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Sample records for cell size pattern

  1. Concerted evolution of body mass and cell size: similar patterns among species of birds (Galliformes) and mammals (Rodentia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragosz-Kluska, Dominika; Pis, Tomasz; Pawlik, Katarzyna; Kapustka, Filip; Kilarski, Wincenty M.; Kozłowski, Jan

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell size plays a role in body size evolution and environmental adaptations. Addressing these roles, we studied body mass and cell size in Galliformes birds and Rodentia mammals, and collected published data on their genome sizes. In birds, we measured erythrocyte nuclei and basal metabolic rates (BMRs). In birds and mammals, larger species consistently evolved larger cells for five cell types (erythrocytes, enterocytes, chondrocytes, skin epithelial cells, and kidney proximal tubule cells) and evolved smaller hepatocytes. We found no evidence that cell size differences originated through genome size changes. We conclude that the organism-wide coordination of cell size changes might be an evolutionarily conservative characteristic, and the convergent evolutionary body size and cell size changes in Galliformes and Rodentia suggest the adaptive significance of cell size. Recent theory predicts that species evolving larger cells waste less energy on tissue maintenance but have reduced capacities to deliver oxygen to mitochondria and metabolize resources. Indeed, birds with larger size of the abovementioned cell types and smaller hepatocytes have evolved lower mass-specific BMRs. We propose that the inconsistent pattern in hepatocytes derives from the efficient delivery system to hepatocytes, combined with their intense involvement in supracellular function and anabolic activity. PMID:29540429

  2. Concerted evolution of body mass and cell size: similar patterns among species of birds (Galliformes and mammals (Rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Czarnoleski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell size plays a role in body size evolution and environmental adaptations. Addressing these roles, we studied body mass and cell size in Galliformes birds and Rodentia mammals, and collected published data on their genome sizes. In birds, we measured erythrocyte nuclei and basal metabolic rates (BMRs. In birds and mammals, larger species consistently evolved larger cells for five cell types (erythrocytes, enterocytes, chondrocytes, skin epithelial cells, and kidney proximal tubule cells and evolved smaller hepatocytes. We found no evidence that cell size differences originated through genome size changes. We conclude that the organism-wide coordination of cell size changes might be an evolutionarily conservative characteristic, and the convergent evolutionary body size and cell size changes in Galliformes and Rodentia suggest the adaptive significance of cell size. Recent theory predicts that species evolving larger cells waste less energy on tissue maintenance but have reduced capacities to deliver oxygen to mitochondria and metabolize resources. Indeed, birds with larger size of the abovementioned cell types and smaller hepatocytes have evolved lower mass-specific BMRs. We propose that the inconsistent pattern in hepatocytes derives from the efficient delivery system to hepatocytes, combined with their intense involvement in supracellular function and anabolic activity.

  3. Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide with a long-range order and tunable cell sizes by phosphoric acid anodization on pre-patterned substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawathanawises, Krissada; Cheng, Xuanhong

    2014-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) has been explored for various applications due to its regular cell arrangement and relatively easy fabrication processes. However, conventional two-step anodization based on self-organization only allows the fabrication of a few discrete cell sizes and formation of small domains of hexagonally packed pores. Recent efforts to pre-pattern aluminum followed with anodization significantly improve the regularity and available pore geometries in AAO, while systematic study of the anodization condition, especially the impact of acid composition on pore formation guided by nanoindentation is still lacking. In this work, we pre-patterned aluminium thin films using ordered monolayers of silica beads and formed porous AAO in a single-step anodization in phosphoric acid. Controllable cell sizes ranging from 280 nm to 760 nm were obtained, matching the diameters of the silica nanobead molds used. This range of cell size is significantly greater than what has been reported for AAO formed in phosphoric acid in the literature. In addition, the relationships between the acid concentration, cell size, pore size, anodization voltage and film growth rate were studied quantitatively. The results are consistent with the theory of oxide formation through an electrochemical reaction. Not only does this study provide useful operational conditions of nanoindentation induced anodization in phosphoric acid, it also generates significant information for fundamental understanding of AAO formation. PMID:24535886

  4. Spatial patterns of correlated scale size and scale color in relation to color pattern elements in butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Masaki; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-02-01

    Complex butterfly wing color patterns are coordinated throughout a wing by unknown mechanisms that provide undifferentiated immature scale cells with positional information for scale color. Because there is a reasonable level of correspondence between the color pattern element and scale size at least in Junonia orithya and Junonia oenone, a single morphogenic signal may contain positional information for both color and size. However, this color-size relationship has not been demonstrated in other species of the family Nymphalidae. Here, we investigated the distribution patterns of scale size in relation to color pattern elements on the hindwings of the peacock pansy butterfly Junonia almana, together with other nymphalid butterflies, Vanessa indica and Danaus chrysippus. In these species, we observed a general decrease in scale size from the basal to the distal areas, although the size gradient was small in D. chrysippus. Scales of dark color in color pattern elements, including eyespot black rings, parafocal elements, and submarginal bands, were larger than those of their surroundings. Within an eyespot, the largest scales were found at the focal white area, although there were exceptional cases. Similarly, ectopic eyespots that were induced by physical damage on the J. almana background area had larger scales than in the surrounding area. These results are consistent with the previous finding that scale color and size coordinate to form color pattern elements. We propose a ploidy hypothesis to explain the color-size relationship in which the putative morphogenic signal induces the polyploidization (genome amplification) of immature scale cells and that the degrees of ploidy (gene dosage) determine scale color and scale size simultaneously in butterfly wings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cell patterning by laser-assisted bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillard, Raphaël; Pagès, Emeline; Correa, Manuela Medina; Kériquel, Virginie; Rémy, Murielle; Kalisky, Jérôme; Ali, Muhammad; Guillotin, Bertrand; Guillemot, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    The aim of tissue engineering is to produce functional three-dimensional (3D) tissue substitutes. Regarding native organ and tissue complexity, cell density and cell spatial 3D organization, which influence cell behavior and fate, are key parameters in tissue engineering. Laser-Assisted Bioprinting (LAB) allows one to print cells and liquid materials with a cell- or picoliter-level resolution. Thus, LAB seems to be an emerging and promising technology to fabricate tissue-like structures that have the physiological functionality of their native counterparts. This technology has additional advantages such as automation, reproducibility, and high throughput. It makes LAB compatible with the (industrial) fabrication of 3D constructs of physiologically relevant sizes. Here we present exhaustively the numerous steps that allow printing of viable cells with a well-preserved micrometer pattern. To facilitate the understanding of the whole cell patterning experiment using LAB, it is discussed in two parts: (1) preprocessing: laser set-up, bio-ink cartridge and bio-paper preparation, and pattern design; and (2) processing: bio-ink printing on the bio-paper. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fabrication of microstamps and patterned cell network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Nak Seon; Pak, James Jung Ho; Choi, Ju Hee; Ahn, Dong June; Hwang, Seong Min; Lee, Kyung J.

    2002-01-01

    Elastomeric stamps with micrometer-sized grids are fabricated for building biological cell networks by design. Polymerized polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) stamps are cast in a variety of different molds prepared by micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Micro square-grid patterns of 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (APS) are successfully imprinted on glass plates, and patterned networks of cardiac cells are obtained as designed. The resulting cellular networks clearly demonstrate that cell attachment and growth are greatly favored on APS-treated thin tracks. Here, we report the technical details related to the fabrication of microstamps, to the stamping procedure, and to the culture method. The potential applications of patterned cellular networks are also discussed

  7. Relation between the diffraction pattern visibility and dispersion of particle sizes in an ektacytometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, Sergei Yu; Lugovtsov, Andrei E; Priezzhev, A V; Ustinov, V D

    2011-01-01

    We have calculated the angular distribution of the light intensity in the diffraction pattern arising upon scattering of a laser beam on a suspension of red blood cells in an ektacytometer. We have estimated the diffraction pattern visibility in the region of the first diffraction minimum and the first diffraction maximum as a function of particle size variation. It is shown that in this fragment of the diffraction pattern its visibility decreases already twofold in the case of a standard deviation of the particle size from the average value, equal to 8%.

  8. Cell behaviors on micro-patterned porous thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phong, Ho Quoc; Wang Shuling; Wang, Meng-Jiy

    2010-01-01

    Thin polymer films with patterned surfaces have drawn tremendous attention in manufacturing advanced electronic, mechanical devices and in biomaterials due to the advantageous properties such as mechanical strength, chemical resistance and optic transparency. The applications can be extended to the fields such as catalysts, antireflection coatings, template for inorganic growth masks, and substrates for cell culturing providing the patterned surface containing micron-sized features. Various methods have been used to fabricate polymers with micro-patterned surfaces such as photolithographic, ink-jet printing, nonsolvent, spin coating in a dry environment, self-organization, and the condensation of monodisperse water droplet on the polymer solution. The physiological functions of mature cells depend on the microenvironment/niche surrounding which can provide proper factors to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. While designing appropriate scaffolds for tissue engineering, the microstructure is one of the most important factors to be considered. In this work, a facile single-step phase separation method was used to create micro-patterned polymer thin films with concaves or convexes with sizes ranged from 7 to 70 μm. The effects of water content, casting volume and the addition of surfactant on the distribution of pores and substrate morphology were examined. Moreover, detailed observations of fibroblast cells on the micro-patterned thin films were presented to compare and elucidate the roles of surface micro-features and chemical functionalities.

  9. Robust organelle size extractions from elastic scattering measurements of single cells (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannaday, Ashley E.; Draham, Robert; Berger, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this project is to estimate non-nuclear organelle size distributions in single cells by measuring angular scattering patterns and fitting them with Mie theory. Simulations have indicated that the large relative size distribution of organelles (mean:width≈2) leads to unstable Mie fits unless scattering is collected at polar angles less than 20 degrees. Our optical system has therefore been modified to collect angles down to 10 degrees. Initial validations will be performed on polystyrene bead populations whose size distributions resemble those of cell organelles. Unlike with the narrow bead distributions that are often used for calibration, we expect to see an order-of-magnitude improvement in the stability of the size estimates as the minimum angle decreases from 20 to 10 degrees. Scattering patterns will then be acquired and analyzed from single cells (EMT6 mouse cancer cells), both fixed and live, at multiple time points. Fixed cells, with no changes in organelle sizes over time, will be measured to determine the fluctuation level in estimated size distribution due to measurement imperfections alone. Subsequent measurements on live cells will determine whether there is a higher level of fluctuation that could be attributed to dynamic changes in organelle size. Studies on unperturbed cells are precursors to ones in which the effects of exogenous agents are monitored over time.

  10. Spatial Patterning of Newly-Inserted Material during Bacterial Cell Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursell, Tristan

    2012-02-01

    In the life cycle of a bacterium, rudimentary microscopy demonstrates that cell growth and elongation are essential characteristics of cellular reproduction. The peptidoglycan cell wall is the main load-bearing structure that determines both cell shape and overall size. However, simple imaging of cellular growth gives no indication of the spatial patterning nor mechanism by which material is being incorporated into the pre-existing cell wall. We employ a combination of high-resolution pulse-chase fluorescence microscopy, 3D computational microscopy, and detailed mechanistic simulations to explore how spatial patterning results in uniform growth and maintenance of cell shape. We show that growth is happening in discrete bursts randomly distributed over the cell surface, with a well-defined mean size and average rate. We further use these techniques to explore the effects of division and cell wall disrupting antibiotics, like cephalexin and A22, respectively, on the patterning of cell wall growth in E. coli. Finally, we explore the spatial correlation between presence of the bacterial actin-like cytoskeletal protein, MreB, and local cell wall growth. Together these techniques form a powerful method for exploring the detailed dynamics and involvement of antibiotics and cell wall-associated proteins in bacterial cell growth.[4pt] In collaboration with Kerwyn Huang, Stanford University.

  11. Patterns in Abundance, Cell Size and Pigment Content of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria along Environmental Gradients in Northern Lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fauteux

    Full Text Available There is now evidence that aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP bacteria are widespread across aquatic systems, yet the factors that determine their abundance and activity are still not well understood, particularly in freshwaters. Here we describe the patterns in AAP abundance, cell size and pigment content across wide environmental gradients in 43 temperate and boreal lakes of Québec. AAP bacterial abundance varied from 1.51 to 5.49 x 105 cells mL-1, representing <1 to 37% of total bacterial abundance. AAP bacteria were present year-round, including the ice-cover period, but their abundance relative to total bacterial abundance was significantly lower in winter than in summer (2.6% and 7.7%, respectively. AAP bacterial cells were on average two-fold larger than the average bacterial cell size, thus AAP cells made a greater relative contribution to biomass than to abundance. Bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla concentration varied widely across lakes, and was not related to AAP bacterial abundance, suggesting a large intrinsic variability in the cellular pigment content. Absolute and relative AAP bacterial abundance increased with dissolved organic carbon (DOC, whereas cell-specific BChla content was negatively related to chlorophyll a (Chla. As a result, both the contribution of AAP bacteria to total prokaryotic abundance, and the cell-specific BChla pigment content were positively correlated with the DOC:Chla ratio, both peaking in highly colored, low-chlorophyll lakes. Our results suggest that photoheterotrophy might represent a significant ecological advantage in highly colored, low-chlorophyll lakes, where DOC pool is chemically and structurally more complex.

  12. Overspecification of colour, pattern, and size: Salience, absoluteness, and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammie eTarenskeen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rates of overspecification of colour, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Colour and pattern are absolute attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency towards consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of colour and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Using a between-participants design, however, we find similar rates of pattern and size overspecification, which are both lower than the rate of colour overspecification. This indicates that although many speakers are more likely to include colour than pattern (probably because colour is more salient, they may also treat pattern like colour due to a tendency towards consistency. We find no increase in size overspecification when the salience of size is increased, suggesting that speakers are more likely to include absolute than relative attributes. However, we do find an increase in size overspecification when mentioning the attributes is triggered, which again shows that speakers tend refer in a consistent manner, and that there are circumstances in which even size overspecification is frequently produced.

  13. Plasma-Sprayed Titanium Patterns for Enhancing Early Cell Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunqi; Xie, Youtao; Pan, Houhua; Zheng, Xuebin; Huang, Liping; Ji, Fang; Li, Kai

    2016-06-01

    Titanium coating has been widely used as a biocompatible metal in biomedical applications. However, the early cell responses and long-term fixation of titanium implants are not satisfied. To obviate these defects, in this paper, micro-post arrays with various widths (150-1000 μm) and intervals (100-300 μm) were fabricated on the titanium substrate by template-assisted plasma spraying technology. In vitro cell culture experiments showed that MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited significantly higher osteogenic differentiation as well as slightly improved adhesion and proliferation on the micro-patterned coatings compared with the traditional one. The cell number on the pattern with 1000 µm width reached 130% after 6 days of incubation, and the expressions of osteopontin (OPN) as well as osteocalcin (OC) were doubled. No obvious difference was found in cell adhesion on various size patterns. The present micro-patterned coatings proposed a new modification method for the traditional plasma spraying technology to enhance the early cell responses and convenience for the bone in-growth.

  14. Voronoi cell patterns: Theoretical model and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Diego Luis; Einstein, T. L.

    2011-11-01

    We use a simple fragmentation model to describe the statistical behavior of the Voronoi cell patterns generated by a homogeneous and isotropic set of points in 1D and in 2D. In particular, we are interested in the distribution of sizes of these Voronoi cells. Our model is completely defined by two probability distributions in 1D and again in 2D, the probability to add a new point inside an existing cell and the probability that this new point is at a particular position relative to the preexisting point inside this cell. In 1D the first distribution depends on a single parameter while the second distribution is defined through a fragmentation kernel; in 2D both distributions depend on a single parameter. The fragmentation kernel and the control parameters are closely related to the physical properties of the specific system under study. We use our model to describe the Voronoi cell patterns of several systems. Specifically, we study the island nucleation with irreversible attachment, the 1D car-parking problem, the formation of second-level administrative divisions, and the pattern formed by the Paris Métro stations.

  15. Autonomous patterning of cells on microstructured fine particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Iwori; Kawanabe, Masato; Kaneko, Arata

    2015-01-01

    Regularly patterned cells can clarify cellular function and are required in some biochip applications. This study examines cell patterning along microstructures and the effect of microstructural geometry on selective cellular adhesion. Particles can be autonomously assembled on a soda-lime glass substrate that is chemically patterned by immersion in a suspension of fine particles. By adopting various sizes of fine particles, we can control the geometry of the microstructure. Cells adhere more readily to microstructured fine particles than to flat glass substrate. Silica particles hexagonally packed in 5–40 μm line and space microstructures provide an effective cell scaffold on the glass substrate. Cultured cells tend to attach and proliferate along the microstructured region while avoiding the flat region. The difference in cell adhesion is attributed to their geometries, as both of the silica particles and soda-lime glass are hydrophilic related with cell adhesiveness. After cell seeding, cells adhered to the flat region migrated toward the microstructured region. For most of the cells to assemble on the scaffold, the scaffolding microstructures must be spaced by at most 65 μm. - Highlights: • PS and SiO 2 particles provide effective scaffolds for cells. • Cells that adhere to microstructured particles successfully proliferate and differentiate. • Selective adhesion and growth along the scaffold can be achieved by patterning the fine particle microstructure. • Cells adhered to flat regions migrate toward microstructured regions. • Selective adhesion by cells depends on the microstructural geometry; specifically, on the inter-line spacing

  16. Overspecification of colour, pattern, and size: Salience, absoluteness, and consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Sammie eTarenskeen; Mirjam eBroersma; Mirjam eBroersma; Bart eGeurts

    2015-01-01

    The rates of overspecification of colour, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Colour and pattern are absolute attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency towards consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of colour and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Using a bet...

  17. Overspecification of color, pattern, and size: salience, absoluteness, and consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Tarenskeen, S.L.; Broersma, M.; Geurts, B.

    2015-01-01

    The rates of overspecification of color, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Color and pattern are absolute and salient attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency toward consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of color and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Usi...

  18. Fabrication of nano-sized metal patterns on flexible polyethylene-terephthalate substrate using bi-layer nanoimprint lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seon Yong; Jung, Ho Yong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jun-Ho [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Yuseong-gu Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Heon, E-mail: heonlee@korea.ac.k [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-29

    Polymer films are widely used as a substrate for displays and for solar cells since they are cheap, transparent and flexible, and their material properties are easy to design. Polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) is especially useful for various applications requiring transparency, flexibility and good thermal and chemical resistance. In this study, nano-sized metal patterns were fabricated on flexible PET film by using nanoimprint lithography (NIL). Water-soluble poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) resin was used as a planarization and sacrificial layer for the lift-off process, as it does not damage the PET films and can easily be etched off by using oxygen plasma. NIL was used to fabricate the nano-sized patterns on the non-planar or flexible substrate. Finally, a nano-sized metal pattern was successfully formed by depositing the metal layer over the imprinted resist patterns and applying the lift-off process, which is economic and environmentally friendly, to the PET films.

  19. Voronoi Cell Patterns: theoretical model and application to submonolayer growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Diego Luis; Einstein, T. L.

    2012-02-01

    We use a simple fragmentation model to describe the statistical behavior of the Voronoi cell patterns generated by a homogeneous and isotropic set of points in 1D and in 2D. In particular, we are interested in the distribution of sizes of these Voronoi cells. Our model is completely defined by two probability distributions in 1D and again in 2D, the probability to add a new point inside an existing cell and the probability that this new point is at a particular position relative to the preexisting point inside this cell. In 1D the first distribution depends on a single parameter while the second distribution is defined through a fragmentation kernel; in 2D both distributions depend on a single parameter. The fragmentation kernel and the control parameters are closely related to the physical properties of the specific system under study. We apply our model to describe the Voronoi cell patterns of island nucleation for critical island sizes i=0,1,2,3. Experimental results for the Voronoi cells of InAs/GaAs quantum dots are also described by our model.

  20. Nanometer-scale sizing accuracy of particle suspensions on an unmodified cell phone using elastic light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary J; Chu, Kaiqin; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    We report on the construction of a Fourier plane imaging system attached to a cell phone. By illuminating particle suspensions with a collimated beam from an inexpensive diode laser, angularly resolved scattering patterns are imaged by the phone's camera. Analyzing these patterns with Mie theory results in predictions of size distributions of the particles in suspension. Despite using consumer grade electronics, we extracted size distributions of sphere suspensions with better than 20 nm accuracy in determining the mean size. We also show results from milk, yeast, and blood cells. Performing these measurements on a portable device presents opportunities for field-testing of food quality, process monitoring, and medical diagnosis.

  1. Decoding size distribution patterns in marine and transitional water phytoplankton: from community to species level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonilde Roselli

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms of phytoplankton community assembly is a fundamental issue of aquatic ecology. Here, we use field data from transitional (e.g. coastal lagoons and coastal water environments to decode patterns of phytoplankton size distribution into organization and adaptive mechanisms. Transitional waters are characterized by higher resource availability and shallower well-mixed water column than coastal marine environments. Differences in physico-chemical regime between the two environments have been hypothesized to exert contrasting selective pressures on phytoplankton cell morphology (size and shape. We tested the hypothesis focusing on resource availability (nutrients and light and mixed layer depth as ecological axes that define ecological niches of phytoplankton. We report fundamental differences in size distributions of marine and freshwater diatoms, with transitional water phytoplankton significantly smaller and with higher surface to volume ratio than marine species. Here, we hypothesize that mixing condition affecting size-dependent sinking may drive phytoplankton size and shape distributions. The interplay between shallow mixed layer depth and frequent and complete mixing of transitional waters may likely increase the competitive advantage of small phytoplankton limiting large cell fitness. The nutrient regime appears to explain the size distribution within both marine and transitional water environments, while it seem does not explain the pattern observed across the two environments. In addition, difference in light availability across the two environments appear do not explain the occurrence of asymmetric size distribution at each hierarchical level. We hypothesize that such competitive equilibria and adaptive strategies in resource exploitation may drive by organism's behavior which exploring patch resources in transitional and marine phytoplankton communities.

  2. Size-dependent diffusion promotes the emergence of spatiotemporal patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lai; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Banerjee, Malay

    2014-01-01

    intraspecific physiological variations at the individual level. Here we explore the impacts of size variation within species resulting from individual ontogeny, on the emergence of spatiotemporal patterns in a fully size-structured population model. We found that size dependency of animal's diffusivity greatly......, we found that the single-generation cycle is more likely to drive spatiotemporal patterns compared to predator-prey cycles, meaning that the mechanism of Hopf bifurcation might be more common than hitherto appreciated since the former cycle is more widespread than the latter in case of interacting...

  3. Critical dimension and pattern size enhancement using pre-strained lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jian-Wei [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsin Chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Yang, Chung-Yuan [Institute of NanoEngineering and MicroSystems, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsin Chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lo, Cheng-Yao, E-mail: chengyao@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsin Chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Institute of NanoEngineering and MicroSystems, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsin Chu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-13

    This paper proposes a non-wavelength-shortening-related critical dimension and pattern size reduction solution for the integrated circuit industry that entails generating strain on the substrate prior to lithography. Pattern size reduction of up to 49% was achieved regardless of shape, location, and size on the xy plane, and complete theoretical calculations and process steps are described in this paper. This technique can be applied to enhance pattern resolution by employing materials and process parameters already in use and, thus, to enhance the capability of outdated lithography facilities, enabling them to particularly support the manufacturing of flexible electronic devices with polymer substrates.

  4. Size-based predictions of food web patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lai; Hartvig, Martin; Knudsen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    We employ size-based theoretical arguments to derive simple analytic predictions of ecological patterns and properties of natural communities: size-spectrum exponent, maximum trophic level, and susceptibility to invasive species. The predictions are brought about by assuming that an infinite number...... of species are continuously distributed on a size-trait axis. It is, however, an open question whether such predictions are valid for a food web with a finite number of species embedded in a network structure. We address this question by comparing the size-based predictions to results from dynamic food web...... simulations with varying species richness. To this end, we develop a new size- and trait-based food web model that can be simplified into an analytically solvable size-based model. We confirm existing solutions for the size distribution and derive novel predictions for maximum trophic level and invasion...

  5. Nanometer-scale sizing accuracy of particle suspensions on an unmodified cell phone using elastic light scattering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary J Smith

    Full Text Available We report on the construction of a Fourier plane imaging system attached to a cell phone. By illuminating particle suspensions with a collimated beam from an inexpensive diode laser, angularly resolved scattering patterns are imaged by the phone's camera. Analyzing these patterns with Mie theory results in predictions of size distributions of the particles in suspension. Despite using consumer grade electronics, we extracted size distributions of sphere suspensions with better than 20 nm accuracy in determining the mean size. We also show results from milk, yeast, and blood cells. Performing these measurements on a portable device presents opportunities for field-testing of food quality, process monitoring, and medical diagnosis.

  6. Acoustic tweezers: patterning cells and microparticles using standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinjie; Ahmed, Daniel; Mao, Xiaole; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Lawit, Aitan; Huang, Tony Jun

    2009-10-21

    Here we present an active patterning technique named "acoustic tweezers" that utilizes standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW) to manipulate and pattern cells and microparticles. This technique is capable of patterning cells and microparticles regardless of shape, size, charge or polarity. Its power intensity, approximately 5x10(5) times lower than that of optical tweezers, compares favorably with those of other active patterning methods. Flow cytometry studies have revealed it to be non-invasive. The aforementioned advantages, along with this technique's simple design and ability to be miniaturized, render the "acoustic tweezers" technique a promising tool for various applications in biology, chemistry, engineering, and materials science.

  7. Cell Size Regulation in Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ariel

    2014-05-01

    Various bacteria such as the canonical gram negative Escherichia coli or the well-studied gram positive Bacillus subtilis divide symmetrically after they approximately double their volume. Their size at division is not constant, but is typically distributed over a narrow range. Here, we propose an analytically tractable model for cell size control, and calculate the cell size and interdivision time distributions, as well as the correlations between these variables. We suggest ways of extracting the model parameters from experimental data, and show that existing data for E. coli supports partial size control, and a particular explanation: a cell attempts to add a constant volume from the time of initiation of DNA replication to the next initiation event. This hypothesis accounts for the experimentally observed correlations between mother and daughter cells as well as the exponential dependence of size on growth rate.

  8. Mechanical Model of Geometric Cell and Topological Algorithm for Cell Dynamics from Single-Cell to Formation of Monolayered Tissues with Pattern

    KAUST Repository

    Kachalo, Sëma

    2015-05-14

    Geometric and mechanical properties of individual cells and interactions among neighboring cells are the basis of formation of tissue patterns. Understanding the complex interplay of cells is essential for gaining insight into embryogenesis, tissue development, and other emerging behavior. Here we describe a cell model and an efficient geometric algorithm for studying the dynamic process of tissue formation in 2D (e.g. epithelial tissues). Our approach improves upon previous methods by incorporating properties of individual cells as well as detailed description of the dynamic growth process, with all topological changes accounted for. Cell size, shape, and division plane orientation are modeled realistically. In addition, cell birth, cell growth, cell shrinkage, cell death, cell division, cell collision, and cell rearrangements are now fully accounted for. Different models of cell-cell interactions, such as lateral inhibition during the process of growth, can be studied in detail. Cellular pattern formation for monolayered tissues from arbitrary initial conditions, including that of a single cell, can also be studied in detail. Computational efficiency is achieved through the employment of a special data structure that ensures access to neighboring cells in constant time, without additional space requirement. We have successfully generated tissues consisting of more than 20,000 cells starting from 2 cells within 1 hour. We show that our model can be used to study embryogenesis, tissue fusion, and cell apoptosis. We give detailed study of the classical developmental process of bristle formation on the epidermis of D. melanogaster and the fundamental problem of homeostatic size control in epithelial tissues. Simulation results reveal significant roles of solubility of secreted factors in both the bristle formation and the homeostatic control of tissue size. Our method can be used to study broad problems in monolayered tissue formation. Our software is publicly

  9. Synthesis of MSnO{sub 3} (M = Ba, Sr) nanoparticles by reverse micelle method and particle size distribution analysis by whole powder pattern modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Jahangeer; Blakely, Colin K.; Bruno, Shaun R. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Poltavets, Viktor V., E-mail: poltavets@chemistry.msu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► BaSnO{sub 3} and SrSnO{sub 3} nanoparticles synthesized using the reverse micelle method. ► Particle size and size distribution studied by whole powder pattern modeling. ► Nanoparticles are of optimal size for investigation in dye-sensitized solar cells. -- Abstract: Light-to-electricity conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells critically depends not only on the dye molecule, semiconducting material and redox shuttle selection but also on the particle size and particle size distribution of the semiconducting photoanode. In this study, nanocrystalline BaSnO{sub 3} and SrSnO{sub 3} particles have been synthesized using the microemulsion method. Particle size distribution was studied by whole powder pattern modeling which confirmed narrow particle size distribution with an average size of 18.4 ± 8.3 nm for SrSnO{sub 3} and 15.8 ± 4.2 nm for BaSnO{sub 3}. These values are in close agreement with results of transmission electron microscopy. The prepared materials have optimal microstructure for successive investigation in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  10. Developmental heterogeneity in DNA packaging patterns influences T-cell activation and transmigration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Gupta

    Full Text Available Cellular differentiation programs are accompanied by large-scale changes in nuclear organization and gene expression. In this context, accompanying transitions in chromatin assembly that facilitates changes in gene expression and cell behavior in a developmental system are poorly understood. Here, we address this gap and map structural changes in chromatin organization during murine T-cell development, to describe an unusual heterogeneity in chromatin organization and associated functional correlates in T-cell lineage. Confocal imaging of DNA assembly in cells isolated from bone marrow, thymus and spleen reveal the emergence of heterogeneous patterns in DNA organization in mature T-cells following their exit from the thymus. The central DNA pattern dominated in immature precursor cells in the thymus whereas both central and peripheral DNA patterns were observed in naïve and memory cells in circulation. Naïve T-cells with central DNA patterns exhibited higher mechanical pliability in response to compressive loads in vitro and transmigration assays in vivo, and demonstrated accelerated expression of activation-induced marker CD69. T-cell activation was characterized by marked redistribution of DNA assembly to a central DNA pattern and increased nuclear size. Notably, heterogeneity in DNA patterns recovered in cells induced into quiescence in culture, suggesting an internal regulatory mechanism for chromatin reorganization. Taken together, our results uncover an important component of plasticity in nuclear organization, reflected in chromatin assembly, during T-cell development, differentiation and transmigration.

  11. Not all cells are equal: effects of temperature and sex on the size of different cell types in the Madagascar ground gecko Paroedura picta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Czarnoleski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell size plays a role in evolutionary and phenotypically plastic changes in body size. To examine this role, we measured the sizes of seven cell types of geckos (Paroedura picta reared at three constant temperatures (24, 27, and 30°C. Our results show that the cell size varies according to the body size, sex and developmental temperature, but the pattern of this variance depends on the cell type. We identified three groups of cell types, and the cell sizes changed in a coordinated manner within each group. Larger geckos had larger erythrocytes, striated muscle cells and hepatocytes (our first cell group, but their renal proximal tubule cells and duodenal enterocytes (our second cell group, as well as tracheal chondrocytes and epithelial skin cells (our third cell group, were largely unrelated to the body size. For six cell types, we also measured the nuclei and found that larger cells had larger nuclei. The relative sizes of the nuclei were not invariant but varied in a complex manner with temperature and sex. In conclusion, we provide evidence suggesting that changes in cell size might be commonly involved in the origin of thermal and sexual differences in adult size. A recent theory predicts that smaller cells speed up metabolism but demand more energy for their maintenance; consequently, the cell size matches the metabolic demand and supply, which in ectotherms, largely depends on the thermal conditions. The complex thermal dependency of cell size in geckos suggests that further advancements in understanding the adaptive value of cell size requires the consideration of tissue-specific demand/supply conditions.

  12. Cell patterning on poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)-patterned fluoropolymer substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wan-Joong [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Chang-Hee; Hwang, In-Tae [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Chan-Hee, E-mail: jch@kaeri.re.kr [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae-Hak, E-mail: jaehakchoi@cnu.ac.kr [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung-Kwon [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •PFA films were functionalized by ion-beam induced surface graft polymerization. •Poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS)-patterned PFA films were prepared. •Well-organized cell patterns were obtained on PSS-patterned PFA films. •This method is useful to fabricate bio-platforms for cell-based biodevices. -- Abstract: The surface functionalization of bio-inert fluoropolymer films through ion beam-induced surface graft polymerization was investigated to control the cellular behavior. The surface of poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluoropropl vinyl ether) (PFA) films was selectively activated by 150 keV H{sup +} ion implantation in the presence of a pattern mask and sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (SS) was then graft polymerized onto the implanted PFA films to form hydrophilic poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS)-patterned PFA films. The surface of the resulting PSS-patterned PFA films was investigated in terms of the degree of graft polymerization, chemical structure, chemical composition, wettability, and morphology. The analytical results revealed that PSS was selectively grafted onto the implanted regions of the PFA films. Furthermore, in vitro cell culture on the PSS-patterned PFA films exhibited a preferential adhesion and growth of cells onto the PSS-grafted regions, resulting in well-organized 100 μm cell patterns.

  13. Cell patterning on poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)-patterned fluoropolymer substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wan-Joong; Jung, Chang-Hee; Hwang, In-Tae; Jung, Chan-Hee; Choi, Jae-Hak; Hong, Sung-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •PFA films were functionalized by ion-beam induced surface graft polymerization. •Poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS)-patterned PFA films were prepared. •Well-organized cell patterns were obtained on PSS-patterned PFA films. •This method is useful to fabricate bio-platforms for cell-based biodevices. -- Abstract: The surface functionalization of bio-inert fluoropolymer films through ion beam-induced surface graft polymerization was investigated to control the cellular behavior. The surface of poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluoropropl vinyl ether) (PFA) films was selectively activated by 150 keV H + ion implantation in the presence of a pattern mask and sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (SS) was then graft polymerized onto the implanted PFA films to form hydrophilic poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS)-patterned PFA films. The surface of the resulting PSS-patterned PFA films was investigated in terms of the degree of graft polymerization, chemical structure, chemical composition, wettability, and morphology. The analytical results revealed that PSS was selectively grafted onto the implanted regions of the PFA films. Furthermore, in vitro cell culture on the PSS-patterned PFA films exhibited a preferential adhesion and growth of cells onto the PSS-grafted regions, resulting in well-organized 100 μm cell patterns

  14. Micrometer-sized Isolated Patterns of Conductive ZnO derived by Micromoulding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göbel, Ole F.; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Blank, David A.H.

    2009-01-01

    We succeeded in the fabrication of large-area patterns with micrometer-sized, isolated features of a simple oxide by a technically simple patterning method. By micromoulding a polymeric precursor solution for ZnO with an elastomeric (PDMS) mould, and a subsequent heat treatment, patterned ZnO films

  15. Mice divergently selected for high and low basal metabolic rates evolved different cell size and organ mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciak, S; Bonda-Ostaszewska, E; Czarnołęski, M; Konarzewski, M; Kozłowski, J

    2014-03-01

    Evolution of metabolic rates of multicellular organisms is hypothesized to reflect the evolution of their cell architecture. This is likely to stem from a tight link between the sizes of cells and nuclei, which are expected to be inversely related to cell metabolism. Here, we analysed basal metabolic rate (BMR), internal organ masses and the cell/nucleus size in different tissues of laboratory mice divergently selected for high/low mass-corrected BMR and four random-bred mouse lines. Random-bred lines had intermediate levels of BMR as compared to low- and high-BMR lines. Yet, this pattern was only partly consistent with the between-line differences in cell/nucleus sizes. Erythrocytes and skin epithelium cells were smaller in the high-BMR line than in other lines, but the cells of low-BMR and random-bred mice were similar in size. On the other hand, the size of hepatocytes, kidney proximal tubule cells and duodenum enterocytes were larger in high-BMR mice than other lines. All cell and nucleus sizes were positively correlated, which supports the role of the nucleus in cell size regulation. Our results suggest that the evolution of high BMR involves a reduction in cell size in specialized tissues, whose functions are primarily dictated by surface-to-volume ratios, such as erythrocytes. High BMR may, however, also incur an increase in cell size in tissues with an intense transcription and translation, such as hepatocytes. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Single-step laser-based fabrication and patterning of cell-encapsulated alginate microbeads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingsley, D M; Dias, A D; Corr, D T; Chrisey, D B

    2013-01-01

    Alginate can be used to encapsulate mammalian cells and for the slow release of small molecules. Packaging alginate as microbead structures allows customizable delivery for tissue engineering, drug release, or contrast agents for imaging. However, state-of-the-art microbead fabrication has a limited range in achievable bead sizes, and poor control over bead placement, which may be desired to localize cellular signaling or delivery. Herein, we present a novel, laser-based method for single-step fabrication and precise planar placement of alginate microbeads. Our results show that bead size is controllable within 8%, and fabricated microbeads can remain immobilized within 2% of their target placement. Demonstration of this technique using human breast cancer cells shows that cells encapsulated within these microbeads survive at a rate of 89.6%, decreasing to 84.3% after five days in culture. Infusing rhodamine dye into microbeads prior to fluorescent microscopy shows their 3D spheroidal geometry and the ability to sequester small molecules. Microbead fabrication and patterning is compatible with conventional cellular transfer and patterning by laser direct-write, allowing location-based cellular studies. While this method can also be used to fabricate microbeads en masse for collection, the greatest value to tissue engineering and drug delivery studies and applications lies in the pattern registry of printed microbeads. (paper)

  17. High resolution imaging of surface patterns of single bacterial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greif, Dominik; Wesner, Daniel; Regtmeier, Jan; Anselmetti, Dario

    2010-01-01

    We systematically studied the origin of surface patterns observed on single Sinorhizobium meliloti bacterial cells by comparing the complementary techniques atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Conditions ranged from living bacteria in liquid to fixed bacteria in high vacuum. Stepwise, we applied different sample modifications (fixation, drying, metal coating, etc.) and characterized the observed surface patterns. A detailed analysis revealed that the surface structure with wrinkled protrusions in SEM images were not generated de novo but most likely evolved from similar and naturally present structures on the surface of living bacteria. The influence of osmotic stress to the surface structure of living cells was evaluated and also the contribution of exopolysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by imaging two mutant strains of the bacterium under native conditions. AFM images of living bacteria in culture medium exhibited surface structures of the size of single proteins emphasizing the usefulness of AFM for high resolution cell imaging.

  18. Ontogeny of metabolic rate and red blood cell size in eyelid geckos: species follow different paths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Starostová

    Full Text Available While metabolism is a fundamental feature of all organisms, the causes of its scaling with body mass are not yet fully explained. Nevertheless, observations of negative correlations between red blood cell (RBC size and the rate of metabolism suggest that size variation of these cells responsible for oxygen supply may play a crucial role in determining metabolic rate scaling in vertebrates. Based on a prediction derived from the Cell Metabolism Hypothesis, metabolic rate should increase linearly with body mass in species with RBC size invariance, and slower than linearly when RBC size increases with body mass. We found support for that prediction in five species of eyelid geckos (family Eublepharidae with different patterns of RBC size variation during ontogenetic growth. During ontogeny, metabolic rate increases nearly linearly with body mass in those species of eyelid geckos where there is no correlation between RBC size and body mass, whereas non-linearity of metabolic rate scaling is evident in those species with ontogenetic increase of RBC size. Our findings provide evidence that ontogenetic variability in RBC size, possibly correlating with sizes of other cell types, could have important physiological consequences and can contribute to qualitatively different shape of the intraspecific relationship between metabolic rate and body mass.

  19. Ontogeny of metabolic rate and red blood cell size in eyelid geckos: species follow different paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostová, Zuzana; Konarzewski, Marek; Kozłowski, Jan; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    While metabolism is a fundamental feature of all organisms, the causes of its scaling with body mass are not yet fully explained. Nevertheless, observations of negative correlations between red blood cell (RBC) size and the rate of metabolism suggest that size variation of these cells responsible for oxygen supply may play a crucial role in determining metabolic rate scaling in vertebrates. Based on a prediction derived from the Cell Metabolism Hypothesis, metabolic rate should increase linearly with body mass in species with RBC size invariance, and slower than linearly when RBC size increases with body mass. We found support for that prediction in five species of eyelid geckos (family Eublepharidae) with different patterns of RBC size variation during ontogenetic growth. During ontogeny, metabolic rate increases nearly linearly with body mass in those species of eyelid geckos where there is no correlation between RBC size and body mass, whereas non-linearity of metabolic rate scaling is evident in those species with ontogenetic increase of RBC size. Our findings provide evidence that ontogenetic variability in RBC size, possibly correlating with sizes of other cell types, could have important physiological consequences and can contribute to qualitatively different shape of the intraspecific relationship between metabolic rate and body mass.

  20. A Versatile Method of Patterning Proteins and Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrirao, Anil B; Kung, Frank H; Yip, Derek; Firestein, Bonnie L; Cho, Cheul H; Townes-Anderson, Ellen

    2017-02-26

    Substrate and cell patterning techniques are widely used in cell biology to study cell-to-cell and cell-to-substrate interactions. Conventional patterning techniques work well only with simple shapes, small areas and selected bio-materials. This article describes a method to distribute cell suspensions as well as substrate solutions into complex, long, closed (dead-end) polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels using negative pressure. This method enables researchers to pattern multiple substrates including fibronectin, collagen, antibodies (Sal-1), poly-D-lysine (PDL), and laminin. Patterning of substrates allows one to indirectly pattern a variety of cells. We have tested C2C12 myoblasts, the PC12 neuronal cell line, embryonic rat cortical neurons, and amphibian retinal neurons. In addition, we demonstrate that this technique can directly pattern fibroblasts in microfluidic channels via brief application of a low vacuum on cell suspensions. The low vacuum does not significantly decrease cell viability as shown by cell viability assays. Modifications are discussed for application of the method to different cell and substrate types. This technique allows researchers to pattern cells and proteins in specific patterns without the need for exotic materials or equipment and can be done in any laboratory with a vacuum.

  1. Cell size, genome size and the dominance of Angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, K. A.; Roddy, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    Angiosperms are capable of maintaining the highest rates of photosynthetic gas exchange of all land plants. High rates of photosynthesis depends mechanistically both on efficiently transporting water to the sites of evaporation in the leaf and on regulating the loss of that water to the atmosphere as CO2 diffuses into the leaf. Angiosperm leaves are unique in their ability to sustain high fluxes of liquid and vapor phase water transport due to high vein densities and numerous, small stomata. Despite the ubiquity of studies characterizing the anatomical and physiological adaptations that enable angiosperms to maintain high rates of photosynthesis, the underlying mechanism explaining why they have been able to develop such high leaf vein densities, and such small and abundant stomata, is still incomplete. Here we ask whether the scaling of genome size and cell size places a fundamental constraint on the photosynthetic metabolism of land plants, and whether genome downsizing among the angiosperms directly contributed to their greater potential and realized primary productivity relative to the other major groups of terrestrial plants. Using previously published data we show that a single relationship can predict guard cell size from genome size across the major groups of terrestrial land plants (e.g. angiosperms, conifers, cycads and ferns). Similarly, a strong positive correlation exists between genome size and both stomatal density and vein density that together ultimately constrains maximum potential (gs, max) and operational stomatal conductance (gs, op). Further the difference in the slopes describing the covariation between genome size and both gs, max and gs, op suggests that genome downsizing brings gs, op closer to gs, max. Taken together the data presented here suggests that the smaller genomes of angiosperms allow their final cell sizes to vary more widely and respond more directly to environmental conditions and in doing so bring operational photosynthetic

  2. The Dynamical Mechanisms of the Cell Cycle Size Checkpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Shi-Fu; Yang Ling; Yan Jie; Liu Zeng-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Cell division must be tightly coupled to cell growth in order to maintain cell size, whereas the mechanisms of how initialization of mitosis is regulated by cell size remain to be elucidated. We develop a mathematical model of the cell cycle, which incorporates cell growth to investigate the dynamical properties of the size checkpoint in embryos of Xenopus laevis. We show that the size checkpoint is naturally raised from a saddle-node bifurcation, and in a mutant case, the cell loses its size control ability due to the loss of this saddle-node point

  3. Analysis of Noise Mechanisms in Cell-Size Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Saurabh; Vargas-Garcia, Cesar Augusto; Ghusinga, Khem Raj; Singh, Abhyudai

    2017-06-06

    At the single-cell level, noise arises from multiple sources, such as inherent stochasticity of biomolecular processes, random partitioning of resources at division, and fluctuations in cellular growth rates. How these diverse noise mechanisms combine to drive variations in cell size within an isoclonal population is not well understood. Here, we investigate the contributions of different noise sources in well-known paradigms of cell-size control, such as adder (division occurs after adding a fixed size from birth), sizer (division occurs after reaching a size threshold), and timer (division occurs after a fixed time from birth). Analysis reveals that variation in cell size is most sensitive to errors in partitioning of volume among daughter cells, and not surprisingly, this process is well regulated among microbes. Moreover, depending on the dominant noise mechanism, different size-control strategies (or a combination of them) provide efficient buffering of size variations. We further explore mixer models of size control, where a timer phase precedes/follows an adder, as has been proposed in Caulobacter crescentus. Although mixing a timer and an adder can sometimes attenuate size variations, it invariably leads to higher-order moments growing unboundedly over time. This results in a power-law distribution for the cell size, with an exponent that depends inversely on the noise in the timer phase. Consistent with theory, we find evidence of power-law statistics in the tail of C. crescentus cell-size distribution, although there is a discrepancy between the observed power-law exponent and that predicted from the noise parameters. The discrepancy, however, is removed after data reveal that the size added by individual newborns in the adder phase itself exhibits power-law statistics. Taken together, this study provides key insights into the role of noise mechanisms in size homeostasis, and suggests an inextricable link between timer-based models of size control and

  4. A model for size- and rotation-invariant pattern processing in the visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitboeck, H J; Altmann, J

    1984-01-01

    The mapping of retinal space onto the striate cortex of some mammals can be approximated by a log-polar function. It has been proposed that this mapping is of functional importance for scale- and rotation-invariant pattern recognition in the visual system. An exact log-polar transform converts centered scaling and rotation into translations. A subsequent translation-invariant transform, such as the absolute value of the Fourier transform, thus generates overall size- and rotation-invariance. In our model, the translation-invariance is realized via the R-transform. This transform can be executed by simple neural networks, and it does not require the complex computations of the Fourier transform, used in Mellin-transform size-invariance models. The logarithmic space distortion and differentiation in the first processing stage of the model is realized via "Mexican hat" filters whose diameter increases linearly with eccentricity, similar to the characteristics of the receptive fields of retinal ganglion cells. Except for some special cases, the model can explain object recognition independent of size, orientation and position. Some general problems of Mellin-type size-invariance models-that also apply to our model-are discussed.

  5. Optimizing Grid Patterns on Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    CELCAL computer program helps in optimizing grid patterns for different photovoltaic cell geometries and metalization processes. Five different powerloss phenomena associated with front-surface metal grid pattern on photovoltaic cells.

  6. Model-Based Analysis of Arabidopsis Leaf Epidermal Cells Reveals Distinct Division and Expansion Patterns for Pavement and Guard Cells1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asl, Leila Kheibarshekan; Dhondt, Stijn; Boudolf, Véronique; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.; Beeckman, Tom; Inzé, Dirk; Govaerts, Willy; De Veylder, Lieven

    2011-01-01

    To efficiently capture sunlight for photosynthesis, leaves typically develop into a flat and thin structure. This development is driven by cell division and expansion, but the individual contribution of these processes is currently unknown, mainly because of the experimental difficulties to disentangle them in a developing organ, due to their tight interconnection. To circumvent this problem, we built a mathematic model that describes the possible division patterns and expansion rates for individual epidermal cells. This model was used to fit experimental data on cell numbers and sizes obtained over time intervals of 1 d throughout the development of the first leaf pair of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The parameters were obtained by a derivative-free optimization method that minimizes the differences between the predicted and experimentally observed cell size distributions. The model allowed us to calculate probabilities for a cell to divide into guard or pavement cells, the maximum size at which it can divide, and its average cell division and expansion rates at each point during the leaf developmental process. Surprisingly, average cell cycle duration remained constant throughout leaf development, whereas no evidence for a maximum cell size threshold for cell division of pavement cells was found. Furthermore, the model predicted that neighboring cells of different sizes within the epidermis expand at distinctly different relative rates, which could be verified by direct observations. We conclude that cell division seems to occur independently from the status of cell expansion, whereas the cell cycle might act as a timer rather than as a size-regulated machinery. PMID:21693673

  7. Cell-size distribution in epithelial tissue formation and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puliafito, Alberto; Primo, Luca; Celani, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    How cell growth and proliferation are orchestrated in living tissues to achieve a given biological function is a central problem in biology. During development, tissue regeneration and homeostasis, cell proliferation must be coordinated by spatial cues in order for cells to attain the correct size and shape. Biological tissues also feature a notable homogeneity of cell size, which, in specific cases, represents a physiological need. Here, we study the temporal evolution of the cell-size distribution by applying the theory of kinetic fragmentation to tissue development and homeostasis. Our theory predicts self-similar probability density function (PDF) of cell size and explains how division times and redistribution ensure cell size homogeneity across the tissue. Theoretical predictions and numerical simulations of confluent non-homeostatic tissue cultures show that cell size distribution is self-similar. Our experimental data confirm predictions and reveal that, as assumed in the theory, cell division times scale like a power-law of the cell size. We find that in homeostatic conditions there is a stationary distribution with lognormal tails, consistently with our experimental data. Our theoretical predictions and numerical simulations show that the shape of the PDF depends on how the space inherited by apoptotic cells is redistributed and that apoptotic cell rates might also depend on size. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Patterned cell arrays and patterned co-cultures on polydopamine-modified poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckwith, Kai M; Sikorski, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Live cell arrays are an emerging tool that expand traditional 2D in vitro cell culture, increasing experimental precision and throughput. A patterned cell system was developed by combining the cell-repellent properties of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels with the cell adhesive properties of self-assembled films of dopamine (polydopamine). It was shown that polydopamine could be patterned onto spin-cast polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels by microcontact printing, which in turn effectively patterned the growth of several cell types (HeLa, human embryonic kidney, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and prostate cancer). The cells could be patterned in geometries down to single-cell confinement, and it was demonstrated that cell patterns could be maintained for at least 3 weeks. Furthermore, polydopamine could be used to modify poly(vinyl alcohol) in situ using a cell-compatible deposition buffer (1 mg mL −1 dopamine in 25 mM tris with a physiological salt balance). The treatment switched the PVA hydrogel from cell repellent to cell adhesive. Finally, by combining microcontact printing and in situ deposition of polydopamine, patterned co-cultures of the same cell type (HeLa/HeLa) and dissimilar cell types (HeLa/HUVEC) were realized through simple chemistry and could be studied over time. The combination of polyvinyl alcohol and polydopamine was shown to be an attractive route to versatile, patterned cell culture experiments with minimal infrastructure requirements and low complexity. (paper)

  9. Ordered patterns of cell shape and orientational correlation during spontaneous cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke T Maeda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the absence of stimuli, most motile eukaryotic cells move by spontaneously coordinating cell deformation with cell movement in the absence of stimuli. Yet little is known about how cells change their own shape and how cells coordinate the deformation and movement. Here, we investigated the mechanism of spontaneous cell migration by using computational analyses. METHODOLOGY: We observed spontaneously migrating Dictyostelium cells in both a vegetative state (round cell shape and slow motion and starved one (elongated cell shape and fast motion. We then extracted regular patterns of morphological dynamics and the pattern-dependent systematic coordination with filamentous actin (F-actin and cell movement by statistical dynamic analyses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that Dictyostelium cells in both vegetative and starved states commonly organize their own shape into three ordered patterns, elongation, rotation, and oscillation, in the absence of external stimuli. Further, cells inactivated for PI3-kinase (PI3K and/or PTEN did not show ordered patterns due to the lack of spatial control in pseudopodial formation in both the vegetative and starved states. We also found that spontaneous polarization was achieved in starved cells by asymmetric localization of PTEN and F-actin. This breaking of the symmetry of protein localization maintained the leading edge and considerably enhanced the persistence of directed migration, and overall random exploration was ensured by switching among the different ordered patterns. Our findings suggest that Dictyostelium cells spontaneously create the ordered patterns of cell shape mediated by PI3K/PTEN/F-actin and control the direction of cell movement by coordination with these patterns even in the absence of external stimuli.

  10. Nanoimprint-Transfer-Patterned Solids Enhance Light Absorption in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younghoon

    2017-03-13

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) materials are of interest in thin-film solar cells due to their size-tunable bandgap and low-cost solution-processing. However, CQD solar cells suffer from inefficient charge extraction over the film thicknesses required for complete absorption of solar light. Here we show a new strategy to enhance light absorption in CQD solar cells by nanostructuring the CQD film itself at the back interface. We use two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations to study quantitatively the light absorption enhancement in nanostructured back interfaces in CQD solar cells. We implement this experimentally by demonstrating a nanoimprint-transfer-patterning (NTP) process for the fabrication of nanostructured CQD solids with highly ordered patterns. We show that this approach enables a boost in the power conversion efficiency in CQD solar cells primarily due to an increase in short-circuit current density as a result of enhanced absorption through light-trapping.

  11. Computational model-informed design and bioprinting of cell-patterned constructs for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Aurélie; Skvortsov, Gözde Akdeniz; Hafezi, Forough; Ferraris, Eleonora; Patterson, Jennifer; Koç, Bahattin; Van Oosterwyck, Hans

    2016-05-17

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a rapidly advancing tissue engineering technology that holds great promise for the regeneration of several tissues, including bone. However, to generate a successful 3D bone tissue engineering construct, additional complexities should be taken into account such as nutrient and oxygen delivery, which is often insufficient after implantation in large bone defects. We propose that a well-designed tissue engineering construct, that is, an implant with a specific spatial pattern of cells in a matrix, will improve the healing outcome. By using a computational model of bone regeneration we show that particular cell patterns in tissue engineering constructs are able to enhance bone regeneration compared to uniform ones. We successfully bioprinted one of the most promising cell-gradient patterns by using cell-laden hydrogels with varying cell densities and observed a high cell viability for three days following the bioprinting process. In summary, we present a novel strategy for the biofabrication of bone tissue engineering constructs by designing cell-gradient patterns based on a computational model of bone regeneration, and successfully bioprinting the chosen design. This integrated approach may increase the success rate of implanted tissue engineering constructs for critical size bone defects and also can find a wider application in the biofabrication of other types of tissue engineering constructs.

  12. Voronoi Cell Patterns: Application of the size distribution to societal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyanarayanan, Rajesh; González, Diego Luis; Pimpinelli, Alberto; Einstein, T. L.

    2012-02-01

    In studying the growth of islands on a surface subjected to a particle flux, we found it useful to characterize the distribution of the areas of associated Voronoi (proximity or Wigner-Seitz) cells in terms of the generalized Wigner surmiseootnotetextAP & TLE, PRL 99 (2007) 226102; PRL 104 (2010) 149602 and the gamma distributions. Here we show that the same concepts and distributions are useful in analyzing several problems arising in society.ootnotetextDLG et al., arXiv 1109.3994; RS, Ph.D. dissertation; RS et al., preprint We analyze the 1D problem of the distribution of gaps between parked cars, assuming that successive cars park in the middle of vacant spaces, and compare with published data. We study the formation of second-level administrative divisions, e.g. French arrondissements. We study the actual distribution of arrondissements and the Voronoi tessellation associated with the chief town in each. While generally applicable, there are subtleties in some cases. Lastly, we consider the pattern formed by Paris M'etro stations and show that near the central area, the associated Voronoi construction also has this sort of distribution.

  13. Simulation of Cell Patterning Triggered by Cell Death and Differential Adhesion in Drosophila Wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Tatsuzo; Honda, Hisao; Takemura, Masahiko

    2018-02-27

    The Drosophila wing exhibits a well-ordered cell pattern, especially along the posterior margin, where hair cells are arranged in a zigzag pattern in the lateral view. Based on an experimental result observed during metamorphosis of Drosophila, we considered that a pattern of initial cells autonomously develops to the zigzag pattern through cell differentiation, intercellular communication, and cell death (apoptosis) and performed computer simulations of a cell-based model of vertex dynamics for tissues. The model describes the epithelial tissue as a monolayer cell sheet of polyhedral cells. Their vertices move according to equations of motion, minimizing the sum total of the interfacial and elastic energies of cells. The interfacial energy densities between cells are introduced consistently with an ideal zigzag cell pattern, extracted from the experimental result. The apoptosis of cells is modeled by gradually reducing their equilibrium volume to zero and by assuming that the hair cells prohibit neighboring cells from undergoing apoptosis. Based on experimental observations, we also assumed wing elongation along the proximal-distal axis. Starting with an initial cell pattern similar to the micrograph experimentally obtained just before apoptosis, we carried out the simulations according to the model mentioned above and successfully reproduced the ideal zigzag cell pattern. This elucidates a physical mechanism of patterning triggered by cell apoptosis theoretically and exemplifies, to our knowledge, a new framework to study apoptosis-induced patterning. We conclude that the zigzag cell pattern is formed by an autonomous communicative process among the participant cells. Copyright © 2018 Biophysical Society. All rights reserved.

  14. The cell pattern correction through design-based metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonghyeon; Lee, Kweonjae; Chang, Jinman; Kim, Taeheon; Han, Daehan; Lee, Kyusun; Hong, Aeran; Kang, Jinyoung; Choi, Bumjin; Lee, Joosung; Yeom, Kyehee; Lee, Jooyoung; Hong, Hyeongsun; Lee, Kyupil; Jin, Gyoyoung

    2015-03-01

    Starting with the sub 2Xnm node, the process window becomes smaller and tighter than before. Pattern related error budget is required for accurate critical-dimension control of Cell layers. Therefore, lithography has been faced with its various difficulties, such as weird distribution, overlay error, patterning difficulty etc. The distribution of cell pattern and overlay management are the most important factors in DRAM field. We had been experiencing that the fatal risk is caused by the patterns located in the tail of the distribution. The overlay also induces the various defect sources and misalignment issues. Even though we knew that these elements are important, we could not classify the defect type of Cell patterns. Because there is no way to gather massive small pattern CD samples in cell unit block and to compare layout with cell patterns by the CD-SEM. The CD- SEM is used in order to gather these data through high resolution, but CD-SEM takes long time to inspect and extract data because it measures the small FOV. (Field Of View) However, the NGR(E-beam tool) provides high speed with large FOV and high resolution. Also, it's possible to measure an accurate overlay between the target layout and cell patterns because they provide DBM. (Design Based Metrology) By using massive measured data, we extract the result that it is persuasive by applying the various analysis techniques, as cell distribution and defects, the pattern overlay error correction etc. We introduce how to correct cell pattern, by using the DBM measurement, and new analysis methods.

  15. Tuning cell adhesion by direct nanostructuring silicon into cell repulsive/adhesive patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premnath, Priyatha; Tavangar, Amirhossein; Tan, Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Developing platforms that allow tuning cell functionality through incorporating physical, chemical, or mechanical cues onto the material surfaces is one of the key challenges in research in the field of biomaterials. In this respect, various approaches have been proposed and numerous structures have been developed on a variety of materials. Most of these approaches, however, demand a multistep process or post-chemical treatment. Therefore, a simple approach would be desirable to develop bio-functionalized platforms for effectively modulating cell adhesion and consequently programming cell functionality without requiring any chemical or biological surface treatment. This study introduces a versatile yet simple laser approach to structure silicon (Si) chips into cytophobic/cytophilic patterns in order to modulate cell adhesion and proliferation. These patterns are fabricated on platforms through direct laser processing of Si substrates, which renders a desired computer-generated configuration into patterns. We investigate the morphology, chemistry, and wettability of the platform surfaces. Subsequently, we study the functionality of the fabricated platforms on modulating cervical cancer cells (HeLa) behaviour. The results from in vitro studies suggest that the nanostructures efficiently repel HeLa cells and drive them to migrate onto untreated sites. The study of the morphology of the cells reveals that cells evade the cytophobic area by bending and changing direction. Additionally, cell patterning, cell directionality, cell channelling, and cell trapping are achieved by developing different platforms with specific patterns. The flexibility and controllability of this approach to effectively structure Si substrates to cell-repulsive and cell-adhesive patterns offer perceptible outlook for developing bio-functionalized platforms for a variety of biomedical devices. Moreover, this approach could pave the way for developing anti-cancer platforms that selectively repel

  16. Tuning cell adhesion by direct nanostructuring silicon into cell repulsive/adhesive patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premnath, Priyatha, E-mail: priyatha.premnath@ryerson.ca [Micro/Nanofabrication Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 2K3 (Canada); Tavangar, Amirhossein, E-mail: atavanga@ryerson.ca [Micro/Nanofabrication Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 2K3 (Canada); Tan, Bo, E-mail: tanbo@ryerson.ca [Nanocharacterization Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 2K3 (Canada); Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan, E-mail: venkat@ryerson.ca [Micro/Nanofabrication Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2015-09-10

    Developing platforms that allow tuning cell functionality through incorporating physical, chemical, or mechanical cues onto the material surfaces is one of the key challenges in research in the field of biomaterials. In this respect, various approaches have been proposed and numerous structures have been developed on a variety of materials. Most of these approaches, however, demand a multistep process or post-chemical treatment. Therefore, a simple approach would be desirable to develop bio-functionalized platforms for effectively modulating cell adhesion and consequently programming cell functionality without requiring any chemical or biological surface treatment. This study introduces a versatile yet simple laser approach to structure silicon (Si) chips into cytophobic/cytophilic patterns in order to modulate cell adhesion and proliferation. These patterns are fabricated on platforms through direct laser processing of Si substrates, which renders a desired computer-generated configuration into patterns. We investigate the morphology, chemistry, and wettability of the platform surfaces. Subsequently, we study the functionality of the fabricated platforms on modulating cervical cancer cells (HeLa) behaviour. The results from in vitro studies suggest that the nanostructures efficiently repel HeLa cells and drive them to migrate onto untreated sites. The study of the morphology of the cells reveals that cells evade the cytophobic area by bending and changing direction. Additionally, cell patterning, cell directionality, cell channelling, and cell trapping are achieved by developing different platforms with specific patterns. The flexibility and controllability of this approach to effectively structure Si substrates to cell-repulsive and cell-adhesive patterns offer perceptible outlook for developing bio-functionalized platforms for a variety of biomedical devices. Moreover, this approach could pave the way for developing anti-cancer platforms that selectively repel

  17. Enhancement of silicon using micro-patterned surfaces of thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Kaivosoja

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Micro-textured biomaterials might enhance cytocompatibility of silicon-based micro-electro-mechanical system (bio-MEMS dummies. Photolithography-physical vapour deposition was used to produce diamond-like carbon (DLC or Ti squares and circles on silicon, and also their inverse replicas; then DLC and Ti were compared for their guiding potential, using a SaOS-2 cell model. Scanning electron microscopy at 48 hours indicated cells were well-spread on large-sized patterns (several cells on one pattern and assumed the geometrical architecture of underlying features. Medium-sized patterns (slightly smaller than solitary indicator cells were inhabited by singular cells, which stretched from one island to another, assuming longitudinal or branching morphologies. On small-sized patterns (much smaller than individual cells cells covered large micro-textured areas, but cellular filopodia bypassed the bare silicon. Immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that the actin cytoskeleton and vinculin-containing adhesion junctions were present on the patterned areas, but not on the bare silicon. Cell density/coverage disclosed a 3.4-3.7-fold preference for the biomaterial patterns over silicon substrate (p < 0.001. Differences in the cellular response between materials were lost at 120 hours when cells were confluent. The working hypothesis was proven; enhancement by micro-patterning depends on the pattern size, shape and material and can be used to improve biocompatibility during the initial integration phase of the device.

  18. Aligned, isotropic and patterned carbon nanotube substrates that control the growth and alignment of Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Che Azurahanim Che; Asanithi, Piyapong; Brunner, Eric W; Jurewicz, Izabela; Bo, Chiara; Sear, Richard P; Dalton, Alan B [Department of Physics and Surrey Materials Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Azad, Chihye Lewis; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Fang Shaoli; Lima, Marcio D; Lepro, Xavier; Collins, Steve; Baughman, Ray H, E-mail: r.sear@surrey.ac.uk [Alan G MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080-3021 (United States)

    2011-05-20

    Here we culture Chinese hamster ovary cells on isotropic, aligned and patterned substrates based on multiwall carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes provide the substrate with nanoscale topography. The cells adhere to and grow on all substrates, and on the aligned substrate, the cells align strongly with the axis of the bundles of the multiwall nanotubes. This control over cell alignment is required for tissue engineering; almost all tissues consist of oriented cells. The aligned substrates are made using straightforward physical chemistry techniques from forests of multiwall nanotubes; no lithography is required to make inexpensive large-scale substrates with highly aligned nanoscale grooves. Interestingly, although the cells strongly align with the nanoscale grooves, only a few also elongate along this axis: alignment of the cells does not require a pronounced change in morphology of the cell. We also pattern the nanotube bundles over length scales comparable to the cell size and show that the cells follow this pattern.

  19. A two-step patterning process increases the robustness of periodic patterning in the fly eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavish, Avishai; Barkai, Naama

    2016-06-01

    Complex periodic patterns can self-organize through dynamic interactions between diffusible activators and inhibitors. In the biological context, self-organized patterning is challenged by spatial heterogeneities ('noise') inherent to biological systems. How spatial variability impacts the periodic patterning mechanism and how it can be buffered to ensure precise patterning is not well understood. We examine the effect of spatial heterogeneity on the periodic patterning of the fruit fly eye, an organ composed of ∼800 miniature eye units (ommatidia) whose periodic arrangement along a hexagonal lattice self-organizes during early stages of fly development. The patterning follows a two-step process, with an initial formation of evenly spaced clusters of ∼10 cells followed by a subsequent refinement of each cluster into a single selected cell. Using a probabilistic approach, we calculate the rate of patterning errors resulting from spatial heterogeneities in cell size, position and biosynthetic capacity. Notably, error rates were largely independent of the desired cluster size but followed the distributions of signaling speeds. Pre-formation of large clusters therefore greatly increases the reproducibility of the overall periodic arrangement, suggesting that the two-stage patterning process functions to guard the pattern against errors caused by spatial heterogeneities. Our results emphasize the constraints imposed on self-organized patterning mechanisms by the need to buffer stochastic effects. Author summary Complex periodic patterns are common in nature and are observed in physical, chemical and biological systems. Understanding how these patterns are generated in a precise manner is a key challenge. Biological patterns are especially intriguing, as they are generated in a noisy environment; cell position and cell size, for example, are subject to stochastic variations, as are the strengths of the chemical signals mediating cell-to-cell communication. The need

  20. Size effect in X-ray and electron diffraction patterns from hydroxyapatite particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvorova, E.I.; Buffat, P.-A.

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron microdiffraction, and X-ray diffraction were used to study hydroxyapatite specimens with particle sizes from a few nanometers to several hundreds of nanometers. Diffuse scattering (without clear reflections in transmission diffraction patterns) or strongly broadened peaks in X-ray diffraction patterns are characteristic for agglomerated hydroxyapatite nanocrystals. However, HRTEM and microdiffraction showed that this cannot be considered as an indication of the amorphous state of the matter but rather as the demonstration of size effect and the morphological and structural features of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals

  1. Cell size checkpoint control by the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Su-Chiung; de los Reyes, Chris; Umen, James G

    2006-10-13

    Size control is essential for all proliferating cells, and is thought to be regulated by checkpoints that couple cell size to cell cycle progression. The aberrant cell-size phenotypes caused by mutations in the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor pathway are consistent with a role in size checkpoint control, but indirect effects on size caused by altered cell cycle kinetics are difficult to rule out. The multiple fission cell cycle of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii uncouples growth from division, allowing direct assessment of the relationship between size phenotypes and checkpoint function. Mutations in the C. reinhardtii RB homolog encoded by MAT3 cause supernumerous cell divisions and small cells, suggesting a role for MAT3 in size control. We identified suppressors of an mat3 null allele that had recessive mutations in DP1 or dominant mutations in E2F1, loci encoding homologs of a heterodimeric transcription factor that is targeted by RB-related proteins. Significantly, we determined that the dp1 and e2f1 phenotypes were caused by defects in size checkpoint control and were not due to a lengthened cell cycle. Despite their cell division defects, mat3, dp1, and e2f1 mutants showed almost no changes in periodic transcription of genes induced during S phase and mitosis, many of which are conserved targets of the RB pathway. Conversely, we found that regulation of cell size was unaffected when S phase and mitotic transcription were inhibited. Our data provide direct evidence that the RB pathway mediates cell size checkpoint control and suggest that such control is not directly coupled to the magnitude of periodic cell cycle transcription.

  2. Comparative analysis of cells and proteins of pumpkin plants for the control of fruit size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yumiko; Taniguchi, Go; Takazaki, Shinya; Oda-Ueda, Naoko; Miyahara, Kohji; Ohshima, Yasumi

    2012-09-01

    Common pumpkin plants (Cucurbita maxima) produce fruits of 1-2 kg size on the average, while special varieties of the same species called Atlantic Giant are known to produce a huge fruit up to several hundred kilograms. As an approach to determine the factors controlling the fruit size in C. maxima, we cultivated both AG and control common plants, and found that both the cell number and cell sizes were increased in a large fruit while DNA content of the cell did not change significantly. We also compared protein patterns in the leaves, stems, ripe and young fruits by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis, and identified those differentially expressed between them with mass spectroscopy. Based on these results, we suggest that factors in photosynthesis such as ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase, glycolysis pathway enzymes, heat-shock proteins and ATP synthase play positive or negative roles in the growth of a pumpkin fruit. These results provide a step toward the development of plant biotechnology to control fruit size in the future. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The thermal environment of the nest affects body and cell size in the solitary red mason bee (Osmia bicornis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierat, Justyna; Szentgyörgyi, Hajnalka; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Woyciechowski, Michał

    2017-08-01

    Many ectotherms grow larger at lower temperatures than at higher temperatures. This pattern, known as the temperature-size rule, is often accompanied by plastic changes in cell size, which can mechanistically explain the thermal dependence of body size. However, the theory predicts that thermal plasticity in cell size has adaptive value for ectotherms because there are different optimal cell-membrane-to-cell-volume ratios at different temperatures. At high temperatures, the demand for oxygen is high; therefore, a large membrane surface of small cells is beneficial because it allows high rates of oxygen transport into the cell. The metabolic costs of maintaining membranes become more important at low temperatures than at high temperatures, which favours large cells. In a field experiment, we manipulated the thermal conditions inside nests of the red mason bee, a solitary bee that does not regulate the temperature in its nests and whose larvae develop under ambient conditions. We assessed the effect of temperature on body mass and ommatidia size (our proxy of cell size). The body and cell sizes decreased in response to a higher mean temperature and greater temperature fluctuations. This finding is in accordance with predictions of the temperature-size rule and optimal cell size theory and suggests that both the mean temperature and the magnitude of temperature fluctuations are important for determining body and cell sizes. Additionally, we observed that males of the red mason bee tend to have larger ommatidia in relation to their body mass than females, which might play an important role during mating flight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Constraints on the adult-offspring size relationship in protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caval-Holme, Franklin; Payne, Jonathan; Skotheim, Jan M

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between adult and offspring size is an important aspect of reproductive strategy. Although this filial relationship has been extensively examined in plants and animals, we currently lack comparable data for protists, whose strategies may differ due to the distinct ecological and physiological constraints on single-celled organisms. Here, we report measurements of adult and offspring sizes in 3888 species and subspecies of foraminifera, a class of large marine protists. Foraminifera exhibit a wide range of reproductive strategies; species of similar adult size may have offspring whose sizes vary 100-fold. Yet, a robust pattern emerges. The minimum (5th percentile), median, and maximum (95th percentile) offspring sizes exhibit a consistent pattern of increase with adult size independent of environmental change and taxonomic variation over the past 400 million years. The consistency of this pattern may arise from evolutionary optimization of the offspring size-fecundity trade-off and/or from cell-biological constraints that limit the range of reproductive strategies available to single-celled organisms. When compared with plants and animals, foraminifera extend the evidence that offspring size covaries with adult size across an additional five orders of magnitude in organism size. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Stationary Size Distributions of Growing Cells with Binary and Multiple Cell Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rading, M. M.; Engel, T. A.; Lipowsky, R.; Valleriani, A.

    2011-10-01

    Populations of unicellular organisms that grow under constant environmental conditions are considered theoretically. The size distribution of these cells is calculated analytically, both for the usual process of binary division, in which one mother cell produces always two daughter cells, and for the more complex process of multiple division, in which one mother cell can produce 2 n daughter cells with n=1,2,3,… . The latter mode of division is inspired by the unicellular algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The uniform response of the whole population to different environmental conditions is encoded in the individual rates of growth and division of the cells. The analytical treatment of the problem is based on size-dependent rules for cell growth and stochastic transition processes for cell division. The comparison between binary and multiple division shows that these different division processes lead to qualitatively different results for the size distribution and the population growth rates.

  6. Covariation of metabolic rates and cell size in coccolithophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, G.

    2015-08-01

    Coccolithophores are sensitive recorders of environmental change. The size of their coccosphere varies in the ocean along gradients of environmental conditions and provides a key for understanding the fate of this important phytoplankton group in the future ocean. But interpreting field changes in coccosphere size in terms of laboratory observations is hard, mainly because the marine signal reflects the response of multiple morphotypes to changes in a combination of environmental variables. In this paper I examine the large corpus of published laboratory experiments with coccolithophores looking for relations between environmental conditions, metabolic rates and cell size (a proxy for coccosphere size). I show that growth, photosynthesis and, to a lesser extent, calcification covary with cell size when pCO2, irradiance, temperature, nitrate, phosphate and iron conditions change. With the exception of phosphate and temperature, a change from limiting to non-limiting conditions always results in an increase in cell size. An increase in phosphate or temperature (below the optimum temperature for growth) produces the opposite effect. The magnitude of the coccosphere-size changes observed in the laboratory is comparable to that observed in the ocean. If the biological reasons behind the environment-metabolism-size link are understood, it will be possible to use coccosphere-size changes in the modern ocean and in marine sediments to investigate the fate of coccolithophores in the future ocean. This reasoning can be extended to the size of coccoliths if, as recent experiments are starting to show, coccolith size reacts to environmental change proportionally to coccosphere size. The coccolithophore database is strongly biased in favour of experiments with the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (E. huxleyi; 82 % of database entries), and more experiments with other species are needed to understand whether these observations can be extended to coccolithophores in general. I

  7. Difference in inhaled aerosol deposition patterns in the lungs due to three different sized aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, M.; Isawa, T.; Teshima, T.; Anazawa, Y.; Motomiya, M.

    1992-01-01

    Deposition patterns of inhaled aerosol in the lungs were studied in five normal subjects and 20 patients with lung disease by inhaling radioaerosols with three different particle size distributions. Particle size distributions were 0.84, 1.04 and 1.93 μm in activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) with its geometric standard deviation (σg) of 1.73, 1.71 and 1.52, respectively. Deposition patterns of inhaled aerosols were compared qualitatively and quantitatively by studying six different parameters: alveolar deposition ratio (ALDR), X max , X mean , standard deviation (S.D.), skewness and kurtosis of the radioactive distribution in the lungs following inhalation. It has been found that aerosol deposition patterns varied with particle size. The unevenness of aerosol deposition, X max , X mean and the number of 'hot spots' became more prominent with increase in particle size, whereas values of ALDR and S.D. decreased as particle size increased. (author)

  8. Nanolithography and nanochemistry: probe-related patterning techniques and chemical modification for nanometer-sized devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, D.; Schubert, U.S.

    2004-01-01

    The size regime for devices produced by photolithographic techniques is limited. Therefore, other patterning techniques have been intensively studied to create smaller structures. Scanning-probe-based patterning techniques, such as dip-pen lithography, local force-induced patterning, and local-probe

  9. Freshwater fishes in Greek lakes: Species richness and body size patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi Oikonomou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater ecosystems are widely recognised as hotspots of biodiversity and endemism; thus they are of great value for conservation biogeography. Amongst the taxa found in freshwater ecosystems, fish are the ideal biological model for testing biogeographical patterns and have often been used in large-scale ecological and biogeographical analyses. Lakes of Greece provide a unique opportunity to test biogeographical theories, however, biogeographical studies in Greece at broader, regional, scales, based on the distribution of freshwater species, species richness and endemism, are scarce. The aim of the current study is to test the effect of key environmental factors and spatial variables on species richness of lacustrine fishes and to test their effect on species’ size distributions. We assembled datasets of species richness and body size and environmental (predictor factors for 13 Greek lakes. Model selection procedures revealed that fish species richness increased with ecosystem area and decreased with altitude. In addition, our results showed that latitude per se is a good predictor of body size. Indeed, the mean size of lacustrine communities in the northern and southern lake ecosystems differed significantly. These patterns reflect the biogeographical history of these areas and highlight the crucial role connectivity plays in communities’ species composition.

  10. Size- and food-dependent growth drives patterns of competitive dominance along productivity gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huss, M.; Gårdmark, A.; van Leeuwen, A.; de Roos, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of coexistence among competing species exhibiting size- and food-dependent growth remain largely unexplored. Here we studied mechanisms behind coexistence and shifts in competitive dominance in a size-structured fish guild, representing sprat and herring stocks in the Baltic Sea, using a

  11. Analysis of human blood plasma cell-free DNA fragment size distribution using EvaGreen chemistry based droplet digital PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, M Rohan; Jiang, Chao; Krzyzanowski, Gary D; Ryan, Wayne L

    2018-04-12

    Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) fragment size distribution provides important information required for diagnostic assay development. We have developed and optimized droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assays that quantify short and long DNA fragments. These assays were used to analyze plasma cfDNA fragment size distribution in human blood. Assays were designed to amplify 76,135, 490 and 905 base pair fragments of human β-actin gene. These assays were used for fragment size analysis of plasma cell-free, exosome and apoptotic body DNA obtained from normal and pregnant donors. The relative percentages for 76, 135, 490 and 905 bp fragments from non-pregnant plasma and exosome DNA were 100%, 39%, 18%, 5.6% and 100%, 40%, 18%,3.3%, respectively. The relative percentages for pregnant plasma and exosome DNA were 100%, 34%, 14%, 23%, and 100%, 30%, 12%, 18%, respectively. The relative percentages for non-pregnant plasma pellet (obtained after 2nd centrifugation step) were 100%, 100%, 87% and 83%, respectively. Non-pregnant Plasma cell-free and exosome DNA share a unique fragment distribution pattern which is different from pregnant donor plasma and exosome DNA fragment distribution indicating the effect of physiological status on cfDNA fragment size distribution. Fragment distribution pattern for plasma pellet that includes apoptotic bodies and nuclear DNA was greatly different from plasma cell-free and exosome DNA. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cell size and cell number in dwarf mutants of barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blonstein, A.D.; Gale, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen height mutants, induced by sodium azide treatment of the two-rowed barley variety Proctor, have been used to investigate the relationship between the extent and nature of stem shortening with alterations in cell size and cell number, and the pleiotropic effects of dwarfing genes on vegetative development and agronomic performance. The studies on epidermal cell number and cell length in the developmentally earliest and latest elongated vegetative tissues - the coleoptile and peduncle resprectively - suggest that cell number may be the primary determinant of plant height. One semi-prostrate and one erectoides mutant are used to illustrate different cell number/cell size strategies and their relationships with gibberellin sensitivity, growth rate and lodging resistance are discussed. (author)

  13. Cell micro-patterning by atom beam exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Taiji; Kajita, Fumiaki; Sato, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Koshi; Tagawa, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a new cell micro-patterning method by controlling material surface affinity of the cell using atomic oxygen beam exposure. Surfaces of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and tetrafluoroethylene-hexafluoropropylene (FEP) were exposed to the atomic oxygen beam. On the LDPE surface, the roughness measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) did not change much, however, the oxygen concentration on the surface measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) significantly increased that resulted in increase in wettability. Contrary to this, on the FEP surface, the oxygen concentration showed no significant change, but roughness of the surface remarkably increased and the wettability decreased. As a result of the surface modification, affinity of the osteoblastic cells on the FEP surface increased, which was also confirmed by increase in the cell area. Finally, cell micro-patterning on the FEP surface was carried out based on difference in the affinity between modified and unmodified surfaces patterned by masking method. (author)

  14. Endothelial cell motility, coordination and pattern formation during vasculogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czirok, Andras

    2013-01-01

    How vascular networks assemble is a fundamental problem of developmental biology that also has medical importance. To explain the organizational principles behind vascular patterning, we must understand how can tissue level structures be controlled through cell behavior patterns like motility and adhesion that, in turn, are determined by biochemical signal transduction processes? We discuss the various ideas that have been proposed as mechanisms for vascular network assembly: cell motility guided by extracellular matrix alignment (contact guidance), chemotaxis guided by paracrine and autocrine morphogens, and multicellular sprouting guided by cell-cell contacts. All of these processes yield emergent patterns, thus endothelial cells can form an interconnected structure autonomously, without guidance from an external pre-pattern. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Eating patterns and portion size associated with obesity in a Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Christina; Lappas, Georgios; Wolk, Alicja; Strandhagen, Elisabeth; Torén, Kjell; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the association between meal pattern and obesity. The study is based on data from the INTERGENE research programme, and the study population consists of randomly selected women and men, aged 25-74, living in the Västra Götaland Region in Sweden. A total of 3610 were examined. Participants with measured BMI> or =30 were compared with others (BMIportions. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals were adjusted for age, sex, smoking and physical activity in logistic regression models. Being obese was significantly associated with omitting breakfast, OR 1.41 (1.05-1.90), omitting lunch OR 1.31 (1.04-1.66) and eating at night OR 1.62 (1.10-2.39). Obesity was also related to significantly larger self-reported portion sizes of main meals. No statistically significant relationship with intake of total energy was revealed. Thus, the results indicate that examination of meal patterns and portion sizes might tell us more about obesogenic food patterns than traditional nutrient analyses of food frequencies. Being obese was associated with a meal pattern shifted to later in the day and significantly larger self-reported portions of main meals.

  16. Tailoring and patterning the grain size of nanocrystalline alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detor, Andrew J.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystalline alloys that exhibit grain boundary segregation can access thermodynamically stable or metastable states with the average grain size dictated by the alloying addition. Here we consider nanocrystalline Ni-W alloys and demonstrate that the W content controls the grain size over a very broad range: ∼2-140 nm as compared with ∼2-20 nm in previous work on strongly segregating systems. This trend is attributed to a relatively weak tendency for W segregation to the grain boundaries. Based upon this observation, we introduce a new synthesis technique allowing for precise composition control during the electrodeposition of Ni-W alloys, which, in turn, leads to precise control of the nanocrystalline grain size. This technique offers new possibilities for understanding the structure-property relationships of nanocrystalline solids, such as the breakdown of Hall-Petch strength scaling, and also opens the door to a new class of customizable materials incorporating patterned nanostructures

  17. Daughter-specific transcription factors regulate cell size control in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Talia, Stefano; Wang, Hongyin; Skotheim, Jan M; Rosebrock, Adam P; Futcher, Bruce; Cross, Frederick R

    2009-10-01

    In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle.

  18. Daughter-Specific Transcription Factors Regulate Cell Size Control in Budding Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Talia, Stefano; Wang, Hongyin; Skotheim, Jan M.; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Futcher, Bruce; Cross, Frederick R.

    2009-01-01

    In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle. PMID:19841732

  19. Daughter-specific transcription factors regulate cell size control in budding yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Di Talia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle.

  20. Details Matter: Noise and Model Structure Set the Relationship between Cell Size and Cell Cycle Timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Barber

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Organisms across all domains of life regulate the size of their cells. However, the means by which this is done is poorly understood. We study two abstracted “molecular” models for size regulation: inhibitor dilution and initiator accumulation. We apply the models to two settings: bacteria like Escherichia coli, that grow fully before they set a division plane and divide into two equally sized cells, and cells that form a bud early in the cell division cycle, confine new growth to that bud, and divide at the connection between that bud and the mother cell, like the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In budding cells, delaying cell division until buds reach the same size as their mother leads to very weak size control, with average cell size and standard deviation of cell size increasing over time and saturating up to 100-fold higher than those values for cells that divide when the bud is still substantially smaller than its mother. In budding yeast, both inhibitor dilution or initiator accumulation models are consistent with the observation that the daughters of diploid cells add a constant volume before they divide. This “adder” behavior has also been observed in bacteria. We find that in bacteria an inhibitor dilution model produces adder correlations that are not robust to noise in the timing of DNA replication initiation or in the timing from initiation of DNA replication to cell division (the C+D period. In contrast, in bacteria an initiator accumulation model yields robust adder correlations in the regime where noise in the timing of DNA replication initiation is much greater than noise in the C + D period, as reported previously (Ho and Amir, 2015. In bacteria, division into two equally sized cells does not broaden the size distribution.

  1. Customized color patterning of photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Lentine, Anthony L.; Resnick, Paul J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2016-11-15

    Photovoltaic cells and photovoltaic modules, as well as methods of making and using such photovoltaic cells and photovoltaic modules, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the photovoltaic cells selectively reflect visible light to provide the photovoltaic cells with a colorized appearance. Photovoltaic modules combining colorized photovoltaic cells may be used to harvest solar energy while providing a customized appearance, e.g., an image or pattern.

  2. Morphology, Growth, and Size Limit of Bacterial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongyuan; Sun, Sean X.

    2010-07-01

    Bacterial cells utilize a living peptidoglycan network (PG) to separate the cell interior from the surroundings. The shape of the cell is controlled by PG synthesis and cytoskeletal proteins that form bundles and filaments underneath the cell wall. The PG layer also resists turgor pressure and protects the cell from osmotic shock. We argue that mechanical influences alter the chemical equilibrium of the reversible PG assembly and determine the cell shape and cell size. Using a mechanochemical approach, we show that the cell shape can be regarded as a steady state of a growing network under the influence of turgor pressure and mechanical stress. Using simple elastic models, we predict the size of common spherical and rodlike bacteria. The influence of cytoskeletal bundles such as crescentin and MreB are discussed within the context of our model.

  3. A contribution to phased array ultrasonic inspection of welds: defect patterns and sizing capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciorau, P., E-mail: peter.ciorau@opg.com [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Inspection, Maintenance and Commercial Services, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The paper presents defect patterns for weld inspection detected with phased array ultrasonic technology (PAUT). The sizing capability for length, height, outer and inner ligament for specific implanted weld defects in training samples and mock-ups with thickness between 6.4-52 mm. It is discussed the influence of beam angle on sizing the lack of fusion defect. More than 50 implanted weld defects with 70% crack population were sized using high-frequency (5-10 MHz) linear array probes. The correlation between the design/manufacturer flaw size and PAUT data for length, height and ligament is graphically presented. It was concluded the length is oversized by 2-6 mm, height and inner ligament are undersized by 0.2 to 0.5 mm, and outer ligament is oversized by 0.5 mm. The sizing results were based on non-amplitude techniques and pattern display of S- and B-scan. The sizing capability is far better than ASME XI tolerances for performance demonstration and comparable to time of flight diffraction (TOFD) ideal tolerances. (author)

  4. A contribution to phased array ultrasonic inspection of welds: defect patterns and sizing capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciorau, P.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents defect patterns for weld inspection detected with phased array ultrasonic technology (PAUT). The sizing capability for length, height, outer and inner ligament for specific implanted weld defects in training samples and mock-ups with thickness between 6.4-52 mm. It is discussed the influence of beam angle on sizing the lack of fusion defect. More than 50 implanted weld defects with 70% crack population were sized using high-frequency (5-10 MHz) linear array probes. The correlation between the design/manufacturer flaw size and PAUT data for length, height and ligament is graphically presented. It was concluded the length is oversized by 2-6 mm, height and inner ligament are undersized by 0.2 to 0.5 mm, and outer ligament is oversized by 0.5 mm. The sizing results were based on non-amplitude techniques and pattern display of S- and B-scan. The sizing capability is far better than ASME XI tolerances for performance demonstration and comparable to time of flight diffraction (TOFD) ideal tolerances. (author)

  5. Metastatic Patterns of Myxoid/Round Cell Liposarcoma: A Review of a 25-Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Asano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myxoid/round cell liposarcoma (MRCL, unlike other soft tissue sarcomas, has been associated with unusual pattern of metastasis to extrapulmonary sites. In an attempt to elucidate the clinical features of MRCL with metastatic lesions, 58 cases, from the medical database of Keio University Hospital were used for the evaluation. 47 patients (81% had no metastases, whereas 11 patients (11% had metastases during their clinical course. Among the 11 patients with metastatic lesions, 8 patients (73% had extrapulmonary metastases and 3 patients (27% had pulmonary metastases. Patients were further divided into three groups; without metastasis, with extrapulmonary metastasis, and with pulmonary metastasis. When the metastatic patterns were stratified according to tumor size, there was statistical significance between the three groups (P=0.028. The 8 cases with extrapulmonary metastases were all larger than 10 cm. Similarly, histological grading had a significant impact on metastatic patterns (P=0.027. 3 cases with pulmonary metastatic lesions were all diagnosed as high grade. In conclusion, large size and low histological grade were significantly associated with extrapulmonary metastasis.

  6. An unusual scintigraphic pattern in sickle cell patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, A.M.; Chen, D.C.P.; Siegel, M.E.; Norris, S.L.; Haywood, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    We reviewed the nuclear medicine files of all patients enrolled in the sickle cell disease clinic who had had scans performed within the previous 5 years. We specifically looked for patterns of tracer uptake in these scans that would correlate with the severe anemia and consequent bone marrow hyperactivity of sickle cell patients. Thirty-three patients were included (21 men and 12 women) with a mean age of 26.8 years (range 17-48 years). The appearance of each of these patients' most recent scans was examined in the areas of the distal femurs, the proximal tibias and the distal tibias; a distinct triangular shaped pattern of increased activity was identified in these areas in a majority of patients. Thirty-three patients without sickle cell disease served as age-matched controls. This pattern was seen in 65.1% (95 out of 146 images) of the sickle cell patients' delayed images and 80.4% (82 out of 102 images) of their blood pool images. In contrast, the control patients demonstrated the triangular pattern in none of their blood pool studies (0%) and only 10.9% of their delayed bone images (P<0.001). The mean age of sickle cell patients with this pattern is 25.6 years which was significantly lower than that of those without this pattern (mean=37.5 years, P<0.05). Given the high prevalence of this unique scintigraphic pattern in a group of patients with known accelerated bone marrow function, these findings may be scintigraphic evidence of bone marrow expansion. The patient's age appears to be an important factor in visualization of this pattern. (orig.)

  7. The evolution of bacterial cell size: the internal diffusion-constraint hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Romain; Violle, Cyrille; Fromin, Nathalie; Jabbour-Zahab, Roula; Enquist, Brian J; Lenormand, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Size is one of the most important biological traits influencing organismal ecology and evolution. However, we know little about the drivers of body size evolution in unicellulars. A long-term evolution experiment (Lenski's LTEE) in which Escherichia coli adapts to a simple glucose medium has shown that not only the growth rate and the fitness of the bacterium increase over time but also its cell size. This increase in size contradicts prominent 'external diffusion' theory (EDC) predicting that cell size should have evolved toward smaller cells. Among several scenarios, we propose and test an alternative 'internal diffusion-constraint' (IDC) hypothesis for cell size evolution. A change in cell volume affects metabolite concentrations in the cytoplasm. The IDC states that a higher metabolism can be achieved by a reduction in the molecular traffic time inside of the cell, by increasing its volume. To test this hypothesis, we studied a population from the LTEE. We show that bigger cells with greater growth and CO 2 production rates and lower mass-to-volume ratio were selected over time in the LTEE. These results are consistent with the IDC hypothesis. This novel hypothesis offers a promising approach for understanding the evolutionary constraints on cell size.

  8. Micrometer-sized isolated patterns of conductive ZnO derived by micromoulding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, Ole F.; Elshof, Johan E. ten; Blank, Dave A.H. [Inorganic Materials Science, Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    We succeeded in the fabrication of large-area patterns with micrometer-sized, isolated features of a simple oxide by a technically simple patterning method. By micromoulding a polymeric precursor solution for ZnO with an elastomeric (PDMS) mould, and a subsequent heat treatment, patterned ZnO films could be obtained. The features of the various patterns, including parallel or crossed lines and arrangements of dots, were several micrometers in diameter, and so were the spaces between them. The features were nearly isolated from each other, as the micromoulding process left behind a thin residual layer of ZnO of only about 15 nm thickness. By applying a tempering step, the transparent films could be rendered conductive. The process was applied successfully also to other oxide materials such as Bi2212 or CoFe2O4.

  9. Engineering systems for the generation of patterned co-cultures for controlling cell-cell interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Hirokazu; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Langer, Robert; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2011-03-01

    Inside the body, cells lie in direct contact or in close proximity to other cell types in a tightly controlled architecture that often regulates the resulting tissue function. Therefore, tissue engineering constructs that aim to reproduce the architecture and the geometry of tissues will benefit from methods of controlling cell-cell interactions with microscale resolution. We discuss the use of microfabrication technologies for generating patterned co-cultures. In addition, we categorize patterned co-culture systems by cell type and discuss the implications of regulating cell-cell interactions in the resulting biological function of the tissues. Patterned co-cultures are a useful tool for fabricating tissue engineered constructs and for studying cell-cell interactions in vitro, because they can be used to control the degree of homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell contact. In addition, this approach can be manipulated to elucidate important factors involved in cell-matrix interactions. Patterned co-culture strategies hold significant potential to develop biomimetic structures for tissue engineering. It is expected that they would create opportunities to develop artificial tissues in the future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Nanotechnologies - Emerging Applications in Biomedicine. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Asymmetries in Cell Division, Cell Size, and Furrowing in the Xenopus laevis Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassan, Jean-Pierre; Wühr, Martin; Hatte, Guillaume; Kubiak, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Asymmetric cell divisions produce two daughter cells with distinct fate. During embryogenesis, this mechanism is fundamental to build tissues and organs because it generates cell diversity. In adults, it remains crucial to maintain stem cells. The enthusiasm for asymmetric cell division is not only motivated by the beauty of the mechanism and the fundamental questions it raises, but has also very pragmatic reasons. Indeed, misregulation of asymmetric cell divisions is believed to have dramatic consequences potentially leading to pathogenesis such as cancers. In diverse model organisms, asymmetric cell divisions result in two daughter cells, which differ not only by their fate but also in size. This is the case for the early Xenopus laevis embryo, in which the two first embryonic divisions are perpendicular to each other and generate two pairs of blastomeres, which usually differ in size: one pair of blastomeres is smaller than the other. Small blastomeres will produce embryonic dorsal structures, whereas the larger pair will evolve into ventral structures. Here, we present a speculative model on the origin of the asymmetry of this cell division in the Xenopus embryo. We also discuss the apparently coincident asymmetric distribution of cell fate determinants and cell-size asymmetry of the 4-cell stage embryo. Finally, we discuss the asymmetric furrowing during epithelial cell cytokinesis occurring later during Xenopus laevis embryo development.

  11. Differentiation of low- and high-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma: Tumor size versus CT perfusion parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Kang, Qinqin; Xu, Bing; Guo, Hairuo; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Tiegong; Ye, Hui; Wu, Xinhuai

    To compare the utility of tumor size and CT perfusion parameters for differentiation of low- and high-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Tumor size, Equivalent blood volume (Equiv BV), permeability surface-area product (PS), blood flow (BF), and Fuhrman pathological grading of clear cell RCC were retrospectively analyzed. High-grade clear cell RCC had significantly higher tumor size and lower PS than low grade. Tumor size positively correlated with Fuhrman grade, but PS negatively did. Tumor size and PS were significantly independent indexes for differentiating high-grade from low-grade clear cell RCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Lectin-binding patterns and cell kinetics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, T

    1991-01-01

    In order to elucidate the cell characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, the cell kinetics and lectin binding patterns were compared with the histological classification and staging of the tumors, using surgically resected materials (maxillary sinus 10, oral cavity 21, pharynx 8, larynx 11). Eight biotinylated lectins (WGA, 1-PHA, ConA, UEA1, RCA1, SBA, DBA, PNA) were applied to the paraffin-embedded sections, and were visualized histochemically by the streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase method. The DNA contents of the isolated carcinoma cells obtained from the adjacent thick sections were evaluated using an epi-illumination cytofluorometer after propidium iodide staining. On lectin histochemistry, the binding pattern of WGA lectin was similar between carcinoma tissues and normal tissues, but the binding was more intense in well differentiated than less differentiated carcinomas. Lymph node metastasis was found to be related to the presence of cells with poor WGA-binding. In the binding patterns of the other lectins, RCA1, SBA and ConA were related to the differentiation of carcinomas, but they were not related to the TNM-classification. DNA cytofluorometry exhibited marked polyploidization, which progressed with the advancement of the clinical and pathological staging of carcinomas. However, the DNA ploidy pattern was not associated with the cell characteristics such as the degree of histological differentiation and the lectin-binding pattern, except that the appearance of aneuploidy had some relationship with the binding-patterns of UEA1 and 1-PHA.

  13. Cannabidiol Reduces Leukemic Cell Size - But Is It Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenderoglou, Nikoletta; Macpherson, Tara; Wright, Karen L

    2017-01-01

    The anti-cancer effect of the plant-derived cannabinoid, cannabidiol, has been widely demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro . However, this body of preclinical work has not been translated into clinical use. Key issues around this failure can be related to narrow dose effects, the cell model used and incomplete efficacy. A model of acute lymphoblastic disease, the Jurkat T cell line, has been used extensively to study the cannabinoid system in the immune system and cannabinoid-induced apoptosis. Using these cells, this study sought to investigate the outcome of those remaining viable cells post-treatment with cannabidiol, both in terms of cell size and tracking any subsequent recovery. The phosphorylation status of the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and the downstream target ribosomal protein S6, were measured. The ability of cannabidiol to exert its effect on cell viability was also evaluated in physiological oxygen conditions. Cannabidiol reduced cell viability incompletely, and slowed the cell cycle with fewer cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Cannabidiol reduced phosphorylation of mTOR, PKB and S6 pathways related to survival and cell size. The remaining population of viable cells that were cultured in nutrient rich conditions post-treatment were able to proliferate, but did not recover to control cell numbers. However, the proportion of viable cells that were gated as small, increased in response to cannabidiol and normally sized cells decreased. This proportion of small cells persisted in the recovery period and did not return to basal levels. Finally, cells grown in 12% oxygen (physiological normoxia) were more resistant to cannabidiol. In conclusion, these results indicate that cannabidiol causes a reduction in cell size, which persists post-treatment. However, resistance to cannabidiol under physiological normoxia for these cells would imply that cannabidiol may not be useful in the clinic as an anti-leukemic agent.

  14. X-ray diffraction from thin films : Size/strain analysis and whole pattern fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scardi, P [Trento Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Materials Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Line Profile Analysis (LPA) and whole pattern fitting may be used with success for the characterization of thin films from XRD data collected with the traditional Bragg-Brentano geometry. The size/strain analysis was conducted by an integrated procedure of profile modelling-assisted Fourier analysis, in order to measure the content of lattice imperfections and crystalline domain size along the growth direction in heteroepitaxial thin films. The microstructure of these films is typical of several PVD processes for the production of highly textured and low-defect thin crystalline layers. The same analysis could be conducted on random thin films as well, and in this case it is possible to determine an average crystallite size and shape. As will be shown in the paper, structural and microstructural parameters obtained by these methods may be correlated with thin film properties of technological interest. The whole pattern analysis may be used to obtain the information contained in a wide region of the diffraction pattern. This approach, currently used for the quantitative analysis of phase mixtures in traditional powder samples, was modified to account both for the size/strain effects, according to a simplified LPA, and for the structure of thin films and multi-layer systems. In this way, a detailed analysis based on a structural model for the present phases can be performed considering the real geometry of these samples. In particular, the quantitative phase analysis could be conducted in terms of layer thickness instead of volume or weight fractions.

  15. X-ray diffraction from thin films : Size/strain analysis and whole pattern fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scardi, P.

    1996-01-01

    Line Profile Analysis (LPA) and whole pattern fitting may be used with success for the characterization of thin films from XRD data collected with the traditional Bragg-Brentano geometry. The size/strain analysis was conducted by an integrated procedure of profile modelling-assisted Fourier analysis, in order to measure the content of lattice imperfections and crystalline domain size along the growth direction in heteroepitaxial thin films. The microstructure of these films is typical of several PVD processes for the production of highly textured and low-defect thin crystalline layers. The same analysis could be conducted on random thin films as well, and in this case it is possible to determine an average crystallite size and shape. As will be shown in the paper, structural and microstructural parameters obtained by these methods may be correlated with thin film properties of technological interest. The whole pattern analysis may be used to obtain the information contained in a wide region of the diffraction pattern. This approach, currently used for the quantitative analysis of phase mixtures in traditional powder samples, was modified to account both for the size/strain effects, according to a simplified LPA, and for the structure of thin films and multi-layer systems. In this way, a detailed analysis based on a structural model for the present phases can be performed considering the real geometry of these samples. In particular, the quantitative phase analysis could be conducted in terms of layer thickness instead of volume or weight fractions

  16. Capabilities and Limitations of Tissue Size Control through Passive Mechanical Forces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Kursawe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenesis is an extraordinarily robust process, exhibiting the ability to control tissue size and repair patterning defects in the face of environmental and genetic perturbations. The size and shape of a developing tissue is a function of the number and size of its constituent cells as well as their geometric packing. How these cellular properties are coordinated at the tissue level to ensure developmental robustness remains a mystery; understanding this process requires studying multiple concurrent processes that make up morphogenesis, including the spatial patterning of cell fates and apoptosis, as well as cell intercalations. In this work, we develop a computational model that aims to understand aspects of the robust pattern repair mechanisms of the Drosophila embryonic epidermal tissues. Size control in this system has previously been shown to rely on the regulation of apoptosis rather than proliferation; however, to date little work has been done to understand the role of cellular mechanics in this process. We employ a vertex model of an embryonic segment to test hypotheses about the emergence of this size control. Comparing the model to previously published data across wild type and genetic perturbations, we show that passive mechanical forces suffice to explain the observed size control in the posterior (P compartment of a segment. However, observed asymmetries in cell death frequencies across the segment are demonstrated to require patterning of cellular properties in the model. Finally, we show that distinct forms of mechanical regulation in the model may be distinguished by differences in cell shapes in the P compartment, as quantified through experimentally accessible summary statistics, as well as by the tissue recoil after laser ablation experiments.

  17. Computational cell model based on autonomous cell movement regulated by cell-cell signalling successfully recapitulates the "inside and outside" pattern of cell sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajioka Itsuki

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of multicellular organisms proceeds from a single fertilized egg as the combined effect of countless numbers of cellular interactions among highly dynamic cells. Since at least a reminiscent pattern of morphogenesis can be recapitulated in a reproducible manner in reaggregation cultures of dissociated embryonic cells, which is known as cell sorting, the cells themselves must possess some autonomous cell behaviors that assure specific and reproducible self-organization. Understanding of this self-organized dynamics of heterogeneous cell population seems to require some novel approaches so that the approaches bridge a gap between molecular events and morphogenesis in developmental and cell biology. A conceptual cell model in a computer may answer that purpose. We constructed a dynamical cell model based on autonomous cell behaviors, including cell shape, growth, division, adhesion, transformation, and motility as well as cell-cell signaling. The model gives some insights about what cellular behaviors make an appropriate global pattern of the cell population. Results We applied the model to "inside and outside" pattern of cell-sorting, in which two different embryonic cell types within a randomly mixed aggregate are sorted so that one cell type tends to gather in the central region of the aggregate and the other cell type surrounds the first cell type. Our model can modify the above cell behaviors by varying parameters related to them. We explored various parameter sets with which the "inside and outside" pattern could be achieved. The simulation results suggested that direction of cell movement responding to its neighborhood and the cell's mobility are important for this specific rearrangement. Conclusion We constructed an in silico cell model that mimics autonomous cell behaviors and applied it to cell sorting, which is a simple and appropriate phenomenon exhibiting self-organization of cell population. The model

  18. Size-amplified acoustofluidic separation of circulating tumor cells with removable microbeads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiqin; Ao, Zheng; Cai, Bo; Shu, Xi; Chen, Keke; Rao, Lang; Luo, Changliang; Wang, Fu-Bin; Liu, Wei; Bondesson, Maria; Guo, Shishang; Guo, Feng

    2018-06-01

    Isolation and analysis of rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is of great interest in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment efficacy evaluation. Acoustofluidic cell separation becomes an attractive method due to its contactless, noninvasive, simple, and versatile features. However, the indistinctive physical difference between CTCs and normal blood cells limits the purity of CTCs using current acoustic methods. Herein, we demonstrate a size-amplified acoustic separation and release of CTCs with removable microbeads. CTCs selectively bound to size-amplifiers (40 μm-diameter anti-EpCAM/gelatin-coated SiO2 microbeads) have significant physical differences (size and mechanics) compared to normal blood cells, resulting in an amplification of acoustic radiation force approximately a hundredfold over that of bare CTCs or normal blood cells. Therefore, CTCs can be efficiently sorted out with size-amplifiers in a traveling surface acoustic wave microfluidic device and released from size-amplifiers by enzymatic degradation for further purification or downstream analysis. We demonstrate a cell separation from blood samples with a total efficiency (E total) of ∼ 77%, purity (P) of ∼ 96%, and viability (V) of ∼83% after releasing cells from size-amplifiers. Our method substantially improves the emerging application of rare cell purification for translational medicine.

  19. Life cycle size dynamics in Didymosphenia geminata (Bacillariophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Ian W; Spaulding, Sarah A

    2017-06-01

    Didymosphenia geminata has received a great deal of attention in the last 25 years, and considerable effort has gone into determining the origin, ecological impact, and economic consequences of its invasive behavior. While environmental conditions are a controlling influence in distribution, the extreme success of the species may be tied to its basic biology and life history. Little is known, however, about population dynamics, size restoration and reproduction of D. geminata. The objective of this study was to determine the temporal patterns in cell size frequency, size restoration strategy, and synchronization of life cycles between populations in close proximity. We implemented FlowCam technology to measure the length of more than 100,000 D. geminata cells from two sites in South Boulder Creek, Colorado over 1 year. We applied finite mixture modeling to uncover temporal patterns in size distribution. Our results show that collections of D. geminata exhibited a complex, multimodal size distribution, almost always containing four overlapping age cohorts. We failed to observe direct visual evidence of the sexual phase. Multiple abrupt and directional shifts in size distribution, however, were documented providing conclusive evidence of cell size restoration. Lastly, nodules in close proximity were asynchronous with respect to size frequency profiles and size diminution, highlighting the relevance of spatial heterogeneity in in situ diatom size dynamics. This study is the first to document the complexity of diatom cell size distribution in a lotic system, size restoration in D. geminata, and the variability in rates of size reduction at microhabitat spatial scales. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  20. MATERNAL HEIGHT AND PRE-PREGNANCY WEIGHT STATUS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH FETAL GROWTH PATTERNS AND NEWBORN SIZE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölzlberger, Eva; Hartmann, Beda; Hafner, Erich; Stümpflein, Ingrid; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2017-05-01

    The impact of maternal height, pre-pregnancy weight status and gestational weight gain on fetal growth patterns and newborn size was analysed using a dataset of 4261 singleton term births taking place at the Viennese Danube Hospital between 2005 and 2013. Fetal growth patterns were reconstructed from three ultrasound examinations carried out at the 11th/12th, 20th/21th and 32th/33th weeks of gestation. Crown-rump length, biparietal diameter, fronto-occipital diameter, head circumference, abdominal transverse diameter, abdominal anterior-posterior diameter, abdominal circumference and femur length were determined. Birth weight, birth length and head circumference were measured immediately after birth. The vast majority of newborns were of normal weight, i.e. between 2500 and 4000 g. Maternal height showed a just-significant but weak positive association (r=0.03: p=0.039) with crown-rump length at the first trimester and with the majority of fetal parameters at the second trimester (r>0.06; p0.09; p0.08; p0.17; p0.13; p0.13; pnewborn size. Some of these associations were quite weak and the statistical significance was mainly due to the large sample size. The association patterns between maternal height and pre-pregnancy weight status with fetal growth patterns (pnewborn size (p<0.001), were independent of maternal age, nicotine consumption and fetal sex. In general, taller and heavier women gave birth to larger infants. This association between maternal size and fetal growth patterns was detectable from the first trimester onwards.

  1. Patterns of hyperphagia in the Zucker obese rat: a role for fat cell size and number?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, J R

    1985-06-01

    The hypothesis that adipocyte size and number influence feeding behavior, via as yet unidentified signals to the CNS, is reviewed. The proposal is made that, due to several metabolic alterations which favor lipid deposition, the genetically obese Zucker rat (fafa) may be an appropriate model in which to study feeding-adipose tissue relationships. Data from several studies are presented demonstrating that the developing male Zucker fatty rat displays hyperphagia during the growth period which reaches a peak, or "break point," and then declines such that intake of fatty and lean rats becomes comparable at approximately 20 weeks of age. Beyond week 20, cycles of hyperphagia of several weeks' duration can be detected in fatty rats. The above feeding changes are related to data showing that on a laboratory chow-type diet, adipocytes approach maximal size at 15-16 weeks in the fatty rat, while accelerated proliferation of adipocytes takes place following week 20. During growth, responding for food in an operant task by fatty rats varies in accord with the pattern of hyperphagia. Further studies in the fatty rat show that the duration and magnitude of developmental hyperphagia can be altered by manipulating the caloric density and macronutrient content of the diet, with fat containing diets leading to the earliest break point of developmental hyperphagia. Some theoretical problems with the notion of adipose tissue feedback control of feeding behavior are discussed.

  2. Differential and Cooperative Cell Adhesion Regulates Cellular Pattern in Sensory Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Hideru

    2016-01-01

    Animal tissues are composed of multiple cell types arranged in complex and elaborate patterns. In sensory epithelia, including the auditory epithelium and olfactory epithelium, different types of cells are arranged in unique mosaic patterns. These mosaic patterns are evolutionarily conserved, and are thought to be important for hearing and olfaction. Recent progress has provided accumulating evidence that the cellular pattern formation in epithelia involves cell rearrangements, movements, and shape changes. These morphogenetic processes are largely mediated by intercellular adhesion systems. Differential adhesion and cortical tension have been proposed to promote cell rearrangements. Many different types of cells in tissues express various types of cell adhesion molecules. Although cooperative mechanisms between multiple adhesive systems are likely to contribute to the production of complex cell patterns, our current understanding of the cooperative roles between multiple adhesion systems is insufficient to entirely explain the complex mechanisms underlying cellular patterning. Recent studies have revealed that nectins, in cooperation with cadherins, are crucial for the mosaic cellular patterning in sensory organs. The nectin and cadherin systems are interacted with one another, and these interactions provide cells with differential adhesive affinities for complex cellular pattern formations in sensory epithelia, which cannot be achieved by a single mechanism.

  3. Cell patterning through inkjet printing of one cell per droplet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Shuichi; Akiyama, Yoshitake; Morishima, Keisuke; Ueno, Akira

    2012-01-01

    The inkjet ejection technology used in printers has been adopted and research has been conducted on manufacturing artificial tissue by patterning cells through micronozzle ejection of small droplets containing multiple cells. However, stable injection of cells has proven difficult, owing to the frequent occurrence of nozzle clogging. In this paper, a piezoelectric inkjet head constructed with a glass capillary that enabled viewing of the nozzle section was developed, the movement of cells ejected from the nozzle tip was analyzed, and a method for stably ejecting cells was verified. A pull–push ejection method was compared with a push–pull ejection method regarding the voltage waveform applied to the piezoelectric element of the head. The push–pull method was found to be more suitable for stable ejection. Further, ejection of one cell per droplet was realized by detecting the position of the cell in the nozzle section and utilizing these position data. Thus, a method for more precise patterning of viable cells at desired position and number was established. This method is very useful and promising not only for biofabrication, 3D tissue construction, cell printing, but also for a number of biomedical application, such as bioMEMS, lab on a chip research field. (paper)

  4. Cell sheet technology and cell patterning for biofabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannachi, Imen Elloumi; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women' s Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-06-01

    We have developed cell sheet technology as a modern method for the fabrication of functional tissue-like and organ-like structures. This technology allows for a sheet of interconnected cells and cells in full contact with their natural extracellular environment to be obtained. A cell sheet can be patterned and composed according to more than one cell type. The key technology of cell sheet engineering is that a fabricated cell sheet can be harvested and transplanted utilizing temperature-responsive surfaces. In this review, we summarize different aspects of cell sheet engineering and provide a survey of the application of cell sheets as a suitable material for biofabrication and clinics. Moreover, since cell micropatterning is a key tool for cell sheet engineering, in this review we focus on the introduction of our approaches to cell micropatterning and cell co-culture to the principles of automation and how they can be subjected to easy robotics programming. Finally, efforts towards making cell sheet technology suitable for biofabrication and robotic biofabrication are also summarized. (topical review)

  5. Using pattern analysis methods to do fast detection of manufacturing pattern failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Evan; Wang, Jessie; Sun, Mason; Wang, Jeff; Zhang, Yifan; Sweis, Jason; Lai, Ya-Chieh; Ding, Hua

    2016-03-01

    At the advanced technology node, logic design has become extremely complex and is getting more challenging as the pattern geometry size decreases. The small sizes of layout patterns are becoming very sensitive to process variations. Meanwhile, the high pressure of yield ramp is always there due to time-to-market competition. The company that achieves patterning maturity earlier than others will have a great advantage and a better chance to realize maximum profit margins. For debugging silicon failures, DFT diagnostics can identify which nets or cells caused the yield loss. But normally, a long time period is needed with many resources to identify which failures are due to one common layout pattern or structure. This paper will present a new yield diagnostic flow, based on preliminary EFA results, to show how pattern analysis can more efficiently detect pattern related systematic defects. Increased visibility on design pattern related failures also allows more precise yield loss estimation.

  6. Size- and food-dependent growth drives patterns of competitive dominance along productivity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Magnus; Gårdmark, Anna; Van Leeuwen, Anieke; de Roos, André M

    2012-04-01

    Patterns of coexistence among competing species exhibiting size- and food-dependent growth remain largely unexplored. Here we studied mechanisms behind coexistence and shifts in competitive dominance in a size-structured fish guild, representing sprat and herring stocks in the Baltic Sea, using a physiologically structured model of competing populations. The influence of degree of resource overlap and the possibility of undergoing ontogenetic diet shifts were studied as functions of zooplankton and zoobenthos productivity. By imposing different size-dependent mortalities, we could study the outcome of competition under contrasting environmental regimes representing poor and favorable growth conditions. We found that the identity of the dominant species shifted between low and high productivity. Adding a herring-exclusive benthos resource only provided a competitive advantage over sprat when size-dependent mortality was high enough to allow for rapid growth in the zooplankton niche. Hence, the importance of a bottom-up effect of varying productivity was dependent on a strong top-down effect. Although herring could depress shared resources to lower levels than could sprat and also could access an exclusive resource, the smaller size at maturation of sprat allowed it to coexist with herring and, in some cases, exclude it. Our model system, characterized by interactions among size cohorts, allowed for consumer coexistence even at full resource overlap at intermediate productivities when size-dependent mortality was low. Observed shifts in community patterns were crucially dependent on the explicit consideration of size- and food-dependent growth. Accordingly, we argue that accounting for food-dependent growth and size-dependent interactions is necessary to better predict changes in community structure and dynamics following changes in major ecosystem drivers such as resource productivity and mortality, which are fundamental for our ability to manage exploitation of

  7. Graphene-Based Flexible Micrometer-Sized Microbial Fuel Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, Justine E.; Qaisi, Ramy M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells harvest electrical energy produced by bacteria during the natural decomposition of organic matter. We report a micrometer-sized microbial fuel cell that is able to generate nanowatt-scale power from microliters of liquids

  8. Liver-cell patterning lab chip: mimicking the morphology of liver lobule tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chen-Ta; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Chen, Rong-Jhe; Chin, Chung-Kuang; Gong, Song-En; Chang, Hwan-You; Peng, Hwei-Ling; Hsu, Long; Yew, Tri-Rung; Chang, Shau-Feng; Liu, Cheng-Hsien

    2013-09-21

    A lobule-mimetic cell-patterning technique for on-chip reconstruction of centimetre-scale liver tissue of heterogeneous hepatic and endothelial cells via an enhanced field-induced dielectrophoresis (DEP) trap is demonstrated and reported. By mimicking the basic morphology of liver tissue, the classic hepatic lobule, the lobule-mimetic-stellate-electrodes array was designed for cell patterning. Through DEP manipulation, well-defined and enhanced spatial electric field gradients were created for in-parallel manipulation of massive individual cells. With this liver-cell patterning labchip design, the original randomly distributed hepatic and endothelial cells inside the microfluidic chamber can be manipulated separately and aligned into the desired pattern that mimicks the morphology of liver lobule tissue. Experimental results showed that both hepatic and endothelial cells were orderly guided, snared, and aligned along the field-induced orientation to form the lobule-mimetic pattern. About 95% cell viability of hepatic and endothelial cells was also observed after cell-patterning demonstration via a fluorescent assay technique. The liver function of CYP450-1A1 enzyme activity showed an 80% enhancement for our engineered liver tissue (HepG2+HUVECs) compared to the non-patterned pure HepG2 for two-day culturing.

  9. Pattern-set generation algorithm for the one-dimensional multiple stock sizes cutting stock problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yaodong; Cui, Yi-Ping; Zhao, Zhigang

    2015-09-01

    A pattern-set generation algorithm (PSG) for the one-dimensional multiple stock sizes cutting stock problem (1DMSSCSP) is presented. The solution process contains two stages. In the first stage, the PSG solves the residual problems repeatedly to generate the patterns in the pattern set, where each residual problem is solved by the column-generation approach, and each pattern is generated by solving a single large object placement problem. In the second stage, the integer linear programming model of the 1DMSSCSP is solved using a commercial solver, where only the patterns in the pattern set are considered. The computational results of benchmark instances indicate that the PSG outperforms existing heuristic algorithms and rivals the exact algorithm in solution quality.

  10. Evolutionary patterns of range size, abundance and species richness in Amazonian angiosperm trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Dexter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian tree species vary enormously in their total abundance and range size, while Amazonian tree genera vary greatly in species richness. The drivers of this variation are not well understood. Here, we construct a phylogenetic hypothesis that represents half of Amazonian tree genera in order to contribute to explaining the variation. We find several clear, broad-scale patterns. Firstly, there is significant phylogenetic signal for all three characteristics; closely related genera tend to have similar numbers of species and similar mean range size and abundance. Additionally, the species richness of genera shows a significant, negative relationship with the mean range size and abundance of their constituent species. Our results suggest that phylogenetically correlated intrinsic factors, namely traits of the genera themselves, shape among lineage variation in range size, abundance and species richness. We postulate that tree stature may be one particularly relevant trait. However, other traits may also be relevant, and our study reinforces the need for ambitious compilations of trait data for Amazonian trees. In the meantime, our study shows how large-scale phylogenies can help to elucidate, and contribute to explaining, macroecological and macroevolutionary patterns in hyperdiverse, yet poorly understood regions like the Amazon Basin.

  11. Macroscale patterns in body size of intertidal crustaceans provide insights on climate change effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; Contreras, Heraldo; Duarte, Cristian; Acuña, Emilio; Schoeman, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Predicting responses of coastal ecosystems to altered sea surface temperatures (SST) associated with global climate change, requires knowledge of demographic responses of individual species. Body size is an excellent metric because it scales strongly with growth and fecundity for many ectotherms. These attributes can underpin demographic as well as community and ecosystem level processes, providing valuable insights for responses of vulnerable coastal ecosystems to changing climate. We investigated contemporary macroscale patterns in body size among widely distributed crustaceans that comprise the majority of intertidal abundance and biomass of sandy beach ecosystems of the eastern Pacific coasts of Chile and California, USA. We focused on ecologically important species representing different tidal zones, trophic guilds and developmental modes, including a high-shore macroalga-consuming talitrid amphipod (Orchestoidea tuberculata), two mid-shore scavenging cirolanid isopods (Excirolana braziliensis and E. hirsuticauda), and a low-shore suspension-feeding hippid crab (Emerita analoga) with an amphitropical distribution. Significant latitudinal patterns in body sizes were observed for all species in Chile (21° - 42°S), with similar but steeper patterns in Emerita analoga, in California (32°- 41°N). Sea surface temperature was a strong predictor of body size (-4% to -35% °C-1) in all species. Beach characteristics were subsidiary predictors of body size. Alterations in ocean temperatures of even a few degrees associated with global climate change are likely to affect body sizes of important intertidal ectotherms, with consequences for population demography, life history, community structure, trophic interactions, food-webs, and indirect effects such as ecosystem function. The consistency of results for body size and temperature across species with different life histories, feeding modes, ecological roles, and microhabitats inhabiting a single widespread coastal

  12. Cell Size Breathing and Possibilities to Introduce Cell Sleep Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert; Mogensen, Preben; Scheck, Hans-Otto

    2010-01-01

    regular upgrades in the infrastructure. While network equipment is in itself becoming more efficient, these upgrades still increase the overall energy consumption of the networks. This paper investigates the energy saving potential of exploiting cell size breathing by putting low loaded cells into sleep...... mode. The energy consumption and network performance of the resulting network are used to quantify the potential of this feature. The investigation is carried out on a tilt optimized network. Since putting cells into sleep mode results in a non-optimum antenna tilt configuration, this paper also...

  13. Sex- and Size-Related Patterns of Carrion Visitation in Necrodes littoralis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mądra-Bielewicz, Anna; Frątczak-Łagiewska, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2017-09-01

    The estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) based on successional patterns of adult insects is largely limited, due to the lack of potential PMI markers. Sex and size of adult insects could be easily used for such estimation. In this study, sex- and size-related patterns of carrion attendance by adult insects were analyzed in Necrodes littoralis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). For both species, abundance of males and females changed similarly during decomposition. A slightly female-biased sex ratio was recorded in N. littoralis. Females of N. littoralis started visiting carcasses, on average, one day earlier than males. There was a rise in size of males of N. littoralis at the end of decomposition, whereas for females of both species and males of C. maxillosus, no size-related patterns of carrion visitation were found. Current results demonstrate that size and sex of adult carrion beetles are poor indicators of PMI. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Cannabidiol Reduces Leukemic Cell Size – But Is It Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenderoglou, Nikoletta; Macpherson, Tara; Wright, Karen L.

    2017-01-01

    The anti-cancer effect of the plant-derived cannabinoid, cannabidiol, has been widely demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro. However, this body of preclinical work has not been translated into clinical use. Key issues around this failure can be related to narrow dose effects, the cell model used and incomplete efficacy. A model of acute lymphoblastic disease, the Jurkat T cell line, has been used extensively to study the cannabinoid system in the immune system and cannabinoid-induced apoptosis. Using these cells, this study sought to investigate the outcome of those remaining viable cells post-treatment with cannabidiol, both in terms of cell size and tracking any subsequent recovery. The phosphorylation status of the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and the downstream target ribosomal protein S6, were measured. The ability of cannabidiol to exert its effect on cell viability was also evaluated in physiological oxygen conditions. Cannabidiol reduced cell viability incompletely, and slowed the cell cycle with fewer cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Cannabidiol reduced phosphorylation of mTOR, PKB and S6 pathways related to survival and cell size. The remaining population of viable cells that were cultured in nutrient rich conditions post-treatment were able to proliferate, but did not recover to control cell numbers. However, the proportion of viable cells that were gated as small, increased in response to cannabidiol and normally sized cells decreased. This proportion of small cells persisted in the recovery period and did not return to basal levels. Finally, cells grown in 12% oxygen (physiological normoxia) were more resistant to cannabidiol. In conclusion, these results indicate that cannabidiol causes a reduction in cell size, which persists post-treatment. However, resistance to cannabidiol under physiological normoxia for these cells would imply that cannabidiol may not be useful in the clinic as an anti-leukemic agent. PMID

  15. How Cells Can Control Their Size by Pumping Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Kay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability of all cells to set and regulate their size is a fundamental aspect of cellular physiology. It has been known for sometime but not widely so, that size stability in animal cells is dependent upon the operation of the sodium pump, through the so-called pump-leak mechanism (Tosteson and Hoffman, 1960. Impermeant molecules in cells establish an unstable osmotic condition, the Donnan effect, which is counteracted by the operation of the sodium pump, creating an asymmetry in the distribution of Na+ and K+ staving off water inundation. In this paper, which is in part a tutorial, I show how to model quantitatively the ion and water fluxes in a cell that determine the cell volume and membrane potential. The movement of water and ions is constrained by both osmotic and charge balance, and is driven by ion and voltage gradients and active ion transport. Transforming these constraints and forces into a set of coupled differential equations allows us to model how the ion distributions, volume and voltage change with time. I introduce an analytical solution to these equations that clarifies the influence of ion conductances, pump rates and water permeability in this multidimensional system. I show that the number of impermeant ions (x and their average charge have a powerful influence on the distribution of ions and voltage in a cell. Moreover, I demonstrate that in a cell where the operation of active ion transport eliminates an osmotic gradient, the size of the cell is directly proportional to x. In addition, I use graphics to reveal how the physico-chemical constraints and chemical forces interact with one another in apportioning ions inside the cell. The form of model used here is applicable to all membrane systems, including mitochondria and bacteria, and I show how pumps other than the sodium pump can be used to stabilize cells. Cell biologists may think of electrophysiology as the exclusive domain of neuroscience, however the electrical

  16. The patterning of retinal horizontal cells: normalizing the regularity index enhances the detection of genomic linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. Keeley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Retinal neurons are often arranged as non-random distributions called mosaics, as their somata minimize proximity to neighboring cells of the same type. The horizontal cells serve as an example of such a mosaic, but little is known about the developmental mechanisms that underlie their patterning. To identify genes involved in this process, we have used three different spatial statistics to assess the patterning of the horizontal cell mosaic across a panel of genetically distinct recombinant inbred strains. To avoid the confounding effect cell density, which varies two-fold across these different strains, we computed the real/random regularity ratio, expressing the regularity of a mosaic relative to a randomly distributed simulation of similarly sized cells. To test whether this latter statistic better reflects the variation in biological processes that contribute to horizontal cell spacing, we subsequently compared the genetic linkage for each of these two traits, the regularity index and the real/random regularity ratio, each computed from the distribution of nearest neighbor (NN distances and from the Voronoi domain (VD areas. Finally, we compared each of these analyses with another index of patterning, the packing factor. Variation in the regularity indexes, as well as their real/random regularity ratios, and the packing factor, mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL to the distal ends of Chromosomes 1 and 14. For the NN and VD analyses, we found that the degree of linkage was greater when using the real/random regularity ratio rather than the respective regularity index. Using informatic resources, we narrow the list of prospective genes positioned at these two intervals to a small collection of six genes that warrant further investigation to determine their potential role in shaping the patterning of the horizontal cell mosaic.

  17. Graphene interfaced perovskite solar cells: Role of graphene flake size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakorikar, Tushar; Kavitha, M. K.; Tong, Shi Wun; Vayalamkuzhi, Pramitha; Loh, Kian Ping; Jaiswal, Manu

    2018-04-01

    Graphene interfaced inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells are fabricated by facile solution method and studied its potential as hole conducting layer. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with small and large flake size and Polyethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) are utilized as hole conducting layers in different devices. For the solar cell employing PEDOT:PSS as hole conducting layer, 3.8 % photoconversion efficiency is achieved. In case of solar cells fabricated with rGO as hole conducting layer, the efficiency of the device is strongly dependent on flake size. With all other fabrication conditions kept constant, the efficiency of graphene-interfaced solar cell improves by a factor of 6, by changing the flake size of graphene oxide. We attribute this effect to uniform coverage of graphene layer and improved electrical percolation network.

  18. Does Ploidy Level Directly Control Cell Size? Counterevidence from Arabidopsis Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Ploidy level affects cell size in many organisms, and ploidy-dependent cell enlargement has been used to breed many useful organisms. However, how polyploidy affects cell size remains unknown. Previous studies have explored changes in transcriptome data caused by polyploidy, but have not been successful. The most naïve theory explaining ploidy-dependent cell enlargement is that increases in gene copy number increase the amount of protein, which in turn increases the cell volume. This hypothes...

  19. Heterotrophic free-living and particle-bound bacterial cell size in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    the heterotrophic bacterial cell size in the various water bodies studied in this investigation. The possible ... seasonal changes in abundance and cell size of heterotrophic ... data, 1995) physiological stress indicated by the presence of small ...

  20. Patterning of Endothelial Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Laser-Assisted Bioprinting to Study Cell Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourget, Jean-Michel; Kérourédan, Olivia; Medina, Manuela; Rémy, Murielle; Thébaud, Noélie Brunehilde; Bareille, Reine; Chassande, Olivier; Amédée, Joëlle; Catros, Sylvain; Devillard, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering of large organs is currently limited by the lack of potent vascularization in vitro . Tissue-engineered bone grafts can be prevascularized in vitro using endothelial cells (ECs). The microvascular network architecture could be controlled by printing ECs following a specific pattern. Using laser-assisted bioprinting, we investigated the effect of distance between printed cell islets and the influence of coprinted mesenchymal cells on migration. When printed alone, ECs spread out evenly on the collagen hydrogel, regardless of the distance between cell islets. However, when printed in coculture with mesenchymal cells by laser-assisted bioprinting, they remained in the printed area. Therefore, the presence of mesenchymal cell is mandatory in order to create a pattern that will be conserved over time. This work describes an interesting approach to study cell migration that could be reproduced to study the effect of trophic factors.

  1. Robotic Patterning a Superhydrophobic Surface for Collective Cell Migration Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yonggang; Yang, Jing; Hui, Zhixin; Grottkau, Brian E

    2018-04-01

    Collective cell migration, in which cells migrate as a group, is fundamental in many biological and pathological processes. There is increasing interest in studying the collective cell migration in high throughput. Cell scratching, insertion blocker, and gel-dissolving techniques are some methodologies used previously. However, these methods have the drawbacks of cell damage, substrate surface alteration, limitation in medium exchange, and solvent interference. The superhydrophobic surface, on which the water contact angle is greater than 150 degrees, has been recently utilized to generate patterned arrays. Independent cell culture areas can be generated on a substrate that functions the same as a conventional multiple well plate. However, so far there has been no report on superhydrophobic patterning for the study of cell migration. In this study, we report on the successful development of a robotically patterned superhydrophobic array for studying collective cell migration in high throughput. The array was developed on a rectangular single-well cell culture plate consisting of hydrophilic flat microwells separated by the superhydrophobic surface. The manufacturing process is robotic and includes patterning discrete protective masks to the substrate using 3D printing, robotic spray coating of silica nanoparticles, robotic mask removal, robotic mini silicone blocker patterning, automatic cell seeding, and liquid handling. Compared with a standard 96-well plate, our system increases the throughput by 2.25-fold and generates a cell-free area in each well non-destructively. Our system also demonstrates higher efficiency than conventional way of liquid handling using microwell plates, and shorter processing time than manual operating in migration assays. The superhydrophobic surface had no negative impact on cell viability. Using our system, we studied the collective migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and cancer cells using assays of endpoint

  2. Size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions using positive matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Sáez, Aida; Viana, Mar; Barrios, Carmen C; Rubio, Jose R; Amato, Fulvio; Pujadas, Manuel; Querol, Xavier

    2012-10-16

    A novel on-board system was tested to characterize size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions, running in a EURO4 diesel vehicle and in a typical urban circuit in Madrid (Spain). Emission profiles were determined as a function of driving conditions. Source apportionment by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was carried out to interpret the real-world driving conditions. Three emission patterns were identified: (F1) cruise conditions, with medium-high speeds, contributing in this circuit with 60% of total particle number and a particle size distribution dominated by particles >52 nm and around 60 nm; (F2) transient conditions, stop-and-go conditions at medium-high speed, contributing with 25% of the particle number and mainly emitting particles in the nucleation mode; and (F3) creep-idle conditions, representing traffic congestion and frequent idling periods, contributing with 14% to the total particle number and with particles in the nucleation mode (emissions depending on particle size and driving conditions. Differences between real-world emission patterns and regulatory cycles (NEDC) are also presented, which evidence that detecting particle number emissions real-world driving conditions.

  3. Regional variations in HDL metabolism in human fat cells: effect of cell size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despres, J.; Fong, B.S.; Julien, P.; Jimenez, J.; Angel, A.

    1987-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is related to reduced plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and both are associated with cardiovascular disease risk. The authors have observed that plasma membranes from abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes have a greater HDL binding capacity than omental fat cell plasma membranes. The present study examined whether these binding characteristics could be due to differences in fat cell size or cholesterol concentration between the two adipose depots. Abdominal subcutaneous and deep omental fat were obtained from massively obese patients at surgery. Subcutaneous abdominal fat cells were significantly larger and their cellular cholesterol content greater than omental adipocytes. The uptake of HDL by collagenase-isolated fat cells was studied by incubating the cells for 2 h at 37 0 C with 10 μg/ml 125 I-HDL 2 or 125 I-HDL 3 . In both depots, the cellular uptake of 125 I-HDL 2 and 125 I-HDL 3 was specifically inhibited by addition of 25-fold excess unlabeled HDL and a close correlation was observed between the cellular uptake of 125 I-HDL 2 and 125 I-HDL 3 . In obese patients, the uptake of 125 I-HDL was higher in subcutaneous cells than in omental cells. The cellular 125 I-HDL uptake was significantly correlated with adipocyte size and fat cell cholesterol content but not with adipocyte cholesterol concentration. These results suggest that the higher HDL uptake observed in subcutaneous cells compared with omental cells in obesity is the result of differences in adipocyte size rather than differences in the cholesterol concentration (cholesterol-to-triglyceride ratio). The increased interaction of HDL with hypertrophied abdominal adipocytes may play an important role in determining the lipid composition of HDL in obesity

  4. Temporal anomaly detection: an artificial immune approach based on T cell activation, clonal size regulation and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Mário J; Correia, Manuel E

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial immune system (AIS) based on Grossman's tunable activation threshold (TAT) for temporal anomaly detection. We describe the generic AIS framework and the TAT model adopted for simulating T Cells behaviour, emphasizing two novel important features: the temporal dynamic adjustment of T Cells clonal size and its associated homeostasis mechanism. We also present some promising results obtained with artificially generated data sets, aiming to test the appropriateness of using TAT in dynamic changing environments, to distinguish new unseen patterns as part of what should be detected as normal or as anomalous. We conclude by discussing results obtained thus far with artificially generated data sets.

  5. Collective motion of cells mediates segregation and pattern formation in co-cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elod Méhes

    Full Text Available Pattern formation by segregation of cell types is an important process during embryonic development. We show that an experimentally yet unexplored mechanism based on collective motility of segregating cells enhances the effects of known pattern formation mechanisms such as differential adhesion, mechanochemical interactions or cell migration directed by morphogens. To study in vitro cell segregation we use time-lapse videomicroscopy and quantitative analysis of the main features of the motion of individual cells or groups. Our observations have been extensive, typically involving the investigation of the development of patterns containing up to 200,000 cells. By either comparing keratocyte types with different collective motility characteristics or increasing cells' directional persistence by the inhibition of Rac1 GTP-ase we demonstrate that enhanced collective cell motility results in faster cell segregation leading to the formation of more extensive patterns. The growth of the characteristic scale of patterns generally follows an algebraic scaling law with exponent values up to 0.74 in the presence of collective motion, compared to significantly smaller exponents in case of diffusive motion.

  6. Capillarity Guided Patterning of Microliquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myeongwoo; Park, Woohyun; Na, Sangcheol; Paik, Sang-Min; Lee, Hyunjae; Park, Jae Woo; Kim, Ho-Young; Jeon, Noo Li

    2015-06-01

    Soft lithography and other techniques have been developed to investigate biological and chemical phenomena as an alternative to photolithography-based patterning methods that have compatibility problems. Here, a simple approach for nonlithographic patterning of liquids and gels inside microchannels is described. Using a design that incorporates strategically placed microstructures inside the channel, microliquids or gels can be spontaneously trapped and patterned when the channel is drained. The ability to form microscale patterns inside microfluidic channels using simple fluid drain motion offers many advantages. This method is geometrically analyzed based on hydrodynamics and verified with simulation and experiments. Various materials (i.e., water, hydrogels, and other liquids) are successfully patterned with complex shapes that are isolated from each other. Multiple cell types are patterned within the gels. Capillarity guided patterning (CGP) is fast, simple, and robust. It is not limited by pattern shape, size, cell type, and material. In a simple three-step process, a 3D cancer model that mimics cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions is engineered. The simplicity and robustness of the CGP will be attractive for developing novel in vitro models of organ-on-a-chip and other biological experimental platforms amenable to long-term observation of dynamic events using advanced imaging and analytical techniques. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Patterning of Endothelial Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Laser-Assisted Bioprinting to Study Cell Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Bourget

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering of large organs is currently limited by the lack of potent vascularization in vitro. Tissue-engineered bone grafts can be prevascularized in vitro using endothelial cells (ECs. The microvascular network architecture could be controlled by printing ECs following a specific pattern. Using laser-assisted bioprinting, we investigated the effect of distance between printed cell islets and the influence of coprinted mesenchymal cells on migration. When printed alone, ECs spread out evenly on the collagen hydrogel, regardless of the distance between cell islets. However, when printed in coculture with mesenchymal cells by laser-assisted bioprinting, they remained in the printed area. Therefore, the presence of mesenchymal cell is mandatory in order to create a pattern that will be conserved over time. This work describes an interesting approach to study cell migration that could be reproduced to study the effect of trophic factors.

  8. Cell Patterning for Liver Tissue Engineering via Dielectrophoretic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Nurlina Wan Yahya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Liver transplantation is the most common treatment for patients with end-stage liver failure. However, liver transplantation is greatly limited by a shortage of donors. Liver tissue engineering may offer an alternative by providing an implantable engineered liver. Currently, diverse types of engineering approaches for in vitro liver cell culture are available, including scaffold-based methods, microfluidic platforms, and micropatterning techniques. Active cell patterning via dielectrophoretic (DEP force showed some advantages over other methods, including high speed, ease of handling, high precision and being label-free. This article summarizes liver function and regenerative mechanisms for better understanding in developing engineered liver. We then review recent advances in liver tissue engineering techniques and focus on DEP-based cell patterning, including microelectrode design and patterning configuration.

  9. Nuclear size and cell division delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-induced division delay has been linked to damage at the nuclear envelope. Further, cells in G 2 phase are drastically arrested by high LET radiation such that single particles traversing cell nuclei may produce measurable division delay. A modest effort was initiated using two related cell lines of different size, near-diploid cells and near-tetraploid cells of Chinese hamster origin, to compare their sensitivity for radiation-induced division delay. If the nuclear surface is the critical target, then a larger nuclear cross-section presented to an alpha-particle beam should exhibit delay induced by a lesser particle fluence. Preliminary estimates of the extent of delay in asynchronous cultures following low doses of gamma-irradiation or of alpha-irradiation were made by in-situ observation of the time of onset of mitosis and by fixation and staining of cultures to determine the mitotic index as a function of time after irradiation. The basic approach to evaluating division delay will be to use Colecemid to accumulate mitotic cells over a period of time

  10. Analysis of allelic expression patterns in clonal somatic cells by single-cell RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinius, Björn; Mold, Jeff E; Ramsköld, Daniel; Deng, Qiaolin; Johnsson, Per; Michaëlsson, Jakob; Frisén, Jonas; Sandberg, Rickard

    2016-11-01

    Cellular heterogeneity can emerge from the expression of only one parental allele. However, it has remained controversial whether, or to what degree, random monoallelic expression of autosomal genes (aRME) is mitotically inherited (clonal) or stochastic (dynamic) in somatic cells, particularly in vivo. Here we used allele-sensitive single-cell RNA-seq on clonal primary mouse fibroblasts and freshly isolated human CD8 + T cells to dissect clonal and dynamic monoallelic expression patterns. Dynamic aRME affected a considerable portion of the cells' transcriptomes, with levels dependent on the cells' transcriptional activity. Notably, clonal aRME was detected, but it was surprisingly scarce (aRME occurs transiently within individual cells, and patterns of aRME are thus primarily scattered throughout somatic cell populations rather than, as previously hypothesized, confined to patches of clonally related cells.

  11. Cell cycles and proliferation patterns in Haematococcus pluvialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhui; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Litao

    2017-09-01

    Most studies on Haematococcus pluvialis have been focused on cell growth and astaxanthin accumulation; far less attention has been paid to cell cycles and proliferation patterns. The purpose of this study was to clarify cell cycles and proliferation patterns in H. pluvialis microscopically using a camera and video recorder system. The complicated life history of H. pluvialis can be divided into two stages: the motile stage and the non-motile stage. All the cells can be classified into forms as follows: motile cell, nonmotile cell, zoospore and aplanospore. The main cell proliferation, both in the motile phase and non-motile phase in H. pluvialis, is by asexual reproduction. Under normal growth conditions, a motile cell usually produces two, sometimes four, and exceptionally eight zoospores. Under unfavorable conditions, the motile cell loses its flagella and transforms into a non-motile cell, and the non-motile cell usually produces 2, 4 or 8 aplanospores, and occasionally 20-32 aplanospores, which further develop into non-motile cells. Under suitable conditions, the non-motile cell is also able to release zoospores. The larger non-motile cells produce more than 16 zoospores, and the smaller ones produce 4 or 8 zoospores. Vegetative reproduction is by direct cell division in the motile phase and by occasional cell budding in the non-motile phase. There is, as yet, no convincing direct evidence for sexual reproduction.

  12. Positional dependence of scale size and shape in butterfly wings: wing-wide phenotypic coordination of color-pattern elements and background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaba, Kiseki; Otaki, Joji M

    2009-02-01

    Butterfly wing color-patterns are a phenotypically coordinated array of scales whose color is determined as cellular interpretation outputs for morphogenic signals. Here we investigated distribution patterns of scale shape and size in relation to position and coloration on the hindwings of a nymphalid butterfly Junonia orithya. Most scales had a smooth edge but scales at and near the natural and ectopic eyespot foci and in the postbasal area were jagged. Scale size decreased regularly from the postbasal to distal areas, and eyespots occasionally had larger scales than the background. Reasonable correlations were obtained between the eyespot size and focal scale size in females. Histological and real-time individual observations of the color-pattern developmental sequence showed that the background brown and blue colors expanded from the postbasal to distal areas independently from the color-pattern elements such as eyespots. These data suggest that morphogenic signals for coloration directly or indirectly influence the scale shape and size and that the blue "background" is organized by a long-range signal from an unidentified organizing center in J. orithya.

  13. Cell Size and Growth Rate Are Modulated by TORC2-Dependent Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Rafael; Alcaide-Gavilán, Maria; Schubert, Katherine; He, Maybo; Domnauer, Matthew G; Marquer, Catherine; Klose, Christian; Surma, Michal A; Kellogg, Douglas R

    2018-01-22

    The size of all cells, from bacteria to vertebrates, is proportional to the growth rate set by nutrient availability, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that nutrients modulate cell size and growth rate via the TORC2 signaling network in budding yeast. An important function of the TORC2 network is to modulate synthesis of ceramide lipids, which play roles in signaling. TORC2-dependent control of ceramide signaling strongly influences both cell size and growth rate. Thus, cells that cannot make ceramides fail to modulate their growth rate or size in response to changes in nutrients. PP2A associated with the Rts1 regulatory subunit (PP2A Rts1 ) is embedded in a feedback loop that controls TORC2 signaling and helps set the level of TORC2 signaling to match nutrient availability. Together, the data suggest a model in which growth rate and cell size are mechanistically linked by ceramide-dependent signals arising from the TORC2 network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cell adhesion pattern created by OSTE polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjia; Li, Yiyang; Ding, Xianting

    2017-04-24

    Engineering surfaces with functional polymers is a crucial issue in the field of micro/nanofabrication and cell-material interface studies. For many applications of surface patterning, it does not need cells to attach on the whole surface. Herein, we introduce a novel polymer fabrication protocol of off-stoichiometry thiol-ene (OSTE) polymers to create heterogeneity on the surface by utilizing 3D printing and soft-lithography. By choosing two OSTE polymers with different functional groups, we create a pattern where only parts of the surface can facilitate cell adhesion. We also study the hydrophilic property of OSTE polymers by mixing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) directly with pre-polymers and plasma treatments afterwards. Moreover, we investigate the effect of functional groups' excess ratio and hydrophilic property on the cell adhesion ability of OSTE polymers. The results show that the cell adhesion ability of OSTE materials can be tuned within a wide range by the coupling effect of functional groups' excess ratio and hydrophilic property. Meanwhile, by mixing PEG with pre-polymers and undergoing oxygen plasma treatment afterward can significantly improve the hydrophilic property of OSTE polymers.

  15. Aggregation patterns of fetal rat brain cells following exposure to X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, R.; Suzuki, K.; Lee, I.P.

    1980-01-01

    In our search for a simplified in vitro test system to assess the teratogenic effects of physical factors, we studied the effects of total maternal body X-irradiation on aggregation patterns of enzymatically isolated fetal rat brain cells and on ultrastructural aggregate changes. The fetal brain cells were derived from day 14 gestation fetuses of pregnant Sprague-Dawley (CD strain) rats exposed to X-irradiation (25 - 200 R) one hour prior to sacrifice. Notable changes in the cell aggregates following X-irradiation included a reduction in cell aggregate size and an increase in number. The frequency of cell aggregates was higher in the treated than in the control group, and the mean diameter of cell aggregates was inversely related to increasing X-irradiation doses. Transmission electron microscopy revealed in isolated cells features of degenerative process which were similar to those found in intact fetal brain lesions caused by maternal X-irradiation. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy revealed that inhibition of cell aggregation following X-irradiation could probably be attributed to inhibition of membrane filopodia development and a consequent failure of cell aggregates to fuse into a greater cell aggregate mass. These results suggest that the membrane factors which influence cell aggregation may be a useful parameter to assess early effects of X-irradiation-induced brain deformity. Presently, the cell aggregation culture system is being further evaluated as a short term test system for environmental teratogens

  16. Sizing for fuel cell/supercapacitor hybrid vehicles based on stochastic driving cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feroldi, Diego; Carignano, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A sizing procedure based on the fulfilment of real driving conditions is proposed. • A methodology to generate long-term stochastic driving cycles is proposed. • A parametric optimization of the real-time EMS is conducted. • A trade-off design is adopted from a Pareto front. • A comparison with optimal consumption via Dynamic Programming is performed. - Abstract: In this article, a methodology for the sizing and analysis of fuel cell/supercapacitor hybrid vehicles is presented. The proposed sizing methodology is based on the fulfilment of power requirements, including sustained speed tests and stochastic driving cycles. The procedure to generate driving cycles is also presented in this paper. The sizing algorithm explicitly accounts for the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS). The performance is compared with optimal consumption, which is found using an off-line strategy via Dynamic Programming. The sizing methodology provides guidance for sizing the fuel cell and the supercapacitor number. The results also include analysis on oversizing the fuel cell and varying the parameters of the energy management strategy. The simulation results highlight the importance of integrating sizing and energy management into fuel cell hybrid vehicles.

  17. Uniform fabrication of thick SU-8 patterns on small-sized wafers for micro-optics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abada, S.; Reig, B.; Daran, E.; Doucet, JB; Camps, T.; Charlot, S.; Bardinal, V.

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports on an alternative method for precise and uniform fabrication of 100μm-thick SU-8 microstructures on small-sized or non-circular samples. Standard spin-coating of high-viscosity resists is indeed known to induce large edge beads, leading to an air gap between the mask and the SU-8 photo-resist surface during UV photolithography. This results in a non uniform thickness deposition and in a poor pattern definition. This problem becomes highly critical in the case of small-sized samples. To overcome it, we have developed a soft thermal imprint method based on the use of a nano-imprint equipment and applicable whatever sample fragility, shape and size (from 2cm to 6 inches). After final photolithography, the SU8 pattern thickness variation profile is measured. Thickness uniformity is improved from 30% to 5% with a 5μm maximal deviation to the target value over 2cm-long samples.

  18. A Study on Cell Size of Irradiated Spacer Grid for PWR Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Y. G.; Kim, G. S.; Ryu, W. S. and others

    2014-01-01

    The spacer grids supporting the fuel rods absorb vibration impacts due to the reactor coolant flow, and grid spring force decreases under irradiation. This reduction of contact force might cause grid-to-rod fretting wear. The fretting failure of the fuel rod is one of the recent significant issues in the nuclear industry from an economical as well as a safety concern. Thus, it is important to understand the characteristics of cell spring behavior and the change in size of grid cells for an irradiated spacer grid. In the present study, the dimensional measurement of a spacer grid was conducted to investigate the cell size of an irradiated spacer grid in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. To evaluate the fretting wear performance of an irradiated spacer grid, hot cell tests were carried out at IMEF of KAERI. Hot cell examinations include dimensional measurements for the irradiated spacer grid. The change of cell sizes was dependent on the direction of the spacer grids, leading to significant gap variations. It was found that the change in size of the cell springs due to irradiation-induced stress relaxation and creep during the fuel residency in the reactor core affect the contact behavior between the fuel rod and the cell spring

  19. Sub-sets of cancer stem cells differ intrinsically in their patterns of oxygen metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Gammon

    Full Text Available The glycolytic response of hypoxic cells is primarily mediated by the hypoxia inducible factor alpha (HIF-1α but even in the presence of abundant oxygen tumours typically show high rates of glycolysis. Higher levels of HIF-1α in tumours are associated with a poorer prognosis and up-regulation of markers of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT due to HIF-1α actions. We have recently shown that EMT occurs within the CD44(high cancer stem cell (CSC fraction and that epithelial and EMT CSCs are distinguished by high and low ESA expression, respectively. We here show that hypoxia induces a marked shift of the CSC fraction towards EMT leading to altered cell morphology, an increased proportion of CD44(high/ESA(low cells, patterns of gene expression typical of EMT, and enhanced sphere-forming ability. The size of EMT fractions returned to control levels in normoxia indicating a reversible process. Surprisingly, however, even under normoxic conditions a fraction of EMT CSCs was present and maintained high levels of HIF-1α, apparently due to actions of cytokines such as TNFα. Functionally, this EMT CSC fraction showed decreased mitochondrial mass and membrane potential, consumed far less oxygen per cell, and produced markedly reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS. These differences in the patterns of oxygen metabolism of sub-fractions of tumour cells provide an explanation for the general therapeutic resistance of CSCs and for the even greater resistance of EMT CSCs. They also identify potential mechanisms for manipulation of CSCs.

  20. Development of Spatial Distribution Patterns by Biofilm Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Hansen, Susse Kirkelund; Bak Christensen, Bjarke

    2015-01-01

    -pattern by Acinetobacter sp. C6. Ecological spatial pattern analyses revealed that the microcolonies were not entirely randomly distributed, and instead arranged in a uniform pattern. Detailed time-lapse confocal microscopy at the single cell level demonstrated that the spatial pattern was the result of an intriguing self......-organization: Small multicellular clusters moved along the surface to fuse with one another to form microcolonies. This active distribution capability was dependent on environmental factors (carbon source, oxygen) and historical contingency (formation of phenotypic variants). The findings of this study are discussed...

  1. Size matters at deep-sea hydrothermal vents: different diversity and habitat fidelity patterns of meio- and macrofauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gollner, S.; Govenar, B.; Fisher, C.R.; Bright, M.

    2015-01-01

    Species with markedly different sizes interact when sharing the same habitat. Unravelling mechanisms that control diversity thus requires consideration of a range of size classes. We compared patterns of diversity and community structure for meio- and macrofaunal communities sampled along a gradient

  2. Global patterns of city size distributions and their fundamental drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan H Decker

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas and their voracious appetites are increasingly dominating the flows of energy and materials around the globe. Understanding the size distribution and dynamics of urban areas is vital if we are to manage their growth and mitigate their negative impacts on global ecosystems. For over 50 years, city size distributions have been assumed to universally follow a power function, and many theories have been put forth to explain what has become known as Zipf's law (the instance where the exponent of the power function equals unity. Most previous studies, however, only include the largest cities that comprise the tail of the distribution. Here we show that national, regional and continental city size distributions, whether based on census data or inferred from cluster areas of remotely-sensed nighttime lights, are in fact lognormally distributed through the majority of cities and only approach power functions for the largest cities in the distribution tails. To explore generating processes, we use a simple model incorporating only two basic human dynamics, migration and reproduction, that nonetheless generates distributions very similar to those found empirically. Our results suggest that macroscopic patterns of human settlements may be far more constrained by fundamental ecological principles than more fine-scale socioeconomic factors.

  3. MANOVA for Nested Designs with Unequal Cell Sizes and Unequal Cell Covariance Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wen Xu

    2014-01-01

    satisfactorily for various cell sizes and parameter configurations and generally outperforms the AHT test in terms of controlling the nominal size. For the heteroscedastic cases, the PB test outperforms the AHT test in terms of power. In addition, the PB test does not lose too much power when the homogeneity assumption is actually valid.

  4. Spatially patterned matrix elasticity directs stem cell fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; DelRio, Frank W.; Ma, Hao; Killaars, Anouk R.; Basta, Lena P.; Kyburz, Kyle A.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2016-08-01

    There is a growing appreciation for the functional role of matrix mechanics in regulating stem cell self-renewal and differentiation processes. However, it is largely unknown how subcellular, spatial mechanical variations in the local extracellular environment mediate intracellular signal transduction and direct cell fate. Here, the effect of spatial distribution, magnitude, and organization of subcellular matrix mechanical properties on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs) function was investigated. Exploiting a photodegradation reaction, a hydrogel cell culture substrate was fabricated with regions of spatially varied and distinct mechanical properties, which were subsequently mapped and quantified by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The variations in the underlying matrix mechanics were found to regulate cellular adhesion and transcriptional events. Highly spread, elongated morphologies and higher Yes-associated protein (YAP) activation were observed in hMSCs seeded on hydrogels with higher concentrations of stiff regions in a dose-dependent manner. However, when the spatial organization of the mechanically stiff regions was altered from a regular to randomized pattern, lower levels of YAP activation with smaller and more rounded cell morphologies were induced in hMSCs. We infer from these results that irregular, disorganized variations in matrix mechanics, compared with regular patterns, appear to disrupt actin organization, and lead to different cell fates; this was verified by observations of lower alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and higher expression of CD105, a stem cell marker, in hMSCs in random versus regular patterns of mechanical properties. Collectively, this material platform has allowed innovative experiments to elucidate a novel spatial mechanical dosing mechanism that correlates to both the magnitude and organization of spatial stiffness.

  5. Macroecological patterns of sexual size dimorphism in turtles of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Ennen, Joshua R.; Nowakowski, A. Justin; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Sweat, Sarah C.; Todd, Brian D.

    2018-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a well-documented phenomenon in both plants and animals; however, the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that drive and maintain SSD patterns across geographic space at regional and global scales are understudied, especially for reptiles. Our goal was to examine geographic variation of turtle SSD and to explore ecological and environmental correlates using phylogenetic comparative methods. We use published body size data on 135 species from nine turtle families to examine how geographic patterns and the evolution of SSD are influenced by habitat specialization, climate (annual mean temperature and annual precipitation) and climate variability, latitude, or a combination of these predictor variables. We found that geographic variation, magnitude and direction of turtle SSD are best explained by habitat association, annual temperature variance and annual precipitation. Use of semi-aquatic and terrestrial habitats was associated with male-biased SSD, whereas use of aquatic habitat was associated with female-biased SSD. Our results also suggest that greater temperature variability is associated with female-biased SSD. In contrast, wetter climates are associated with male-biased SSD compared with arid climates that are associated with female-biased SSD. We also show support for a global latitudinal trend in SSD, with females being larger than males towards the poles, especially in the families Emydidae and Geoemydidae. Estimates of phylogenetic signal for both SSD and habitat type indicate that closely related species occupy similar habitats and exhibit similar direction and magnitude of SSD. These global patterns of SSD may arise from sex-specific reproductive behaviour, fecundity and sex-specific responses to environmental factors that differ among habitats and vary systematically across latitude. Thus, this study adds to our current understanding that while SSD can vary dramatically across and within turtle species under

  6. Lateral Membrane Waves Constitute a Universal Dynamic Pattern of Motile Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döbereiner, Hans-Günther; Dubin-Thaler, Benjamin J.; Hofman, Jake M.; Xenias, Harry S.; Sims, Tasha N.; Giannone, Grégory; Dustin, Michael L.; Wiggins, Chris H.; Sheetz, Michael P.

    2006-07-01

    We have monitored active movements of the cell circumference on specifically coated substrates for a variety of cells including mouse embryonic fibroblasts and T cells, as well as wing disk cells from fruit flies. Despite having different functions and being from multiple phyla, these cell types share a common spatiotemporal pattern in their normal membrane velocity; we show that protrusion and retraction events are organized in lateral waves along the cell membrane. These wave patterns indicate both spatial and temporal long-range periodic correlations of the actomyosin gel.

  7. Three-dimensional cell manipulation and patterning using dielectrophoresis via a multi-layer scaffold structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, H K; Huan, Z; Mills, J K; Yang, J; Sun, D

    2015-02-07

    Cell manipulation is imperative to the areas of cellular biology and tissue engineering, providing them a useful tool for patterning cells into cellular patterns for different analyses and applications. This paper presents a novel approach to perform three-dimensional (3D) cell manipulation and patterning with a multi-layer engineered scaffold. This scaffold structure employed dielectrophoresis as the non-contact mechanism to manipulate cells in the 3D domain. Through establishing electric fields via this multi-layer structure, the cells in the medium became polarized and were attracted towards the interior part of the structure, forming 3D cellular patterns. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the manipulation and the patterning processes with the proposed structure. Results show that with the presence of a voltage input, this multi-layer structure was capable of manipulating different types of biological cells examined through dielectrophoresis, enabling automatic cell patterning in the time-scale of minutes. The effects of the voltage input on the resultant cellular pattern were examined and discussed. Viability test was performed after the patterning operation and the results confirmed that majority of the cells remained viable. After 7 days of culture, 3D cellular patterns were observed through SEM. The results suggest that this scaffold and its automated dielectrophoresis-based patterning mechanism can be used to construct artificial tissues for various tissue engineering applications.

  8. Cell pattern in adult human corneal endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H Wörner

    Full Text Available A review of the current data on the cell density of normal adult human endothelial cells was carried out in order to establish some common parameters appearing in the different considered populations. From the analysis of cell growth patterns, it is inferred that the cell aging rate is similar for each of the different considered populations. Also, the morphology, the cell distribution and the tendency to hexagonallity are studied. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that this phenomenon is analogous with cell behavior in other structures such as dry foams and grains in polycrystalline materials. Therefore, its driving force may be controlled by the surface tension and the mobility of the boundaries.

  9. Identification of transcript regulatory patterns in cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusnanto, Arief; Gosling, John Paul; Pope, Christopher

    2017-10-15

    Studying transcript regulatory patterns in cell differentiation is critical in understanding its complex nature of the formation and function of different cell types. This is done usually by measuring gene expression at different stages of the cell differentiation. However, if the gene expression data available are only from the mature cells, we have some challenges in identifying transcript regulatory patterns that govern the cell differentiation. We propose to exploit the information of the lineage of cell differentiation in terms of correlation structure between cell types. We assume that two different cell types that are close in the lineage will exhibit many common genes that are co-expressed relative to those that are far in the lineage. Current analysis methods tend to ignore this correlation by testing for differential expression assuming some sort of independence between cell types. We employ a Bayesian approach to estimate the posterior distribution of the mean of expression in each cell type, by taking into account the cell formation path in the lineage. This enables us to infer genes that are specific in each cell type, indicating the genes are involved in directing the cell differentiation to that particular cell type. We illustrate the method using gene expression data from a study of haematopoiesis. R codes to perform the analysis are available in http://www1.maths.leeds.ac.uk/∼arief/R/CellDiff/. a.gusnanto@leeds.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Frost and leaf-size gradients in forests: global patterns and experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Christopher H; Clearwater, Michael J; Laughlin, Daniel C; Harrison, Sandy P; Prentice, Iain Colin; Nordenstahl, Marisa; Smith, Benjamin

    2018-05-16

    Explanations of leaf size variation commonly focus on water availability, yet leaf size also varies with latitude and elevation in environments where water is not strongly limiting. We provide the first conclusive test of a prediction of leaf energy balance theory that may explain this pattern: large leaves are more vulnerable to night-time chilling, because their thick boundary layers impede convective exchange with the surrounding air. Seedlings of 15 New Zealand evergreens spanning 12-fold variation in leaf width were exposed to clear night skies, and leaf temperatures were measured with thermocouples. We then used a global dataset to assess several climate variables as predictors of leaf size in forest assemblages. Leaf minus air temperature was strongly correlated with leaf width, ranging from -0.9 to -3.2°C in the smallest- and largest-leaved species, respectively. Mean annual temperature and frost-free period were good predictors of evergreen angiosperm leaf size in forest assemblages, but no climate variable predicted deciduous leaf size. Although winter deciduousness makes large leaves possible in strongly seasonal climates, large-leaved evergreens are largely confined to frost-free climates because of their susceptibility to radiative cooling. Evergreen leaf size data can therefore be used to enhance vegetation models, and to infer palaeotemperatures from fossil leaf assemblages. © 2018 The Authors New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Single-Cell Analysis of Growth in Budding Yeast and Bacteria Reveals a Common Size Regulation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soifer, Ilya; Robert, Lydia; Amir, Ariel

    2016-02-08

    To maintain a constant cell size, dividing cells have to coordinate cell-cycle events with cell growth. This coordination has long been supposed to rely on the existence of size thresholds determining cell-cycle progression [1]. In budding yeast, size is controlled at the G1/S transition [2]. In agreement with this hypothesis, the size at birth influences the time spent in G1: smaller cells have a longer G1 period [3]. Nevertheless, even though cells born smaller have a longer G1, the compensation is imperfect and they still bud at smaller cell sizes. In bacteria, several recent studies have shown that the incremental model of size control, in which size is controlled by addition of a constant volume (in contrast to a size threshold), is able to quantitatively explain the experimental data on four different bacterial species [4-7]. Here, we report on experimental results for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, finding, surprisingly, that cell size control in this organism is very well described by the incremental model, suggesting a common strategy for cell size control with bacteria. Additionally, we argue that for S. cerevisiae the "volume increment" is not added from birth to division, but rather between two budding events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative tracking of tumor cells in phase-contrast microscopy exploiting halo artifact pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mi-Sun; Song, Soo-Min; Lee, Hana; Kim, Myoung-Hee

    2012-03-01

    Tumor cell morphology is closely related to its invasiveness characteristics and migratory behaviors. An invasive tumor cell has a highly irregular shape, whereas a spherical cell is non-metastatic. Thus, quantitative analysis of cell features is crucial to determine tumor malignancy or to test the efficacy of anticancer treatment. We use phase-contrast microscopy to analyze single cell morphology and to monitor its change because it enables observation of long-term activity of living cells without photobleaching and phototoxicity, which is common in other fluorescence-labeled microscopy. Despite this advantage, there are image-level drawbacks to phase-contrast microscopy, such as local light effect and contrast interference ring, among others. Thus, we first applied a local filter to compensate for non-uniform illumination. Then, we used intensity distribution information to detect the cell boundary. In phase-contrast microscopy images, the cell normally appears as a dark region surrounded by a bright halo. As the halo artifact around the cell body is minimal and has an asymmetric diffusion pattern, we calculated the cross-sectional plane that intersected the center of each cell and was orthogonal to the first principal axis. Then, we extracted the dark cell region by level set. However, a dense population of cultured cells still rendered single-cell analysis difficult. Finally, we measured roundness and size to classify tumor cells into malignant and benign groups. We validated segmentation accuracy by comparing our findings with manually obtained results.

  13. Probing neural cell behaviors through micro-/nano-patterned chitosan substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Chun-Yen; Yang, Chung-Yao; Yeh, J Andrew; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Wang, Yang-Kao; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we describe the development of surface-modified chitosan substrates to examine topographically related Neuro-2a cell behaviors. Different functional groups can be modified on chitosan surfaces to probe Neuro-2a cell morphology. To prepare chitosan substrates with micro/nano-scaled features, we demonstrated an easy-to-handle method that combined photolithography, inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching, Ag nanoparticle-assisted etching, and solution casting. The results show that Neuro-2a cells preferred to adhere to a flat chitosan surface rather than a nanotextured chitosan surface as evidenced by greater immobilization and differentiation, suggesting that surface topography is crucial for neural patterning. In addition, we developed chitosan substrates with different geometric patterns and flat region depth; this allowed us to re-arrange or re-pattern Neuro-2a cell colonies at desired locations. We found that a polarity-induced micropattern provided the most suitable surface pattern for promoting neural network formation on a chitosan substrate. The cellular polarity of single Neuro-2a cell spreading correlated to a diamond-like geometry and neurite outgrowth was induced from the corners toward the grooves of the structures. This study provide greater insight into neurobiology, including neurotransmitter screening, electrophysiological stimulation platforms, and biomedical engineering. (paper)

  14. Cells immobilized on patterns printed in DNA by an inkjet printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kengo; Teramura, Yuji; Iwata, Hiroo

    2011-05-01

    The ability to two-dimensionally align various kinds of cells freely onto substrate would be a useful tool for analysis of cell-cell interactions. In this study, we aimed to establish a method for attaching cells to the substrate, in which the pattern is drawn by an inkjet printer. Poly-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was immobilized onto the cell surface by use of DNA-conjugated poly(ethylene) glycol-phospholipid (DNA-PEG-lipid), which is the amphiphilic conjugate of PEG-lipid and single-stranded DNA. The surface of the substrate was then modified with the complementary DNA using an inkjet printer. Finally, DNA-immobilized cells were attached onto the substrate through DNA hybridization. The use of the inkjet printer enabled us to draw the DNA pattern accurately on the substrate with a resolution of a few hundred micrometers. DNA-immobilized cells could be attached precisely along the DNA pattern on the substrate. In addition, various kinds of cells could be attached simultaneously by using various sequences of DNA. Our technique is promising for analysis of cell-cell interactions and differentiation induction in stem cell research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of epitaxial lateral overgrowth of semipolar (1 1 − 2 2) GaN by using different SiO2 pattern sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki-Ryong; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Han, Sang-Hyun; Yi, Hye-Rin; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We examine comparative studies of semipolar ELO-GaN film. • Semipolar ELO-GaN film was grown by three step growth method. • The achievement of smooth surface morphology of semipolar ELO-GaN. • The crystal and optical properties was significantly improved by ELO process. - Abstract: We investigated the growth mode and the crystal properties of lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) semipolar (1 1 − 2 2) GaN by using the various SiO 2 pattern sizes of 6, 8, 10 and 12 μm with the window width of 4.0 μm. By using three-step growth technique, we successfully obtained the fully-coalescenced semipolar (1 1 − 2 2) LEO-GaN films regardless of the SiO 2 pattern sizes. However, the coalescence thickness of LEO-GaN film was decreased with decreasing SiO 2 pattern size, indicating that the coalescence of semipolar (1 1 − 2 2) GaN was easily formed by decreasing the pattern size of SiO 2 mask. The full width at half maximums (FWHMs) of X-ray rocking curves (XRCs) of LEO-GaN films decreased with increasing SiO 2 pattern size. In the pattern size of 4 × 10 μm, we achieved the minimum XRCs FWHM of 537 and 368 arc s with two different X-ray incident beam directions of [1 1 − 2 − 3] and [1 − 1 0 0], respectively. Moreover, the photoluminescence bandedge emission of semipolar (1 1 − 2 2) GaN was 45 times increased by LEO process. Based on these results, we concluded that the LEO pattern size of 4 × 10 μm would effectively decrease crystal defects of semipolar (1 1 − 2 2) GaN epilayer, resulting in an improvement of the optical properties

  16. Cell patterning without chemical surface modification: Cell cell interactions between printed bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) on a homogeneous cell-adherent hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. Y.; Barron, J. A.; Ringeisen, B. R.

    2006-10-01

    Cell printing offers the unique ability to directly deposit one or multiple cell types directly onto a surface without the need to chemically pre-treat the surface with lithographic methods. We utilize biological laser printing (BioLP ™) to form patterns of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) onto a homogeneous cell adherent hydrogel surface. These normal cells are shown to retain near-100% viability post-printing. In order to determine whether BAECs encountered shear and/or heat stress during printing, immunocytochemical staining experiments were performed to detect potential expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) by the deposited cells. Printed BAECs expressed HSP at levels similar to negative control cells, indicating that the BioLP process does not expose cells to damaging levels of stress. However, HSP expression was slightly higher at the highest laser energy studied, suggesting more stress was present under these extreme conditions. Printed BAECs also showed preferential asymmetric growth and migration towards each other and away from the originally printed pattern, demonstrating a retained ability for the cells to communicate post-printing.

  17. Size and competitive mating success in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carl; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Greig, Duncan

    2014-03-01

    In unicellular organisms like yeast, mating with the right partner is critical to future fitness because each individual can only mate once. Because cell size is important for viability, mating with a partner of the right size could be a significant advantage. To investigate this idea, we manipulated the size of unmated yeast cells and showed that their viability depended on environmental conditions; large cells do better on rich medium and small cells do better on poor medium. We also found that the fitness of offspring is determined by the size of their parents. Finally, we demonstrated that when a focal cell of one mating type was placed with a large and a small cell of the opposite mating type, it was more likely to mate with the cell that was closer to the optimum size for growth in a given environment. This pattern was not generated by differences in passive mating efficiency of large and small cells across environments but by competitive mating behavior, mate preference, or both. We conclude that the most likely mechanism underlying this interesting behavior is that yeast cells compete for mates by producing pheromone signals advertising their viability, and cells with the opportunity to choose prefer to mate with stronger signalers because such matings produce more viable offspring.

  18. The duration of mitosis and daughter cell size are modulated by nutrients in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitao, Ricardo M; Kellogg, Douglas R

    2017-11-06

    The size of nearly all cells is modulated by nutrients. Thus, cells growing in poor nutrients can be nearly half the size of cells in rich nutrients. In budding yeast, cell size is thought to be controlled almost entirely by a mechanism that delays cell cycle entry until sufficient growth has occurred in G1 phase. Here, we show that most growth of a new daughter cell occurs in mitosis. When the rate of growth is slowed by poor nutrients, the duration of mitosis is increased, which suggests that cells compensate for slow growth in mitosis by increasing the duration of growth. The amount of growth required to complete mitosis is reduced in poor nutrients, leading to a large reduction in cell size. Together, these observations suggest that mechanisms that control the extent of growth in mitosis play a major role in cell size control in budding yeast. © 2017 Leitao and Kellogg.

  19. Design of flow-field patterns for proton exchange membrane fuel cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli, M.I.; Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Jaafar Sahari

    2006-01-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that produce electricity at high efficiency without combustion. Fuel cells are emerging as viable candidates as power sources in many applications, including road vehicles, small-scale power stations, and possibly even portable electronics. This paper addresses the design of flow-field patterns for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The PEMFC is a low-temperature fuel cell, in which a proton conductive polymer membrane is used as the electrolyte. In PEMFC, flow-field pattern is one important thing that effects the performance of PEMFC. This paper present three types of flow-field pattern that will be consider to be testing using CFD analysis and by experimental. The design look detail on to their shape and dimension to get the best pattern in term of more active electrode area compare to electrode area that will be used. Another advantage and disadvantage for these three type of flow-field patterns from literature also compared in this paper

  20. Vertebrate Embryonic Cleavage Pattern Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasley, Andrew; Chavez, Shawn; Danilchik, Michael; Wühr, Martin; Pelegri, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The pattern of the earliest cell divisions in a vertebrate embryo lays the groundwork for later developmental events such as gastrulation, organogenesis, and overall body plan establishment. Understanding these early cleavage patterns and the mechanisms that create them is thus crucial for the study of vertebrate development. This chapter describes the early cleavage stages for species representing ray-finned fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals, and proto-vertebrate ascidians and summarizes current understanding of the mechanisms that govern these patterns. The nearly universal influence of cell shape on orientation and positioning of spindles and cleavage furrows and the mechanisms that mediate this influence are discussed. We discuss in particular models of aster and spindle centering and orientation in large embryonic blastomeres that rely on asymmetric internal pulling forces generated by the cleavage furrow for the previous cell cycle. Also explored are mechanisms that integrate cell division given the limited supply of cellular building blocks in the egg and several-fold changes of cell size during early development, as well as cytoskeletal specializations specific to early blastomeres including processes leading to blastomere cohesion. Finally, we discuss evolutionary conclusions beginning to emerge from the contemporary analysis of the phylogenetic distributions of cleavage patterns. In sum, this chapter seeks to summarize our current understanding of vertebrate early embryonic cleavage patterns and their control and evolution.

  1. Three-dimensional growth patterns of various human tumor cell lines in simulated microgravity of a NASA bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M; Techy, G B; Saroufeem, R; Yazan, O; Narayan, K S; Goodwin, T J; Spaulding, G F

    1997-06-01

    Growth patterns of a number of human tumor cell lines that from three-dimensional structures of various architectures when cultured without carrier beads in a NASA rotary cell culture system are described and illustrated. The culture system, which was designed to mimic microgravity, maintained cells in suspension under very low-shear stress throughout culture. Spheroid (particulate) production occurred within a few hours after culture was started, and spheroids increased in size by cell division and fusion of small spheroids, usually stabilizing at a spheroid diameter of about 0.5 mm. Architecture of spheroids varied with cell type. Cellular interactions that occurred in spheroids resulted in conformation and shape changes of cells, and some cell lines produced complex, epithelial-like architectures. Expression of the cell adhesion molecules, CD44 and E cadherin, was upregulated in the three-dimensional constructs. Coculture of fibroblast spheroids with PC3 prostate cancer cells induced tenascin expression by the fibroblasts underlying the adherent prostate epithelial cells. Invasion of the fibroblast spheroids by the malignant epithelium was also demonstrated.

  2. Fabrication of 3D cell-laden hydrogel microstructures through photo-mold patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occhetta, P; Piraino, F; Redaelli, A; Rasponi, M; Sadr, N; Moretti, M

    2013-01-01

    Native tissues are characterized by spatially organized three-dimensional (3D) microscaled units which functionally define cells–cells and cells–extracellular matrix interactions. The ability to engineer biomimetic constructs mimicking these 3D microarchitectures is subject to the control over cell distribution and organization. In the present study we introduce a novel protocol to generate 3D cell laden hydrogel micropatterns with defined size and shape. The method, named photo-mold patterning (PMP), combines hydrogel micromolding within polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps and photopolymerization through a recently introduced biocompatible ultraviolet (UVA) activated photoinitiator (VA-086). Exploiting PDMS micromolds as geometrical constraints for two methacrylated prepolymers (polyethylene glycol diacrylate and gelatin methacrylate), micrometrically resolved structures were obtained within a 3 min exposure to a low cost and commercially available UVA LED. The PMP was validated both on a continuous cell line (human umbilical vein endothelial cells expressing green fluorescent protein, HUVEC GFP) and on primary human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). HUVEC GFP and BMSCs were exposed to 1.5% w/v VA-086 and UVA light (1 W, 385 nm, distance from sample = 5 cm). Photocrosslinking conditions applied during the PMP did not negatively affect cells viability or specific metabolic activity. Quantitative analyses demonstrated the potentiality of PMP to uniformly embed viable cells within 3D microgels, creating biocompatible and favorable environments for cell proliferation and spreading during a seven days' culture. PMP can thus be considered as a promising and cost effective tool for designing spatially accurate in vitro models and, in perspective, functional constructs. (paper)

  3. Patterned carbon nanotubes as a new three-dimensional scaffold for mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitirim, Verda Ceylan [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Bilkent University, 06800, Ankara (Turkey); Kucukayan-Dogu, Gokce [Institute of Engineering and Science, Material Science and Nanotechnology Graduate Program, Bilkent University, 06800, Ankara (Turkey); Bengu, Erman [Department of Chemistry, Bilkent University, 06800, Ankara (Turkey); Akcali, Kamil Can, E-mail: akcali@fen.bilkent.edu.tr [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Bilkent University, 06800, Ankara (Turkey); Bilgen, Bilkent University Genetics and Biotechnology Research Center, 06800, Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the cellular adhesive features of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on non-coated and collagen coated patterned and vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) structures mimicking the natural extra cellular matrix (ECM). Patterning was achieved using the elasto-capillary induced by water treatment on the CNT arrays. After confirmation with specific markers both at transcript and protein levels, MSCs from different passages were seeded on either collagen coated or non-coated patterned CNTs. Adhesion and growth of MSCs on the patterned CNT arrays were examined using scanning electron microscopy image analysis and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. The highest MSC count was observed on the non-coated patterned CNTs at passage zero, while decreasing numbers of MSCs were found at the later passages. Similarly, MTT assay results also revealed a decrease in the viability of the MSCs for the later passages. Overall, the cell count and viability experiments indicated that MSCs were able to better attach to non-coated patterned CNTs compared to those coated with collagen. Therefore, the patterned CNT surfaces can be potentially used as a scaffold mimicking the ECM environment for MSC growth which presents an alternative approach to MSC-based transplantation therapy applications. - Highlights: • Synthesized vertically aligned CNTs were patterned to be used as scaffold. • The growth of mesenchymal stem cells was achieved on the patterned CNTs. • The cell number was counted higher on the patterned CNTs than collagen coated CNTs. • The MTT assay results revealed the cell viability on the patterned CNTs.

  4. Patterned carbon nanotubes as a new three-dimensional scaffold for mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitirim, Verda Ceylan; Kucukayan-Dogu, Gokce; Bengu, Erman; Akcali, Kamil Can

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the cellular adhesive features of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on non-coated and collagen coated patterned and vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) structures mimicking the natural extra cellular matrix (ECM). Patterning was achieved using the elasto-capillary induced by water treatment on the CNT arrays. After confirmation with specific markers both at transcript and protein levels, MSCs from different passages were seeded on either collagen coated or non-coated patterned CNTs. Adhesion and growth of MSCs on the patterned CNT arrays were examined using scanning electron microscopy image analysis and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. The highest MSC count was observed on the non-coated patterned CNTs at passage zero, while decreasing numbers of MSCs were found at the later passages. Similarly, MTT assay results also revealed a decrease in the viability of the MSCs for the later passages. Overall, the cell count and viability experiments indicated that MSCs were able to better attach to non-coated patterned CNTs compared to those coated with collagen. Therefore, the patterned CNT surfaces can be potentially used as a scaffold mimicking the ECM environment for MSC growth which presents an alternative approach to MSC-based transplantation therapy applications. - Highlights: • Synthesized vertically aligned CNTs were patterned to be used as scaffold. • The growth of mesenchymal stem cells was achieved on the patterned CNTs. • The cell number was counted higher on the patterned CNTs than collagen coated CNTs. • The MTT assay results revealed the cell viability on the patterned CNTs

  5. On the size distribution of one-, two- and three-dimensional Voronoi cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marthinsen, K.

    1994-03-01

    The present report gives a presentation of the different cell size distribution obtained by computer simulations of random Voronoi cell structures in one-, two- and three-dimensional space. The random Voronoi cells are constructed from cell centroids randomly distributed along a string, in the plane and in three-dimensional space, respectively. The size distributions are based on 2-3 · 10 4 cells. For the spacial polyhedra both the distribution of volumes, areas and radii are presented, and the two latter quantities are compared to the distributions of areas and radii from a planar section through the three-dimensional structure as well as to the corresponding distributions obtained from a pure two-dimensional cell structure. 11 refs., 11 figs

  6. Response of MG63 osteoblast-like cells onto polycarbonate membrane surfaces with different micropore sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Choi, Jin San; Park, Ki Suk; Khang, Gilson; Lee, Young Moo; Lee, Hai Bang

    2004-08-01

    Response of different types of cells on materials is important for the applications of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. It is recognized that the behavior of the cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation on materials depends largely on surface characteristics such as wettability, chemistry, charge, rigidity, and roughness. In this study, we examined the behavior of MG63 osteoblast-like cells cultured on a polycarbonate (PC) membrane surfaces with different micropore sizes (0.2-8.0 microm in diameter). Cell adhesion and proliferation to the PC membrane surfaces were determined by cell counting and MTT assay. The effect of surface micropore on the MG63 cells was evaluated by cell morphology, protein content, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) specific activity. It seems that the cell adhesion and proliferation were progressively inhibited as the PC membranes had micropores with increasing size, probably due to surface discontinuities produced by track-etched pores. Increasing micropore size of the PC membrane results in improved protein synthesis and ALP specific activity in isolated cells. There was a statistically significant difference (Pmicropore sizes. The MG63 cells also maintained their phenotype under conditions that support a round cell shape. RT-PCR analysis further confirmed the osteogenic phenotype of the MG63 cells onto the PC membranes with different micropore sizes. In results, as micropore size is getting larger, cell number is reduced and cell differentiation and matrix production is increased. This study demonstrated that the surface topography plays an important role for phenotypic expression of the MG63 osteoblast-like cells.

  7. Small-size biofuel cell on paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Zhou, Ming; Wen, Dan; Bai, Lu; Lou, Baohua; Dong, Shaojun

    2012-05-15

    In this work, we demonstrated a novel paper-based mediator-less and compartment-less biofuel cell (BFC) with small size (1.5 cm × 1.5 cm). Ionic liquid functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs-IL) nanocomposite was used as support for both stably confining the anodic biocatalyst (i.e., NAD(+)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase, GDH) for glucose electrooxidation and for facilitating direct electrochemistry of the cathodic biocatalyst (i.e., bilirubin oxidase, BOD) for O(2) electroreduction. Such BFC provided a simple approach to fabricate low-cost and portable power devices on small-size paper, which can harvest energy from a wide range of commercial beverages containing glucose (e.g., Nescafe instant coffee, Maidong vitamin water, Watermelon fresh juice, and Minute Maid grape juice). These made the low-cost paper-based biodevice potential for broad energy applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Photo-patterning of porous hydrogels for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Stephanie J; Cuy, Janet L; Hauch, Kip D; Ratner, Buddy D

    2007-07-01

    Since pore size and geometry strongly impact cell behavior and in vivo reaction, the ability to create scaffolds with a wide range of pore geometries that can be tailored to suit a particular cell type addresses a key need in tissue engineering. In this contribution, we describe a novel and simple technique to design porous, degradable poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogel scaffolds with well-defined architectures using a unique photolithography process and optimized polymer chemistry. A sphere-template was used to produce a highly uniform, monodisperse porous structure. To create a patterned and porous hydrogel scaffold, a photomask and initiating light were employed. Open, vertical channels ranging in size from 360+/-25 to 730+/-70 microm were patterned into approximately 700 microm thick hydrogels with pore diameters of 62+/-8 or 147+/-15 microm. Collagen type I was immobilized onto the scaffolds to facilitate cell adhesion. To assess the potential of these novel scaffolds for tissue engineering, a skeletal myoblast cell line (C2C12) was seeded onto scaffolds with 147 microm pores and 730 microm diameter channels, and analyzed by histology and digital volumetric imaging. Cell elongation, cell spreading and fibrillar formation were observed on these novel scaffolds. In summary, 3D architectures can be patterned into porous hydrogels in one step to create a wide range of tissue engineering scaffolds that may be tailored for specific applications.

  9. Patterning bacterial communities on epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Dwidar

    Full Text Available Micropatterning of bacteria using aqueous two phase system (ATPS enables the localized culture and formation of physically separated bacterial communities on human epithelial cell sheets. This method was used to compare the effects of Escherichia coli strain MG1655 and an isogenic invasive counterpart that expresses the invasin (inv gene from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis on the underlying epithelial cell layer. Large portions of the cell layer beneath the invasive strain were killed or detached while the non-invasive E. coli had no apparent effect on the epithelial cell layer over a 24 h observation period. In addition, simultaneous testing of the localized effects of three different bacterial species; E. coli MG1655, Shigella boydii KACC 10792 and Pseudomonas sp DSM 50906 on an epithelial cell layer is also demonstrated. The paper further shows the ability to use a bacterial predator, Bdellovibriobacteriovorus HD 100, to selectively remove the E. coli, S. boydii and P. sp communities from this bacteria-patterned epithelial cell layer. Importantly, predation and removal of the P. Sp was critical for maintaining viability of the underlying epithelial cells. Although this paper focuses on a few specific cell types, the technique should be broadly applicable to understand a variety of bacteria-epithelial cell interactions.

  10. Eye size at birth in prosimian primates: life history correlates and growth patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua R Cummings

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primates have large eyes relative to head size, which profoundly influence the ontogenetic emergence of facial form. However, growth of the primate eye is only understood in a narrow taxonomic perspective, with information biased toward anthropoids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured eye and bony orbit size in perinatal prosimian primates (17 strepsirrhine taxa and Tarsius syrichta to infer the extent of prenatal as compared to postnatal eye growth. In addition, multiple linear regression was used to detect relationships of relative eye and orbit diameter to life history variables. ANOVA was used to determine if eye size differed according to activity pattern. In most of the species, eye diameter at birth measures more than half of that for adults. Two exceptions include Nycticebus and Tarsius, in which more than half of eye diameter growth occurs postnatally. Ratios of neonate/adult eye and orbit diameters indicate prenatal growth of the eye is actually more rapid than that of the orbit. For example, mean neonatal transverse eye diameter is 57.5% of the adult value (excluding Nycticebus and Tarsius, compared to 50.8% for orbital diameter. If Nycticebus is excluded, relative gestation age has a significant positive correlation with relative eye diameter in strepsirrhines, explaining 59% of the variance in relative transverse eye diameter. No significant differences were found among species with different activity patterns. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The primate developmental strategy of relatively long gestations is probably tied to an extended period of neural development, and this principle appears to apply to eye growth as well. Our findings indicate that growth rates of the eye and bony orbit are disassociated, with eyes growing faster prenatally, and the growth rate of the bony orbit exceeding that of the eyes after birth. Some well-documented patterns of orbital morphology in adult primates, such as the enlarged orbits

  11. Impact of Glucose Tolerance Status, Sex, and Body Size on Glucose Absorption Patterns During OGTTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K.; Pacini, G.; Nolan, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVEWe studied whether patterns of glucose absorption during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were abnormal in individuals with impaired glucose regulation and whether they were related to sex and body size (height and fat-free mass). We also examined how well differences in insulin......, reflected the differences for these parameters between those with normal and impaired glucose regulation as measured by gold-standard tests.CONCLUSIONSGlucose absorption patterns during an OGTT are significantly related to plasma glucose levels and body size, which should be taken into account when.......RESULTSMore rapid glucose absorption (P 0.036) and reduced late glucose absorption (P 0.039) were observed in the i-IFG group relative to NGT and i-IGT groups. Women with i-IGT had a lower early glucose absorption than did men with i-IGT (P = 0.041); however, this difference did not persist when differences in body...

  12. Hypothyroidism affects differentially the cell size of epithelial cells among oviductal regions of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Hernández, A; Rodríguez-Castelán, J; Nicolás, L; Martínez-Gómez, M; Jiménez-Estrada, I; Castelán, F; Cuevas, E

    2015-02-01

    Oviductal regions show particular histological characteristics and functions. Tubal pathologies and hypothyroidism are related to primary and secondary infertility. The impact of hypothyroidism on the histological characteristics of oviductal regions has been scarcely studied. Our aim was to analyse the histological characteristics of oviductal regions in control and hypothyroid rabbits. Hypothyroidism was induced by oral administration of methimazole (MMI) for 30 days. For both groups, serum concentrations of thyroid and gonadal hormones were determined. Sections of oviductal regions were stained with the Masson's trichrome technique to analyse both epithelial and smooth muscle layers. The percentage of proliferative epithelial cells (anti-Ki67) in diverse oviductal regions was also quantified. Data were compared with Student t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, or Fischer's test. In comparison with the control group, the hypothyroid group showed: (i) a low concentration of T3 and T4, but a high level of TSH; (ii) similar values of serum estradiol, progesterone and testosterone; (iii) a large size of ciliated cells in the ampulla (AMP), isthmus (IST) and utero-tubal junction (UTJ); (iv) a large size of secretory cells in the IST region; (v) a low percentage of proliferative secretory cells in the fimbria-infundibulum (FIM-INF) region; and (vi) a similar thickness of the smooth muscle layer and the cross-sectional area in the AMP and IST regions. Modifications in the size of the oviductal epithelium in hypothyroid rabbits could be related to changes in the cell metabolism that may impact on the reproductive functions achieved by oviduct. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Microfabricated ratchet structures for concentrating and patterning motile bacterial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Yub; Lee, Eun Se; Lee, Ho Jae; Lee, Se Yeon; Lee, Sung Kuk; Kim, Taesung

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel microfabricated concentrator for Escherichia coli that can be a stand-alone and self-contained microfluidic device because it utilizes the motility of cells. First of all, we characterize the motility of E. coli cells and various ratcheting structures that can guide cells to move in a desired direction in straight and circular channels. Then, we combine these ratcheting microstructures with the intrinsic tendency of cells to swim on the right side in microchannels to enhance the concentration rates up to 180 fold until the concentrators are fully filled with cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cells can be positioned and concentrated with a constant spacing distance on a surface, allowing spatial patterning of motile cells. These results can be applied to biosorption or biosensor devices that are powered by motile cells because they can be highly concentrated without any external mechanical and electrical energy sources. Hence, we believe that the concentrator design holds considerable potential to be applied for concentrating and patterning other motile microbes and providing a versatile structure for motility study of bacterial cells.

  14. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation and postirradiation incubation on heterogeneous nuclear RNA size in murine cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Sauerbier, W.

    1978-01-01

    We have analyzed the decrease in synthesis of individual size classes of heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) in ultraviolet (uv)-irradiated Merwin plasmacytoma (MPC-11) cells at various times of postirradiation incubation. HnRNA from nonirradiated control cells is distributed over a wide range from approximately 60S to 5S, with 42S RNA carrying more label than any other size class. HnRNA from uv-irradiated cells shows a dose-dependent shift in size distribution toward lower molecular weight. The size distribution of hnRNA synthesized after prolonged times of postirradiation incubation is restored toward normal, i.e., synthesis of long RNA molecules increases relative to the synthesis of short ones. Analysis of the total number of hnRNA chains synthesized during a 20-min [ 3 H]uridine pulse shows a considerable eduction in their number with increasing uv dose. Murine cell lines are excision-repair-deficient but capable of post replication repair inhibited by caffeine. HnRNA transcripts of cells incubated in its presence were studied. The caffeine, which has no effect on hnRNA size in control cells, inhibits to a considerable extent the restoration of full-length transcripts during postirradiation incubation. The lack of excision repair in MPC-11 was confirmed by the analysis of pyrimidine dimers in trichloracetic acid-insoluble and soluble fractions within 8 h of postirradiation incubation. The size of parental and daughter strand DNA in uv-irradiated cells was correlated with RNA transcript size. The parental DNA in these experiments does not change its size as a consequence of uv exposure and postirradiation incubation. In contrast, daughter DNA strands are short in uv-irradiated cells and they increase in size during postirradiation incubation to reach the size of parental strands after 8 h

  15. Freezing resistance in Patagonian woody shrubs: the role of cell wall elasticity and stem vessel size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Bucci, Sandra J; Arias, Nadia S; Scholz, Fabian G; Hao, Guang-You; Cao, Kun-Fang; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2016-08-01

    Freezing resistance through avoidance or tolerance of extracellular ice nucleation is important for plant survival in habitats with frequent subzero temperatures. However, the role of cell walls in leaf freezing resistance and the coordination between leaf and stem physiological processes under subzero temperatures are not well understood. We studied leaf and stem responses to freezing temperatures, leaf and stem supercooling, leaf bulk elastic modulus and stem xylem vessel size of six Patagonian shrub species from two sites (plateau and low elevation sites) with different elevation and minimum temperatures. Ice seeding was initiated in the stem and quickly spread to leaves, but two species from the plateau site had barriers against rapid spread of ice. Shrubs with xylem vessels smaller in diameter had greater stem supercooling capacity, i.e., ice nucleated at lower subzero temperatures. Only one species with the lowest ice nucleation temperature among all species studied exhibited freezing avoidance by substantial supercooling, while the rest were able to tolerate extracellular freezing from -11.3 to -20 °C. Leaves of species with more rigid cell walls (higher bulk elastic modulus) could survive freezing to lower subzero temperatures, suggesting that rigid cell walls potentially reduce the degree of physical injury to cell membranes during the extracellular freezing and/or thaw processes. In conclusion, our results reveal the temporal-spatial ice spreading pattern (from stem to leaves) in Patagonian shrubs, and indicate the role of xylem vessel size in determining supercooling capacity and the role of cell wall elasticity in determining leaf tolerance of extracellular ice formation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Introducing micrometer-sized artificial objects into live cells: a method for cell-giant unilamellar vesicle electrofusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira C Saito

    Full Text Available Here, we report a method for introducing large objects of up to a micrometer in diameter into cultured mammalian cells by electrofusion of giant unilamellar vesicles. We prepared GUVs containing various artificial objects using a water-in-oil (w/o emulsion centrifugation method. GUVs and dispersed HeLa cells were exposed to an alternating current (AC field to induce a linear cell-GUV alignment, and then a direct current (DC pulse was applied to facilitate transient electrofusion. With uniformly sized fluorescent beads as size indexes, we successfully and efficiently introduced beads of 1 µm in diameter into living cells along with a plasmid mammalian expression vector. Our electrofusion did not affect cell viability. After the electrofusion, cells proliferated normally until confluence was reached, and the introduced fluorescent beads were inherited during cell division. Analysis by both confocal microscopy and flow cytometry supported these findings. As an alternative approach, we also introduced a designed nanostructure (DNA origami into live cells. The results we report here represent a milestone for designing artificial symbiosis of functionally active objects (such as micro-machines in living cells. Moreover, our technique can be used for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and cell manipulation.

  17. Migration and chemokine receptor pattern of colitis-preventing DX5+NKT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Matthias; Werner, Jens M; Farkas, Stefan; Schlitt, Hans J; Geissler, Edward K

    2011-11-01

    DX5(+)NKT cells are a subpopulation of NKT cells expressing both T cell receptor and NK cell markers that show an immune-regulating function. Transferred DX5(+)NKT cells from immune competent Balb/c mice can prevent or reduce induced colitis in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Here, we investigated the in vivo migration of DX5(+)NKT cells and their corresponding chemokine receptor patterns. DX5(+)NKT cells were isolated from spleens of Balb/c mice and transferred into Balb/c SCID mice. After 2 and 8 days, in vivo migration was examined using in vivo microscopy. In addition, the chemokine receptor pattern was analyzed with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and the migration assay was performed. Our results show that labeled DX5(+)NKT cells were primarily detectable in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen after transfer. After 8 days, DX5(+)NKT cells were observed in the colonic tissues, especially the appendix. FACS analysis of chemokine receptors in DX5(+)NKT cells revealed expression of CCR3, CCR6, CCR9, CXCR3, CXCR4, and CXCR6, but no CCR5, CXCR5, or the lymphoid homing receptor CCR7. Stimulation upregulated especially CCR7 expression, and chemokine receptor patterns were different between splenic and liver DX5(+)NKT cells. These data indicate that colitis-preventing DX5(+)NKT cells need to traffic through lymphoid organs to execute their immunological function at the site of inflammation. Furthermore, DX5(+)NKT cells express a specific chemokine receptor pattern with an upregulation of the lymphoid homing receptor CCR7 after activation.

  18. In vitro toxicity of different-sized ZnO nanoparticles in Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tianshu; Guan, Rongfa; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Song, Yijuan; Jiang, Han; Zhao, Jin

    2013-11-01

    There has been rapid growth in nanotechnology in both the public and private sectors worldwide, but concern about nanosafety exists. To assess size-dependent cytotoxicity on human cancer cells, we studied the cytotoxic effect of three kinds of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells. Nanoparticles were first characterized by size, distribution, and intensity. Multiple assays have been adopted to measure the cell activity and oxidative stress. The cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs was time dependent and dose dependent. The 24-h exposure was chosen to confirm the viability and accessibility of the cells and taken as the appropriate time for the following test system. The IC50 value was found at a low concentration. The oxidative stress elicited a significant reduction in glutathione with increase in reactive oxygen species and lactate dehydrogenase. The toxicity resulted in a deletion of cells in the G1 phase and an accumulation of cells in the S and G2/M phases. One type of metallic oxide (ZnO) exerted different cytotoxic effects according to different particle sizes. Data from the previous experiments showed that 26-nm ZnO NPs appeared to have the highest toxicity to Caco-2 cells. The study demonstrated the toxicity of ZnO NPs to Caco-2 cells and the impact of particle size, which could be useful in the medical applications.

  19. Linking stem cell function and growth pattern of intestinal organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalheim, Torsten; Quaas, Marianne; Herberg, Maria; Braumann, Ulf-Dietrich; Kerner, Christiane; Loeffler, Markus; Aust, Gabriela; Galle, Joerg

    2018-01-15

    Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) require well-defined signals from their environment in order to carry out their specific functions. Most of these signals are provided by neighboring cells that form a stem cell niche, whose shape and cellular composition self-organize. Major features of this self-organization can be studied in ISC-derived organoid culture. In this system, manipulation of essential pathways of stem cell maintenance and differentiation results in well-described growth phenotypes. We here provide an individual cell-based model of intestinal organoids that enables a mechanistic explanation of the observed growth phenotypes. In simulation studies of the 3D structure of expanding organoids, we investigate interdependences between Wnt- and Notch-signaling which control the shape of the stem cell niche and, thus, the growth pattern of the organoids. Similar to in vitro experiments, changes of pathway activities alter the cellular composition of the organoids and, thereby, affect their shape. Exogenous Wnt enforces transitions from branched into a cyst-like growth pattern; known to occur spontaneously during long term organoid expansion. Based on our simulation results, we predict that the cyst-like pattern is associated with biomechanical changes of the cells which assign them a growth advantage. The results suggest ongoing stem cell adaptation to in vitro conditions during long term expansion by stabilizing Wnt-activity. Our study exemplifies the potential of individual cell-based modeling in unraveling links between molecular stem cell regulation and 3D growth of tissues. This kind of modeling combines experimental results in the fields of stem cell biology and cell biomechanics constituting a prerequisite for a better understanding of tissue regeneration as well as developmental processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Trophic diversity, size and biomass spectrum of Bay of Bengal nematodes: A study case on depth and latitudinal patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Kapuli Gani Mohamed Thameemul; Lyla, Somasundharanair; Khan, Syed Ajmal; Bhadury, Punyasloke

    2017-09-01

    Depth and latitudinal patterns of nematode functional attributes were investigated from 35 stations of Bay of Bengal (BoB) continental shelf. We aim to address whether depth and latitudinal variations can modify nematode community structure and their functional attributes (trophic diversity, size and biomass spectra). Global trend of depth and latitudinal related variations have also been noticed from BoB shelf in terms of nematode abundance and species richness, albeit heterogeneity patterns were encountered in functional attributes. Index of trophic diversity values revealed higher trophic diversity across the BoB shelf and suggested variety of food resource availability. However, downstream analysis of trophic status showed depth and latitude specific patterns but not reflected in terms of size and biomass spectrum. The peaks at different positions clearly visualized heterogeneity in distribution patterns for both size and biomass spectrum and also there was evidence of availability of diversified food resources. Nematode biomass spectra (NBS) constructed for nematode communities showed shift in peak biomass values towards lower to moderate size classes particularly in shallower depth but did not get reflected in latitudes. However, Chennai and Parangipettai transects demonstrated shift in peak biomass values towards higher biomass classes explaining the representation of higher nematode abundance. Our findings concluded that depth and latitudes are physical variables; they may not directly affect nematode community structure and functional attributes but they might influence the other factors such as food availability, sediment deposition and settlement rate. Our observations suggest that the local factors (seasonal character) of phytodetrital food flux can be very important for shaping the nematode community structure and success of nematode functional heterogeneity patterns across the Bay of Bengal shelf.

  1. Contrast enhancement of focal hepatic lesions in CT: effect of size and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgener, F.A.; Hamlin, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of size and histology on the contrast enhancement of hepatic lesions has been analyzed in this clinical and experimental investigation yielding the following results: (1) The attenuation values of hepatic cysts in patients increase significantly and inversely with their size after contrast enhancement when the cysts measure less than twice the CT-slice thickness. This seems to be caused by partial-volume effect. (2) Experimental tumors of identical sizes and originating from the same cell line can demonstrate different contrast-enhancement patterns. (3) Peak contrast uptake in both experimental and human tumors seems to be inversely related to their size. (4) Compared to liver, contrast washout from experimental and human tumors (presumably the extravascular space) is delayed. The delay in the contrast washout from a tumor seems to correlate with tumor size. These findings suggest that in general, it is not possible to differentiate reliably among various hepatic neoplasms on the basis of their contrast enhancement patterns for the following reasons: (1) Attenuation values of small hepatic neoplasms are distorted by partial volume effect. (2) Tumors of different histologies can demonstrate the same enhancement pattern. (3) Tumors of identical histology and size can demonstrate different enhancement patterns. (4) The enhancement pattern of a tumor changes with growth or size

  2. A comparative study of U937 cell size changes during apoptosis initiation by flow cytometry, light scattering, water assay and electronic sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurinskaya, Valentina; Aksenov, Nikolay; Moshkov, Alexey; Model, Michael; Goryachaya, Tatyana; Vereninov, Alexey

    2017-10-01

    A decrease in flow cytometric forward light scatter (FSC) is commonly interpreted as a sign of apoptotic cell volume decrease (AVD). However, the intensity of light scattering depends not only on the cell size but also on its other characteristics, such as hydration, which may affect the scattering in the opposite way. That makes estimation of AVD by FSC problematic. Here, we aimed to clarify the relationship between light scattering, cell hydration (assayed by buoyant density) and cell size by the Coulter technique. We used human lymphoid cells U937 exposed to staurosporine, etoposide or hypertonic stress as an apoptotic model. An initial increase in FSC was found to occur in apoptotic cells treated with staurosporine and hypertonic solutions; it is accompanied by cell dehydration and is absent in apoptosis caused by etoposide that is consistent with the lack of dehydration in this case. Thus, the effect of dehydration on the scattering signal outweighs the effect of reduction in cell size. The subsequent FSC decrease, which occurred in parallel to accumulation of annexin-positive cells, was similar in apoptosis caused by all three types of inducers. We conclude that an increase, but not a decrease in light scattering, indicates the initial cell volume decrease associated with apoptotic cell dehydration.

  3. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of different sized gold nanoparticles in ovarian cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Mutreja, Isha; Chitcholtan, Kenny; Sykes, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Nanomedicine has advanced the biomedical field with the availability of multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) systems that can target a disease site enabling drug delivery and helping to monitor the disease. In this paper, we synthesised the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with an average size 18, 40, 60 and 80 nm, and studied the effect of nanoparticles size, concentration and incubation time on ovarian cancer cells namely, OVCAR5, OVCAR8, and SKOV3. The size measured by transmission electron microscopy images was slightly smaller than the hydrodynamic diameter; measured size by ImageJ as 14.55, 38.13, 56.88 and 78.56 nm. The cellular uptake was significantly controlled by the AuNPs size, concentration, and the cell type. The nanoparticles uptake increased with increasing concentration, and 18 and 80 nm AuNPs showed higher uptake ranging from 1.3 to 5.4 μg depending upon the concentration and cell type. The AuNPs were associated with a temporary reduction in metabolic activity, but metabolic activity remained more than 60% for all sample types; NPs significantly affected the cell proliferation activity in first 12 h. The increase in nanoparticle size and concentration induced the production of reactive oxygen species in 24 h.

  4. Topology optimization of front metallization patterns for solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, D.K.; Langelaar, M.; Barink, M.; Keulen, F. van

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the application of topology optimization (TO) for designing the front electrode patterns for solar cells. Improving the front electrode design is one of the approaches to improve the performance of the solar cells. It serves to produce the voltage distribution for the front

  5. Size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions using positive matrix factorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domínguez-Sáez, A.; Viana, M.; Barrios, C.C.; Rubio, J.R.; Amato, F.; Pujadas, M.; Querol, X.

    2012-01-01

    A novel on-board system was tested to characterize size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions, running in a EURO4 diesel vehicle and in a typical urban circuit in Madrid (Spain). Emission profiles were determined as a function of driving conditions. Source

  6. Cell size is positively correlated between different tissues in passerine birds and amphibians, but not necessarily in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Kozłowski, J.; Czarnołęski, M.; François-Krassowska, A.; Maciak, S.; Pis, T.

    2010-01-01

    We examined cell size correlations between tissues, and cell size to body mass relationships in passerine birds, amphibians and mammals. The size correlated highly between all cell types in birds and amphibians; mammalian tissues clustered by size correlation in three tissue groups. Erythrocyte size correlated well with the volume of other cell types in birds and amphibians, but poorly in mammals. In birds, body mass correlated positively with the size of all cell types including erythrocytes...

  7. Measuring bacterial cells size with AFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Osiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM can be used to obtain high-resolution topographical images of bacteria revealing surface details and cell integrity. During scanning however, the interactions between the AFM probe and the membrane results in distortion of the images. Such distortions or artifacts are the result of geometrical effects related to bacterial cell height, specimen curvature and the AFM probe geometry. The most common artifact in imaging is surface broadening, what can lead to errors in bacterial sizing. Several methods of correction have been proposed to compensate for these artifacts and in this study we describe a simple geometric model for the interaction between the tip (a pyramidal shaped AFM probe and the bacterium (Escherichia coli JM-109 strain to minimize the enlarging effect. Approaches to bacteria immobilization and examples of AFM images analysis are also described.

  8. Effect of the size of an artificial neural network used as pattern identifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynoso V, M.R.; Vega C, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    A novel way to extract relevant parameters associated with the outgoing ions from nuclear reactions, obtained by digitizing the signals provided by a Bragg curve spectrometer (BCS) is presented. This allowed the implementation of a more thorough pulse-shape analysis. Due to the complexity of this task, it was required to take advantage of new and more powerful computational paradigms. This was fulfilled using a back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN) as a pattern identifier. Over training of ANNs is a common problem during the training stage. In the performance of the ANN there is a compromise between its size and the size of the training set. Here, this effect will be illustrated in relation to the problem of Bragg Curve (BC) identification. (Author)

  9. Effect of the size of an artificial neural network used as pattern identifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynoso V, M.R.; Vega C, J.J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    A novel way to extract relevant parameters associated with the outgoing ions from nuclear reactions, obtained by digitizing the signals provided by a Bragg curve spectrometer (BCS) is presented. This allowed the implementation of a more thorough pulse-shape analysis. Due to the complexity of this task, it was required to take advantage of new and more powerful computational paradigms. This was fulfilled using a back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN) as a pattern identifier. Over training of ANNs is a common problem during the training stage. In the performance of the ANN there is a compromise between its size and the size of the training set. Here, this effect will be illustrated in relation to the problem of Bragg Curve (BC) identification. (Author)

  10. Roles for SH2 and SH3 domains in Lyn kinase association with activated FcepsilonRI in RBL mast cells revealed by patterned surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Stephanie; Wagenknecht-Wiesner, Alice; Veatch, Sarah L; Holowka, David; Baird, Barbara

    2009-10-01

    In mast cells, antigen-mediated cross-linking of IgE bound to its high-affinity surface receptor, FcepsilonRI, initiates a signaling cascade that culminates in degranulation and release of allergic mediators. Antigen-patterned surfaces, in which the antigen is deposited in micron-sized features on a silicon substrate, were used to examine the spatial relationship between clustered IgE-FcepsilonRI complexes and Lyn, the signal-initiating tyrosine kinase. RBL mast cells expressing wild-type Lyn-EGFP showed co-redistribution of this protein with clustered IgE receptors on antigen-patterned surfaces, whereas Lyn-EGFP containing an inhibitory point mutation in its SH2 domain did not significantly accumulate with the patterned antigen, and Lyn-EGFP with an inhibitory point mutation in its SH3 domain exhibited reduced interactions. Our results using antigen-patterned surfaces and quantitative cross-correlation image analysis reveal that both the SH2 and SH3 domains contribute to interactions between Lyn kinase and cross-linked IgE receptors in stimulated mast cells.

  11. Positioning of the sensor cell on the sensing area using cell trapping pattern in incubation type planar patch clamp biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Hong; Takada, Noriko; Uno, Hidetaka; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu; Urisu, Tsuneo

    2012-08-01

    Positioning the sensor cell on the micropore of the sensor chip and keeping it there during incubation are problematic tasks for incubation type planar patch clamp biosensors. To solve these problems, we formed on the Si sensor chip's surface a cell trapping pattern consisting of a lattice pattern with a round area 5 μm deep and with the micropore at the center of the round area. The surface of the sensor chip was coated with extra cellular matrix collagen IV, and HEK293 cells on which a chimera molecule of channel-rhodopsin-wide-receiver (ChR-WR) was expressed, were then seeded. We examined the effects of this cell trapping pattern on the biosensor's operation. In the case of a flat sensor chip without a cell trapping pattern, it took several days before the sensor cell covered the micropore and formed an almost confluent state. As a result, multi-cell layers easily formed and made channel current measurements impossible. On the other hand, the sensor chip with cell trapping pattern easily trapped cells in the round area, and formed the colony consisted of the cell monolayer covering the micropore. A laser (473 nm wavelength) induced channel current was observed from the whole cell arrangement formed using the nystatin perforation technique. The observed channel current characteristics matched measurements made by using a pipette patch clamp. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanoscale E-Cadherin ligand patterns show threshold size for cellular adhesion and adherence junction formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine H; Pedersen, Gitte Albinus; Nejsum, Lene Niemann

    2012-01-01

    The role of ligand spatial distribution on the formation of cadherin mediated cell-cell contacts is studied utilizing nanopatterns of E-cadherin ligands. Protein patches ranging in size from 100 nm to 800 nm prepared by colloidal lithography critically influence adhesion, spreading and formation ...

  13. Graphene-Based Flexible Micrometer-Sized Microbial Fuel Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, Justine E.

    2013-10-23

    Microbial fuel cells harvest electrical energy produced by bacteria during the natural decomposition of organic matter. We report a micrometer-sized microbial fuel cell that is able to generate nanowatt-scale power from microliters of liquids. The sustainable design is comprised of a graphene anode, an air cathode, and a polymer-based substrate platform for flexibility. The graphene layer was grown on a nickel thin film by using chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric pressure. Our demonstration provides a low-cost option to generate useful power for lab-on-chip applications and could be promising to rapidly screen and scale up microbial fuel cells for water purification without consuming excessive power (unlike other water treatment technologies).

  14. Effects of size at birth, childhood growth patterns and growth hormone treatment on leukocyte telomere length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C J Smeets

    Full Text Available Small size at birth and rapid growth in early life are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Short children born small for gestational age (SGA are treated with growth hormone (GH, inducing catch-up in length. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL is a marker of biological age and shorter LTL is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.To investigate whether LTL is influenced by birth size, childhood growth and long-term GH treatment.We analyzed LTL in 545 young adults with differences in birth size and childhood growth patterns. Previously GH-treated young adults born SGA (SGA-GH were compared to untreated short SGA (SGA-S, SGA with spontaneous catch-up to a normal body size (SGA-CU, and appropriate for gestational age with a normal body size (AGA-NS. LTL was measured using a quantitative PCR assay.We found a positive association between birth length and LTL (p = 0.04, and a trend towards a positive association between birth weight and LTL (p = 0.08, after adjustments for gender, age, gestational age and adult body size. Weight gain during infancy and childhood and fat mass percentage were not associated with LTL. Female gender and gestational age were positively associated with LTL, and smoking negatively. After adjustments for gender, age and gestational age, SGA-GH had a similar LTL as SGA-S (p = 0.11, SGA-CU (p = 0.80, and AGA-NS (p = 0.30.Larger size at birth is positively associated with LTL in young adulthood. Growth patterns during infancy and childhood are not associated with LTL. Previously GH-treated young adults born SGA have similar LTL as untreated short SGA, SGA with spontaneous catch-up and AGA born controls, indicating no adverse effects of GH-induced catch-up in height on LTL.

  15. Prevalence and pattern of sickle cell disease in premarital couples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Premarital haemoglobin screening is an important strategy for the control of Sickle Cell Disease. Aims: To determine the prevalence and pattern of sickle cell disease among premarital couples and to assess their attitude to the risk of sickle cell anaemia in their offspring. Settings and Design: A cross sectional ...

  16. Effects of reproductive status, social rank, sex and group size on vigilance patterns in Przewalski's gazelle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Li

    Full Text Available Quantifying vigilance and exploring the underlying mechanisms has been the subject of numerous studies. Less attention has focused on the complex interplay between contributing factors such as reproductive status, social rank, sex and group size. Reproductive status and social rank are of particular interest due to their association with mating behavior. Mating activities in rutting season may interfere with typical patterns of vigilance and possibly interact with social rank. In addition, balancing the tradeoff between vigilance and life maintenance may represent a challenge for gregarious ungulate species rutting under harsh winter conditions. We studied vigilance patterns in the endangered Przewalski's gazelle (Procapra przewalskii during both the rutting and non-rutting seasons to examine these issues.Field observations were carried out with focal sampling during rutting and non-rutting season in 2008-2009. Results indicated a complex interplay between reproductive status, social rank, sex and group size in determining vigilance in this species. Vigilance decreased with group size in female but not in male gazelles. Males scanned more frequently and thus spent more time vigilant than females. Compared to non-rutting season, gazelles increased time spent scanning at the expense of bedding in rutting season. During the rutting season, territorial males spent a large proportion of time on rutting activities and were less vigilant than non-territorial males. Although territorial males may share collective risk detection with harem females, we suggest that they are probably more vulnerable to predation because they seemed reluctant to leave rut stands under threats.Vigilance behavior in Przewalski's gazelle was significantly affected by reproductive status, social rank, sex, group size and their complex interactions. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying vigilance patterns and the tradeoff between vigilance and other crucial

  17. Connecting proximate mechanisms and evolutionary patterns: pituitary gland size and mammalian life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilar, J M; Tecot, S R

    2015-11-01

    At the proximate level, hormones are known to play a critical role in influencing the life history of mammals, including humans. The pituitary gland is directly responsible for producing several hormones, including those related to growth and reproduction. Although we have a basic understanding of how hormones affect life history characteristics, we still have little knowledge of this relationship in an evolutionary context. We used data from 129 mammal species representing 14 orders to investigate the relationship between pituitary gland size and life history variation. Because pituitary gland size should be related to hormone production and action, we predicted that species with relatively large pituitaries should be associated with fast life histories, especially increased foetal and post-natal growth rates. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that total pituitary size and the size of the anterior lobe of the pituitary significantly predicted a life history axis that was correlated with several traits including body mass, and foetal and post-natal growth rates. Additional models directly examining the association between relative pituitary size and growth rates produced concordant results. We also found that relative pituitary size variation across mammals was best explained by an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of evolution, suggesting an important role of stabilizing selection. Our results support the idea that the size of the pituitary is linked to life history variation through evolutionary time. This pattern is likely due to mediating hormone levels but additional work is needed. We suggest that future investigations incorporating endocrine gland size may be critical for understanding life history evolution. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Detonation cell size measurements and predictions in hydrogen-air-steam mixtures at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsberg, T.; Boccio, J.; Economos, C.

    1994-01-01

    The present research reports on the effect of initial mixture temperature on the experimentally measured detonation cell size for hydrogen-air-steam mixtures. Experimental and theoretical research related to combustion phenomena in hydrogen-air-steam mixtures has been ongoing for many years. However, detonation cell size data currently exists or hydrogen-air-steam mixtures up to a temperature of only 400K. Sever accident scenarios have been identified for light water reactors (LWRs) where hydrogen-air mixture temperatures in excess of 400K could be generated within containment. The experiments in this report focus on extending the cell size data base for initial mixture temperatures in excess of 400K. The experiments were carried out in a 10-cm inner-diameter, 6.1-m long heated detonation tube with a maximum operating temperature of 700K and spatial temperature uniformity of ±14K. Detonation cell size measurements provide clear evidence that the effect of hydrogen-air initial gas mixture temperature, in the range 300K--650K, is to decrease cell size and, hence, to increase the sensitivity of the mixture to undergo detonations. The effect of steam content, at any given temperature, is to increase the cell size and, thereby, to decrease the sensitivity of stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures. The hydrogen-air detonability limits for the 10-cm inside-diameter test vessel, based upon the onset of single-head spin, decreased from 15 percent by hydrogen at 300K down to about 9 percent hydrogen at 650K. The one-dimensional ZND model does a very good job at predicting the overall trends in the cell size data over the range of hydrogen-air-steam mixture compositions and temperature studied in the experiments

  19. Numerical study on channel size effect for proton exchange membrane fuel cell with serpentine flow field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaodong; Yan Weimon; Duan Yuanyuan; Weng Fangbor; Jung Guobin; Lee Chiyuan

    2010-01-01

    This work numerically investigates the effect of the channel size on the cell performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells with serpentine flow fields using a three-dimensional, two-phase model. The local current densities in the PEM, oxygen mass flow rates and liquid water concentrations at the interface of the cathode gas diffusion layer and catalyst layer were analyzed to understand the channel size effect. The predictions show that smaller channel sizes enhance liquid water removal and increase oxygen transport to the porous layers, which improve cell performance. Additionally, smaller channel sizes also provide more uniform current density distributions in the cell. However, as the channel size decreases, the total pressure drops across the cell increases, which leads to more pump work. With taking into account the pressure losses, the optimal cell performance occurs for a cell with a flow channel cross-sectional area of 0.535 x 0.535 mm 2 .

  20. Patterns of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe bats: Testing Rensch's rule and potential causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Jiang, Tinglei; Huang, Xiaobin; Feng, Jiang

    2018-02-08

    Rensch's rule, stating that sexual size dimorphism (SSD) becomes more evident and male-biased with increasing body size, has been well supported for taxa that exhibit male-biased SSD. Bats, primarily having female-biased SSD, have so far been tested for whether SSD allometry conforms to Rensch's rule in only three studies. However, these studies did not consider phylogeny, and thus the mechanisms underlying SSD variations in bats remain unclear. Thus, the present study reviewed published and original data, including body size, baculum size, and habitat types in 45 bats of the family Rhinolophidae to determine whether horseshoe bats follow Rensch's rule using a phylogenetic comparative framework. We also investigated the potential effect of postcopulatory sexual selection and habitat type on SSD. Our findings indicated that Rensch's rule did not apply to Rhinolophidae, suggesting that SSD did not significantly vary with increasing size. This pattern may be attributable interactions between weak sexual selection to male body size and strong fecundity selection for on female body size. The degree of SSD among horseshoe bats may be attributed to a phylogenetic effect rather than to the intersexual competition for food or to baculum length. Interestingly, we observed that species in open habitats exhibited greater SSD than those in dense forests, suggesting that habitat types may be associated with variations in SSD in horseshoe bats.

  1. A Theoretical Model of Jigsaw-Puzzle Pattern Formation by Plant Leaf Epidermal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Takumi; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Akita, Kae; Takigawa-Imamura, Hisako; Yoshimura, Kenji; Miura, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    Plant leaf epidermal cells exhibit a jigsaw puzzle-like pattern that is generated by interdigitation of the cell wall during leaf development. The contribution of two ROP GTPases, ROP2 and ROP6, to the cytoskeletal dynamics that regulate epidermal cell wall interdigitation has already been examined; however, how interactions between these molecules result in pattern formation remains to be elucidated. Here, we propose a simple interface equation model that incorporates both the cell wall remodeling activity of ROP GTPases and the diffusible signaling molecules by which they are regulated. This model successfully reproduces pattern formation observed in vivo, and explains the counterintuitive experimental results of decreased cellulose production and increased thickness. Our model also reproduces the dynamics of three-way cell wall junctions. Therefore, this model provides a possible mechanism for cell wall interdigitation formation in vivo.

  2. Hip flexor muscle size, strength and recruitment pattern in patients with acetabular labral tears compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, M Dilani; Wilson, Stephen J; Hayes, David A; Watts, Mark C; Hides, Julie A

    2014-10-01

    Acetabular labral tears are a source of hip pain and are considered to be a precursor to hip osteoarthritis. Hip flexor muscles contribute to hip joint stability and function but it is unknown if their size and function is altered in the presence of labral pathology. This study aimed to investigate hip flexor muscle size, strength and recruitment pattern in patients with hip labral pathology compared to control subjects. 12 subjects diagnosed with an unilateral acetabular labral tear were compared to 12 control subjects matched for age and gender. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of their lumbo-pelvic region. Average muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the iliacus, psoas, iliopsoas, sartorius, tensor fascia latae and rectus femoris muscles were measured. Hip flexion strength was measured by an externally fixed dynamometer. Individual muscle recruitment pattern during a resisted hip flexion exercise task was measured by muscle functional MRI. Hip flexor muscle strength was found to be decreased in patients with labral pathology compared to control subjects (p muscle size (all p > 0.17) and recruitment pattern (all p > 0.53). Decreased hip flexor muscle strength may affect physical function in patients with hip labral pathology by contributing to altered gait patterns and functional tasks. Clinical rehabilitation of these patients may need to include strengthening exercises for the hip flexor muscles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of surface roughness on the elastic-light scattering patterns of micron-sized aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, J.-C.; Fernandes, G. E.; Aptowicz, K. B.; Pan, Y.-L.; Chang, R. K.

    2010-04-01

    The relation between the surface roughness of aerosol particles and the appearance of island-like features in their angle-resolved elastic-light scattering patterns is investigated both experimentally and with numerical simulation. Elastic scattering patterns of polystyrene spheres, Bacillus subtilis spores and cells, and NaCl crystals are measured and statistical properties of the island-like intensity features in their patterns are presented. The island-like features for each class of particle are found to be similar; however, principal-component analysis applied to extracted features is able to differentiate between some of the particle classes. Numerically calculated scattering patterns of Chebyshev particles and aggregates of spheres are analyzed and show qualitative agreement with experimental results.

  4. β-Glucan Size Controls Dectin-1-Mediated Immune Responses in Human Dendritic Cells by Regulating IL-1β Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Elder

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dectin-1/CLEC7A is a pattern recognition receptor that recognizes β-1,3 glucans, and its stimulation initiates signaling events characterized by the production of inflammatory cytokines from human dendritic cells (DCs required for antifungal immunity. β-glucans differ greatly in size, structure, and ability to activate effector immune responses from DC; as such, small particulate β-glucans are thought to be poor activators of innate immunity. We show that β-glucan particle size is a critical factor contributing to the secretion of cytokines from human DC; large β-glucan-stimulated DC generate significantly more IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-23 compared to those stimulated with the smaller β-glucans. In marked contrast, the secretion of TSLP and CCL22 were found to be insensitive to β-glucan particle size. Furthermore, we show that the capacity to induce phagocytosis, and the relative IL-1β production determined by β-glucan size, regulates the composition of the cytokine milieu generated from DC. This suggests that β-glucan particle size is critically important in orchestrating the nature of the immune response to fungi.

  5. Size-dependent nonlinear bending of micro/nano-beams made of nanoporous biomaterials including a refined truncated cube cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmani, S.; Aghdam, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Morphology and pore size plays an essential role in the mechanical properties as well as the associated biological capability of a porous structure made of biomaterials. The objective of the current study is to predict the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of nanoporous biomaterials including refined truncated cube cells based on a hyperbolic shear deformable beam model. Analytical relationships for the mechanical properties of nanoporous biomaterials are given as a function of the refined cell's dimensions. After that, the size dependency in the nonlinear bending behavior of micro/nano-beams made of such nanoporous biomaterials is analyzed using the nonlocal strain gradient elasticity theory. It is assumed that the micro/nano-beam has one movable end under axial compression in conjunction with a uniform distributed lateral load. The Galerkin method together with an improved perturbation technique is employed to propose explicit analytical expression for nonlocal strain gradient load-deflection curves of the micro/nano-beams made of nanoporous biomaterials subjected to uniform transverse distributed load. It is found that through increment of the pore size, the micro/nano-beam will undergo much more deflection corresponding to a specific distributed load due to the reduction in the stiffness of nanoporous biomaterial. This pattern is more prominent for lower value of applied axial compressive load at the free end of micro/nano-beam.

  6. Improved genome recovery and integrated cell-size analyses of individual uncultured microbial cells and viral particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Fergusson, Elizabeth A; Brown, Joseph; Poulton, Nicole J; Tupper, Ben; Labonté, Jessica M; Becraft, Eric D; Brown, Julia M; Pachiadaki, Maria G; Povilaitis, Tadas; Thompson, Brian P; Mascena, Corianna J; Bellows, Wendy K; Lubys, Arvydas

    2017-07-20

    Microbial single-cell genomics can be used to provide insights into the metabolic potential, interactions, and evolution of uncultured microorganisms. Here we present WGA-X, a method based on multiple displacement amplification of DNA that utilizes a thermostable mutant of the phi29 polymerase. WGA-X enhances genome recovery from individual microbial cells and viral particles while maintaining ease of use and scalability. The greatest improvements are observed when amplifying high G+C content templates, such as those belonging to the predominant bacteria in agricultural soils. By integrating WGA-X with calibrated index-cell sorting and high-throughput genomic sequencing, we are able to analyze genomic sequences and cell sizes of hundreds of individual, uncultured bacteria, archaea, protists, and viral particles, obtained directly from marine and soil samples, in a single experiment. This approach may find diverse applications in microbiology and in biomedical and forensic studies of humans and other multicellular organisms.Single-cell genomics can be used to study uncultured microorganisms. Here, Stepanauskas et al. present a method combining improved multiple displacement amplification and FACS, to obtain genomic sequences and cell size information from uncultivated microbial cells and viral particles in environmental samples.

  7. Contact behavior modelling and its size effect on proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Diankai; Peng, Linfa; Yi, Peiyun; Lai, Xinmin; Janßen, Holger; Lehnert, Werner

    2017-10-01

    Contact behavior between the gas diffusion layer (GDL) and bipolar plate (BPP) is of significant importance for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Most current studies on contact behavior utilize experiments and finite element modelling and focus on fuel cells with graphite BPPs, which lead to high costs and huge computational requirements. The objective of this work is to build a more effective analytical method for contact behavior in fuel cells and investigate the size effect resulting from configuration alteration of channel and rib (channel/rib). Firstly, a mathematical description of channel/rib geometry is outlined in accordance with the fabrication of metallic BPP. Based on the interface deformation characteristic and Winkler surface model, contact pressure between BPP and GDL is then calculated to predict contact resistance and GDL porosity as evaluative parameters of contact behavior. Then, experiments on BPP fabrication and contact resistance measurement are conducted to validate the model. The measured results demonstrate an obvious dependence on channel/rib size. Feasibility of the model used in graphite fuel cells is also discussed. Finally, size factor is proposed for evaluating the rule of size effect. Significant increase occurs in contact resistance and porosity for higher size factor, in which channel/rib width decrease.

  8. Particle size distribution models of small angle neutron scattering pattern on ferro fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sistin Asri Ani; Darminto; Edy Giri Rachman Putra

    2009-01-01

    The Fe 3 O 4 ferro fluids samples were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The investigation of ferro fluids microstructure is known to be one of the most important problems because the presence of aggregates and their internal structure influence greatly the properties of ferro fluids. The size and the size dispersion of particle in ferro fluids were determined assuming a log normal distribution of particle radius. The scattering pattern of the measurement by small angle neutron scattering were fitted by the theoretical scattering function of two limitation models are log normal sphere distribution and fractal aggregate. Two types of particle are detected, which are presumably primary particle of 30 Armstrong in radius and secondary fractal aggregate of 200 Armstrong with polydispersity of 0.47 up to 0.53. (author)

  9. Gelatin-based laser direct-write technique for the precise spatial patterning of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Nathan R; Chrisey, Douglas B; Corr, David T

    2011-03-01

    Laser direct-writing provides a method to pattern living cells in vitro, to study various cell-cell interactions, and to build cellular constructs. However, the materials typically used may limit its long-term application. By utilizing gelatin coatings on the print ribbon and growth surface, we developed a new approach for laser cell printing that overcomes the limitations of Matrigel™. Gelatin is free of growth factors and extraneous matrix components that may interfere with cellular processes under investigation. Gelatin-based laser direct-write was able to successfully pattern human dermal fibroblasts with high post-transfer viability (91% ± 3%) and no observed double-strand DNA damage. As seen with atomic force microscopy, gelatin offers a unique benefit in that it is present temporarily to allow cell transfer, but melts and is removed with incubation to reveal the desired application-specific growth surface. This provides unobstructed cellular growth after printing. Monitoring cell location after transfer, we show that melting and removal of gelatin does not affect cellular placement; cells maintained registry within 5.6 ± 2.5 μm to the initial pattern. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of gelatin in laser direct-writing to create spatially precise cell patterns with the potential for applications in tissue engineering, stem cell, and cancer research.

  10. Shavenbaby couples patterning to epidermal cell shape control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Chanut-Delalande

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that developmental programs act during embryogenesis to determine animal morphogenesis. How these developmental cues produce specific cell shape during morphogenesis, however, has remained elusive. We addressed this question by studying the morphological differentiation of the Drosophila epidermis, governed by a well-known circuit of regulators leading to a stereotyped pattern of smooth cells and cells forming actin-rich extensions (trichomes. It was shown that the transcription factor Shavenbaby plays a pivotal role in the formation of trichomes and underlies all examined cases of the evolutionary diversification of their pattern. To gain insight into the mechanisms of morphological differentiation, we sought to identify shavenbaby's downstream targets. We show here that Shavenbaby controls epidermal cell shape, through the transcriptional activation of different classes of cellular effectors, directly contributing to the organization of actin filaments, regulation of the extracellular matrix, and modification of the cuticle. Individual inactivation of shavenbaby's targets produces distinct trichome defects and only their simultaneous inactivation prevent trichome formation. Our data show that shavenbaby governs an evolutionarily conserved developmental module consisting of a set of genes collectively responsible for trichome formation, shedding new light on molecular mechanisms acting during morphogenesis and the way they can influence evolution of animal forms.

  11. Film Grain-Size Related Long-Term Stability of Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chien-Hung; Wu, Chun-Guey

    2016-09-22

    The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the perovskite solar cell is high enough to be commercially viable. The next important issue is the stability of the device. This article discusses the effect of the perovskite grain-size on the long-term stability of inverted perovskite solar cells. Perovskite films composed of various sizes of grains were prepared by controlling the solvent annealing time. The grain-size related stability of the inverted cells was investigated both in ambient atmosphere at relative humidity of approximately 30-40 % and in a nitrogen filled glove box (H 2 Operovskite film having the grain size larger than 1 μm (D-10) decreases less than 10 % with storage in a glove box and less than 15 % when it was stored under an ambient atmosphere for 30 days. However, the cell using the perovskite film composed of small (∼100 nm) perovskite grains (D-0) exhibits complete loss of PCE after storage under the ambient atmosphere for only 15 days and a PCE loss of up to 70 % with storage in the glove box for 30 days. These results suggest that, even under H 2 O-free conditions, the chemical- and thermal-induced production of pin holes at the grain boundaries of the perovskite film could be the reason for long-term instability of inverted perovskite solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Mechanisms shaping size structure and functional diversity of phytoplankton communities in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Trejos, Esteban; Brandt, Gunnar; Bruggeman, Jorn; Merico, Agostino

    2015-01-01

    The factors regulating phytoplankton community composition play a crucial role in structuring aquatic food webs. However, consensus is still lacking about the mechanisms underlying the observed biogeographical differences in cell size composition of phytoplankton communities. Here we use a trait-based model to disentangle these mechanisms in two contrasting regions of the Atlantic Ocean. In our model, the phytoplankton community can self-assemble based on a trade-off emerging from relationships between cell size and (1) nutrient uptake, (2) zooplankton grazing, and (3) phytoplankton sinking. Grazing ‘pushes’ the community towards larger cell sizes, whereas nutrient uptake and sinking ‘pull’ the community towards smaller cell sizes. We find that the stable environmental conditions of the tropics strongly balance these forces leading to persistently small cell sizes and reduced size diversity. In contrast, the seasonality of the temperate region causes the community to regularly reorganize via shifts in species composition and to exhibit, on average, bigger cell sizes and higher size diversity than in the tropics. Our results raise the importance of environmental variability as a key structuring mechanism of plankton communities in the ocean and call for a reassessment of the current understanding of phytoplankton diversity patterns across latitudinal gradients. PMID:25747280

  13. Gold nanoparticle size and shape influence on osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingchao; Li, Jia'en Jasmine; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xinlong; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2016-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been extensively explored for biomedical applications due to their advantages of facile synthesis and surface functionalization. Previous studies have suggested that AuNPs can induce differentiation of stem cells into osteoblasts. However, how the size and shape of AuNPs affect the differentiation response of stem cells has not been elucidated. In this work, a series of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated Au nanospheres, Au nanostars and Au nanorods with different diameters of 40, 70 and 110 nm were synthesized and their effects on osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were investigated. All the AuNPs showed good cytocompatibility and did not influence proliferation of hMSCs at the studied concentrations. Osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs was dependent on the size and shape of AuNPs. Sphere-40, sphere-70 and rod-70 significantly increased the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition of cells while rod-40 reduced the ALP activity and calcium deposition. Gene profiling revealed that the expression of osteogenic marker genes was down-regulated after incubation with rod-40. However, up-regulation of these genes was found in the sphere-40, sphere-70 and rod-70 treatment. Moreover, it was found that the size and shape of AuNPs affected the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs through regulating the activation of Yes-associated protein (YAP). These results indicate that the size and shape of AuNPs had an influence on the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, which should provide useful guidance for the preparation of AuNPs with defined size and shape for their biomedical applications.Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been extensively explored for biomedical applications due to their advantages of facile synthesis and surface functionalization. Previous studies have suggested that AuNPs can induce differentiation of stem cells into osteoblasts. However, how the size and shape of AuNPs affect the

  14. Range size heritability and diversification patterns in the liverwort genus Radula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, Jairo; Wang, Jian; Renner, Matt A M; Gradstein, S Robbert; Laenen, Benjamin; Devos, Nicolas; Shaw, A Jonathan; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Why some species exhibit larger geographical ranges than others, and to what extent does variation in range size affect diversification rates, remains a fundamental, but largely unanswered question in ecology and evolution. Here, we implement phylogenetic comparative analyses and ancestral area estimations in Radula, a liverwort genus of Cretaceous origin, to investigate the mechanisms that explain differences in geographical range size and diversification rates among lineages. Range size was phylogenetically constrained in the two sub-genera characterized by their almost complete Australasian and Neotropical endemicity, respectively. The congruence between the divergence time of these lineages and continental split suggests that plate tectonics could have played a major role in their present distribution, suggesting that a strong imprint of vicariance can still be found in extant distribution patterns in these highly mobile organisms. Amentuloradula, Volutoradula and Metaradula species did not appear to exhibit losses of dispersal capacities in terms of dispersal life-history traits, but evidence for significant phylogenetic signal in macroecological niche traits suggests that niche conservatism accounts for their restricted geographic ranges. Despite their greatly restricted distribution to Australasia and Neotropics respectively, Amentuloradula and Volutoradula did not exhibit significantly lower diversification rates than more widespread lineages, in contrast with the hypothesis that the probability of speciation increases with range size by promoting geographic isolation and increasing the rate at which novel habitats are encountered. We suggest that stochastic long-distance dispersal events may balance allele frequencies across large spatial scales, leading to low genetic structure among geographically distant areas or even continents, ultimately decreasing the diversification rates in highly mobile, widespread lineages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  15. Cord blood hematopoietic cells from preterm infants display altered DNA methylation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goede, Olivia M; Lavoie, Pascal M; Robinson, Wendy P

    2017-01-01

    Premature infants are highly vulnerable to infection. This is partly attributable to the preterm immune system, which differs from that of the term neonate in cell composition and function. Multiple studies have found differential DNA methylation (DNAm) between preterm and term infants' cord blood; however, interpretation of these studies is limited by the confounding factor of blood cell composition. This study evaluates the epigenetic impact of preterm birth in isolated hematopoietic cell populations, reducing the concern of cell composition differences. Genome-wide DNAm was measured using the Illumina 450K array in T cells, monocytes, granulocytes, and nucleated red blood cells (nRBCs) isolated from cord blood of 5 term and 5 preterm (blood cells (nRBCs) showed the most extensive changes in DNAm, with 9258 differentially methylated (DM) sites (FDR  0.10) discovered between preterm and term infants compared to the blood cell populations. The direction of DNAm change with gestational age at these prematurity-DM sites followed known patterns of hematopoietic differentiation, suggesting that term hematopoietic cell populations are more epigenetically mature than their preterm counterparts. Consistent shifts in DNAm between preterm and term cells were observed at 25 CpG sites, with many of these sites located in genes involved in growth and proliferation, hematopoietic lineage commitment, and the cytoskeleton. DNAm in preterm and term hematopoietic cells conformed to previously identified DNAm signatures of fetal liver and bone marrow, respectively. This study presents the first genome-wide mapping of epigenetic differences in hematopoietic cells across the late gestational period. DNAm differences in hematopoietic cells between term and <31 weeks were consistent with the hematopoietic origin of these cells during ontogeny, reflecting an important role of DNAm in their regulation. Due to the limited sample size and the high coincidence of prematurity and

  16. The dynamic interplay of plasma membrane domains and cortical microtubules in secondary cell wall patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa eOda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Patterning of the cellulosic cell wall underlies the shape and function of plant cells. The cortical microtubule array plays a central role in the regulation of cell wall patterns. However, the regulatory mechanisms by which secondary cell wall patterns are established through cortical microtubules remain to be fully determined. Our recent study in xylem vessel cells revealed that a mutual inhibitory interaction between cortical microtubules and distinct plasma membrane domains leads to distinctive patterning in secondary cell walls. Our research revealed that the recycling of active and inactive ROP proteins by a specific GAP and GEF pair establishes distinct de novo plasma membrane domains. Active ROP recruits a plant-specific microtubule-associated protein, MIDD1, which mediates the mutual interaction between cortical microtubules and plasma membrane domains. In this mini review, we summarize recent research regarding secondary wall patterning, with a focus on the emerging interplay between plasma membrane domains and cortical microtubules through MIDD1 and ROP.

  17. Molecular diversity patterns among various phytoplankton size-fractions in West Greenland in late summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elferink, Stephanie; Neuhaus, Stefan; Wohlrab, Sylke; Toebe, Kerstin; Voß, Daniela; Gottschling, Marc; Lundholm, Nina; Krock, Bernd; Koch, Boris P.; Zielinski, Oliver; Cembella, Allan; John, Uwe

    2017-03-01

    Arctic regions have experienced pronounced biological and biophysical transformations as a result of global change processes over the last several decades. Current hypotheses propose an elevated impact of those environmental changes on the biodiversity, community composition and metabolic processes of species. The effects on ecosystem function and services, particularly when invasive or toxigenic harmful species become dominant, can be expressed over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales in plankton communities. Our study focused on the comparison of molecular biodiversity of three size-fractions (micro-, nano-, picoplankton) in the coastal pelagic zone of West Greenland and their association with environmental parameters. Molecular diversity was assessed via parallel amplicon sequencing the 28S rRNA hypervariable D1/D2 region. We showed that biodiversity distribution within the area of Uummannaq Fjord, Vaigat Strait and Disko Bay differed markedly within and among size-fractions. In general, we observed a higher diversity within the picoplankton size fraction compared to the nano- and microplankton. In multidimensional scaling analysis, community composition of all three size fractions correlated with cell size, silicate and phosphate, chlorophyll a (chl a) and dinophysistoxin (DTX). Individually, each size fraction community composition also correlated with other different environmental parameters, i.e. temperature and nitrate. We observed a more homogeneous community of the picoplankton across all stations compared to the larger size classes, despite different prevailing environmental conditions of the sampling areas. This suggests that habitat niche occupation for larger-celled species may lead to higher functional trait plasticity expressed as an enhanced range of phenotypes, whereas smaller organisms may compensate for lower potential plasticity with higher diversity. The presence of recently identified toxigenic harmful algal bloom (HAB) species (such

  18. Micro-patterned agarose gel devices for single-cell high-throughput microscopy of E. coli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, David G; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Yo; Taniguchi, Yuichi

    2017-12-21

    High-throughput microscopy of bacterial cells elucidated fundamental cellular processes including cellular heterogeneity and cell division homeostasis. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidic devices provide advantages including precise positioning of cells and throughput, however device fabrication is time-consuming and requires specialised skills. Agarose pads are a popular alternative, however cells often clump together, which hinders single cell quantitation. Here, we imprint agarose pads with micro-patterned 'capsules', to trap individual cells and 'lines', to direct cellular growth outwards in a straight line. We implement this micro-patterning into multi-pad devices called CapsuleHotel and LineHotel for high-throughput imaging. CapsuleHotel provides ~65,000 capsule structures per mm 2 that isolate individual Escherichia coli cells. In contrast, LineHotel provides ~300 line structures per mm that direct growth of micro-colonies. With CapsuleHotel, a quantitative single cell dataset of ~10,000 cells across 24 samples can be acquired and analysed in under 1 hour. LineHotel allows tracking growth of > 10 micro-colonies across 24 samples simultaneously for up to 4 generations. These easy-to-use devices can be provided in kit format, and will accelerate discoveries in diverse fields ranging from microbiology to systems and synthetic biology.

  19. Laser-induced superhydrophobic grid patterns on PDMS for droplet arrays formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farshchian, Bahador [Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Gatabi, Javad R. [Materials Science, Engineering and Commercialization, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Bernick, Steven M.; Park, Sooyeon [Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Lee, Gwan-Hyoung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Droopad, Ravindranath [Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Materials Science, Engineering and Commercialization, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Kim, Namwon, E-mail: n_k43@txstate.edu [Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic grid patterns were processed on the surface of PDMS using a pulsed nanosecond laser. • Droplet arrays form instantly on the laser-patterned PDMS with the superhydrophobic grid pattern when the PDMS sample is simply immersed in and withdrawn from water. • Droplet size can be controlled by controlling the pitch size of superhydrophobic grid and the withdrawal speed. - Abstract: We demonstrate a facile single step laser treatment process to render a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface superhydrophobic. By synchronizing a pulsed nanosecond laser source with a motorized stage, superhydrophobic grid patterns were written on the surface of PDMS. Hierarchical micro and nanostructures were formed in the irradiated areas while non-irradiated areas were covered by nanostructures due to deposition of ablated particles. Arrays of droplets form spontaneously on the laser-patterned PDMS with superhydrophobic grid pattern when the PDMS sample is simply immersed in and withdrawn from water due to different wetting properties of the irradiated and non-irradiated areas. The effects of withdrawal speed and pitch size of superhydrophobic grid on the size of formed droplets were investigated experimentally. The droplet size increases initially with increasing the withdrawal speed and then does not change significantly beyond certain points. Moreover, larger droplets are formed by increasing the pitch size of the superhydrophobic grid. The droplet arrays formed on the laser-patterned PDMS with wettability contrast can be used potentially for patterning of particles, chemicals, and bio-molecules and also for cell screening applications.

  20. Three dimensional analysis of histone methylation patterns in normal and tumor cell nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cremer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Histone modifications represent an important epigenetic mechanism for the organization of higher order chromatin structure and gene regulation. Methylation of position-specific lysine residues in the histone H3 and H4 amino termini has been linked with the formation of constitutive and facultative heterochromatin as well as with specifically repressed single gene loci. Using an antibody, directed against dimethylated lysine 9 of histone H3 and several other lysine methylation sites, we visualized the nuclear distribution pattern of chromatin flagged by these methylated lysines in 3D preserved nuclei of normal and malignant cell types. Optical confocal serial sections were used for a quantitative evaluation. We demonstrate distinct differences of these histone methylation patterns among nuclei of different cell types after exit of the cell cycle. Changes in the pattern formation were also observed during the cell cycle. Our data suggest an important role of methylated histones in the reestablishment of higher order chromatin arrangements during telophase/early G1. Cell type specific histone methylation patterns are possibly causally involved in the formation of cell type specific heterochromatin compartments, composed of (pericentromeric regions and chromosomal subregions from neighboring chromosome territories, which contain silent genes.

  1. The Influences of Cell Type and ZnO Nanoparticle Size on Immune Cell Cytotoxicity and Cytokine Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thurber Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanotechnology represents a new and enabling platform that promises to provide a range of innovative technologies for biological applications. ZnO nanoparticles of controlled size were synthesized, and their cytotoxicity toward different human immune cells evaluated. A differential cytotoxic response between human immune cell subsets was observed, with lymphocytes being the most resistant and monocytes being the most susceptible to ZnO nanoparticle-induced toxicity. Significant differences were also observed between previously activated memory lymphocytes and naive lymphocytes, indicating a relationship between cell-cycle potential and nanoparticle susceptibility. Mechanisms of toxicity involve the generation of reactive oxygen species, with monocytes displaying the highest levels, and the degree of cytotoxicity dependent on the extent of nanoparticle interactions with cellular membranes. An inverse relationship between nanoparticle size and cytotoxicity, as well as nanoparticle size and reactive oxygen species production was observed. In addition, ZnO nanoparticles induce the production of the proinflammatory cytokines, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-12, at concentrations below those causing appreciable cell death. Collectively, these results underscore the need for careful evaluation of ZnO nanoparticle effects across a spectrum of relevant cell types when considering their use for potential new nanotechnology-based biological applications.

  2. Genome size evolution in Ontario ferns (Polypodiidae): evolutionary correlations with cell size, spore size, and habitat type and an absence of genome downsizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Thomas A; Bainard, Jillian D; Newmaster, Steven G

    2014-10-01

    Genome size is known to correlate with a number of traits in angiosperms, but less is known about the phenotypic correlates of genome size in ferns. We explored genome size variation in relation to a suite of morphological and ecological traits in ferns. Thirty-six fern taxa were collected from wild populations in Ontario, Canada. 2C DNA content was measured using flow cytometry. We tested for genome downsizing following polyploidy using a phylogenetic comparative analysis to explore the correlation between 1Cx DNA content and ploidy. There was no compelling evidence for the occurrence of widespread genome downsizing during the evolution of Ontario ferns. The relationship between genome size and 11 morphological and ecological traits was explored using a phylogenetic principal component regression analysis. Genome size was found to be significantly associated with cell size, spore size, spore type, and habitat type. These results are timely as past and recent studies have found conflicting support for the association between ploidy/genome size and spore size in fern polyploid complexes; this study represents the first comparative analysis of the trend across a broad taxonomic group of ferns.

  3. Prevalence and pattern of Lupus erythematosus cell positivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence and pattern of lupus erythematosus (LE) cell positivity in diseases in Ile-Ife, Osun state was carried out between January 1999 and June 2004 (5½ years). A total of 96 patients with different diseases were screened for LE cell using standard techniques. Of this number, 63 (65.6%) were females and 33 ...

  4. Evolution of Cell Size Homeostasis and Growth Rate Diversity during Initial Surface Colonization of Shewanella oneidensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Calvin K; Kim, Alexander J; Santos, Giancarlo S; Lai, Peter Y; Lee, Stella Y; Qiao, David F; Anda, Jaime De; Young, Thomas D; Chen, Yujie; Rowe, Annette R; Nealson, Kenneth H; Weiss, Paul S; Wong, Gerard C L

    2016-09-06

    Cell size control and homeostasis are fundamental features of bacterial metabolism. Recent work suggests that cells add a constant size between birth and division ("adder" model). However, it is not known how cell size homeostasis is influenced by the existence of heterogeneous microenvironments, such as those during biofilm formation. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 can use diverse energy sources on a range of surfaces via extracellular electron transport (EET), which can impact growth, metabolism, and size diversity. Here, we track bacterial surface communities at single-cell resolution to show that not only do bacterial motility appendages influence the transition from two- to three-dimensional biofilm growth and control postdivisional cell fates, they strongly impact cell size homeostasis. For every generation, we find that the average growth rate for cells that stay on the surface and continue to divide (nondetaching population) and that for cells that detach before their next division (detaching population) are roughly constant. However, the growth rate distribution is narrow for the nondetaching population, but broad for the detaching population in each generation. Interestingly, the appendage deletion mutants (ΔpilA, ΔmshA-D, Δflg) have significantly broader growth rate distributions than that of the wild type for both detaching and nondetaching populations, which suggests that Shewanella appendages are important for sensing and integrating environmental inputs that contribute to size homeostasis. Moreover, our results suggest multiplexing of appendages for sensing and motility functions contributes to cell size dysregulation. These results can potentially provide a framework for generating metabolic diversity in S. oneidensis populations to optimize EET in heterogeneous environments.

  5. Histological pattern of Merkel cell carcinoma sentinel lymph node metastasis improves stratification of Stage III patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jennifer S; Prieto, Victor G; Elson, Paul J; Vilain, Ricardo E; Pulitzer, Melissa P; Scolyer, Richard A; Reynolds, Jordan P; Piliang, Melissa P; Ernstoff, Marc S; Gastman, Brian R; Billings, Steven D

    2016-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is used to stage Merkel cell carcinoma, but its prognostic value has been questioned. Furthermore, predictors of outcome in sentinel lymph node positive Merkel cell carcinoma patients are poorly defined. In breast carcinoma, isolated immunohistochemically positive tumor cells have no impact, but in melanoma they are considered significant. The significance of sentinel lymph node metastasis tumor burden (including isolated tumor cells) and pattern of involvement in Merkel cell carcinoma are unknown. In this study, 64 Merkel cell carcinomas involving sentinel lymph nodes and corresponding immunohistochemical stains were reviewed and clinicopathological predictors of outcome were sought. Five metastatic patterns were identified: (1) sheet-like (n=38, 59%); (2) non-solid parafollicular (n=4, 6%); (3) sinusoidal, (n=11, 17%); (4) perivascular hilar (n=1, 2%); and (5) rare scattered parenchymal cells (n=10, 16%). At the time of follow-up, 30/63 (48%) patients had died with 21 (33%) attributable to Merkel cell carcinoma. Patients with pattern 1 metastases had poorer overall survival compared with patients with patterns 2-5 metastases (P=0.03), with 22/30 (73%) deaths occurring in pattern 1 patients. Three (10%) deaths occurred in patients showing pattern 5, all of whom were immunosuppressed. Four (13%) deaths occurred in pattern 3 patients and 1 (3%) death occurred in a pattern 2 patient. In multivariable analysis, the number of positive sentinel lymph nodes (1 or 2 versus >2, PMerkel cell carcinoma, the pattern of sentinel lymph node involvement provides important prognostic information and utilizing this data with other clinicopathological features facilitates risk stratification of Merkel cell carcinoma patients who may have management implications.

  6. Covalent microcontact printing of proteins fro cell patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozkiewicz, D.I.; Kraan, Yvonne M.; Werten, Marc W.T.; de Wolf, Frits A.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Ravoo, B.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    2006-01-01

    We describe a straightforward approach to the covalent immobilization of cytophilic proteins by microcontact printing, which can be used to pattern cells on substrates. Cytophilic proteins are printed in micropatterns on reactive self-assembled monolayers by using imine chemistry. An

  7. A chemical screen probing the relationship between mitochondrial content and cell size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimori Kitami

    Full Text Available The cellular content of mitochondria changes dynamically during development and in response to external stimuli, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. To systematically identify molecular probes and pathways that control mitochondrial abundance, we developed a high-throughput imaging assay that tracks both the per cell mitochondrial content and the cell size in confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We screened 28,786 small molecules and observed that hundreds of small molecules are capable of increasing or decreasing the cellular content of mitochondria in a manner proportionate to cell size, revealing stereotyped control of these parameters. However, only a handful of compounds dissociate this relationship. We focus on one such compound, BRD6897, and demonstrate through secondary assays that it increases the cellular content of mitochondria as evidenced by fluorescence microscopy, mitochondrial protein content, and respiration, even after rigorous correction for cell size, cell volume, or total protein content. BRD6897 increases uncoupled respiration 1.6-fold in two different, non-dividing cell types. Based on electron microscopy, BRD6897 does not alter the percent of cytoplasmic area occupied by mitochondria, but instead, induces a striking increase in the electron density of existing mitochondria. The mechanism is independent of known transcriptional programs and is likely to be related to a blockade in the turnover of mitochondrial proteins. At present the molecular target of BRD6897 remains to be elucidated, but if identified, could reveal an important additional mechanism that governs mitochondrial biogenesis and turnover.

  8. Position-dependent patterning of spontaneous action potentials in immature cochlear inner hair cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stuart L.; Eckrich, Tobias; Kuhn, Stephanie; Zampini, Valeria; Franz, Christoph; Ranatunga, Kishani M.; Roberts, Terri P.; Masetto, Sergio; Knipper, Marlies; Kros, Corné J.; Marcotti, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous action potential activity is crucial for mammalian sensory system development. In the auditory system, patterned firing activity has been observed in immature spiral ganglion cells and brain-stem neurons and is likely to depend on cochlear inner hair cell (IHC) action potentials. It remains uncertain whether spiking activity is intrinsic to developing IHCs and whether it shows patterning. We found that action potentials are intrinsically generated by immature IHCs of altricial rodents and that apical IHCs exhibit bursting activity as opposed to more sustained firing in basal cells. We show that the efferent neurotransmitter ACh, by fine-tuning the IHC’s resting membrane potential (Vm), is crucial for the bursting pattern in apical cells. Endogenous extracellular ATP also contributes to the Vm of apical and basal IHCs by activating SK2 channels. We hypothesize that the difference in firing pattern along the cochlea instructs the tonotopic differentiation of IHCs and auditory pathway. PMID:21572434

  9. Micro-patterned Nafion membranes for direct methanol fuel cell applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, M.H.; te Braake, J.; Aran, H.C.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we report the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance of micro-patterned (μp) Nafion® 117 (N117) membranes prepared by hot embossing and compare them with that of normal N117 and heat and pressure treated (hp) N117 non-patterned (smooth) membranes. Our results suggest that the

  10. Patterns of diversity in soft-bodied meiofauna: dispersal ability and body size matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curini-Galletti, Marco; Artois, Tom; Delogu, Valentina; De Smet, Willem H; Fontaneto, Diego; Jondelius, Ulf; Leasi, Francesca; Martínez, Alejandro; Meyer-Wachsmuth, Inga; Nilsson, Karin Sara; Tongiorgi, Paolo; Worsaae, Katrine; Todaro, M Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Biogeographical and macroecological principles are derived from patterns of distribution in large organisms, whereas microscopic ones have often been considered uninteresting, because of their supposed wide distribution. Here, after reporting the results of an intensive faunistic survey of marine microscopic animals (meiofauna) in Northern Sardinia, we test for the effect of body size, dispersal ability, and habitat features on the patterns of distribution of several groups. As a dataset we use the results of a workshop held at La Maddalena (Sardinia, Italy) in September 2010, aimed at studying selected taxa of soft-bodied meiofauna (Acoela, Annelida, Gastrotricha, Nemertodermatida, Platyhelminthes and Rotifera), in conjunction with data on the same taxa obtained during a previous workshop hosted at Tjärnö (Western Sweden) in September 2007. Using linear mixed effects models and model averaging while accounting for sampling bias and potential pseudoreplication, we found evidence that: (1) meiofaunal groups with more restricted distribution are the ones with low dispersal potential; (2) meiofaunal groups with higher probability of finding new species for science are the ones with low dispersal potential; (3) the proportion of the global species pool of each meiofaunal group present in each area at the regional scale is negatively related to body size, and positively related to their occurrence in the endobenthic habitat. Our macroecological analysis of meiofauna, in the framework of the ubiquity hypothesis for microscopic organisms, indicates that not only body size but mostly dispersal ability and also occurrence in the endobenthic habitat are important correlates of diversity for these understudied animals, with different importance at different spatial scales. Furthermore, since the Western Mediterranean is one of the best-studied areas in the world, the large number of undescribed species (37%) highlights that the census of marine meiofauna is still very far

  11. Patterned layers of adsorbed extracellular matrix proteins: influence on mammalian cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Gillain, C C; Alaerts, J A; Dewez, J L; Rouxhet, P G

    2004-01-01

    Three patterned systems aiming at the control of mammalian cell behavior are presented. The determinant feature common to these systems is the spatial distribution of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (mainly collagen) on polymer substrates. This distribution differs from one system to another with respect to the scale at which it is affected, from the supracellular to the supramolecular scale, and with respect to the way it is produced. In the first system, the surface of polystyrene was oxidized selectively to form micrometer-scale patterns, using photolithography. Adsorption of ECM proteins in presence of a competitor was enhanced on the oxidized domains, allowing selective cell adhesion to be achieved. In the second system, electron beam lithography was used to engrave grooves (depth and width approximately 1 microm) on a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substratum. No modification of the surface chemistry associated to the created topography could be detected. Cell orientation along the grooves was only observed when collagen was preadsorbed on the substratum. In the third system, collagen adsorbed on PMMA was dried in conditions ensuring the formation of a nanometer-scale pattern. Cell adhesion was enhanced on such patterned collagen layers compared to smooth collagen layers.

  12. Pattern selection near the onset of convection in binary mixtures in cylindrical cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Arantxa; Mercader, Isabel; Batiste, Oriol

    2014-01-01

    We report numerical investigations of three-dimensional pattern formation of binary mixtures in a vertical cylindrical container heated from below. Negative separation ratio mixtures, for which the onset of convection occurs via a subcritical Hopf bifurcation, are considered. We focus on the dynamics in the neighbourhood of the initial oscillatory instability and analyze the spatio-temporal properties of the patterns for different values of the aspect ratio of the cell, 0.25≲Γ≲11 (Γ≡R/d, where R is the radius of the cell and d its height). Despite the oscillatory nature of the primary instability, for highly constrained geometries, Γ≲2.5, only pure thermal stationary modes are selected after long transients. As the aspect ratio of the cell increases, for intermediate aspect ratio cells such as Γ=3, multistability and coexistence of stationary and time-dependent patterns is observed. In highly extended cylinders, Γ≈11, the dynamics near the onset is completely different from the pure fluid case, and a startling diversity of confined patterns is observed. Many of these patterns are consistent with experimental observations. Remarkably, though, we have obtained persistent large amplitude highly localized states not reported previously. (paper)

  13. Pattern selection near the onset of convection in binary mixtures in cylindrical cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Arantxa; Mercader, Isabel; Batiste, Oriol, E-mail: arantxa@fa.upc.edu [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Mòdul B4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    We report numerical investigations of three-dimensional pattern formation of binary mixtures in a vertical cylindrical container heated from below. Negative separation ratio mixtures, for which the onset of convection occurs via a subcritical Hopf bifurcation, are considered. We focus on the dynamics in the neighbourhood of the initial oscillatory instability and analyze the spatio-temporal properties of the patterns for different values of the aspect ratio of the cell, 0.25≲Γ≲11 (Γ≡R/d, where R is the radius of the cell and d its height). Despite the oscillatory nature of the primary instability, for highly constrained geometries, Γ≲2.5, only pure thermal stationary modes are selected after long transients. As the aspect ratio of the cell increases, for intermediate aspect ratio cells such as Γ=3, multistability and coexistence of stationary and time-dependent patterns is observed. In highly extended cylinders, Γ≈11, the dynamics near the onset is completely different from the pure fluid case, and a startling diversity of confined patterns is observed. Many of these patterns are consistent with experimental observations. Remarkably, though, we have obtained persistent large amplitude highly localized states not reported previously. (paper)

  14. Deposition Pattern of Inhaled Thoron Progeny Size Distribution in Human Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of the important factors controlling the distribution of radiation dose to the different portions of the human respiratory tract is the deposition pattern of thoron progeny containing aerosol. Based on the activity size distribution parameters of thoron progeny, which were measured in El-Minia University, the deposition behavior of thoron progeny (attached and unattached) has been studied by using a stochastic deposition model. The measurements were performed with a wire screen diffusion battery and a low pressure cascade impactor (type Berner). The bronchial deposition efficiencies of particles in the size range of attached thoron progeny were found to be lower than those of unattached progeny. The effect of thoron progeny deposition by adult male has been also studied for various levels of physical exertion. An increase in the breathing rate was found to decrease the efficiencies with which inhaled progeny were deposited in the bronchi. As the ventilation rate increases from 0.54 to 1.5 m3 h-1, the average deposition efficiencies of airway generation 1 through 8 are expected to decrease by 22 % for 1.4 nm particles and by 38 % for 150 nm particles

  15. Logic programming to predict cell fate patterns and retrodict genotypes in organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Benjamin A; Jackson, Ethan; Hajnal, Alex; Fisher, Jasmin

    2014-09-06

    Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development is a paradigm system for understanding cell differentiation in the process of organogenesis. Through temporal and spatial controls, the fate pattern of six cells is determined by the competition of the LET-23 and the Notch signalling pathways. Modelling cell fate determination in vulval development using state-based models, coupled with formal analysis techniques, has been established as a powerful approach in predicting the outcome of combinations of mutations. However, computing the outcomes of complex and highly concurrent models can become prohibitive. Here, we show how logic programs derived from state machines describing the differentiation of C. elegans vulval precursor cells can increase the speed of prediction by four orders of magnitude relative to previous approaches. Moreover, this increase in speed allows us to infer, or 'retrodict', compatible genomes from cell fate patterns. We exploit this technique to predict highly variable cell fate patterns resulting from dig-1 reduced-function mutations and let-23 mosaics. In addition to the new insights offered, we propose our technique as a platform for aiding the design and analysis of experimental data. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Exposure to nano-size titanium dioxide causes oxidative damages in human mesothelial cells: The crystal form rather than size of particle contributes to cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kenji; Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Morii, Akane; Noguchi, Takumi; Ogasawara, Yuki; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2017-10-14

    Exposure to nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes has been shown to cause pleural mesothelioma similar to that caused by asbestos, and has become an environmental health issue. Not only is the percutaneous absorption of nano-size titanium dioxide particles frequently considered problematic, but the possibility of absorption into the body through the pulmonary route is also a concern. Nevertheless, there are few reports of nano-size titanium dioxide particles on respiratory organ exposure and dynamics or on the mechanism of toxicity. In this study, we focused on the morphology as well as the size of titanium dioxide particles. In comparing the effects between nano-size anatase and rutile titanium dioxide on human-derived pleural mesothelial cells, the anatase form was shown to be actively absorbed into cells, producing reactive oxygen species and causing oxidative damage to DNA. In contrast, we showed for the first time that the rutile form is not easily absorbed by cells and, therefore, does not cause oxidative DNA damage and is significantly less damaging to cells. These results suggest that with respect to the toxicity of titanium dioxide particles on human-derived mesothelial cells, the crystal form rather than the particle size has a greater effect on cellular absorption. Also, it was indicated that the difference in absorption is the primary cause of the difference in the toxicity against mesothelial cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rule reversal: Ecogeographical patterns of body size variation in the common treeshrew (Mammalia, Scandentia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargis, Eric J.; Millien, Virginie; Woodman, Neal; Olson, Link E.

    2018-01-01

    There are a number of ecogeographical “rules” that describe patterns of geographical variation among organisms. The island rule predicts that populations of larger mammals on islands evolve smaller mean body size than their mainland counterparts, whereas smaller‐bodied mammals evolve larger size. Bergmann's rule predicts that populations of a species in colder climates (generally at higher latitudes) have larger mean body sizes than conspecifics in warmer climates (at lower latitudes). These two rules are rarely tested together and neither has been rigorously tested in treeshrews, a clade of small‐bodied mammals in their own order (Scandentia) broadly distributed in mainland Southeast Asia and on islands throughout much of the Sunda Shelf. The common treeshrew, Tupaia glis, is an excellent candidate for study and was used to test these two rules simultaneously for the first time in treeshrews. This species is distributed on the Malay Peninsula and several offshore islands east, west, and south of the mainland. Using craniodental dimensions as a proxy for body size, we investigated how island size, distance from the mainland, and maximum sea depth between the mainland and the islands relate to body size of 13 insular T. glis populations while also controlling for latitude and correlation among variables. We found a strong negative effect of latitude on body size in the common treeshrew, indicating the inverse of Bergmann's rule. We did not detect any overall difference in body size between the island and mainland populations. However, there was an effect of island area and maximum sea depth on body size among island populations. Although there is a strong latitudinal effect on body size, neither Bergmann's rule nor the island rule applies to the common treeshrew. The results of our analyses demonstrate the necessity of assessing multiple variables simultaneously in studies of ecogeographical rules.

  18. Cortisol patterns are associated with T cell activation in HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Patterson

    Full Text Available The level of T cell activation in untreated HIV disease is strongly and independently associated with risk of immunologic and clinical progression. The factors that influence the level of activation, however, are not fully defined. Since endogenous glucocorticoids are important in regulating inflammation, we sought to determine whether less optimal diurnal cortisol patterns are associated with greater T cell activation.We studied 128 HIV-infected adults who were not on treatment and had a CD4(+ T cell count above 250 cells/µl. We assessed T cell activation by CD38 expression using flow cytometry, and diurnal cortisol was assessed with salivary measurements.Lower waking cortisol levels correlated with greater T cell immune activation, measured by CD38 mean fluorescent intensity, on CD4(+ T cells (r = -0.26, p = 0.006. Participants with lower waking cortisol also showed a trend toward greater activation on CD8(+ T cells (r = -0.17, p = 0.08. A greater diurnal decline in cortisol, usually considered a healthy pattern, correlated with less CD4(+ (r = 0.24, p = 0.018 and CD8(+ (r = 0.24, p = 0.017 activation.These data suggest that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis contributes to the regulation of T cell activation in HIV. This may represent an important pathway through which psychological states and the HPA axis influence progression of HIV.

  19. Support for the initial attachment, growth and differentiation of MG-63 cells: a comparison between nano-size hydroxyapatite and micro-size hydroxyapatite in composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filová E

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Elena Filová,1 Tomáš Suchý,2,3 Zbynek Sucharda,2 Monika Šupová,2 Margit Žaloudková,2 Karel Balík,2 Vera Lisá,1 Miroslav Šlouf,4 Lucie Bacáková11Department of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Institute of Physiology, 2Department of Composite and Carbon Materials, Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 3Laboratory of Biomechanics, Department of Mechanics, Biomechanics and Mechatronics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, CTU in Prague, 4Department of Morphology and Rheology of Polymer Materials, Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech RepublicAbstract: Hydroxyapatite (HA is considered to be a bioactive material that favorably influences the adhesion, growth, and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts. To optimize the cell response on the hydroxyapatite composite, it is desirable to assess the optimum concentration and also the optimum particle size. The aim of our study was to prepare composite materials made of polydimethylsiloxane, polyamide, and nano-sized (N or micro-sized (M HA, with an HA content of 0%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% (v/v (referred to as N0–N25 or M0–M25, and to evaluate them in vitro in cultures with human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. For clinical applications, fast osseointegration of the implant into the bone is essential. We observed the greatest initial cell adhesion on composites M10 and N5. Nano-sized HA supported cell growth, especially during the first 3 days of culture. On composites with micro-size HA (2%–15%, MG-63 cells reached the highest densities on day 7. Samples M20 and M25, however, were toxic for MG-63 cells, although these composites supported the production of osteocalcin in these cells. On N2, a higher concentration of osteopontin was found in MG-63 cells. For biomedical applications, the concentration range of 5%–15% (v/v nano-size or micro-size HA seems to be optimum

  20. Does tumor size have its prognostic role in colorectal cancer? Re-evaluating its value in colorectal adenocarcinoma with different macroscopic growth pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Weixing; Li, Yaqi; Meng, Xianke; Cai, Sanjun; Li, Qingguo; Cai, Guoxiang

    2017-09-01

    Few previous studies have taken the growth pattern into consideration when analyzing the prognostic value of tumor size in colorectal cancer (CRC). We sought to reveal the prognostic role of tumor size in different macroscopic growth patterns of CRC. Using Cancer Center datasets, we identified 4057 cases with colorectal adenocarcinoma treated with curative resection. Macroscopic growth patterns of tumors were classified into three types: infiltrative, ulcerative and expansive types based on tumor gross appearance. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). In whole cohort, tumor size was an independent factor for OS (HR 1.10, 95%CI 1.04-1.16, p colorectal adenocarcinoma of infiltrative type, while only for OS in patients of ulcerative type. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Computerized analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns for assessing breast cancer risk: Effect of ROI size and location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hui; Giger, Maryellen L.; Huo Zhimin; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Lan Li; Weber, Barbara L.; Bonta, Ioana

    2004-01-01

    The long-term goal of our research is to develop computerized radiographic markers for assessing breast density and parenchymal patterns that may be used together with clinical measures for determining the risk of breast cancer and assessing the response to preventive treatment. In our earlier studies, we found that women at high risk tended to have dense breasts with mammographic patterns that were coarse and low in contrast. With our method, computerized texture analysis is performed on a region of interest (ROI) within the mammographic image. In our current study, we investigate the effect of ROI size and ROI location on the computerized texture features obtained from 90 subjects (30 BRCA1/BRCA2 gene-mutation carriers and 60 age-matched women deemed to be at low risk for breast cancer). Mammograms were digitized at 0.1 mm pixel size and various ROI sizes were extracted from different breast regions in the craniocaudal (CC) view. Seventeen features, which characterize the density and texture of the parenchymal patterns, were extracted from the ROIs on these digitized mammograms. Stepwise feature selection and linear discriminant analysis were applied to identify features that differentiate between the low-risk women and the BRCA1/BRCA2 gene-mutation carriers. ROC analysis was used to assess the performance of the features in the task of distinguishing between these two groups. Our results show that there was a statistically significant decrease in the performance of the computerized texture features, as the ROI location was varied from the central region behind the nipple. However, we failed to show a statistically significant decrease in the performance of the computerized texture features with decreasing ROI size for the range studied

  2. Modeling photovoltaic performance in periodic patterned colloidal quantum dot solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yulan; Dinku, Abay G; Hara, Yukihiro; Miller, Christopher W; Vrouwenvelder, Kristina T; Lopez, Rene

    2015-07-27

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells have attracted tremendous attention mostly due to their wide absorption spectrum window and potentially low processability cost. The ultimate efficiency of CQD solar cells is highly limited by their high trap state density. Here we show that the overall device power conversion efficiency could be improved by employing photonic structures that enhance both charge generation and collection efficiencies. By employing a two-dimensional numerical model, we have calculated the characteristics of patterned CQD solar cells based of a simple grating structure. Our calculation predicts a power conversion efficiency as high as 11.2%, with a short circuit current density of 35.2 mA/cm2, a value nearly 1.5 times larger than the conventional flat design, showing the great potential value of patterned quantum dot solar cells.

  3. Nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns and nucleated red blood cells in term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalak, E Ebru; Dede, F Suat; Gelisen, Orhan; Dede, Hulya; Haberal, Ali

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns during labor and umbilical cord nucleated red blood cell counts. Nucleated red blood cell data was collected prospectively from 41 singleton term neonates presented with nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns and/or meconium stained amniotic fluid during labor (study group) and from 45 term neonates without any evidence of nonreassuring fetal status (controls). Umbilical artery pH, blood gases and base excess were also determined to investigate the correlation between independent variables. The median nucleated red blood cells per 100 white blood cells were 13 (range 0-37) in the study group and 8 (range 0-21) in the control group. Stepwise regression analysis have identified meconium stained amniotic fluid (R(2) = 0.15, p patterns. Nucleated red blood cells in the cord blood of newborns were found to be elevated in patients with nonreassuring FHR patterns during labor. However, the wide range and the poor correlation of NRBC count with umbilical artery pH and blood gas values limit its clinical utility as a marker for fetal hypoxia.

  4. Patterns of cell proliferation and cell death in the developing retina and optic tectum of the brown trout.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candal, E.; Anadon, R.; Grip, W.J. de; Rodriguez-Moldes, I.

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed the patterns of cell proliferation and cell death in the retina and optic tectum of the brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) throughout embryonic and postembryonic stages. Cell proliferation was detected by immunohistochemistry with an antibody against the proliferating cell nuclear

  5. Patterned three-dimensional encapsulation of embryonic stem cells using dielectrophoresis and stereolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Piyush; Marchwiany, Daniel; Duarte, Carlos; Bashir, Rashid

    2013-03-01

    Controlling the assembly of cells in three dimensions is very important for engineering functional tissues, drug screening, probing cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions, and studying the emergent behavior of cellular systems. Although the current methods of cell encapsulation in hydrogels can distribute them in three dimensions, these methods typically lack spatial control of multi-cellular organization and do not allow for the possibility of cell-cell contacts as seen for the native tissue. Here, we report the integration of dielectrophoresis (DEP) with stereolithography (SL) apparatus for the spatial patterning of cells on custom made gold micro-electrodes. Afterwards, they are encapsulated in poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels of different stiffnesses. This technique can mimic the in vivo microscale tissue architecture, where the cells have a high degree of three dimensional (3D) spatial control. As a proof of concept, we show the patterning and encapsulation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and C2C12 skeletal muscle myoblasts. mESCs show high viability in both the DEP (91.79% ± 1.4%) and the no DEP (94.27% ± 0.5%) hydrogel samples. Furthermore, we also show the patterning of mouse embryoid bodies (mEBs) and C2C12 spheroids in the hydrogels, and verify their viability. This robust and flexible in vitro platform can enable various applications in stem cell differentiation and tissue engineering by mimicking elements of the native 3D in vivo cellular micro-environment. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Recovery of aging-related size increase of skin epithelial cells: in vivo mouse and in vitro human study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Sokolov

    Full Text Available The size increase of skin epithelial cells during aging is well-known. Here we demonstrate that treatment of aging cells with cytochalasin B substantially decreases cell size. This decrease was demonstrated on a mouse model and on human skin cells in vitro. Six nude mice were treated by topical application of cytochalasin B on skin of the dorsal left midsection for 140 days (the right side served as control for placebo treatment. An average decrease in cell size of 56±16% resulted. A reduction of cell size was also observed on primary human skin epithelial cells of different in vitro age (passages from 1 to 8. A cell strain obtained from a pool of 6 human subjects was treated with cytochalasin B in vitro for 12 hours. We observed a decrease in cell size that became statistically significant and reached 20-40% for cells of older passage (6-8 passages whereas no substantial change was observed for younger cells. These results may be important for understanding the aging processes, and for cosmetic treatment of aging skin.

  7. Dynamic instability of genomic methylation patterns in pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooi Steen KT

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic methylation patterns are established during gametogenesis, and perpetuated in somatic cells by faithful maintenance methylation. There have been previous indications that genomic methylation patterns may be less stable in embryonic stem (ES cells than in differentiated somatic cells, but it is not known whether different mechanisms of de novo and maintenance methylation operate in pluripotent stem cells compared with differentiating somatic cells. Results In this paper, we show that ablation of the DNA methyltransferase regulator DNMT3L (DNA methyltransferase 3-like in mouse ES cells renders them essentially incapable of de novo methylation of newly integrated retroviral DNA. We also show that ES cells lacking DNMT3L lose DNA methylation over time in culture, suggesting that DNA methylation in ES cells is the result of dynamic loss and gain of DNA methylation. We found that wild-type female ES cells lose DNA methylation at a much faster rate than do male ES cells; this defect could not be attributed to sex-specific differences in expression of DNMT3L or of any DNA methyltransferase. We also found that human ES and induced pluripotent stem cell lines showed marked but variable loss of methylation that could not be attributed to sex chromosome constitution or time in culture. Conclusions These data indicate that DNA methylation in pluripotent stem cells is much more dynamic and error-prone than is maintenance methylation in differentiated cells. DNA methylation requires DNMT3L in stem cells, but DNMT3L is not expressed in differentiating somatic cells. Error-prone maintenance methylation will introduce unpredictable phenotypic variation into clonal populations of pluripotent stem cells, and this variation is likely to be much more pronounced in cultured female cells. This epigenetic variability has obvious negative implications for the clinical applications of stem cells.

  8. Structure and Electromagnetic Properties of Cellular Glassy Carbon Monoliths with Controlled Cell Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Szczurek

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic shielding is a topic of high importance for which lightweight materials are highly sought. Porous carbon materials can meet this goal, but their structure needs to be controlled as much as possible. In this work, cellular carbon monoliths of well-defined porosity and cell size were prepared by a template method, using sacrificial paraffin spheres as the porogen and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF resin as the carbon precursor. Physicochemical studies were carried out for investigating the conversion of RF resin into carbon, and the final cellular monoliths were investigated in terms of elemental composition, total porosity, surface area, micropore volumes, and micro/macropore size distributions. Electrical and electromagnetic (EM properties were investigated in the static regime and in the Ka-band, respectively. Due to the phenolic nature of the resin, the resultant carbon was glasslike, and the special preparation protocol that was used led to cellular materials whose cell size increased with density. The materials were shown to be relevant for EM shielding, and the relationships between those properties and the density/cell size of those cellular monoliths were elucidated.

  9. Nutritional effects of culture media on mycoplasma cell size and removal by filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmsbee, Martha; Howard, Glenn; McAlister, Morven

    2010-03-01

    Careful media filtration prior to use is an important part of a mycoplasma contamination prevention program. This study was conducted to increase our knowledge of factors that influence efficient filtration of mycoplasma. The cell size of Acholeplasma laidlawii was measured after culture in various nutritional conditions using scanning electron microscopy. The maximum cell size changed, but the minimum cell size remained virtually unchanged and all tested nutritional conditions resulted in a population of cells smaller than 0.2 microm. Culture in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB) resulted in an apparent increase in the percentage of very small cells which was not reflected in increased penetration of non-retentive 0.2 microm rated filters. A. laidlawii cultured in selected media formulations was used to challenge 0.2 microm rated filters using mycoplasma broth base as the carrier fluid. We used 0.2 microm rated filters as an analytical tool because A. laidlawii is known to penetrate 0.2 microm filters and the degrees of penetration can be compared. Culture of A. laidlawii in TSB resulted in cells that did not penetrate 0.2 microm rated filters to the same degree as cells cultured in other media such as mycoplasma broth or in TSB supplemented with 10% horse serum. (c) 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Series Resistance Analysis of Passivated Emitter Rear Contact Cells Patterned Using Inkjet Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. T. Lenio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For higher-efficiency solar cell structures, such as the Passivated Emitter Rear Contact (PERC cells, to be fabricated in a manufacturing environment, potentially low-cost techniques such as inkjet printing and metal plating are desirable. A common problem that is experienced when fabricating PERC cells is low fill factors due to high series resistance. This paper identifies and attempts to quantify sources of series resistance in inkjet-patterned PERC cells that employ electroless or light-induced nickel-plating techniques followed by copper light-induced plating. Photoluminescence imaging is used to determine locations of series resistance losses in these inkjet-patterned and plated PERC cells.

  11. The Relationship Between Problem Size and Fixation Patterns During Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan T. Curtis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Eye-tracking methods have only rarely been used to examine the online cognitive processing that occurs during mental arithmetic on simple arithmetic problems, that is, addition and multiplication problems with single-digit operands (e.g., operands 2 through 9; 2 + 3, 6 x 8 and the inverse subtraction and division problems (e.g., 5 – 3; 48 ÷ 6. Participants (N = 109 solved arithmetic problems from one of the four operations while their eye movements were recorded. We found three unique fixation patterns. During addition and multiplication, participants allocated half of their fixations to the operator and one-quarter to each operand, independent of problem size. The pattern was similar on small subtraction and division problems. However, on large subtraction problems, fixations were distributed approximately evenly across the three stimulus components. On large division problems, over half of the fixations occurred on the left operand, with the rest distributed between the operation sign and the right operand. We discuss the relations between these eye tracking patterns and other research on the differences in processing across arithmetic operations.

  12. Mercury induces proliferation and reduces cell size in vascular smooth muscle cells through MAPK, oxidative stress and cyclooxygenase-2 pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado, Andrea; Galán, María; Zhenyukh, Olha; Wiggers, Giulia A.; Roque, Fernanda R. [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), 28029, Madrid (Spain); Redondo, Santiago [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Peçanha, Franck [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), 28029, Madrid (Spain); Martín, Angela [Departamento de Bioquímica, Fisiología y Genética Molecular, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28922, Alcorcón (Spain); Fortuño, Ana [Área de Ciencias Cardiovasculares, Centro de Investigación Médica Aplicada, Universidad de Navarra, 31008, Pamplona (Spain); Cachofeiro, Victoria [Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Tejerina, Teresa [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Salaices, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.salaices@uam.es [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), 28029, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2013-04-15

    Mercury exposure is known to increase cardiovascular risk but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain undetermined. We analyzed whether chronic exposure to HgCl{sub 2} affects vascular structure and the functional properties of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) through oxidative stress/cyclooxygenase-2 dependent pathways. Mesenteric resistance arteries and aortas from Wistar rats treated with HgCl{sub 2} (first dose 4.6 mg kg{sup −1}, subsequent doses 0.07 mg kg{sup −1} day{sup −1}, 30 days) and cultured aortic VSMC stimulated with HgCl{sub 2} (0.05–5 μg/ml) were used. Treatment of rats with HgCl{sub 2} decreased wall thickness of the resistance and conductance vasculature, increased the number of SMC within the media and decreased SMC nucleus size. In VSMCs, exposure to HgCl{sub 2}: 1) induced a proliferative response and a reduction in cell size; 2) increased superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity, gene and/or protein levels of the NADPH oxidase subunit NOX-1, the EC- and Mn-superoxide dismutases and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2); 3) induced activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Both antioxidants and COX-2 inhibitors normalized the proliferative response and the altered cell size induced by HgCl{sub 2}. Blockade of ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways abolished the HgCl{sub 2}-induced Nox1 and COX-2 expression and normalized the alterations induced by mercury in cell proliferation and size. In conclusion, long exposure of VSMC to low doses of mercury activates MAPK signaling pathways that result in activation of inflammatory proteins such as NADPH oxidase and COX-2 that in turn induce proliferation of VSMC and changes in cell size. These findings offer further evidence that mercury might be considered an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: ► Chronic HgCl{sub 2} exposure induces vascular remodeling. ► HgCl{sub 2} induces proliferation and decreased cell size in vascular smooth muscle cells. ► HgCl{sub 2} induces

  13. Cell size spatial convergence analysis on GOTHIC distributed parameter models for studying hydrogen mixing behaviour in CANDU containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, K.; Wong, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Gas mixing phenomena can be modelled using distributed parameter codes such as GOTHIC, but the selection of the optimum cell size is an important user input. The tradeoff between accuracy and practical computation times affect the choice of cell sizes, where small cells provide better accuracy at the expense of longer computing time. A study on cell size effect on hydrogen distribution is presented for the problem of hydrogen mixing behaviour in a typical CANDU reactor containment following a severe reactor accident. Optimal cell sizes were found for different room volumes, hydrogen release profiles and elevations using spatial convergence criteria. The findings of this study provide the technical basis for the cell size selection in the GOTHIC distributed parameter models used for analysing hydrogen mixing behaviour. (author). 1 ref., 1 tab., 13 figs

  14. Investigation of patterned and non-patterned poly(2,6-dimethyl 1,4-phenylene) oxide based anion exchange membranes for enhanced desalination and power generation in a microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moruno, Francisco Lopez; Rubio, Juan E; Santoro, Carlo; Atanassov, Plamen; Cerrato, José M; Arges, Christopher G

    2018-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium poly(2,6-dimethyl 1,4-phenylene oxide) (QAPPO) anion exchange membranes (AEMs) with topographically patterned surfaces were assessed in a microbial desalination cell (MDC) system. The MDC results with these QAPPO AEMs were benchmarked against a commercially available AEM. The MDC with the non-patterned QAPPO AEM (Q1) displayed the best desalination rate (a reduction of salinity by 53 ± 2.7%) and power generation (189 ± 5 mW m - 2 ) when compared against the commercially available AEM and the patterned AEMs. The enhanced performance with the Q1 AEM was attributed to its higher ionic conductivity and smaller thickness leading to a reduced area specific resistance. It is important to note that Real Pacific Ocean seawater and activated sludge were used into the desalination chamber and anode chamber respectively for the MDC - which mimicked realistic conditions. Although the non-patterned QAPPO AEM displayed better performance over the patterned QAPPO AEMs, it was observed that the anodic overpotential was smaller when the MDCs featured QAPPO AEMs with larger lateral feature sizes. The results from this study have important implications for the continuous improvements necessary for developing cheaper and better performing membranes in order to optimize the MDC.

  15. Control of cell nucleus shapes via micropillar patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhen; Yan, Ce; Peng, Rong; Zhao, Yingchun; He, Yao; Ding, Jiandong

    2012-02-01

    We herein report a material technique to control the shapes of cell nuclei by the design of the microtopography of substrates to which the cells adhere. Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) micropillars or micropits of a series of height or depth were fabricated, and some surprising self deformation of the nuclei of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) was found in the case of micropillars with a sufficient height. Despite severe nucleus deformation, BMSCs kept the ability of proliferation and differentiation. We further demonstrated that the shapes of cell nuclei could be regulated by the appropriate micropillar patterns. Besides circular and elliptoid shapes, some unusual nucleus shapes of BMSCs have been achieved, such as square, cross, dumbbell, and asymmetric sphere-protrusion. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Insulin/IGF-regulated size scaling of neuroendocrine cells expressing the bHLH transcription factor Dimmed in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangnan Luo

    Full Text Available Neurons and other cells display a large variation in size in an organism. Thus, a fundamental question is how growth of individual cells and their organelles is regulated. Is size scaling of individual neurons regulated post-mitotically, independent of growth of the entire CNS? Although the role of insulin/IGF-signaling (IIS in growth of tissues and whole organisms is well established, it is not known whether it regulates the size of individual neurons. We therefore studied the role of IIS in the size scaling of neurons in the Drosophila CNS. By targeted genetic manipulations of insulin receptor (dInR expression in a variety of neuron types we demonstrate that the cell size is affected only in neuroendocrine cells specified by the bHLH transcription factor DIMMED (DIMM. Several populations of DIMM-positive neurons tested displayed enlarged cell bodies after overexpression of the dInR, as well as PI3 kinase and Akt1 (protein kinase B, whereas DIMM-negative neurons did not respond to dInR manipulations. Knockdown of these components produce the opposite phenotype. Increased growth can also be induced by targeted overexpression of nutrient-dependent TOR (target of rapamycin signaling components, such as Rheb (small GTPase, TOR and S6K (S6 kinase. After Dimm-knockdown in neuroendocrine cells manipulations of dInR expression have significantly less effects on cell size. We also show that dInR expression in neuroendocrine cells can be altered by up or down-regulation of Dimm. This novel dInR-regulated size scaling is seen during postembryonic development, continues in the aging adult and is diet dependent. The increase in cell size includes cell body, axon terminations, nucleus and Golgi apparatus. We suggest that the dInR-mediated scaling of neuroendocrine cells is part of a plasticity that adapts the secretory capacity to changing physiological conditions and nutrient-dependent organismal growth.

  17. Fluctuations of the transcription factor ATML1 generate the pattern of giant cells in the Arabidopsis sepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Heather M; Teles, José; Formosa-Jordan, Pau; Refahi, Yassin; San-Bento, Rita; Ingram, Gwyneth; Jönsson, Henrik; Locke, James C W; Roeder, Adrienne H K

    2017-01-01

    Multicellular development produces patterns of specialized cell types. Yet, it is often unclear how individual cells within a field of identical cells initiate the patterning process. Using live imaging, quantitative image analyses and modeling, we show that during Arabidopsis thaliana sepal development, fluctuations in the concentration of the transcription factor ATML1 pattern a field of identical epidermal cells to differentiate into giant cells interspersed between smaller cells. We find that ATML1 is expressed in all epidermal cells. However, its level fluctuates in each of these cells. If ATML1 levels surpass a threshold during the G2 phase of the cell cycle, the cell will likely enter a state of endoreduplication and become giant. Otherwise, the cell divides. Our results demonstrate a fluctuation-driven patterning mechanism for how cell fate decisions can be initiated through a random yet tightly regulated process. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19131.001 PMID:28145865

  18. Perturbation of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport affects size of nucleus and nucleolus in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Abira; Bhattacharjee, Chumki; Bhave, Madhura; Kailaje, Vaishali; Jain, Bhawik K; Sengupta, Isha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu

    2016-03-01

    Size regulation of human cell nucleus and nucleolus are poorly understood subjects. 3D reconstruction of live image shows that the karyoplasmic ratio (KR) increases by 30-80% in transformed cell lines compared to their immortalized counterpart. The attenuation of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport causes the KR value to increase by 30-50% in immortalized cell lines. Nucleolus volumes are significantly increased in transformed cell lines and the attenuation of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport causes a significant increase in the nucleolus volume of immortalized cell lines. A cytosol and nuclear fraction swapping experiment emphasizes the potential role of unknown cytosolic factors in nuclear and nucleolar size regulation. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  19. When larger brains do not have more neurons: Increased numbers of cells are compensated by decreased average cell size across mouse individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana eHerculano-Houzel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong trend toward increased brain size in mammalian evolution, with larger brains composed of more and larger neurons than smaller brains across species within each mammalian order. Does the evolution of increased numbers of brain neurons, and thus larger brain size, occur simply through the selection of individuals with more and larger neurons, and thus larger brains, within a population? That is, do individuals with larger brains also have more, and larger, neurons than individuals with smaller brains, such that allometric relationships across species are simply an extension of intraspecific scaling? Here we show that this is not the case across adult male mice of a similar age. Rather, increased numbers of neurons across individuals are accompanied by increased numbers of other cells and smaller average cell size of both types, in a trade-off that explains how increased brain mass does not necessarily ensue. Fundamental regulatory mechanisms thus must exist that tie numbers of neurons to numbers of other cells and to average cell size within individual brains. Finally, our results indicate that changes in brain size in evolution are not an extension of individual variation in numbers of neurons, but rather occur through step changes that must simultaneously increase numbers of neurons and cause cell size to increase, rather than decrease.

  20. Stomatal cell wall composition: distinctive structural patterns associated with different phylogenetic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Ilana; Shelef, Yaniv; Marom, Ziv; Zelinger, Einat; Schwartz, Amnon; Popper, Zoë A; Bar-On, Benny; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar

    2017-04-01

    Stomatal morphology and function have remained largely conserved throughout ∼400 million years of plant evolution. However, plant cell wall composition has evolved and changed. Here stomatal cell wall composition was investigated in different vascular plant groups in attempt to understand their possible effect on stomatal function. A renewed look at stomatal cell walls was attempted utilizing digitalized polar microscopy, confocal microscopy, histology and a numerical finite-elements simulation. The six species of vascular plants chosen for this study cover a broad structural, ecophysiological and evolutionary spectrum: ferns ( Asplenium nidus and Platycerium bifurcatum ) and angiosperms ( Arabidopsis thaliana and Commelina erecta ) with kidney-shaped stomata, and grasses (angiosperms, family Poaceae) with dumbbell-shaped stomata ( Sorghum bicolor and Triticum aestivum ). Three distinct patterns of cellulose crystallinity in stomatal cell walls were observed: Type I (kidney-shaped stomata, ferns), Type II (kidney-shaped stomata, angiosperms) and Type III (dumbbell-shaped stomata, grasses). The different stomatal cell wall attributes investigated (cellulose crystallinity, pectins, lignin, phenolics) exhibited taxon-specific patterns, with reciprocal substitution of structural elements in the end-walls of kidney-shaped stomata. According to a numerical bio-mechanical model, the end walls of kidney-shaped stomata develop the highest stresses during opening. The data presented demonstrate for the first time the existence of distinct spatial patterns of varying cellulose crystallinity in guard cell walls. It is also highly intriguing that in angiosperms crystalline cellulose appears to have replaced lignin that occurs in the stomatal end-walls of ferns serving a similar wall strengthening function. Such taxon-specific spatial patterns of cell wall components could imply different biomechanical functions, which in turn could be a consequence of differences in

  1. Cell culture arrays using micron-sized ferromagnetic ring-shaped thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Wei, Zung-Hang, E-mail: wei@pme.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu City 300, Taiwan (China); Lai, Mei-Feng; Ger, Tzong-Rong [Institute of NanoEngineering and MicroSystems, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu City 300, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-07

    Cell patterning has become an important technology for tissue engineering. In this research, domain walls are formed at the two ends of a ferromagnetic ring thin film after applying a strong external magnetic field, which can effectively attract magnetically labeled cells and control the position for biological cell. Magnetophoresis experiment was conducted to quantify the magnetic nanoparticle inside the cells. A ring-shaped magnetic thin films array was fabricated through photolithography. It is observed that magnetically labeled cells can be successfully attracted to the two ends of the ring-shaped magnetic thin film structure and more cells were attracted and further attached to the structures. The cells are co-cultured with the structure and kept proliferating; therefore, such ring thin film can be an important candidate for in-vitro biomedical chips or tissue engineering.

  2. Cell culture arrays using micron-sized ferromagnetic ring-shaped thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Wei, Zung-Hang; Lai, Mei-Feng; Ger, Tzong-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Cell patterning has become an important technology for tissue engineering. In this research, domain walls are formed at the two ends of a ferromagnetic ring thin film after applying a strong external magnetic field, which can effectively attract magnetically labeled cells and control the position for biological cell. Magnetophoresis experiment was conducted to quantify the magnetic nanoparticle inside the cells. A ring-shaped magnetic thin films array was fabricated through photolithography. It is observed that magnetically labeled cells can be successfully attracted to the two ends of the ring-shaped magnetic thin film structure and more cells were attracted and further attached to the structures. The cells are co-cultured with the structure and kept proliferating; therefore, such ring thin film can be an important candidate for in-vitro biomedical chips or tissue engineering

  3. Microfluidic size separation of cells and particles using a swinging bucket centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Joo Chuan; Wang, Zhiping; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2015-09-01

    Biomolecular separation is crucial for downstream analysis. Separation technique mainly relies on centrifugal sedimentation. However, minuscule sample volume separation and extraction is difficult with conventional centrifuge. Furthermore, conventional centrifuge requires density gradient centrifugation which is laborious and time-consuming. To overcome this challenge, we present a novel size-selective bioparticles separation microfluidic chip on a swinging bucket minifuge. Size separation is achieved using passive pressure driven centrifugal fluid flows coupled with centrifugal force acting on the particles within the microfluidic chip. By adopting centrifugal microfluidics on a swinging bucket rotor, we achieved over 95% efficiency in separating mixed 20 μm and 2 μm colloidal dispersions from its liquid medium. Furthermore, by manipulating the hydrodynamic resistance, we performed size separation of mixed microbeads, achieving size efficiency of up to 90%. To further validate our device utility, we loaded spiked whole blood with MCF-7 cells into our microfluidic device and subjected it to centrifugal force for a mere duration of 10 s, thereby achieving a separation efficiency of over 75%. Overall, our centrifugal microfluidic device enables extremely rapid and label-free enrichment of different sized cells and particles with high efficiency.

  4. Infiltration patterns in monoclonal plasma cell disorders: correlation of magnetic resonance imaging with matched bone marrow histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrulis, Mindaugas [Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Bäuerle, Tobias [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Goldschmidt, Hartmut [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, Stefan [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Landgren, Ola [Multiple Myeloma Section, Metabolism Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda (United States); Schirmacher, Peter [Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Hillengass, Jens, E-mail: jens.hillengass@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Objectives: To investigate how plasma cell infiltration patterns detected by MRI match the plasma cell distribution in bone marrow biopsy. Methods: We assessed 50 patients with monoclonal plasma cell disorders of all clinical stages. MRI infiltration pattern was compared with matched BM histology from the same anatomic region. Results: MRI revealed a minimal (n = 11, 22%), focal (n = 5, 10%), diffuse (n = 14, 28%) and mixed (n = 20, 40%) infiltration pattern. Diffuse MRI pattern was predominant in smoldering myeloma patients whereas the MRI patterns with “focal component” (i.e. focal and mixed) were most common in symptomatic myeloma (p < 0.01). In histology an interstitial (n = 13, 26%), nodular (n = 23, 46%) and packed marrow (n = 14, 28%) was found respectively. All three histological types of infiltration were observed in patients with diffuse and mixed MRI patterns. Minimal MRI pattern was found in all MGUS patients and was associated with an interstitial BM infiltration. In two patients with minimal MRI pattern an extensive micro-nodular BM infiltration was found in histology. Conclusions: Infiltration patterns in MRI represent different histological growth patterns of plasma cells, but the MRI resolution is not sufficient to visualize micro-nodular aggregates of plasma cells.

  5. Infiltration patterns in monoclonal plasma cell disorders: correlation of magnetic resonance imaging with matched bone marrow histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrulis, Mindaugas; Bäuerle, Tobias; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Delorme, Stefan; Landgren, Ola; Schirmacher, Peter; Hillengass, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate how plasma cell infiltration patterns detected by MRI match the plasma cell distribution in bone marrow biopsy. Methods: We assessed 50 patients with monoclonal plasma cell disorders of all clinical stages. MRI infiltration pattern was compared with matched BM histology from the same anatomic region. Results: MRI revealed a minimal (n = 11, 22%), focal (n = 5, 10%), diffuse (n = 14, 28%) and mixed (n = 20, 40%) infiltration pattern. Diffuse MRI pattern was predominant in smoldering myeloma patients whereas the MRI patterns with “focal component” (i.e. focal and mixed) were most common in symptomatic myeloma (p < 0.01). In histology an interstitial (n = 13, 26%), nodular (n = 23, 46%) and packed marrow (n = 14, 28%) was found respectively. All three histological types of infiltration were observed in patients with diffuse and mixed MRI patterns. Minimal MRI pattern was found in all MGUS patients and was associated with an interstitial BM infiltration. In two patients with minimal MRI pattern an extensive micro-nodular BM infiltration was found in histology. Conclusions: Infiltration patterns in MRI represent different histological growth patterns of plasma cells, but the MRI resolution is not sufficient to visualize micro-nodular aggregates of plasma cells

  6. Position-dependent patterning of spontaneous action potentials in immature cochlear inner hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stuart L; Eckrich, Tobias; Kuhn, Stephanie; Zampini, Valeria; Franz, Christoph; Ranatunga, Kishani M; Roberts, Terri P; Masetto, Sergio; Knipper, Marlies; Kros, Corné J; Marcotti, Walter

    2011-06-01

    Spontaneous action potential activity is crucial for mammalian sensory system development. In the auditory system, patterned firing activity has been observed in immature spiral ganglion and brain-stem neurons and is likely to depend on cochlear inner hair cell (IHC) action potentials. It remains uncertain whether spiking activity is intrinsic to developing IHCs and whether it shows patterning. We found that action potentials were intrinsically generated by immature IHCs of altricial rodents and that apical IHCs showed bursting activity as opposed to more sustained firing in basal cells. We show that the efferent neurotransmitter acetylcholine fine-tunes the IHC's resting membrane potential (V(m)), and as such is crucial for the bursting pattern in apical cells. Endogenous extracellular ATP also contributes to the V(m) of apical and basal IHCs by triggering small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK2) channels. We propose that the difference in firing pattern along the cochlea instructs the tonotopic differentiation of IHCs and auditory pathway.

  7. Variations in otolith patterns, sizes and body morphometrics of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaji, Y; Kishida, M; Watanabe, Y; Kawamura, T; Xie, S; Yamashita, Y; Sassa, C; Tsukamoto, Y

    2010-10-01

    Variations in otolith patterns, sizes and body morphometrics of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles were investigated. Under transmitted light, translucent (W(t)) and opaque otoliths (W(o)) were detected in juveniles collected from Wakasa Bay between July 2005 and April 2006, whereas only opaque otoliths (G(o)) were detected in Goto-nada Sea individuals between May and June 2006. Three groups of juveniles were distinguished based on differences in hatch season, otolith size and growth history, and body morphometrics. As T. japonicus has different spawning seasons according to spawning grounds, each group was estimated to hatch in different waters. Juveniles with W(t) otoliths were considered to have stayed in coastal habitat longer, as the hatch area was estimated to be near Wakasa Bay. Juveniles with W(o) and G(o) otoliths appear to recruit to coastal waters at larger size, since their hatch areas were estimated to be far from each collection area. Larger otoliths of W(t) were attributed to otolith accretion after the second growth flexion, which was observed only for W(t) . Standard length of W(t) fish at the second otolith growth flexion was estimated to correspond to recruitment size to coastal rocky reefs in Wakasa Bay. Body morphometrics were correlated with otolith size after removing body size effect, suggesting that morphological variations of T. japonicus juveniles were also associated with the timing of recruitment to coastal habitat. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Evidence for the Higher Importance of Signal Size Over Body Size in Aposematic Signaling in Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Remmel, Triinu; Tammarub, Toomas

    2011-01-01

    To understand the evolution of warning coloration, it is important to distinguish between different aspects of conspicuous color patterns. As an example, both pattern element size and body size of prey have been shown to enhance the effectiveness of warning signals. However, it is unclear whether the effect of body size is merely a side effect of proportionally increasing pattern elements, or if there is an effect of body size per se. These possibilities were evaluated by offering different s...

  9. Patterned structures of in situ size controlled CdS nanocrystals in a polymer matrix under UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragouli, D; Pompa, P P; Caputo, G; Cingolani, R; Athanassiou, A; Resta, V; Laera, A M; Tapfer, L

    2009-01-01

    A method of in situ formation of patterns of size controlled CdS nanocrystals in a polymer matrix by pulsed UV irradiation is presented. The films consist of Cd thiolate precursors with different carbon chain lengths embedded in TOPAS polymer matrices. Under UV irradiation the precursors are photolyzed, driving to the formation of CdS nanocrystals in the quantum size regime, with size and concentration defined by the number of incident UV pulses, while the host polymer remains macroscopically/microscopically unaffected. The emission of the formed nanocomposite materials strongly depends on the dimensions of the CdS nanocrystals, thus, their growth at the different phases of the irradiation is monitored using spatially resolved photoluminescence by means of a confocal microscope. X-ray diffraction measurements verified the existence of the CdS nanocrystals, and defined their crystal structure for all the studied cases. The results are reinforced by transmission electron microscopy. It is proved that the selection of the precursor determines the efficiency of the procedure, and the quality of the formed nanocrystals. Moreover it is demonstrated that there is the possibility of laser induced formation of well-defined patterns of CdS nanocrystals, opening up new perspectives in the development of nanodevices.

  10. Patterned structures of in situ size controlled CdS nanocrystals in a polymer matrix under UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragouli, D; Pompa, P P; Caputo, G; Cingolani, R; Athanassiou, A [NNL-National Nanotechnology Laboratory, INFM, CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Resta, V; Laera, A M; Tapfer, L [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brindisi, SS7 Appia Km 706, I-72100 Brindisi (Italy)], E-mail: despina.fragouli@unile.it

    2009-04-15

    A method of in situ formation of patterns of size controlled CdS nanocrystals in a polymer matrix by pulsed UV irradiation is presented. The films consist of Cd thiolate precursors with different carbon chain lengths embedded in TOPAS polymer matrices. Under UV irradiation the precursors are photolyzed, driving to the formation of CdS nanocrystals in the quantum size regime, with size and concentration defined by the number of incident UV pulses, while the host polymer remains macroscopically/microscopically unaffected. The emission of the formed nanocomposite materials strongly depends on the dimensions of the CdS nanocrystals, thus, their growth at the different phases of the irradiation is monitored using spatially resolved photoluminescence by means of a confocal microscope. X-ray diffraction measurements verified the existence of the CdS nanocrystals, and defined their crystal structure for all the studied cases. The results are reinforced by transmission electron microscopy. It is proved that the selection of the precursor determines the efficiency of the procedure, and the quality of the formed nanocrystals. Moreover it is demonstrated that there is the possibility of laser induced formation of well-defined patterns of CdS nanocrystals, opening up new perspectives in the development of nanodevices.

  11. Effects of Microbubble Size on Ultrasound-Mediated Gene Transfection in Auditory Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Ho Liao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy for sensorineural hearing loss has recently been used to insert genes encoding functional proteins to preserve, protect, or even regenerate hair cells in the inner ear. Our previous study demonstrated a microbubble- (MB-facilitated ultrasound (US technique for delivering therapeutic medication to the inner ear. The present study investigated whether MB-US techniques help to enhance the efficiency of gene transfection by means of cationic liposomes on HEI-OC1 auditory cells and whether MBs of different sizes affect such efficiency. Our results demonstrated that the size of MBs was proportional to the concentration of albumin or dextrose. At a constant US power density, using 0.66, 1.32, and 2.83 μm albumin-shelled MBs increased the transfection rate as compared to the control by 30.6%, 54.1%, and 84.7%, respectively; likewise, using 1.39, 2.12, and 3.47 μm albumin-dextrose-shelled MBs increased the transfection rates by 15.9%, 34.3%, and 82.7%, respectively. The results indicate that MB-US is an effective technique to facilitate gene transfer on auditory cells in vitro. Such size-dependent MB oscillation behavior in the presence of US plays a role in enhancing gene transfer, and by manipulating the concentration of albumin or dextrose, MBs of different sizes can be produced.

  12. Cellulose synthesis inhibition, cell expansion, and patterns of cell wall deposition in Nitella internodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, P.A.; Metraux, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have investigated the pattern of wall deposition and maturation and correlated it with cell expansion and cellulose biosynthesis. The herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB) was found to be a potent inhibitor of cellulose synthesis, but not of cell expansion in Nitella internodal cells. Although cellulose synthesis is inhibited during DCB treatment, matrix substances continue to be synthesized and deposited. The inhibition of cellulose microfibril deposition can be demonstrated by various techniques. These results demonstrate that matrix deposition is by apposition, not by intussusception, and that the previously deposited wall moves progressively outward while stretching and thinning as a result of cell expansion

  13. Replicon sizes in mammalian cells as estimated by an x-ray plus bromodeoxyuridine photolysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, L.N.; Painter, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    A new method is described for estimating replicon sizes in mammalian cells. Cultures were pulse labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine ([ 3 H]TdR) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrDUrd) for up to 1 h. The lengths of the resulting labeled regions of DNA, L/sub obs/, were estimated by a technique wherein the change in molecular weight of nascent DNA strands, induced by 313 nm light, is measured by velocity sedimentation in alkaline sucrose gradients. If cells are exposed to 1,000 rads of x rays immediately before pulse labeling, initiation of replicon operation is blocked, although chain elongation proceeds almost normally. Under these conditions L/sub obs/ continues to increase only until operating replicons have completed their replication. This value for L/sub obs/ then remains constant as long as the block to initiation remains and represents an estimate for the average size of replicons operating in the cells before x irradiation. For human diploid fibroblasts and human HeLa cells this estimated average size is approximately 17 μM, whereas for Chinese hamster ovary cells, the average replicon size is about 42 μM

  14. Internet and cell phone usage patterns among young adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenaro, Cristina; Flores, Noelia; Cruz, Maribel; Pérez, Ma Carmen; Vega, Vanessa; Torres, Víctor A

    2018-03-01

    The risks and opportunities associated with the use of technologies are of growing research interest. Patterns of technology usage illuminate these opportunities and risks. However, no studies have assessed the usage patterns (frequency, duration, and intensity) and related factors in young people with intellectual disabilities. Questionnaires on Internet and cell phone usage patterns, the Internet Over-Use Scale and the Cell-Phone Over-Use Scale, as well as the Beck Depression Inventory were filled out in one-on-one interviews of 216 youth with intellectual disabilities. Young people with disabilities make more social and recreational rather than educational use of these tools, and show higher rates of excessive use of both technologies than a comparison group of 410 young people without disabilities. Also, their overuse is associated with other unhealthy behaviors. The framework of support needs of people with disabilities should be considered to promote healthy Internet and cell phone use. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Size and dielectric properties of skeletal stem cells change critically after enrichment and expansion from human bone marrow: consequences for microfluidic cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Miguel; de Andrés, María C; Spencer, Daniel; Oreffo, Richard O C; Morgan, Hywel

    2017-08-01

    The capacity of bone and cartilage to regenerate can be attributed to skeletal stem cells (SSCs) that reside within the bone marrow (BM). Given SSCs are rare and lack specific surface markers, antibody-based sorting has failed to deliver the cell purity required for clinical translation. Microfluidics offers new methods of isolating cells based on biophysical features including, but not limited to, size, electrical properties and stiffness. Here we report the characterization of the dielectric properties of unexpanded SSCs using single-cell microfluidic impedance cytometry (MIC). Unexpanded SSCs had a mean size of 9.0 µm; larger than the majority of BM cells. During expansion, often used to purify and increase the number of SSCs, cell size and membrane capacitance increased significantly, highlighting the importance of characterizing unaltered SSCs. In addition, MIC was used to track the osteogenic differentiation of SSCs and showed an increased membrane capacitance with differentiation. The electrical properties of primary SSCs were indistinct from other BM cells precluding its use as an isolation method. However, the current studies indicate that cell size in combination with another biophysical parameter, such as stiffness, could be used to design label-free devices for sorting SSCs with significant clinical impact. © 2017 The Authors.

  16. Large-scale double-patterning compliant layouts for DP engine and design rule development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cork, Christopher; Lucas, Kevin; Hapli, John; Raffard, Herve; Barnes, Levi

    2009-03-01

    Double Patterning is seen as the prime technology to keep Moore's law on path while EUV technology is still maturing into production worthiness. As previously seen for alternating-Phase Shift Mask technology[1], layout compliance of double patterning is not trivial [2,3] and blind shrinks of anything but the most simplistic existing layouts, will not be directly suitable for double patterning. Evaluating a production worthy double patterning engine with highly non-compliant layouts would put unrealistic expectations on that engine and provide metrics with poor applicability for eventual large designs. The true production use-case would be for designs that have at least some significant double patterning compliance already enforced at the design stage. With this in mind a set of ASIC design blocks of different sizes and complexities were created that were double patterning compliant. To achieve this, a set of standard cells were generated, which individually and in isolation were double patterning compliant, for multiple layers simultaneously. This was done using the automated Standard Cell creation tool CadabraTM [4]. To create a full ASIC, however, additional constraints were added to make sure compliance would not be broken across the boundaries between standard cells when placed next to each other [5]. These standard cells were then used to create a variety of double patterning compliant ASICs using iCCompilerTM to place the cells correctly. Now with a compliant layout, checks were made to see if the constraints made at the micro level really do ensure a fully compliant layout on the whole chip and if the coloring engine could cope with such large datasets. A production worthy double patterning engine is ideally distributable over multiple processors [6,7] so that fast turn-around time can be achievable on even the largest designs. We demonstrate the degree of linearity of scaling achievable with our double patterning engine. These results can be understood

  17. Spatial pattern of cell geometry and cell-division orientation in zebrafish lens epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Mochizuki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell proliferation is a key regulator of tissue morphogenesis. We examined cell proliferation and cell division in zebrafish lens epithelium by visualizing cell-cycle phases and nuclear positions, using fluorescent-labeled geminin and histone proteins. Proliferation was low in the anterior region of lens epithelium and higher in the marginal zone anterior to the equator, suggesting that the proliferation zone, called the germinative zone, is formed in zebrafish lens. Interestingly, cell-division orientation was biased longitudinally in the anterior region, shifted from longitudinal to circumferential along the anterior–posterior axis of lens sphere, and was biased circumferentially in the peripheral region. These data suggest that cell-division orientation is spatially regulated in zebrafish lens epithelium. The Hertwig rule indicates that cells tend to divide along their long axes. Orientation of long axes and cell division were biased similarly in zebrafish lens epithelium, suggesting that cell geometry correlates with cell-division orientation. A cell adhesion molecule, E-cadherin, is expressed in lens epithelium. In a zebrafish e-cadherin mutant, the long axes and cell-division orientation were shifted more longitudinally. These data suggest that E-cadherin is required for the spatial pattern of cell geometry and cell-division orientation in zebrafish lens epithelium.

  18. Diatom feeding across trophic guilds in tidal flat nematodes, and the importance of diatom cell size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Tom; Vafeiadou, Anna-Maria; De Geyter, Ellen; Vanormelingen, Pieter; Sabbe, Koen; De Troch, Marleen

    2014-09-01

    We examine the capacity of nematodes from three feeding types (deposit feeder, epistrate feeder, predator) to utilize microphytobenthos (MPB), and assess whether diatom cell size and consumer body size are important drivers of their feeding. We analyzed natural stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen in abundant nematode genera and a variety of carbon sources at an estuarine intertidal flat. All nematodes had δ13C indicating that MPB is their major carbon source. δ15N, however, demonstrated that only one deposit and one epistrate feeder genus obtained most of their carbon from direct grazing on MPB, whereas other deposit feeders and predators obtained at least part of their carbon by predation on MPB grazers. We then performed a microcosm experiment in which equal cell numbers of each of three differently sized strains of the pennate diatom Seminavis were offered as food to four, one and one genera of deposit feeders, epistrate feeders and predators, respectively. Previous studies have shown that all but the epistrate feeder ingest whole diatoms, whereas the epistrate feeder pierces cells and sucks out their contents. Most genera showed markedly higher carbon absorption from medium and large cells than from small ones. When considering the number of cells consumed, however, none of the nematodes which ingest whole cells exhibited a clear preference for any specific diatom size. The epistrate feeder was the smallest nematode taxon considered here, yet it showed a marked preference for large cells. These results highlight that the feeding mechanism is much more important than consumer size as a driver of particle size selection in nematodes grazing MPB.

  19. Dynamics of cell wall elasticity pattern shapes the cell during yeast mating morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenbogen, Björn; Giese, Wolfgang; Hemmen, Marie; Uhlendorf, Jannis; Herrmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The cell wall defines cell shape and maintains integrity of fungi and plants. When exposed to mating pheromone, Saccharomyces cerevisiae grows a mating projection and alters in morphology from spherical to shmoo form. Although structural and compositional alterations of the cell wall accompany shape transitions, their impact on cell wall elasticity is unknown. In a combined theoretical and experimental approach using finite-element modelling and atomic force microscopy (AFM), we investigated the influence of spatially and temporally varying material properties on mating morphogenesis. Time-resolved elasticity maps of shmooing yeast acquired with AFM in vivo revealed distinct patterns, with soft material at the emerging mating projection and stiff material at the tip. The observed cell wall softening in the protrusion region is necessary for the formation of the characteristic shmoo shape, and results in wider and longer mating projections. The approach is generally applicable to tip-growing fungi and plants cells. PMID:27605377

  20. Hilar Mossy Cell Degeneration Causes Transient Dentate Granule Cell Hyperexcitability and Impaired Pattern Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinde, Seiichiro; Zsiros, Veronika; Jiang, Zhihong; Nakao, Kazuhito; Pickel, James; Kohno, Kenji; Belforte, Juan E.; Nakazawa, Kazu

    2012-01-01

    Summary Although excitatory mossy cells of the hippocampal hilar region are known to project both to dentate granule cells and to interneurons, it is as yet unclear whether mossy cell activity’s net effect on granule cells is excitatory or inhibitory. To explore their influence on dentate excitability and hippocampal function, we generated a conditional transgenic mouse line, using the Cre/loxP system, in which diphtheria toxin receptor was selectively expressed in mossy cells. One week after injecting toxin into this line, mossy cells throughout the longitudinal axis were degenerated extensively, theta wave power of dentate local field potentials increased during exploration, and deficits occurred in contextual discrimination. By contrast, we detected no epileptiform activity, spontaneous behavioral seizures, or mossy-fiber sprouting 5–6 weeks after mossy cell degeneration. These results indicate that the net effect of mossy cell excitation is to inhibit granule cell activity and enable dentate pattern separation. PMID:23259953

  1. Detection of viability of micro-algae cells by optofluidic hologram pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; Yu, Xiaomei; Wang, Yanjuan; Pan, Xinxiang; Li, Dongqing

    2018-03-01

    A rapid detection of micro-algae activity is critical for analysis of ship ballast water. A new method for detecting micro-algae activity based on lens-free optofluidic holographic imaging is presented in this paper. A compact lens-free optofluidic holographic imaging device was developed. This device is mainly composed of a light source, a small through-hole, a light propagation module, a microfluidic chip, and an image acquisition and processing module. The excited light from the light source passes through a small hole to reach the surface of the micro-algae cells in the microfluidic chip, and a holographic image is formed by the diffraction light of surface of micro-algae cells. The relation between the characteristics in the hologram pattern and the activity of micro-algae cells was investigated by using this device. The characteristics of the hologram pattern were extracted to represent the activity of micro-algae cells. To demonstrate the accuracy of the presented method and device, four species of micro-algae cells were employed as the test samples and the comparison experiments between the alive and dead cells of four species of micro-algae were conducted. The results show that the developed method and device can determine live/dead microalgae cells accurately.

  2. A prognostic model for soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities and trunk wall based on size, vascular invasion, necrosis, and growth pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Ana; Bendahl, Par-Ola; Engellau, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    type, necrosis, and grade. METHODS:: Whole-tumor sections from 239 soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities were reviewed for the following prognostic factors: size, vascular invasion, necrosis, and growth pattern. A new prognostic model, referred to as SING (Size, Invasion, Necrosis, Growth...

  3. Improved Light Conversion Efficiency Of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell By Dispersing Submicron-Sized Granules Into The Nano-Sized TiO2 Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song S.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, TiO2 nanoparticles and submicron-sized granules were synthesized by a hydrothermal method and spray pyrolysis, respectively. Submicron-sized granules were dispersed into the nano-sized TiO2 layer to improve the light conversion efficiency. Granules showed better light scattering, but lower in terms of the dye-loading quantity and recombination resistance compared with nanoparticles. Consequently, the nano-sized TiO2 layer had higher cell efficiency than the granulized TiO2 layer. When dispersed granules into the nanoparticle layer, the light scattering was enhanced without the loss of dye-loading quantities. The dispersion of granulized TiO2 led to increase the cell efficiency up to 6.51%, which was about 5.2 % higher than that of the electrode consisting of only TiO2 nanoparticles. Finally, the optimal hydrothermal temperature and dispersing quantity of granules were found to be 200°C and 20 wt%, respectively.

  4. Development of Dietary Patterns Spanning Infancy and Toddlerhood: Relation to Body Size, Composition and Metabolic Risk Markers at Three Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B. B.; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the development of dietary patterns during toddlerhood and the relation to growth and health. The study objective was to characterise the development of dietary patterns from 9-36 mo of age and investigate the association to body size, body composition and metabolic risk...... total cholesterol and LDL. Hence, this could represent undesirable development of dietary patterns in toddlers. In conclusion, development of dietary patterns can be exploratory characterised by PCA and related to potential cardiovascular risk markers in toddlers even within a relatively homogeneous...... markers at 36 mo. Food records were filled out at 9, 18 and 36 mo of age (n = 229). Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis (PCA). Three dietary patterns were identified: Transition Food, Healthy Food and Traditional Food. The course of development in dietary patterns from 9-36 mo...

  5. Movement Patterns, Home Range Size and Habitat Selection of an Endangered Resource Tracking Species, the Black-Throated Finch (Poephila cincta cincta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechetelo, Juliana; Grice, Anthony; Reside, April Elizabeth; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Moloney, James

    2016-01-01

    Understanding movement patterns and home range of species is paramount in ecology; it is particularly important for threatened taxa as it can provide valuable information for conservation management. To address this knowledge gap for a range-restricted endangered bird, we estimated home range size, daily movement patterns and habitat use of a granivorous subspecies in northeast Australia, the black-throated finch (Poephila cincta cincta; BTF) using radio-tracking and re-sighting of colour banded birds. Little is known about basic aspects of its ecology including movement patterns and home range sizes. From 2011-2014 we colour-banded 102 BTF and radio-tracked 15 birds. We generated home ranges (calculated using kernel and Minimum Convex Polygons techniques of the 15 tracked BTF). More than 50% of the re-sightings occurred within 200 m of the banding site (n = 51 out of 93 events) and within 100 days of capture. Mean home-range estimates with kernel (50%, 95% probability) and Minimum Convex Polygons were 10.59 ha, 50.79 ha and 46.27 ha, respectively. Home range size differed between two capture sites but no seasonal differences were observed. BTF home ranges overlapped four habitat types among eight available. Habitat selection was different from random at Site 1 (χ2 = 373.41, df = 42, pmovements may be related to resource bottleneck periods. Daily movement patterns differed between sites, which is likely linked to the fact that the sites differ in the spatial distribution of resources. The work provides information about home range sizes and local movement of BTF that will be valuable for targeting effective management and conservation strategies for this endangered granivore.

  6. Leukemia in AKR mice. III. Size distribution of suppressor T-cells in AKR leukemia and neonatal mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, A.M.; Durdik, J.M.; Toth, P.; Golub, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    Suppression of in vitro antibody forming potential of normal cells by leukemic cells of AKR and normal neonatal mice have many similarities. In both cases the suppression is by cell contact rather than by the elaboration of soluble suppressive factors and the suppression is sensitive to both x-irradiation and mitomycin C treatment. When the size distribution of suppressing cells in thymus and spleen were compared by velocity sedimentation, both leukemic and neonatal suppressing cells had similar size distribution in each organ. Both large and small cells in the thymus suppress but only large cells (sedimentation velocity > 3.5 mm/hr) in the spleen are able to suppress. Leukemic cells in lymph node have a splenic size distribution, viz., only large cells suppress. Both large and small cells of a subcutaneously growing long passage AKR lymphoma are able to suppress. While large cells contain the bulk of cells actively incorporating tritiated thymidine and thus probably in cycle, small but significant amounts of incorporation in small suppressing cells is also seen

  7. Endocytic pathways involved in PLGA nanoparticle uptake by grapevine cells and role of cell wall and membrane in size selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palocci, Cleofe; Valletta, Alessio; Chronopoulou, Laura; Donati, Livia; Bramosanti, Marco; Brasili, Elisa; Baldan, Barbara; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2017-12-01

    PLGA NPs' cell uptake involves different endocytic pathways. Clathrin-independent endocytosis is the main internalization route. The cell wall plays a more prominent role than the plasma membrane in NPs' size selection. In the last years, many studies on absorption and cell uptake of nanoparticles by plants have been conducted, but the understanding of the internalization mechanisms is still largely unknown. In this study, polydispersed and monodispersed poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) were synthesized, and a strategy combining the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), confocal analysis, fluorescently labeled PLGA NPs, a probe for endocytic vesicles (FM4-64), and endocytosis inhibitors (i.e., wortmannin, ikarugamycin, and salicylic acid) was employed to shed light on PLGA NP cell uptake in grapevine cultured cells and to assess the role of the cell wall and plasma membrane in size selection of PLGA NPs. The ability of PLGA NPs to cross the cell wall and membrane was confirmed by TEM and fluorescence microscopy. A strong adhesion of PLGA NPs to the outer side of the cell wall was observed, presumably due to electrostatic interactions. Confocal microscopy and treatment with endocytosis inhibitors suggested the involvement of both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytosis in cell uptake of PLGA NPs and the latter appeared to be the main internalization pathway. Experiments on grapevine protoplasts revealed that the cell wall plays a more prominent role than the plasma membrane in size selection of PLGA NPs. While the cell wall prevents the uptake of PLGA NPs with diameters over 50 nm, the plasma membrane can be crossed by PLGA NPs with a diameter of 500-600 nm.

  8. Hydrogel microfluidics for the patterning of pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosson, S.; Lutolf, M. P.

    2014-03-01

    Biomolecular signaling is of utmost importance in governing many biological processes such as the patterning of the developing embryo where biomolecules regulate key cell-fate decisions. In vivo, these factors are presented in a spatiotemporally tightly controlled fashion. Although state-of-the-art microfluidic technologies allow precise biomolecule delivery in time and space, long-term (stem) cell culture at the micro-scale is often far from ideal due to medium evaporation, limited space for cell growth or shear stress. To overcome these challenges, we here introduce a concept based on hydrogel microfluidics for decoupling conventional, macro-scale cell culture from precise biomolecule delivery through a gel layer. We demonstrate the spatiotemporally controlled neuronal commitment of mouse embryonic stem cells via delivery of retinoic acid gradients. This technique should be useful for testing the effect of dose and timing of biomolecules, singly or in combination, on stem cell fate.

  9. Lin28a regulates germ cell pool size and fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Gen; de Soysa, T. Yvanka; Seligson, Marc T.; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Fujiwara, Yuko; Huang, Pei Yi; Hagan, John P.; Gregory, Richard I.; Moss, Eric G.; Daley, George Q.

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of LIN28A is associated with human germ cell tumors and promotes primordial germ cell (PGC) development from embryonic stem cells in vitro and in chimeric mice. Knockdown of Lin28a inhibits PGC development in vitro, but how constitutional Lin28a deficiency affects the mammalian reproductive system in vivo remains unknown. Here, we generated Lin28a knockout (KO) mice and found that Lin28a deficiency compromises the size of the germ cell pool in both males and females by affecting PGC proliferation during embryogenesis. Interestingly however, in Lin28a KO males the germ cell pool partially recovers during postnatal expansion, while fertility remains impaired in both males and females mated to wild type mice. Embryonic overexpression of let-7, a microRNA negatively regulated by Lin28a, reduces the germ cell pool, corroborating the role of the Lin28a/let-7 axis in regulating the germ lineage. PMID:23378032

  10. Time-sequential observation of spindle and phragmoplast orientation in BY-2 cells with altered cortical actin microfilament patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojo, Kei H; Yasuhara, Hiroki; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2014-01-01

    Precise division plane determination is essential for plant development. At metaphase, a dense actin microfilament meshwork appears on both sides of the cell center, forming a characteristic cortical actin microfilament twin peak pattern in BY-2 cells. We previously reported a strong correlation between altered cortical actin microfilament patterning and an oblique mitotic spindle orientation, implying that these actin microfilament twin peaks play a role in the regulation of mitotic spindle orientation. In the present study, time-sequential observation was used to reveal the progression from oblique phragmoplast to oblique cell plate orientation in cells with altered cortical actin microfilament patterning. In contrast to cells with normal actin microfilament twin peaks, oblique phragmoplast reorientation was rarely observed in cells with altered cortical actin microfilament patterning. These results support the important roles of cortical actin microfilament patterning in division plane orientation.

  11. Patterns of change in the size spectra of numbers and diversity of the North Sea fish assemblage, as reflected in surveys and models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rice, J.; Gislason, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    data. The shape showed no overall trend, but diversity of smaller size classes showed a different temporal pattern from the diversity of intermediate and large size classes. The patterns in modelled output are consistent with, but do not prove, the hypothesis that trophic interactions are an important...... were very similar. Annual abundance spectra were linear and slopes increased significantly and fairly smoothly over the 20 years? indicating significant effects of fishing on the size composition of the exploited fish assemblage. The annual diversity spectra were more dome-shaped than in the survey...... factor in the fish community structure in the North Sea. (C) 1996 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea....

  12. Changes in Parthenogenetic Imprinting Patterns during Reprogramming by Cell Fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Sik Jang

    Full Text Available Differentiated somatic cells can be reprogrammed into the pluripotent state by cell-cell fusion. In the pluripotent state, reprogrammed cells may then self-renew and differentiate into all three germ layers. Fusion-induced reprogramming also epigenetically modifies the somatic cell genome through DNA demethylation, X chromosome reactivation, and histone modification. In this study, we investigated whether fusion with embryonic stem cells (ESCs also reprograms genomic imprinting patterns in somatic cells. In particular, we examined imprinting changes in parthenogenetic neural stem cells fused with biparental ESCs, as well as in biparental neural stem cells fused with parthenogenetic ESCs. The resulting hybrid cells expressed the pluripotency markers Oct4 and Nanog. In addition, methylation of several imprinted genes except Peg3 was comparable between hybrid cells and ESCs. This finding indicates that reprogramming by cell fusion does not necessarily reverse the status of all imprinted genes to the state of pluripotent fusion partner.

  13. Iso-acoustic focusing of cells for size-insensitive acousto-mechanical phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, Per; Karlsen, Jonas T; Su, Hao-Wei; Bruus, Henrik; Voldman, Joel

    2016-05-16

    Mechanical phenotyping of single cells is an emerging tool for cell classification, enabling assessment of effective parameters relating to cells' interior molecular content and structure. Here, we present iso-acoustic focusing, an equilibrium method to analyze the effective acoustic impedance of single cells in continuous flow. While flowing through a microchannel, cells migrate sideways, influenced by an acoustic field, into streams of increasing acoustic impedance, until reaching their cell-type specific point of zero acoustic contrast. We establish an experimental procedure and provide theoretical justifications and models for iso-acoustic focusing. We describe a method for providing a suitable acoustic contrast gradient in a cell-friendly medium, and use acoustic forces to maintain that gradient in the presence of destabilizing forces. Applying this method we demonstrate iso-acoustic focusing of cell lines and leukocytes, showing that acoustic properties provide phenotypic information independent of size.

  14. Architectural patterns of p16 immunohistochemical expression associated with cancer immunity and prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hyang Joo; Kim, Eun Kyung; Heo, Su Jin; Cho, Byoung Chul; Kim, Hye Ryun; Yoon, Sun Och

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the expression patterns of p16, which is used as a surrogate marker of HPV infection in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), in regard to their biological and prognostic implications. p16 expression patterns and infiltrated immune cells were analyzed through immunohistochemistry of p16, CD3, CD8, PD-1, FOXP3, and CD163 on surgically resected HNSCCs (n = 393). Patterns of p16 immunoexpression were defined as STRONG (strong, diffuse expression in cytoplasm, and nucleus in >70% of tumor cells), MARGINAL (expression restricted to tumor margins), MOSAIC (ragged, discontinued expression), NUCLEAR (expression in nuclei only), and ABSENT (no expression). The STRONG pattern was more frequent in the oropharynx, and the MARGINAL pattern was noted only in the oral cavity. MOSAIC and NUCLEAR patterns were noted at variable sites. No two patterns of p16 expression showed the same immune cell composition of CD3+ T cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, PD-1+ T cells, FOXP3+ regulatory T cells, and CD163+ macrophages. In overall and disease-free survival analyses, the STRONG pattern showed the most favorable prognosis, while the NUCLEAR pattern had the worst prognosis. HNSCC anatomical sites, tumor-related immune cell components, and patient outcomes were associated with p16 expression patterns. Each architectural pattern of p16 expression may be related to different biological and prognostic phenotypes. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Energy harvesting from organic liquids in micro-sized microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, J.E.; Qaisi, R.M.; Logan, B.E.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Micro-sized microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are miniature energy harvesters that use bacteria to convert biomass from liquids into usable power. The key challenge is transitioning laboratory test beds into devices capable of producing high power using

  16. A prognostic model for soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities and trunk wall based on size, vascular invasion, necrosis, and growth pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Ana; Bendahl, Par-Ola; Engellau, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    type, necrosis, and grade. METHODS:: Whole-tumor sections from 239 soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities were reviewed for the following prognostic factors: size, vascular invasion, necrosis, and growth pattern. A new prognostic model, referred to as SING (Size, Invasion, Necrosis, Growth......), was established and compared with other clinically applied systems. RESULTS:: Size, vascular invasion, necrosis, and peripheral tumor growth pattern provided independent prognostic information with hazard ratios of 2.2-2.6 for development of metastases in multivariate analysis. When these factors were combined...... into the prognostic model SING, high risk of metastasis was predicted with a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 85%. Moreover, the prognostic performance of SING compared favorably with other widely used systems. CONCLUSIONS:: SING represents a promising prognostic model, and vascular invasion and tumor growth...

  17. Optimization of particle trapping and patterning via photovoltaic tweezers: role of light modulation and particle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matarrubia, J; García-Cabañes, A; Plaza, J L; Agulló-López, F; Carrascosa, M

    2014-01-01

    The role of light modulation m and particle size on the morphology and spatial resolution of nano-particle patterns obtained by photovoltaic tweezers on Fe : LiNbO 3 has been investigated. The impact of m when using spherical as well as non-spherical (anisotropic) nano-particles deposited on the sample surface has been elucidated. Light modulation is a key parameter determining the particle profile contrast that is optimum for spherical particles and high-m values (m ∼ 1). The minimum particle periodicities reachable are also investigated obtaining periodic patterns up to 3.5 µm. This is a value at least one order of magnitude shorter than those obtained in previous reported experiments. Results are successfully explained and discussed in light of the previous reported models for photorefraction including nonlinear carrier transport and dielectrophoretic trapping. From the results, a number of rules for particle patterning optimization are derived. (paper)

  18. Topography of ganglion cell production in the cat's retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, C.; Polley, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ganglion cells of the cat's retina form several classes distinguishable in terms of soma size, axon diameter, dendritic morphology, physiological properties, and central connections. Labeling with [ 3 H]thymidine shows that the ganglion cells which survive in the adult are produced as several temporally shifted, overlapping waves: medium-sized cells are produced before large cells, whereas the smallest ganglion cells are produced throughout the period of ganglion cell generation. Large cells and medium-sized cells show the same distinctive pattern of production, forming rough spirals around the area centralis. The oldest cells tend to lie superior and nasal to the area centralis, whereas cells in the inferior nasal retina and inferior temporal retina are, in general, progressively younger. Within each retinal quadrant, cells nearer the area centralis tend to be older than cells in the periphery, but there is substantial overlap. The retinal raphe divides the superior temporal quadrant into two zones with different patterns of cell addition. Superior temporal retina near the vertical meridian adds cells only slightly later than superior nasal retina, whereas superior temporal retina near the horizontal meridian adds cells very late, contemporaneously with inferior temporal retina. The broader wave of production of smaller ganglion cells seems to follow this same spiral pattern at its beginning and end. The presence of the area centralis as a nodal point about which ganglion cell production in the retinal quadrants pivots suggests that the area centralis is already an important retinal landmark even at the earliest stages of retinal development

  19. Selective deposition contact patterning using atomic layer deposition for the fabrication of crystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Joon; Shin, Woong-Chul; Chang, Hyo Sik

    2014-01-01

    Selective deposition contact (SDC) patterning was applied to fabricate the rear side passivation of crystalline silicon (Si) solar cells. By this method, using screen printing for contact patterning and atomic layer deposition for the passivation of Si solar cells with Al 2 O 3 , we produced local contacts without photolithography or any laser-based processes. Passivated emitter and rear-contact solar cells passivated with ozone-based Al 2 O 3 showed, for the SDC process, an up-to-0.7% absolute conversion-efficiency improvement. The results of this experiment indicate that the proposed method is feasible for conversion-efficiency improvement of industrial crystalline Si solar cells. - Highlights: • We propose a local contact formation process. • Local contact forms a screen print and an atomic layer deposited-Al 2 O 3 film. • Ozone-based Al 2 O 3 thin film was selectively deposited onto patterned silicon. • Selective deposition contact patterning method can increase cell-efficiency by 0.7%

  20. Tailor-made cell patterning using a near-infrared-responsive composite gel composed of agarose and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Haruka; Nakazawa, Kohji; Sada, Takao; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2013-01-01

    Micropatterning is useful for regulating culture environments. We developed a highly efficient near-infrared-(NIR)-responsive gel and established a new technique that enables cell patterning by NIR irradiation. As a new culture substratum, we designed a tissue culture plate that was coated with a composite gel composed of agarose and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A culture plate coated with agarose only showed no response to NIR irradiation. In contrast, NIR laser irradiation induced heat generation by CNTs; this permitted local solation of the CNT/agarose gel, and consequently, selective cell-adhesive regions were exposed on the tissue culture plate. The solation area was controlled by the NIR intensity, magnification of the object lens and CNT concentration in the gel. Furthermore, we formed circular patterns of HeLa cells and linear patterns of 3T3 cells on the same culture plate through selective and stepwise NIR irradiation of the CNT/agarose gel, and we also demonstrated that individual 3T3 cells migrated along a linear path formed on the CNT/agarose gel by NIR irradiation. These results indicate that our technique is useful for tailor-made cell patterning of stepwise and/or complex cell patterns, which has various biological applications such as stepwise co-culture and the study of cell migration. (paper)

  1. Influence of shear stress and size on viability of endothelial cells exposed to gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fede, C.; Albertin, Giovanna; Petrelli, L.; De Caro, R.; Fortunati, I.; Weber, V.; Ferrante, Camilla

    2017-09-01

    Screening nanoparticle toxicity directly on cell culture can be a fast and cheap technique. Nevertheless, to obtain results in accordance with those observed in live animals, the conditions in which cells are cultivated should resemble the one encountered in live systems. Microfluidic devices offer the possibility to satisfy this requirement, in particular with endothelial cell lines, because they are capable to reproduce the flowing media and shear stress experienced by these cell lines in vivo. In this work, we exploit a microfluidic device to observe how human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) viability changes when subject to a continuous flow of culture medium, in which spherical citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles of different sizes and at varying doses are investigated. For comparison, the same experiments are also run in multiwells where the cells do not experience the shear stress induced by the flowing medium. We discuss the results considering the influence of mode of exposure and nanoparticle size (24 and 13 nm). We observed that gold nanoparticles show a lower toxicity under flow conditions with respect to static and the HUVEC viability decreases as the nanoparticle surface area per unit volume increases, regardless of size.

  2. Enteric neural crest cells regulate vertebrate stomach patterning and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Sandrine; McKey, Jennifer; Sagnol, Sébastien; de Santa Barbara, Pascal

    2015-01-15

    In vertebrates, the digestive tract develops from a uniform structure where reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions pattern this complex organ into regions with specific morphologies and functions. Concomitant with these early patterning events, the primitive GI tract is colonized by the vagal enteric neural crest cells (vENCCs), a population of cells that will give rise to the enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the GI tract. The influence of vENCCs on early patterning and differentiation of the GI tract has never been evaluated. In this study, we report that a crucial number of vENCCs is required for proper chick stomach development, patterning and differentiation. We show that reducing the number of vENCCs by performing vENCC ablations induces sustained activation of the BMP and Notch pathways in the stomach mesenchyme and impairs smooth muscle development. A reduction in vENCCs also leads to the transdifferentiation of the stomach into a stomach-intestinal mixed phenotype. In addition, sustained Notch signaling activity in the stomach mesenchyme phenocopies the defects observed in vENCC-ablated stomachs, indicating that inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway is essential for stomach patterning and differentiation. Finally, we report that a crucial number of vENCCs is also required for maintenance of stomach identity and differentiation through inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway. Altogether, our data reveal that, through the regulation of mesenchyme identity, vENCCs act as a new mediator in the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions that control stomach development. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. High-efficiency single cell encapsulation and size selective capture of cells in picoliter droplets based on hydrodynamic micro-vortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakshakurup, Gopakumar; Lee, Abraham P

    2017-12-05

    Single cell analysis has emerged as a paradigm shift in cell biology to understand the heterogeneity of individual cells in a clone for pathological interrogation. Microfluidic droplet technology is a compelling platform to perform single cell analysis by encapsulating single cells inside picoliter-nanoliter (pL-nL) volume droplets. However, one of the primary challenges for droplet based single cell assays is single cell encapsulation in droplets, currently achieved either randomly, dictated by Poisson statistics, or by hydrodynamic techniques. In this paper, we present an interfacial hydrodynamic technique which initially traps the cells in micro-vortices, and later releases them one-to-one into the droplets, controlled by the width of the outer streamline that separates the vortex from the flow through the streaming passage adjacent to the aqueous-oil interface (d gap ). One-to-one encapsulation is achieved at a d gap equal to the radius of the cell, whereas complete trapping of the cells is realized at a d gap smaller than the radius of the cell. The unique feature of this technique is that it can perform 1. high efficiency single cell encapsulations and 2. size-selective capturing of cells, at low cell loading densities. Here we demonstrate these two capabilities with a 50% single cell encapsulation efficiency and size selective separation of platelets, RBCs and WBCs from a 10× diluted blood sample (WBC capture efficiency at 70%). The results suggest a passive, hydrodynamic micro-vortex based technique capable of performing high-efficiency single cell encapsulation for cell based assays.

  4. Retrieval of phytoplankton cell size from chlorophyll a specific absorption and scattering spectra of phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Wang, Guifen; Li, Cai; Xu, Zhantang; Cao, Wenxi; Shen, Fang

    2017-10-20

    Phytoplankton cell size is an important property that affects diverse ecological and biogeochemical processes, and analysis of the absorption and scattering spectra of phytoplankton can provide important information about phytoplankton size. In this study, an inversion method for extracting quantitative phytoplankton cell size data from these spectra was developed. This inversion method requires two inputs: chlorophyll a specific absorption and scattering spectra of phytoplankton. The average equivalent-volume spherical diameter (ESD v ) was calculated as the single size approximation for the log-normal particle size distribution (PSD) of the algal suspension. The performance of this method for retrieving cell size was assessed using the datasets from cultures of 12 phytoplankton species. The estimations of a(λ) and b(λ) for the phytoplankton population using ESD v had mean error values of 5.8%-6.9% and 7.0%-10.6%, respectively, compared to the a(λ) and b(λ) for the phytoplankton populations using the log-normal PSD. The estimated values of C i ESD v were in good agreement with the measurements, with r 2 =0.88 and relative root mean square error (NRMSE)=25.3%, and relatively good performances were also found for the retrieval of ESD v with r 2 =0.78 and NRMSE=23.9%.

  5. Disc size regulation in the brood cell building behavior of leaf-cutter bee, Megachile tsurugensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-yoon

    2007-12-01

    The leaf-cutter bee, Megachile tsurugensis, builds a brood cell in a preexisting tunnel with leaf discs that she cuts in decreasing sizes and assembles them like a Russian matryoshka doll. By experimentally manipulating the brood cell, it was investigated how she regulates the size of leaf discs that fit in the brood cell's internal volume. When the internal volume was artificially increased by removing a bulk of leaf discs, she decreased the leaf disc size, although increasing it would have made the leaf disc more fitting in the increased internal volume. As a reverse manipulation, when the internal volume was decreased by inserting a group of inner layers of preassembled leaf discs to a brood cell, she decreased the leaf disc size, so that the leaf disc could fit in the decreased internal volume. These results suggest that she uses at least two different mechanisms to regulate the disc size: the use of some internal memory about the degree of building work accomplished in the first and of sensory feedback of dimensional information at the construction site in the second manipulation, respectively. It was concluded that a stigmergic mechanism, an immediate sensory feedback from the brood cell changed by the building work, alone cannot explain the details of the bee's behavior particularly with respect to her initial response to the first manipulation. For a more complete explanation of the behavior exhibited by the solitary bee, two additional behavioral elements, reinforcement of building activity and processing of dimensional information, were discussed along with stigmergy.

  6. Dynamic interneuron-principal cell interplay leads to a specific pattern of in vitro ictogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Maxime; Chen, Li-Yuan; Hamidi, Shabnam; Avoli, Massimo

    2018-07-01

    Ictal discharges induced by 4-aminopyridine in the in vitro rodent entorhinal cortex present with either low-voltage fast or sudden onset patterns. The role of interneurons in initiating low-voltage fast onset ictal discharges is well established but the processes leading to sudden onset ictal discharges remain unclear. We analysed here the participation of interneurons (n = 75) and principal cells (n = 13) in the sudden onset pattern by employing in vitro tetrode wire recordings in the entorhinal cortex of brain slices from Sprague-Dawley rats. Ictal discharges emerged from a background of frequently occurring interictal spikes that were associated to a specific interneuron/principal cell interplay. High rates of interneuron firing occurred 12 ms before interictal spike onset while principal cells fired later during low interneuron firing. In contrast, the onset of sudden ictal discharges was characterized by increased firing from principal cells 627 ms before ictal onset whereas interneurons increased their firing rates 161 ms before ictal onset. Our data show that sudden onset ictogenesis is associated with frequently occurring interictal spikes resting on the interplay between interneurons and principal cells while ictal discharges stem from enhanced principal cell firing leading to increased interneuron activity. These findings indicate that specific patterns of interactions between interneurons and principal cells shape interictal and ictal discharges with sudden onset in the rodent entorhinal cortex. We propose that specific neuronal interactions lead to the generation of distinct onset patterns in focal epileptic disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell patterning on a glass surface by a mask-assisted ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chan-Hee; Kim, Dong-Ki; Hwang, In-Tae; Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Hae-Kyoung; Nho, Young-Chang [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae-Hak [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jaehakchoi@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-04-15

    A simple patterning method of cells on a glass has been developed by using ion implantation. The glass was implanted through a pattern mask with 150 keV Ar ions in the absence or presence of oxygen. Surface properties of the ion-implanted glass were investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurement and cell culture test. The results showed that more hydrophilic groups were formed on the glass surface implanted in the presence of oxygen. Thus, the glass surface implanted in the presence of oxygen showed lower contact angle compared with the glass surface implanted in the absence of oxygen. The cells were strongly adhered to and proliferated on the ion-implanted regions of the glass. The cell population was found to be the highest on the glass implanted at a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} in the presence of oxygen.

  8. Correlation between the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules and tumor size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenshi ZHANG

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective The solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs is one of the most common findings on chest radiographs. It becomes possible to provide more accurately quantitative information about blood flow patterns of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs with multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules and tumor size. Methods 68 patients with maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs (diameter <=4 cmunderwent multi-location dynamic contrast material-enhanced (nonionic contrast material was administrated via the antecubital vein at a rate of 4mL/s by an autoinjector, 4*5mm or 4*2.5mm scanning mode with stable table were performed. serial CT. Precontrast and postcontrast attenuation on every scan was recorded. Perfusion (PSPN, peak height (PHSPNratio of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta (SPN-to-A ratioand mean transit time(MTT were calculated. The correlation between the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules and tumor size were assessed by means of linear regression analysis. Results No significant correlations were found between the tumor size and each of the peak height (PHSPN ratio of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta (SPN-to-A ratio perfusion(PSPNand mean transit time (r=0.18, P=0.14; r=0.20,P=0.09; r=0.01, P=0.95; r=0.01, P=0.93. Conclusion No significant correlation is found between the tumor size and each of the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules.

  9. Density of founder cells affects spatial pattern formation and cooperation in Bacillus subtilis biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Weissing, Franz J; Kuipers, Oscar P; Kovács, Akos T

    2014-10-01

    In nature, most bacteria live in surface-attached sedentary communities known as biofilms. Biofilms are often studied with respect to bacterial interactions. Many cells inhabiting biofilms are assumed to express 'cooperative traits', like the secretion of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS). These traits can enhance biofilm-related properties, such as stress resilience or colony expansion, while being costly to the cells that express them. In well-mixed populations cooperation is difficult to achieve, because non-cooperative individuals can reap the benefits of cooperation without having to pay the costs. The physical process of biofilm growth can, however, result in the spatial segregation of cooperative from non-cooperative individuals. This segregation can prevent non-cooperative cells from exploiting cooperative neighbors. Here we examine the interaction between spatial pattern formation and cooperation in Bacillus subtilis biofilms. We show, experimentally and by mathematical modeling, that the density of cells at the onset of biofilm growth affects pattern formation during biofilm growth. At low initial cell densities, co-cultured strains strongly segregate in space, whereas spatial segregation does not occur at high initial cell densities. As a consequence, EPS-producing cells have a competitive advantage over non-cooperative mutants when biofilms are initiated at a low density of founder cells, whereas EPS-deficient cells have an advantage at high cell densities. These results underline the importance of spatial pattern formation for competition among bacterial strains and the evolution of microbial cooperation.

  10. Cell wall microstructure, pore size distribution and absolute density of hemp shiv

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y.; Lawrence, M.; Ansell, M. P.; Hussain, A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper, for the first time, fully characterizes the intrinsic physical parameters of hemp shiv including cell wall microstructure, pore size distribution and absolute density. Scanning electron microscopy revealed microstructural features similar to hardwoods. Confocal microscopy revealed three major layers in the cell wall: middle lamella, primary cell wall and secondary cell wall. Computed tomography improved the visualization of pore shape and pore connectivity in three dimensions. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) showed that the average accessible porosity was 76.67 ± 2.03% and pore size classes could be distinguished into micropores (3-10 nm) and macropores (0.1-1 µm and 20-80 µm). The absolute density was evaluated by helium pycnometry, MIP and Archimedes' methods. The results show that these methods can lead to misinterpretation of absolute density. The MIP method showed a realistic absolute density (1.45 g cm-3) consistent with the density of the known constituents, including lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose. However, helium pycnometry and Archimedes' methods gave falsely low values owing to 10% of the volume being inaccessible pores, which require sample pretreatment in order to be filled by liquid or gas. This indicates that the determination of the cell wall density is strongly dependent on sample geometry and preparation.

  11. Renal Epithelial Cell Injury Induced by Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Depends on their Structural Features: Size, Surface, and Crystalline Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin-Yuan; Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Gan, Qiong-Zhi; Liu, Ai-Jie

    2016-11-01

    Urinary crystals in normal and kidney stone patients often differ in crystal sizes and surface structures, but the effects of different crystal properties on renal tubular epithelial cells remain unclear. This study aimed to compare the cytotoxicity of micron/nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals with sizes of 50 nm, 200 nm, 1 μm, 3 μm, and 10 μm to African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells, to reveal the effect of crystal size and surface structure on cell injury, and to investigate the pathological mechanism of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Cell viability, cellular biochemical parameters, and internalized crystal amount in Vero cells were closely associated with the size of COM crystals. At the same concentration (200 μg/mL), COM-1 μm induced the most serious injury to Vero cells and caused the most significant change to cellular biochemical parameters, which were related to the specific porous structure and highest internalized amount in Vero cells. By contrast, COM-50 nm and COM-200 nm crystals lost their small size effect because of serious aggregation and weakened their toxicity to cells. COM-3 μm and COM-10 μm crystals were too large for cells to completely internalize; these crystals also exhibited a low specific surface area and thus weakened their toxicity. The excessive expression of intracellular ROS and reduction of the free-radical scavenger SOD were the main reasons for cell injury and eventually caused necrotic cell death. Crystal size, surface structure, aggregation, and internalization amount were closely related to the cytotoxicity of COM crystals.

  12. Pan-Arctic aerosol number size distributions: seasonality and transport patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Eyal; Krejci, Radovan; Tunved, Peter; Leaitch, Richard; Nguyen, Quynh T.; Massling, Andreas; Skov, Henrik; Barrie, Leonard

    2017-07-01

    The Arctic environment has an amplified response to global climatic change. It is sensitive to human activities that mostly take place elsewhere. For this study, a multi-year set of observed aerosol number size distributions in the diameter range of 10 to 500 nm from five sites around the Arctic Ocean (Alert, Villum Research Station - Station Nord, Zeppelin, Tiksi and Barrow) was assembled and analysed.A cluster analysis of the aerosol number size distributions revealed four distinct distributions. Together with Lagrangian air parcel back-trajectories, they were used to link the observed aerosol number size distributions with a variety of transport regimes. This analysis yields insight into aerosol dynamics, transport and removal processes, on both an intra- and an inter-monthly scale. For instance, the relative occurrence of aerosol number size distributions that indicate new particle formation (NPF) event is near zero during the dark months, increases gradually to ˜ 40 % from spring to summer, and then collapses in autumn. Also, the likelihood of Arctic haze aerosols is minimal in summer and peaks in April at all sites.The residence time of accumulation-mode particles in the Arctic troposphere is typically long enough to allow tracking them back to their source regions. Air flow that passes at low altitude over central Siberia and western Russia is associated with relatively high concentrations of accumulation-mode particles (Nacc) at all five sites - often above 150 cm-3. There are also indications of air descending into the Arctic boundary layer after transport from lower latitudes.The analysis of the back-trajectories together with the meteorological fields along them indicates that the main driver of the Arctic annual cycle of Nacc, on the larger scale, is when atmospheric transport covers the source regions for these particles in the 10-day period preceding the observations in the Arctic. The scavenging of these particles by precipitation is shown to be

  13. Patterned biofilm formation reveals a mechanism for structural heterogeneity in bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huan; Hou, Shuyu; Yongyat, Chanokpon; De Tore, Suzanne; Ren, Dacheng

    2013-09-03

    Bacterial biofilms are ubiquitous and are the major cause of chronic infections in humans and persistent biofouling in industry. Despite the significance of bacterial biofilms, the mechanism of biofilm formation and associated drug tolerance is still not fully understood. A major challenge in biofilm research is the intrinsic heterogeneity in the biofilm structure, which leads to temporal and spatial variation in cell density and gene expression. To understand and control such structural heterogeneity, surfaces with patterned functional alkanthiols were used in this study to obtain Escherichia coli cell clusters with systematically varied cluster size and distance between clusters. The results from quantitative imaging analysis revealed an interesting phenomenon in which multicellular connections can be formed between cell clusters depending on the size of interacting clusters and the distance between them. In addition, significant differences in patterned biofilm formation were observed between wild-type E. coli RP437 and some of its isogenic mutants, indicating that certain cellular and genetic factors are involved in interactions among cell clusters. In particular, autoinducer-2-mediated quorum sensing was found to be important. Collectively, these results provide missing information that links cell-to-cell signaling and interaction among cell clusters to the structural organization of bacterial biofilms.

  14. Impact of mobility on call block, call drops and optimal cell size in small cell networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanath , Sreenath; Voleti , Veeraruna Kavitha; Altman , Eitan

    2011-01-01

    We consider small cell networks and study the impact of user mobility. Assuming Poisson call arrivals at random positions with random velocities, we discuss the characterization of handovers at the boundaries. We derive explicit expressions for call block and call drop probabilities using tools from spatial queuing theory. We also derive expressions for the average virtual server held up time. These expressions are used to derive optimal cell sizes for various profile of velocities in small c...

  15. Predicting fragmentation sizing profiles for different blasting patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.M.; Chung, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper evaluates the efficiency of blasting in a large scale underground heap leaching operation. The prediction model is based on the dynamic tensile breaking strength of rock formation, the detonation characteristics of the explosives and the drill hole pattern. The modelling includes crack pattern development and fragmentation computation fitted by the Rosin-Rammler distribution equation

  16. Glucose metabolite patterns as markers of functional differentiation in freshly isolated and cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerman, J.T.; Bartley, J.C.; Bissel, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In the mammary gland of non-ruminant animals, glucose is utilized in a characteristic and unique way during lacation. By measuring the incorporation of glucose carbon from [U- 14 C]glucose into intermediary metabolitees and metabolic products in mammary epithelia cells from virgin, pregnant, and lacating mice, we domonstrate that glucose metabolite patterns can be used to recognize stages of differentiated function. For these cells, the rates of synthesis of glycogen and lactose, the ratio of lactate to alanine, and the ratio of citrate to malate are important parameters in identifying the degree of expression of differentiation. We further show that these patterns can be used as markers to determine the differentiated state of cultured mammary epithelial cells. Cells maintained on plastic substrates lose their distinctive glucose metabolite patterns while those on floating collagen gels do not. Cells isolated from pregnant mice and cultured on collagen gels have a pattern similar to that of their freshly isolated counter-parts. When isolated from lacating mice, the metabolite patterns of cells cultured on collagen gels are different from that of the cells of origin, and resembles that of freshly isolated cells from pregnant mice. Our findings suggest that the floating collagen gels under the culture conditions used in these experiments provide an environment for the functional expression of the pregnant state, while additional factors are needed for the expression of the lactating state

  17. Paleolatitudinal Gradients in Marine Phytoplankton Composition and Cell Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderiks, J.; Bordiga, M.; Bartol, M.; Šupraha, L.

    2014-12-01

    Coccolithophores, a prominent group of marine calcifying unicellular algae, are widely studied in context of current and past climate change. We know that marine phytoplankton are sensitive to climatic changes, but the complex interplay of several processes such as warming, changes in nutrient content, and ocean acidification, makes future scenarios difficult to predict. Some taxa may be more susceptible to environmental perturbations than others, as evidenced by significantly different species-specific sensitivities observed in laboratory experiments. However, short-term plastic responses may not translate into longer-term climatic adaptation, nor should we readily extrapolate the behavior of single strains in the laboratory to natural, multi-species assemblages and their interactions in the ocean. The extensive fossil record of coccolithophores (in the form of coccoliths) reveals high morphological and taxonomic diversity and allows reconstructing the cell size of individual taxonomic groups. In a suite of deep-sea drilling sites from the Atlantic Ocean, we document distinct latitudinal gradients in phytoplankton composition and cell size across major climate transitions of the late Eocene - earliest Oligocene, and the middle - late Miocene. With these data we test hypotheses of species migration, phenotypic evolution, as well as the rates of species extinction and speciation in relation to concurrent paleoenvironmental changes during the Cenozoic.

  18. Implementation of a submicrometer patterning technique in azopolymer films towards optimization of photovoltaic solar cells efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocoyer, C.; Rocha, L.; Fiorini-Debuisschert, C.; Sicot, L.; Vaufrey, D.; Sentein, C.; Geffroy, B.; Raimond, P.

    2006-01-01

    The weak absorption of the photoactive layer appears as a one of the main factors limiting organic photovoltaic solar cells performances. In order to increase the interaction of the incident light with the photoactive materials, we investigate the effect of a periodic patterning of the solar cells surface with microstructures in the optical wavelength scale. In this aim, we present an original all optical patterning technique of polymer films. The method is based on a laser controlled mass transport in azopolymer films leading to efficient deformation of the film surface in conjunction with the incoming light interference pattern. The technique is used to pattern one-dimensional gratings on the surface of solar cells. In the work presented here, the cell photoactive material is based on the interpenetrated network of a conjugated donor polymer and a fullerene derivative. The cells investigated are illuminated in a reverse configuration through a semi-transparent top cathode. The effect of the periodic structures onto the incident light propagation has been investigated through optical characterizations. We demonstrate that a part of the incident light can be trapped inside the solar cell layers due to diffraction onto the periodic structures

  19. Detonation cell size measurements in high-temperature hydrogen-air-steam mixtures at the BNL high-temperature combustion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsberg, T.; Boccio, J.L.

    1997-11-01

    The High-Temperature Combustion Facility (HTCF) was designed and constructed with the objective of studying detonation phenomena in mixtures of hydrogen-air-steam at initially high temperatures. The central element of the HTCF is a 27-cm inner-diameter, 21.3-m long cylindrical test vessel capable of being heating to 700K ± 14K. A unique feature of the HTCF is the 'diaphragmless' acetylene-oxygen gas driver which is used to initiate the detonation in the test gas. Cell size measurements have shown that for any hydrogen-air-steam mixture, increasing the initial mixture temperature, in the range of 300K to 650K, while maintaining the initial pressure of 0.1 MPa, decreases the cell size and thus makes the mixture more detonable. The effect of steam dilution on cell size was tested in stoichiometric and off-stoichiometric (e.g., equivalence ratio of 0.5) hydrogen-air mixtures. Increasing the steam dilution in hydrogen-air mixtures at 0.1 MPa initial pressure increases the cell size, irrespective of initial temperature. It is also observed that the desensitizing effect of steam diminished with increased initial temperature. A 1-dimensional, steady-state Zel'dovich, von Neumann, Doring (ZND) model, with full chemical kinetics, has been used to predict cell size for hydrogen-air-steam mixtures at different initial conditions. Qualitatively the model predicts the overall trends observed in the measured cell size versus mixture composition and initial temperature and pressure. It was found that the proportionality constant used to predict detonation cell size from the calculated ZND model reaction zone varies between 10 and 100 depending on the mixture composition and initial temperature. 32 refs., 35 figs

  20. Local behavioral rules sustain the cell allocation pattern in the combs of honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montovan, Kathryn J; Karst, Nathaniel; Jones, Laura E; Seeley, Thomas D

    2013-11-07

    In the beeswax combs of honey bees, the cells of brood, pollen, and honey have a consistent spatial pattern that is sustained throughout the life of a colony. This spatial pattern is believed to emerge from simple behavioral rules that specify how the queen moves, where foragers deposit honey/pollen and how honey/pollen is consumed from cells. Prior work has shown that a set of such rules can explain the formation of the allocation pattern starting from an empty comb. We show that these rules cannot maintain the pattern once the brood start to vacate their cells, and we propose new, biologically realistic rules that better sustain the observed allocation pattern. We analyze the three resulting models by performing hundreds of simulation runs over many gestational periods and a wide range of parameter values. We develop new metrics for pattern assessment and employ them in analyzing pattern retention over each simulation run. Applied to our simulation results, these metrics show alteration of an accepted model for honey/pollen consumption based on local information can stabilize the cell allocation pattern over time. We also show that adding global information, by biasing the queen's movements towards the center of the comb, expands the parameter regime over which pattern retention occurs. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Size And Localisation Of Yellow Pigmented Lipid Cells 6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The size and distribution of the main pungent principle (6-gingerol) in two ginger varieties “ Tafin giwa” (the yellow variety) and “Yatsum biri” (the dark variety) at 4, 5, 6, and 8 months stages of maturity at harvest were studied empirically by the determination of the mean number of yellow pigmented lipid cells per unit area ...

  2. Size-based cell sorting with a resistive pulse sensor and an electromagnetic pump in a microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yongxin; Li, Mengqi; Pan, Xinxiang; Wang, Qi; Li, Dongqing

    2015-02-01

    An electrokinetic microfluidic chip is developed to detect and sort target cells by size from human blood samples. Target-cell detection is achieved by a differential resistive pulse sensor (RPS) based on the size difference between the target cell and other cells. Once a target cell is detected, the detected RPS signal will automatically actuate an electromagnetic pump built in a microchannel to push the target cell into a collecting channel. This method was applied to automatically detect and sort A549 cells and T-lymphocytes from a peripheral fingertip blood sample. The viability of A549 cells sorted in the collecting well was verified by Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide staining. The results show that as many as 100 target cells per minute can be sorted out from the sample solution and thus is particularly suitable for sorting very rare target cells, such as circulating tumor cells. The actuation of the electromagnetic valve has no influence on RPS cell detection and the consequent cell-sorting process. The viability of the collected A549 cell is not impacted by the applied electric field when the cell passes the RPS detection area. The device described in this article is simple, automatic, and label-free and has wide applications in size-based rare target cell sorting for medical diagnostics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The TOR Signaling Pathway in Spatial and Temporal Control of Cell Size and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suam Gonzalez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cell size is amenable by genetic and environmental factors. The highly conserved nutrient-responsive Target of Rapamycin (TOR signaling pathway regulates cellular metabolic status and growth in response to numerous inputs. Timing and duration of TOR pathway activity is pivotal for both cell mass built up as well as cell cycle progression and is controlled and fine-tuned by the abundance and quality of nutrients, hormonal signals, growth factors, stress, and oxygen. TOR kinases function within two functionally and structurally discrete multiprotein complexes, TORC1 and TORC2, that are implicated in temporal and spatial control of cell size and growth respectively; however, recent data indicate that such functional distinctions are much more complex. Here, we briefly review roles of the two complexes in cellular growth and cytoarchitecture in various experimental model systems.

  4. Macroevolutionary patterns of sexual size dimorphism in copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Major theories compete to explain the macroevolutionary trends observed in sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in animals. Quantitative genetic theory suggests that the sex under historically stronger directional selection will exhibit greater interspecific variance in size, with covariation between all...

  5. Low cost, patterning of human hNT brain cells on parylene-C with UV & IR laser machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raos, Brad J; Unsworth, C P; Costa, J L; Rohde, C A; Doyle, C S; Delivopoulos, E; Murray, A F; Dickinson, M E; Simpson, M C; Graham, E S; Bunting, A S

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the use of 800nm femtosecond infrared (IR) and 248nm nanosecond ultraviolet (UV) laser radiation in performing ablative micromachining of parylene-C on SiO2 substrates for the patterning of human hNT astrocytes. Results are presented that support the validity of using IR laser ablative micromachining for patterning human hNT astrocytes cells while UV laser radiation produces photo-oxidation of the parylene-C and destroys cell patterning. The findings demonstrate how IR laser ablative micromachining of parylene-C on SiO2 substrates can offer a low cost, accessible alternative for rapid prototyping, high yield cell patterning.

  6. Sizing stack and battery of a fuel cell hybrid distribution truck

    OpenAIRE

    Tazelaar, E.; Shen, Y.; Veenhuizen, P.A.; Hofman, T.; Bosch, van den, P.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    An existing fuel cell hybrid distribution truck, built for demonstration purposes, is used as a case study to investigate the effect of stack (kW) and battery (kW, kWh) sizes on the hydrogen consumption of the vehicle. Three driving cycles, the NEDC for Low Power vehicles, CSC and JE05 cycle, define the driving requirements for the vehicle. The Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) is used for determining the control setpoint for the fuel cell and battery system. It closely appr...

  7. Dynein and EFF-1 control dendrite morphology by regulating the localization pattern of SAX-7 in epidermal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ting; Liang, Xing; Wang, Xiang-Ming; Shen, Kang

    2017-12-01

    Our previous work showed that the cell adhesion molecule SAX-7 forms an elaborate pattern in Caenorhabditis elegans epidermal cells, which instructs PVD dendrite branching. However, the molecular mechanism forming the SAX-7 pattern in the epidermis is not fully understood. Here, we report that the dynein light intermediate chain DLI-1 and the fusogen EFF-1 are required in epidermal cells to pattern SAX-7. While previous reports suggest that these two molecules act cell-autonomously in the PVD, our results show that the disorganized PVD dendritic arbors in these mutants are due to the abnormal SAX-7 localization patterns in epidermal cells. Three lines of evidence support this notion. First, the epidermal SAX-7 pattern was severely affected in dli-1 and eff-1 mutants. Second, the abnormal SAX-7 pattern was predictive of the ectopic PVD dendrites. Third, expression of DLI-1 or EFF-1 in the epidermis rescued both the SAX-7 pattern and the disorganized PVD dendrite phenotypes, whereas expression of these molecules in the PVD did not. We also show that DLI-1 functions cell-autonomously in the PVD to promote distal branch formation. These results demonstrate the unexpected roles of DLI-1 and EFF-1 in the epidermis in the control of PVD dendrite morphogenesis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Cell-size distribution and scaling in a one-dimensional Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami lattice model with continuous nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Néda, Zoltán; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Boda, Szilárd

    2017-10-01

    The Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) growth model is considered on a one-dimensional (1D) lattice. Cells can grow with constant speed and continuously nucleate on the empty sites. We offer an alternative mean-field-like approach for describing theoretically the dynamics and derive an analytical cell-size distribution function. Our method reproduces the same scaling laws as the KJMA theory and has the advantage that it leads to a simple closed form for the cell-size distribution function. It is shown that a Weibull distribution is appropriate for describing the final cell-size distribution. The results are discussed in comparison with Monte Carlo simulation data.

  9. Survival of alpha particle irradiated cells as a function of the shape and size of the sensitive volume (nucleus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinchcomb, T.G.; Roeske, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Microdosimetry is the study of the stochastic variation of energy deposited within sub-cellular targets. As such, the size and shape of the critical target (i.e. cell nucleus) are essential when considering microdosimetric quantities. In this work, a microdosimetric analysis examines the expected cell survival as a function of the size and shape of the cell nucleus under conditions of irradiation emitting alpha particles. The results indicate that, in general, cell survival is relatively insensitive to changes in the shape of the cell nucleus when the volume is held constant. However, cell survival is a strong function of the variation in the size of the target. These results are useful when analysing the results of cell survival experiments for alpha particle emitters. (Author)

  10. Variability in the recognition of distinctive immunofluorescence patterns in different brands of HEp-2 cell slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Dellavance

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells is considered the gold standard for the detection of autoantibodies against cellular antigens. However, the culture conditions, cell fixation and permeabilization processes interfere directly in the preservation and spatial distribution of antigens. Therefore, one can assume that certain peculiarities in the processing of cellular substrate may affect the recognition of indirect immunofluorescence patterns associated with several autoantibodies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a panel of serum samples representing nuclear, nucleolar, cytoplasmic, mitotic apparatus, and chromosome plate patterns on HEp-2 cell substrates from different suppliers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven blinded observers, independent from the three selected reference centers, evaluated 17 samples yielding different nuclear, nucleolar, cytoplasmic and mitotic apparatus patterns on HEp-2 cell slides from eight different brands. The slides were coded to maintain confidentiality of both brands and participating centers. RESULTS: The 17 HEp-2 cell patterns were identified on most substrates. Nonetheless, some slides showed deficit in the expression of several patterns: nuclear coarse speckled/U1-ribonucleoprotein associated with antibodies against RNP (U1RNP, centromeric protein F (CENP-F, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, cytoplasmic fine speckled associated with anti-Jo-1 antibodies (histidyl synthetase, nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1 (NuMA-1 and nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 2 (NuMA-2. CONCLUSION: Despite the overall good quality of the assessed HEp-2 substrates, there was considerable inconsistency in results among different commercial substrates. The variations may be due to the evaluated batches, hence generalizations cannot be made as to the respective brands. It is recommended that each new batch or new brand be tested with a panel of reference sera representing the various patterns.

  11. Dose dependency of the frequency of micronucleated binucleated clone cells and of division related median clone sizes difference. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, G,; Kreczik, A.; Treichel, M.

    1996-01-01

    Following irradiation of the progenitor cells the clone growth of CHO cells decreases as a result of cell losses. Lethally acting expressions of micronuclei are produced by heritable lethal mutations. The dependency of the frequency of micronucleated binucleated clone cells and of the median clone sizes difference on the radiation dose was measured and compared to non-irradiated controls. Using the cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-method binucleated cells with micronuclei were counted as ratio of all binucleated cells within a clone size distribution. This ratio (shortened: micronucleus yield) was determined for all clone size distributions, which had been exposed to different irradiation doses and incubation times. The micronucleus yields were compared to the corresponding median clone sizes differences. The micronucleus yield is linearly dependent on the dose and is independent of the incubation time. The same holds true for the division related median clone sizes difference, which as a result is also linearly dependent on the micronucleus yield. Due to the inevitably errors of the cell count of micronucleated binucleated cells, an automatic measurement of the median clone sizes differences is the preferred method for evaluation of cellular radiation sensitivity for heritable lethal mutations. This value should always be determined in addition, if clone survival fractions are used as predictive test because it allows for an estimation of the remission probability of surviving cells. (orig.) [de

  12. Changes in the oligomerization potential of the division inhibitor UgtP co-ordinate Bacillus subtilis cell size with nutrient availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, An-Chun; Zareh, Shannon Kian Gharabiklou; Wang, Yan Mei; Levin, Petra Anne

    2012-11-01

    How cells co-ordinate size with growth and development is a major, unresolved question in cell biology. In previous work we identified the glucosyltransferase UgtP as a division inhibitor responsible for increasing the size of Bacillus subtilis cells under nutrient-rich conditions. In nutrient-rich medium, UgtP is distributed more or less uniformly throughout the cytoplasm and concentrated at the cell poles and/or the cytokinetic ring. Under these conditions, UgtP interacts directly with FtsZ to inhibit division and increase cell size. Conversely, under nutrient-poor conditions, UgtP is sequestered away from FtsZ in punctate foci, and division proceeds unimpeded resulting in a reduction in average cell size. Here we report that nutrient-dependent changes in UgtP's oligomerization potential serve as a molecular rheostat to precisely co-ordinate B. subtilis cell size with nutrient availability. Our data indicate UgtP interacts with itself and the essential cell division protein FtsZ in a high-affinity manner influenced in part by UDP glucose, an intracellular proxy for nutrient availability. These findings support a model in which UDP-glc-dependent changes in UgtP's oligomerization potential shift the equilibrium between UgtP•UgtP and UgtP•FtsZ, fine-tuning the amount of FtsZ available for assembly into the cytokinetic ring and with it cell size. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. The first systematic analysis of 3D rapid prototyped poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds manufactured through BioCell printing: the effect of pore size and geometry on compressive mechanical behaviour and in vitro hMSC viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingos, M; Bartolo, P; Intranuovo, F; Russo, T; Santis, R De; Gloria, A; Ambrosio, L; Ciurana, J

    2013-01-01

    Novel additive manufacturing processes are increasingly recognized as ideal techniques to produce 3D biodegradable structures with optimal pore size and spatial distribution, providing an adequate mechanical support for tissue regeneration while shaping in-growing tissues. With regard to the mechanical and biological performances of 3D scaffolds, pore size and geometry play a crucial role. In this study, a novel integrated automated system for the production and in vitro culture of 3D constructs, known as BioCell Printing, was used only to manufacture poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds for tissue engineering; the influence of pore size and shape on their mechanical and biological performances was investigated. Imposing a single lay-down pattern of 0°/90° and varying the filament distance, it was possible to produce scaffolds with square interconnected pores with channel sizes falling in the range of 245–433 µm, porosity 49–57% and a constant road width. Three different lay-down patterns were also adopted (0°/90°, 0°/60/120° and 0°/45°/90°/135°), thus resulting in scaffolds with quadrangular, triangular and complex internal geometries, respectively. Mechanical compression tests revealed a decrease of scaffold stiffness with the increasing porosity and number of deposition angles (from 0°/90° to 0°/45°/90°/135°). Results from biological analysis, carried out using human mesenchymal stem cells, suggest a strong influence of pore size and geometry on cell viability. On the other hand, after 21 days of in vitro static culture, it was not possible to detect any significant variation in terms of cell morphology promoted by scaffold topology. As a first systematic analysis, the obtained results clearly demonstrate the potential of the BioCell Printing process to produce 3D scaffolds with reproducible well organized architectures and tailored mechanical properties. (paper)

  14. Convergence of Ground and Excited State Properties of Divacancy Defects in 4H-SiC with Computational Cell Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    SiC with Computational Cell Size by Ariana Beste and DeCarlos E Taylor Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...Laboratory Convergence of Ground and Excited State Properties of Divacancy Defects in 4H-SiC with Computational Cell Size by Ariana Beste...Ground and Excited State Properties of Divacancy Defects in 4H-SiC with Computational Cell Size 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  15. Parallel altitudinal clines reveal trends in adaptive evolution of genome size in Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jeremy J.; Birchler, James A.; Grote, Mark N.; Lorant, Anne; Quezada, Juvenal

    2018-01-01

    While the vast majority of genome size variation in plants is due to differences in repetitive sequence, we know little about how selection acts on repeat content in natural populations. Here we investigate parallel changes in intraspecific genome size and repeat content of domesticated maize (Zea mays) landraces and their wild relative teosinte across altitudinal gradients in Mesoamerica and South America. We combine genotyping, low coverage whole-genome sequence data, and flow cytometry to test for evidence of selection on genome size and individual repeat abundance. We find that population structure alone cannot explain the observed variation, implying that clinal patterns of genome size are maintained by natural selection. Our modeling additionally provides evidence of selection on individual heterochromatic knob repeats, likely due to their large individual contribution to genome size. To better understand the phenotypes driving selection on genome size, we conducted a growth chamber experiment using a population of highland teosinte exhibiting extensive variation in genome size. We find weak support for a positive correlation between genome size and cell size, but stronger support for a negative correlation between genome size and the rate of cell production. Reanalyzing published data of cell counts in maize shoot apical meristems, we then identify a negative correlation between cell production rate and flowering time. Together, our data suggest a model in which variation in genome size is driven by natural selection on flowering time across altitudinal clines, connecting intraspecific variation in repetitive sequence to important differences in adaptive phenotypes. PMID:29746459

  16. Particle Size-Dependent Antibacterial Activity and Murine Cell Cytotoxicity Induced by Graphene Oxide Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that graphene and its derivative graphene oxide (GO engage in a wide range of antibacterial activities with limited toxicity to human cells. Here, we systematically evaluate the dependence of GO toxicity on the size of the nanoparticles used in treatments: we compare the cytotoxic effects of graphene quantum dots (GQDs, <15 nm, small GOs (SGOs, 50–200 nm, and large GOs (LGOs, 0.5–3 μm. We synthesize the results of bacterial colony count assays and SEM-based observations of morphological changes to assess the antibacterial properties that these GOs bring into effect against E. coli. We also use Live/Dead assays and morphological analysis to investigate changes to mammalian (Murine macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells induced by the presence of the various GO particle types. Our results demonstrate that LGOs, SGOs, and GQDs possess antibacterial activities and cause mammalian cell cytotoxicity at descending levels of potency. Placing our observations in the context of previous simulation results, we suggest that both the lateral size and surface area of GO particles contribute to cytotoxic effects. We hope that the size dependence elucidated here provides a useful schematic for tuning GO-cell interactions in biomedical applications.

  17. Effects of growth rate, cell size, motion, and elemental stoichiometry on nutrient transport kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kevin J; Skibinski, David O F; Lindemann, Christian

    2018-04-01

    Nutrient acquisition is a critical determinant for the competitive advantage for auto- and osmohetero- trophs alike. Nutrient limited growth is commonly described on a whole cell basis through reference to a maximum growth rate (Gmax) and a half-saturation constant (KG). This empirical application of a Michaelis-Menten like description ignores the multiple underlying feedbacks between physiology contributing to growth, cell size, elemental stoichiometry and cell motion. Here we explore these relationships with reference to the kinetics of the nutrient transporter protein, the transporter rate density at the cell surface (TRD; potential transport rate per unit plasma-membrane area), and diffusion gradients. While the half saturation value for the limiting nutrient increases rapidly with cell size, significant mitigation is afforded by cell motion (swimming or sedimentation), and by decreasing the cellular carbon density. There is thus potential for high vacuolation and high sedimentation rates in diatoms to significantly decrease KG and increase species competitive advantage. Our results also suggest that Gmax for larger non-diatom protists may be constrained by rates of nutrient transport. For a given carbon density, cell size and TRD, the value of Gmax/KG remains constant. This implies that species or strains with a lower Gmax might coincidentally have a competitive advantage under nutrient limited conditions as they also express lower values of KG. The ability of cells to modulate the TRD according to their nutritional status, and hence change the instantaneous maximum transport rate, has a very marked effect upon transport and growth kinetics. Analyses and dynamic models that do not consider such modulation will inevitably fail to properly reflect competitive advantage in nutrient acquisition. This has important implications for the accurate representation and predictive capabilities of model applications, in particular in a changing environment.

  18. First human hNT neurons patterned on parylene-C/silicon dioxide substrates: Combining an accessible cell line and robust patterning technology for the study of the pathological adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, C P; Graham, E S; Delivopoulos, E; Dragunow, M; Murray, A F

    2010-12-15

    In this communication, we describe a new method which has enabled the first patterning of human neurons (derived from the human teratocarcinoma cell line (hNT)) on parylene-C/silicon dioxide substrates. We reveal the details of the nanofabrication processes, cell differentiation and culturing protocols necessary to successfully pattern hNT neurons which are each key aspects of this new method. The benefits in patterning human neurons on silicon chip using an accessible cell line and robust patterning technology are of widespread value. Thus, using a combined technology such as this will facilitate the detailed study of the pathological human brain at both the single cell and network level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of harpy/Rca1/emi1 mutants: patterning in the absence of cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Bruce B; Sweet, Elly M; Heck, Rebecca; Evans, Adrienne; McFarland, Karen N; Warga, Rachel M; Kane, Donald A

    2010-03-01

    We have characterized mutations in the early arrest gene, harpy (hrp), and show that they introduce premature stops in the coding region of early mitotic inhibitor1 (Rca1/emi1). In harpy mutants, cells stop dividing during early gastrulation. Lineage analysis confirms that there is little change in cell number after approximately cycle-14. Gross patterning occurs relatively normally, and many organ primordia are produced on time but with smaller numbers of cells. Despite the lack of cell division, some organ systems continue to increase in cell number, suggesting recruitment from surrounding areas. Analysis of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation shows that endoreduplication continues in many cells well past the first day of development, but cells cease endoreduplication once they begin to differentiate and express cell-type markers. Despite relatively normal gross patterning, harpy mutants show several defects in morphogenesis, cell migration and differentiation resulting directly or indirectly from the arrest of cell division. Copyright (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. The Glycoprofile Patterns of Endothelial Cells in Usual Interstitial Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Barkhordari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN RETRACTED FOR DUPLICATE PUBLICATION] Background: The pathological classification of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis has been a matter of debate and controversy for histopathologists. Objective: To identify and specify the glycotypes of capillary endothelial cells in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP compared to those found in normal tissue. Methods: Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from 16 cases of UIP were studied by lectin histochemistry with a panel of 27 biotinylated lectins and an avidin-peroxidase revealing system. Results: High expression of several classes of glycan was seen de novo in capillary endothelial cells from patients with UIP including small complex and bi/tri-antennary bisected complex N-linked sequences bolund by Concanavalin A and erythro-phytohemagglutinin, respectively, GalNAca1 residues bound by Helix pomatia and Maclura pomifera agglutinins, and L-fucosylated derivatives of type II glycan chains recognized by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I. Glycans bound by agglutinins from Lycopersicon esculentum (β1,4GlcNAc and Wisteria floribunda (GalNAc as well as GlcNAc oligomers bound by Phytolacca americana and succinylated Wheat Germ agglutinin were also seen in the capillary endothelial cells of UIP. In contrast, L-fucosylated derivatives of type I glycan chains were absent in cells from cases of UIP when Anguilla anguilla agglutinin was applied, unlike the situation in normal tissue. Conclusion: These results may indicate existence of two distinct populations of endothelial cell in UIP with markedly different patterns of glycosylation, reflecting a pattern of differentiation and angiogenesis, which is not detectable morphologically.

  1. A New Size-based Platform for Circulating Tumor Cell Detection in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Bo Young; Kim, Jhingook; Lee, Woo Yong; Kim, Hee Cheol

    2017-09-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) might play a significant role in cancer progression and metastasis. However, the ability to detect CTCs is limited, especially in cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In this study, we evaluated a new size-based CTC detection platform and its clinical efficacy in colorectal cancer. Blood samples were obtained from 76 patients with colorectal cancer and 20 healthy control subjects for CTC analysis. CTCs were enriched using a high-density microporous chip filter and were detected using a 4-color staining protocol including 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) for nucleated cells, CD45 monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a leukocyte marker, and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) mAb or cytokeratin (CK) mAb as an epithelial cell marker. CTC positivity was defined as DAPI-positive (DAPI + )/CD45 - /EpCAM + or CK + cells and clinical outcomes of patients were analyzed according to CTC counts. CTCs were detected in 50 patients using this size-based filtration platform. CTC + patients were more frequently identified with a high level of carcinoembryonic antigen and advanced stage cancer (P = .038 and P = .017, respectively). CTC counts for patients with stage IV cancer (12.47 ± 24.00) were significantly higher than those for patients with cancers that were stage I to III (2.84 ± 5.29; P = .005) and healthy control subjects (0.25 ± 0.55; P colorectal cancer patients. Our results suggest that this new size-based platform has potential for determining prognosis and therapeutic response in colorectal cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. TiO2 nanoparticles disrupt cell adhesion and the architecture of cytoskeletal networks of human osteoblast-like cells in a size dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed; Schoelermann, Julia; Mustafa, Kamal; Cimpan, Mihaela R

    2018-04-30

    Human exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO 2 ) is increasing. An internal source of nano-TiO 2 is represented by titanium-based orthopedic and dental implants can release nanoparticles (NPs) upon abrasion. Little is known about how the size of NPs influences their interaction with cytoskeletal protein networks and the functional/homeostatic consequences that might follow at the implant-bone interface with regard to osteoblasts. We investigated the effects of size of anatase nano-TiO 2 on SaOS-2 human osteoblast-like cells exposed to clinically relevant concentrations (0.05, 0.5, 5 mg/L) of 5 and 40 nm spherical nano-TiO 2 . Cell viability and proliferation, adhesion, spread and migration were assessed, as well as the orientation of actin and microtubule cytoskeletal networks. The phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK Y397 ) and the expression of vinculin in response to nano-TiO 2 were also assessed. Treatment with nano-TiO 2 disrupted the actin and microtubule cytoskeletal networks leading to morphological modifications of SaOS-2 cells. The phosphorylation of p-FAK Y397 and the expression of vinculin were also modified depending on the particle size, which affected cell adhesion. Consequently, the cell migration was significantly impaired in the 5 nm-exposed cells compared to unexposed cells. The present work shows that the orientation of cytoskeletal networks and the focal adhesion proteins and subsequently the adhesion, spread and migration of SaOS-2 cells were affected by the selected nano-TiO 2 in a size dependent manner. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cell Size Influences the Reproductive Potential and Total Lifespan of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast as Revealed by the Analysis of Polyploid Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Zadrag-Tecza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The total lifespan of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae may be divided into two phases: the reproductive phase, during which the cell undergoes mitosis cycles to produce successive buds, and the postreproductive phase, which extends from the last division to cell death. These phases may be regulated by a common mechanism or by distinct ones. In this paper, we proposed a more comprehensive approach to reveal the mechanisms that regulate both reproductive potential and total lifespan in cell size context. Our study was based on yeast cells, whose size was determined by increased genome copy number, ranging from haploid to tetraploid. Such experiments enabled us to test the hypertrophy hypothesis, which postulates that excessive size achieved by the cell—the hypertrophy state—is the reason preventing the cell from further proliferation. This hypothesis defines the reproductive potential value as the difference between the maximal size that a cell can reach and the threshold value, which allows a cell to undergo its first cell cycle and the rate of the cell size to increase per generation. Here, we showed that cell size has an important impact on not only the reproductive potential but also the total lifespan of this cell. Moreover, the maximal cell size value, which limits its reproduction capacity, can be regulated by different factors and differs depending on the strain ploidy. The achievement of excessive size by the cell (hypertrophic state may lead to two distinct phenomena: the cessation of reproduction without “mother” cell death and the cessation of reproduction with cell death by bursting, which has not been shown before.

  4. Aggressive Angioimmunoblastic T Cell Lymphomas (AITL) with Soft Tissue Extranodal Mass Varied Histopathological Patterns with Peripheral Blood, Bone Marrow, and Splenic Involvement and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Tanushri; Dutta, Rajat; Pramanik, S

    2018-03-01

    neoplastic lymphocytes of small and large sizes with numerous arborizing blood vessels which correspond to high endothelial venules. Microscopically, three architectural patterns; pattern I was seen in three cases (60%) and then pattern II and III in one case each (20% each). Immunohistochemistry revealed CD4+, CD8-, CXCL13+, CD10+, BCL6+, CD19, CD20, CD1a, Tdt, CD21, and CD23+ in follicular dendritic cells. AITL is a rare and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with varied clinical presentation with classic histomorphology with various patterns which may cause diagnostic dilemma and immunophenotypic findings, and prompt and early diagnosis is mandatory for institution of therapy.

  5. Cell adhesion molecules expression pattern indicates that somatic cells arbitrate gonadal sex of differentiating bipotential fetal mouse gonad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piprek, Rafal P; Kolasa, Michal; Podkowa, Dagmara; Kloc, Malgorzata; Kubiak, Jacek Z

    2017-10-01

    Unlike other organ anlagens, the primordial gonad is sexually bipotential in all animals. In mouse, the bipotential gonad differentiates into testis or ovary depending on the genetic sex (XY or XX) of the fetus. During gonad development cells segregate, depending on genetic sex, into distinct compartments: testis cords and interstitium form in XY gonad, and germ cell cysts and stroma in XX gonad. However, our knowledge of mechanisms governing gonadal sex differentiation remains very vague. Because it is known that adhesion molecules (CAMs) play a key role in organogenesis, we suspected that diversified expression of CAMs should also play a crucial role in gonad development. Using microarray analysis we identified 129 CAMs and factors regulating cell adhesion during sexual differentiation of mouse gonad. To identify genes expressed differentially in three cell lines in XY and XX gonads: i) supporting (Sertoli or follicular cells), ii) interstitial or stromal cells, and iii) germ cells, we used transgenic mice expressing EGFP reporter gene and FACS cell sorting. Although a large number of CAMs expressed ubiquitously, expression of certain genes was cell line- and genetic sex-specific. The sets of CAMs differentially expressed in supporting versus interstitial/stromal cells may be responsible for segregation of these two cell lines during gonadal development. There was also a significant difference in CAMs expression pattern between XY supporting (Sertoli) and XX supporting (follicular) cells but not between XY and XX germ cells. This indicates that differential CAMs expression pattern in the somatic cells but not in the germ line arbitrates structural organization of gonadal anlagen into testis or ovary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Particle Size Affects Concentration-Dependent Cytotoxicity of Chitosan Nanoparticles towards Mouse Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, S. S. O.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Katas, H.

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) have been extensively applied in medical and pharmaceutical fields as promising drug delivery systems. Despite that, the safety of CSNPs remains inadequate and needs further investigation, particularly on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). CSNPs were prepared by ionic gelation method and later were characterized for their physical characteristics (particle size and zeta potential). Cytotoxicity of CSNPs was assessed by MTT assay. Particle size was highly influenced by chitosan concentration and molecular weight (medium and high molecular weight (MMW and HMW)). Higher chitosan concentration and molecular weight produced larger nanoparticles. Zeta potential of CSNPs was not significantly affected by chitosan concentrations and molecular weights used in the present study. MMW had a better stability than HMW CSNPs as their particle size and zeta potential were not significantly altered after autoclaving. Cytotoxicity of CSNPs was influenced by zeta potential and particle size. On the other hand, chitosan concentration and molecular weight indirectly influenced cytotoxicity by affecting particle size and zeta potential of CSNPs. In conclusion, cytotoxicity of CSNPs was mainly attributed to their physical characteristics and this opens a strategy to ensure the safety of CSNPs applications in stem cell technology.

  7. Size, sex and seasonal patterns in the assemblage of Carcharhiniformes in a sub-tropical bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S M; Bennett, M B

    2013-01-01

    Size, sex and seasonal patterns among Carcharhiniformes were examined in shallow regions of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. A total of 1259 sharks were caught, comprising 13 species. The Australian sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon taylori and the blacktip complex Carcharhinus limbatus-Carcharhinus tilstoni comprised 55% of all shark individuals. Neonates were observed for five species including the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus, which contrary to previous reports was relatively abundant in shallow, predominantly estuarine waters. Three contrasting patterns of occurrence were observed: smaller species were abundant and present throughout much of their ontogeny, larger species were mainly caught as neonates or juveniles and vagrant species were only caught during the warmer months. The shark assemblage differed significantly among seasons. While many species were observed during the warmer months, species diversity was lower in winter when C. obscurus comprised 43% of the catch. Overall, the results indicated that spatial and temporal distribution patterns were not synchronous for all species. The capture of small numbers of neonate C. obscurus in late autumn and winter demonstrates that parturition among Carcharhiniformes is not confined to spring and summer in sub-tropical waters. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. SHOEBOX Modulates Root Meristem Size in Rice through Dose-Dependent Effects of Gibberellins on Cell Elongation and Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jintao; Zhao, Yu; Chu, Huangwei; Wang, Likai; Fu, Yanru; Liu, Ping; Upadhyaya, Narayana; Chen, Chunli; Mou, Tongmin; Feng, Yuqi; Kumar, Prakash; Xu, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about how the size of meristem cells is regulated and whether it participates in the control of meristem size in plants. Here, we report our findings on shoebox (shb), a mild gibberellin (GA) deficient rice mutant that has a short root meristem size. Quantitative analysis of cortical cell length and number indicates that shb has shorter, rather than fewer, cells in the root meristem until around the fifth day after sowing, from which the number of cortical cells is also reduced. These defects can be either corrected by exogenous application of bioactive GA or induced in wild-type roots by a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of paclobutrazol on GA biosynthesis, suggesting that GA deficiency is the primary cause of shb mutant phenotypes. SHB encodes an AP2/ERF transcription factor that directly activates transcription of the GA biosynthesis gene KS1. Thus, root meristem size in rice is modulated by SHB-mediated GA biosynthesis that regulates the elongation and proliferation of meristem cells in a developmental stage-specific manner.

  9. SHOEBOX Modulates Root Meristem Size in Rice through Dose-Dependent Effects of Gibberellins on Cell Elongation and Proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintao Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how the size of meristem cells is regulated and whether it participates in the control of meristem size in plants. Here, we report our findings on shoebox (shb, a mild gibberellin (GA deficient rice mutant that has a short root meristem size. Quantitative analysis of cortical cell length and number indicates that shb has shorter, rather than fewer, cells in the root meristem until around the fifth day after sowing, from which the number of cortical cells is also reduced. These defects can be either corrected by exogenous application of bioactive GA or induced in wild-type roots by a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of paclobutrazol on GA biosynthesis, suggesting that GA deficiency is the primary cause of shb mutant phenotypes. SHB encodes an AP2/ERF transcription factor that directly activates transcription of the GA biosynthesis gene KS1. Thus, root meristem size in rice is modulated by SHB-mediated GA biosynthesis that regulates the elongation and proliferation of meristem cells in a developmental stage-specific manner.

  10. Attention changes perceived size of moving visual patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton-Erxleben, Katharina; Henrich, Christian; Treue, Stefan

    2007-08-23

    Spatial attention shifts receptive fields in monkey extrastriate visual cortex toward the focus of attention (S. Ben Hamed, J. R. Duhamel, F. Bremmer, & W. Graf, 2002; C. E. Connor, J. L. Gallant, D. C. Preddie, & D. C. Van Essen, 1996; C. E. Connor, D. C. Preddie, J. L. Gallant, & D. C. Van Essen, 1997; T. Womelsdorf, K. Anton-Erxleben, F. Pieper, & S. Treue, 2006). This distortion in the retinotopic distribution of receptive fields might cause distortions in spatial perception such as an increase of the perceived size of attended stimuli. Here we test for such an effect in human subjects by measuring the point of subjective equality (PSE) for the perceived size of a neutral and an attended stimulus when drawing automatic attention to one of two spatial locations. We found a significant increase in perceived size of attended stimuli. Depending on the absolute stimulus size, this effect ranged from 4% to 12% and was more pronounced for smaller than for larger stimuli. In our experimental design, an attentional effect on task difficulty or a cue bias might influence the PSE measure. We performed control experiments and indeed found such effects, but they could only account for part of the observed results. Our findings demonstrate that the allocation of transient spatial attention onto a visual stimulus increases its perceived size and additionally biases subjects to select this stimulus for a perceptual judgment.

  11. Uniform TiO2 nanoparticles induce apoptosis in epithelial cell lines in a size-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingqing; Ishii, Takayuki; Kanehira, Koki; Sato, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2017-05-02

    The size of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles is a vital parameter that determines their cytotoxicity. However, most reported studies have employed irregular shapes and sizes of TiO 2 nanoparticles, as it is difficult to produce nanoparticles of suitable sizes for research. We produced good model TiO 2 nanoparticles of uniform shape and size for use in studying their cytotoxicity. In this work, spherical, uniform polyethylene glycol-modified TiO 2 (TiO 2 -PEG) nanoparticles of differing sizes (100, 200, and 300 nm) were prepared using the sol-gel method. A size-dependent decrease in cell viability was observed with increasing nanoparticle size. Furthermore, apoptosis was found to be positively associated with nanoparticle size, as evidenced by an increase in caspase-3 activity with increasing nanoparticle size. Larger nanoparticles exhibited higher cellular uptake, suggesting that larger nanoparticles more strongly induce apoptosis. In addition, the cellular uptake of different sizes of nanoparticles was energy dependent, suggesting that there are size-dependent uptake pathways. We found that 100 and 200 nm (but not 300 nm) nanoparticles were taken up via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. These results utilizing uniform nanoparticles suggest that the size-dependent cytotoxicity of nanoparticles involves active cellular uptake, caspase-3 activation, and apoptosis in the epithelial cell line (NCI-H292). These findings will hopefully aid in the future design and safe use of nanoparticles.

  12. Urban Optimum Population Size and Development Pattern Based on Ecological Footprint Model: Case of Zhoushan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan LU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The agglomeration of population in the city can reflect the prosperity in the economy, society and culture. However, it has also brought a series of problems like environmental pollution, traffic congestion, housing shortage and jobs crisis. The results can be shown as the failure of urban comprehensive function, the decline of city benefits, and the contradiction between socioeconomic circumstance and ecosystem. Therefore, a reasonable population capacity, which is influenced by ecological resources, urban environment, geographical elements, social and economic factors, etc., is objectively needed. How to deal with the relationship between the utilization of natural capital and development of the city is extremely essential. This paper takes Zhoushan Island as an example, which is the fourth largest island off the coast of China. Firstly, the interactively influencing factors of urban optimal population are illustrated. And method is chosen to study the optimal population size. Secondly, based on the model of ecological footprint (EP, the paper calculates and analyzes the ecological footprint and ecological capacity of the Zhoushan Island, in order to explore the optimal population size of the city. Thirdly, analysis and evaluation of the resources and urban environment carrying capacity is made. Finally, the solution of the existing population problems and the suggestion for the future development pattern of the city are proposed in the urban eco-planning of Zhoushan Island. The main strategies can be summarized in two aspects: one is to reduce the ecological footprint, the other is to increase the ecological supply. The conclusion is that the current population of Zhoushan Island is far beyond the optimum population size calculated by the ecological footprint model. Therefore, sustainable development should be the guidance for urban planning in Zhoushan Island, and a low-carbon development pattern for the city is advocated.

  13. Energy harvesting from organic liquids in micro-sized microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, J.E.

    2014-03-07

    Micro-sized microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are miniature energy harvesters that use bacteria to convert biomass from liquids into usable power. The key challenge is transitioning laboratory test beds into devices capable of producing high power using readily available fuel sources. Here, we present a pragmatic step toward advancing MFC applications through the fabrication of a uniquely mobile and inexpensive micro-sized device that can be fueled with human saliva. The 25-ll MFC was fabricated with graphene, a two-dimensional atomic crystal-structured material, as an anode for efficient current generation and with an air cathode for enabling the use of the oxygen present in air, making its operation completely mobile and free of the need for laboratory chemicals. With saliva as a fuel, the device produced higher current densities (1190 Am-3) than any previous aircathode micro-sized MFCs. The use of the graphene anode generated 40 times more power than that possible using a carbon cloth anode. Additional tests were performed using acetate, a conventional organic material, at high organic loadings that were comparable to those in saliva, and the results demonstrated a linear relationship between the organic loading and current. These findings open the door to saliva-powered applications of this fuel cell technology for Lab-on-a-Chip devices or portable point-of-care diagnostic devices. 2014 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved 1884-4057/14.

  14. Pancreatin-EDTA treatment affects buoyancy of cells in Cohn fraction V protein density gradients without residual effect on cell size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, J W; Simmons, R J

    1983-12-01

    The buoyancy of suspension-grown Mastocytoma P815 X-2 cells in albumin-rich Cohn fraction V protein (CFVP) density gradients was found to be affected by prior incubation of the cells in pancreatin-EDTA salt solution. Whereas in pH 5.2 CFVP, pancreatin-EDTA treated cells behaved as if of reduced density when compared with the control 'undigested' group, in pH 7.3 CFVP they behaved as if of increased density. By contrast, pancreatin-EDTA treatment had no effect on the buoyancy of mastocytoma cells in polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated colloidal silica (PVP-CS, Percoll T.M.) density gradients of either pH 5.2 or pH 7.3. As cell size determinations failed to reveal alterations in cell size either as a direct result of pancreatin-EDTA treatment or as a combined consequence of such treatment and exposure to CFVP either with or without centrifugation, a mechanism involving a change in cell density other than during the centrifugation process itself seems unlikely. Binding studies employing 125I-CFVP, although indicating that CFVP bound to cells at 4 degrees, failed to reveal a pancreatin-EDTA treatment-related difference in the avidity of this binding. Although the mechanism of the pancreatin-EDTA-induced buoyancy shift in CFVP remains obscure, the absence of such an effect in PVP-CS suggests that the latter cell separation solution may more accurately be used to determine cell density.

  15. Immunohistochemical study of hepatocyte, cholangiocyte and stem cell markers of hepatocellular carcinoma: the second report: relationship with tumor size and cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Arisa; Kondo, Fukuo; Sano, Keiji; Inoue, Masafumi; Fujii, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Masaji; Watanabe, Masato; Soejima, Yurie; Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Tokairin, Takuo; Saito, Koji; Sasajima, Yuko; Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Uozaki, Hiroshi; Fukusato, Toshio

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether ordinary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) show positivity of stem/progenitor cell markers and cholangiocyte markers during the process of tumor progression. Ninety-four HCC lesions no larger than 8 cm from 94 patients were immuno-histochemically studied using two hepatocyte markers (Hep par 1 and α-fetoprotein), five cholangiocyte markers (cytokeratin CK7, CK19, Muc1, epithelial membrane antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen) and three hepatic stem/progenitor cell markers (CD56, c-Kit and EpCAM). The tumors were classified into three groups by tumor size: S1, tumors were also classified according to tumor differentiation: well, moderately and poorly differentiated. The relationship between the positive ratios of these markers, tumor size and tumor differentiation was examined. The positive ratios of cholangiocyte markers tended to be higher in larger sized and more poorly differentiated tumors (except for CK7). The positive ratios of stem/progenitor cell markers tended to be higher in larger sized and more poorly differentiated tumors (except for c-Kit). Ordinary HCC can acquire the characteristic of positivity of cholangiocyte and stem/progenitor cell markers during the process of tumor progression. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  16. Myonuclear transcription is responsive to mechanical load and DNA content but uncoupled from cell size during hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Tyler J; Patel, Rooshil M; McClintock, Timothy S; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E; Peterson, Charlotte A; McCarthy, John J

    2016-03-01

    Myofibers increase size and DNA content in response to a hypertrophic stimulus, thus providing a physiological model with which to study how these factors affect global transcription. Using 5-ethynyl uridine (EU) to metabolically label nascent RNA, we measured a sevenfold increase in myofiber transcription during early hypertrophy before a change in cell size and DNA content. The typical increase in myofiber DNA content observed at the later stage of hypertrophy was associated with a significant decrease in the percentage of EU-positive myonuclei; however, when DNA content was held constant by preventing myonuclear accretion via satellite cell depletion, both the number of transcriptionally active myonuclei and the amount of RNA generated by each myonucleus increased. During late hypertrophy, transcription did not scale with cell size, as smaller myofibers (transcriptional activity. Finally, transcription was primarily responsible for changes in the expression of genes known to regulate myofiber size. These findings show that resident myonuclei possess a significant reserve capacity to up-regulate transcription during hypertrophy and that myofiber transcription is responsive to DNA content but uncoupled from cell size during hypertrophy. © 2016 Kirby et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  17. Patterns of Expression of Vaginal T-Cell Activation Markers during Estrogen-Maintained Vaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sadeq Ameera

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The immunosuppressive activity of estrogen was further investigated by assessing the pattern of expression of CD25, CD28, CD69, and CD152 on vaginal T cells during estrogen-maintained vaginal candidiasis. A precipitous and significant decrease in vaginal fungal burden toward the end of week 3 postinfection was concurrent with a significant increase in vaginal lymphocyte numbers. During this period, the percentage of CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD152+, and CD28+ vaginal T cells gradually and significantly increased. The percentage of CD3+ and CD3+CD4+ cells increased from 43% and 15% at day 0 to 77% and 40% at day 28 postinfection. Compared with 29% CD152+ vaginal T cells in naive mice, > 70% of vaginal T cells were CD152+ at day 28 postinfection. In conclusion, estrogen-maintained vaginal candidiasis results in postinfection time-dependent changes in the pattern of expression of CD152, CD28, and other T-cell markers, suggesting that T cells are subject to mixed suppression and activation signals.

  18. Nanoimprint-Transfer-Patterned Solids Enhance Light Absorption in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younghoon; Bicanic, Kristopher; Tan, Hairen; Ouellette, Olivier; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Garcí a de Arquer, F. Pelayo; Jo, Jea Woong; Liu, Mengxia; Sun, Bin; Liu, Min; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2017-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) materials are of interest in thin-film solar cells due to their size-tunable bandgap and low-cost solution-processing. However, CQD solar cells suffer from inefficient charge extraction over the film thicknesses required

  19. Temperature-size responses match latitudinal-size clines in arthropods, revealing critical differences between aquatic and terrestrial species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, C.R.; Hirst, Andrew G.; Atkinson, D.

    2015-01-01

    of these gradients to date, and find that their direction and magnitude co-vary among 12 arthropod orders (r2 = 0.72). Body size in aquatic species generally reduces with both warming and decreasing latitude, whereas terrestrial species have much reduced and even opposite gradients. These patterns support...... the prediction that oxygen limitation is a major controlling factor in water, but not in air. Furthermore, voltinism explains much of the variation in T-S and L-S patterns in terrestrial but not aquatic species. While body size decreases with warming and with decreasing latitude in multivoltine terrestrial......Two major intraspecific patterns of adult size variation are plastic temperature-size (T-S) responses and latitude-size (L-S) clines. Yet, the degree to which these co-vary and share explanatory mechanisms has not been systematically evaluated. We present the largest quantitative comparison...

  20. Optimal sizing of plug-in fuel cell electric vehicles using models of vehicle performance and system cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Liangfei; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jianqiu; Yang, Fuyuan; Lu, Languang; Hua, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An analytical model for vehicle performance and power-train parameters. ► Quantitative relationships between vehicle performance and power-train parameters. ► Optimal sizing rules that help designing an optimal PEM fuel cell power-train. ► An on-road testing showing the performance of the proposed vehicle. -- Abstract: This paper presents an optimal sizing method for plug-in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell and lithium-ion battery (LIB) powered city buses. We propose a theoretical model describing the relationship between components’ parameters and vehicle performance. Analysis results show that within the working range of the electric motor, the maximal velocity and driving distance are influenced linearly by the parameters of the components, e.g. fuel cell efficiency, fuel cell output power, stored hydrogen mass, vehicle auxiliary power, battery capacity, and battery average resistance. Moreover, accelerating time is also linearly dependant on the abovementioned parameters, except of those of the battery. Next, we attempt to minimize fixed and operating costs by introducing an optimal sizing problem that uses as constraints the requirements on vehicle performance. By solving this problem, we attain several optimal sizing rules. Finally, we use these rules to design a plug-in PEM fuel cell city bus and present performance results obtained by on-road testing.

  1. Innervating sympathetic neurons regulate heart size and the timing of cardiomyocyte cell cycle withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreipke, R E; Birren, S J

    2015-12-01

    Sympathetic drive to the heart is a key modulator of cardiac function and interactions between heart tissue and innervating sympathetic fibres are established early in development. Significant innervation takes place during postnatal heart development, a period when cardiomyocytes undergo a rapid transition from proliferative to hypertrophic growth. The question of whether these innervating sympathetic fibres play a role in regulating the modes of cardiomyocyte growth was investigated using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to abolish early sympathetic innervation of the heart. Postnatal chemical sympathectomy resulted in rats with smaller hearts, indicating that heart growth is regulated by innervating sympathetic fibres during the postnatal period. In vitro experiments showed that sympathetic interactions resulted in delays in markers of cardiomyocyte maturation, suggesting that changes in the timing of the transition from hyperplastic to hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes could underlie changes in heart size in the sympathectomized animals. There was also an increase in the expression of Meis1, which has been linked to cardiomyocyte cell cycle withdrawal, suggesting that sympathetic signalling suppresses cell cycle withdrawal. This signalling involves β-adrenergic activation, which was necessary for sympathetic regulation of cardiomyocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. The effect of β-adrenergic signalling on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy underwent a developmental transition. While young postnatal cardiomyocytes responded to isoproterenol (isoprenaline) with a decrease in cell size, mature cardiomyocytes showed an increase in cell size in response to the drug. Together, these results suggest that early sympathetic effects on proliferation modulate a key transition between proliferative and hypertrophic growth of the heart and contribute to the sympathetic regulation of adult heart size. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  2. Three-Dimensional Spatiotemporal Modeling of Colon Cancer Organoids Reveals that Multimodal Control of Stem Cell Self-Renewal is a Critical Determinant of Size and Shape in Early Stages of Tumor Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huaming; Konstorum, Anna; Lowengrub, John S

    2018-05-01

    We develop a three-dimensional multispecies mathematical model to simulate the growth of colon cancer organoids containing stem, progenitor and terminally differentiated cells, as a model of early (prevascular) tumor growth. Stem cells (SCs) secrete short-range self-renewal promoters (e.g., Wnt) and their long-range inhibitors (e.g., Dkk) and proliferate slowly. Committed progenitor (CP) cells proliferate more rapidly and differentiate to produce post-mitotic terminally differentiated cells that release differentiation promoters, forming negative feedback loops on SC and CP self-renewal. We demonstrate that SCs play a central role in normal and cancer colon organoids. Spatial patterning of the SC self-renewal promoter gives rise to SC clusters, which mimic stem cell niches, around the organoid surface, and drive the development of invasive fingers. We also study the effects of externally applied signaling factors. Applying bone morphogenic proteins, which inhibit SC and CP self-renewal, reduces invasiveness and organoid size. Applying hepatocyte growth factor, which enhances SC self-renewal, produces larger sizes and enhances finger development at low concentrations but suppresses fingers at high concentrations. These results are consistent with recent experiments on colon organoids. Because many cancers are hierarchically organized and are subject to feedback regulation similar to that in normal tissues, our results suggest that in cancer, control of cancer stem cell self-renewal should influence the size and shape in similar ways, thereby opening the door to novel therapies.

  3. Patterns of Adherence of Helicobacter pylori Clinical Isolates to Epithelial Cells, and its Association with Disease and with Virulence Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Jiménez, Flor Elizabeth; Torres, Javier; Flores-Luna, Lourdes; Cerezo, Silvia Giono; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita

    2016-02-01

    Adherence to the gastric epithelium is one of the most important steps of Helicobacter pylori to remain and cause disease. The aim of this study was to analyze whether H. pylori isolates from patients with different gastroduodenal diseases present differences in the pattern of adherence to gastric epithelial cells (AGS), in the ability to induce IL-8, and in the presence of virulence genes. We tested 75 H. pylori strains isolated from nonatrophic gastritis, gastric cancer, and duodenal ulcer patients. The adhesion pattern and IL-8 induction were determined in AGS cells, and invasion of AGS cells was studied using a gentamicin protection assay. The IL-8 levels induced were determined by ELISA. Helicobacter pylori strains presented diffuse adherence (DA) and localized (LA) adherence patterns, similar to those described for enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), were observed in AGS cells. A DA pattern was observed in 57% and LA in 43% of the strains, and DA was more frequent in isolates from patients with gastric cancer (p = 0.044). Strains with a LA pattern induced higher levels of IL-8 (p = 0.042) in AGS cells. The adherence pattern was not associated with neither invasiveness nor with the presence of virulence genes. Our study shows that H. pylori strains present adherence patterns to AGS cells resembling those observed in EPEC and that these patterns may be associated with disease and with activity on AGS cells. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Radiation induced formation of giant cells in Saccharomyces uvarum. Pt. 4. Macromolecular synthesis and protein patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rink, H; Baumstark-Khan, C; Partke, H J

    1986-08-01

    X-irradiated (1.0 kGy) yeast cells (Saccharomyces uvarum, ATCC 9080), grown in liquid medium stop their mitotic activities and form giant cells by development of several buds which do not separate from mother cells. Depending on the time in culture, wet and dry weights per cell, protein- RNA- and DNA- contents per cell as well as incorporation rates of /sup 14/C-leucine per cell and per hour and patterns (isoelectric focusing) of water soluble proteins were studied. Weights per cell, RNA and protein contents per cell and /sup 14/C-leucine incorporation rates increase markedly in giant cells, whereas DNA content per cell is only duplicated. Protein patterns in isoelectric focusing show one interesting difference. In samples from giant cells one protein band (IP=6.63) decreases after 8 h in culture and later on disappears completely. This finding is not due to primary damage in X-irradiated DNA but seems to be related to the control of cell cycle events.

  5. Sizing stack and battery of a fuel cell hybrid distribution truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bram Veenhuizen; P. van den Bosch; T. Hofman; Edwin Tazelaar; Y. Shen

    2012-01-01

    An existing fuel cell hybrid distribution truck, built for demonstration purposes, is used as a case study to investigate the effect of stack (kW) and battery (kW, kWh) sizes on the hydrogen consumption of the vehicle. Three driving cycles, the NEDC for Low Power vehicles, CSC and JE05 cycle, define

  6. Multielemental fractionation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by size exclusion liquid chromatography coupled to UV and ICP-MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Gladys; Murillo, Miguel

    2010-10-01

    An analytical methodology is presented in this work to determine metal-biomolecule complexes size distribution patterns of several elements, among different compounds present in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). A hyphenated technique based on size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled online to UV and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection is used. Two different SEC columns with separation ranges between 1,500-1,000,000 relative molecular mass (M(r)) (Nanofilm SEC-250) and 5,000 and 100,000 relative molecular mass (M(r)) (TSK-Gel G2000 SW) are used with 10 mmol/L tris-HCl at pH 7.3 as mobile phase. Retention behavior (retention time and peak-area ratios) remained unchanged for several successive separations. Metal-containing compounds are found to a wide range of M(r). Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, copper and zinc metallothionein, and copper and zinc transferrin are identified in PBMC samples. A high M(r) (147,000) metal-binding protein containing copper and zinc and a high M(r) (107,000) manganese-binding protein were also found; however, these remained unknown.

  7. High cell density suppresses BMP4-induced differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to produce macroscopic spatial patterning in a unidirectional perfusion culture chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Shota; Le, Minh Nguyen Tuyet; Kusama, Yuta; Nakatani, Eri; Suga, Mika; Furue, Miho K; Satoh, Taku; Sugiura, Shinji; Kanamori, Toshiyuki; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi

    2018-04-19

    Spatial pattern formation is a critical step in embryogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and its inhibitors are major factors for the formation of spatial patterns during embryogenesis. However, spatial patterning of the human embryo is unclear because of ethical issues and isotropic culture environments resulting from conventional culture dishes. Here, we utilized human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and a simple anisotropic (unidirectional perfusion) culture chamber, which creates unidirectional conditions, to measure the cell community effect. The influence of cell density on BMP4-induced differentiation was explored during static culture using a conventional culture dish. Immunostaining of the early differentiation marker SSEA-1 and the mesendoderm marker BRACHYURY revealed that high cell density suppressed differentiation, with small clusters of differentiated and undifferentiated cells formed. Addition of five-fold higher concentration of BMP4 showed similar results, suggesting that suppression was not caused by depletion of BMP4 but rather by high cell density. Quantitative RT-PCR array analysis showed that BMP4 induced multi-lineage differentiation, which was also suppressed under high-density conditions. We fabricated an elongated perfusion culture chamber, in which proteins were transported unidirectionally, and hiPSCs were cultured with BMP4. At low density, the expression was the same throughout the chamber. However, at high density, SSEA-1 and BRACHYURY were expressed only in upstream cells, suggesting that some autocrine/paracrine factors inhibited the action of BMP4 in downstream cells to form the spatial pattern. Human iPSCs cultured in a perfusion culture chamber might be useful for studying in vitro macroscopic pattern formation in human embryogenesis. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing T cell clonal size distribution: a non-parametric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkhovskaya, Olesya V; Zorin, Daniil Yu; Ivanchenko, Mikhail V

    2014-01-01

    Clonal structure of the human peripheral T-cell repertoire is shaped by a number of homeostatic mechanisms, including antigen presentation, cytokine and cell regulation. Its accurate tuning leads to a remarkable ability to combat pathogens in all their variety, while systemic failures may lead to severe consequences like autoimmune diseases. Here we develop and make use of a non-parametric statistical approach to assess T cell clonal size distributions from recent next generation sequencing data. For 41 healthy individuals and a patient with ankylosing spondylitis, who undergone treatment, we invariably find power law scaling over several decades and for the first time calculate quantitatively meaningful values of decay exponent. It has proved to be much the same among healthy donors, significantly different for an autoimmune patient before the therapy, and converging towards a typical value afterwards. We discuss implications of the findings for theoretical understanding and mathematical modeling of adaptive immunity.

  9. Characterization of free amino acids, bacteria and fungi in size-segregated atmospheric aerosols in boreal forest: seasonal patterns, abundances and size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin, Aku; Sietiö, Outi-Maaria; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Bäck, Jaana; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Parshintsev, Jevgeni

    2017-11-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and constitute ˜ 30 % of atmospheric aerosol particle mass in sizes > 1 µm. PBAP components, such as bacteria, fungi and pollen, may affect the climate by acting as cloud-active particles, thus having an effect on cloud and precipitation formation processes. In this study, size-segregated aerosol samples ( 10 µm) were collected in boreal forest (Hyytiälä, Finland) during a 9-month period covering all seasons and analysed for free amino acids (FAAs), DNA concentration and microorganism (bacteria, Pseudomonas and fungi). Measurements were performed using tandem mass spectrometry, spectrophotometry and qPCR, respectively. Meteorological parameters and statistical analysis were used to study their atmospheric implication for results. Distinct annual patterns of PBAP components were observed, late spring and autumn being seasons of dominant occurrence. Elevated abundances of FAAs and bacteria were observed during the local pollen season, whereas fungi were observed at the highest level during autumn. Meteorological parameters such as air and soil temperature, radiation and rainfall were observed to possess a close relationship with PBAP abundances on an annual scale.

  10. Patterns of cell loss and repopulation in irradiated cultures of plateau phase C3H 10T1/2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, E.M.; Bedford, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    Patterns of cell loss and repopulation were studied in plateau phase cultures of slowly-cycling, contact-inhibited C3H 10T1/2 mouse fibroblasts following large single, and multiple small doses 137 Cs-gamma rays. A progressive, dose-independent cell loss was apparent within after irradiation with large single doses, and similar patterns of loss were observed following the start of multifraction irradiations. This progressive cell loss culminated in the loss of integrity of the monolayer of cells, a loss of contact-inhibition, and therefore, an increased rate of cell division. Repopulation did not start immediately after the start of irradiation, but needed a triggering event, in this case, a decrease to a critical level in the cell density. Once initiated, repopulation was able to decrease or even eliminate the effectiveness of subsequent doses in reducing the number of viable cells per culture. To the extent that the responses of slowly-cycling, contact-inhibited cells in vitro can be applied to interpret the radiation responses of cell populations in vivo, these results further support the notion that it may be necessary, in some cases, to account for an increasing contribution from repopulation with increasing overall treatment time in dose fractionation isoeffect formulae used for predicting tissue tolerances or tumor control. (Auth.)

  11. [Altitudinal patterns of species richness and species range size of vascular plants in Xiaolong- shan Reserve of Qinling Mountain: a test of Rapoport' s rule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi; Gong, Da-Jie; Sun, Cheng-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Jun; Li, Wan-Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Altitudinal patterns of species richness and species range size and their underlying mechanisms have long been a key topic in biogeography and biodiversity research. Rapoport's rule stated that the species richness gradually declined with the increasing altitude, while the species ranges became larger. Using altitude-distribution database from Xiaolongshan Reverse, this study explored the altitudinal patterns of vascular plant species richness and species range in Qinling Xiaolongshan Reserve, and examined the relationships between species richness and their distributional middle points in altitudinal bands for different fauna, taxonomic units and growth forms and tested the Rapoport's rule by using Stevens' method, Pagel's method, mid-point method and cross-species method. The results showed that the species richness of vascular plants except small-range species showed a unimodal pattern along the altitude in Qinling Xiaolongshan Reserve and the highest proportion of small-range species was found at the lower altitudinal bands and at the higher altitudinal bands. Due to different assemblages and examining methods, the relationships between species distributing range sizes and the altitudes were different. Increasing taxonomic units was easier to support Rapoport's rule, which was related to niche differences that the different taxonomic units occupied. The mean species range size of angiosperms showed a unimodal pattern along the altitude, while those of the gymnosperms and pteridophytes were unclearly regular. The mean species range size of the climbers was wider with the increasing altitude, while that of the shrubs which could adapt to different environmental situations was not sensitive to the change of altitude. Pagel's method was easier to support the Rapoport's rule, and then was Steven's method. On the contrary, due to the mid-domain effect, the results of the test by using the mid-point method showed that the mean species range size varied in a unimodal

  12. Patterns of genome size diversity in bats (order Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jillian D L; Bickham, John W; Gregory, T Ryan

    2013-08-01

    Despite being a group of particular interest in considering relationships between genome size and metabolic parameters, bats have not been well studied from this perspective. This study presents new estimates for 121 "microbat" species from 12 families and complements a previous study on members of the family Pteropodidae ("megabats"). The results confirm that diversity in genome size in bats is very limited even compared with other mammals, varying approximately 2-fold from 1.63 pg in Lophostoma carrikeri to 3.17 pg in Rhinopoma hardwickii and averaging only 2.35 pg ± 0.02 SE (versus 3.5 pg overall for mammals). However, contrary to some other vertebrate groups, and perhaps owing to the narrow range observed, genome size correlations were not apparent with any chromosomal, physiological, flight-related, developmental, or ecological characteristics within the order Chiroptera. Genome size is positively correlated with measures of body size in bats, though the strength of the relationships differs between pteropodids ("megabats") and nonpteropodids ("microbats").

  13. Opposite patterns of age-associated changes in neurons and glial cells of the thalamus of human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidolin, D; Zunarelli, E; Genedani, S; Trentini, G P; De Gaetani, C; Fuxe, K; Benegiamo, C; Agnati, L F

    2008-06-01

    In an autopsy series of 19 individuals, age-ranged 24-94, a relatively age-spared region, the anterior-ventral thalamus, was analyzed by immunohistochemical techniques to visualize neurons (neurofilament protein), astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein), microglial cells (CD68) and amyloid precursor protein. The pattern of immunoreactivity was determined by surface fractal dimension and lacunarity, the size by the field area (FA) and the spatial uniformity by the uniformity index. From the normalized FA values of immunoreactivity for the four markers studied, a global parameter was defined to give an overall characterization of the age-dependent changes in the glio-neuronal networks. A significant exponential decline of the GP was observed with increasing age. This finding suggests that early in life (ageage>70 years) could be due to the non-trophic reserve still available.

  14. The modulation of canine mesenchymal stem cells by nano-topographic cues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Joshua A.; Ly, Irene; Borjesson, Dori L.; Nealey, Paul F.; Russell, Paul; Murphy, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising cellular therapeutic for the treatment of a variety of disorders. On transplantation, MSCs interact with diverse extracellular matrices (ECMs) that vary dramatically in topographic feature type, size and surface order. In order to investigate the impact of these topographic cues, surfaces were fabricated with either isotropically ordered holes or anisotropically ordered ridges and grooves. To simulate the biologically relevant nano through micron size scale, a series of topographically patterned substrates possessing features of differing pitch (pitch=feature width+groove width) were created. Results document that the surface order and size of substratum topographic features dramatically modulate fundamental MSC behaviors. Topographically patterned (ridge+groove) surfaces were found to significantly impact MSC alignment, elongation, and aspect ratio. Novel findings also demonstrate that submicron surfaces patterned with holes resulted in increased MSC alignment to adjacent cells as well as increased migration rates. Overall, this study demonstrates that the presentation of substratum topographic cues dramatically influence MSC behaviors in a size and shape dependent manner. The response of MSCs to substratum topographic cues was similar to other cell types that have been studied previously with regards to cell shape on ridge and groove surfaces but differed with respect to proliferation and migration. This is the first study to compare the impact of anisotropically ordered ridge and groove topographic cues to isotropically order holed topographic cues on fundamental MSC behaviors across a range of biologically relevant size scales.

  15. The modulation of canine mesenchymal stem cells by nano-topographic cues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Joshua A.; Ly, Irene [Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis (United States); Borjesson, Dori L. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis (United States); Nealey, Paul F. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Russell, Paul [Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis (United States); Murphy, Christopher J., E-mail: cjmurphy@ucdavis.edu [Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising cellular therapeutic for the treatment of a variety of disorders. On transplantation, MSCs interact with diverse extracellular matrices (ECMs) that vary dramatically in topographic feature type, size and surface order. In order to investigate the impact of these topographic cues, surfaces were fabricated with either isotropically ordered holes or anisotropically ordered ridges and grooves. To simulate the biologically relevant nano through micron size scale, a series of topographically patterned substrates possessing features of differing pitch (pitch=feature width+groove width) were created. Results document that the surface order and size of substratum topographic features dramatically modulate fundamental MSC behaviors. Topographically patterned (ridge+groove) surfaces were found to significantly impact MSC alignment, elongation, and aspect ratio. Novel findings also demonstrate that submicron surfaces patterned with holes resulted in increased MSC alignment to adjacent cells as well as increased migration rates. Overall, this study demonstrates that the presentation of substratum topographic cues dramatically influence MSC behaviors in a size and shape dependent manner. The response of MSCs to substratum topographic cues was similar to other cell types that have been studied previously with regards to cell shape on ridge and groove surfaces but differed with respect to proliferation and migration. This is the first study to compare the impact of anisotropically ordered ridge and groove topographic cues to isotropically order holed topographic cues on fundamental MSC behaviors across a range of biologically relevant size scales.

  16. Size- and time-dependent growth properties of human induced pluripotent stem cells in the culture of single aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Suman C; Horie, Masanobu; Nagamori, Eiji; Kino-Oka, Masahiro

    2017-10-01

    Aggregate culture of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is a promising method to obtain high number of cells for cell therapy applications. This study quantitatively evaluated the effects of initial cell number and culture time on the growth of hiPSCs in the culture of single aggregate. Small size aggregates ((1.1 ± 0.4) × 10 1 -(2.8 ± 0.5) × 10 1 cells/aggregate) showed a lower growth rate in comparison to medium size aggregates ((8.8 ± 0.8) × 10 1 -(6.8 ± 1.1) × 10 2 cells/aggregate) during early-stage of culture (24-72 h). However, when small size aggregates were cultured in conditioned medium, their growth rate increased significantly. On the other hand, large size aggregates ((1.1 ± 0.2) × 10 3 -(3.5 ± 1.1) × 10 3 cells/aggregate) showed a lower growth rate and lower expression level of proliferation marker (ki-67) in the center region of aggregate in comparison to medium size aggregate during early-stage of culture. Medium size aggregates showed the highest growth rate during early-stage of culture. Furthermore, hiPSCs proliferation was dependent on culture time because the growth rate decreased significantly during late-stage of culture (72-120 h) at which point collagen type I accumulated on the periphery of aggregate, suggesting blockage of diffusive transport of nutrients, oxygen and metabolites into and out of the aggregates. Consideration of initial cell number and culture time are important to maintain balance between autocrine factors secretion and extracellular matrix accumulation on the aggregate periphery to achieve optimal growth of hiPSCs in the culture of single aggregate. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental study of commercial size proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Wei-Mon; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Lee, Duu-Jong; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Guo, Yi-Fan; Su, Ay

    2011-01-01

    Commercial sized (16 x 16 cm 2 active surface area) proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells with serpentine flow chambers are fabricated. The GORE-TEX (registered) PRIMEA 5621 was used with a 35-μm-thick PEM with an anode catalyst layer with 0.45 mg cm -2 Pt and cathode catalyst layer with 0.6 mg cm -2 Pt and Ru or GORE-TEX (registered) PRIMEA 57 was used with an 18-μm-thick PEM with an anode catalyst layer at 0.2 mg cm -2 Pt and cathode catalyst layer at 0.4 mg cm -2 of Pt and Ru. At the specified cell and humidification temperatures, the thin PRIMEA 57 membrane yields better cell performance than the thick PRIMEA 5621 membrane, since hydration of the former is more easily maintained with the limited amount of produced water. Sufficient humidification at both the cathode and anode sides is essential to achieve high cell performance with a thick membrane, like the PRIMEA 5621. The optimal cell temperature to produce the best cell performance with PRIMEA 5621 is close to the humidification temperature. For PRIMEA 57, however, optimal cell temperature exceeds the humidification temperature.

  18. Pyro-electrification of polymer membranes for cell patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rega, R.; Gennari, O.; Mecozzia, L.; Grilli, S.; Pagliarulo, V.; Ferraro, P. [National Council of Research, Institute of Applied Science & Intelligent Systems (ISASI) ‘E. Caianiello’, Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078 Pozzuoli (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    In the recent years, much attention has been devoted to the possibility of charging polymer-based materials, due to their potential in developing large-scale and inexpensive flexible thin-film technology. The availability of localized electrostatic fields is in of great interest for a huge amount of applications such as distribution of biomolecules and cells from the liquid phase. Here we report a voltage-free pyro-electrification (PE) process able to induce permanent dipoles into polymer layers; the lithium niobate (LN) crystal is the key component that plays the multi-purpose role of sustaining, heating and poling the polymer layer that is then peeled-off easily in order to have a free-standing charged membrane. The results show the fascinating application for the living cell patterning. It well known that cell behaviour is affected by chemical and topographical cues of substrate. In fact, polymers, such as polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), are naturally cytophobic and require specific functionalization treatments in order to promote cell adhesion. Through our proposal technique, it’s possible to obtain spontaneous organization and a driven growth of SH-SY5Y cells that is solely dictated by the nature of the charge polymer surface, opening, in this way, the innovative chance to manipulate and transfer biological samples on a free-standing polymer layer [1].

  19. X-ray tube focal spot sizes: comprehensive studies of their measurement and effect of measured size in angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, K.; Loo, L.N.; Chan, H.P.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-two focal spot sizes of four x-ray tubes were measured by the pinhole, star pattern, slit, and root-mean-square (RMS) methods under various exposure conditions. The modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and line spread functions (LSFs) were also determined. The star pattern focal spot sizes agreed with the effective sizes calculated from the frequencies at the first minimum of the MTF within 0.04 mm for large focal spots and within 0.01 mm for small focal spots. The focal spot size determined by the slit method was approximately equal to the width of the LSF at the cutoff level of 0.15 +/- 0.06 of the peak value. The RMS method provided the best correlation between the measured focal spot sizes and the corresponding image distributions of blood vessels. The pinhole and slit methods tended to overestimate the focal spot size, but the star pattern method tended to underestimate it. For approximately 90% of the focal spots, the average of the star and slit (or pinhole) focal spot sizes agreed with the RMS focal spot size within +/- 0.1 mm

  20. A novel Drosophila Girdin-like protein is involved in Akt pathway control of cell size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puseenam, Aekkachai [Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Insect Biomedical Research Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuhide [Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Venture Laboratory, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Nagai, Rika [Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Insect Biomedical Research Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Hashimoto, Reina [Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Venture Laboratory, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Suyari, Osamu [Insect Biomedical Research Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Itoh, Masanobu [Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Insect Biomedical Research Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Enomoto, Atsushi [Department of Pathology, Center for Neurological Disease and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550 (Japan); Takahashi, Masahide [Insect Biomedical Research Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Department of Pathology, Center for Neurological Disease and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Masamitsu, E-mail: myamaguc@kit.ac.jp [Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Insect Biomedical Research Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    The Akt signaling pathway is well known to regulate cell proliferation and growth. Girdin, a novel substrate of Akt, plays a crucial role in organization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell motility under the control of Akt. We here identified a novel Girdin-like protein in Drosophila (dGirdin), which has two isoforms, dGirdin PA and dGirdin PB. dGirdin shows high homology with human Girdin in the N-terminal and coiled-coil domains, while diverging at the C-terminal domain. On establishment of transgenic fly lines, featuring knockdown or overexpression of dGirdin in vivo, overexpression in the wing disc cells induced ectopic apoptosis, implying a role in directing apoptosis. Knockdown of dGirdin in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc cells resulted in reduction of cell size. Furthermore, this was enhanced by half reduction of the Akt gene dose, suggesting that Akt positively regulates dGirdin. In the wing disc, cells in which dGirdin was knocked down exhibited disruption of actin filaments. From these in vivo analyses, we conclude that dGirdin is required for actin organization and regulation of appropriate cell size under control of the Akt signaling pathway.

  1. A novel Drosophila Girdin-like protein is involved in Akt pathway control of cell size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puseenam, Aekkachai; Yoshioka, Yasuhide; Nagai, Rika; Hashimoto, Reina; Suyari, Osamu; Itoh, Masanobu; Enomoto, Atsushi; Takahashi, Masahide; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2009-01-01

    The Akt signaling pathway is well known to regulate cell proliferation and growth. Girdin, a novel substrate of Akt, plays a crucial role in organization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell motility under the control of Akt. We here identified a novel Girdin-like protein in Drosophila (dGirdin), which has two isoforms, dGirdin PA and dGirdin PB. dGirdin shows high homology with human Girdin in the N-terminal and coiled-coil domains, while diverging at the C-terminal domain. On establishment of transgenic fly lines, featuring knockdown or overexpression of dGirdin in vivo, overexpression in the wing disc cells induced ectopic apoptosis, implying a role in directing apoptosis. Knockdown of dGirdin in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc cells resulted in reduction of cell size. Furthermore, this was enhanced by half reduction of the Akt gene dose, suggesting that Akt positively regulates dGirdin. In the wing disc, cells in which dGirdin was knocked down exhibited disruption of actin filaments. From these in vivo analyses, we conclude that dGirdin is required for actin organization and regulation of appropriate cell size under control of the Akt signaling pathway.

  2. Variation of rain intensity and drop size distribution with General Weather Patterns (GWL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghada, Wael; Buras, Allan; Lüpke, Marvin; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    Short-duration rainfall extremes may cause flash floods in certain catchments (e.g. cities or fast responding watersheds) and pose a great risk to affected communities. In order to predict their occurrence under future climate change scenarios, their link to atmospheric circulation patterns needs to be well understood. We used a comprehensive data set of meteorological data (temperature, rain gauge precipitation) and precipitation spectra measured by a disdrometer (OTT PARSIVEL) between October 2008 and June 2010 at Freising, southern Germany. For the 21 months of the study period, we integrated the disdrometer spectra over intervals of 10 minutes to correspond to the temporal resolution of the weather station data and discarded measurements with air temperatures below 0°C. Daily General Weather Patterns ("Großwetterlagen", GWL) were downloaded from the website of the German Meteorological Service. Out of the 29 GWL, 14 were included in the analysis for which we had at least 12 rain events during our study period. For the definition of a rain event, we tested different lengths of minimum inter-event times and chose 30 min as a good compromise between number and length of resulting events; rain events started when more than 0.001 mm/h (sensitivity of the disdrometer) were recorded. The length of the rain events ranged between 10 min and 28 h (median 130 min) with the maximum rain intensity recorded being 134 mm/h on 24-07-2009. Seasonal differences were identified for rain event average intensities and maximum intensities per event. The influence of GWL on rain properties such as rain intensity and drop size distribution per time step and per event was investigated based on the above mentioned rain event definition. Pairwise Wilcoxon-tests revealed that higher rain intensity and larger drops were associated with the GWL "Low over the British Isles" (TB), whereas low rain intensities and less drops per interval were associated with the GWL "High over Central Europe

  3. Enhancement of cell growth on honeycomb-structured polylactide surface using atmospheric-pressure plasma jet modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kuang-Yao; Chang, Chia-Hsing; Yang, Yi-Wei; Liao, Guo-Chun; Liu, Chih-Tung; Wu, Jong-Shinn, E-mail: chongsin@faculty.nctu.edu.tw

    2017-02-01

    Graphical abstract: Atmospheric-pressure plasma enhances cell growth on two different pore sizes of honeycomb pattern on polylactide surface. - Highlights: • Different pore sizes of honeycomb pattern on PLA film are created. • The two-step plasma treatment provided the oxygen- and nitrogen-containing functional groups that had a major impact on cell cultivation. • The plasma treatment had a significant effect for cell proliferation. • The surface structures are the main influence on cell cultivation, while plasma treatment can indeed improve the growth environment. - Abstract: In this paper, we compare the cell growth results of NIH-3T3 and Neuro-2A cells over 72 h on flat and honeycomb structured PLA films without and with a two-step atmospheric-pressure nitrogen-based plasma jet treatment. We developed a fabrication system used for forming of a uniform honeycomb structure on PLA surface, which can produce two different pore sizes, 3–4 μm and 7–8 μm, of honeycomb pattern. We applied a previously developed nitrogen-based atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet system to treat the PLA film without and with honeycomb structure. NIH-3T3 and a much smaller Neuro-2A cells were cultivated on the films under various surface conditions. The results show that the two-step plasma treatment in combination with a honeycomb structure can enhance cell growth on PLA film, should the cell size be not too smaller than the pore size of honeycomb structure, e.g., NIH-3T3. Otherwise, cell growth would be better on flat PLA film, e.g., Neuro-2A.

  4. The influence of surface integrin binding patterns on specific biomaterial-cell interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranek, Maggi Marie

    As the future of biomaterials progresses toward bioactivity, the biomaterial surface must control non-specific protein adsorption and encourage selective protein and cell adsorption. Integrins alphavbeta3, alpha 1beta1, alpha5beta1 and alpha Mbeta2 are expressed on cells involved in endothelialization, inflammation, and intimal hyperplasia. These cellular events play a vital role in biomaterial biocompatibility, especially in the vascular environment. The overall hypothesis of these studies is that biomaterial surfaces exhibit selective integrin binding, which then specifies differential cell binding. To test this hypothesis, four specific aims were developed. The first aim was designed to determine whether metal and polymeric biomaterials exhibit selective integrin binding. The tested materials included 316L stainless steel, nitinol, gold, Elgiloy RTM, poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide), polycarbonate urethane and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene. Discrete integrin binding patterns were detected microscopically using integrin specific fluorescent antibodies. Stainless steel exhibited high level integrin alpha1beta 1 and low level integrin alphaMbeta2 binding pattern. This suggests that this metal surface should selectively encourage endothelial cell to inflammatory cell binding. In contrast, gold bound ten times the amount of integrin alphaMbeta2 compared to integrin alpha1beta1, which should encourage inflammatory cell adhesion. The 65/35 poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) was the only polymeric biomaterial tested that had integrin binding levels comparable to metal biomaterials. Based on these observations, a combinational biomaterial with a surface pattern of 65/35 poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) dots on a 316L stainless steel background was created. A pattern of high level integrin alpha1beta1 binding and low level integrin alpha Mbeta2 binding on this combinational surface indicates that this surface should selectively favor endothelial cell binding. In the second

  5. Comparative effects of macro-sized aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide nanoparticles on erythrocyte hemolysis: influence of cell source, temperature, and size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinardell, M. P., E-mail: mpvinardellmh@ub.edu; Sordé, A. [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisiologia, Facultat de Farmàcia (Spain); Díaz, J. [Universitat de Barcelona CCiT, Scientific and Technological Centers (Spain); Baccarin, T.; Mitjans, M. [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisiologia, Facultat de Farmàcia (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is the most abundantly produced nanomaterial and has been used in diverse fields, including the medical, military, and industrial sectors. As there are concerns about the health effects of nanoparticles, it is important to understand how they interact with cells, and specifically with red blood cells. The hemolysis induced by three commercial nano-sized aluminum oxide particles (nanopowder 13 nm, nanopowder <50 nm, and nanowire 2–6 × 200–400 nm) was compared to aluminum oxide and has been studied on erythrocytes from humans, rats, and rabbits, in order to elucidate the mechanism of action and the influence of size and shape on hemolytic behavior. The concentrations inducing 50 % hemolysis (HC{sub 50}) were calculated for each compound studied. The most hemolytic aluminum oxide particles were of nanopowder 13, followed by nanowire and nanopowder 50. The addition of albumin to PBS induced a protective effect on hemolysis in all the nano-forms of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, but not on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The drop in HC{sub 50} correlated to a decrease in nanomaterial size, which was induced by a reduction of aggregation. Aluminum oxide nanoparticles are less hemolytic than other oxide nanoparticles and behave differently depending on the size and shape of the nanoparticles. The hemolytic behavior of aluminum oxide nanoparticles differs from that of aluminum oxide.

  6. Exact, time-independent estimation of clone size distributions in normal and mutated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, A; Jones, P H; Greenman, C D

    2014-10-06

    Biological tools such as genetic lineage tracing, three-dimensional confocal microscopy and next-generation DNA sequencing are providing new ways to quantify the distribution of clones of normal and mutated cells. Understanding population-wide clone size distributions in vivo is complicated by multiple cell types within observed tissues, and overlapping birth and death processes. This has led to the increased need for mathematically informed models to understand their biological significance. Standard approaches usually require knowledge of clonal age. We show that modelling on clone size independent of time is an alternative method that offers certain analytical advantages; it can help parametrize these models, and obtain distributions for counts of mutated or proliferating cells, for example. When applied to a general birth-death process common in epithelial progenitors, this takes the form of a gambler's ruin problem, the solution of which relates to counting Motzkin lattice paths. Applying this approach to mutational processes, alternative, exact, formulations of classic Luria-Delbrück-type problems emerge. This approach can be extended beyond neutral models of mutant clonal evolution. Applications of these approaches are twofold. First, we resolve the probability of progenitor cells generating proliferating or differentiating progeny in clonal lineage tracing experiments in vivo or cell culture assays where clone age is not known. Second, we model mutation frequency distributions that deep sequencing of subclonal samples produce.

  7. Effect of hydroxyapatite particle size, morphology and crystallinity on proliferation of colon cancer HCT116 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Sangeeta; Das, Mitun, E-mail: mitun@cgcri.res.in; Balla, Vamsi Krishna

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work is to chemically and physically characterize the synthesized Hydroxyapatite (HAp) micro and nanoparticles and to explore the inhibitory effect of nano-HAps on the in vitro growth of human colon cancerous cells HCT116. HAp powder was synthesized using three different routes to achieve micro and nanosized powders, with different morphologies and crystallinity. The synthesized powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the average crystallite size of HAp powder varies from 11 nm to 177 nm and respective crystallinity of powder found to be in the range of 0.12 and 0.92. The effect of these physico-chemical properties of HAp powders on human colon cancer HCT116 cells inhibition was determined in vitro. It was found that decreasing the HAp powder crystallite size between 11 nm and 22 nm significantly increases the HCT116 cell inhibition. Our results demonstrate that apart from HAp powder size their crystallinity and morphology also play an important role in cellular inhibition of human colon cancer cells. - Highlights: • Chemically synthesized hydroxyapatite micro and nano-particles with different morphologies and crystallinity. • In vitro cell–material interaction showed that hydroxyapatite nano-particles inhibit colon cancer cells. • Human colon cancer cell inhibition also depends on crystallinity and morphology of HAp powder.

  8. Associations between pathogen-specific clinical mastitis and somatic cell count patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de Y.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Barkema, H.W.; Gröhn, Y.T.; Schukken, Y.H.

    2004-01-01

    Associations were estimated between pathogen-specific cases of clinical mastitis (CM) and somatic cell count (SCC) patterns based on deviations from the typical curve for SCC during lactation and compared with associations between pathogen-specific CM and lactation average SCC. Data from 274 Dutch

  9. Patterns and trends in food portion sizes, 1977-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Samara Joy; Popkin, Barry M

    While general consensus holds that food portion sizes are increasing, no empirical data have documented actual increases. To determine trends in food portion sizes consumed in the United States, by eating location and food source. Nationally representative data from the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (1977-1978) and the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (1989-1991, 1994-1996, and 1998). The sample consists of 63 380 individuals aged 2 years and older. For each survey year, average portion size consumed from specific food items (salty snacks, desserts, soft drinks, fruit drinks, french fries, hamburgers, cheeseburgers, pizza, and Mexican food) by eating location (home, restaurant, or fast food). Portion sizes vary by food source, with the largest portions consumed at fast food establishments and the smallest at other restaurants. Between 1977 and 1996, food portion sizes increased both inside and outside the home for all categories except pizza. The energy intake and portion size of salty snacks increased by 93 kcal (from 1.0 to 1.6 oz [28.4 to 45.4 g]), soft drinks by 49 kcal (13.1 to 19.9 fl oz [387.4 to 588.4 mL]), hamburgers by 97 kcal (5.7 to 7.0 oz [161.6 to 198.4 g]), french fries by 68 kcal (3.1 to 3.6 oz [87.9 to 102.1 g]), and Mexican food by 133 kcal (6.3 to 8.0 oz [178.6 to 226.8 g]). Portion sizes and energy intake for specific food types have increased markedly with greatest increases for food consumed at fast food establishments and in the home.

  10. Macroevolutionary patterns of sexual size dimorphism in copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Major theories compete to explain the macroevolutionary trends observed in sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in animals. Quantitative genetic theory suggests that the sex under historically stronger directional selection will exhibit greater interspecific variance in size, with covariation between allometric slopes (male to female size) and the strength of SSD across clades. Rensch's rule (RR) also suggests a correlation, but one in which males are always the more size variant sex. Examining free-living pelagic and parasitic Copepoda, we test these competing predictions. Females are commonly the larger sex in copepod species. Comparing clades that vary by four orders of magnitude in their degree of dimorphism, we show that isometry is widespread. As such we find no support for either RR or for covariation between allometry and SSD. Our results suggest that selection on both sexes has been equally important. We next test the prediction that variation in the degree of SSD is related to the adult sex ratio. As males become relatively less abundant, it has been hypothesized that this will lead to a reduction in both inter-male competition and male size. However, the lack of such a correlation across diverse free-living pelagic families of copepods provides no support for this hypothesis. By comparison, in sea lice of the family Caligidae, there is some qualitative support of the hypothesis, males may suffer elevated mortality when they leave the host and rove for sedentary females, and their female-biased SSD is greater than in many free-living families. However, other parasitic copepods which do not appear to have obvious differences in sex-based mate searching risks also show similar or even more extreme SSD, therefore suggesting other factors can drive the observed extremes. PMID:25100692

  11. Assessing T cell clonal size distribution: a non-parametric approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya V Bolkhovskaya

    Full Text Available Clonal structure of the human peripheral T-cell repertoire is shaped by a number of homeostatic mechanisms, including antigen presentation, cytokine and cell regulation. Its accurate tuning leads to a remarkable ability to combat pathogens in all their variety, while systemic failures may lead to severe consequences like autoimmune diseases. Here we develop and make use of a non-parametric statistical approach to assess T cell clonal size distributions from recent next generation sequencing data. For 41 healthy individuals and a patient with ankylosing spondylitis, who undergone treatment, we invariably find power law scaling over several decades and for the first time calculate quantitatively meaningful values of decay exponent. It has proved to be much the same among healthy donors, significantly different for an autoimmune patient before the therapy, and converging towards a typical value afterwards. We discuss implications of the findings for theoretical understanding and mathematical modeling of adaptive immunity.

  12. Using micro-patterned sensors and cell self-assembly for measuring the oxygen consumption rate of single cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etzkorn, James R; Parviz, Babak A; Wu, Wen-Chung; Tian, Zhiyuan; Kim, Prince; Jang, Sei-Hum; Jen, Alex K-Y; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for self-assembling arrays of live single cells on a glass chip using a photopatternable polymer to form micro-traps. We have studied the single-cell self-assembly method and optimized the process to obtain a 52% yield of single-trapped cells. We also report a method to measure the oxygen consumption rate of a single cell using micro-patterned sensors. These molecular oxygen sensors were fabricated around each micro-trap allowing optical interrogation of oxygen concentration in the immediate environment of the trapped cell. Micromachined micro-wells were then used to seal the trap, sensor and cell in order to determine the oxygen consumption rate of single cells. These techniques reported here add to the collection of tools for performing 'singe-cell' biology. An oxygen consumption rate of 1.05 ± 0.28 fmol min −1 was found for a data set consisting of 25 single A549 cells.

  13. Preparing of Highly Conductive Patterns on Flexible Substrates by Screen Printing of Silver Nanoparticles with Different Size Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jin; Liu, Jun; Tian, Qingyong; Wu, Zhaohui; Yao, Weijing; Dai, Zhigao; Liu, Li; Wu, Wei

    2016-12-01

    A facile one-step polyol method is employed to synthesize the Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in large scale. The Ag NPs with different average diameter (from 52 to 120 nm) and particle size distribution are prepared by changing the mass ratio of AgNO3 and PVP. Furthermore, the as-obtained Ag NPs are prepared as conductive inks, which could be screen printed on various flexible substrates and formed as conductive patterns after sintering treatment. During the reaction process, PVP is used as the capping reagent for preventing the agglomeration of Ag NPs, and the influence of the mass ratio of AgNO3 and PVP to the size distribution of Ag NPs is investigated. The results of electronic properties reveal that the conductivity of printed patterns is highly dependent on the size distribution of as-obtained Ag NPs. Among all the samples, the optimal conductivity is obtained when the mass ratio of AgNO3 and PVP is 1:0.4. Subsequently, the sintering time and temperature are further investigated for obtaining the best conductivity; the optimal electrical resistivity value of 3.83 μΩ · cm is achieved at 160 °C for 75 min, which is close to the resistivity value of the bulk silver (1.58 μΩ · cm). Significantly, there are many potential advantages in printed electronics applications because of the as-synthesized Ag NPs with a low sintering temperature and low electrical resistivity.

  14. Module-based complexity formation: periodic patterning in feathers and hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Yeh, Chao-Yuan; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Widelitz, Randall

    2013-01-01

    Patterns describe order which emerges from homogeneity. Complex patterns on the integument are striking because of their visibility throughout an organism’s lifespan. Periodic patterning is an effective design because the ensemble of hair or feather follicles (modules) allows the generation of complexity, including regional variations and cyclic regeneration, giving the skin appendages a new lease on life. Spatial patterns include the arrangements of feathers and hairs in specific number, size, and spacing.We explorehowa field of equivalent progenitor cells can generate periodically arranged modules based on genetic information, physical–chemical rules and developmental timing. Reconstitution experiments suggest a competitive equilibrium regulated by activators/inhibitors involving Turing reaction-diffusion. Temporal patterns result from oscillating stem cell activities within each module (microenvironment regulation), reflected as growth (anagen) and resting (telogen) phases during the cycling of feather and hair follicles. Stimulating modules with activators initiates the spread of regenerative hair waves, while global inhibitors outside each module (macroenvironment) prevent this. Different wave patterns can be simulated by cellular automata principles. Hormonal status and seasonal changes can modulate appendage phenotypes, leading to ‘organ metamorphosis’, with multiple ectodermal organ phenotypes generated from the same precursors. We discuss potential novel evolutionary steps using this module-based complexity in several amniote integument organs, exemplified by the spectacular peacock feather pattern. We thus explore the application of the acquired knowledge of patterning in tissue engineering. New hair follicles can be generated after wounding. Hairs and feathers can be reconstituted through self-organization of dissociated progenitor cells. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Study of homing patterns of x-irradiated murine lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, D.A.

    1974-01-01

    Effects of in vitro x-ray exposure of murine lymphoid cells on their subsequent in vivo homing patterns were studied. The homing of lymphoid cells to various tissues and organs was followed by using radio-labeled cell preparations or by following the distribution of cells with a specific immunological memory. X irradiation of 51 Cr-labeled spleen, lymph node, bone marrow, or thymus cells was found to significantly alter their subsequent in vivo distribution. Irradiated cells demonstrated an increased distribution to the liver and a significantly lower retention in the lungs. Cells going to the lymph nodes of Peyer's patches showed a significant exposure dependent decrease in homing following irradiation. Irradiated lymph node cells homed in greater numbers to the spleen and bone marrow, while irradiated cells from other sources showed a decrease or no change indistribution to the same tissues. Lymph node cell suspensions from dinitrophenyl-bovine gamma globulin (DNP-BGG) immune LBN rats were prepared, irradiated (0 and 200 R) and injected into intermediate (LBN) hosts and controls. Irradiated memory cells provided a secondary antibody response, which was delayed but not suppressed when compared to unirradiated cells. Alteration in homing of lymphocytes caused by various physical and chemical agents was a result of effects on cell membrane characteristics which controlled some aspects of the phenomenon. Radiation (100 to 200 R) may have had a similar effect or it may have resulted in the selective elimination of a population of cells. (U.S.)

  16. A novel method to achieve selective emitter for silicon solar cell using low cost pattern-able a-Si thin films as the semi-transparent phosphorus diffusion barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Da Ming; Liang, Zong Cun; Zhuang, Lin; Lin, Yang Huan; Shen, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► a-Si thin films as semitransparent phosphorus diffusion barriers for solar cell. ► a-Si thin films on silicon wafers were patterned by the alkaline solution. ► Selective emitter was formed with patterned a-Si as diffusion barrier for solar cell. -- Abstract: Selective emitter for silicon solar cell was realized by employing a-Si thin films as the semi-transparent diffusion barrier. The a-Si thin films with various thicknesses (∼10–40 nm) were deposited by the electron-beam evaporation technique. Emitters with sheet resistances from 37 to 145 Ω/□ were obtained via POCl 3 diffusion process. The thickness of the a-Si diffusion barrier was optimized to be 15 nm for selective emitter in our work. Homemade mask which can dissolve in ethanol was screen-printed on a-Si film to make pattern. The a-Si film was then patterned in KOH solution to form finger-like design. Selective emitter was obtainable with one-step diffusion with patterned a-Si film on. Combinations of sheet resistances for the high-/low-level doped regions of 39.8/112.1, 36.2/88.8, 35.4/73.9 were obtained. These combinations are suitable for screen-printed solar cells. This preparation method of selective emitter based on a-Si diffusion barrier is a promising approach for low cost industrial manufacturing.

  17. Novel single-cell mega-size chambers for electrochemical etching of panorama position-sensitive polycarbonate ion image detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi

    2017-11-01

    A novel development is made here by inventing panorama single-cell mega-size electrochemical etching (MS-ECE) chamber systems for processing panorama position-sensitive mega-size polycarbonate ion image detectors (MS-PCIDs) of potential for many neutron and ion detection applications in particular hydrogen ions or proton tracks and images detected for the first time in polycarbonates in this study. The MS-PCID is simply a large polycarbonate sheet of a desired size. The single-cell MS-ECE invented consists of two large equally sized transparent Plexiglas sheets as chamber walls holding a MS-PCID and the ECE chamber components tightly together. One wall has a large flat stainless steel electrode (dry cell) attached to it which is directly in contact with the MS-PCID and the other wall has a rod electrode with two holes to facilitate feeding and draining out the etching solution from the wet cell. A silicon rubber washer plays the role of the wet cell to hold the etchant and the electrical insulator to isolate the dry cell from the wet cell. A simple 50 Hz-HV home-made generator provides an adequate field strength through the two electrodes across the MS-ECE chamber. Two panorama single-cell MS-ECE chamber systems (circular and rectangular shapes) constructed were efficiently applied to processing the MS-PCIDs for 4π ion emission image detection of different gases in particular hydrogen ions or protons in a 3.5 kJ plasma focus device (PFD as uniquely observed by the unaided eyes). The panorama MS-PCID/MS-ECE image detection systems invented are novel with high potential for many applications in particular as applied to 4π panorama ion emission angular distribution image detection studies in PFD space, some results of which are presented and discussed.

  18. An anterior signaling center patterns and sizes the anterior neuroectoderm of the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Ryan C; Wei, Zheng

    2016-05-01

    Anterior signaling centers help specify and pattern the early anterior neuroectoderm (ANE) in many deuterostomes. In sea urchin the ANE is restricted to the anterior of the late blastula stage embryo, where it forms a simple neural territory comprising several types of neurons as well as the apical tuft. Here, we show that during early development, the sea urchin ANE territory separates into inner and outer regulatory domains that express the cardinal ANE transcriptional regulators FoxQ2 and Six3, respectively. FoxQ2 drives this patterning process, which is required to eliminate six3 expression from the inner domain and activate the expression of Dkk3 and sFRP1/5, two secreted Wnt modulators. Dkk3 and low expression levels of sFRP1/5 act additively to potentiate the Wnt/JNK signaling pathway governing the positioning of the ANE territory around the anterior pole, whereas high expression levels of sFRP1/5 antagonize Wnt/JNK signaling. sFRP1/5 and Dkk3 levels are rigidly maintained via autorepressive and cross-repressive interactions with Wnt signaling components and additional ANE transcription factors. Together, these data support a model in which FoxQ2 initiates an anterior patterning center that implements correct size and positions of ANE structures. Comparisons of functional and expression studies in sea urchin, hemichordate and chordate embryos reveal striking similarities among deuterostome ANE regulatory networks and the molecular mechanism that positions and defines ANE borders. These data strongly support the idea that the sea urchin embryo uses an ancient anterior patterning system that was present in the common ambulacrarian/chordate ancestor. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Helicobacter pylori Infection Causes Characteristic DNA Damage Patterns in Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Koeppel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection with the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a major risk factor for gastric cancer. Since the bacterium exerts multiple genotoxic effects, we examined the circumstances of DNA damage accumulation and identified regions within the host genome with high susceptibility to H. pylori-induced damage. Infection impaired several DNA repair factors, the extent of which depends on a functional cagPAI. This leads to accumulation of a unique DNA damage pattern, preferentially in transcribed regions and proximal to telomeres, in both gastric cell lines and primary gastric epithelial cells. The observed pattern correlates with focal amplifications in adenocarcinomas of the stomach and partly overlaps with known cancer genes. We thus demonstrate an impact of a bacterial infection directed toward specific host genomic regions and describe underlying characteristics that make such regions more likely to acquire heritable changes during infection, which could contribute to cellular transformation.

  20. DEPENDENCE OF THE SPECKLE-PATTERNS SIZE AND THEIR CONTRAST ON THE BIOPHYSICAL AND STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS OF BIOLOGICAL TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Abramovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Speckle fields are widely used in optical diagnostics of biotissues and evaluation of the functional state of bioobjects. The speckle field is formed by laser radiation scattered from the object under study. It bears information about the average dimensions of the scatterers, the degree of surface roughness makes it possible to judge the structural and biophysical characteristics of individual tissue cells (particles, on the one hand, and the integral optical characteristics of the entire biological tissue. The aim of the study was – the determination of connections between the biophysical and structural characteristics of the biotissue and the light fields inside the biotissues.The model developed of the medium gives a direct relationship between the optical and biophysical parameters of the biotissue. Calculations were carried out using known solutions of the radiation transfer equation, taking into account the multilayer structure of the tissue, multiple scattering in the medium, and multiple reflection of irradiation between the layers.With the increase wavelength, the size of speckles formed by the non-scattered component (direct light of laser radiation increases by a factor of 2 from 400 to 800 μm in the stratum corneum and 5 times from 0.6 to 3 μm for the epidermis and from 0.27 to 1.4 μm to the dermis. Typical values of sizes of speckles formed by the diffraction component of laser radiation for the stratum corneum and epidermis range from 0.02 to 0.15 μm. For the dermis typical spot sizes are up to 0.03 μm. The speckle-spot size of the diffusion component in the dermis can vary from ±10 % at 400 nm and up to ±23 % for 800 nm when the volume concentration of blood capillaries changes. Characteristic dependencies are obtained and biophysical factors associated with the volume concentration of blood and the degree of it’s oxygenation that affect the contrast of the speckle structure in the dermis are discussed.The of speckles

  1. CT bronchus sign in malignant solitary pulmonary lesions: value in the prediction of cell type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.A.; Kim, J.H.; Hong, K.T.; Kim, H.S.; Oh, Y.W.; Kang, E.Y.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in the prevalence of patterns of CT bronchus sign in malignant solitary pulmonary lesions (SPLs), according to their histologic cell types and with respect to size, location, and degree of cell differentiation. Computed tomography scans of 78 patients, in whom pathologically confirmed malignant SPLs with CT bronchus sign were present, were randomly selected and reviewed by two radiologists under consensus. All 78 were CT scans done using spiral technique with 10-mm collimation and 10-mm reconstruction intervals with enhancement, and 75 included additional high-resolution CT scans. Lesions were classified into four cell types as squamous cell carcinoma (n=24), small cell carcinoma (n=12), adenocarcinoma (n=23), bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC; n=9), and others (n=12), into three degrees of differentiation, into three size groups, and according to location (central or peripheral). Patterns of CT bronchus sign were classified into abruptly obstructing (I), patent (II), displacing (III), or tapered narrowing (IV) types. The relationships between the patterns of CT bronchus sign and cell type and degree of cell differentiation were evaluated. Eighty patterns of CT bronchus sign were observed in 78 patients. According to cell type, squamous cell carcinoma showed most often type-I pattern (45.8%) but no type-II pattern, which was the most common pattern observed in BAC (77.8%) and adenocarcinoma (34.8%; p<0.01). Small cell carcinoma showed a varied distribution among the four patterns of CT bronchus sign. According to location, in central squamous cell carcinomas, type-I pattern was more common(55%; p<0.01). Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma showed more peripheral lesions and in both central and peripheral lesions, type-II pattern was significantly more common (100 and 66.7%; p<0.01). In SPLs with CT bronchus sign of obstructing pattern, especially if central location, squamous cell carcinoma should be suspected, whereas in

  2. Analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence reveals stage specific patterns of chloroplast-containing cells during Arabidopsis embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO I TEJOS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic body plan of a plant is established early in embryogenesis when cells differentiate, giving rise to the apical and basal regions of the embryo. Using chlorophyll fluorescence as a marker for chloroplasts, we have detected specific patterns of chloroplast-containing cells at specific stages of embryogenesis. Non-randomly distributed chloroplast-containing cells are seen as early as the globular stage of embryogenesis in Arabidopsis. In the heart stage of embryogenesis, chloroplast containing cells are detected in epidermal cells as well as a central region of the heart stage embryo, forming a triangular septum of chloroplast-containing cells that divides the embryo into three equal sectors. Torpedo stage embryos have chloroplast-containing epidermal cells and a central band of chloroplast-containing cells in the cortex layer, just below the shoot apical meristem. In the walking-stick stage of embryogenesis, chloroplasts are present in the epidermal, cortex and endodermal cells. The chloroplasts appear reduced or absent from the provascular and columella cells of walking-stick stage embryos. These results suggest that there is a tight regulation of plastid differentiation during embryogenesis that generates specific patterns of chloroplast-containing cells in specific cell layers at specific stages of embryogenesis.

  3. Ste12/Fab1 phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate 5-kinase is required for nitrogen-regulated mitotic commitment and cell size control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cobley

    Full Text Available Tight coupling of cell growth and cell cycle progression enable cells to adjust their rate of division, and therefore size, to the demands of proliferation in varying nutritional environments. Nutrient stress promotes inhibition of Target Of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1 activity. In fission yeast, reduced TORC1 activity advances mitotic onset and switches growth to a sustained proliferation at reduced cell size. A screen for mutants, that failed to advance mitosis upon nitrogen stress, identified a mutant in the PIKFYVE 1-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate 5-kinase fission yeast homolog Ste12. Ste12PIKFYVE deficient mutants were unable to advance the cell cycle to reduce cell size after a nitrogen downshift to poor nitrogen (proline growth conditions. While it is well established that PI(3,5P2 signalling is required for autophagy and that Ste12PIKFYVE mutants have enlarged vacuoles (yeast lysosomes, neither a block to autophagy or mutants that independently have enlarged vacuoles had any impact upon nitrogen control of mitotic commitment. The addition of rapamycin to Ste12PIKFYVE deficient mutants reduced cell size at division to suggest that Ste12PIKFYVE possibly functions upstream of TORC1. ste12 mutants display increased Torin1 (TOR inhibitor sensitivity. However, no major impact on TORC1 or TORC2 activity was observed in the ste12 deficient mutants. In summary, Ste12PIKFYVE is required for nitrogen-stress mediated advancement of mitosis to reduce cell size at division.

  4. Cell segmentation in time-lapse fluorescence microscopy with temporally varying sub-cellular fusion protein patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyak, Filiz; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Chagin, Vadim; Cardoso, M

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescently tagged proteins such as GFP-PCNA produce rich dynamically varying textural patterns of foci distributed in the nucleus. This enables the behavioral study of sub-cellular structures during different phases of the cell cycle. The varying punctuate patterns of fluorescence, drastic changes in SNR, shape and position during mitosis and abundance of touching cells, however, require more sophisticated algorithms for reliable automatic cell segmentation and lineage analysis. Since the cell nuclei are non-uniform in appearance, a distribution-based modeling of foreground classes is essential. The recently proposed graph partitioning active contours (GPAC) algorithm supports region descriptors and flexible distance metrics. We extend GPAC for fluorescence-based cell segmentation using regional density functions and dramatically improve its efficiency for segmentation from O(N(4)) to O(N(2)), for an image with N(2) pixels, making it practical and scalable for high throughput microscopy imaging studies.

  5. Engineering the growth pattern and cell morphology for enhanced PHB production by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong; Chen, Jinchun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2016-12-01

    E. coli JM109∆envC∆nlpD deleted with genes envC and nlpD responsible for degrading peptidoglycan (PG) led to long filamentous cell shapes. When cell fission ring location genes minC and minD of Escherichia coli were deleted, E. coli JM109∆minCD changed the cell growth pattern from binary division to multiple fissions. Bacterial morphology can be further engineered by overexpressing sulA gene resulting in inhibition on FtsZ, thus generating very long cellular filaments. By overexpressing sulA in E. coli JM109∆envC∆nlpD and E. coli JM109∆minCD harboring poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthesis operon phbCAB encoded in plasmid pBHR68, respectively, both engineered cells became long filaments and accumulated more PHB compared with the wild-type. Under same shake flask growth conditions, E. coli JM109∆minCD (pBHR68) overexpressing sulA grown in multiple fission pattern accumulated approximately 70 % PHB in 9 g/L cell dry mass (CDM), which was significantly higher than E. coli JM109∆envC∆nlpD and the wild type, that produced 7.6 g/L and 8 g/L CDM containing 64 % and 51 % PHB, respectively. Results demonstrated that a combination of the new division pattern with elongated shape of E. coli improved PHB production. This provided a new vision on the enhanced production of inclusion bodies.

  6. Size-dependent cytotoxicity of europium doped NaYF4 nanoparticles in endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shizhu; Zhang, Cuimiao; Jia, Guang; Duan, Jianlei; Wang, Shuxiang; Zhang, Jinchao

    2014-01-01

    Lanthanide-doped sodium yttrium fluoride (NaYF 4 ) nanoparticles exhibit novel optical properties which make them be widely used in various fields. The extensive applications increase the chance of human exposure to these nanoparticles and thus raise deep concerns regarding their riskiness. In the present study, we have synthesized europium doped NaYF 4 (NaYF 4 :Eu 3+ ) nanoparticles with three diameters and used endothelial cells (ECs) as a cell model to explore the potential toxic effect. The cell viability, cytomembrane integrity, cellular uptake, intracellular localization, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), apoptosis detection, caspase-3 activity and expression of inflammatory gene were studied. The results indicated that these nanoparticles could be uptaken into ECs and decrease the cell viability, induce the intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, increase the ROS level, and decrease the cell MMP in a size-dependent manner. Besides that, the cells were suffered to apoptosis with the caspase-3 activation, and the inflammation specific gene expressions (ICAM1 and VCAM1) were also increased. Our results suggest that the damage pathway may be related to the ROS generation and mitochondrial damage. The results provide novel evidence to elucidate their toxicity mechanisms and may be helpful for more rational applications of these compounds in the future. - Highlights: • NaYF 4 :Eu 3+ nanoparticles with three diameters have been synthesized. • NaYF 4 :Eu 3+ nanoparticles could be uptaken by endothelial cells (ECs). • NaYF 4 :Eu 3+ nanoparticles show a significant cytotoxicity on ECs. • The size of NaYF 4 :Eu 3+ nanoparticles may be important to their toxicology effect

  7. Determination of the minimum size of a statistical representative volume element from a fibre-reinforced composite based on point pattern statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Brøndsted, Povl

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, Trias et al. [1] determined the minimum size of a statistical representative volume element (SRVE) of a unidirectional fibre-reinforced composite primarily based on numerical analyses of the stress/strain field. In continuation of this, the present study determines the minimu...... size of an SRVE based on a statistical analysis on the spatial statistics of the fibre packing patterns found in genuine laminates, and those generated numerically using a microstructure generator. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Predicting spiral wave patterns from cell properties in a model of biological self-organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberth, Daniel; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2008-09-01

    In many biological systems, biological variability (i.e., systematic differences between the system components) can be expected to outrank statistical fluctuations in the shaping of self-organized patterns. In principle, the distribution of single-element properties should thus allow predicting features of such patterns. For a mathematical model of a paradigmatic and well-studied pattern formation process, spiral waves of cAMP signaling in colonies of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, we explore this possibility and observe a pronounced anticorrelation between spiral waves and cell properties (namely, the firing rate) and particularly a clustering of spiral wave tips in regions devoid of spontaneously firing (pacemaker) cells. Furthermore, we observe local inhomogeneities in the distribution of spiral chiralities, again induced by the pacemaker distribution. We show that these findings can be explained by a simple geometrical model of spiral wave generation.

  9. Spontaneously immortalised bovine mammary epithelial cells exhibit a distinct gene expression pattern from the breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qianqian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous immortalisation of cultured mammary epithelial cells (MECs is an extremely rare event, and the molecular mechanism behind spontaneous immortalisation of MECs is unclear. Here, we report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalised bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME65Cs and the changes in gene expression associated with BME65Cs cells. Results BME65Cs cells maintain the general characteristics of normal mammary epithelial cells in morphology, karyotype and immunohistochemistry, and are accompanied by the activation of endogenous bTERT (bovine Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase and stabilisation of the telomere. Currently, BME65Cs cells have been passed for more than 220 generations, and these cells exhibit non-malignant transformation. The expression of multiple genes was investigated in BME65Cs cells, senescent BMECs (bovine MECs cells, early passage BMECs cells and MCF-7 cells (a human breast cancer cell line. In comparison with early passage BMECs cells, the expression of senescence-relevant apoptosis-related gene were significantly changed in BME65Cs cells. P16INK4a was downregulated, p53 was low expressed and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was reversed. Moreover, a slight upregulation of the oncogene c-Myc, along with an undetectable level of breast tumor-related gene Bag-1 and TRPS-1, was observed in BME65Cs cells while these genes are all highly expressed in MCF-7. In addition, DNMT1 is upregulated in BME65Cs. These results suggest that the inhibition of both senescence and mitochondrial apoptosis signalling pathways contribute to the immortality of BME65Cs cells. The expression of p53 and p16INK4a in BME65Cs was altered in the pattern of down-regulation but not "loss", suggesting that this spontaneous immortalization is possibly initiated by other mechanism rather than gene mutation of p53 or p16INK4a. Conclusions Spontaneously immortalised BME65Cs cells maintain many characteristics of normal BMEC cells and

  10. Effect of Flow on Cultured Cell at Micro-Pattern of Ridge Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Hino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A flow channel with a micro-pattern of ridge lines of a scaffold has been designed to study quantitatively the effect of flow on an oriented cell in vitro. The lines of parallel micro ridges (0.001 mm height, 0.003 mm width, and 0.003 mm interval are made by the lithography technique on the lower surface of the channel as the scaffold to make orientation of each cell. Variation is made about the angle between the longitudinal direction of the ridge line and the direction of the flow: zero, 0.79 and 1.6 rad. The suspension of C2C12 (mouse myoblast cell line was injected to the channel, and incubated for two hours on the micro ridges before the flow test for four hours. The flow rate of 3/hour is controlled by a syringe pump to make variation of the wall shear stress of < 3 Pa. The action of each cell adhered on the micro pattern was analyzed at the time lapse images. The experimental results show that both the migration and the deformation of each myoblast along the micro ridge are restricted by the wall shear stress higher than 3 Pa.

  11. Cryo-electron microscopy and single molecule fluorescent microscopy detect CD4 receptor induced HIV size expansion prior to cell entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Son; Tabarin, Thibault; Garvey, Megan; Pade, Corinna; Rossy, Jérémie; Monaghan, Paul; Hyatt, Alex; Böcking, Till; Leis, Andrew; Gaus, Katharina; Mak, Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are often thought to have static structure, and they only remodel after the viruses have entered target cells. Here, we detected a size expansion of virus particles prior to viral entry using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single molecule fluorescence imaging. HIV expanded both under cell-free conditions with soluble receptor CD4 (sCD4) targeting the CD4 binding site on the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) and when HIV binds to receptor on cellular membrane. We have shown that the HIV Env is needed to facilitate receptor induced virus size expansions, showing that the ‘lynchpin’ for size expansion is highly specific. We demonstrate that the size expansion required maturation of HIV and an internal capsid core with wild type stability, suggesting that different HIV compartments are linked and are involved in remodelling. Our work reveals a previously unknown event in HIV entry, and we propose that this pre-entry priming process enables HIV particles to facilitate the subsequent steps in infection. - Highlights: • Cell free viruses are able to receive external trigger that leads to apparent size expansion. • Virus envelope and CD4 receptor engagement is the lynchpin of virus size expansion. • Internal capsid organisation can influence receptor mediated virus size expansion. • Pre-existing virus-associated lipid membrane in cell free virus can accommodate the receptor mediated virus size expansion.

  12. Cryo-electron microscopy and single molecule fluorescent microscopy detect CD4 receptor induced HIV size expansion prior to cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Son [Deakin University, Victoria 3216 (Australia); CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia); Tabarin, Thibault [ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 3220 (Australia); Garvey, Megan; Pade, Corinna [Deakin University, Victoria 3216 (Australia); CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia); Rossy, Jérémie [ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 3220 (Australia); Monaghan, Paul; Hyatt, Alex [CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia); Böcking, Till [ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 3220 (Australia); Leis, Andrew [CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia); Gaus, Katharina, E-mail: k.gaus@unsw.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 3220 (Australia); Mak, Johnson, E-mail: j.mak@deakin.edu.au [Deakin University, Victoria 3216 (Australia); CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Viruses are often thought to have static structure, and they only remodel after the viruses have entered target cells. Here, we detected a size expansion of virus particles prior to viral entry using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single molecule fluorescence imaging. HIV expanded both under cell-free conditions with soluble receptor CD4 (sCD4) targeting the CD4 binding site on the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) and when HIV binds to receptor on cellular membrane. We have shown that the HIV Env is needed to facilitate receptor induced virus size expansions, showing that the ‘lynchpin’ for size expansion is highly specific. We demonstrate that the size expansion required maturation of HIV and an internal capsid core with wild type stability, suggesting that different HIV compartments are linked and are involved in remodelling. Our work reveals a previously unknown event in HIV entry, and we propose that this pre-entry priming process enables HIV particles to facilitate the subsequent steps in infection. - Highlights: • Cell free viruses are able to receive external trigger that leads to apparent size expansion. • Virus envelope and CD4 receptor engagement is the lynchpin of virus size expansion. • Internal capsid organisation can influence receptor mediated virus size expansion. • Pre-existing virus-associated lipid membrane in cell free virus can accommodate the receptor mediated virus size expansion.

  13. On the Relationship between Pollen Size and Genome Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Knight

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we test whether genome size is a predictor of pollen size. If it were, inferences of ancient genome size would be possible using the abundant paleo-palynolgical record. We performed regression analyses across 464 species of pollen width and genome size. We found a significant positive trend. However, regression analysis using phylogentically independent contrasts did not support the correlated evolution of these traits. Instead, a large split between angiosperms and gymnosperms for both pollen width and genome size was revealed. Sister taxa were not more likely to show a positive contrast when compared to deeper nodes. However, significantly more congeneric species had a positive trend than expected by chance. These results may reflect the strong selection pressure for pollen to be small. Also, because pollen grains are not metabolically active when measured, their biology is different than other cells which have been shown to be strongly related to genome size, such as guard cells. Our findings contrast with previously published research. It was our hope that pollen size could be used as a proxy for inferring the genome size of ancient species. However, our results suggest pollen is not a good candidate for such endeavors.

  14. Nanoimprint lithography of light trapping patterns in sol-gel coatings for thin film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijna, M.; Loffler, J.; Van Aken, B.B.; Soppe, W.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Borg, H.; Peeters, P. [OM and T, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2008-04-15

    For thin-film silicon solar cells, light trapping schemes are of uppermost importance to harvest all available sunlight. Typically, randomly textured TCO front layers are used to scatter the light diffusively in p-i-n cells on glass. Here, we investigate methods to texture the back contact with both random and periodic textures, for use in n-i-p cells on opaque foil. We applied an electrically insulating SiOx-polymer coating on a stainless steel substrate, and textured this barrier layer by nanoimprint. On this barrier layer the back contact is deposited for further use in the solar cell stack. Replication of masters with various random and periodic patterns was tested, and, using scanning electron microscopy, replicas were found to compare well with the originals. Masters with U-grooves of various sub micrometer widths have been used to investigate the optimal dimensions of regular patterns for light trapping in the silicon layers. Angular reflection distributions were measured to evaluate the light scattering properties of both periodic and random patterns. Diffraction gratings show promising results in scattering the light to specific angles, enhancing the total internal reflection in the solar cell.

  15. Interannual variations in the hatching pattern, larval growth and otolith size of a sand-dwelling fish from central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Valentino, Camilo; Landaeta, Mauricio F.; Castillo-Hidalgo, Gissella; Bustos, Claudia A.; Plaza, Guido; Ojeda, F. Patricio

    2015-09-01

    The interannual variation (2010-2013) of larval abundance, growth and hatching patterns of the Chilean sand stargazer Sindoscopus australis (Pisces: Dactyloscopidae) was investigated through otolith microstructure analysis from samples collected nearshore (otolith size (radius, perimeter and area), related to body length of larvae, significantly decreased from 2010 to 2012, but increases significantly in 2013. Although the mean values of microincrement widths of sagitta otoliths were similar between 2010 and 2011 (around 0.6-0.7 μm), the interindividual variability increases in 2011 and 2013, suggesting large environmental variability experienced by larvae during these years. Finally, the hatching pattern of S. australis changed significantly from semi-lunar to lunar cycle after 2012.

  16. Impact of land use on urban mobility patterns, emissions and air quality in a Portuguese medium-sized city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Jorge M; Coelho, Margarida C; Sá, Maria Elisa; Tavares, Richard; Borrego, Carlos

    2011-02-15

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of urban development trends in mobility patterns of a medium sized Portuguese city and air quality consequences, using a sequential modeling process, comprising i) land use and transportation, TRANUS model; ii) road traffic air pollutants emissions, TREM model and; iii) air quality, TAPM model. This integrated methodology was applied to a medium sized Portuguese city. In order to evaluate the implementation of the methodology, a preliminary study was performed, which consisted on the comparison of modeled mobility patterns and CO and PM(10) concentrations with measured data used in the definition of the current scenario. The comparison between modeled and monitored mobility patterns at the morning peak hour for a weekday showed an RMSE of 31%. Regarding CO concentrations, an underestimation of the modeled results was observed. Nevertheless, the modeled PM(10) concentrations were consistent with the monitored data. Overall, the results showed a reasonable consistency of the modeled data, which allowed the use of the integrated modeling system for the study scenarios. The future scenarios consisted on the definition of different mobility patterns and vehicle technology characteristics, according to two main developing trends: (1) "car pooling" scenario, which imposes a mean occupancy rate of 3 passengers by vehicle and (2) the "Euro 6" scenario, which establishes that all vehicles accomplish at least the Euro 6 standard technology. Reductions of 54% and 83% for CO, 44% and 95% for PM(10), 44% and 87% for VOC and 44% and 79% for NO(x) emissions were observed in scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. Concerning air quality, a reduction of about 100 μg m(-3) of CO annual average concentration was observed in both scenarios. The results of PM(10) annual concentrations showed a reduction of 1.35 μg m(-3) and 2.7 μg m(-3) for scenarios 1 and 2 respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An Innovative Cellular Automata Technique for Mapping Cracking Pattern of Airport Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Fucheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an innovative cellular automata (CA technique was proposed for mapping cracking pattern of the airport pavement. The CA technique was developed to establish a numerical model describing the effect of boundary condition of pavement on zones (CA cells within the pavement. A state function was used to describe the state values in the cells within the CA lattice. The correction coefficient principle is used as the criterion of zone similarity and the corresponding technique is proposed to find similar zones within and between pavements. Three pavement models, HRS, MRS and LRS, tested in FAA, USA, are set as the base pavements to map the cracking patterns of pavements with different sizes from the base pavements. The mapped cracking patterns of unseen pavements are empirically verified by referring to the relative experimental models.

  18. Distribution Pattern of Fe, Sr, Zr and Ca Elements as Particle Size Function in the Code River Sediments from Upstream to Downstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Murniasih; Muzakky

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of Fe, Sr, Zr and Ca elements concentration of granular sediment from upstream to downstream of Code river has been done. The aim of this research is to know the influence of particle size on the concentration of Fe, Sr, Zr and Ca elements in the Code river sediments from upstream to downstream and its distribution pattern. The instrument used was x-ray fluorescence with Si(Li) detector. Analysis results show that more Fe and Sr elements are very much found in 150 - 90 μm particle size, while Zr and Ca elements are very much found in < 90 μm particle size. Distribution pattern of Fe, Sr, Zr and Ca elements distribution in Code river sediments tends to increase relatively from upstream to downstream following its conductivity. The concentration of Fe, Sr, Zr and Ca elements are 1.49 ± 0.03 % - 5.93 ± 0.02 % ; 118.20 ± 10.73 ppm - 468.21 ± 20.36 ppm; 19.81 ppm ± 0.86 ppm - 76.36 ± 3.02 ppm and 3.22 ± 0.25 % - 11.40 ± 0.31 % successively. (author)

  19. Novel anti-reflection technology for GaAs single-junction solar cells using surface patterning and Au nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjo; Lam, Nguyen Dinh; Kim, Kangho; Kim, Sangin; Rotermund, Fabian; Lim, Hanjo; Lee, Jaejin

    2012-07-01

    Single-junction GaAs solar cell structures were grown by low-pressure MOCVD on GaAs (100) substrates. Micro-rod arrays with diameters of 2 microm, 5 microm, and 10 microm were fabricated on the surfaces of the GaAs solar cells via photolithography and wet chemical etching. The patterned surfaces were coated with Au nanoparticles using an Au colloidal solution. Characteristics of the GaAs solar cells with and without the micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticles were investigated. The short-circuit current density of the GaAs solar cell with 2 microm rod arrays and Au nanoparticles increased up to 34.9% compared to that of the reference cell without micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticles. The conversion efficiency of the GaAs solar cell that was coated with Au nanoparticles on the patterned surface with micro-rod arrays can be improved from 14.1% to 19.9% under 1 sun AM 1.5G illumination. These results show that micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticle coating can be applied together in surface patterning to achieve a novel cost-effective anti-reflection technology.

  20. Micro-/Nano- sized hydroxyapatite directs differentiation of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells towards an osteoblast lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zhou, Gang; Zheng, Lisha; Liu, Haifeng; Niu, Xufeng; Fan, Yubo

    2012-03-01

    Regenerative medicine consisting of cells and materials provides a new way for the repair and regeneration of tissues and organs. Nano-biomaterials are highlighted due to their advantageous features compared with conventional micro-materials. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of micro-/nano- sized hydroxyapatite (μ/n-HA) on the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). μ/n-HA were prepared by a microwave synthesizer and precipitation method, respectively. Different sizes of μ/n-HA were characterized by IR, XRD, SEM, TEM and co-cultured with rBMSCs. It was shown that rBMSCs expressed higher levels of osteoblast-related markers by n-HA than μ-HA stimulation. The size of HA is an important factor for affecting the osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs. This provides a new avenue for mechanistic studies of stem cell differentiation and a new approach to obtain more committed differentiated cells.

  1. Influence of patterned topographic features on the formation of cardiac cell clusters and their rhythmic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L; Liu, L; Magome, N; Agladze, K; Chen, Y

    2013-01-01

    In conventional primary cultures, cardiac cells prepared from a newborn rat undergo spontaneous formation of cell clusters after several days. These cell clusters may be non-homogeneously distributed on a flat surface and show irregular beating which can be recorded by calcium ion imaging. In order to improve the cell cluster homogeneity and the beating regularity, patterned topographic features were used to guide the cellular growth and the cell layer formation. On the substrate with an array of broadly spaced cross features made of photoresist, cells grew on the places that were not occupied by the crosses and thus formed a cell layer with interconnected cell clusters. Accordingly, spatially coordinated regular beating could be recorded over the whole patterned area. In contrast, when cultured on the substrate with broadly spaced but inter-connected cross features, the cardiac cell layer showed beatings which were neither coordinated in space nor regular in time. Finally, when cultured on the substrate with narrowly spaced features, the cell beating became spatially coordinated but still remained irregular. Our results suggest a way to improve the rhythmic property of cultured cardiac cell layers which might be useful for further investigations. (paper)

  2. Effect of heterogeneity on the characterization of cell membrane compartments: I. Uniform size and permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Damien

    2010-03-15

    Observations of the motion of individual molecules in the membrane of a number of different cell types have led to the suggestion that the outer membrane of many eukaryotic cells may be effectively partitioned into microdomains. A major cause of this suggested partitioning is believed to be due to the direct/indirect association of the cytosolic face of the cell membrane with the cortical cytoskeleton. Such intimate association is thought to introduce effective hydrodynamic barriers into the membrane that are capable of frustrating molecular Brownian motion over distance scales greater than the average size of the compartment. To date, the standard analytical method for deducing compartment characteristics has relied on observing the random walk behavior of a labeled lipid or protein at various temporal frequencies and different total lengths of time. Simple theoretical arguments suggest that the presence of restrictive barriers imparts a characteristic turnover to a plot of mean squared displacement versus sampling period that can be interpreted to yield the average dimensions of the compartment expressed as the respective side lengths of a rectangle. In the following series of articles, we used computer simulation methods to investigate how well the conventional analytical strategy coped with heterogeneity in size, shape, and barrier permeability of the cell membrane compartments. We also explored questions relating to the necessary extent of sampling required (with regard to both the recorded time of a single trajectory and the number of trajectories included in the measurement bin) for faithful representation of the actual distribution of compartment sizes found using the SPT technique. In the current investigation, we turned our attention to the analytical characterization of diffusion through cell membrane compartments having both a uniform size and permeability. For this ideal case, we found that (i) an optimum sampling time interval existed for the analysis

  3. Size and morphology effects of titania on dye-sensitized solar cells performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Wen-Chen; Lin, Chien-Chih; Jang, Shiue-Ming; Kao, Tien-Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    This study uses commercial titania (P25) to prepare titania nanowires (NWs) using alkali and hydrothermal treatments. Nanosized titania P25 and NWs were used to prepare spray-dried titania P25 (SP25) and spray-dried titania nanowires (SNWs), respectively, using the spray-drying process. These different titania sizes and morphologies were used to fabricate photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and to investigate their effect on cell performance. All prepared titania NWs and SNWs were in the anatase phase after heat treatment at 450 °C for 2 h. The specific areas for titania with different morphologies were 49.5 m 2 /g for P25, 48.3 m 2 /g for SP25, 42.6 m 2 /g for NWs, and 40.3 m 2 /g for SNWs. The results show that the surface areas decreased when the titania P25 or NWs were processed by spray drying. In optimal conditions, DSSCs prepared from P25 + 2.5 wt.% NWs with a light-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of 5.88% were produced using a simulated solar light irradiation of 100 mW/cm 2 (AM 1.5). - Highlights: • Titania with different size and morphology were prepared. • Hydrothermal and spray drying process were applied. • Solar cells with an efficiency of 5.88% were produced

  4. Size and morphology effects of titania on dye-sensitized solar cells performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Wen-Chen, E-mail: wcchien@mail.mcut.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Battery Research Center of Green Energy, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chien-Chih [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Jang, Shiue-Ming [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 310, Taiwan (China); Kao, Tien-Hsieh [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-01

    This study uses commercial titania (P25) to prepare titania nanowires (NWs) using alkali and hydrothermal treatments. Nanosized titania P25 and NWs were used to prepare spray-dried titania P25 (SP25) and spray-dried titania nanowires (SNWs), respectively, using the spray-drying process. These different titania sizes and morphologies were used to fabricate photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and to investigate their effect on cell performance. All prepared titania NWs and SNWs were in the anatase phase after heat treatment at 450 °C for 2 h. The specific areas for titania with different morphologies were 49.5 m{sup 2}/g for P25, 48.3 m{sup 2}/g for SP25, 42.6 m{sup 2}/g for NWs, and 40.3 m{sup 2}/g for SNWs. The results show that the surface areas decreased when the titania P25 or NWs were processed by spray drying. In optimal conditions, DSSCs prepared from P25 + 2.5 wt.% NWs with a light-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of 5.88% were produced using a simulated solar light irradiation of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} (AM 1.5). - Highlights: • Titania with different size and morphology were prepared. • Hydrothermal and spray drying process were applied. • Solar cells with an efficiency of 5.88% were produced.

  5. Integument pattern formation involves genetic and epigenetic controls: feather arrays simulated by digital hormone models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting-Xin; Widelitz, Randall B; Shen, Wei-Min; Will, Peter; Wu, Da-Yu; Lin, Chih-Min; Jung, Han-Sung; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2004-01-01

    Pattern formation is a fundamental morphogenetic process. Models based on genetic and epigenetic control have been proposed but remain controversial. Here we use feather morphogenesis for further evaluation. Adhesion molecules and/or signaling molecules were first expressed homogenously in feather tracts (restrictive mode, appear earlier) or directly in bud or inter-bud regions ( de novo mode, appear later). They either activate or inhibit bud formation, but paradoxically colocalize in the bud. Using feather bud reconstitution, we showed that completely dissociated cells can reform periodic patterns without reference to previous positional codes. The patterning process has the characteristics of being self-organizing, dynamic and plastic. The final pattern is an equilibrium state reached by competition, and the number and size of buds can be altered based on cell number and activator/inhibitor ratio, respectively. We developed a Digital Hormone Model which consists of (1) competent cells without identity that move randomly in a space, (2) extracellular signaling hormones which diffuse by a reaction-diffusion mechanism and activate or inhibit cell adhesion, and (3) cells which respond with topological stochastic actions manifested as changes in cell adhesion. Based on probability, the results are cell clusters arranged in dots or stripes. Thus genetic control provides combinational molecular information which defines the properties of the cells but not the final pattern. Epigenetic control governs interactions among cells and their environment based on physical-chemical rules (such as those described in the Digital Hormone Model). Complex integument patterning is the sum of these two components of control and that is why integument patterns are usually similar but non-identical. These principles may be shared by other pattern formation processes such as barb ridge formation, fingerprints, pigmentation patterning, etc. The Digital Hormone Model can also be applied to

  6. Multi-objective energy management optimization and parameter sizing for proton exchange membrane hybrid fuel cell vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zunyan; Li, Jianqiu; Xu, Liangfei; Song, Ziyou; Fang, Chuan; Ouyang, Minggao; Dou, Guowei; Kou, Gaihong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fuel economy, lithium battery size and powertrain system durability are incorporated in optimization. • A multi-objective power allocation strategy by taking battery size into consideration is proposed. • Influences of battery capacity and auxiliary power on strategy design are explored. • Battery capacity and fuel cell service life for the system life cycle cost are optimized. - Abstract: The powertrain system of a typical proton electrolyte membrane hybrid fuel cell vehicle contains a lithium battery package and a fuel cell stack. A multi-objective optimization for this powertrain system of a passenger car, taking account of fuel economy and system durability, is discussed in this paper. Based on an analysis of the optimum results obtained by dynamic programming, a soft-run strategy was proposed for real-time and multi-objective control algorithm design. The soft-run strategy was optimized by taking lithium battery size into consideration, and implemented using two real-time algorithms. When compared with the optimized dynamic programming results, the power demand-based control method proved more suitable for powertrain systems equipped with larger capacity batteries, while the state of charge based control method proved superior in other cases. On this basis, the life cycle cost was optimized by considering both lithium battery size and equivalent hydrogen consumption. The battery capacity selection proved more flexible, when powertrain systems are equipped with larger capacity batteries. Finally, the algorithm has been validated in a fuel cell city bus. It gets a good balance of fuel economy and system durability in a three months demonstration operation.

  7. Formation factor of regular porous pattern in poly-α-methylstyrene film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ruizhuang; Xu Jiajing; Gao Cong; Ma Shuang; Chen Sufen; Luo Xuan; Fang Yu; Li Bo

    2015-01-01

    Regular poly-α-methylstyrene (PAMS) porous film with macron-sized cells was prepared by casting the solution in the condition with high humidity. In this paper, the effects of the molecular weight of PAMS, PAMS concentration, humidity, temperature, volatile solvents and the thickness of liquid of solution on formation of regular porous pattern in PAMS film were discussed. The results show that these factors significantly affect the pore size and the pore distribution. The capillary force and Benard-Marangoni convection are main driving forces for the water droplet moving and making pores regular arrangement. (authors)

  8. Size-dependent effects of tungsten carbide-cobalt particles on oxygen radical production and activation of cell signaling pathways in murine epidermal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, M.; Kisin, E.R.; Zhao, J.; Bowman, L.; Lu, Y.; Jiang, B.; Leonard, S.; Vallyathan, V.; Castranova, V.; Murray, A.R.; Fadeel, B.; Shvedova, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hard metal or cemented carbide consists of a mixture of tungsten carbide (WC) (85%) and metallic cobalt (Co) (5-15%). WC-Co is considered to be potentially carcinogenic to humans. However, no comparison of the adverse effects of nano-sized WC-Co particles is available to date. In the present study, we compared the ability of nano- and fine-sized WC-Co particles to form free radicals and propensity to activate the transcription factors, AP-1 and NF-κB, along with stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in a mouse epidermal cell line (JB6 P + ). Our results demonstrated that nano-WC-Co generated a higher level of hydroxyl radicals, induced greater oxidative stress, as evidenced by a decrease of GSH levels, and caused faster JB6 P + cell growth/proliferation than observed after exposure of cells to fine WC-Co. In addition, nano-WC-Co activated AP-1 and NF-κB more efficiently in JB6 +/+ cells as compared to fine WC-Co. Experiments using AP-1-luciferase reporter transgenic mice confirmed the activation of AP-1 by nano-WC-Co. Nano- and fine-sized WC-Co particles also stimulated MAPKs, including ERKs, p38, and JNKs with significantly higher potency of nano-WC-Co. Finally, co-incubation of the JB6 +/+ cells with N-acetyl-cysteine decreased AP-1 activation and phosphorylation of ERKs, p38 kinase, and JNKs, thus suggesting that oxidative stress is involved in WC-Co-induced toxicity and AP-1 activation.

  9. Angiogenesis interactome and time course microarray data reveal the distinct activation patterns in endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Hui Chu

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis involves stimulation of endothelial cells (EC by various cytokines and growth factors, but the signaling mechanisms are not completely understood. Combining dynamic gene expression time-course data for stimulated EC with protein-protein interactions associated with angiogenesis (the "angiome" could reveal how different stimuli result in different patterns of network activation and could implicate signaling intermediates as points for control or intervention. We constructed the protein-protein interaction networks of positive and negative regulation of angiogenesis comprising 367 and 245 proteins, respectively. We used five published gene expression datasets derived from in vitro assays using different types of blood endothelial cells stimulated by VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A. We used the Short Time-series Expression Miner (STEM to identify significant temporal gene expression profiles. The statistically significant patterns between 2D fibronectin and 3D type I collagen substrates for telomerase-immortalized EC (TIME show that different substrates could influence the temporal gene activation patterns in the same cell line. We investigated the different activation patterns among 18 transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors, and experimentally measured the protein level of the tyrosine-kinase receptors VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 in human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC and human microvascular EC (MEC. The results show that VEGFR1-VEGFR2 levels are more closely coupled than VEGFR1-VEGFR3 or VEGFR2-VEGFR3 in HUVEC and MEC. This computational methodology can be extended to investigate other molecules or biological processes such as cell cycle.

  10. Release Properties and Cellular Uptake in Caco-2 Cells of Size-Controlled Chitosan Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Eun Suh; Lee, Ji-Soo; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2017-12-20

    The influences of particle size on the physicochemical, release, and cellular uptake properties of chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) were investigated. Ionotropic CSNPs of different sizes (200-1000 nm) loaded with two model core materials (resveratrol or coumarin-6) were prepared using tripolyphosphate and carrageenan as cross-linkers. With an increase of particle size, zeta potential (34.6 ± 0.5 to 51.1 ± 0.9) and entrapment efficiency (14.9 ± 1.4 to 40.9 ± 1.9) of the CSNPs were significantly (p cellular uptake of CSNPs were significantly increased from 3.70 ± 0.03 to 5.24 ± 0.20 with an increase of particle size from 200 to 600 nm, whereas those significantly decreased from 5.24 ± 0.20 to 4.55 ± 0.2 for particles larger than 600 nm in transwell assay. Moreover, much the same uptake patterns were also observed in confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Investigation of cellular uptake of CSNPs revealed positive correlations between ZP and EE and indicated the effects of complex factors of nanoparticles other than size. These results provide a better understanding of CSNPs absorption and raises the possibility of controlling alternative nanoparticle properties to enhance bioavailability.

  11. The Relationship between Respiration-Related Membrane Potential Slow Oscillations and Discharge Patterns in Mitral/Tufted Cells: What Are the Rules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briffaud, Virginie; Fourcaud-Trocmé, Nicolas; Messaoudi, Belkacem; Buonviso, Nathalie; Amat, Corine

    2012-01-01

    Background A slow respiration-related rhythm strongly shapes the activity of the olfactory bulb. This rhythm appears as a slow oscillation that is detectable in the membrane potential, the respiration-related spike discharge of the mitral/tufted cells and the bulbar local field potential. Here, we investigated the rules that govern the manifestation of membrane potential slow oscillations (MPSOs) and respiration-related discharge activities under various afferent input conditions and cellular excitability states. Methodology and Principal Findings We recorded the intracellular membrane potential signals in the mitral/tufted cells of freely breathing anesthetized rats. We first demonstrated the existence of multiple types of MPSOs, which were influenced by odor stimulation and discharge activity patterns. Complementary studies using changes in the intracellular excitability state and a computational model of the mitral cell demonstrated that slow oscillations in the mitral/tufted cell membrane potential were also modulated by the intracellular excitability state, whereas the respiration-related spike activity primarily reflected the afferent input. Based on our data regarding MPSOs and spike patterns, we found that cells exhibiting an unsynchronized discharge pattern never exhibited an MPSO. In contrast, cells with a respiration-synchronized discharge pattern always exhibited an MPSO. In addition, we demonstrated that the association between spike patterns and MPSO types appeared complex. Conclusion We propose that both the intracellular excitability state and input strength underlie specific MPSOs, which, in turn, constrain the types of spike patterns exhibited. PMID:22952828

  12. Size distribution of planktonic autotrophy and microheterotrophy in DeGray Reservoir, Arkansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, B.L.; Groeger, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    Naturally occurring assemblages of phytoplankton and bacterioplankton were radiolabelled with sodium 14 C-bicarbonate and sodium 3 H-acetate and size fractionated to determine the size structure of planktonic autotrophy and microheterotrophy in DeGray Reservoir, an oligotrophic impoundment of the Caddo River in south-central Arkansas. Size distributions of autotrophy and microheterotrophy were remarkably uniform seasonally, vertically within the water column, and along the longitudinal axis of the reservoir despite significant changes in environmental conditions. Planktonic autotrophy was dominated by small algal cells with usually >50% of the photosynthetic carbon uptake accounted for by organisms 75% of the planktonic microheterotrophy. Longitudinal patterns in autotrophic and microheterotrophic activities associated with >3-μm and >1-μm size fractions, respectively, suggest an uplake to downlake shift from riverine to lacustrine environmental influences within the reservoir. 83 references, 7 figures

  13. Control of cell proliferation, endoreduplication, cell size, and cell death by the retinoblastoma-related pathway in maize endosperm

    KAUST Repository

    Sabelli, Paolo A.

    2013-04-22

    The endospermof cereal grains is one of the most valuable products of modern agriculture. Cereal endosperm development comprises different phases characterized by mitotic cell proliferation, endoreduplication, the accumulation of storage compounds, and programmed cell death. Although manipulation of these processes could maximize grain yield, how they are regulated and integrated is poorly understood. We show that the Retinoblastoma-related (RBR) pathway controls key aspects of endosperm development in maize. Down-regulation of RBR1 by RNAi resulted in up-regulation of RBR3-type genes, as well as the MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE 2-7 gene family and PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN, which encode essential DNA replication factors. Both the mitotic and endoreduplication cell cycles were stimulated. Developing transgenic endosperm contained 42-58% more cells and ~70% more DNA than wild type, whereas there was a reduction in cell and nuclear sizes. In addition, cell death was enhanced. The DNA content of mature endosperm increased 43% upon RBR1 downregulation, whereas storage protein content and kernel weight were essentially not affected. Down-regulation of both RBR1 and CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASE A (CDKA);1 indicated that CDKA;1 is epistatic to RBR1 and controls endoreduplication through an RBR1- dependent pathway. However, the repressive activity of RBR1 on downstream targets was independent from CDKA;1, suggesting diversification of RBR1 activities. Furthermore, RBR1 negatively regulated CDK activity, suggesting the presence of a feedback loop. These results indicate that the RBR1 pathway plays a major role in regulation of different processes during maize endosperm development and suggest the presence of tissue/organlevel regulation of endosperm/seed homeostasis.

  14. Extraordinary Light-Trapping Enhancement in Silicon Solar Cell Patterned with Graded Photonic Super-Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa Hassan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Light-trapping enhancement in newly discovered graded photonic super-crystals (GPSCs with dual periodicity and dual basis is herein explored for the first time. Broadband, wide-incident-angle, and polarization-independent light-trapping enhancement was achieved in silicon solar cells patterned with these GPSCs. These super-crystals were designed by multi-beam interference, rendering them flexible and efficient. The optical response of the patterned silicon solar cell retained Bloch-mode resonance; however, light absorption was greatly enhanced in broadband wavelengths due to the graded, complex unit super-cell nanostructures, leading to the overlap of Bloch-mode resonances. The broadband, wide-angle light coupling and trapping enhancement mechanism are understood to be due to the spatial variance of the index of refraction, and this spatial variance is due to the varying filling fraction, the dual basis, and the varying lattice constants in different directions.

  15. Genetic associations for pathogen-specific clinical mastitis and patterns of peaks in somatic cell count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de Y.; Barkema, H.W.; Schukken, Y.H.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic associations were estimated between pathogen-specific cases of clinical mastitis (CM), lactational average somatic cell score (LACSCS), and patterns of peaks in somatic cell count (SCC) which were based on deviations from the typical lactation curve for SCC. The dataset contained test-day

  16. [Reproductive pattern and mean size of sexual maturity of female lobsters Panulirus gracilis (Decapoda: Palinuridae) in Playa Lagarto, Guanacaste, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo Madrigal, Helven

    2012-12-01

    The lobster P. gracilis is important as a fishery resource and also contributes to food security of fishers in coastal communities in the North Pacific of Costa Rica. Due to the importance of updating knowledge related to the reproductive pattern