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Sample records for cell s-nitrosothiol formation

  1. Reduced levels of S-nitrosothiols in plasma of patients with systemic sclerosis and Raynaud's phenomenon

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    Kundu, Devi; Abraham, David; Black, Carol M.; Denton, Christopher P.; Bruckdorfer, K. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objective S-Nitrosothiols (RSNOs) are bioactive forms of nitric oxide which are involved in cell signalling and redox regulation of vascular function. Circulating S-nitrosothiols are predominantly in the form of S-nitrosoalbumin. In this study plasma concentrations of S-nitrosothiols were measured in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) where NO metabolism is known to be abnormal. Patients and methods Venous blood was collected from 16 patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), 45 with systemic sclerosis (SSc) (34 patients had limited SSc (IcSSc) and 11 diffuse cutaneous disease (dcSSc)). Twenty six healthy subjects were used as controls. Plasma S-nitrosothiol concentrations were measured by chemiluminescence. The measurements were related to the extent of biological age, capillary/skin scores and disease duration. Results Plasma RSNO levels in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) and in those with SSc was significantly lower compared to the concentrations in control subjects. In SSc, plasma S-nitrosothiols were often below the level of detection (1nM). Conclusions Low S-nitrosothiol concentrations were observed in the blood of patients with SSc and patients with RP indicating a profound disturbance of nitric oxide metabolism. PMID:25446164

  2. GC-ECNICI-MS analysis of S-nitrosothiols and nitroprusside after treatment with aqueous sulphide (S2-) and derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl bromide: Evidence of S-transnitrosylation and formation of nitrite and nitrate.

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    Tsikas, Dimitrios; Schmidt, Mario; Hanff, Erik; Böhmer, Anke

    2017-02-01

    A GC-MS method is reported for the quantitative analysis of S-nitrosothiols (RSNO) derived from endogenous low- and high-molecular mass thiols (RSH) including hemoglobin, cysteine, glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, and the exogenous N-acetylcysteine ethyl ester. The method is based on the conversion of RSNO to nitrite by aqueous Na 2 S (S 2- ). 15 N-Labelled analogs (RS 15 NO) or 15 N-labelled nitrite and nitrate were used as internal standards. The nitrite ( 14 NO 2 - and 15 NO 2 - ) and nitrate (O 14 NO 2 - and O 15 NO 2 - anions were derivatised by pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) bromide (PFB-Br) in aqueous acetone and their PFB derivatives were separated by gas chromatography. After electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization, the anions were separated by mass spectrometry and detected by selected-ion monitoring of m/z 46 for 14 NO 2 - , m/z 47 for 15 NO 2 - , m/z 62 for O 14 NO 2 - , and m/z 63 for O 15 NO 2 - . The expected thionitrites ( - S 14 NO and - S 15 NO) were not detected, suggesting that they are intermediates and rapidly exchange their S by O from water, presumably prior to PFB-Br derivatization. The reaction of S 2- with RSNO and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) resulted in the formation of nitrite and nitrate as the major and minor reaction products, respectively. The novel Na 2 S procedure was compared with established procedures based on the use of aqueous HgCl 2 or cysteine/Cu 2+ reagents to convert the S-nitroso group to nitrite. Our results provide evidence for an equilibrium S-transnitrosylation reaction between S 2- with RSNO in buffered solutions of neutral pH. Use of Na 2 S in molar excess over RSNO shifts this reaction to the right, thus allowing almost complete conversion of RSNO to nitrite and nitrate. The Na 2 S procedure should be useful for the quantitative determination of RSNO as nitrite and nitrate after PFB-Br derivatization and GC-MS analysis. The Na 2 S procedure may also contribute to explore the complex reactions of S 2- with RSNO

  3. Zinc thiolate reactivity toward nitrogen oxides: insights into the interaction of Zn2+ with S-nitrosothiols and implications for nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhukh, Julia; Lippard, Stephen J

    2012-07-02

    Zinc thiolate complexes containing N(2)S tridentate ligands were prepared to investigate their reactivity toward reactive nitrogen species, chemistry proposed to occur at the zinc tetracysteine thiolate site of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The complexes are unreactive toward nitric oxide (NO) in the absence of dioxygen, strongly indicating that NO cannot be the species directly responsible for S-nitrosothiol formation and loss of Zn(2+) at the NOS dimer interface in vivo. S-Nitrosothiol formation does occur upon exposure of zinc thiolate solutions to NO in the presence of air, however, or to NO(2) or NOBF(4), indicating that these reactive nitrogen/oxygen species are capable of liberating zinc from the enzyme, possibly through generation of the S-nitrosothiol. Interaction between simple Zn(2+) salts and preformed S-nitrosothiols leads to decomposition of the -SNO moiety, resulting in release of gaseous NO and N(2)O. The potential biological relevance of this chemistry is discussed.

  4. S-Nitrosothiols Observed Using Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

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    Rad, Mary Lynn; Gaston, Benjamin M.; Lehmann, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    The biological importance of nitric oxide has been known for nearly forty years due to its role in cardiovascular and nervous signaling. The main carrier molecules, s-nitrosothiols (RSNOs), are of additional interest due to their role in signaling reactions. Additionally, these compounds are related to several diseases including muscular dystrophy, stroke, myocardial infarction, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cystic fibrosis, asthma, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. One of the main barriers to elucidating the role of these RSNOs is the low (nanomolar) concentration present in samples of low volume (typically ˜100 μL). To this end we have set up a cavity ring-down spectrometer tuned to observe ^{14}NO and ^{15}NO released from cell growth samples. To decrease the limit of detection we have implemented a laser locking scheme employing Zeeman modulation of NO in a reference cell and have tuned the polarization of the laser using a half wave plate to optimize the polarization for the inherent birefringence of the CRDS mirrors. Progress toward measuring RSNO concentration in biological samples will be presented.

  5. Increased stability of S-nitrosothiol solutions via pH modulations.

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    Hornyák, István; Marosi, Krisztina; Kiss, Levente; Gróf, Pál; Lacza, Zsombor

    2012-02-01

    S-nitrosothiol (RSNO) solutions represent a valuable source of nitric oxide and could be used as topical vasodilators, but their fast decomposition rate poses a serious obstacle to their potentially widespread therapeutic use. Our aim was to characterize and quantify the effect of pH on S-nitrosothiol formation and decomposition in simple aqueous solutions of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC) and S-nitroso-3-mercaptopropionic acid (SN3MPA). Furthermore, we investigated the effect of storage pH on the stability of GSNO incorporated in poly(ethylene glycol)/ poly(vinyl alcohol) matrices. S-nitrosothiol concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically and laser Doppler scanning method was used to assess dermal blood flow. GSH and NAC solutions reached a complete transformation to nitrosothiols when synthesized using acidic NaNO(2) solution. The initial concentration of all investigated RSNOs decreased more slowly with pH adjusted to mildly basic values (8.4-8.8) for the storage period. Polymer gels of PVA/PEG compositions at mildly basic storage pH further reduced the decomposition rate succeeding to contain 46.8% of the initial GSNO concentration for 25 days. This amount of topically administered GSNO was still capable of increasing the dermal blood flow over 200% in human subjects.

  6. Nitrosopersulfide (SSNO− accounts for sustained NO bioactivity of S-nitrosothiols following reaction with sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam M. Cortese-Krott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfide salts are known to promote the release of nitric oxide (NO from S-nitrosothiols and potentiate their vasorelaxant activity, but much of the cross-talk between hydrogen sulfide and NO is believed to occur via functional interactions of cell regulatory elements such as phosphodiesterases. Using RFL-6 cells as an NO reporter system we sought to investigate whether sulfide can also modulate nitrosothiol-mediated soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC activation following direct chemical interaction. We find a U-shaped dose response relationship where low sulfide concentrations attenuate sGC stimulation by S-nitrosopenicillamine (SNAP and cyclic GMP levels are restored at equimolar ratios. Similar results are observed when intracellular sulfide levels are raised by pre-incubation with the sulfide donor, GYY4137. The outcome of direct sulfide/nitrosothiol interactions also critically depends on molar reactant ratios and is accompanied by oxygen consumption. With sulfide in excess, a ‘yellow compound’ accumulates that is indistinguishable from the product of solid-phase transnitrosation of either hydrosulfide or hydrodisulfide and assigned to be nitrosopersulfide (perthionitrite, SSNO−; λmax 412 nm in aqueous buffers, pH 7.4; 448 nm in DMF. Time-resolved chemiluminescence and UV–visible spectroscopy analyses suggest that its generation is preceded by formation of the short-lived NO-donor, thionitrite (SNO−. In contrast to the latter, SSNO− is rather stable at physiological pH and generates both NO and polysulfides on decomposition, resulting in sustained potentiation of SNAP-induced sGC stimulation. Thus, sulfide reacts with nitrosothiols to form multiple bioactive products; SSNO− rather than SNO− may account for some of the longer-lived effects of nitrosothiols and contribute to sulfide and NO signaling.

  7. S-Nitrosothiols and the S-Nitrosoproteome of the Cardiovascular System

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    Maron, Bradley A.; Tang, Shiow-Shih

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Since their discovery in the early 1990's, S-nitrosylated proteins have been increasingly recognized as important determinants of many biochemical processes. Specifically, S-nitrosothiols in the cardiovascular system exert many actions, including promoting vasodilation, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and regulating Ca2+ channel function that influences myocyte contractility and electrophysiologic stability. Recent Advances: Contemporary developments in liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry methods, the development of biotin- and His-tag switch assays, and the availability of cyanide dye-labeling for S-nitrosothiol detection in vitro have increased significantly the identification of a number of cardiovascular protein targets of S-nitrosylation in vivo. Critical Issues: Recent analyses using modern S-nitrosothiol detection techniques have revealed the mechanistic significance of S-nitrosylation to the pathophysiology of numerous cardiovascular diseases, including essential hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, ischemic heart disease, stroke, and congestive heart failure, among others. Future Directions: Despite enhanced insight into S-nitrosothiol biochemistry, translating these advances into beneficial pharmacotherapies for patients with cardiovascular diseases remains a primary as-yet unmet goal for investigators within the field. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 270–287. PMID:22770551

  8. Amperometric S-Nitrosothiol Sensor with Enhanced Sensitivity Based on Organoselenium Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Wansik; Anderson, Meredith R.; Zhang, Fenghua; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    A new S-nitrosothiol (RSNO) detection strategy based on an electrochemical sensor is described for rapidly estimating levels of total RSNOs in blood and other biological samples. The sensor employs a cellulose dialysis membrane covalently modified with an organoselenium catalyst that converts RSNOs to NO at the distal tip of an amperometric NO sensor. The sensor is characterized by very low detection limits (< 20 nM), good long-term stability and can be employed for the rapid detection of tot...

  9. S-nitrosothiols regulate nitric oxide production and storage in plants through the nitrogen assimilation pathway.

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    Frungillo, Lucas; Skelly, Michael J; Loake, Gary J; Spoel, Steven H; Salgado, Ione

    2014-11-11

    Nitrogen assimilation plays a vital role in plant metabolism. Assimilation of nitrate, the primary source of nitrogen in soil, is linked to the generation of the redox signal nitric oxide (NO). An important mechanism by which NO regulates plant development and stress responses is through S-nitrosylation, that is, covalent attachment of NO to cysteine residues to form S-nitrosothiols (SNO). Despite the importance of nitrogen assimilation and NO signalling, it remains largely unknown how these pathways are interconnected. Here we show that SNO signalling suppresses both nitrate uptake and reduction by transporters and reductases, respectively, to fine tune nitrate homeostasis. Moreover, NO derived from nitrate assimilation suppresses the redox enzyme S-nitrosoglutathione Reductase 1 (GSNOR1) by S-nitrosylation, preventing scavenging of S-nitrosoglutathione, a major cellular bio-reservoir of NO. Hence, our data demonstrates that (S)NO controls its own generation and scavenging by modulating nitrate assimilation and GSNOR1 activity.

  10. Gold nanoparticles-based catalysis for detection of S-nitrosothiols in blood serum.

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    Jia, Hongying; Han, Xu; Li, Zhiwei; Tian, Qiu; Miao, Xiaoxiang; Du, Libo; Liu, Yang

    2011-09-30

    Accumulating evidence suggests that S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) play key roles in human health and disease. To clarify their physiological functions and roles in diseases, it is necessary to promote some new techniques for quantifying RSNOs in blood and other biological fluids. Here, a new method using gold nanoparticle catalysts has been introduced for quantitative evaluation of RSNOs in blood serum. The assay involves degrading RSNOs using gold nanoparticles and detecting nitric oxide (NO) released with NO-selective electrodes. The approach displays very high sensitivity for RSNOs with a low detection limit in the picomolar concentration range (5.08 × 10(-11) mol L(-1), S/N=3) and is free from interference of some endogenous substances such as NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) co-existing in blood serum. A linear function of concentration in the range of (5.0-1000.0) × 10(-9) mol L(-1) has been observed with a correlation coefficient of 0.9976. The level of RSNOs in blood serum was successfully determined using the described method above. In addition, a dose-dependent effect of gold nanoparticles on the sensitivity for RSNOs detection is revealed, and thereby the approach is potentially useful to evaluate RSNOs levels in various biological fluids via varying gold nanoparticles concentration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. S-Nitrosothiols modulate G protein-coupled receptor signaling in a reversible and highly receptor-specific manner

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    Mönkkönen Kati S

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies indicate that the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR signaling machinery can serve as a direct target of reactive oxygen species, including nitric oxide (NO and S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs. To gain a broader view into the way that receptor-dependent G protein activation – an early step in signal transduction – might be affected by RSNOs, we have studied several receptors coupling to the Gi family of G proteins in their native cellular environment using the powerful functional approach of [35S]GTPγS autoradiography with brain cryostat sections in combination with classical G protein activation assays. Results We demonstrate that RSNOs, like S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO and S-nitrosocysteine (CysNO, can modulate GPCR signaling via reversible, thiol-sensitive mechanisms probably involving S-nitrosylation. RSNOs are capable of very targeted regulation, as they potentiate the signaling of some receptors (exemplified by the M2/M4 muscarinic cholinergic receptors, inhibit others (P2Y12 purinergic, LPA1lysophosphatidic acid, and cannabinoid CB1 receptors, but may only marginally affect signaling of others, such as adenosine A1, μ-opioid, and opiate related receptors. Amplification of M2/M4 muscarinic responses is explained by an accelerated rate of guanine nucleotide exchange, as well as an increased number of high-affinity [35S]GTPγS binding sites available for the agonist-activated receptor. GSNO amplified human M4 receptor signaling also under heterologous expression in CHO cells, but the effect diminished with increasing constitutive receptor activity. RSNOs markedly inhibited P2Y12 receptor signaling in native tissues (rat brain and human platelets, but failed to affect human P2Y12 receptor signaling under heterologous expression in CHO cells, indicating that the native cellular signaling partners, rather than the P2Y12 receptor protein, act as a molecular target for this action. Conclusion These in vitro studies

  12. A Selection of Nitric Oxide-Releasing Materials Incorporating S-Nitrosothiols

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    Lutzke, Alec

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a diatomic radical that occurs as a crucial component of mammalian biochemistry. As a signaling molecule, NO participates in the regulation of vascular tone and maintains the natural antithrombotic function of the healthy endothelium. Furthermore, NO is produced by phagocytes as part of the immune response, and exhibits both antimicrobial and wound-healing effects. In combination, these beneficial properties have led to the use of exogenous NO as a multifunctional therapeutic agent. However, the comparatively short half-life of NO under physiological conditions often renders systemic administration infeasible. This limitation is addressed by the use of NO-releasing polymeric materials, which permit the localized delivery of NO directly at the intended site of action. Such polymers have been utilized in the development of antithrombotic or antibacterial materials for biointerfacial applications, including tissue engineering and the fabrication of medical devices. NO release from polymers has most frequently been achieved through the incorporation of functional groups that are susceptible to NO-forming chemical decomposition in response to appropriate environmental stimuli. While numerous synthetic sources of NO are known, the S-nitrosothiol (RSNO) functional group occurs naturally in the form of S-nitrosocysteine residues in both proteins and small molecule species such as S-nitrosoglutathione. RSNOs are synthesized directly from thiol precursors, and their NO-forming decay has generally been established to produce the corresponding disulfide as a relatively benign organic byproduct. For these reasons, RSNOs have been conscripted as practical NO donors within a physiological environment. This dissertation describes the synthesis and characterization of RSNO-based NO-releasing polymers derived from the polysaccharides chitin and chitosan, as well as the development of amino acid ester-based NO-releasing biodegradable poly

  13. Excessive Cellular S-nitrosothiol Impairs Endocytosis of Auxin Efflux Transporter PIN2

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    Min Ni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR1 is the key enzyme that regulates cellular levels of S-nitrosylation across kingdoms. We have previously reported that loss of GSNOR1 resulted in impaired auxin signaling and compromised auxin transport in Arabidopsis, leading to the auxin-related morphological phenotypes. However, the molecular mechanism underpinning the compromised auxin transport in gsnor1-3 mutant is still unknown. Endocytosis of plasma-membrane (PM-localized efflux PIN proteins play critical roles in auxin transport. Therefore, we investigate whether loss of GSNOR1 function has any effects on the endocytosis of PIN-FORMED (PIN proteins. It was found that the endocytosis of either the endogenous PIN2 or the transgenically expressed PIN2-GFP was compromised in the root cells of gsnor1-3 seedlings relative to Col-0. The internalization of PM-associated PIN2 or PIN2-GFP into Brefeldin A (BFA bodies was significantly reduced in gsnor1-3 upon BFA treatment in a manner independent of de novo protein synthesis. In addition, the exogenously applied GSNO not only compromised the endocytosis of PIN2-GFP but also inhibited the root elongation in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, our results indicate that, besides the reduced PIN2 level, one or more compromised components in the endocytosis pathway could account for the reduced endocytosis of PIN2 in gsnor1-3.

  14. Involvement of S-nitrosothiols modulation by S-nitrosoglutathione reductase in defence responses of lettuce and wild Lactuca spp. to biotrophic mildews.

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    Tichá, Tereza; Sedlářová, Michaela; Činčalová, Lucie; Trojanová, Zuzana Drábková; Mieslerová, Barbora; Lebeda, Aleš; Luhová, Lenka; Petřivalský, Marek

    2018-02-07

    Resistant Lactuca spp. genotypes can efficiently modulate levels of S-nitrosothiols as reactive nitrogen species derived from nitric oxide in their defence mechanism against invading biotrophic pathogens including lettuce downy mildew. S-Nitrosylation belongs to principal signalling pathways of nitric oxide in plant development and stress responses. Protein S-nitrosylation is regulated by S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) as a key catabolic enzyme of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), the major intracellular S-nitrosothiol. GSNOR expression, level and activity were studied in leaves of selected genotypes of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and wild Lactuca spp. during interactions with biotrophic mildews, Bremia lactucae (lettuce downy mildew), Golovinomyces cichoracearum (lettuce powdery mildew) and non-pathogen Pseudoidium neolycopersici (tomato powdery mildew) during 168 h post inoculation (hpi). GSNOR expression was increased in all genotypes both in the early phase at 6 hpi and later phase at 72 hpi, with a high increase observed in L. sativa UCDM2 responses to all three pathogens. GSNOR protein also showed two-phase increase, with highest changes in L. virosa-B. lactucae and L. sativa cv. UCDM2-G. cichoracearum pathosystems, whereas P. neolycopersici induced GSNOR protein at 72 hpi in all genotypes. Similarly, a general pattern of modulated GSNOR activities in response to biotrophic mildews involves a two-phase increase at 6 and 72 hpi. Lettuce downy mildew infection caused GSNOR activity slightly increased only in resistant L. saligna and L. virosa genotypes; however, all genotypes showed increased GSNOR activity both at 6 and 72 hpi by lettuce powdery mildew. We observed GSNOR-mediated decrease of S-nitrosothiols as a general feature of Lactuca spp. response to mildew infection, which was also confirmed by immunohistochemical detection of GSNOR and GSNO in infected plant tissues. Our results demonstrate that GSNOR is differentially modulated in interactions of

  15. Effect of chemical structure of S-nitrosothiols on nitric oxide release mediated by the copper sites of a metal organic framework based environment.

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    Taylor-Edinbyrd, Kiara; Li, Tanping; Kumar, Revati

    2017-05-17

    The effect of chemical structure of different biologically compatible S-nitrosothiols on the solvation environment at catalytic copper sites in a metal organic framework (MOF) suspended in a solution of ethanol is probed using computational methods. The use of a copper based MOF as a storage vehicle and catalyst (copper sites of the MOF) in the controlled and sustained release of chemically stored nitric oxide (NO) from S-nitrosocysteine has been shown to occur both experimentally and computationally [J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134, 3330-3333; Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, 17, 23403]. Previous studies on a copper based MOF, namely HKUST-1, concluded that modifications in the R-group of s-nitrosothiols and/or organic linkers of MOFs led to a method capable of modulating NO release. In order to test the hypothesis that larger R-groups slow down NO release, four different RSNOs (R = cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, N-acetyl-d,l-penicillamine or glutathione) of varying size were investigated, which in turn required the use of a larger copper based MOF. Due to its desirable copper centers and more extensive framework, MOF-143, an analog of HKUST-1 was chosen to further explore both the effect of different RSNOs as well as MOF environments on NO release. Condensed phase classical molecular dynamics simulations are utilized to study the effect of the complex MOF environment as well as the chemical structure and size of the RSNO on the species on the catalytic reaction. The results indicate that in addition to the size of the RSNO species and the organic linkers within the MOF, the reaction rates can be modulated by the molecular structure of the RSNO and furthermore combining different RSNO species can also be used to tune the rate of NO release.

  16. Study of the effect of thiols on the vasodilatory potency of S-nitrosothiols by using a modified aortic ring assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giustarini, Daniela; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Rossi, Ranieri

    2011-01-01

    Both low-molecular-mass thiols (LMM-SH) and protein thiols (P-SH) can modulate the biological activity of S-nitrosothiols (RSNO) via S-transnitrosation reactions. It has been difficult to evaluate the entity of this effect in blood circulation by in vitro assays with isolated aorta rings so far, because media rich in proteins cannot be used due to the foaming as a consequence of the needed gas bubbling. We have modified the original apparatus for organ bioassay in order to minimize foaming and to increase analytical performance. By using this modified bioassay we investigated the vasodilatory potency of various endogenous RSNOs in the presence of physiologically relevant concentrations of albumin and LMM-SH. Our results show that the sulfhydryl group of the cysteine moiety of albumin and LMM-SH has a dramatic effect on the vasodilatory potency of RSNO. Considering the equilibrium constants for S-transnitrosation reactions and the concentration of P-SH and LMM-SH we measured in healthy humans (aged 18-85 years), we infer that the age-dependency of hematic levels of LMM-SH may have a considerable impact in RSNO-mediated vasodilation. S-Nitrosoproteins such as S-nitrosoalbumin may constitute a relatively silent and constant amount of circulating RSNO. On the other hand, LMM-SH may mediate and control the biological actions of S-nitrosoproteins via S-transnitrosation reactions, by forming more potent nitric oxide-releasing LMM-S-nitrosothiols. Lifestyle habits, status of health and individual age are proven factors that, in turn, may influence the concentration of these compounds. These aspects should be taken into consideration when testing the vasodilatory effects of RSNO in pre-clinical studies. - Highlights: → A modification of the organ chamber apparatus for aortic ring bioassays is proposed. → The new apparatus can work in the presence of albumin at physiological concentrations. → Potency of RSNOs was studied in the presence of albumin and low molecular

  17. Mechanical wounding induces a nitrosative stress by down-regulation of GSNO reductase and an increase in S-nitrosothiols in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedlings

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    Chaki, Mounira; Valderrama, Raquel; Fernández-Ocaña, Ana M.; Carreras, Alfonso; Gómez-Rodríguez, Maria. V.; Pedrajas, José R.; Begara-Morales, Juan C.; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Luque, Francisco; Leterrier, Marina; Corpas, Francisco J.; Barroso, Juan B.

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and related molecules such as peroxynitrite, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), and nitrotyrosine, among others, are involved in physiological processes as well in the mechanisms of response to stress conditions. In sunflower seedlings exposed to five different adverse environmental conditions (low temperature, mechanical wounding, high light intensity, continuous light, and continuous darkness), key components of the metabolism of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), including the enzyme activities L-arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS), S-nitrosogluthathione reductase (GSNOR), nitrate reductase (NR), catalase, and superoxide dismutase, the content of lipid hydroperoxide, hydrogen peroxide, S-nitrosothiols (SNOs), the cellular level of NO, GSNO, and GSNOR, and protein tyrosine nitration [nitrotyrosine (NO2-Tyr)] were analysed. Among the stress conditions studied, mechanical wounding was the only one that caused a down-regulation of NOS and GSNOR activities, which in turn provoked an accumulation of SNOs. The analyses of the cellular content of NO, GSNO, GSNOR, and NO2-Tyr by confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed these biochemical data. Therefore, it is proposed that mechanical wounding triggers the accumulation of SNOs, specifically GSNO, due to a down-regulation of GSNOR activity, while NO2-Tyr increases. Consequently a process of nitrosative stress is induced in sunflower seedlings and SNOs constitute a new wound signal in plants. PMID:21172815

  18. Toward reliable modeling of S-nitrosothiol chemistry: Structure and properties of methyl thionitrite (CH3SNO), an S-nitrosocysteine model

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    Khomyakov, Dmitry G.; Timerghazin, Qadir K.

    2017-07-01

    Methyl thionitrite CH3SNO is an important model of S-nitrosated cysteine aminoacid residue (CysNO), a ubiquitous biological S-nitrosothiol (RSNO) involved in numerous physiological processes. As such, CH3SNO can provide insights into the intrinsic properties of the —SNO group in CysNO, in particular, its weak and labile S—N bond. Here, we report an ab initio computational investigation of the structure and properties of CH3SNO using a composite Feller-Peterson-Dixon scheme based on the explicitly correlated coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations calculations extrapolated to the complete basis set limit, CCSD(T)-F12/CBS, with a number of additive corrections for the effects of quadruple excitations, core-valence correlation, scalar-relativistic and spin-orbit effects, as well as harmonic zero-point vibrational energy with an anharmonicity correction. These calculations suggest that the S—N bond in CH3SNO is significantly elongated (1.814 Å) and has low stretching frequency and dissociation energy values, νS—N = 387 cm-1 and D0 = 32.4 kcal/mol. At the same time, the S—N bond has a sizable rotation barrier, △E0≠ = 12.7 kcal/mol, so CH3SNO exists as a cis- or trans-conformer, the latter slightly higher in energy, △E0 = 1.2 kcal/mol. The S—N bond properties are consistent with the antagonistic nature of CH3SNO, whose resonance representation requires two chemically opposite (antagonistic) resonance structures, CH3—S+=N—O- and CH3—S-/NO+, which can be probed using external electric fields and quantified using the natural resonance theory approach (NRT). The calculated S—N bond properties slowly converge with the level of correlation treatment, with the recently developed distinguished cluster with single and double excitations approximation (DCSD-F12) performing significantly better than the coupled cluster with single and double excitations (CCSD-F12), although still inferior to the CCSD(T)-F12 method that

  19. A fluorogenic probe for imaging protein S-nitrosylation in live cells.

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    Shao, Shiyi; Chen, Bo; Cheng, Juan; Wang, Chengkun; Zhang, Yanli; Shao, Lingxiao; Hu, Yongzhou; Han, Yifeng; Han, Feng; Li, Xin

    2017-08-15

    S-nitrosylation is a posttranslational modification of protein cysteine residues leading to the formation of S-nitrosothiols and its detection is crucial to understanding of redox regulation and NO-based signaling. Prototypical detection methods for S-nitrosylation are always carried out ex situ. However, the reversible nature and the tendency of transnitrosylation highlight the necessity of its probing in intact live biological contexts. Herein we provide a fluorogenic chemical probe for the detection of S-nitrosylation in live endothelial cells. The probe is weakly emissive alone and becomes highly fluorescent only after undergoing a reaction with S-nitrosothiols in live cellular environments. This probe features high degrees of specificity and desirable sensitivity. Furthermore, it has been successfully applied to image the dynamic change of protein S-nitrosylation in live endothelial cells. The applicability of the probe in complex biological systems has been additionally verified by imaging a known target of S-nitrosylation, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), in live cells. Due to the versatility exemplified, this probe holds great promise for exploring the role of protein S-nitrosylation in the pathophysiological process of a variety of vascular diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of spironolactone and captopril on nitric oxide and S-nitrosothiol formation in kidney of L-NAME-treated rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecháňová, Olga; Matušková, J.; Čapíková, D.; Jendeková, L.; Paulis, L.; Šimko, F.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 1 (2006), s. 170-176 ISSN 0085-2538 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/6148/26; VEGA(SK) 1/3429/06; SAV(SK) APVT51-027404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : captopril * spironolactone * L-NAME hypertension Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.773, year: 2006

  1. Formative cell divisions: principal determinants of plant morphogenesis.

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    Smolarkiewicz, Michalina; Dhonukshe, Pankaj

    2013-03-01

    Formative cell divisions utilizing precise rotations of cell division planes generate and spatially place asymmetric daughters to produce different cell layers. Therefore, by shaping tissues and organs, formative cell divisions dictate multicellular morphogenesis. In animal formative cell divisions, the orientation of the mitotic spindle and cell division planes relies on intrinsic and extrinsic cortical polarity cues. Plants lack known key players from animals, and cell division planes are determined prior to the mitotic spindle stage. Therefore, it appears that plants have evolved specialized mechanisms to execute formative cell divisions. Despite their profound influence on plant architecture, molecular players and cellular mechanisms regulating formative divisions in plants are not well understood. This is because formative cell divisions in plants have been difficult to track owing to their submerged positions and imprecise timings of occurrence. However, by identifying a spatiotemporally inducible cell division plane switch system applicable for advanced microscopy techniques, recent studies have begun to uncover molecular modules and mechanisms for formative cell divisions. The identified molecular modules comprise developmentally triggered transcriptional cascades feeding onto microtubule regulators that now allow dissection of the hierarchy of the events at better spatiotemporal resolutions. Here, we survey the current advances in understanding of formative cell divisions in plants in the context of embryogenesis, stem cell functionality and post-embryonic organ formation.

  2. Contact formation in gallium arsenide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1988-01-01

    Gold and gold-based alloys, commonly used as solar cell contact materials, are known to react readily with gallium arsenide. Experiments were performed to identify the mechanisms involved in these GaAs-metal interactions. It is shown that the reaction of GaAs with gold takes place via a dissociative diffusion process. It is shown further that the GaAs-metal reaction rate is controlled to a very great extent by the condition of the free surface of the contact metal, an interesting example of which is the previously unexplained increase in the reaction rate that has been observed for samples annealed in a vacuum environment as compared to those annealed in a gaseous ambient. A number of other hard-to-explain observations, such as the low-temperature formation of voids in the gold lattice and crystallite growth on the gold surface, are explained by invoking this mechanism.

  3. Focal Adhesion Kinase regulates cell-cell contact formation in epithelial cells via modulation of Rho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Playford, Martin P.; Vadali, Kavita; Cai Xinming; Burridge, Keith; Schaller, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a key role in cellular processes such as cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and survival. Recent studies have also implicated FAK in the regulation of cell-cell adhesion. Here, evidence is presented showing that siRNA-mediated suppression of FAK levels in NBT-II cells and expression of dominant negative mutants of FAK caused loss of epithelial cell morphology and inhibited the formation of cell-cell adhesions. Rac and Rho have been implicated in the regulation of cell-cell adhesions and can be regulated by FAK signaling. Expression of active Rac or Rho in NBT-II cells disrupted formation of cell-cell contacts, thus promoting a phenotype similar to FAK-depleted cells. The loss of intercellular contacts in FAK-depleted cells is prevented upon expression of a dominant negative Rho mutant, but not a dominant negative Rac mutant. Inhibition of FAK decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of p190RhoGAP and elevated the level of GTP-bound Rho. This suggests that FAK regulates cell-cell contact formation by regulation of Rho

  4. Formation of reactive oxygen species in rat epithelial cells upon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    < 100 nm) that contributed 31% to the particle number. In our study, we investigated the influence of fly ash on the promotion of early inflammatory reactions like the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rat lung epithelial cells (RLE-6TN). Furthermore, we determined the formation of nitric oxide (NO). The cells show a.

  5. Formation of reactive oxygen species in rat epithelial cells upon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In our study, we investigated the influence of fly ash on the promotion of early inflammatory reactions like the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rat lung epithelial cells (RLE-6TN). Furthermore, we determined the formation of nitric oxide (NO). The cells show a clear dose-response relationship concerning the ...

  6. Cholesterol inhibits entotic cell-in-cell formation and actomyosin contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Banzhan; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Ang; Yuan, Long; Liang, Jianqing; Wang, Manna; Zhang, Zhengrong; Fan, Jie; Yu, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xin; Niu, Zubiao; Zheng, You; Gu, Songzhi; Liu, Xiaoqing; Du, Hongli; Wang, Jufang; Hu, Xianwen; Gao, Lihua; Chen, Zhaolie; Huang, Hongyan; Wang, Xiaoning; Sun, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Cell-in-cell structure is prevalent in human cancer, and associated with several specific pathophysiological phenomena. Although cell membrane adhesion molecules were found critical for cell-in-cell formation, the roles of other membrane components, such as lipids, remain to be explored. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects of cholesterol and phospholipids on the formation of cell-in-cell structures by utilizing liposome as a vector. We found that Lipofectamine-2000, the reagent commonly used for routine transfection, could significantly reduce entotic cell-in-cell formation in a cell-specific manner, which is correlated with suppressed actomyosin contraction as indicated by reduced β-actin expression and myosin light chain phosphorylation. The influence on cell-in-cell formation was likely dictated by specific liposome components as some liposomes affected cell-in-cell formation while some others didn't. Screening on a limited number of lipids, the major components of liposome, identified phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), stearamide (SA), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and cholesterol (CHOL) as the inhibitors of cell-in-cell formation. Importantly, cholesterol treatment significantly inhibited myosin light chain phosphorylation, which resembles the effect of Lipofectamine-2000, suggesting cholesterol might be partially responsible for liposomes' effects on cell-in-cell formation. Together, our findings supporting a role of membrane lipids and cholesterol in cell-in-cell formation probably via regulating actomyosin contraction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrin LFA-1 regulates cell adhesion via transient clutch formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Munenori; Miyanaga, Yukihiro; Matsuoka, Satomi; Kozuka, Jun; Togashi, Yuichi; Kinashi, Tatsuo; Ueda, Masahiro

    2015-08-21

    Integrin LFA-1 regulates immune cell adhesion and trafficking by binding to ICAM-1 upon chemokine stimulation. Integrin-mediated clutch formation between extracellular ICAM-1 and the intracellular actin cytoskeleton is important for cell adhesion. We applied single-molecule tracking analysis to LFA-1 and ICAM-1 in living cells to examine the ligand-binding kinetics and mobility of the molecular clutch under chemokine-induced physiological adhesion and Mn(2+)-induced tight adhesion. Our results show a transient LFA-1-mediated clutch formation that lasts a few seconds and leads to a transient lower-mobility is sufficient to promote cell adhesion. Stable clutch formation was observed for Mn(2+)-induced high affinity LFA-1, but was not required for physiological adhesion. We propose that fast cycling of the clutch formation by intermediate-affinity integrin enables dynamic cell adhesion and migration. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mathematical modeling of dormant cell formation in growing biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro eChihara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamics of dormant cells in microbial biofilms, in which the bacteria are embedded in extracellular matrix, is important for developing successful antibiotic therapies against pathogenic bacteria. Although some of the molecular mechanisms leading to bacterial persistence have been speculated in planktonic bacterial cell, how dormant cells emerge in the biofilms of pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains unclear. The present study proposes four hypotheses of dormant cell formation; stochastic process, nutrient-dependent, oxygen-dependent, and time-dependent processes. These hypotheses were implemented into a three-dimensional individual-based model of biofilm formation. Numerical simulations of the different mechanisms yielded qualitatively different spatiotemporal distributions of dormant cells in the growing biofilm. Based on these simulation results, we discuss what kinds of experimental studies are effective for discriminating dormant cell formation mechanisms in biofilms.

  9. Mathematical modeling of dormant cell formation in growing biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Kotaro; Matsumoto, Shinya; Kagawa, Yuki; Tsuneda, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of dormant cells in microbial biofilms, in which the bacteria are embedded in extracellular matrix, is important for developing successful antibiotic therapies against pathogenic bacteria. Although some of the molecular mechanisms leading to bacterial persistence have been speculated in planktonic bacterial cell, how dormant cells emerge in the biofilms of pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains unclear. The present study proposes four hypotheses of dormant cell formation; stochastic process, nutrient-dependent, oxygen-dependent, and time-dependent processes. These hypotheses were implemented into a three-dimensional individual-based model of biofilm formation. Numerical simulations of the different mechanisms yielded qualitatively different spatiotemporal distributions of dormant cells in the growing biofilm. Based on these simulation results, we discuss what kinds of experimental studies are effective for discriminating dormant cell formation mechanisms in biofilms.

  10. Suppression of T cell-induced osteoclast formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karieb, Sahar; Fox, Simon W., E-mail: Simon.fox@plymouth.ac.uk

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Genistein and coumestrol prevent activated T cell induced osteoclast formation. •Anti-TNF neutralising antibodies prevent the pro-osteoclastic effect of activated T cells. •Phytoestrogens inhibit T cell derived TNF alpha and inflammatory cytokine production. •Phytoestrogens have a broader range of anti-osteoclastic actions than other anti-resorptives. -- Abstract: Inhibition of T cell derived cytokine production could help suppress osteoclast differentiation in inflammatory skeletal disorders. Bisphosphonates are typically prescribed to prevent inflammatory bone loss but are not tolerated by all patients and are associated with an increased risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw. In light of this other anti-resorptives such as phytoestrogens are being considered. However the effect of phytoestrogens on T cell-induced osteoclast formation is unclear. The effect of genistein and coumestrol on activated T cell-induced osteoclastogenesis and cytokine production was therefore examined. Concentrations of genistein and coumestrol (10{sup −7} M) previously shown to directly inhibit osteoclast formation also suppressed the formation of TRAP positive osteoclast induced by con A activated T cells, which was dependent on inhibition of T cell derived TNF-α. While both reduced osteoclast formation their mechanism of action differed. The anti-osteoclastic effect of coumestrol was associated with a dual effect on con A induced T cell proliferation and activation; 10{sup −7} M coumestrol significantly reducing T cell number (0.36) and TNF-α (0.47), IL-1β (0.23) and IL-6 (0.35) expression, whereas genistein (10{sup −7} M) had no effect on T cell number but a more pronounced effect on T cell differentiation reducing expression of TNF-α (0.49), IL-1β (0.52), IL-6 (0.71) and RANKL (0.71). Phytoestrogens therefore prevent the pro-osteoclastic action of T cells suggesting they may have a role in the control of inflammatory bone loss.

  11. The Formation of Germ Cell for Organizational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaldi, Silvia; Scaratti, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to analyze the process of "germ cell" formation by framing it as an opportunity for promoting organizational learning and transformation. The paper aims to specifically answer two research questions: Why does the "germ cell" have a pivotal role in organization's transformation? and Which…

  12. Cell-fusion method to visualize interphase nuclear pore formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, Kazuhiro; Funakoshi, Tomoko; Imamoto, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the nucleus is a complex and sophisticated organelle that organizes genomic DNA to support essential cellular functions. The nuclear surface contains many nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), channels for macromolecular transport between the cytoplasm and nucleus. It is well known that the number of NPCs almost doubles during interphase in cycling cells. However, the mechanism of NPC formation is poorly understood, presumably because a practical system for analysis does not exist. The most difficult obstacle in the visualization of interphase NPC formation is that NPCs already exist after nuclear envelope formation, and these existing NPCs interfere with the observation of nascent NPCs. To overcome this obstacle, we developed a novel system using the cell-fusion technique (heterokaryon method), previously also used to analyze the shuttling of macromolecules between the cytoplasm and the nucleus, to visualize the newly synthesized interphase NPCs. In addition, we used a photobleaching approach that validated the cell-fusion method. We recently used these methods to demonstrate the role of cyclin-dependent protein kinases and of Pom121 in interphase NPC formation in cycling human cells. Here, we describe the details of the cell-fusion approach and compare the system with other NPC formation visualization methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cell Competition Drives the Formation of Metastatic Tumors in a Drosophila Model of Epithelial Tumor Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichenlaub, Teresa; Cohen, Stephen M; Herranz, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Cell competition is a homeostatic process in which proliferating cells compete for survival. Elimination of otherwise normal healthy cells through competition is important during development and has recently been shown to contribute to maintaining tissue health during organismal aging. The mechan......Cell competition is a homeostatic process in which proliferating cells compete for survival. Elimination of otherwise normal healthy cells through competition is important during development and has recently been shown to contribute to maintaining tissue health during organismal aging....... The mechanisms that allow for ongoing cell competition during adult life could, in principle, contribute to tumorigenesis. However, direct evidence supporting this hypothesis has been lacking. Here, we provide evidence that cell competition drives tumor formation in a Drosophila model of epithelial cancer. Cells...... of the Septin family protein Peanut. Cytokinesis failure due to downregulation of Peanut is required for tumorigenesis. This study provides evidence that the cellular mechanisms that drive cell competition during normal tissue growth can be co-opted to drive tumor formation and metastasis. Analogous mechanisms...

  14. Pulp stem cells: implication in reparative dentin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova-Nakov, Sasha; Baudry, Anne; Harichane, Yassine; Kellermann, Odile; Goldberg, Michel

    2014-04-01

    Many dental pulp stem cells are neural crest derivatives essential for lifelong maintenance of tooth functions and homeostasis as well as tooth repair. These cells may be directly implicated in the healing process or indirectly involved in cell-to-cell diffusion of paracrine messages to resident (pulpoblasts) or nonresident cells (migrating mesenchymal cells). The identity of the pulp progenitors and the mechanisms sustaining their regenerative capacity remain largely unknown. Taking advantage of the A4 cell line, a multipotent stem cell derived from the molar pulp of mouse embryo, we investigated the capacity of these pulp-derived precursors to induce in vivo the formation of a reparative dentin-like structure upon implantation within the pulp of a rodent incisor or a first maxillary molar after surgical exposure. One month after the pulp injury alone, a nonmineralized fibrous matrix filled the mesial part of the coronal pulp chamber. Upon A4 cell implantation, a mineralized osteodentin was formed in the implantation site without affecting the structure and vitality of the residual pulp in the central and distal parts of the pulp chamber. These results show that dental pulp stem cells can induce the formation of reparative dentin and therefore constitute a useful tool for pulp therapies. Finally, reparative dentin was also built up when A4 progenitors were performed by alginate beads, suggesting that alginate is a suitable carrier for cell implantation in teeth. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. CARBOHYDRATE-BASED CELL ADHESION: ANALYSIS OF SPHEROID FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Vieira Macedo Grinet

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates are vast constituents of cell surfaces and in many systems where cell adhesion plays a critical role, carbohydrate binding proteins have been shown to bind to cell surface carbohydrates and participate in cell-cell interactions. Jurkat cells are suspension cells that grow in clumps and have 20.7 (± 2.2 hours of population doubling time (PDT. In this experiment, Jurkat cells are studied to compare the effects of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA lectin, and Maackia amurensis (MAA lectin, for clumping and spheroid formation studies, as well as carbohydrate analog solutions in ethanol (C2H6O Ac4ManNAc, and Ac5ManNTGc for concentration effect studies.

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells promote formation of colorectal tumors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuo-Shu; Yang, Shung-Haur; Lei, Yen-Ping; Tsai, Chih-Chien; Chen, Hsin-Wei; Hsu, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Ling-Lan; Wang, Hsei-Wei; Miller, Stephanie A; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Hung, Mien-Chie; Hung, Shih-Chieh

    2011-09-01

    Tumor-initiating cells are a subset of tumor cells with the ability to form new tumors; however, they account for less than 0.001% of the cells in colorectal or other types of tumors. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) integrate into the colorectal tumor stroma; we investigated their involvement in tumor initiation. Human colorectal cancer cells, MSCs, and a mixture of both cell types were injected subcutaneously into immunodeficient mice. We compared the ability of each injection to form tumors and investigated the signaling pathway involved in tumor initiation. A small number (≤ 10) of unsorted, CD133⁻, CD166⁻, epithelial cell adhesion molecule⁻(EpCAM⁻), or CD133⁻/CD166⁻/EpCAM⁻ colorectal cancer cells, when mixed with otherwise nontumorigenic MSCs, formed tumors in mice. Secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 by MSCs increased the expression of CD133 and activation of Janus kinase 2-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in the cancer cells, and promoted sphere and tumor formation. An antibody against IL-6 or lentiviral-mediated transduction of an interfering RNA against IL-6 in MSCs or STAT3 in cancer cells prevented the ability of MSCs to promote sphere formation and tumor initiation. IL-6, secreted by MSCs, signals through STAT3 to increase the numbers of colorectal tumor-initiating cells and promote tumor formation. Reagents developed to disrupt this process might be developed to treat patients with colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Subtotal ablation of parietal epithelial cells induces crescent formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicking, E.M.; Fuss, A.; Uhlig, S.; Jirak, P.; Dijkman, H.; Wetzels, J.; Engel, D.R.; Urzynicok, T.; Heidenreich, S.; Kriz, W.; Kurts, C.; Ostendorf, T.; Floege, J.; Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) of the renal glomerulus contribute to the formation of both cellular crescents in rapidly progressive GN and sclerotic lesions in FSGS. Subtotal transgenic ablation of podocytes induces FSGS but the effect of specific ablation of PECs is unknown. Here, we established

  18. Flexible PMP Approach for Large-Size Cell Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldengorin, Boris; Krushinsky, Dmitry; Slomp, Jannes

    2012-01-01

    Lately, the problem of cell formation (CF) has gained a lot of attention in the industrial engineering literature. Since it was formulated (more than 50 years ago), the problem has incorporated additional industrial factors and constraints while its solution methods have been constantly improving in

  19. Yeast cell wall chitin reduces wine haze formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlovu, Thulile; Divol, Benoit; Bauer, Florian F

    2018-04-27

    Protein haze formation in bottled wines is a significant concern for the global wine industry and wine clarification before bottling is therefore a common but expensive practice. Previous studies have shown that wine yeast strains can reduce haze formation through the secretion of certain mannoproteins, but it has been suggested that other yeast-dependent haze protective mechanisms exist. On the other hand, addition of chitin has been shown to reduce haze formation, likely because grape chitinases have been shown to be the major contributors to haze. In this study, Chardonnay grape must fermented by various yeast strains resulted in wines with different protein haze levels indicating differences in haze protective capacities of the strains. The cell wall chitin levels of these strains were determined, and a strong correlation between cell wall chitin levels and haze protection capability was observed. To further evaluate the mechanism of haze protection, Escherichia coli -produced GFP-tagged grape chitinase was shown to bind efficiently to yeast cell walls in a cell wall chitin concentration-dependent manner, while commercial chitinase was removed from synthetic wine in quantities also correlated with the cell wall chitin levels of the strains. Our findings suggest a new mechanism of reducing wine haze, and propose a strategy for optimizing wine yeast strains to improve wine clarification. Importance In this study, we establish a new mechanism by which wine yeast strains can impact on the protein haze formation of wines, and demonstrate that yeast cell wall chitin binds grape chitinase in a chitin-concentration dependent manner. We also show that yeast can remove this haze-forming protein from wine. Chitin has in the past been shown to efficiently reduce wine haze formation when added to the wine in high concentration as a clarifying agent. Our data suggest that the selection of yeast strains with high levels of cell wall chitin can reduce protein haze. We also

  20. Adenosine formation in contracting primary rat skeletal muscle cells and endothelial cells in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Frandsen, Ulrik

    1997-01-01

    1. The present study examined the capacity for adenosine formation, uptake and metabolism in contracting primary rat muscle cells and in microvascular endothelial cells in culture. 2. Strong and moderate electrical simulation of skeletal muscle cells led to a significantly greater increase...

  1. Endothelial cell confluence regulates Weibel-Palade body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Gareth J; Herbert, Shane P; Smith, Jennifer M; Mittar, Shweta; Ewan, Lorna C; Mohammed, Mudassir; Hunter, Alison R; Simpson, Nigel; Turner, Anthony J; Zachary, Ian; Walker, John H; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2004-01-01

    Secretory granules called Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) containing Von Willebrand factor (VWF) are characteristic of the mammalian endothelium. We hypothesized that vascular-specific antigens such as VWF are linked to endothelial identity and proliferation in vitro. To test this idea, the cellular accumulation of VWF in WPBs was monitored as a function of cell proliferation, confluence and passage number in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that as passage number increased the percentage of cells containing VWF in WPBs was reduced significantly, whilst the protein was still detected within the secretory pathway at all times. However, the endothelial-specific marker protein, PECAM-1, is present on all cells even when WPBs are absent, indicating partial maintenance of endothelial identity. Biochemical studies show that a significant pool of immature pro-VWF can be detected in sub-confluent HUVECs; however, a larger pool of mature, processed VWF is detected in confluent cells. Newly synthesized VWF must thus be differentially sorted and packaged along the secretory pathway in semi-confluent versus confluent endothelial cells. Our studies thus show that WPB formation is linked to the formation of a confluent endothelial monolayer.

  2. RNA-binding IMPs promote cell adhesion and invadopodia formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikesaa, Jonas; Hansen, Thomas V O; Jønson, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Oncofetal RNA-binding IMPs have been implicated in mRNA localization, nuclear export, turnover and translational control. To depict the cellular actions of IMPs, we performed a loss-of-function analysis, which showed that IMPs are necessary for proper cell adhesion, cytoplasmic spreading......-mediated invadopodia formation. Taken together, our results indicate that RNA-binding proteins exert profound effects on cellular adhesion and invasion during development and cancer formation....... and invadopodia formation. Loss of IMPs was associated with a coordinate downregulation of mRNAs encoding extracellular matrix and adhesion proteins. The transcripts were present in IMP RNP granules, implying that IMPs were directly involved in the post-transcriptional control of the transcripts. In particular...

  3. Comparison of Teratoma Formation between Embryonic Stem Cells and Parthenogenetic Embryonic Stem Cells by Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Tao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With their properties of self-renewal and differentiation, embryonic stem (ES cells hold great promises for regenerative therapy. However, teratoma formation and ethical concerns of ES cells may restrict their potential clinical applications. Currently, parthenogenetic embryonic stem (pES cells have attracted the interest of researchers for its self-renewing and pluripotent differentiation while eliciting less ethic concerns. In this study, we established a model with ES and pES cells both stably transfected with a double-fusion reporter gene containing renilla luciferase (Rluc and red fluorescent protein (RFP to analyze the mechanisms of teratoma formation. Transgenic Vegfr2-luc mouse, which expresses firefly luciferase (Fluc under the promoter of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (Vegfr2-luc, was used to trace the growth of new blood vessel recruited by transplanted cells. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI of Rluc/Fluc provides an effective tool in estimating the growth and angiogenesis of teratoma in vivo. We found that the tumorigenesis and angiogenesis capacity of ES cells were higher than those of pES cells, in which VEGF/VEGFR2 signal pathway plays an important role. In conclusion, pES cells have the decreased potential of teratoma formation but meanwhile have similar differentiating capacity compared with ES cells. These data demonstrate that pES cells provide an alternative source for ES cells with the risk reduction of teratoma formation and without ethical controversy.

  4. Aroma formation by immobilized yeast cells in fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedović, V; Gibson, B; Mantzouridou, T F; Bugarski, B; Djordjević, V; Kalušević, A; Paraskevopoulou, A; Sandell, M; Šmogrovičová, D; Yilmaztekin, M

    2015-01-01

    Immobilized cell technology has shown a significant promotional effect on the fermentation of alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and cider. However, genetic, morphological and physiological alterations occurring in immobilized yeast cells impact on aroma formation during fermentation processes. The focus of this review is exploitation of existing knowledge on the biochemistry and the biological role of flavour production in yeast for the biotechnological production of aroma compounds of industrial importance, by means of immobilized yeast. Various types of carrier materials and immobilization methods proposed for application in beer, wine, fruit wine, cider and mead production are presented. Engineering aspects with special emphasis on immobilized cell bioreactor design, operation and scale-up potential are also discussed. Ultimately, examples of products with improved quality properties within the alcoholic beverages are addressed, together with identification and description of the future perspectives and scope for cell immobilization in fermentation processes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Macrophage Sortilin Promotes LDL Uptake, Foam Cell Formation, and Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kevin M.; Strong, Alanna; Tohyama, Junichiro; Jin, Xueting; Morales, Carlos R.; Billheimer, Jeffery; Millar, John; Kruth, Howard; Rader, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Non-coding gene variants at the SORT1 locus are strongly associated with LDL-C levels as well as with coronary artery disease (CAD). SORT1 encodes a protein called sortilin, and hepatic sortilin modulates LDL metabolism by targeting apoB-containing lipoproteins to the lysosome. Sortilin is also expressed in macrophages, but its role in macrophage uptake of LDL and in atherosclerosis independent of plasma LDL-C levels is unknown. Objective To determine the effect of macrophage sortilin expression on LDL uptake, foam cell formation, and atherosclerosis. Methods and Results We crossed Sort1−/− mice onto a ‘humanized’ Apobec1−/−; hAPOB Tg background and determined that Sort1 deficiency on this background had no effect on plasma LDL-C levels but dramatically reduced atherosclerosis in the aorta and aortic root. In order to test whether this effect was a result of macrophage sortilin deficiency, we transplanted Sort1−/−;LDLR−/− or Sort1+/+;LDLR−/− bone marrow into Ldlr−/− mice and observed a similar reduction in atherosclerosis in mice lacking hematopoetic sortilin without an effect on plasma LDL-C levels. In an effort to determine the mechanism by which hematopoetic sortilin deficiency reduced atherosclerosis, we found no effect of sortilin deficiency on macrophage recruitment or LPS-induced cytokine release in vivo. In contrast, sortilin deficient macrophages had significantly reduced uptake of native LDL ex vivo and reduced foam cell formation in vivo, whereas sortilin overexpression in macrophages resulted in increased LDL uptake and foam cell formation. Conclusions Macrophage sortilin deficiency protects against atherosclerosis by reducing macrophage uptake of LDL. Sortilin-mediated uptake of native LDL into macrophages may be an important mechanism of foam cell formation and contributor to atherosclerosis development. PMID:25593281

  6. Blockade of mast cell activation reduces cutaneous scar formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    Full Text Available Damage to the skin initiates a cascade of well-orchestrated events that ultimately leads to repair of the wound. The inflammatory response is key to wound healing both through preventing infection and stimulating proliferation and remodeling of the skin. Mast cells within the tissue are one of the first immune cells to respond to trauma, and upon activation they release pro-inflammatory molecules to initiate recruitment of leukocytes and promote a vascular response in the tissue. Additionally, mast cells stimulate collagen synthesis by dermal fibroblasts, suggesting they may also influence scar formation. To examine the contribution of mast cells in tissue repair, we determined the effects the mast cell inhibitor, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG, on several parameters of dermal repair including, inflammation, re-epithelialization, collagen fiber organization, collagen ultrastructure, scar width and wound breaking strength. Mice treated with DSCG had significantly reduced levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, and CXCL1. Although DSCG treatment reduced the production of inflammatory mediators, the rate of re-epithelialization was not affected. Compared to control, inhibition of mast cell activity caused a significant decrease in scar width along with accelerated collagen re-organization. Despite the reduced scar width, DSCG treatment did not affect the breaking strength of the healed tissue. Tryptase β1 exclusively produced by mast cells was found to increase significantly in the course of wound healing. However, DSCG treatment did not change its level in the wounds. These results indicate that blockade of mast cell activation reduces scar formation and inflammation without further weakening the healed wound.

  7. T Cell factor 1 represses CD8+ effector T cell formation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemessen, Machteld M; Baert, Miranda R M; Kok, Lianne; van Eggermond, Marja C J A; van den Elsen, Peter J; Arens, Ramon; Staal, Frank J T

    2014-12-01

    The Wnt-responsive transcription factor T cell factor 1 (Tcf1) is well known for its role in thymic T cell development and the formation of memory CD8(+) T cells. However, its role in the initial phases of CD8(+) T effector cell formation has remained unexplored. We report that high levels of Wnt signaling and Tcf1 are operational in naive and memory CD8(+) T cells, whereas Wnt signaling and Tcf1 were low in effector CD8(+) T cells. CD8(+) T cells deficient in Tcf1 produce IFN-γ more rapidly, coinciding with increased demethylation of the IFN-γ enhancer and higher expression of the transcription factors Tbet and Blimp1. Moreover, virus-specific Tcf1(-/-) CD8(+) T cells show accelerated expansion in acute infection, which is associated with increased IFN-γ and TNF production and lower viral load. Genetic complementation experiments with various Tcf1 isoforms indicate that Tcf1 dosage and protein stability are critical in suppressing IFN-γ production. Isoforms lacking the β-catenin binding domain are equally effective in inhibiting CD8(+) effector T cell formation. Thus, Tcf1 functions as a repressor of CD8(+) effector T cell formation in a β-catenin/Wnt-independent manner. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. CELL FORMATION IN GROUP TECHNOLOGY: A SIMILARITY ORDER CLUSTERING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey C. Onwubolu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouping parts into families which can be produced by a cluster of machine cells is the cornerstone of cellular manufacturing, which in turn is the building block for flexible manufacturing systems. Cellular manufacturing is a group technology (GT concept that has recently attracted the attention of manufacturing firms operating under jobshop environment to consider redesigning their manufacturing systems so as to take advantage of increased throughput, reduction in work-in-progress, set-up time, and lead times; leading to product quality and customer satisfaction. The paper presents a generalised approach for machine cell formation from a jobshop using similarity order clustering technique for preliminary cell grouping and considering machine utilisation for the design of nonintergrouping material handling using the single-pass heuristic. The work addresses the shortcomings of cellular manufacturing systems design and implementations which ignore machine utilisations, group sizes and intergroup moves.

  9. A microfluidic direct formate fuel cell on paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copenhaver, Thomas S; Purohit, Krutarth H; Domalaon, Kryls; Pham, Linda; Burgess, Brianna J; Manorothkul, Natalie; Galvan, Vicente; Sotez, Samantha; Gomez, Frank A; Haan, John L

    2015-08-01

    We describe the first direct formate fuel cell on a paper microfluidic platform. In traditional membrane-less microfluidic fuel cells (MFCs), external pumping consumes power produced by the fuel cell in order to maintain co-laminar flow of the anode stream and oxidant stream to prevent mixing. However, in paper microfluidics, capillary action drives flow while minimizing stream mixing. In this work, we demonstrate a paper MFC that uses formate and hydrogen peroxide as the anode fuel and cathode oxidant, respectively. Using these materials we achieve a maximum power density of nearly 2.5 mW/mg Pd. In a series configuration, our MFC achieves an open circuit voltage just over 1 V, and in a parallel configuration, short circuit of 20 mA absolute current. We also demonstrate that the MFC does not require continuous flow of fuel and oxidant to produce power. We found that we can pre-saturate the materials on the paper, stop the electrolyte flow, and still produce approximately 0.5 V for 15 min. This type of paper MFC has potential applications in point-of-care diagnostic devices and other electrochemical sensors. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Molecular mechanisms for vascular development and secondary cell wall formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hyun eYang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vascular tissues are important for transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant and as physical support of upright growth. The primary constituents of vascular tissues, xylem and phloem, are derived from the meristematic vascular procambium and cambium. Xylem cells develop secondary cell walls that form the largest part of plant lignocellulosic biomass that serve as a renewable feedstock for biofuel production. For the last decade, research on vascular development and secondary cell wall biosynthesis has seen rapid progress due to the importance of these processes to plant biology and to the biofuel industry. Plant hormones, transcriptional regulators and peptide signaling regulate procambium/cambium proliferation, vascular patterning, and xylem differentiation. Transcriptional regulatory pathways play a pivot role in secondary cell wall biosynthesis. Although most of these discoveries are derived from research in Arabidopsis, many genes have shown conserved functions in biofuel feedstock species. Here, we review the recent advances in our understanding of vascular development and secondary cell wall formation and discuss potential biotechnological uses.

  11. Insulin resistance in vascular endothelial cells promotes intestinal tumour formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, X; Häring, M-F; Rathjen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The risk of several cancers, including colorectal cancer, is increased in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes, conditions characterised by hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. Because hyperinsulinaemia itself is an independent risk factor for cancer development, we examined tissue...... did not change intestinal tumour number or size distribution on either a low or high-fat diet. We therefore asked whether cells in the tumour stroma might explain the association between tumour formation and insulin resistance. To this end, we generated Apc(Min/+) mice with loss of insulin receptors...... and increased the frequency of neutrophils in tumours. We conclude that although insulin is mitogenic for intestinal tumour cells in vitro, impaired insulin action in the tumour microenvironment may be more important in conditions where hyperinsulinaemia is secondary to insulin resistance. Insulin resistance...

  12. Cell colony formation induced by Xenopus egg extract as a marker for improvement of cloned blastocyst formation in pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Østrup, Olga; Li, Juan

    2011-01-01

    method based on the colony formation of cells after extract treatment, and subsequent in vitro cloning efficiency using treated cells as chromatin donors. Porcine fetal fibroblasts were treated with each batch of extract, and cultured in embryonic stem cell (ES) medium for 12 days. The number of forming...

  13. Simulation of Cell Group Formation Regulated by Coordination Number, Cell Cycle and Duplication Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Hashimoto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of coordination number, a cell cycle and duplication frequency on cell-group formation have been investigated in a computer simulation. In the simulation, multiplication occurs in the last three steps of a cell cycle with a probability function to give variations in the interval. Each cell has a constant coordination number: four or six. When a cell gets surrounded by adjacent cells, its status changes from an active stage to a resting stage. Each cell repeats multiplication, and disappears when the times of multiplication reach to the limit. Variation was made in the coordination number, in the interval of multiplication and in the limited times of multiplication. The cells of the colony, which have the larger number of coordination, have reached the larger maximum population and disappeared earlier.

  14. Protective layer formation on magnesium in cell culture medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagener, V.; Virtanen, S., E-mail: virtanen@ww.uni-erlangen.de

    2016-06-01

    In the past, different studies showed that hydroxyapatite (HA) or similar calcium phosphates can be precipitated on Mg during immersion in simulated body fluids. However, at the same time, in most cases a dark grey or black layer is built under the white HA crystals. This layer seems to consist as well of calcium phosphates. Until now, neither the morphology nor its influence on Mg corrosion have been investigated in detail. In this work commercially pure magnesium (cp) was immersed in cell culture medium for one, three and five days at room temperature and in the incubator (37 °C, 5% CO{sub 2}). In addition, the influence of proteins on the formation of a corrosion layer was investigated by adding 20% of fetal calf serum (FCS) to the cell culture medium in the incubator. In order to analyze the formed layers, SEM images of cross sections, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements were carried out. Characterization of the corrosion behavior was achieved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and by potentio-dynamic polarization in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) at 37 °C. Surface analysis showed that all formed layers consist mainly of amorphous calcium phosphate compounds. For the immersion at room temperature the Ca/P ratio indicates the formation of HA, while in the incubator probably pre-stages to HA are formed. The different immersion conditions lead to a variation in layer thicknesses. However, electrochemical characterization shows that the layer thickness does not influence the corrosion resistance of magnesium. The main influencing factor for the corrosion behavior is the layer morphology. Thus, immersion at room temperature leads to the highest corrosion protection due to the formation of a compact outer layer. Layers formed in the incubator show much worse performances due to completely porous

  15. Fabric-based alkaline direct formate microfluidic fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domalaon, Kryls; Tang, Catherine; Mendez, Alex; Bernal, Franky; Purohit, Krutarth; Pham, Linda; Haan, John; Gomez, Frank A

    2017-04-01

    Fabric-based microfluidic fuel cells (MFCs) serve as a novel, cost-efficient alternative to traditional FCs and batteries, since fluids naturally travel across fabric via capillary action, eliminating the need for an external pump and lowering production and operation costs. Building on previous research with Y-shaped paper-based MFCs, fabric-based MFCs mitigate fragility and durability issues caused by long periods of fuel immersion. In this study, we describe a microfluidic fabric-based direct formate fuel cell, with 5 M potassium formate and 30% hydrogen peroxide as the anode fuel and cathode oxidant, respectively. Using a two-strip, stacked design, the optimized parameters include the type of encasement, the barrier, and the fabric type. Surface contact of the fabric and laminate sheet expedited flow and respective chemical reactions. The maximum current (22.83 mA/cm 2 ) and power (4.40 mW/cm 2 ) densities achieved with a 65% cotton/35% polyester blend material are a respective 8.7% and 32% higher than previous studies with Y-shaped paper-based MFCs. In series configuration, the MFCs generate sufficient energy to power a handheld calculator, a thermometer, and a spectrum of light-emitting diodes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Segrosome complex formation during DNA trafficking in bacterial cell division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Oliva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial extrachromosomal DNAs often contribute to virulence in pathogenic organisms or facilitate adaptation to particular environments. The transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next requires sufficient partitioning of DNA molecules to ensure that at least one copy reaches each side of the division plane and is inherited by the daughter cells. Segregation of the bacterial chromosome occurs during or after replication and probably involves a strategy in which several protein complexes participate to modify the folding pattern and distribution first of the origin domain and then of the rest of the chromosome. Low-copy number plasmids rely on specialised partitioning systems, which in some cases use a mechanism that show striking similarity to eukaryotic DNA segregation. Overall, there have been multiple systems implicated in the dynamic transport of DNA cargo to a new cellular position during the cell cycle but most seem to share a common initial DNA partitioning step, involving the formation of a nucleoprotein complex called the segrosome. The particular features and complex topologies of individual segrosomes depend on both the nature of the DNA binding protein involved and on the recognized centromeric DNA sequence, both of which vary across systems. The combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches, with structural biology has significantly furthered our understanding of the mechanisms underlying DNA trafficking in bacteria. Here, I discuss recent advances and the molecular details of the DNA segregation machinery, focusing on the formation of the segrosome complex.

  17. Capillary network formation from dispersed endothelial cells: Influence of cell traction, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, João R. D.; Travasso, Rui; Carvalho, João

    2018-01-01

    The formation of a functional vascular network depends on biological, chemical, and physical processes being extremely well coordinated. Among them, the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix and cell adhesion are fundamental to achieve a functional network of endothelial cells, able to fully cover a required domain. By the use of a Cellular Potts Model and Finite Element Method it is shown that there exists a range of values of endothelial traction forces, cell-cell adhesion, and matrix rigidities where the network can spontaneously be formed, and its properties are characterized. We obtain the analytical relation that the minimum traction force required for cell network formation must obey. This minimum value for the traction force is approximately independent on the considered cell number and cell-cell adhesion. We quantify how these two parameters influence the morphology of the resulting networks (size and number of meshes).

  18. Germ Cell-less Promotes Centrosome Segregation to Induce Germ Cell Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy A. Lerit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The primordial germ cells (PGCs specified during embryogenesis serve as progenitors to the adult germline stem cells. In Drosophila, the proper specification and formation of PGCs require both centrosomes and germ plasm, which contains the germline determinants. Centrosomes are microtubule (MT-organizing centers that ensure the faithful segregation of germ plasm into PGCs. To date, mechanisms that modulate centrosome behavior to engineer PGC development have remained elusive. Only one germ plasm component, Germ cell-less (Gcl, is known to play a role in PGC formation. Here, we show that Gcl engineers PGC formation by regulating centrosome dynamics. Loss of gcl leads to aberrant centrosome separation and elaboration of the astral MT network, resulting in inefficient germ plasm segregation and aborted PGC cellularization. Importantly, compromising centrosome separation alone is sufficient to mimic the gcl loss-of-function phenotypes. We conclude Gcl functions as a key regulator of centrosome separation required for proper PGC development.

  19. Cell renewal and ground substance formation in replanted cat teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvinnsland, I.; Heyeraas, K.J. (Bergen Univ. (Norway))

    1990-01-01

    The cellular dynamic pattern of pulpal healing 4, 10, 30 and 60 days after replantation of 47 apioectomized cat incisors was studied after pulse labelling with {sup 3}H-thymidine and {sup 35}S- sulfate, autoradiography, and routine histology. In the control teeth the labelling index was less than 0.05%. The apical pulpal cells were capable of ground substance formation and cell proliferation already four days after replantation, with a labelling index of 7%, which increased up to 43% within 10 days. A gradual postoperative restitution and reorganization within the pulpal cellular compartment was seen. The maximum cell density, reached after 30 days, was reduced to on average 60% compared with the controls. The tissue reorganization was near completion within all pulpal zones after 60 days, and the labelling index was reduced to 2.5%. In some instances internal resorption in cervical pulpal areas negatively influenced the favorable healing. The present study shows that the pulpal healing in replanted teeth follows a consistent basic pattern in cellular dynamics and in histologic changes. The replanted tooth thus seems to be a suitable model for studies of healing and repair in connective tissues. 27 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Formation of Cell-To-Cell Connection between Bone Marrow Cells and Isolated Rat Cardiomyocytes in a Cocultivation Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skopalík, J.; Pásek, Michal; Rychtárik, M.; Koristek, Z.; Gabrielová, E.; Sheer, P.; Matejovič, P.; Modrianský, M.; Klabusay, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2014), s. 1000185 ISSN 2157-7013 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : bone marrow * mononuclear cells * isolated cardiomyocytes * cocultivation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics http://omicsonline.org/ open - access /formation-of-celltocell-connection-between-bone-marrow-cells- and -isolated-rat-cardiomyocytes-2157-7013.1000185.php?aid=33364

  1. Diclofenac in Arabidopsis cells: Rapid formation of conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiuguo; Ye, Qingfu; Zhang, Jianbo; Richards, Jaben; Borchardt, Dan; Gan, Jay

    2017-03-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are continuously introduced into the soil-plant system, through practices such as agronomic use of reclaimed water and biosolids containing these trace contaminants. Plants may accumulate PPCPs from soil, serving as a conduit for human exposure. Metabolism likely controls the final accumulation of PPCPs in plants, but is in general poorly understood for emerging contaminants. In this study, we used diclofenac as a model compound, and employed 14 C tracing, and time-of-flight (TOF) and triple quadruple (QqQ) mass spectrometers to unravel its metabolism pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana cells. We further validated the primary metabolites in Arabidopsis seedlings. Diclofenac was quickly taken up into A. thaliana cells. Phase I metabolism involved hydroxylation and successive oxidation and cyclization reactions. However, Phase I metabolites did not accumulate appreciably; they were instead rapidly conjugated with sulfate, glucose, and glutamic acid through Phase II metabolism. In particular, diclofenac parent was directly conjugated with glutamic acid, with acyl-glutamatyl-diclofenac accounting for >70% of the extractable metabolites after 120-h incubation. In addition, at the end of incubation, >40% of the spiked diclofenac was in the non-extractable form, suggesting extensive sequestration into cell matter. The rapid formation of non-extractable residue and dominance of diclofenac-glutamate conjugate uncover previously unknown metabolism pathways for diclofenac. In particular, the rapid conjugation of parent highlights the need to consider conjugates of emerging contaminants in higher plants, and their biological activity and human health implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mind bomb 1 is required for pancreatic ß-cell formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Signe; Kobberup, Sune; Jørgensen, Mette C

    2012-01-01

    the insulin producing ß-cells. However, signals that regulate proximodistal (P-D) patterning and thus formation of ß-cell progenitors are unknown. Here we show that Mind bomb 1 (Mib1) is required for correct P-D patterning of the developing pancreas and ß-cell formation. We found that endoderm...

  3. Myotube formation is affected by adipogenic lineage cells in a cell-to-cell contact-independent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takegahara, Yuki; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Nishihara, Masugi

    2014-01-01

    Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) formation is observed in some pathological conditions such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and sarcopenia. Several studies have suggested that IMAT formation is not only negatively correlated with skeletal muscle mass but also causes decreased muscle contraction in sarcopenia. In the present study, we examined w hether adipocytes affect myogenesis. For this purpose, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were transfected with siRNA of PPARγ (siPPARγ) in an attempt to inhibit adipogenesis. Myosin heavy chain (MHC)-positive myotube formation was promoted in cells transfected with siPPARγ compared to that of cells transfected with control siRNA. To determine whether direct cell-to-cell contact between adipocytes and myoblasts is a prerequisite for adipocytes to affect myogenesis, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with pre- or mature adipocytes in a Transwell coculture system. MHC-positive myotube formation was inhibited when skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with mature adipocytes, but was promoted when they were cocultured with preadipocytes. Similar effects were observed when pre- or mature adipocyte-conditioned medium was used. These results indicate that preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass by promoting myogenesis; once differentiated, the resulting mature adipocytes negatively affect myogenesis, leading to the muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of pre- and mature adipocytes on myogenesis in vitro. • Preadipocytes and mature adipocytes affect myoblast fusion. • Preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass. • Mature adipocytes lead to muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies

  4. Myotube formation is affected by adipogenic lineage cells in a cell-to-cell contact-independent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takegahara, Yuki; Yamanouchi, Keitaro, E-mail: akeita@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Nishihara, Masugi

    2014-05-15

    Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) formation is observed in some pathological conditions such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and sarcopenia. Several studies have suggested that IMAT formation is not only negatively correlated with skeletal muscle mass but also causes decreased muscle contraction in sarcopenia. In the present study, we examined w hether adipocytes affect myogenesis. For this purpose, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were transfected with siRNA of PPARγ (siPPARγ) in an attempt to inhibit adipogenesis. Myosin heavy chain (MHC)-positive myotube formation was promoted in cells transfected with siPPARγ compared to that of cells transfected with control siRNA. To determine whether direct cell-to-cell contact between adipocytes and myoblasts is a prerequisite for adipocytes to affect myogenesis, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with pre- or mature adipocytes in a Transwell coculture system. MHC-positive myotube formation was inhibited when skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with mature adipocytes, but was promoted when they were cocultured with preadipocytes. Similar effects were observed when pre- or mature adipocyte-conditioned medium was used. These results indicate that preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass by promoting myogenesis; once differentiated, the resulting mature adipocytes negatively affect myogenesis, leading to the muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of pre- and mature adipocytes on myogenesis in vitro. • Preadipocytes and mature adipocytes affect myoblast fusion. • Preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass. • Mature adipocytes lead to muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies.

  5. Involvement of membrane potential in alkaline band formation by internodal cells of Chara corallina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmen, Teruo; Wakabayashi, Akiko

    2008-10-01

    Internodal cells of Chara corallina form alkaline bands on their surface upon illumination via photosynthesis. In the present study, the effect of KCl on alkaline band formation was analyzed. When the extracellular KCl concentration was increased, alkaline band formation was extensively inhibited. Electrophysiological analysis unequivocally showed the need for inner negative membrane potential for alkaline band formation.

  6. Cutting edge: Bcl6-interacting corepressor contributes to germinal center T follicular helper cell formation and B cell helper function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jessica A; Tubo, Noah J; Gearhart, Micah D; Bardwell, Vivian J; Jenkins, Marc K

    2015-06-15

    CD4(+) germinal center (GC)-T follicular helper (Tfh) cells help B cells become long-lived plasma cells and memory cells. The transcriptional repressor Bcl6 plays a key role in GC-Tfh formation by inhibiting the expression of genes that promote differentiation into other lineages. We determined whether BCOR, a component of a Polycomb repressive complex that interacts with the Bcl6 BTB domain, influences GC-Tfh differentiation. T cell-targeted BCOR deficiency led to a substantial loss of peptide:MHC class II-specific GC-Tfh cells following Listeria monocytogenes infection and a 2-fold decrease following immunization with a peptide in CFA. The reduction in GC-Tfh cells was associated with diminished plasma cell and GC B cell formation. Thus, T cell-expressed BCOR is critical for optimal GC-Tfh cell differentiation and humoral immunity. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Macrophage conditioned medium induced cellular network formation in MCF-7 cells through enhanced tunneling nanotube formation and tunneling nanotube mediated release of viable cytoplasmic fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patheja, Pooja, E-mail: pooja.patheja8@gmail.com [Laser Biomedical Applications Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, Madhya Pradesh (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094, Maharashtra (India); Sahu, Khageswar [Laser Biomedical Applications Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2017-06-15

    Infiltrating macrophages in tumor microenvironment, through their secreted cytokines and growth factors, regulate several processes of cancer progression such as cancer cell survival, proliferation, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. Recently, intercellular cytoplasmic bridges between cancer cells referred as tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been recognized as novel mode of intercellular communication between cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of inflammatory mediators present in conditioned medium derived from macrophages on the formation of TNTs in breast adenocarcinoma cells MCF-7. Results show that treatment with macrophage conditioned medium (MφCM) not only enhanced TNT formation between cells but also stimulated the release of independently migrating viable cytoplasmic fragments, referred to as microplasts, from MCF-7 cells. Time lapse microscopy revealed that microplasts were released from parent cancer cells in extracellular space through formation of TNT-like structures. Mitochondria, vesicles and cytoplasm could be transferred from parent cell body to microplasts through connecting TNTs. The microplasts could also be resorbed into the parent cell body by retraction of the connecting TNTs. Microplast formation inhibited in presence cell migration inhibitor, cytochalasin-B. Notably by utilizing migratory machinery within microplasts, distantly located MCF-7 cells formed several TNT based intercellular connections, leading to formation of physically connected network of cells. Together, these results demonstrate novel role of TNTs in microplast formation, novel modes of TNT formation mediated by microplasts and stimulatory effect of MφCM on cellular network formation in MCF-7 cells mediated through enhanced TNT and microplast formation.

  8. The fate of Osterix-expressing mesenchymal cells in dental root formation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, A; Ono, N; Ono, W

    2017-06-01

    Osterix (Osx)-expressing mesenchymal cells are progenitors for tooth root forming cells. The aim of this study was to reveal the fates of Osx-expressing cells during and after root formation using a lineage tracing experiment. To reveal the fates of Osx-expressing dental mesenchymal progenitors, we took advantage of tamoxifen-inducible Cre reporter system. Osx-creER; R26R-tdTomato mice received tamoxifen (0.1 mg/body) at postnatal day 3 (P3). In this system, Osx-expressing at P3 (Osx-P3) cells undergo recombination, and they and their descendants continue to express Tomato red fluorescence protein permanently. Mandibles were dissected at serial time points ranging from P4 to P116 to investigate how Osx-P3 cells participated in root formation. Tomato + cells on frozen sections were imaged under fluorescence microscopy. Osx-P3 cells and their descendants differentiated into all kinds of cells that contributed to the root and periodontal tissues, such as odontoblasts, cementoblasts, alveolar bone osteoblasts and periodontal ligament (PDL) cells during root formation. Even after root formation was completed, they persisted in dental pulp and PDL to provide progenitor cells for odontoblasts and cementoblasts. Osx-expressing cells play important roles in the entire processes of tooth root formation; their progeny continue to contribute to maintenance of tooth root even after root formation is complete. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Multinuclear giant cell formation is enhanced by down-regulation of Wnt signaling in gastric cancer cell line, AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Shi-Mun; Kim, Rockki; Ryu, Jae-Hyun; Jho, Eek-Hoon; Song, Ki-Joon; Jang, Shyh-Ing; Kee, Sun-Ho

    2005-01-01

    AGS cells, which were derived from malignant gastric adenocarcinoma tissue, lack E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion but have a high level of nuclear β-catenin, which suggests altered Wnt signal. In addition, approximately 5% of AGS cells form multinuclear giant cells in the routine culture conditions, while taxol treatment causes most AGS cells to become giant cells. The observation of reduced nuclear β-catenin levels in giant cells induced by taxol treatment prompted us to investigate the relationship between Wnt signaling and giant cell formation. After overnight serum starvation, the shape of AGS cells became flattened, and this morphological change was accompanied by decrease in Myc expression and an increase in the giant cell population. Lithium chloride treatment, which inhibits GSK3β activity, reversed these serum starvation effects, which suggests an inverse relationship between Wnt signaling and giant cell formation. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Wnt signaling caused by the over-expression of ICAT, E-cadherin, and Axin enhanced giant cell formation. Therefore, down-regulation of Wnt signaling may be related to giant cell formation, which is considered to be a survival mechanism against induced cell death

  10. BCL6 interacting corepressor contributes to germinal center T follicular helper cell formation and B cell helper function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jessica A.; Tubo, Noah J.; Gearhart, Micah D.; Bardwell, Vivian J.; Jenkins, Marc K.

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ germinal center (GC) T follicular helper (GC-Tfh) cells help B cells become long-lived plasma cells and memory cells. The transcriptional repressor BCL6 plays a key role in GC-Tfh formation by inhibiting the expression of genes that promote differentiation into other lineages. We determined whether BCOR, a component of a Polycomb repressive complex that interacts with the BCL6 BTB domain, influences GC-Tfh differentiation. T cell-targeted BCOR deficiency led to a substantial loss of peptide:MHCII-specific GC-Tfh cells following Listeria monocytogenes infection and a 2-fold decrease following immunization with a peptide in CFA. The reduction in GC-Tfh cells was associated with diminished plasma cell and GC B cell formation. Thus, T cell-expressed BCOR is critical for optimal GC-Tfh differentiation and humoral immunity. PMID:25964495

  11. Cdc42 is not essential for filopodium formation, directed migration, cell polarization, and mitosis in fibroblastoid cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czuchra, Aleksandra; Wu, Xunwei; Meyer, Hannelore

    2005-01-01

    Cdc42 is a small GTPase involved in the regulation of the cytoskeleton and cell polarity. To test whether Cdc42 has an essential role in the formation of filopodia or directed cell migration, we generated Cdc42-deficient fibroblastoid cells by conditional gene inactivation. We report here that loss...... of Cdc42 did not affect filopodium or lamellipodium formation and had no significant influence on the speed of directed migration nor on mitosis. Cdc42-deficient cells displayed a more elongated cell shape and had a reduced area. Furthermore, directionality during migration and reorientation of the Golgi...... apparatus into the direction of migration was decreased. However, expression of dominant negative Cdc42 in Cdc42-null cells resulted in strongly reduced directed migration, severely reduced single cell directionality, and complete loss of Golgi polarization and of directionality of protrusion formation...

  12. Cell-size distribution in epithelial tissue formation and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puliafito, Alberto; Primo, Luca; Celani, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    How cell growth and proliferation are orchestrated in living tissues to achieve a given biological function is a central problem in biology. During development, tissue regeneration and homeostasis, cell proliferation must be coordinated by spatial cues in order for cells to attain the correct size and shape. Biological tissues also feature a notable homogeneity of cell size, which, in specific cases, represents a physiological need. Here, we study the temporal evolution of the cell-size distribution by applying the theory of kinetic fragmentation to tissue development and homeostasis. Our theory predicts self-similar probability density function (PDF) of cell size and explains how division times and redistribution ensure cell size homogeneity across the tissue. Theoretical predictions and numerical simulations of confluent non-homeostatic tissue cultures show that cell size distribution is self-similar. Our experimental data confirm predictions and reveal that, as assumed in the theory, cell division times scale like a power-law of the cell size. We find that in homeostatic conditions there is a stationary distribution with lognormal tails, consistently with our experimental data. Our theoretical predictions and numerical simulations show that the shape of the PDF depends on how the space inherited by apoptotic cells is redistributed and that apoptotic cell rates might also depend on size. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Aggregate formation affects ultrasonic disruption of microalgal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lee, Duu-Jong; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasonication is a cell disruption process of low energy efficiency. This study dosed K(+), Ca(2+) and Al(3+) to Chlorella vulgaris cultured in Bold's Basal Medium at 25°C and measured the degree of cell disruption under ultrasonication. Adding these metal ions yielded less negatively charged surfaces of cells, while with the latter two ions large and compact cell aggregates were formed. The degree of cell disruption followed: control=K(+)>Ca(2+)>Al(3+) samples. Surface charges of cells and microbubbles have minimal effects on the microbubble number in the proximity of the microalgal cells. Conversely, cell aggregates with large size and compact interior resist cell disruption under ultrasonication. Staining tests revealed high diffusional resistance of stains over the aggregate interior. Microbubbles may not be effective generated and collapsed inside the compact aggregates, hence leading to low cell disruption efficiencies. Effective coagulation/flocculation in cell harvesting may lead to adverse effect on subsequent cell disruption efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lysophosphatidic acid directly induces macrophage-derived foam cell formation by blocking the expression of SRBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linmu; Zhang, Jun; Deng, Xiao; Liu, Yan; Yang, Xi; Wu, Qiong; Yu, Chao

    2017-09-23

    The leading cause of morbidity and mortality is the result of cardiovascular disease, mainly atherosclerosis. The formation of macrophage foam cells by ingesting ox-LDL and focal retention in the subendothelial space are the hallmarks of the early atherosclerotic lesion. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which is a low-molecular weight lysophospholipid enriched in oxidized LDL, exerts a range of effects on the cardiovascular system. Previous reports show that LPA increases the uptake of ox-LDL to promote the formation of foam cells. However, as the most active component of ox-LDL, there is no report showing whether LPA directly affects foam cell formation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of LPA on foam cell formation, as well as to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Oil red O staining and a Cholesterol/cholesteryl ester quantitation assay were used to evaluate foam cell formation in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. We utilized a Western blot and RT-PCR to investigate the relationship between LPA receptors and lipid transport related proteins. We found that LPA promoted foam cell formation, using 200 μM for 24 h. Meanwhile, the expression of the Scavenger receptor BI (SRBI), which promotes the efflux of free cholesterol, was decreased. Furthermore, the LPA 1/3 receptor antagonist Ki16425 significantly abolished the LPA effects, indicating that LPA 1/3 was involved in the foam cell formation and SRBI expression induced by LPA. Additionally, the LPA-induced foam cell formation was blocked with an AKT inhibitor. Our results suggest that LPA-enhanced foam cell formation is mediated by LPA 1/3 -AKT activation and subsequent SRBI expression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Effects of irradiated biodegradable polymer in endothelial cell monolayer formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbeitman, Claudia R.; Grosso, Mariela F. del [CONICET – Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Behar, Moni [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); García Bermúdez, Gerardo, E-mail: ggb@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [CONICET – Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, UNSAM (Argentina)

    2013-11-01

    In this work we study cell adhesion, proliferation and cell morphology of endothelial cell cultured on poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) modified by heavy ion irradiation. Thin films of PLLA samples were irradiated with sulfur (S) at energies of 75 MeV and gold (Au) at 18 MeV ion-beams. Ion beams were provided by the Tandar (Buenos Aires, Argentina) and Tandetron (Porto Alegre, Brazil) accelerators, respectively. The growth of a monolayer of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) onto unirradiated and irradiated surfaces has been studied by in vitro techniques in static culture. Cell viability and proliferation increased on modified substrates. But the results on unirradiated samples, indicate cell death (necrosis/apoptosis) with the consequent decrease in proliferation. We analyzed the correlation between irradiation parameters and cell metabolism and morphology.

  16. Hypochlorite- and hypobromite-mediated radical formation and its role in cell lysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, C L; Brown, B E; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    trapping, and it is shown that reaction of both oxidants with each cell type generates cell-derived radicals. Red blood cells exposed to nonlytic doses of HOCl generate novel nitrogen-centered radicals whose formation is GSH dependent. In contrast, HOBr gives rise to nitrogen-centered, membrane....... In this study it is shown that HOBr induces red blood cell lysis at approximately 10-fold lower concentrations than HOCl, whereas with monocyte (THP1) and macrophage (J774) cells HOCl and HOBr induce lysis at similar concentrations. The role of radical formation during lysis has been investigated by EPR spin......-derived protein radicals. With lytic doses of either oxidant, protein (probably hemoglobin)-derived, nitrogen-centered radicals are observed. Unlike the red blood cells, treatment of monocytes and macrophages with HOCl gives significant radical formation only under conditions where cell lysis occurs concurrently...

  17. On the formation of germ cells: The good, the bad and the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M; Roelen, Bernard A J

    2010-03-01

    Mammalian germ cells are powerful cells, the only ones that transmit information to the next generation ensuring the continuation of the species. But "with great power, comes great responsibility", meaning that germ cells are only a few steps away from turning carcinogenic. Despite recent advances little is known about germ cell formation in mammals, predominantly because of the inaccessibility of these cells. Moreover, it is difficult to pin down what in essence is characteristic of a germ cell, as germ cells keep changing place, morphology, expression markers and epigenetic identity. Formation of (primordial) germ cells in primate ES cell cultures would therefore be helpful to identify molecular signalling pathways associated with germ cell differentiation and to study epigenetic changes in germ cells. In addition, the in vitro derivation of functional germ cells from ES cells could be used in combination with therapeutic cloning to generate patient-specific ES cell lines, and can have applications in animal breeding. In this review we present the state-of-the-art on how mouse and human germ cells are formed in vivo (the good), we discuss the link between germ cells, pluripotency and germ cell tumours (the bad) and show that despite continuous progress in trying to differentiate germ cells in vitro (the ugly) the generation of functional germ cells is still a real challenge. Copyright 2009 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Formation and regulation of the cancer stem cell niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    It is widely accepted that tumors contain cancer stem cells (CSC) possessing self-renewal potential as well as the ability to generate numerous cancer cells. Cancer stem cells are resistant to conventional cancer therapy and have greater invasive and metastatic behavior. It has been suggested that blood vessels provide a niche that maintains stemness in normal organs. This role also extends to the field of cancer biology. Cancer stem cells have been isolated from leukemias and solid cancers. Identification of these cells and their niche is critical for identifying molecular targets in order to inhibit their growth and to destroy their niche. For this purpose, sorting of living CSC is required to monitor their presence in the presumptive niche to establish whether a CSC candidate actually shows malignant features. Based on and referring to analyses in normal tissues, molecules including nitric oxide, Wnt, neuropilin-1, hepatocyte growth factor and others involved in the maintenance of CSC have been isolated. Stem cells might affect niche cells and niche cells produce stemness factors on such stimulation. Therefore, the niche might be flexible to support self-renewal or differentiation of stem cells even in the same niche cells. © 2012 Japanese Cancer Association.

  19. Stem cells catalyze cartilage formation by neonatal articular chondrocytes in 3D biomimetic hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Janice H.; Kajiyama, Glen; Smith, Robert Lane; Maloney, William; Yang, Fan

    2013-12-01

    Cartilage loss is a leading cause of disability among adults and effective therapy remains elusive. Neonatal chondrocytes (NChons) are an attractive allogeneic cell source for cartilage repair, but their clinical translation has been hindered by scarce donor availability. Here we examine the potential for catalyzing cartilage tissue formation using a minimal number of NChons by co-culturing them with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in 3D hydrogels. Using three different co-culture models, we demonstrated that the effects of co-culture on cartilage tissue formation are dependent on the intercellular distance and cell distribution in 3D. Unexpectedly, increasing ADSC ratio in mixed co-culture led to increased synergy between NChons and ADSCs, and resulted in the formation of large neocartilage nodules. This work raises the potential of utilizing stem cells to catalyze tissue formation by neonatal chondrocytes via paracrine signaling, and highlights the importance of controlling cell distribution in 3D matrices to achieve optimal synergy.

  20. Methanofullerene elongated nanostructure formation for enhanced organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Reyes, M.; Lopez-Sandoval, R.; Arenas-Alatorre, J.; Garibay-Alonso, R.; Carroll, D.L.; Lastras-Martinez, A.

    2007-01-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Z-contrast imaging we have demonstrated elongated nanostructure formation of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) within an organic host through annealing. The annealing provides an enhanced mobility of the PCBM molecules and, with good initial dispersion, allows for the formation of exaggerated grain growth within the polymer host. We have assembled these nanostructures within the regioregular conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). This PCBM elongated nanostructure formation maybe responsible for the very high efficiencies observed, at very low loadings of PCBM (1:0.6, polymer to PCBM), in annealed photovoltaics. Moreover, our high resolution TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy studies clearly show that the PCBM crystals remain crystalline and are unaffected by the 200-keV electron beam

  1. Methanofullerene elongated nanostructure formation for enhanced organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Reyes, M. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)], E-mail: reyesm@cactus.iico.uaslp.mx; Lopez-Sandoval, R. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216. San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Arenas-Alatorre, J. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Garibay-Alonso, R. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216. San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Carroll, D.L. [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Department of Physics. Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem NC 27109 (United States); Lastras-Martinez, A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2007-11-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Z-contrast imaging we have demonstrated elongated nanostructure formation of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) within an organic host through annealing. The annealing provides an enhanced mobility of the PCBM molecules and, with good initial dispersion, allows for the formation of exaggerated grain growth within the polymer host. We have assembled these nanostructures within the regioregular conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). This PCBM elongated nanostructure formation maybe responsible for the very high efficiencies observed, at very low loadings of PCBM (1:0.6, polymer to PCBM), in annealed photovoltaics. Moreover, our high resolution TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy studies clearly show that the PCBM crystals remain crystalline and are unaffected by the 200-keV electron beam.

  2. Effect of oxygen on formation of micronuclei and binucleated cells and cell survival in γ-irradiated 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Peng; Zheng Xiulong

    1991-01-01

    Formation of micronuclei and binucleate cells and their relationships with cell survival were studied in the aerobically- and anaerobically-irradiated 3T3 cells. The results showed taht frequency of micronuclei, percentage of micronucleus cells and percentage of binucleate cells increased linearly with the radiation dose in certain range. Oxygen enhancement ratios (OER) of micronucleus frequency, percentage of micronucleus cells, percentage of binucleate cells and cell survival were 2.02, 1.96, 1.87 and 1.83 respectively. The percentage of micronucleus cells or the percentage of micronucleus cells plus binucleate cells correlated negatively well with cell survival. The mechanism of oxygen effect in the radiation response of 3T3 cells and the significance of formation of micronuclei and binucleate cells were discussed

  3. Statistical dynamics of spatial-order formation by communicating cells

    OpenAIRE

    Olimpio, Eduardo P.; Dang, Yiteng; Youk, Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Communicating cells can coordinate their gene expressions to form spatial patterns. 'Secrete-and-sense cells' secrete and sense the same molecule to do so and are ubiquitous. Here we address why and how these cells, from disordered beginnings, can form spatial order through a statistical mechanics-type framework for cellular communication. Classifying cellular lattices by 'macrostate' variables - 'spatial order paramete' and average gene-expression level - reveals a conceptual picture: cellul...

  4. Mathematical modeling of dormant cell formation in growing biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Kotaro eChihara; Shinya eMatsumoto; Yuki eKagawa; Satoshi eTsuneda

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of dormant cells in microbial biofilms, in which the bacteria are embedded in extracellular matrix, is important for developing successful antibiotic therapies against pathogenic bacteria. Although some of the molecular mechanisms leading to bacterial persistence have been speculated in planktonic bacterial cell, how dormant cells emerge in the biofilms of pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains unclear. The present study proposes four hypotheses ...

  5. Formation and action of oxygen activated species in cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, M.E.; Meneghini, R.

    1982-01-01

    The differences of hydrogen peroxide sensibility of mammal cell lineages (man, mouse, chinese hamster) in culture are studied. The cellular survival and the frequency of DNA induced breaks by hydrogen peroxide are analysed. The efficiency of elimination of DNA breaks by cells is determined. The possible relation between the cell capacity of repair and its survival to hydrogen peroxide action is also discussed. (M.A.) [pt

  6. Programmed cell death for defense against anomaly and tumor formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Sohei; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Nomura, Taisei

    1995-01-01

    Cell death after exposure to low-level radiation is often considered evidence that radiation is poisonous, however small the dose. Evidence has been accumulating to support the notion that cell death after low-level exposure to radiation results from activation of suicidal genes open-quote programmed cell death close-quote or open-quote apoptosis close-quote - for the health of the whole body. This paper gives experimental evidence that embryos of fruit flies and mouse fetuses have potent defense mechanisms against teratogenic or tumorigenic injury caused by radiation and carcinogens, which function through programmed cell death

  7. On the role of the simplest S-nitrosothiol, HSNO, in atmospheric and biological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochlaf, Majdi, E-mail: hochlaf@univ-mlv.fr; Linguerri, Roberto [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Francisco, Joseph S. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States)

    2013-12-21

    Using state-of-the-art theoretical methods, we investigate the lowest electronic states of singlet and triplet spin multiplicities of HSNO. These computations are done using configuration interaction ab initio methods and the aug-cc-pV5Z basis set. One-dimensional cuts of the six-dimensional potential energy surfaces of these electronic states along the HS, SN stretches and HSN, SNO bending and torsion coordinates are calculated. Several avoided crossings and conical intersections are found. We computed also radiative lifetimes and spin-orbit couplings of these electronic states. Our work shows that the dynamics on these excited states is very complex, and suggest that multi-step mechanisms will populate the ground state via radiationless processes or lead to predissociation or intramolecular isomerization. For instance, these potentials are used to propose mechanisms for the IR, Vis, and UV light-induced cis-trans interconversions of HSNO and reactivity towards HS + NO and H + SNO products. Our findings are in good agreement with previous experimental studies on the photochemistry of HSNO. The atmospheric implication of HSNO is also discussed.

  8. Xanthine Oxidase Induces Foam Cell Formation through LOX-1 and NLRP3 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yao; Cao, Yongxiang; Zhang, Zhigao; Vallurupalli, Srikanth; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2017-02-01

    Xanthine oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. This process generates excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) that play an important role in atherogenesis. Recent studies show that LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), a component of the inflammasome, may be involved in the formation of foam cells, a hallmark of atherosclerosis. This study was designed to study the role of various scavenger receptors and NLRP3 inflammasome in xanthine oxidase and uric acid-induced foam cell formation. Human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and THP-1 macrophages were treated with xanthine oxidase or uric acid. Xanthine oxidase treatment (of both VSMCs and THP-1 cells) resulted in foam cell formation in concert with generation of ROS and expression of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) and oxidized low density lipoprotein (lectin-like) receptor 1 (LOX-1), but not of scavenger receptor A (SRA). Uric acid treatment resulted in foam cell formation, ROS generation and expression of CD36, but not of LOX-1 or SRA. Further, treatment of cells with xanthine oxidase, but not uric acid, activated NLRP3 and its downstream pro-inflammatory signals- caspase-1, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Blockade of LOX-1 or NLRP3 inflammasome with specific siRNAs reduced xanthine oxidase-induced foam cell formation, ROS generation and activation of NLRP3 and downstream signals. Xanthine oxidase induces foam cell formation in large part through activation of LOX-1 - NLRP3 pathway in both VSMCs and THP-1 cells, but uric acid-induced foam cell formation is exclusively through CD36 pathway. Further, LOX-1 activation is upstream of NLRP3 activation. Graphical Abstract Steps in the formation of foam cells in response to xanthine oxidase and uric acid. Xanthine oxidase stimulates LOX-1 expression on the cell membrane of macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and increases generation of ROS, which activate NLRP3 inflammasome and downstream pro

  9. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Perichondrium Express Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule and Participate in Bone Marrow Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Fumio; Ohneda, Osamu; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Zhang, Xiu Qin; Suda, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    Perichondrium in fetal limb is composed of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. However, the multipotency of cells in this region and the role of perichondrium in bone marrow formation are not well understood. In this report, we purified and characterized perichondrial cells using a monoclonal antibody against activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) and investigated the role of perichondrial cells in hematopoietic bone marrow formation. ALCAM is expressed on hematopoietic cells, endothelial cells, bone marrow stromal cells, and mesenchymal stem cells and mediates homophilic (ALCAM–ALCAM)/heterophilic (ALCAM-CD6) cell adhesion. Here we show by immunohistochemical staining that ALCAM is expressed in perichondrium. ALCAM+ perichondrial cells isolated by FACS® exhibit the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells. ALCAM+ cells can differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes, and stromal cells, which can support osteoclastogenesis, hematopoiesis, and angiogenesis. Furthermore, the addition of ALCAM-Fc or CD6-Fc to the metatarsal culture, the invasion of the blood vessels to a cartilage was inhibited. Our findings indicate that ALCAM+ perichondrial cells participate in vascular invasion by recruiting osteoclasts and vessels. These findings suggest that perichondrium might serve as a stem cell reservoir and play an important role in the early development of a bone and bone marrow. PMID:12070283

  10. The co-injection of somatic cells with embryonic stem cells affects teratoma formation and the properties of teratoma-derived stem cell-like cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Pyo Gong

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the biological reactions triggered by stem cell transplantation related to phenotypic alteration, host-to-cell response, chromosomal stability, transcriptional alteration, and stem cell-like cell re-expansion. B6CBAF1 mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs were injected subcutaneously into homologous or heterologous (B6D2F1 recipients, and heterologous injections were performed with or without co-injection of B6D2F1 fetal fibroblasts. All homologous injections resulted in teratoma formation, whereas a sharp decrease in formation was detected after heterologous injection (100 vs. 14%; p<0.05. The co-injection of somatic cells in heterologous injections enhanced teratoma formation significantly (14 vs. 75%; p<0.05. Next, ESC-like cell colonies with the same genotype as parental ESCs were formed by culturing teratoma-dissociated cells. Compared with parental ESCs, teratoma-derived ESC-like cells exhibited significantly increased aneuploidy, regardless of homologous or heterologous injections. Repopulation of the parental ESCs was the main factor that induced chromosomal instability, whereas the co-injection of somatic cells did not restore chromosomal normality. Different genes were expressed in the parental ESCs and teratoma-derived ESC-like cells; the difference was larger with parental vs. heterologous than parental vs. homologous co-injections. The co-injection of somatic cells decreased this difference further. In conclusion, the host-to-cell interactions triggered by ESC transplantation could be modulated by co-injection with somatic cells. A mouse model using homologous or heterologous transplantation of stem cells could help monitor cell adaptability and gene expression after injection.

  11. Trunk neural crest cells: formation, migration and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Lopez, Guillermo A; Cerrizuela, Santiago; Aybar, Manuel J

    2017-01-01

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a multipotent, migratory cell population that generates an astonishingly diverse array of cell types during vertebrate development. The trunk neural crest has long been considered of particular significance. First, it has been held that the trunk neural crest has a morphogenetic role, acting to coordinate the development of the peripheral nervous system, secretory cells of the endocrine system and pigment cells of the skin. Second, the trunk neural crest additionally has skeletal potential. However, it has been demonstrated that a key role of the trunk neural crest streams is to organize the innervation of the intestine. Although trunk NCCs have a limited capacity for self-renewal, sometimes they become neural-crest-derived tumor cells and reveal the fact that that NCCs and tumor cells share the same molecular machinery. In this review we describe the routes taken by trunk NCCs and consider the signals and cues that pattern these trajectories. We also discuss recent advances in the characterization of the properties of trunk NCCs for various model organisms in order to highlight common themes. Finally, looking to the future, we discuss the need to translate the wealth of data from animal studies to the clinical area in order to develop treatments for neural crest-related human diseases.

  12. The role of Rap1 in cell-cell junction formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, M.R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Both epithelial and endothelial cells form cell-cell junctions at the cell-cell contacts to maintain tissue integrity. Proper regulation of cell-cell junctions is required for the organisation of the tissue and to prevent leakage of blood vessels. In endothelial cells, the cell-cell junctions are

  13. Mechanical Model of Geometric Cell and Topological Algorithm for Cell Dynamics from Single-Cell to Formation of Monolayered Tissues with Pattern

    KAUST Repository

    Kachalo, Sëma

    2015-05-14

    Geometric and mechanical properties of individual cells and interactions among neighboring cells are the basis of formation of tissue patterns. Understanding the complex interplay of cells is essential for gaining insight into embryogenesis, tissue development, and other emerging behavior. Here we describe a cell model and an efficient geometric algorithm for studying the dynamic process of tissue formation in 2D (e.g. epithelial tissues). Our approach improves upon previous methods by incorporating properties of individual cells as well as detailed description of the dynamic growth process, with all topological changes accounted for. Cell size, shape, and division plane orientation are modeled realistically. In addition, cell birth, cell growth, cell shrinkage, cell death, cell division, cell collision, and cell rearrangements are now fully accounted for. Different models of cell-cell interactions, such as lateral inhibition during the process of growth, can be studied in detail. Cellular pattern formation for monolayered tissues from arbitrary initial conditions, including that of a single cell, can also be studied in detail. Computational efficiency is achieved through the employment of a special data structure that ensures access to neighboring cells in constant time, without additional space requirement. We have successfully generated tissues consisting of more than 20,000 cells starting from 2 cells within 1 hour. We show that our model can be used to study embryogenesis, tissue fusion, and cell apoptosis. We give detailed study of the classical developmental process of bristle formation on the epidermis of D. melanogaster and the fundamental problem of homeostatic size control in epithelial tissues. Simulation results reveal significant roles of solubility of secreted factors in both the bristle formation and the homeostatic control of tissue size. Our method can be used to study broad problems in monolayered tissue formation. Our software is publicly

  14. Mechanical model of geometric cell and topological algorithm for cell dynamics from single-cell to formation of monolayered tissues with pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sëma Kachalo

    Full Text Available Geometric and mechanical properties of individual cells and interactions among neighboring cells are the basis of formation of tissue patterns. Understanding the complex interplay of cells is essential for gaining insight into embryogenesis, tissue development, and other emerging behavior. Here we describe a cell model and an efficient geometric algorithm for studying the dynamic process of tissue formation in 2D (e.g. epithelial tissues. Our approach improves upon previous methods by incorporating properties of individual cells as well as detailed description of the dynamic growth process, with all topological changes accounted for. Cell size, shape, and division plane orientation are modeled realistically. In addition, cell birth, cell growth, cell shrinkage, cell death, cell division, cell collision, and cell rearrangements are now fully accounted for. Different models of cell-cell interactions, such as lateral inhibition during the process of growth, can be studied in detail. Cellular pattern formation for monolayered tissues from arbitrary initial conditions, including that of a single cell, can also be studied in detail. Computational efficiency is achieved through the employment of a special data structure that ensures access to neighboring cells in constant time, without additional space requirement. We have successfully generated tissues consisting of more than 20,000 cells starting from 2 cells within 1 hour. We show that our model can be used to study embryogenesis, tissue fusion, and cell apoptosis. We give detailed study of the classical developmental process of bristle formation on the epidermis of D. melanogaster and the fundamental problem of homeostatic size control in epithelial tissues. Simulation results reveal significant roles of solubility of secreted factors in both the bristle formation and the homeostatic control of tissue size. Our method can be used to study broad problems in monolayered tissue formation. Our software

  15. Human T cell colony formation in microculture: analysis of growth requirements and functional activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, E W; Lee, J W; Dosch, H M; Price, G B

    1981-03-01

    A microculture method in methylcellulose has been developed for the study of human T cell colony formation. The technique is simple, reliable, does not require preincubation with lectin and requires small numbers of cells. Colony formation was dependent on the presence of phytohemagglutin-conditioned medium, a T colony precursor cell (TCPC), and a "helper" or accessory T cell. Plating efficiency was increased 10-fold in the presence of irradiated feeder cells. Progenitors of the T colony cells were identified in peripheral blood, tonsil, and spleen but not in thymus or thoracic duct. They were isolated in the E-rosetting, theophylline-resistant, Fc-IgG-negative cell populations. In peripheral blood the frequency of TCPC and accessory cells, the T colony forming unit, was estimated to be 8 X 10(-3). Colony cells proliferated in response to lectins and allogeneic cells. Forty to 80% of the cells were Ia-positive and stimulated both autologous and allogeneic mixed lymphocyte responses. They were incapable of mediating antibody-dependent cytotoxicity. In contrast, they were effective in assays of spontaneous cytotoxicity but only against certain target cells. This method for the analysis of T colony formation should prove valuable in the functional analysis of T cell subsets in immunodeficiency states or the transplant recipient.

  16. Matrix elasticity of void-forming hydrogels controls transplanted-stem-cell-mediated bone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebsch, Nathaniel; Lippens, Evi; Lee, Kangwon; Mehta, Manav; Koshy, Sandeep T.; Darnell, Max C.; Desai, Rajiv M.; Madl, Christopher M.; Xu, Maria; Zhao, Xuanhe; Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Verbeke, Catia; Kim, Woo Seob; Alim, Karen; Mammoto, Akiko; Ingber, Donald E.; Duda, Georg N.; Mooney, David J.

    2015-12-01

    The effectiveness of stem cell therapies has been hampered by cell death and limited control over fate. These problems can be partially circumvented by using macroporous biomaterials that improve the survival of transplanted stem cells and provide molecular cues to direct cell phenotype. Stem cell behaviour can also be controlled in vitro by manipulating the elasticity of both porous and non-porous materials, yet translation to therapeutic processes in vivo remains elusive. Here, by developing injectable, void-forming hydrogels that decouple pore formation from elasticity, we show that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) osteogenesis in vitro, and cell deployment in vitro and in vivo, can be controlled by modifying, respectively, the hydrogel’s elastic modulus or its chemistry. When the hydrogels were used to transplant MSCs, the hydrogel’s elasticity regulated bone regeneration, with optimal bone formation at 60 kPa. Our findings show that biophysical cues can be harnessed to direct therapeutic stem cell behaviours in situ.

  17. Dscam-Mediated Cell Recognition Regulates Neural Circuit Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Daisuke; Millard, S. Sean; Wojtowicz, Woj M.; Zipursky, S. Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    The Dscam family of immunoglobulin cell surface proteins mediates recognition events between neurons that play an essential role in the establishment of neural circuits. The Drosophila Dscam1 locus encodes tens of thousands of cell surface proteins via alternative splicing. These isoforms exhibit exquisite isoform-specific binding in vitro that mediates homophilic repulsion in vivo. These properties provide the molecular basis for self-avoidance, an essential developmental mechanism that allo...

  18. Hypertrophic scar formation is associated with an increased number of epidermal Langerhans cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, F.B.; Schalkwijk, J.; Vos, H.; Timens, W.

    2004-01-01

    The exact pathogenesis of hypertrophic scar and keloid formation is still unknown and a good therapy to prevent or treat these scars is lacking. Because immunological processes seem to be important in excessive scar formation, immunological cells and parameters were studied in a standardized breast

  19. Mechanisms underlying the formation of induced pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Federico; Huangfu, Danwei

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) offer unique opportunities for studying human biology, modeling diseases and for therapeutic applications. The simplest approach so far to generate human PSCs lines is through reprogramming of somatic cells from an individual by defined factors, referred to simply as reprogramming. Reprogramming circumvents the ethical issues associated with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and nuclear transfer hESCs (nt-hESCs), and the resulting induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) retain the same basic genetic makeup as the somatic cell used for reprogramming. Since the first report of iPSCs by Takahashi and Yamanaka, the molecular mechanisms of reprogramming have been extensively investigated. A better mechanistic understanding of reprogramming is fundamental not only to iPSC biology and improving the quality of iPSCs for therapeutic use, but also to our understanding of the molecular basis of cell identity, pluripotency and plasticity. Here we summarize the genetic, epigenetic and cellular events during reprogramming, and the roles of various factors identified thus far in the reprogramming process. PMID:26383234

  20. Cell formation by myxozoan species is not explained by dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David J

    2010-08-22

    Eukaryotes form new cells through the replication of nuclei followed by cytokinesis. A notable exception is reported from the class Myxosporea of the phylum Myxozoa. This assemblage of approximately 2310 species is regarded as either basal bilaterian or cnidarian, depending on the phylogenetic analysis employed. For myxosporeans, cells have long been regarded as forming within other cells by a process referred to as endogenous budding. This would involve a nucleus forming endoplasmic reticulum around it, which transforms into a new plasma membrane, thus enclosing and separating it from the surrounding cell. This remarkable process, unique within the Metazoa, is accepted as occurring within stages found in vertebrate hosts, but has only been inferred from those stages observed within invertebrate hosts. Therefore, I conducted an ultrastructural study to examine how internal cells are formed by a myxosporean parasitizing an annelid. In this case, actinospore parasite stages clearly internalized existing cells; a process with analogies to the acquisition of endosymbiotic algae by cnidarian species. A subsequent examination of the myxozoan literature did not support endogenous budding, indicating that this process, which has been a central tenet of myxozoan developmental biology for over a century, is dogma.

  1. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induces osteoclast formation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Shamima; Hassan, Ferdaus; Tumurkhuu, Gantsetseg; Dagvadorj, Jargalsaikhan; Koide, Naoki; Naiki, Yoshikazu; Mori, Isamu; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Yokochi, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a potent bone resorbing factor. The effect of LPS on osteoclast formation was examined by using murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. LPS-induced the formation of multinucleated giant cells (MGC) in RAW 264.7 cells 3 days after the exposure. MGCs were positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. Further, MGC formed resorption pits on calcium-phosphate thin film that is a substrate for osteoclasts. Therefore, LPS was suggested to induce osteoclast formation in RAW 264.7 cells. LPS-induced osteoclast formation was abolished by anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody, but not antibodies to macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL). TNF-α might play a critical role in LPS-induced osteoclast formation in RAW 264.7 cells. Inhibitors of NF-κB and stress activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK) prevented the LPS-induced osteoclast formation. The detailed mechanism of LPS-induced osteoclast formation is discussed

  2. MECHANICAL VIBRATION INHIBITS OSTEOCLAST FORMATION BY REDUCING DC-STAMP RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN OSTEOCLAST PRECURSOR CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, R.N.; Voglewede, P.A.; Liu, D.

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that physical inactivity leads to loss of muscle mass, but it also causes bone loss. Mechanistically, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption have recently been shown to be regulated by vibration. However, the underlying mechanism behind the inhibition of osteoclast formation is yet unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells affects osteoclast formation by the involvement of fusion-related molecules such as dendritic cell-spe...

  3. Regulation of CCR7-dependent cell migration through?CCR7 homodimer formation

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Daichi; Endo, Masataka; Ochi, Hirotaka; Hojo, Hironobu; Miyasaka, Masayuki; Hayasaka, Haruko

    2017-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR7 contributes to various physiological and pathological processes including T cell maturation, T cell migration from the blood into secondary lymphoid tissues, and tumor cell metastasis to lymph nodes. Although a previous study suggested that the efficacy of CCR7 ligand-dependent T cell migration correlates with CCR7 homo- and heterodimer formation, the exact extent of contribution of the CCR7 dimerization remains unclear. Here, by inducing or disrupting CCR7 dimers,...

  4. Quantum dot-based molecular imaging of cancer cell growth using a clone formation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xia-Fei; Fang, Min; Liu, Shao-Ping; Li, Yan

    2016-10-01

    This aim of the present study was to investigate clonal growth behavior and analyze the proliferation characteristics of cancer cells. The MCF‑7 human breast cancer cell line, SW480 human colon cancer cell line and SGC7901 human gastric cancer cell line were selected to investigate the morphology of cell clones. Quantum dot‑based molecular targeted imaging techniques (which stained pan‑cytokeratin in the cytoplasm green and Ki67 in the cell nucleus yellow or red) were used to investigate the clone formation rate, cell morphology, discrete tendency, and Ki67 expression and distribution in clones. From the cell clone formation assay, the MCF‑7, SW480 and SGC7901 cells were observed to form clones on days 6, 8 and 12 of cell culture, respectively. These three types of cells had heterogeneous morphology, large nuclear:cytoplasmic ratios, and conspicuous pathological mitotic features. The cells at the clone periphery formed multiple pseudopodium. In certain clones, cancer cells at the borderline were separated from the central cell clusters or presented a discrete tendency. With quantum dot‑based molecular targeted imaging techniques, cells with strong Ki67 expression were predominantly shown to be distributed at the clone periphery, or concentrated on one side of the clones. In conclusion, cancer cell clones showed asymmetric growth behavior, and Ki67 was widely expressed in clones of these three cell lines, with strong expression around the clones, or aggregated at one side. Cell clone formation assay based on quantum dots molecular imaging offered a novel method to study the proliferative features of cancer cells, thus providing a further insight into tumor biology.

  5. Dynamics of vegetative cytoplasm during generative cell formation and pollen maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, A.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes of pollen cytoplasm during generative cell formation and pollen maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana were studied. The pollen cytoplasm develops a complicated ultrastructure and changes dramatically during these stages. Lipid droplets increase after generative cell formation and their organization and distribution change with the developmental stage. Starch grains in amyloplasts increase in number and size during generative and sperm cell formation and decrease at pollen maturity. The shape and membrane system of mitochondria change only slightly. Dictyosomes become very prominent, and numerous associated vesicles are observed during and after sperm cell formation. Endoplasmic reticulum appears extensively as stacks during sperm cell formation. Free and polyribosomes are abundant in the cytoplasm at all developmental stages although they appear denser at certain stages and in some areas. In mature pollen, all organelles are randomly distributed throughout the vegetative cytoplasm and numerous small particles appear. Organization and distribution of storage substances and appearance of these small particles during generative and sperm cell formation and pollen maturation are discussed.

  6. Collagen-IV supported embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taru Sharma, G., E-mail: gts553@gmail.com [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India); Dubey, Pawan K.; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M.D.; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G. [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India)

    2012-08-03

    Graphical abstract: EBs formation, characterization and expression of germinal layers marker genes of in vivo developed teratoma using four different types of extracellular matrices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV matrix is found cytocompatible for EBs formation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Established 3D microenvironment for ES cells development and differentiation into three germ layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV may be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. -- Abstract: Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it

  7. Formation of Cell Membrane Component Domains in Artificial Lipid Bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tero, Ryugo; Fukumoto, Kohei; Motegi, Toshinori; Yoshida, Miyu; Niwano, Michio; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi

    2017-12-20

    The lipid bilayer environment around membrane proteins strongly affects their structure and functions. Here, we aimed to study the fusion of proteoliposomes (PLs) derived from cultured cells with an artificial lipid bilayer membrane and the distribution of the PL components after the fusion. PLs, which were extracted as a crude membrane fraction from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, formed isolated domains in a supported lipid bilayer (SLB), comprising phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and cholesterol (Chol), after the fusion. Observation with a fluorescence microscope and an atomic force microscope showed that the membrane fusion occurred selectively at microdomains in the PC + PE + Chol-SLB, and that almost all the components of the PL were retained in the domain. PLs derived from human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK) cells also formed isolated domains in the PC + PE + Chol-SLB, but their fusion kinetics was different from that of the CHO-PLs. We attempted to explain the mechanism of the PL-SLB fusion and the difference between CHO- and HEK-PLs, based on a kinetic model. The domains that contained the whole cell membrane components provided environments similar to that of natural cell membranes, and were thus effective for studying membrane proteins using artificial lipid bilayer membranes.

  8. Investigation of Contact Formation during Silicon Solar Cell Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojrová, Barbora

    2016-05-01

    This article deals with the investigation of the influence of sintering conditions on the formation process of screen printed contacts on passivated boron doped P+ emitters. The experiment was focused on measuring of resistance changes of two thick film pastes during firing processes with different conditions. Two different temperature profiles were compared at an atmospheric concentration of O2. The influence of the O2 concentration on resistance was investigated for one profile. A rapid thermal processing furnace modified for in-situ resistance measurements was used. The change of resistance was measured simultaneously with the temperature.

  9. Rap1 integrates tissue polarity, lumen formation, and tumorigenicpotential in human breast epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Masahiko; Nelson, Celeste M.; Myers, Connie A.; Bissell,Mina J.

    2006-09-29

    Maintenance of apico-basal polarity in normal breast epithelial acini requires a balance between cell proliferation, cell death, and proper cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix signaling. Aberrations in any of these processes can disrupt tissue architecture and initiate tumor formation. Here we show that the small GTPase Rap1 is a crucial element in organizing acinar structure and inducing lumen formation. Rap1 activity in malignant HMT-3522 T4-2 cells is appreciably higher than in S1 cells, their non-malignant counterparts. Expression of dominant-negative Rap1 resulted in phenotypic reversion of T4-2 cells, led to formation of acinar structures with correct apico-basal polarity, and dramatically reduced tumor incidence despite the persistence of genomic abnormalities. The resulting acini contained prominent central lumina not observed when other reverting agents were used. Conversely, expression of dominant-active Rap1 in T4-2 cells inhibited phenotypic reversion and led to increased invasiveness and tumorigenicity. Thus, Rap1 acts as a central regulator of breast architecture, with normal levels of activation instructing apical polarity during acinar morphogenesis, and increased activation inducing tumor formation and progression to malignancy.

  10. Singlet oxygen-mediated formation of protein peroxides within cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.; Policarpio, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Singlet oxygen is generated by a number of cellular, enzymatic and chemical reactions as well as by exposure to UV, or visible light in the presence of a sensitizer; as a consequence this oxidant has been proposed as a damaging agent in a number of pathologies including photo-aging and skin cancer. Proteins are major targets for singlet oxygen as a result of their abundance and high rate constants for reaction. In this study it is shown that illumination of viable, sensitizer-loaded, THP-1 (human monocyte-like) cells with visible light gives rise to intra-cellular protein-derived peroxides. The peroxide yield increases with illumination time, requires the presence of the sensitizer, is enhanced in D 2 O, and decreased by azide; these data are consistent with the mediation of singlet oxygen. The concentration of peroxides detected, which is not affected by glucose or ascorbate loading of the cells, corresponds to ca. 1.5 nmoles peroxide per 10 6 cells using rose bengal as sensitizer, or 10 nmoles per mg cell protein and account for up to ca. 15% of the O 2 consumed by the cells. Similar peroxides have been detected on isolated cellular proteins exposed to light in the presence of rose bengal and oxygen. After cessation of illumination, the cellular protein peroxide levels decreases with t 1/2 ca. 4 hrs at 37 deg C, and this is associated with increased cell lysis. Decomposition of protein peroxides formed within cells, or on isolated cellular proteins, by metal ions, gives rise to radicals as detected by EPR spin trapping. These protein peroxides, and radicals derived from them, can inactivate key cellular enzymes (including caspases, GAPDH and glutathione reductase) and induce DNA base oxidation, strand breaks and DNA-protein cross-links. These studies demonstrate that exposure of intact cells to visible light in the presence of a sensitizer gives rise to novel long-lived, but reactive, intra-cellular protein peroxides via singlet oxygen

  11. Mobilization of regulatory T cells in response to carotid injury does not influence subsequent neointima formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Saxena

    Full Text Available AIM: T cells have been attributed an important role in modulating repair responses following vascular injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of different T cell subsets in this context. METHODS AND RESULTS: A non-obstructive collar was introduced to inflict carotid artery injury in mice and subsequent activation of immune cells in draining lymph nodes and spleen were studied by flow cytometry. Carotid artery injury of wild type mice was associated with mobilization of both Th1 type CD4(+IFNγ(+ and regulatory CD4(+CD25(+FoxP3(+ T cells in draining lymph nodes. Studies using FoxP3-green fluorescent protein (GFP transgenic C57/Bl6 mice demonstrated scattered presence of regulatory T cells in the adventitial tissue of injured arteries as well as a massive emigration of regulatory T cells from the spleen in response to carotid injury. However, deletion of antigen presentation to CD4+ T cells (H2(0 mice, as well as deletion of regulatory T cells (through treatment with blocking anti-CD25 antibodies, did not affect neointima formation. Also deletion of antigen presentation to CD8(+ T cells (Tap1(0 mice was without effect on carotid collar-induced neointima formation. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that carotid artery injury is associated with mobilization of regulatory T cells. Depletion of regulatory T cells does not, however, influence the subsequent repair processes leading to the formation of a neointima. The results also demonstrate that lack of CD8(+ T cells does not influence neointima formation in presence of functional CD4(+ T cells and B cells.

  12. Arabidopsis R-SNARE proteins VAMP721 and VAMP722 are required for cell plate formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell plate formation during plant cytokinesis is facilitated by SNARE complex-mediated vesicle fusion at the cell-division plane. However, our knowledge regarding R-SNARE components of membrane fusion machinery for cell plate formation remains quite limited. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the in vivo function of Arabidopsis VAMP721 and VAMP722, two closely sequence-related R-SNAREs, in cell plate formation. Double homozygous vamp721vamp722 mutant seedlings showed lethal dwarf phenotypes and were characterized by rudimentary roots, cotyledons and hypocotyls. Furthermore, cell wall stubs and incomplete cytokinesis were frequently observed in vamp721vamp722 seedlings. Confocal images revealed that green fluorescent protein-tagged VAMP721 and VAMP722 were preferentially localized to the expanding cell plates in dividing cells. Drug treatments and co-localization analyses demonstrated that punctuate organelles labeled with VAMP721 and VAMP722 represented early endosomes overlapped with VHA-a1-labeled TGN, which were distinct from Golgi stacks and prevacuolar compartments. In addition, protein traffic to the plasma membrane, but not to the vacuole, was severely disrupted in vamp721vamp722 seedlings by subcellular localization of marker proteins. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These observations suggest that VAMP721 and VAMP722 are involved in secretory trafficking to the plasma membrane via TGN/early endosomal compartment, which contributes substantially to cell plate formation during plant cytokinesis.

  13. Complement Activation Induces Neutrophil Adhesion and Neutrophil-Platelet Aggregate Formation on Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Riedl

    2017-01-01

    Discussion: Therefore, our findings of (i neutrophils adhering to complement-activated endothelial cells, (ii the formation of neutrophil-platelet aggregates on endothelial cells, and (iii the ability of aHUS serum to induce similar effects identify a possible role for neutrophils in aHUS manifestation.

  14. Hard tissue formation of STRO-1-selected rat dental pulp stem cells in vivo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Walboomers, X.F.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine hard tissue formation of STRO-1-selected rat dental pulp-derived stem cells, seeded into a calcium phosphate ceramic scaffold, and implanted subcutaneously in mice. Previously, STRO-1 selection was used to obtain a mesenchymal stem cell progenitor

  15. De novo formation of centrosomes in vertebrate cells arrested during S phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khodjakov, A; Rieder, CL; Sluder, G; Cassels, G; Sibon, O; Wang, CL

    2002-01-01

    The centrosome usually replicates in a semiconservative fashion, i.e., new centrioles form in association with preexisting "maternal" centrioles. De novo formation of centrioles has been reported for a few highly specialized cell types but it has not been seen in vertebrate somatic cells. We find

  16. BCL6 interacting corepressor contributes to germinal center T follicular helper cell formation and B cell helper function

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jessica A.; Tubo, Noah J.; Gearhart, Micah D.; Bardwell, Vivian J.; Jenkins, Marc K.

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ germinal center (GC) T follicular helper (GC-Tfh) cells help B cells become long-lived plasma cells and memory cells. The transcriptional repressor BCL6 plays a key role in GC-Tfh formation by inhibiting the expression of genes that promote differentiation into other lineages. We determined whether BCOR, a component of a Polycomb repressive complex that interacts with the BCL6 BTB domain, influences GC-Tfh differentiation. T cell-targeted BCOR deficiency led to a substantial loss of pept...

  17. Formation of large coronary arteries by cardiac progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmanns, Jochen; Rota, Marcello; Hosoda, Toru; Misao, Yu; Esposito, Grazia; Gonzalez, Arantxa; Vitale, Serena; Parolin, Carola; Yasuzawa-Amano, Saori; Muraski, John; De Angelis, Antonella; LeCapitaine, Nicole; Siggins, Robert W.; Loredo, Maria; Bearzi, Claudia; Bolli, Roberto; Urbanek, Konrad; Leri, Annarosa; Kajstura, Jan; Anversa, Piero

    2008-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of cardiac failure in the Western world, and to date there is no alternative to bypass surgery for severe coronary atherosclerosis. We report that c-kit-positive cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) activated with insulin-like growth factor 1 and hepatocyte growth factor before their injection in proximity of the site of occlusion of the left coronary artery in rats, engrafted within the host myocardium forming temporary niches. Subsequently, CPCs divided and differentiated into endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells and, to a lesser extent, into cardiomyocytes. The acquisition of vascular lineages appeared to be mediated by the up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, which promoted the synthesis and secretion of stromal-derived factor 1 from hypoxic coronary vessels. Stromal-derived factor 1 was critical in the conversion of CPCs to the vascular fate. CPCs formed conductive and intermediate-sized coronary arteries together with resistance arterioles and capillaries. The new vessels were connected with the primary coronary circulation, and this increase in vascularization more than doubled myocardial blood flow in the infarcted myocardium. This beneficial effect, together with myocardial regeneration attenuated postinfarction dilated myopathy, reduced infarct size and improved function. In conclusion, locally delivered activated CPCs generate de novo coronary vasculature and may be implemented clinically for restoration of blood supply to the ischemic myocardium. PMID:18216245

  18. Mxi1 influences cyst formation in three-dimensional cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Joo Yook

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyst formation is a major characteristic of ADPKD and iscaused by the abnormal proliferation of epithelial cells. Renalcyst formation disrupts renal function and induces diversecomplications. The mechanism of cyst formation is unclear.mIMCD-3 cells were established to develop simple epithelialcell cysts in 3-D culture. We confirmed previously that Mxi1plays a role in cyst formation in Mxi1-deficient mice. Cysts inMxi1 transfectanted cells were showed by collagen or mebiolgels in 3-D cell culture system. Causative genes of ADPKDwere measured by q RT-PCR. Herein, Mxi1 transfectants rarelyformed a simple epithelial cyst and induced cell death.Overexpression of Mxi1 resulted in a decrease in the PKD1,PKD2 and c-myc mRNA relating to the pathway of cystformation. These data indicate that Mxi1 influences cystformation of mIMCD-3 cells in 3-D culture and that Mxi1 maycontrol the mechanism of renal cyst formation. [BMB reports2012; 45(3: 189-193

  19. αII-spectrin in T cells is involved in the regulation of cell-cell contact leading to immunological synapse formation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna M Meissner

    Full Text Available T-lymphocyte activation after antigen presentation to the T-Cell Receptor (TCR is a critical step in the development of proper immune responses to infection and inflammation. This dynamic process involves reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and signaling molecules at the cell membrane, leading to the formation of the Immunological Synapse (IS. The mechanisms regulating the formation of the IS are not completely understood. Nonerythroid spectrin is a membrane skeletal protein involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including cell adhesion, signaling and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. However, the role of spectrin in IS formation has not been explored. We used molecular, imaging and cellular approaches to show that nonerythroid αII-spectrin redistributes to the IS during T-cell activation. The redistribution of spectrin coincides with the relocation of CD45 and LFA-1, two components essential for IS formation and stability. We assessed the role of spectrin by shRNA-mediated depletion from Jurkat T cells and show that spectrin-depleted cells exhibit decreased adhesion and are defective in forming lamellipodia and filopodia. Importantly, IS formation is impaired in spectrin-depleted cells. Thus, spectrin may be engaged in regulation of distinct events necessary for the establishment and maturity of the IS: besides the involvement of spectrin in the control of CD45 and LFA-1 surface display, spectrin acts in the establishment of cell-cell contact and adhesion processes during the formation of the IS.

  20. Centriole triplet microtubules are required for stable centriole formation and inheritance in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jennifer T; Kong, Dong; Hoerner, Christian R; Loncarek, Jadranka; Stearns, Tim

    2017-09-14

    Centrioles are composed of long-lived microtubules arranged in nine triplets. However, the contribution of triplet microtubules to mammalian centriole formation and stability is unknown. Little is known of the mechanism of triplet microtubule formation, but experiments in unicellular eukaryotes indicate that delta-tubulin and epsilon-tubulin, two less-studied tubulin family members, are required. Here, we report that centrioles in delta-tubulin and epsilon-tubulin null mutant human cells lack triplet microtubules and fail to undergo centriole maturation. These aberrant centrioles are formed de novo each cell cycle, but are unstable and do not persist to the next cell cycle, leading to a futile cycle of centriole formation and disintegration. Disintegration can be suppressed by paclitaxel treatment. Delta-tubulin and epsilon-tubulin physically interact, indicating that these tubulins act together to maintain triplet microtubules and that these are necessary for inheritance of centrioles from one cell cycle to the next.

  1. Statistical analysis of clone formation in cultures of human stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, N P; Vinogradova, M S; Volkov, I K; Voronina, E S; Kuleshov, N P

    2011-08-01

    We performed a statistical analysis of clone formation from aneuploid cells (chromosomes 6, 8, 11, X) in cultures of bone marrow-derived human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells by spontaneous level of aneuploidy at different terms of culturing (from 2 to 19 cell cycles). It was found that the duration of cell cycle increased from 65.6 h at passages 2-3 to 164.5 h at passage 12. The expected ratio of aneuploid cells was calculated using modeled 5, 10, 20 and 30% selective preference in reproduction. The size of samples for detecting 10, 25, and 50% increased level of aneuploidy was calculated. The presented principles for evaluation of aneuploid clone formation may be used to distinguish clones of any abnormal cells.

  2. Cancer cells increase endothelial cell tube formation and survival by activating the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hao-Wei; Chen, Yi-Fang; Wong, Jau-Min; Weng, Chia-Wei; Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Yu, Sung-Liang; Chen, Huei-Wen; Yuan, Ang; Chen, Jeremy J W

    2017-02-07

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer and plays a critical role in lung cancer progression, which involves interactions between cancer cells, endothelial cells and the surrounding microenvironment. However, the gene expression profiles and the changes in the biological phenotype of vascular endothelial cells after interactions with lung cancer cells remain unclear. An indirect transwell co-culture system was used to survey the interaction between human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human lung adenocarcinoma CL1-5 cells, as well as to investigate the morphological and molecular changes of HUVECs. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in HUVECs after co-culture with cancer cells were identified by microarray. Moreover, a publicly available microarray dataset of 293 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients was employed to evaluate the prognostic power of the gene signatures derived from HUVECs. The interaction between HUVECs and lung cancer cells changes the morphology of HUVECs, causing them to have a mesenchymal-like morphology and alter their cytoskeleton organization. Furthermore, after co-culture with lung cancer cells, HUVECs showed increased cell motility and microvessel tube formation ability and a decreased apoptotic percentage. Transcriptomic profiling of HUVECs revealed that many survival-, apoptosis- and angiogenesis-related genes were differentially expressed after interactions with lung cancer cells. Further investigations showed that the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and COX-2 are involved in endothelial tube formation under the stimulation of lung cancer cells. Moreover, Rac-1 activation might promote endothelial cell motility through the increased formation of lamellipodia and filopodia. The inhibitors of PI3K and COX-2 could reverse the increased tube formation and induce the apoptosis of HUVECs. In addition, the gene signatures derived from the DEGs in HUVECs could predict overall survival and disease-free survival in NSCLC

  3. Putrescine controls the formation of Escherichia coli persister cells tolerant to aminoglycoside netilmicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Alexander G; Kashevarova, Natalya M; Karavaeva, Elena A; Shumkov, Mikhail S

    2014-12-01

    Persisters are suggested to be the products of a phenotypic variability that are quasi-dormant forms of regular bacterial cells highly tolerant to antibiotics. Our previous investigations revealed that a decrease in antibiotic tolerance of Escherichia coli cells could be reached through the inhibition of key enzymes of polyamine synthesis (putrescine, spermidine). We therefore assumed that polyamines could be involved in persister cell formation. Data obtained in our experiments with the polyamine-deficient E. coli strain demonstrate that the formation of persisters tolerant to netilmicin is highly upregulated by putrescine in a concentration-dependent manner when cells enter the stationary phase. This period is also accompanied by dissociation of initially homogenous subpopulation of persister cells to some fractions differing in their levels of tolerance to netilmicin. With three independent experimental approaches, we demonstrate that putrescine-dependent upregulation of persister cell formation is mediated by stimulation of rpoS expression. Complementary activity of putrescine and RpoS results in ~ 1000-fold positive effect on persister cell formation. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  4. The role of Ca2+ influx in endocytic vacuole formation in pancreatic acinar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, Svetlana; Collier, David; Chvanov, Michael; Middlehurst, Ben; Beckett, Alison J.; Prior, Ian A.; Criddle, David N.; Begg, Malcolm; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Sutton, Robert; Tepikin, Alexei V.

    2014-01-01

    The inducers of acute pancreatitis trigger a prolonged increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c), which is responsible for the damage to and eventual death of pancreatic acinar cells. Vacuolization is an important indicator of pancreatic acinar cell damage. Furthermore, activation of trypsinogen occurs in the endocytic vacuoles; therefore the vacuoles can be considered as ‘initiating’ organelles in the development of the cell injury. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the formation of endocytic vacuoles and Ca2+ influx developed in response to the inducers of acute pancreatitis [bile acid taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLC-S) and supramaximal concentration of cholecystokinin-8 (CCK)]. We found that the inhibitor of STIM (stromal interaction molecule)/Orai channels, GSK-7975A, effectively suppressed both the Ca2+ influx (stimulated by inducers of pancreatitis) and the formation of endocytic vacuoles. Cell death induced by TLC-S or CCK was also inhibited by GSK-7975A. We documented the formation of endocytic vacuoles in response to store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) induced by thapsigargin [TG; inhibitor of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ pumps] and observed strong inhibition of TG-induced vacuole formation by GSK-7975A. Finally, we found that structurally-unrelated inhibitors of calpain suppress formation of endocytic vacuoles, suggesting that this Ca2+-dependent protease is a mediator between Ca2+ elevation and endocytic vacuole formation. PMID:25370603

  5. Thermal characterizations of a large-format lithium ion cell focused on high current discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veth, C.; Dragicevic, D.; Merten, C.

    2014-12-01

    The thermal behavior of a large-format lithium ion cell has been investigated during measurements on cell and battery level. High current discharges up to 300 A are the main topic of this study. This paper demonstrates that the temperature response to high current loads provides the possibility to investigate internal cell parameters and their inhomogeneity. In order to identify thermal response caused by internal cell processes, the heat input due to contact resistances has been minimized. The differences between the thermal footprint of a cell during cell and battery measurements are being addressed. The study presented here focuses on the investigation of thermal hot and cold spots as well as temperature gradients in a 50 Ah pouch cell. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the difference between charge and discharge can have significant influence on the thermal behavior of lithium ion cells. Moreover, the miscellaneous thermal characteristics of differently aged lithium ion cells highlight the possibility of an ex-situ non-destructive post-mortem-analysis, providing the possibility of a qualitative and quantitative characterization of inhomogeneous cell-aging. These investigations also generate excellent data for the validation and parameterization of electro-thermal cell models, predicting the distribution of temperature, current, potential, SOC and SOH inside large-format cells.

  6. The MP65 gene is required for cell wall integrity, adherence to epithelial cells and biofilm formation in Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girolamo Antonietta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MP65 gene of Candida albicans (orf19.1779 encodes a putative β-glucanase mannoprotein of 65 kDa, which plays a main role in a host-fungus relationship, morphogenesis and pathogenicity. In this study, we performed an extensive analysis of a mp65Δ mutant to assess the role of this protein in cell wall integrity, adherence to epithelial cells and biofilm formation. Results The mp65Δ mutant showed a high sensitivity to a range of cell wall-perturbing and degrading agents, especially Congo red, which induced morphological changes such as swelling, clumping and formation of hyphae. The mp65Δ mutant showed an activation of two MAPKs (Mkc1p and Cek1p, a high level of expression of two stress-related genes (DDR48 and SOD5, and a modulated expression of β-glucan epitopes, but no gross changes in cell wall polysaccharide composition. Interestingly, the mp65Δ mutant displayed a marked reduction in adhesion to BEC and Caco-2 cells and severe defects in biofilm formation when compared to the wild type. All of the mentioned properties were totally or partially recovered in a revertant strain, demonstrating the specificity of gene deletion. Conclusions We demonstrate that the MP65 gene of Candida albicans plays a significant role in maintaining cell wall integrity, as well as in adherence to epithelia and biofilm formation, which are major virulence attributes of this fungus.

  7. Collective motion of cells mediates segregation and pattern formation in co-cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elod Méhes

    Full Text Available Pattern formation by segregation of cell types is an important process during embryonic development. We show that an experimentally yet unexplored mechanism based on collective motility of segregating cells enhances the effects of known pattern formation mechanisms such as differential adhesion, mechanochemical interactions or cell migration directed by morphogens. To study in vitro cell segregation we use time-lapse videomicroscopy and quantitative analysis of the main features of the motion of individual cells or groups. Our observations have been extensive, typically involving the investigation of the development of patterns containing up to 200,000 cells. By either comparing keratocyte types with different collective motility characteristics or increasing cells' directional persistence by the inhibition of Rac1 GTP-ase we demonstrate that enhanced collective cell motility results in faster cell segregation leading to the formation of more extensive patterns. The growth of the characteristic scale of patterns generally follows an algebraic scaling law with exponent values up to 0.74 in the presence of collective motion, compared to significantly smaller exponents in case of diffusive motion.

  8. HOXB4 Promotes Hemogenic Endothelium Formation without Perturbing Endothelial Cell Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Teichweyde

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Generation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs from pluripotent stem cells, in vitro, holds great promise for regenerative therapies. Primarily, this has been achieved in mouse cells by overexpression of the homeotic selector protein HOXB4. The exact cellular stage at which HOXB4 promotes hematopoietic development, in vitro, is not yet known. However, its identification is a prerequisite to unambiguously identify the molecular circuits controlling hematopoiesis, since the activity of HOX proteins is highly cell and context dependent. To identify that stage, we retrovirally expressed HOXB4 in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs. Through the use of Runx1(−/− ESCs containing a doxycycline-inducible Runx1 coding sequence, we uncovered that HOXB4 promoted the formation of hemogenic endothelium cells without altering endothelial cell development. Whole-transcriptome analysis revealed that its expression mediated the upregulation of transcription of core transcription factors necessary for hematopoiesis, culminating in the formation of blood progenitors upon initiation of Runx1 expression. : In this article, Klump and colleagues demonstrate that the human homeotic selector protein HOXB4 promotes ESC-derived hematopoiesis by inducing hemogenic endothelium formation, in vitro. It propels hematopoietic specification by upregulating the transcription of genes essential for hematopoietic development, such as those encoding members of the so-called heptad transcription factors. Keywords: HOXB4, hematopoietic stem cells, hemangioblast, hemogenic endothelium, hematopoietic specification, EHT, RUNX1, pluripotent stem cells

  9. Nonspecific CD8+T Cells and Dendritic Cells/Macrophages Participate in Formation of CD8+T Cell-Mediated Clusters against Malaria Liver-Stage Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Masoud; Kimura, Kazumi; Bayarsaikhan, Ganchimeg; Kimura, Daisuke; Miyakoda, Mana; Juriasingani, Smriti; Yuda, Masao; Amino, Rogerio; Yui, Katsuyuki

    2018-04-01

    CD8 + T cells are the major effector cells that protect against malaria liver-stage infection, forming clusters around Plasmodium -infected hepatocytes and eliminating parasites after a prolonged interaction with these hepatocytes. We aimed to investigate the roles of specific and nonspecific CD8 + T cells in cluster formation and protective immunity. To this end, we used Plasmodium berghei ANKA expressing ovalbumin as well as CD8 + T cells from transgenic mice expressing a T cell receptor specific for ovalbumin (OT-I) and CD8 + T cells specific for an unrelated antigen, respectively. While antigen-specific CD8 + T cells were essential for cluster formation, both antigen-specific and nonspecific CD8 + T cells joined the clusters. However, nonspecific CD8 + T cells did not significantly contribute to protective immunity. In the livers of infected mice, specific CD8 + T cells expressed high levels of CD25, compatible with a local, activated effector phenotype. In vivo imaging of the liver revealed that specific CD8 + T cells interact with CD11c + cells around infected hepatocytes. The depletion of CD11c + cells virtually eliminated the clusters in the liver, leading to a significant decrease in protection. These experiments reveal an essential role of hepatic CD11c + dendritic cells and presumably macrophages in the formation of CD8 + T cell clusters around Plasmodium -infected hepatocytes. Once cluster formation is triggered by parasite-specific CD8 + T cells, specific and unrelated activated CD8 + T cells join the clusters in a chemokine- and dendritic cell-dependent manner. Nonspecific CD8 + T cells seem to play a limited role in protective immunity against Plasmodium parasites. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Archaeal Persisters: Persister Cell Formation as a Stress Response in Haloferax volcanii

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    Julianne Megaw

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Persister cells are phenotypic variants within a microbial population, which are dormant and transiently tolerant to stress. Persistence has been studied extensively in bacteria, and in eukaryotes to a limited extent, however, it has never been observed in archaea. Using the model haloarchaeon, Haloferax volcanii DS2, we demonstrated persister cell formation in this domain, with time-kill curves exhibiting a characteristic biphasic pattern following starvation or exposure to lethal concentrations of various biocidal compounds. Repeated challenges of surviving cells showed that, as with bacteria, persister formation in H. volcanii was not heritable. Additionally, as previously shown with bacteria, persister formation in H. volcanii was suppressed by exogenous indole. The addition of spent culture media to assays conducted on planktonic cells showed that H. volcanii-conditioned media stimulated persistence, whereas conditioned media of other haloarchaea or halophilic bacteria did not, suggesting the involvement of a species-specific signal. Using a TLC overlay assay, the quorum sensing bioreporter Agrobacterium tumefaciens ATCC BAA-2240 detected the presence of C4 and C6 acyl homoserine lactone-like signal molecules in a H. volcanii culture extract. While synthetic bacterial AHLs did not induce persistence, this is potentially due to structural differences between bacterial and archaeal signals, and does not discount a quorum sensing component in haloarchaeal persister formation. The observation of persister cell formation by this haloarchaeon may provide some insights into the survival of these organisms in stressful or dynamic environments.

  11. Pectinous cell wall thickenings formation - A common defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzesłowska, Magdalena; Rabęda, Irena; Basińska, Aneta; Lewandowski, Michał; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Napieralska, Anna; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Woźny, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Lead, one of the most abundant and hazardous trace metals affecting living organisms, has been commonly detected in plant cell walls including some tolerant plants, mining ecotypes and hyperaccumulators. We have previously shown that in tip growing Funaria sp. protonemata cell wall is remodeled in response to lead by formation of thickenings rich in low-methylesterified pectins (pectin epitope JIM5 - JIM5-P) able to bind metal ions, which accumulate large amounts of Pb. Hence, it leads to the increase of cell wall capacity for Pb compartmentalization. Here we show that diverse plant species belonging to different phyla (Arabidopsis, hybrid aspen, star duckweed), form similar cell wall thickenings in response to Pb. These thickenings are formed in tip growing cells such as the root hairs, and in diffuse growing cells such as meristematic and root cap columella cells of root apices in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis and in mesophyll cells in star duckweed fronds. Notably, all analyzed cell wall thickenings were abundant in JIM5-P and accumulated high amounts of Pb. In addition, the co-localization of JIM5-P and Pb commonly occurred in these cells. Hence, cell wall thickenings formed the extra compartment for Pb accumulation. In this way plant cells increased cell wall capacity for compartmentalization of this toxic metal, protecting protoplast from its toxicity. As cell wall thickenings occurred in diverse plant species and cell types differing in the type of growth we may conclude that pectinous cell wall thickenings formation is a widespread defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb. Moreover, detection of natural defense strategy, increasing plant cell walls capacity for metal accumulation, reveals a promising direction for enhancing plant efficiency in phytoremediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bmi1 overexpression in the cerebellar granule cell lineage of mice affects cell proliferation and survival without initiating medulloblastoma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hourinaz Behesti

    2013-01-01

    BMI1 is a potent inducer of neural stem cell self-renewal and neural progenitor cell proliferation during development and in adult tissue homeostasis. It is overexpressed in numerous human cancers – including medulloblastomas, in which its functional role is unclear. We generated transgenic mouse lines with targeted overexpression of Bmi1 in the cerebellar granule cell lineage, a cell type that has been shown to act as a cell of origin for medulloblastomas. Overexpression of Bmi1 in granule cell progenitors (GCPs led to a decrease in cerebellar size due to decreased GCP proliferation and repression of the expression of cyclin genes, whereas Bmi1 overexpression in postmitotic granule cells improved cell survival in response to stress by altering the expression of genes in the mitochondrial cell death pathway and of Myc and Lef-1. Although no medulloblastomas developed in ageing cohorts of transgenic mice, crosses with Trp53−/− mice resulted in a low incidence of medulloblastoma formation. Furthermore, analysis of a large collection of primary human medulloblastomas revealed that tumours with a BMI1high TP53low molecular profile are significantly enriched in Group 4 human medulloblastomas. Our data suggest that different levels and timing of Bmi1 overexpression yield distinct cellular outcomes within the same cellular lineage. Importantly, Bmi1 overexpression at the GCP stage does not induce tumour formation, suggesting that BMI1 overexpression in GCP-derived human medulloblastomas probably occurs during later stages of oncogenesis and might serve to enhance tumour cell survival.

  13. Combination cisplatin and sulforaphane treatment reduces proliferation, invasion, and tumor formation in epidermal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Candace; Adhikary, Gautam; Grun, Daniel; George, Nicholas; Eckert, Richard L

    2018-01-01

    Epidermal squamous cell carcinoma is an extremely common type of cancer. Early tumors can be successfully treated by surgery, but recurrent disease is aggressive and resistant to therapy. Cisplatin is often used as a treatment, but the outcome is rarely satisfactory. For this reason new strategies are required. Sulforaphane is a diet-derived cancer prevention agent that is effective in suppressing tumor growth in animal models of skin cancer. We monitored the efficacy of sulforaphane and cisplatin as a combined therapy for squamous cell carcinoma. Both agents suppress cell proliferation, growth of cancer stem cell spheroids, matrigel invasion and migration of SCC-13 and HaCaT cells, and combination treatment is more efficient. In addition, SCC-13 cell derived cancer stem cells are more responsive to these agents than non-stem cancer cells. Both agents suppress tumor formation, but enhanced suppression is observed with combined treatment. Moreover, both agents reduce the number of tumor-resident cancer stem cells. SFN treatment of cultured cells or tumors increases apoptosis and p21 Cip1 level, and both agents increase tumor apoptosis. We suggest that combined therapy with sulforaphane and cisplatin is efficient in suppressing tumor formation and may be a treatment option for advanced epidermal squamous cell carcinoma. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The adaptor molecule SAP plays essential roles during invariant NKT cell cytotoxicity and lytic synapse formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupali; Bassiri, Hamid; Guan, Peng; Wiener, Susan; Banerjee, Pinaki P; Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André; Orange, Jordan S; Nichols, Kim E

    2013-04-25

    The adaptor molecule signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) plays critical roles during invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell ontogeny. As a result, SAP-deficient humans and mice lack iNKT cells. The strict developmental requirement for SAP has made it difficult to discern its possible involvement in mature iNKT cell functions. By using temporal Cre recombinase-mediated gene deletion to ablate SAP expression after completion of iNKT cell development, we demonstrate that SAP is essential for T-cell receptor (TCR)-induced iNKT cell cytotoxicity against T-cell and B-cell leukemia targets in vitro and iNKT-cell-mediated control of T-cell leukemia growth in vivo. These findings are not restricted to the murine system: silencing RNA-mediated suppression of SAP expression in human iNKT cells also significantly impairs TCR-induced cytolysis. Mechanistic studies reveal that iNKT cell killing requires the tyrosine kinase Fyn, a known SAP-binding protein. Furthermore, SAP expression is required within iNKT cells to facilitate their interaction with T-cell targets and induce reorientation of the microtubule-organizing center to the immunologic synapse (IS). Collectively, these studies highlight a novel and essential role for SAP during iNKT cell cytotoxicity and formation of a functional IS.

  15. An improved model for nucleation-limited ice formation in living cells during freezing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingru Yi

    Full Text Available Ice formation in living cells is a lethal event during freezing and its characterization is important to the development of optimal protocols for not only cryopreservation but also cryotherapy applications. Although the model for probability of ice formation (PIF in cells developed by Toner et al. has been widely used to predict nucleation-limited intracellular ice formation (IIF, our data of freezing Hela cells suggest that this model could give misleading prediction of PIF when the maximum PIF in cells during freezing is less than 1 (PIF ranges from 0 to 1. We introduce a new model to overcome this problem by incorporating a critical cell volume to modify the Toner's original model. We further reveal that this critical cell volume is dependent on the mechanisms of ice nucleation in cells during freezing, i.e., surface-catalyzed nucleation (SCN and volume-catalyzed nucleation (VCN. Taken together, the improved PIF model may be valuable for better understanding of the mechanisms of ice nucleation in cells during freezing and more accurate prediction of PIF for cryopreservation and cryotherapy applications.

  16. Coilin phosphomutants disrupt Cajal body formation, reduce cell proliferation and produce a distinct coilin degradation product.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunamys I Carrero

    Full Text Available Coilin is a nuclear phosphoprotein that accumulates in Cajal bodies (CBs. CBs participate in ribonucleoprotein and telomerase biogenesis, and are often found in cells with high transcriptional demands such as neuronal and cancer cells, but can also be observed less frequently in other cell types such as fibroblasts. Many proteins enriched within the CB are phosphorylated, but it is not clear what role this modification has on the activity of these proteins in the CB. Coilin is considered to be the CB marker protein and is essential for proper CB formation and composition in mammalian cells. In order to characterize the role of coilin phosphorylation on CB formation, we evaluated various coilin phosphomutants using transient expression. Additionally, we generated inducible coilin phosphomutant cell lines that, when used in combination with endogenous coilin knockdown, allow for the expression of the phosphomutants at physiological levels. Transient expression of all coilin phosphomutants except the phosphonull mutant (OFF significantly reduces proliferation. Interestingly, a stable cell line induced to express the coilin S489D phosphomutant displays nucleolar accumulation of the mutant and generates a N-terminal degradation product; neither of which is observed upon transient expression. A N-terminal degradation product and nucleolar localization are also observed in a stable cell line induced to express a coilin phosphonull mutant (OFF. The nucleolar localization of the S489D and OFF coilin mutants observed in the stable cell lines is decreased when endogenous coilin is reduced. Furthermore, all the phosphomutant cells lines show a significant reduction in CB formation when compared to wild-type after endogenous coilin knockdown. Cell proliferation studies on these lines reveal that only wild-type coilin and the OFF mutant are sufficient to rescue the reduction in proliferation associated with endogenous coilin depletion. These results emphasize

  17. Plant metabolism and cell wall formation in space (microgravity) and on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Norman G.

    1994-01-01

    Variations in cell wall chemistry provide vascular plants with the ability to withstand gravitational forces, as well as providing facile mechanisms for correctional responses to various gravitational stimuli, e.g., in reaction wood formation. A principal focus of our current research is to precisely and systematically dissect the essentially unknown mechanism(s) of vascular plant cell wall assembly, particularly with respect to formation of its phenolic constituents, i.e., lignins and suberins, and how gravity impacts upon these processes. Formation of these phenolic polymers is of particular interest, since it appears that elaboration of their biochemical pathways was essential for successful land adaptation. By extrapolation, we are also greatly intrigued as to how the microgravity environment impacts upon 'normal' cell wall assembly mechanisms/metabolism.

  18. The association between circulating endothelial progenitor cells and coronary collateral formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Yorgun, Hikmet; Gürses, Kadri Murat; Canpolat, Uğur; Ateş, Ahmet Hakan; Tülümen, Erol; Kaya, Ergün Barış; Aytemir, Kudret; Kabakçı, Giray; Tuncer, Murat; Oto, Ali

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the relationship between coronary collateral formation and circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Circulating CD133(+)/34(+) and CD34(+)/KDR(+) EPCs were determined in 68 patients (normal coronary vessels in 24 patients and coronary artery disease (CAD) in 44 patients) (age: 58.7 ± 10.1, 64.7% male). Circulating EPCs were higher among patients with normal coronary vessels compared to patients with CAD for CD133(+)/34(+) (p collateral formation (p collateral formation after adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors and extent of CAD (p = 0.037). In patients with severe coronary stenosis, those with increased circulating EPCs had better collateral formation compared to those with lower EPC counts. Our findings implicate that in addition to presence of critical stenosis, intact response of bone marrow is necessary for collateral formation in CAD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple regions of Crumbs3 are required for tight junction formation in MCF10A cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Vanessa C; Liu, Chia-Jen; Margolis, Ben

    2005-07-01

    The formation and maintenance of tight junctions is essential for the development of epithelial cell polarity. Recently, a number of conserved polarity-regulating proteins have been shown to localize to epithelial tight junctions, and to play a role in the regulation of tight junction formation. The Crumbs3/PALS1/PATJ protein complex localizes at epithelial tight junctions and interacts with the polarity-regulating protein complex of Par6/Par3/aPKC. Overexpression of Crumbs3 in MDCKII cells leads to a delay in tight junction formation in these cells, suggesting a role in the regulation of tight junction development. Here we report new evidence that Crumbs3 indeed plays an essential role in tight junction formation. Mammary MCF10A cells express little endogenous Crumbs3 and fail to form tight junctions when grown under standard tissue culture conditions. The staining pattern of ZO-1, a tight junction marker, is fragmented, and other tight junction markers show either fragmented junctional expression or diffuse cytoplasmic staining. Expression of exogenous Crumbs3 induces the formation of tight junction structures marked by smooth, continuous ZO-1 staining at apical cell-cell junctions. A number of other tight junction markers, including claudin-1 and occludin, are also recruited to these junctions. Analysis by transmission electron microscopy and measurements of the transepithelial electrical resistance confirm that these structures are functional tight junctions. Mutations in either the Crumbs3 PDZ binding motif or the putative FERM binding motif lead to defects in the ability of Crumbs3 to promote tight junction development. Our results suggest that Crumbs3 plays an important role in epithelial tight junction formation, and also provide the first known functional role for the mammalian Crumbs FERM binding domain.

  20. Formation of IgE-binding factors by human T-cell hybridomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Huff, T F; Ishizaka, K

    1984-01-01

    Normal human T cells that proliferated in the presence of interleukin 2 (IL-2) formed IgE-binding factors when incubated with human IgE. These cells were then fused with a mutant of the human T-cell line CEM. Incubation of five hybridomas with human IgE or culture of the cells in IgE-coated wells resulted in the formation of IgE-binding factors. One hour of incubation with 10 micrograms of human IgE per ml was sufficient to induce the hybridomas to form IgE-binding factors. Polymerized IgE wa...

  1. Guided extracellular matrix formation from fibroblast cells cultured on bio-inspired configurable multiscale substrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Gyu Bae

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering complex extracellular matrix (ECM is an important challenge for cell and tissue engineering applications as well as for understanding fundamental cell biology. We developed the methodology for fabrication of precisely controllable multiscale hierarchical structures using capillary force lithography in combination with original wrinkling technique for the generation of well-defined native ECM-like platforms by culturing fibroblast cells on the multiscale substrata [1]. This paper provides information on detailed characteristics of polyethylene glycol-diacrylate multiscale substrata. In addition, a possible model for guided extracellular matrix formation from fibroblast cells cultured on bio-inspired configurable multiscale substrata is proposed.

  2. Methods for studying biofilm formation: flow cells and confocal laser scanning microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Sternberg, Claus

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter methods for growing and analyzing biofilms under hydrodynamic conditions in flow cells are described. Use of flow cells allows for direct microscopic investigation of biofilm formation. The flow in these chambers is essentially laminar, which means that the biofilms can be grown...... under highly controlled conditions, and that perturbations such as addition of antibiotics or change of the growth medium can be done efficiently at a defined time point. The protocol includes construction of the flow cell and the bubble trap, assembly and sterilization of the flow cell system...

  3. MECHANICAL VIBRATION INHIBITS OSTEOCLAST FORMATION BY REDUCING DC-STAMP RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN OSTEOCLAST PRECURSOR CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, R.N.; Voglewede, P.A.; Liu, D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that physical inactivity leads to loss of muscle mass, but it also causes bone loss. Mechanistically, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption have recently been shown to be regulated by vibration. However, the underlying mechanism behind the inhibition of osteoclast formation is yet unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells affects osteoclast formation by the involvement of fusion-related molecules such as dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), and P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). RAW264.7 (a murine osteoclastic-like cell line) cells were treated with 20 ng/ml receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). For 3 consecutive days, the cells were subjected to 1 hour of mechanical vibration with 20 µm displacement at a frequency of 4 Hz and compared to the control cells that were treated under the same condition but without the vibration. After 5 days of culture, osteoclast formation was determined. Gene expression of DC-STAMP and P2X7R by RAW264.7 cells were determined after 1 hour mechanical vibration, while protein production of the DC-STAMP was determined after 6 hours of post incubation after vibration. As a result, mechanical vibration of RAW264.7 cells inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Vibration down-regulated DC-STAMP gene expression by 1.6-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.4-fold in the absence of RANKL. Additionally, DC-STAMP protein production was also down-regulated by 1.4-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.2-fold in the absence of RANKL in RAW264.7 cells in response to mechanical vibration. However, vibration did not affect P2X7R gene expression. Mouse anti-DC-STAMP antibody inhibited osteoclast formation in the absence of vibration. Our results suggest that mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells reduce DC-STAMP expression in osteoclast precursor cells leading to the inhibition of osteoclast formation. PMID:23994170

  4. Mechanical vibration inhibits osteoclast formation by reducing DC-STAMP receptor expression in osteoclast precursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh N; Voglewede, Philip A; Liu, Dawei

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that physical inactivity leads to loss of muscle mass, but it also causes bone loss. Mechanistically, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption have recently been shown to be regulated by vibration. However, the underlying mechanism behind the inhibition of osteoclast formation is yet unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells affects osteoclast formation by the involvement of fusion-related molecules such as dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). RAW264.7 (a murine osteoclastic-like cell line) cells were treated with 20ng/ml receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). For 3 consecutive days, the cells were subjected to 1h of mechanical vibration with 20μm displacement at a frequency of 4Hz and compared to the control cells that were treated under the same condition but without the vibration. After 5days of culture, osteoclast formation was determined. Gene expression of DC-STAMP and P2X7R by RAW264.7 cells was determined after 1h of mechanical vibration, while protein production of the DC-STAMP was determined after 6h of postincubation after vibration. As a result, mechanical vibration of RAW264.7 cells inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Vibration down-regulated DC-STAMP gene expression by 1.6-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.4-fold in the absence of RANKL. Additionally, DC-STAMP protein production was also down-regulated by 1.4-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.2-fold in the absence of RANKL in RAW264.7 cells in response to mechanical vibration. However, vibration did not affect P2X7R gene expression. Mouse anti-DC-STAMP antibody inhibited osteoclast formation in the absence of vibration. Our results suggest that mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells reduces DC-STAMP expression in osteoclast precursor cells leading to the inhibition of osteoclast formation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of policosanol on foam-cell formation in carrageenan-induced granulomas in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noa, M; de la Rosa, M C; Más, R

    1996-03-01

    Policosanol is a new cholesterol-lowering drug isolated and purified from sugar-cane wax, which prevents the development of lipofundin-induced lesions and foam-cell formation in New Zealand rabbits and Wistar rats. This study was conducted to examine the effects of policosanol on foam-cell formation in carrageenan-induced granulomas in rats. Eighteen Wistar rats were randomly distributed in three experimental groups which received orally for 20 days Tween 20 H2O as vehicle (control group) or policosanol at 2.5 or 25 mg kg-1. At the 11th day, lipofundin was injected intraperitoneally for 8 days to induce formation of foam cells in the granuloma. At day 13, carrageenan was injected subcutaneously for granuloma induction and seven days later animals were killed. A significant reduction of the foam-cell formation in granulomas of policosanol-treated rats was observed. It is concluded that policosanol prevents the development of foam cells in carrageenan-induced granulomas (extravascular medium) in rats.

  6. Three-dimensional bioprinting of embryonic stem cells directs highly uniform embryoid body formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Liliang; Yao, Rui; Mao, Shuangshuang; Sun, Wei; Chen, Xi; Na, Jie

    2015-01-01

    With the ability to manipulate cells temporarily and spatially into three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like construct, 3D bioprinting technology was used in many studies to facilitate the recreation of complex cell niche and/or to better understand the regulation of stem cell proliferation and differentiation by cellular microenvironment factors. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the capacity to differentiate into any specialized cell type of the animal body, generally via the formation of embryoid body (EB), which mimics the early stages of embryogenesis. In this study, extrusion-based 3D bioprinting technology was utilized for biofabricating ESCs into 3D cell-laden construct. The influence of 3D printing parameters on ESC viability, proliferation, maintenance of pluripotency and the rule of EB formation was systematically studied in this work. Results demonstrated that ESCs were successfully printed with hydrogel into 3D macroporous construct. Upon process optimization, about 90% ESCs remained alive after the process of bioprinting and cell-laden construct formation. ESCs continued proliferating into spheroid EBs in the hydrogel construct, while retaining the protein expression and gene expression of pluripotent markers, like octamer binding transcription factor 4, stage specific embryonic antigen 1 and Nanog. In this novel technology, EBs were formed through cell proliferation instead of aggregation, and the quantity of EBs was tuned by the initial cell density in the 3D bioprinting process. This study introduces the 3D bioprinting of ESCs into a 3D cell-laden hydrogel construct for the first time and showed the production of uniform, pluripotent, high-throughput and size-controllable EBs, which indicated strong potential in ESC large scale expansion, stem cell regulation and fabrication of tissue-like structure and drug screening studies. (paper)

  7. Spontaneous Formation of Tumorigenic Hybrids between Breast Cancer and Multipotent Stromal Cells Is a Source of Tumor Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Rappa, Germana; Mercapide, Javier; Lorico, Aurelio

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer progression involves cancer cell heterogeneity, with generation of invasive/metastatic breast cancer cells within populations of nonmetastatic cells of the primary tumor. Sequential genetic mutations, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, interaction with local stroma, and formation of hybrids between cancer cells and normal bone marrow–derived cells have been advocated as tumor progression mechanisms. We report herein the spontaneous in vitro formation of heterotypic hybrids be...

  8. MUC16 provides immune protection by inhibiting synapse formation between NK and ovarian tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migneault Martine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer cells utilize a variety of mechanisms to evade immune detection and attack. Effective immune detection largely relies on the formation of an immune synapse which requires close contact between immune cells and their targets. Here, we show that MUC16, a heavily glycosylated 3-5 million Da mucin expressed on the surface of ovarian tumor cells, inhibits the formation of immune synapses between NK cells and ovarian tumor targets. Our results indicate that MUC16-mediated inhibition of immune synapse formation is an effective mechanism employed by ovarian tumors to evade immune recognition. Results Expression of low levels of MUC16 strongly correlated with an increased number of conjugates and activating immune synapses between ovarian tumor cells and primary naïve NK cells. MUC16-knockdown ovarian tumor cells were more susceptible to lysis by primary NK cells than MUC16 expressing controls. This increased lysis was not due to differences in the expression levels of the ligands for the activating receptors DNAM-1 and NKG2D. The NK cell leukemia cell line (NKL, which does not express KIRs but are positive for DNAM-1 and NKG2D, also conjugated and lysed MUC16-knockdown cells more efficiently than MUC16 expressing controls. Tumor cells that survived the NKL challenge expressed higher levels of MUC16 indicating selective lysis of MUC16low targets. The higher csMUC16 levels on the NKL resistant tumor cells correlated with more protection from lysis as compared to target cells that were never exposed to the effectors. Conclusion MUC16, a carrier of the tumor marker CA125, has previously been shown to facilitate ovarian tumor metastasis and inhibits NK cell mediated lysis of tumor targets. Our data now demonstrates that MUC16 expressing ovarian cancer cells are protected from recognition by NK cells. The immune protection provided by MUC16 may lead to selective survival of ovarian cancer cells that are more efficient in

  9. Secondary cell wall formation in Cryptococcus neoformans as a rescue mechanism against acid-induced autolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Vladimír; Takeo, Kanji; Maceková, Danka; Ohkusu, Misako; Yoshida, Soichi; Sipiczki, Matthias

    2009-03-01

    Growth of the opportunistic yeast pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans in a synthetic medium containing yeast nitrogen base and 1.0-3.0% glucose is accompanied by spontaneous acidification of the medium, with its pH decreasing from the initial 5.5 to around 2.5 in the stationary phase. During the transition from the late exponential to the stationary phase of growth, many cells died as a consequence of autolytic erosion of their cell walls. Simultaneously, there was an increase in an ecto-glucanase active towards beta-1,3-glucan and having a pH optimum between pH 3.0 and 3.5. As a response to cell wall degradation, some cells developed an unusual survival strategy by forming 'secondary' cell walls underneath the original ones. Electron microscopy revealed that the secondary cell walls were thicker than the primary ones, exposing bundles of polysaccharide microfibrils only partially masked by an amorphous cell wall matrix on their surfaces. The cells bearing secondary cell walls had a three to five times higher content of the alkali-insoluble cell wall polysaccharides glucan and chitin, and their chitin/glucan ratio was about twofold higher than in cells from the logarithmic phase of growth. The cell lysis and the formation of the secondary cell walls could be suppressed by buffering the growth medium between pH 4.5 and 6.5.

  10. Survivin Modulates Squamous Cell Carcinoma-Derived Stem-Like Cell Proliferation, Viability and Tumor Formation in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lotti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous Cell Carcinoma-derived Stem-like Cells (SCC-SC originate from alterations in keratinocyte stem cells (KSC gene expression and sustain tumor development, invasion and recurrence. Since survivin, a KSC marker, is highly expressed in SCC-SC, we evaluate its role in SCC-SC cell growth and SCC models. Survivin silencing by siRNA decreases clonal growth of SCC keratinocytes and viability of total, rapidly adhering (RAD and non-RAD (NRAD cells from primary SCC. Similarly, survivin silencing reduces the expression of stem cell markers (OCT4, NOTCH1, CD133, β1-integrin, while it increases the level of differentiation markers (K10, involucrin. Moreover, survivin silencing improves the malignant phenotype of SCC 3D-reconstruct, as demonstrated by reduced epidermal thickness, lower Ki-67 positive cell number, and decreased expression of MMP9 and psoriasin. Furthermore, survivin depletion by siRNA in RasG12V-IκBα-derived tumors leads to smaller tumor formation characterized by lower mitotic index and reduced expression of the tumor-associated marker HIF1α, VEGF and CD51. Therefore, our results indicate survivin as a key gene in regulating SCC cancer stem cell formation and cSCC development.

  11. Formation of gut-like structures in vitro from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torihashi, Shigeko

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have the potential to differentiate into all cell types originating from the three germ layers; however, there are still few reports about the formation of functional organs from embryonic stem cells. Recently, we reported that by hanging drops of mouse ES cells, embryoid bodies (EBs) formed gut-like structures in vitro composed of three layers corresponding to the epithelium, lamina propria, and musculature. The morphological features and the process of formation are similar to gut and its organogenesis in vivo. Thus, this is a good model for development of the gut and a useful tool for analysis of the factors required for gut organogenesis. The protocol basically involves a method of hanging drops to make EBs, which are then plated on coated dishes for outgrowth. EBs develop to form gut-like structures when induced to spontaneously enter a program of differentiation in vitro without addition of any extrinsic factors.

  12. Sequential Salinomycin Treatment Results in Resistance Formation through Clonal Selection of Epithelial-Like Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kopp

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring therapy resistance is one of the major obstacles in the treatment of patients with cancer. The discovery of the cancer stem cell (CSC–specific drug salinomycin raised hope for improved treatment options by targeting therapy-refractory CSCs and mesenchymal cancer cells. However, the occurrence of an acquired salinomycin resistance in tumor cells remains elusive. To study the formation of salinomycin resistance, mesenchymal breast cancer cells were sequentially treated with salinomycin in an in vitro cell culture assay, and the resulting differences in gene expression and salinomycin susceptibility were analyzed. We demonstrated that long-term salinomycin treatment of mesenchymal cancer cells resulted in salinomycin-resistant cells with elevated levels of epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin and miR-200c, a decreased migratory capability, and a higher susceptibility to the classic chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. The formation of salinomycin resistance through the acquisition of epithelial traits was further validated by inducing mesenchymal-epithelial transition through an overexpression of miR-200c. The transition from a mesenchymal to a more epithelial-like phenotype of salinomycin-treated tumor cells was moreover confirmed in vivo, using syngeneic and, for the first time, transgenic mouse tumor models. These results suggest that the acquisition of salinomycin resistance through the clonal selection of epithelial-like cancer cells could become exploited for improved cancer therapies by antagonizing the tumor-progressive effects of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

  13. Synthetic niches for differentiation of human embryonic stem cells bypassing embryoid body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yarong; Fox, Victoria; Lei, Yuning; Hu, Biliang; Joo, Kye-Il; Wang, Pin

    2014-07-01

    The unique self-renewal and pluripotency features of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offer the potential for unlimited development of novel cell therapies. Currently, hESCs are cultured and differentiated using methods, such as monolayer culture and embryoid body (EB) formation. As such, achieving efficient differentiation into higher order structures remains a challenge, as well as maintaining cell viability during differentiation into homogeneous cell populations. Here, we describe the application of highly porous polymer scaffolds as synthetic stem cell niches. Bypassing the EB formation step, these scaffolds are capable of three-dimensional culture of undifferentiated hESCs and subsequent directed differentiation into three primary germ layers. H9 hESCs were successfully maintained and proliferated in biodegradable polymer scaffolds based on poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). The results showed that cells within PLGA scaffolds retained characteristics of undifferentiated pluripotent stem cells. Moreover, the scaffolds allowed differentiation towards the lineage of interest by the addition of growth factors to the culture system. The in vivo transplantation study revealed that the scaffolds could provide a microenvironment that enabled hESCs to interact with their surroundings, thereby promoting cell differentiation. Therefore, this approach, which provides a unique culture/differentiation system for hESCs, will find its utility in various stem cell-based tissue-engineering applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Autophagy is a critical regulator of memory CD8+ T cell formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puleston, Daniel J; Zhang, Hanlin; Powell, Timothy J; Lipina, Elina; Sims, Stuart; Panse, Isabel; Watson, Alexander S; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Simon, Anna Katharina

    2014-01-01

    During infection, CD8+ T cells initially expand then contract, leaving a small memory pool providing long lasting immunity. While it has been described that CD8+ T cell memory formation becomes defective in old age, the cellular mechanism is largely unknown. Autophagy is a major cellular lysosomal degradation pathway of bulk material, and levels are known to fall with age. In this study, we describe a novel role for autophagy in CD8+ T cell memory formation. Mice lacking the autophagy gene Atg7 in T cells failed to establish CD8+ T cell memory to influenza and MCMV infection. Interestingly, autophagy levels were diminished in CD8+ T cells from aged mice. We could rejuvenate CD8+ T cell responses in elderly mice in an autophagy dependent manner using the compound spermidine. This study reveals a cell intrinsic explanation for poor CD8+ T cell memory in the elderly and potentially offers novel immune modulators to improve aged immunity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03706.001 PMID:25385531

  15. Human disc cells in monolayer vs 3D culture: cell shape, division and matrix formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanley Edward N

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between cell shape, proliferation, and extracellular matrix (ECM production, important aspects of cell behavior, is examined in a little-studied cell type, the human annulus cell from the intervertebral disc, during monolayer vs three-dimensional (3D culture. Results Three experimental studies showed that cells respond specifically to culture microenvironments by changes in cell shape, mitosis and ECM production: 1 Cell passages showed extensive immunohistochemical evidence of Type I and II collagens only in 3D culture. Chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate were abundant in both monolayer and 3D cultures. 2 Cells showed significantly greater proliferation in monolayer in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor compared to cells in 3D. 3 Cells on Matrigel™-coated monolayer substrates became rounded and formed nodular colonies, a finding absent during monolayer growth. Conclusions The cell's in vivo interactions with the ECM can regulate shape, gene expression and other cell functions. The shape of the annulus cell changes markedly during life: the young, healthy disc contains spindle shaped cells and abundant collagen. With aging and degeneration, many cells assume a strikingly different appearance, become rounded and are surrounded by unusual accumulations of ECM products. In vitro manipulation of disc cells provides an experimental window for testing how disc cells from given individuals respond when they are grown in environments which direct cells to have either spindle- or rounded-shapes. In vitro assessment of the response of such cells to platelet-derived growth factor and to Matrigel™ showed a continued influence of cell shape even in the presence of a growth factor stimulus. These findings contribute new information to the important issue of the influence of cell shape on cell behavior.

  16. Rhizobium nod factors reactivate the cell cycle during infection and nodule primordium formation, but the cycle is only completed in primordium formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, W.C.; Blank, de C.; Meskiene, I.; Hirt, H.; Bakker, J.; Kammen, van A.; Franssen, H.; Bisseling, T.

    1994-01-01

    Rhizobia induce the formation of root nodules on the roots of leguminous plants. In temperate legumes, nodule organogenesis starts with the induction of cell divisions in regions of the root inner cortex opposite protoxylem poles, resulting in the formation of nodule primordia. It has been

  17. ROCK is involved in vasculogenic mimicry formation in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Gang Zhang

    Full Text Available Ras homolog family member A (RhoA and Rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinases 1 and 2 (ROCK1 and 2 are key regulators of focal adhesion, actomyosin contraction and cell motility. RhoA/ROCK signaling has emerged as an attractive target for the development of new cancer therapeutics. Whether RhoA/ROCK is involved in regulating the formation of tumor cell vasculogenic mimicry (VM is largely unknown. To confirm this hypothesis, we performed in vitro experiments using hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cell lines. Firstly, we demonstrated that HCC cells with higher active RhoA/ROCK expression were prone to form VM channels, as compared with RhoA/ROCK low-expressing cells. Furthermore, Y27632 (a specific inhibitor of ROCK rather than exoenzyme C3 (a specific inhibitor of RhoA effectively inhibited the formation of tubular network structures in a dose-dependent manner. To elucidate the possible mechanism of ROCK on VM formation, real-time qPCR, western blot and immunofluorescence were used to detect changes of the key VM-related factors, including VE-cadherin, erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma-A2 (EphA2, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP14, MMP2, MMP9 and laminin 5γ2-chain (LAMC2, and epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT markers: E-cadherin and Vimentin. The results showed that all the expression profiles were attenuated by blockage of ROCK. In addition, in vitro cell migration and invasion assays showed that Y27632 inhibited the migration and invasion capacity of HCC cell lines in a dose-dependent manner markedly. These data indicate that ROCK is an important mediator in the formation of tumor cell VM, and suggest that ROCK inhibition may prove useful in the treatment of VM in HCC.

  18. Teratoma formation of human embryonic stem cells in three-dimensional perfusion culture bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelscheid, H; Wulf-Goldenberg, A; Eckert, K; Jensen, J; Edsbagge, J; Björquist, P; Rivero, M; Strehl, R; Jozefczuk, J; Prigione, A; Adjaye, J; Urbaniak, T; Bussmann, P; Zeilinger, K; Gerlach, J C

    2013-09-01

    Teratoma formation in mice is today the most stringent test for pluripotency that is available for human pluripotent cells, as chimera formation and tetraploid complementation cannot be performed with human cells. The teratoma assay could also be applied for assessing the safety of human pluripotent cell-derived cell populations intended for therapeutic applications. In our study we examined the spontaneous differentiation behaviour of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in a perfused 3D multi-compartment bioreactor system and compared it with differentiation of hESCs and human induced pluripotent cells (hiPSCs) cultured in vitro as embryoid bodies and in vivo in an experimental mouse model of teratoma formation. Results from biochemical, histological/immunohistological and ultrastuctural analyses revealed that hESCs cultured in bioreactors formed tissue-like structures containing derivatives of all three germ layers. Comparison with embryoid bodies and the teratomas revealed a high degree of similarity of the tissues formed in the bioreactor to these in the teratomas at the histological as well as transcriptional level, as detected by comparative whole-genome RNA expression profiling. The 3D culture system represents a novel in vitro model that permits stable long-term cultivation, spontaneous multi-lineage differentiation and tissue formation of pluripotent cells that is comparable to in vivo differentiation. Such a model is of interest, e.g. for the development of novel cell differentiation strategies. In addition, the 3D in vitro model could be used for teratoma studies and pluripotency assays in a fully defined, controlled environment, alternatively to in vivo mouse models. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A flow cell for in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies of scale formation under Bayer processing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Madsen, Ian C.; Loan, Melissa J.; Scarlett, Nicola V. Y.; Wallwork, Kia S.

    2009-08-01

    The design, construction, and commissioning of a stainless steel flow cell for in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies of scale formation under Bayer processing conditions is described. The use of the cell is demonstrated by a study of Al(OH)3 scale formation on a mild steel substrate from synthetic Bayer liquor at 70 °C. The cell design allows for interchangeable parts and substrates and would be suitable for the study of scale formation in other industrial processes.

  20. Acyl Chain Preference in Foam Cell Formation from Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yuko; Hama, Kotaro; Tsukahara, Makoto; Izumi-Tsuzuki, Ryosuke; Nagai, Toru; Ohe-Yamada, Mihoko; Inoue, Keizo; Yokoyama, Kazuaki

    2018-01-01

    Macrophage foam cells play critical roles in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis by synthesizing and accumulating cholesteryl ester (CE) in lipid droplets. However, in analyzing lipid metabolism in foam cell formation, studies have focused on the sterol group, and little research has been done on the acyl chains. Therefore, we adapted a model system using liposomes containing particular acyl chains and examined the effect of various acyl chains on foam cell formation. Of the phosphatidylserine (PS) liposomes tested containing PS, phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol, we found that unsaturated (C18:1), but not saturated (C16:0 and C18:0), PS liposomes induced lipid droplet formation, indicating that foam cell formation depends on the nature of the acyl chain of the PS liposomes. Experiments on the uptake and accumulation of cholesterol from liposomes by adding [ 14 C]cholesterol suggested that foam cell formation could be induced only when cholesterol was converted to CE in the case of C18:1 PS liposomes. Both microscopic observations and metabolic analysis suggest that cholesterol incorporated into either C16:0 or C18:0 PS liposomes may stay intact after being taken in by endosomes. The [ 14 C]C18:1 fatty acyl chain in the C18:1 PS liposome was used to synthesize CE and triacylglycerol (TG). Interestingly, the [ 14 C]C16:0 in the C18:1 PS liposome was metabolized to sphingomyelin rather than being incorporated into either CE or TG, which could be because of enzymatic acyl chain selectivity. In conclusion, our results indicate that the acyl chain preference of macrophages could have some impact on their progression to foam cells.

  1. Color-coded Live Imaging of Heterokaryon Formation and Nuclear Fusion of Hybridizing Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Takuro; Hasegawa, Kosuke; Nakamura, Miki; Kunisada, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masahito; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    Fusion of cancer cells has been studied for over half a century. However, the steps involved after initial fusion between cells, such as heterokaryon formation and nuclear fusion, have been difficult to observe in real time. In order to be able to visualize these steps, we have established cancer-cell sublines from the human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma, one expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked to histone H2B in the nucleus and a red fluorescent protein (RFP) in the cytoplasm and the other subline expressing RFP in the nucleus (mCherry) linked to histone H2B and GFP in the cytoplasm. The two reciprocal color-coded sublines of HT-1080 cells were fused using the Sendai virus. The fused cells were cultured on plastic and observed using an Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope. Multi-nucleate (heterokaryotic) cancer cells, in addition to hybrid cancer cells with single-or multiple-fused nuclei, including fused mitotic nuclei, were observed among the fused cells. Heterokaryons with red, green, orange and yellow nuclei were observed by confocal imaging, even in single hybrid cells. The orange and yellow nuclei indicate nuclear fusion. Red and green nuclei remained unfused. Cell fusion with heterokaryon formation and subsequent nuclear fusion resulting in hybridization may be an important natural phenomenon between cancer cells that may make them more malignant. The ability to image the complex processes following cell fusion using reciprocal color-coded cancer cells will allow greater understanding of the genetic basis of malignancy. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. [Effect of ferulic acid on cholesterol efflux in macrophage foam cell formation and potential mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-xin; Wang, Lian-kai

    2015-02-01

    The formation of macrophage-derived foam cells is a typical feature of atherosclerosis (AS). Reverse cholesterol efflux (RCT) is one of important factors for the formation of macrophage foam cells. In this study, macrophage form cells were induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and then treated with different concentrations of ferulic acid, so as to observe the effect of ferulic acid on the intracellular lipid metabolism in the ox-LDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation, the cholesterol efflux and the mRNA expression and protein levels of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) that mediate cholesterol efflux, and discuss the potential mechanism of ferulic acid in resisting AS. According to the findings, compared with the control group, the ox-LDL-treated group showed significant increase in intracellular lipid content, especially for the cholesterol content; whereas the intracellular lipid accumulation markedly decreased, after the treatment with ferulic acid. The data also demonstrated that the mRNA and protein expressions of ABCA1 and ABCG1 significantly increased after macrophage foam cells were treated with different concentrations of ferulic acid. In summary, ferulic acid may show the anti-atherosclerosis effect by increasing the surface ABCA1 and ABCG1 expressions of macrophage form cells and promoting cholesterol efflux.

  3. Platelet-derived growth factor BB enhances osteoclast formation and osteoclast precursor cell chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dian-Qi; Wan, Qi-Long; Pathak, Janak L; Li, Zu-Bing

    2017-07-01

    Enhanced osteoclast formation increases bone resorption, which triggers bone remodeling. Platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) enhances precursor cell homing, angiogenesis, and bone healing, and thereby could also treat osteoporosis. However, the effect of PDGF-BB on osteoclast formation is not fully understood. We investigated whether exogenous recombinant PDGF-BB directly affects osteoclast formation and osteoclast precursor cell chemotaxis. The murine monocyte-macrophage cell line RAW264.7 and bone-marrow-derived macrophages were cultured with recombinant mouse PDGF-BB with or without a platelet-derived growth factor receptor β inhibitor (AG-1295) or a Janus kinase 2 inhibitor (AG-490) to analyze the effect on osteoclastogenesis in vitro. PDGF-BB with or without AG-490 or AG-1295 was locally administrated in the mandibular fracture of 16-week-old Sprague Dawley rats (n = 18) for 1-2 weeks to analyze the effect on osteoclastogenesis in vivo. The effect of the treatments on osteoclast formation, osteoclast precursor cell migration, and expression of osteoclastogenic signaling molecules was analyzed. PDGF-BB enhanced osteoclast formation both in vitro and in vivo, but AG-490 and AG-1295 inhibited this effect. PDGF-BB enhanced phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Akt, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in RAW264.7 cells. AG-490 inhibited PDGF-BB-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. PDGF-BB enhanced RAW264.7 cell migration and gene expression of osteoclastogenic signaling molecules (i.e., nuclear factor of activated T cells 1, dendrocyte-expressed seven transmembrane protein, and B-cell lymphoma 2), and treatment with AG-1295, AG-490, or S3I-201 (a STAT3 inhibitor) reduced this effect. PDGF-BB enhanced osteoclast formation, osteoclast precursor cell chemotaxis, and phosphorylation of STAT3, Akt, and ERK1/2. but AG-1295 and AG-490 reduced this effect. These findings reflect the complexity of

  4. Formate production through carbon dioxide hydrogenation with recombinant whole cell biocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissandratos, Apostolos; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Easton, Christopher J

    2014-07-01

    The biological conversion of CO2 and H2 into formate offers a sustainable route to a valuable commodity chemical through CO2 fixation, and a chemical form of hydrogen fuel storage. Here we report the first example of CO2 hydrogenation utilising engineered whole-cell biocatalysts. Escherichia coli JM109(DE3) cells transformed for overexpression of either native formate dehydrogenase (FDH), the FDH from Clostridium carboxidivorans, or genes from Pyrococcus furiosus and Methanobacterium thermoformicicum predicted to express FDH based on their similarity to known FDH genes were all able to produce levels of formate well above the background, when presented with H2 and CO2, the latter in the form of bicarbonate. In the case of the FDH from P. furiosus the yield was highest, reaching more than 1 g L(-1)h(-1) when a hydrogen-sparging reactor design was used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inkjet formation of unilamellar lipid vesicles for cell-like encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Jeanne C; Richmond, David L; Li, Thomas H; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise; Fletcher, Daniel A

    2009-07-21

    Encapsulation of macromolecules within lipid vesicles has the potential to drive biological discovery and enable development of novel, cell-like therapeutics and sensors. However, rapid and reliable production of large numbers of unilamellar vesicles loaded with unrestricted and precisely-controlled contents requires new technologies that overcome size, uniformity, and throughput limitations of existing approaches. Here we present a high-throughput microfluidic method for vesicle formation and encapsulation using an inkjet printer at rates up to 200 Hz. We show how multiple high-frequency pulses of the inkjet's piezoelectric actuator create a microfluidic jet that deforms a bilayer lipid membrane, controlling formation of individual vesicles. Variations in pulse number, pulse voltage, and solution viscosity are used to control the vesicle size. As a first step toward cell-like reconstitution using this method, we encapsulate the cytoskeletal protein actin and use co-encapsulated microspheres to track its polymerization into a densely entangled cytoskeletal network upon vesicle formation.

  6. Extrapulmonary colony formation after intravenous injection of tumour cells into heparin treated animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, B.

    1978-01-01

    Recent data on extrapulmonary colony formation after heparin administration are inconclusive. A systemic study of this topic was undertaken with 4 experimental tumour systems and 2 distinct periods of reduced clotting capacity in rats and mice. I.v. injection of various numbers of tumour cells into

  7. Macrophage-specific inhibition of NF-κB activation reduces foam-cell formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, V.; Dijk, K.W. van; Groen, A.K.; Vos, R.M.; Kaa, J. van der; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Havekes, L.M.; Pannekoek, H.

    2007-01-01

    Accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages is a hallmark of atherosclerosis. The relevance of the key transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) for macrophage-derived foam-cell formation has not been unequivocally resolved. Transgenic mice lines were generated in which NF-κB activation is

  8. A compact BrFAFC (bio-reformed formic acid fuel cell) converting formate to power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jong-Hwan; Jung, Namgee; Yoo, Sung Jong; Cho, Yong-Hun; Sung, Yung-Eun; Park, Tai Hyun

    2011-04-07

    A compact BrFAFC can directly convert formate to power without hydrogen storage and poisoning effect by CO at mild temperature. We are the first to establish the performance of the BrFAFC with high power density. Furthermore, this BrFAFC can be manufactured in a simple design for use in portable fuel cells.

  9. Free Energies of Formation Measurements on Solid-State Electrochemical Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollino, J. A.; Aronson, S.

    1972-01-01

    A simple experiment is proposed that can provide the student with some insight into the chemical properties of solids. It also demonstrates the relationship between the Gibbs free energy of formation of an ionic solid and the emf of an electrochemical cell. (DF)

  10. HDAC6 deacetylase activity is required for hypoxia-induced invadopodia formation and cell invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Arsenault

    Full Text Available Despite significant progress in the cancer field, tumor cell invasion and metastasis remain a major clinical challenge. Cell invasion across tissue boundaries depends largely on extracellular matrix degradation, which can be initiated by formation of actin-rich cell structures specialized in matrix degradation called invadopodia. Although the hypoxic microenvironment within solid tumors has been increasingly recognized as an important driver of local invasion and metastasis, little is known about how hypoxia influences invadopodia biogenesis. Here, we show that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6, a cytoplasmic member of the histone deacetylase family, is a novel modulator of hypoxia-induced invadopodia formation. Hypoxia was found to enhance HDAC6 tubulin deacetylase activity through activation of the EGFR pathway. Activated HDAC6, in turn, triggered Smad3 phosphorylation resulting in nuclear accumulation. Inhibition of HDAC6 activity or knockdown of the protein inhibited both hypoxia-induced Smad3 activation and invadopodia formation. Our data provide evidence that hypoxia influences invadopodia formation in a biphasic manner, which involves the activation of HDAC6 deacetylase activity by EGFR, resulting in enhanced Smad phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation. The identification of HDAC6 as a key participant of hypoxia-induced cell invasion may have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of metastasis in cancer patients.

  11. Formation of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in rat skeletal muscle cells during contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silveira, Leonardo R.; Pereira-Da-Silva, Lucia; Juel, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    We examined intra- and extracellular H(2)O(2) and NO formation during contractions in primary rat skeletal muscle cell culture. The fluorescent probes DCFH-DA/DCFH (2,7-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate/2,7-dichlorofluorescein) and DAF-2-DA/DAF-2 (4,5-diaminofluorescein-diacetate/4,5-diaminofluoresce...

  12. Development of Large-Format Lithium-Ion Cells with Silicon Anode and Low Flammable Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James J.; Hernandez-Lugo, D. M.; Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Miller, T. B.; Lvovich, V. F.; Lytle, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing safe, high energy and high capacity lithium-ion cell designs and batteries for future missions under NASAs Advanced Space Power System (ASPS) project. Advanced cell components, such as high specific capacity silicon anodes and low-flammable electrolytes have been developed for improving the cell specific energy and enhancing safety. To advance the technology readiness level, we have developed large-format flight-type hermetically sealed battery cells by incorporating high capacity silicon anodes, commercially available lithium nickel, cobalt, aluminum oxide (NCA) cathodes, and low-flammable electrolytes. In this report, we will present the performance results of these various battery cells. In addition, we will also discuss the post-test cell analysis results as well.

  13. Influence of acellular natural lung matrix on murine embryonic stem cell differentiation and tissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortiella, Joaquin; Niles, Jean; Cantu, Andrea; Brettler, Andrea; Pham, Anthony; Vargas, Gracie; Winston, Sean; Wang, Jennifer; Walls, Shannon; Nichols, Joan E

    2010-08-01

    We report here the first attempt to produce and use whole acellular (AC) lung as a matrix to support development of engineered lung tissue from murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We compared the influence of AC lung, Gelfoam, Matrigel, and a collagen I hydrogel matrix on the mESC attachment, differentiation, and subsequent formation of complex tissue. We found that AC lung allowed for better retention of cells with more differentiation of mESCs into epithelial and endothelial lineages. In constructs produced on whole AC lung, we saw indications of organization of differentiating ESC into three-dimensional structures reminiscent of complex tissues. We also saw expression of thyroid transcription factor-1, an immature lung epithelial cell marker; pro-surfactant protein C, a type II pneumocyte marker; PECAM-1/CD31, an endothelial cell marker; cytokeratin 18; alpha-actin, a smooth muscle marker; CD140a or platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha; and Clara cell protein 10. There was also evidence of site-specific differentiation in the trachea with the formation of sheets of cytokeratin-positive cells and Clara cell protein 10-expressing Clara cells. Our findings support the utility of AC lung as a matrix for engineering lung tissue and highlight the critical role played by matrix or scaffold-associated cues in guiding ESC differentiation toward lung-specific lineages.

  14. The enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) enhances human tongue carcinoma cells gelatinase production, migration and metastasis formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Matti; Suojanen, Juho; Nurmenniemi, Sini; Läärä, Esa; Sorsa, Timo; Salo, Tuula

    2008-08-01

    Enamel matrix derivative Emdogain (EMD) is widely used in periodontal treatment to regenerate lost connective tissue and to improve the attachment of the teeth. Gelatinases (MMP-2 and -9) have an essential role in the promotion and progression of oral cancer growth and metastasis formation. We studied the effects of EMD on human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-3) cells in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, EMD (100 microg/ml and 200 microg/ml) remarkably induced the MMP-2 and -9 production from HSC-3 cells analysed by zymography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. EMD also slightly induced the MMP-2 and -9 production from benign human mucosal keratinocytes (HMK). Furthermore, EMD clearly induced the transmigration of HSC-3 cells but had no effect on the HMK migration in transwell assays. The in vitro wound closure of HSC-3 cells was notably accelerated by EMD, whereas it had only minor effect on the wound closure of HMKs. The migration of both cell lines was inhibited by a selective cyclic anti-gelatinolytic peptide CTT-2. EMD had no effect on HSC-3 cell proliferation or apoptosis and only a limited effect on cell attachment to various extracellular matrix components. The in vivo mice experiment revealed that EMD substantially induced HSC-3 xenograft metastasis formation. Our results suggest that the use of EMD for patients with oral mucosal carcinomas or premalignant lesions should be carefully considered, possibly avoided.

  15. Mechanisms of DNA damage repair in adult stem cells and implications for cancer formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Clare E; Asselin-Labat, Marie-Liesse

    2018-01-01

    Maintenance of genomic integrity in tissue-specific stem cells is critical for tissue homeostasis and the prevention of deleterious diseases such as cancer. Stem cells are subject to DNA damage induced by endogenous replication mishaps or exposure to exogenous agents. The type of DNA lesion and the cell cycle stage will invoke different DNA repair mechanisms depending on the intrinsic DNA repair machinery of a cell. Inappropriate DNA repair in stem cells can lead to cell death, or to the formation and accumulation of genetic alterations that can be transmitted to daughter cells and so is linked to cancer formation. DNA mutational signatures that are associated with DNA repair deficiencies or exposure to carcinogenic agents have been described in cancer. Here we review the most recent findings on DNA repair pathways activated in epithelial tissue stem and progenitor cells and their implications for cancer mutational signatures. We discuss how deep knowledge of early molecular events leading to carcinogenesis provides insights into DNA repair mechanisms operating in tumours and how these could be exploited therapeutically. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. TCPs, WUSs, and WINDs: Families of transcription factors that regulate shoot meristem formation, stem cell maintenance, and somatic cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho eIkeda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to somatic mammalian cells, which cannot alter their fate, plant cells can dedifferentiate to form totipotent callus cells and regenerate a whole plant, following treatment with specific phytohormones. However, the regulatory mechanisms and key factors that control differentiation-dedifferentiation and cell totipotency have not been completely clarified in plants. Recently, several plant transcription factors that regulate meristem formation and dedifferentiation have been identified and include members of the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR (TCP, WUSCHEL (WUS, and WOUND INDUCED DEDIFFERENTIATION (WIND1 families. WUS and WIND positively control plant cell totipotency, while TCP negatively controls it. Interestingly, TCP is a transcriptional activator that acts as a negative regulator of shoot meristem formation, and WUS is a transcriptional repressor that positively maintains totipotency of the stem cells of the shoot meristem. We describe here the functions of TCP, WUS and WIND transcription factors in the regulation of differentiation-dedifferentiation by positive and negative transcriptional regulators.

  17. Matrix metalloproteinase-14 mediates formation of bile ducts and hepatic maturation of fetal hepatic progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, Satoshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kakinuma, Sei, E-mail: skakinuma.gast@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department for Liver Disease Control, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kamiya, Akihide [Institute of Innovative Science and Technology, Tokai University, Isehara (Japan); Goto, Fumio; Kaneko, Shun; Miyoshi, Masato; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Asano, Yu; Kawai-Kitahata, Fukiko; Nitta, Sayuri; Nakata, Toru; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Itsui, Yasuhiro; Nakagawa, Mina; Azuma, Seishin [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Asahina, Yasuhiro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department for Liver Disease Control, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki [Division of Stem Cell Therapy, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Koshikawa, Naohiko [Division of Cancer Cell Research, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Seiki, Motoharu [Medical School, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Nakauchi, Hiromitsu [Division of Stem Cell Therapy, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); and others

    2016-01-22

    Fetal hepatic stem/progenitor cells, called hepatoblasts, play central roles in liver development; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating the phenotype of these cells have not been completely elucidated. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14 is a type I transmembrane proteinase regulating pericellular proteolysis of the extracellular matrix and is essential for the activation of several MMPs and cytokines. However, the physiological functions of MMP-14 in liver development are unknown. Here we describe a functional role for MMP-14 in hepatic and biliary differentiation of mouse hepatoblasts. MMP-14 was upregulated in cells around the portal vein in perinatal stage liver. Formation of bile duct-like structures in MMP-14–deficient livers was significantly delayed compared with wild-type livers in vivo. In vitro biliary differentiation assays showed that formation of cholangiocytic cysts derived from MMP-14–deficient hepatoblasts was completely impaired, and that overexpression of MMP-14 in hepatoblasts promoted the formation of bile duct-like cysts. In contrast, the expression of molecules associated with metabolic functions in hepatocytes, including hepatic nuclear factor 4α and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, were significantly increased in MMP-14–deficient livers. Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases were significantly upregulated in MMP-14–deficient livers. We demonstrate that MMP-14–mediated signaling in fetal hepatic progenitor cells promotes biliary luminal formation around the portal vein and negatively controls the maturation of hepatocytes. - Highlights: • Loss of MMP-14 delayed formation of bile duct-like structures in perinatal liver. • Overexpression of MMP-14 in hepatobalsts promoted the biliary formation in vitro. • Loss of MMP-14 promoted hepatocyte maturation of hepatoblasts in vivo. • MMP-14–mediated signaling regulates terminal differentiation of

  18. Mutations in alpha- and beta-tubulin affect spindle formation in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, I; Marcus, M; Cabral, F; Gottesman, M M

    1983-10-01

    Two Chinese hamster ovary cell lines with mutated beta-tubulins (Grs-2 and Cmd-4) and one that has a mutation in alpha-tubulin (Tax-1) are temperature sensitive for growth at 40.5 degrees C. To determine the functional defect in these mutant cells at the nonpermissive temperature, they were characterized with respect to cell cycle parameters and microtubule organization and function after relatively short periods at 40.5 degrees C. At the nonpermissive temperature all the mutants had normal appearing cytoplasmic microtubules. Premature chromosome condensation analysis failed to show any discrete step in the interphase cell cycle in which these mutants are arrested. These cells, however, show several defects at the nonpermissive temperature that appear related to the function of microtubules during mitosis. Time-lapse studies showed that mitosis was lengthened in the three mutant lines at 40.5 degrees C as compared with the wild-type cells at this temperature, resulting in a higher proportion of cells in mitosis after temperature shift. There was also a large increase in multinucleated cells in mutant populations after incubation at the nonpermissive temperature. Immunofluorescent studies using a monoclonal anti--alpha-tubulin antibody showed that the mutant cells had a high proportion of abnormal spindles at the nonpermissive temperature. The two altered beta-tubulins and the altered alpha-tubulin all were found to cause a similar phenotype at the high temperature that results in mitotic delay, defective cytokinesis, multinucleation, and ultimately, cell death. We conclude that spindle formation is the limiting microtubule function in these mutant cell lines at the nonpermissive temperature and that these cell lines will be of value for the study of the precise role of tubulin in mammalian spindle formation.

  19. Retinoic acid-treated pluripotent stem cells undergoing neurogenesis present increased aneuploidy and micronuclei formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela C Sartore

    Full Text Available The existence of loss and gain of chromosomes, known as aneuploidy, has been previously described within the central nervous system. During development, at least one-third of neural progenitor cells (NPCs are aneuploid. Notably, aneuploid NPCs may survive and functionally integrate into the mature neural circuitry. Given the unanswered significance of this phenomenon, we tested the hypothesis that neural differentiation induced by all-trans retinoic acid (RA in pluripotent stem cells is accompanied by increased levels of aneuploidy, as previously described for cortical NPCs in vivo. In this work we used embryonal carcinoma (EC cells, embryonic stem (ES cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells undergoing differentiation into NPCs. Ploidy analysis revealed a 2-fold increase in the rate of aneuploidy, with the prevalence of chromosome loss in RA primed stem cells when compared to naïve cells. In an attempt to understand the basis of neurogenic aneuploidy, micronuclei formation and survivin expression was assessed in pluripotent stem cells exposed to RA. RA increased micronuclei occurrence by almost 2-fold while decreased survivin expression by 50%, indicating possible mechanisms by which stem cells lose their chromosomes during neural differentiation. DNA fragmentation analysis demonstrated no increase in apoptosis on embryoid bodies treated with RA, indicating that cell death is not the mandatory fate of aneuploid NPCs derived from pluripotent cells. In order to exclude that the increase in aneuploidy was a spurious consequence of RA treatment, not related to neurogenesis, mouse embryonic fibroblasts were treated with RA under the same conditions and no alterations in chromosome gain or loss were observed. These findings indicate a correlation amongst neural differentiation, aneuploidy, micronuclei formation and survivin downregulation in pluripotent stem cells exposed to RA, providing evidence that somatically generated chromosomal

  20. Flightless I interacts with NMMIIA to promote cell extension formation, which enables collagen remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Pamma D.; Wang, Yongqiang; Bresnick, Anne; Janmey, Paul A.; McCulloch, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the role of the actin-capping protein flightless I (FliI) in collagen remodeling by mouse fibroblasts. FliI-overexpressing cells exhibited reduced spreading on collagen but formed elongated protrusions that stained for myosin10 and fascin and penetrated pores of collagen-coated membranes. Inhibition of Cdc42 blocked formation of cell protrusions. In FliI-knockdown cells, transfection with constitutively active Cdc42 did not enable protrusion formation. FliI-overexpressing cells displayed increased uptake and degradation of exogenous collagen and strongly compacted collagen fibrils, which was blocked by blebbistatin. Mass spectrometry analysis of FliI immunoprecipitates showed that FliI associated with nonmuscle myosin IIA (NMMIIA), which was confirmed by immunoprecipitation. GFP-FliI colocalized with NMMIIA at cell protrusions. Purified FliI containing gelsolin-like domains (GLDs) 1–6 capped actin filaments efficiently, whereas FliI GLD 2–6 did not. Binding assays showed strong interaction of purified FliI protein (GLD 1–6) with the rod domain of NMMIIA (kD = 0.146 μM), whereas FliI GLD 2–6 showed lower binding affinity (kD = 0.8584 μM). Cells expressing FliI GLD 2–6 exhibited fewer cell extensions, did not colocalize with NMMIIA, and showed reduced collagen uptake compared with cells expressing FliI GLD 1–6. We conclude that FliI interacts with NMMIIA to promote cell extension formation, which enables collagen remodeling in fibroblasts. PMID:25877872

  1. Engineering the Oryza sativa cell wall with rice NAC transcription factors regulating secondary wall formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kouki; Sakamoto, Shingo; Kawai, Tetsushi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Sato, Kazuhito; Ichinose, Yasunori; Yaoi, Katsuro; Akiyoshi-Endo, Miho; Sato, Hiroko; Takamizo, Tadashi; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2013-01-01

    Plant tissues that require structural rigidity synthesize a thick, strong secondary cell wall of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses in a complicated bridged structure. Master regulators of secondary wall synthesis were identified in dicots, and orthologs of these regulators have been identified in monocots, but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the rice transcription factors SECONDARY WALL NAC DOMAIN PROTEINs (SWNs) can regulate secondary wall formation in rice (Oryza sativa) and are potentially useful for engineering the monocot cell wall. The OsSWN1 promoter is highly active in sclerenchymatous cells of the leaf blade and less active in xylem cells. By contrast, the OsSWN2 promoter is highly active in xylem cells and less active in sclerenchymatous cells. OsSWN2 splicing variants encode two proteins; the shorter protein (OsSWN2S) has very low transcriptional activation ability, but the longer protein (OsSWN2L) and OsSWN1 have strong transcriptional activation ability. In rice, expression of an OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN2 promoter, resulted in stunted growth and para-wilting (leaf rolling and browning under normal water conditions) due to impaired vascular vessels. The same OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN1 promoter, caused a reduction of cell wall thickening in sclerenchymatous cells, a drooping leaf phenotype, reduced lignin and xylose contents and increased digestibility as forage. These data suggest that OsSWNs regulate secondary wall formation in rice and manipulation of OsSWNs may enable improvements in monocotyledonous crops for forage or biofuel applications.

  2. Engineering the Oryza sativa cell wall with rice NAC transcription factors regulating secondary wall formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki eYoshida

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant tissues that require structural rigidity synthesize a thick, strong secondary cell wall of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses in a complicated bridged structure. Master regulators of secondary wall synthesis were identified in dicots, and orthologs of these regulators have been identified in monocots, but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the rice transcription factors SECONDARY WALL NAC DOMAIN PROTEINs (SWNs can regulate secondary wall formation in rice (Oryza sativa and are potentially useful for engineering the monocot cell wall. The OsSWN1 promoter is highly active in sclerenchymatous cells of the leaf blade and less active in xylem cells. By contrast, the OsSWN2 promoter is highly active in xylem cells and less active in sclerenchymatous cells. OsSWN2 splicing variants encode two proteins; the shorter protein (OsSWN2S has very low transcriptional activation ability, but the longer protein (OsSWN2L and OsSWN1 have strong transcriptional activation ability. In rice, expression of an OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN2 promoter, resulted in stunted growth and para-wilting (leaf rolling and browning under normal water conditions due to impaired vascular vessels. The same OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN1 promoter, caused a reduction of cell wall thickening in sclerenchymatous cells, a drooping leaf phenotype, reduced lignin and xylose contents and increased digestibility as forage. These data suggest that OsSWNs regulate secondary wall formation in rice and manipulation of OsSWNs may enable improvements in monocotyledonous crops for forage or biofuel applications.

  3. Formation of Nanoscale Bioimprints of Muscle Cells Using UV-Cured Spin-Coated Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmi Samsuri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a nanoscale replication method suitable for biological specimens that has potential in single cell studies and in formation of 3D biocompatible scaffolds. Earlier studies using a heat-curable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS or a UV-curable elastomer introduced Bioimprint replication to facilitate cell imaging. However, the replicating conditions for thermal polymerization are known to cause cell dehydration during curing. In this study, a UV-cured methacrylate copolymer was developed for use in creating replicas of living cells and was tested on rat muscle cells. Bioimprints of muscle cells were formed by spin coating under UV irradiation. The polymer replicas were then separated from the muscle cells and were analyzed under an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM, in tapping mode, because it has low tip-sample forces and thus will not destroy the fine structures of the imprint. The new polymer is biocompatible with higher replication resolution and has a faster curing process than other types of silicon-based organic polymers such as PDMS. High resolution images of the muscle cell imprints showed the micro-and nanostructures of the muscle cells, including cellular fibers and structures within the cell membranes. The AFM is able to image features at nanoscale resolution with the potential for recognizing abnormalities on cell membranes at early stages of disease progression.

  4. Selective ablation of the androgen receptor in mouse sertoli cells affects sertoli cell maturation, barrier formation and cytoskeletal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Willems

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The observation that mice with a selective ablation of the androgen receptor (AR in Sertoli cells (SC (SCARKO mice display a complete block in meiosis supports the contention that SC play a pivotal role in the control of germ cell development by androgens. To delineate the physiological and molecular mechanism responsible for this control, we compared tubular development in pubertal SCARKO mice and littermate controls. Particular attention was paid to differences in SC maturation, SC barrier formation and cytoskeletal organization and to the molecular mediators potentially involved. Functional analysis of SC barrier development by hypertonic perfusion and lanthanum permeation techniques and immunohistochemical analysis of junction formation showed that SCARKO mice still attempt to produce a barrier separating basal and adluminal compartment but that barrier formation is delayed and defective. Defective barrier formation was accompanied by disturbances in SC nuclear maturation (immature shape, absence of prominent, tripartite nucleoli and SC polarization (aberrant positioning of SC nuclei and cytoskeletal elements such as vimentin. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to study the transcript levels of genes potentially related to the described phenomena between day 8 and 35. Differences in the expression of SC genes known to play a role in junction formation could be shown from day 8 for Cldn11, from day 15 for Cldn3 and Espn, from day 20 for Cdh2 and Jam3 and from day 35 for ZO-1. Marked differences were also noted in the transcript levels of several genes that are also related to cell adhesion and cytoskeletal dynamics but that have not yet been studied in SC (Actn3, Ank3, Anxa9, Scin, Emb, Mpzl2. It is concluded that absence of a functional AR in SC impedes the remodeling of testicular tubules expected at the onset of spermatogenesis and interferes with the creation of the specific environment needed for germ cell development.

  5. Hydroxide Self-Feeding High-Temperature Alkaline Direct Formate Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinshi; Sun, Xianda; Feng, Ying

    2017-05-22

    Conventionally, both the thermal degradation of the anion-exchange membrane and the requirement of additional hydroxide for fuel oxidation reaction hinder the development of the high-temperature alkaline direct liquid fuel cells. The present work addresses these two issues by reporting a polybenzimidazole-membrane-based direct formate fuel cell (DFFC). Theoretically, the cell voltage of the high-temperature alkaline DFFC can be as high as 1.45 V at 90 °C. It has been demonstrated that a proof-of-concept alkaline DFFC without adding additional hydroxide yields a peak power density of 20.9 mW cm -2 , an order of magnitude higher than both alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells and alkaline direct methanol fuel cells, mainly because the hydrolysis of formate provides enough OH - ions for formate oxidation reaction. It was also found that this hydroxide self-feeding high-temperature alkaline DFFC shows a stable 100 min constant-current discharge at 90 °C, proving the conceptual feasibility. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Contribution of Cell Elongation to the Biofilm Formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during Anaerobic Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongjin; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a gram-negative bacterium of clinical importance, forms more robust biofilm during anaerobic respiration, a mode of growth presumed to occur in abnormally thickened mucus layer lining the cystic fibrosis (CF) patient airway. However, molecular basis behind this anaerobiosis-triggered robust biofilm formation is not clearly defined yet. Here, we identified a morphological change naturally accompanied by anaerobic respiration in P. aeruginosa and investigated its effect on the biofilm formation in vitro. A standard laboratory strain, PAO1 was highly elongated during anaerobic respiration compared with bacteria grown aerobically. Microscopic analysis demonstrated that cell elongation likely occurred as a consequence of defective cell division. Cell elongation was dependent on the presence of nitrite reductase (NIR) that reduces nitrite (NO2 −) to nitric oxide (NO) and was repressed in PAO1 in the presence of carboxy-PTIO, a NO antagonist, demonstrating that cell elongation involves a process to respond to NO, a spontaneous byproduct of the anaerobic respiration. Importantly, the non-elongated NIR-deficient mutant failed to form biofilm, while a mutant of nitrate reductase (NAR) and wild type PAO1, both of which were highly elongated, formed robust biofilm. Taken together, our data reveal a role of previously undescribed cell biological event in P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and suggest NIR as a key player involved in such process. PMID:21267455

  7. Hypoxia enhances proliferation and tissue formation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayson, Warren L.; Zhao, Feng; Bunnell, Bruce; Ma, Teng

    2007-01-01

    Changes in oxygen concentrations affect many of the innate characteristics of stem and progenitor cells. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were maintained under hypoxic atmospheres (2% O 2 ) for up to seven in vitro passages. This resulted in approximately 30-fold higher hMSC expansion over 6 weeks without loss of multi-lineage differentiation capabilities. Under hypoxia, hMSCs maintained their growth-rates even after reaching confluence, resulting in the formation of multiple cell layers. Hypoxic hMSCs also displayed differences in the cell and nuclear morphologies as well as enhanced ECM formation and organization. These changes in cellular characteristics were accompanied by higher mRNA levels of Oct-4 and HIF-2α, as well as increased expression levels of connexin-43, a protein used in gap junction formation. The results from this study demonstrated that oxygen concentrations affected many aspects of stem-cell physiology, including growth and in vitro development, and may be a critical parameter during expansion and differentiation

  8. Formation of Deposits on the Cathode Surface of Aluminum Electrolysis Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, François; Soucy, Gervais; Rivoaland, Loig

    2014-12-01

    The efficiency of electrolysis cells for aluminum production is reduced when deposits are formed on the cathode block surface. Overfeeding of alumina or excessive heat loss in industrial cells leads to the formation of highly resistive deposits. In this study, the chemical composition of sludge, ledge toe, and thin deposits was investigated at the bottom of both industrial and experimental electrolysis cells. The formation of deposits in laboratory experiments was demonstrated in acidic, neutral, and basic electrolytic bath. A gradient of chiolite (Na5Al3F14) and α-Al2O3 was observed in the deposits. The bath at the bottom of the experimental electrolysis cell had a higher cryolite ratio implying a higher liquidus temperature. The sludge formed at the bottom of the cell can lift the aluminum metal resulting in an important reduction of the contact surface between the aluminum and the cathode block. Moreover, the deposits disturb the current path and generate horizontal current components in the metal which enhance the motion and lower the current efficiency. A thin film of bath supersaturated in alumina was observed under the metal. This work provides clarification on the formation mechanisms of the various deposits responsible for the deterioration of the cathode surface.

  9. DAZL Expression Explains Origin and Central Formation of Primordial Germ Cells in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Chul; Choi, Hee Jung; Lee, Hyo Gun; Lim, Jeong Mook; Ono, Tamao; Han, Jae Yong

    2016-01-01

    The timing and biological events associated with germ cell specification in chickens have not been determined yet. In this study, we report the origin of primordial germ cells (PGCs) and germ plasm dynamics through investigation of the expression of the chicken homolog of deleted in azoospermia-like (cDAZL) gene during germ cell specification. Asymmetric localization of germ plasm in the center of oocytes from preovulatory follicle stages leads to PGCs being formed in the center. During cleavage stages, DAZL expression pattern changes from a subcellular localization to a diffuse form before and after zygotic genome activation. Meanwhile, PGCs exhibit transcriptional active status during their specification. In addition, knockdown studies of cDAZL, which result in reduced proliferation, aberrant gene expression profiles, and PGC apoptosis in vitro, suggest its possible roles for PGC formation in chicken. In conclusion, DAZL expression reveals formation and initial positioning of PGCs in chickens.

  10. Macrophage Liver Kinase B1 Inhibits Foam Cell Formation and Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoyu; Zhu, Huaiping; Dai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Cheng; Ding, Ye; Song, Ping; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2017-10-13

    LKB1 (liver kinase B1) is a serine/threonine kinase and tumor suppressor, which regulates the homeostasis of hematopoietic cells and immune responses. Macrophages transform into foam cells upon taking-in lipids. No role for LKB1 in foam cell formation has previously been reported. We sought to establish the role of LKB1 in atherosclerotic foam cell formation. LKB1 expression was examined in human carotid atherosclerotic plaques and in western diet-fed atherosclerosis-prone Ldlr -/- and ApoE -/- mice. LKB1 expression was markedly reduced in human plaques when compared with nonatherosclerotic vessels. Consistently, time-dependent reduction of LKB1 levels occurred in atherosclerotic lesions in western diet-fed Ldlr -/- and ApoE -/- mice. Exposure of macrophages to oxidized low-density lipoprotein downregulated LKB1 in vitro. Furthermore, LKB1 deficiency in macrophages significantly increased the expression of SRA (scavenger receptor A), modified low-density lipoprotein uptake and foam cell formation, all of which were abolished by blocking SRA. Further, we found LKB1 phosphorylates SRA resulting in its lysosome degradation. To further investigate the role of macrophage LKB1 in vivo, ApoE -/- LKB1 fl/fl LysM cre and ApoE -/- LKB1 fl/fl mice were fed with western diet for 16 weeks. Compared with ApoE -/- LKB1 fl/fl wild-type control, ApoE -/- LKB1 fl/fl LysM cre mice developed more atherosclerotic lesions in whole aorta and aortic root area, with markedly increased SRA expression in aortic root lesions. We conclude that macrophage LKB1 reduction caused by oxidized low-density lipoprotein promotes foam cell formation and the progression of atherosclerosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Trypanosoma cruzi: Entry Into Mammalian Host Cells and Parasitophorous Vacuole Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Santos Barrias

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is transmitted to vertebrate hosts by blood-sucking insects. This protozoan is an obligate intracellular parasite. The infective forms of the parasite are the metacyclic trypomastigotes, amastigotes and bloodstream trypomastigotes. The recognition between the parasite and mammalian host cell, involves numerous molecules present in both cell types, and similar to several intracellular pathogens, T.cruzi is internalized by host cells via multiple endocytic pathways. Morphological studies demonstrated that after the interaction of the infective forms of T.cruzi with phagocytic or non-phagocytic cell types, plasma membrane protrusions can form, showing similarity with those observed during canonical phagocytosis or macropinocytic events. Additionally, several molecules known to be molecular markers of membrane rafts, macropinocytosis and phagocytosis have been demonstrated to be present at the invasion site. These events may or may not depend on the host cell lysosomes and cytoskeleton. In addition, after penetration, components of the host endosomal-lysosomal system, such as early endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes, participate in the formation of the nascent parasithophorous vacuole (VP. Dynamin, a molecule involved in vesicle formation, has been shown to be involved in the parasitophorous vacuole release from the host cell plasma membrane. This review focuses on the multiple pathways that T.cruzi can use to enter the host cells until complete VP formation. We will describe different endocytic processes, such as phagocytosis, macropinocytosis, endocytosis using membrane microdomains and clathrin-dependent endocytosis and show results that are consistent with their use by this smart parasite. We will also discuss other mechanisms that have been described, such as active penetration and the process that takes advantage of cell membrane wound repair.

  12. Mic13 Is Essential for Formation of Crista Junctions in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ruchika; Strecker, Valentina; Urbach, Jennifer; Wittig, Ilka; Reichert, Andreas S

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial cristae are connected to the inner boundary membrane via crista junctions which are implicated in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation, apoptosis, and import of lipids and proteins. The MICOS complex determines formation of crista junctions. We performed complexome profiling and identified Mic13, also termed Qil1, as a subunit of the MICOS complex. We show that MIC13 is an inner membrane protein physically interacting with MIC60, a central subunit of the MICOS complex. Using the CRISPR/Cas method we generated the first cell line deleted for MIC13. These knockout cells show a complete loss of crista junctions demonstrating that MIC13 is strictly required for the formation of crista junctions. MIC13 is required for the assembly of MIC10, MIC26, and MIC27 into the MICOS complex. However, it is not needed for the formation of the MIC60/MIC19/MIC25 subcomplex suggesting that the latter is not sufficient for crista junction formation. MIC13 is also dispensable for assembly of respiratory chain complexes and for maintaining mitochondrial network morphology. Still, lack of MIC13 resulted in a moderate reduction of mitochondrial respiration. In summary, we show that MIC13 has a fundamental role in crista junction formation and that assembly of respiratory chain supercomplexes is independent of mitochondrial cristae shape.

  13. Mic13 Is Essential for Formation of Crista Junctions in Mammalian Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika Anand

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial cristae are connected to the inner boundary membrane via crista junctions which are implicated in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation, apoptosis, and import of lipids and proteins. The MICOS complex determines formation of crista junctions. We performed complexome profiling and identified Mic13, also termed Qil1, as a subunit of the MICOS complex. We show that MIC13 is an inner membrane protein physically interacting with MIC60, a central subunit of the MICOS complex. Using the CRISPR/Cas method we generated the first cell line deleted for MIC13. These knockout cells show a complete loss of crista junctions demonstrating that MIC13 is strictly required for the formation of crista junctions. MIC13 is required for the assembly of MIC10, MIC26, and MIC27 into the MICOS complex. However, it is not needed for the formation of the MIC60/MIC19/MIC25 subcomplex suggesting that the latter is not sufficient for crista junction formation. MIC13 is also dispensable for assembly of respiratory chain complexes and for maintaining mitochondrial network morphology. Still, lack of MIC13 resulted in a moderate reduction of mitochondrial respiration. In summary, we show that MIC13 has a fundamental role in crista junction formation and that assembly of respiratory chain supercomplexes is independent of mitochondrial cristae shape.

  14. Somite-Derived Retinoic Acid Regulates Zebrafish Hematopoietic Stem Cell Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Pillay

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs are multipotent progenitors that generate all vertebrate adult blood lineages. Recent analyses have highlighted the importance of somite-derived signaling factors in regulating HSC specification and emergence from dorsal aorta hemogenic endothelium. However, these factors remain largely uncharacterized. We provide evidence that the vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA functions as an essential regulator of zebrafish HSC formation. Temporal analyses indicate that RA is required for HSC gene expression prior to dorsal aorta formation, at a time when the predominant RA synthesis enzyme, aldh1a2, is strongly expressed within the paraxial mesoderm and somites. Previous research implicated the Cxcl12 chemokine and Notch signaling pathways in HSC formation. Consequently, to understand how RA regulates HSC gene expression, we surveyed the expression of components of these pathways in RA-depleted zebrafish embryos. During somitogenesis, RA-depleted embryos exhibit altered expression of jam1a and jam2a, which potentiate Notch signaling within nascent endothelial cells. RA-depleted embryos also exhibit a severe reduction in the expression of cxcr4a, the predominant Cxcl12b receptor. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibitors of RA synthesis and Cxcr4 signaling act in concert to reduce HSC formation. Our analyses demonstrate that somite-derived RA functions to regulate components of the Notch and Cxcl12 chemokine signaling pathways during HSC formation.

  15. Golgi structure formation, function, and post-translational modifications in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shijiao; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2017-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is a central membrane organelle for trafficking and post-translational modifications of proteins and lipids in cells. In mammalian cells, it is organized in the form of stacks of tightly aligned flattened cisternae, and dozens of stacks are often linked laterally into a ribbon-like structure located in the perinuclear region of the cell. Proper Golgi functionality requires an intact architecture, yet Golgi structure is dynamically regulated during the cell cycle and under disease conditions. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the relationship between Golgi structure formation, function, and regulation, with focus on how post-translational modifications including phosphorylation and ubiquitination regulate Golgi structure and on how Golgi unstacking affects its functions, in particular, protein trafficking, glycosylation, and sorting in mammalian cells.

  16. Analysis of Giant-nucleated Cell Formation Following X-ray and Proton Irradiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahwasi, Ashraf Abdu

    Radiation-induced genetic instability has been observed in survivors of irradiated cancerous and normal cells in vitro and in vivo and has been determined in different forms, such as delayed cell death, chromosomal aberration or mutation. A well defined and characterized normal human-diploid AG1522 fibroblast cell line was used to study giant-nucleated cell (GCs) formation as the ultimate endpoint of this research. The average nuclear cross-sectional areas of the AG1522 cells were measured in mum2. The doubling time required by the AG1522 cells to divide was measured. The potential toxicity of the Hoechst dye at a working concentration on the live AG1522 cells was assessed. The yield of giant cells was determined at 7, 14 and 21 days after exposure to equivalent clinical doses of 0.2, 1 or 2 Gy of X-ray or proton irradiation. Significant differences were found to exist between X-ray or proton irradiation when compared with sham-irradiated control populations. The frequency of GCs induced by X-rays was also compared to those formed in proton irradiated cultures. The results confirm that 1 Gy X-rays are shown to induce higher rates of mitotically arrested GCs, increasing continually over time up to 21 days post-irradiation. The yield of GCs was significantly greater (10%) compared to those formed in proton populations (2%) 21 days postirradiation. The GCs can undergo a prolonged mitotic arrest that significantly increases the length of cell cycle. The arrest of GCs at the mitotic phase for longer periods of time might be indicative of a strategy for cell survival, as it increases the time available for DNA repair and enables an alternative route to division for the cells. However, the reduction in their formation 21 days after both types of radiation might favour GCs formation, ultimately contributing to carcinogenesis or cancer therapy resistance. The X-ray experiments revealed a dose-dependent increase in the GCs up to 14 days after irradiation. Although the proton

  17. Fuels for fuel cells: Fuel and catalyst effects on carbon formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Perry, W. L. (William Lee); Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this research is to explore the effects of fuels, fuel constituents, additives and impurities on the performance of on-board hydrogen generation devices and consequently on the overall performance of fuel cell systems using reformed hydrocarbon fuels. Different fuels and components have been tested in automotive scale, adiabatic autothermal reactors to observe their relative reforming characteristics with various operating conditions. Carbon formation has been modeled and was experimentally monitored in situ during operation by laser measurements of the effluent reformate. Ammonia formation was monitored, and conditions varied to observe under what conditions N H 3 is made.

  18. Swarming and complex pattern formation in Paenibacillus vortex studied by imaging and tracking cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Eshel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swarming motility allows microorganisms to move rapidly over surfaces. The Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus vortex exhibits advanced cooperative motility on agar plates resulting in intricate colonial patterns with geometries that are highly sensitive to the environment. The cellular mechanisms that underpin the complex multicellular organization of such a simple organism are not well understood. Results Swarming by P. vortex was studied by real-time light microscopy, by in situ scanning electron microscopy and by tracking the spread of antibiotic-resistant cells within antibiotic-sensitive colonies. When swarming, P. vortex was found to be peritrichously flagellated. Swarming by the curved cells of P. vortex occurred on an extremely wide range of media and agar concentrations (0.3 to 2.2% w/v. At high agar concentrations (> 1% w/v rotating colonies formed that could be detached from the main mass of cells by withdrawal of cells into the latter. On lower percentage agars, cells moved in an extended network composed of interconnected "snakes" with short-term collision avoidance and sensitivity to extracts from swarming cells. P. vortex formed single Petri dish-wide "supercolonies" with a colony-wide exchange of motile cells. Swarming cells were coupled by rapidly forming, reversible and non-rigid connections to form a loose raft, apparently connected via flagella. Inhibitors of swarming (p-Nitrophenylglycerol and Congo Red were identified. Mitomycin C was used to trigger filamentation without inhibiting growth or swarming; this facilitated dissection of the detail of swarming. Mitomycin C treatment resulted in malcoordinated swarming and abortive side branch formation and a strong tendency by a subpopulation of the cells to form minimal rotating aggregates of only a few cells. Conclusion P. vortex creates complex macroscopic colonies within which there is considerable reflux and movement and interaction of cells. Cell

  19. Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce migration and adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells and accelerate foam cell formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yuka; Tada-Oikawa, Saeko [Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu (Japan); Ichihara, Gaku [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Yabata, Masayuki; Izuoka, Kiyora [Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu (Japan); Suzuki, Masako; Sakai, Kiyoshi [Nagoya City Public Health Research Institute, Nagoya (Japan); Ichihara, Sahoko, E-mail: saho@gene.mie-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are widely used in industry, cosmetics, and biomedicine. However, the effects of exposure to these nanoparticles on the cardiovascular system remain unknown. The present study investigated the effects of nanosized TiO{sub 2} and ZnO particles on the migration and adhesion of monocytes, which are essential processes in atherosclerogenesis, using an in vitro set-up of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1). We also examined the effects of exposure to nanosized metal oxide particles on macrophage cholesterol uptake and foam cell formation. The 16-hour exposure to ZnO particles increased the level of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and induced the migration of THP-1 monocyte mediated by increased MCP-1. Exposure to ZnO particles also induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Moreover, exposure to ZnO particles, but not TiO{sub 2} particles, upregulated the expression of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL and increased cholesterol uptake in THP-1 monocytes/macrophages. In the present study, we found that exposure to ZnO particles increased macrophage cholesterol uptake, which was mediated by an upregulation of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL. These results suggest that nanosized ZnO particles could potentially enhance atherosclerogenesis and accelerate foam cell formation. - Highlights: • Effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on foam cell formation were investigated. • Exposure to ZnO nanoparticles induced migration and adhesion of monocytes. • Exposure to ZnO nanoparticles increased macrophage cholesterol uptake. • Expression of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL was also increased. • These effects were not observed after exposure to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  20. The Effect of Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction (血府逐瘀汤) on in vitro Endothelial Progenitor Cell Tube Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Gao; Li-ya, Wu; Yu-huan, Jiao; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Wen-yuan, Chen; Yan, Chen; Bo, Lu; Jun, Song; Ke-ji, Chen

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the in vitro effect of Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction on endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) tube formation. Methods We prepared mononucleus cells from rat marrow by Ficoll density gradient centrifuge, separated EPCs by differential attachment method and observed, with inverted microscope, the effect of serum containing Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction (XFZYD) on endothelial progentor cell (EPC) tube formation. Results After 1 day, EPCs exposed to serum containing 5%, 10% and 15% XFZYD formed typical tube or vessel networks. Compared to the control group, the tube formation was 2 days ahead and most of the were smaller. Conclusion XFZYD could induce EPCs angiogenesis and hasten tube formation, especially capillary vessel. PMID:20131036

  1. Bactericidal Antibiotics Promote Reactive Oxygen Species Formation and Inflammation in Human Sinonasal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohanski, Michael A; Tharakan, Anuj; Lane, Andrew P.; Ramanathan, Murugappan

    2015-01-01

    Background Bactericidal antibiotics have been shown to stimulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in mammalian cells through mitochondrial dysfunction. This results in oxidative tissue damage that may have negative consequences for long-term antibiotic use. Antibiotics are widely and heavily used in the treatment of acute and chronic sinusitis, however the relationship between antibiotics and ROS formation in sinonasal epithelial cells (SNECs) has not yet been demonstrated. Methods Human SNECs were collected from patients during endoscopic sinus surgery and grown in culture at the air-liquid interface. Differentiated SNECs were stimulated with the bactericidal antibiotics amoxicillin and levofloxacin and the bacteriostatic antibiotic clarithromycin for 24-hours. Reactive oxygen species were quantified via fluorescence. Cell death was quantified by LDH secretion. Expression of inflammatory markers such as TNF-α and Nrf2 mediated antioxidant genes were measured by RT-PCR. Results Cultured SNECs treated with the bactericidal antibiotics amoxicillin and levofloxacin resulted in a significant increase in production of ROS (pbactericidal antibiotics leads to formation of ROS with an associated increase in inflammatory and antioxidant gene expression and cell death. This suggests that long term or inappropriate antibiotic use in the treatment of sinusitis, may result in oxidative tissue damage to the sinonasal epithelium. Future studies will explore the clinical implications of such damage to the sinonasal epithelium. PMID:26624249

  2. Formation of retinal direction-selective circuitry initiated by starburst amacrine cell homotypic contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Thomas A; Roy, Suva; Kozlowski, Christopher; Wang, Jingjing; Cafaro, Jon; Hulbert, Samuel W; Wright, Christopher V E; Field, Greg D; Kay, Jeremy N

    2018-04-03

    A common strategy by which developing neurons locate their synaptic partners is through projections to circuit-specific neuropil sublayers. Once established, sublayers serve as a substrate for selective synapse formation, but how sublayers arise during neurodevelopment remains unknown. Here we identify the earliest events that initiate formation of the direction-selective circuit in the inner plexiform layer of mouse retina. We demonstrate that radially-migrating newborn starburst amacrine cells establish homotypic contacts on arrival at the inner retina. These contacts, mediated by the cell-surface protein MEGF10, trigger neuropil innervation resulting in generation of two sublayers comprising starburst-cell dendrites. This dendritic scaffold then recruits projections from circuit partners. Abolishing MEGF10-mediated contacts profoundly delays and ultimately disrupts sublayer formation, leading to broader direction tuning and weaker direction-selectivity in retinal ganglion cells. Our findings reveal a mechanism by which differentiating neurons transition from migratory to mature morphology, and highlight this mechanism's importance in forming circuit-specific sublayers. © 2018, Ray et al.

  3. Energy efficiency of platinum-free alkaline direct formate fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.Q.; Bellini, M.; Filippi, J.; Folliero, M.; Lavacchi, A.; Innocenti, M.; Marchionni, A.; Miller, H.A.; Vizza, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Alkaline Platinum-free formate fuel cells top 42% efficiency @ 60 °C. • Palladium efficiently oxidizes formate. • Power density exceeding 250 mW cm −2 @ 60 °C has been achieved. • Performance exceeds that of Alkaline Direct Alcohol Fuel Cell. - Abstract: We report the energy performance of a new platinum-free alkaline direct formate fuel cell, equipped with a commercial anion exchange membrane, a nanostructured Pd/C anode and a Fe–Co/C cathode. The cell was investigated both at room temperature and at 60 °C for the determination of the following parameters: (i) maximum power density, (ii) delivered energy, (iii) faradic (fuel conversion) and energy efficiency. These parameters show a dramatic dependence on fuel composition. The highest energy efficiency is obtained using high energy density fuel (4 M KCOOH and 4 M KOH) and with a maximum operating temperature of 60 °C. This represents a key step in the progress of alkaline platinum-free DFFC technology, demonstrating their potential as power sources for portable electronic devices and remote power generation systems. For example, a fuel load of 750 ml in a DFFC device operating at 60 °C would be able to produce 90 W h of energy, that required to fully charge the battery of a laptop computer.

  4. Primary Phenomenon in the Network Formation of Endothelial Cells: Effect of Charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Shunto

    2015-12-07

    Blood vessels are essential organs that are involved in the supply of nutrients and oxygen and play an important role in regulating the body's internal environment, including pH, body temperature, and water homeostasis. Many studies have examined the formation of networks of endothelial cells. The results of these studies have revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) affects the interactions of these cells and modulates the network structure. Though almost all previous simulation studies have assumed that the chemoattractant VEGF is present before network formation, vascular endothelial cells secrete VEGF only after the cells bind to the substrate. This suggests VEGF is not essential for vasculogenesis especially at the early stage. Using a simple experiment, we find chain-like structures which last quite longer than it is expected, unless the energetically stable cluster should be compact. Using a purely physical model and simulation, we find that the hydrodynamic interaction retard the compaction of clusters and that the chains are stabilized through the effects of charge. The charge at the surface of the cells affect the interparticle potential, and the resulting repulsive forces prevent the chains from folding. The ions surrounding the cells may also be involved in this process.

  5. Differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into endoderm without embryoid body formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T W Kim

    Full Text Available Pluripotent embryonic stem cells hold a great promise as an unlimited source of tissue for treatment of chronic diseases such as Type 1 diabetes. Herein, we describe a protocol using all-trans-retinoic acid, basic fibroblast growth factor and dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP in the absence of embryoid body formation, for differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells into definitive endoderm that may serve as pancreatic precursors. The produced cells were analyzed by quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and static insulin release assay for markers of trilaminar embryo, and pancreas. Differentiated cells displayed increased Sox17 and Foxa2 expression consistent with definitive endoderm production. There was minimal production of Sox7, an extraembryonic endoderm marker, and Oct4, a marker of pluripotency. There was minimal mesoderm or neuroectoderm formation based on expression levels of the markers brachyury and Sox1, respectively. Various assays revealed that the cell clusters generated by this protocol express markers of the pancreatic lineage including insulin I, insulin II, C-peptide, PDX-1, carboxypeptidase E, pan-cytokeratin, amylase, glucagon, PAX6, Ngn3 and Nkx6.1. This protocol using all-trans-retinoic acid, DBcAMP, in the absence of embryoid bodies, generated cells that have features of definitive endoderm that may serve as pancreatic endocrine precursors.

  6. Blocking Wnt5a signaling decreases CD36 expression and foam cell formation in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackers, Ian; Szymanski, Candice; Duckett, K Jordan; Consitt, Leslie A; Silver, Mitchell J; Malgor, Ramiro

    2018-02-20

    Wnt5a is a highly studied member of the Wnt family and recently has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, but its precise role is unknown. Foam cell development is a critical process to atherosclerotic plaque formation. In the present study, we investigated the role of noncanonical Wnt5a signaling in the development of foam cells. Human carotid atherosclerotic tissue and THP-1-derived macrophages were used to investigate the contribution of Wnt5a signaling in the formation of foam cells. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate protein expression of scavenger receptors and noncanonical Wnt5a receptors [frizzled 5 (Fz5) and receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2)] in human atherosclerotic macrophages/foam cells. Changes in protein expression in response to Wnt5a stimulation/inhibition were determined by Western blot, and lipid accumulation was evaluated by fluorescent lipid droplet staining. Wnt5a (Pfoam cells within the plaque. In vitro studies revealed that Wnt5a significantly increased the expression of the lipid uptake receptor CD36 (P.05). rWnt5a also significantly increased lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages (Pfoam cells. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Laticiferous canal formation in fruits of Decaisnea fargesii: a programmed cell death process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ya-Fu; Liu, Wen-Zhe

    2011-10-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD), a topic of abiding interest, remodels plants at the cell, tissue, and organ levels involving various developmental processes of plants. The aim of this study is to provide a morphological characterization of evidence of PCD involvement in the laticiferous canal formation in fruit of Decaisnea fargesii. Several ultrastructural features of PCD have been observed including disintegration of vacuole and plasma membranes, cell wall degeneration, degenerated cytoplasm, abundant membrane structures and flocculent material, mitochondria and misshapen nuclei coupled with degraded plastids in vacuoles, and nuclei enveloped by rubber granule. In D. fargesii, the nuclei of the secretory epidermal cells become TUNEL-positive from the sunken stage to the late expanding stage, then DAPI-negative during the mature stage, indicating an early event of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) cleavage and a late event of complete DNA degeneration. Gel electrophoresis indicates that DNA cleavage is random and does not result in the laddering pattern indicating multiples of internucleosomal units. During the PCD of secretory epidermal cells, the rubber granules continue to be synthesized and accumulated in the secretory epidermal cells despite nuclear degradation. The PCD's role in laticiferous canal formation suggests that PCD may play important roles in gland development of plants.

  8. Serum amyloid A stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 upregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ha Young, E-mail: hayoung@skku.edu [Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Doo [Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Suk-Hwan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joon Hyuk [Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Hyun [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Zabel, Brian A. [Palo Alto Institute for Research and Education, Veterans Affairs Hospital, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Bae, Yoe-Sik, E-mail: yoesik@skku.edu [Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. ► SAA stimulated upregulation of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1). ► SAA-induced LOX1 expression and foam cell formation is mediated by JNK/NF-κB signaling. ► HDL-conjugated SAA also stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 upregulation. ► The finding reveals a novel mechanism of action of SAA in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Elevated levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, however, the role of SAA in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. SAA-stimulated foam cell formation was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Moreover, both SAA and SAA-conjugated high density lipoprotein stimulated the expression of the important scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1) via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). A LOX1 antagonist carrageenan significantly blocked SAA-induced foam cell formation, indicating that SAA promotes foam cell formation via LOX1 expression. Our findings therefore suggest that SAA stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 induction, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis.

  9. Laminin-521 Promotes Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheet Formation on Light-Induced Cell Sheet Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets (rBMSC sheets are attractive for cell-based tissue engineering. However, methods of culturing rBMSC sheets are critically limited. In order to obtain intact rBMSC sheets, a light-induced cell sheet method was used in this study. TiO2 nanodot films were coated with (TL or without (TN laminin-521. We investigated the effects of laminin-521 on rBMSCs during cell sheet culturing. The fabricated rBMSC sheets were subsequently assessed to study cell sheet viability, reattachment ability, cell sheet thickness, collagen type I deposition, and multilineage potential. The results showed that laminin-521 could promote the formation of rBMSC sheets with good viability under hyperconfluent conditions. Cell sheet thickness increased from an initial 26.7 ± 1.5 μm (day 5 up to 47.7 ± 3.0 μm (day 10. Moreover, rBMSC sheets maintained their potential of osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation. This study provides a new strategy to obtain rBMSC sheets using light-induced cell sheet technology.

  10. Characterization of xylan in the early stages of secondary cell wall formation in tobacco bright yellow-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tadashi; Matsuoka, Keita; Ono, Hiroshi; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Yaoi, Katsuro; Nakano, Yoshimi; Ohtani, Misato; Demura, Taku; Iwai, Hiroaki; Satoh, Shinobu

    2017-11-15

    The major polysaccharides present in the primary and secondary walls surrounding plant cells have been well characterized. However, our knowledge of the early stages of secondary wall formation is limited. To address this, cell walls were isolated from differentiating xylem vessel elements of tobacco bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cells induced by VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN7 (VND7). The walls of induced VND7-VP16-GR BY-2 cells consisted of cellulose, pectic polysaccharides, hemicelluloses, and lignin, and contained more xylan and cellulose compared with non-transformed BY-2 and uninduced VND7-VP16-GR BY-2 cells. A reducing end sequence of xylan containing rhamnose and galaturonic acid- residues is present in the walls of induced, uninduced, and non-transformed BY-2 cells. Glucuronic acid residues in xylan from walls of induced cells are O-methylated, while those of xylan in non-transformed BY-2 and uninduced cells are not. Our results show that xylan changes in chemical structure and amounts during the early stages of xylem differentiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hedgehog Signaling Promotes the Proliferation and Subsequent Hair Cell Formation of Progenitor Cells in the Neonatal Mouse Cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hair cell (HC loss is the major cause of permanent sensorineural hearing loss in mammals. Unlike lower vertebrates, mammalian cochlear HCs cannot regenerate spontaneously after damage, although the vestibular system does maintain limited HC regeneration capacity. Thus HC regeneration from the damaged sensory epithelium has been one of the main areas of research in the field of hearing restoration. Hedgehog signaling plays important roles during the embryonic development of the inner ear, and it is involved in progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation as well as the cell fate decision. In this study, we show that recombinant Sonic Hedgehog (Shh protein effectively promotes sphere formation, proliferation, and differentiation of Lgr5+ progenitor cells isolated from the neonatal mouse cochlea. To further explore this, we determined the effect of Hedgehog signaling on cell proliferation and HC regeneration in cultured cochlear explant from transgenic R26-SmoM2 mice that constitutively activate Hedgehog signaling in the supporting cells of the cochlea. Without neomycin treatment, up-regulation of Hedgehog signaling did not significantly promote cell proliferation or new HC formation. However, after injury to the sensory epithelium by neomycin treatment, the over-activation of Hedgehog signaling led to significant supporting cell proliferation and HC regeneration in the cochlear epithelium explants. RNA sequencing and real-time PCR were used to compare the transcripts of the cochleae from control mice and R26-SmoM2 mice, and multiple genes involved in the proliferation and differentiation processes were identified. This study has important implications for the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss by manipulating the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

  12. Drpiwi-1 is essential for germline cell formation during sexualization of the planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Haruka; Ishizu, Hirotsugu; Hasegawa, Reiko; Kobayashi, Kazuya; Matsumoto, Midori

    2012-01-01

    A piwi homolog is required for the regulation of stem cells, formation and maintenance of germline stem cells, and gametogenesis in many metazoans. Planarians can change their reproductive mode seasonally, both asexually and sexually, and develop and maintain germ cells and sexual organs. They have many pluripotent stem cells (neoblasts) that can differentiate into both somatic and germline stem cells. Thus, we searched for a piwi subfamily in the planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis. Four piwi homologs, identified as Drpiwi-1, -2, -3, and -4, were expressed in sexually reproductive worms. We then selectively destroyed the neoblasts by irradiating the worms with X-rays. In such worms, Drpiwi-1, -2, and -3 were not expressed at all, whereas Drpiwi-4 was expressed to the same degree as that in non-irradiated controls, indicating that Drpiwi-1, -2, and -3, but not Drpiwi-4, are expressed in neoblasts. During the regeneration process, Drpiwi-2(RNAi) and -3(RNAi) worms failed to regenerate after ablation, but Drpiwi-1 and -4(RNAi) worms regenerated. During the sexualizing process, Drpiwi-1(RNAi) worms failed to develop ovaries and testes, but somatic sexual organs were unaffected. Germ cell development was normal in Drpiwi-4(RNAi) worms. Therefore, Drpiwi-2 and -3 may be related to the regulation of neoblasts important for maintaining homeostasis, and Drpiwi-1 is essential for the development of germ cells but not somatic sexual organs. DrPiwi-1 is localized in the cytoplasm of stem cells and germline cells and may be involved in regulating some gene expression. We suggest that planarian Piwi controls germline formation via RNA silencing mechanisms. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. microRNA-150 inhibits the formation of macrophage foam cells through targeting adiponectin receptor 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing [Department of Geratory, Linzi District People’s Hospital of Zibo City, Zibo, Shandong (China); Zhang, Suhua, E-mail: drsuhuangzhang@qq.com [Department of HealthCare, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (Qingdao), Qingdao City, Qingdao (China)

    2016-08-05

    Transformation of macrophages into foam cells plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine the expression and biological roles of microRNA (miR)-150 in the formation of macrophage foam cells and to identify its functional target(s). Exposure to 50 μg/ml oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) led to a significant upregulation of miR-150 in THP-1 macrophages. Overexpression of miR-150 inhibited oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages, while knockdown of miR-150 enhanced lipid accumulation. apoA-I- and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux was increased by 66% and 43%, respectively, in miR-150-overexpressing macrophages relative to control cells. In contrast, downregulation of miR-150 significantly reduced cholesterol efflux from oxLDL-laden macrophages. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assay revealed adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) as a direct target of miR-150. Small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of AdipoR2 phenocopied the effects of miR-150 overexpression, reducing lipid accumulation and facilitating cholesterol efflux in oxLDL-treated THP-1 macrophages. Knockdown of AdipoR2 induced the expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), ABCA1, and ABCG1. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of PPARγ or LXRα impaired AdipoR2 silencing-induced upregulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-150 can attenuate oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation in macrophages via promotion of cholesterol efflux. The suppressive effects of miR-150 on macrophage foam cell formation are mediated through targeting of AdipoR2. Delivery of miR-150 may represent a potential approach to prevent macrophage foam cell formation in atherosclerosis. -- Highlights: •miR-150 inhibits macrophage foam cell formation. •miR-150 accelerates cholesterol efflux from oxLDL-laden macrophages. •miR-150 suppresses macrophage foam cell

  14. Reciprocal Interactions between Multiple Myeloma Cells and Osteoprogenitor Cells Affect Bone Formation and Tumor Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Multiple Myeloma, Blood Cancer , Hematological Malignancy , Bone Metastasis, 3D Model, In vitro, silk scaffolds, osteogenic microRNAs...platform to study cancer -bone interactions. Keywords Multiple Myeloma, Blood Cancer , Hematological Malignancy , Bone Metastasis, 3D Model, In vitro...Affect Bone Formation and Tumor Growth” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michaela Reagan CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Inc

  15. Andrographolide Inhibits Oxidized LDL-Induced Cholesterol Accumulation and Foam Cell Formation in Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Chih; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Chen, Hui-Chun; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Yang, Ya-Chen; Chen, Haw-Wen

    2018-01-01

    oxLDL is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions through cholesterol accumulation in macrophage foam cells. Andrographolide, the bioactive component of Andrographis paniculata, possesses several biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anticancer functions. Scavenger receptors (SRs), including class A SR (SR-A) and CD36, are responsible for the internalization of oxLDL. In contrast, receptors for reverse cholesterol transport, including ABCA1 and ABCG1, mediate the efflux of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells. Transcription factor liver X receptor [Formula: see text] (LXR[Formula: see text] plays a key role in lipid metabolism and inflammation as well as in the regulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. Because of the contribution of inflammation to macrophage foam cell formation and the potent anti-inflammatory activity of andrographolide, we hypothesized that andrographolide might inhibit oxLDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation. The results showed that andrographolide reduced oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation in macrophage foam cells. Andrographolide decreased the mRNA and protein expression of CD36 by inducing the degradation of CD36 mRNA; however, andrographolide had no effect on SR-A expression. In contrast, andrographolide increased the mRNA and protein expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1, which were dependent on LXR[Formula: see text]. Andrographolide enhanced LXR[Formula: see text] nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity. Treatment with the LXR[Formula: see text] antagonist GGPP and transfection with LXR[Formula: see text] siRNA reversed the ability of andrographolide to stimulate ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein expression. In conclusion, inhibition of CD36-mediated oxLDL uptake and induction of ABCA1- and ABCG1-dependent cholesterol efflux are two working mechanisms by which andrographolide inhibits macrophage foam cell formation, which suggests that andrographolide could be a potential candidate to prevent

  16. From Cell to Tissue Properties-Modeling Skin Electroporation With Pore and Local Transport Region Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermol-Cerne, Janja; Miklavcic, Damijan

    2018-02-01

    Current models of tissue electroporation either describe tissue with its bulk properties or include cell level properties, but model only a few cells of simple shapes in low-volume fractions or are in two dimensions. We constructed a three-dimensional model of realistically shaped cells in realistic volume fractions. By using a 'unit cell' model, the equivalent dielectric properties of whole tissue could be calculated. We calculated the dielectric properties of electroporated skin. We modeled electroporation of single cells by pore formation on keratinocytes and on the papillary dermis which gave dielectric properties of the electroporated epidermis and papillary dermis. During skin electroporation, local transport regions are formed in the stratum corneum. We modeled local transport regions and increase in their radii or density which affected the dielectric properties of the stratum corneum. The final model of skin electroporation accurately describes measured electric current and voltage drop on the skin during electroporation with long low-voltage pulses. The model also accurately describes voltage drop on the skin during electroporation with short high-voltage pulses. However, our results indicate that during application of short high-voltage pulses additional processes may occur which increase the electric current. Our model connects the processes occurring at the level of cell membranes (pore formation), at the level of a skin layer (formation of local transport region in the stratum corneum) with the tissue (skin layers) and even level of organs (skin). Using a similar approach, electroporation of any tissue can be modeled, if the morphology of the tissue is known.

  17. Inhibiting actin depolymerization enhances osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in human stromal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Shi, Kaikai; Frary, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton through actin dynamics is involved in a number of biological processes, but its role in human stromal (skeletal) stem cells (hMSCs) differentiation is poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that stabilizing actin filaments by inhibiting gene...... expression of the two main actin depolymerizing factors (ADFs): Cofilin 1 (CFL1) and Destrin (DSTN) in hMSCs, enhanced cell viability and differentiation into osteoblastic cells (OB) in vitro, as well as heterotopic bone formation in vivo. Similarly, treating hMSC with Phalloidin, which is known to stabilize...... polymerized actin filaments, increased hMSCs viability and OB differentiation. Conversely, Cytocholasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, reduced cell viability and inhibited OB differentiation of hMSC. At a molecular level, preventing Cofilin phosphorylation through inhibition of LIM domain kinase 1...

  18. Cytoprotective effect of imatinib mesylate in non-BCR-ABL-expressing cells along with autophagosome formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtomo, Tadashi [Department of Biochemistry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Miyazawa, Keisuke, E-mail: miyazawa@tokyo-med.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Naito, Munekazu [Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Moriya, Shota [Department of Biochemistry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Kuroda, Masahiko [Department of Molecular Pathology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Masahiro [Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Tomoda, Akio [Department of Biochemistry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    Treatment with imatinib mesylate (IM) results in an increased viable cell number of non-BCR-ABL-expressing cell lines by inhibiting spontaneous apoptosis. Electron microscopy revealed an increase of autophagosomes in response to IM. IM attenuated the cytotoxic effect of cytosine arabinoside, as well as inhibiting cell death with serum-deprived culture. Cytoprotection with autophagosome formation by IM was observed in various leukemia and cancer cell lines as well as normal murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Complete inhibition of autophagy by knockdown of atg5 in the Tet-off atg5{sup -/-} MEF system attenuated the cytoprotective effect of IM, indicating that the effect is partially dependent on autophagy. However, cytoprotection by IM was not mediated through suppression of ROS production via mitophagy, ER stress via ribophagy, or proapoptotic function of ABL kinase. Although the target tyrosine kinase(s) of IM remains unclear, our data provide novel therapeutic possibilities of using IM for cytoprotection.

  19. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields induce poly(ADP-ribose) formation and non-apoptotic cell death in HeLa S3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morotomi-Yano, Keiko; Akiyama, Hidenori; Yano, Ken-ichi

    2013-08-30

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) have recently gained attention as effective cancer therapy owing to their potency for cell death induction. Previous studies have shown that apoptosis is a predominant mode of nsPEF-induced cell death in several cell lines, such as Jurkat cells. In this study, we analyzed molecular mechanisms for cell death induced by nsPEFs. When nsPEFs were applied to Jurkat cells, apoptosis was readily induced. Next, we used HeLa S3 cells and analyzed apoptotic events. Contrary to our expectation, nsPEF-exposed HeLa S3 cells exhibited no molecular signs of apoptosis execution. Instead, nsPEFs induced the formation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), a hallmark of necrosis. PAR formation occurred concurrently with a decrease in cell viability, supporting implications of nsPEF-induced PAR formation for cell death. Necrotic PAR formation is known to be catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), and PARP-1 in apoptotic cells is inactivated by caspase-mediated proteolysis. Consistently, we observed intact and cleaved forms of PARP-1 in nsPEF-exposed and UV-irradiated cells, respectively. Taken together, nsPEFs induce two distinct modes of cell death in a cell type-specific manner, and HeLa S3 cells show PAR-associated non-apoptotic cell death in response to nsPEFs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Glioblastoma formation from cell population depleted of Prominin1-expressing cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Nishide

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Prominin1 (Prom1, also known as CD133 in human has been widely used as a marker for cancer stem cells (CSCs, which self-renew and are tumorigenic, in malignant tumors including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. However, there is other evidence showing that Prom1-negative cancer cells also form tumors in vivo. Thus it remains controversial whether Prom1 is a bona fide marker for CSCs. To verify if Prom1-expressing cells are essential for tumorigenesis, we established a mouse line, whose Prom1-expressing cells can be eliminated conditionally by a Cre-inducible DTA gene on the Prom1 locus together with a tamoxifen-inducible CreER(TM, and generated glioma-initiating cells (GICs-LD by overexpressing both the SV40 Large T antigen and an oncogenic H-Ras(L61 in neural stem cells of the mouse line. We show here that the tamoxifen-treated GICs-LD (GICs-DTA form tumor-spheres in culture and transplantable GBM in vivo. Thus, our studies demonstrate that Prom1-expressing cells are dispensable for gliomagenesis in this mouse model.

  1. FORMATE-PYRUVATE EXCHANGE REACTION IN STREPTOCOCCUS FAECALIS. I. FACTOR REQUIREMENT FOR INTACT CELLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WOOD, N P; O'KANE, D J

    1964-01-01

    Wood, N. P. (A. & M. College of Texas, College Station), and D. J. O'Kane. Formate-pyruvate exchange reaction in Streptococcus faecalis. I. Factor requirement for whole cells. J. Bacteriol. 87:97-103. 1964.-A factor present in plant and animal sources was found necessary for the incorporation of formate-C(14) into pyruvate by Streptococcus faecalis 10Cl. Yeast extract produced a response linear in the range between 10 and 30 mg/ml of reaction mixture. Soy peptone, beef peptone, and Brain Heart Infusion replaced yeast extract, but various intermediates, cofactors, amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, and peptides did not stimulate the reaction. A lag occurred in the rate of formate incorporation that was not influenced by anaerobic conditions or growth of cells in a medium containing pyruvate and formate. Phosphate or maleate buffer permitted rapid exchange velocities but tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane or collidine buffer was inhibitory. Heating yeast extract at 121 C for 15 min in 3 n H(2)SO(4) produced 66% inactivation of the factor(s), whereas treatment with 3 n KOH produced 97% inactivation. The factor(s) was insoluble in butanol, benzene, ethyl acetate, or chloroform. The material adsorbed on Dowex-1 (OH(-)) and Amberlite IR-120 (H(+)) but not on Amberlite IR-4B (OH(-)). The active component(s) was highly polar, nonvolatile, dialyzable, and had amphoteric properties.

  2. Cellular pattern formation during retinal regeneration: a role for homotypic control of cell fate acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Melinda J; Cameron, David A

    2007-02-01

    A dominant mechanism of cellular patterning in the growing fish retina is control of cell fate acquisition by negative feedback signals arising from differentiated cells. We tested the ability of a computational model of this pattern formation mechanism to simulate cellular patterns in regenerated goldfish retina. The model successfully simulated quantitative features of in vivo regenerated patterns, indicating that regenerating retina has access to and utilizes patterning mechanisms that are operational during normal growth. The atypical patterns of regenerated retina could arise in part from regenerative progenitors that, compared to normal growth progenitors, are less responsive to the feedback patterning signals.

  3. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Cell Fusion and Heterokaryon Formation in Filamentous Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalov, Asen; Heller, Jens; Herzog, Stephanie; Fleißner, André; Glass, N Louise

    2017-03-01

    For the majority of fungal species, the somatic body of an individual is a network of interconnected cells sharing a common cytoplasm and organelles. This syncytial organization contributes to an efficient distribution of resources, energy, and biochemical signals. Cell fusion is a fundamental process for fungal development, colony establishment, and habitat exploitation and can occur between hyphal cells of an individual colony or between colonies of genetically distinct individuals. One outcome of cell fusion is the establishment of a stable heterokaryon, culminating in benefits for each individual via shared resources or being of critical importance for the sexual or parasexual cycle of many fungal species. However, a second outcome of cell fusion between genetically distinct strains is formation of unstable heterokaryons and the induction of a programmed cell death reaction in the heterokaryotic cells. This reaction of nonself rejection, which is termed heterokaryon (or vegetative) incompatibility, is widespread in the fungal kingdom and acts as a defense mechanism against genome exploitation and mycoparasitism. Here, we review the currently identified molecular players involved in the process of somatic cell fusion and its regulation in filamentous fungi. Thereafter, we summarize the knowledge of the molecular determinants and mechanism of heterokaryon incompatibility and place this phenomenon in the broader context of biotropic interactions and immunity.

  4. WD40-repeat proteins in plant cell wall formation: current evidence and research prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gea eGuerriero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic complexity of living organisms relies on supramolecular protein structures which ensure vital processes, such as signal transduction, transcription, translation and cell wall synthesis. In eukaryotes WD40-repeat (WDR proteins often function as molecular hubs mediating supramolecular interactions. WDR proteins may display a variety of interacting partners and participate in the assembly of complexes involved in distinct cellular functions. In plants, the formation of lignocellulosic biomass involves extensive synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides, a process that requires the assembly of large transmembrane enzyme complexes, intensive vesicle trafficking, interactions with the cytoskeleton, and coordinated gene expression. Because of their function as supramolecular hubs, WDR proteins could participate in each or any of these steps, although to date only few WDR proteins have been linked to the cell wall by experimental evidence. Nevertheless, several potential cell wall-related WDR proteins were recently identified using in silico aproaches, such as analyses of co-expression, interactome and conserved gene neighbourhood. Notably, some WDR genes are frequently genomic neighbours of genes coding for GT2-family polysaccharide synthases in eukaryotes, and this WDR-GT2 collinear microsynteny is detected in diverse taxa. In angiosperms, two WDR genes are collinear to cellulose synthase genes, CESAs, whereas in ascomycetous fungi several WDR genes are adjacent to chitin synthase genes, chs. In this Perspective we summarize and discuss experimental and in silico studies on the possible involvement of WDR proteins in plant cell wall formation. The prospects of biotechnological engineering for enhanced biomass production are discussed.

  5. Apparent activation energy for creep controlled by jog-drag and cell-formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povolo, F.; Marzocca, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The expression for the apparent activation energy for creep controlled by jog-drag and cell-formation is given in terms of the parameters of the physical model. It is shown that, in general, this energy does not coincide with that for self-diffusion. The results are applied to actual experimental data obtained in stress-relieved Zircaloy-4 at 673 K. (orig.)

  6. N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine-coated polyamidoamine dendrimer modulates antibody formation via natural killer cell activation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huliková, Katarína; Benson, Veronika; Svoboda, Jan; Šíma, Petr; Fišerová, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2009), s. 792-799 ISSN 1567-5769 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/06/0477; GA AV ČR IAA500200509; GA AV ČR IAA500200620 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : GlcNAc(8) * antibody formation * NK cells Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.214, year: 2009

  7. Enhancement of hybridoma formation, clonability and cell proliferation in a nanoparticle-doped aqueous environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnieli Ohad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The isolation and production of human monoclonal antibodies is becoming an increasingly important pursuit as biopharmaceutical companies migrate their drug pipelines away from small organic molecules. As such, optimization of monoclonal antibody technologies is important, as this is becoming the new rate-limiting step for discovery and development of new pharmaceuticals. The major limitations of this system are the efficiency of isolating hybridoma clones, the process of stabilizing these clones and optimization of hybridoma cell secretion, especially for large-scale production. Many previous studies have demonstrated how perturbations in the aqueous environment can impact upon cell biology. In particular, radio frequency (RF irradiation of solutions can have dramatic effects on behavior of solutions, cells and in particular membrane proteins, although this effect decays following removal of the RF. Recently, it was shown that nanoparticle doping of RF irradiated water (NPD water produced a stabilized aqueous medium that maintained the characteristic properties of RF irradiated water for extended periods of time. Therefore, the ordering effect in water of the RF irradiation can now be studied in systems that required prolonged periods for analysis, such as eukaryotic cell culture. Since the formation of hybridoma cells involves the formation of a new membrane, a process that is affected by the surrounding aqueous environment, we tested these nanoparticle doped aqueous media formulations on hybridoma cell production. Results In this study, we tested the entire process of isolation and production of human monoclonal antibodies in NPD water as a means for further enhancing human monoclonal antibody isolation and production. Our results indicate an overall enhancement of hybridoma yield, viability, clonability and secretion. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that immortal cells proliferate faster whereas primary human fibroblasts

  8. Monocytes induce STAT3 activation in human mesenchymal stem cells to promote osteoblast formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Nicolaidou

    Full Text Available A major therapeutic challenge is how to replace bone once it is lost. Bone loss is a characteristic of chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. Cells and cytokines of the immune system are known to regulate bone turnover by controlling the differentiation and activity of osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells. However, less is known about the regulation of osteoblasts (OB, the bone forming cells. This study aimed to investigate whether immune cells also regulate OB differentiation. Using in vitro cell cultures of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, it was shown that monocytes/macrophages potently induced MSC differentiation into OBs. This was evident by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP after 7 days and the formation of mineralised bone nodules at 21 days. This monocyte-induced osteogenic effect was mediated by cell contact with MSCs leading to the production of soluble factor(s by the monocytes. As a consequence of these interactions we observed a rapid activation of STAT3 in the MSCs. Gene profiling of STAT3 constitutively active (STAT3C infected MSCs using Illumina whole human genome arrays showed that Runx2 and ALP were up-regulated whilst DKK1 was down-regulated in response to STAT3 signalling. STAT3C also led to the up-regulation of the oncostatin M (OSM and LIF receptors. In the co-cultures, OSM that was produced by monocytes activated STAT3 in MSCs, and neutralising antibodies to OSM reduced ALP by 50%. These data indicate that OSM, in conjunction with other mediators, can drive MSC differentiation into OB. This study establishes a role for monocyte/macrophages as critical regulators of osteogenic differentiation via OSM production and the induction of STAT3 signalling in MSCs. Inducing the local activation of STAT3 in bone cells may be a valuable tool to increase bone formation in osteoporosis and arthritis, and in localised bone remodelling during fracture repair.

  9. Lipid Droplet Formation in HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells Depends on Cell Density and the Concentration of Exogenous Unsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guštin, Ema; Jarc, Eva; Kump, Ana; Petan, Toni

    2017-09-01

    Cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs) store excess fatty acids (FAs) in the form of neutral lipids and prevent starvation-induced cancer cell death. Here we studied the ability of mono- and polyunsaturated FAs to affect LD formation and survival in HeLa cervical cancer cells. We found that the LD content in HeLa cells increases with cell density, but it decreases in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Exogenously-added unsaturated FAs, including oleic (OA), linoleic (LA), arachidonic (AA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) displayed a similar ability to alter LD formation in HeLa cells. There was a dual, concentration-dependent effect on neutral lipid accumulation: low micromolar concentrations of LA, AA and DHA reduced, while all FAs induced LD formation at higher concentrations. In serum starved He-La cells, OA stimulated LD formation, but, contrary to expectations, it promoted cell death. Our results reveal a link between cell population density and LD formation in HeLa cells and show that unsaturated FAs may both suppress or stimulate LD formation. This dynamic regulation of LD content must be accounted for when studying the effects of lipids and lipid metabolism-targeting drugs on LD metabolism in HeLa cells.

  10. Efficient Parallel Sorting for Migrating Birds Optimization When Solving Machine-Part Cell Formation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Soto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Machine-Part Cell Formation Problem (MPCFP is a NP-Hard optimization problem that consists in grouping machines and parts in a set of cells, so that each cell can operate independently and the intercell movements are minimized. This problem has largely been tackled in the literature by using different techniques ranging from classic methods such as linear programming to more modern nature-inspired metaheuristics. In this paper, we present an efficient parallel version of the Migrating Birds Optimization metaheuristic for solving the MPCFP. Migrating Birds Optimization is a population metaheuristic based on the V-Flight formation of the migrating birds, which is proven to be an effective formation in energy saving. This approach is enhanced by the smart incorporation of parallel procedures that notably improve performance of the several sorting processes performed by the metaheuristic. We perform computational experiments on 1080 benchmarks resulting from the combination of 90 well-known MPCFP instances with 12 sorting configurations with and without threads. We illustrate promising results where the proposal is able to reach the global optimum in all instances, while the solving time with respect to a nonparallel approach is notably reduced.

  11. A genetic algorithm for a bi-objective mathematical model for dynamic virtual cell formation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradgholi, Mostafa; Paydar, Mohammad Mahdi; Mahdavi, Iraj; Jouzdani, Javid

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, with the increasing pressure of the competitive business environment and demand for diverse products, manufacturers are force to seek for solutions that reduce production costs and rise product quality. Cellular manufacturing system (CMS), as a means to this end, has been a point of attraction to both researchers and practitioners. Limitations of cell formation problem (CFP), as one of important topics in CMS, have led to the introduction of virtual CMS (VCMS). This research addresses a bi-objective dynamic virtual cell formation problem (DVCFP) with the objective of finding the optimal formation of cells, considering the material handling costs, fixed machine installation costs and variable production costs of machines and workforce. Furthermore, we consider different skills on different machines in workforce assignment in a multi-period planning horizon. The bi-objective model is transformed to a single-objective fuzzy goal programming model and to show its performance; numerical examples are solved using the LINGO software. In addition, genetic algorithm (GA) is customized to tackle large-scale instances of the problems to show the performance of the solution method.

  12. Characterization of cysteinyl-leukotriene formation in primary astroglial cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seregi, A; Simmet, T; Schobert, A; Hertting, G

    1990-03-01

    The formation and composition of cysteinyl-leukotrienes (LT) in primary astroglial cell cultures prepared from newborn rat brain has been studied. Small amounts of cysteinyl-LT determined in terms of LTC4-like material in the supernatants of the cultures, became detectable after stimulation of the cells with 10(-5) M ionophore A23187. Cysteinyl-LT formation increased with time, reaching about 600 pg (mg protein)-1 after 60 min incubation. In contrast, considerable thromboxane (TX) B2 synthesis was found at 5 min following A23187-stimulation (about 30 ng TXB2 (mg protein)-1). The synthesis of cysteinyl-LT was abolished by 5 x 10(-5) M nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA). Irrespective of the duration of incubation, blockage of prostanoid synthesis by 10(-6) M indomethacin did not result in increased cysteinyl-LT production. Reversed phase HPLC combined with radioimmunological detection showed that, after 60 min incubation in the presence of A23187, LTC4 and LTD4 accounted for practically all the LTC4-like immunoreactive material in the supernatants of cell cultures. No significant amounts of LTE4 could be detected. The results show that astrocytes may contribute to brain LTC4 and LTD4 synthesis. However, the cellular site of cerebral LTE4 formation seems to be other than the astroglia.

  13. Ex vivo analysis of the contribution of FGF10+cells to airway smooth muscle cell formation during early lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Agha, Elie; Kheirollahi, Vahid; Moiseenko, Alena; Seeger, Werner; Bellusci, Saverio

    2017-07-01

    Airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) have been widely studied during embryonic lung development. These cells have been shown to control epithelial bifurcation during branching morphogenesis. Fibroblast growth factor 10-positive (FGF10 + ) cells, originally residing in the submesothelial mesenchyme, contribute to ASMC formation in the distal lung. The reported work aims at monitoring the response of FGF10 + progenitors and differentiated ASMCs to growth factor treatment in real time using lineage tracing in the background of an air-liquid interface (ALI) culture system. FGF ligands impose divergent effects on iterative lung branching in vitro. Moreover, time-lapse imaging and endpoint analysis show that FGF9 treatment leads to amplification of the FGF10 + lineage and represses its differentiation to ASMCs. Sonic hedgehog (SHH) treatment reduces the amplification of this lineage and leads to decreased lung branching. Finally, differentiated ASMCs in proximal regions fail to expand upon FGF9 treatment. Our data demonstrate, in real time, that FGF9 is an important regulator of amplification, migration, and subsequent differentiation of ASMC progenitors during early lung development. The attained results agree with previous findings regarding ASMC formation and highlight the complexity of growth factor signaling networks in controlling mesenchymal cell-fate decisions in the developing mouse lung. Developmental Dynamics 246:531-538, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The postischemic environment differentially impacts teratoma or tumor formation after transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seminatore, Christine; Polentes, Jerome; Ellman, Ditte

    2010-01-01

    Risk of tumorigenesis is a major obstacle to human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell therapy. Likely linked to the stage of differentiation of the cells at the time of implantation, formation of teratoma/tumors can also be influenced by factors released by the host tissue. We have...... analyzed the relative effects of the stage of differentiation and the postischemic environment on the formation of adverse structures by transplanted human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors....

  15. A Novel Mechanism of Estrogen Action in Breast Cancer Cells Mediated Through ER-FE65 Complex Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    breast cancer cells mediated through ER-FE65 complex formation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Wenlong Bai, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...breast cancer cells mediated through ER-FE65 complex formation 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0574 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...above information, we proposed a novel function for Fe65 in breast cancer cells . We hypothesize that Fe65 functions as a dual adaptor for ERα and

  16. Influence of Culture Media on Biofilm Formation by Candida Species and Response of Sessile Cells to Antifungals and Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano-Fujarte, Isela; L?pez-Romero, Everardo; Reyna-L?pez, Georgina Elena; Mart?nez-G?mez, Ma. Alejandrina; Vega-Gonz?lez, Arturo; Cu?llar-Cruz, Mayra

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the influence of culture media on biofilm formation by C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis and to investigate the responses of sessile cells to antifungals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to planktonic cells. For biofilm formation, the Candida species were grown at different periods of time in YP or YNB media supplemented or not with 0.2 or 2% glucose. Sessile and planktonic cells were exposed to increasing concentrati...

  17. TRIM28 epigenetic corepressor is indispensable for stable induced pluripotent stem cell formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Klimczak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cellular reprogramming proceeds in a stepwise pathway initiated by binding and transcription of pluripotency factors followed by genome-wide epigenetic changes. Priming events, such as erasure of DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling determines the success of pluripotency acquisition later. Therefore, growing efforts are made to understand epigenetic regulatory network that makes reprogramming possible and efficient. Here, we analyze the role of transcriptional corepressor TRIM28, involved in heterochromatin formation, during the process of reprogramming of mouse somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells. We demonstrate that Trim28 knockdown (Trim28 KD causes that emerging iPS cells differentiate immediately back into MEFs therefore they fail to yield stable iPS cell colonies. To better comprehend the mechanism of TRIM28 action in reprogramming, we performed a reverse-phase protein array (RPPA using in excess of 300 different antibodies and compared the proteomic profiles of wild-type and Trim28 KD cells during reprogramming. We revealed the differences in the dynamics of reprogramming of wild-type and Trim28 KD cells. Interestingly, proteomic profile of Trim28 KD cells at the final stage of reprogramming resembled differentiated state rather than maintenance of pluripotency and self-renewal, strongly suggesting spontaneous differentiation of Trim28 KD cells back to their parental cell type. We also observed that action of TRIM28 in reprogramming is accompanied by differential enrichment of proteins involved in cell cycle, adhesion and stemness. Collectively, these results suggest that regulation of epigenetic modifications coordinated by TRIM28 plays a crucial role in reprogramming process.

  18. Synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and sprouting by cyclosporin A and itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacev, Benjamin A; Liu, Jun O

    2011-01-01

    Pathological angiogenesis contributes to a number of diseases including cancer and macular degeneration. Although angiogenesis inhibitors are available in the clinic, their efficacy against most cancers is modest due in part to the existence of alternative and compensatory signaling pathways. Given that angiogenesis is dependent on multiple growth factors and a broad signaling network in vivo, we sought to explore the potential of multidrug cocktails for angiogenesis inhibition. We have screened 741 clinical drug combinations for the synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. We focused specifically on existing clinical drugs since the re-purposing of clinical drugs allows for a more rapid and cost effective transition to clinical studies when compared to new drug entities. Our screen identified cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, and itraconazole, an antifungal drug, as a synergistic pair of inhibitors of endothelial cell proliferation. In combination, the IC(50) dose of each drug is reduced by 3 to 9 fold. We also tested the ability of the combination to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and sprouting, which are dependent on two essential processes in angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration and differentiation. We found that CsA and itraconazole synergistically inhibit tube network size and sprout formation. Lastly, we tested the combination on human foreskin fibroblast viability as well as Jurkat T cell and HeLa cell proliferation, and found that endothelial cells are selectively targeted. Thus, it is possible to combine existing clinical drugs to synergistically inhibit in vitro models of angiogenesis. This strategy may be useful in pursuing the next generation of antiangiogenesis therapy.

  19. Synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and sprouting by cyclosporin A and itraconazole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Nacev

    Full Text Available Pathological angiogenesis contributes to a number of diseases including cancer and macular degeneration. Although angiogenesis inhibitors are available in the clinic, their efficacy against most cancers is modest due in part to the existence of alternative and compensatory signaling pathways. Given that angiogenesis is dependent on multiple growth factors and a broad signaling network in vivo, we sought to explore the potential of multidrug cocktails for angiogenesis inhibition. We have screened 741 clinical drug combinations for the synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. We focused specifically on existing clinical drugs since the re-purposing of clinical drugs allows for a more rapid and cost effective transition to clinical studies when compared to new drug entities. Our screen identified cyclosporin A (CsA, an immunosuppressant, and itraconazole, an antifungal drug, as a synergistic pair of inhibitors of endothelial cell proliferation. In combination, the IC(50 dose of each drug is reduced by 3 to 9 fold. We also tested the ability of the combination to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and sprouting, which are dependent on two essential processes in angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration and differentiation. We found that CsA and itraconazole synergistically inhibit tube network size and sprout formation. Lastly, we tested the combination on human foreskin fibroblast viability as well as Jurkat T cell and HeLa cell proliferation, and found that endothelial cells are selectively targeted. Thus, it is possible to combine existing clinical drugs to synergistically inhibit in vitro models of angiogenesis. This strategy may be useful in pursuing the next generation of antiangiogenesis therapy.

  20. Efficient retina formation requires suppression of both Activin and BMP signaling pathways in pluripotent cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Wong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Retina formation requires the correct spatiotemporal patterning of key regulatory factors. While it is known that repression of several signaling pathways lead to specification of retinal fates, addition of only Noggin, a known BMP antagonist, can convert pluripotent Xenopus laevis animal cap cells to functional retinal cells. The aim of this study is to determine the intracellular molecular events that occur during this conversion. Surprisingly, blocking BMP signaling alone failed to mimic Noggin treatment. Overexpressing Noggin in pluripotent cells resulted in a concentration-dependent suppression of both Smad1 and Smad2 phosphorylation, which act downstream of BMP and Activin signaling, respectively. This caused a decrease in downstream targets: endothelial marker, xk81, and mesodermal marker, xbra. We treated pluripotent cells with dominant-negative receptors or the chemical inhibitors, dorsomorphin and SB431542, which each target either the BMP or Activin signaling pathway. We determined the effect of these treatments on retina formation using the Animal Cap Transplant (ACT assay; in which treated pluripotent cells were transplanted into the eye field of host embryos. We found that inhibition of Activin signaling, in the presence of BMP signaling inhibition, promotes efficient retinal specification in Xenopus tissue, mimicking the affect of adding Noggin alone. In whole embryos, we found that the eye field marker, rax, expanded when adding both dominant-negative Smad1 and Smad2, as did treating the cells with both dorsomorphin and SB431542. Future studies could translate these findings to a mammalian culture assay, in order to more efficiently produce retinal cells in culture.

  1. Effect of thumus cell injections on germinal center formation in lymphoid tissues of nude (thymusless) mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, E.B.; Caporale, L.H.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1974-01-01

    Nude mice, partially backcrossed to Balb/c or DBA/2, were injected iv with 5 x 10 7 thymus cells from the respective inbred strain. The response of these mice to immunization with Brucella abortus antigen was studied, with respect to both antibody production and the formation of germinal centers in their lymphoid tissues. The results were compared to those obtained with nude mice to which no thymus cells were given, as well as to Balb/c, DBA/2, or +/question litter mate controls. Nude mice formed less 19S as well as 7S antibody than did litter mate controls and completely lacked germinal centers in lymph nodes and gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Those nude mice which had been injected with thymus cells made a much better secondary response, both for 19S and for 7S antibody, and had active germinal centers in their lymph nodes as early as 3 wk after thymus cell injection. Intestinal lymphoid tissue in nude mice showed only slight reconstitution of germinal center activity several months after thymus cell injection and none at earlier times. Irradiated (3000 R) thymus cells appeared as effective as normal cells in facilitating germinal center appearance and 7S antibody production in the nude mice

  2. Cholesterol is essential for mitosis progression and its deficiency induces polyploid cell formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Carlos; Lobo, Maria del Val T.; Gomez-Coronado, Diego; Lasuncion, Miguel A.

    2004-01-01

    As an essential component of mammalian cell membranes, cells require cholesterol for proliferation, which is either obtained from plasma lipoproteins or synthesized intracellularly from acetyl-CoA. In addition to cholesterol, other non-sterol mevalonate derivatives are necessary for DNA synthesis, such as the phosphorylated forms of isopentane, farnesol, geranylgeraniol, and dolichol. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of cholesterol in mitosis. For this, human leukemia cells (HL-60) were incubated in a cholesterol-free medium and treated with SKF 104976, which inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis by blocking sterol 14α-demethylase, and the expression of relevant cyclins in the different phases of the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Prolonged cholesterol starvation induced the inhibition of cytokinesis and the formation of polyploid cells, which were multinucleated and had mitotic aberrations. Supplementing the medium with cholesterol completely abolished these effects, demonstrating they were specifically due to cholesterol deficiency. This is the first evidence that cholesterol is essential for mitosis completion and that, in the absence of cholesterol, the cells fail to undergo cytokinesis, entered G1 phase at higher DNA ploidy (tetraploidy), and then progressed through S (rereplication) into G2, generating polyploid cells

  3. Addition of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheets Improves Bone Formation at an Ectopic Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifa Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs added to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC sheets on bone formation at an ectopic site. We isolated MSCs and ADSCs from the same rabbits. We then prepared MSC sheets for implantation with or without ADSCs subcutaneously in the backs of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice. We assessed bone formation at eight weeks after implantation by micro-computed tomography and histological analysis. In osteogenic medium, MSCs grew to form multilayer sheets containing many calcium nodules. MSC sheets without ADSCs formed bone-like tissue; although neo-bone and cartilage-like tissues were sparse and unevenly distributed by eight weeks after implantation. In comparison, MSC sheets with ADSCs promoted better bone regeneration as evidenced by the greater density of bone, increased mineral deposition, obvious formation of blood vessels, large number of interconnected ossified trabeculae and woven bone structures, and greater bone volume/total volume within the composite constructs. Our results indicate that although sheets of only MSCs have the potential to form tissue engineered bone at an ectopic site, the addition of ADSCs can significantly increase the osteogenic potential of MSC sheets. Thus, the combination of MSC sheets with ADSCs may be regarded as a promising therapeutic strategy to stimulate bone regeneration.

  4. Targeting cell surface HIV-1 Env protein to suppress infectious virus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Arangassery Rosemary; Ang, Charles G; Kamanna, Kantharaju; Shaheen, Farida; Huang, Yu-Hung; McFadden, Karyn; Duffy, Caitlin; Bailey, Lauren D; Sundaram, Ramalingam Venkat Kalyana; Chaiken, Irwin

    2017-05-02

    HIV-1 Env protein is essential for host cell entry, and targeting Env remains an important antiretroviral strategy. We previously found that a peptide triazole thiol KR13 and its gold nanoparticle conjugate AuNP-KR13 directly and irreversibly inactivate the virus by targeting the Env protein, leading to virus gp120 shedding, membrane disruption and p24 capsid protein release. Here, we examined the consequences of targeting cell-surface Env with the virus inactivators. We found that both agents led to formation of non-infectious virus from transiently transfected HEK293T cells. The budded non-infectious viruses lacked Env gp120 but contained gp41. Importantly, budded virions also retained the capsid protein p24, in stark contrast to p24 leakage from viruses directly treated by these agents and arguing that the agents led to deformed viruses by transforming the cells at a stage before virus budding. We found that the Env inactivators caused gp120 shedding from the transiently transfected HEK293T cells as well as non-producer CHO-K1-gp160 cells. Additionally, AuNP-KR13 was cytotoxic against the virus-producing HEK293T and CHO-K1-gp160 cells, but not untransfected HEK293T or unmodified CHO-K1 cells. The results obtained reinforce the argument that cell-surface HIV-1 Env is metastable, as on virus particles, and provides a conformationally vulnerable target for virus suppression and infectious cell inactivation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Lipocalin-2 inhibits osteoclast formation by suppressing the proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast lineage cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Ju, E-mail: biohjk@knu.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Medicine, Cell and Matrix Research Institute, Clinical Trial Center, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hye-Jin [Department of Molecular Medicine, Cell and Matrix Research Institute, Clinical Trial Center, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Kyung-Ae [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Skeletal Diseases Genome Research Center, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Gwon, Mi-Ri; Jin Seong, Sook [Department of Molecular Medicine, Cell and Matrix Research Institute, Clinical Trial Center, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Suk, Kyoungho [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Shin-Yoon [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Skeletal Diseases Genome Research Center, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young-Ran, E-mail: yry@knu.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Medicine, Cell and Matrix Research Institute, Clinical Trial Center, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-10

    Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is a member of the lipocalin superfamily and plays a critical role in the regulation of various physiological processes, such as inflammation and obesity. In this study, we report that LCN2 negatively modulates the proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast precursors, resulting in impaired osteoclast formation. The overexpression of LCN2 in bone marrow-derived macrophages or the addition of recombinant LCN2 protein inhibits the formation of multinuclear osteoclasts. LCN2 suppresses macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-induced proliferation of osteoclast precursor cells without affecting their apoptotic cell death. Interestingly, LCN2 decreases the expression of the M-CSF receptor, c-Fms, and subsequently blocks its downstream signaling cascades. In addition, LCN2 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and attenuates the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1), which are important modulators in osteoclastogenesis. Mechanistically, LCN2 inhibits NF-κB signaling pathways, as demonstrated by the suppression of IκBα phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of p65, and NF-κB transcriptional activity. Thus, LCN2 is an anti-osteoclastogenic molecule that exerts its effects by retarding the proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast lineage cells. - Highlights: • LCN2 expression is regulated during osteoclast development. • LCN2 suppresses M-CSF-mediated osteoclast precursor proliferation. • LCN2 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation.

  6. Collagen cross-linking by adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells and scar-derived mesenchymal cells: Are mesenchymal stromal cells involved in scar formation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaerdt, van den A.J.; Veen, van der A.G.; Zuijlen, van P.P.; Reijnen, L.; Verkerk, M.; Bank, R.A.; Middelkoop, E.; Ulrich, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, different fibroblast-like (mesenchymal) cell populations that might be involved in wound healing were characterized and their involvement in scar formation was studied by determining collagen synthesis and processing. Depending on the physical and mechanical properties of the tissues,

  7. Collagen cross-linking by adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells and scar-derived mesenchymal cells : Are mesenchymal stromal cells involved in scar formation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogaerdt, Antoon J.; van der Veen, Vincent C.; van Zuijlen, Paul P. M.; Reijnen, Linda; Verkerk, Michelle; Bank, Ruud A.; Middelkoop, Esther; Ulrich, Magda M. W.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, different fibroblast-like (mesenchymal) cell populations that might be involved in wound healing were characterized and their involvement in scar formation was studied by determining collagen synthesis and processing. Depending on the physical and mechanical properties of the tissues,

  8. Geometrical Aspects During Formation of Compact Aggregates of Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past forty years considerable progress has been achieved on the knowledge of human blood as a non-Newtonian shear-thinning suspension, whose initial state, that is at rest (stasis or at very low shear rates, has a gel-like internal structure which is destroyed as shear stress increases. The main goal of this communication is to describe the role of geometrical aspects during RBC (red blood cell aggregate formation, growth and compaction on naturally aggregate (porcine blood and non-aggregate (bovine blood samples. We consider how these aspects coupled with tension equilibrium are decisive to transform red cell linear roleaux to three-dimensional aggregates or clusters. Geometrical aspects are also crucial on the compaction of red blood cell aggregates. These densely packed aggregates could precipitate out of blood- either as dangerous deposits on arterial walls, or as clots which travel in suspension until they block some crucial capillary.

  9. Live cell X-ray imaging of autophagic vacuoles formation and chromatin dynamics in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelnikova, Natalja; Sauter, Nora; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Göllner, Michael; Diaz, Ana; Delivani, Petrina; Chacón, Mariola; Tolić, Iva M; Zaburdaev, Vasily; Pfohl, Thomas

    2017-10-23

    Seeing physiological processes at the nanoscale in living organisms without labeling is an ultimate goal in life sciences. Using X-ray ptychography, we explored in situ the dynamics of unstained, living fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells in natural, aqueous environment at the nanoscale. In contrast to previous X-ray imaging studies on biological matter, in this work the eukaryotic cells were alive even after several ptychographic X-ray scans, which allowed us to visualize the chromatin motion as well as the autophagic cell death induced by the ionizing radiation. The accumulated radiation of the sequential scans allowed for the determination of a characteristic dose of autophagic vacuole formation and the lethal dose for fission yeast. The presented results demonstrate a practical method that opens another way of looking at living biological specimens and processes in a time-resolved label-free setting.

  10. IL-20 activates human lymphatic endothelial cells causing cell signalling and tube formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Troels; Tritsaris, Katerina; Hübschmann, Martin V

    2009-01-01

    IL-20 is an arteriogenic cytokine that remodels collateral networks in vivo, and plays a role in cellular organization. Here, we investigate its role in lymphangiogenesis using a lymphatic endothelial cell line, hTERT-HDLEC, which expresses the lymphatic markers LYVE-1 and podoplanin. Upon...

  11. Magnolol inhibits migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karki, Rajendra; Kim, Seong-Bin; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute importantly to the formation of both atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of magnolol on VSMC migration. Methods: The proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulated VSMCs was performed by gelatin zymography. VSMC migration was assessed by wound healing and Boyden chamber methods. Collagen induced VSMC adhesion was determined by spectrofluorimeter and stress fibers formation was evaluated by fluorescence microscope. The expression of signaling molecules involved in stress fibers formation was determined by western blot. The phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC20) was determined by urea-glycerol polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression of β1-integrin and collagen type I in the injured carotid arteries of rats on day 35 after vascular injury. Results: VSMC migration was strongly inhibited by magnolol without affecting MMPs expression. Also, magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, FAK phosphorylation and RhoA and Cdc42 activation to inhibit the collagen induced stress fibers formation. Moreover, magnolol inhibited the phosphorylation of MLC20. Our in vivo results showed that magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, collagen type I deposition and FAK phosphorylation in injured carotid arteries without affecting MMP-2 activity. Conclusions: Magnolol inhibited VSMC migration via inhibition of cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation. General significance: This study provides a rationale for further evaluation of magnolol for the management of atherosclerosis and restenosis. - Highlights: • Magnolol strongly inhibited migration of VSMCs. • Magnolol inhibited stress fibers formation. • MLC20 phosphorylation was also inhibited by magnolol. • Anti

  12. Magnolol inhibits migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karki, Rajendra [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City (United States); Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, Mokpo National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong-Bin [Jeollanamdo Development Institute for Korean Traditional Medicine, Jangheung gun, Jeollanamdo (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Wook, E-mail: dbkim@mokpo.ac.kr [Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, Mokpo National University (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-10

    Background: Increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute importantly to the formation of both atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of magnolol on VSMC migration. Methods: The proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulated VSMCs was performed by gelatin zymography. VSMC migration was assessed by wound healing and Boyden chamber methods. Collagen induced VSMC adhesion was determined by spectrofluorimeter and stress fibers formation was evaluated by fluorescence microscope. The expression of signaling molecules involved in stress fibers formation was determined by western blot. The phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC20) was determined by urea-glycerol polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression of β1-integrin and collagen type I in the injured carotid arteries of rats on day 35 after vascular injury. Results: VSMC migration was strongly inhibited by magnolol without affecting MMPs expression. Also, magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, FAK phosphorylation and RhoA and Cdc42 activation to inhibit the collagen induced stress fibers formation. Moreover, magnolol inhibited the phosphorylation of MLC20. Our in vivo results showed that magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, collagen type I deposition and FAK phosphorylation in injured carotid arteries without affecting MMP-2 activity. Conclusions: Magnolol inhibited VSMC migration via inhibition of cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation. General significance: This study provides a rationale for further evaluation of magnolol for the management of atherosclerosis and restenosis. - Highlights: • Magnolol strongly inhibited migration of VSMCs. • Magnolol inhibited stress fibers formation. • MLC20 phosphorylation was also inhibited by magnolol. • Anti

  13. Nitric oxide diffusion to red blood cells limits extracellular, but not intraphagosomal, peroxynitrite formation by macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolo, Carolina; Álvarez, María Noel; Ríos, Natalia; Peluffo, Gonzalo; Radi, Rafael; Romero, Natalia

    2015-10-01

    Macrophage-derived nitric oxide ((•)NO) participates in cytotoxic mechanisms against diverse microorganisms and tumor cells. These effects can be mediated by (•)NO itself or (•)NO-derived species such as peroxynitrite formed by its diffusion-controlled reaction with NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide radical anion (O(2)(•-)). In vivo, the facile extracellular diffusion of (•)NO as well as different competing consumption routes limit its bioavailability for the reaction with O(2)(•-) and, hence, peroxynitrite formation. In this work, we evaluated the extent by which (•)NO diffusion to red blood cells (RBC) can compete with activated macrophages-derived O(2)(•-) and affect peroxynitrite formation yields. Macrophage-dependent peroxynitrite production was determined by boron-based probes that react directly with peroxynitrite, namely, coumarin-7-boronic acid (CBA) and fluorescein-boronate (Fl-B). The influence of (•)NO diffusion to RBC on peroxynitrite formation was experimentally analyzed in co-incubations of (•)NO and O(2)(•-)-forming macrophages with erythrocytes. Additionally, we evaluated the permeation of (•)NO to RBC by measuring the intracellular oxidation of oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin. Our results indicate that diluted RBC suspensions dose-dependently inhibit peroxynitrite formation, outcompeting the O(2)(•-) reaction. Computer-assisted kinetic studies evaluating peroxynitrite formation by its precursor radicals in the presence of RBC are in accordance with experimental results. Moreover, the presence of erythrocytes in the proximity of (•)NO and O(2)(•-)-forming macrophages prevented intracellular Fl-B oxidation pre-loaded in L1210 cells co-cultured with activated macrophages. On the other hand, Fl-B-coated latex beads incorporated in the macrophage phagocytic vacuole indicated that intraphagosomal probe oxidation by peroxynitrite was not affected by nearby RBC. Our data support that in the proximity of a blood vessel, (

  14. Mast cell degranulation and de novo histamine formation contribute to sustained postexercise vasodilation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Steven A; McCord, Jennifer L; Ely, Matthew R; Sieck, Dylan C; Buck, Tahisha M; Luttrell, Meredith J; MacLean, David A; Halliwill, John R

    2017-03-01

    In humans, acute aerobic exercise elicits a sustained postexercise vasodilation within previously active skeletal muscle. This response is dependent on activation of histamine H 1 and H 2 receptors, but the source of intramuscular histamine remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that interstitial histamine in skeletal muscle would be increased with exercise and would be dependent on de novo formation via the inducible enzyme histidine decarboxylase and/or mast cell degranulation. Subjects performed 1 h of unilateral dynamic knee-extension exercise or sham (seated rest). We measured the interstitial histamine concentration and local blood flow (ethanol washout) via skeletal muscle microdialysis of the vastus lateralis. In some probes, we infused either α-fluoromethylhistidine hydrochloride (α-FMH), a potent inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase, or histamine H 1 /H 2 -receptor blockers. We also measured interstitial tryptase concentrations, a biomarker of mast cell degranulation. Compared with preexercise, histamine was increased after exercise by a change (Δ) of 4.2 ± 1.8 ng/ml ( P histamine in skeletal muscle increases with exercise and results from both de novo formation and mast cell degranulation. This suggests that exercise produces an anaphylactoid signal, which affects recovery, and may influence skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Blood flow to previously active skeletal muscle remains elevated following an acute bout of aerobic exercise and is dependent on activation of histamine H 1 and H 2 receptors. The intramuscular source of histamine that drives this response to exercise has not been identified. Using intramuscular microdialysis in exercising humans, we show both mast cell degranulation and formation of histamine by histidine decarboxylase contributes to the histamine-mediated vasodilation that occurs following a bout of aerobic exercise. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Effect of Genistein on vasculogenic mimicry formation by human uveal melanoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Haijuan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vasculogenic mimicry (VM was increasingly recognized as a form of aggressive melanoma acquiring blood supply. Genistein had attracted much attention as a potential anticancer agent. Therefore, we examined the effect of Genistein on VM in human uveal melanoma cells. Methods VM structure was detected by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining for uveal melanoma C918 cells cultured on the three-dimensional type I collagen gels after exposed to Genistein. We used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Western Blot analysis to examine the effect of Genistein on vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin mRNA and protein expression. The nude mice models of human uveal melanoma C918 cells were established to assess the number of VM using immunohistochemical and PAS double-staining. Results Genistein inhibited the survival of C918 cells in vitro. The ectopic model study showed that VM in tumor tissue sections were significantly reduced by Genistein in vivo. In vitro, the VM structure was found in control, 25 and 50 μM Genistein-treatment groups but not in 100 and 200 μM. RT-PCR and Western Blot showed that 100 and 200 μM concentration of Genistein could significantly decrease VE-cadherin mRNA and protein expression of C918 cells compared with control (P 0.05. Conclusion Genistein inhibits VM formation of uveal melanoma cells in vivo and in vitro. One possible underlying molecular mechanism by which Genistein could inhibit VM formation of uveal melanoma is related to down-regulation of VE-cadherin.

  16. Effect of coating Straumann Bone Ceramic with Emdogain on mesenchymal stromal cell hard tissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozik, Krzysztof Marek; Gronthos, Stan; Menicanin, Danijela; Marino, Victor; Bartold, P Mark

    2012-06-01

    Periodontal tissue engineering requires a suitable biocompatible scaffold, cells with regenerative capacity, and instructional molecules. In this study, we investigated the capacity of Straumann Bone Ceramic coated with Straumann Emdogain, a clinical preparation of enamel matrix protein (EMP), to aid in hard tissue formation by post-natal mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) including bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLFs). MSCs were isolated and ex vivo-expanded from human bone marrow and periodontal ligament and, in culture, allowed to attach to Bone Ceramic in the presence or absence of Emdogain. Gene expression of bone-related proteins was investigated by real time RT-PCR for 72 h, and ectopic bone formation was assessed histologically in subcutaneous implants of Bone Ceramic containing MSCs with or without Emdogain in NOD/SCID mice. Alkaline phosphatase activity was also assessed in vitro, in the presence or absence of Emdogain. Collagen-I mRNA was up-regulated in both MSC populations over the 72-h time course with Emdogain. Expression of BMP-2 and the osteogenic transcription factor Cbfa-1 showed early stimulation in both MSC types after 24 h. In contrast, expression of BMP-4 was consistently down-regulated in both MSC types with Emdogain. Up-regulation of osteopontin and periostin mRNA was restricted to BMSCs, while higher levels of bone sialoprotein-II were observed in PDLFs with Emdogain. Furthermore, alkaline phosphatase activity levels were reduced in both BMSCs and PDLFs in the presence of Emdogain. Very little evidence was found for ectopic bone formation following subcutaneous implantation of MSCs with Emdogain-coated or -uncoated Bone Ceramic in NOD/SCID mice. The early up-regulation of several important bone-related genes suggests that Emdogain may have a significant stimulatory effect in the commitment of mesenchymal cells to osteogenic differentiation in vitro. While Emdogain inhibited AP activity and appeared

  17. Genetic control of the radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells for antibody formation ability in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumoto, Masaaki; Mori, Nobuko; Esaki, Kozaburo; Imai, Shunsuke; Haga, Satomi; Hilgers, Jo; Takamori, Yasuhiko.

    1994-01-01

    To analyze the genetic basis of the relationship between the radiosensitivity of the immune response and radiation lymphomagenesis, we examined the radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells for antibody formation in BALB/cHeA, STS/A, F 1 hybrids, and their recombinant inbred mouse strains. The decrease in the number of plaque-forming spleen cells in BALB/cHeA mice exposed to 3 Gy X-irradiation was more than tenfold that in STS/A mice. The phenotype of radioresistance was dominant over sensitivity. The coincidence between the strain distribution patterns of the genetic markers and radiosensitivities of antibody formation in the various recombinant inbred strains was in the region with the lgh locus on chromosome 12. There was obvious difference between the patterns in the region containing the lfa locus on chromosome 4 which has been shown to be related to the incidence of radiation-induced lymphomas. These results indicate that the region on chromosome 12 may contain major gene(s) related to radiosensitivity for antibody formation. (author)

  18. Inkjet formation of unilamellar lipid vesicles for cell-like encapsulation†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Jeanne C.; Richmond, David L.; Li, Thomas H.; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise

    2010-01-01

    Encapsulation of macromolecules within lipid vesicles has the potential to drive biological discovery and enable development of novel, cell-like therapeutics and sensors. However, rapid and reliable production of large numbers of unilamellar vesicles loaded with unrestricted and precisely-controlled contents requires new technologies that overcome size, uniformity, and throughput limitations of existing approaches. Here we present a high-throughput microfluidic method for vesicle formation and encapsulation using an inkjet printer at rates up to 200 Hz. We show how multiple high-frequency pulses of the inkjet’s piezoelectric actuator create a microfluidic jet that deforms a bilayer lipid membrane, controlling formation of individual vesicles. Variations in pulse number, pulse voltage, and solution viscosity are used to control the vesicle size. As a first step toward cell-like reconstitution using this method, we encapsulate the cytoskeletal protein actin and use co-encapsulated microspheres to track its polymerization into a densely entangled cytoskeletal network upon vesicle formation. PMID:19568667

  19. Lgr5+ve Stem/Progenitor Cells Contribute to Nephron Formation during Kidney Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Barker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Multipotent stem cells and their lineage-restricted progeny drive nephron formation within the developing kidney. Here, we document expression of the adult stem cell marker Lgr5 in the developing kidney and assess the stem/progenitor identity of Lgr5+ve cells via in vivo lineage tracing. The appearance and localization of Lgr5+ve cells coincided with that of the S-shaped body around embryonic day 14. Lgr5 expression remained restricted to cell clusters within developing nephrons in the cortex until postnatal day 7, when expression was permanently silenced. In vivo lineage tracing identified Lgr5 as a marker of a stem/progenitor population within nascent nephrons dedicated to generating the thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop and distal convoluted tubule. The Lgr5 surface marker and experimental models described here will be invaluable for deciphering the contribution of early nephron stem cells to developmental defects and for isolating human nephron progenitors as a prerequisite to evaluating their therapeutic potential.

  20. Formation of industrial mixed culture biofilm in chlorophenol cultivated medium of microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Huzairy; Jin, Bo; Dai, Sheng; Ngau, Cornelius

    2016-11-01

    The formation of microbial biofilm while maintaining the electricity output is a challenging topic in microbial fuel cell (MFC) studies. This MFC critical factor becomes more significant when handling with industrial wastewater which normally contains refractory and toxic compounds. This study explores the formation of industrial mixed culture biofilm in chlorophenol cultivated medium through observing and characterizing microscopically its establishment on MFC anode surface. The mixed culture was found to develop its biofilm on the anode surface in the chlorophenol environment and established its maturity and dispersal stages with concurrent electricity generation and phenolic degradation. The mixed culture biofilm engaged the electron transfer roles in MFC by generating current density of 1.4 mA/m2 and removing 53 % of 2,4-dichlorophenol. The results support further research especially on hazardous wastewater treatment using a benign and sustainable method.

  1. NO-β-catenin crosstalk modulates primitive streak formation prior to embryonic stem cell osteogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Huawen; Keller, Kevin C; Martinez, Ivann K C; Geransar, Rose M; zur Nieden, Kai O; Nishikawa, Sandra G; Rancourt, Derrick E; zur Nieden, Nicole I

    2012-11-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to play a crucial role in bone formation in vivo. We sought to determine the temporal effect of NO on murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) under culture conditions that promote osteogenesis. Expression profiles of NO pathway members and osteoblast-specific markers were analyzed using appropriate assays. We found that NO was supportive of osteogenesis specifically during an early phase of in vitro development (days 3-5). Furthermore, ESCs stably overexpressing the inducible NO synthase showed accelerated and enhanced osteogenesis in vitro and in bone explant cultures. To determine the role of NO in early lineage commitment, a stage in ESC differentiation equivalent to primitive streak formation in vivo, ESCs were transfected with a T-brachyury-GFP reporter. Expression levels of T-brachyury and one of its upstream regulators, β-catenin, the major effector in the canonical Wnt pathway, were responsive to NO levels in differentiating primitive streak-like cells. Our results indicate that NO may be involved in early differentiation through regulation of β-catenin and T-brachyury, controlling the specification of primitive-streak-like cells, which may continue through differentiation to later become osteoblasts.

  2. De-novo Collateral Formation Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: Dependence on CCR2+ Bone Marrow Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Faber, James E

    2015-01-01

    Wide variation exists in the extent (number and diameter) of native pre-existing collaterals in tissues of different strains of mice, with supportive indirect evidence recently appearing for humans. This variation is a major determinant of the wide variation in severity of tissue injury in occlusive vascular disease. Whether such genetic-dependent variation also exists in the heart is unknown because no model exists for study of mouse coronary collaterals. Also owing to methodological limitations, it is not known if ischemia can induce new coronary collaterals to form (“neo-collaterals”) versus remodeling of pre-existing ones. The present study sought to develop a model to study coronary collaterals in mice, determine whether neo-collateral formation occurs, and investigate the responsible mechanisms. Four strains with known rank-ordered differences in collateral extent in brain and skeletal muscle were studied: C57BLKS>C57BL/6>A/J>BALB/c. Unexpectedly, these and 5 additional strains lacked native coronary collaterals. However after ligation, neo-collaterals formed rapidly within 1-to-2 days, reaching their maximum extent in ≤ 7 days. Rank-order for neo-collateral formation differed from the above: C57BL/6>BALB/c>C57BLKS>A/J. Collateral network conductance, infarct volume−1, and contractile function followed this same rank-order. Neo-collateral formation and collateral conductance were reduced and infarct volume increased in MCP1−/− and CCR2−/− mice. Bone-marrow transplant rescued collateral formation in CCR2−/− mice. Involvement of fractalkine→CX3CR1 signaling and endothelial cell proliferation were also identified. This study introduces a model for investigating the coronary collateral circulation in mice, demonstrates that neocollaterals form rapidly after coronary occlusion, and finds that MCP→CCR2-mediated recruitment of myeloid cells is required for this process. PMID:26254180

  3. Functional cooperation between FACT and MCM is coordinated with cell cycle and differential complex formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chih-Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional cooperation between FACT and the MCM helicase complex constitutes an integral step during DNA replication initiation. However, mode of regulation that underlies the proper functional interaction of FACT and MCM is poorly understood. Methods & Results Here we present evidence indicating that such interaction is coordinated with cell cycle progression and differential complex formation. We first demonstrate the existence of two distinct FACT-MCM subassemblies, FACT-MCM2/4/6/7 and FACT-MCM2/3/4/5. Both complexes possess DNA unwinding activity and are subject to cell cycle-dependent enzymatic regulation. Interestingly, analysis of functional attributes further suggests that they act at distinct, and possibly sequential, steps during origin establishment and replication initiation. Moreover, we show that the phosphorylation profile of the FACT-associated MCM4 undergoes a cell cycle-dependent change, which is directly correlated with the catalytic activity of the FACT-MCM helicase complexes. Finally, at the quaternary structure level, physical interaction between FACT and MCM complexes is generally dependent on persistent cell cycle and further stabilized upon S phase entry. Cessation of mitotic cycle destabilizes the complex formation and likely leads to compromised coordination and activities. Conclusions Together, our results correlate FACT-MCM functionally and temporally with S phase and DNA replication. They further demonstrate that enzymatic activities intrinsically important for DNA replication are tightly controlled at various levels, thereby ensuring proper progression of, as well as exit from, the cell cycle and ultimately euploid gene balance.

  4. The Formation and Migration of Primordial Germ Cells in Mouse and Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felici, Massimo

    In most multicellular organisms, including mammals, germ cells are at the origin of new organisms and ensure the continuation of the genetic and epigenetic information across the generations.In the mammalian germ line, the primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the precursors of the primary oocytes and prospermatogonia of fetal ovaries and testes, respectively. In mammals such as the primates, in which the formation of the primary oocytes is largely asynchronous and occurs during a relatively long period, PGCs after the arrival into the XX gonadal ridges are termed oogonia which then become primary oocytes when entering into meiotic prophase I. In the fetal testes, germ cells derived from the PGCs after gonad colonization are termed prospermatogonia or gonocytes.One of the most fascinating aspect of the mammalian germline development is that it is probably the first cell lineage to be established in the embryo by epigenetic mechanisms and that these inductive events happen in extraembryonic tissues much earlier that gonad develop inside the embryo proper. Moreover, such events prepare the germ cells for totipotency through genetic and epigenetic regulations of their genome function. How this occurs remained a mystery until short time ago.In this chapter, I will report and discuss the most recent advances in the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the formation in extraembryonic tissues and migration of PGCs toward the gonadal ridges made primarily by studies carried out in the mouse with some perspective in the human. Established concepts about these processes will be only summarized when necessary since they are widely described and discussed in many excellent reviews; most of them are cited in the text below.

  5. CoCl2, a mimic of hypoxia, induces formation of polyploid giant cells with stem characteristics in colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Lopez-Sánchez

    Full Text Available The induction of polyploidy is considered the reproductive end of cells, but there is evidence that polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs contribute to cell repopulation during tumor relapse. However, the role of these cells in the development, progression and response to therapy in colon cancer remains undefined. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the generation of PGCCs in colon cancer cells and identify mechanisms of formation. Treatment of HCT-116 and Caco-2 colon cancer cells with the hypoxia mimic CoCl2 induced the formation of cells with larger cell and nuclear size (PGCCs, while the cells with normal morphology were selectively eliminated. Cytometric analysis showed that CoCl2 treatment induced G2 cell cycle arrest and the generation of a polyploid cell subpopulation with increased cellular DNA content. Polyploidy of hypoxia-induced PGCCs was confirmed by FISH analysis. Furthermore, CoCl2 treatment effectively induced the stabilization of HIF-1α, the differential expression of a truncated form of p53 (p47 and decreased levels of cyclin D1, indicating molecular mechanisms associated with cell cycle arrest at G2. Generation of PGCCs also contributed to expansion of a cell subpopulation with cancer stem cells (CSCs characteristics, as indicated by colonosphere formation assays, and enhanced chemoresistance to 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin. In conclusion, the pharmacological induction of hypoxia in colon cancer cells causes the formation of PGCCs, the expansion of a cell subpopulation with CSC characteristics and chemoresistance. The molecular mechanisms involved, including the stabilization of HIF-1 α, the involvement of p53/p47 isoform and cell cycle arrest at G2, suggest novel targets to prevent tumor relapse and treatment failure in colon cancer.

  6. Contrasting effects of stanniocalcin-related polypeptides on macrophage foam cell formation and vascular smooth muscle cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keigo; Tajima, Yukie; Hasegawa, Akinori; Takahashi, Yui; Kojima, Miho; Watanabe, Rena; Sato, Kengo; Shichiri, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Takuya

    2016-08-01

    Stanniocalcin (STC) is a calcium- and phosphate-regulating hormone secreted by the corpuscles of Stannius, an endocrine gland of bony fish. Its human homologues, STC1 and STC2 showing 34% amino acid identity each other, are expressed in a variety of human tissues. To clarify their roles in atherosclerosis, we investigated the effects of their full-length proteins, STC1(18-247) and STC2(25-302), and STC2-derived fragment peptides, STC2(80-100) and STC2(85-99), on inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), human macrophage foam cell formation, the migration and proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and the extracellular matrix expression. All these polypeptides suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced expressions of interleukin-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in HUVECs. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced foam cell formation was significantly decreased by STC1(18-247) and increased by STC2(80-100) and STC2(85-99), but not STC2(25-302), in human macrophages. Expression of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT1) was significantly suppressed by STC1(18-247) but stimulated by STC2(80-100) and STC2(85-99). Expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 was significantly stimulated by STC1(18-247). Neither STC1(18-247) nor STC2-derived peptides significantly affected CD36 expression in human macrophages or HASMC proliferation. STC2(80-100) and STC2(85-99) significantly increased HASMC migration, whereas STC1(18-247) significantly suppressed the angiotensin II-induced HASMC migration. Expressions of collagen-1, fibronectin, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and elastin were mostly unchanged with the exception of fibronectin up-regulation by STC2(80-100). Our results demonstrated the contrasting effects of STC1 and STC2-derived peptides on human macrophage foam cell formation associated with ACAT1 expression and on HASMC migration. Thus, STC-related polypeptides could serve as

  7. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls increase reactive oxygen species formation and induce cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreiem, Anne; Rykken, Sidsel; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Robertson, Larry W.; Fonnum, Frode

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that bioaccumulate in the body, however, they can be metabolized to more water-soluble products. Although they are more readily excreted than the parent compounds, some of the metabolites are still hydrophobic and may be more available to target tissues, such as the brain. They can also cross the placenta and reach a developing foetus. Much less is known about the toxicity of PCB metabolites than about the parent compounds. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of eight hydroxylated (OH) PCB congeners (2'-OH PCB 3, 4-OH PCB 14, 4-OH PCB 34, 4'-OH PCB 35, 4-OH PCB 36, 4'-OH PCB 36, 4-OH PCB 39, and 4'-OH PCB 68) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cell viability in rat cerebellar granule cells. We found that, similar to their parent compounds, OH-PCBs are potent ROS inducers with potency 4-OH PCB 14 < 4-OH PCB 36 < 4-OH PCB 34 < 4'-OH PCB 36 < 4'-OH PCB 68 < 4-OH PCB 39 < 4'-OH PCB 35. 4-OH PCB 36 was the most potent cell death inducer, and caused apoptotic or necrotic morphology depending on concentration. Inhibition of ERK1/2 kinase with U0126 reduced both cell death and ROS formation, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is involved in OH-PCB toxicity. The results indicate that the hydroxylation of PCBs may not constitute a detoxification reaction. Since OH-PCBs like their parent compounds are retained in the body and may be more widely distributed to sensitive tissues, it is important that not only the levels of the parent compounds but also the levels of their metabolites are taken into account during risk assessment of PCBs and related compounds.

  8. Proximal visceral endoderm and extraembryonic ectoderm regulate the formation of primordial germ cell precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Katsuhiko

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extraembryonic tissues, visceral endoderm (VE and extraembryonic ectoderm (ExE are known to be important for the induction of primordial germ cells (PGCs in mice via activation of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signalling pathway. We investigated whether the VE and ExE have a direct role in the specification of PGCs, or in an earlier event, namely the induction of the PGC precursors in the proximal posterior epiblast cells. Results We cultured embryonic day (E 5.75 to E7.0 mouse embryos in an explant-assay with or without extraembryonic tissues. The reconstituted pieces of embryonic and extraembryonic tissues were assessed for the formation of both PGC precursors and specified PGCs. For this, Blimp1:gfp and Stella:gfp transgenic mouse lines were used to distinguish between PGC precursors and specified PGC, respectively. We observed that the VE regulates formation of an appropriate number of PGC precursors between E6.25–E7.25, but it is not essential for the subsequent specification of PGCs from the precursor cells. Furthermore, we show that the ExE has a different role from that of the VE, which is to restrict localization of PGC precursors to the posterior part of the embryo. Conclusion We show that the VE and ExE have distinct roles in the induction of PGC precursors, namely the formation of a normal number of PGC precursors, and their appropriate localization during early development. However, these tissues do not have a direct role during the final stages of specification of the founder population of PGCs.

  9. Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Contribute to Bone Formation Following Infusion into Femoral Cavities of a Mouse Model of Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Wang, Xujun; Niyibizi, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there are conflicting data in literature regarding contribution of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to bone formation when the cells are systemically delivered in recipient animals. To understand if BMSCs contribute to bone cell phenotype and bone formation in osteogenesis imperfecta bones (OI), MSCs marked with GFP were directly infused into the femurs of a mouse model of OI (oim). The contribution of the cells to the cell phenotype and bone formation was assessed by histology, immunohistochemistry and biomechanical loading of recipient bones. Two weeks following infusion of BMSCs, histological examination of the recipient femurs demonstrated presence of new bone when compared to femurs injected with saline which showed little or no bone formation. The new bone contained few donor cells as demonstrated by GFP fluorescence. At six weeks following cell injection, new bone was still detectable in the recipient femurs but was enhanced by injection of the cells suspended in pepsin solublized type I collagen. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining showed that donor GFP positive cells in the new bone were localized with osteocalcin expressing cells suggesting that the cells differentiated into osteoblasts in vivo. Biomechanical loading to failure in thee point bending, revealed that, femurs infused with BMSCs in PBS or in soluble type I collagen were biomechanically stronger than those injected with PBS or type I collagen alone. Taken together, the results indicate that transplanted cells differentiated into osteoblasts in vivo and contributed to bone formation in vivo; we also speculate that donor cells induced differentiation or recruitment of endogenous cells to initiate reparative process at early stages following transplantation. PMID:20570757

  10. Hepatic differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells in miniaturized format suitable for high-throughput screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Carpentier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of protocols to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs including embryonic (ESC and induced pluripotent (iPSC stem cells into functional hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs creates new opportunities to study liver metabolism, genetic diseases and infection of hepatotropic viruses (hepatitis B and C viruses in the context of specific genetic background. While supporting efficient differentiation to HLCs, the published protocols are limited in terms of differentiation into fully mature hepatocytes and in a smaller-well format. This limitation handicaps the application of these cells to high-throughput assays. Here we describe a protocol allowing efficient and consistent hepatic differentiation of hPSCs in 384-well plates into functional hepatocyte-like cells, which remain differentiated for more than 3 weeks. This protocol affords the unique opportunity to miniaturize the hPSC-based differentiation technology and facilitates screening for molecules in modulating liver differentiation, metabolism, genetic network, and response to infection or other external stimuli.

  11. KIF11 Is Required for Spheroid Formation by Oesophageal and Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Takeharu; Oue, Naohide; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Sakamoto, Naoya; Uraoka, Naohiro; Egi, Hiroyuki; Hinoi, Takao; Ohdan, Hideki; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Yasui, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) are common types of human cancer. Spheroid colony formation is used to characterize cancer stem cell (CSCs). In the present study, we analyzed the significance of kinesin family 11 (KIF11 in human ESCC and CRC. Expression of KIF11 in 105 ESCC and 100 CRC cases was determined using immunohistochemistry. RNA interference was used to inhibit KIF11 expression in ESCC and CRC cell lines. In total, 61 out of 105 (58%) ESCC and 62 out of 100 (62%) CRC cases were positive for KIF11. Expression of KIF11 was not associated with any clinicopathological characteristics. Both the number and size of spheres produced by from TE-5 ESCC cells and DLD-1 CRC cells were significantly reduced upon KIF11 siRNA transfection compared to negative control siRNA transfection. These results indicate that KIF11 plays an important role in CSCs of ESCC and CRC. Copyright© 2017 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. Evolutionarily conserved sites in yeast tropomyosin function in cell polarity, transport and contractile ring formation

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    Susanne Cranz-Mileva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropomyosin is a coiled-coil protein that binds and regulates actin filaments. The tropomyosin gene in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cdc8, is required for formation of actin cables, contractile rings, and polar localization of actin patches. The roles of conserved residues were investigated in gene replacement mutants. The work validates an evolution-based approach to identify tropomyosin functions in living cells and sites of potential interactions with other proteins. A cdc8 mutant with near-normal actin affinity affects patch polarization and vacuole fusion, possibly by affecting Myo52p, a class V myosin, function. The presence of labile residual cell attachments suggests a delay in completion of cell division and redistribution of cell patches following cytokinesis. Another mutant with a mild phenotype is synthetic negative with GFP-fimbrin, inferring involvement of the mutated tropomyosin sites in interaction between the two proteins. Proteins that assemble in the contractile ring region before actin do so in a mutant cdc8 strain that cannot assemble condensed actin rings, yet some cells can divide. Of general significance, LifeAct-GFP negatively affects the actin cytoskeleton, indicating caution in its use as a biomarker for actin filaments.

  13. Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation Gene Expression in Strontium-inducing Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell

    OpenAIRE

    SILA-ASNA, MONNIPHA; BUNYARATVEJ, AHNOND; Maeda, Sakan; Kitaguchi, Hiromichi; BUNYARATAVEJ, NARONG

    2007-01-01

    Osteoblastic differentiation from human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs) is animportant step of bone formation. We studied the in vitro induction of hMSCs byusing strontium ranelate, a natural trace amount in water, food and human skeleton.The mRNA synthesis of various osteoblast specific genes was assessed by means ofreverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the hMSCs culture,strontium ranelate could enhance the induction of hMSCs to differentiate intoosteoblasts. Cbfa1 gene ...

  14. Dimensional analysis system for fuel elements experience in hot cells plate format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Orozimbo J.; Dutra Neto, Aimore; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.; Dias, Ailton F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a system for visual and dimensional analysis of compact-core reactors fuel elements in plate format. The system, composed of a co-ordinated x, y, z computerized table, has to be operative inside of a hot cell for the visual inspection and dimensional measurements of the post irradiated fuel elements. The control method of the x, y, z table axes, the data acquisition and the process control technique using computer, are described. Experimental data handling and the expected future of the project are presented and commented. This work expand previous investigations on a dimensional analysis system carried out by Brazilian Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP). (author)

  15. Influence of cartilage extracellular matrix molecules on cell phenotype and neocartilage formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Shawn P; Chen, Xian; Sovani, Sujata; Taniguchi, Noboru; Colwell, Clifford W; Lotz, Martin K; D'Lima, Darryl D

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between chondrocytes and the cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for maintaining the cartilage's role as a low-friction and load-bearing tissue. In this study, we examined the influence of cartilage zone-specific ECM on human articular chondrocytes (HAC) in two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) environments. Two culture systems were used. SYSTEM 1: HAC were cultured on cell-culture plates that had been precoated with the following ECM molecules for 7 days: decorin, biglycan, tenascin C (superficial zone), collagen type II, hyaluronan (HA) (middle and deep zones), and osteopontin (deep zone). Uncoated standard culture plates were used as controls. Expanded cells were examined for phenotypic changes using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, expanded cells were placed into high-density pellet cultures for 14 days. Neocartilage formation was assessed via gene expression and histology evaluations. SYSTEM 2: HAC that were cultured on untreated plates and encapsulated in a 3D alginate scaffold were mixed with one of the zone-specific ECM molecules. Cell viability, gene expression, and histology assessments were conducted on 14-day-old tissues. In HAC monolayer culture, exposure to decorin, HA, and osteopontin increased COL2A1 and aggrecan messenger RNA (mRNA) levels compared with controls. Biglycan up-regulated aggrecan without a significant impact on COL2A1 expression; Tenascin C reduced COL2A1 expression. Neocartilage formed after preculture on tenascin C and collagen type II expressed higher COL2A1 mRNA compared with control pellets. Preculture of HAC on HA decreased both COL2A1 and aggrecan expression levels compared with controls, which was consistent with histology. Reduced proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) mRNA levels were observed in HAC pellets that had been precultured with biglycan and collagen type II. Exposing HAC to HA directly in 3D-alginate culture most effectively induced neocartilage formation, showing increased COL2A1

  16. Mast cell chymase potentiates histamine-induced wheal formation in the skin of ragweed-allergic dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinstein, I; Nadel, J A; Graf, P D; Caughey, G H

    1990-01-01

    Skin mast cells release the neutral protease chymase along with histamine during degranulation. To test the hypothesis that chymase modulates histamine-induced plasma extravasation, we measured wheal formation following intradermal injection of purified mast cell chymase and histamine into the skin of ragweed-allergic dogs. We found that chymase greatly augments histamine-induced wheal formation. The magnitude of the potentiating effect increases with increasing doses of chymase and becomes m...

  17. v-Src-induced nuclear localization of YAP is involved in multipolar spindle formation in tetraploid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakae, Keiko; Ikeuchi, Masayoshi; Kuga, Takahisa; Saito, Youhei; Yamaguchi, Naoto; Nakayama, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    The protein-tyrosine kinase, c-Src, is involved in a variety of signaling events, including cell division. We have reported that v-Src, which is a mutant variant of the cellular proto-oncogene, c-Src, causes delocalization of Aurora B kinase, resulting in a furrow regression in cytokinesis and the generation of multinucleated cells. However, the effect of v-Src on mitotic spindle formation is unknown. Here we show that v-Src-expressing HCT116 and NIH3T3 cells undergo abnormal cell division, in which cells separate into more than two cells. Upon v-Src expression, the proportion of multinucleated cells is increased in a time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that v-Src increases the number of cells having a ≥4N DNA content. Microscopic analysis showed that v-Src induces the formation of multipolar spindles with excess centrosomes. These results suggest that v-Src induces multipolar spindle formation by generating multinucleated cells. Tetraploidy activates the tetraploidy checkpoint, leading to a cell cycle arrest of tetraploid cells at the G1 phase, in which the nuclear exclusion of the transcription co-activator YAP plays a critical role. In multinucleated cells that are induced by cytochalasin B and the Plk1 inhibitor, YAP is excluded from the nucleus. However, v-Src prevents this nuclear exclusion of YAP through a decrease in the phosphorylation of YAP at Ser127 in multinucleated cells. Furthermore, v-Src decreases the expression level of p53, which also plays a critical role in the cell cycle arrest of tetraploid cells. These results suggest that v-Src promotes abnormal spindle formation in at least two ways: generation of multinucleated cells and a weakening of the tetraploidy checkpoint. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quorum sensing negatively regulates multinucleate cell formation during intracellular growth of Burkholderia pseudomallei in macrophage-like cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E Horton

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative environmental bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis, a potentially fatal, acute or chronic disease endemic in the tropics. Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL-mediated quorum sensing and signalling have been associated with virulence and biofilm formation in numerous bacterial pathogens. In the canonical acyl-homoserine lactone signalling paradigm, AHLs are detected by a response regulator. B. pseudomallei encodes three AHL synthases, encoded by bpsI1, bpsI2 and bpsI3, and five regulator genes. In this study, we mutated the B. pseudomallei AHL synthases individually and in double and triple combination. Five AHLs were detected and quantified by tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The major AHLs produced were N-octanoylhomoserine lactone and N-(3-hydroxy-decanoylhomoserine lactone, the expression of which depended on bpsI1 and bpsI2, respectively. B. pseudomallei infection of macrophage cells causes cell fusion, leading to multinucleated cells (3 or more nuclei per cell. A triple mutant defective in production of all three AHL synthases was associated with a striking phenotype of massively enhanced host cellular fusion in macrophages. However, neither abrogation of host cell fusion, achieved by mutation of bimA or hcp1, nor enhancement of fusion altered intracellular replication of B. pseudomallei. Furthermore, when tested in murine models of acute melioidosis the AHL synthase mutants were not attenuated for virulence. Collectively, this study identifies important new aspects of the genetic basis of AHL synthesis in B. pseudomallei and the roles of these AHLs in systemic infection and in cell fusion in macrophages for this important human pathogen.

  19. Galectin-4 Reduces Migration and Metastasis Formation of Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

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    Ana I Belo

    Full Text Available Galectin-4 (Gal-4 is a member of the galectin family of glycan binding proteins that shows a significantly higher expression in cystic tumors of the human pancreas and in pancreatic adenocarcinomas compared to normal pancreas. However, the putative function of Gal-4 in tumor progression of pancreatic cancer is still incompletely understood. In this study the role of Gal-4 in cancer progression was investigated, using a set of defined pancreatic cancer cell lines, Pa-Tu-8988S (PaTu-S and Pa-Tu-8988T (PaTu-T, as a model. These two cell lines are derived from the same liver metastasis of a human primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma, but differ in their growth characteristics and metastatic capacity. We demonstrated that Gal-4 expression is high in PaTu-S, which shows poor migratory properties, whereas much lower Gal-4 levels are observed in the highly metastatic cell line PaTu-T. In PaTu-S, Gal-4 is found in the cytoplasm, but it is also secreted and accumulates at the membrane at sites of contact with neighboring cells. Moreover, we show that Gal-4 inhibits metastasis formation by delaying migration of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro using a scratch assay, and in vivo using zebrafish (Danio rerio as an experimental model. Our data suggest that Gal-4 may act at the cell-surface of PaTu-S as an adhesion molecule to prevent release of the tumor cells, but has in addition a cytosolic function by inhibiting migration via a yet unknown mechanism.

  20. Insulin-like growth factor I has independent effects on bone matrix formation and cell replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hock, J.M.; Centrella, M.; Canalis, E.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin on bone matrix synthesis and bone cell replication were studied in cultured 21-day-old fetal rat calvariae. Histomorphometry techniques were developed to measure the incorporation of [2,3- 3 H]proline and [methyl- 3 H]thymidine into bone matrix and bone cell nuclei, respectively, using autoradiographs of sagittal sections of calvariae cultured with IGF-I, insulin, or vehicle for up to 96 h. To confirm an effect on bone formation, IGF-I was also studied for its effects on [ 3 H]proline incorporation into collagenase-digestible protein (CDP) and noncollagen protein and on [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into acid-precipitable material (DNA). IGF-I at 10(-9)-10(-7) M significantly increased the rate of bone matrix apposition and CDP after 24 h by 45-50% and increased cell labeling by 8-fold in the osteoprogenitor cell zone, by 4-fold in the osteoblast cell zone, and by 2-fold in the periosteal fibroblast zone. Insulin at 10(-9)-10(-6) M also increased matrix apposition rate and CDP by 40-50%, but increased cell labeling by 2-fold only at a concentration of 10(-7) M or higher and then only in the osteoprogenitor cell zone. When hydroxyurea was added to IGF-I-treated bones, the effects of IGF-I on DNA synthesis were abolished, but the increase in bone matrix apposition induced by IGF-I was only partly diminished. In conclusion, IGF-I stimulates matrix synthesis in calvariae, an effect that is partly, although not completely, dependent on its stimulatory effect on DNA synthesis

  1. Influence of Hybrid Perovskite Fabrication Methods on Film Formation, Electronic Structure, and Solar Cell Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnier, Tobias; Emara, Jennifer; Olthof, Selina; Meerholz, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic halide perovskites have lately been a topic of great interest in the field of solar cell applications, with the potential to achieve device efficiencies exceeding other thin film device technologies. Yet, large variations in device efficiency and basic physical properties are reported. This is due to unintentional variations during film processing, which have not been sufficiently investigated so far. We therefore conducted an extensive study of the morphology and electronic structure of a large number of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite where we show how the preparation method as well as the mixing ratio of educts methylammonium iodide and lead(II) iodide impact properties like film formation, crystal structure, density of states, energy levels, and ultimately the solar cell performance. PMID:28287555

  2. Electromagnetic particle in cell modeling of the plasma focus: Current sheath formation and lift off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seng, Y. S.; Lee, P.; Rawat, R. S.

    2014-01-01

    The shaping and formation of the current sheath takes place in the breakdown phase of a plasma focus device and critically controls the device performance. Electrostatic particle in cell codes, with magnetic effects ignored, have been used to model the breakdown phase. This Letter reports the successful development and implementation of an electromagnetic particle in cell (EMPIC) code, including magnetic effects self-consistently, to simulate the breakdown phase; from the ionization, localization and gliding discharge along the insulator to the time instant of current sheath lift off. The magnetic field was found to be appreciable from the time the current sheath came into contact with the anode with increased local current, initiating the voltage breakdown of the device as a result

  3. Tanshindiol C inhibits oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced macrophage foam cell formation via a peroxiredoxin 1 dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuyu; Li, Xueyan; Peng, Liying; An, Lin; Sun, Ningyuan; Hu, Xuewen; Zhou, Ping; Xu, Yong; Li, Ping; Chen, Jun

    2018-03-01

    NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been shown to be protective in atherosclerosis. The loss of Nrf2 in macrophages enhances foam cell formation and promotes early atherogenesis. Tanshindiol C (Tan C) is isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge., a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used for the treatment of several cardiovascular diseases for many years. This study was aimed to test the potential role of Tan C against macrophage foam cell formation and to explore the underlying mechanism. Firstly, we observed that Tan C markedly suppressed oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) induced macrophage foam cell formation. Then, we found that Tan C was an activator of both Nrf2 and Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) in macrophages. Nrf2 and Sirt1 synergistically activated the transcription of anti-oxidant peroxiredoxin 1 (Prdx1) after Tan C treatment. More important, we demonstrated that silencing of Prdx1 promoted oxLDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation. Prdx1 upregulated adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression and decreased intracellular lipid accumulation. Furthermore, Tan C ameliorated oxLDL induced macrophage foam cell formation in a Prdx1-dependent manner. These observations suggest that Tan C protects macrophages from oxLDL induced foam cell formation via activation of Prdx1/ABCA1 signaling and that Prdx1 may be a novel target for therapeutic intervention of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of PtAu/C electrocatalysts toward formate oxidation: electrochemical and fuel cell considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlane G. da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study reports the use of PtAu/C electrocatalysts with different atomic ratios (90:10, 70:30 and 50:50 supported on Vulcan XC 72 carbon and prepared by the sodium borohydride method toward formate electro-oxidation in alkaline media. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, showing peaks characteristics of Pt and Au face-centered-cubic structures, and also by transmission electron micrographs that show the nanoparticles well dispersed on carbon and a mean particle size between 4 and 5 nm for all electrocatalysts. Electrochemical experiments show PtAu/C as promising catalysts toward formate oxidation, while single cell experiments reveal PtAu/C 90:10 as the best material since it provides a power density higher than Pt/C. The incorporation of Au could increase formate oxidation for more than one reason: (i a facilitated rupture of C–H bond; (ii the Au/oxide interface or (iii by regenerating active sites.

  5. Carrier Formation Dynamics in Prototypical Organic Solar Cells as Investigated by Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

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    Yutaka Moritomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subpicosecond transient absorption spectroscopy is a powerful tool used to clarify the exciton and carrier dynamics within the organic solar cells (OSCs. In this review article, we introduce a method to determine the absolute numbers of the excitons and carriers against delay time (t only from the photoinduced absorption (PIA and electrochemically induced absorption (EIA spectra. Application of this method to rr-P3HT-, PTB7-, and SMDPPEH-based OSCs revealed common aspects of the carrier formation dynamics. First, the temporal evolution of the numbers of the excitons and carriers indicates that the late decay component of exciton does not contribute to the carrier formation process. This is probably because the late component has not enough excess energy to separate into the electron and hole across the donor/acceptor (D/A interface. Secondly, the spectroscopy revealed that the exciton-to-carrier conversion process is insensitive to temperature. This observation, together with the fast carrier formation time in OSCs, is consistent with the hot exciton picture.

  6. Oligodeoxynucleotide nanostructure formation in the presence of polypropyleneimine dendrimers and their uptake in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Alex M; Santhakumaran, Latha M; Nair, Sandhya K; Amenta, Peter S; Thomas, Thresia; He, Huixin; Thomas, T J

    2006-01-01

    We studied the efficacy of five generations of polypropyleneimine (PPI) dendrimer to provoke nanostructure formation from a 21-nucleotide antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN). Nanostructure formation was observed with all generations of dendrimer by light scattering and microscopic techniques. The efficacy of the dendrimers increased with generation number. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the morphology of the structures at different condensation stages. Based on the observed nanostructures, we propose a zipping condensation mechanism, which is very different from the condensation pathways of high molecular weight DNA polymers. Electron microscopy showed the presence of toroidal nanoparticles. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that the nanostructures formed with G-4 and G-5 dendrimers could undergo facile cellular uptake in a breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, whereas nanostructures formed with G-1 to G-3 dendrimers lacked this ability. Nanoparticles formed with G-1 to G-3 dendrimers showed significantly lower zeta potential (5.2-6.5 mV) than those (12-18 mV) of particles formed with G-4 and G-5 dendrimers. These results show that the structure and charge density of the dendrimers are important in ODN nanoparticle formation and cellular transport and that G-4 and G-5 dendrimers are useful in cellular delivery of antisense ODN

  7. Cell Differentiation in a Bacillus thuringiensis Population during Planktonic Growth, Biofilm Formation, and Host Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplaetse, Emilie; Slamti, Leyla; Gohar, Michel; Lereclus, Didier

    2015-04-28

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is armed to complete a full cycle in its insect host. During infection, virulence factors are expressed under the control of the quorum sensor PlcR to kill the host. After the host's death, the quorum sensor NprR controls a necrotrophic lifestyle, allowing the vegetative cells to use the insect cadaver as a bioincubator and to survive. Only a part of the Bt population sporulates in the insect cadaver, and the precise composition of the whole population and its evolution over time are unknown. Using fluorescent reporters to record gene expression at the single-cell level, we have determined the differentiation course of a Bt population and explored the lineage existing among virulent, necrotrophic, and sporulating cells. The dynamics of cell differentiation were monitored during growth in homogenized medium, biofilm formation, and colonization of insect larvae. We demonstrated that in the insect host and in planktonic culture in rich medium, the virulence, necrotrophism, and sporulation regulators are successively activated in the same cell. In contrast, in biofilms, activation of PlcR is dispensable for NprR activation and we observed a greater heterogeneity than under the other two growth conditions. We also showed that sporulating cells arise almost exclusively from necrotrophic cells. In biofilm and in the insect cadaver, we identified an as-yet-uncharacterized category of cells that do not express any of the reporters used. Overall, we showed that PlcR, NprR, and Spo0A act as interconnected integrators to allow finely tuned adaptation of the pathogen to its environment. Bt is an entomopathogen found ubiquitously in the environment and is a widely used biopesticide. Studies performed at the population level suggest that the infection process of Bt includes three successive steps (virulence, necrotrophism, and sporulation) controlled by different regulators. This study aimed to determine how these phenotypes are activated at the

  8. Subinhibitory concentrations of triclosan promote Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and adherence to oral epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Blanca Lombardo Bedran

    Full Text Available Triclosan is a general membrane-active agent with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that is commonly used in oral care products. In this study, we investigated the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of triclosan on the capacity of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans to form biofilm and adhere to oral epithelial cells. As quantified by crystal violet staining, biofilm formation by two reference strains of S. mutans was dose-dependently promoted, in the range of 2.2- to 6.2-fold, by 1/2 and 1/4 MIC of triclosan. Observations by scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of a dense biofilm attached to the polystyrene surface. Growth of S. mutans in the presence of triclosan at sub-MICs also increased its capacity to adhere to a monolayer of gingival epithelial cells. The expression of several genes involved in adherence and biofilm formation in S. mutans was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that sub-MICs of triclosan significantly increased the expression of comD, gtfC, and luxS, and to a lesser extent of gtfB and atlA genes. These findings stress the importance of maintaining effective bactericidal concentrations of therapeutic triclosan since sub-MICs may promote colonization of the oral cavity by S. mutans.

  9. Subinhibitory Concentrations of Triclosan Promote Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Adherence to Oral Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedran, Telma Blanca Lombardo; Grignon, Louis; Spolidorio, Denise Palomari; Grenier, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Triclosan is a general membrane-active agent with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that is commonly used in oral care products. In this study, we investigated the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of triclosan on the capacity of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans to form biofilm and adhere to oral epithelial cells. As quantified by crystal violet staining, biofilm formation by two reference strains of S. mutans was dose-dependently promoted, in the range of 2.2- to 6.2-fold, by 1/2 and 1/4 MIC of triclosan. Observations by scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of a dense biofilm attached to the polystyrene surface. Growth of S. mutans in the presence of triclosan at sub-MICs also increased its capacity to adhere to a monolayer of gingival epithelial cells. The expression of several genes involved in adherence and biofilm formation in S. mutans was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that sub-MICs of triclosan significantly increased the expression of comD, gtfC, and luxS, and to a lesser extent of gtfB and atlA genes. These findings stress the importance of maintaining effective bactericidal concentrations of therapeutic triclosan since sub-MICs may promote colonization of the oral cavity by S. mutans. PMID:24551218

  10. Transcription is Associated with Z-DNA Formation in Metabolically Active Permeabilized Mammalian Cell Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Burghardt; Dorbic, Tomislav; Rich, Alexander

    1991-03-01

    Mammalian cells have been encapsulated in agarose microbeads, and from these cells metabolically active permeabilized nuclei were prepared. Previously, we showed that biotin-labeled monoclonal antibodies against Z-DNA can be diffused into the nuclei and, over a specific concentration range, they will bind to Z-DNA within the nucleus in a concentration-independent manner. By using radiolabeled streptavidin, we showed that the amount of Z-DNA antibody bound is related to the torsional strain of the DNA in the nucleus. Relaxation of the DNA results in a decrease of Z-DNA formation, whereas increasing torsional strain through inhibiting topoisomerase I results in increased Z-DNA formation. Here we measure the influence of RNA transcription and DNA replication. Transcription is associated with a substantial increase in the binding of anti-Z-DNA antibodies, paralleling the increased level of RNA synthesized as the level of ribonucleoside triphosphate in the medium is increased. DNA replication yields smaller increases in the binding of Z-DNA antibodies. Stopping RNA transcription with inhibitors results in a large loss of Z-DNA antibody binding, whereas only a small decrease is associated with inhibition of DNA replication.

  11. The Secreted Protease PrtA Controls Cell Growth, Biofilm Formation and Pathogenicity in Xylella fastidiosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouran, Hossein; Gillespie, Hyrum; Nascimento, Rafael; Chakraborty, Sandeep; Zaini, Paulo A.; Jacobson, Aaron; Phinney, Brett S.; Dolan, David; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Antonova, Elena S.; Lindow, Steven E.; Mellema, Matthew S.; Goulart, Luiz R.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

    2016-01-01

    Pierce’s disease (PD) is a deadly disease of grapevines caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Though disease symptoms were formerly attributed to bacteria blocking the plant xylem, this hypothesis is at best overly simplistic. Recently, we used a proteomic approach to characterize the secretome of X. fastidiosa, both in vitro and in planta, and identified LesA as one of the pathogenicity factors of X. fastidiosa in grapevines that leads to leaf scorching and chlorosis. Herein, we characterize another such factor encoded by PD0956, designated as an antivirulence secreted protease “PrtA” that displays a central role in controlling in vitro cell proliferation, length, motility, biofilm formation, and in planta virulence. The mutant in X. fastidiosa exhibited reduced cell length, hypermotility (and subsequent lack of biofilm formation) and hypervirulence in grapevines. These findings are supported by transcriptomic and proteomic analyses with corresponding plant infection data. Of particular interest, is the hypervirulent response in grapevines observed when X. fastidiosa is disrupted for production of PrtA, and that PD-model tobacco plants transformed to express PrtA exhibited decreased symptoms after infection by X. fastidiosa. PMID:27492542

  12. Differential Growth in Periclinal and Anticlinal Walls during Lobe Formation in Arabidopsis Cotyledon Pavement Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, William J; Barton, Deborah A; Law, Andrew M K; Overall, Robyn L

    2015-09-01

    Lobe development in the epidermal pavement cells of Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledons and leaves is thought to take place via tip-like growth on the concave side of lobes driven by localized concentrations of actin filaments and associated proteins, with a predicted role for cortical microtubules in establishing the direction of restricted growth at the convex side. We used homologous landmarks fixed to the outer walls of pavement cells and thin-plate spline analysis to demonstrate that lobes form by differential growth of both the anticlinal and periclinal walls. Most lobes formed within the first 24 h of the cotyledons unfurling, during the period of rapid cell expansion. Cortical microtubules adjacent to the periclinal wall were persistently enriched at the convex side of lobes during development where growth was anisotropic and were less concentrated or absent at the concave side where growth was promoted. Alternating microtubule-enriched and microtubule-free zones at the periclinal wall in neighboring cells predicted sites of new lobes. There was no particular arrangement of cortical actin filaments that could predict where lobes would form. However, drug studies demonstrate that both filamentous actin and microtubules are required for lobe formation. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhancement of committed hematopoietic stem cell colony formation by nandrolone decanoate after sublethal whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate, to increase committed topoietic stem cell (CFU-gm, CFU-e, and BFU-e) colony formation after sublethal irradiation was evaluated. Immediately after receiving whole body irradiation and on the next two days, each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with nandrolone decanoate (1.25 mg) in propylene glycol. Irradiated control mice received only propylene glycol. Compared to controls, drug-treated mice showed marked peripheral blood leukocytosis and more stable packed red cell volume. Drug-treated mice also demonstrated increased erythropoiesis, as CFU-e/BFU-e concentrations from both marrow (9% to 581%) and spleen (15% to 797%) were elevated. Granulopoiesis was increased similarly, as CFU-gm concentrations from marrow (38% to 685%) and spleen (9% to 373%) were elevated. These results demonstrate that nandrolone decanoate enhances hematopoietic stem cell recovery after sublethal whole body irradiation. This suggests that following hematopoietic suppression, nandrolone decanoate may stimulate the recovery of hematopoiesis at the stem cell level and in peripheral blood

  14. Enhancement of committed hematopoietic stem cell colony formation by nandrolone decanoate after sublethal whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.

    1984-11-01

    The ability of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate, to increase committed topoietic stem cell (CFU-gm, CFU-e, and BFU-e) colony formation after sublethal irradiation was evaluated. Immediately after receiving whole body irradiation and on the next two days, each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with nandrolone decanoate (1.25 mg) in propylene glycol. Irradiated control mice received only propylene glycol. Compared to controls, drug-treated mice showed marked peripheral blood leukocytosis and more stable packed red cell volume. Drug-treated mice also demonstrated increased erythropoiesis, as CFU-e/BFU-e concentrations from both marrow (9% to 581%) and spleen (15% to 797%) were elevated. Granulopoiesis was increased similarly, as CFU-gm concentrations from marrow (38% to 685%) and spleen (9% to 373%) were elevated. These results demonstrate that nandrolone decanoate enhances hematopoietic stem cell recovery after sublethal whole body irradiation. This suggests that following hematopoietic suppression, nandrolone decanoate may stimulate the recovery of hematopoiesis at the stem cell level and in peripheral blood.

  15. Nanolayer formation on titanium by phosphonated gelatin for cell adhesion and growth enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyue; Park, Shin-Hye; Mao, Hongli; Isoshima, Takashi; Wang, Yi; Ito, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Phosphonated gelatin was prepared for surface modification of titanium to stimulate cell functions. The modified gelatin was synthesized by coupling with 3-aminopropylphosphonic acid using water-soluble carbodiimide and characterized by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography. Circular dichroism revealed no differences in the conformations of unmodified and phosphonated gelatin. However, the gelation temperature was changed by the modification. Even a high concentration of modified gelatin did not form a gel at room temperature. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry showed direct bonding between the phosphonated gelatin and the titanium surface after binding. The binding behavior of phosphonated gelatin on the titanium surface was quantitatively analyzed by a quartz crystal microbalance. Ellipsometry showed the formation of a several nanometer layer of gelatin on the surface. Contact angle measurement indicated that the modified titanium surface was hydrophobic. Enhancement of the attachment and spreading of MC-3T3L1 osteoblastic cells was observed on the phosphonated gelatin-modified titanium. These effects on cell adhesion also led to growth enhancement. Phosphonation of gelatin was effective for preparation of a cell-stimulating titanium surface. PMID:26366080

  16. Nanolayer formation on titanium by phosphonated gelatin for cell adhesion and growth enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyue; Park, Shin-Hye; Mao, Hongli; Isoshima, Takashi; Wang, Yi; Ito, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Phosphonated gelatin was prepared for surface modification of titanium to stimulate cell functions. The modified gelatin was synthesized by coupling with 3-aminopropylphosphonic acid using water-soluble carbodiimide and characterized by (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography. Circular dichroism revealed no differences in the conformations of unmodified and phosphonated gelatin. However, the gelation temperature was changed by the modification. Even a high concentration of modified gelatin did not form a gel at room temperature. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry showed direct bonding between the phosphonated gelatin and the titanium surface after binding. The binding behavior of phosphonated gelatin on the titanium surface was quantitatively analyzed by a quartz crystal microbalance. Ellipsometry showed the formation of a several nanometer layer of gelatin on the surface. Contact angle measurement indicated that the modified titanium surface was hydrophobic. Enhancement of the attachment and spreading of MC-3T3L1 osteoblastic cells was observed on the phosphonated gelatin-modified titanium. These effects on cell adhesion also led to growth enhancement. Phosphonation of gelatin was effective for preparation of a cell-stimulating titanium surface.

  17. Large format lithium ion pouch cell full thermal characterisation for improved electric vehicle thermal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Thomas; Barai, Anup; Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Guo, Yue; McGordon, Andrew; Marco, James

    2017-08-01

    It is crucial to maintain temperature homogeneity in lithium ion batteries in order to prevent adverse voltage distributions and differential ageing within the cell. As such, the thermal behaviour of a large-format 20 Ah lithium iron phosphate pouch cell is investigated over a wide range of ambient temperatures and C rates during both charging and discharging. Whilst previous studies have only considered one surface, this article presents experimental results, which characterise both surfaces of the cell exposed to similar thermal media and boundary conditions, allowing for thermal gradients in-plane and perpendicular to the stack to be quantified. Temperature gradients, caused by self-heating, are found to increase with increasing C rate and decreasing temperature to such an extent that 13.4 ± 0.7% capacity can be extracted using a 10C discharge compared to a 0.5C discharge, both at -10 °C ambient temperature. The former condition causes an 18.8 ± 1.1 °C in plane gradient and a 19.7 ± 0.8 °C thermal gradient perpendicular to the stack, which results in large current density distributions and local state of charge differences within the cell. The implications of these thermal and electrical inhomogeneities on ageing and battery pack design for the automotive industry are discussed.

  18. JNK1 Mediates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced CD14 and SR-AI Expression and Macrophage Foam Cell Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong An

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Foam cell formation is the key process in the development of atherosclerosis. The uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL converts macrophages into foam cells. We recently reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced foam cell formation is regulated by CD14 and scavenger receptor AI (SR-AI. In this study, we employed pharmaceutical and gene knockdown approaches to determine the upstream molecular mediators, which control LPS-induced foam cell formation. Our results demonstrated that the specific c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK pathway inhibitor, SP600125, but neither the specific inhibitor of extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK kinase MEK1/2, U0126, nor the specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, SB203580, significantly blocks LPS-induced oxLDL uptake, suggesting that the JNK pathway is the upstream mediator of LPS-induced oxLDL uptake/foam cell formation. To address whether JNK pathway mediates LPS-induced oxLDL uptake is due to JNK pathway-regulated CD14 and SR-AI expression, we assessed whether the pharmaceutical inhibitor of JNK influences LPS-induced expression of CD14 and SR-AI. Our results indicate that JNK pathway mediates LPS-induced CD14 and SR-AI expression. To conclusively address the isoform role of JNK family, we depleted JNK isoforms using the JNK isoform-specific siRNA. Our data showed that the depletion of JNK1, but not JNK2 blocked LPS-induced CD14/SR-AI expression and foam cell formation. Taken together, our results reveal for the first time that JNK1 is the key mediator of LPS-induced CD14 and SR-AI expression in macrophages, leading to LPS-induced oxLDL uptake/foam cell formation. We conclude that the novel JNK1/CD14/SR-AI pathway controls macrophage oxLDL uptake/foam cell formation.

  19. Overexpression of Catalase in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Prevents the Formation of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parastatidis, Ioannis; Weiss, Daiana; Joseph, Giji; Taylor, W Robert

    2013-01-01

    Objective Elevated levels of oxidative stress have been reported in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), but which reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes the development of AAA remains unclear. Here we investigate the effect of the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) degrading enzyme catalase on the formation of AAA. Approach and Results AAA were induced with the application of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on mouse infrarenal aortas. The administration of PEG-catalase, but not saline, attenuated the loss of tunica media and protected against AAA formation (0.91±0.1 mm vs. 0.76±0.09 mm). Similarly, in a transgenic mouse model, catalase over-expression in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) preserved the thickness of tunica media and inhibited aortic dilatation by 50% (0.85±0.14 mm vs. 0.57±0.08 mm). Further studies showed that injury with CaCl2 decreased catalase expression and activity in the aortic wall. Pharmacologic administration or genetic over-expression of catalase restored catalase activity and subsequently decreased matrix metalloproteinase activity. In addition, a profound reduction in inflammatory markers and VSMC apoptosis was evident in aortas of catalase over-expressing mice. Interestingly, as opposed to infusion of PEG-catalase, chronic over-expression of catalase in VSMC did not alter the total aortic H2O2 levels. Conclusions The data suggest that a reduction in aortic wall catalase activity can predispose to AAA formation. Restoration of catalase activity in the vascular wall enhances aortic VSMC survival and prevents AAA formation primarily through modulation of matrix metalloproteinase activity. PMID:23950141

  20. Real time monitoring of sickle cell hemoglobin fiber formation by UV resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, Kelly M; Mukerji, Ishita

    2009-10-20

    In sickle cell hemoglobin, individual tetramers associate into long fibers as a consequence of the mutation at the beta6 position. In this study UV resonance Raman spectroscopy is used to monitor the formation of Hb S fibers in real time through aromatic amino acid vibrational modes. The intermolecular contact formed by the mutation site ((1)beta(1)6 Glu-->Val) of one tetramer and the (2)beta(2)85 Phe-(2)beta(2)88 Leu hydrophobic pocket on a different tetramer is observed by monitoring the increase in signal intensity of Phe vibrational modes as a function of time, yielding kinetic progress curves similar to those obtained by turbidity measurements. Comparison of individual spectra collected at early time points (<1000 s) show small Phe intensity changes, which are attributed to weak transient associations of Hb S tetramers during the initial stages of the polymerization process. At later times (1000-2000 s) Phe signal intensity steadily increases because of increasing hydrophobicity of local Phe environment, a consequence of forming more stable (1)beta(1)-(2)beta(2) contacts. Tyr and Trp vibrational modes monitor H-bond strength between critical residues at the alpha(1)beta(2) interface of individual tetramers. Kinetic progress curves generated from these signals exhibit two distinct transitions at 2040 and 7340 s. These transitions, which occur later in time than those detected either by turbidity (1560 s) or by Phe signal intensity (1680 s), are attributed to initial fiber formation and subsequent formation of larger assemblies, such as macrofibers or gels. These results provide molecular insight into the interactions governing Hb S fiber formation.

  1. The role of Bgl2p in the transition to filamentous cells during biofilm formation by Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyue; Zhang, Ruoyu; Takada, Ayako; Iwatani, Shun; Oka, Chiemi; Kitamoto, Toshitaka; Kajiwara, Susumu

    2017-02-01

    The fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a transition from yeast cells to filamentous cells that is related to its pathogenicity. The complex multicellular processes involved in biofilm formation by this fungus also include this transition. In this work, we investigated the morphological role of the Bgl2 protein (Bgl2p) in the transition to filamentous cells during biofilm formation by C. albicans. Bgl2p has been identified as a β-1, 3-glucosyltransferase, and transcription of the CaBGL2 gene is upregulated during biofilm formation. We used scanning electron microscopy to observe the microstructure of a bgl2 null mutant during biofilm formation and found a delay in the transition to filamentous cells in the premature phase (24 hours) of biofilm formation. Deletion of the CaBGL2 gene led to a decrease in the expression of CPH2 and TEC1, which encode transcription factors required for the transition to the filamentous form. These findings indicate that Bgl2p plays a role in the transition to filamentous cells during biofilm formation by C. albicans. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. A reaction–diffusion mechanism influences cell lineage progression as a basis for formation, regeneration, and stability of intestinal crypts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lei

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colon crypts, a single sheet of epithelia cells, consist of a periodic pattern of stem cells, transit-amplifying cells, and terminally differentiated cells that constantly renew and turnover. Experimental evidence suggests that Wnt signaling promotes and regulates stem cell division, differentiation, and possible cell migrations while intestinal BMP signaling inhibits stem cell self-renewal and repression in crypt formation. As more molecular details on Wnt and BMP in crypts are being discovered, little is still known about how complex interactions among Wnt, BMP, and different types of cells, and surrounding environments may lead to de novo formation of multiple crypts or how such interactions affect regeneration and stability of crypts. Results We present a mathematical model that contains Wnt and BMP, a cell lineage, and their feedback regulations to study formation, regeneration, and stability of multiple crypts. The computational explorations and linear stability analysis of the model suggest a reaction–diffusion mechanism, which exhibits a short-range activation of Wnt plus a long-range inhibition with modulation of BMP signals in a growing tissue of cell lineage, can account for spontaneous formation of multiple crypts with the spatial and temporal pattern observed in experiments. Through this mechanism, the model can recapitulate some distinctive and important experimental findings such as crypt regeneration and crypt multiplication. BMP is important in maintaining stability of crypts and loss of BMP usually leads to crypt multiplication with a fingering pattern. Conclusions The study provides a mechanism for de novo formation of multiple intestinal crypts and demonstrates a synergetic role of Wnt and BMP in regeneration and stability of intestinal crypts. The proposed model presents a robust framework for studying spatial and temporal dynamics of cell lineages in growing tissues driven by multiple signaling

  3. CD4+ T cells mediate abscess formation in intra-abdominal sepsis by an IL-17-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Doo Ryeon; Kasper, Dennis L; Panzo, Ronald J; Chitnis, Tanuja; Grusby, Michael J; Sayegh, Mohamed H; Tzianabos, Arthur O; Chtinis, Tanuja

    2003-02-15

    Abscess formation associated with intra-abdominal sepsis causes severe morbidity and can be fatal. Previous studies have implicated T cells in the pathogenesis of abscess formation, and we have recently shown that CD4(+) T cells activated in vitro by zwitterionic capsular polysaccharides from abscess-inducing bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacteroides fragilis initiate this host response when transferred to naive rats. In this study, we show that mice deficient in alphabetaTCR-bearing T cells or CD4(+) T cells fail to develop abscesses following challenge with B. fragilis or abscess-inducing zwitterionic polysaccharides, compared with CD8(-/-) or wild-type animals. Transfer of CD4(+) T cells from wild-type mice to alphabetaTCR(-/-) animals reconstituted this ability. The induction of abscesses required T cell costimulation via the CD28-B7 pathway, and T cell transfer experiments with STAT4(-/-) and STAT6(-/-) mice demonstrated that this host response is dependent on STAT4 signaling. Significantly higher levels of IL-17, a proinflammatory cytokine produced almost exclusively by activated CD4(+) T cells, were associated with abscess formation in Th2-impaired (STAT6(-/-)) mice, while STAT4(-/-) mice had significantly lower levels of this cytokine than control animals. The formation of abscesses was preceded by an increase in the number of activated CD4(+) T cells in the peritoneal cavity 24 h following bacterial challenge. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy analysis revealed that CD4(+) T cells comprise the abscess wall in these animals and produce IL-17 at this site. Administration of a neutralizing Ab specific for IL-17 prevented abscess formation following bacterial challenge in mice. These data delineate the specific T cell response necessary for the development of intra-abdominal abscesses and underscore the role of IL-17 in this disease process.

  4. Stomatin-like protein 2 is required for in vivo mitochondrial respiratory chain supercomplex formation and optimal cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsopoulos, Panagiotis; Chang, Yu-Han; Wai, Timothy; König, Tim; Dunn, Stanley D; Langer, Thomas; Madrenas, Joaquín

    2015-05-01

    Stomatin-like protein 2 (SLP-2) is a mainly mitochondrial protein that is widely expressed and is highly conserved across evolution. We have previously shown that SLP-2 binds the mitochondrial lipid cardiolipin and interacts with prohibitin-1 and -2 to form specialized membrane microdomains in the mitochondrial inner membrane, which are associated with optimal mitochondrial respiration. To determine how SLP-2 functions, we performed bioenergetic analysis of primary T cells from T cell-selective Slp-2 knockout mice under conditions that forced energy production to come almost exclusively from oxidative phosphorylation. These cells had a phenotype characterized by increased uncoupled mitochondrial respiration and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Since formation of mitochondrial respiratory chain supercomplexes (RCS) may correlate with more efficient electron transfer during oxidative phosphorylation, we hypothesized that the defect in mitochondrial respiration in SLP-2-deficient T cells was due to deficient RCS formation. We found that in the absence of SLP-2, T cells had decreased levels and activities of complex I-III2 and I-III2-IV(1-3) RCS but no defects in assembly of individual respiratory complexes. Impaired RCS formation in SLP-2-deficient T cells correlated with significantly delayed T cell proliferation in response to activation under conditions of limiting glycolysis. Altogether, our findings identify SLP-2 as a key regulator of the formation of RCS in vivo and show that these supercomplexes are required for optimal cell function. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. TRAIL/DR5 signaling promotes macrophage foam cell formation by modulating scavenger receptor expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang Liu

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/Apo2L has been shown to have protective effects against atherosclerosis. However, whether TRAIL has any effects on expression of macrophage scavenger receptors and lipid uptake has not yet been studied. Macrophage lines RAW264.7 and THP-1, and mouse primary peritoneal macrophages, were cultured in vitro and treated with recombinant human TRAIL. Real-time PCR and western blot were performed to measure mRNA and protein expressions. Foam cell formation was assessed by internalization of acetylated and oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL. Apoptosis was measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling. We found that TRAIL treatment increased expression of scavenger receptor (SR-AI and SR-BI in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and this effect was accompanied by increased foam cell formation. These effects of TRAIL were abolished by a TRAIL neutralizing antibody or in DR5 receptor-deficient macrophages. The increased LDL uptake by TRAIL was blocked by SR-AI gene silencing or the SR-AI inhibitor poly(I:C, while SR-BI blockade with BLT-1 had no effect. TRAIL-induced SR-AI expression was blocked by the inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not by inhibitors of ERK1/2 or JNK. TRAIL also induced apoptosis in macrophages. In contrast to macrophages, TRAIL showed little effects on SR expression or apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that TRAIL promotes macrophage lipid uptake via SR-AI upregulation through activation of the p38 pathway.

  6. Pseudopolyrotaxane Formation in the Synthesis of Cyclodextrin Polymers: Effects on Drug Delivery, Mechanics, and Cell Compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatiparti, Thimma R; Juric, Dajan; von Recum, Horst A

    2017-04-19

    Numerous groups have reported the use of cyclodextrin (CD)-based polymers for drug delivery applications due to their capacity to form inclusions with small molecule drugs, delaying the rate of drug release beyond that of diffusion alone (termed "affinity-based" drug delivery). Herein we demonstrate synthesis and characterization of a new family of CD-based polymers, some as pseudopolyrotaxanes, generated under mild (aqueous, room temperature) conditions. The formation of these new affinity polymers results in broad mechanical properties. Three diglycidylether cross-linkers which vary in length from 0 to 10 ethylene glycol units were examined. Pseudopolyrotaxane formation was found only with the highest-length cross-linker, noted first by a sharp change in both material properties and then confirmed by chemical signature. Materials were thoroughly evaluated by NMR, DSC, DMA, TGA, XRD, and FTIR. Cross-linker choice was also tested for impact on drug loading and delivery capacity, using antibiotics as model drugs. Chemically similar polymers without showing affinity rapidly saturated in loading experiments, while affinity materials showing high capacity for drug loading, even beyond the solubility limit of the drugs. When using the polymers with these new cross-linkers, affinity-based drug delivery is maintained: the materials are capable of antibiotic delivery, and clearance of Staphylococcus aureus, at least an order of magnitude better than diffusion-only control polymers. In cell compatibility studies, CD-based polymers were shown to have low overt cell toxicity and even resisted cell adhesion, presumably due to their highly hydrated state.

  7. Role of nicotinic receptors and acetylcholine in mucous cell metaplasia, hyperplasia and airway mucus formation in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundavarapu, Sravanthi; Wilder, Julie A.; Mishra, Neerad C.; Rir-sima-ah, Jules; Langley, Raymond J.; Singh, Shashi P.; Saeed, Ali Imran; Jaramillo, Richard J.; Gott, Katherine M.; Peña-Philippides, Juan Carlos; Harrod, Kevin S.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Buch, Shilpa; Sopori, Mohan L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Airway mucus hypersecretion is a key pathophysiological feature in number of lung diseases. Cigarette smoke/nicotine and allergens are strong stimulators of airway mucus; however, the mechanism of mucus modulation is unclear. Objectives Characterize the pathway by which cigarette smoke/nicotine regulates airway mucus and identify agents that decrease airway mucus. Methods IL-13 and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAARs) are implicated in airway mucus. We examined the role of IL-13 and GABAARs in nicotine-induced mucus formation in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) and A549 cells, and secondhand cigarette smoke and/or ovalbumin-induced mucus formation in vivo. Results Nicotine promotes mucus formation in NHBE cells; however, the nicotine-induced mucus formation is independent of IL-13 but sensitive to the GABAAR antagonist picrotoxin (PIC). Airway epithelial cells express α7/α9/α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and specific inhibition or knockdown of α7- but not α9/α10-nAChRs abrogates mucus formation in response to nicotine and IL-13. Moreover, addition of acetylcholine or inhibition of its degradation increases mucus in NHBE cells. Nicotinic but not muscarinic receptor antagonists block allergen or nicotine/cigarette smoke-induced airway mucus formation in NHBE cells and/or in mouse airways. Conclusions Nicotine-induced airway mucus formation is independent of IL-13 and α7-nAChRs are critical in airway mucous cell metaplasia/hyperplasia and mucus production in response to various pro-mucoid agents, including IL-13. In the absence of nicotine, acetylcholine may be the biological ligand for α7-nAChRs to trigger airway mucus formation. α7-nAChRs are downstream of IL-13 but upstream of GABAARα2 in the MUC5AC pathway. Acetylcholine and α-7-nAChRs may serve as therapeutic targets to control airway mucus. PMID:22578901

  8. Targeting DTL induces cell cycle arrest and senescence and suppresses cell growth and colony formation through TPX2 inhibition in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chia; Chen, I-Shu; Huang, Guan-Jin; Kang, Chi-Hsiang; Wang, Kuo-Chiang; Tsao, Min-Jen; Pan, Hung-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has an increasing incidence and high mortality. Surgical operation is not a comprehensive strategy for liver cancer. Moreover, tolerating systemic chemotherapy is difficult for patients with HCC because hepatic function is often impaired due to underlying cirrhosis. Therefore, a comprehensive strategy for cancer treatment should be developed. DTL (Cdc10-dependent transcript 2) is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression and genomic stability. In our previous study, the upregulation of DTL expression in aggressive HCC correlated positively with tumor grade and poor patient survival. We hypothesize that targeting DTL may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for liver cancer. DTL small interference RNAs were used to knock down DTL protein expression. A clonogenic assay, immunostaining, double thymidine block, imaging flow cytometry analysis, and a tumor spheroid formation assay were used to analyze the role of DTL in tumor cell growth, cell cycle progression, micronucleation, ploidy, and tumorigenicity. Our results demonstrated that targeting DTL reduced cell cycle regulators and chromosome segregation genes, resulting in increased cell micronucleation. DTL depletion inhibited liver cancer cell growth, increased senescence, and reduced tumorigenesis. DTL depletion resulted in the disruption of the mitotic proteins cyclin B, CDK1, securin, seprase, Aurora A, and Aurora B as well as the upregulation of the cell cycle arrest gene p21 . A rescue assay indicated that DTL should be targeted through TPX2 downregulation for cancer cell growth inhibition. Moreover, DTL silencing inhibited the growth of patient-derived primary cultured HCC cells. Our study results indicate that DTL is a potential novel target gene for treating liver cancer through liver cancer cell senescence induction. Furthermore, our results provide insights into molecular mechanisms for targeting DTL in liver cancer cells. The results also indicate several other starting

  9. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields induce poly(ADP-ribose) formation and non-apoptotic cell death in HeLa S3 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morotomi-Yano, Keiko; Akiyama, Hidenori [Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Yano, Ken-ichi, E-mail: yanoken@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a new and unique means for life sciences. •Apoptosis was induced by nsPEF exposure in Jurkat cells. •No signs of apoptosis were detected in HeLa S3 cells exposed to nsPEFs. •Formation of poly(ADP-ribose) was induced in nsPEF-exposed HeLa S3 cells. •Two distinct modes of cell death were activated by nsPEF in a cell-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) have recently gained attention as effective cancer therapy owing to their potency for cell death induction. Previous studies have shown that apoptosis is a predominant mode of nsPEF-induced cell death in several cell lines, such as Jurkat cells. In this study, we analyzed molecular mechanisms for cell death induced by nsPEFs. When nsPEFs were applied to Jurkat cells, apoptosis was readily induced. Next, we used HeLa S3 cells and analyzed apoptotic events. Contrary to our expectation, nsPEF-exposed HeLa S3 cells exhibited no molecular signs of apoptosis execution. Instead, nsPEFs induced the formation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), a hallmark of necrosis. PAR formation occurred concurrently with a decrease in cell viability, supporting implications of nsPEF-induced PAR formation for cell death. Necrotic PAR formation is known to be catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), and PARP-1 in apoptotic cells is inactivated by caspase-mediated proteolysis. Consistently, we observed intact and cleaved forms of PARP-1 in nsPEF-exposed and UV-irradiated cells, respectively. Taken together, nsPEFs induce two distinct modes of cell death in a cell type-specific manner, and HeLa S3 cells show PAR-associated non-apoptotic cell death in response to nsPEFs.

  10. Teratoma Formation by Human Embryonic Stem Cells is site-dependent and enhanced by the presence of Matrigel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokhorova, Tatyana A; Harkness, Linda M; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    When implanted into immunodeficient mice, human embryonic stem cells (hESC) give rise to teratoma, tumour-like formations containing tissues belonging to all three germ layers. The ability to form teratoma is a sine qua non characteristic of pluripotent stem cells. However, limited data...... of differentiated to un-differentiated tissues was significantly decreased suggesting defective pluripotency of the cells. In conclusion, subcutaneous implantation of hESC in presence of Matrigel appears to be the most efficient, reproducible and the easiest approach for teratoma formation by hESC. Also, teratoma...

  11. NF-kB activity-dependent P-selectin involved in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation in U937 cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi, E-mail: wangyi2004a@126.com [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080 (China); Wang, Xiang; Sun, Minghui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Cao, Heng; Chen, Xiaoqing [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080 (China)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. {yields} Ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and augment of NF-kB activity and protein level during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. {yields} P-selectin and NF-kB may be identified as pivotal regulators of ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. {yields} Therapy based on the inhibition of P-selectin and NF-kB may complement conventional treatments to prevent atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) plays a critical role in regulation of atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the role of Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) activity-dependent P-selectin in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation during atherosclerosis. In this study, we first investigated ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of U937 cells with ox-LDL increased lipid accumulation as well as intracellular cholesterol content. Next, a comparative analysis of gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray and Real-time-PCR indicated that ox-LDL exposure induced, in three treated groups, an extremely marked increase in the mRNA level of P-selectin. Protein levels of P-selectin and its upstream regulators IkBa and NF-kB showed that NF-kB pathway is involved in the ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. Finally, overexpression of NF-kB significantly accelerated, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB with siRNA remarkably attenuated ox-LDL-induced macrophage-derived foam cell formation. It was concluded that the activity of NF-kB is augmented during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. Activation of NF-kB increased, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB decreased ox-LDL-induced P-selectin expression and lipid accumulation in macrophages, suggesting ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and activation of NF-kB in the

  12. NF-kB activity-dependent P-selectin involved in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation in U937 cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiang; Sun, Minghui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Cao, Heng; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. → Ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and augment of NF-kB activity and protein level during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. → P-selectin and NF-kB may be identified as pivotal regulators of ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. → Therapy based on the inhibition of P-selectin and NF-kB may complement conventional treatments to prevent atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) plays a critical role in regulation of atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the role of Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) activity-dependent P-selectin in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation during atherosclerosis. In this study, we first investigated ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of U937 cells with ox-LDL increased lipid accumulation as well as intracellular cholesterol content. Next, a comparative analysis of gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray and Real-time-PCR indicated that ox-LDL exposure induced, in three treated groups, an extremely marked increase in the mRNA level of P-selectin. Protein levels of P-selectin and its upstream regulators IkBa and NF-kB showed that NF-kB pathway is involved in the ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. Finally, overexpression of NF-kB significantly accelerated, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB with siRNA remarkably attenuated ox-LDL-induced macrophage-derived foam cell formation. It was concluded that the activity of NF-kB is augmented during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. Activation of NF-kB increased, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB decreased ox-LDL-induced P-selectin expression and lipid accumulation in macrophages, suggesting ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and activation of NF-kB in the regulation of foam

  13. GABA agonist promoted formation of low affinity GABA receptors on cerebellar granule cells is restricted to early development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, Gert Helge; Schousboe, A

    1988-01-01

    The ability of the GABA receptor agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP) to promote formation of low affinity GABA receptors on cerebellar granule cells was tested using primary cultures of these neurons. Granule cells were exposed to THIP (150 microM) for 6 hr after......, respectively, 4, 7, 10 and 14 days in culture. It was found that THIP treatment of 4- and 7-day-old cultures led to formation of low affinity GABA receptors, whereas such receptors could not be detected after THIP treatment in the older cultures (10 and 14 days) in spite of the fact that these cultured granule...... cells expressed a high density of high affinity GABA receptors. It is concluded that the ability of THIP to promote formation of low affinity GABA receptors on cerebellar granule cells is restricted to an early developmental period....

  14. A multi-cell, multi-scale model of vertebrate segmentation and somite formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan D Hester

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Somitogenesis, the formation of the body's primary segmental structure common to all vertebrate development, requires coordination between biological mechanisms at several scales. Explaining how these mechanisms interact across scales and how events are coordinated in space and time is necessary for a complete understanding of somitogenesis and its evolutionary flexibility. So far, mechanisms of somitogenesis have been studied independently. To test the consistency, integrability and combined explanatory power of current prevailing hypotheses, we built an integrated clock-and-wavefront model including submodels of the intracellular segmentation clock, intercellular segmentation-clock coupling via Delta/Notch signaling, an FGF8 determination front, delayed differentiation, clock-wavefront readout, and differential-cell-cell-adhesion-driven cell sorting. We identify inconsistencies between existing submodels and gaps in the current understanding of somitogenesis mechanisms, and propose novel submodels and extensions of existing submodels where necessary. For reasonable initial conditions, 2D simulations of our model robustly generate spatially and temporally regular somites, realistic dynamic morphologies and spontaneous emergence of anterior-traveling stripes of Lfng. We show that these traveling stripes are pseudo-waves rather than true propagating waves. Our model is flexible enough to generate interspecies-like variation in somite size in response to changes in the PSM growth rate and segmentation-clock period, and in the number and width of Lfng stripes in response to changes in the PSM growth rate, segmentation-clock period and PSM length.

  15. Formation of tRNA granules in the nucleus of heat-induced human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Ryu; Mizuno, Rie; Watanabe, Kazunori; Ijiri, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► tRNAs are tranlocated into the nucleus in heat-induced HeLa cells. ► tRNAs form the unique granules in the nucleus. ► tRNA ganules overlap with nuclear stress granules. -- Abstract: The stress response, which can trigger various physiological phenomena, is important for living organisms. For instance, a number of stress-induced granules such as P-body and stress granule have been identified. These granules are formed in the cytoplasm under stress conditions and are associated with translational inhibition and mRNA decay. In the nucleus, there is a focus named nuclear stress body (nSB) that distinguishes these structures from cytoplasmic stress granules. Many splicing factors and long non-coding RNA species localize in nSBs as a result of stress. Indeed, tRNAs respond to several kinds of stress such as heat, oxidation or starvation. Although nuclear accumulation of tRNAs occurs in starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this phenomenon is not found in mammalian cells. We observed that initiator tRNA Met (Meti) is actively translocated into the nucleus of human cells under heat stress. During this study, we identified unique granules of Meti that overlapped with nSBs. Similarly, elongator tRNA Met was translocated into the nucleus and formed granules during heat stress. Formation of tRNA granules is closely related to the translocation ratio. Then, all tRNAs may form the specific granules.

  16. Impairment of Cellulose Synthases Required for Arabidopsis Secondary Cell Wall Formation Enhances Disease Resistance[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Blanco, Camilo; Feng, Dong Xin; Hu, Jian; Sánchez-Vallet, Andrea; Deslandes, Laurent; Llorente, Francisco; Berrocal-Lobo, Marta; Keller, Harald; Barlet, Xavier; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Clara; Anderson, Lisa K.; Somerville, Shauna; Marco, Yves; Molina, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Cellulose is synthesized by cellulose synthases (CESAs) contained in plasma membrane–localized complexes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, three types of CESA subunits (CESA4/IRREGULAR XYLEM5 [IRX5], CESA7/IRX3, and CESA8/IRX1) are required for secondary cell wall formation. We report that mutations in these proteins conferred enhanced resistance to the soil-borne bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum and the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina. By contrast, susceptibility to these pathogens was not altered in cell wall mutants of primary wall CESA subunits (CESA1, CESA3/ISOXABEN RESISTANT1 [IXR1], and CESA6/IXR2) or POWDERY MILDEW–RESISTANT5 (PMR5) and PMR6 genes. Double mutants indicated that irx-mediated resistance was independent of salicylic acid, ethylene, and jasmonate signaling. Comparative transcriptomic analyses identified a set of common irx upregulated genes, including a number of abscisic acid (ABA)–responsive, defense-related genes encoding antibiotic peptides and enzymes involved in the synthesis and activation of antimicrobial secondary metabolites. These data as well as the increased susceptibility of ABA mutants (abi1-1, abi2-1, and aba1-6) to R. solanacearum support a direct role of ABA in resistance to this pathogen. Our results also indicate that alteration of secondary cell wall integrity by inhibiting cellulose synthesis leads to specific activation of novel defense pathways that contribute to the generation of an antimicrobial-enriched environment hostile to pathogens. PMID:17351116

  17. Neurl4 contributes to germ cell formation and integrity in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Jones

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Primordial germ cells (PGCs form at the posterior pole of the Drosophila embryo, and then migrate to their final destination in the gonad where they will produce eggs or sperm. Studies of the different stages in this process, including assembly of germ plasm in the oocyte during oogenesis, specification of a subset of syncytial embryonic nuclei as PGCs, and migration, have been informed by genetic analyses. Mutants have defined steps in the process, and the identities of the affected genes have suggested biochemical mechanisms. Here we describe a novel PGC phenotype. When Neurl4 activity is reduced, newly formed PGCs frequently adopt irregular shapes and appear to bud off vesicles. PGC number is also reduced, an effect exacerbated by a separate role for Neurl4 in germ plasm formation during oogenesis. Like its mammalian homolog, Drosophila Neurl4 protein is concentrated in centrosomes and downregulates centrosomal protein CP110. Reducing CP110 activity suppresses the abnormal PGC morphology of Neurl4 mutants. These results extend prior analyses of Neurl4 in cultured cells, revealing a heightened requirement for Neurl4 in germ-line cells in Drosophila.

  18. Effect of Schinus terebinthifolius on Candida albicans growth kinetics, cell wall formation and micromorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Lívia Araújo; Freires, Irlan de Almeida; Pereira, Tricia Murielly; de Souza, Andrade; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira; de Castro, Ricardo Dias

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the anti-fungal activity of a tincture from Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree) on Candida albicans (ATCC 289065), a micro-organism associated with fungal infections of the oral cavity. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) were determined through microdilution technique, as well as the microbial growth curve of C. albicans promoted by S. terebinthifolius. In addition, this study investigated a possible activity of the product on the fungal cell wall and its biological activity on fungal morphology. Nystatin was used as control and all tests were performed in triplicate. S. terebinthifolius showed MIC of 312.5 µg/mL and MFC of 2500 µg/mL upon the strain tested, while Nystatin showed MIC and MFC of 6.25 µg/mL. As regards the microbial growth curve, S. terebinthifolius was able to significantly reduce the number of CFU/mL when compared to growth control until the time of 60 min. In the times 120 and 180 min there was no statistically significant difference between the growth control and the experimental product. S. terebinthifolius possibly acts on the fungal cell wall, once the sorbitol test indicated a MIC of 1250 µg/mL. In the fungal morphology, a reduction was observed of pseudo-hyphae, chlamydoconidia and blastoconidia in the presence of the experimental product. S. terebinthifolius showed anti-fungal activity against C. albicans, inhibiting, probably, the fungal cell wall formation.

  19. Calcium transport into the cells of the sea urchin larva in relation to spicule formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidavsky, Netta; Addadi, Sefi; Schertel, Andreas; Ben-Ezra, David; Shpigel, Muki; Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve

    2016-10-24

    We investigated the manner in which the sea urchin larva takes up calcium from its body cavity into the primary mesenchymal cells (PMCs) that are responsible for spicule formation. We used the membrane-impermeable fluorescent dye calcein and alexa-dextran, with or without a calcium channel inhibitor, and imaged the larvae in vivo with selective-plane illumination microscopy. Both fluorescent molecules are taken up from the body cavity into the PMCs and ectoderm cells, where the two labels are predominantly colocalized in particles, whereas the calcium-binding calcein label is mainly excluded from the endoderm and is concentrated in the spicules. The presence of vesicles and vacuoles inside the PMCs that have openings through the plasma membrane directly to the body cavity was documented using high-resolution cryo-focused ion beam-SEM serial imaging. Some of the vesicles and vacuoles are interconnected to form large networks. We suggest that these vacuolar networks are involved in direct sea water uptake. We conclude that the calcium pathway from the body cavity into cells involves nonspecific endocytosis of sea water with its calcium.

  20. Dengue virus capsid protein binds core histones and inhibits nucleosome formation in human liver cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya M Colpitts

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a member of the Flaviviridae and a globally (reemerging pathogen that causes serious human disease. There is no specific antiviral or vaccine for dengue virus infection. Flavivirus capsid (C is a structural protein responsible for gathering the viral RNA into a nucleocapsid that forms the core of a mature virus particle. Flaviviral replication is known to occur in the cytoplasm yet a large portion of capsid protein localizes to the nucleus during infection. The reasons for the nuclear presences of capsid are not completely understood. Here, we expressed mature DENV C in a tandem affinity purification assay to identify potential binding partners in human liver cells. DENV C targeted the four core histones, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. DENV C bound recombinant histones in solution and colocalized with histones in the nucleus and cytoplasm of liver cells during DENV infection. We show that DENV C acts as a histone mimic, forming heterodimers with core histones, binding DNA and disrupting nucleosome formation. We also demonstrate that DENV infection increases the amounts of core histones in livers cells, which may be a cellular response to C binding away the histone proteins. Infection with DENV additionally alters levels of H2A phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. The interactions of C and histones add an interesting new role for the presence of C in the nucleus during DENV infection.

  1. Dengue virus capsid protein binds core histones and inhibits nucleosome formation in human liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, Tonya M; Barthel, Sebastian; Wang, Penghua; Fikrig, Erol

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the Flaviviridae and a globally (re)emerging pathogen that causes serious human disease. There is no specific antiviral or vaccine for dengue virus infection. Flavivirus capsid (C) is a structural protein responsible for gathering the viral RNA into a nucleocapsid that forms the core of a mature virus particle. Flaviviral replication is known to occur in the cytoplasm yet a large portion of capsid protein localizes to the nucleus during infection. The reasons for the nuclear presences of capsid are not completely understood. Here, we expressed mature DENV C in a tandem affinity purification assay to identify potential binding partners in human liver cells. DENV C targeted the four core histones, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. DENV C bound recombinant histones in solution and colocalized with histones in the nucleus and cytoplasm of liver cells during DENV infection. We show that DENV C acts as a histone mimic, forming heterodimers with core histones, binding DNA and disrupting nucleosome formation. We also demonstrate that DENV infection increases the amounts of core histones in livers cells, which may be a cellular response to C binding away the histone proteins. Infection with DENV additionally alters levels of H2A phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. The interactions of C and histones add an interesting new role for the presence of C in the nucleus during DENV infection.

  2. A Multi-cell, Multi-scale Model of Vertebrate Segmentation and Somite Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Susan D.; Belmonte, Julio M.; Gens, J. Scott; Clendenon, Sherry G.; Glazier, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Somitogenesis, the formation of the body's primary segmental structure common to all vertebrate development, requires coordination between biological mechanisms at several scales. Explaining how these mechanisms interact across scales and how events are coordinated in space and time is necessary for a complete understanding of somitogenesis and its evolutionary flexibility. So far, mechanisms of somitogenesis have been studied independently. To test the consistency, integrability and combined explanatory power of current prevailing hypotheses, we built an integrated clock-and-wavefront model including submodels of the intracellular segmentation clock, intercellular segmentation-clock coupling via Delta/Notch signaling, an FGF8 determination front, delayed differentiation, clock-wavefront readout, and differential-cell-cell-adhesion-driven cell sorting. We identify inconsistencies between existing submodels and gaps in the current understanding of somitogenesis mechanisms, and propose novel submodels and extensions of existing submodels where necessary. For reasonable initial conditions, 2D simulations of our model robustly generate spatially and temporally regular somites, realistic dynamic morphologies and spontaneous emergence of anterior-traveling stripes of Lfng. We show that these traveling stripes are pseudo-waves rather than true propagating waves. Our model is flexible enough to generate interspecies-like variation in somite size in response to changes in the PSM growth rate and segmentation-clock period, and in the number and width of Lfng stripes in response to changes in the PSM growth rate, segmentation-clock period and PSM length. PMID:21998560

  3. Dengue Virus Capsid Protein Binds Core Histones and Inhibits Nucleosome Formation in Human Liver Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, Tonya M.; Barthel, Sebastian; Wang, Penghua; Fikrig, Erol

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the Flaviviridae and a globally (re)emerging pathogen that causes serious human disease. There is no specific antiviral or vaccine for dengue virus infection. Flavivirus capsid (C) is a structural protein responsible for gathering the viral RNA into a nucleocapsid that forms the core of a mature virus particle. Flaviviral replication is known to occur in the cytoplasm yet a large portion of capsid protein localizes to the nucleus during infection. The reasons for the nuclear presences of capsid are not completely understood. Here, we expressed mature DENV C in a tandem affinity purification assay to identify potential binding partners in human liver cells. DENV C targeted the four core histones, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. DENV C bound recombinant histones in solution and colocalized with histones in the nucleus and cytoplasm of liver cells during DENV infection. We show that DENV C acts as a histone mimic, forming heterodimers with core histones, binding DNA and disrupting nucleosome formation. We also demonstrate that DENV infection increases the amounts of core histones in livers cells, which may be a cellular response to C binding away the histone proteins. Infection with DENV additionally alters levels of H2A phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. The interactions of C and histones add an interesting new role for the presence of C in the nucleus during DENV infection. PMID:21909430

  4. Hyperthermia-induced micronucleus formation in a human keratinocyte cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintzsche, Henning; Riese, Thorsten; Stopper, Helga

    2012-01-01

    Elevated temperature can cause biological effects in vitro and in vivo. Many studies on effects of hypo- and hyperthermia have been conducted, but only few studies systematically investigated the formation of genomic damage in the micronucleus test in human cells in vitro as a consequence of different temperatures. In the present study, HaCaT human keratinocytes were exposed to different temperatures from 37 °C to 42 °C for 24 h in a regular cell culture incubator. Micronucleus frequency as a marker of genomic damage was elevated in a temperature-dependent and statistically significant manner. Apoptosis occurred at temperatures of 39 °C or higher. Cell proliferation was unaffected up to 40 °C and decreased at 41 °C and 42 °C. Expression of the heat shock protein Hsp70 was elevated, particularly at temperatures of 40 °C and higher. These findings are in agreement with several in vivo studies and some in vitro studies looking at single, specific temperatures, but a systematically investigated temperature-dependent increase of genomic damage in human keratinocytes in vitro is demonstrated for the first time here.

  5. Basal cell epithelioma with lymphogenic and hematogenic formation of metastases (a. o. into the myocardium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, B.; Schirren, C.

    1981-01-01

    This report deals with a basal cell epithelioma, partially adenoid and partially morphea-like in structure, which despite intensive X-ray treatment relapsed constantly and which finally developed into an ulcus terebrans. Approximately 13 years after the primary tumor had developed (located on the left wing of the nose) both a lymphogenic and a hematogenic formation of metastases occurred with a subsequent exitus letalis 4 months later. Besides the metastases of the skin, there were multiple metastases in the lymph nodes, vertebral column, ribs, spleen, liver, stomach, pleura, and peritoneum as well as in the myocard of both ventricles and in the perimysium of the skeletal muscles. Their histological structure was similar to a partly adenoid, partily morphea-like basal cell epithelioma. The possible influence of X-ray treatment on the tumor tissue in way of benignity or malignancy is discussed in view of relevant literature on this topic. The alteration of basal cell epitheliomas into the socalled transitional epitheliomas is also analyzed. (orig.) [de

  6. Basal cell epithelioma with lymphogenic and hematogenic formation of metastases (a. o. into the myocardium)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuette, B.; Schirren, C.

    1981-01-01

    This report deals with a basal cell epithelioma, partially adenoid and partially morphea-like in structure, which despite intensive X-ray treatment relapsed constantly and which finally developed into an ulcus terebrans. Approximately 13 years after the primary tumor had developed (located on the left wing of the nose) both a lymphogenic and a hematogenic formation of metastases occurred with a subsequent exitus letalis 4 months later. Besides the metastases of the skin, there were multiple metastases in the lymph nodes, vertebral column, ribs, spleen, liver, stomach, pleura, and peritoneum as well as in the myocard of both ventricles and in the perimysium of the skeletal muscles. Their histological structure was similar to a partly adenoid, partily morphea-like basal cell epithelioma. The possible influence of X-ray treatment on the tumor tissue in way of benignity or malignancy is discussed in view of relevant literature on this topic. The alteration of basal cell epitheliomas into the socalled transitional epitheliomas is also analyzed.

  7. Interaction of Munc18c and syntaxin4 facilitates invadopodium formation and extracellular matrix invasion of tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasher, Megan I; Martynowicz, David M; Grafinger, Olivia R; Hucik, Andrea; Shanks-Skinner, Emma; Uniacke, James; Coppolino, Marc G

    2017-09-29

    Tumor cell invasion involves targeted localization of proteins required for interactions with the extracellular matrix and for proteolysis. The localization of many proteins during these cell-extracellular matrix interactions relies on membrane trafficking mediated in part by SNAREs. The SNARE protein syntaxin4 (Stx4) is involved in the formation of invasive structures called invadopodia; however, it is unclear how Stx4 function is regulated during tumor cell invasion. Munc18c is known to regulate Stx4 activity, and here we show that Munc18c is required for Stx4-mediated invadopodium formation and cell invasion. Biochemical and microscopic analyses revealed a physical association between Munc18c and Stx4, which was enhanced during invadopodium formation, and that a reduction in Munc18c expression decreases invadopodium formation. We also found that an N-terminal Stx4-derived peptide associates with Munc18c and inhibits endogenous interactions of Stx4 with synaptosome-associated protein 23 (SNAP23) and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2). Furthermore, expression of the Stx4 N-terminal peptide decreased invadopodium formation and cell invasion in vitro Of note, cells expressing the Stx4 N-terminal peptide exhibited impaired trafficking of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) and EGF receptor (EGFR) to the cell surface during invadopodium formation. Our findings implicate Munc18c as a regulator of Stx4-mediated trafficking of MT1-MMP and EGFR, advancing our understanding of the role of SNARE function in the localization of proteins that drive tumor cell invasion. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Tcof1/Treacle is required for neural crest cell formation and proliferation deficiencies that cause craniofacial abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Jill; Jones, Natalie C.; Sandell, Lisa L.; Jayasinghe, Sachintha M.; Crane, Jennifer; Rey, Jean-Philippe; Dixon, Michael J.; Trainor, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    Neural crest cells are a migratory cell population that give rise to the majority of the cartilage, bone, connective tissue, and sensory ganglia in the head. Abnormalities in the formation, proliferation, migration, and differentiation phases of the neural crest cell life cycle can lead to craniofacial malformations, which constitute one-third of all congenital birth defects. Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is characterized by hypoplasia of the facial bones, cleft palate, and middle and exter...

  9. Stimulators of mineralization limit the invasive phenotype of human osteosarcoma cells by a mechanism involving impaired invadopodia formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cmoch, Anna; Podszywalow-Bartnicka, Paulina; Palczewska, Malgorzata; Piwocka, Katarzyna; Groves, Patrick; Pikula, Slawomir

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is a highly aggressive bone cancer affecting children and young adults. Growing evidence connects the invasive potential of OS cells with their ability to form invadopodia (structures specialized in extracellular matrix proteolysis). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that commonly used in vitro stimulators of mineralization limit the invadopodia formation in OS cells. Here we examined the invasive potential of human osteoblast-like cells (Saos-2) and osteolytic-like (143B) OS cells treated with the stimulators of mineralization (ascorbic acid and B-glycerophosphate) and observed a significant difference in response of the tested cells to the treatment. In contrast to 143B cells, osteoblast-like cells developed a mineralization phenotype that was accompanied by a decreased proliferation rate, prolongation of the cell cycle progression and apoptosis. On the other hand, stimulators of mineralization limited osteolytic-like OS cell invasiveness into collagen matrix. We are the first to evidence the ability of 143B cells to degrade extracellular matrix to be driven by invadopodia. Herein, we show that this ability of osteolytic-like cells in vitro is limited by stimulators of mineralization. Our study demonstrates that mineralization competency determines the invasive potential of cancer cells. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which stimulators of mineralization regulate and execute invadopodia formation would reveal novel clinical targets for treating osteosarcoma.

  10. The crucial role of Activin A on the formation of primordial germ cell-like cells from skin-derived stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Sun, Yuan-Chao; Ge, Wei; Tan, Hui; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Yin, Shen; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Li, Lan; Dyce, Paul; Li, Julang; Yang, Xiao; Shi, Qing-Hua; Shen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are founder cells of the germ cell lineage, and can be differentiated from stem cells in an induced system in vitro. However, the induction conditions need to be optimized in order to improve the differentiation efficiency. Activin A (ActA) is a member of the TGF-β super family and plays an important role in oogenesis and folliculogenesis. In the present study, we found that ActA promoted PGC-like cells (PGCLCs) formation from mouse skin-derived stem cells (SDSCs) in both embryoid body-like structure (EBLS) differentiation and the co-culture stage in a dose dependent manner. ActA treatment (100 ng/ml) during EBLS differentiation stage and further co-cultured for 6 days without ActA significantly increased PGCLCs from 53.2% to 82.8%, and as well as EBLS differentiation without ActA followed by co-cultured with 100 ng/ml ActA for 4 to 12 days with the percentage of PGCLCs increasing markedly in vitro. Moreover, mice treated with ActA at 100 ng/kg body weight from embryonic day (E) 5.5-12.5 led to more PGCs formation. However, the stimulating effects of ActA were interrupted by Smad3 RNAi, and in an in vitro cultured Smad3(-/-) mouse skin cells scenario. SMAD3 is thus likely a key effecter molecule in the ActA signaling pathway. In addition, we found that the expression of some epiblast cell markers, Fgf5, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b and Wnt3, was increased in EBLSs cultured for 4 days or PGCLCs co-cultured for 12 days with ActA treatment. Interestingly, at 16 days of differentiation, the percentage of PGCLCs was decreased in the presence of ActA, but the expression of meiosis-relative genes, such as Stra8, Dmc1, Sycp3 and Sycp1, was increased. In conclusion, our data here demonstrated that ActA can promote PGCLC formation from SDSCs in vitro, at early stages of differentiation, and affect meiotic initiation of PGCLCs in later stages.

  11. SIRT6 reduces macrophage foam cell formation by inducing autophagy and cholesterol efflux under ox-LDL condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangping; Zhang, Guangya; Pang, Qi; Yu, Cong; Xiong, Jie; Zhu, Jing; Chen, Fengling

    2017-05-01

    SIRT6 is a pivotal regulator of lipid metabolism. It is also closely connected to cardiovascular diseases, which are the main cause of death in diabetic patients. We observed a decrease in the expression of SIRT6 and key autophagy effectors (ATG5, LC3B, and LAMP1) in ox-LDL-induced foam cells, a special form of lipid-laden macrophages. In these cells, SIRT6 WT but not SIRT6 H133Y overexpression markedly reduced foam cell formation, as shown by Oil Red O staining, while inducing autophagy flux, as determined by both mRFP-GFP-LC3 labeling and transmission electron microscopy. Silencing the key autophagy initiation gene ATG5, reversed the autophagy-promoting effect of SIRT6 in ox-LDL-treated THP1 cells, as evidenced by an increase in foam cells. Cholesterol efflux assays indicated that SIRT6 overexpression in foam cells promoted cholesterol efflux, increased the levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1, and reduced miR-33 levels. By transfecting miR-33 into cells overexpressing SIRT6, we observed that reduced foam cell formation and autophagy flux induction were largely reversed. These data imply that SIRT6 plays an essential role in protecting against atherosclerosis by reducing foam cell formation through an autophagy-dependent pathway. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  12. Role of protein kinase CK2 in the dynamic interaction of platelets, leukocytes and endothelial cells during thrombus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo, Emmanuel; Müller, Isabelle; Dahmke, Indra N; Eichler, Hermann; Montenarh, Mathias; Menger, Michael D; Laschke, Matthias W

    2015-11-01

    Thrombus formation is a complex process, which is characterized by the dynamic interaction of platelets, leukocytes and endothelial cells. The activation of these cells is strictly mediated by different phospho-regulated signaling pathways. Recently, it has been reported that inhibition of protein kinase CK2 affects platelet function by suppressing phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Based on this finding, we herein analyzed whether CK2 acts as a crucial regulator of thrombus formation. We examined the effect of CK2 inhibition on platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates (PLA), the endothelial expression of von Willebrand factor (vWF), intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and the subcellular localization of nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) and phospho-p65 in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC). Dorsal skinfold chambers were prepared in BALB/c mice to analyze in vivo the effect of CK2 inhibition on photochemically induced thrombus formation using intravital fluorescence microscopy. CK2 inhibition by CX-4945 suppressed adenosin diphosphate (ADP)- and proteinase-activated receptor-1-peptide (PAR-1-AP)-stimulated platelet aggregation, which was associated with down-regulation of P-selectin, GPIIb/IIIa and a reduced formation of PLA. Expression and secretion of vWF was diminished in CX-4945-treated HDMEC. Moreover, CK2 inhibition attenuated the endothelial expression of VCAM-1, whereas the expression of ICAM-1 was not affected. Finally, CX-4945-treated mice exhibited a significantly delayed photochemically induced thrombus formation when compared to vehicle-treated controls. These results indicate that CK2 is a pleiotropic regulator of thrombus formation, affecting multiple interactions of platelets, leukocytes and endothelial cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Coupling limonene formation and oxyfunctionalization by mixed-culture resting cell fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willrodt, Christian; Hoschek, Anna; Bühler, Bruno; Schmid, Andreas; Julsing, Mattijs K

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic engineering strategies mark a milestone for the fermentative production of bulk and fine chemicals. Yet, toxic products and volatile reaction intermediates with low solubilities remain challenging. Prominent examples are artificial multistep pathways like the production of perillyl acetate (POHAc) from glucose via limonene. For POHAc, these limitations can be overcome by mixed-culture fermentations. A limonene biosynthesis pathway and cytochrome P450 153A6 (CYP153A6) as regioselective hydroxylase are used in two distinct recombinant E. coli. POHAc formation from glucose in one recombinant cell was hindered by ineffective coupling of limonene synthesis and low rates of oxyfunctionalization. The optimization of P450 gene expression led to the formation of 6.20 ± 0.06 mg gcdw (-1) POHAc in a biphasic batch cultivation with glucose as sole carbon and energy source. Increasing the spatial proximity between limonene synthase and CYP153A6 by a genetic fusion of both enzymes changed the molar limonene/POHAc ratio from 3.2 to 1.6. Spatial separation of limonene biosynthesis from its oxyfunctionalization improved POHAc concentration 3.3-fold to 21.7 mg L(-1) as compared to a biphasic fermentation. Mixed-cultures of E. coli BL21 (DE3) containing the limonene biosynthesis pathway and E. coli MG1655 harboring either CYP153A6, or alternatively a cymene monooxygenase, showed POHAc formation rates of 0.06 or 0.11 U gcdw (-1) , respectively. This concept provides a novel framework for fermentative syntheses involving toxic, volatile, or barely soluble compounds or pathway intermediates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Electron microscopic studies of the matrix formation of hard tissue organized cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Ching-Eng

    1982-01-01

    In order to study the functions of odontoblast, especially on the matrix formation, odontoblasts of rats' incisor and molar teeth were used. The animals were sacrificed 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours and 24 hours after 3 H-proline administration to obtain the specimen. The specimens were processed for electron microscopic autoradiography. The following results were obtained. 1. 5 minutes after 3 H-proline administration: Silver grains indicated 3 H-proline uptake were already noted within the cells and localized in the rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and surrounding ribosomes, partially within the karyoplasm. 2. 15 minutes after 3 H-proline administration: The number of silver grains were generally increased as compared with the findings obtained in 5 minutes. The localization moved to the Golgi apparatus and their surroundings. 3. 30 minutes after 3 H-proline administration: Silver grains obtained in Tome's fibers area and some in predentin. In this area granules derived from Golgi body were found. 4. 1 hour after 3 H-proline administration: The number of silver grains were generally decreased and more pronounced movement toward predentin, the marked movement of silver grains were obtained onto the collagen fibers and surroundings. 5. 2 hours after 3 H-proline administration: Silver grains moved to the calcified area and there collagen fibers became more remarkable. 6. 24 hours after 3 H-proline administration: No silver grains were founded in the odontoblast side but deposited in the predentin calcified area with stable condition. Based on the results of these observations, odontoblasts were shown to perform the function of synthesis, storage, transportation and control of collagen formation in addition to the role of matrix formation. (author)

  15. Inhibitory effects of Vietnamese medicinal plants on tube-like formation of human umbilical venous cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Nguyen-Hai; Kim, Hwan-Mook; Bae, Ki-Hwan; Ahn, Byung-Zun

    2003-02-01

    Seven of 58 plant materials from Vietnamese medicinal plants showed strong to moderate inhibitory activity on the tube-like formation induced by human umbilical venous endothelial cells in the in vitro angiogenesis assay. These plant materials include the herb of Ephedra sinica, leaves and stem of Ceiba pentandra, seed of Coix lachryma-jobi, rhizome of Drynaria fortunei, fruits and stem of Illicium verum and stem of Bombax ceiba. Of these, the methanol extracts of the herb of Ephedra sinica and stem of -Ceiba pentandra exhibited the strongest activities with inhibition percentages of 89.3% and 87.5% at 30 and 100 microgram/mL, respectively. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Axisymmetric particle-in-cell simulations of diamagnetic-cavity formation in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisler, G.

    1989-01-01

    Axisymmetric simulations of the expansion of a hot plasma suddenly introduced into a vacuum containing a weak magnetic field were performed using an electromagnetic particle-in-cell code. Both uniform and gradient fields have been used, with the simulation axis along the principle field direction. The formation of a diamagnetic cavity requires an initial plasma β > 1; as the expansion proceeds, β diminishes, and the field eventually recovers. The maximum spatial extent of the cavity and its duration can be obtained from simple dynamical considerations. Field-aligned ion acceleration behind the electron front is observed in all field geometries and strengths. In the case of expansion into a divergent field, the plasma is found to move down the field gradient by ambipolar diffusion. These simulations are relevant to active release experiments in the Earth's magnetosphere, to pellet ablation experiments, and to the naturally occurring diamagnetic bubbles observed at the Earth's foreshock

  17. Differential regulation of macropinocytosis in macrophages by cytokines: implications for foam cell formation and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Daryn R; Ashlin, Tim G; Davies, Charlotte S; Gallagher, Hayley; Stoneman, Thomas W; Buckley, Melanie L; Ramji, Dipak P

    2013-10-01

    A key event during the formation of lipid-rich foam cells during the progression of atherosclerosis is the uptake of modified low-density lipoproteins (LDL) by macrophages in response to atherogenic mediators in the arterial intima. In addition to scavenger receptor-dependent uptake of LDL, macropinocytosis is known to facilitate the uptake of LDL through the constitutive and passive internalization of large quantities of extracellular solute. In this study we confirm the ability of macropinocytosis to facilitate the uptake of modified LDL by human macrophages and show its modulation by TGF-β, IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-33. Furthermore we show that the TGF-β-mediated inhibition of macropinocytosis is a Smad-2/-3-independent process. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules of the Immunoglobulin Superfamily Regulate Synapse Formation, Maintenance, and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytnyk, Vladimir; Leshchyns'ka, Iryna; Schachner, Melitta

    2017-05-01

    Immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecules are among the most abundant proteins in vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. Prominent family members are the neural cell adhesion molecules NCAM and L1, which were the first to be shown to be essential not only in development but also in synaptic function and as key regulators of synapse formation, synaptic activity, plasticity, and synaptic vesicle recycling at distinct developmental and activity stages. In addition to interacting with each other, adhesion molecules interact with ion channels and cytokine and neurotransmitter receptors. Mutations in their genes are linked to neurological disorders associated with abnormal development and synaptic functioning. This review presents an overview of recent studies on these molecules and their crucial impact on neurological disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Formation of nano iridium oxide: material properties and neural cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In-Seop; Whang, Chung-Nam; Lee, Young-Hee; Hwan Lee, Gun; Park, Bong-Joo; Park, Jong-Chul; Seo, Won-Seon; Cui Fuzhai

    2005-01-01

    Iridium film with the thickness of 30 and 60 nm were formed on both Si wafer and commercially pure (CP) Ti by electron beam evaporation. The thin iridium film showed the identical charge injection capability with the bulk Ir. However, the charge injection value of iridium film was decreased with continuous potential cycling when the deposited iridium became depleted due to the formation of oxide. The number of cycles at which the charge injection value decreased was 800 and 1600 cycles for the 30- and 60-nm-thick Ir film, respectively. FE-SEM observations on the cross section of Ir film clearly showed the thicker iridium oxide was formed with the more potential cycling. Ar ion beam etching to substrates before deposition certainly improved the adhesion strength of Ir film enough to resist to the strain induced by the larger volume occupation of iridium oxide. Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts culture on Ir and Ir oxide showed no cytotoxicity. Also, embryonic cortical neural cell culture on electrode indicated neurons adhered and survived by the formation of neurofilament

  20. Relaxing the formation of hypoxic bottom water with sediment microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touch, Narong; Hibino, Tadashi; Morimoto, Yuki; Kinjo, Nobutaka

    2017-12-01

    The method of improving bottom water environment using industrial wastes to suppress diffusion substances from bottom sediment has recently captured the attention of many researchers. In this study, wastewater discharge-derived sediment was used to examine an alternative approach involving the use of sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) in relaxing the formation of hypoxic bottom water, and removing reduced substances from sediment. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) and other ions were measured in overlying water and sediment pore water with and without the application of SMFCs. The results suggest that SMFCs can markedly reduce hydrogen sulfide and manganese ion concentrations in overlying water, and decrease the depletions of redox potential and DO concentration. In addition, SMFCs can dissolve ferric compounds in the sediment and thereby release the ferric ion available to fix phosphate in the sediment. Our results indicate that SMFCs can be used as an alternative method to relax the formation of hypoxic bottom water and to remove reduced substances from the sediment, thus improving the quality of both water and sediment environments.

  1. Subinhibitory concentrations of cell wall synthesis inhibitors promote biofilm formation of Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen; Hallinen, Kelsey; Wood, Kevin

    Enterococcus faecalis are commonly associated with hospital acquired infections, because they readily form biofilms on instruments and medical devices. Biofilms are inherently more resistant to killing by antibiotics compared to planktonic bacteria, in part because of their heterogeneous spatial structure. Surprisingly, however, subminimal inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of some antibiotics can actually promote biofilm formation. Unfortunately, much is still unknown about how low drug doses affect the composition and spatial structure of the biofilm. In this work, we investigate the effects of sub-MICs of ampicillin on the formation of E. faecalis biofilms. First, we quantified biofilm mass using crystal violet staining in polystyrene microtiter plates. We found that total biofilm mass is increased over a narrow range of ampicillin concentrations before ultimately declining at higher concentrations. Second, we show that sub-MICs of ampicillin can increase mass of E. faecalis biofilms while simultaneously increasing extracellular DNA/RNA and changing total number of viable cells under confocal microscopy. Further, we use RNA-seq to identify genes differentially expressed under sub-MICs of ampicillin. Finally, we show a mathematical model to explain this phenomenon. This work was funded by The Hartwell Foundation Individual Biomedical Research Award and NSF CAREER 1553208 to KBW.

  2. Enhancement of HIV-1-induced syncytium formation in T cells by the tyrosyl kinase p56lck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, G; Barbeau, B; Corbeil, J; Tremblay, M

    1997-04-28

    The CD4 glycoprotein is the primary cellular receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and has also been reported to be physically associated with p56lck, a tyrosyl protein kinase p56lck is a member of the src family of nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinases and is expressed predominantly in T lymphocytes. Our objective was to study the effect of p56lck on the biology of HIV-1. For this purpose, we have stably transfected two human p56lck negative T cell lines (C8166-45 and MT-2) with plasmids encoding for this cellular protein. Following coculture with HIV-1-infected cells or infection with cell-free virus, p56lck-expressing cell lines showed a greater propensity for virus-mediated syncytium formation than parental p56lck-negative cells. The enhancement of HIV-1-induced syncytium formation was not associated with the kinase activity of p56lck, as demonstrated by experiments using a kinase-deficient mutant. However, the physical interaction between CD4 and p56lck was shown to be necessary to obtain the enhancement of syncytium formation since a mutated version of p56lck, which is deficient in its capacity to associate with CD4, did not lead to an increase in virus-mediated cell-to-cell fusion events. Finally, we determined that cells transfected with wild-type and kinase-negative mutant p56lck showed a reduced rate of CD4 endocytosis compared to parental p56lck-negative cells. Together, these results suggest that p56lck can be seen as an accessory molecule facilitating HIV-1-mediated syncytium formation in T cells by a mechanism involving the stabilization of the CD4 molecule at the cell surface.

  3. Anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin via inhibiting LDL oxidation and foam cell formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jing-Hsien; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Wang, Chi-Ping; Lin, Hui-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Gossypetin, a flavone originally isolated from Hibiscus species, has been shown to possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antimutagenic activities. Here, we investigated the mechanism(s) underlying the anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity assay showed that the addition of > 50 μM of gossypetin could scavenge over 50% of DPPH radicals. The inhibitory effects of gossypetin on the lipid and protein oxidation of LDL were defined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay, the relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), and fragmentation of apoB in the Cu 2+ -induced oxidation of LDL. Gossypetin showed potential in reducing ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation and intracellular lipid accumulation, and uptake ability of macrophages under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Molecular data showed that these influences of gossypetin might be mediated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)/liver-X receptor α (LXRα)/ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and PPARγ/scavenger receptor CD36 pathways, as demonstrated by the transfection of PPARα siRNA or PPARγ expression vector. Our data implied that gossypetin regulated the PPAR signals, which in turn led to stimulation of cholesterol removal from macrophages and delay atherosclerosis. These results suggested that gossypetin potentially could be developed as an anti-atherosclerotic agent. - Highlights: • The anti-atherosclerotic effect of gossypetin in vitro was examined. • Gossypetin inhibited LDL oxidation. • Gossypetin showed potential in reducing on the formation of foam cells. • Gossypetin functions against ox-LDL through PPARa activation and PPARγ depression

  4. Anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin via inhibiting LDL oxidation and foam cell formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing-Hsien [School of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Chia-Wen [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chi-Ping [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hui-Hsuan, E-mail: linhh@csmu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Medical Laboratory and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-15

    Gossypetin, a flavone originally isolated from Hibiscus species, has been shown to possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antimutagenic activities. Here, we investigated the mechanism(s) underlying the anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity assay showed that the addition of > 50 μM of gossypetin could scavenge over 50% of DPPH radicals. The inhibitory effects of gossypetin on the lipid and protein oxidation of LDL were defined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay, the relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), and fragmentation of apoB in the Cu{sup 2+}-induced oxidation of LDL. Gossypetin showed potential in reducing ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation and intracellular lipid accumulation, and uptake ability of macrophages under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Molecular data showed that these influences of gossypetin might be mediated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)/liver-X receptor α (LXRα)/ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and PPARγ/scavenger receptor CD36 pathways, as demonstrated by the transfection of PPARα siRNA or PPARγ expression vector. Our data implied that gossypetin regulated the PPAR signals, which in turn led to stimulation of cholesterol removal from macrophages and delay atherosclerosis. These results suggested that gossypetin potentially could be developed as an anti-atherosclerotic agent. - Highlights: • The anti-atherosclerotic effect of gossypetin in vitro was examined. • Gossypetin inhibited LDL oxidation. • Gossypetin showed potential in reducing on the formation of foam cells. • Gossypetin functions against ox-LDL through PPARa activation and PPARγ depression.

  5. Piperlongumine inhibits atherosclerotic plaque formation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by suppressing PDGF receptor signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Dong Ju; Kim, Soo Yeon; Han, Seong Su; Kim, Chan Woo; Kumar, Sandeep; Park, Byeoung Soo; Lee, Sung Eun; Yun, Yeo Pyo; Jo, Hanjoong; Park, Young Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Anti-atherogenic effect of PL was examined using partial carotid ligation model in ApoE KO mice. ► PL prevented atherosclerotic plaque development, VSMCs proliferation, and NF-κB activation. ► Piperlongumine reduced vascular smooth muscle cell activation through PDGF-Rβ and NF-κB-signaling. ► PL may serve as a new therapeutic molecule for atherosclerosis treatment. -- Abstract: Piperlongumine (piplartine, PL) is an alkaloid found in the long pepper (Piper longum L.) and has well-documented anti-platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties; however, the role of PL in prevention of atherosclerosis is unknown. We evaluated the anti-atherosclerotic potential of PL in an in vivo murine model of accelerated atherosclerosis and defined its mechanism of action in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. Local treatment with PL significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation as well as proliferation and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in an in vivo setting. PL treatment in VSMCs in vitro showed inhibition of migration and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced proliferation to the in vivo findings. We further identified that PL inhibited PDGF-BB-induced PDGF receptor beta activation and suppressed downstream signaling molecules such as phospholipase Cγ1, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and Akt. Lastly, PL significantly attenuated activation of NF-κB—a downstream transcriptional regulator in PDGF receptor signaling, in response to PDGF-BB stimulation. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a novel, therapeutic mechanism by which PL suppresses atherosclerosis plaque formation in vivo.

  6. Cell differentiation and tissue formation in the unique fruits of devil's claws (Martyniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbens, Melanie; Gao, Jie; Neinhuis, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Martyniaceae are characterized by capsules with two upwardly curved, horn-shaped extensions representing morphologically specialized epizoochorous fruits. Because the capsules are assumed to cling to hooves and ankles of large mammals, fiber arrangement and tissue combinations within the endocarp ensuring proper attachment to the vector's feet during transport are of particular interest. In this first detailed anatomical investigation, the functional adaptation of the fruits and their implications for the specific dispersal mode are provided. The peculiar fiber arrangement may also be of interest for future biomimetic composite materials.• Methods: Endocarp anatomy and details of tissue differentiation were examined in fruits of Ibicella lutea and Proboscidea louisianica subsp. fragrans combining light microscopy, SEM, and x-ray microtomography analysis.• Key results: While tips of the extensions are predominantly reinforced by longitudinally oriented fibers, in the middle segment these fibers are densely packed in individual bundles entwined and separated by transversely elongated cells. Within the capsule wall, the fiber bundles are embedded in a dense mesh of transversely oriented fibers that circularly reinforce and protect the loculus. This fibrous pericarp tissue develops within few days by localized cell divisions and intrusive growth of primarily isodiametric parenchyma cells in the pistil.• Conclusions: The study allows insight into a unique and complex example of functionally driven cell growth and tissue formation. Long-horned fruits of Martyniaceae obviously are highly specialized to epizoochorous dispersal, pointing to primary vector-related seed dispersal. The highly ordered arrangement of fibers results in a great mechanical firmness. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  7. Fibronectin promotes proplatelet formation in the human megakaryocytic cell line UT-7/TPO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Hatano, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Kyoji; Nawa, Katsuhiko; Hashimoto, Ryuji; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We investigated PPF (proplatelet formation) in the human megakaryocytic cell line UT-7/TPO in vitro and signal transduction pathways responsible for PPF. The megakaryocytic cell lines are useful for studying megakaryocyte biology, although PPF is induced only in the presence of phorbol ester. TPO (thrombopoietin) stimulates megakaryocyte proliferation and differentiation; however, no PPF occurred in the megakaryocytic cell lines, even after the addition of TPO. Therefore, factors other than TPO may play an important role in the process of PPF. As PPF occurs in the bone marrow in vivo, we noted extracellular matrix proteins and found that soluble FN (fibronectin) induced potent PPF in UT-7/TPO without phorbol ester. A Western blot analysis showed that the expression of integrins was not increased by FN treatment. Anti-β1 antibody and the RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartate) peptide inhibited FN-induced PPF. This result indicates that the signal originated from integrin β1, which is essential to inducing PPF in UT-7/TPO. Results of the experiments using several inhibitors suggest that activation of the MEK [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) kinase]-ERK and PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) pathways are necessary for PPF. The phosphorylation of ERK gradually increased for 2 h after the addition of soluble FN, which suggests that activation of ERK is essential for the initial induction of FN-induced PPF in UT-7/TPO. UT-7/TPO is a useful cell line that enables us to study the signals of PPF without effects of chemical compounds. © The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2012 Portland Press Limited

  8. Enabling cell-cell communication via nanopore formation: structure, function and localization of the unique cell wall amidase AmiC2 of Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Felix M; Faulhaber, Katharina; Forchhammer, Karl; Maldener, Iris; Stehle, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    To orchestrate a complex life style in changing environments, the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme facilitates communication between neighboring cells through septal junction complexes. This is achieved by nanopores that perforate the peptidoglycan (PGN) layer and traverse the cell septa. The N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase AmiC2 (Npun_F1846; EC 3.5.1.28) in N. punctiforme generates arrays of such nanopores in the septal PGN, in contrast to homologous amidases that mediate daughter cell separation after cell division in unicellular bacteria. Nanopore formation is therefore a novel property of AmiC homologs. Immunofluorescence shows that native AmiC2 localizes to the maturing septum. The high-resolution crystal structure (1.12 Å) of its catalytic domain (AmiC2-cat) differs significantly from known structures of cell splitting and PGN recycling amidases. A wide and shallow binding cavity allows easy access of the substrate to the active site, which harbors an essential zinc ion. AmiC2-cat exhibits strong hydrolytic activity in vitro. A single point mutation of a conserved glutamate near the zinc ion results in total loss of activity, whereas zinc removal leads to instability of AmiC2-cat. An inhibitory α-helix, as found in the Escherichia coli AmiC(E. coli) structure, is absent. Taken together, our data provide insight into the cell-biological, biochemical and structural properties of an unusual cell wall lytic enzyme that generates nanopores for cell-cell communication in multicellular cyanobacteria. The novel structural features of the catalytic domain and the unique biological function of AmiC2 hint at mechanisms of action and regulation that are distinct from other amidases. The AmiC2-cat structure has been deposited in the Protein Data Bank under accession number 5EMI. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  9. The Arabidopsis PARAQUAT RESISTANT2 gene encodes an S-nitrosoglutathione reductase that is a key regulator of cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruiqiang; Sun, Shulan; Wang, Chun; Li, Yansha; Liang, Yan; An, Fengying; Li, Chao; Dong, Haili; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jian; Zuo, Jianru

    2009-12-01

    Metabolism of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), a major biologically active nitric oxide (NO) species, is catalyzed by the evolutionally conserved GSNO reductase (GSNOR). Previous studies showed that the Arabidopsis GSNOR1/HOT5 gene regulates salicylic acid signaling and thermotolerance by modulating the intracellular S-nitrosothiol level. Here, we report the characterization of the Arabidopsis paraquat resistant2-1 (par2-1) mutant that shows an anti-cell death phenotype. The production of superoxide in par2-1 is comparable to that of wild-type plants when treated by paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride), suggesting that PAR2 acts downstream of superoxide to regulate cell death. PAR2, identified by positional cloning, is shown to be identical to GSNOR1/HOT5. The par2-1 mutant carries a missense mutation in a highly conserved glycine, which renders the mutant protein unstable. Compared to wild type, par2-1 mutant has a higher NO level, as revealed by staining with 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate. Consistent with this result, wild-type plants treated with an NO donor display resistance to paraquat. Interestingly, the GSNOR1/HOT5/PAR2 protein level, other than its steady-state mRNA level, is induced by paraquat, but is reduced by NO donors. Taken together, these results suggest that GSNOR1/HOT5/PAR2 plays an important role in regulating cell death in plant cells through modulating intracellular NO level.

  10. Autophagy involved in lipopolysaccharide-induced foam cell formation is mediated by adipose differentiation-related protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xuyang; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Chao; Feng, Jun; Yuan, Zuyi; Zhang, Xiumin; Sui, Wen; Hu, Peizhen; Zheng, Pengfei; Ye, Jing

    2014-01-09

    Autophagy is an essential process for breaking down macromolecules and aged/damaged cellular organelles to maintain cellular energy balance and cellular nutritional status. The idea that autophagy regulates lipid metabolism is an emerging concept with important implications for atherosclerosis. However, the potential role of autophagy and its relationship with lipid metabolism in foam cell formation remains unclear. In this study, we found that autophagy was involved in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced the formation of foam cells and was at least partially dependent on adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP). Foam cell formation was evaluated by Oil red O staining. Autophagic activity was determined by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. ADRP gene expression of ADRP was examined by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The protein expression of ADRP and LC3 was measured using Western blotting analysis. Intracellular cholesterol and triglyceride levels in foam cells were quantitatively measured by enzymatic colorimetric assays. LPS promoted foam cell formation by inducing lipid accumulation in macrophages. The activation of autophagy with rapamycin (Rap) decreased intracellular cholesterol and triglyceride levels, whereas the inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine (3MA) enhanced the accumulation of lipid droplets. Overexpression of ADRP alone increased the formation of foam cells and consequently autophagic activity. In contrast, the inhibitory effects of ADRP activity with siRNA suppressed the activation of autophagy. Taken together, we propose a novel role for ADRP in the regulation of macrophage autophagy during LPS stimulation. We defined a new molecular pathway in which LPS-induced foam cell formation is regulated through autophagy. These findings facilitate the understanding of the role of autophagy in the development of atherosclerosis.

  11. Antisense oligonucleotide mediated knockdown of HOXC13 affects cell growth and induces apoptosis in tumor cells and over expression of HOXC13 induces 3D-colony formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiri, Sahba; Ansari, Khairul I; Hussain, Imran; Bhan, Arunoday; Mandal, Subhrangsu S

    2013-01-01

    HOXC13 is a homeobox containing gene that plays crucial roles in hair development and origin of replication. Herein, we investigated the biochemical functions of HOXC13 and explored its potential roles in tumor cell viability. We have designed a phosphorothioate based antisense-oligonucleotide that specifically knockdown HOXC13 in cultured cells. Cell viability and cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that HOXC13 is essential for cell growth and viability. Antisense-mediated knockdown of HOXC13 affected the cell viability and induced apoptosis in cultured tumor cells. HOXC13 regulates the expression of cyclins and antisense-mediated knockdown of HOXC13 resulted in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Finally over expression of HOXC13 resulted in 3D-colony formation in soft-agar assay indicating its potential roles in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis.

  12. Induced hemocompatibility and bone formation as biological scaffold for cell therapy implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keng-Liang Ou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although stem cells can become almost any type of specialized cell in the human body and may have the potential to generate replacement cells for tissues and organs, the transplantation of these cells are hindered by immune rejection and teratoma formation. However, scientists have found a promising solution for these problems-they have discovered the ability to isolate stem cells from a patient’s umbilical cord blood or bone marrow. Even more recently, small stem cells, such as spore-like stem cells, Blastomere-Like Stem Cells (BLSCs, and Very-Small Embryonic-Like stem cells (VSELs isolated directly from the peripheral blood have beeninvestigated as a novel approach to stem cell therapy as they can be isolated directly from the peripheral blood. A newly-discovered population of multipotent stem cells in this class has been dubbed StemBios (SB cells. The potential therapeutic uses of such stem cells have been explored in many ways, one of which includes dental remodeling and construction. Using adult stem cells, scientists have engineered and cultivated teeth in mice that may one day be used for human implantation.It follows that such regeneration may be possible, to a certain degree, in human patients as well. This idea leads to the present study on the effect of SB cell therapy on early osseointegrationof dental implants. Titanium (Ti dental implants have been proven to be a reliable and predictable treatment for restoration of edentulous regions. The osseointegration process can be described in two stages: primary stability (mechanical stability and secondary stability (biological stability. The mechanical stabilization of the implant reflects the interaction between the bone density and the features of the implant designs and can be determined after implant insertion. Alternatively,the biological stabilization of the implant is a physiologic healing process. It is couple to the biological interaction between the external surface of the

  13. Inhibition of Bim enhances replication of varicella-zoster virus and delays plaque formation in virus-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueqiao; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2014-01-01

    Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an important host defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens, such as viruses. Accordingly, viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms to modulate apoptosis to enhance replication. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) induces apoptosis in human fibroblasts and melanoma cells. We found that VZV triggered the phosphorylation of the proapoptotic proteins Bim and BAD but had little or no effect on other Bcl-2 family members. Since phosphorylation of Bim and BAD reduces their proapoptotic activity, this may prevent or delay apoptosis in VZV-infected cells. Phosphorylation of Bim but not BAD in VZV-infected cells was dependent on activation of the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Cells knocked down for Bim showed delayed VZV plaque formation, resulting in longer survival of VZV-infected cells and increased replication of virus, compared with wild-type cells infected with virus. Conversely, overexpression of Bim resulted in earlier plaque formation, smaller plaques, reduced virus replication, and increased caspase 3 activity. Inhibition of caspase activity in VZV-infected cells overexpressing Bim restored levels of virus production similar to those seen with virus-infected wild-type cells. Previously we showed that VZV ORF12 activates ERK and inhibits apoptosis in virus-infected cells. Here we found that VZV ORF12 contributes to Bim and BAD phosphorylation. In summary, VZV triggers Bim phosphorylation; reduction of Bim levels results in longer survival of VZV-infected cells and increased VZV replication.

  14. Inhibition of Bim Enhances Replication of Varicella-Zoster Virus and Delays Plaque Formation in Virus-Infected Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, XueQiao

    2014-01-01

    Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an important host defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens, such as viruses. Accordingly, viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms to modulate apoptosis to enhance replication. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) induces apoptosis in human fibroblasts and melanoma cells. We found that VZV triggered the phosphorylation of the proapoptotic proteins Bim and BAD but had little or no effect on other Bcl-2 family members. Since phosphorylation of Bim and BAD reduces their proapoptotic activity, this may prevent or delay apoptosis in VZV-infected cells. Phosphorylation of Bim but not BAD in VZV-infected cells was dependent on activation of the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Cells knocked down for Bim showed delayed VZV plaque formation, resulting in longer survival of VZV-infected cells and increased replication of virus, compared with wild-type cells infected with virus. Conversely, overexpression of Bim resulted in earlier plaque formation, smaller plaques, reduced virus replication, and increased caspase 3 activity. Inhibition of caspase activity in VZV-infected cells overexpressing Bim restored levels of virus production similar to those seen with virus-infected wild-type cells. Previously we showed that VZV ORF12 activates ERK and inhibits apoptosis in virus-infected cells. Here we found that VZV ORF12 contributes to Bim and BAD phosphorylation. In summary, VZV triggers Bim phosphorylation; reduction of Bim levels results in longer survival of VZV-infected cells and increased VZV replication. PMID:24227856

  15. STAT3 regulates ABCA3 expression and influences lamellar body formation in alveolar type II cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Yohei; Besnard, Valérie; Clark, Jean C; Xu, Yan; Wert, Susan E; Ikegami, Machiko; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2008-05-01

    ATP-Binding Cassette A3 (ABCA3) is a lamellar body associated lipid transport protein required for normal synthesis and storage of pulmonary surfactant in type II cells in the alveoli. In this study, we demonstrate that STAT3, activated by IL-6, regulates ABCA3 expression in vivo and in vitro. ABCA3 mRNA and immunostaining were decreased in adult mouse lungs in which STAT3 was deleted from the respiratory epithelium (Stat3(Delta/Delta) mice). Consistent with the role of STAT3, intratracheal IL-6 induced ABCA3 expression in vivo. Decreased ABCA3 and abnormalities in the formation of lamellar bodies, the intracellular site of surfactant lipid storage, were observed in Stat3(Delta/Delta) mice. Expression of SREBP1a and 1c, SCAP, ABCA3, and AKT mRNAs was inhibited by deletion of Stat3 in type II cells isolated from Stat3(Delta/Delta) mice. The activities of PI3K and AKT were required for normal Abca3 gene expression in vitro. AKT activation induced SREBP expression and increased the activity of the Abca3 promoter in vitro, consistent with the role of STAT3 signaling, at least in part via SREBP, in the regulation of ABCA3. ABCA3 expression is regulated by IL-6 in a pathway that includes STAT3, PI3K, AKT, SCAP, and SREBP. Activation of STAT3 after exposure to IL-6 enhances ABCA3 expression, which, in turn, influences pulmonary surfactant homeostasis.

  16. Insulin and glucose play a role in foam cell formation and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Susanna R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foam cell formation in diabetic patients often occurs in the presence of high insulin and glucose levels. To test whether hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemic conditions affect foam cell differentiation, we examined gene expression, cytokine production, and Akt phosphorylation in human monocyte-derived macrophages incubated with two types of oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL, minimally modified LDL (mmLDL and extensively oxidized LDL (OxLDL. Methods and results Using Affymetrix GeneChip® arrays, we found that several genes directly related to insulin signaling were changed. The insulin receptor and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were upregulated by mmLDL and OxLDL, whereas insulin-induced gene 1 was significantly down-regulated. In hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemic conditions, modified LDL upregulated Akt phosphorylation and expression of the insulin-regulated aminopeptidase. The level of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-lβ, IL-12, and IL-6, and of a 5-lipoxygenase eicosanoid, 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE, was also increased. Conclusion These results suggest that the exposure of macrophages to modified low density lipoproteins in hyperglycemic hyperinsulinemic conditions affects insulin signaling and promotes the release of proinflammatory stimuli, such as cytokines and eicosanoids. These in turn may contribute to the development of insulin resistance.

  17. Global transcriptome analysis of spore formation in Myxococcus xanthus reveals a locus necessary for cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treuner-Lange Anke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myxococcus xanthus is a Gram negative bacterium that can differentiate into metabolically quiescent, environmentally resistant spores. Little is known about the mechanisms involved in differentiation in part because sporulation is normally initiated at the culmination of a complex starvation-induced developmental program and only inside multicellular fruiting bodies. To obtain a broad overview of the sporulation process and to identify novel genes necessary for differentiation, we instead performed global transcriptome analysis of an artificial chemically-induced sporulation process in which addition of glycerol to vegetatively growing liquid cultures of M. xanthus leads to rapid and synchronized differentiation of nearly all cells into myxospore-like entities. Results Our analyses identified 1 486 genes whose expression was significantly regulated at least two-fold within four hours of chemical-induced differentiation. Most of the previously identified sporulation marker genes were significantly upregulated. In contrast, most genes that are required to build starvation-induced multicellular fruiting bodies, but which are not required for sporulation per se, were not significantly regulated in our analysis. Analysis of functional gene categories significantly over-represented in the regulated genes, suggested large rearrangements in core metabolic pathways, and in genes involved in protein synthesis and fate. We used the microarray data to identify a novel operon of eight genes that, when mutated, rendered cells unable to produce viable chemical- or starvation-induced spores. Importantly, these mutants displayed no defects in building fruiting bodies, suggesting these genes are necessary for the core sporulation process. Furthermore, during the starvation-induced developmental program, these genes were expressed in fruiting bodies but not in peripheral rods, a subpopulation of developing cells which do not sporulate

  18. Dermatopontin interacts with fibronectin, promotes fibronectin fibril formation, and enhances cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Aiko; Okamoto, Osamu; Ishikawa, Kazushi; Sumiyoshi, Hideaki; Matsuo, Noritaka; Yoshioka, Hidekatsu; Nomizu, Motoyoshi; Shimada, Tatsuo; Fujiwara, Sakuhei

    2011-04-29

    We report that dermatopontin (DP), an abundant dermal extracellular matrix protein, is found in the fibrin clot and in the wound fluid, which comprise the provisional matrix at the initial stage of wound healing. DP was also found in the serum but at a lower concentration than that in wound fluid. DP co-localized with both fibrin and fibronectin on fibrin fibers and interacted with both proteins. Both normal fibroblast and HT1080 cell adhesion to the fibrin-fibronectin matrix were dose-dependently enhanced by DP, and the adhesion was mediated by α5β1 integrin. The cytoskeleton was more organized in the cells that adhered to the fibrin-fibronectin-DP complex. When incubated with DP, fibronectin formed an insoluble complex of fibronectin fibrils as visualized by electron microscopy. The interacting sites of fibronectin with DP were the first, thirteenth, and fourteenth type III repeats (III(1), III(13), and III(14)), with III(13) and III(14) assumed to be the major sites. The interaction between III(2-3) and III(12-14) was inhibited by DP, whereas the interaction between I(1-5) and III(12-14) was specifically and strongly enhanced by DP. Because the interaction between III(2-3) and III(12-14) is involved in forming a globular conformation of fibronectin, and that between I(1-5) and III(12-14) is required for forming fibronectin fibrils, DP promotes fibronectin fibril formation probably by changing the fibronectin conformation. These results suggest that DP has an accelerating role in fibroblast cell adhesion to the provisional matrix in the initial stage of wound healing.

  19. Formation of tRNA granules in the nucleus of heat-induced human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagawa, Ryu [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan); Mizuno, Rie [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Watanabe, Kazunori, E-mail: watanabe@ric.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Ijiri, Kenichi [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs are tranlocated into the nucleus in heat-induced HeLa cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs form the unique granules in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA ganules overlap with nuclear stress granules. -- Abstract: The stress response, which can trigger various physiological phenomena, is important for living organisms. For instance, a number of stress-induced granules such as P-body and stress granule have been identified. These granules are formed in the cytoplasm under stress conditions and are associated with translational inhibition and mRNA decay. In the nucleus, there is a focus named nuclear stress body (nSB) that distinguishes these structures from cytoplasmic stress granules. Many splicing factors and long non-coding RNA species localize in nSBs as a result of stress. Indeed, tRNAs respond to several kinds of stress such as heat, oxidation or starvation. Although nuclear accumulation of tRNAs occurs in starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this phenomenon is not found in mammalian cells. We observed that initiator tRNA{sup Met} (Meti) is actively translocated into the nucleus of human cells under heat stress. During this study, we identified unique granules of Meti that overlapped with nSBs. Similarly, elongator tRNA{sup Met} was translocated into the nucleus and formed granules during heat stress. Formation of tRNA granules is closely related to the translocation ratio. Then, all tRNAs may form the specific granules.

  20. MicroRNA-34a inhibits osteoblast differentiation and in vivo bone formation of human stromal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Holmstrøm, Kim; Qiu, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    of miR-34a. siRNA-mediated reduction of JAG1 expression inhibited OB differentiation. Moreover, a number of known cell cycle regulator and cell proliferation proteins, such as cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4 and CDK6), E2F transcription factor three, and cell division cycle 25 homolog......Osteoblast differentiation and bone formation (osteogenesis) are regulated by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) were identified as novel key regulators of human stromal (skeletal, mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) differentiation. Here, we identified mi...

  1. Elevated AKR1C3 expression promotes prostate cancer cell survival and prostate cell-mediated endothelial cell tube formation: implications for prostate cancer progressioan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozmorov, Mikhail G; Lin, Hsueh-Kung; Azzarello, Joseph T; Wren, Jonathan D; Fung, Kar-Ming; Yang, Qing; Davis, Jeffrey S; Hurst, Robert E; Culkin, Daniel J; Penning, Trevor M

    2010-01-01

    Aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C family member 3 (AKR1C3), one of four identified human AKR1C enzymes, catalyzes steroid, prostaglandin, and xenobiotic metabolism. In the prostate, AKR1C3 is up-regulated in localized and advanced prostate adenocarcinoma, and is associated with prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness. Here we propose a novel pathological function of AKR1C3 in tumor angiogenesis and its potential role in promoting PCa progression. To recapitulate elevated AKR1C3 expression in cancerous prostate, the human PCa PC-3 cell line was stably transfected with an AKR1C3 expression construct to establish PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis were performed to identify AKR1C3-mediated pathways of activation and their potential biological consequences in PC-3 cells. Western blot analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and an in vitro Matrigel angiogenesis assays were applied to validate the pro-angiogenic activity of PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants identified by bioinformatics analysis. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis suggested that overexpression of AKR1C3 in PC-3 cells modulates estrogen and androgen metabolism, activates insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and Akt signaling pathways, as well as promotes tumor angiogenesis and aggressiveness. Levels of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and Akt activation as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and secretion were significantly elevated in PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants in comparison to PC3-mock transfectants. PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants also promoted endothelial cell (EC) tube formation on Matrigel as compared to the AKR1C3-negative parental PC-3 cells and PC3-mock transfectants. Pre-treatment of PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants with a selective IGF-1R kinase inhibitor (AG1024) or a non-selective phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) abolished ability of the cells to promote EC tube formation. Bioinformatics

  2. Elevated AKR1C3 expression promotes prostate cancer cell survival and prostate cell-mediated endothelial cell tube formation: implications for prostate cancer progressioan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Jeffrey S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aldo-keto reductase (AKR 1C family member 3 (AKR1C3, one of four identified human AKR1C enzymes, catalyzes steroid, prostaglandin, and xenobiotic metabolism. In the prostate, AKR1C3 is up-regulated in localized and advanced prostate adenocarcinoma, and is associated with prostate cancer (PCa aggressiveness. Here we propose a novel pathological function of AKR1C3 in tumor angiogenesis and its potential role in promoting PCa progression. Methods To recapitulate elevated AKR1C3 expression in cancerous prostate, the human PCa PC-3 cell line was stably transfected with an AKR1C3 expression construct to establish PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis were performed to identify AKR1C3-mediated pathways of activation and their potential biological consequences in PC-3 cells. Western blot analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and an in vitro Matrigel angiogenesis assays were applied to validate the pro-angiogenic activity of PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants identified by bioinformatics analysis. Results Microarray and bioinformatics analysis suggested that overexpression of AKR1C3 in PC-3 cells modulates estrogen and androgen metabolism, activates insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 and Akt signaling pathways, as well as promotes tumor angiogenesis and aggressiveness. Levels of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R and Akt activation as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression and secretion were significantly elevated in PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants in comparison to PC3-mock transfectants. PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants also promoted endothelial cell (EC tube formation on Matrigel as compared to the AKR1C3-negative parental PC-3 cells and PC3-mock transfectants. Pre-treatment of PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants with a selective IGF-1R kinase inhibitor (AG1024 or a non-selective phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K inhibitor (LY294002 abolished ability of the cells

  3. Syndecan-1 displays a protective role in aortic aneurysm formation by modulating T cell-mediated responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jiantao; Angsana, Julianty; Wen, Jing; Smith, Sumona V; Park, Pyong Woo; Ford, Mandy L; Haller, Carolyn A; Chaikof, Elliot L

    2012-02-01

    Chronic inflammation drives progressive and pathological remodeling inherent to formation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Syndecan-1 (Sdc-1) is a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan that displays the capacity to modulate inflammatory processes within the vascular wall. In the current investigation, the role of Sdc-1 in AAA formation was examined using 2 models of experimental aneurysm induction, angiotensin II infusion and elastase perfusion. Sdc-1 deficiency exacerbated AAA formation in both experimental models and was associated with increased degradation of elastin, greater protease activity, and enhanced inflammatory cell recruitment into the aortic wall. Bone marrow transplantation studies indicated that deficiency of Sdc-1 in marrow-derived cells significantly contributed to AAA severity. Immunostaining revealed augmented Sdc-1 expression in a subset of AAA localized macrophages. We specifically characterized a higher percentage of CD4(+) T cells in Sdc-1-deficient AAA, and antibody depletion studies established the active role of T cells in aneurysmal dilatation. Finally, we confirmed the ability of Sdc-1 macrophage to modulate the inflammatory chemokine environment. These investigations identify cross-talk between Sdc-1-expressing macrophages and AAA-localized CD4(+) T cells, with Sdc-1 providing an important counterbalance to T-cell-driven inflammation in the vascular wall.

  4. Tcof1/Treacle is required for neural crest cell formation and proliferation deficiencies that cause craniofacial abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jill; Jones, Natalie C; Sandell, Lisa L; Jayasinghe, Sachintha M; Crane, Jennifer; Rey, Jean-Philippe; Dixon, Michael J; Trainor, Paul A

    2006-09-05

    Neural crest cells are a migratory cell population that give rise to the majority of the cartilage, bone, connective tissue, and sensory ganglia in the head. Abnormalities in the formation, proliferation, migration, and differentiation phases of the neural crest cell life cycle can lead to craniofacial malformations, which constitute one-third of all congenital birth defects. Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is characterized by hypoplasia of the facial bones, cleft palate, and middle and external ear defects. Although TCS results from autosomal dominant mutations of the gene TCOF1, the mechanistic origins of the abnormalities observed in this condition are unknown, and the function of Treacle, the protein encoded by TCOF1, remains poorly understood. To investigate the developmental basis of TCS we generated a mouse model through germ-line mutation of Tcof1. Haploinsufficiency of Tcof1 leads to a deficiency in migrating neural crest cells, which results in severe craniofacial malformations. We demonstrate that Tcof1/Treacle is required cell-autonomously for the formation and proliferation of neural crest cells. Tcof1/Treacle regulates proliferation by controlling the production of mature ribosomes. Therefore, Tcof1/Treacle is a unique spatiotemporal regulator of ribosome biogenesis, a deficiency that disrupts neural crest cell formation and proliferation, causing the hypoplasia characteristic of TCS craniofacial anomalies.

  5. Effects of aluminum on plasma membrane as revealed by analysis of alkaline band formation in internodal cells of Chara corallina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, M; Shimmen, T

    1999-06-01

    To study the mechanism of aluminum toxicity in plant cells, the effects of aluminum on alkaline band formation were analyzed in the internodal cells of Chara. After cells were treated with AlCl3, they were examined for their capacity to develop alkaline bands. Treating cells with AlCl3 medium at pH 4.5 completely inhibited alkaline band formation. When either CaCl2 or malic acid was added to the AlCl3 medium (pH 4.5), it did not produce an ameliorative effect, whereas addition of both CaCl2 and malic acid induced a significant ameliorative effect. It was found that treatment at pH 4.5 in the absence of AlCl3 strongly inhibited alkaline band formation. This inhibition by the low pH (4.5) treatment was effectively ameliorated by CaCl2. At higher pH (5.0), malic acid alone produced a significant ameliorative effect on aluminum inhibition of alkaline band formation, but CaCl2 did not. Recovery from aluminum inhibition was also studied. When cells treated with AlCl3 at pH 4.5 were incubated in artificial pond water, they could not recover the capacity to develop alkaline band. When either malic acid or CaCl2 was added to artificial pond water, cells recovered their alkaline band formation. It was concluded that one of the primary targets of aluminum is the plasma membrane and that aluminum affects the plasma membrane from the cell exterior at the beginning of the treatment (within 24 h). It was also suggested that the aluminum treatment impairs the HCO3- influx mechanism but not the OH- efflux mechanism.

  6. TRPV4 calcium-permeable channel is a novel regulator of oxidized LDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Rishov; Merth, Michael; Sharma, Shweta; Alharbi, Mazen O; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim; Zhu, Xiaoping; Rahaman, Shaik O

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death in United States, and atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory arterial disease, is the most dominant underlying pathology. Macrophages are thought to orchestrate atherosclerosis by generating lipid-laden foam cells and by secreting inflammatory mediators. Emerging data support a role for a mechanical factor, e.g., matrix stiffness, in regulation of macrophage function, vascular elasticity, and atherogenesis. However, the identity of the plasma membrane mechanosensor and the mechanisms by which pro-atherogenic signals are transduced/maintained are unknown. We have obtained evidence that TRPV4, an ion channel in the transient receptor potential vanilloid family and a known mechanosensor, is the likely mediator of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-dependent macrophage foam cell formation, a critical process in atherogenesis. Specifically, we found that: i) genetic ablation of TRPV4 or pharmacologic inhibition of TRPV4 activity by a specific antagonist blocked oxLDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation, and ii) TRPV4 deficiency prevented pathophysiological range matrix stiffness or scratch-induced exacerbation of oxLDL-induced foam cell formation. Mechanistically, we found that: i) plasma membrane localization of TRPV4 was sensitized to the increasing level of matrix stiffness, ii) lack of foam cell formation in TRPV4 null cells was not due to lack of expression of CD36, a major receptor for oxLDL, and iii) TRPV4 channel activity regulated oxLDL uptake but not its binding on macrophages. Altogether, these findings identify a novel role for TRPV4 in regulating macrophage foam cell formation by modulating uptake of oxLDL. These findings suggest that therapeutic targeting of TRPV4 may provide a selective approach to the treatment of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Single cell time-lapse analysis reveals that podoplanin enhances cell survival and colony formation capacity of squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Tomoyuki; Higuchi, Youichi; Kojima, Motohiro; Ochiai, Atsushi; Ishii, Genichiro

    2017-01-06

    Tumor initiating cells (TICs) are characterized by high clonal expansion capacity. We previously reported that podoplanin is a TIC-specific marker for the human squamous cell carcinoma cell line A431. The aim of this study is to explore the molecular mechanism underlying the high clonal expansion potential of podoplanin-positive A431cells using Fucci imaging. Single podoplanin-positive cells created large colonies at a significantly higher frequency than single podoplanin-negative cells, whereas no difference was observed between the two types of cells with respect to cell cycle status. Conversely, the cell death ratio of progenies derived from podoplanin-positive single cell was significantly lower than that of cells derived from podoplanin-negative cells. Single A431 cells, whose podoplanin expression was suppressed by RNA interference, exhibited increased cell death ratios and decreased frequency of large colony forming. Moreover, the frequency of large colony forming decreased significantly when podoplanin-positive single cells was treated with a ROCK (Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase) inhibitor, whereas no difference was observed in single podoplanin-negative cells. Our current study cleared that high clonal expansion capacity of podoplanin-positive TICs populations was the result of reduced cell death by podoplanin-mediated signaling. Therefore, podoplanin activity may be a therapeutic target in the treatment of squamous cell carcinomas.

  8. Effect of imbalance in activities between ON- and OFF-center LGN cells on orientation map formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagama, H; Saito, T; Tanaka, S

    2000-08-01

    It has been reported that the OFF responses of cells in the visual pathway are stronger, on average, than the ON responses early in the life of cats and ferrets. In this study, we theoretically investigate the effects of this imbalance in activity on the orientation map formation. We carry out computer simulations based on our previously proposed self-organization model, in which the correlated activities between ON- and OFF-center cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus regulate the formation of orientation maps in the visual cortex. When imbalance between the activities of these ON- and OFF-center cells is assumed, we obtain orientation maps with spatial periodicity, as observed in the experiments. On the other hand, when balanced activities are assumed, orientation maps do not show periodicity. This suggests that the imbalance in activities between ON- and OFF-center cells contributes to the elaboration of orientation maps during the critical period.

  9. Impact of flavonoids on matrix metalloproteinase secretion and invadopodia formation in highly invasive A431-III cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo-Chuen Lin

    Full Text Available Metastasis is a major cause of mortality in cancer patients. Invadopodia are considered to be crucial structures that allow cancer cells to penetrate across the extracellular matrix (ECM by using matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. Previously, we isolated a highly invasive A431-III subline from parental A431 cells by Boyden chamber assay. The A431-III cells possess higher invasive and migratory abilities, elevated levels of MMP-9 and an enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT phenotype. In this study, we discovered that A431-III cells had an increased potential to form invadopodia and an improved capacity to degrade ECM compared with the original A431 cells. We also observed enhanced phosphorylation levels of cortactin and Src in A431-III cells; these phosphorylated proteins have been reported to be the main regulators of invadopodia formation. Flavonoids, almost ubiquitously distributed in food plants and plant food products, have been documented to exhibit anti-tumor properties. Therefore, it was of much interest to explore the effects of flavonoid antioxidants on the metastatic activity of A431-III cells. Exposure of A431-III cells to two potent dietary flavonoids, namely luteolin (Lu and quercetin (Qu, caused inhibition of invadopodia formation and decrement in ECM degradation. We conclude that Lu and Qu attenuate the phosphorylation of cortactin and Src in A431-III cells. As a consequence, there ensues a disruption of invadopodia generation and the suppression of MMP secretion. These changes, in concert, bring about a reduction in metastasis.

  10. Formation and spreading of TDP-43 aggregates in cultured neuronal and glial cells demonstrated by time-lapse imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Ishii

    Full Text Available TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43 is a main constituent of cytoplasmic aggregates in neuronal and glial cells in cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. We have previously demonstrated that adenovirus-transduced artificial TDP-43 cytoplasmic aggregates formation is enhanced by proteasome inhibition in vitro and in vivo. However, the relationship between cytoplasmic aggregate formation and cell death remains unclear. In the present study, rat neural stem cell lines stably transfected with EGFP- or Sirius-expression vectors under the control of tubulin beta III, glial fibrillary acidic protein, or 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase promoter were differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, respectively, in the presence of retinoic acid. The differentiated cells were then transduced with adenoviruses expressing DsRed-tagged human wild type and C-terminal fragment TDP-43 under the condition of proteasome inhibition. Time-lapse imaging analyses revealed growing cytoplasmic aggregates in the transduced neuronal and glial cells, followed by collapse of the cell. The aggregates remained insoluble in culture media, consisted of sarkosyl-insoluble granular materials, and contained phosphorylated TDP-43. Moreover, the released aggregates were incorporated into neighboring neuronal cells, suggesting cell-to-cell spreading. The present study provides a novel tool for analyzing the detailed molecular mechanisms of TDP-43 proteinopathy in vitro.

  11. Formation and spreading of TDP-43 aggregates in cultured neuronal and glial cells demonstrated by time-lapse imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tomohiro; Kawakami, Emiko; Endo, Kentaro; Misawa, Hidemi; Watabe, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a main constituent of cytoplasmic aggregates in neuronal and glial cells in cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. We have previously demonstrated that adenovirus-transduced artificial TDP-43 cytoplasmic aggregates formation is enhanced by proteasome inhibition in vitro and in vivo. However, the relationship between cytoplasmic aggregate formation and cell death remains unclear. In the present study, rat neural stem cell lines stably transfected with EGFP- or Sirius-expression vectors under the control of tubulin beta III, glial fibrillary acidic protein, or 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase promoter were differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, respectively, in the presence of retinoic acid. The differentiated cells were then transduced with adenoviruses expressing DsRed-tagged human wild type and C-terminal fragment TDP-43 under the condition of proteasome inhibition. Time-lapse imaging analyses revealed growing cytoplasmic aggregates in the transduced neuronal and glial cells, followed by collapse of the cell. The aggregates remained insoluble in culture media, consisted of sarkosyl-insoluble granular materials, and contained phosphorylated TDP-43. Moreover, the released aggregates were incorporated into neighboring neuronal cells, suggesting cell-to-cell spreading. The present study provides a novel tool for analyzing the detailed molecular mechanisms of TDP-43 proteinopathy in vitro.

  12. Function of AURKA protein kinase in the formation of vasculogenic mimicry in triple-negative breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Y

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ying Liu,1,2,* Baocun Sun,1–3,* Tieju Liu,1,2,* Xiulan Zhao,1,2 Xudong Wang,3 Yanlei Li,1,2 Jie Meng,2 Qiang Gu,1,2 Fang Liu,1,2 Xueyi Dong,1,2 Peimei Liu,2 Ran Sun,2 Nan Zhao1 1Department of Pathology, General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, 2Department of Pathology, Tianjin Medical University, 3Department of Pathology, Cancer Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Tumor cell vasculogenic mimicry (VM, a newly defined pattern of tumor blood supply, signifies the functional plasticity of aggressive cancer cells forming vascular networks. VM and cancer stem cells (CSCs have been shown to be associated with tumor growth, local invasion, and distant metastasis. In our previous study, CSCs in triple-negative breast cancer were potential to participate in VM formation. In this study, breast CSCs were isolated from the triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 by using mammosphere culture. Western blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that mammosphere cells displayed an increased expression of AURKA protein kinase and stem cell marker c-myc and sox2. The VM formation by mammosphere cells was inhibited by AURKA knockdown or the addition of AURKA inhibitor MLN8237. In the meantime, MLN8237 induced the increased E-cadherin and decreased c-myc, sox2, and β-catenin expressions. The function of AURKA in VM formation was further confirmed using a xenograft-murine model. The results suggested that AURKA protein kinase is involved in VM formation of CSCs and may become a new treatment target in suppressing VM and metastasis of breast cancer. Keywords: AURKA, cancer stem cells, vasculogenic mimicry, breast cancer

  13. A paracrine mechanism involving renal tubular cells, adipocytes and macrophages promotes kidney stone formation in a simulated metabolic syndrome environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Li; Tozawa, Keiichi; Okada, Atsushi; Yasui, Takahiro; Taguchi, Kazumi; Ito, Yasuhiko; Hirose, Yasuhiko; Fujii, Yasuhiro; Niimi, Kazuhiro; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Ando, Ryosuke; Itoh, Yasunori; Zou, Jiangang; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2014-06-01

    We developed an in vitro system composed of renal tubular cells, adipocytes and macrophages to simulate metabolic syndrome conditions. We investigated the molecular communication mechanism of these cells and their involvement in kidney stone formation. Mouse renal tubular cells (M-1) were cocultured with adipocytes (3T3-L1) and/or macrophages (RAW264.7). Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals were exposed to M-1 cells after 48-hour coculture and the number of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals adherent to the cells was quantified. The expression of cocultured medium and M-1 cell inflammatory factors was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The inflammatory markers MCP-1, OPN and TNF-α were markedly up-regulated in cocultured M-1 cells. OPN expression increased in M-1 cells cocultured with RAW264.7 cells while MCP-1 and TNF-α were over expressed in M-1 cells cocultured with 3T3-L1 cells. Coculturing M-1 cells simultaneously with 3T3-L1 and RAW264.7 cells resulted in a significant increase in calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal adherence to M-1 cells. Inflammatory cytokine changes were induced by coculturing renal tubular cells with adipocytes and/or macrophages without direct contact, indicating that crosstalk between adipocytes/macrophages and renal tubular cells was mediated by soluble factors. The susceptibility to urolithiasis of patients with metabolic syndrome might be due to aggravated inflammation of renal tubular cells triggered by a paracrine mechanism involving these 3 cell types. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Formation mechanisms of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells prepared from electrodeposited precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, F.; Broussillou, C.; Annibaliano, M.; Frederich, N.; Grand, P.P.; Roussy, A.; Collot, P.; Bodnar, S.

    2013-01-01

    The development of low cost industrial processes is one of the key issues to make Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 based solar cells reach grid-parity. Such a process is found by using a two-step technology based on the sequential electro-deposition of a metallic precursor followed by a rapid annealing. Three types of metallic precursors (two-compound systems as copper–indium, copper–gallium and three-compound system as copper–indium–gallium) have been electrodeposited on a molybdenum sputtered soda lime glass and alloyed through a low annealing temperature. Then a selenium film has been evaporated and the stack has been annealed at high temperature in a rapid thermal processing furnace. A one-step heating profile has been used from room temperature to 550 °C in less than 1 min. Samples for which the heating was stopped after different annealing times have been characterized using several techniques: X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for elemental composition, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy for phase composition, scanning electron microscopy for structural analysis and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy for diffusion study. Preferential formation reactions of the two-compound based metallic precursors have been studied and compared with the copper–indium–gallium metallic precursor used in a two step process. A gallium free system reacts faster than a gallium-based system and presents well-formed ternary compound after a standard selenization. However, the incorporation of gallium can be improved through a longer annealing time or a higher annealing temperature. - Highlights: ► We studied formation mechanisms of Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 based solar cells. ► Electrodeposited metallic precursors are selenized in a two step process. ► Three systems were analyzed: Cu–In + Se, Cu–Ga + Se and Cu–In–Ga + Se systems. ► A longer annealing time improves the incorporation of gallium. ► A higher annealing temperature improves the incorporation of gallium

  15. FUEL PROCESSING FOR FUEL CELLS: EFFECTS ON CATALYST DURABILITY AND CARBON FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. BORUP; M. INBODY; B. MORTON; L. BROWN

    2001-05-01

    On-board production of hydrogen for fuel cells for automotive applications is a challenging developmental task. The fuel processor must show long term durability and under challenging conditions. Fuel processor catalysts in automotive fuel processors will be exposed to large thermal variations, vibrations, exposure to uncontrolled ambient conditions, and various impurities from ambient air and from fuel. For the commercialization of fuel processors, the delineation of effects on catalyst activity and durability are required. We are studying fuels and fuel constituent effects on the fuel processor system as part of the DOE Fuel Cells for Transportation program. Pure fuel components are tested to delineate the fuel component effect on the fuel processor and fuel processor catalysts. Component blends are used to simulate ''real fuels'', with various fuel mixtures being examined such as reformulated gasoline and naptha. The aliphatic, napthenic, olefin and aromatic content are simulated to represent the chemical kinetics of possible detrimental reactions, such as carbon formation, during fuel testing. Testing has examined the fuel processing performance of different fuel components to help elucidate the fuel constituent effects on fuel processing performance and upon catalyst durability. Testing has been conducted with vapor fuels, including natural gas and pure methane. The testing of pure methane and comparable testing with natural gas (97% methane) have shown some measurable differences in performance in the fuel processor. Major gasoline fuel constituents, such as aliphatic compounds, napthanes, and aromatics have been compared for their effect on the fuel processing performance. Experiments have been conducted using high-purity compounds to observe the fuel processing properties of the individual components and to document individual fuel component performance. The relative carbon formation of different fuel constituents have been measured by

  16. The Role of Programmed Cell Death Regulator LSD1 in Nematode-Induced Syncytium Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszkiewicz, Mateusz; Sobczak, Miroslaw; Cabrera, Javier; Escobar, Carolina; Karpiński, Stanislaw; Filipecki, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    Cyst-forming plant-parasitic nematodes are common pests of many crops. They inject secretions into host cells to induce the developmental and metabolic reprogramming that leads to the formation of a syncytium, which is the sole food source for growing nematodes. As in other host-parasite models, avirulence leads to rapid and local programmed cell death (PCD) known as the hypersensitive response (HR), whereas in the case of virulence, PCD is still observed but is limited to only some cells. Several regulators of PCD were analyzed to understand the role of PCD in compatible plant–nematode interactions. Thus, Arabidopsis plants carrying recessive mutations in LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1) family genes were subjected to nematode infection assays with juveniles of Heterodera schachtii. LSD1 is a negative and conditional regulator of PCD, and fewer and smaller syncytia were induced in the roots of lsd1 mutants than in wild-type Col-0 plants. Mutation in LSD ONE LIKE2 (LOL2) revealed a pattern of susceptibility to H. schachtii antagonistic to lsd1. Syncytia induced on lsd1 roots compared to Col0 showed significantly retarded growth, modified cell wall structure, increased vesiculation, and some myelin-like bodies present at 7 and 12 days post-infection. To place these data in a wider context, RNA-sequencing analysis of infected and uninfected roots was conducted. During nematode infection, the number of transcripts with changed expression in lsd1 was approximately three times smaller than in wild-type plants (1440 vs. 4206 differentially expressed genes, respectively). LSD1-dependent PCD in roots is thus a highly regulated process in compatible plant–nematode interactions. Two genes identified in this analysis, coding for AUTOPHAGY-RELATED PROTEIN 8F and 8H were down-regulated in syncytia in the presence of LSD1 and showed an increased susceptibility to nematode infection contrasting with lsd1 phenotype. Our data indicate that molecular regulators belonging to the

  17. Formation of stable cell-cell contact without a solid/gel scaffold: Non-invasive manipulation by laser under depletion interaction with a polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shu; Yoshida, Aoi; Ohta, Taeko; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Sadakane, Koichiro; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2016-07-01

    We report a novel method for constructing a stable three-dimensional cellular assembly in the absence of a solid or gel scaffold. A targeted cell was transferred to another cell, and the two were kept in contact for a few minutes by optical manipulation in an aqueous medium containing a hydrophilic polymer. Interestingly, this cell-cell adhesion was maintained even after elimination of the polymer. We discuss the mechanism of the formation of stable multi-cellular adhesion in terms of spontaneous rearrangement of the components embedded in the pair of facing membranes.

  18. Nitric oxide is required for, and promotes auxin-mediated activation of, cell division and embryogenic cell formation but does not influence cell cycle progression in alfalfa cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otvös, Krisztina; Pasternak, Taras P; Miskolczi, Pál; Domoki, Mónika; Dorjgotov, Dulguun; Szucs, Attila; Bottka, Sándor; Dudits, Dénes; Fehér, Attila

    2005-09-01

    It is now well established that nitric oxide (NO) serves as a signaling molecule in plant cells. In this paper experimental data are presented which indicate that NO can stimulate the activation of cell division and embryogenic cell formation in leaf protoplast-derived cells of alfalfa in the presence of auxin. It was found that various NO-releasing compounds promoted auxin-dependent division (as shown by incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine) of leaf protoplast-derived alfalfa cells. In contrast, application of NO scavenger or NO synthesis inhibitor inhibited the same process. Both the promotion and the inhibition of cell cycle activation correlated with the amount and activity of the cognate alfalfa p34cdc2 protein Medsa;CDKA;1,2. The effect of l-NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) was transient, and protoplast-derived cells spending more than 3 days in culture become insensitive to the inhibitor as far as cell cycle progression was concerned. L-NMMA had no effect on the cell cycle parameters of cycling suspension-cultured cells, but had a moderate transient inhibitory effect on cells re-entering the cell cycle following phosphate starvation. Cycling cultured cells, however, could respond to NO, as indicated by the sodium nitroprusside (SNP)- and 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO)-dependent accumulation of the ferritin protein. Based on these observations, it is hypothesized that L-NMMA-sensitive generation of NO is involved in the activation, but not the progression of the plant cell division cycle. In addition, SNP promoted and L-NMMA delayed the exogenous auxin [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)] concentration-dependent formation of embryogenic cell clusters expressing the MsSERK1 gene; this further supports a link between auxin- and NO-dependent signaling pathways in plant cells.

  19. Identification of novel transcription factors regulating secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua eCassan-Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of lignin in secondary cell walls (SCW is a major factor preventing hydrolytic enzymes from gaining access to cellulose, thereby limiting the saccharification potential of plant biomass. To understand how lignification is regulated is a prerequisite for selecting plant biomass better adapted to bioethanol production. Because transcriptional regulation is a major mechanism controlling the expression of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis, our aim was to identify novel transcription factors dictating lignin profiles in the model plant Arabidopsis. To this end, we have developed a post-genomic approach by combining four independent in-house SCW-related transcriptome datasets obtained from (i the fiber cell wall-deficient wat1 Arabidopsis mutant, (ii Arabidopsis lines over-expressing either the master regulatory activator EgMYB2 or (iii the repressor EgMYB1 and finally (iv Arabidopsis orthologs of Eucalyptus xylem-expressed genes. This allowed us to identify 502 up- or down-regulated transcription factors. We preferentially selected those present in more than one dataset and further analyzed their in silico expression patterns as an additional selection criteria. This selection process led to 80 candidates. Notably, 16 of them were already proven to regulate SCW formation, thereby validating the overall strategy. Then, we phenotyped 43 corresponding mutant lines focusing on histological observations of xylem and interfascicular fibers. This phenotypic screen revealed six mutant lines exhibiting altered lignification patterns. Two of them (blh6 and a zinc finger transcription factor presented hypolignified SCW. Three others (myb52, myb-like TF, hb5 showed hyperlignified SCW whereas the last one (hb15 showed ectopic lignification. In addition, our meta-analyses highlighted a reservoir of new potential regulators adding to the gene network regulating SCW but also opening new avenues to ultimately improve SCW composition for biofuel

  20. miR-21 inhibitor suppresses cell proliferation and colony formation through regulating the PTEN/AKT pathway and improves paclitaxel sensitivity in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guohui; Cao, Dongmei; Meng, Lingzheng

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role and the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of microRNA-21 (miR-21) on the proliferation, apoptosis and colony formation of cervical cancer cells, and to examine the role of miR-21 in mediating the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells to paclitaxel (PTX). Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was employed to determine the level of miR‑21 in various cervical cancer and normal cervical cells. The results revealed that the expression levels of miR-21 in cervical cancer cells were markedly higher when compared with normal cervical cells. Subsequently, a miR‑21 inhibitor or negative control (NC) was transfected into cervical cancer cells. Cell viability, colony formation and apoptosis were then analyzed using an MTT assay, crystal violet and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, respectively. The protein expression level of B-cell lymphoma‑2 (Bcl‑2), Bcl‑2‑associated X (Bax), programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), survivin, c‑myc, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and phosphorylated (p)‑AKT were determined by western blot analysis. The sensitivity of cervical cancer cells to PTX (25, 50 and 100 µg/ml) was characterized using an MTT assay. The results demonstrated that the miR-21 inhibitor promoted apoptosis of cervical cancer cells and suppressed their proliferation and colony formation when compared with the NC. In addition, the expression levels of Bcl‑2, survivin, c‑myc and p‑AKT were significantly downregulated in cells transfected with the miR‑21 inhibitor, whilst the expression levels of Bax, PDCD4 and PTEN were significantly upregulated. Furthermore, the miR‑21 inhibitor significantly enhanced the inhibition efficacy of PTX at a range of concentrations in cervical cancer cells. It was concluded that inhibition of miR‑21 suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation through regulating the PTEN/AKT pathway, and improved PTX

  1. Artificial Formation and Tuning of Glycoprotein Networks on Live Cell Membranes: A Single-Molecule Tracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möckl, Leonhard; Lindhorst, Thisbe K; Bräuchle, Christoph

    2016-03-16

    We present a method to artificially induce network formation of membrane glycoproteins and show the precise tuning of their interconnection on living cells. For this, membrane glycans are first metabolically labeled with azido sugars and then tagged with biotin by copper-free click chemistry. Finally, these biotin-tagged membrane proteins are interconnected with streptavidin (SA) to form an artificial protein network in analogy to a lectin-induced lattice. The degree of network formation can be controlled by the concentration of SA, its valency, and the concentration of biotin on membrane proteins. This was verified by investigation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the SA-protein networks employing single-molecule tracking. It was also proven that this network formation strongly influences the biologically relevant process of endocytosis as it is known from natural lattices on the cell surface. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Convergence of bone morphogenetic protein and laminin-1 signaling pathways promotes proliferation and colony formation by fetal mouse pancreatic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Fangxu; Harrison, Leonard C.

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the transforming growth factor superfamily, together with the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin-1 (Ln-1), promote proliferation of fetal pancreatic cells and formation of colonies containing peripheral insulin-positive cells. Here, we further investigate the cross-talk between BMP and Ln-1 signals. By RT-PCR, receptors for BMP (BMPR) (excepting BMPR-1B) and Ln-1 were expressed in the fetal pancreas between E13.5 and E17.5. Specific blocking antibodies to BMP-4 and -6 and selective BMP antagonists partially inhibited colony formation by fetal pancreas cells. Colony formation induced by BMP-6 and Ln-1 was completely abolished in a dose-dependent manner by blocking Ln-1 binding to its α 6 integrin and α-dystroglycan receptors or by blocking the Ln-1 signaling molecules, phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (P13K) and MAP kinase kinase-1. These results demonstrate a convergence of BMP and Ln-1 signaling through P13K and MAP kinase pathways to induce proliferation and colony formation in E15.5 fetal mouse pancreatic cells

  3. Loss of ADAM9 expression impairs β1 integrin endocytosis, focal adhesion formation and cancer cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Kasper J; Schwarz, Jeanette; Sahgal, Pranshu

    2018-01-01

    The transmembrane protease ADAM9 is frequently upregulated in human cancers, and it promotes tumour progression in mice.In vitro, ADAM9 regulates cancer cell adhesion and migration by interacting with integrins. However, how ADAM9 modulates integrin functions is not known. We here show that ADAM9......, and both internalization and subsequent degradation of β1 integrin are significantly decreased in ADAM9-silenced cells, with no effect on β1 integrin recycling. Accordingly, the formation of focal adhesions and actin stress fibres in ADAM9-silenced cells is altered, possibly explaining the reduction...... in cell adhesion and migration in these cells. Taken together, our data provide mechanistic insight into the ADAM9-integrin interaction, demonstrating that ADAM9 regulates β1 integrin endocytosis. Moreover, our findings indicate that the reduced migration of ADAM9-silenced cells is, at least in part...

  4. Progressive developmental restriction, acquisition of left-right identity and cell growth behavior during lobe formation in mouse liver development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Mary C; Le Garrec, Jean-Francois; Coqueran, Sabrina; Strick-Marchand, Helene; Buckingham, Margaret

    2016-04-01

    To identify cell-based decisions implicated in morphogenesis of the mammalian liver, we performed clonal analysis of hepatocytes/hepatoblasts in mouse liver development, using a knock-in allele of Hnf4a/laacZ This transgene randomly undergoes a low frequency of recombination that generates a functional lacZ gene that produces β-galactosidase in tissues in which Hnf4a is expressed. Two types of β-galactosidase-positive clones were found. Most have undergone three to eight cell divisions and result from independent events (Luria-Delbrück fluctuation test); we calculate that they arose between E8.5 and E13.5. A second class was mega-clones derived from early endoderm progenitors, generating many descendants. Some originated from multi-potential founder cells, with labeled cells in the liver, pancreas and/or intestine. A few mega-clones populate only one side of the liver, indicating hepatic cell chirality. The patterns of labeled cells indicate cohesive and often oriented growth, notably in broad radial stripes, potentially implicated in the formation of liver lobes. This retrospective clonal analysis gives novel insights into clonal origins, cell behavior of progenitors and distinct properties of endoderm cells that underlie the formation and morphogenesis of the liver. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Modelling plastic deformation in BCC metals: Dynamic recovery and cell formation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo-Nava, E.I.; Rivera-Díaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J.

    2012-01-01

    A recently developed model for describing plasticity in FCC metals (E.I., Galindo-Nava, P.E.J., Rivera-Díaz-del-Castillo, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 543 (2012) 110–116; E.I. Galindo-Nava, P.E.J. Rivera-Díaz-del-Castillo, Acta Mater. 60 (2012) 4370–4378) has now been applied to BCC. The core of the theory is the thermostatistical description of dislocation annihilation paths, which determines the dynamic recovery rate of the material. Input to this is the energy for the formation, migration and ordering of dislocation paths; the latter term corresponds to the statistical entropy which features strongly on the solution. The distinctions between FCC and BCC stem primarily from the possible directions and planes for dislocation slip and cross-slip, as well as from the presence of the kink-pair mechanism for dislocation migration in BCC, which are incorporated to the mathematical formulation of the model. The theory is unique in describing the stress–strain response for pure iron, molybdenum, tantalum, vanadium and tungsten employing physical parameters as input; the description is made for wide ranges of temperature and strain rate. Additionally, succinct equations to predict dislocation cell size variation with strain, strain rate and temperature are provided and validated for pure iron.

  6. In situ formation of graphene layers on graphite surfaces for efficient anodes of microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiahuan; Chen, Shanshan; Yuan, Yong; Cai, Xixi; Zhou, Shungui

    2015-09-15

    Graphene can be used to improve the performance of the anode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) due to its good biocompatibility, high electrical conductivity and large surface area. However, the chemical production and modification of the graphene on the anode are environmentally hazardous because of the use of various harmful chemicals. This study reports a novel method based on the electrochemical exfoliation of a graphite plate (GP) for the in situ formation of graphene layers on the surface of a graphite electrode. When the resultant graphene-layer-based graphite plate electrode (GL/GP) was used as an anode in an MFC, a maximum power density of 0.67 ± 0.034 W/m(2) was achieved. This value corresponds to 1.72-, 1.56- and 1.26-times the maximum power densities of the original GP, exfoliated-graphene-modified GP (EG/GP) and chemically-reduced-graphene-modified GP (rGO/GP) anodes, respectively. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the high performance of the GL/GP anode was attributable to its macroporous structure, improved electron transfer and high electrochemical capacitance. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis technique for the fabrication of high-performance graphene-based electrodes for use in microbial energy harvesting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stella controls chromocenter formation through regulation of Daxx expression in 2-cell embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Tatsuhiko; Nakatani, Tsunetoshi; Oda, Masaaki; Kimura, Yasuyoshi; Sekita, Yoichi; Kimura, Tohru; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Nakano, Toru

    2015-10-09

    In mammals, the structure of the pericentromeric region alters from a ring structure to a dot-like structure during the 2-cell stage. This structural alteration is termed chromocenter formation (CF) and is required for preimplantation development. Although reverse transcripts of major satellite repeats at pericentromeric regions are known to play roles in CF, its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We previously reported that Stella (also known as PGC7 and Dppa3) deficiency led to developmental arrest at the preimplantation stage, accompanied by frequent chromosome segregation. In this study, we further investigated the effect of Stella deficiency on chromatin reorganization. The Stella-null embryos exhibited impaired CF and reduced expression of the reverse strand of major satellite repeats. In addition, the accumulation of H3.3, a histone H3 variant associated with transcriptional activation, at the pericentromeric regions and expression of the H3.3-specific chaperone Daxx were reduced in Stella-null embryos. These abnormalities were restored by the enforced expression of Daxx in Stella-null embryos. Thus, Stella controls the expression of Daxx and ensures chromatin reorganization in early embryos. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Human Serum and 2 Different Types of Platelet Concentrates on Human Meniscus Cell Migration, Proliferation, and Matrix Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymann, Undine; Metzlaff, Sebastian; Krüger, Jan-Philipp; Hirsh, Glen; Endres, Michaela; Petersen, Wolf; Kaps, Christian

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of 10% human serum (HS), 5% platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and 5% autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) on migration, proliferation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis of human meniscus cells. Cell migration and proliferation on stimulation with HS, PRP, and ACP were assessed by chemotaxis assays and measurement of genomic DNA content. Meniscus cells were cultivated in pellets stimulated with 10% HS, 5% PRP, or 5% ACP. Meniscal ECM formation was evaluated by histochemical staining of collagen type I, type II, and proteoglycans and by analysis of fibrochondrocyte marker gene expression. Human meniscus cells were significantly attracted by all 3 blood-derived products (10% HS and 5% ACP: P = .0001, 5% PRP: P = .0002). Cell proliferation at day 9 was significantly increased on stimulation with 10% HS (P = .0001) and 5% PRP (P = .0002) compared with 5% ACP and controls. Meniscus cell pellet cultures showed the formation of a well-structured meniscal ECM with deposition of collagen type I, type II, and proteoglycans on stimulation with 10% HS, whereas 5% PRP or 5% ACP resulted in the formation of an inhomogeneous and more fibrous ECM. Stimulation with 10% HS and 5% ACP showed a significant induction of fibrochondrocyte marker genes such as aggrecan (HS: P = .0002, ACP: P = .0147), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (HS: P = .0002, ACP: P = .0005), and biglycan (HS: P = .0002, ACP: P = .0003), whereas PRP showed no inducing effect. Among all tested blood-derived products, only stimulation with HS showed the formation of a meniscal ECM as well as positive cell proliferating and migrating effects in vitro. Regarding a potential biological repair of nonvascular meniscus lesions, our results may point toward the use of HS as a beneficial augment in regenerative meniscus repair approaches. Our findings may suggest that HS might be a beneficial augment for meniscus repair. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published

  9. Candida albicans ISW2 Regulates Chlamydospore Suspensor Cell Formation and Virulence In Vivo in a Mouse Model of Disseminated Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionakis, Michail S.; Nickerson, Kenneth W.

    2016-01-01

    Formation of chlamydospores by Candida albicans was an established medical diagnostic test to confirm candidiasis before the molecular era. However, the functional role and pathological relevance of this in vitro morphological transition to pathogenesis in vivo remain unclear. We compared the physical properties of in vitro-induced chlamydospores with those of large C. albicans cells purified by density gradient centrifugation from Candida-infected mouse kidneys. The morphological and physical properties of these cells in kidneys of mice infected intravenously with wild type C. albicans confirmed that chlamydospores can form in infected kidneys. A previously reported chlamydospore-null Δisw2/Δisw2 mutant was used to investigate its role in virulence and chlamydospore induction. Virulence of the Δisw2/Δisw2 mutant strain was reduced 3.4-fold compared to wild type C. albicans or the ISW2 reconstituted strain. Altered host inflammatory reactions to the null mutant further indicate that ISW2 is a virulence factor in C. albicans. ISW2 deletion abolished chlamydospore formation within infected mouse kidneys, whereas the reconstituted strain restored chlamydospore formation in kidneys. Under chlamydospore inducing conditions in vitro, deletion of ISW2 significantly delayed chlamydospore formation, and those late induced chlamydospores lacked associated suspensor cells while attaching laterally to hyphae via novel spore-hypha septa. Our findings establish the induction of chlamydospores by C. albicans during mouse kidney colonization. Our results indicate that ISW2 is not strictly required for chlamydospores formation but is necessary for suspensor cell formation. The importance of ISW2 in chlamydospore morphogenesis and virulence may lead to additional insights into morphological differentiation and pathogenesis of C. albicans in the host microenvironment. PMID:27727302

  10. Spontaneous formation of tumorigenic hybrids between breast cancer and multipotent stromal cells is a source of tumor heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappa, Germana; Mercapide, Javier; Lorico, Aurelio

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer progression involves cancer cell heterogeneity, with generation of invasive/metastatic breast cancer cells within populations of nonmetastatic cells of the primary tumor. Sequential genetic mutations, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, interaction with local stroma, and formation of hybrids between cancer cells and normal bone marrow-derived cells have been advocated as tumor progression mechanisms. We report herein the spontaneous in vitro formation of heterotypic hybrids between human bone marrow-derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) and two different breast carcinoma cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (MDA) and MA11. Hybrids showed predominantly mesenchymal morphological characteristics, mixed gene expression profiles, and increased DNA ploidy. Both MA11 and MDA hybrids were tumorigenic in immunodeficient mice, and some MDA hybrids had an increased metastatic capacity. Both in culture and as xenografts, hybrids underwent DNA ploidy reduction and morphological reversal to breast carcinoma-like morphological characteristics, while maintaining a mixed breast cancer-mesenchymal expression profile. Analysis of coding single-nucleotide polymorphisms by RNA sequencing revealed genetic contributions from both parental partners to hybrid tumors and metastasis. Because MSCs migrate and localize to breast carcinoma, our findings indicate that formation of MSC-breast cancer cell hybrids is a potential mechanism of the generation of invasive/metastatic breast cancer cells. Our findings reconcile the fusion theory of cancer progression with the common observation that breast cancer metastases are generally aneuploid, but not tetraploid, and are histopathologically similar to the primary neoplasm. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Growth Factor Independence-1 (Gfi1 Is Required for Pancreatic Acinar Unit Formation and Centroacinar Cell DifferentiationSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Qu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: The genetic specification of the compartmentalized pancreatic acinar/centroacinar unit is poorly understood. Growth factor independence-1 (Gfi1 is a zinc finger transcriptional repressor that regulates hematopoietic stem cell maintenance, pre-T-cell differentiation, formation of granulocytes, inner ear hair cells, and the development of secretory cell types in the intestine. As GFI1/Gfi1 is expressed in human and rodent pancreas, we characterized the potential function of Gfi1 in mouse pancreatic development. Methods: Gfi1 knockout mice were analyzed at histological and molecular levels, including qRT-PCR, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Results: Loss of Gfi1 impacted formation and structure of the pancreatic acinar/centroacinar unit. Histologic and ultrastructural analysis of Gfi1-null pancreas revealed specific defects at the level of pancreatic acinar cells as well as the centroacinar cells (CACs in Gfi1−/− mice when compared with wild-type littermates. Pancreatic endocrine differentiation, islet architecture, and function were unaffected. Organ domain patterning and the formation of ductal cells occurred normally during the murine secondary transition (E13.5–E14.5 in the Gfi1−/− pancreas. However, at later gestational time points (E18.5, expression of cellular markers for CACs was substantially reduced in Gfi1−/− mice, corroborated by electron microscopy imaging of the acinar/centroacinar unit. The reduction in CACs was correlated with an exocrine organ defect. Postnatally, Gfi1 deficiency resulted in severe pancreatic acinar dysplasia, including loss of granulation, autolytic vacuolation, and a proliferative and apoptotic response. Conclusions: Gfi1 plays an important role in regulating the development of pancreatic CACs and the function of pancreatic acinar cells. Keywords: Centroacinar Cells, Claudin 10, Growth Factor Independence-1 (Gfi1

  12. Controlling Factors of Cell Design on Large-Format Li-Ion Battery Safety during Nail Penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qing; Shaffer, Christian Edward; Sinha, Puneet K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the controlling design parameters of large-format Li-ion batteries on safety while undergoing nail penetration. We have identified three critical design parameters that control the safety during the nail penetration process: nail diameter (D nail ), single sheet foil area (A foil ), and cell capacity (Q cell ).Using commercial AutoLion™ software, we have investigated two typical design problems related to the selection of cell thickness and aspect ratio, namely, (1) the safety ramifications of increasing cell capacity via greater cell thickness for a fixed footprint and (2) the effect of aspect ratio, or single sheet foil size, on safety at a given capacity. For a fixed footprint, our results indicate that the safety of the cell can be predicted by (Q cell D nail -0.5 ). For a given cell capacity, our results indicate that typically a larger single sheet foil area leads to a greater likelihood for thermal runaway due to its effect of making the heating more local in nature; however, for small cells (~5 Ah) and large nails (~20 mm), the greater aspect ratio can lead to a safer cell, as the greater surface area strongly cools the global heating of the cell.

  13. Persistence and dynamics of DNA damage signal amplification determined by microcolony formation and live-cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yasuyoshi; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Suzuki, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoints are essential cellular process protecting the integrity of the genome from DNA damaging agents. In the present study, we developed a microcolony assay, in which normal human diploid fibroblast-like cells exposed to ionizing radiation, were plated onto coverslips at very low density (3 cells/cm 2 ). Cells were grown for up to 3 days, and phosphorylated ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) at Ser1981 and 53BP1 foci were analyzed as the markers for an amplified DNA damage signal. We observed a dose-dependent increase in the fraction of non-dividing cells, whose increase was compromised by knocking down p53 expression. While large persistent foci were predominantly formed in non-dividing cells, we observed some growing colonies that contained cells with large foci. As each microcolony was derived from a single cell, it appeared that some cells could proliferate with large foci. A live-imaging analysis using hTERT-immortalized normal human diploid cells transfected with the EGFP-tagged 53BP1 gene revealed that the formation of persistent large foci was highly dynamic. Delayed appearance and disappearance of large foci were frequently observed in exposed cells visualized 12-72 hours after X-irradiation. Thus, our results indicate that amplified DNA damage signal could be ignored, which may be explained in part by the dynamic nature of the amplification process. (author)

  14. CD14 is a key mediator of both lysophosphatidic acid and lipopolysaccharide induction of foam cell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Dong; Hao, Feng; Zhang, Fuqiang; Kong, Wei; Chun, Jerold; Xu, Xuemin; Cui, Mei-Zhen

    2017-09-01

    Macrophage uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays an important role in foam cell formation and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We report here that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) enhances lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxLDL uptake in macrophages. Our data revealed that both LPA and LPS highly induce the CD14 expression at messenger RNA and protein levels in macrophages. The role of CD14, one component of the LPS receptor cluster, in LPA-induced biological functions has been unknown. We took several steps to examine the role of CD14 in LPA signaling pathways. Knockdown of CD14 expression nearly completely blocked LPA/LPS-induced oxLDL uptake in macrophages, demonstrating for the first time that CD14 is a key mediator responsible for both LPA- and LPS-induced oxLDL uptake/foam cell formation. To determine the molecular mechanism mediating CD14 function, we demonstrated that both LPA and LPS significantly induce the expression of scavenger receptor class A type I (SR-AI), which has been implicated in lipid uptake process, and depletion of CD14 levels blocked LPA/LPS-induced SR-AI expression. We further showed that the SR-AI-specific antibody, which quenches SR-AI function, blocked LPA- and LPS-induced foam cell formation. Thus, SR-AI is the downstream mediator of CD14 in regulating LPA-, LPS-, and LPA/LPS-induced foam cell formation. Taken together, our results provide the first experimental evidence that CD14 is a novel connecting molecule linking both LPA and LPS pathways and is a key mediator responsible for LPA/LPS-induced foam cell formation. The LPA/LPS-CD14-SR-AI nexus might be the new convergent pathway, contributing to the worsening of atherosclerosis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Culture Supernatants of Lactobacillus gasseri and L. crispatus Inhibit Candida albicans Biofilm Formation and Adhesion to HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yuko; Cho, Otomi; Sugita, Takashi; Ogishima, Daiki; Takeda, Satoru

    2018-03-30

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common superficial infection of the vaginal mucous membranes caused by the fungus Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to assess the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of the culture supernatants of Lactobacillus gasseri and L. crispatus, the predominant microbiota in Asian healthy women, on C. albicans biofilm formation. The inhibition of C. albicans adhesion to HeLa cells by Lactobacillus culture supernatant was also investigated. Candida albicans biofilm was formed on polystyrene flat-bottomed 96-well plates, and the inhibitory effects on the initial colonization and maturation phases were determined using the XTT reduction assay. The expression levels of biofilm formation-associated genes (HWP1, ECE1, ALS3, BCR1, EFG1, TEC1, and CPH1) were determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The inhibition of C. albicans adhesion to HeLa cells by Lactobacillus culture supernatant was evaluated by enumerating viable C. albicans cells. The culture supernatants of both Lactobacillus species inhibited the initial colonization and maturation of C. albicans biofilm. The expression levels of all biofilm formation-related genes were downregulated in the presence of Lactobacillus culture supernatant. The culture supernatant also inhibited C. albicans adhesion to HeLa cells. The culture supernatants of L. gasseri and L. crispatus inhibited C. albicans biofilm formation by downregulating biofilm formation-related genes and C. albicans adhesion to HeLa cells. These findings support the notion that Lactobacillus metabolites may be useful alternatives to antifungal drugs for the management of VVC.

  16. Methyl phosphate formation as a major degradation mode of direct methanol fuel cells with phosphoric acid based electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Vassiliev, Anton; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoric acid and phosphoric acid doped polymer membranes are widely used as electrolytes in hydrogen based fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures. Such electrolytes have been explored for direct oxidation of methanol to further increase the versatility of the systems, however......, with demonstrated lifetimes of only a few days to weeks. In this work the methyl phosphate formation from the acid and methanol is identified and proposed to be a major mechanism for the cell degradation. Proton conductivity and fuel cell durability tests validate the mechanism at high methanol contents....

  17. Response of thyroid follicular cells to gamma irradiation compared to proton irradiation. I. Initial characterization of DNA damage, micronucleus formation, apoptosis, cell survival, and cell cycle phase redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, L. M.; Murray, D. K.; Bant, A. M.; Kazarians, G.; Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. A.; Tran, D. T.

    2001-01-01

    The RBE of protons has been assumed to be equivalent to that of photons. The objective of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced DNA and chromosome damage, apoptosis, cell killing and cell cycling in organized epithelial cells was influenced by radiation quality. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-dependent Fischer rat thyroid cells, established as follicles, were exposed to gamma rays or proton beams delivered acutely over a range of physical doses. Gamma-irradiated cells were able to repair DNA damage relatively rapidly so that by 1 h postirradiation they had approximately 20% fewer exposed 3' ends than their counterparts that had been irradiated with proton beams. The persistence of free ends of DNA in the samples irradiated with the proton beam implies that either more initial breaks or a quantitatively different type of damage had occurred. These results were further supported by an increased frequency of chromosomal damage as measured by the presence of micronuclei. Proton-beam irradiation induced micronuclei at a rate of 2.4% per gray, which at 12 Gy translated to 40% more micronuclei than in comparable gamma-irradiated cultures. The higher rate of micronucleus formation and the presence of larger micronuclei in proton-irradiated cells was further evidence that a qualitatively more severe class of damage had been induced than was induced by gamma rays. Differences in the type of damage produced were detected in the apoptosis assay, wherein a significant lag in the induction of apoptosis occurred after gamma irradiation that did not occur with protons. The more immediate expression of apoptotic cells in the cultures irradiated with the proton beam suggests that the damage inflicted was more severe. Alternatively, the cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms required for recovery from such damage might not have been invoked. Differences based on radiation quality were also evident in the alpha components of cell survival curves (0.05 Gy(-1) for gamma rays, 0

  18. SIRT1 Deacetylates FOXA2 and Is Critical for Pdx1 Transcription and β-Cell Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Hong; Xu, Xiaoling; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Xiao, Zhen; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2013-01-01

    Pancreas duodenum homeobox 1 (PDX1) is essential for pancreas development and β-cell formation; however more studies are needed to clearly illustrate the precise mechanism regarding spatiotemporal regulation of Pdx1 expression during β-cell formation and development. Here, we demonstrate that SIRT1, FOXA2 and a number of proteins form a protein complex on the promoter of the Pdx1 gene. SIRT1 and PDX1 are expressed in the same set of cells during β-cell differentiation and maturation. Pancreas-specific disruption of SIRT1 diminished PDX1 expression and impaired islet development. Consequently, SIRT1 mutant mice develop progressive hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin insufficiency, which directly correlate with the extent of SIRT1 deletion. We further show that SIRT1 interacts with and deacetylates FOXA2 on the promoter of the Pdx1gene, and positively regulates its transcription. These results uncover an essential role of SIRT1 in β-cell formation by maintaining expression of PDX1 and its downstream genes, and identify pancreas-specific SIRT1 mutant mice as a relevant model for studying insulin insufficiency. PMID:24163589

  19. Anhydride-functional silane immobilized onto titanium surfaces induces osteoblast cell differentiation and reduces bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy-Gallardo, Maria, E-mail: maria.godoy.gallardo@upc.edu [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research in NanoEngineering (CRNE) — UPC, C/ Pascual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Guillem-Marti, Jordi, E-mail: jordi.guillem.marti@upc.edu [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research in NanoEngineering (CRNE) — UPC, C/ Pascual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Sevilla, Pablo, E-mail: psevilla@euss.es [Department of Mechanics, Escola Universitària Salesiana de Sarrià (EUSS), C/ Passeig de Sant Bosco, 42, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Manero, José M., E-mail: jose.maria.manero@upc.edu [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research in NanoEngineering (CRNE) — UPC, C/ Pascual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gil, Francisco J., E-mail: francesc.xavier.gil@upc.edu [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research in NanoEngineering (CRNE) — UPC, C/ Pascual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial infection in dental implants along with osseointegration failure usually leads to loss of the device. Bioactive molecules with antibacterial properties can be attached to titanium surfaces with anchoring molecules such as silanes, preventing biofilm formation and improving osseointegration. Properties of silanes as molecular binders have been thoroughly studied, but research on the biological effects of these coatings is scarce. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro cell response and antibacterial effects of triethoxysilypropyl succinic anhydride (TESPSA) silane anchored on titanium surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed a successful silanization. The silanized surfaces showed no cytotoxic effects. Gene expression analyses of Sarcoma Osteogenic (SaOS-2) osteoblast-like cells cultured on TESPSA silanized surfaces reported a remarkable increase of biochemical markers related to induction of osteoblastic cell differentiation. A manifest decrease of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation at early stages was observed on treated substrates, while favoring cell adhesion and spreading in bacteria–cell co-cultures. Surfaces treated with TESPSA could enhance a biological sealing on implant surfaces against bacteria colonization of underlying tissues. Furthermore, it can be an effective anchoring platform of biomolecules on titanium surfaces with improved osteoblastic differentiation and antibacterial properties. - Highlights: • TESPSA silane induces osteoblast differentiation. • TESPSA reduces bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. • TESPSA is a promising anchoring platform of biomolecules onto titanium.

  20. Cardiotoxic drugs Herceptin and doxorubicin inhibit cardiac microvascular endothelial cell barrier formation resulting in increased drug permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Wilkinson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiotoxicity induced by anti-cancer therapeutics is a severe, and potentially fatal, adverse reaction of the heart in response to certain drugs. Current in vitro approaches to assess cardiotoxicity have focused on analysing cardiomyocytes. More recently it has become apparent that non-cardiomyocyte cells of the heart can potentially contribute to cardiotoxicity. Herceptin and doxorubicin are known to induce cardiotoxicity in the clinic. The effect of these drugs on the endothelial tight junction barrier was tested by analysing tight junction formation and zona occludens-1 (ZO-1 levels, revealing that Herceptin and doxorubicin are able to induce barrier perturbment and decrease barrier function in human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (HCMECs leading to increased permeability. Herceptin treatment had no effect on the tight junction barrier function in human dermal and human brain microvascular endothelial cells. HCMECs showed detectable levels of HER2 compared with the other endothelial cells suggesting that Herceptin binding to HER2 in these cells may interfere with tight junction formation. Our data suggests that doxorubicin and Herceptin can affect tight junction formation in the cardiac microvasculature leading to increased drug permeability and adverse effects on the cardiac myocytes.

  1. Failure-to-thrive syndrome associated with tumor formation by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in newborn nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinster, Lauren R; Omeir, Romelda L; Foseh, Gideon S; Macauley, Juliete N; Snoy, Philip J; Beren, Joel J; Teferedegne, Belete; Peden, Keith; Lewis, Andrew M

    2013-08-01

    Tumors that formed in newborn nude mice that were inoculated with 10(7) Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were associated with a failure-to-thrive (FTT) syndrome consisting of growth retardation, lethargy, weakness, and dehydration. Scoliosis developed in 41% of affected pups. Pups were symptomatic by week 2; severely affected pups became moribund and required euthanasia within 3 to 4 wk. Mice with FTT were classified into categories of mild, moderate, and severe disease by comparing their weight with that of age-matched normal nude mice. The MDCK-induced tumors were adenocarcinomas that invaded adjacent muscle, connective tissue, and bone; 6 of the 26 pups examined had lung metastases. The induction of FTT did not correlate with cell-line aggressiveness as estimated by histopathology or the efficiency of tumor formation (tumor-forming dose 50% endpoint range = 10(2.8) to 10(7.5)); however, tumor invasion of the paravertebral muscles likely contributed to the scoliosis noted. In contrast to the effect of MDCK cells, tumor formation observed in newborn mice inoculated with highly tumorigenic, human-tumor-derived cell lines was not associated with FTT development. We suggest that tumor formation and FTT are characteristics of these MDCK cell inocula and that FTT represents a new syndrome that may be similar to the cachexia that develops in humans with cancer or other diseases.

  2. Anhydride-functional silane immobilized onto titanium surfaces induces osteoblast cell differentiation and reduces bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy-Gallardo, Maria; Guillem-Marti, Jordi; Sevilla, Pablo; Manero, José M.; Gil, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infection in dental implants along with osseointegration failure usually leads to loss of the device. Bioactive molecules with antibacterial properties can be attached to titanium surfaces with anchoring molecules such as silanes, preventing biofilm formation and improving osseointegration. Properties of silanes as molecular binders have been thoroughly studied, but research on the biological effects of these coatings is scarce. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro cell response and antibacterial effects of triethoxysilypropyl succinic anhydride (TESPSA) silane anchored on titanium surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed a successful silanization. The silanized surfaces showed no cytotoxic effects. Gene expression analyses of Sarcoma Osteogenic (SaOS-2) osteoblast-like cells cultured on TESPSA silanized surfaces reported a remarkable increase of biochemical markers related to induction of osteoblastic cell differentiation. A manifest decrease of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation at early stages was observed on treated substrates, while favoring cell adhesion and spreading in bacteria–cell co-cultures. Surfaces treated with TESPSA could enhance a biological sealing on implant surfaces against bacteria colonization of underlying tissues. Furthermore, it can be an effective anchoring platform of biomolecules on titanium surfaces with improved osteoblastic differentiation and antibacterial properties. - Highlights: • TESPSA silane induces osteoblast differentiation. • TESPSA reduces bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. • TESPSA is a promising anchoring platform of biomolecules onto titanium.

  3. IL-6 is increased in the cerebellum of autistic brain and alters neural cell adhesion, migration and synaptic formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongen; Zou, Hua; Sheikh, Ashfaq M; Malik, Mazhar; Dobkin, Carl; Brown, W Ted; Li, Xiaohong

    2011-05-19

    Although the cellular mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of autism are not understood, a growing number of studies have suggested that localized inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS) may contribute to the development of autism. Recent evidence shows that IL-6 has a crucial role in the development and plasticity of CNS. Immunohistochemistry studies were employed to detect the IL-6 expression in the cerebellum of study subjects. In vitro adenoviral gene delivery approach was used to over-express IL-6 in cultured cerebellar granule cells. Cell adhesion and migration assays, DiI labeling, TO-PRO-3 staining and immunofluorescence were used to examine cell adhesion and migration, dendritic spine morphology, cell apoptosis and synaptic protein expression respectively. In this study, we found that IL-6 was significantly increased in the cerebellum of autistic subjects. We investigated how IL-6 affects neural cell development and function by transfecting cultured mouse cerebellar granule cells with an IL-6 viral expression vector. We demonstrated that IL-6 over-expression in granule cells caused impairments in granule cell adhesion and migration but had little effect on the formation of dendritic spines or granule cell apoptosis. However, IL-6 over-expression stimulated the formation of granule cell excitatory synapses, without affecting inhibitory synapses. Our results provide further evidence that aberrant IL-6 may be associated with autism. In addition, our results suggest that the elevated IL-6 in the autistic brain could alter neural cell adhesion, migration and also cause an imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory circuits. Thus, increased IL-6 expression may be partially responsible for the pathogenesis of autism.

  4. IL-6 is increased in the cerebellum of autistic brain and alters neural cell adhesion, migration and synaptic formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobkin Carl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the cellular mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of autism are not understood, a growing number of studies have suggested that localized inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS may contribute to the development of autism. Recent evidence shows that IL-6 has a crucial role in the development and plasticity of CNS. Methods Immunohistochemistry studies were employed to detect the IL-6 expression in the cerebellum of study subjects. In vitro adenoviral gene delivery approach was used to over-express IL-6 in cultured cerebellar granule cells. Cell adhesion and migration assays, DiI labeling, TO-PRO-3 staining and immunofluorescence were used to examine cell adhesion and migration, dendritic spine morphology, cell apoptosis and synaptic protein expression respectively. Results In this study, we found that IL-6 was significantly increased in the cerebellum of autistic subjects. We investigated how IL-6 affects neural cell development and function by transfecting cultured mouse cerebellar granule cells with an IL-6 viral expression vector. We demonstrated that IL-6 over-expression in granule cells caused impairments in granule cell adhesion and migration but had little effect on the formation of dendritic spines or granule cell apoptosis. However, IL-6 over-expression stimulated the formation of granule cell excitatory synapses, without affecting inhibitory synapses. Conclusions Our results provide further evidence that aberrant IL-6 may be associated with autism. In addition, our results suggest that the elevated IL-6 in the autistic brain could alter neural cell adhesion, migration and also cause an imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory circuits. Thus, increased IL-6 expression may be partially responsible for the pathogenesis of autism.

  5. Roles of chromatin remodelers in maintenance mechanisms of multipotency of mouse trunk neural crest cells in the formation of neural crest-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kyohei; Ogawa, Ryuhei; Kawawaki, Syunsaku; Ito, Kazuo

    2014-08-01

    We analyzed roles of two chromatin remodelers, Chromodomain Helicase DNA-binding protein 7 (CHD7) and SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable-B (SWI/SNF-B), and Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)/Wnt signaling in the maintenance of the multipotency of mouse trunk neural crest cells, leading to the formation of mouse neural crest-derived stem cells (mouse NCSCs). CHD7 was expressed in the undifferentiated neural crest cells and in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and sciatic nerve, typical tissues containing NCSCs. BMP/Wnt signaling stimulated the expression of CHD7 and participated in maintaining the multipotency of neural crest cells. Furthermore, the promotion of CHD7 expression maintained the multipotency of these cells. The inhibition of CHD7 and SWI/SNF-B expression significantly suppressed the maintenance of the multipotency of these cells. In addition, BMP/Wnt treatment promoted CHD7 expression and caused the increase of the percentage of multipotent cells in DRG. Thus, the present data suggest that the chromatin remodelers as well as BMP/Wnt signaling play essential roles in the maintenance of the multipotency of mouse trunk neural crest cells and in the formation of mouse NCSCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Androgens inhibit adipogenesis during human adipose stem cell commitment to preadipocyte formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazenbalk, Gregorio; Singh, Prapti; Irge, Dana; Shah, Amy; Abbott, David H; Dumesic, Daniel A

    2013-09-01

    Androgens play a pivotal role in the regulation of body fat distribution. Adipogenesis is a process whereby multipotent adipose stem cells (ASCs) initially become preadipocytes (ASC commitment to preadipocytes) before differentiating into adipocytes. Androgens inhibit human (h) subcutaneous (SC) abdominal preadipocyte differentiation in both sexes, but their effects on hASC commitment to preadipocyte formation is unknown. We therefore examined whether androgen exposure to human (h) ASCs, isolated from SC abdominal adipose of nonobese women, impairs their commitment to preadipocyte formation and/or subsequent differentiation into adipocytes. For this, isolated hASCs from SC abdominal lipoaspirate were cultured in adipogenesis-inducing medium for 0.5-14days in the presence of testosterone (T, 0-100nM) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT, 0-50nM). Adipogenesis was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy and by quantification of adipogenically relevant transcriptional factors, PPARγ, C/EBPα and C/EBPβ. We found that a 3-day exposure of hASCs to T (50nM) or DHT (5nM) in adipogenesis-inducing medium impaired lipid acquisition and decreased PPARγ, C/EBPα and C/EBPβ gene expression. The inhibitory effects of T and DHT at this early-stage of adipocyte differentiation, were partially and completely reversed by flutamide (F, 100nM), respectively. The effect of androgens on hASC commitment to a preadipocyte phenotype was examined via activation of Bone Morphogenic Protein 4 (BMP4) signaling. T (50nM) and DHT (5nM) significantly inhibited the stimulatory effect of BMP4-induced ASC commitment to the preadipocyte phenotype, as regards PPARγ and C/EBPα gene expression. Our findings indicate that androgens, in part through androgen receptor action, impair BMP4-induced commitment of SC hASCs to preadipocytes and also reduce early-stage adipocyte differentiation, perhaps limiting adipocyte numbers and fat storage in SC abdominal adipose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. CLD1/SRL1 modulates leaf rolling by affecting cell wall formation, epidermis integrity and water homeostasis in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Qiang; Zhang, Min-Juan; Gan, Peng-Fei; Qiao, Lei; Yang, Shuai-Qi; Miao, Hai; Wang, Gang-Feng; Zhang, Mao-Mao; Liu, Wen-Ting; Li, Hai-Feng; Shi, Chun-Hai; Chen, Kun-Ming

    2017-12-01

    Leaf rolling is considered as one of the most important agronomic traits in rice breeding. It has been previously reported that SEMI-ROLLED LEAF 1 (SRL1) modulates leaf rolling by regulating the formation of bulliform cells in rice (Oryza sativa); however, the regulatory mechanism underlying SRL1 has yet to be further elucidated. Here, we report the functional characterization of a novel leaf-rolling mutant, curled leaf and dwarf 1 (cld1), with multiple morphological defects. Map-based cloning revealed that CLD1 is allelic with SRL1, and loses function in cld1 through DNA methylation. CLD1/SRL1 encodes a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein that modulates leaf rolling and other aspects of rice growth and development. The cld1 mutant exhibits significant decreases in cellulose and lignin contents in secondary cell walls of leaves, indicating that the loss of function of CLD1/SRL1 affects cell wall formation. Furthermore, the loss of CLD1/SRL1 function leads to defective leaf epidermis such as bulliform-like epidermal cells. The defects in leaf epidermis decrease the water-retaining capacity and lead to water deficits in cld1 leaves, which contribute to the main cause of leaf rolling. As a result of the more rapid water loss and lower water content in leaves, cld1 exhibits reduced drought tolerance. Accordingly, the loss of CLD1/SRL1 function causes abnormal expression of genes and proteins associated with cell wall formation, cuticle development and water stress. Taken together, these findings suggest that the functional roles of CLD1/SRL1 in leaf-rolling regulation are closely related to the maintenance of cell wall formation, epidermal integrity and water homeostasis. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Growth Factor Independence-1 (Gfi1) Is Required for Pancreatic Acinar Unit Formation and Centroacinar Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaoling; Nyeng, Pia; Xiao, Fan; Dorantes, Jorge; Jensen, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The genetic specification of the compartmentalized pancreatic acinar/centroacinar unit is poorly understood. Growth factor independence-1 ( Gfi1 ) is a zinc finger transcriptional repressor that regulates hematopoietic stem cell maintenance, pre-T-cell differentiation, formation of granulocytes, inner ear hair cells, and the development of secretory cell types in the intestine. As GFI1 / Gfi1 is expressed in human and rodent pancreas, we characterized the potential function of Gfi1 in mouse pancreatic development. Gfi1 knockout mice were analyzed at histological and molecular levels, including qRT-PCR, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Loss of Gfi1 impacted formation and structure of the pancreatic acinar/centroacinar unit. Histologic and ultrastructural analysis of Gfi1 -null pancreas revealed specific defects at the level of pancreatic acinar cells as well as the centroacinar cells (CACs) in  Gfi1 -/- mice when compared with wild-type littermates. Pancreatic endocrine differentiation, islet architecture, and function were unaffected. Organ domain patterning and the formation of ductal cells occurred normally during the murine secondary transition (E13.5-E14.5) in the Gfi1 -/- pancreas. However, at later gestational time points (E18.5), expression of cellular markers for CACs was substantially reduced in Gfi1 -/- mice, corroborated by electron microscopy imaging of the acinar/centroacinar unit. The reduction in CACs was correlated with an exocrine organ defect. Postnatally, Gfi1 deficiency resulted in severe pancreatic acinar dysplasia, including loss of granulation, autolytic vacuolation, and a proliferative and apoptotic response. Gfi1 plays an important role in regulating the development of pancreatic CACs and the function of pancreatic acinar cells.

  9. Osteocytes, not Osteoblasts or Lining Cells, are the Main Source of the RANKL Required for Osteoclast Formation in Remodeling Bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhu Xiong

    Full Text Available The cytokine receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL, encoded by the Tnfsf11 gene, is essential for osteoclastogenesis and previous studies have shown that deletion of the Tnfsf11 gene using a Dmp1-Cre transgene reduces osteoclast formation in cancellous bone by more than 70%. However, the Dmp1-Cre transgene used in those studies leads to recombination in osteocytes, osteoblasts, and lining cells making it unclear whether one or more of these cell types produce the RANKL required for osteoclast formation in cancellous bone. Because osteoblasts, osteocytes, and lining cells have distinct locations and functions, distinguishing which of these cell types are sources of RANKL is essential for understanding the orchestration of bone remodeling. To distinguish between these possibilities, we have now created transgenic mice expressing the Cre recombinase under the control of regulatory elements of the Sost gene, which is expressed in osteocytes but not osteoblasts or lining cells in murine bone. Activity of the Sost-Cre transgene in osteocytes, but not osteoblast or lining cells, was confirmed by crossing Sost-Cre transgenic mice with tdTomato and R26R Cre-reporter mice, which express tdTomato fluorescent protein or LacZ, respectively, only in cells expressing the Cre recombinase or their descendants. Deletion of the Tnfsf11 gene in Sost-Cre mice led to a threefold decrease in osteoclast number in cancellous bone and increased cancellous bone mass, mimicking the skeletal phenotype of mice in which the Tnfsf11 gene was deleted using the Dmp1-Cre transgene. These results demonstrate that osteocytes, not osteoblasts or lining cells, are the main source of the RANKL required for osteoclast formation in remodeling cancellous bone.

  10. Ordering of ceramide formation and caspase-9 activation in CD95L-induced Jurkat leukemia T cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, Elodie; Dupont, Romain; Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie; Okazaki, Toshiro; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Levade, Thierry; Benoist, Hervé; Ségui, Bruno

    2012-04-01

    Ceramide, a biologically active sphingolipid in cell death signaling, accumulates upon CD95L treatment, concomitantly to apoptosis induction in Jurkat leukemia T cells. Herein, we show that ceramide did not increase in caspase-8 and -10-doubly deficient Jurkat cells in response to CD95L, indicating that apical caspases are essential for CD95L-triggered ceramide formation. Jurkat cells are typically defined as type 2 cells, which require the activation of the mitochondrial pathway for efficient apoptosis induction in response to CD95L. Caspase-9-deficient Jurkat cells significantly resisted CD95L-induced apoptosis, despite ceramide accumulation. Knock-down of sphingomyelin synthase 1, which metabolizes ceramide to sphingomyelin, enhanced (i) CD95L-triggered ceramide production, (ii) cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and (iii) caspase-9 activation. Exogenous ceramide-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis were impaired in caspase-9-deficient Jurkat cells. Conversely, caspase-9 re-expression in caspase-9-deficient Jurkat cells restored caspase-3 activation and apoptosis upon exogenous ceramide treatment. Collectively, our data provide genetic evidence that CD95L-triggered endogenous ceramide increase in Jurkat leukemia T cells (i) is not a mere consequence of cell death and occurs mainly in a caspase-9-independent manner, (ii) is likely involved in the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial pathway leading to caspase-9 activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hypoxia enhances proliferation through increase of colony formation rate with chondrogenic potential in primary synovial mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Toshiyuki; Muneta, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Matsukura, Yu; Ichinose, Shizuko; Koga, Hideyuki; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Synovial mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell source for cartilage and meniscus regeneration. Use of primary MSCs is the preferable because these cells are safer than cells passaged several times in terms of probability of chromosome abnormalities. The effect of hypoxia on the proliferation of MSCs is controversial and remains unknown in primary synovial MSCs. Primary synovial MSCs were cultured at normoxia or hypoxia, and colony number, cell number, surface epitopes, mitochondria activity, TEM finding, and chondrogenic potential were analyzed. To investigate the effect of hypoxia on attachment of synovial MSCs, cells were cultured at hypoxia for the first 3 days, then cultured at normoxia. To investigate the effect of hypoxia on proliferation, cells were also cultured at hypoxia for the last 11 days. Hypoxia increased colony number and cell number per dish in primary synovial MSCs. Hypoxia did not affect cell number per colony, surface epitopes, mitochondria activity, TEM finding or chondrogenic potential. Hypoxia for the first 3 days did not alter colony number per dish or cell number per dish, while hypoxia for the last 11 days increased. Hypoxia enhanced proliferation through increase of colony formation rate with chondrogenic potential in primary synovial MSCs.

  12. Effects of cell-attachment and extracellular matrix on bone formation in vivo in collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max M Villa

    Full Text Available Cell-based tissue engineering can be used to replace missing or damaged bone, but the optimal methods for delivering therapeutic cells to a bony defect have not yet been established. Using transgenic reporter cells as a donor source, two different collagen-hydroxyapatite (HA scaffolds, and a critical-size calvarial defect model, we investigated the effect of a cell-attachment period prior to implantation, with or without an extracellular matrix-based seeding suspension, on cell engraftment and osteogenesis. When quantitatively compared, the in-house scaffold implanted immediately had a higher mean radiopacity than in-house scaffolds incubated overnight. Both scaffold types implanted immediately had significantly higher area fractions of donor cells, while the in-house collagen-HA scaffolds implanted immediately had higher area fractions of the mineralization label compared with groups incubated overnight. When the cell loading was compared in vitro for each delivery method using the in-house scaffold, immediate loading led to higher numbers of delivered cells. Immediate loading may be preferable in order to ensure robust bone formation in vivo. The use of a secondary ECM carrier improved the distribution of donor cells only when a pre-attachment period was applied. These results have improved our understanding of cell delivery to bony defects in the context of in vivo outcomes.

  13. Distinguishing crystallization stages and their influence on quantum efficiency during perovskite solar cell formation in real-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lukas; Mundt, Laura E; Mathiazhagan, Gayathri; Mundus, Markus; Schubert, Martin C; Mastroianni, Simone; Würfel, Uli; Hinsch, Andreas; Glunz, Stefan W

    2017-11-02

    Relating crystallization of the absorber layer in a perovskite solar cell (PSC) to the device performance is a key challenge for the process development and in-depth understanding of these types of high efficient solar cells. A novel approach that enables real-time photo-physical and electrical characterization using a graphite-based PSC is introduced in this work. In our graphite-based PSC, the device architecture of porous monolithic contact layers creates the possibility to perform photovoltaic measurements while the perovskite crystallizes within this scaffold. The kinetics of crystallization in a solution based 2-step formation process has been analyzed by real-time measurement of the external photon to electron quantum efficiency as well as the photoluminescence emission spectra of the solar cell. With this method it was in particular possible to identify a previously overlooked crystallization stage during the formation of the perovskite absorber layer. This stage has significant influence on the development of the photocurrent, which is attributed to the formation of electrical pathways between the electron and hole contact, enabling efficient charge carrier extraction. We observe that in contrast to previously suggested models, the perovskite layer formation is indeed not complete with the end of crystal growth.

  14. Environmental immunogens and T-cell-mediated responses in fibromyalgia: evidence for immune dysregulation and determinants of granuloma formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanklin, D R; Stevens, M V; Hall, M F; Smalley, D L

    2000-10-01

    Thirty-nine patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) according to American College of Rheumatology criteria were studied for cell-mediated sensitivity to environmental chemicals. Lymphocytes were tested by standard [(3)H]thymidine incorporation in vitro for T cell memory to 11 chemical substances. Concanavalin A (Con A) was used to demonstrate T cell proliferation. Controls were 25 contemporaneous healthy adults and 252 other concurrent standard controls without any aspect of FMS. Significantly higher (P P > 0.02) SI were found for cadmium and silicon. FMS patients showed sporadic responses to the specific substances tested, with no high-frequency result (>50%) and no obvious pattern. Mitogenic responses to Con A indicated some suppression of T cell functionality in FMS. Possible links between mitogenicity and immunogenic T cell proliferation, certain electrochemical specifics of granuloma formation, maintenance of connective tissue, and the fundamental nature of FMS are considered. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  15. Predicting the distribution of spiral waves from cell properties in a developmental-path model of Dictyostelium pattern formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Geberth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is one of the model systems of biological pattern formation. One of the most successful answers to the challenge of establishing a spiral wave pattern in a colony of homogeneously distributed D. discoideum cells has been the suggestion of a developmental path the cells follow (Lauzeral and coworkers. This is a well-defined change in properties each cell undergoes on a longer time scale than the typical dynamics of the cell. Here we show that this concept leads to an inhomogeneous and systematic spatial distribution of spiral waves, which can be predicted from the distribution of cells on the developmental path. We propose specific experiments for checking whether such systematics are also found in data and thus, indirectly, provide evidence of a developmental path.

  16. Cell fate establishment during early development of cyprinid fishes, with special emphasis on the formation of the primordial germ cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers, P.

    1992-01-01

    Cell fates can be established either by preformation or by epigenesis. With respect to primordial germ cells (PGCs) it has been shown that the Amphibia exhibit both types of cell fate establishment. Therefore, it is important to study the germ cell origin of the evolutionary lower class of

  17. Microwaves from Mobile Phones Inhibit 53BP1 Focus Formation in Human Stem Cells More Strongly Than in Differentiated Cells: Possible Mechanistic Link to Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovà, Eva; Malmgren, Lars O G; Belyaev, Igor Y

    2010-03-01

    It is widely accepted that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and their misrepair in stem cells are critical events in the multistage origination of various leukemias and tumors, including gliomas. We studied whether microwaves from mobile telephones of the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and the Universal Global Telecommunications System (UMTS) induce DSBs or affect DSB repair in stem cells. We analyzed tumor suppressor TP53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) foci that are typically formed at the sites of DSB location (referred to as DNA repair foci) by laser confocal microscopy. Microwaves from mobile phones inhibited formation of 53BP1 foci in human primary fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells. These data parallel our previous findings for human lymphocytes. Importantly, the same GSM carrier frequency (915 MHz) and UMTS frequency band (1947.4 MHz) were effective for all cell types. Exposure at 905 MHz did not inhibit 53BP1 foci in differentiated cells, either fibroblasts or lymphocytes, whereas some effects were seen in stem cells at 905 MHz. Contrary to fibroblasts, stem cells did not adapt to chronic exposure during 2 weeks. The strongest microwave effects were always observed in stem cells. This result may suggest both significant misbalance in DSB repair and severe stress response. Our findings that stem cells are most sensitive to microwave exposure and react to more frequencies than do differentiated cells may be important for cancer risk assessment and indicate that stem cells are the most relevant cellular model for validating safe mobile communication signals.

  18. Silencing heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in retinal pigment epithelial cells inhibits proliferation, migration and tube formation of cocultured endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenjie [Ophthalmology Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 23 Youzheng Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Xiaomei, E-mail: zhangxm667@163.com [Ophthalmology Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 23 Youzheng Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Lu, Hong [Ophthalmology Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 23 Youzheng Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Matsukura, Makoto [Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sojo University, 4-22-1 Ikeda, Kumamoto 860-0082 (Japan); Zhao, Jien; Shinohara, Makoto [Ashikita Institution for Developmental Disabilities, 2813 Oaza Ashikita, Ashikita-machi, Ashikita, Kumamoto 869-5461 (Japan)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •HO-1 is highly induced in RPE cells by hypoxia. •Inhibition of HO-1 activity and knockdown of HO-1 expression inhibit VEGF expression in RPE cells under hypoxia. •Knockdown of HO-1 in RPE cells inhibits angiogenesis of endothelial cells in vitro. -- Abstract: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays an important role in the vasculature and in the angiogenesis of tumors, wounds and other environments. Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and choroidal endothelial cells (CECs) are the main cells involved in choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a process in which hypoxia plays an important role. Our aim was to evaluate the role of human RPE-cell HO-1 in the angiogenic activities of cocultured endothelial cells under hypoxia. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) for HO-1 was transfected into human RPE cell line ARPE-19, and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) was used to inhibit HO-1 activity. Knockdown of HO-1 expression and inhibition of HO-1 activity resulted in potent reduction of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) under hypoxia. Furthermore, knockdown of HO-1 suppressed the proliferation, migration and tube formation of cocultured endothelial cells. These findings indicated that HO-1 might have an angiogenic effect in CNV through modulation of VEGF expression and might be a potential target for treating CNV.

  19. Autoantibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease promote immune complex formation with self antigens and increase B cell and CD4+ T cell proliferation in response to self antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton

    2004-01-01

    B cells are centrally involved as antigen-presenting cells in certain autoimmune diseases. To establish whether autoantibodies form immune complexes (IC) with self-antigens in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and promote B cell uptake of self-antigen, sera from patients with Hashimoto's thyroidi......B cells are centrally involved as antigen-presenting cells in certain autoimmune diseases. To establish whether autoantibodies form immune complexes (IC) with self-antigens in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and promote B cell uptake of self-antigen, sera from patients with Hashimoto......'s thyroiditis (HT), Graves' disease (GD) and healthy controls were incubated with human thyroglobulin (Tg) before adding normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The deposition of immunoglobulins and C3 fragments on B cells was then assessed. Inclusion of Tg in serum from HT patients promoted B cell capture...... of Tg by boiling reduced the proliferative responses. The data indicate that anti-Tg antibodies associated with AITD facilitate the formation of complement-activating Tg/anti-Tg complexes, binding of IC to B cells, and the subsequent proliferation of B and T cell subsets. This represents a novel...

  20. Stem cells are units of natural selection for tissue formation, for germline development, and in cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Irving L

    2015-07-21

    It is obvious that natural selection operates at the level of individuals and collections of individuals. Nearly two decades ago we showed that in multi-individual colonies of protochordate colonial tunicates sharing a blood circulation, there exists an exchange of somatic stem cells and germline stem cells, resulting in somatic chimeras and stem cell competitions for gonadal niches. Stem cells are unlike other cells in the body in that they alone self-renew, so that they form clones that are perpetuated for the life of the organism. Stem cell competitions have allowed the emergence of competitive somatic and germline stem cell clones. Highly successful germline stem cells usually outcompete less successful competitors both in the gonads of the genotype partner from which they arise and in the gonads of the natural parabiotic partners. Therefore, natural selection also operates at the level of germline stem cell clones. In the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri the formation of natural parabionts is prevented by a single-locus highly polymorphic histocompatibility gene called Botryllus histocompatibility factor. This limits germline stem cell predation to kin, as the locus has hundreds of alleles. We show that in mice germline stem cells compete for gonad niches, and in mice and humans, blood-forming stem cells also compete for bone marrow niches. We show that the clonal progression from blood-forming stem cells to acute leukemias by successive genetic and epigenetic events in blood stem cells also involves competition and selection between clones and propose that this is a general theme in cancer.

  1. Imposed Environmental Stresses Facilitate Cell-Free Nanoparticle Formation by Deinococcus radiodurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The biological synthesis of metal nanoparticles has been examined in a wide range of organisms, due to increased interest in green synthesis and environmental remediation applications involving heavy metal ion contamination. Deinococcus radiodurans is particularly attractive for environmental remediation involving metal reduction, due to its high levels of resistance to radiation and other environmental stresses. However, few studies have thoroughly examined the relationships between environmental stresses and the resulting effects on nanoparticle biosynthesis. In this work, we demonstrate cell-free nanoparticle production and study the effects of metal stressor concentrations and identity, temperature, pH, and oxygenation on the production of extracellular silver nanoparticles by D. radiodurans R1. We also report the synthesis of bimetallic silver and gold nanoparticles following the addition of a metal stressor (silver or gold), highlighting how production of these particles is enabled through the application of environmental stresses. Additionally, we found that both the morphology and size of monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles were dependent on the environmental stresses imposed on the cells. The nanoparticles produced by D. radiodurans exhibited antimicrobial activity comparable to that of pure silver nanoparticles and displayed catalytic activity comparable to that of pure gold nanoparticles. Overall, we demonstrate that biosynthesized nanoparticle properties can be partially controlled through the tuning of applied environmental stresses, and we provide insight into how their application may affect nanoparticle production in D. radiodurans during bioremediation. IMPORTANCE Biosynthetic production of nanoparticles has recently gained prominence as a solution to rising concerns regarding increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics and a desire for environmentally friendly methods of bioremediation and chemical synthesis. To date, a range of

  2. Electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) method for modeling the formation of metal surface structures induced by femtosecond laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djouder, M. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-ouzou, BP 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Lamrous, O., E-mail: omarlamrous@mail.ummto.dz [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-ouzou, BP 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Mitiche, M.D. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-ouzou, BP 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Itina, T.E. [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR CNRS 5516/Université Jean Monnet, 18 rue de Professeur Benoît Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Zemirli, M. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-ouzou, BP 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)

    2013-09-01

    The particle in cell (PIC) method coupled to the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to model the formation of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) at the early stage of femtosecond laser irradiation of smooth metal surface. The theoretical results were analyzed and compared with experimental data taken from the literature. It was shown that the optical properties of the target are not homogeneous and the ejection of electrons is such that ripples in the electron density were obtained. The Coulomb explosion mechanism was proposed to explain the ripples formation under the considered conditions.

  3. Electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) method for modeling the formation of metal surface structures induced by femtosecond laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djouder, M.; Lamrous, O.; Mitiche, M.D.; Itina, T.E.; Zemirli, M.

    2013-01-01

    The particle in cell (PIC) method coupled to the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to model the formation of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) at the early stage of femtosecond laser irradiation of smooth metal surface. The theoretical results were analyzed and compared with experimental data taken from the literature. It was shown that the optical properties of the target are not homogeneous and the ejection of electrons is such that ripples in the electron density were obtained. The Coulomb explosion mechanism was proposed to explain the ripples formation under the considered conditions.

  4. Multifunctional Merkel cells: their roles in electromagnetic reception, finger-print formation, Reiki, epigenetic inheritance and hair form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak, M Kemal

    2010-08-01

    Merkel cells are located in glabrous and hairy skin and in some mucosa. They are characterized by dense-core secretory granules and cytoskeletal filaments. They are attached to neighboring keratinocytes by desmosomes and contain melanosomes similar to keratinocytes. They are excitable cells in close contact with sensory nerve endings but their function is still unclear. In this review, following roles are attributed for the first time to the Merkel cells: (1) melanosomes in Merkel cells may be involved in mammalian magnetoreception. In this model melanosome as a biological magnetite is connected by cytoskeletal filaments to mechanically gated ion channels embedded in the Merkel cell membrane. The movement of melanosome with the changing electromagnetic field may open ion channels directly producing a receptor potential that can be transmitted to brain via sensory neurons. (2) Merkel cells may be involved in finger-print formation: Merkel cells in glabrous skin are located at the base of the epidermal ridges the type of which defines the finger-print pattern. Finger-print formation starts at the 10th week of pregnancy after the arrival of Merkel cells. Keratinocyte proliferation and the buckling process observed in the basal layer of epidermis resulting in the epidermal ridges may be controlled and formed by Merkel cells. (3) Brain-Merkel cell connection is bi-directional and Merkel cells not only absorb but also radiate the electromagnetic frequencies. Hence, efferent aspects of the palmar and plantar Merkel nerve endings may form the basis of the biofield modalities such as Reiki, therapeutic touch and telekinesis. (4) Adaptive geographic variations such as skin color, craniofacial morphology and hair form result from interactions between environmental factors and epigenetic inheritance system. While environmental factors produce modifications in the body, they simultaneously induce epigenetic modifications in the oocytes and in this way adaptive changes could be

  5. The Cell Factory Aspergillus Enters the Big Data Era: Opportunities and Challenges for Optimising Product Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Vera; Fiedler, Markus; Nitsche, Benjamin; King, Rudibert

    2015-01-01

    Living with limits. Getting more from less. Producing commodities and high-value products from renewable resources including waste. What is the driving force and quintessence of bioeconomy outlines the lifestyle and product portfolio of Aspergillus, a saprophytic genus, to which some of the top-performing microbial cell factories belong: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus terreus. What makes them so interesting for exploitation in biotechnology and how can they help us to address key challenges of the twenty-first century? How can these strains become trimmed for better growth on second-generation feedstocks and how can we enlarge their product portfolio by genetic and metabolic engineering to get more from less? On the other hand, what makes it so challenging to deduce biological meaning from the wealth of Aspergillus -omics data? And which hurdles hinder us to model and engineer industrial strains for higher productivity and better rheological performance under industrial cultivation conditions? In this review, we will address these issues by highlighting most recent findings from the Aspergillus research with a focus on fungal growth, physiology, morphology and product formation. Indeed, the last years brought us many surprising insights into model and industrial strains. They clearly told us that similar is not the same: there are different ways to make a hypha, there are more protein secretion routes than anticipated and there are different molecular and physical mechanisms which control polar growth and the development of hyphal networks. We will discuss new conceptual frameworks derived from these insights and the future scientific advances necessary to create value from Aspergillus Big Data.

  6. The requirement for fibroblasts in angiogenesis: fibroblast-derived matrix proteins are essential for endothelial cell lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Andrew C; Nakatsu, Martin N; Chou, Wayne; Gershon, Paul D; Hughes, Christopher C W

    2011-10-01

    A role for fibroblasts in physiological and pathological angiogenesis is now well recognized; however, the precise mechanisms underlying their action have not been determined. Using an in vitro angiogenesis model in combination with a candidate gene approach, column chromatography, and mass spectrometry, we identify two classes of fibroblast-derived factors--one that supports vessel sprouting but not lumen formation, and one that promotes lumen formation. In the absence of fibroblasts a combination of angiopoietin-1, angiogenin, hepatocyte growth factor, transforming growth factor-α, and tumor necrosis factor drives robust endothelial cell (EC) sprouting; however, lumens fail to form. Subsequent addition of fibroblast-conditioned medium restores lumenogenesis. Using small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown, we show that five genes expressed in fibroblasts--collagen I, procollagen C endopeptidase enhancer 1, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, transforming growth factor-β-induced protein ig-h3, and insulin growth factor-binding protein 7--are necessary for lumen formation. Moreover, lumen formation can be rescued by addition of purified protein to knockdown cultures. Finally, using rheology, we demonstrate that the presence of these matricellular proteins results in significantly stiffer gels, which correlates with enhanced lumen formation. These findings highlight the critical role that fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix components play in EC lumen formation and provide potential insight into the role of fibroblasts in the tumor microenvironment.

  7. Influence of culture media on biofilm formation by Candida species and response of sessile cells to antifungals and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Fujarte, Isela; López-Romero, Everardo; Reyna-López, Georgina Elena; Martínez-Gámez, Ma Alejandrina; Vega-González, Arturo; Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the influence of culture media on biofilm formation by C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis and to investigate the responses of sessile cells to antifungals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to planktonic cells. For biofilm formation, the Candida species were grown at different periods of time in YP or YNB media supplemented or not with 0.2 or 2% glucose. Sessile and planktonic cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of antifungals, H2O2, menadione or silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantified by the XTT assay. C. albicans formed biofilms preferentially in YPD containing 2% glucose (YPD/2%), C. glabrata in glucose-free YNB or supplemented with 0.2% glucose (YNB/0.2%), while C. krusei and C. parapsilosis preferred YP, YPD/0.2%, and YPD/2%. Interestingly, only C. albicans produced an exopolymeric matrix. This is the first report dealing with the in vitro effect of the culture medium and glucose on the formation of biofilms in four Candida species as well as the resistance of sessile cells to antifungals, AgNPs, and ROS. Our results suggest that candidiasis in vivo is a multifactorial and complex process where the nutritional conditions, the human immune system, and the adaptability of the pathogen should be considered altogether to provide an effective treatment of the patient.

  8. Influence of Culture Media on Biofilm Formation by Candida Species and Response of Sessile Cells to Antifungals and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Serrano-Fujarte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to evaluate the influence of culture media on biofilm formation by C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis and to investigate the responses of sessile cells to antifungals and reactive oxygen species (ROS as compared to planktonic cells. For biofilm formation, the Candida species were grown at different periods of time in YP or YNB media supplemented or not with 0.2 or 2% glucose. Sessile and planktonic cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of antifungals, H2O2, menadione or silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. Biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and quantified by the XTT assay. C. albicans formed biofilms preferentially in YPD containing 2% glucose (YPD/2%, C. glabrata in glucose-free YNB or supplemented with 0.2% glucose (YNB/0.2%, while C. krusei and C. parapsilosis preferred YP, YPD/0.2%, and YPD/2%. Interestingly, only C. albicans produced an exopolymeric matrix. This is the first report dealing with the in vitro effect of the culture medium and glucose on the formation of biofilms in four Candida species as well as the resistance of sessile cells to antifungals, AgNPs, and ROS. Our results suggest that candidiasis in vivo is a multifactorial and complex process where the nutritional conditions, the human immune system, and the adaptability of the pathogen should be considered altogether to provide an effective treatment of the patient.

  9. Influence of Culture Media on Biofilm Formation by Candida Species and Response of Sessile Cells to Antifungals and Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Fujarte, Isela; Reyna-López, Georgina Elena; Martínez-Gámez, Ma. Alejandrina; Vega-González, Arturo; Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the influence of culture media on biofilm formation by C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis and to investigate the responses of sessile cells to antifungals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to planktonic cells. For biofilm formation, the Candida species were grown at different periods of time in YP or YNB media supplemented or not with 0.2 or 2% glucose. Sessile and planktonic cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of antifungals, H2O2, menadione or silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantified by the XTT assay. C. albicans formed biofilms preferentially in YPD containing 2% glucose (YPD/2%), C. glabrata in glucose-free YNB or supplemented with 0.2% glucose (YNB/0.2%), while C. krusei and C. parapsilosis preferred YP, YPD/0.2%, and YPD/2%. Interestingly, only C. albicans produced an exopolymeric matrix. This is the first report dealing with the in vitro effect of the culture medium and glucose on the formation of biofilms in four Candida species as well as the resistance of sessile cells to antifungals, AgNPs, and ROS. Our results suggest that candidiasis in vivo is a multifactorial and complex process where the nutritional conditions, the human immune system, and the adaptability of the pathogen should be considered altogether to provide an effective treatment of the patient. PMID:25705688

  10. Stem cell-dependent formation of a functional anterior regeneration pole in planarians requires Zic and Forkhead transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogg, Matthias C; Owlarn, Suthira; Pérez Rico, Yuvia A; Xie, Jianlei; Suzuki, Yoko; Gentile, Luca; Wu, Wei; Bartscherer, Kerstin

    2014-06-15

    Planarians can regenerate their head within days. This process depends on the direction of adult stem cells to wound sites and the orchestration of their progenitors to commit to appropriate lineages and to arrange into patterned tissues. We identified a zinc finger transcription factor, Smed-ZicA, as a downstream target of Smed-FoxD, a Forkhead transcription factor required for head regeneration. Smed-zicA and Smed-FoxD are co-expressed with the Wnt inhibitor notum and the Activin inhibitor follistatin in a cluster of cells at the anterior-most tip of the regenerating head - the anterior regeneration pole - and in surrounding stem cell progeny. Depletion of Smed-zicA and Smed-FoxD by RNAi abolishes notum and follistatin expression at the pole and inhibits head formation downstream of initial polarity decisions. We suggest a model in which ZicA and FoxD transcription factors synergize to control the formation of Notum- and Follistatin-producing anterior pole cells. Pole formation might constitute an early step in regeneration, resulting in a signaling center that orchestrates cellular events in the growing tissue. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioinspired seeding of biomaterials using three dimensional microtissues induces chondrogenic stem cell differentiation and cartilage formation under growth factor free conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Moreira Teixeira, Liliana; Bolander, J.; Ji, W.; Vanspauwen, B.; Lammertyn, J.; Schrooten, J.; Luyten, F.P.

    2016-01-01

    Cell laden biomaterials are archetypically seeded with individual cells and steered into the desired behavior using exogenous stimuli to control growth and differentiation. In contrast, direct cell-cell contact is instructive and even essential for natural tissue formation. Namely, microaggregation

  12. Contribution of Implanted, Genetically Modified Muscle Progenitor Cells Expressing BMP-2 to New Bone Formation in a Rat Osseous Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Vega, Rodolfo E; De Padilla, Consuelo Lopez; Trujillo, Miguel; Quirk, Nicholas; Porter, Ryan M; Evans, Christopher H; Ferreira, Elisabeth

    2018-01-03

    Because muscle contains osteoprogenitor cells and has a propensity to form bone, we have explored its utility in healing large osseous defects. Healing is achieved by the insertion of muscle fragments transduced with adenovirus encoding BMP-2 (Ad.BMP-2). However, it is not known whether the genetically modified muscle contributes osteoprogenitor cells to healing defects or merely serves as a local source of BMP-2. This question is part of the larger debate on the fate of progenitor cells introduced into sites of tissue damage to promote regeneration. To address this issue, we harvested fragments of muscle from rats constitutively expressing GFP, transduced them with Ad.BMP-2, and implanted them into femoral defects in wild-type rats under various conditions. GFP + cells persisted within defects for the entire 8 weeks of the experiments. In the absence of bone formation, these cells presented as fibroblasts. When bone was formed, GFP + cells were present as osteoblasts and osteocytes and also among the lining cells of new blood vessels. The genetically modified muscle thus contributed progenitor cells as well as BMP-2 to the healing defect, a property of great significance in light of the extensive damage to soft tissue and consequent loss of endogenous progenitors in problematic fractures. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Controlling Factors of Cell Design on Large-format Li-ion Battery Safety During Nail Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing eWang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the controlling design parameters of large-format Li-ion batteries on safety while undergoing nail penetration. We have identified three critical design parameters that control the safety during the nail penetration process: nail diameter, single sheet foil area, and cell capacity.Using commercial AutoLion software, we have investigated two typical design problems related to the selection of cell thickness and aspect ratio, namely: (1 the safety ramifications of increasing cell capacity via greater cell thickness for a fixed footprint, and (2 the effect of aspect ratio, or single sheet foil size, on safety at a given capacity. For a fixed footprint, our results indicate that the safety of the cell can be predicted by (Qcell Dnail^-0.5. For a given cell capacity, our results indicate that typically a larger single sheet foil area leads to a greater likelihood for thermal runaway due to its effect of making the heating more local in nature; however, for small cells (~ 5Ah and large nails (~ 20mm, the greater aspect ratio can lead to a safer cell, as the greater surface area strongly cools the global heating of the cell.

  14. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen (ROS and RNS) species generation and cell death in tomato suspension cultures--Botrytis cinerea interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrowska, E; Różalska, S; Kaźmierczak, A; Nawrocka, J; Małolepsza, U

    2015-01-01

    This article reports events connected to cell survival and Botrytis cinerea infection development in cell suspension cultures of two tomato cultivars which show different levels of susceptibility to the pathogen: cv. Corindo (more susceptible) and cv. Perkoz (less susceptible). In parallel changes in reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species generation and in S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activity were studied. In vivo staining methods with acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB) as well as fluorescent microscopy were used to assess tomato and B. cinerea cells death. The biochemical studies of ROS and RNS concentrations in plant cell extract were complemented by in vivo ROS and nitric oxide (NO) imaging using nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT), diaminobenzidine (DAB) and diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-DA) staining methods, and confocal microscope technique. B. cinerea infection proceeded slower in Perkoz cell cultures. It was evidenced by measuring the pathogen conidia germination and germination tube development in which nuclei revealing cell death dominated. Two different types of tomato cell death were observed: cells with necrotic nuclei dominated in Corindo whereas in Perkoz cells with characteristic of vacuolar death type prevailed. In Perkoz cells, constitutive levels of NO and S-nitrosothiols (SNO) were significantly higher and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and superoxide anion (O₂(-)) concentrations were slightly higher as compared with Corindo cells. Moreover, increases in these molecule concentrations as a result of B. cinerea inoculation were observed in both, Perkoz and Corindo cell cultures. The enzymatic GSNOR activity seems to be an important player in controlling the SNO level in tomato cells. Involvements of the studied compounds in molecular mechanisms of tomato resistance to B. cinerea are discussed in the paper.

  15. Rat bone marrow stem cells isolation and culture as a bone formative experimental system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Smajilagić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow mesenchymal cells have been identified as a source of pluripotent stem cells with multipotential potential and differentiation in to the different cells types such as are osteoblast, chondroblast, adipoblast. In this research we describe pioneering experiment of tissue engineering in Bosnia and Herzegovina, of the isolation and differentiation rat bone marrow stromal cells in to the osteoblast cells lineages. Rat bone marrow stromal cells were isolated by method described by Maniatopulos using their plastic adherence capatibility. The cells obtained by plastic adherence were cultured and serially passaged in the osteoinductive medium to differentiate into the osteocytes. Bone marrow samples from rats long bones used for isolation of stromal cells (BMSCs. Under determinate culture conditions BMSCs were differentiated in osteogenic cell lines detected by Alizarin red staining three weeks after isolation. BMSCs as autologue cells model showed high osteogenetic potential and calcification capatibility in vitro. In future should be used as alternative method for bone transplantation in Regenerative Medicine.

  16. Stem cell factor induces phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase-dependent Lyn/Tec/Dok-1 complex formation in hematopoietic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. van Dijk (Thamar); M. Parren-Van Amelsvoort (Martine); H. Mano; M.M. von Lindern (Marieke); B. Löwenberg (Bob); E. van den Akker (Emile)