638 patients registered with cancer of all types. The age of the patients was 62±14.2 years and ranged from 27 to 92 yrs. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) was the most common histological type(46/84, 54.76%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (31/84, 36.91%) and malignant melanoma (MM) (7/84, 8.33%). Male: female ratio was found to be 0.79:1. BCC showed higher female preponderance (pSkin cancer constitutes a small but significant proportion of patients with cancers. This study highlights a paradoxically increasing trend of BCC and female preponderance. Head and neck is the most common site involved. Exposure to Ultra Violet B (UVB) radiation and higher levels of arsenic in drinking water has been reported to be associated with skin cancers. Limited studies show that levels of arsenic and pesticides were higher in the samples of drinking water in Malwa area of Punjab. Therefore a multipronged strategy to provide safe drinking water supply and discouraging the indiscriminate use of pesticides is recommended.

  13. Decreased risk of prostate cancer after skin cancer diagnosis: A protective role of ultraviolet radiation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Vries (Esther); I. Soerjomataram (Isabelle); S. Houterman (Saskia); M.W.J. Louwman (Marieke); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractUltraviolet radiation causes skin cancer but may protect against prostate cancer. The authors hypothesized that skin cancer patients had a lower prostate cancer incidence than the general population. In the southeastern part of the Netherlands, a population-based cohort of male skin

  14. [Skin cancer and sun radiation: peruvian experience in the prevention and early detection of skin cancer and melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo, Carlos; Gutiérrez, César

    2013-03-01

    The excessive exposure to sun radiation, especially to ultraviolet radiation (UV), has led to various diseases, in particular to skin cancer. In 1995, the Peruvian Dermatological Association conducted the first "Campaign for Education, Prevention and Early Detection of Skin Cancer and Melanoma" called "Mole's Day". The Ministry of Health has turned it into an official event, and the Health Social Security (EsSalud) also participates. This is a free campaign that takes place every year nationwide. 118,092 people attended from 1995 to 2011 in 76 sites distributed in 18 cities throughout the country. A cutaneous lesion were malignancy was suspected was identified in 2.8% of people attending, out of which 64.9% corresponded to basal cell carcinoma, 26.7% to cutaneous melanoma, and 8.4% to squamous cell carcinoma. These campaigns are highly important not only because of the assistance given, but also because of the educational activities aimed at promoting a prevention culture in favor of the most vulnerable populations. Finally, we believe it is important to continue educating the population on skin cancer prevention, to build awareness among the authorities so that they actively participate in the performance of these activities, and to ask all physicians to coordinately join this initiative, in order to continue growing, and to improve all that has been attained for the benefit of our country.

  15. ALA-PDT: the treatment of non melanoma skin cancer re-illuminated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R.M. de Haas (Ellen)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractNon melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer in Caucasian people (1,2). NMSC mainly consists of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Often Bowens disease (SCC in situ) and actinic keratosis are considered to be included although they are not

  16. Non-melanoma Skin Cancer in Canada Chapter 2: Primary Prevention of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Kirk; Searles, Gordon E; Vender, Ronald; Teoh, Hwee; Ashkenas, John

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal and squamous cell carcinoma (BCC and SCC), represents the most common malignancy. To provide guidance to Canadian health care practitioners regarding primary prevention of NMSC. Structured literature searches were conducted, using search terms including prevention, sunscreen, and sun prevention factor. All recommendations concern guidance that physicians should regularly discuss with their patients to help establish photoprotection habits. The GRADE system was used to assign strength to each recommendation. Ultraviolet exposure is the major modifiable risk factor for NMSC. Aspects of photoprotection, including effective sunscreen use and avoidance of both the midday sun and artificial tanning, are discussed. Several widespread misunderstandings that undermine responsible public health measures related to sun safety are addressed. Photoprotection represents both an individual priority and a public health imperative. By providing accurate information during routine patient visits, physicians reinforce the need for ongoing skin cancer prevention. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Mobile phone use and the risk of skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Friis, Søren; Johansen, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified radiofrequency radiation as possibly carcinogenic. Previous studies have focused on intracranial tumors, although the skin receives much radiation. In a nationwide cohort study, 355,701 private mobile phone subscribers in Denmark from...... 1987 to 1995 were followed up through 2007. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma by using Poisson regression models adjusted for age, calendar period, educational level, and income. Separate IRRs for head/neck tumors and torso....../leg tumors were compared (IRR ratios) to further address potential confounders. We observed no overall increased risk for basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or melanoma of the head and neck. After a follow-up period of at least 13 years, the IRRs for basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell...

  18. Skin Cancer Recognition by Using a Neuro-Fuzzy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Bareqa; Alshraideh, Mohammad; Beidas, Rasha; Hayajneh, Ferial

    2011-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most prevalent cancer in the light-skinned population and it is generally caused by exposure to ultraviolet light. Early detection of skin cancer has the potential to reduce mortality and morbidity. There are many diagnostic technologies and tests to diagnose skin cancer. However many of these tests are extremely complex and subjective and depend heavily on the experience of the clinician. To obviate these problems, image processing techniques, a neural network system (NN) and a fuzzy inference system were used in this study as promising modalities for detection of different types of skin cancer. The accuracy rate of the diagnosis of skin cancer by using the hierarchal neural network was 90.67% while using neuro-fuzzy system yielded a slightly higher rate of accuracy of 91.26% in diagnosis skin cancer type. The sensitivity of NN in diagnosing skin cancer was 95%, while the specificity was 88%. Skin cancer diagnosis by neuro-fuzzy system achieved sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 89%. PMID:21340020

  19. [Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and premalignant skin lesions--how to treat?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Sari; Jeskanen, Leila; Ylitalo, Leea

    2014-01-01

    Increasing exposure to UV radiation is considered the most important etiologic factor of nonmelanoma skin cancers. Consequently, exposed areas such as the scalp and face, are the primary areas for developing non-melanoma skin cancers. Once a patient has presented with one tumor, additional lesions are common. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical picture and biopsy or excision for histopathological analysis. Various non-surgical treatment options have been established. Superficial basal cell carcinoma, superficial carcinoma in situ and all actinic keratoses are preferentially treated non-surgically. Most other basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas should be surgically removed.

  20. Talimogene Laherparepvec and Nivolumab in Treating Patients With Refractory Lymphomas or Advanced or Refractory Non-melanoma Skin Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-02

    Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Adnexal Carcinoma; Apocrine Carcinoma; Eccrine Porocarcinoma; Extraocular Cutaneous Sebaceous Carcinoma; Hidradenocarcinoma; Keratoacanthoma; Malignant Sweat Gland Neoplasm; Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Microcystic Adnexal Carcinoma; NK-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable; Non-Melanomatous Lesion; Paget Disease; Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Primary Cutaneous Mucinous Carcinoma; Refractory Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Mycosis Fungoides; Refractory Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Sezary Syndrome; Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma; Skin Basal Cell Carcinoma; Skin Basosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Spiradenocarcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin; Stage III Skin Cancer; Stage IV Skin Cancer; Sweat Gland Carcinoma; Trichilemmocarcinoma; Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  2. Hyperthermia in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  3. Stages of Urethral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  4. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  5. Red tattoos, ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Catharina M; Heerfordt, Ida M; Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces skin cancer. The combination of UVR and red tattoos may be associated with increased risk of skin cancer due to potential carcinogens in tattoo inks. This combination has not been studied previously. Immunocompetent C3.Cg/TifBomTac hairless mice (n=99) were...... cell carcinoma (SCC) was measured. All UV-irradiated mice developed SCCs. The time to the onset of the first and second tumor was identical in the red-tattooed group compared with the control group (182 vs 186 days and 196 vs 203 days, P=ns). Statistically, the third tumor appeared slightly faster...... in the red-tattooed group than in the controls (214 vs 224 days, P=.043). For the second and third tumor, the growth rate was faster in the red-tattooed group compared with the control (31 vs 49 days, P=.009 and 30 vs 38 days, P=.036). In conclusion, no spontaneous cancers were observed in skin tattooed...

  6. Studying cell biology in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Angel; Lechler, Terry

    2015-11-15

    Advances in cell biology have often been driven by studies in diverse organisms and cell types. Although there are technical reasons for why different cell types are used, there are also important physiological reasons. For example, ultrastructural studies of vesicle transport were aided by the use of professional secretory cell types. The use of tissues/primary cells has the advantage not only of using cells that are adapted to the use of certain cell biological machinery, but also of highlighting the physiological roles of this machinery. Here we discuss advantages of the skin as a model system. We discuss both advances in cell biology that used the skin as a driving force and future prospects for use of the skin to understand basic cell biology. A unique combination of characteristics and tools makes the skin a useful in vivo model system for many cell biologists. © 2015 Morrow and Lechler. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. The role of skin self-examination at the Swiss skin cancer day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badertscher, N.; Meier, M.; Rosemann, T.; Braun, R.; Cozzio, A.; Tag, B.; Wensing, M.; Tandjung, R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rising incidence of melanoma - Switzerland has the highest incidence in Europe - is a major public health challenge. Swiss dermatologist introduced the "Swiss Skin Cancer Day" (SSCD) in 2006, which provides skin cancer screening at no costs. The aim of the study was to describe the

  8. Non-melanoma skin cancer in mouse and man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Michael; Münzel, Peter A; Braeuning, Albert

    2013-05-01

    As a frontier organ, skin is exposed to different environmental and/or occupational chemicals which cause cutaneous cancers in experimental animals. In mice, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthrancene (DMBA) and the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) are frequently used as skin model tumor initiator and promoter, respectively. The sequential administration of DMBA and TPA leads to the appearance of a large number of benign papillomas, of which some convert later into invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). At the molecular level, initiation of carcinogenesis in mouse skin consists in the mutational activation of the Ha-ras oncoprotein. HA-RAS mutations are rare in human SCC, but HA-RAS-mutated tumors appear in melanoma patients treated with B-raf inhibitors, indicating that initiated, HA-RAS-mutated stem cells also reside in human skin. Similarly, UV-induced human SCC show footprint mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 which are also observed in UV-induced mouse SCC. Strong species differences exist with respect to phorbol ester-mediated tumor promotion. While certain mouse strains are very susceptible, other rodent species are much less sensitive. Likewise, humans appear to be much more resistant to phorbol ester-mediated skin toxicity. Papilloma formation as a result of a chemical insult is uncommon in men, questioning the relevance of this preneoplastic lesion for humans. However, skin tumorigenesis in the experimental situation and in humans appears to follow common molecular mechanisms, even though there are species differences in the morphological correlates to the preneoplastic state. Therefore, we recommend not simply labeling them as irrelevant for human risk assessment.

  9. Incidence of skin cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors; Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1990-09-01

    Among a total of 65,268 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 140 cases with skin cancer were collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City from 1961 through 1987. Subsequently, these cases of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors were statistically analyzed in relation to the estimated distance from the hypocenter by age, sex, histology and latent period. The results were as follows: (1) A high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and the distance from the hypocenter. (2) The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors now appears to be increasing in relation to exposure distance. (3) Among 140 cases, basal cell epithelioma was observed in 67 cases (47.9%) and squamous cell carcinoma in 43 cases (30.7%). (author).

  10. Updates on the Management of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer (NMSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Fahradyan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs are the most common malignancy worldwide, of which 99% are basal cell carcinomas (BCCs and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs of skin. NMSCs are generally considered a curable diseases, yet they currently pose an increasing global healthcare problem due to rising incidence. This has led to a shift in emphasis on prevention of NMSCs with development of various skin cancer prevention programs worldwide. This article aims to summarize the most recent changes and advances made in NMSC management with a focus on prevention, screening, diagnosis, and staging.

  11. Antitumor and antimetastatic activities of grape skin polyphenols in a murine model of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T; Chen, Q Y; Wu, L J; Yao, X M; Sun, X J

    2012-10-01

    Treatment modalities are not effective once breast cancer metastasis has occurred. Dietary botanicals may have a better protective effect. We therefore investigated the effects of grape skin polyphenols on a highly metastatic mouse mammary carcinoma cell line. In vitro treatment of 4T1 cells, with grape skin polyphenols resulted in inhibition of the migration and viability in a dose-dependent manner. The migration of 4T1 cells was significantly inhibited by grape skin polyphenols, even at a very low concentration (5 μg/ml), and was totally inhibited when the concentration was 20 μg/ml. However, 20 μg/ml of grape skin polyphenols inhibited cell viability by only 11.4%. The inhibition of migration is independent of decreased cell viability or apoptosis induction. Further analysis indicated that the inhibition of migration by grape skin polyphenols is involved in blocking the PI3k/Akt and MAPK pathways. The effects of dietary grape skin polyphenols were then examined using an in vivo model in which 4T1 cells were implanted subcutaneously in Balb/c mice. The metastasis of tumor cells to the lungs was inhibited significantly by dietary grape skin extracts (0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml in drinking water) and the survival of the mice enhanced. These data suggest that grape skin polyphenols possess chemotherapeutic efficacy against breast cancer with metastases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Risks for skin and other cancers up to 25 years after burn injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjaer, Lene; Hölmich, Lisbet R; Gridley, Gloria

    2006-01-01

    with that in the general population of Denmark. RESULTS: Patients with burn had 139 skin cancers, with 189 expected, yielding a standardized incidence ratio of 0.7 (95% confidence interval = 0.6-0.9). This reduced risk was due mainly to deficits of basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, whereas the number...... of squamous cell carcinomas observed was close to expected. We saw no consistent increases in risk for skin cancer in the subgroups of patients with the most severe injuries or with the longest periods of follow up. CONCLUSIONS: The tendency to malignant degeneration of burn scars, described in previous...... reports of case series, did not result in an excess of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin or of any other type of skin cancer during up to 25 years' follow up of a large unselected cohort of patients hospitalized for burn injuries....

  13. Altering the balance between immune activation versus regulation in the skin to promote CD8+ T-cell activity within epithelial cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bridge, Jennifer A.; Overgaard, Nana Haahr; Steptoe, Raymond

    . The expression, in a mouse model (“E7”), of the HPV16 E7 gene in keratinocytes under the control of the K14 promoter, leads to a local immune suppressive environment, as evidenced by the lack of graft rejection when E7 skin grafts are placed on WT recipient mice. Furthermore, well healed (>30 days) E7 skin......-cells respond to vaccination and differentiate into CTL capable of killing E7-expressing target cells. We hypothesised that the removal of regulatory T-cells (T-reg) might lead to E7 graft rejection in immunised mice. The co-administration of an anti-CD4-depeting antibody at the time of immunisation led...

  14. Skin cancer: an overview of epidemiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Randy

    2013-08-01

    To provide a general overview of malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer, with an emphasis on epidemiology, clinical presentation, and the multiple and varied risk factors associated with skin cancer. Peer-reviewed journal articles, government health reports, book chapters, and Web-based resources. Skin cancer is the most common carcinoma, affecting millions worldwide. Incidence is increasing yearly, making it a pre-eminent public health threat. Myriad factors increase the risk of skin cancer and may serve as important prognostic indicators for the disease. To provide nurses with a clearer understanding of the causative mechanisms of skin cancer and an improved awareness of the risk factors associated with the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Skin cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumaste, P V; Penn, L A; Cymerman, R M; Kirchhoff, T; Polsky, D; McLellan, B

    2015-06-01

    Women with BRCA1/2 mutations have an elevated risk of breast and ovarian cancer. These patients and their clinicians are often concerned about their risk for other cancers, including skin cancer. Research evaluating the association between BRCA1/2 mutations and skin cancer is limited and has produced inconsistent results. Herein, we review the current literature on the risk of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. No studies have shown a statistically significant risk of melanoma in BRCA1 families. BRCA2 mutations have been linked to melanoma in large breast and ovarian cancer families, though a statistically significant elevated risk was reported in only one study. Five additional studies have shown some association between BRCA2 mutations and melanoma, while four studies did not find any association. With respect to nonmelanoma skin cancers, studies have produced conflicting results. Given the current state of medical knowledge, there is insufficient evidence to warrant increased skin cancer surveillance of patients with a confirmed BRCA1/2 mutation or a family history of a BRCA1/2 mutation, in the absence of standard risk factors. Nonetheless, suspected BRCA1/2 mutation carriers should be counselled about skin cancer risks and may benefit from yearly full skin examinations. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Effect of low-dose-rate irradiation on the division potential of cells in vitro. V. Human skin fibroblasts from donors with a high risk of cancer. [/sup 60/Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diatloff, C.; Macieira-Coelho, A.

    1979-07-01

    Skin fibroblasts from normal donors, donors with ataxia-telanglectasia or Fanconi's anemia, and from 1 cancer patient were treated with repeated ..gamma.. radiation at about 16 rads per hour. The remaining division potential of all fibroblasts, except for the Fanconi's anemia cells, was reduced to different extents by radiation. The growth potential of Fanconl's anemia cells was increased in all the irradiated cultures. The increase was 54% in the group that survived the longest. These results were identical to those obtained with fibroblasts from certain species that have a high probability of transformation.

  17. Incidence of and Risk Factors for Skin Cancer in Organ Transplant Recipients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Giorgia L; Blanc, Paul D; Boscardin, John; Lloyd, Amanda Abramson; Ahmed, Rehana L; Anthony, Tiffany; Bibee, Kristin; Breithaupt, Andrew; Cannon, Jennifer; Chen, Amy; Cheng, Joyce Y; Chiesa-Fuxench, Zelma; Colegio, Oscar R; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Del Guzzo, Christina A; Disse, Max; Dowd, Margaret; Eilers, Robert; Ortiz, Arisa Elena; Morris, Caroline; Golden, Spring K; Graves, Michael S; Griffin, John R; Hopkins, R Samuel; Huang, Conway C; Bae, Gordon Hyeonjin; Jambusaria, Anokhi; Jennings, Thomas A; Jiang, Shang I Brian; Karia, Pritesh S; Khetarpal, Shilpi; Kim, Changhyun; Klintmalm, Goran; Konicke, Kathryn; Koyfman, Shlomo A; Lam, Charlene; Lee, Peter; Leitenberger, Justin J; Loh, Tiffany; Lowenstein, Stefan; Madankumar, Reshmi; Moreau, Jacqueline F; Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Ochoa, Shari; Olasz, Edit B; Otchere, Elaine; Otley, Clark; Oulton, Jeremy; Patel, Parth H; Patel, Vishal Anil; Prabhu, Arpan V; Pugliano-Mauro, Melissa; Schmults, Chrysalyne D; Schram, Sarah; Shih, Allen F; Shin, Thuzar; Soon, Seaver; Soriano, Teresa; Srivastava, Divya; Stein, Jennifer A; Sternhell-Blackwell, Kara; Taylor, Stan; Vidimos, Allison; Wu, Peggy; Zajdel, Nicholas; Zelac, Daniel; Arron, Sarah T

    2017-03-01

    Skin cancer is the most common malignancy occurring after organ transplantation. Although previous research has reported an increased risk of skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients (OTRs), no study has estimated the posttransplant population-based incidence in the United States. To determine the incidence and evaluate the risk factors for posttransplant skin cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), melanoma (MM), and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in a cohort of US OTRs receiving a primary organ transplant in 2003 or 2008. This multicenter retrospective cohort study examined 10 649 adult recipients of a primary transplant performed at 26 centers across the United States in the Transplant Skin Cancer Network during 1 of 2 calendar years (either 2003 or 2008) identified through the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) database. Recipients of all organs except intestine were included, and the follow-up periods were 5 and 10 years. Incident skin cancer was determined through detailed medical record review. Data on predictors were obtained from the OPTN database. The incidence rates for posttransplant skin cancer overall and for SCC, MM, and MCC were calculated per 100 000 person-years. Potential risk factors for posttransplant skin cancer were tested using multivariate Cox regression analysis to yield adjusted hazard ratios (HR). Overall, 10 649 organ transplant recipients (mean [SD] age, 51 [12] years; 3873 women [36%] and 6776 men [64%]) contributed 59 923 years of follow-up. The incidence rates for posttransplant skin cancer was 1437 per 100 000 person-years. Specific subtype rates for SCC, MM, and MCC were 812, 75, and 2 per 100 000 person-years, respectively. Statistically significant risk factors for posttransplant skin cancer included pretransplant skin cancer (HR, 4.69; 95% CI, 3.26-6.73), male sex (HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.34-1.81), white race (HR, 9.04; 95% CI, 6.20-13.18), age at transplant 50 years or older (HR, 2

  18. Mast cell distribution in normal adult skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, A S; Heide, R; den Hollander, J C; Mulder, P G M; Tank, B; Oranje, A P

    2005-03-01

    To investigate mast cell distribution in normal adult skin to provide a reference range for comparison with mastocytosis. Mast cells (MCs) were counted in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders in adults. There was an uneven distribution of MCs in different body sites using the anti-tryptase monoclonal antibody technique. Numbers of MCs on the trunk, upper arm, and upper leg were similar, but were significantly different from those found on the lower leg and forearm. Two distinct groups were formed--proximal and distal. There were 77.0 MCs/mm2 at proximal body sites and 108.2 MCs/mm2 at distal sites. Adjusted for the adjacent diagnosis and age, this difference was consistent. The numbers of MCs in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders were not different from those in the control group. Differences in the numbers of MCs between the distal and the proximal body sites must be considered when MCs are counted for a reliable diagnosis of mastocytosis. A pilot study in patients with mastocytosis underlined the variation in the numbers of MCs in mastocytosis and normal skin, but showed a considerable overlap. The observed numbers of MCs in adults cannot be extrapolated to children. MC numbers varied significantly between proximal and distal body sites and these differences must be considered when MCs are counted for a reliable diagnosis of mastocytosis. There was a considerable overlap between the numbers of MCs in mastocytosis and normal skin.

  19. Can a selfie promote public engagement with skin cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Leas, Eric; Althouse, Benjamin M; Dredze, Mark; Kelley, Dannielle; Ayers, John W

    2017-11-03

    Social media may provide new opportunities to promote skin cancer prevention, but research to understand this potential is needed. In April of 2015, Kentucky native Tawny Willoughby (TW) shared a graphic skin cancer selfie on Facebook that subsequently went viral. We examined the volume of comments and shares of her original Facebook post; news volume of skin cancer from Google News; and search volume for skin cancer Google queries. We compared these latter metrics after TWs announcement against expected volumes based on forecasts of historical trends. TWs skin cancer story was picked up by the media on May 11, 2015 after the social media post had been shared approximately 50,000 times. All search queries for skin cancer increased 162% (95% CI 102 to 320) and 155% (95% CI 107 to 353) on May 13th and 14th, when news about TW's skin cancer selfie was at its peak, and remained higher through May 17th. Google searches about skin cancer prevention and tanning were also significantly higher than expected volumes. In practical terms, searches reached near-record levels - i.e., May 13th, 14th and 15th were respectively the 6th, 8th, and 40th most searched days for skin cancer since January 1, 2004 when Google began tracking searches. We conclude that an ordinary person's social media post caught the public's imagination and led to significant increases in public engagement with skin cancer prevention. Digital surveillance methods can rapidly detect these events in near real time, allowing public health practitioners to engage and potentially elevate positive effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Skin temperature during sunbathing--relevance for skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    It has been found that exposure to heat and infrared radiation (IR) can be carcinogenic, and that a combination of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and IR possibly amplifies carcinogenesis. To investigate how the skin temperature is affected by sunbathing, we measured the skin temperature on 20 healthy...... volunteers over 6 days' sun holiday in Egypt. Temperatures were measured with an infrared thermometer gun at 8 skin sites on the volunteers while they were indoors in the morning and when sunbathing during the day. Skin temperatures were higher during sunbathing (33.5 °C ± 2.1 °C) (mean ± SD) than when...... indoors in the morning (32.6 °C ± 1.4 °C) (mean ± SD) (P skin temperature for men was higher than for women by 0.40 °C in the morning (P = 0.02) and by 0.44 °C during sunbathing (P skin temperature, which possibly...

  1. Parents' perceptions of skin cancer threat and children's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Alexander D; Aalborg, Jenny; Asdigian, Nancy L; Morelli, Joseph G; Mokrohisky, Stefan T; Dellavalle, Robert P; Berwick, Marianne; Box, Neil F; Crane, Lori A

    2012-01-01

    Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer, but without physical activity, children are at risk of childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to explore relationships between parental perceptions of skin cancer threat, sun protection behaviors, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) in children. This is a cross-sectional analysis nested within the Colorado Kids Sun Care Program sun safety intervention trial. In summer 2007, parent telephone interviews provided data on demographics, perceptions of skin cancer threat, sun protection behaviors, and physical activity. Physical examinations provided data on phenotype, freckling, and BMI. Data from 999 Colorado children born in 1998 were included in analysis. We used analysis of variance, Spearman's rho (ρ) correlation, and multivariable linear regression analysis to evaluate relationships with total amount of outdoor physical activity. After controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, skin color, and sun protection, regression analysis showed that each unit increase in perceived severity of nonmelanoma skin cancer was associated with a 30% increase in hours of outdoor physical activity (P = .005). Hours of outdoor physical activity were not related to perceived severity of melanoma or perceived susceptibility to skin cancer. BMI-for-age was not significantly correlated with perceptions of skin cancer threat, use of sun protection, or level of physical activity. The promotion of sun safety is not likely to inhibit physical activity. Skin cancer prevention programs should continue to promote midday sun avoidance and sun protection during outdoor activities.

  2. CLASSIFICATION OF SEVERAL SKIN CANCER TYPES BASED ON AUTOFLUORESCENCE INTENSITY OF VISIBLE LIGHT TO NEAR INFRARED RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryo Tedjo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is a malignant growth on the skin caused by many factors. The most common skin cancers are Basal Cell Cancer (BCC and Squamous Cell Cancer (SCC. This research uses a discriminant analysis to classify some tissues of skin cancer based on criterion number of independent variables. An independent variable is variation of excitation light sources (LED lamp, filters, and sensors to measure Autofluorescence Intensity (IAF of visible light to near infrared (VIS/NIR ratio of paraffin embedded tissue biopsy from BCC, SCC, and Lipoma. From the result of discriminant analysis, it is known that the discriminant function is determined by 4 (four independent variables i.e., Blue LED-Red Filter, Blue LED-Yellow Filter, UV LED-Blue Filter, and UV LED-Yellow Filter. The accuracy of discriminant in classifying the analysis of three skin cancer tissues is 100 %.

  3. Costs of illness for melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, Joan; Kjellberg, Jakob; Thorgaard, Camilla; Engholm, Gerda; Phillip, Anja; Storm, Hans H

    2013-11-01

    Incidences of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer are high and increasing in many countries including Denmark. The diseases are highly preventable. We have estimated the healthcare costs of these cancers by comparing costs for cohorts of patients and matched controls in a national register-based study in Denmark. All incident patients with a diagnosis of melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, or squamous cell carcinoma in the period 2004-2008 were included. Four control individuals for each case were matched in terms of sex, age, and area of residence. Healthcare costs and productivity loss for patients and controls were estimated using Danish health and social registries 3 years before and 3 years after diagnosis. The healthcare costs of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer were &OV0556;33.3 million in the 3-year period after diagnosis, with male patients inducing the highest costs for all three cancers and costs increasing with age. The diagnoses of basal cell carcinoma and melanoma had almost the same healthcare costs, but per patient average healthcare costs were higher for melanoma. The costs of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers, which can be prevented by sensible sun habits, exceed the costs of the preventive measures of the Danish SunSmart campaign manifold. Costs of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer are expected to increase in the future with populations aging in the western world. The analyses provide a strong argument for the societal rationale of skin cancer prevention in Denmark.

  4. Uncovering the Origin of Skin Side Effects from EGFR-Targeted Therapies | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a key regulator of cell proliferation, is often mutated or overexpressed in a variety of cancer types. EGFR-targeted therapies, including monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors, can effectively treat patients whose tumors depend on aberrant EGFR signaling. Within a few weeks of initiating therapy, however, patients develop a characteristic rash with leukocyte infiltration into the skin accompanied by pruritus (itching), scaling of the skin, hair loss, and even changes in skin cell differentiation. The side effects can become so severe that patients take reduced doses, which can limit efficacy, or stop treatment altogether. To understand how EGFR inhibitors cause these skin changes in the hopes of identifying a means of preventing them, Stuart Yuspa, M.D., of CCR’s Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics, and his colleagues examined patient samples and generated a mouse model of EGFR loss in the skin.

  5. Application of low level laser on skin cell lines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndhundhuma, IM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lasers have emerged as powerful tools for tissue engineering. To examine cellular growth, and cell to cell interactions, in vitro skin models have been developed combining two major cell types of skin, keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The main...

  6. Bone Cancer: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  7. Polymorphic light eruption and skin cancer prevalence: is one protective against the other?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lembo, S

    2008-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UVR) interacts with chromophores in cutaneous cells with consequent antigenicity. The normal response to this is a downregulation of immune responsiveness. Failure of the immune system to downregulate and to ignore transient photoantigens in human skin results in polymorphic light eruption (PLE), the commonest of the photodermatoses. UVR initiates and promotes skin cancer (SC): UV-induced immunosuppression permits the expansion of UV-mutated clones of cells which ultimately lead to SC.

  8. National Comprehensive Cancer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anal Carcinoma B-Cell Lymphomas Basal Cell Skin Cancer Bladder Cancer Bone Cancer Breast Cancer Central Nervous System Cancers ... Breast Cancer Risk Reduction Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis Cervical Cancer Screening Colorectal Cancer Screening Genetic/Familial ...

  9. Non melanoma skin cancer - etiopathogenesis, clinic, diagnostic and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polakova, K.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of non melanoma skin cancer has permanently increasing tendency in populations of European origin. The similar situation is in Slovakia too. It is the most frequent cancer in Caucasian. The UVR is considered as the most important factor for development of such diseases. UV exposure leads to the generation of alterations in nuclear genes such as the p53 tumour suppressor gene as well as in the other genome in the cell - namely mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Except traditional surgical treatment, noninvasive treatment modalities are increasingly used, namely for superficial lesions.Together with them, also markant development of new noninvasive diagnostic technologies was observed in the last decade.The shift from the older age groups to the younger ones, forced us to give increased attention to this problem. (author)

  10. Opportunistic screening for skin cancer using a mobile unit in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazquez Vinicius L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the white population worldwide. In Brazil, the National Cancer Institute (INCA estimates that in 2010 there will be 119,780 and 5,930 new cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and melanoma, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a mobile unit in the diagnosis and treatment of skin cancer in several poor regions of Brazil. Methods The diagnosis of skin cancer was accomplished through active medical screening in the prevention Mobile Unit (MU of Barretos Cancer Hospital (BCH. The study population consisted of patients examined in the MU between 2004 and 2007, and their suspicious lesions were subjected to histopathological evaluation. Data were collected prospectively from standardized forms and analyzed. Results During the screening, 17,857 consultations were carried out. A total of 2012 (11.2% cases of skin cancer were diagnosed. The predominant histological type reported was basal cell carcinoma (n = 1,642 or 81.6%, followed by squamous cell carcinoma (n = 303 or 15.1%, Bowen's disease (n = 25 or 1.2%, malignant melanoma (n = 23 or 1.1%, basosquamous cell carcinoma (n = 3 or 0.1%, miscellaneous lesions (12 or 0.6%, and metatypical carcinoma (n = 4 or 0.2%. Only 0.6% of lesions were stage III. There were no stage IV non-melanoma skin lesions, as well as no melanomas stages III and IV, found. Conclusions It was observed that the MU can be a useful tool for early skin cancer diagnosis and treatment. This program probably is important, especially in developing countries with inadequate public health systems and social inequality.

  11. Regulatory T Cells in Skin Facilitate Epithelial Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niwa; Zirak, Bahar; Rodriguez, Robert Sanchez; Pauli, Mariela L; Truong, Hong-An; Lai, Kevin; Ahn, Richard; Corbin, Kaitlin; Lowe, Margaret M; Scharschmidt, Tiffany C; Taravati, Keyon; Tan, Madeleine R; Ricardo-Gonzalez, Roberto R; Nosbaum, Audrey; Bertolini, Marta; Liao, Wilson; Nestle, Frank O; Paus, Ralf; Cotsarelis, George; Abbas, Abul K; Rosenblum, Michael D

    2017-06-01

    The maintenance of tissue homeostasis is critically dependent on the function of tissue-resident immune cells and the differentiation capacity of tissue-resident stem cells (SCs). How immune cells influence the function of SCs is largely unknown. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) in skin preferentially localize to hair follicles (HFs), which house a major subset of skin SCs (HFSCs). Here, we mechanistically dissect the role of Tregs in HF and HFSC biology. Lineage-specific cell depletion revealed that Tregs promote HF regeneration by augmenting HFSC proliferation and differentiation. Transcriptional and phenotypic profiling of T regs and HFSCs revealed that skin-resident Tregs preferentially express high levels of the Notch ligand family member, Jagged 1 (Jag1). Expression of Jag1 on Tregs facilitated HFSC function and efficient HF regeneration. Taken together, our work demonstrates that Tregs in skin play a major role in HF biology by promoting the function of HFSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. OCT imaging of skin cancer and other dermatological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides clinicians and researchers with micrometer-resolution, in vivo, cross-sectional images of human skin up to several millimeter depth. This review of OCT imaging applied within dermatology covers the application of OCT to normal skin, and reports on a lar...... number of applications in the fields of non-melanoma skin cancer, malignant melanomas, psoriasis and dermatitis, infestations, bullous skin diseases, tattoos, nails, haemangiomas, and other skin diseases. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)...

  13. Skin-Derived Vitamin D-3 Protects against Basal Cell Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Roelink, Henk

    2017-01-01

    UVR in sunlight causes mutations that drive basal cell carcinomas. However, the incidence of these tumors plateaus with prolonged exposure, but the incidence of other skin cancers increases. Makarova et al. now show that vitamin D-3 produced in the skin by UVR protects against its oncogenic effects

  14. Prevalence of Skin Cancers Among Iranian Veterans, 18-23 Years Following Exposure to Sulfur Mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emadi, S. N.; Soroush, R.; Khateri, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this historical Cohort, in a population of 800 veterans with documented history of exposure to Sulfur Mustard during the period of 1984-88 (all have been under the close health monitoring program) 25 cases are found to have developed skin cancer over the past years. The most common cancer among these cases has been Basal Cell Carcinoma -BCC- with 9 cases and then Squamous Cell Carcinoma -SCC- , mycosis fungoides-MF-, Bowen disease and Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans-DFSP- (5, 5, 4 and 2 cases respectively). Considering the number of diagnosed skin cancers among the subjects of this study and new cases even 2 decades after exposure, more in depth studies are necessary to investigate the possible casual relationship between the exposure to mustard gas and the skin cancers. (author)

  15. Red tattoos, ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, Catharina M; Heerfordt, Ida M; Serup, Jørgen; Poulsen, Thomas; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2017-11-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces skin cancer. The combination of UVR and red tattoos may be associated with increased risk of skin cancer due to potential carcinogens in tattoo inks. This combination has not been studied previously. Immunocompetent C3.Cg/TifBomTac hairless mice (n=99) were tattooed on their back with a popular red tattoo ink. This often used ink is banned for use on humans because of high content of the potential carcinogen 2-anisidine. Half of the mice were irradiated with three standard erythema doses UVR thrice weekly. Time to induction of first, second and third squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was measured. All UV-irradiated mice developed SCCs. The time to the onset of the first and second tumor was identical in the red-tattooed group compared with the control group (182 vs 186 days and 196 vs 203 days, P=ns). Statistically, the third tumor appeared slightly faster in the red-tattooed group than in the controls (214 vs 224 days, P=.043). For the second and third tumor, the growth rate was faster in the red-tattooed group compared with the control (31 vs 49 days, P=.009 and 30 vs 38 days, P=.036). In conclusion, no spontaneous cancers were observed in skin tattooed with a red ink containing 2-anisidine. However, red tattoos exposed to UVR showed faster tumor onset regarding the third tumor, and faster growth rate of the second and third tumor indicating red ink acts as a cocarcinogen with UVR. The cocarcinogenic effect was weak and may not be clinically relevant. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Histological review of skin cancers in African Albinos: a 10-year retrospective review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiprono, Samson Kimaiyo; Chaula, Baraka Michael; Beltraminelli, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is rare among Africans and albinism is an established risk for skin cancer in this population. Ultraviolet radiation is highest at the equator and African albinos living close to the equator have the highest risk of developing skin cancers. This was a retrospective study that involved histological review of all specimens with skin cancers from African albinos submitted to The Regional Dermatology Training Center in Moshi, Tanzania from 2002 to 2011. A total of 134 biopsies from 86 patients with a male to female ratio of 1:1 were reviewed. Head and neck was the commonest (n = 75, 56.0%) site affected by skin cancers. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was more common than basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with a ratio of 1.2:1. Only one Acral lentiginous melanoma was reported. Majority (55.6%) of SCC were well differentiated while nodular BCC (75%) was the most common type of BCC. Squamous cell carcinoma is more common than basal cell carcinoma in African albinos

  17. Treatment Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beds) over long periods of time. Having a fair complexion, which includes the following: Fair skin that freckles and burns easily, does not ... beds) over long periods of time. Having a fair complexion, which includes the following: Fair skin that ...

  18. Transcriptome Analysis Identifies the Dysregulation of Ultraviolet Target Genes in Human Skin Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Shen

    Full Text Available Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR is a major risk factor for both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. In addition to its mutagenic effect, UVR can also induce substantial transcriptional instability in skin cells affecting thousands of genes, including many cancer genes, suggesting that transcriptional instability may be another important etiological factor in skin photocarcinogenesis. In this study, we performed detailed transcriptomic profiling studies to characterize the kinetic changes in global gene expression in human keratinocytes exposed to different UVR conditions. We identified a subset of UV-responsive genes as UV signature genes (UVSGs based on 1 conserved UV-responsiveness of this subset of genes among different keratinocyte lines; and 2 UV-induced persistent changes in their mRNA levels long after exposure. Interestingly, 11 of the UVSGs were shown to be critical to skin cancer cell proliferation and survival. Through computational Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, we demonstrated that a significant portion of the UVSGs were dysregulated in human skin squamous cell carcinomas, but not in other human malignancies. This highlights the potential and specificity of the UVSGs in clinical diagnosis of UV damage and stratification of skin cancer risk.

  19. Photodynamic Therapy for Non-Melanoma Skin Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K. Cohen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Non‐melanoma skin cancer (NMSC is traditionally treated with surgical excision. Nonsurgical methods such as cryotherapy and topical chemotherapeutics, amongst other treatments, are other options. Actinic keratosis (AKs are considered precancerous lesions that eventually may progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Photodynamic therapy (PDT offers an effective treatment for AKs, and is also effective for superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC. Nodular BCC and Bowen’s disease (SCC in situ have shown acceptable response rates with PDT, although recurrence rates are higher for these two NMSC subtypes. Methylaminolevulinate (MAL PDT is a more effective treatment option than 5‐aminolevulinic acid (ALA PDT for nodular BCC. Several studies have shown that PDT results in superior cosmetic outcomes compared to surgical treatment. PDT is overall well‐tolerated, with pain being the most common side effect.

  20. Radiotherapy in skin cancer - present day aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocheva, L.

    2009-01-01

    Skin carcinomas (SC) are the leading ones in the structure of oncological morbidity in both genders in Bulgaria, as well as in white populations in the world. Regardless of their high frequency, their treatment is successful and mortality due to SC has been reduced by 20 - 30% during the last decades. In Bulgaria SC in 2003 comprise 9.3% of all oncological diseases in men and women. According to their frequency they occupy the second phase after lung cancer in men and breast cancer in women. The treatment of SC is realized applying various therapeutic approaches, distinguished as basic (radical) and alternative ones. The first include surgical treatment and radiotherapy (RT) (definitive or adjuvant) and the alternative ones - curettage and electro-coagulation, cryotherapy, local chemotherapy and immunotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, etc. When defining the therapeutic approach, the method affording the best chances of curing with acceptable cosmetic results should be selected. The present review is aimed at considering the contemporary aspects in RT of SC, including used radiotherapy methods and techniques, volumes, doses, fractionation, and achieved therapeutic effects. The indications for implementing definitive and adjuvant RT are given in detail. The applied radiotherapy methods - external beam RT and brachytherapy, are also discussed. The used planned radiotherapy volumes, doses, fractionation schemes, attained therapeutic effects and possible radiation reactions are considered as well. The curability of SC is high, exceeding 90% after adequate treatment. Regardless of the fact that RT has partially ceded its leading role in SC treatment, it still remains to be one of the basic and successful therapeutic approaches

  1. Chemotherapy resistance mechanisms in advanced skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuvanesh Sukhlal Kalal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a most dangerous and deadly type of skin cancer, and considered intrinsically resistant to both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. It has become a major public health concern as the incidence of melanoma has been rising steadily over recent decades with a 5-year survival remaining less than 5%. Detection of the disease in early stage may be curable, but late stage metastatic disease that has spread to other organs has an extremely poor prognosis with a median survival of less than 10 months. Since metastatic melanoma is unresponsive to therapy that is currently available, research is now focused on different treatment strategies such as combinations of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The molecular basis of resistance to chemotherapy seen in melanoma is multifactorial; defective drug transport system, altered apoptotic pathway, deregulation of apoptosis and/or changes in enzymatic systems that mediate cellular metabolic machinery. Understanding of alterations in molecular processes involved in drug resistance may help in developing new therapeutic approaches to treatment of malignant melanoma.

  2. Observation and analysis on skin cancer induced by UVB irradiation using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunxia; Wu, Shulian; Li, Hui; Zheng, Xiaoxiao

    2014-09-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the prevalent skin cancers, which have a quite high incidence in the white race. In recent years, however, their incidences have been increasing in the yellow race, resulting in a great threat to the public health. According to researches, chronics UVB irradiation (280nm~320nm) is the major culprit of skin cancer in humans. In our study, the model of UVB induced skin cancer was established firstly. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) combined with the histopathology was exploited to monitor the morphologic and histological changes of the process of UVB induced skin cancer. Meanwhile, this canceration process was systematically studied and analyzed from the perspective of tissue optics. The attenuation coefficient (μt) has a rising trend in the epidermis, but which shows a downward trend in the dermis. The results are conducive to understand the process of UVB-induced skin cancer and further be able to provide a reference for medical researchers.

  3. Association Between HLA Type and Skin Cancer in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegielska, A; Dębska-Ślizień, A; Moszkowska, G; Imko-Walczuk, B; Rutkowski, B

    2016-06-01

    Organ transplant recipients (OTRs) are more susceptible to various diseases, among them cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC) represent the most common malignancies in OTRs in Europe. Due to the significantly higher morbidity, aggressive and rapid progression, and poor prognosis of NMSC in the OTR population, these patients require a special oncological approach. Intensive attention should therefore be paid to factors predisposing OTRs to the development of cancer. The aim of this study was to establish the role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of skin cancer in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). This single-center study was performed in 39 KTRs with posttransplant NMSC. The frequency of particular types of HLA Class I (HLA-A and HLA-B) and Class II (HLA-DR) in each group were compared to establish the association between the HLA type and risk of skin cancer after renal transplantation. HLA-DR15 were more commonly detected in patients with MNSC than in the control group of KTRs (P = .014) There was also a positive correlation between HLA-B18 and skin squamous cell carcinoma. The antigen was more often recorded in KTRs with squamous cell carcinoma than in KTRs without NMSC (P = .03) and in the general population (P = .002). Patients who are positive for HLA-BR15 and HLA-B18 should be under special dermatologic surveillance due to the potentially high risk of skin cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonmelanoma skin cancer in the population of the city of Belgrade in the period 1999-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Videnović Goran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nonmelanoma skin cancers in the literature are mainly related to basal cell and squamous cell skin carcinoma. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the trend in the incidence of histological types of nonmelanoma skin cancers in the population of the city of Belgrade from 1999 to 2011. Methods. From the Serbian National Cancer Registry we extracted all recorded cases of skin cancer in Belgrade from January 1st 1999 to December 31st 2011. Incidence rates were standardized by the method of direct standardization with the world population as the standard population. Trends and annual percentage change (APC of incidence rate were calculated by performing joinpoint regression analyses. Results. Incidence rate of nonmelanoma skin cancer showed significantly increasing trend between 1999 and 2006 with APC of 8.6% (95% CI: 5.6-11.7, basal cell carcinoma increased with APC of 8.4% (95% CI: 5.2-11.6 and squamous cell skin carcinoma with APC of 9.33% (95% CI: 5.7-13.1. The incidence increased with age for both men and women, especially after the age of 60. Conclusion. Our results showed a continuously increasing incidence trend of both basal cell and squamous cell skin carcinomas in the population of the city of Belgrade between 1999 and 2011. Adequate primary and secondary prevention would certainly be successful in reducing this type of cancer in the future.

  5. Photosensitizing medication use and risk of skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jeanette; Boyd, Heather A; Hansen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Many commonly used medications, including both medications for long-term (daily) use and short-term use (treatment courses of finite duration), have photosensitizing properties. Whether use of these medications affects skin cancer risk, however, is unclear.......Many commonly used medications, including both medications for long-term (daily) use and short-term use (treatment courses of finite duration), have photosensitizing properties. Whether use of these medications affects skin cancer risk, however, is unclear....

  6. Zosteriform skin metastases: Clue to an undiagnosed breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha C Virmani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastases represent the most devastating aspect of malignancy, since the mortality of cancer patients is mainly related to the metastatic behavior of the primary neoplasm. Skin metastases are usually late events in the course of tumor progression. Excluding melanoma, the most common tumor to metastasize to the skin is breast cancer. Patients who develop cutaneous metastases rarely present with a zosteriform distribution. Herein, we present a 60-year-old female, an undiagnosed case of breast cancer, with zosteriform metastases along her right T2-T3 dermatome.

  7. Phytochemicals in Skin Cancer Prevention and Treatment: An Updated Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Yee Ng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Skin is the largest human organ, our protection against various environmental assaults and noxious agents. Accumulation of these stress events may lead to the formation of skin cancers, including both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. Although modern targeted therapies have ameliorated the management of cutaneous malignancies, a safer, more affordable, and more effective strategy for chemoprevention and treatment is clearly needed for the improvement of skin cancer care. Phytochemicals are biologically active compounds derived from plants and herbal products. These agents appear to be beneficial in the battle against cancer as they exert anti-carcinogenic effects and are widely available, highly tolerated, and cost-effective. Evidence has indicated that the anti-carcinogenic properties of phytochemicals are due to their anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic effects. In this review, we discuss the preventive potential, therapeutic effects, bioavailability, and structure–activity relationship of these selected phytochemicals for the management of skin cancers. The knowledge compiled here will provide clues for future investigations on novel oncostatic phytochemicals and additional anti-skin cancer mechanisms.

  8. [Prevention of skin cancer: considerations on strategic communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, M P; Baumann, E; Breitbart, E W

    2014-03-01

    In recent decades the numbers of cases of skin cancer have been increasing worldwide in light skinned populations. In Germany skin cancer is the most common form of cancer. To reduce the burden of skin cancer protection from ultraviolet radiation (primary prevention) and early detection (secondary prevention) of the disease play a decisive role. In this context information to the population about preventive behavior and the support of informed decision-making in skin cancer screening are important aspects in communication. This paper gives an overview about communicational aspects in the promotion of skin cancer prevention. In the development of communicational interventions it is important to identify the relevant target groups. Relevant key opinion leaders have to be included in the information process. Additionally, interventions should be based on a theoretical framework and be designed for the respective target group. Furthermore, different forms of communication and communication tools are provided for the realization of an information intervention. To appraise the intervention elements of summative and formal evaluation are available. The current results provide important findings about different effects of communicational aspects on knowledge and behavior of the population; however, due to the complexity of information interventions a particular effect cannot be explained by a single communicational element.

  9. General Information about Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  10. Pain Control: Support for People with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  11. Cell phones and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of ...

  12. A profile of skin cancer prevention media coverage in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokkinides, Vilma; Kirkland, Deborah; Andrews, Kimberly; Sullivan, Kristen; Lichtenfeld, J Leonard

    2012-10-01

    Little is known about the coverage of skin cancer prevention messages in news print media. To perform a content analysis of mass-media articles from newspaper and magazines pertaining to skin cancer prevention in 4 specific months (January, May, July, and October) in 2009 and assess the extent of coverage of skin cancer prevention messages. We conducted a content analysis of 144 articles related to skin cancer prevention extracted from strategic media scans of selected months in 2009. We sought to provide the frequency of mass-media content categorized by theme and focus related to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) protection and risk-reducing behaviors. The audience for the vast majority (78%) of the articles was the general public. Among the assessed articles, more were published in May (49%) and July (35%) than in the remaining other months. The two most frequent themes focused on 'protection of the skin' (32%) and on 'skin cancer prevention' (23%) via risk reduction behavioral practices. Analysis of message content regarding UVR reduction practices showed that many mentioned 'use of sunscreen' (65% of messages) with the least-often mentioned behaviors being 'seek shade' (6.3%) and 'do not burn' (1.4%). In addition, a quarter of the articles lacked any content mentioning recommended UVR reduction behaviors. This study was limited to the narrow scope of articles published in 2009 and for selected months. This profile of mass-media content regarding skin cancer prevention revealed gaps in coverage of UVR reduction behaviors with possible room for improvement. Strategies for improving and comprehensiveness of coverage of recommended skin cancer prevention behaviors in the media are discussed. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Minimal and maximal incidence rates of skin cancer in Caucasians estimated by use of sigmoidal UV dose-incidence curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Grigalavicius, Mantas; Baturaite, Zivile; Moan, Johan

    2014-11-01

    Sigmoidal (S-shaped) dose-cancer incidence relationships are often observed in animal bioassays for carcinogenicity. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an established skin carcinogen. The aim of this study is to examine if S-shaped curves describe the relationship between solar UV doses and skin cancer incidences, and if such relationships can be used to estimate threshold levels of non-carcinogenic UV exposure, as well as maximal incidence rates. We studied the incidence rate-annual erythema-effective UV dose relationship for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous melanoma (CM) among different Caucasian populations in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Our analysis indicates that S-shaped associations describe the data well (P skin cancer was absent. Avoidance of UV radiation has a potential to reduce the incidence of skin cancer in fair-skinned population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Dermoscopy of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babino, G; Lallas, A; Longo, C; Moscarella, E; Alfano, R; Argenziano, G

    2015-10-01

    Skin cancer is a major health problem because of its high incidence in white populations, as well as its related potential morbidity and mortality. Dermoscopy is a noninvasive tool that allows the identification of specific morphological features in different skin tumors, improving significantly the early diagnosis of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). This tool has also gained increased interest in the management of NMSC therapy and in the post-treatment follow-up. In this article, we provide a review of the dermoscopic patterns and criteria for the diagnosis of melanoma and NMSC described until now in the literature.

  15. Early detection of skin cancer: experience of a skin cancer prevention campaign in Piauí-Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Bandeira Lages; Patrícia Barros Barbosa; Isabella Parente Almeida; Lauro Rodolpho Soares Lopes; Lauro Lourival Lopes Filho

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the correlation between the diagnoses of skin cancer and known risk factors through analysis of data from the National Skin Cancer Prevention Campaign held by Brazilian Society of Dermatology in the state of Piauí, Brazil, in recent years. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive and analytical report using quantitative data obtained from a prevention campaign in the state of Piauí, in 2009 and 2010. Collected data was submitted to a descriptive analysis, and multivari...

  16. Recurrence After Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chren, Mary-Margaret; Torres, Jeanette S.; Stuart, Sarah E.; Bertenthal, Daniel; Labrador, Remedios J.; Boscardin, W. John

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine long-term tumor recurrence rates after treatment of primary nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Data are currently insufficient to permit evidence-based choices among treatments for NMSC. Design Prospective study of an inception cohort observed for a median of 6.6 years after treatment. Setting Dermatology clinic at a Veterans Affairs hospital. Care was provided by dermatology resident or attending physicians. Patients Consecutive sample of all 495 patients with 616 primary NMSCs diagnosed in 1999 and 2000 and treated with electrodessication and curettage (ED&C), excision, or Mohs surgery. Follow-up was available for 608 tumors (99%). Main Outcome Measure Tumor recurrence, determined by medical record review, with validation by clinical examination. Results The mean age at diagnosis was 71 years; 97% were men. Overall, 127 tumors were treated with ED&C (20.9%); 309 with excision (50.8%); and 172 with Mohs surgery (28.3%). Over the course of the study, 21 tumors recurred (3.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.2%–5.2%]): 2 after ED&C (1.6% [95% CI, 0.2%–5.6%]), 13 after excision (4.2% [95% CI, 2.2%–7.1%]), and 6 after Mohs surgery (3.5% [95% CI, 1.3%–7.4%]) Conclusions Recurrence of primary NMSC after treatment occurred in less than 5% of tumors. The recurrence rate after ED&C was lower than expected, and the recurrence rate after Mohs surgery was higher than expected. These findings may be related to the risk for recurrence in the treatment groups. PMID:21576572

  17. Lifetime prevalence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer in Australian recreational and competitive surfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climstein, Mike; Furness, James; Hing, Wayne; Walsh, Joe

    2016-07-01

    Surfing is one of the most popular outdoor aquatic activities in Australia with an estimated 2.7 million recreational surfers; however, Australia has long been recognized as having the highest incidence of melanoma in the world, and it is the most common type of cancer in young Australians. The aim of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of non-melanoma [basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)] and melanoma skin cancers in Australian recreational and competitive surfers. Australian surfers were invited to complete an online surveillance survey to determine the lifetime prevalence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. A total of 1348 surfers (56.9% recreational) participated in this study, of which 184 surfers reported a skin cancer (competitive n = 96, recreational n = 87). Of non-melanoma and melanoma cancers reported, BCC was the most common (6.8%), followed by melanoma (1.4%) and SCC (0.6%). The relative risk was higher (P skin cancers reported on the face (23.5%), back (16.4%) and arms (12.4%). There were significant trends (P skin cancers between competitive and recreational surfers, as well as significantly (P skin cancers reported in males (14.6%) than females (9.4%). Based upon these findings, individuals who surf are advised to regularly utilize sun protection strategies (avoid peak ultraviolet radiation (10 am-3 pm), rashvest, hat and sunscreen) and primary care physicians are recommended to regularly screen their patients who surf. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Linear Malignant Melanoma In Situ: Reports and Review of Cutaneous Malignancies Presenting as Linear Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-09-18

    Melanomas usually present as oval lesions in which the borders may be irregular. Other morphological features of melanoma include clinical asymmetry, variable color, diameter greater than 6 mm and evolving lesions. Two males whose melanoma in situ presented as linear skin lesions are described and cutaneous malignancies that may appear linear in morphology are summarized in this report. A medical literature search engine, PubMed, was used to search the following terms: cancer, cutaneous, in situ, linear, malignant, malignant melanoma, melanoma in situ, neoplasm, and skin. The 25 papers that were generated by the search and their references, were reviewed; 10 papers were selected for inclusion. The cancer of the skin typically presents as round lesions. However, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma may arise from primary skin conditions or benign skin neoplasms such as linear epidermal nevus and linear porokeratosis. In addition, linear tumors such as basal cell carcinoma can occur. The development of linear cutaneous neoplasms may occur secondary to skin tension line or embryonal growth patterns (as reflected by the lines of Langer and lines of Blaschko) or exogenous factors such as prior radiation therapy. Cutaneous neoplasms and specifically melanoma in situ can be added to the list of linear skin lesions.

  19. Noscapinoids bearing silver nanocrystals augmented drug delivery, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cellular uptake in B16F1, mouse melanoma skin cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Naina; Jyoti, Kiran; Jain, Upendra Kumar; Katyal, Anju; Chandra, Ramesh; Madan, Jitender

    2017-06-01

    Noscapine (Nos) and reduced brominated analogue of noscapine (Red-Br-Nos) prevent cellular proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cells either alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs. However, owing to poor physicochemical properties, Nos and Red-Br-Nos have demonstrated their anticancer activity at higher and multiple doses. Therefore, in present investigation, silver nanocrystals of noscapinoids (Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals and Red-Br-Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals) were customized to augment drug delivery, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cellular uptake in B16F1 mouse melanoma cancer cells. Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals and Red-Br-Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals were prepared separately by precipitation method. The mean particle size of Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals was measured to be 25.33±3.52nm, insignificantly (P>0.05) different from 27.43±4.51nm of Red-Br-Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals. Furthermore, zeta-potential of Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals was determined to be -25.3±3.11mV significantly (Pmelanoma cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Carcinogenic viruses in etiopathogenesis of skin cancers in patients after organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Piesiaków

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The latest literature report specifies multifactoral etiology of skin cancer in population of patients after organs transplats. Carcirogenic viruses are one of etiopathogenesis components. Viruses of a vital meaning for skin oncogenesis are called Human papillomavirus – HPV, Human herpesvirus 8 – HHV8 i Merkel cell polyomavirus – MCV. Report on connections exisisting between viruses HPV and skin cancers in the population of patients after organs transplants confirms clinical connection between viruses papillas and cancers centres occuring in similar locations and more frequent appearance of attributes characteristic for HPV infection within the limits of changes in the type of Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. What’s more, coexisting of viruses papillas and SCC is more often noticed in the population of organ recipients than in the population of healthy people. It is not confirmed yet that any specific correlation between subtypes of HPV and greater frequency of morbidity in skin cancers really exist. However, in the population of organ recipients infections of different types of HPV are found within the limits of cancers centres in the case of SCC (63% as well as in basal cell carcinoma-BCC (55%. DNA of HPV was also fund in healthy parts of organ recipients skin (92-94%.HHV8 is also an oncogenic viruse that influences the development of lymphoma. Infection of that virus may cause ocuuring of Kaposi’s sarkoma, which is one of the most frequent types of cancer appearing in population of patients treating by long – term immunosuppression in particular geographical zones. MCV, which belongs to the group called Polyomaviriade, owes a particular meaning in etiopathogenesis of Merkel cell carcinoma – MCC. It is a rare cancer derived from neuroendocrine cells of the basic layers of epidermie. For over 30 years it was supposed that correlation between viruses and skin cancers in population of organ recipient exist. Knowledge of the total

  1. Carcinogenic viruses in etiopathogenesis of skin cancers in patients after organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Piesiaków

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The latest literature report specifies multifactoral etiology of skin cancer in population of patients after organs transplats. Carcirogenic viruses are one of etiopathogenesis components. Viruses of a vital meaning for skin oncogenesis are called Human papillomavirus – HPV, Human herpesvirus 8 – HHV8 i Merkel cell polyomavirus – MCV. Report on connections exisisting between viruses HPV and skin cancers in the population of patients after organs transplants confirms clinical connection between viruses papillas and cancers centres occuring in similar locations and more frequent appearance of attributes characteristic for HPV infection within the limits of changes in the type of Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. What’s more, coexisting of viruses papillas and SCC is more often noticed in the population of organ recipients than in the population of healthy people. It is not confirmed yet that any specific correlation between subtypes of HPV and greater frequency of morbidity in skin cancers really exist. However, in the population of organ recipients infections of different types of HPV are found within the limits of cancers centres in the case of SCC (63% as well as in basal cell carcinoma-BCC (55%. DNA of HPV was also fund in healthy parts of organ recipients skin (92-94%. HHV8 is also an oncogenic viruse that influences the development of lymphoma. Infection of that virus may cause ocuuring of Kaposi’s sarkoma, which is one of the most frequent types of cancer appearing in population of patients treating by long – term immunosuppression in particular geographical zones. MCV, which belongs to the group called Polyomaviriade, owes a particular meaning in etiopathogenesis of Merkel cell carcinoma – MCC. It is a rare cancer derived from neuroendocrine cells of the basic layers of epidermie. For over 30 years it was supposed that correlation between viruses and skin cancers in population of organ recipient exist. Knowledge of the total

  2. Cancer stem cell metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris-Pagès, Maria; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Pestell, Richard G; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2016-05-24

    Cancer is now viewed as a stem cell disease. There is still no consensus on the metabolic characteristics of cancer stem cells, with several studies indicating that they are mainly glycolytic and others pointing instead to mitochondrial metabolism as their principal source of energy. Cancer stem cells also seem to adapt their metabolism to microenvironmental changes by conveniently shifting energy production from one pathway to another, or by acquiring intermediate metabolic phenotypes. Determining the role of cancer stem cell metabolism in carcinogenesis has become a major focus in cancer research, and substantial efforts are conducted towards discovering clinical targets.

  3. Elevated c-Src and c-Yes expression in malignant skin cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background Src family kinases (SFKs play an important role in cancer proliferation, survival, motility, invasiveness, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Among the SFKs, c-Src and c-Yes are particularly over-expressed or hyper-activated in many human epithelial cancers. However, only a few studies have attempted to define the expression and role of c-Src and c-Yes in cutaneous carcinomas. Objectives To investigate the expression of c-Src and c-Yes in cutaneous carcinomas to include malignant melanoma (MM, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and basal cell carcinoma (BCC. Methods We examined 6 normal skin tissues and 18 malignant skin tumor tissues using western blotting for the expression of c-Src and c-Yes. In another set, 16 specimens of MM, 16 SCCs and 16 BCCs were analyzed for the expression of c-Src and c-Yes using immunohistochemical staining. Results Western blotting showed that c-Src was expressed in all malignant skin tumors, but not in normal skin, while c-Yes was expressed in MM and SCC, but not in BCC and normal skin. Immunohistochemical staining results of c-Src and c-Yes in MM, SCC, and BCC mirrored those of the western blot analysis. Conclusions c-Src, rather than c-Yes, plays a key role in the proliferation and progression of malignant skin cancers.

  4. Photodynamic Therapy and Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezel L. Griffin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most common malignancy among the Caucasian population. Photodynamic therapy (PDT is gaining popularity for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC, Bowen’s disease (BD and actinic keratosis (AK. A topical or systemic exogenous photosensitiser, results in selective uptake by malignant cells. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX is produced then activated by the introduction of a light source. Daylight-mediated MAL (methyl aminolaevulinate PDT for AKs has the advantage of decreased pain and better patient tolerance. PDT is an effective treatment for superficial BCC, BD and both individual and field treatment of AKs. Excellent cosmesis can be achieved with high patient satisfaction. Variable results have been reported for nodular BCC, with improved outcomes following pretreatment and repeated PDT cycles. The more aggressive basisquamous, morphoeic infiltrating subtypes of BCC and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC are not suitable for PDT. Prevention of “field cancerization” in organ transplant recipients on long-term immunosuppression and patients with Gorlin syndrome (naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is a promising development. The optimisation of PDT techniques with improved photosensitiser delivery to target tissues, new generation photosensitisers and novel light sources may expand the future role of PDT in NMSC management.

  5. Skin Cancer Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Collegiate Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Hobbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor athletes represent an important group at risk for skin cancer because they are routinely exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation. The purpose of this study was to assess current skin cancer knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among collegiate athletes. A modified version of the Melanoma Risk Behavior Survey was completed by 343 athletes attending a Southern University in the USA, generating an 87% response rate. Survey results demonstrated that the majority of the athletes do not limit their sun exposure and reported low levels of sun protective behaviors. In addition, athletes lacked knowledge about skin cancer and sun protection. Eighty-three percent of the athletes stated that tanning beds improve one’s overall health. Race was significantly associated with skin cancer knowledge, whereas, gender was found to be significantly associated with knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards skin cancer. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between knowledge and behavior, but not between attitude and behavior. This study highlights the need to educate athletes about the hazards of tanning to minimize UV exposure and promote sun protection habits. Moreover, athletes should be educated on the dangers of indoor tanning facilities and encouraged to avoid these facilities.

  6. Differential role of basal keratinocytes in UV-induced immunosuppression and skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Jans (Judith); G.A. Garinis (George); W. Schul; A. van Oudenaren (Adri); M.J. Moorhouse (Michael); M. Smid (Marcel); Y.-G. Sert (Yurda-Gul); A. van der Velde (Albertina); Y.M. Rijksen (Yvonne); F.R. de Gruijl (Frank); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); A. Yasui (Akira); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); P.J. Leenen (Pieter); G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractCyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 6-4 photoproducts (6-4PPs) comprise major UV-induced photolesions. If left unrepaired, these lesions can induce mutations and skin cancer, which is facilitated by UV-induced immunosuppression. Yet the contribution of lesion and cell type

  7. The relationship between occupational sun exposure and non-melanoma skin cancer: clinical basics, epidemiology, occupational disease evaluation, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fartasch, Manigé; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig; Schmitt, Jochen; Drexler, Hans

    2012-10-01

    The cumulative effect of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is responsible for the worldwide increase in non-melanoma skin cancer, a category that includes squamous cell carcinoma and its precursors (the actinic keratoses) as well as basal-cell carcinoma. Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in areas of the world with a light-skinned population. The occupational exposure to UV radiation is high in many outdoor occupations; recent studies suggest that persons working in such occupations are more likely to develop non-melanoma skin cancer. On the basis of a selective review of the literature, we present the current state of knowledge about occupational and non-occupational UV exposure and the findings of meta-analyses on the association of outdoor activity with non-melanoma skin cancer. We also give an overview of the current recommendations for prevention and for medicolegal assessment. Recent meta-analyses have consistently documented a significantly higher risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin among persons who work outdoors (odds ratio [OR] 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40-2.22, pmelanoma skin cancer in persons with high occupational exposure to UV radiation should be reported as an occupational disease under § 9, paragraph 2 of the Seventh Book of the German Social Code (Sozialgesetzbuch, SGB VII). Preventive measures are urgently needed for persons with high occupational exposure to UV radiation.

  8. Are General Physicians Prepared for Struggling Skin Cancer?-Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ana Filipa; da Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Del-Marmol, Veronique; Correia, Osvaldo

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of general practitioners (GP) in selecting higher risk population for skin cancer screening. GP's training was organized to examine a specific high risk population consisting mainly of fisherman and farmers in a city of North of Portugal. Health care professionals of local health units training was performed by two dermatologists 2 months before the screening. During 8 weeks GPs selected patients with skin cancer suspicious lesions and/or risk factors consecutively from their regular consultation. These selected patients were referred to a dermatologist evaluation. Six dermatologists using manual dermoscopy examined the previously selected patients. One hundred eight patients have been screened, 35 % of which were males and 65 % females, with a mean age of 54 years. Full skin evaluation by dermatologists revealed 31 % of actinic keratosis, 5 % of leucoplasia, 7 % of basal cell carcinoma, 8 % of squamous cell carcinoma, and 1 % of melanoma. Cohen's kappa coefficient between dermatologist and GPs was 0.18. Selective screening with collaboration of GPs allowed the detection of more cases of skin cancer than the nonselective screenings in the literature. Although the diagnostic agreement between GPs and dermatologists was not good, our results indicate that active collaboration of dermatologists with primary health care units for selective skin cancer screening, including post graduated courses on their own health units, can be a way of optimizing early detection of cutaneous pre malignant and malignant lesions.

  9. Zebrafish as a Model Organism for the Development of Drugs for Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bootorabi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer, which includes melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma, represents the most common type of cutaneous malignancy worldwide, and its incidence is expected to rise in the near future. This condition derives from acquired genetic dysregulation of signaling pathways involved in the proliferation and apoptosis of skin cells. The development of animal models has allowed a better understanding of these pathomechanisms, with the possibility of carrying out toxicological screening and drug development. In particular, the zebrafish (Danio rerio has been established as one of the most important model organisms for cancer research. This model is particularly suitable for live cell imaging and high-throughput drug screening in a large-scale fashion. Thanks to the recent advances in genome editing, such as the clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9 methodologies, the mechanisms associated with cancer development and progression, as well as drug resistance can be investigated and comprehended. With these unique tools, the zebrafish represents a powerful platform for skin cancer research in the development of target therapies. Here, we will review the advantages of using the zebrafish model for drug discovery and toxicological and phenotypical screening. We will focus in detail on the most recent progress in the field of zebrafish model generation for the study of melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, including cancer cell injection and transgenic animal development. Moreover, we will report the latest compounds and small molecules under investigation in melanoma zebrafish models.

  10. Nicotinic acid receptor abnormalities in human skin cancer: implications for a role in epidermal differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yira Bermudez

    Full Text Available Chronic UV skin exposure leads to epidermal differentiation defects in humans that can be largely restored by pharmacological doses of nicotinic acid. Nicotinic acid has been identified as a ligand for the human G-protein-coupled receptors GPR109A and GPR109B that signal through G(i-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. We have examined the expression, cellular distribution, and functionality of GPR109A/B in human skin and skin derived epidermal cells.Nicotinic acid increases epidermal differentiation in photodamaged human skin as judged by the terminal differentiation markers caspase 14 and filaggrin. Both GPR109A and GPR109B genes are transcribed in human skin and in epidermal keratinocytes, but expression in dermal fibroblasts is below limits of detection. Receptor transcripts are greatly over-expressed in squamous cell cancers. Receptor protein in normal skin is prominent from the basal through granular layers of the epidermis, with cellular localization more dispersive in the basal layer but predominantly localized at the plasma membrane in more differentiated epidermal layers. In normal human primary and immortalized keratinocytes, nicotinic acid receptors show plasma membrane localization and functional G(i-mediated signaling. In contrast, in a squamous cell carcinoma derived cell line, receptor protein shows a more diffuse cellular localization and the receptors are nearly non-functional.The results of these studies justify future genetic and pharmacological intervention studies to define possible specific role(s of nicotinic acid receptors in human skin homeostasis.

  11. Black tattoos protect against UVR-induced skin cancer in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Catharina M; Sepehri, Mitra; Serup, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black tattoos may involve risk of cancer owing to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in inks. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces skin cancer. The combination of UVR and black tattoo may therefore potentially be very problematic, but has not been previously...... squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was measured. Controls were 'tattooed' without ink. RESULTS: All irradiated mice developed SCCs while no malignant tumours were found in the nonirradiated group. In the tattooed and irradiated group, the development of the first, second and third SCC was significantly delayed...... in comparison with the irradiated controls without black tattoos (212, 232, 247 days vs. 163, 183, 191 days, P skin cancer was delayed by the tattoos. Skin reflectance measurement indicated that the protective...

  12. Photodynamic therapy for skin field cancerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braathen, L R; Morton, C A; Basset-Seguin, N

    2012-01-01

    Field cancerization is a term that describes the presence of genetic abnormalities in a tissue chronically exposed to a carcinogen. These abnormalities are responsible for the presence of multilocular clinical and sub-clinical cancerous lesions that explains the increased risks of multiple cancer...

  13. Skin Cancer Epidemics in the Elderly as An Emerging Issue in Geriatric Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcovich, Simone; Colloca, Giuseppe; Sollena, Pietro; Andrea, Bellieni; Balducci, Lodovico; Cho, William C; Bernabei, Roberto; Peris, Ketty

    2017-10-01

    Skin cancer is a worldwide, emerging clinical need in the elderly white population, with a steady increase in incidence rates, morbidity and related medical costs. Skin cancer is a heterogeneous group of cancers comprising cutaneous melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC), which predominantly affect elderly patients, aged older than 65 years. Melanoma has distinct clinical presentations in the elderly patient and represents a challenging question in terms of clinical management. NMSC includes the basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and presents a wide disease spectrum in the elderly population, ranging from low-risk to high-risk tumours, advanced and inoperable disease. Treatment decisions for NMSC are preferentially based on tumour characteristics, patient's chronological age and physician's preferences and operational settings. Several treatment options are available for NMSC, from surgery to non-invasive/medical therapies, but patient-based factors, such as geriatric comorbidities and patient's life expectancy, do not frequently modulate treatment goals. In melanoma, age-related variations in clinical management are significant and may frequently lead to under-treatment, limiting access to advanced surgical and medical treatments. Clinical decision-making in the care of elderly skin cancer patient should ideally implement a geriatric assessment, prioritizing patient-based factors and efficiently differentiating fit from frail cancer patients. Current clinical practice guidelines for NMSC and melanoma only partially address geriatric aspects of cancer care, such as frailty, limited life-expectancy, geriatric comorbidities and treatment compliance. We review the recent evidence on the scope and problem of skin cancer in the elderly population as well as age-related variations in its clinical management, highlighting the potential role of a geriatric approach in optimizing dermato-oncological care.

  14. Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  15. Treatment Choices for Men with Early-Stage Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  16. What You Need to Know about Cancer of the Uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  17. Study of mast cell count in skin tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Hesham

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin tags or acrochordons are common tumors of middle-aged and elderly subjects. They consist of loose fibrous tissue and occur mainly on the neck and major flexures as small, soft, pedunculated protrusions. Objectives: The aim was to compare the mast cells count in skin tags to adjacent normal skin in diabetic and nondiabetic participants in an attempt to elucidate the possible role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of skin tags. Participants and Methods: Thirty participants with skin tags were divided into group I (15 nondiabetic participants and group II (15 diabetic participants. Three biopsies were obtained from each participant: a large skin tag, a small skin tag and adjacent normal skin. Mast cell count from all the obtained sections was carried out, and the mast cell density was expressed as the average mast cell count/high power field (HPF. Results: A statistically significant increase in mast cells count in skin tags in comparison to normal skin was detected in group I and group II. There was no statistically significant difference between mast cell counts in skin tags of both the groups. Conclusion: Both the mast cell mediators and hyperinsulinemia are capable of inducing fibroblast proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia that are the main pathologic abnormalities seen in all types of skin tags. However, the presence of mast cells in all examined skin tags regardless of diabetes and obesity may point to the possible crucial role of mast cells in the etiogenesis of skin tags through its interaction with fibroblasts and keratinocytes.

  18. Photodynamic therapy of melanoma skin cancer using carbon dot - chlorin e6 - hyaluronate conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beack, Songeun; Kong, Won Ho; Jung, Ho Sang; Do, In Hwan; Han, Seulgi; Kim, Hyemin; Kim, Ki Su; Yun, Seok Hyun; Hahn, Sei Kwang

    2015-10-01

    Despite wide application of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of melanoma skin cancers, there are strong biomedical unmet needs for the effective generation of singlet oxygen after targeted delivery of photosensitizers. Here, we investigated a facile PDT of melanoma skin cancer using transdermal carbon dot - chlorine e6 - hyaluronate (Cdot-Ce6-HA) conjugates. The Cdot-Ce6-HA conjugate was synthesized by the coupling reaction of diaminohexane modified HA (DAH-HA) with the carboxylic group of Ce6. The singlet oxygen generation of Cdot-Ce6-HA conjugates in aqueous solution was more significant than that of free Ce6. The enhanced transdermal and intracellular delivery of Cdot-Ce6-HA conjugates to B16F10 melanoma cells in tumor model mice were corroborated by confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy. The laser irradiation after topical treatment with Cdot-Ce6-HA conjugates resulted in complete suppression of melanoma skin cancers. The antitumor effect was confirmed by histological analysis with H&E staining and TUNEL assay for tumor apoptosis. Taken together, we could confirm the feasibility of Cdot-Ce6-HA conjugate for transdermal PDT of melanoma skin cancers. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a facile transdermal photodynamic therapy (PDT) of melanoma skin cancer using carbon dot - chlorine e6 - hyaluronate (Cdot-Ce6-HA) conjugates. We found that the singlet oxygen generation of Cdot-Ce6-HA conjugates in aqueous solution was more significant than that of free Ce6. Confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy clearly confirmed the enhanced transdermal and intracellular delivery of Cdot-Ce6-HA conjugates to B16F10 melanoma cells in tumor model mice. Taken together, we could confirm the feasibility of Cdot-Ce6-HA conjugate for transdermal PDT of melanoma skin cancers. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multifocal skin basal cell carcinomata 57 years after topical dry ice treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalaseelan, Julan V; Lukin, Lionel J; McKay, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    We report a rare case of simultaneous multiple basal cell carcinomata occurring on the back of a patient who had received dry ice treatment to this area almost 6 decades previously. This is also one of the longest recorded disease-free intervals between skin trauma and basal cell carcinoma development. We discuss the aetiopathology of multiple skin cancers in our patient and the propensity for destructive skin events to predispose to malignancy. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2012 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  20. Ozone depletion, related UVB changes and increased skin cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    1998-03-01

    Stratospheric ozone at middle latitudes shows a seasonal variation of about +/-20%, a quasi-biennial oscillation of 1-10% range and a long-term variation in which the level was almost steady up to about 1979 and declined thereafter to the present day by about 10%. These variations are expected to be reflected in solar UVB observed at the ground, but in an opposite direction. Thus UVB should have had a long-term increase of about 10-20%, which should cause an increase in skin cancer incidence of about 20-40%. Skin cancer incidence has increased all over the world, e.g. about 90% in USA during 1974-1990. It is popularly believed that this increase in skin cancer incidence is related to the recent ozone depletion. This seems to be incorrect, for two reasons. Firstly, the observed skin cancer increase is too large (90%) compared with the expected value (40%) from ozone depletion. Secondly, cancer does not develop immediately after exposure to solar UVB. The sunburns may occur within hours; but cancer development and detection may take years, even decades. Hence the observed skin cancer increase since 1974 (no data available for earlier periods) must have occurred due to exposure to solar UVB in the 1950s and 1960s, when there was no ozone depletion. Thus, the skin cancer increase must be attributed to harmful solar UVB levels existing even in the 1960s, accentuated later not by ozone depletion (which started only much later, by 1979) but by other causes, such as a longer human life span, better screening, increasing tendencies of sunbathing at beaches, etc., in affluent societies. On the other hand, the recent ozone depletion and the associated UVB increases will certainly take their toll; only that the effects will not be noticed now but years or decades from now. The concern for the future expressed in the Montreal Protocol for reducing ozone depletion by controlling CFC production is certainly justified, especially because increased UVB is harmful to animal and

  1. Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ...

  2. Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence for enhanced photodynamic diagnosis and photodynamic therapy in murine models of skin and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollakanti, Kishore Reddy

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is a photosensitizing agent derived from aminolevulinic acid. PpIX accumulates specifically within target cancer cells, where it fluoresces and produces cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. Our aims were to employ PpIX fluorescence to detect squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin (Photodynamic diagnosis, PDD), and to improve treatment efficacy (Photodynamic therapy, PDT) for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous breast cancer. Hyperspectral imaging and a spectrometer based dosimeter system were used to detect very early SCC in UVB-irradiated murine skin, using PpIX fluorescence. Regarding PDT, we showed that low non-toxic doses of vitamin D, given before ALA application, increase tumor specific PpIX accumulation and sensitize BCC and breast cancer cells to ALA-PDT. These optical imaging methods and the combination therapy regimen (vitamin D and ALA-PDT) are promising tools for effective management of skin and breast cancer.

  3. Risk of multiple primary cancers following melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracci, F; Fabrizi, V; D'Alò, D; La Rosa, F; Papini, M

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between cutaneous malignancies and successive primary cancers has been studied since several years, but it still remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the excess risk of multiple primary cancer among the population of Umbria, Italy, that survived a skin cancer. The data registered in the Umbrian Population Cancer Registry from 1994 to 2006 were collected, recorded, and analysed in accordance to the standard methods recommended for cancer registries. Among skin cancer patients, those with multiple cutaneous and non-cutaneous cancers were selected. Only sites with a frequency of more than five cases were considered. The expected number of cases was obtained from indirect standardization with regional incidence rates in several sites that incurred in the overall period. The significance of the observed/expected ratios and the corresponding 95% CI were based on the Poisson distribution. In men, a significant standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was found for melanoma (2.21), non-melanoma skin cancers (1.86), Hodgkin's (4.95) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (1.82), and tongue/mouth cancer (2.47). In women, melanoma, non-melanoma skin and breast cancer showed a significant high SIRs (4.13, 1.55 and 1.28 respectively). All other cancers showed a non-significant SIR. Considering all sites combined and all sites except skin cancers, the analysis showed a significant excess in men, whereas a significant risk was observed in women only when also skin cancers were considered. Data from the whole of Umbrian population revealed that skin cancer patients experience marked excess risk of further primary cancers. The main risk in both genders is skin melanoma and other skin cancers. The excess of lymphomas and tongue/mouth cancers is also significant in men, and breast cancer in women. These observations prompt us to include a screening for these cancers in the follow-up of our patients surviving a skin malignancy. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the

  4. Minimally invasive and targeted therapeutic cell delivery to the skin using microneedle devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualeni, B; Coulman, S A; Shah, D; Eng, P F; Ashraf, H; Vescovo, P; Blayney, G J; Piveteau, L-D; Guy, O J; Birchall, J C

    2018-03-01

    Translation of cell therapies to the clinic is accompanied by numerous challenges, including controlled and targeted delivery of the cells to their site of action, without compromising cell viability and functionality. To explore the use of hollow microneedle devices (to date only used for the delivery of drugs and vaccines into the skin and for the extraction of biological fluids) to deliver cells into skin in a minimally invasive, user-friendly and targeted fashion. Melanocyte, keratinocyte and mixed epidermal cell suspensions were passed through various types of microneedles and subsequently delivered into the skin. Cell viability and functionality are maintained after injection through hollow microneedles with a bore size ≥ 75 μm. Healthy cells are delivered into the skin at clinically relevant depths. Hollow microneedles provide an innovative and minimally invasive method for delivering functional cells into the skin. Microneedle cell delivery represents a potential new treatment option for cell therapy approaches including skin repigmentation, wound repair, scar and burn remodelling, immune therapies and cancer vaccines. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Norathyriol Suppresses Skin Cancers Induced by Solar Ultraviolet Radiation by Targeting ERK Kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jixia; Malakhova, Margarita; Mottamal, Madhusoodanan; Reddy, Kanamata; Kurinov, Igor; Carper, Andria; Langfald, Alyssa; Oi, Naomi; Kim, Myoung Ok; Zhu, Feng; Sosa, Carlos P.; Zhou, Keyuan; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang (Cornell); (Guangdong); (UMM)

    2012-06-27

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is the leading factor in the development of skin cancer, prompting great interest in chemopreventive agents for this disease. In this study, we report the discovery of norathyriol, a plant-derived chemopreventive compound identified through an in silico virtual screening of the Chinese Medicine Library. Norathyriol is a metabolite of mangiferin found in mango, Hypericum elegans, and Tripterospermum lanceolatum and is known to have anticancer activity. Mechanistic investigations determined that norathyriol acted as an inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activity to attenuate UVB-induced phosphorylation in mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling cascades. We confirmed the direct and specific binding of norathyriol with ERK2 through a cocrystal structural analysis. The xanthone moiety in norathyriol acted as an adenine mimetic to anchor the compound by hydrogen bonds to the hinge region of the protein ATP-binding site on ERK2. Norathyriol inhibited in vitro cell growth in mouse skin epidermal JB6 P+ cells at the level of G{sub 2}-M phase arrest. In mouse skin tumorigenesis assays, norathyriol significantly suppressed solar UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Further analysis indicated that norathyriol mediates its chemopreventive activity by inhibiting the ERK-dependent activity of transcriptional factors AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B during UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Taken together, our results identify norathyriol as a safe new chemopreventive agent that is highly effective against development of UV-induced skin cancer.

  6. Novel treatment options for nonmelanoma skin cancer: focus on electronic brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper ME

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Kasper,1,2 Ahmed A Chaudhary3 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Lynn Cancer Institute at Boca Raton Regional Hospital, Boca Raton, 2Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, FL, 3North Main Radiation Oncology, Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University, RI, USA Abstract: Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC is an increasing health care issue in the United States, significantly affecting quality of life and impacting health care costs. Radiotherapy has a long history in the treatment of NMSC. Shortly after the discovery of X-rays and 226Radium, physicians cured patients with NMSC using these new treatments. Both X-ray therapy and brachytherapy have evolved over the years, ultimately delivering higher cure rates and lower toxicity. Electronic brachytherapy for NMSC is based on the technical and clinical data obtained from radionuclide skin surface brachytherapy and the small skin surface applicators developed over the past 25 years. The purpose of this review is to introduce electronic brachytherapy in the context of the history, data, and utilization of traditional radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Keywords: electronic brachytherapy, superficial radiotherapy, skin surface brachytherapy, electron beam therapy, nonmelanoma skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma

  7. Skin cancer interventions across the cancer control continuum: Review of technology, environment, and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Jennifer M; Dickerman, Barbra A; Okhovat, Jean-Phillip; Geller, Alan C; Dwyer, Laura A; Hartman, Anne M; Perna, Frank M

    2017-12-22

    The National Cancer Institute's Skin Cancer Intervention across the Cancer Control Continuum model was developed to summarize research and identify gaps concerning skin cancer interventions. We conducted a mapping review to characterize whether behavioral interventions addressing skin cancer prevention and control from 2000 to 2015 included (1) technology, (2) environmental manipulations (policy and/or built environment), and (3) a theoretical basis. We included 85 studies with a randomized controlled or quasi-experimental design that targeted behavioral intervention in skin cancer for children and/or adults; seven of these were dissemination or implementation studies. Of the interventions described in the remaining 78 articles, 56 promoted only prevention behaviors (e.g., ultraviolet radiation protection), five promoted only detection (e.g., skin examinations), 10 promoted both prevention and detection, and seven focused on survivorship. Of the 78 non-dissemination studies, two-thirds used some type of technology (n=52; 66.7%). Technology specific to skin cancer was infrequently used: UVR photography was used in 15.4% of studies (n=12), reflectance spectroscopy was used in 12.8% (n=10), and dermatoscopes (n=1) and dosimeters (n=2) were each used in less than 3%. Nine studies (13.2%) targeted the built environment. Fifty-one (65.4%) of the studies included theory-based interventions. The most common theories were Social Cognitive Theory (n=19; 24.6%), Health Belief Model (n=17; 21.8%), and the Theory of Planned Behavior/Reasoned Action (n=12; 15.4%). Results suggest that skin cancer specific technology and environmental manipulations are underutilized in skin cancer behavioral interventions. We discuss implications of these results for researchers developing skin cancer behavioral interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Predictors of recurrence after radiotherapy for non-melanoma skin cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, L.; Breen, D.; Zhang, L.; Balogh, J.; Czarnota, G.; Lee, J.; Tsao, M.N.; Barnes, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Predictive factors of recurrence were examined in 448 non-melanoma skin cancers (72% basal cell carcinoma, 28% squamous cell carcinoma) treated with radiotherapy. The overall recurrence rate was 15.8% at a median follow-up of 18.4 months. In multivariate analysis, significant factors for recurrence were age (p = 0.0197), tumour size 2 cm or greater (p = 0.0095), immunosuppression (p = 0.0082), and treatment modality (p = 0.0009).

  9. Total body photography for skin cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengel, Lynn T; Petroni, Gina R; Judge, Joshua; Chen, David; Acton, Scott T; Schroen, Anneke T; Slingluff, Craig L

    2015-11-01

    Total body photography may aid in melanoma screening but is not widely applied due to time and cost. We hypothesized that a near-simultaneous automated skin photo-acquisition system would be acceptable to patients and could rapidly obtain total body images that enable visualization of pigmented skin lesions. From February to May 2009, a study of 20 volunteers was performed at the University of Virginia to test a prototype 16-camera imaging booth built by the research team and to guide development of special purpose software. For each participant, images were obtained before and after marking 10 lesions (five "easy" and five "difficult"), and images were evaluated to estimate visualization rates. Imaging logistical challenges were scored by the operator, and participant opinion was assessed by questionnaire. Average time for image capture was three minutes (range 2-5). All 55 "easy" lesions were visualized (sensitivity 100%, 90% CI 95-100%), and 54/55 "difficult" lesions were visualized (sensitivity 98%, 90% CI 92-100%). Operators and patients graded the imaging process favorably, with challenges identified regarding lighting and positioning. Rapid-acquisition automated skin photography is feasible with a low-cost system, with excellent lesion visualization and participant acceptance. These data provide a basis for employing this method in clinical melanoma screening. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. Genetic diseases associated with an increased risk of skin cancer development in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Alexander L; Sarin, Kavita Y; Teng, Joyce M C

    2017-08-01

    Childhood skin cancers are relatively rare and may indicate an underlying genetic disorder. The increasing elucidation of genetic pathways is changing the diagnosis and management of genetic skin cancer susceptibility syndromes. In this review, we provide an overview of genetic conditions that predispose to skin cancer development in childhood and signs that providers should assess when evaluating affected individuals. In basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS), the patched2 (PTCH2) and suppressor of fused (SUFU) genes have been implicated in disease pathogenesis. The sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway inhibitor vismodegib was shown in a placebo-controlled phase III randomized trial to reduce the tumor burden in patients with BCNS. Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) has been classified into four major types and more than 30 subtypes based partly on specific mutations, and best clinical practice guidelines for the management of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in EB have been developed. Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) has been associated with new mutations in genes named OCA5, OCA6, and OCA7, bringing to the total number of culprit genes to seven (OCA1-OCA7). Advances in our understanding of genetic conditions that predispose to childhood skin cancer include new disease classification systems, management guidelines, and treatment options.

  11. Non-Melanoma Skin Cancers of Pinna: Retrospective Assesment of 51 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Çiloğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the demographic data, tumor types, relapse and recurrence rates of non-melanoma skin cancer cases of pinna. Methods: Pathological reports of our patients operated for non-melanoma skin cancer of head and neck region were scanned. Data of the patients with primary basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the pinna were retrospectively evaluated and age, gender, tumor location, tumor size, tumor type, tumor recurrence, lymph node involvement and metastasis of the patients were documented. Results: Out of the 535 patents who applied to our clinic for non-melanocytic skin cancer of head and neck region, 453 BCC and 179 SCC was excised. BCC/SCC ratio in the head and neck region was 3.5/1 tumors were resected from 51 patients who had pinna-located mass. BCC incidence in the pinna was 7%; SCC incidence was 14% in our patient population. Thirty three of the lesions (55.9% were BCC and 26 (44.1% were SCC. The BCC/SCC ratio in pinna was 1.3/1 and male/female ratio was determined as 16/1. Conclusion: We observed that non-melanoma skin cancer of pinna develops more frequently in male population and BCC is the most frequent tumor in this region.

  12. highlighting the risk of skin cancer among albinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of MC1R variants in Indian oculocutaneous albinism patients: highlighting the risk of skin cancer among albinos. Mainak Sengupta, Devroop Sarkar, Maitreyee Mondal, Swapan Samanta, Asim Sil and Kunal Ray. J. Genet. 92, 305–308. Table 1. Sequences of primers used for PCR and sequencing. MC1R_3F.

  13. Sun Protection Motivational Stages and Behavior: Skin Cancer Risk Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry L.; McChargue, Dennis E.; Schneider, Kristin; Cook, Jessica Werth

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To create skin cancer risk profiles that could be used to predict sun protection among Midwest beachgoers. Method: Cluster analysis was used with study participants (N=239), who provided information about sun protection motivation and behavior, perceived risk, burn potential, and tan importance. Participants were clustered according to…

  14. Skin cancer, irradiation, and sunspots: the solar cycle effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valachovic, Edward; Zurbenko, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is diagnosed in more than 2 million individuals annually in the United States. It is strongly associated with ultraviolet exposure, with melanoma risk doubling after five or more sunburns. Solar activity, characterized by features such as irradiance and sunspots, undergoes an 11-year solar cycle. This fingerprint frequency accounts for relatively small variation on Earth when compared to other uncorrelated time scales such as daily and seasonal cycles. Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filters, applied to the solar cycle and skin cancer data, separate the components of different time scales to detect weaker long term signals and investigate the relationships between long term trends. Analyses of crosscorrelations reveal epidemiologically consistent latencies between variables which can then be used for regression analysis to calculate a coefficient of influence. This method reveals that strong numerical associations, with correlations >0.5, exist between these small but distinct long term trends in the solar cycle and skin cancer. This improves modeling skin cancer trends on long time scales despite the stronger variation in other time scales and the destructive presence of noise.

  15. Recombinant Interleukin-15 in Treating Patients With Advanced Melanoma, Kidney Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer

  16. New Enlightenment of Skin Cancer Chemoprevention through Phytochemicals: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies and the Underlying Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulika Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Skin overexposure to ultraviolet irradiations, chemicals, and several viruses has a capability to cause severe skin-related disorders including immunosuppression and skin cancer. These factors act in sequence at various steps of skin carcinogenesis via initiation, promotion, and/or progression. These days cancer chemoprevention is recognized as the most hopeful and novel approach to prevent, inhibit, or reverse the processes of carcinogenesis by intervention with natural products. Phytochemicals have antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and carcinogen detoxification capabilities thereby considered as efficient chemopreventive agents. Considerable efforts have been done to identify the phytochemicals which may possibly act on one or several molecular targets that modulate cellular processes such as inflammation, immunity, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Till date several phytochemicals in the light of chemoprevention have been studied by using suitable skin carcinogenic in vitro and in vivo models and proven as beneficial for prevention of skin cancer. This revision presents a comprehensive knowledge and the main molecular mechanisms of actions of various phytochemicals in the chemoprevention of skin cancer.

  17. New Enlightenment of Skin Cancer Chemoprevention through Phytochemicals: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies and the Underlying Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhulika; Suman, Shankar; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Skin overexposure to ultraviolet irradiations, chemicals, and several viruses has a capability to cause severe skin-related disorders including immunosuppression and skin cancer. These factors act in sequence at various steps of skin carcinogenesis via initiation, promotion, and/or progression. These days cancer chemoprevention is recognized as the most hopeful and novel approach to prevent, inhibit, or reverse the processes of carcinogenesis by intervention with natural products. Phytochemicals have antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and carcinogen detoxification capabilities thereby considered as efficient chemopreventive agents. Considerable efforts have been done to identify the phytochemicals which may possibly act on one or several molecular targets that modulate cellular processes such as inflammation, immunity, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Till date several phytochemicals in the light of chemoprevention have been studied by using suitable skin carcinogenic in vitro and in vivo models and proven as beneficial for prevention of skin cancer. This revision presents a comprehensive knowledge and the main molecular mechanisms of actions of various phytochemicals in the chemoprevention of skin cancer. PMID:24757666

  18. Ultraviolet light exposure, skin cancer risk and vitamin D production

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIVAS, MIGUEL; ROJAS, ELISA; ARAYA, MARÍA C.; CALAF, GLORIA M.

    2015-01-01

    The danger of overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation has been widely reviewed since the 1980s due to the depletion of the ozone layer. However, the benefits of mild exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) light have not been widely investigated. Numerous reports have demonstrated that an association exists between low light exposure to the sun, non-melanoma skin cancer and a lack of vitamin D synthesis. As vitamin D synthesis in the body depends on skin exposure to UVB radiation from the sun (wavelength, 290–320 nm), experimental measurements for this type of solar radiation are important. The present study analyzed data obtained from a laboratory investigating UV radiation from the sun at the University of Tarapacá (Arica, Chile), where systematic experimental UVB measurements had been performed using a calibrated biometer instrument since 2006. These data were compared with skin cancer data from the local population. The results demonstrated that the incidence of skin cancer systematically increased from 7.4 to 18.7 in men and from 10.0 to 21.7 in women between 2000 and 2006 in Arica, respectively; this increase may be due to multiple factors, including the lack of adequate levels of vitamin D in risk groups such as post-menopausal women and senior age. This marked increase may also be due to the high levels of UV radiation measured in this region throughout the year. However, it is not certain that the local population has adequate vitamin D levels, nor that their skin has been predominantly exposed to artificial light that does not allow adequate vitamin D synthesis. Thus, the current study presents the association between skin type IV, the time to induce solar erythema and the time required to produce 1,000 international units of vitamin D. PMID:26622830

  19. NOVEL MECHANISMS FOR THE VITAMIN D RECEPTOR (VDR) IN THE SKIN AND IN SKIN CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Oda, Yuko; Tu, Chia-Ling; Jiang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The VDR acting with or without its principal ligand 1,25(OH)2D regulates two central processes in the skin, interfollicular epidermal (IFE) differentiation and hair follicle cycling (HFC). Calcium is an important co-regulator with 1,25(OH)2 D at least of epidermal differentiation. Knockout of the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in addition to VDR accelerates the development of skin cancer in mice on a low calcium diet. Coactivators such as Mediator 1 (aka DRIP205) and steroid receptor coactiv...

  20. Heterogeneous Stem Cells in Skin Homeostatis and Wound Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meilana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The skin protects mammals from insults, infection and dehydration and enables thermoregulation and sensory perception. Various skin-resident cells carry out these diverse functions. Constant turnover of cells and healing upon injury necessitate multiple reservoirs of stem cells. The skin is a complex organ harboring several distinct populations of stem cells and a rich array of cell types. Advances in genetic and imaging tools have brought new findings about the lineage relationships between skin stem cells and their progeny. Such knowledge may offer novel avenues for therapeutics and regenerative medicine. CONTENT: In the past years, our view of the mechanisms that govern skin homeostasis and regeneration have markedly changed. New populations of stem cells have been identified that behave spatio-temporally differently in healthy tissues and in situations of damage, indicating that a great level of stem cell heterogeneity is present in the skin. There are believed to be distinct populations of stem cells in different locations. The lineages that they feed are normally constrained by signals from their local environment, but they can give rise to all epidermal lineages in response to appropriate stimuli. Given the richness of structures such as blood vessels, subcutaneous fat, innervation and the accumulation of fibroblasts under the upper parts of the rete ridges (in the case of human skin, it is reasonable to speculate that the microenvironment might be essential for interfollicular epidermal homeostasis. The bloodstream is probably the main source of long-range signals reaching the skin, and cues provided by the vascular niche might be essential for skin homeostasis. SUMMARY: A key function of the interfollicular epidermis is to act as a protective interface between the body and the external environment, and it contains several architectural elements that enable it to fulfill this function. All elements of the epidermis play

  1. Cryotherapy and radiotherapy combination in extensive and recurrent types of head and neck skin cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustynskij, I.N.; Paches, A.I.; Tkachev, S.I.; Tabolinovskaya, T.D.; Alieva, S.B.; Yagubov, A.S.; Slanina, S.V.; Bazhutova, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The method of infiltrative skin cancer treatment based on different variants of radiotherapy and cryotherapy combination is described. During the period of 1988-2006 the Department of head and neck neoplasms of N. N. Blohin Russian Cancer Research Center provided radiation and cryogenic treatment of 94 patients with locally advanced head and neck epidermoid and basal cell cancer. For this purpose before every radiotherapy session the tumor was exposed to cryo cooling till freezing temperature (-5 degrees C). The total involution of tumors was observed at 91 patients. Residual tumors were removed surgically. The follow-up showed good functional and aesthetic results, retention of local tissues.

  2. Implications of climate change for skin cancer prevention in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, Jen

    2011-12-01

    It is estimated that nearly 450,000 Australians get skin cancer every year. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight has been identified as the cause of more than 95% of skin cancers in Australia. Accordingly, the focus of skin cancer prevention programs is reducing exposure to UV radiation. In Victoria, improvements in sun protection behaviours and reductions in sunburn and melanoma incidence rates among younger people have been observed since the SunSmart program was established in 1988. However, climate change has the potential to undermine these successes. First, surface UVB radiation is dependent on stratospheric total ozone amounts. While signs of impact of international restrictions on the production of ozone-depleting substances have been observed, improvements have not yet returned ozone to pre-1970s levels. Interactions between ozone depletion and climate change may slow the recovery of the ozone layer and compound increases in UV radiation at some latitudes. Before recovery, it is expected that higher levels of UV radiation will continue in most Australian regions, with an associated higher risk of skin cancer. Indeed, recent data show increases in surface UV radiation throughout Australia since the 1970s. Second, mean temperatures in Australia have increased over the past 30 years and are projected to rise further by 2030. Australian data shows that with higher temperatures, adults spend more time outdoors, are less likely to wear covering clothing and more likely to be sunburnt. Hence, rising temperatures can be expected to result in increases in sun exposure, sunburn and correspondingly, skin cancer risk.

  3. Randomized controlled trial of acitretin versus placebo in patients at high-risk for basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (North Central Cancer Treatment Group Study 969251).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadakia, Kunal C; Barton, Debra L; Loprinzi, Charles L; Sloan, Jeff A; Otley, Clark C; Diekmann, Brent B; Novotny, Paul J; Alberts, Steven R; Limburg, Paul J; Pittelkow, Mark R

    2012-04-15

    Chemoprevention with systemic retinoids has demonstrated promise in decreasing the incidence of new primary nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) in immunocompromised post-transplantation recipients. There is limited evidence for the use of systemic retinoids in the nontransplantation patient. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of acitretin as a chemopreventive agent in nontransplantation patients at high-risk for NMSC. The study was designed as a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. To test the possible skin cancer-preventing effect of a 2-year treatment with acitretin, 70 nontransplantation patients aged ≥18 years who had a history of ≥2 NMSCs within 5 years of trial onset were randomized to receive either placebo or acitretin 25 mg orally 5 days per week. The primary outcome measure was the rate of new NMSC development. Seventy patients were randomized to receive either acitretin alone (N = 35) or placebo (N = 35). During the 2-year treatment period, the patients who received acitretin did not have a statistically significant reduction in the rate of new primary NMSCs (odds ratio, 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-1.13; 54% vs 74%; P = .13). However, using the incidence of new NMSC, the time to new NMSC, and total NMSC counts, an umbrella test indicated a significant trend that favored the use of acitretin (chi-square statistic, 3.94; P = .047). The patients who received acitretin reported significantly more mucositis and skin toxicities compared with the patients who received placebo. Although there was not a statistically significant benefit observed with the use of acitretin, this may have been the result of low statistical power. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  4. Familial skin cancer syndromes: Increased melanoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransohoff, Katherine J; Jaju, Prajakta D; Jaju, Prajaka D; Tang, Jean Y; Carbone, Michele; Leachman, Sancy; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2016-03-01

    Phenotypic traits, such as red hair and freckling, increase melanoma risk by 2- to 3-fold. In addition, approximately 10% of melanomas are caused by inherited germline mutations that increase melanoma risk from 4- to >1000-fold. This review highlights the key genes responsible for inherited melanoma, with an emphasis on when a patient should undergo genetic testing. Many genetic syndromes associated with increased melanoma risk are also associated with an increased risk of other cancers. Identification of these high-risk patients is essential for preventive behavior reinforcement, genetic counseling, and ensuring other required cancer screenings. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of Melanoma Skin Cancer in Dermoscopy Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayef, Khalid; Li, Yongmin; Liu, Xiaohui

    2017-02-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most hazardous type of human skin cancer and its incidence has been rapidly increasing. Early detection of malignant melanoma in dermoscopy images is very important and critical, since its detection in the early stage can be helpful to cure it. Computer Aided Diagnosis systems can be very helpful to facilitate the early detection of cancers for dermatologists. In this paper, we present a novel method for the detection of melanoma skin cancer. To detect the hair and several noises from images, pre-processing step is carried out by applying a bank of directional filters. And therefore, Image inpainting method is implemented to fill in the unknown regions. Fuzzy C-Means and Markov Random Field methods are used to delineate the border of the lesion area in the images. The method was evaluated on a dataset of 200 dermoscopic images, and superior results were produced compared to alternative methods.

  6. Computer vision techniques for the diagnosis of skin cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this volume is to summarize the state-of-the-art in the utilization of computer vision techniques in the diagnosis of skin cancer. Malignant melanoma is one of the most rapidly increasing cancers in the world. Early diagnosis is particularly important since melanoma can be cured with a simple excision if detected early. In recent years, dermoscopy has proved valuable in visualizing the morphological structures in pigmented lesions. However, it has also been shown that dermoscopy is difficult to learn and subjective. Newer technologies such as infrared imaging, multispectral imaging, and confocal microscopy, have recently come to the forefront in providing greater diagnostic accuracy. These imaging technologies presented in this book can serve as an adjunct to physicians and  provide automated skin cancer screening. Although computerized techniques cannot as yet provide a definitive diagnosis, they can be used to improve biopsy decision-making as well as early melanoma detection, especially for pa...

  7. Assessment of Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in the Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer and Benign Lesions Versus Normal Skin:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Nürnberg, Birgit Meincke

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique that may be useful in diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). OBJECTIVES To describe OCT features in NMSC such as actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in benign lesions and to assess...... the diagnostic accuracy of OCT in differentiating NMSC from benign lesions and normal skin. METHODS AND MATERIALS OCT and polarization-sensitive (PS) OCT from 104 patients were studied. Observer-blinded evaluation of OCT images from 64 BCCs, 1 baso-squamous carcinoma, 39 AKs, two malignant melanomas, nine benign...... lesions, and 105 OCT images from perilesional skin was performed; 50 OCT images of NMSC and 50 PS-OCT images of normal skin were evaluated twice. RESULTS Sensitivity was 79% to 94% and specificity 85% to 96% in differentiating normal skin from lesions. Important features were absence of well...

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in Calabar | Asuquo | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in Calabar. Maurice Asuquo, Gabriel Ugare, Bartholomew Odio, Godwin Ebughe. Abstract. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common malignancy of the skin. Risk factors advanced include ...

  9. Cellular and molecular events leading to the development of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikova, Vladislava O.; Ananthaswamy, Honnavara N.

    2005-01-01

    The transition from a normal cell to a neoplastic cell is a complex process and involves both genetic and epigenetic changes. The process of carcinogenesis begins when the DNA is damaged, which then leads to a cascade of events leading to the development of a tumor. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes DNA damage, inflammation, erythema, sunburn, immunosuppression, photoaging, gene mutations, and skin cancer. Upon DNA damage, the p53 tumor suppressor protein undergoes phosphorylation and translocation to the nucleus and aids in DNA repair or causes apoptosis. Excessive UV exposure overwhelms DNA repair mechanisms leading to induction of p53 mutations and loss of Fas-FasL interaction. Keratinocytes carrying p53 mutations acquire a growth advantage by virtue of their increased resistance to apoptosis. Thus, resistance to cell death is a key event in photocarcinogenesis and conversely, elimination of cells containing excessive UV-induced DNA damage is a key step in protecting against skin cancer development. Apoptosis-resistant keratinocytes undergo clonal expansion that eventually leads to formation of actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas. In this article, we will review some of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in initiation and progression of UV-induced skin cancer

  10. Radiosensitiviness of blood lymphocytes from skin cancer patients and healthy volunteers as determined by micronucleus assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann, Tania Helena Ochi.

    1995-01-01

    Cancer, a major death cause in developed countries, has been related to somatic mutations that could be detected by cytogenetic analysis. Among the tools used in these tests, the micronucleus assay has been largely applied at population surveillance, biological dosimetry and early detection of groups with higher risks to developing cancers. In this study, we analysed the chromosome susceptibility of blood lymphocytes from basocellular skin cancer patients and healthy volunteers. The cytogenetic analysis was performed by a micronucleus assay, using progressive doses of ionizing radiation from a 60 Co source as mutagen. Briefly, the blood lymphocytes were irradiated in vitro, as processed by the cytokinesis-blocked method. The micronucleus frequency and distribution, cell cycle kinetics, nucleation index and dose-response relationship were determined in each patient. The results showed that the basocellular skin cancer patients lymphocytes presented higher spontaneous micronucleus frequency as compared with those from healthy young volunteers but lower than healthy now young volunteers . The radiation-induced micronucleus analysis showed that the basocellular skin cancer patients' lymphocytes presented similar proportion of damage lymphocytes as compared with those from healthy volunteers. Nevertheless, the magnitude of this damage was higher in this group with doses. Higher than 400 c Gy, which was not occurred in healthy volunteers. Cell cycle kinetics, as determined by the nucleation index, was lower in basocellular skin cancer patients as compared with healthy volunteers, indicating a more slow cell cycle. Our data showed that the lymphocytes from carcinoma basocellular patients were more radiosensitive as compared with those form healthy volunteers. (author). 159 refs., 21 figs., 16 tabs

  11. Study to determine whether intraoperative frozen section biopsy improves surgical treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Giovanni; Brenta, Federica; Malovini, Alberto; Musumarra, Gaetano; Scevola, Silvia; Faga, Angela

    2013-03-01

    Skin cancers are the most common types of cancer and their incidence has shown an increase of ∼4 to 8% per year over the last 40 years. The majority of skin cancers (∼97%) are non-melanoma skin cancers, mainly represented by basal cell (80%) and squamous cell carcinomas (20%). The use of intra-operative frozen section remains controversial in the surgical treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer, being commonly considered an optional tool, the reliability and effectiveness of which remain questionable. A large retrospective study was conducted to examine 670 surgical excisions of non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck in 481 patients over a period of nine years, between May, 2002 and December, 2011, at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Unit of the University of Pavia, Salvatore Maugeri Research and Care Institute, Pavia, Italy. Results demonstrated the paradoxical ineffectiveness of an intra-operative frozen section biopsy in pursuing higher rates of radical excision in non-melanoma skin cancers. Nevertheless, a more detailed analysis on the use of frozen sections focusing on the various anatomical sites of the body demonstrated a reverse trend in the eyelids and canthi, where a higher success rate (87.50 vs. 69.77%) in the surgical treatment of non-melanoma skin cancers was obtained with the use of an intra-operative frozen section biopsy. Results of the present study suggested that intra-operative frozen section biopsy be routinely used in the surgical treatment of nonmelanoma skin tumors involving the eyelids and canthi.

  12. [Photochemical internalisation (PCI): a further development of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of skin cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Pål; Berg, K; Selbo, P K; Hofbauer, G F L

    2010-11-17

    Recently, several new and non-invasive methods have been introduced for the treatment of skin cancers. Topical creams using the immune modulator imiquimod or the COX inhibitor diclofenac (with hyaluronic acid) are now registered for use against neoplasms such as basal or squamous cell carcinoma. Another modern treatment option is photodynamic therapy (PDT). A refined version of PDT, namely photochemical internalisation, is currently subject to a first clinical trial in patients with osteosarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer as well as adenocarcinoma of the breast. Preliminary results from this trial suggest that PCI seems to be a promising treatment.

  13. Intake of antioxidant nutrients and the risk of skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Hughes, M.C.; Ibiebele, T.I.; Marks, G.C.; Green, A.C.; Pols, van der J.C.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the associations between intake of antioxidant nutrients and risk of basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the skin, we carried out a prospective study among 1001 randomly selected adults living in an Australian community. Intake of antioxidants was estimated in 1996.

  14. Recontouring, resurfacing, and scar revision in skin cancer reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Michael J; Perro, Christopher A

    2009-08-01

    Residual disfigurement is a common problem for patients who have undergone skin cancer reconstruction. Restoring form and function in these patients is an artistic and technical endeavor. The efficacy of surgical scar revision, dermabrasion, chemical peels, and laser resurfacing is predicated upon the skin's innate ability to regenerate over time in response to mechanical, chemical, and thermal or ablative stresses. The patient and surgeon should be accepting of a process that is often gradual and may proceed in stages. Achieving proficiency with the secondary procedures for improving scars and local flaps may allow the motivated surgeon to mold an initially passable surgical result into an excellent one.

  15. Skin deep: Coverage of skin cancer and recreational tanning in Canadian women's magazines (2000-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2015-06-18

    Skin cancer is a significant public health problem among Canadians. Knowledge and attitudes about health are informed by mass media. The aim of our study was to describe the volume and nature of coverage of skin cancer and recreational tanning in Canadian women's magazines. Directed content analysis on article text and images in six popular Canadian women's magazines (Chatelaine, Canadian Living, Homemakers, Flare, FASHION, ELLE Canada) from 2000-2012 with attention to risk factors, ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure and protection behaviours, and early detection. Six popular American women's magazines were used for a between-country comparison. There were 154 articles (221 images) about skin cancer and tanning published over 13 years. Volume of coverage did not increase in a linear fashion over time. The most common risk factor reported on was UV exposure (39%), with other risk factors less frequently identified. Although 72% of articles promoted sunscreen use, little content encouraged other protection behaviours. Only 15% of articles and 1% of images discouraged indoor tanning, while 41% of articles and 53% of images promoted the tanned look as attractive. Few articles (<11%) reported on early detection. Relative to American magazines, Canadian magazines had a greater proportion of content that encouraged sunscreen use and promoted the tanned look and a lesser proportion of content on risk factors and early detection. Skin cancer and tanning messages in Canadian women's magazines had a narrow focus and provided limited information on risk factors or screening. Conflicting messages about prevention (text vs. images) may contribute to harmful UV behaviours among Canadian women.

  16. The relevance of piroxicam for the prevention and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer and its precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Elena; Paternò, Evelin Jasmine; Candi, Eleonora; Falconi, Mattia; Costanza, Gaetana; Diluvio, Laura; Terrinoni, Alessandro; Bianchi, Luca; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Piroxicam (PXM), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is an enolic benzothiazine and a potent member of the oxicam series. The drug suppresses the synthesis of proinflammatory enzymes, such as cyclo-oxygenases-1 and -2 (COX-1 and 2), downregulates the production of prostaglandins (PGs) and tromboxanes, and inhibits polyamines production by blocking ornithine decarboxylase induction involved in nonmelanoma skin carcinogenesis. In addition, PXM is able to induce tumor cell apoptosis and suppresses metalloproteinase 2 activities. Skin carcinogenesis is a multistep process in which the accumulation of genetic events leads to a gradually dysplastic cellular expression, deregulation of cell growth, and carcinomatous progression. COX-1 upregulation plays a significant role in PG and vascular epidermal growth factor production supporting tumor growth. Increased level of PGs in premalignant and/or malignant cutaneous tumors is also favored by upregulation of COX-2 and downregulation of the tumor suppressor gene 15-hydroxy-prostaglandin dehydrogenase. Chemoprevention can be a hopeful approach to inhibit carcinoma occurrence before an invasive tumor develops. The chemopreventive effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on nonmelanoma skin cancers has been established. In this study, we highlighted the different modalities of action of PXM on the pathogenesis of nonmelanoma skin cancer, analyzing and evaluating binding modes and energies between COX-1 or COX-2 and PXM by protein-ligand molecular docking. Our clinical experience about the local use of PXM on actinic keratoses and field cancerization is also reported, confirming its efficacy as target therapy.

  17. The barrier function of organotypic non-melanoma skin cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoschke, Christian; Ulrich, Martina; Sochorová, Michaela; Wolff, Christopher; Vávrová, Kateřina; Ma, Nan; Ulrich, Claas; Brandner, Johanna M; Schäfer-Korting, Monika

    2016-07-10

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most frequent human cancer with continuously rising incidences worldwide. Herein, we investigated the molecular basis for the impaired skin barrier function of organotypic NMSC models. We unraveled disturbed epidermal differentiation by reflectance confocal microscopy and histopathological evaluation. While the presence of claudin-4 and occludin were distinctly reduced, zonula occludens protein-1 was more wide-spread, and claudin-1 was heterogeneously distributed within the NMSC models compared with normal reconstructed human skin. Moreover, the cancer altered stratum corneum lipid packing and profile with decreased cholesterol content, increased phospholipid amount, and altered ceramide subclasses. These alterations contributed to increased surface pH and to 1.5 to 2.6-fold enhanced caffeine permeability of the NMSC models. Three topical applications of ingenol mebutate gel (0.015%) caused abundant epidermal cell necrosis, decreased Ki-67 indices, and increased lactate dehydrogenase activity. Taken together, our study provides new biological insights into the microenvironment of organotypic NMSC models, improves the understanding of the disease model by revealing causes for impaired skin barrier function in NMSC models at the molecular level, and fosters human cell-based approaches in preclinical drug evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical study of noninvasive in vivo melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers using multimodal spectral diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Liang; Nichols, Brandon; Migden, Michael R.; Rajaram, Narasimhan; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Markey, Mia K.; Ross, Merrick I.; Tunnell, James W.

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the diagnostic capability of a multimodal spectral diagnosis (SD) for in vivo noninvasive disease diagnosis of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. We acquired reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectra from 137 lesions in 76 patients using custom-built optical fiber-based clinical systems. Biopsies of lesions were classified using standard histopathology as malignant melanoma (MM), nonmelanoma pigmented lesion (PL), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), actinic keratosis (AK), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Spectral data were analyzed using principal component analysis. Using multiple diagnostically relevant principal components, we built leave-one-out logistic regression classifiers. Classification results were compared with histopathology of the lesion. Sensitivity/specificity for classifying MM versus PL (12 versus 17 lesions) was 100%;/100%;, for SCC and BCC versus AK (57 versus 14 lesions) was 95%;/71%, and for AK and SCC and BCC versus normal skin (71 versus 71 lesions) was 90%/85%. The best classification for nonmelanoma skin cancers required multiple modalities; however, the best melanoma classification occurred with Raman spectroscopy alone. The high diagnostic accuracy for classifying both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer lesions demonstrates the potential for SD as a clinical diagnostic device.

  19. Breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Owens

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarise what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically.

  20. Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae inguinal skin and soft tissue infection with bullous skin lesions in a patient with a penis squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Tutor Emilio

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vibrio spp. is a pathogen rarely isolated in cancer patients, and in most cases it is associated with haematological diseases. Cutaneous manifestations of this organism are even rarer. We report a case of Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae inguinal skin and soft tissue infection presenting bullous skin lesions in a young type II diabetic patient with a penis squamous cell carcinoma having a seawater exposure history.

  1. Preventive effect of kampo medicine (hangeshashin-to, TJ-14 plus minocycline against afatinib-induced diarrhea and skin rash in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiki M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Masao Ichiki,1 Hiroshi Wataya,2 Kazuhiko Yamada,3 Nobuko Tsuruta,4 Hiroaki Takeoka,1 Yusuke Okayama,1 Jun Sasaki,1 Tomoaki Hoshino3 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Clinical Research Institute, National Hospital Organization, Kyushu Medical Center, 2Division of Internal Medicine, Saiseikai Fukuoka General Hospital, Fukuoka City, 3Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University, Kurume City, 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hamanomachi Hospital, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka, Japan Purpose: Diarrhea and oral mucositis induced by afatinib can cause devastating quality of life issues for patients undergoing afatinib treatment. Several studies have shown that hangeshashin-to (TJ-14 might be useful for chemotherapy-induced diarrhea and oral mucositis. In this study, we investigated the prophylactic effects of TJ-14 for afatinib-induced diarrhea and oral mucositis and minocycline for afatinib-induced skin rash.Patients and methods: First- and second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors have become the standard first-line treatment in patients with EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer. The incidence of diarrhea was higher with afatinib than with gefitinib, and we conducted a single-arm Phase II study with afatinib. Patients who had previously undergone treatment with afatinib were ineligible. Both TJ-14 (7.5 g/day and minocycline (100 mg/day were administered simultaneously from the start of afatinib administration. The primary end point was the incidence of ≥ grade 3 (G3 diarrhea (increase of ≥7 stools/day over baseline during the first 4 weeks of treatment. The secondary end points were the incidence of ≥ G3 oral mucositis (severe pain interfering with oral intake and ≥ G3 skin toxicity (severe or medically significant but not immediately life-threatening.Results: A total of 29 patients (nine men and 20 women; median age, 66

  2. Skin cancer knowledge and attitudes in the region of Fez, Morocco: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    kelati, Awatef; Baybay, Hanane; Atassi, Mariam; Elfakir, Samira; Gallouj, Salim; Meziane, Mariame; Mernissi, Fatima Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Background The prevalence of skin cancers is constantly increasing in Morocco, and they have gradually become more aggressive due to a significant delay in the diagnosis. Our aim was to assess the levels of awareness and the influencing factors related to skin cancer knowledge in Morocco. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in Morocco through the medium of a validated questionnaire, which contained several items ? demographics, skin cancer knowledge and attitudes towards skin c...

  3. Hurthle Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breath Hurthle cell cancer Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Skin Awareness Intervention for Early Detection of Skin Cancer Targeting Men Older Than 50 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Louisa G; Brynes, Joshua; Baade, Peter D; Neale, Rachel E; Whiteman, David C; Youl, Philippa H; Aitken, Joanne F; Janda, Monika

    2017-04-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of an educational intervention encouraging self-skin examinations for early detection of skin cancers among men older than 50 years. A lifetime Markov model was constructed to combine data from the Skin Awareness Trial and other published sources. The model incorporated a health system perspective and the cost and health outcomes for melanoma, squamous and basal cell carcinomas, and benign skin lesions. Key model outcomes included Australian costs (2015), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), life-years, and counts of skin cancers. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to address parameter uncertainty. The mean cost of the intervention was A$5,298 compared with A$4,684 for usual care, whereas mean QALYs were 7.58 for the intervention group and 7.77 for the usual care group. The intervention was thus inferior to usual care. When only survival gain is considered, the model predicted the intervention would cost A$1,059 per life-year saved. The likelihood that the intervention was cost-effective up to A$50,000 per QALY gained was 43.9%. The model was stable to most data estimates; nevertheless, it relies on the specificity of clinical diagnosis of skin cancers and is subject to limited health utility data for people with skin lesions. Although the intervention improved skin checking behaviors and encouraged men to seek medical advice about suspicious lesions, the overall costs and effects from also detecting more squamous and basal cell carcinomas and benign lesions outweighed the positive health gains from detecting more thin melanomas. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Kaempferol targets RSK2 and MSK1 to suppress UV radiation-induced skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ke; Chen, Hanyong; Liu, Kangdong; Langfald, Alyssa; Yang, Ge; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Dong Hoon; Kim, Myoung Ok; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Li, Haitao; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Hong-Gyum; Ma, Wei-Ya; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Ziming; Dong, Zigang

    2014-09-01

    Solar UV (SUV) irradiation is a major factor in skin carcinogenesis, the most common form of cancer in the United States. The MAPK cascades are activated by SUV irradiation. The 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) and mitogen and stress-activated protein kinase (MSK) proteins constitute a family of protein kinases that mediate signal transduction downstream of the MAPK cascades. In this study, phosphorylation of RSK and MSK1 was upregulated in human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and SUV-treated mouse skin. Kaempferol, a natural flavonol, found in tea, broccoli, grapes, apples, and other plant sources, is known to have anticancer activity, but its mechanisms and direct target(s) in cancer chemoprevention are unclear. Kinase array results revealed that kaempferol inhibited RSK2 and MSK1. Pull-down assay results, ATP competition, and in vitro kinase assay data revealed that kaempferol interacts with RSK2 and MSK1 at the ATP-binding pocket and inhibits their respective kinase activities. Mechanistic investigations showed that kaempferol suppresses RSK2 and MSK1 kinase activities to attenuate SUV-induced phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and histone H3 in mouse skin cells. Kaempferol was a potent inhibitor of SUV-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis. Further analysis showed that skin from the kaempferol-treated group exhibited a substantial reduction in SUV-induced phosphorylation of CREB, c-Fos, and histone H3. Overall, our results identify kaempferol as a safe and novel chemopreventive agent against SUV-induced skin carcinogenesis that acts by targeting RSK2 and MSK1. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Socioeconomic status and non-melanoma skin cancer: a nationwide cohort study of incidence and survival in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steding-Jessen, M; Birch-Johansen, F; Jensen, A

    2010-01-01

    The two main types of non-melanoma skin cancer differ with the pattern of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR): basal cell carcinoma (BCC) appears to be more closely related to intermittent solar exposure and sunburn, while the risk for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a result of lifetime cum...

  7. Risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in patients with atopic dermatitis treated with oral immunosuppressive drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garritsen, Floor M.; Van Der Schaft, Jorien; van den Reek, Juul M; Politiek, Klaziena; Van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; van Dijk, Marijke; Hijnen, Dirk J.; De Graaf, Marlies; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A.; de Jong, Elke M G J; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A; De Bruin-Weller, Marjolein S.

    2017-01-01

    There is uncertainty about the risk of developing nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) treated with oral immunosuppressive drugs. A total of 557 patients with AD treated with these drugs in the

  8. Risk of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis Treated with Oral Immunosuppressive Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garritsen, F.M.; Schaft, J. van der; Reek, J.M.P.A. van den; Politiek, K.; Os-Medendorp, H. van; Dijk, M.; Hijnen, D.J.; Graaf, M de; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C.A.; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Schuttelaar, M.A.; Bruin-Weller, M.S. de

    2017-01-01

    There is uncertainty about the risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) treated with oral immunosuppressive drugs. A total of 557 patients with AD treated with these drugs in the

  9. Risk of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis Treated with Oral Immunosuppressive Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garritsen, Floor M.; Van der Schaft, Jorien; Van den Reek, Juul M.; Politiek, Klaziena; Van Osmedendorp, Harmieke; Van Dijk, Marijke; Hijnen, Dirk J.; De Graaf, Marlies; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A.; De Jong, Elke M.; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A.; De Bruin-Weller, Marjolein S.

    There is uncertainty about the risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) treated with oral immunosuppressive drugs. A total of 557 patients with AD treated with these drugs in the

  10. Monitoring of DNA and cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes from persons with skin cancer diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Dyga, W.; Krasnowolski, S.; Wierzewska, A.; Budzanowska, E.

    1999-01-01

    There is a lot of interest in the studies that would help to understand whether there is a casual association between cancer and various types of molecular or cytogenetic damage detected in human cells. One major oncogenesis process is activation of proto-oncogenes by point mutations or chromosomal translocation. There are substantial evidence that indicates that the loss of heterozygosity of certain chromosomes is involved in human cancerogenesis. Our study aimed to elicit the possible association between cancer and DNA and cytogenetic abnormalities induced in lymphocytes of people bearing various categories of skin cancer cells. Fresh blood was collected by venipuncture from 25 individuals (including nine prior to cancer treatment). All patients were nonsmoking males, however 42.3 % of them were former smokers. Blood samples were divided into two parts and in the first part of samples cytogenetic studies were performed immediately, while from the second part lymphocytes were isolated and stored at -70 o C for further studies in vitro. In the later one a single cell gel electrophoresis assay (SCGE) known as a Comet assay was performed to study individual susceptibility to the induction of DNA damage by UV or radiation and to estimate variability in cellular repair capabilities. An average of 220 per sample of good metaphase spreads in the first mitotic division, and 100 per sample in the second division, were accepted for analysis of cytogenetic damage. Chromosome and chromatid type aberrations were scored in the cells in the first mitosis and expressed as total aberration frequency including gaps and excluding gaps. Sister chromatid exchanges, high frequency cells and proliferative rate index were screened and evaluated in the second mitosis. Each of the patient revealed exceeding in at least one of the cytogenetic biomarkers level from the biomarker's level detected in a reference group. In order to estimate susceptibility of people to environmentally induced

  11. [The relationship between the ozone layer and skin cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez C, Francisca

    2006-09-01

    In the recent decades, a sustained increase in the worldwide incidence of skin cancer has been observed and Chile is not the exception. The most important risk factor is the exaggerated and repeated exposure to ultraviolet radiation coming from the sun. The ozone layer restricts the transmission of type B and C ultraviolet light. Since 1980, a sustained depletion of stratospheric ozone levels is occurring, specially in middle latitudes (-30 to -60). Along with this depletion, the amount of ultraviolet light that reaches the earth surface is increasing. This article reviews some basic concepts about the ozone layer and the association between its depletion and skin cancer. The general population should be informed about the risks of inadequate and exaggerated exposure to sunlight.

  12. Diagnosis of Malignant Melanoma of Skin Cancer Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hassin Alasadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a kind of skin cancer that begins in melanocytes. It can influence on the skin only, or it may expand to the bones and organs. It is less common, but more serious and aggressive than other types of skin cancer. Malignant Melanoma can happen anywhere on the skin, but it is widespread in certain locations such as the legs in women, the back and chest in men, the face, the neck, mouth, eyes, and genitals. In this paper, a proposed algorithm is designed for diagnosing malignant melanoma types by using digital image processing techniques. The algorithm consists of four steps: preprocessing, separation, features extraction, and diagnosis. A neural network (NN used to diagnosis malignant melanoma types. The total accuracy of the neural network was 100% for training and 93% for testing. The evaluation of the algorithm is done by using sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The sensitivity of NN in diagnosing malignant melanoma types was 95.6%, while the specificity was 92.2% and the accuracy was 93.9%. The experimental results are acceptable.

  13. Non-melanoma skin cancer: occupational risk from UV light and arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdu, Simona

    2014-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) has a significant impact on public health and health care costs as a result of high morbidity and disfigurement due to the destruction of surrounding tissues. Although the mortality rates of these tumors are low, the high incidence rates determine a considerable number of deaths. NMSC is the most common type of skin cancer, representing about 1/3 of all malignancies diagnosed worldwide each year. The most common NMSC are basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Studies on humans and experimental animals indicate that ultraviolet (UV) light and arsenic play important roles in the development of these skin malignancies. Several epidemiological studies have investigated the risk of developing NMSC and the potential link between exposure to sunlight and arsenic in the agricultural and industrial occupational settings. To date, the published literature suggests that there is no apparent skin cancer risk as regards workplace exposure to artificial UV light or arsenic. Concerning UV light from sun exposure at the workplace, most published studies indicated an elevated risk for SCC, but are less conclusive for BCC. Many of these studies are limited by the methodology used in the evaluation of occupational exposure and the lack of adjustment for major confounders. Therefore, further epidemiological studies are required to focus on exposure assessment at the individual level as well as potential interactions with other occupational and non-occupational exposures and individual susceptibility. In doing so, we can better quantify the true risk of skin cancer in exposed workers and inform effective public health prevention programs.

  14. Skin cancers associated with HIV infection and solid organ transplant among elderly adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoy, Emilie; Costagliola, Dominique; Engels, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Immunosuppression may be etiologic for some skin cancers. We investigated the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and solid organ transplantation on skin cancer risk. We conducted a population-based case-control study among elderly U.S. adults (non-Hispanic whites, age 67 years or older), using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Medicare linked data. The study comprised 29,926 skin cancer cases (excluding basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas) and 119,704 controls, frequency-matched by gender, age, and calendar year (1987–2002). Medicare claims identified solid organ transplantation or HIV infection before cancer diagnosis/control selection. As negative controls, we evaluated other medical conditions (e.g., hypertension, depression) and cancers (breast, colon, prostate) not linked to immunosuppression. Odds ratios (ORs) compared prevalence in cases and controls, adjusted for matching factors and number of prior physician claims. Risks of Kaposi sarcoma (N=602) and cutaneous non-Hodgkin lymphoma (N=1,836) were increased with solid organ transplantation (OR [95%CI]: 11.06 [5.27–23.23] and 2.27 [1.00–5.15], respectively) and HIV infection (21.58 [11.94–38.99] and 2.41 [1.05–5.52], respectively). Solid organ transplantation was also associated with increased risks of Merkel cell carcinoma (N=1286; OR [95%CI] 4.95 [2.62–9.34]) and other cutaneous sarcomas (N=972; 4.19 [1.83–9.56]). Solid organ transplantation was non-significantly associated with melanoma (N=23,974; (OR 1.36 [95%CI 0.98–1.88]). Null or weak associations were observed for negative control medical conditions and cancers. Solid organ transplantation and HIV infection were followed by increased risk for some skin cancer subtypes among elderly adults. These results highlight the potential role of immunity in development of skin cancers. PMID:19810102

  15. Detection of human papillomavirus in nonmelanoma skin cancer lesions and healthy perilesional skin in kidney transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat-García, J; Morales Suárez-Varela, M; Vilata-Corell, J J; Marquina-Vila, A

    2014-04-01

    The influence of human papillomavirus (HPV) on the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is a topic of debate. HPV types from the beta genus (HPV-β) have been most frequently associated with the development of skin cancer. To analyze the prevalence and range of HPV types in NMSC lesions and healthy perilesional skin in immunodepressed and immunocompetent patients and to evaluate the influence of various clinical factors on the prevalence of HPV in skin cancer. Nested polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to detect HPV in 120 NMSC samples obtained by biopsy from 30 kidney transplant recipients and 30 immunocompetent patients. In all cases, a sample was taken from the tumor site and the surrounding healthy skin. Potential confounders were assessed and the data analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. HPV DNA was detected in 44 (73.3%) of the 60 samples from immunodepressed patients and in 32 (53.3%) of the 60 samples from immunocompetent patients (adjusted odds ratio, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.2-9.6). In both groups of patients, HPV was more common in healthy perilesional skin than in lesional skin. HPV-β was the most common type isolated. We found a wide range of HPV types (mostly HPV-β) in the skin of kidney transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients with skin cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiation induction of cancer of the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.; Storer, J.B.; Burns, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    The induction of epidermal tumors was studied using exposures to 25 kV x-rays with or without subsequent exposures to 12-0-tetradeconyl phorbol-13 acetate (TPA) or ultraviolet radiation (uvr) 280-400 nm. Fractionation regimens and total exposure up to 4000R produced no squamous cell carcinomas. When these regimes were followed by TPA an incidence of about 80% was obtained, and incidence of 60% when uvr exposures followed the x-irradiation. A dose-dependent increase in fibrosarcomas was found when x-irradiation was followed by 24 weeks of topical treatment with TPA. These results support the contention that uvr can enhance the expression of cells initiated by x-rays. The experimental evidence is compared with the data from the tinea capitis patients treated with x-rays. In C3HF/He male mice exposed to 50, 100, 150 and 200 rads 137 Cs gamma rays the induction rate for fibrosarcomas was 2.9 x 10 -4 per cGy/per mouse. This result compares with 2.5 x 10 -6 transformations per surviving cell per cGy with 10T1/2 cells that are fibroblasts derived from C3H mice. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Fingerprints in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, K.

    1994-01-01

    Gene research has shown that factors causing cancer, or carcinogens, may leave marks typical of each particular carcinogen (fingerprints) in the genotype of the cell. Radiation, for instance, may leave such fingerprints in a cancer cell. In particular, the discovery of a gene called p53 has yielded much new information on fingerprints. It has been discovered, for example, that toxic fungus and UV-radiation each leave fingerprints in the p53 gene. Based on the detection of fingerprints, it may be possible in the future to tell a cancer patient what factor had trigged the maglinancy

  18. Skin bioengineering and stem cells for severe burn treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lataillade, J.J.; Trouillas, M.; Alexaline, M.; Brachet, M.; Bey, E.; Duhamel, P.; Leclerc, T.; Bargues, L.

    2015-01-01

    Severely burned patients need definitive and efficient wound coverage. The outcome of massive burns has improved with cultured epithelial auto-grafts (CEA). In spite of its fragility, percentage of success, cost of treatment and long-term tendency to contracture, this surgical technique has been developed in some burn centres. The first improvements involved combining CEA and dermis-like substitutes. Cultured skin substitutes provide faster skin closure and satisfying functional results. These methods have been used successfully in massive burns. A second improvement was to enable skin regeneration by using epidermal stem cells. Stem cells can differentiate into keratinocytes, to promote wound repair and to regenerate skin appendages. Human mesenchymal stem cells foster wound healing and were used in cutaneous radiation syndrome. Skin regeneration and tissue engineering methods remain a complex challenge and offer the possibility of new treatment for injured and burned patients. (authors)

  19. Confocal microscopy patterns in nonmelanoma skin cancer and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, S; Sánchez, V; González-Rodríguez, A; Parrado, C; Ullrich, M

    2014-06-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy is currently the most promising noninvasive diagnostic tool for studying cutaneous structures between the stratum corneum and the superficial reticular dermis. This tool gives real-time images parallel to the skin surface; the microscopic resolution is similar to that of conventional histology. Numerous studies have identified the main confocal features of various inflammatory skin diseases and tumors, demonstrating the good correlation of these features with certain dermatoscopic patterns and histologic findings. Confocal patterns and diagnostic algorithms have been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity in melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Possible present and future applications of this noninvasive technology are wide ranging and reach beyond its use in noninvasive diagnosis. This tool can also be used, for example, to evaluate dynamic skin processes that occur after UV exposure or to assess tumor response to noninvasive treatments such as photodynamic therapy. We explain the characteristic confocal features found in the main nonmelanoma skin tumors and discuss possible applications for this novel diagnostic technique in routine dermatology practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid ... 4: Award Negotiation & Issuance Manage Your Award Grants Management Contacts Monitoring Prior Approvals Annual Reporting and Auditing ...

  1. Non-melanoma skin cancer: what drives tumor development and progression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukamp, Petra

    2005-10-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer, i.e. basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most frequent tumors and their number is still increasing worldwide. Furthermore, immunosuppression in organ transplant patients strongly contributes to the increase in skin cancer incidence--being 65-250 times more frequent than in the general population. Often these patients suffer from a second and third lesion and the severity of these tumors is linked to their number. SCCs in transplant recipients also appear to be more aggressive. They tend to grow rapidly, show a higher rate of local recurrences and metastasize in 5-8% of the patients (all reviewed in Ref. 2). This largely differs from BCCs which are more frequent in the general population--at a ratio of 4:1 as compared with SCCs--but the number is only increased by a factor of 10 in transplant recipients. This may suggest that 'dormant' SCC precursor cells/lesions are present at a high frequency in the population but they are well controlled by the immune system. BCC, on the other hand, may be less dependent on immune surveillance thereby underlining its different etiology. While for BCC development the genetic hallmark is abrogation of the ptch-sonic hedgehog pathway, little is known about the causal alterations of SCCs. However, the complexity of the genetic alterations (numerical and structural aberration profiles) in SCCs argues for several levels of genomic instability involved in the generation and progression of skin cancer.

  2. A case of radiation-induced skin cancer of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Tetsuya; Susuki, Takeo; Kikui, Tomoko; Masada, Yoshiko; Tahara, Shinya.

    1994-01-01

    The authors discuss the case of radiation-induced skin cancer of the neck in a 76-year-old woman who had undergone irradiation of tubercular lymphadenitis of the cervix while in her low teens. Some fifty years later, a squamous cell carcinoma developed in the irradiated region and in due course deeply invaded the sternocleidomastoidous muscle. Thus, a radical neck dissection was performed and the tumor and the lymph tissue removed en bloc, after which reconstruction was accomplished by using a latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap. With regard to the lessons learned from treating this case, three points are considered important and are listed below. When treating radiation-induced skin cancer patients, the head and neck regions should be examined in detail for the presence of other tumors. The excision of the skin surrounding the tumor should be as wide as possible, so as to remove skin that may have been also over-subjected to irradiation. The remaining skin surrounding the defect left by the excision is atrophic and thin. (author)

  3. Aging and senescence of skin cells in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Studying age-related changes in the physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of isolated skin cell populations in culture has greatly expanded the understanding of the fundamental aspects of skin aging. The three main cell types that have been studied extensively with respect to cellular...... aging in vitro are dermal fibroblasts, epidermal keratinocytes, and melanocytes. Serial subcultivation of normal diploid skin cells can be performed only a limited number of times, and the emerging senescent phenotype can be categorized into structural, physiological, biochemical, and molecular...... phenotypes, which can be used as biomarkers of cellular aging in vitro. The rate and phenotype of aging are different in different cell types. There are both common features and specific features of aging of skin fibroblasts, keratinocytes, melanocytes, and other cell types. A progressive accumulation...

  4. Survival from skin cancer and its associated factors in Kurdistan province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Galavizh; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Amani, Saeid; Solaymani-Dodaran, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    We explored survival of skin cancer and its determinants in Kurdistan province of Iran. In a retrospective cohort design, we identified all registered skin cancer patients in Kurdistan Cancer Registry from year 2000 to 2009. Information on time and cause of death were obtained from Registrar's office and information on type, stage and anatomic locations were extracted from patients' hospital records. Additional demographic information was collected via a telephone interview. We calculated the 3 and 5 years survival. Survival experiences in different groups were compared using log rank test. Cox proportional hazard model was built and hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Of a total of 1353, contact information for 667 patients were available, all of which were followed up. 472 telephone interviews were conducted. Mean follow-up time was 34 months. We identified 78 deaths in this group of patients and 44 of them were because of skin cancer. After controlling for confounding, tumour type, anatomical location, and diseases stage remained significantly associated with survival. Hazard ratios for death because of squamous cell carcinoma was 74.5 (95%CI: 4.8-1146) and for melanoma was 24.4 (95%CI: 1.3-485) compared with basal cell carcinomas. Hazard ratio for tumours in stage 4 was 16.7 (95%CI: 1.8-156.6) and for stage 3 was 16.8 (95%CI: 1.07-260) compared with stage 1 and 2. Tumour stage is independently associated with survival. Relatively low survival rates suggest delayed diagnosis. Increasing public awareness through media about the warning signs of skin cancers could increase the chance of survival in these patients.

  5. Mutations in DNA polymerase eta are not detected in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Eitan; White, Lisa M; Elliott, Nathan A; Berg, Daniel; Kiviat, Nancy B; Loeb, Lawrence A

    2006-11-01

    The major etiological agent in skin cancer is exposure to UV-irradiation and the concomitant DNA damage. UV-induced DNA lesions, such as thymine dimers, block DNA synthesis by the major DNA polymerases and inhibit the progression of DNA replication. Bypass of thymine dimers and related lesions is dependent on the translesion polymerase DNA polymerase eta (Poleta). In the inherited disorder, xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV), inactivation of Poleta results in extreme sensitivity to UV light and a marked increase in the incidence of skin cancer. Here, we tested the hypothesis that somatic mutations and/or polymorphisms in the POLH gene that encodes Poleta are associated with the induction of UV-dependent skin cancers. We sequenced the exonic regions of the Poleta open reading frame in DNA from 17 paired samples of squamous cell skin carcinoma and adjacent histologically normal tissue. We analyzed approximately 120,000 nucleotides and detected no mutations in POLH in the tumors. However, we identified 6 different single-nucleotide polymorphisms, 3 of them previously undocumented, which were present in both the tumor and paired normal tissue. We conclude that neither mutations nor polymorphisms in the coding regions of POLH are required for the generation of human skin squamous cell carcinoma.

  6. Cancer stem cells revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batlle, Eduard; Clevers, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept was proposed four decades ago, and states that tumor growth, analogous to the renewal of healthy tissues, is fueled by small numbers of dedicated stem cells. It has gradually become clear that many tumors harbor CSCs in dedicated niches, and yet their

  7. Trends in the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Denmark 1978-2007: Rapid incidence increase among young Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Johansen, Fatima; Jensen, Allan; Mortensen, Lone

    2010-01-01

    assessed incidence trends of NMSC in Denmark from 1978 to 2007. Data for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Registry of Pathology. For both genders, age-specific incidence rates and overall incidence rates, age......Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Caucasian populations worldwide, and incidence rates are increasing. However, NMSC data are not routinely collected by cancer registries, but Denmark has extensive registration of NMSC in two nationwide population-based registries. We...

  8. Survival after squamous cell and basal cell carcinoma of the skin: A retrospective cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Judy R; Zens, M Scot; Celaya, Maria O; Riddle, Bruce L; Karagas, Margaret R; Peacock, Janet L

    2015-08-15

    A retrospective cohort analysis of survival after keratinocyte cancer (KC) was conducted using data from a large, population-based case-control study of KC in New Hampshire. The original study collected detailed information during personal interviews between 1993 and 2002 from individuals with squamous (SCC) and basal (BCC) cell carcinoma, and controls identified through the Department of Transportation, frequency-matched on age and sex. Participants without a history of non-skin cancer at enrolment were followed as a retrospective cohort to assess survival after either SCC or BCC, or a reference date for controls. Through 2009, cancers were identified from the New Hampshire State Cancer Registry and self-report; death information was obtained from state death certificate files and the National Death Index. There were significant differences in survival between those with SCC, BCC and controls (p = 0.040), with significantly greater risk of mortality after SCC compared to controls (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.25; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.54). Mortality after BCC was not significantly altered (HR 0.96; 95% CI 0.77-1.19). The excess mortality after SCC persisted after adjustment for numerous personal risk factors including time-varying non-skin cancer occurrence, age, sex and smoking. Survival from the date of the intervening cancer, however, did not vary (HR for SCC 0.98; 95% CI 0.70-1.38). Mortality also remained elevated when individuals with subsequent melanoma were excluded (HR for SCC 1.30; 95% CI 1.05-1.61). Increased mortality after SCC cannot be explained by the occurrence of intervening cancers, but may reflect a more general predisposition to life threatening illness that merits further investigation. © 2015 UICC.

  9. Melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer in psoriatic patients treated with high-dose phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorino, Alessia; De Simone, Clara; Perino, Francesca; Caldarola, Giacomo; Peris, Ketty

    2016-10-01

    The carcinogenic effect of plus ultraviolet A (PUVA)-therapy in psoriatic patients has been widely demonstrated, while data on the safety of narrow band (311 nm) ultraviolet B (nb-UVB) are scarce. We investigated the occurrence of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in psoriatic patients treated with nb-UVB or PUVA-therapy. This retrospective study included patients affected by psoriasis, who had been treated with nb-UVB or PUVA-therapy. Clinical data and phenotypic risk factors were collected and a total body examination was performed at a routine appointment during the study period. We examined 92 patients (60 males and 32 females; mean age: 53.5 years, range: 20-83 years) treated with PUVA-therapy (42/92, 45%) or with nb-UVB (50/92, 55%) for 1-28 years (mean: 7.1 years). Among patients treated with PUVA, nine skin tumors (one melanoma, seven basal cell carcinoma (BCCs) and one squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)) were detected in 2/42 (4.7%) patients, while in the nb-UVB group, 14 skin tumors including two melanomas, four BCCs, and eight SCCs were diagnosed in 6/50 (12%) patients. A noteworthy number of NMSC were diagnosed in this Mediterranean population of patients exposed to high-dose UV treatment. A thorough risk-benefit evaluation should always be done before UV treatment and patients should be carefully monitored for skin cancer during and after treatment discontinuation.

  10. Multiple Primary Cancers in Patients with Breast and Skin Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Soerjomataram (Isabelle)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe extent of the problem The number of cancer survivors has been increasing dramatically and is expected to keep growing in the near future. In the Netherlands, a 38% increase of cancer survivors is estimated from 2005 to 2015, representing an increase from 500,000 to 692,000

  11. Estimation of avoidable skin cancers and cost-savings to government associated with regulation of the solarium industry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Nicholas; Gordon, Louisa; Gies, Peter; Green, Adèle C

    2009-03-01

    In Australia there is growing concern about the expanding solarium industry, and the additive effect of persons seeking exposure to artificial ultraviolet radiation (UVR) against already intense background levels of solar UVR. We estimated the numbers of potential skin cancers prevented through regulation of solaria and the associated cost-savings to the Federal Government. A lifetime decision-analytic model was created using relative risk estimates based on a meta-analysis of the literature assessing the link between skin cancer risk and solarium use. The costs were limited to those incurred by Medicare Australia, for the medical care of individuals treated for skin cancer. With stricter regulations, we estimated between 18 and 31 melanomas, 200-251 squamous cell carcinomas and associated costs of $AU 256,054 would be avoided per 100,000 persons. Our base findings were sensitive to estimates for prevalence of use, skin cancer risk and discounting rates. Continued growth in the Australian solarium industry is likely to inflate the already substantial skin cancer burden. Subject to some limitations, our study indicates that by successfully enforcing solarium regulations to prohibit use by minors and by those with fair skin colour, the Federal Government could expect favourable cost and health benefits.

  12. Update on melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Annual Skin Cancer Conference 2011, Hamilton Island, Australia, 5–6 August 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalaudek, Iris; Whiteman, David; Rosendahl, Cliff; Menzies, Scott W; Green, Adèle C; Hersey, Peter; Argenziano, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    In this article, we will summarize some of the highlights of the third annual conference on skin cancer, with special emphasis on the the recent advances regarding melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment. Topics were particularly addressed to a newly developing medical branch in Australia, namely that of Primary Care Skin Cancer Practitioners, and focused on strategies to improve primary and secondary prevention and early detection of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer using dermoscopy. Controversies related to skin cancer screening programs and recent progresses for treating advanced melanoma were additionally discussed. Yet, besides its scientific goals, the conference aimed also to encourage research originating in primary care and relevant to primary care.

  13. Facial skin follllicular hyperkeratosis of patients with basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zhuchkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a clinical observation of paraneoplastic syndrome of a patient with basal cell carcinoma of skin. Authors present clinical features of the described for the first time, paraneoplastic retentional follicular hyperkeratosis of facial area.

  14. Residential Radon Exposure and Skin Cancer Incidence in a Prospective Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauner, Elvira Vaclavik; Loft, Steffen; Sørensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    exposure may contribute to development of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. We cannot exclude confounding from sunlight and cannot conclude on causality, as the relationship was stronger amongst persons living in apartments and nonexistent amongst those living in single detached homes....... modification was assessed. Results Over a mean follow-up of 13.6 years of 51,445 subjects, there were 3,243 cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 317 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 329 cases of MM. The adjusted IRRs per 100 Bq/m(3) increase in residential radon levels for BCC, SCC and MM were 1......Background Although exposure to UV radiation is the major risk factor for skin cancer, theoretical models suggest that radon exposure can contribute to risk, and this is supported by ecological studies. We sought to confirm or refute an association between long-term exposure to residential radon...

  15. Skin cancer in the military: a systematic review of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer incidence, prevention, and screening among active duty and veteran personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemenschneider, Kelsie; Liu, Jesse; Powers, Jennifer G

    2017-12-29

    Occupational sun exposure is a well-studied risk factor for skin cancer development, but more work is needed to assess melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer risk among U.S. military personnel to improve education and screening efforts in this population. To conduct an extensive review of skin cancer risks for U.S. military personnel to inform preventative education, diagnosis, and treatment efforts to better protect these individuals from future skin cancer development. A systematic review of published studies on the subject of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer in military personnel was conducted. Nine studies describing skin cancer incidence in the United States military were identified, with four studies specific to melanoma. The study findings reveal an increased risk of melanoma associated with service in the military or prisoner of war status. Service in tropical environments was associated with an increased incidence of both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer among World War II soldiers. Two studies found that increased melanoma risk was also branch-dependent, with the highest rates among the United States Air Force (USAF) branch. Several of the reviewed studies implicated increased sun exposure during military service and lack of sufficient sun protection as the causes of higher rates of skin cancer among U.S. military and veteran populations as compared to the non-military population in the US. The reviewed articles have variable results; a prospective randomized controlled trial would be helpful to develop interventions that mitigate skin cancer risk in the U.S. military. This review identifies an abundance of evidence for an increased risk of skin cancer development among U.S. active duty and veteran populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Kaempferol targets RSK2 and MSK1 to suppress ultraviolet radiation-induced skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfald, Alyssa; Yang, Ge; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Dong Hoon; Kim, Myoung Ok; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Li, Haitao; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Hong-Gyum; Ma, Wei-Ya; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Ziming; Dong, Zigang

    2014-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (SUV) irradiation is a major factor in skin carcinogenesis, the most common form of cancer in the USA. The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades are activated by SUV irradiation. The 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) and mitogen and stress activated protein kinase (MSK) proteins constitute a family of protein kinases that mediate signal transduction downstream of the MAP kinase cascades. In this study, phosphorylation of RSK and MSK1 was up-regulated in human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and solar UV-treated mouse skin. Kaempferol, a natural flavonol, found in tea, broccoli, grapes, apples and other plant sources, is known to have anticancer activity, but its mechanisms and direct target(s) in cancer chemoprevention are unclear. Kinase array results revealed that kaempferol inhibited RSK2 and MSK1. Pull-down assay results, ATP competition and in vitro kinase assay data revealed that kaempferol interacts with RSK2 and MSK1 at the ATP-binding pocket and inhibits their respective kinase activities. Mechanistic investigations showed that kaempferol suppresses RSK2 and MSK1 kinase activities to attenuate solar UV-induced phosphorylation of CREB and histone H3 in mouse skin cells. Kaempferol was a potent inhibitor of solar UV-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis. Further analysis showed that skin from the kaempferol-treated group exhibited a substantial reduction in solar UV-induced phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), c-Fos and histone H3. Overall, our results identify kaempferol as a safe and novel chemopreventive agent against solar UV-induced skin carcinogenesis that acts by targeting RSK2 and MSK1. PMID:24994661

  17. Non-melanoma Skin Cancers Reported at a Secondary Care Institution in Milas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenay Ağırgöl

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We investigated demographic features, tumor location and histopathology as well as frequency of recurrence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in patients in Milas region. Methods: Medical files of 120 patients with the diagnosis of NMSC, who attended the dermatology department at Milas State Hospital between 2011 and 2014, were analyzed retrospectively. Statistical analysis was performed by evaluating demographic characteristics (age, gender, tumor initial age, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, occupation, Fitzpatrick skin type (FT, location of lesions, tumor histopathology and recurrence frequency. Results: The average age at admission was 65.2 years. Male/female ratio was equal and the number of females with basal cell carcinoma (BCC was higher than that of males, while squamous cell cancer was more common in men. 88.3% of the lesions involved the head and neck region. The most common location was the nose (19.7%, followed by eye and ear region. 70.8% of patients had FT 1 and 2 and 70% had light eye color. There were more than one lesion in five patients and recurrence was observed in 15 of the patients. The most common histopathologic type was nodular, followed by infiltrative and superficially spreading BCC. Almost all of our patients were active farmers. Conclusion: During the three-year follow-up period, NMSCs were reported to have a high rate of frequency and recurrence. We believe that skin cancers constitute an important health problem for this town and this can grow unless necessary measures are taken.

  18. Non-melanoma skin cancer: new and future synthetic drug treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Teresa; Garbe, Claus

    2017-05-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) mainly comprise two different entities: basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); beneath these two entities, Merkel cell carcinoma, adnexal tumors, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, angiosarcoma, and cutaneous lymphoma belong to NMSC. These rare skin tumors are not the topic of this review. BCC and SCC are the most common cancers diagnosed in humans. The preferred treatment is surgery, which in most cases is curative. Although a high recurrence rate is seen, these cancers rarely metastasize. Therefore, systemic treatments were not a priority for these patients. It is long known that the abnormal activation of Hedgehog and epidermal growth factor receptor pathways were involved in BCC and SCC. In the last decade, metastatic disease became an important area of research, mostly because new therapies that targeted components of these two pathways became available. Areas covered: Here we cover the available therapeutic options for patients diagnosed with BCC and SCC, focus on systemic and targeted therapies. Expert opinion: BCC and SCC are common cancers, with good prognosis. More than the metastatic disease, advanced local disease and recurrent disease pose clinicians a great challenge. Albeit there are promising results with targeted therapies, resistance development has already been described.

  19. Discovery of potent and selective MRCK inhibitors with therapeutic effect on skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unbekandt, Mathieu; Belshaw, Simone; Bower, Justin; Clarke, Maeve; Cordes, Jacqueline; Crighton, Diane; Croft, Daniel R; Drysdale, Martin J; Garnett, Mathew J; Gill, Kathryn; Gray, Christopher; Greenhalgh, David A; Hall, James Am; Konczal, Jennifer; Lilla, Sergio; McArthur, Duncan; McConnell, Patricia; McDonald, Laura; McGarry, Lynn; McKinnon, Heather; McMenemy, Carol; Mezna, Mokdad; Morrice, Nicholas A; Munro, June; Naylor, Gregory; Rath, Nicola; Schüttelkopf, Alexander W; Sime, Mairi; Olson, Michael F

    2018-01-30

    The myotonic dystrophy-related Cdc42-binding kinases MRCKα and MRCKβ contribute to the regulation of actin-myosin cytoskeleton organization and dynamics, acting in concert with the Rho-associated coiled-coil kinases ROCK1 and ROCK2. The absence of highly potent and selective MRCK inhibitors has resulted in relatively little knowledge of the potential roles of these kinases in cancer. Here we report the discovery of the azaindole compounds BDP8900 and BDP9066 as potent and selective MRCK inhibitors that reduce substrate phosphorylation, leading to morphological changes in cancer cells along with inhibition of their motility and invasive character. In over 750 human cancer cell lines tested, BDP8900 and BDP9066 displayed consistent anti-proliferative effects with greatest activity in hematological cancer cells. Mass spectrometry identified MRCKα S1003 as an autophosphorylation site, enabling development of a phosphorylation-sensitive antibody tool to report on MRCKα status in tumor specimens. In a two-stage chemical carcinogenesis model of murine squamous cell carcinoma, topical treatments reduced MRCKα S1003 autophosphorylation and skin papilloma outgrowth. In parallel work, we validated a phospho-selective antibody with the capability to monitor drug pharmacodynamics. Taken together, our findings establish an important oncogenic role for MRCK in cancer, and they offer an initial preclinical proof of concept for MRCK inhibition as a valid therapeutic strategy. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by

  1. A 13-year histopathological review of skin cancers in the University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was a retrospective histopathological study aimed at determining the prevalence and histological pattern of skin cancer in Maiduguri North-Eastern Nigeria over a thirteen-year period. Skin cancer formed 14% of all cancers seen during the study period (1990-2002). There were more males than females at a ratio of ...

  2. Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Skin Cancer in US Women and Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Min Park

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggested a protective effect of vitamin D against skin cancer development. However, epidemiologic studies on orally taken vitamin D and risk of skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma [BCC], squamous cell carcinoma [SCC], and melanoma are few. We prospectively evaluated whether total, dietary and supplemental vitamin D intake were associated with skin cancer risk based on 63,760 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010 and 41,530 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010. Dietary information on vitamin D intake was assessed every 2 to 4 years during the follow-up and cumulative averaged intake was used. We used Cox proportional hazard models to compute the hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Pooled HR of cohort-specific results were calculated using a random-effects model. During the follow-up, we documented 20,840 BCC, 2,329 SCC and 1,320 melanoma cases. Vitamin D consumption was not associated with the risk of SCC or melanoma but was modestly positively associated with BCC; the pooled HRs of BCC for extreme quintiles of vitamin D intake were 1.10 (95%CI = 1.05-1.15; Ptrend = 0.05 for total vitamin D and 1.13 (95% CI = 1.07 to 1.20; Ptrend <0.01 for dietary vitamin D. Stratified analysis according to sun exposure related factors showed similar results. In conclusion, vitamin D intake was positively associated with risk of BCC, while null associations were found with SCC and melanoma. Our data do not support a beneficial role of orally taken vitamin D on skin cancer carcinogenesis.

  3. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Qi; Zhao, Yue; Renner, Andrea; Niess, Hanno; Seeliger, Hendrik; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Bruns, Christiane J., E-mail: christiane.bruns@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Surgery, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Klinikum Grosshadern, Marchioninistr. 15, D-81377, Munich (Germany)

    2010-08-19

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC therapy in pancreatic cancer.

  4. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Qi; Zhao, Yue; Renner, Andrea; Niess, Hanno; Seeliger, Hendrik; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Bruns, Christiane J.

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC therapy in pancreatic cancer. PMID:24281178

  5. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Walter Jauch

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC therapy in pancreatic cancer.

  6. Monitoring of DNA and cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes in patients with skin cancer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Dyga, W.; Krasnowolski, S.; Wierzewska, A.; Budzanowska, E.

    1999-01-01

    One major oncogenesis process is activation of proto-oncogenes by point mutations or chromosomal translocations. There is substantial evidence that indicates that human carcinogenesis involves loss of heterozygosity of certain chromosomes. Our study aimed at searching the possible association between cancer and DNA and cytogenetic abnormalities induced in lymphocytes of people with various categories of skin cancer cells. Fresh blood was collected by venepuncture from 25 individuals (including nine prior to cancer treatment). All patients were nonsmoking males, however 42.3% of them were former smokers. Blood samples were divided into two parts; in the first part of samples cytogenetic studies were performed immediately, while lymphocytes from the other part were isolated and stored at -70 0C for further studies in vitro. A single cell gel electrophoresis assay (SCGE), known as a Comet assay, was performed on them to study individual susceptibility to the induction of DNA damage by UV or radiation and to estimate variability in cellular repair capabilities. On average 220 good metaphase spreads per sample in the first mitotic division, and 100 spreads per sample in the second division were accepted for analysis of the cytogenetic damage. Chromosome and chromatid type aberrations were scored in the cells in the first mitosis, and expressed as total aberration frequency including and excluding gaps. Sister chromatid exchanges , high frequency cells and proliferating rate index were screened and evaluated in the second mitosis. Each patient showed a level exceeding (in at least one of the cytogenetic biomarker) the biomarker level in a reference group. In order to estimate susceptibility of people to environmentally induced damage, the isolated lymphocytes were irradiated with 2 Gy dose of X-rays or 6 J/m 2 of UV radiation, and the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE assay) was performed. To compare various individual capabilities to repair the induced damage

  7. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Non-Melanoma and Melanoma Skin Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    with increasing cumulative incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (trend P=2 × 10(-15) and P=3 × 10(-17)) and melanoma skin cancer (P=0.003 and P=0.001). Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios of non-melanoma skin cancer were 5.04 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.78-9.16) for 25-OH-vitD 50 vs. 60 years, 25-OH...

  8. Skin Tissue Engineering: Application of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klar, Agnes S; Zimoch, Jakub; Biedermann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Perception of the adipose tissue has changed dramatically over the last few decades. Identification of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) ultimately transformed paradigm of this tissue from a passive energy depot into a promising stem cell source with properties of self-renewal and multipotential differentiation. As compared to bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs), ASCs are more easily accessible and their isolation yields higher amount of stem cells. Therefore, the ASCs are of high interest for stem cell-based therapies and skin tissue engineering. Currently, freshly isolated stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which may be used directly without any expansion, was also assessed to be highly effective in treating skin radiation injuries, burns, or nonhealing wounds such as diabetic ulcers. In this paper, we review the characteristics of SVF and ASCs and the efficacy of their treatment for skin injuries and disorders.

  9. Novel mechanisms for the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the skin and in skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, Daniel D; Oda, Yuko; Tu, Chia-Ling; Jiang, Yan

    2015-04-01

    The VDR acting with or without its principal ligand 1,25(OH)2D regulates two central processes in the skin, interfollicular epidermal (IFE) differentiation and hair follicle cycling (HFC). Calcium is an important co-regulator with 1,25(OH)2D at least of epidermal differentiation. Knockout of the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in addition to VDR accelerates the development of skin cancer in mice on a low calcium diet. Coactivators such as mediator 1 (aka DRIP205) and steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC3) regulate VDR function at different stages of the differentiation process, with Med 1 essential for hair follicle differentiation and early stages of epidermal differentiation and proliferation and SRC3 essential for the latter stages of differentiation including formation of the permeability barrier and innate immunity. The corepressor of VDR, hairless (HR), is essential for hair follicle cycling, although its effect on epidermal differentiation in vivo is minimal. In its regulation of HFC and IFE VDR controls two pathways-wnt/β-catenin and sonic hedgehog (SHH). In the absence of VDR these pathways are overexpressed leading to tumor formation. Whereas, VDR binding to β-catenin may block its activation of TCF/LEF1 sites, β-catenin binding to VDR may enhance its activation of VDREs. 1,25(OH)2D promotes but may not be required for these interactions. Suppression of SHH expression by VDR, on the other hand, requires 1,25(OH)2D. The major point of emphasis is that the role of VDR in the skin involves a number of novel mechanisms, both 1,25(OH)2D dependent and independent, that when disrupted interfere with IFE differentiation and HFC, predisposing to cancer formation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective effect of sanguinarine on ultraviolet B-mediated damages in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin: implications for prevention of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Haseeb; Reagan-Shaw, Shannon; Eggert, David M; Tan, Thomas C; Afaq, Farrukh; Mukhtar, Hasan; Ahmad, Nihal

    2007-01-01

    Excessive exposure of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, particularly its UVB component (280-320 nm), to human skin is the major cause of skin cancers. UV exposure also leads to the development of precancerous conditions such as actinic keratosis and elicits a variety of other adverse effects such as sunburn, inflammation, hyperplasia, immunosuppression and skin aging. Therefore, there is a need to intensify our efforts towards the development of novel mechanism-based approaches/agents for the protection of UVB-mediated damages. Chemoprevention is being investigated as a potential approach for the management of UV damages including skin cancer. We have earlier shown that sanguinarine, a benzophenanthridine alkaloid, inhibits UVB exposure-mediated damages in HaCaT keratinocytes. In this study, to determine the relevance of our in vitro findings to in vivo situations, we assessed the effects of sanguinarine on UVB-mediated damages in SKH-1 hairless mice. Our data demonstrated that a topical application of sanguinarine (5 micromol 0.3 mL(-1) ethanol per mouse), either as a pretreatment (30 min prior to UVB) or posttreatment (5 min after UVB), resulted in a significant decrease in UVB-mediated increases in skin edema, skin hyperplasia and infiltration of leukocytes. Further, sanguinarine treatments (pre and post) also resulted in a significant decrease in UVB mediated (1) generation of H2O2 and (2) increases in the protein levels of markers of tumor promotion/proliferation viz. ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Kiel antigen-67. Based on this data, we suggest that sanguinarine could be developed as an agent for the management of conditions elicited by UV exposure including skin cancer. However, further detailed studies are needed to support this suggestion.

  11. Effects of magnolol on UVB-induced skin cancer development in mice and its possible mechanism of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilampalli Chandeshwari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnolol, a plant lignan isolated from the bark and seed cones of Magnolia officinalis, has been shown to have chemopreventive effects on chemically-induced skin cancer development. The objectives of this investigation are to study the anticarcinogenic effects of magnolol on UVB-induced skin tumor development in SKH-1 mice, a model relevant to humans, and determine the possible role of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest involved in the skin tumor development. Methods UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis model in SKH-1 mice was used for determining the preventive effects of magnolol on skin cancer development. Western blottings and flow cytometric analysis were used to study the effects of magnolol on apoptosis and cell cycle. Results Magnolol pretreated groups (30, 60 μ g before UVB treatments (30 mJ/cm2, 5 days/week resulted in 27-55% reduction in tumor multiplicity as compared to control group in SKH-1 mice. Magnolol pretreatment increased the cleavage of caspase-8 and poly-(-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, increased the expression of p21, a cell cycle inhibitor, and decreased the expression of proteins involved in the G2/M phase of cell cycle in skin samples from SKH-1 mice. Treatment of A431 cells with magnolol decreased cell viability and cell proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. Magnolol induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in A431 cells at 12 h with a decreased expression of cell cycle proteins such as cyclin B1, cyclin A, CDK4, Cdc2 and simultaneous increase in the expression of Cip/p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Magnolol induced apoptosis in vivo and in vitro with an increased cleavage of caspase-8 and PARP. Phospho-signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Tyr705, B-Raf, p-MEK, and p-AKT were down-regulated, whereas phosphorylation of ERK was induced by magnolol in A431 cells. Conclusions Magnolol pretreatments prevent UVB-induced skin cancer development by enhancing apoptosis, causing

  12. Effects of magnolol on UVB-induced skin cancer development in mice and its possible mechanism of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilampalli, Chandeshwari; Guillermo, Ruth; Zhang, Xiaoying; Kaushik, Radhey S; Young, Alan; Zeman, David; Hildreth, Michael B; Fahmy, Hesham; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2011-01-01

    Magnolol, a plant lignan isolated from the bark and seed cones of Magnolia officinalis, has been shown to have chemopreventive effects on chemically-induced skin cancer development. The objectives of this investigation are to study the anticarcinogenic effects of magnolol on UVB-induced skin tumor development in SKH-1 mice, a model relevant to humans, and determine the possible role of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest involved in the skin tumor development. UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis model in SKH-1 mice was used for determining the preventive effects of magnolol on skin cancer development. Western blottings and flow cytometric analysis were used to study the effects of magnolol on apoptosis and cell cycle. Magnolol pretreated groups (30, 60 μ g) before UVB treatments (30 mJ/cm 2 , 5 days/week) resulted in 27-55% reduction in tumor multiplicity as compared to control group in SKH-1 mice. Magnolol pretreatment increased the cleavage of caspase-8 and poly-(-ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), increased the expression of p21, a cell cycle inhibitor, and decreased the expression of proteins involved in the G2/M phase of cell cycle in skin samples from SKH-1 mice. Treatment of A431 cells with magnolol decreased cell viability and cell proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. Magnolol induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in A431 cells at 12 h with a decreased expression of cell cycle proteins such as cyclin B1, cyclin A, CDK4, Cdc2 and simultaneous increase in the expression of Cip/p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Magnolol induced apoptosis in vivo and in vitro with an increased cleavage of caspase-8 and PARP. Phospho-signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Tyr 705 ), B-Raf, p-MEK, and p-AKT were down-regulated, whereas phosphorylation of ERK was induced by magnolol in A431 cells. Magnolol pretreatments prevent UVB-induced skin cancer development by enhancing apoptosis, causing cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, and affecting various

  13. Hydrochlorothiazide use and risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnspang, Sidsel; Gaist, David; Johannesdottir Schmidt, Sigrun Alba

    2018-01-01

    cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). METHODS: From the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified patients (cases) with NMSC during 2004-2012. Controls were matched 1:20 by age and sex. Cumulative hydrochlorothiazide use (1995-2012) was assessed from the Danish Prescription Registry...

  14. A suicide gene therapy approach to treat epidermolysis bullosa-associated skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, C.

    2009-01-01

    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is an inherited disease causing extensive blister formation within the basal membrane zone (BMZ) of the skin and mucous membranes. It is caused by premature STOP mutations in the COL7A1 gene, which is indispensable for proper skin assembling. RDEB is associated with the development of a highly malignant skin cancer (squamous cell carcinoma, SCC) in early adulthood that displays a life threatening complication within this patient group. To date, neither chemo- nor radiotherapies showed successful results and due to the high metastatic potential of RDEB SCC wide surgical excision is still favoured. In this study we could reveal a new promising cancer treatment using spliceosome mediated RNA trans-splicing (SMaRT) using a suicide gene therapy approach. First we identified the tumour marker gene MMP-9 expressed by RDEB SCC cells in cell culture which was used to generate various pre-mRNA trans-splicing molecules (PTM). PTMs are able to facilitate trans-splicing between a tumour target gene and a cell death inducing peptide/toxin, encoded by the PTM. As a consequence the toxin is expressed in cancer cells leading to the induction of cell death. This technique offers high specificity in cancer cell targeting compared to other conventional cDNA expression studies. Various trans-splicing molecules were pre-evaluated in a fluorescence screening model for their best trans-splicing efficiency with the target molecule. Herein we identified two potent PTMs (PTM BD0 and PTM BD6), that were further adapted for endogenous suicide studies by inserting the toxin streptolysin O. In two independent in vitro cell culture assays we were able to confirm that the trans-splicing molecules are able to induce expression of the toxin resulting in cell membrane permeabilization and increased cell death induction. The results indicate that SMaRT technology offers a new platform for a suicide gene therapy approach to treat malignant squamous cell

  15. Black tattoos protect against UVR-induced skin cancer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, Catharina M; Sepehri, Mitra; Serup, Jørgen; Poulsen, Thomas; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2015-09-01

    Black tattoos may involve risk of cancer owing to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in inks. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces skin cancer. The combination of UVR and black tattoo may therefore potentially be very problematic, but has not been previously studied. Immunocompetent C3.Cg/TifBomTac mice (n = 99) were tattooed on the back with Starbrite Tribal Black(™) . This ink has a high content of the carcinogen BaP. Half of the mice were irradiated with three standard erythema doses UVR thrice weekly. Time to induction of first, second and third squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was measured. Controls were 'tattooed' without ink. All irradiated mice developed SCCs while no malignant tumours were found in the nonirradiated group. In the tattooed and irradiated group, the development of the first, second and third SCC was significantly delayed in comparison with the irradiated controls without black tattoos (212, 232, 247 days vs. 163, 183, 191 days, P tattoos, remarkably, the development of UVR-induced skin cancer was delayed by the tattoos. Skin reflectance measurement indicated that the protective effect of black pigment in the dermis might be attributed to UVR absorption by black pigment below the epidermis and thereby reduction of backscattered radiation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Total-body photography in skin cancer screening: the clinical utility of standardized imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Alexandra; Meyerle, Jon H

    2017-05-01

    Early detection of skin cancer is essential to reducing morbidity and mortality from both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Total-body skin examinations (TBSEs) may improve early detection of malignant melanomas (MMs) but are controversial due to the poor quality of data available to establish a mortality benefit from skin cancer screening. Total-body photography (TBP) promises to provide a way forward by lowering the costs of dermatologic screening while simultaneously leveraging technology to increase patient access to dermatologic care. Standardized TBP also offers the ability for dermatologists to work synergistically with modern computer technology involving algorithms capable of analyzing high-quality images to flag concerning lesions that may require closer evaluation. On a population level, inexpensive TBP has the potential to increase access to skin cancer screening and it has several specific applications in a military population. The utility of standardized TBP is reviewed in the context of skin cancer screening and teledermatology.

  17. Primordial germ cell-like cells differentiated in vitro from skin-derived stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Linher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that stem cells isolated from fetal porcine skin have the potential to form oocyte-like cells (OLCs in vitro. However, primordial germ cells (PGCs, which must also be specified during the stem cell differentiation to give rise to these putative oocytes at more advanced stages of culture, were not systematically characterized. The current study tested the hypothesis that a morphologically distinct population of cells derived from skin stem cells prior to OLC formation corresponds to putative PGCs, which differentiate further into more mature gametes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: When induced to differentiate in an appropriate microenvironment, a subpopulation of morphologically distinct cells, some of which are alkaline phosphatase (AP-positive, also express Oct4, Fragilis, Stella, Dazl, and Vasa, which are markers indicative of germ cell formation. A known differentially methylated region (DMR within the H19 gene locus, which is demethylated in oocytes after establishment of the maternal imprint, is hypomethylated in PGC-like cells compared to undifferentiated skin-derived stem cells, suggesting that the putative germ cell population undergoes imprint erasure. Additional evidence supporting the germ cell identity of in vitro-generated PGC-like cells is that, when labeled with a Dazl-GFP reporter, these cells further differentiate into GFP-positive OLCs. SIGNIFICANCE: The ability to generate germ cell precursors from somatic stem cells may provide an in vitro model to study some of the unanswered questions surrounding early germ cell formation.

  18. Quality of life in non-melanoma skin cancer--the skin cancer quality of life (SCQoL) questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov; Christensen, Karl Bang; Esmann, Solveig

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disease-specific quality of life (QoL) questionnaires are increasingly used to provide patient-reported out-come measures in both malignant and non-malignant disease. OBJECTIVE: To create, validate and test the psychometrics of the Skin Cancer Quality of Life (SCQoL), which was designed...... Theory (IRT) and internal consistency. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) was found for a single item, but the effect was small. CONCLUSION: The final 9-item SCQoL is unidimensional and consists of 3 domains covering function, emotions and control. Furthermore there is one single global item. The total...

  19. Laser induced autofluorescence for diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Merlemis, N.; Kalatzis, I.; Sianoudis, I. A.; Batsi, O.; Christofidou, E.; Stratigos, A. J.; Katsambas, A. D.; Antoniou, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Non melanoma skin cancer is one of the most frequent malignant tumors among humans. A non-invasive technique, with high sensitivity and high specificity, would be the most suitable method for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or other malignancies diagnostics, instead of the well established biopsy and histopathology examination. In the last decades, a non-invasive, spectroscopic diagnostic method was introduced, the laser induced fluorescence (LIF), which could generate an image contrast between different states of skin tissue. The noninvasiveness consists in that this biophotonic method do not require tissue sample excision, what is necessary in histopathology characterization and biochemical analysis of the skin tissue samples, which is worldwide used as an evaluation gold standard. The object of this study is to establish the possibilities of a relatively portable system for laser induced skin autofluorescence to differentiate malignant from nonmalignant skin lesions. Unstained human skin samples, excised from humans undergoing biopsy examination, were irradiated with a Nd:YAG-3ω laser (λ=355 nm, 6 ns), used as an excitation source for the autofluorescence measurements. A portable fiber-based spectrometer was used to record fluorescence spectra of the sites of interest. The ex vivo results, obtained with this spectroscopic technique, were correlated with the histopathology results. After the analysis of the fluorescence spectra of almost 60 skin tissue areas, we developed an algorithm to distinguish different types of malignant lesions, including inflammatory areas. Optimization of the data analysis and potential use of LIF spectroscopy with 355 nm Nd:YAG laser excitation of tissue autofluorescence for clinical applications are discussed.

  20. Multimodal fluorescence molecular imaging for in vivo characterization of skin cancer using endogenous and exogenous fluorophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica P.; Habimana-Griffin, LeMoyne; Edwards, Tracy S.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    Similarity of skin cancer with many benign skin pathologies requires reliable methods to detect and differentiate the different types of these lesions. Previous studies have explored the use of disparate optical techniques to identify and estimate the invasive nature of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma with varying outcomes. Here, we used a concerted approach that provides complementary information for rapid screening and characterization of tumors, focusing on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. Assessment of in vivo autofluorescence lifetime (FLT) imaging of endogenous fluorophores that are excitable at longer wavelengths (480 nm) than conventional NADH and FAD revealed a decrease in the short FLT component for SCC compared to normal skin, with mean values of 0.57±0.026 ns and 0.61±0.021 ns, respectively (p=0.004). Subsequent systemic administration of a near-infrared fluorescent molecular probe in SCC bearing mice, followed by the implementation of image processing methods on data acquired from two-dimensional and three-dimensional fluorescence molecular imaging, allowed us to estimate the tumor volume and depth, as well as quantify the fluorescent probe in the tumor. The result suggests the involvement of lipofuscin-like lipopigments and riboflavin in SCC metabolism and serves as a model for staging SCC.

  1. Fluorescence diagnosis and photodynamic therapy of skin cancer with alasens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Evstifeev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of treatment in patients with skin cancer using the method of photodynamic therapy (PDT with alasens are represented in the article. The study enrolled 25 patients with stage 1 tumor including 23 patients with previously untreated tumors and 2 – with recurrent disease. Superficial tumor was diagnosed in 17 patients and 8 patients had nodal tumor. Alasens was used locally as application of 20% ointment on involved skin area with 6h exposure. The PDT session was performed on a single occasion immediately after the end of exposure (power density of laser irradiation of 50–100 mW/cm2, light dose – 150–200 J/cm2. All patients had fluorescence diagnosis (FD prior to application of the ointment and before PDT. The results of FD showed that intensity of porphyrin fluorescence in tumor prior to administration of alasens had near no difference from intensity of porphyrin fluorescence in normal skin (12.5±0.7 and 10.0±0.7 r.u., respectively. Six hours after application of the ointment with alasens the fluorescence intensity of protoporphyrin IX increased almost 5-fold (59.7±5.3 r.u., the fluorescence intensity in normal skin remained near baseline level during the follow-up period (maximally 11.6±1.0 r.u.. Two months after PDT the complete tumor regression was confirmed in 21 patients, partial – in 3 and stabilization of tumor growth in 1 patient. In addition, patients with superficial disease had complete regression in 94.1% of cases and partial regression in 5.9% while for patients with nodal tumor – 62.5% and 25%, respectively, stabilization – in 12.5%. 

  2. Seasonal variation of DNA damage and repair in patients with non-melanoma skin cancer and referents with and without psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Frentz, G

    1998-01-01

    Quadruples of skin cancer patients with and without psoriasis and referents with and without psoriasis (4 x 20 study persons) were identified and examined for DNA damage by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet-assay) and DNA-repair by UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in mononuclear...... blood cells (lymphocytes and monocytes). DNA damage (strand breaks and alkaline labile sites) as assessed by the comet assay and DNA repair as assessed by UDS were significantly associated with the season in which blood sampling took place. This variation might be explained by an increased exposure...... to solar radiation. When the comet tail moment data were stratified by sampling period, an interaction between psoriasis and skin cancer was detected, with patients with psoriasis and skin cancer exhibiting more DNA damage. Patients with psoriasis and skin cancer also had lower UDS compared to healthy...

  3. Immunoreactivity of granular cell lesions of skin, mucosa, and jaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Zarbo, R J; Courtney, R M; Crissman, J D

    1989-10-01

    Granular cell lesions from many different sites share similar light and electron microscopic features. Immunologically, however, these lesions do not appear to be a homogenous group. This study determines the extent of immunologic heterogeneity of granular cell lesions from a wide variety of sites in skin, mucosa, and jaw. Thirty-one granular cell lesions (26 granular cell tumors [GCT] and five other granular cell lesions) from 18 different sites were evaluated immunohistochemically for keratins, vimentin, desmin, muscle actin, ACT, HLA-DR, and S-100 protein. Paraffin-embedded sections were utilized with an avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase technique. Except for ameloblastomas, all lesions were negative for keratin and positive for vimentin. All lesions were negative for desmin and actin. Positive ACT reactivity was found in one of seven GCT of tongue, a colonic lesion, a nose lesion, and a granular cell ameloblastic fibroma. All lesions were positive for HLA-DR except a few in which fixation appeared inadequate. S-100 immunoreactivity was found in all lesions except the congenital epulis, a GCT of the skin of the nose, a colonic lesion, and the odontogenic tumors. The antigenic profile of GCT of skin and mucosa is consistent with Schwann cell origin. However, some GCT and other granular cell lesions appear to be derived from macrophages, epithelial cells, or other cells. The expression of HLA-DR by granular cells is believed to be unrelated to cellular origin but rather to some common immunologic function.

  4. Imaging of ex vivo nonmelanoma skin cancers in the optical and terahertz spectral regions optical and terahertz skin cancers imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Cecil S; Patel, Rakesh; Neel, Victor A; Giles, Robert H; Yaroslavsky, Anna N

    2014-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that polarization sensitive optical and terahertz imaging may be combined for accurate nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) delineation. Nine NMSC specimens were imaged. 513 μm and 440 nm wavelengths were used for terahertz and optical imaging, respectively. Histopathology was processed for evaluation. Terahertz reflectance of NMSC was quantified. Our results demonstrate that cross-polarized terahertz images correctly identified location of the tumours, whereas cross-polarized and polarization difference optical images accurately presented morphological features. Cross-polarized terahertz images exhibited lower reflectivity values in cancer as compared to normal tissue. Combination of optical and terahertz imaging shows promise for intraoperative delineation of NMSC. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Colorimetric measurements of iris colour and their significance in East Asian patients with skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J W; Seo, S H; Kye, Y C; Ahn, H H

    2010-10-01

    A light-coloured iris is considered a risk factor for skin cancer in general. However, iris colour cannot be considered a plausible risk factor for skin cancer in East Asian populations because of the relative homogeneity of iris colours. Furthermore, subjective classifications of iris colour cannot distinguish between different East Asian individuals as to their likelihood of developing cancer. To measure human iris colours quantitatively and to assess the significances of iris colours with respect to skin cancer in Korean patients. Reference Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* coordinates on a ColorCheck chart were recorded using a reflectance spectrophotometer and compared with computed CIE L*a*b* coordinates from digital images to determine equations to calibrate CIE L*a*b* values. We then took iris images and measured iris colours and the colours of sun-exposed and sun-protected skin in 42 Korean patients with various cutaneous malignancies and nonmalignant dermatological diseases. Results were statistically analysed with regard to iris and skin colours in CIE L*a*b* coordinates. Patients with skin cancer had significantly lighter irises or higher L* values than dermatological patients without a malignancy (P = 0.02). Colour differences (ΔE*ab) between sun-exposed skin and sun-protected skin were greater in men (P < 0.01) and in patients with skin cancer (P < 0.01), and the lightness (L*) values of sun-exposed skins decreased with age (r = -0.32, P < 0.05). Iris colour appears to be a possible skin cancer risk factor in East Asian populations. The larger colour differences seen between sun-protected and sun-exposed skin in men and in patients with skin cancer may have been due to chronic or excessive sun exposure. © 2009 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2009 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Hydrochlorothiazide use and risk of non-melanoma skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnspang, Sidsel; Gaist, David; Johannesdottir Schmidt, Sigrun Alba

    2018-01-01

    cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). METHODS: From the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified patients (cases) with NMSC during 2004-2012. Controls were matched 1:20 by age and sex. Cumulative hydrochlorothiazide use (1995-2012) was assessed from the Danish Prescription Registry......BACKGROUND: Hydrochlorothiazide, one of the most frequently used diuretic and antihypertensive drugs in the United States and Western Europe, is photosensitizing and has previously been linked to lip cancer. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between hydrochlorothiazide use and the risk of basal...

  7. Reprogramming of retinoblastoma cancer cells into cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fengming; Hirashima, Kanji; Tomotsune, Daihachiro; Takizawa-Shirasawa, Sakiko; Yokoyama, Tadayuki; Sasaki, Katsunori

    2017-01-22

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy in pediatric patients. It develops rapidly in the retina and can be fatal if not treated promptly. It has been proposed that a small population of cancer cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), initiate tumorigenesis from immature tissue stem cells or progenitor cells. Reprogramming technology, which can convert mature cells into pluripotent stem cells (iPS), provides the possibility of transducing malignant cancer cells back to CSCs, a type of early stage of cancer. We herein took advantage of reprogramming technology to induce CSCs from retinoblastoma cancer cells. In the present study, the 4 Yamanaka transcription factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-myc, were transduced into retinoblastoma cells (Rbc51). iPS-like colonies were observed 15 days after transduction and showed significantly enhanced CSC properties. The gene and protein expression levels of pluripotent stem cell markers (Tra-1-60, Oct4, Nanog) and cancer stem cell markers (CD133, CD44) were up-regulated in transduced Rbc51 cells compared to control cells. Moreover, iPS-like CSCs could be sorted using the Magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) method. A sphere formation assay demonstrated spheroid formation in transduced Rbc51 cells cultured in serum free media, and these spheroids could be differentiated into Pax6-, Nestin-positive neural progenitors and rhodopsin- and recoverin-positive mature retinal cells. The cell viability after 5-Fu exposure was higher in transduced Rbc51 cells. In conclusion, CSCs were generated from retinoblastoma cancer cells using reprogramming technology. Our novel method can generate CSCs, the study of which can lead to better understanding of cancer-specific initiation, cancer epigenetics, and the overlapping mechanisms of cancer development and pluripotent stem cell behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Epidemiology of non-keratinocytic skin cancers among persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoy, Emilie; Dores, Graça M.; Madeleine, Margaret M.; Toro, Jorge R.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Engels, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Immunosuppression may increase risk for some skin cancers. We evaluated skin cancer epidemiology among persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Design We linked data from population-based U.S. AIDS and cancer registries to evaluate risk of non-keratinocytic skin cancers (melanoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and appendageal carcinomas, including sebaceous carcinoma) in 497,142 persons with AIDS. Methods Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to relate skin cancer risk to that in the general population. We used logistic regression to compare risk according to demographic factors, CD4 count, and a geographic index of ultraviolet radiation exposure. Results From 60 months before to 60 months after AIDS onset, persons with AIDS had elevated risks of melanoma (SIR=1.3, 95%CI 1.1-1.4, n=292 cases) and, more strongly, of Merkel cell carcinoma (SIR=11, 95%CI 6.3-17, n=17) and sebaceous carcinoma (SIR=8.1, 95%CI 3.2-17, n=7). Risk for appendageal carcinomas increased with progressive time relative to AIDS onset (p-trend=0.03). Risk of these skin cancers was higher in non-Hispanic whites than other racial/ethnic groups, and melanoma risk was highest among men who have sex with men. Melanoma risk was unrelated to CD4 count at AIDS onset (p=0.32). Risks for melanoma and appendageal carcinomas rose with increasing ultraviolet radiation exposure (p-trend<10-4 and p-trend=10-3, respectively). Conclusions Among persons with AIDS, there is a modest excess risk of melanoma which is not strongly related to immunosuppression and may relate to ultraviolet radiation exposure. In contrast, the greatly increased risks for Merkel cell and sebaceous carcinoma suggest an etiologic role for immunosuppression. PMID:19114864

  9. Hypersensitivity of skin fibroblasts from basal cell nevus syndrome patients to killing by ultraviolet B but not by ultraviolet C radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applegate, L.A.; Goldberg, L.H.; Ley, R.D.; Ananthaswamy, H.N.

    1990-01-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder in which the afflicted individuals are extremely susceptible to sunlight-induced skin cancers, particularly basal cell carcinomas. However, the cellular and molecular basis for BCNS is unknown. To ascertain whether there is any relationship between genetic predisposition to skin cancer and increased sensitivity of somatic cells from BCNS patients to killing by UV radiation, we exposed skin fibroblasts established from unexposed skin biopsies of several BCNS and age- and sex-matched normal individuals to either UV-B (280-320 nm) or UV-C (254 nm) radiation and determined their survival. The results indicated that skin fibroblasts from BCNS patients were hypersensitive to killing by UV-B but not UV-C radiation as compared to skin fibroblasts from normal individuals. DNA repair studies indicated that the increased sensitivity of BCNS skin fibroblasts to killing by UV-B radiation was not due to a defect in the excision repair of pyrimidine dimers. These results indicate that there is an association between hypersensitivity of somatic cells to killing by UV-B radiation and the genetic predisposition to skin cancer in BCNS patients. In addition, these results suggest that DNA lesions (and repair processes) other than the pyrimidine dimer are also involved in the pathogenesis of sunlight-induced skin cancers in BCNS patients. More important, the UV-B sensitivity assay described here may be used as a diagnostic tool to identify presymptomatic individuals with BCNS

  10. A multifaceted intervention: no increase in general practitioners' competence to diagnose skin cancer (minSKIN) - randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badertscher, N; Tandjung, R; Senn, O; Kofmehl, R; Held, U; Rosemann, T; Hofbauer, G F L; Wensing, M; Rossi, P O; Braun, R P

    2015-08-01

    General practitioners (GPs) play crucial roles in early detection of skin cancer. A pilot-study found a positive short-term effect of a 1-day dermatologic education programme on GPs' diagnostic competence. To determine effects of a multifaceted intervention, including technical equipment and continuing feedback by a dermatologist, on GPs' diagnostic skills regarding skin cancer. Randomized controlled trial with 78 GPs of the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland. GPs in intervention group received a 1-day training, a Lumio (magnifying glass with polarized light, 3Gen), a Nikon digital camera and - during 1 year - feedback on skin lesion pictures sent to the dermatologist. GPs in control group only received the 1-day training. structured assessment of GP's diagnostic skills in correctly diagnosing images of skin lesions regarding skin cancer. At baseline prior to intervention (T0), after the full-day training course in both groups (T1), and after 1 year of continuing feedback (T2) to the intervention group. Non-parametric unpaired (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney) tests were used to compare numbers of correctly classified skin lesions between both groups at T2 and for the change between T1 and T2. At T0, both groups classified a median of 23 skin lesions of the 36 images correctly. This value rose to 28 for both groups at T1 and fell to 24 for both groups at T2. No difference between control and intervention group at T2. Furthermore, we compared differences in the sum scores per GP between T1 and T2 for each group. Also in this comparison, no difference between control and intervention group was found. No long-term effect of the multifaceted intervention was found on the competence to diagnose skin cancer by GPs. The positive short-term effect of the 1-day dermatologic education programme did not persist over 12 months. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Immunological challenges associated with artificial skin grafts: available solutions and stem cells in future design of synthetic skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Saurabh; Baganizi, Dieudonné R; Sahu, Rajnish; Dosunmu, Ejowke; Chaudhari, Atul; Vig, Komal; Pillai, Shreekumar R; Singh, Shree R; Dennis, Vida A

    2017-01-01

    The repair or replacement of damaged skins is still an important, challenging public health problem. Immune acceptance and long-term survival of skin grafts represent the major problem to overcome in grafting given that in most situations autografts cannot be used. The emergence of artificial skin substitutes provides alternative treatment with the capacity to reduce the dependency on the increasing demand of cadaver skin grafts. Over the years, considerable research efforts have focused on strategies for skin repair or permanent skin graft transplantations. Available skin substitutes include pre- or post-transplantation treatments of donor cells, stem cell-based therapies, and skin equivalents composed of bio-engineered acellular or cellular skin substitutes. However, skin substitutes are still prone to immunological rejection, and as such, there is currently no skin substitute available to overcome this phenomenon. This review focuses on the mechanisms of skin rejection and tolerance induction and outlines in detail current available strategies and alternatives that may allow achieving full-thickness skin replacement and repair.

  12. Early detection of skin cancer: experience of a skin cancer prevention campaign in Piauí-Brazil - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2012.p221

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Bandeira Lages; Patrícia Barros Barbosa; Isabella Parente Almeida; Lauro Rodolpho Soares Lopes; Lauro Lourival Lopes Filho

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the correlation between the diagnoses of skin cancer and known risk factors through analysis of data from the National Skin Cancer Prevention Campaign held by Brazilian Society of Dermatology in the state of Piauí, Brazil, in recent years. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive and analytical report using quantitative data obtained from a prevention campaign in the state of Piauí, in 2009 and 2010. Collected data was submitted to a descriptive analysis, and mul...

  13. Human Papillomaviruses and Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer: Basic Virology and Clinical Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Nindl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPV infect cutaneous and mucosal epithelia and induce benign and malignant lesions. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC, encompassing basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, is the most frequent cancer in the Caucasian population, and the incidence has increased dramatically worldwide. Ultraviolet (UV radiation is a major risk factor for NMSC, and cutaneous HPV is also considered to play an active role during the pathogenesis of these cancers. The first evidence for the involvement of HPV in NMSC was reported in patients with Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV. HPV types detected in skin tumours of these patients are referred to as EV/cutaneous HPV types belonging to the beta- and gamma-papillomaviruses (PV. Epidemiological studies have shown a higher risk of several EV/cutaneous HPV types for NMSC. Furthermore, in vitro and animal models show transforming properties of some PV types. The anti-apoptotic activities, and the delay of DNA repair mechanism caused by some EV/cutaneous HPV E6 proteins in response to UV-induced mutations, may lead to the persistence of DNA-damaged keratinocytes. Thus, specific EV/cutaneous HPV types as co-factors in association with UV-radiation and the immune system seem to be involved in the early pathogenesis of cutaneous SCC.

  14. Combined Treatments with Photodynamic Therapy for Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Silvia Rocío; Salazar, Nerea; Gracia-Cazaña, Tamara; Zamarrón, Alicia; González, Salvador; Juarranz, Ángeles; Gilaberte, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of cancer in the Caucasian population. Among NMSC types, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has the highest incidence and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is less common although it can metastasize, accounting for the majority of NMSC-related deaths. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and non-surgical modalities. Even though surgical approaches are most commonly used to treat these lesions, Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) has the advantage of being a non-invasive option, and capable of field treatment, providing optimum cosmetic outcomes. Numerous clinical research studies have shown the efficacy of PDT for treating pre-malignant and malignant NMSC. However, resistant or recurrent tumors appear and sometimes become more aggressive. In this sense, the enhancement of PDT effectiveness by combining it with other therapeutic modalities has become an interesting field in NMSC research. Depending on the characteristics and the type of tumor, PDT can be applied in combination with immunomodulatory (Imiquimod) and chemotherapeutic (5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, diclofenac, or ingenol mebutate) agents, inhibitors of some molecules implicated in the carcinogenic process (COX2 or MAPK), surgical techniques, or even radiotherapy. These new strategies open the way to a wider improvement of the prevention and eradication of skin cancer. PMID:26516853

  15. [Validation of a questionnaire to quantify the risk for skin cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Sánchez, Martha Alejandra; Peralta-Pedrero, María Luisa; Domínguez-Gómez, María Antonieta

    2014-01-01

    Currently, strategies are needed to identify the population at risk for skin cancer in order to implement prevention and for early diagnosis. There are no validated Spanish language instruments to measure skin cancer risk. To design and validate a self-applied questionnaire to quantify the risk of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer in a Mexican population. A self-applied questionnaire was designed to measure risk factors for skin cancer. Face and content validity was assessed by five experts in skin cancer. The value of each item was weighted according to the relative risk of the risk factors. The questionnaire was applied to extreme groups in order to measure the construct validity. Reliability was evaluated using test-retest method two weeks after the first application. The questionnaire was applied to patients with (n = 147) and without (n = 249) skin cancer from the Dermatologic Center "Dr. Ladislao de la Pascua". The total score of the questionnaire was different in both groups (U = 2,104.5, p = 0.0001) and ROC curve determined that five points or more equals high risk for skin cancer (area 0.964; 95% CI: 0.946-0.981; p = 0.0001). The reliability of the instrument was 0.971 (95% CI: 0.943-0.986; p = 0.0001). This is the first Spanish language questionnaire valid to measure risk of skin cancer, whose application at the population level would be useful to identify high-risk individuals who need preventative interventions.

  16. Prostate cancer revealed by skin metastasis: A case report in black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Prostate cancer is the most common male malignancy in Togo. Most patients present with advanced and metastatic disease. Skin metastasis from prostate cancer is very rare and it occurs late and often with a poor prognosis. We report a case in a 52-year-old Togolese man where the skin lesions reveal the ...

  17. Estimating the economic costs of skin cancer in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Christopher M; Ling, Rod; Byrnes, Joshua; Crane, Melanie; Searles, Andrew; Perez, Donna; Shakeshaft, Anthony

    2015-09-23

    Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. The increased incidence of skin cancer, combined with limited health care resources and tight budgetary conditions, has increased the importance of understanding the economic impact of skin cancer. This research estimates the economic cost of skin cancer in the Australian state of New South Wales. An incidence based approach is used to estimate lifetime costs of skin cancer. Both direct and indirect costs are considered - direct costs include resources associated with the management of skin cancer and indirect costs refer to productivity costs associated with morbidity and premature mortality. Diagnosis of skin cancer was determined according to ICD-10 codes using principal diagnosis. Linked administrative data and regression modelling are used to calculate costs; presented as Australian dollars for the year 2010. The human capital approach is used to value present and future productivity losses. The lifetime cost of the 150,000 incident cases of skin cancer diagnosed in NSW in 2010 is estimated at $536 million ($44,796 per melanoma and $2459 per non-melanoma). Direct costs accounted for 72 % of costs ($10,230 per melanoma and $2336 per non-melanoma) and indirect costs accounted for 28 % of costs ($34,567 per melanoma and $123 per non-melanoma). Direct costs are, on average, higher for females than males with indirect costs, on average, higher for males than females. This research provides new evidence on the economic cost of skin cancer and provides policy makers with information of the potential monetary savings that may arise from efforts to reduce the incidence of skin cancer.

  18. Surface applicator calibration and commissioning of an electronic brachytherapy system for nonmelanoma skin cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Yi; Welsh, James S. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 and University of Wisconsin Cancer Center-Riverview, Riverview Hospital Association, Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin 54494 (United States); Department of Human Oncology and Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 and University of Wisconsin Cancer Center-Riverview, Riverview Hospital Association, Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin 54494 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: The Xoft Axxent x-ray source has been used for treating nonmelanoma skin cancer since the surface applicators became clinically available in 2009. The authors report comprehensive calibration procedures for the electronic brachytherapy (eBx) system with the surface applicators. Methods: The Xoft miniature tube (model S700) generates 50 kVp low-energy x rays. The new surface applicators are available in four sizes of 10, 20, 35, and 50 mm in diameter. The authors' tests include measurements of dose rate, air-gap factor, output stability, depth dose verification, beam flatness and symmetry, and treatment planning with patient specific cutout factors. The TG-61 in-air method was used as a guideline for acquiring nominal dose-rate output at the skin surface. A soft x-ray parallel-plate chamber (PTW T34013) and electrometer was used for the output commissioning. GafChromic EBT films were used for testing the properties of the treatment fields with the skin applicators. Solid water slabs were used to verify the depth dose and cutout factors. Patients with basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma were treated with eBx using a calibrated Xoft system with the low-energy x-ray source and the skin applicators. Results: The average nominal dose-rate output at the skin surface for the 35 mm applicator is 1.35 Gy/min with {+-}5% variation for 16 sources. The dose-rate output and stability (within {+-}5% variation) were also measured for the remaining three applicators. For the same source, the output variation is within 2%. The effective source-surface distance was calculated based on the air-gap measurements for four applicator sizes. The field flatness and symmetry are well within 5%. Percentage depth dose in water was provided by factory measurements and can be verified using solid water slabs. Treatment duration was calculated based on the nominal dose rate, the prescription fraction size, the depth dose percentage, and the cutout factor. The output factor needs

  19. Estadísticas en el cáncer de piel Statistics in skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RE Achenbach

    Full Text Available Se establecen puntos de vista diferentes que influyen, al momento de presentar trabajos de estadística en la esfera del cáncer de la piel, especialmente respecto de las denominadas dermatosis precancerosas, al carcinoma espinocelular y cuál es la más frecuente en el ser humano.A different point of view in the sphere of statistics in skin cancer, specially about squamous cell carcinoma, solar keratosis and the so called precancerous dermatosis. The numerous papers about the issue from AB Ackerman, should be known in order of confident statistics numbers.

  20. Genetic variants in FGFR2 and FGFR4 genes and skin cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, Hongmei; Qureshi, Abrar A; Hunter, David J; Han, Jiali

    2009-01-01

    The human fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and its receptor (FGFR) play an important role in tumorigenesis. Deregulation of the FGFR2 gene has been identified in a number of cancer sites. Overexpression of the FGFR4 protein has been linked to cutaneous melanoma progression. Previous studies reported associations between genetic variants in the FGFR2 and FGFR4 genes and development of various cancers. We evaluated the associations of four genetic variants in the FGFR2 gene highly related to breast cancer risk and the three common tag-SNPs in the FGFR4 gene with skin cancer risk in a nested case-control study of Caucasians within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) among 218 melanoma cases, 285 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases, 300 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases, and 870 controls. We found no evidence for associations between these seven genetic variants and the risks of melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancer. Given the power of this study, we did not detect any contribution of genetic variants in the FGFR2 or FGFR4 genes to inherited predisposition to skin cancer among Caucasian women

  1. Genetic variants in FGFR2 and FGFR4 genes and skin cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Abrar A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human fibroblast growth factor (FGF and its receptor (FGFR play an important role in tumorigenesis. Deregulation of the FGFR2 gene has been identified in a number of cancer sites. Overexpression of the FGFR4 protein has been linked to cutaneous melanoma progression. Previous studies reported associations between genetic variants in the FGFR2 and FGFR4 genes and development of various cancers. Methods We evaluated the associations of four genetic variants in the FGFR2 gene highly related to breast cancer risk and the three common tag-SNPs in the FGFR4 gene with skin cancer risk in a nested case-control study of Caucasians within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS among 218 melanoma cases, 285 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC cases, 300 basal cell carcinoma (BCC cases, and 870 controls. Results We found no evidence for associations between these seven genetic variants and the risks of melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancer. Conclusion Given the power of this study, we did not detect any contribution of genetic variants in the FGFR2 or FGFR4 genes to inherited predisposition to skin cancer among Caucasian women.

  2. Non-invasive spectroscopic techniques in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Sianoudis, IA; Zois, EN; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, AA; Dessinioti, C.; Stefanaki, E.; Stratigos, AJ; Antoniou, C.; Katsambas, A.; Christofidou, E.

    2017-11-01

    The number of non-melanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide and has become an important health and economic issue. Early detection and treatment of skin cancer can significantly improve patient outcome. Therefore there is an increase in the demand for proper management and effective non-invasive diagnostic modalities in order to avoid relapses or unnecessary treatments. Although the gold standard of diagnosis for non-melanoma skin cancers is biopsy followed by histopathology evaluation, optical non-invasive diagnostic tools have obtained increased attention. Emerging non-invasive or minimal invasive techniques with possible application in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancers include high-definition optical coherence tomography, fluorescence spectroscopy, oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry among others spectroscopic techniques. Our findings establish how those spectrometric techniques can be used to more rapidly and easily diagnose skin cancer in an accurate and automated manner in the clinic.

  3. Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Hasegawa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC-based therapy involving both autologous and allogeneic MSCs shows great promise in treating several conditions. MSCs promote wound healing, and can differentiate into multiple cell lineages, including keratinocytes. Therefore, MSCs can be used for the treatment of congenital or acquired skin defects. Because of their immunomodulatory properties, MSCs may be useful for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases. In particular, MSCs might be effective for the treatment of large vitiligo lesions as immunosuppressant or cultured grafts. MSCs can also be a novel cell source for regenerating hair in the treatment of scarring alopecia and androgenic alopecia. MSCs might also be an effective treatment for alopecia areata, which is associated with autoimmunity. Stem cell therapies with topical administration of MSCs and bone marrow transplantation were shown to alleviate recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa in both animal models and human subjects. In addition to cell transplantation, the mobilization of endogenous MSCs has been attempted for skin regeneration. Overall, this review highlights the great potential of MSCs for the treatment of skin diseases in the near future.

  4. Risks of different skin tumour combinations after a first melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma in Dutch population-based cohorts: 1989-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Leest, R J T; Hollestein, L M; Liu, L; Nijsten, T; de Vries, E

    2018-03-01

    Skin cancer patients are primarily at increased risk of developing subsequent skin cancers of the same type. Shared risk factors might also increase the occurrence of a different type of subsequent skin cancer. To investigate risks of different skin tumour combinations after a first melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). All melanoma and SCC patients included in the national Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR) and all BCC patients included in the regional Eindhoven Cancer Registry (ECR) between 1989 and 2009 were followed until diagnosis of a subsequent different skin cancer (melanoma, SCC or BCC), date of death or end of study. Cumulative risks, standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and absolute excess risks (AER) of subsequent skin cancers were calculated. A total of 50 510 melanoma patients and 64 054 patients with a SCC of the skin were included (national data NCR). The regional data of the ECR consisted of 5776 melanoma patients, 5749 SCC patients and 41 485 BCC patients. The 21-year cumulative risk for a subsequent melanoma after a first SCC or BCC was respectively 1.7% and 1.3% for males and 1.3% and 1.2% for females; SCC after melanoma or BCC was 4.6% and 9.3% (males) and 2.6% and 4.1% (females); BCC after melanoma or SCC was respectively 13.2% and 27.8% (males) and 14.9% and 21.1% (females). SIRs and AERs remained elevated up to 21 years after the first melanoma, SCC or BCC. This large population-based study investigating risks of developing a different subsequent cutaneous malignancy showed high-cumulative risks of mainly KC and markedly increased relative and absolute risks of all tumour combinations. These estimates confirm a common carcinogenesis and can serve as a base for follow-up guidelines and patient education aiming for an early detection of the subsequent cancers. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  5. Research on Skin Cancer-Related Behaviors and Outcomes in the NIH Grant Portfolio, 2000-2014: Skin Cancer Intervention Across the Cancer Control Continuum (SCI-3C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Frank M; Dwyer, Laura A; Tesauro, Gina; Taber, Jennifer M; Norton, Wynne E; Hartman, Anne M; Geller, Alan C

    2017-05-01

    The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer broadly identified research gaps, but specific objectives are needed to further behavioral intervention research. To review National Institute of Health (NIH) grants targeting skin cancer-related behaviors and relevant outcomes. A portfolio analysis of the title, abstract, specific aims, and research plans of identified grant applications from 2000 to 2014 targeting skin cancer-related behaviors or testing behavioral intervention effects on cancer-relevant outcomes along the cancer continuum. Funding trends were compared along the cancer control continuum, with respect to investigator demographics and use of theory, technology, policy, and changes to environmental surroundings (built environment). A total of 112 submitted applications met inclusion criteria; of these, 40 (35.7%) were funded, and 31 of the 40 were interventions. Comparing the 40 funded grants with the 72 unfunded grants, the overall success rates did not differ significantly between male (33.3%) and female (37.3%) investigators, nor did the frequency of R01 awards (36.7% and 28.1%, respectively). Among intervention awards, most (24 of 31) addressed prevention. Fewer awards targeted detection alone or in conjunction with prevention (3) or cancer survivorship (4), and no grant addressed emotional sequelae or adherence behavior related to diagnosis or treatment. Fewer than half of funded grants aimed for clinically related targets (eg, sunburn reduction). Use of theory and technology occurred in more than 75% of grants. However, the full capability of proposed technology was infrequently used, and rarely did constructs of the proposed behavior change theory clearly and comprehensively drive the intervention approach. Policy or environmental manipulation was present in all dissemination grants but was rarely used elsewhere, and 19.4% included policy implementation and 25.8% proposed changes in built environment. Grant success rate in skin

  6. Genetic determinants of UV-susceptibility in non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen M Welsh

    Full Text Available A milieu of cytokines and signaling molecules are involved in the induction of UV-induced immune suppression and thus the etiology of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC. Targeting the UV-induced immunosuppression pathway, and using a large population based study of NMSC, we have investigated the risk associated with functional variants in 10 genes (IL10, IL4, IL4R, TNF, TNFR2, HTR2A, HRH2, IL12B, PTGS2, and HAL. The most prominent single genetic effect was observed for IL10. There was increasing risk for both basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC with increasing number of variant IL10 haplotypes (BCC: p(trend = 0.0048; SCC: p(trend = 0.031. Having two IL10 GC haplotypes was associated with increased odds ratios of BCC and SCC (OR(BCC = 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-1.9; OR(SCC = 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.9, and these associations were largely confined to women (OR(BCC = 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.4; SCC: OR(SCC = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0. To examine how combinations of these variants contribute to risk of BCC and SCC, we used multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR and classification and regression trees (CART. Results from both of these methods found that in men, a combination of skin type, burns, IL10, IL4R, and possibly TNFR2 were important in both BCC and SCC. In women, skin type, burns, and IL10 were the most critical risk factors in SCC, with risk of BCC involving these same factors plus genetic variants in HTR2A, IL12B and IL4R. These data suggest differential genetic susceptibility to UV-induced immune suppression and skin cancer risk by gender.

  7. Comparison of different optical coherence tomography devices for diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, S; Kaestle, R; Sattler, E; Welzel, J

    2016-11-01

    To compare the diagnostic imaging ability of three different optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices in non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Thirty actinic keratoses (AKs) and 27 basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) of 29 patients were examined with three different OCT devices, VivoSight ® , Callisto ® and Skintell ® . Complete data sets were available for 16 BCCs and 10 AKs of 18 patients. All OCT devices were able to discriminate BCCs and AKs significantly from perilesional normal skin due to lower signal intensities as well as a thicker stratum corneum and epidermis in AKs. A significant decrease in the signal intensity and thickness of all skin layers was noted with Skintell ® in contrast to VivoSight ® and Callisto ® . OCT comparisons revealed only slight differences between VivoSight ® and Callisto ® . Regarding BCC tumor thickness VivoSight ® and Callisto ® correlated well, histology did not correlate with the three OCT devices, whereas Skintell ® showed no correlation with VivoSight ® , Callisto ® or histology. All tested OCT devices could identify BCCs and AKs objectively through standardized measurement of signal intensity and skin layer thickness. Due to their technical specifications (resolution, penetration depth), each of the OCT systems offers additional and special information on NMSC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Profiling of Sox4-dependent transcriptome in skin links tumour suppression and adult stem cell activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Foronda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult stem cells (ASCs reside in specific niches in a quiescent state in adult mammals. Upon specific cues they become activated and respond by self-renewing and differentiating into newly generated specialised cells that ensure appropriate tissue fitness. ASC quiescence also serves as a tumour suppression mechanism by hampering cellular transformation and expansion (White AC et al., 2014. Some genes restricted to early embryonic development and adult stem cell niches are often potent modulators of stem cell quiescence, and derailed expression of these is commonly associated to cancer (Vervoort SJ et al., 2013. Among them, it has been shown that recommissioned Sox4 expression facilitates proliferation, survival and migration of malignant cells. By generating a conditional Knockout mouse model in stratified epithelia (Sox4cKO mice, we demonstrated a delayed plucking-induced Anagen in the absence of Sox4. Skin global transcriptome analysis revealed a prominent defect in the induction of transcriptional networks that control hair follicle stem cell (HFSC activation such as those regulated by Wnt/Ctnnb1, Shh, Myc or Sox9, cell cycle and DNA damage response-associated pathways. Besides, Sox4cKO mice are resistant to skin carcinogenesis, thus linking Sox4 to both normal and pathological HFSC activation (Foronda M et al., 2014. Here we provide additional details on the analysis of Sox4-regulated transcriptome in Telogen and Anagen skin. The raw and processed microarray data is deposited in GEO under GSE58155.

  9. Assessment of Patients Who Underwent Nasal Reconstruction After Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Hakan; Bitik, Ozan; Kamburoğlu, Haldun Onuralp; Dadaci, Mehmet; Çaliş, Mert; Öcal, Engin

    2015-06-01

    Basal and squamous cell carcinomas are the most common malignant cutaneous lesions affecting the nose. With the rising incidence of skin cancers, plastic surgeons increasingly face nasal reconstruction challenges. Although multiple options exist, optimal results are obtained when "like is used to repair like". We aimed to introduce a simple algorithm for the reconstruction of nasal defects with local flaps, realizing that there is always more than one option for reconstruction. We retrospectively reviewed 163 patients who underwent nasal reconstruction after excision of non-melanoma skin cancer between March 2011 and April 2014. We analyzed the location of the defects and correlated them with the techniques used to reconstruct them. There were 66 males and 97 females (age, 21-98 years). Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed in 121 patients and squamous cell carcinoma in 42. After tumor excision, all the defects were immediately closed by either primary closure or local flap options such as Limberg, Miter, glabellar, bilobed, nasolabial, V-Y advancement, and forehead flaps. Obtaining tumor-free borders and a pleasing aesthetic result are major concerns in nasal reconstruction. Defect reconstruction and cosmesis are as important as rapid recovery and quick return to normal daily activities, and these should be considered before performing any procedure, particularly in elderly patients.

  10. Breast cancer after radiotherapy for skin hemangioma in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundell, M.; Mattsson, A.; Hakulinen, T.; Holm, L.E.

    1996-01-01

    Between 1920 and 1959, 9675 women were irradiated in infancy for skin hemangioma at Radiumhemmet, Stockholm. They were exposed to low to moderate doses of ionizing radiation. The mean age at first exposure was 6 months and the mean absorbed dose to the breast anlage was 0.39 Gy (range 50 years after exposure the ERR at 1 Gy was 2.25 (95% CI 0.59-5.62). The fitted excess absolute risk (EAR) was 22.9 per 10 4 breast-year gray. The breast absorbed dose and time after exposure were important risk determinants for breast cancer excess risk. Forty to 50 years of follow-up was necessary for the excess risk to be expressed. The study confirms previous findings that the breast anlage of female infants is sensitive to ionizing radiation. 17 refs., 6 figs

  11. Reconstruction of Nasal Skin Cancer Defects with Local Flaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgarelli, A. C.; Bellini, P.; Multinu, A.; Consolo, U.; Magnoni, C.; Francomano, M.; Fantini, F.; Seidenari, S.

    2011-01-01

    Reconstruction of nasal defects must preserve the integrity of complex facial functions and expressions, as well as facial symmetry and a pleasing aesthetic outcome. The reconstructive modality of choice will depend largely on the location, size, and depth of the surgical defect. Individualized therapy is the best course, and numerous flaps have been designed to provide coverage of a variety of nasal-specific defects. We describe our experience in the aesthetic reconstruction of nasal skin defects following oncological surgery. The use of different local flaps for nasal skin cancer defects is reported in 286 patients. Complications in this series were one partial flap dehiscence that healed by secondary intention, two forehead flaps, and one bilobed flap with minimal rim necrosis that resulted in an irregular scar requiring revision. Aesthetic results were deemed satisfactory by all patients and the operating surgeons. The color and texture matches were aesthetically good, and the nasal contour was distinct in all patients. All scars were inconspicuous and symmetrical. No patient had tenting or a flat nose.

  12. Reconstruction of Nasal Skin Cancer Defects with Local Flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Salgarelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of nasal defects must preserve the integrity of complex facial functions and expressions, as well as facial symmetry and a pleasing aesthetic outcome. The reconstructive modality of choice will depend largely on the location, size, and depth of the surgical defect. Individualized therapy is the best course, and numerous flaps have been designed to provide coverage of a variety of nasal-specific defects. We describe our experience in the aesthetic reconstruction of nasal skin defects following oncological surgery. The use of different local flaps for nasal skin cancer defects is reported in 286 patients. Complications in this series were one partial flap dehiscence that healed by secondary intention, two forehead flaps, and one bilobed flap with minimal rim necrosis that resulted in an irregular scar requiring revision. Aesthetic results were deemed satisfactory by all patients and the operating surgeons. The color and texture matches were aesthetically good, and the nasal contour was distinct in all patients. All scars were inconspicuous and symmetrical. No patient had tenting or a flat nose.

  13. Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors and the Risk of Melanoma Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yi; Yin, Hui; Pollak, Michael N; Carrier, Serge; Platt, Robert W; Suissa, Samy; Azoulay, Laurent

    2016-11-01

    The association between phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is), drugs used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED), and melanoma skin cancer is controversial. To assess whether the use of PDE5-Is is associated with an increased risk of melanoma skin cancer. Using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we assembled a cohort of men newly diagnosed with ED between 1998 and 2014 and followed until 2015. PDE5-I exposure was considered as a time-varying variable lagged by 1 yr for latency purposes. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of incident melanoma associated with PDE5-I use overall and by number of prescriptions and pills received. Identical analyses were conducted for basal and squamous cell carcinoma, two cancers for which PDE5-related pathways are not thought to be involved. The cohort included 142 983 patients, of whom 440 were newly diagnosed with melanoma during follow-up (rate: 63.0 per 100 000 person-years). Compared with nonuse, PDE5-I use was not associated with an overall increased risk of melanoma (rates: 66.7 vs 54.1 per 100 000 person-years; HR: 1.18; 95% CI, 0.95-1.47). The risk was significantly increased among those who had received seven or more prescriptions and ≥25 pills (HR: 1.30 [95% CI, 1.01-1.69] and 1.34 [95% CI, 1.04-1.72], respectively). In contrast, there was no overall association with basal and squamous cell carcinoma, with an unclear association with numbers of prescriptions and pills received. The use of PDE5-Is was not associated with an overall increased risk of melanoma skin cancer. The increased risks observed in the highest prescription and pill categories require further validation. In this study, the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors was not associated with an increased risk of melanoma skin cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Immunolocalization of glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 in non melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Ola Ahmed; Samaka, Rehab Monir; Shoeib, Mohamed Abdel Moneim; Megahed, Doaa Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    Glioma-associated oncogene homolog (GLI)1 is involved in controlling cell proliferation and angiogenesis. The aim of this work was to explore its possible role in non-melanoma skin cancer pathogenesis through its immunohistochemical (IHC) expression in skin biopsies of these diseases and correlating this expression with the clinico-pathological parameters of the studied cases. Seventy-six cutaneous specimens were studied; 30 cases with basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 30 cases with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 16 normal skin samples, from age- and gender-matched subjects, as a control group. GLI1 was expressed in all BCC cases and in 60% of SCC cases. All SCC cases showed cytoplasmic, while 70% of BCC cases showed nucleocytoplasmic immunoreactivity. It was over expressed in BCC and SCC compared to normal skin (p = 0.01 and 0.0006, respectively). Higher Histo (H) score in BCC cases was significantly associated with female gender (p = 0.04), multiple lesions, desmoplastic stromal reaction and stromal angiogenesis (p < 0.001 for all). Higher H score in SCC cases was significantly associated with scalp location, nodular type, recurrent lesions, high tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.004 for all), inflammatory stromal reaction (p = 0.01), lymph node involvement and absence of calcification (p = 0.001 for both). In conclusion, GLI1 may play a role in BCC pathogenesis through its role in cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis. Its upregulation and cytoplasmic localization in SCC may suggest that its role in tumor pathogenesis is through mechanisms other than Hedgehog pathway activation. Further studies are needed to clarify the exact molecular basis of its oncogenic action.

  15. An ecological study of skin biopsies and skin cancer treatment procedures in the United States Medicare population, 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David M; Morgan, Frederick C; Besaw, Robert J; Schmults, Chrysalyne D

    2018-01-01

    Analyses of skin cancer procedures adjusted for population changes are needed. To describe trends in skin cancer-related biopsies and procedures in Medicare beneficiaries. An ecological study of Medicare claims for skin biopsies and skin cancer procedures in 2000 to 2015. Biopsies increased 142%, and skin cancer procedures increased 56%. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) utilization increased on the head/neck, hands/feet, and genitalia (increasing from 11% to 27% of all treatment procedures) but was low on the trunk/extremities (increasing from 1% to 4%). Adjusted for increased Medicare enrollment (+36%) between 2000 and 2015, the number of biopsies and MMS procedures performed per 1000 beneficiaries increased (from 56 to 99 and from 5 to 15, respectively), whereas the number of excisions and destructions changed minimally (from 18 to 16 and from 19 to 18, respectively). Growth in biopsies and MMS procedures slowed between each time period studied: 4.3 additional biopsies per year and 0.9 additional MMS procedures per year per 1000 beneficiaries between 2000 and 2007, 2.2 and 0.5 more between 2008 and 2011, and 0.5 and 0.3 more between 2012 and 2015, respectively. Medicare claims-level data do not provide patient-level or nonsurgical treatment information. The increased number of skin cancer procedures performed was largely the result of Medicare population growth over time. MMS utilization increased primarily on high- and medium-risk and functionally and cosmetically significant locations where tissue sparing and maximizing cure are critical. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Translocation of cell penetrating peptide engrafted nanoparticles across skin layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlolla, Ram R; Desai, Pinaki R; Belay, Kalayu; Singh, Mandip S

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the ability of cell penetrating peptides (CPP) to translocate the lipid payload into the skin layers. Fluorescent dye (DID-oil) encapsulated nano lipid crystal nanoparticles (FNLCN) were prepared using Compritol, Miglyol and DOGS-NTA-Ni lipids by hot melt homogenization technique. The FNLCN surface was coated with TAT peptide (FNLCNT) or control YKA peptide (FNLCNY) and in vitro rat skin permeation studies were performed using Franz diffusion cells. Observation of lateral skin sections obtained using cryotome with a confocal microscope demonstrated that skin permeation of FNLCNT was time dependent and after 24h, fluorescence was observed upto a depth of 120 microm which was localized in the hair follicles and epidermis. In case of FNLCN and FNLCNY formulations fluorescence was mainly observed in the hair follicles. This observation was further supported by confocal Raman spectroscopy where higher fluorescence signal intensity was observed at 80 and 120 microm depth with FNLCNT treated skin and intensity of fluorescence peaks was in the ratio of 2:1:1 and 5:3:1 for FNLCNT, FNLCN, and FNLCNY treated skin sections, respectively. Furthermore, replacement of DID-oil with celecoxib (Cxb), a model lipophilic drug showed similar results and after 24h, the CXBNT formulation increased the Cxb concentration in SC by 3 and 6 fold and in epidermis by 2 and 3 fold as compared to CXBN and CXBNY formulations respectively. Our results strongly suggest that CPP can translocate nanoparticles with their payloads into deeper skin layers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Niacin intake and risk of skin cancer in US women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Min; Li, Tricia; Wu, Shaowei; Li, Wen-Qing; Weinstock, Martin; Qureshi, Abrar A; Cho, Eunyoung

    2017-05-01

    A recent clinical trial found a protective role of niacinamide, a derivative of niacin, against skin cancer recurrence. However, there is no epidemiologic study to assess the association between niacin intake and risk of skin cancer [basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma]. We prospectively evaluated whether total, dietary and supplemental niacin intake was associated with skin cancer risk based on 72,308 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010) and 41,808 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010). Niacin intake was assessed every 2 to 4 years during follow-up and cumulative averaged intake. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compute the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and cohort-specific results were pooled using a random-effects model. During the follow-up, we documented 23,256 BCC, 2,530 SCC and 887 melanoma cases. Total niacin intake was inversely associated with SCC risk; the pooled HR for top vs. bottom quintiles was 0.84 (95% CI = 0.74-0.95; p trend  = 0.08). However, there were a marginally positive association between total niacin intake and BCC risk; the pooled HR for top versus bottom quintiles was 1.05 (95% CI = 1.01-1.10; p trend  < 0.01). Higher total niacin intake was also marginally positively associated with melanoma risk in men, but not in women. The results were similar in stratified analyses according to sun exposure related factors and by body location of melanoma and SCC. Our study supports a potential beneficial role of niacin intake in relation to SCC but not of BCC or melanoma. © 2017 UICC.

  18. Skin cancer as a marker of sun exposure associates with myocardial infarction, hip fracture and death from any cause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum-Jacobsen, Peter; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F

    2013-01-01

    Sun exposure is the single most important risk factor for skin cancer, but sun exposure may also have beneficial effects on health. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with skin cancer (non-melanoma skin cancer and cutaneous malignant melanoma) have less myocardial infarction, hip fracture...... and death from any cause, compared with general population controls....

  19. Melanoma mortality following skin cancer screening in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniol, Mathieu; Autier, Philippe; Gandini, Sara

    2015-09-15

    In 2003, a skin cancer screening campaign based on total body skin examination was launched in the federal state of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. 20% of adults aged 20 and over were screened. In 2008, a 48% decline in melanoma mortality was reported. In the same year, skin screening was extended to the rest of Germany. We evaluated whether melanoma mortality trends decreased in Germany as compared with surrounding countries where skin screening is uncommon. We also evaluated whether the initial decreasing mortality trend observed in Schleswig-Holstein was maintained with a longer follow-up. Regional and national melanoma mortality data from 1995 to 2013 were extracted from the GEKID database and the Federal Statistical Office. Mortality data for Germany and surrounding countries from 1980 to 2012 were extracted from the WHO mortality database. Age-adjusted (European Standard Population) mortality rates were computed and joinpoint analysis performed for Schleswig-Holstein, Germany and surrounding countries. In Schleswig-Holstein, melanoma mortality rates declined by 48% from 2003 to 2008, and from 2009 to 2013 returned to levels observed before screening initiation. During the 5 years of the national programme (2008-2012), melanoma mortality rates increased by 2.6% (95% CI -0.1 to 5.2) in men and 0.02% (95% CI -1.8 to 1.8) in women. No inflexion point in trends was identified after 2008 that could have suggested a decreasing melanoma mortality. Trends of cutaneous melanoma mortality in Germany from 1980 to 2012 did not differ from those observed in surrounding countries. The transient decrease mortality in Schleswig-Holstein followed by return to pre-screening levels could reflect a temporal modification in the reporting of death causes. An in-depth evaluation of the screening programme is required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Skin-resident stem cells and wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Yohei; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Hasebe, Yuichi; Hasegawa, Seiji; Sugiura, Kazumitsu

    2017-01-01

    CD271 is common stem cell marker for the epidermis and dermis. We assessed a kinetic movement of epidermal and dermal CD271 + cells in the wound healing process to elucidate the possible involvement with chronic skin ulcers. Epidermal CD271 + cells were proliferated and migrated from 3 days after wounding. Purified epidermal CD271 + cells expressed higher TGFβ2 and VEGFα transcripts than CD271 - cells. Delayed wound healing was observed in the aged mice compared with young mice. During the wound healing process, the peak of dermal CD271 + cell accumulation was delayed in aged mice compared with young mice. The expression levels of collagen-1, -3, -5, F4-80, EGF, FGF2, TGFβ1, and IL-1α were significantly increased in young mice compared with aged mice. Furthermore, purified dermal CD271 + cells expressed higher FGF2, EGF, PDGFB, and TGFβ1 gene transcripts than CD271 - cells. These results suggested that epidermal and dermal CD271 + cells were closely associated with wound healing process by producing various growth factors. Epidermal and dermal CD271 + cells in chronic skin ulcer patients were significantly reduced compared with healthy controls. Thus, both epidermal and dermal stem cells can play an important role in wound healing process.

  1. SU-F-P-58: Squamous Cell and Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin Treated with a Freiburg Flap Applicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, K; Li, B [MedStar Health RadAmerica, Mercy Radiation Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jacobs, M; Laser, B [Mercy Medical Center Radiation Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To treat squamous cell and basal cell carcinoma of the skin with the Freiburg flap applicator using a high dose rate modality of an Elekta Flexitron or MicroSelectron for radiation delivery by compensating the dose deviation resulting from the incomplete scatter environment. Methods: Patients were selected to have lesions greater than or equal to 2cm. A mask might be needed depending on special locations. The lesions on the eyelid and face presented in this research were, however, treated without a mask. Cutting the flap into a shape conformal to the target and attaching it to the mask were used in order to make the treatment reproducible. Patients were scanned with a Philips Big Bore Brilliant CT. A 1cm margin was added to the lesion. An Elekta Oncentra Brachy treatment planning system ver. 4.3 was used for treatment planning. 40 Gy in 10 or 8 fractions was prescribed to the 1cm depth. The Freiburg flap was aligned and verified by CT scanning prior to treatment. Results: Three patients with squamous cell and basal cell carcinoma of the skin were treated with the Freiburg flap applicator. Lesion sizes ranged from 2cm to 6 cm in a maximum dimension. With treatment planning, we made a dose correction for compensating the dose deviation resulting from the incomplete scatter environment of the flap applicators exposed to air. The flap was also covered by a 4cm bolus in order to obtain more back scattered radiation during treatment. Six month follow up showed a very good cosmetic result. Conclusion: The Freiburg flap brachytherapy offers a non-invasive skin cancer treatment with a high skin dose delivered to the tumor while a low dose sparing the surrounding health tissue. It is a promising alternative to skin cancer surgery or external beam radiation therapy.

  2. Association of Pretransplant Skin Cancer With Posttransplant Malignancy, Graft Failure and Death in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Woosun; Sampaio, Marcelo Santos; Huang, Edmund; Bunnapradist, Suphamai

    2017-06-01

    Posttransplant malignancy (PTM) is one of the leading causes of late death in kidney recipients. Those with a cancer history may be more prone to develop a recurrent or a new cancer. We studied the association between pretransplant skin cancer, PTM, death, and graft failure. Primary adult kidney recipients transplanted between 2005 and 2013 were included. Malignancy information was obtained from Organ Procurement Kidney Transplant Network/United Network for Organ Sharing registration and follow-up forms. Posttransplant malignancy was classified into skin cancer, solid tumor, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Competing risk and survival analysis with adjustment for confounders were used to calculate risk for PTM, death and graft failure in recipients with pretransplant skin cancer compared with those without cancer. Risk was reported in hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). The cohort included 1671 recipients with and 102 961 without pretransplant skin malignancy. The 5-year cumulative incidence of PTM in patients with and without a pretransplant skin cancer history was 31.6% and 7.4%, respectively (P cancer had increased risk of PTM (sub-HR [SHR], 2.60; 95% CI, 2.27-2.98), and posttransplant skin cancer (SHR, 2.92; 95% CI, 2.52-3.39), PTLD (SHR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.01-3.66), solid tumor (SHR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.04-1.99), death (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.34), and graft failure (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.05-1.30) when compared with those without pretransplant malignancy. Pretransplant skin cancer was associated with an increased risk of posttransplant skin cancer, PTLD, solid organ cancer, death and graft failure.

  3. Construction of Three-Dimensional Dermo-Epidermal Skin Equivalents Using Cell Coating Technology and Their Utilization as Alternative Skin for Permeation Studies and Skin Irritation Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Takami; Nagura, Mayuka; Hiura, Ayami; Kojima, Hajime; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2017-06-01

    In vitro generated human skin equivalents are generating interest as promising tools in basic study, as alternatives to animal testing, and for clinical applications in regenerative medicine. For prediction of skin irritation and corrosion, three-dimensional human skin equivalents consisting of differentiated human keratinocytes (KCs) have been developed and some models have been internationally accepted. However, more delicate assessments using full-thickness skin models, such as skin sensitization tests, cannot be performed due to the lack of a dermis containing fibroblasts or appendages. In a previous study, we developed dermo-epidermal human skin equivalents (DESEs) using a cell coating technique, which employs cell surface coating by layer-by-layer assembled extracellular matrix (ECM) films. The DESEs with dermis consisting of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) and epidermis consisting of human KCs were easily fabricated by using this technology. In this study, the constructed DESEs were evaluated as an alternative skin for skin permeation and irritation tests. A good relationship of permeability coefficient of chemicals was observed between the DESEs and human skin data. We investigated whether the DESEs, a new in vitro skin model, are capable of identifying skin irritant and nonirritant substances among 20 reference chemicals. It was confirmed that the DESEs are applicable to skin irritation testing as defined in the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) Performance Standard (OECD Test Guideline 439). We further studied the construction of DESEs with density-controlled blood capillary networks using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The results suggest that DESEs allowing incorporation of skin appendages are more promising alternatives to animal testing and can be applied to the design of physiologically relevant in vitro skin models.

  4. Collagen-based silver nanoparticles: Study on cell viability, skin permeation, and swelling inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vinicius Saura; de Carvalho Filgueiras, Marcelo; Dutra, Yago Medeiros; Teles, Ramon Handerson Gomes; de Araújo, Alyne Rodrigues; Primo, Fernando Lucas; Mafud, Ana Carolina; Batista, Larissa Fernandes; Mascarenhas, Yvonne Primerano; Paino, Iêda Maria Martinez; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Tedesco, Antonio Claudio; Silva, Durcilene Alves; Leite, José Roberto S A; Dos Santos, José Ribeiro

    2017-05-01

    Collagen is considered the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom, comprising 30% of the total amount of proteins and 6% of the human body by weight. Studies that examine the interaction between silver nanoparticles and proteins have been highlighted in the literature in order to understand the stability of the nanoparticle system, the effects observed in biological systems, and the appearance of new chemical pharmaceutical products. The objective of this study was to analyze the behavior of silver nanoparticles stabilized with collagen (AgNPcol) and to check the skin permeation capacity and action in paw edema induced by carrageenan. AgNPcol synthesis was carried out using solutions of reducing agent sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ), silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) and collagen. Characterization was done by using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and AFM. Cellular viability testing was performed by using flow cytometry in human melanoma cancer (MV3) and murine fibroblast (L929) cells. The skin permeation study was conducted using a Franz diffusion cell, and the efficiency of AgNPcol against the formation of paw edema in mice was evaluated. The hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential of AgNPcol were 140.7±7.8nm and 20.1±0.7mV, respectively. AgNPcol failed to induce early apoptosis, late apoptosis, and necrosis in L929 cells; however, it exhibited enhanced toxicity in cancer cells (MV3) compared to normal cells (L929). AgNPcol demonstrated increased toxicological effects in cancer MV3 cells, promoting skin permeation, and preventing paw edema. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tumor-Associated Macrophages: Therapeutic Targets for Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Fujimura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs and regulatory T cells (Tregs are significant components of the microenvironment of solid tumors in the majority of cancers. TAMs sequentially develop from monocytes into functional macrophages. In each differentiation stage, TAMs obtain various immunosuppressive functions to maintain the tumor microenvironment (e.g., expression of immune checkpoint molecules, production of Treg-related chemokines and cytokines, production of arginase I. Although the main population of TAMs is immunosuppressive M2 macrophages, TAMs can be modulated into M1-type macrophages in each differential stage, leading to the suppression of tumor growth. Because the administration of certain drugs or stromal factors can stimulate TAMs to produce specific chemokines, leading to the recruitment of various tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, TAMs can serve as targets for cancer immunotherapy. In this review, we discuss the differentiation, activation, and immunosuppressive function of TAMs, as well as their benefits in cancer immunotherapy.

  6. Pattern of HPV infection in basal cell carcinoma and in perilesional skin biopsies from immunocompetent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska, Krystyna; Regalbuto, Elisa; Pierucci, Federica; Arvia, Rosaria; Mazzoli, Sandra; Gori, Alessia; de Giorgi, Vincenzo

    2012-12-17

    The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) such as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is not yet fully understood. We analysed the prevalence and spectrum of cutaneous beta-HPV types and mucosal/genital HPV types in paired biopsies (tumour and corresponding perilesional skin) obtained from 50 BCC immunocompetent patients. A small group of SCC patients (n=9) was also included. We also evaluated some previously postulated risk factors for HPV infection in NMSC patients. All biopsies were negative for mucosal/genital HPV types. Overall, beta-HPV DNA was detected more often in SCC compared to BCC patients (78% vs 55% of total samples). The frequency of infection increased with the patient's age [OR=4.88 (95% CI 1.29-18.39)]. There was no significant correlation between beta-HPV positivity and sex, skin type and UV exposure. The prevalence of beta-HPV species 1 types was significantly higher than those belonging to other beta-HPV species in biopsies from BCC (p=0.022) but not from SCC subjects (p=0.091). There was no significant difference in the overall prevalence of beta-HPV infection and the number of viral types between tumour lesions and perilesional skin. BCC samples were significantly more likely to be infected with beta-HPV species 1 types compared to perilesional skin (p=0.036) and showed a higher frequency of mixed infections (p=0.028). These findings demonstrate that beta-HPV types belonging to species 1 are the most common HPV types detected in the skin of BCC patients. Moreover beta-1-HPV types and mixed infections are significantly more frequent in tumour samples than in healthy perilesional skin. Our results suggest that beta-1-HPVs as well as co-infection with more than one viral type could be important in NMSC and in particular in BCC.Further studies aimed to compare the biological activity of viral types in tumours and in healthy skin (viral replication and expression

  7. Pattern of HPV infection in basal cell carcinoma and in perilesional skin biopsies from immunocompetent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakrzewska Krystyna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between human papillomavirus (HPV infection and non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs such as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and basal cell carcinoma (BCC is not yet fully understood. We analysed the prevalence and spectrum of cutaneous beta-HPV types and mucosal/genital HPV types in paired biopsies (tumour and corresponding perilesional skin obtained from 50 BCC immunocompetent patients. A small group of SCC patients (n=9 was also included. We also evaluated some previously postulated risk factors for HPV infection in NMSC patients. Results All biopsies were negative for mucosal/genital HPV types. Overall, beta-HPV DNA was detected more often in SCC compared to BCC patients (78% vs 55% of total samples. The frequency of infection increased with the patient’s age [OR=4.88 (95% CI 1.29-18.39]. There was no significant correlation between beta-HPV positivity and sex, skin type and UV exposure. The prevalence of beta-HPV species 1 types was significantly higher than those belonging to other beta-HPV species in biopsies from BCC (p=0.022 but not from SCC subjects (p=0.091. There was no significant difference in the overall prevalence of beta-HPV infection and the number of viral types between tumour lesions and perilesional skin. BCC samples were significantly more likely to be infected with beta-HPV species 1 types compared to perilesional skin (p=0.036 and showed a higher frequency of mixed infections (p=0.028. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that beta-HPV types belonging to species 1 are the most common HPV types detected in the skin of BCC patients. Moreover beta-1-HPV types and mixed infections are significantly more frequent in tumour samples than in healthy perilesional skin. Our results suggest that beta-1-HPVs as well as co-infection with more than one viral type could be important in NMSC and in particular in BCC. Further studies aimed to compare the biological activity of viral types in tumours and in

  8. Ultraviolet damage, DNA repair and vitamin D in nonmelanoma skin cancer and in malignant melanoma: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, Jörg; Rass, Knuth

    2014-01-01

    Skin exposure with UV radiation (UV) is the main cause of skin cancer development. Epidemiological data indicate that excessive or cumulative UV exposure takes place years and decades before the resulting malignancies arise. The most important defense mechanisms that protect human skin against UV radiation involve melanin synthesis and active repair mechanisms. DNA is the major target of direct or indirect UV-induced cellular damage. Low pigmentation capacity in white Caucasians and rare congenital defects in DNA repair are mainly responsible for protection failures. The important function of nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER) to protect against skin cancer becomes obvious by the rare genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum, in which diverse NER genes are mutated. In animal models, it has been demonstrated that UVB is more effective to induce skin cancer than UVA. UV-induced DNA photoproducts are able to cause specific mutations (UV-signature) in susceptible genes for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). In SCC development, UV-signature mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene are the most common event, as precancerous lesions reveal -80% and SCCs > 90% UV-specific p53 mutations. Mutations in Hedgehog pathway related genes, especially PTCH1, are well known to represent the most significant pathogenic event in BCC. However, specific UV-induced mutations can be found only in -50% of sporadic BCCs. Thus, cumulative UVB radiation cannot be considered to represent the only etiologic risk factor for BCC development. During the last decades, experimental animal models, including genetically engineered mice, the Xiphophorus hybrid fish, the South American oppossum and human skin xenografts, have further elucidated the important role of the DNA repair system in the multi-step process of UV-induced melanomagenesis. An increasing body of evidence now indicates that nucleotide excision repair is not the only DNA repair pathway that is involved in UV

  9. Induction of basal cell carcinoma features in transgenic human skin expressing Sonic Hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, H; Oro, A E; Scott, M P; Khavari, P A

    1997-07-01

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling proteins mediate inductive events during animal development. Mutation of the only known HH receptor gene, Patched (PTC), has recently been implicated in inherited and sporadic forms of the most common human cancer, basal cell carcinoma (BCC). In Drosophila, HH acts by inactivating PTC function, raising the possibility that overexpression of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) in human epidermis might have a tumorigenic effect equivalent to loss of PTC function. We used retroviral transduction of normal human keratinocytes to constitutively express SHH. SHH-expressing cells demonstrated increased expression of both the known HH target, BMP-2B, as well as bcl-2, a protein prominently expressed by keratinocytes in BCCs. These keratinocytes were then used to regenerate human skin transgenic for long terminal repeat-driven SHH (LTR-SHH) on immune-deficient mice. LTR-SHH human skin consistently displays the abnormal specific histologic features seen in BCCs, including downgrowth of epithelial buds into the dermis, basal cell palisading and separation of epidermis from the underlying dermis. In addition, LTR-SHH skin displays the gene expression abnormalities previously described for human BCCs, including decreased BP180/BPAG2 and laminin 5 adhesion proteins and expression of basal epidermal keratins. These data indicate that expression of SHH in human skin recapitulates features of human BCC in vivo, suggest that activation of this conserved signaling pathway contributes to the development of epithelial neoplasia and describe a new transgenic human tissue model of neoplasia.

  10. Mohs micrographic surgery at the Skin and Cancer Foundation Australia, 10 years later (1997 vs 2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Penny; Paver, Robert; Peñas, Pablo F

    2010-11-01

    Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) provides a combination of high cure rate and tissue conservation. Epidemiologic factors and changes in techniques may affect the way MMS is performed. We sought to evaluate changes over time in the type of patients and skin cancers that are treated using MMS, and the repairs used to close the defects. We conducted a retrospective study on patients treated with MMS at the Skin and Cancer Foundation Australia, Westmead, in 1997 against those treated in 2007. Patient demographics (age, sex), pathology of tumor, anatomic site of the tumor, preoperative tumor size, postoperative defect size, and repair method were analyzed. There was a 260% increase in the number of procedures (596 in 1997 vs 1587 in 2007). The 2007 cohort was a little older (62 vs 64 years), but there were no differences in sex, anatomic site, rate of basal/squamous cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma histologic subtypes, or preoperative tumor size. However, there were fewer superficial basal cell carcinomas, and the postoperative defect size was smaller in 2007 (P < .0001). There was also a decrease in the use of grafts and second-intention healing to close the defects and an increase in the number of side-to-side closures (P < .0001). Retrospective study at one institution is a limitation. Although tumor size and the percentage of tumors in each anatomic site did not change over 10 years, the size of the defect created after MMS has become smaller. This reduction in defect size may explain why more defects are now repaired by side-to-side closure and flap repairs whereas fewer defects are repaired by skin grafting. Copyright © 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Residential Radon Exposure and Skin Cancer Incidence in a Prospective Danish Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Loft, Steffen; Sørensen, Mette; Jensen, Allan; Andersen, Claus Erik; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Tjønneland, Anne; Krüger Kjær, Susanne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Background Although exposure to UV radiation is the major risk factor for skin cancer, theoretical models suggest that radon exposure can contribute to risk, and this is supported by ecological studies. We sought to confirm or refute an association between long-term exposure to residential radon and the risk for malignant melanoma (MM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) using a prospective cohort design and long-term residential radon exposure. Methods During 1993–1997, we recruited 57,053 Danish persons and collected baseline information. We traced and geocoded all residential addresses of the cohort members and calculated radon concentrations at each address lived in from 1 January 1971 until censor date. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and confidence intervals (CI) for the risk associated with radon exposure for NMSC and MM, and effect modification was assessed. Results Over a mean follow-up of 13.6 years of 51,445 subjects, there were 3,243 cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 317 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 329 cases of MM. The adjusted IRRs per 100 Bq/m3 increase in residential radon levels for BCC, SCC and MM were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.27), 0.90 (95% CI: 0.70, 1.37) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.50), respectively. The association between radon exposure and BCC was stronger among those with higher socio-economic status and those living in apartments at enrollment. Conclusion and Impact Long-term residential radon exposure may contribute to development of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. We cannot exclude confounding from sunlight and cannot conclude on causality, as the relationship was stronger amongst persons living in apartments and non-existent amongst those living in single detached homes. PMID:26274607

  12. Role of COX-2 activity and CRP levels in patients with non-melanoma skin cancer. -765G>C PTGS2 polymorphism and NMSC risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoş, Relu; Schipor, Sorina; Nicolae, Ilinca; Thomescu, Cecilia; Raicu, Florina

    2012-07-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is one of the most common of all cancers and the incidence has increased in the last years as a result of many factors including increased tanning, life style and possible global climate change. Inflammation plays an important role in cancer development and is frequently evaluated by serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. PTGS2 -765C allele coding for COX-2 has been found to be associated with lower plasma levels of CRP. The objectives of this study are: evaluation of the association between PTGS2 -765G>C polymorphism and the occurrence of non-melanoma skin cancer, the relationship between this polymorphism and cyclooxygenase-2 activity in skin tissue, as well as the correlation with serum CRP levels in patients with non-melanoma skin cancer. We used PCR-RFLP technique to explore -765G>C PTGS2 gene polymorphism, colorimetric analysis for cyclooxygenase-2 activity in skin tissue and immunoturbidimetric assay for CRP serum levels in 174 patients with non-melanoma skin cancer [54 patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and 120 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)] and 80 healthy subjects. PTGS2 -765G>C polymorphism failed to show an association with non-melanoma skin cancer risk. We observed a significant increase in COX-2 activity in SCC and BCC patients compared to control tissue (0.58 ± 0.11 and 0.63 ± 0.09 U/mg protein, respectively vs. 0.16 ± 0.01 U/mg protein). BCC and SCC intra-group analysis showed lower COX-2 activity in C-allele carriers versus non-carriers (p C polymorphism failed to show an association with non-melanoma skin cancer risk. Regarding prognostic indicators, no consistent association emerged between PTGS2 -765G>C polymorphism and COX-2 activity or CRP levels.

  13. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin (part 1): epidemiology, pathology and genetic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia de Sá, Tiago Ribeiro; Silva, Roberto; Lopes, José Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer worldwide with increasing incidence, but difficult to assess due to the current under registration practice. Despite the low mortality rate, BCC is a cause of great morbidity and an economic burden to health services. There are several risk factors that increase the risk of BCC and partly explain its incidence. Low-penetrance susceptibility alleles, as well as genetic alterations in signaling pathways, namely SHH pathway, also contribute to the carcinogenesis. BCC associate with several genetic syndromes, of which basal cell nevus syndrome is the most common.

  14. Nonmelanoma skin cancer and risk of all-cause and cancer-related mortality: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Virginia; Armeson, Kent; Hampras, Shalaka; Ferris, Laura K; Visvanathan, Kala; Rollison, Dana; Alberg, Anthony J

    2017-05-01

    Some reports suggest that a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) may be associated with increased mortality. NMSCs have very low fatality rates, but the high prevalence of NMSC elevates the importance of the possibility of associated subsequent mortality from other causes. The variable methods and findings of existing studies leave the significance of these results uncertain. To provide clarity, we conducted a systematic review to characterize the evidence on the associations of NMSC with: (1) all-cause mortality, (2) cancer-specific mortality, and (3) cancer survival. Bibliographic databases were searched through February 2016. Cohort studies published in English were included if adequate data were provided to estimate mortality ratios in patients with-versus-without NMSC. Data were abstracted from the total of eight studies from independent data sources that met inclusion criteria (n = 3 for all-cause mortality, n = 2 for cancer-specific mortality, and n = 5 for cancer survival). For all-cause mortality, a significant increased risk was observed for patients with a history of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (mortality ratio estimates (MR) 1.25 and 1.30), whereas no increased risk was observed for patients with a history of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (MRs 0.96 and 0.97). Based on one study, the association with cancer-specific mortality was stronger for SCC (MR 2.17) than BCC (MR 1.15). Across multiple types of cancer both SCC and BCC tended to be associated with poorer survival from second primary malignancies. Multiple studies support an association between NMSC and fatal outcomes; the associations tend to be more potent for SCC than BCC. Additional investigation is needed to more precisely characterize these associations and elucidate potential underlying mechanisms.

  15. Sun-protective behaviors in populations at high risk for skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diao DY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diana Y Diao,1 Tim K Lee1,21Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 2Cancer Control Research Program, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Over 3 million new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the US annually. Melanoma, a subtype of skin cancer that can be fatal if the disease is not detected and treated at an early stage, is the most common cancer for those aged 25–29 years and the second most common cancer in adolescents and young adults aged 15–29 years. The primary carcinogen for the genesis of skin cancers is ultraviolet light from solar radiation and tanning beds. In spite of massive health campaigns to raise public awareness on ultraviolet radiation, sun-protective practices still fall behind. A plausible explanation is the lack of behavioral change in the populations at risk; in this review article, we examine sun-protective behavior in the four high-risk skin cancer groups: skin cancer survivors, individuals with a family history of melanoma, individuals with physical characteristics associated with skin cancer risk, and organ transplantation patients. Findings in the literature demonstrate that increased knowledge and awareness does not consequently translate into behavioral changes in practice. Behavior can differ as a result of different attitudes and beliefs, depending on the population at risk. Thus, intervention should be tailored to the population targeted. A multidisciplinary health team providing consultation and education is required to influence these much needed changes.Keywords: skin cancer, melanoma, risk, prevention, behaviour

  16. A randomized controlled trial of an appearance-focused intervention to prevent skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, Joel; Turrisi, Rob; Stapleton, Jerod; Robinson, June

    2008-12-01

    Skin cancer represents a significant health threat with over 1.3 million diagnoses, 8000 melanoma deaths, and more than $1 billion spent annually for skin cancer healthcare in the US. Despite findings from laboratory, case-control, and prospective studies that indicate a link between youthful indoor tanning (IT) and skin cancer, IT is increasing among US youth. Appearance-focused interventions represent a promising method to counteract these trends. A total of 430 female indoor tanners were randomized into intervention or no intervention control conditions. Intervention participants received an appearance-focused booklet based on decision-theoretical models of health behavior. Outcome variables included self-reports of IT behavior and intentions, as well as measures of cognitive mediating variables. Normative increases in springtime IT rates were significantly lower (ie, over 35%) at 6-month follow-up in intervention versus control participants with similar reductions in future intentions. Mediation analyses revealed 6 cognitive variables (IT attitudes, fashion attitudes, perceived susceptibility to skin cancer and skin damage, subjective norms, and image norms) that significantly mediated change in IT behavior. The appearance-focused intervention demonstrated strong effects on IT behavior and intentions in young indoor tanners. Appearance-focused approaches to skin cancer prevention need to present alternative behaviors as well as alter IT attitudes. Mediational results provide guides for strengthening future appearance-focused interventions directed at behaviors that increase risk of skin cancer. (c) 2008 American Cancer Society

  17. Incidence and prevalence of non-melanoma skin cancer in Australia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Eshini; Gnaneswaran, Neiraja; Staines, Carolyn; Win, Aung Ko; Sinclair, Rod

    2015-11-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is the most common cancer occurring in people with fair skin. Australia has been reported to have the highest incidence of NMSC in the world. Using a systematic search of the literature in EMBASE and Medline, we identified 21 studies that investigated the incidence or prevalence of NMSC in Australia. Studies published between 1948 and 2011 were identified and included in the analysis. There were six studies that were conducted on national level, two at state level and 13 at the regional level. Overall, the incidence of NMSC had steadily increased over calendar-years in Australia. The incidence of NMSC per 100,000 person-years was estimated to be 555 in 1985; 977 in 1990; 1109 in 1995; 1170 in 2002 and 2448 in 2011. The incidence was higher for men than women and higher for BCC than SCC. Incidence varied across the states of Australia, with the highest in Queensland. The prevalence of NMSC was estimated to be 2% in Australia in 2002. The incidence and prevalence of NMSC still need to be accurately established at both national and state levels to determine the costs and burden of the disease on the public health system in Australia. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  18. The Protective Role of Vitamin D Signaling in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bikle, Daniel D., E-mail: daniel.bikle@ucsf.edu; Jiang, Yan [Department of Medicine and Endocrine, Research Unit and Department of Dermatology, VA Medical Center, University of California San Francisco, 4150 Clement St (111N), San Francisco, CA 94121 (United States)

    2013-11-05

    Although the epidemiologic evidence that adequate vitamin D nutrition protects against non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is limited, recent evidence that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is protective is compelling. The role of vitamin D signaling in limiting the proliferation while promoting the differentiation of keratinocytes, the major cell in the epidermis from which NMSC are derived, is well known. However, recent findings that mice lacking the VDR are predisposed to skin cancer has brought to the fore the question of how the VDR is protective. In this review we will look first at the role of vitamin D signaling in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. We will examine two pathways, β-catenin (CTNNB) and hedgehog (HH), that are regulated by vitamin D signaling and may contribute to the dysregulated proliferation and differentiation in the absence of VDR. We will then examine the failure of VDR deficient keratinocytes to repair DNA damaged by UVB. Finally we will examine the change in long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) expression in VDR null keratinocytes that in other cells is associated with malignant transformation, a potential newly appreciated mechanism by which vitamin D signaling is protective against NMSC.

  19. The Protective Role of Vitamin D Signaling in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Jiang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Although the epidemiologic evidence that adequate vitamin D nutrition protects against non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is limited, recent evidence that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is protective is compelling. The role of vitamin D signaling in limiting the proliferation while promoting the differentiation of keratinocytes, the major cell in the epidermis from which NMSC are derived, is well known. However, recent findings that mice lacking the VDR are predisposed to skin cancer has brought to the fore the question of how the VDR is protective. In this review we will look first at the role of vitamin D signaling in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. We will examine two pathways, β-catenin (CTNNB) and hedgehog (HH), that are regulated by vitamin D signaling and may contribute to the dysregulated proliferation and differentiation in the absence of VDR. We will then examine the failure of VDR deficient keratinocytes to repair DNA damaged by UVB. Finally we will examine the change in long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) expression in VDR null keratinocytes that in other cells is associated with malignant transformation, a potential newly appreciated mechanism by which vitamin D signaling is protective against NMSC

  20. Histologically diagnosed cancers in South Africa, 1988 | Sitas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In females they were: (i) cancer of the cervix; (ii) breast cancer; (iii) basal cell skin cancer; (iv) squamous cell skin cancer; and (v) cancer of the oesophagus. Despite under-reporting, a nwnber of cancers, especially those of the oesophagus and cervix in blacks and skin cancers in whites, rank among the highest in the world.

  1. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...... the present hair colour and eye colour, and the constitutive skin pigmentation was measured objectively by skin reflectance of UV unexposed buttock skin. There were no differences between basal cell carcinoma cases and controls in hair colour or eye colour or constitutive skin pigmentation, but more cases...... were of skin type II than skin type IV; skin type 11 was a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.3. For cutaneous malignant melanoma, more cases than controls were red-haired or blond and of skin type II, but there was no difference in constitutive skin pigmentation. Hair...

  2. Role of UV light in photodamage, skin aging, and skin cancer: importance of photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Evelyn R

    2009-01-01

    Solar, and particularly UV, radiation causes molecular and cellular damage with resultant histopathologic and clinical degenerative changes, leading in turn to photosensitivity, photo-aging, and skin cancer. While our bodies have some natural UV defenses, additional protection from the sun is essential, including sun avoidance, physical protection, and sunscreen use. Sun avoidance includes limiting exposure during peak UV times (10am-4pm), avoiding UV-reflective surfaces such as sand, snow and water, and eliminating photosensitizing drugs. Physical protection includes wearing photoprotective clothing such as a broad-brimmed hat and long sleeves and use of UV-blocking films on windows. Sunscreen containing avobenzone, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide or encamsule should be used daily and frequently reapplied. To guard against the UVB spectrum, zinc oxide and titanium dioxide are particularly recommended. Sunscreen is generally under-applied at only 25% of the recommended dose, seriously compromising photoprotection. Dosage guidelines recommend using more than half a teaspoon each on head and neck area and each arm, and more than a teaspoon each on anterior torso, posterior torso, and each leg (approximately 2 mg/cm(2)).

  3. Non-melanoma Skin Cancer in Canada Chapter 1: Introduction to the Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Lyn C; Barber, Kirk; Searles, Gordon E; Lynde, Charles W; Janiszewski, Peter; Ashkenas, John

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal and squamous cell carcinoma, represents the most common malignancy. The aim of this document is to provide guidance to Canadian health care practitioners on NMSC management. After conducting a literature review, the group developed recommendations for prevention, management, and treatment of basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and actinic keratoses. These tumour types are considered separately in the accompanying articles. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system was used to assign strength to each recommendation. This introduction describes the scope and structure of the guidelines and the methods used to develop them. The epidemiology of NMSC is reviewed, as are the pathophysiologic changes occurring with damage to the skin, which lead to the formation of actinic keratoses and invasive squamous or basal cell carcinomas. This introduction describes the need for primary prevention and offers an overview of treatment options that are discussed in later chapters of the guidelines. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Resident memory T cells in the skin mediate durable immunity to melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Brian T; Byrne, Katelyn T; Vella, Jennifer L; Zhang, Peisheng; Shabaneh, Tamer B; Steinberg, Shannon M; Molodtsov, Aleksey K; Bowers, Jacob S; Angeles, Christina V; Paulos, Chrystal M; Huang, Yina H; Turk, Mary Jo

    2017-04-14

    Tissue-resident memory T (T RM ) cells have been widely characterized in infectious disease settings; however, their role in mediating immunity to cancer remains unknown. We report that skin-resident memory T cell responses to melanoma are generated naturally as a result of autoimmune vitiligo. Melanoma antigen-specific T RM cells resided predominantly in melanocyte-depleted hair follicles and were maintained without recirculation or replenishment from the lymphoid compartment. These cells expressed CD103, CD69, and CLA (cutaneous lymphocyte antigen), but lacked PD-1 (programmed cell death protein-1) or LAG-3 (lymphocyte activation gene-3), and were capable of making IFN-γ (interferon-γ). CD103 expression on CD8 T cells was required for the establishment of T RM cells in the skin but was dispensable for vitiligo development. CD103 + CD8 T RM cells were critical for protection against melanoma rechallenge. This work establishes that CD103-dependent T RM cells play a key role in perpetuating antitumor immunity. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Pseudovascular squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagore, E; Sánchez-Motilla, J M; Pérez-Vallés, A; Martínez-Lahuerta, C; Alegre, V; Aliaga, A

    2000-05-01

    The presence of acantholysis in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) may rarely be so extreme that, histologically, it mimics a vascular tumour. However, careful histological examination and immunohistochemical study usually lead to the correct diagnosis. We describe such a case to highlight the clinico-pathological features of this rare form of cutaneous malignancy and to emphasize the difficulties in establishing the correct diagnosis. We also review similar cases reported in the literature. Pseudovascular SCC shows a higher degree of recurrence and metastasis than other variants of SCC. Acantholytic foci in these tumours may demonstrate changes in keratinocyte differentiation markers, and this may explain the more aggresive biological behaviour in the pseudovascular variant of SCC.

  6. Laser-skinning colpectomy for extended vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and microinvasive cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Alexander; Hastor, Hana; Vasileva, Teodora; Zander, Martina; Petry, Karl Ulrich

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the efficacy of colposcopic-guided laser-skinning colpectomy to treat extended high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VaIN). Retrospective review of 33 heavily pretreated patients with high-grade VaIN extending over 20-100% of the vaginal surface treated between 2003 and 2013 with colposcopic-guided laser-skinning colpectomy. The vaginal epithelium including all VaIN lesions was excised in one piece with a depth of 2-3mm. Vaginal cancer was diagnosed in 10 patients (nine microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma and one vaginal carcinoma). No serious adverse events related to laser-skinning colpectomy were observed. Of 33 patients, 23 were followed up with cytology and colposcopy for at least 12months at our institution (median follow 26.5months; range 12-104months), while five had a shorter follow-up, four an external follow-up and one patient was lost. Of 23 patients with follow-up ≥12months, 20 were disease free after a single laser-skinning colpectomy (overall cure rate 87.0%). Moderate shortening of the vagina was observed in two patients and another two required reconstruction of vaginal strictures during long-term follow-up. Laser-skinning colpectomy appears to be a feasible treatment for extended high-risk VaIN3. The procedure avoids the mutilation associated with colpectomy and allows early diagnosis and staging of invasive disease. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Skin appendage-derived stem cells: cell biology and potential for wound repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiangfan; Yao, Bin; Han, Yutong; Huang, Sha; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells residing in the epidermis and skin appendages are imperative for skin homeostasis and regeneration. These stem cells also participate in the repair of the epidermis after injuries, inducing restoration of tissue integrity and function of damaged tissue. Unlike epidermis-derived stem cells, comprehensive knowledge about skin appendage-derived stem cells remains limited. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of skin appendage-derived stem cells, including their fundamental characteristics, their preferentially expressed biomarkers, and their potential contribution involved in wound repair. Finally, we will also discuss current strategies, future applications, and limitations of these stem cells, attempting to provide some perspectives on optimizing the available therapy in cutaneous repair and regeneration.

  8. Patients highly value routine follow-up of skin cancer and cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Themstrup, Lotte; Jemec, Gregor E; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    : This study included an open sample of patients attending routine follow-up at the outpatient Departments of Plastic Surgery and Dermatology, Roskilde Hospital. A total of 218 follow-up patients diagnosed with cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM), non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) or actinic keratosis (AK......INTRODUCTION: Skin cancer follow-up is a substantial burden to outpatient clinics. Few studies have investigated patients' views on skin cancer follow-up and cutaneous melanoma. The objective was to investigate patients' perceived benefits and the impact of follow-up. MATERIAL AND METHODS...

  9. Primary Care-Based Skin Cancer Screening in a Veterans Affairs Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetter, Susan M; Chang, Julia; Shaub, Amanda R; Weinstock, Martin A; Lewis, Eleanor T; Asch, Steven M

    2017-08-01

    Skin cancer screening may improve melanoma outcomes and keratinocyte carcinoma morbidity, but little is known about the feasibility of skin cancer training and clinical skin examination (CSE) by primary care practitioners (PCPs) in large health care systems. To assess the association of skin cancer training and screening by PCPs with dermatology referral patterns and rates of skin biopsies. In this pilot interventional study performed at the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, patients 35 years or older scheduled for an annual health habits screen in the PCP general medicine clinics were studied. Six PCPs underwent Internet Curriculum for Melanoma Early Detection (INFORMED) training in May 2015, and 5 screened patients during the following 14 months. Proportion of dermatology referrals, subsequent skin biopsies, and PCP diagnostic accuracy for skin cancer or precancer compared with dermatologist diagnosis were assessed in screened patients 14 months before the intervention (February 18, 2014, through April 30, 2015) and after the intervention (June 18, 2015, through August 30, 2016). Among 258 patients offered screening (median age, 70 years; age range, 35-94 years; 255 [98.8%] male), 189 (73.3%) received CSE and 69 (26.7%) declined. A total of 62 of 189 patients (32.8%) were referred to a dermatologist after intervention: 33 (53.2%) for presumptive skin cancers and 15 (24.2%) for precancers. Nine of 50 patients (18.0%) evaluated in dermatology clinic underwent biopsy to exclude skin cancer. Correct diagnoses were made by PCPs in 13 of 38 patients (34.2%; 4 of 27 patients [14.8%] diagnosed with skin cancers and 5 of 11 patients [45.5%] diagnosed with actinic keratoses). Comparison of all outpatient visits for the 5 main participating PCPs before vs after intervention revealed no significant differences in dermatology referrals overall and those for presumptive skin cancer or actinic keratoses, skin biopsies, or PCP diagnostic accuracy with the exception

  10. Radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts from atomic bomb survivors with and without breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Sadayuki; Setlow, R.B.; Bender, M.A.

    1990-11-01

    Fibroblasts were established in vitro from skin biopsies obtained from 55 women and one man with or without breast cancer and with or without exposure to radiation from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima. The radiosensitivity of these cells was evaluated by clonogenic assays after exposure to X rays or to fission neutrons from a 252 Cf source. Data were fitted to a multitarget model, S/S 0 = A[1-(1-e kD ) N ], for both X-ray and neutron dose-survival curves. A single-hit model, S/S 0 = Ae kD , fits the neutron dose-survival responses as well. These was no difference in the means or variances of radiosensitivity between exposed and nonexposed groups, or between patients with or without breast cancer. Hence, although the sample is not large, it provides no support for the hypothesis that A-bomb radiation preferentially induces breast cancer in women whose cells in vitro are sensitive to cell killing by radiation. (author)

  11. Epigenetics in cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Tan Boon; Lim, Jhin Jieh; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Compelling evidence have demonstrated that bulk tumors can arise from a unique subset of cells commonly termed "cancer stem cells" that has been proposed to be a strong driving force of tumorigenesis and a key mechanism of therapeutic resistance. Recent advances in epigenomics have illuminated key mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation contribute to cancer progression. In this review, we present a discussion of how deregulation of various epigenetic pathways can contribute to cancer initiation and tumorigenesis, particularly with respect to maintenance and survival of cancer stem cells. This information, together with several promising clinical and preclinical trials of epigenetic modulating drugs, offer new possibilities for targeting cancer stem cells as well as improving cancer therapy overall.

  12. A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Appearance-focused Intervention to Prevent Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, Joel; Turrisi, Rob; Stapleton, Jerod; Robinson, June

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Skin cancer represents a significant health threat with over 1.3 million diagnoses, 8000 melanoma deaths, and more than $1 billion spent annually for skin cancer healthcare in the US. Despite findings from laboratory, case-control, and prospective studies that indicate a link between youthful indoor tanning (IT) and skin cancer, IT is increasing among US youth. Appearance-focused interventions represent a promising method to counteract these trends. METHODS A total of 430 female indoor tanners were randomized into intervention or no intervention control conditions. Intervention participants received an appearance-focused booklet based on decision-theoretical models of health behavior. Outcome variables included self-reports of IT behavior and intentions, as well as measures of cognitive mediating variables. RESULTS Normative increases in springtime IT rates were significantly lower (ie, over 35%) at 6-month follow-up in intervention versus control participants with similar reductions in future intentions. Mediation analyses revealed 6 cognitive variables (IT attitudes, fashion attitudes, perceived susceptibility to skin cancer and skin damage, subjective norms, and image norms) that significantly mediated change in IT behavior. CONCLUSIONS The appearance-focused intervention demonstrated strong effects on IT behavior and intentions in young indoor tanners. Appearance-focused approaches to skin cancer prevention need to present alternative behaviors as well as alter IT attitudes. Mediational results provide guides for strengthening future appearance-focused interventions directed at behaviors that increase risk of skin cancer. PMID:18937268

  13. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of lung cancer. The risk depends on the number of cigarettes ...

  14. Take Action to Protect Your Skin from the Sun | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soaking up the sun’s rays may give you a great tan, but it may increase your risk of skin cancer in the future. This is especially true if, for example, you have lighter skin or a family history of skin cancer. Any change to the color of your skin indicates damage from ultraviolet (UV) rays, which can lead to skin cancer. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), skin cancer is most common type of cancer diagnosed in the United States. Statistics from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) show that only 2 percent of all skin cancers are melanoma, but melanoma is the cause of most skin cancer–related deaths. Skin cancer is composed of basal and squamous cells, and begins in the outer layer of the skin.

  15. CANCER STEM CELLS IN OSTEOSARCOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Bashur, Lindsay; Zhou, Guang

    2013-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in pediatric patients. Despite conventional treatments such as surgery and chemotherapy, long-term survival rates for patients diagnosed with osteosarcoma have not improved over the last 30 years, likely due to drug-resistant metastasis and disease recurrence. An emerging concept in cancer research is that within a heterogeneous tumor there is a small subset of cells called “cancer stem c...

  16. Molecular classification of basal cell carcinoma of skin by gene expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Byul A; Lim, Hyoseob; Kwon, So Mee; Jo, Yuna; Park, Myong Chul; Lee, Il Jae; Woo, Hyun Goo

    2015-12-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are more common kinds of skin cancer. Although these tumors share common pathological and clinical features, their similarity and heterogeneity at molecular levels are not fully elaborated yet. Here, by performing comparative analysis of gene expression profiling of BCC, SCC, and normal skin tissues, we could classify the BCC into three subtypes of classical, SCC-like, and normal-like BCCs. Functional enrichment and pathway analyses revealed the molecular characteristics of each subtype. The classical BCC showed the enriched expression and transcription signature with the activation of Wnt and Hedgehog signaling pathways, which were well known key features of BCC. By contrast, the SCC-like BCC was enriched with immune-response genes and oxidative stress-related genes. Network analysis revealed the PLAU/PLAUR as a key regulator of SCC-like BCC. The normal-like BCC showed prominent activation of metabolic processes particularly the fatty acid metabolism. The existence of these molecular subtypes could be validated in an independent dataset, which demonstrated the three subgroups of BCC with distinct functional enrichment. In conclusion, we suggest a novel molecular classification of BCC providing insights on the heterogeneous progression of BCC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Synthetic Peptide Drugs for Targeting Skin Cancer: Malignant Melanoma and Melanotic Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Alex N; Rout, Bhimsen; Qi, Mei Bigliardi; Bigliardi, Paul L

    2017-01-01

    Peptides play decisive roles in the skin, ranging from host defense responses to various forms of neuroendocrine regulation of cell and organelle function. Synthetic peptides conjugated to radionuclides or photosensitizers may serve to identify and treat skin tumors and their metastatic forms in other organs of the body. In the introductory part of this review, the role and interplay of the different peptides in the skin are briefly summarized, including their potential application for the management of frequently occurring skin cancers. Special emphasis is given to different targeting options for the treatment of melanoma and melanotic lesions. Radionuclide Targeting: α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is the most prominent peptide for targeting of melanoma tumors via the G protein-coupled melanocortin-1 receptor that is (over-)expressed by melanoma cells and melanocytes. More than 100 different linear and cyclic analogs of α-MSH containing chelators for 111In, 67/68Ga, 64Cu, 90Y, 212Pb, 99mTc, 188Re were synthesized and examined with experimental animals and in a few clinical studies. Linear Ac-Nle-Asp-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-NH2 (NAP-amide) and Re-cyclized Cys- Cys-Glu-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Cys-Arg-Pro-Val-NH2 (Re[Arg11]CCMSH) containing different chelators at the N- or C-terminus served as lead compounds for peptide drugs with further optimized characteristics. Alternatively, melanoma may be targeted with radiopeptides that bind to melanin granules occurring extracellularly in these tumors. Photosensitizer targeting: A more recent approach is the application of photosensitizers attached to the MSH molecule for targeted photodynamic therapy using LED or coherent laser light that specifically activates the photosensitizer. Experimental studies have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach as a more gentle and convenient alternative compared to radionuclides. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Ultraviolet B (UVB) induced DNA damage affects alternative splicing in skin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto Moreno, N.; Dujardin, G.; Kornblihtt, A.R.; Muñoz, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun that reaches the Earth’s surface is a combination of low (UVA, 320-400nm) and high (UVB, 290-320nm) energy light. UVB light causes two types of mutagenic DNA lesions: thymine dimers and (6-4)photo-products. UVB mutagenesis is critical in the generation of skin cancer. We have previously shown that RNA polymerase II (pol II) hyperphosphorylation induced by UVC (254 nm) irradiation of non-skin cells inhibits pol II elongation rates which in turn affects alternative splicing (AS) patterns favouring the synthesis of proapoptotic isoforms of key proteins like Bcl-x or Caspase 9 (C9). As UVC radiation is fully filtered by the ozone layer and AS regulation in skin pathologies has been poorly studied, we decided to extend our studies to human keratinocytes in culture treated with UVB (302nm) light. We observed an increase in pol II hyperphosphorylation, being this modification necessary for the change in AS of a model cassette exon. Moreover, UVB irradiation induces the pro-apoptotic mRNA isoforms of Bcl-x and C9 being these consistent with a key role of AS in response to DNA damage. Our results suggest that UVC and UVB light affect AS decisions through a similar mechanism. This indicates that lower energy irradiation, causing more limited DNA damage than UVC light, is sufficient to alter qualitatively patterns of gene expression in skin cells. (authors)

  19. UV light blocks EGFR signalling in human cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, BB; Neves-Petersen, M T; Klitgaard, S

    2007-01-01

    antibodies. There was a threshold level, below which the receptor could not be blocked. In addition, illumination caused the cells to upregulate the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1, irrespective of the p53 status. Since the EGF receptor is often overexpressed in cancers and other proliferative skin...

  20. [Expression of promyelocytic leukaemia protein in Bowen's disease, skin squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiongyu; Ma, Huiqun; Wang, Shijie; Ma, Yunyun; Zou, Xingwei; Li, Ruilian

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the expression of promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) protein of PML protein in Bowen's disease (BD), skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and explore the role of PML in the pathogenesis of these diseases. PML protein in normal skin tissues and lesions of Bowen's disease, SCC and BCC were detected with immunohistochemistry. Normal skin tissues did not express PML protein. In BCC, PML showed rather low expressions in the skin lesions (8.69% in cell nuclei and 4.35% in cytoplasm). The lesions in BD and SCC (grade I and II) showed obvious overexpression of PML protein in the cell nuclei and cytoplasm, and its expression in the cell nuclei of these lesions was significantly higher than that in grade III-IV SCC. PML protein may play an important role in the early stage of SCC, and its overexpression may contribute to the carcinogenesis and metastasis of SCC.

  1. Photothermal therapeutic effect of PEGylated gold nano-semicubes in chemically-induced skin cancer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Elfadl, Mahmoud T; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Elshafey, Mostafa M; Abdalla, Gamil M; Ali, Shawkey S; Ali, Moustafa R K; Zawrah, Mahmoud F M

    2016-11-01

    The photothermal properties of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are promising therapeutic modality for cancer. The study objective is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of the prepared PEGylated gold nano-semicubes (PEG-GNSCs) in skin cancer. The synthesized PEG-GNSCs were intermediate between cubic and rod shapes (low aspect ratio- rods). In vitro toxicity was investigated in human skin melanoma Sk-Mel-28 cells, and skin squamous cell carcinoma was induced in CD1 mice by dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). The calculated IC 50 in Sk-Mel-28 cells was 3.41μg/ml of PEG-GNSCs, in presence of laser exposure. Photothermal therapy using laser-stimulated PEG-GNSCs resulted in inhibited volume of skin tumors. Our findings indicated that the inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide and cycloxygenase-2, were inhibited in mice after being treated with low and high doses of PEG-GNSCs, accompanied with laser exposure. However, the tumor necrosis factor -α was markedly elevated, while there was no change in 5-lipoxygenase. The pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor was inhibited, while histone acetylation and apoptosis were induced in tumor-bearing groups, after being treated with laser-stimulated PEG-GNSCs. The present study indicated the promising photothermal therapeutic effect of laser-stimulated PEG-GNSCs as an effective modality to inhibit the tumor growth, the angiogenesis and partially the inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-Melanocytic Skin Cancers of the Head and Neck: A Clinical Study in Jeju Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Kyoung Kang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Jeju Island is geographically and socioeconomically distinct from the mainland of South Korea. Thus, the presentation and management of non-melanocytic skin cancers (NMSC of the head and neck may differ from those in other regions of the country. We compared the clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of NMSC on Jeju Island with the findings of similar regional studies. Methods Patient data, including age, sex, diagnosis, tumor site, treatment, and recurrence, were obtained from the medical and pathology records of patients diagnosed with NMSC between January 2010 and June 2015. Results In total, 190 patients (57 men with a mean age of 75 years (range, 42–97 were assessed. Overall, 203 NMSCs were diagnosed, including 123 basal cell carcinomas and 80 squamous cell carcinomas. The tumor sites included the nose, cheeks, periorbital area, and lips (n=55, 54, 25, and 20, respectively. We identified 92 T1-stage and 60 T2-stage tumors, and 120 cases were treated with wide surgical resection and 17 cases were treated with radiation therapy at the medical center. Of the 120 cases treated surgically, 69 required reconstructive surgery using a local skin flap, 22 required full-thickness skin grafting, and 12 underwent primary closure. Basal and squamous cell carcinomas recurred in 2 and 1 cases, respectively. Conclusions Compared to the reports from other regions, the average patient age was 10 years higher, with a marked female preponderance. While the proportion of squamous cell carcinoma was higher than in other regions, the tumor distribution and surgical management profiles were similar.

  3. Concise Review: Cancer Cells, Cancer Stem Cells, and Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Influence in Cancer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaccio, Federica; Paino, Francesca; Regad, Tarik; Desiderio, Vincenzo; Tirino, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Tumors are composed of different types of cancer cells that contribute to tumor heterogeneity. Among these populations of cells, cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an important role in cancer initiation and progression. Like their stem cells counterpart, CSCs are also characterized by self‐renewal and the capacity to differentiate. A particular population of CSCs is constituted by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that differentiate into cells of mesodermal characteristics. Several studies have reported the potential pro‐or anti‐tumorigenic influence of MSCs on tumor initiation and progression. In fact, MSCs are recruited to the site of wound healing to repair damaged tissues, an event that is also associated with tumorigenesis. In other cases, resident or migrating MSCs can favor tumor angiogenesis and increase tumor aggressiveness. This interplay between MSCs and cancer cells is fundamental for cancerogenesis, progression, and metastasis. Therefore, an interesting topic is the relationship between cancer cells, CSCs, and MSCs, since contrasting reports about their respective influences have been reported. In this review, we discuss recent findings related to conflicting results on the influence of normal and CSCs in cancer development. The understanding of the role of MSCs in cancer is also important in cancer management. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:2115–2125 PMID:29072369

  4. Associations between narrative transportation, risk perception and behaviour intentions following narrative messages about skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Amanda J; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Welch, Jessica D

    2017-10-04

    Narrative messages may be an effective strategy to increase risk perceptions and motivate preventive behaviours related to cancer. The aim of this research was to examine associations between narrative transportation (i.e. psychological absorption into a narrative), risk perceptions, and intentions following narrative messages about skin cancer. In two studies, women who reported indoor tanning read first-person narrative messages about skin cancer. We examined associations between narrative transportation and the women's responses to the narratives, including risk perceptions for skin cancer and behaviour intentions to reduce risk. Associations between transportation, knowledge and worry were also examined. Greater transportation was associated with higher intentions to perform skin self-examination, talk to one's doctor about skin cancer, and look for more information. Greater transportation was also associated with higher gut feelings of risk and higher worry about skin cancer, but not deliberative risk perceptions or knowledge from the message. Additional analyses showed that after controlling for risk perception and worry, transportation had unique associations with some behaviour intentions. Findings suggest that narrative transportation may be an important component to the persuasion of cancer narratives. Future research should explore ideas such as the role of the experiential system in narratives' influence.

  5. The relevance of piroxicam for the prevention and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer and its precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campione E

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Elena Campione,1 Evelin Jasmine Paternò,2 Eleonora Candi,3,4 Mattia Falconi,5 Gaetana Costanza,2 Laura Diluvio,1 Alessandro Terrinoni,4 Luca Bianchi,1 Augusto Orlandi2,6,7 1Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, 3Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 4Biochemistry Laboratory IDI-IRCCS, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 5Department of Biology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 6Institute of Anatomic Pathology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 7Tor Vergata University-Policlinic of Rome, Rome, Italy Abstract: Piroxicam (PXM, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is an enolic benzothiazine and a potent member of the oxicam series. The drug suppresses the synthesis of proinflammatory enzymes, such as cyclooxygenases-1 and -2 (COX-1 and 2, downregulates the production of prostaglandins (PGs and tromboxanes, and inhibits polyamines production by blocking ornithine decarboxylase induction involved in nonmelanoma skin carcinogenesis. In addition, PXM is able to induce tumor cell apoptosis and suppresses metalloproteinase 2 activities. Skin carcinogenesis is a multistep process in which the accumulation of genetic events leads to a gradually dysplastic cellular expression, deregulation of cell growth, and carcinomatous progression. COX-1 upregulation plays a significant role in PG and vascular epidermal growth factor production supporting tumor growth. Increased level of PGs in premalignant and/or malignant cutaneous tumors is also favored by upregulation of COX-2 and downregulation of the tumor suppressor gene 15-hydroxy-prostaglandin dehydrogenase. Chemoprevention can be a hopeful approach to inhibit carcinoma occurrence before an invasive tumor develops. The chemopreventive effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on nonmelanoma skin cancers has been established. In this study, we highlighted the different modalities of action

  6. BRACHYURY confers cancer stem cell characteristics on colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debalina; Shields, Brian; Davies, Melanie L; Müller, Jürgen; Wakeman, Jane A

    2012-01-15

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are initiating cells in colorectal cancer (CRC). Colorectal tumours undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like processes at the invasive front, enabling invasion and metastasis, and recent studies have linked this process to the acquisition of stem cell-like properties. It is of fundamental importance to understand the molecular events leading to the establishment of cancer initiating cells and how these mechanisms relate to cellular transitions during tumourigenesis. We use an in vitro system to recapitulate changes in CRC cells at the invasive front (mesenchymal-like cells) and central mass (epithelial-like cells) of tumours. We show that the mesoderm inducer BRACHYURY is expressed in a subpopulation of CRC cells that resemble invasive front mesenchymal-like cells, where it acts to impose characteristics of CSCs in a fully reversible manner, suggesting reversible formation and modulation of such cells. BRACHYURY, itself regulated by the oncogene β-catenin, influences NANOG and other 'stemness' markers including a panel of markers defining CRC-CSC whose presence has been linked to poor patient prognosis. Similar regulation of NANOG through BRACHYURY was observed in other cells lines, suggesting this might be a pathway common to cancer cells undergoing mesenchymal transition. We suggest that BRACHYURY may regulate NANOG in mesenchymal-like CRC cells to impose a 'plastic-state', allowing competence of cells to respond to signals prompting invasion or metastasis. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  7. Mixed germ cell tumor metastatic to the skin: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ying-Hsu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Testicular cancer is the most common cancer for males aged 15~35 years old. The initial presentation is typically an asymptomatic enlarged testicle. The retroperitoneum is the most common metastatic area. Other metastatic sites include the lung, liver, brain, adrenal glands, gastrointestinal tract and spleen. Skin metastasis is a rare event and frequently associated with poor prognosis. Case presentation A 19-year old male was diagnosed testicular mixed germ cell tumor with initial presentation of cutaneous metastasis at scalp and upper abdomen. After radical orchiectomy and four courses of cisplatin-based chemotherapy, the scalp and upper abdominal lesions regressed completely. The size of lung metastases remained unchanged. Conclusions For advanced stage testicular cancer, cisplatin-based chemotherapy is still effective to achieve partial response.

  8. Human papillomavirus types detected in skin warts and cancer differ in their transforming properties but commonly counteract UVB induced protective responses in human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shterzer, Naama; Heyman, Dariya; Shapiro, Beny; Yaniv, Abraham; Jackman, Anna; Serour, Francis; Chaouat, Malka; Gonen, Pinhas; Tommasino, Massimo; Sherman, Levana

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, E6E7 and E6 proteins of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) associated with skin warts and cancer were compared for their transforming and carcinogenic abilities in primary human keratinocytes (PHKs). We show that E6E7 of cancer associated beta HPV types, notably 49 and 24, were able to extend the life span and enhance the clonogenic efficiency of PHKs when maintained in serum free/low calcium medium. Activities of the beta HPV E6E7 were lower than those of HPV16 E6E7. In contrast, E6 proteins from HPV types detected in skin warts or cancer, notably 10, 49 and 38, attenuated UVB induced protective responses in PHKs including cell death, proliferation arrest and accumulation of the proapoptotic proteins, p53, bax or bak. Together, this investigation revealed functional differences and commonalities between HPVs associated with skin warts and cancer, and allowed the identification of specific properties of beta HPVs supporting their involvement in skin carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Primary keratinocytes were used to evaluate transforming and carcinogenic abilities of cutaneous HPVs. • E6E7 of cancer associated β HPV types transform primary human keratinocytes. • E6 proteins of cancer and wart associated HPVs inhibit UVB induced cell death. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced proliferation arrest. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced apoptosis signaling

  9. Human papillomavirus types detected in skin warts and cancer differ in their transforming properties but commonly counteract UVB induced protective responses in human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shterzer, Naama; Heyman, Dariya; Shapiro, Beny; Yaniv, Abraham; Jackman, Anna [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Serour, Francis [Department of Pediatric Surgery, The E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon (Israel); Chaouat, Malka [Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Hadassah University Hospital, Ein Karem, Jerusalem (Israel); Gonen, Pinhas [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Tommasino, Massimo [International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, Lyon (France); Sherman, Levana [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2014-11-15

    In the present study, E6E7 and E6 proteins of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) associated with skin warts and cancer were compared for their transforming and carcinogenic abilities in primary human keratinocytes (PHKs). We show that E6E7 of cancer associated beta HPV types, notably 49 and 24, were able to extend the life span and enhance the clonogenic efficiency of PHKs when maintained in serum free/low calcium medium. Activities of the beta HPV E6E7 were lower than those of HPV16 E6E7. In contrast, E6 proteins from HPV types detected in skin warts or cancer, notably 10, 49 and 38, attenuated UVB induced protective responses in PHKs including cell death, proliferation arrest and accumulation of the proapoptotic proteins, p53, bax or bak. Together, this investigation revealed functional differences and commonalities between HPVs associated with skin warts and cancer, and allowed the identification of specific properties of beta HPVs supporting their involvement in skin carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Primary keratinocytes were used to evaluate transforming and carcinogenic abilities of cutaneous HPVs. • E6E7 of cancer associated β HPV types transform primary human keratinocytes. • E6 proteins of cancer and wart associated HPVs inhibit UVB induced cell death. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced proliferation arrest. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced apoptosis signaling.

  10. Relationships between skin cancers and blood groups--link between non-melanomas and ABO/Rh factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihan, Yasemin Benderli; Baykan, Halit; Kavuncuoglu, Erhan; Mutlu, Hasan; Kucukoglu, Mehmet Burhan; Ozyurt, Kemal; Oguz, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    This investigation focused on possible relationships between skin cancers and ABO/Rh blood groups. Between January 2005 and December 2012, medical data of 255 patients with skin cancers who were admitted to Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Radiation Oncology and Plastic Surgery Outpatient Clinics were retrospectively analyzed. Blood groups of these patients were recorded. The control group consisted of 25701 healthy volunteers who were admitted to Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Blood Donation Center between January 2010 and December 2011. The distribution of the blood groups of the patients with skin cancers was compared to the distribution of ABO/Rh blood groups of healthy controls. The association of the histopathological subtypes of skin cancer with the blood groups was also investigated. Of the patients, 50.2% had A type, 26.3% had O type, 16.1% had B type, and 7.5% had AB blood group with a positive Rh (+) in 77.3%. Of the controls, 44.3% had A type, 31.5% had 0 type, 16.1% had B type, and 8.1% had AB blood group with a positive Rh (+) in 87.8%. There was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of blood groups and Rh factors (A Rh (-) and 0 Rh positive) between the patients and controls. A total of 36.8% and 20.4% of the patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) had A Rh (+) and B Rh (+), respectively, while 39.2% and 27.6% of the controls had A Rh (+) and B Rh (+), respectively. A significant relationship was observed between the patients with BCC and controls in terms of A Rh (-) (p=0.001). Our study results demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between non-melanoma skin cancer and ABO/Rh factors.

  11. Biology of Zika Virus Infection in Human Skin Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Rodolphe; Dejarnac, Ophélie; Wichit, Sineewanlaya; Ekchariyawat, Peeraya; Neyret, Aymeric; Luplertlop, Natthanej; Perera-Lecoin, Manuel; Surasombatpattana, Pornapat; Talignani, Loïc; Thomas, Frédéric; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai; Choumet, Valérie; Briant, Laurence; Desprès, Philippe; Amara, Ali; Yssel, Hans; Missé, Dorothée

    2015-09-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, that causes a mosquito-borne disease transmitted by the Aedes genus, with recent outbreaks in the South Pacific. Here we examine the importance of human skin in the entry of ZIKV and its contribution to the induction of antiviral immune responses. We show that human dermal fibroblasts, epidermal keratinocytes, and immature dendritic cells are permissive to the most recent ZIKV isolate, responsible for the epidemic in French Polynesia. Several entry and/or adhesion factors, including DC-SIGN, AXL, Tyro3, and, to a lesser extent, TIM-1, permitted ZIKV entry, with a major role for the TAM receptor AXL. The ZIKV permissiveness of human skin fibroblasts was confirmed by the use of a neutralizing antibody and specific RNA silencing. ZIKV induced the transcription of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), RIG-I, and MDA5, as well as several interferon-stimulated genes, including OAS2, ISG15, and MX1, characterized by strongly enhanced beta interferon gene expression. ZIKV was found to be sensitive to the antiviral effects of both type I and type II interferons. Finally, infection of skin fibroblasts resulted in the formation of autophagosomes, whose presence was associated with enhanced viral replication, as shown by the use of Torin 1, a chemical inducer of autophagy, and the specific autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. The results presented herein permit us to gain further insight into the biology of ZIKV and to devise strategies aiming to interfere with the pathology caused by this emerging flavivirus. Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Vector-mediated transmission of ZIKV is initiated when a blood-feeding female Aedes mosquito injects the virus into the skin of its mammalian host, followed by infection of permissive cells via specific receptors. Indeed, skin immune cells, including dermal

  12. The effect of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR on induction of skin cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pacholczyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation is a physical mutagenic and cancerogenic factor. About 95% of ultraviolet A (UVA (320–400 nm and 5% of UVB (280–320 nm reach the Earth’s surface. Melanin is a natural skin protective factor against UV radiation. Skin cancers associated with long-term exposure to UV radiation are: basal cell carcinoma (BCC, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM. The high risk of BCC development is related to acute and repeated exposure to UV causing sunburn. Molecular studies of BBC demonstrated disorders in sonic hedgehog (SHH cell signaling regulation pathway, associated with the suppressor protein patched homolog 1 gene (PTCH1 mutations. The risk of the BCC development is related to the polymorphism of melanokortin-1 receptor gene (MC1R. Tumor P53 gene mutations observed in BCC cells has been classified as secondary genetic changes. In SCC cells UV-induced mutations were mostly related to P53 gene. Increased expression of cyclooxigenase- 2 gene (COX-2 plays a significant role in the development of SCC. Other pathogenetic factors include intensification of the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-1 α (IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-6. Currently, the role of UVB has been recognized in the pathogenesis of CMM. In CMM cells the following gene mutations were noted: cyclindependent kinase inhibitor 2A INK4A (p16INK4A, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4, Ras, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN and proto-oncogene B-Raf (BRAF. The BRAF gene mutations were observed in ~50% of CMM cases. Mutations of P53 gene are not characteristic of CMM cells. Med Pr 2016;67(2:255–266

  13. [The effect of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on induction of skin cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacholczyk, Marta; Czernicki, Jan; Ferenc, Tomasz

    Ultraviolet radiation is a physical mutagenic and cancerogenic factor. About 95% of ultraviolet A (UVA) (320-400 nm) and 5% of UVB (280-320 nm) reach the Earth's surface. Melanin is a natural skin protective factor against UV radiation. Skin cancers associated with long-term exposure to UV radiation are: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). The high risk of BCC development is related to acute and repeated exposure to UV causing sunburn. Molecular studies of BBC demonstrated disorders in sonic hedgehog (SHH) cell signaling regulation pathway, associated with the suppressor protein patched homolog 1 gene (PTCH1) mutations. The risk of the BCC development is related to the polymorphism of melanokortin-1 receptor gene (MC1R). Tumor P53 gene mutations observed in BCC cells has been classified as secondary genetic changes. In SCC cells UV-induced mutations were mostly related to P53 gene. Increased expression of cyclooxigenase- 2 gene (COX-2) plays a significant role in the development of SCC. Other pathogenetic factors include intensification of the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 α (IL-1α), IL-1β and IL-6). Currently, the role of UVB has been recognized in the pathogenesis of CMM. In CMM cells the following gene mutations were noted: cyclindependent kinase inhibitor 2A INK4A (p16INK4A), cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), Ras, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and proto-oncogene B-Raf (BRAF). The BRAF gene mutations were observed in ~50% of CMM cases. Mutations of P53 gene are not characteristic of CMM cells. Med Pr 2016;67(2):255-266. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  14. Studying skin tumourigenesis and progression in immunocompetent hairless SKH1-hr mice using chronic 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene topical applications to develop a useful experimental skin cancer model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Giju; Tuk, Bastiaan; Song, Ji-Ying; Truong, Hoa; Gerritsen, Hans C.; de Gruijl, Frank R.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have established that 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) can initiate skin tumourigenesis in conventional furred mouse models by acting on hair follicle stem cells. However, further cancer progression depends on repeated applications of tumour promoter agents. This study

  15. Studying skin tumourigenesis and progression in immunocompetent hairless SKH1-hr mice using chronic 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene topical applications to develop a useful experimental skin cancer model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Giju; Tuk, Bastiaan; Song, Ji Ying; Truong, Hoa; Gerritsen, Hans C.; de Gruijl, Frank R.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.

    Previous studies have established that 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) can initiate skin tumourigenesis in conventional furred mouse models by acting on hair follicle stem cells. However, further cancer progression depends on repeated applications of tumour promoter agents. This study

  16. Melanocyte stem cells as potential therapeutics in skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Hee; Fisher, David E

    2014-11-01

    Melanocytes produce pigment granules that color both skin and hair. In the hair follicles melanocytes are derived from stem cells (MelSCs) that are present in hair bulges or sub-bulge regions and function as melanocyte reservoirs. Quiescence, maintenance, activation and proliferation of MelSCs are controlled by specific activities in the microenvironment that can influence the differentiation and regeneration of melanocytes. Therefore, understanding MelSCs and their niche may lead to use of MelSCs in new treatments for various pigmentation disorders. We describe here pathophysiological mechanisms by which melanocyte defects lead to skin pigmentation disorders such as vitiligo and hair graying. The development, migration and proliferation of melanocytes and factors involved in the survival, maintenance and regeneration of MelSCs are reviewed with regard to the biological roles and potential therapeutic applications in skin pigmentation diseases. MelSC biology and niche factors have been studied mainly in murine experimental models. Human MelSC markers or methods to isolate them are much less well understood. Identification, isolation and culturing of human MelSCs would represent a major step toward new biological therapeutic options for patients with recalcitrant pigmentary disorders or hair graying. By modulating the niche factors for MelSCs, it may one day be possible to control skin pigmentary disorders and prevent or reverse hair graying.

  17. Awareness of Skin Cancer, Prevention, and Early Detection among Turkish University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyafet Ugurlu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the awareness about skin cancer, prevention, and early detection among university students. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with 404 students in a university located in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey. A 35-item questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Less than half of the students (37.9% had knowledge about skin cancer mostly through the internet (24.5% and media (24.1%. Half of them aware of the risk factors; mostly as avoiding direct exposure to the Sun between 10 am and 4 pm (45.3%; smoking and alcohol (38.4%; having fair skin color (34.9%; and ultraviolet light exposure (25.7%. Only one-third of them (32.9% are knowledgeable about skin cancer signs and symptoms, such as a change in color and appearance of the nevus/moles (24%. The majority of the responders (77.3% did not know about screening tests for skin cancer and only 18 (4.5% students were practicing skin self-examination. Conclusions: This study showed a lack of knowledge about skin cancer, prevention, and early detection among university students and reported the need for educational interventions to raise awareness in this target grou