Sample records for cell recycle

  1. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil. (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh


    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation.

  2. Recyclable organic solar cells on substrates comprising cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippelen, Bernard; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Zhou, Yinhua; Moon, Robert; Youngblood, Jeffrey P


    Recyclable organic solar cells are disclosed herein. Systems and methods are further disclosed for producing, improving performance, and for recycling the solar cells. In certain example embodiments, the recyclable organic solar cells disclosed herein include: a first electrode; a second electrode; a photoactive layer disposed between the first electrode and the second electrode; an interlayer comprising a Lewis basic oligomer or polymer disposed between the photoactive layer and at least a portion of the first electrode or the second electrode; and a substrate disposed adjacent to the first electrode or the second electrode. The interlayer reduces the work function associated with the first or second electrode. In certain example embodiments, the substrate comprises cellulose nanocrystals that can be recycled. In certain example embodiments, one or more of the first electrode, the photoactive layer, and the second electrode may be applied by a film transfer lamination method.

  3. Ideal solar cell equation in the presence of photon recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Dongchen, E-mail:; Green, Martin A., E-mail: [Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics, School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)


    Previous derivations of the ideal solar cell equation based on Shockley's p-n junction diode theory implicitly assume negligible effects of photon recycling. This paper derives the equation in the presence of photon recycling that modifies the values of dark saturation and light-generated currents, using an approach applicable to arbitrary three-dimensional geometries with arbitrary doping profile and variable band gap. The work also corrects an error in previous work and proves the validity of the reciprocity theorem for charge collection in such a more general case with the previously neglected junction depletion region included.

  4. Thermal energy recycling fuel cell arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Paul R.


    An example fuel cell arrangement includes a fuel cell stack configured to receive a supply fluid and to provide an exhaust fluid that has more thermal energy than the supply fluid. The arrangement also includes an ejector and a heat exchanger. The ejector is configured to direct at least some of the exhaust fluid into the supply fluid. The heat exchanger is configured to increase thermal energy in the supply fluid using at least some of the exhaust fluid that was not directed into the supply fluid.

  5. Synaptic and Golgi membrane recycling in cochlear hair cells. (United States)

    Siegel, J H; Brownell, W E


    Membrane recycling in the mechanoreceptive sensory cells of the mammalian cochlea was studied by observing membrane-bound horseradish peroxidase (HRP) reaction product following brief in vivo exposure to the enzyme. In the inner hair cell (IHC), peroxidase was taken up into coated vesicles and became incorporated into synaptic vesicles surrounding presynaptic bodies, but much HRP was also transported to the apical zone where reaction product appeared in all components of the Golgi complex. Neither the subsurface cisternae nor a tubular network associated with clusters of mitochondria were labelled. Outer hair cells (OHCs) showed considerably less membrane-bound reaction product than IHCs, indicating less rapid plasmalemmal recycling. Most membrane-bound reaction product was contained in coated vesicles and small vacuoles in the synaptic zone, but was occasionally seen in multivesicular bodies in the most apical zone. No labelled organelles were detected in the large central region of the OHC. A diffuse staining of the cytoplasm, particularly pronounced in OHCs, often interfered with the evaluation of membrane-bound reaction product in OHCs. This staining pattern could be qualitatively reproduced in both IHCs and OHCs by incubating fixed segments of the organ of Corti in oxidized diaminobenzidine. The presence of labelled synaptic vesicles associated with presynaptic bodies of IHCs and OHCs suggests that they are formed from membrane retrieved from the plasmalemma. We found no evidence that the subsurface cisternae of IHCs or the laminated cisternae of OHCs are derived from the cell surface as they never contained reaction product.

  6. Ethanol production by a flocculant yeast strain in a CSTR type fermentor with cell recycling. (United States)

    Hojo, O; Hokka, C O; Major, A M


    Tests were performed in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), with and without cell recycling, to produce ethanol. The reactor without cell recycling produced the kinetic model of ethanol production, whereas the reactor with cell recycling allowed for a study of process stability. The Levenspiel kinetic model was adopted; however, in the case of fermentation with cell recycling, the coefficient of cell death was added. It was observed that cellular viability varied greatly throughout the fermenting process and that microaeration is of fundamental importance in maintaining the stability of the process.

  7. Recycling Perovskite Solar Cells To Avoid Lead Waste. (United States)

    Binek, Andreas; Petrus, Michiel L; Huber, Niklas; Bristow, Helen; Hu, Yinghong; Bein, Thomas; Docampo, Pablo


    Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite based solar cells have recently emerged as a serious competitor for large scale and low-cost photovoltaic technologies. However, since these solar cells contain toxic lead, a sustainable procedure for handling the cells after their operational lifetime is required to prevent exposure of the environment to lead and to comply with international electronic waste disposal regulations. Herein, we report a procedure to remove every layer of the solar cells separately, which gives the possibility to selectively isolate the different materials. Besides isolating the toxic lead iodide in high yield, we show that the PbI2 can be reused for the preparation of new solar cells with comparable performance and in this way avoid lead waste. Furthermore, we show that the most expensive part of the solar cell, the conductive glass (FTO), can be reused several times without any reduction in the performance of the devices. With our simple recycling procedure, we address both the risk of contamination and the waste disposal of perovskite based solar cells while further reducing the cost of the system. This brings perovskite solar cells one step closer to their introduction into commercial systems.

  8. Increasing ethanol productivity during xylose fermentation by cell recycling of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roca, Christophe Francois Aime; Olsson, Lisbeth


    The influence of cell recycling of xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae TMB3001 was investigated during continuous cultivation on a xylose-glucose mixture. By using cell recycling at the dilution rate (D) of 0.05 h(-1), the cell-mass concentration could be increased from 2.2 g l(-1) to 22 g l...... ethanol productivity was in the range of 0.23-0.26 g g(-1) h(-1) with or without cell recycling, showing that an increased cell-mass concentration did not influence the efficiency of the yeast....

  9. Dendritic cells utilize the evolutionarily conserved WASH and retromer complexes to promote MHCII recycling and helper T cell priming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Graham

    Full Text Available Immature dendritic cells (DCs maintain a highly dynamic pool of recycling MHCII that promotes sampling of environmental antigens for presentation to T helper cells. However, the molecular basis of MHCII recycling and the cellular machinery that orchestrates MHCII trafficking are incompletely understood. Using a mouse model we show that WASH, an actin regulatory protein that facilitates retromer function, is essential for MHCII recycling and efficient priming of T helper cells. We further demonstrate that WASH deficiency results in impaired MHCII surface levels, recycling, and an accumulation of polyubiquitinated MHCII complexes, which are subsequently slated for premature lysosomal degradation. Consequently, conditional deletion of the Wash gene in DCs impairs priming of both conventional and autoimmune T helper cells in vivo and attenuates disease progression in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE. Thus, we identify a novel mechanism in which DCs employ the evolutionarily conserved WASH and retromer complex for MHCII recycling in order to regulate T helper cell priming.

  10. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant with an anode recycle loop turbocharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kazuo; Skiba, Tommy; Patel, Kirtikumar H.


    An anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) has a turbocharger turbine (102) secured in fluid communication with a compressed oxidant stream within an oxidant inlet line (218) downstream from a compressed oxidant supply (104), and the anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) also includes a turbocharger compressor (106) mechanically linked to the turbocharger turbine (102) and secured in fluid communication with a flow of anode exhaust passing through an anode exhaust recycle loop (238) of the solid oxide fuel cell power plant (200). All or a portion of compressed oxidant within an oxidant inlet line (218) drives the turbocharger turbine (102) to thereby compress the anode exhaust stream in the recycle loop (238). A high-temperature, automotive-type turbocharger (100) replaces a recycle loop blower-compressor (52).

  11. Design of acoustic cell settler for filtering and recycling microbial cells. (United States)

    Hwang, Sung-Ho; Koo, Yoon-Mo


    An acoustic cell settler (ACS) using ultrasound at cells of 3 MHz was used to recycle Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a fermenter. The locations of both the inlet and outlet in the acoustic cell settler, which have a relatively long distance between the transducer and reflector, were optimized. A tilted settler was designed to make up for the defect in the horizontal ACS, which has a low recovery ratio. The tilted ACS gave a recovery ratio of yeast cells of about 5 during the most period of operation, which was twice that of the horizontal ACS.

  12. Selective dissolution of halide perovskites as a step towards recycling solar cells (United States)

    Kim, Byeong Jo; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kwon, Seung Lee; Park, So Yeon; Li, Zhen; Zhu, Kai; Jung, Hyun Suk


    Most research on perovskite solar cells has focused on improving power-conversion efficiency and stability. However, if one could refurbish perovskite solar cells, their stability might not be a critical issue. From the perspective of cost effectiveness, if failed, perovskite solar cells could be collected and recycled; reuse of their gold electrodes and transparent conducting glasses could reduce the price per watt of perovskite photovoltaic modules. Herein, we present a simple and effective method for removing the perovskite layer and reusing the mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate via selective dissolution. We find that the perovskite layer can be easily decomposed in polar aprotic solvents because of the reaction between polar aprotic solvents and Pb2+ cations. After 10 cycles of recycling, a mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate-based perovskite solar cell still shows a constant power-conversion efficiency, thereby demonstrating the possibility of recycling perovskite solar cells.

  13. Cell recycled culture of succinic acid-producing Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens using an internal membrane filtration system. (United States)

    Lee, Pyung-Cheon; Lee, Sang-Yup; Chang, Ho-Nam


    Cell recycled culture of succinic acid-producing Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens was anaerobically carried out using an internal membrane filter module in order to examine the physiological response of A. succiniciproducens to a high-cell-density environment. The optimal growth of A. succiniciproducens and its enhanced succinic acid productivity were observed under CO2-rich conditions, established by adding NaHCO3 and Na2CO3, in the cell recycled system. A. succiniciproducens grew up to 6.50 g-DCW/l, the highest cell concentration obtained so far, in cell recycled cultures. The cells did not change their morphology, which is known to be easily changed in unfavorable or stress environments. The maximum productivity of succinic acid was about 3.3 g/l/h, which is 3.3 times higher than those obtained in batch cultures. These results can serve as a guide for designing highly efficient cell recycled systems for succinic acid at a commercial level.

  14. Rab coupling protein mediated endosomal recycling of N-cadherin influences cell motility. (United States)

    Lindsay, Andrew J; McCaffrey, Mary W


    Rab coupling protein (RCP) is a Rab GTPase effector that functions in endosomal recycling. The RCP gene is frequently amplified in breast cancer, leading to increased cancer aggressiveness. Furthermore, RCP enhances the motility of ovarian cancer cells by coordinating the recycling of α5β1 integrin and EGF receptor to the leading edge of migrating cells. Here we report that RCP also influences the motility of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Knockdown of RCP inhibits the motility of A549 cells in 2D and 3D migration assays, while its overexpression enhances migration in these assays. Depletion of RCP leads to a reduction in N-cadherin protein levels, which could be restored with lysosomal inhibitors. Trafficking assays revealed that RCP knockdown inhibits the return of endocytosed N-cadherin to the cell surface. We propose that RCP regulates the endosomal recycling of N-cadherin, and in its absence N-cadherin is diverted to the degradative pathway. The increased aggressiveness of tumour cells that overexpress RCP may be due to biased recycling of N-cadherin in metastatic cancer cells.

  15. Recycling of intact dense core vesicles in neurites of NGF-treated PC12 cells. (United States)

    Bauer, Roslyn A; Khera, Rebecca S; Lieber, Janet L; Angleson, Joseph K


    Exocytic fusion in neuroendocrine cells does not always result in complete release of the peptide contents from dense core vesicles (DCVs). In this study, we use fluorescence imaging and immunoelectron microscopy to examine the retention, endocytosis and recycling of chromogranin B in DCVs of NGF-treated PC12 cells. Our results indicate that DCVs retained and retrieved an intact core that was available for subsequent exocytic release. The endocytic process was inhibited by cyclosporine A or by substitution of extracellular Ca(2+) with Ba(2+) and the total recycling time was less than 5 min.

  16. Production of proteinase A by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a cell-recycling fermentation system: Experiments and computer simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, S.; Biedermann, K.; Emborg, Claus


    Overproduction of proteinase A by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated by cultivations in a cell-recycling bioreactor. Membrane filtration was used to separate cells from the broth. Recycling ratios and dilution rates were varied and the effect on enzyme production was studied both...

  17. Stabilization of gene expression and cell morphology after explant recycling during fin explant culture in goldfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenais, Nathalie; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Le Bail, Pierre-Yves; Labbe, Catherine, E-mail:


    The development of fin primary cell cultures for in vitro cellular and physiological studies is hampered by slow cell outgrowth, low proliferation rate, poor viability, and sparse cell characterization. Here, we investigated whether the recycling of fresh explants after a first conventional culture could improve physiological stability and sustainability of the culture. The recycled explants were able to give a supplementary cell culture showing faster outgrowth, cleaner cell layers and higher net cell production. The cells exhibited a highly stabilized profile for marker gene expression including a low cytokeratin 49 (epithelial marker) and a high collagen 1a1 (mesenchymal marker) expression. Added to the cell spindle-shaped morphology, motility behavior, and actin organization, this suggests that the cells bore stable mesenchymal characteristics. This contrast with the time-evolving expression pattern observed in the control fresh explants during the first 2 weeks of culture: a sharp decrease in cytokeratin 49 expression was concomitant with a gradual increase in col1a1. We surmise that such loss of epithelial features for the benefit of mesenchymal ones was triggered by an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process or by way of a progressive population replacement process. Overall, our findings provide a comprehensive characterization of this new primary culture model bearing mesenchymal features and whose stability over culture time makes those cells good candidates for cell reprogramming prior to nuclear transfer, in a context of fish genome preservation. - Highlights: • Recycled fin explants outgrow cells bearing stable mesenchymal traits. • Cell production and quality is enhanced in the recycled explant culture system. • Fresh fin primary culture is highly variable and loose epithelial traits over time.

  18. Annexin A6 and Late Endosomal Cholesterol Modulate Integrin Recycling and Cell Migration* (United States)

    García-Melero, Ana; Reverter, Meritxell; Hoque, Monira; Meneses-Salas, Elsa; Koese, Meryem; Conway, James R. W.; Johnsen, Camilla H.; Alvarez-Guaita, Anna; Morales-Paytuvi, Frederic; Elmaghrabi, Yasmin A.; Pol, Albert; Tebar, Francesc; Murray, Rachael Z.; Timpson, Paul; Enrich, Carlos; Grewal, Thomas; Rentero, Carles


    Annexins are a family of proteins that bind to phospholipids in a calcium-dependent manner. Earlier studies implicated annexin A6 (AnxA6) to inhibit secretion and participate in the organization of the extracellular matrix. We recently showed that elevated AnxA6 levels significantly reduced secretion of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN). Because FN is directly linked to the ability of cells to migrate, this prompted us to investigate the role of AnxA6 in cell migration. Up-regulation of AnxA6 in several cell models was associated with reduced cell migration in wound healing, individual cell tracking and three-dimensional migration/invasion assays. The reduced ability of AnxA6-expressing cells to migrate was associated with decreased cell surface expression of αVβ3 and α5β1 integrins, both FN receptors. Mechanistically, we found that elevated AnxA6 levels interfered with syntaxin-6 (Stx6)-dependent recycling of integrins to the cell surface. AnxA6 overexpression caused mislocalization and accumulation of Stx6 and integrins in recycling endosomes, whereas siRNA-mediated AnxA6 knockdown did not modify the trafficking of integrins. Given our recent findings that inhibition of cholesterol export from late endosomes (LEs) inhibits Stx6-dependent integrin recycling and that elevated AnxA6 levels cause LE cholesterol accumulation, we propose that AnxA6 and blockage of LE cholesterol transport are critical for endosomal function required for Stx6-mediated recycling of integrins in cell migration. PMID:26578516

  19. Variation of fermentation redox potential during cell-recycling continuous ethanol operation. (United States)

    Thani, Arthit; Lin, Yen-Han; Laopaiboon, Pattana; Laopaiboon, Lakkana


    Fermentation redox potential was monitored during cell-recycling continuous ethanol operation. The cell-recycling system (CRS) was operated using two hollow fibre (HF) membranes (pore sizes 0.20 and 0.65μm) at three dilution rates (0.02, 0.04 and 0.08h(-1)). Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP 01 were recycled in the fermenter at a recycle ratio of 0.625. Aeration was provided at 2.5vvm for the first 4h and then further supplied continuously at 0.25vvm. As steady state was established, results showed that the fermentation redox potential was lower for processes employing CRS than those without. At the same dilution rates, the sugar utilization and ethanol production with CRS were higher than those without CRS. The highest fermentation efficiency (87.94g/l of ethanol, ∼90% of theoretical yield) was achieved using a 0.2-μm HF membrane CRS at a dilution rate of 0.02h(-1). It was found that 7.53-10.07% of the carbon derived from glucose was incorporated into the yeast. Further, at the same dilution rates, yeast in the processes with CRS incorporated less carbon into ethanol than in those grown without CRS. This result suggests that processes involving CRS utilize more carbon for metabolite synthesis than biomass formation. This indicated that the processes with CRS could utilize more carbon for metabolite synthesis than biomass formation.

  20. Stabilization of gene expression and cell morphology after explant recycling during fin explant culture in goldfish. (United States)

    Chenais, Nathalie; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Le Bail, Pierre-Yves; Labbe, Catherine


    The development of fin primary cell cultures for in vitro cellular and physiological studies is hampered by slow cell outgrowth, low proliferation rate, poor viability, and sparse cell characterization. Here, we investigated whether the recycling of fresh explants after a first conventional culture could improve physiological stability and sustainability of the culture. The recycled explants were able to give a supplementary cell culture showing faster outgrowth, cleaner cell layers and higher net cell production. The cells exhibited a highly stabilized profile for marker gene expression including a low cytokeratin 49 (epithelial marker) and a high collagen 1a1 (mesenchymal marker) expression. Added to the cell spindle-shaped morphology, motility behavior, and actin organization, this suggests that the cells bore stable mesenchymal characteristics. This contrast with the time-evolving expression pattern observed in the control fresh explants during the first 2 weeks of culture: a sharp decrease in cytokeratin 49 expression was concomitant with a gradual increase in col1a1. We surmise that such loss of epithelial features for the benefit of mesenchymal ones was triggered by an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process or by way of a progressive population replacement process. Overall, our findings provide a comprehensive characterization of this new primary culture model bearing mesenchymal features and whose stability over culture time makes those cells good candidates for cell reprogramming prior to nuclear transfer, in a context of fish genome preservation.

  1. Process for recycling components of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly (United States)

    Shore, Lawrence [Edison, NJ


    The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a PEM fuel cell can be recycled by contacting the MEA with a lower alkyl alcohol solvent which separates the membrane from the anode and cathode layers of the assembly. The resulting solution containing both the polymer membrane and supported noble metal catalysts can be heated under mild conditions to disperse the polymer membrane as particles and the supported noble metal catalysts and polymer membrane particles separated by known filtration means.

  2. Recycling of high purity selenium from CIGS solar cell waste materials. (United States)

    Gustafsson, Anna M K; Foreman, Mark R StJ; Ekberg, Christian


    Copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) is a promising material in thin film solar cell production. To make CIGS solar cells more competitive, both economically and environmentally, in comparison to other energy sources, methods for recycling are needed. In addition to the generally high price of the material, significant amounts of the metals are lost in the manufacturing process. The feasibility of recycling selenium from CIGS through oxidation at elevated temperatures was therefore examined. During oxidation gaseous selenium dioxide was formed and could be separated from the other elements, which remained in solid state. Upon cooling, the selenium dioxide sublimes and can be collected as crystals. After oxidation for 1h at 800°C all of the selenium was separated from the CIGS material. Two different reduction methods for reduction of the selenium dioxide to selenium were tested. In the first reduction method an organic molecule was used as the reducing agent in a Riley reaction. In the second reduction method sulphur dioxide gas was used. Both methods resulted in high purity selenium. This proves that the studied selenium separation method could be the first step in a recycling process aimed at the complete separation and recovery of high purity elements from CIGS.

  3. Sustainable Hypersaline Microbial Fuel Cells: Inexpensive Recyclable Polymer Supports for Carbon Nanotube Conductive Paint Anodes. (United States)

    Grattieri, Matteo; Shivel, Nelson; Sifat, Iram; Bestetti, Massimiliano; Minteer, Shelley


    Microbial fuel cells are an emerging technology for wastewater treatment, but in order to be commercially viable and sustainable, the electrode materials must be inexpensive, recyclable and reliable. In this paper, recyclable polymeric supports were explored for the development of anode electrodes to be applied in-field in single chamber microbial fuel cells operated in hypersaline conditions. The support was covered with a carbon-nanotube (CNT)-based conductive paint and biofilms were able to colonize the electrodes. The single chamber microbial fuel cells with Pt-free cathodes delivered a reproducible power output after 15 days of operation, achieving 12 ± 1 mW m-2 at a current density of 69 ± 7 mA m-2. The decrease of performance in long-term experiments was mostly related to inorganic precipitates on the cathode electrode and did not affect the performance of the anode, as shown by experiments replacing the cathode that regenerated the fuel cell performance. The results of these studies show the feasibility of carbon nanotube-based paint coated polymeric supports for microbial fuel cell applications.

  4. Enhancing The Efficiency of White Organic Light-emitting Diode Using Energy Recyclable Photovoltaic Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiso YOKOYAMA; WU Chung-ming; SU Shui-hsiang


    We demonstrate that power recycling is feasible by using a semi-transparent stripped Al electrode as interconnecting layer to merge a white organic light-emitting devices(WOLED)and an organic photovoltaic(OPV)cell.The device is called a PVOLED..It has a glass/ITO/CuPc/m-MTDATA:V2O5/NPB/CBP:FIrpic:DCJTB/ BPhen/LiF/Al/P3HT:PCBM/V2O5/Al structure.The power recycling efficiency of 10.133% is achieved under the WOLED of PVOLED operated at 9 V and at a brightness of 2 110 cd/m2,when the conversion efficiency of OPV is 2.3%.We have found that the power recycling efficiency is decreased under high brightness and high applied voltage due to an increase input power of WOLED.High efficiency(18.3 cd/A)and high contrast ratio(9.3)were obtained at the device operated at 2 500 cd/m2 under an ambient illumination of 24 000 lx.Reasonable white light emission with Commission Internationale De L'Eclairage(CIE)color coordinates of(0.32,0.44)at 20 mA/cm2 and slight color shift occurred in spite of a high current density of 50 mA/cm2.The proposed PVOLED is highly promising for use in outdoors display applications.

  5. Recycling of p-type mc-si Top Cuts into p-type mono c-Si Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronsveld, P.C.P.; Manshanden, P.; Lenzmann, F.O. [ECN Solar Energy, Westerduinweg 3, P.O. Box 1, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Gjerstad, O. [Si Pro Holding AS, Ornesveien 3, P.O. Box 37, 8161, Glomfjord (Norway); Oevrelid, E.J. [SINTEF, Alfred Getz Vei 2, 7465, Trondheim (Norway)


    Solar cell results and material analysis are presented of 2 p-type Czochralski (Cz) ingots pulled from a charge consisting of 100% and 50% recycled multicrystalline silicon top cuts. The top cuts were pre-cleaned with a dedicated low energy consuming technology. No structure loss was observed in the bodies of the ingots. The performance of solar cells made from the 100% recycled Si ingot decreases towards the seed end of the ingot, which could be related to a non-optimal pulling process. Solar cells from the tail end of this ingot and from the 50% recycled Si ingot demonstrated an average solar cell efficiency of 18.6%. This is only 0.1% absolute lower than the efficiency of higher resistivity reference solar cells from commercially available wafers that were co-processed.

  6. Study on Immobilized Algal Cells for Treatment and Recycle of Refinery Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Baocheng; Liu Deqi; Dong Lihua; Li Gang


    Compared to the algal oxidation pond, treatment of wastewater using the immobilized algal cell technology has excellent effect, which not only can effectively avoid the disadvantage of oxidation pond,but can also remarkably improve the efficiency of treating system and the effluent quality. When the treating system operates under an optimal control conditions, such as a 55% loading rate, an illumination intensity of 2500-3500 lux and a hydraulic residence time of 4 hours, the COD and ammonia nitrogen removal can reach 90%. Water after deep treatment can comply with the requirement of the refinery for the quality of recycled water.

  7. Controlling accumulation of fermentation inhibitors in biorefinery recycle water using microbial fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnivetskaya Tatiana A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial fuel cells (MFC and microbial electrolysis cells are electrical devices that treat water using microorganisms and convert soluble organic matter into electricity and hydrogen, respectively. Emerging cellulosic biorefineries are expected to use large amounts of water during production of ethanol. Pretreatment of cellulosic biomass results in production of fermentation inhibitors which accumulate in process water and make the water recycle process difficult. Use of MFCs to remove the inhibitory sugar and lignin degradation products from recycle water is investigated in this study. Results Use of an MFC to reduce the levels of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxyacetophenone while simultaneously producing electricity is demonstrated here. An integrated MFC design approach was used which resulted in high power densities for the MFC, reaching up to 3700 mW/m2 (356 W/m3 net anode volume and a coulombic efficiency of 69%. The exoelectrogenic microbial consortium enriched in the anode was characterized using a 16S rRNA clone library method. A unique exoelectrogenic microbial consortium dominated by δ-Proteobacteria (50%, along with β-Proteobacteria (28%, α-Proteobacteria (14%, γ-Proteobacteria (6% and others was identified. The consortium demonstrated broad substrate specificity, ability to handle high inhibitor concentrations (5 to 20 mM with near complete removal, while maintaining long-term stability with respect to power production. Conclusion Use of MFCs for removing fermentation inhibitors has implications for: 1 enabling higher ethanol yields at high biomass loading in cellulosic ethanol biorefineries, 2 improved water recycle and 3 electricity production up to 25% of total biorefinery power needs.

  8. p38 signaling and receptor recycling events in a microfluidic endothelial cell adhesion assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwayne A L Vickers

    Full Text Available Adhesion-based microfluidic cell separation has proven to be very useful in applications ranging from cancer diagnostics to tissue engineering. This process involves functionalizing microchannel surfaces with a capture molecule. High specificity and purity capture can be achieved using this method. Despite these advances, little is known about the mechanisms that govern cell capture within these devices and their relationships to basic process parameters such as fluid shear stress and the presence of soluble factors. This work examines how the adhesion of human endothelial cells (ECs is influenced by a soluble tetrapeptide, Arg-Glu-Asp-Val (REDV and fluidic shear stress. The ability of these ECs to bind within microchannels coated with REDV is shown to be governed by shear- and soluble-factor mediated changes in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase expression together with recycling of adhesion receptors from the endosome.

  9. Carbon dioxide reduction in a tubular solid oxide electrolysis cell for a carbon recycling energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dipu, Arnoldus Lambertus, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ujisawa, Yutaka [Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal Corporation, 16-1, Sunayama, Kamisu, Ibaraki 314-0255 (Japan); Ryu, Junichi; Kato, Yukitaka [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-22, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)


    A new energy transformation system based on carbon recycling is proposed called the active carbon recycling energy system (ACRES). A high-temperature gas reactor was used as the main energy source for ACRES. An experimental study based on the ACRES concept of carbon monoxide (CO) regeneration via high-temperature reduction of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) was carried out using a tubular solid oxide electrolysis cell employing Ni-LSM cermet|YSZ|YSZ-LSM as the cathode|electrolyte|anode. The current density increased with increasing CO{sub 2} concentration at the cathode, which was attributed to a decrease in cathode activation and concentration overpotential. Current density, as well as the CO and oxygen (O{sub 2}) production rates, increased with increasing operating temperature. The highest CO and O{sub 2} production rates of 1.24 and 0.64 μmol/min cm{sup 2}, respectively, were measured at 900 °C. Based on the electrolytic characteristics of the cell, the scale of a combined ACRES CO{sub 2} electrolysis/iron production facility was estimated.

  10. Improving Energy Efficiency and Enabling Water Recycle in Biorefineries Using Bioelectrochemical Cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL


    Improving biofuel yield and water reuse are two important issues in further development of biorefineries. The total energy content of liquid fuels (including ethanol and hydrocarbon) produced from cellulosic biomass via biochemical or hybrid bio-thermochemical routes can vary from 49% to 70% of the biomass entering the biorefinery, on an energy basis. Use of boiler for combustion of residual organics and lignin results in significant energy and water losses. An alternate process to improve energy recovery from the residual organic streams is via use of bioelectrochemical systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). The potential advantages of this alternative scheme in a biorefinery include minimization of heat loss and generation of a higher value product, hydrogen. The need for 5-15 gallons of water per gallon of ethanol can be reduced significantly via recycle of water after MEC treatment. Removal of inhibitory byproducts such as furans, phenolics and acetate in MFC/MECs to generate energy, thus, has dual advantages including improvements in energy efficiency and ability to recycle water. Conversion of the sugar- and lignin- degradation products to hydrogen is synergistic with biorefinery hydrogen requirements for upgrading F-T liquids and other byproducts to high-octane fuels and/or high value products. Some of these products include sorbitol, succinic acid, furan and levulinate derivatives, glycols, polyols, 1,4-butenadiol, phenolics polymers, etc. Potential process alternatives utilizing MECs in biorefineries capable of improving energy efficiency by up to 30% are discussed.

  11. Viable cell recycle with an inclined settler in the perfusion culture of suspended recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells. (United States)

    Searles, J A; Todd, P; Kompala, D S


    The perfusion culture of suspended mammalian cells requires a cell retention device, the best of which will retain all viable cells and reject all nonviable cells and debris. The inclined settler is a passive, simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-maintain device that has been shown in the past to selectively remove single nonviable cells of hybridoma cultures. In this work, we have demonstrated the preferential return of viable recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells through the use of a three-port settler maintained at lower temperatures and vibrated to reduce cell attachment and enhance cell return to the bioreactor. The residence time of CHO cells in the cooled, vibrated settler was determined by flow-cytometric discrimination of tracer recombinant CHO cells. Cells returning to the bioreactor through the underflow had an average residence time of 1.46 h in the settler. During perfusion cultures with cell densities above 10(6) cells/mL, cells seen to be stalled within the settler were easily dislodged by periodic air bubbling using a simple back-flushing procedure in which headspace gas was brought through the settler underflow port. The resuspended cells were returned to the bioreactor within an average of 32 min after bubbling. This study demonstrates that inclined sedimentation technology can be utilized to selectively recycle viable recombinant CHO cells with only a short retention time in an inclined settler.

  12. Recycling Paper Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Hubbe


    Full Text Available What do you do after a product has served its function and is no longer needed? Ideally, you recycle it. What do you do if people have neglected or forgotten so much of what has been learned in recent years about paper recycling? Well, one of the things that someone can do is to write a book. Very little of the contents of such a book may be new. But the book itself can be highly valuable, representing a lot of effort to select and organized material that will be helpful for the current and upcoming generations of papermaking technologists. This editorial describes a new book by Dr. Pratima Bajpai entitled Recycling and Deinking of Recovered Paper. Readers who deal with the recycling of paper will probably want to have a copy of it on a handy shelf.

  13. Recycling of Immobilized Cells for Aerobic Biodegradation of Phenol in a Fluidized Bed Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Z. Ismail


    Full Text Available Biodegradation is an environmentally friendly and cost-effective alternative that proved to be efficient for the removal of toxic phenol compounds from aqueous solutions. However, it has been reported that phenol is inhibitory to bacterial growth at concentrations above 0.05 g/L. This study was undertaken to study the degradation of phenol at initial concentrations of 20 mg/L by Bacillus cells individually immobilized in two different matrices including polyvinyl alcohol-sodium alginate (PVA-SA and polyvinyl alcohol-guar gum (PVA-GG. Results of batch experiments demonstrated that complete removal of phenol was obtained using immobilized cells in the first cycle after 270 and 300 min using cells immobilized in PVA-SA and PVA-GG. Additional cycles were conducted to evaluate the validity of recycling the beads of immobilized cells for phenol biodegradation. Results revealed that the phenol percentage removals were 96, 90, 83, and 75% for the second, third, fourth, and fifth cycles, respectively after 270 min. However, complete removal of phenol was obtained at extended time durations up to 300, 360, and 390 for the second, third, and fourth cycles, respectively. Also, the potential of immobilized cells versus free cells for the degradation of higher phenol concentration up to 50 mg/L was investigated.

  14. Membrane recycling at the infranuclear pole of the outer hair cell (United States)

    Harasztosi, Csaba; Harasztosi, Emese; Gummer, Anthony W.


    Rapid endocytic activity of outer hair cells (OHCs) in the guinea-pig cochlea has been already studied using the fluorescent membrane marker FM1-43. It was demonstrated that vesicles were endocytosed at the apical pole of OHCs and transcytosed to the basolateral membrane and through a central strand towards the nucleus. The significance of endocytic activity in the infranuclear region is still not clear. Therefore, in this study endocytic activity at the synaptic pole of OHCs was investigated. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize dye uptake of OHCs isolated from the guinea-pig cochlea. Signal intensity changes were quantified in the apical and basal poles relative to the signal at the membrane. Data showed no significant difference in fluorescent signal intensity changes between the opposite poles of the OHC. These results suggest that endocytic activities in both the basal and the apical poles contribute equally to the membrane recycling of OHCs.

  15. Separating and Recycling Plastic, Glass, and Gallium from Waste Solar Cell Modules by Nitrogen Pyrolysis and Vacuum Decomposition. (United States)

    Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming


    Many countries have gained benefits through the solar cells industry due to its high efficiency and nonpolluting power generation associated with solar energy. Accordingly, the market of solar cell modules is expanding rapidly in recent decade. However, how to environmentally friendly and effectively recycle waste solar cell modules is seldom concerned. Based on nitrogen pyrolysis and vacuum decomposition, this work can successfully recycle useful organic components, glass, and gallium from solar cell modules. The results were summarized as follows: (i) nitrogen pyrolysis process can effectively decompose plastic. Organic conversion rate approached 100% in the condition of 773 K, 30 min, and 0.5 L/min N2 flow rate. But, it should be noted that pyrolysis temperature should not exceed 773 K, and harmful products would be increased with the increasing of temperature, such as benzene and its derivatives by GC-MS measurement; (ii) separation principle, products analysis, and optimization of vacuum decomposition were discussed. Gallium can be well recycled under temperature of 1123 K, system pressure of 1 Pa and reaction time of 40 min. This technology is quite significant in accordance with the "Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle Principle" for solid waste, and provides an opportunity for sustainable development of photovoltaic industry.

  16. Detailed modelling of photon recycling: application to GaAs solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balenzategui, J.L. [CIEMAT, Division de Energias Renovables, Avda. Complutense, 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Marti, A. [Instituto de Energia Solar, ETSIT, UPM, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)


    The re-absorption of photons emitted in a semiconductor material as a consequence of radiative recombinations, a process referred to as photon recycling (PR), has been researched into for several decades because of its primary influence in increasing the minority carrier lifetime and related parameters. Solar cells with direct bandgap materials and high-absorption coefficients are firm candidates to show PR effects, leading to an improvement in the conversion efficiency of up to 1-2% in absolute terms for cells with conventional designs. However, the formal modelling of PR effects requires the inclusion of additional terms in the standard set of semiconductor equations and researchers usually tend to neglect its influence, because of the lack of available tools for an easy evaluation of this phenomenon in their particular devices. This paper describes a detailed model of PR which allows the incorporation of specific characteristics and optics of GaAs solar cells and, at the same time, solves some of the problems found in previous developments of these numerical models. The methodology for the calculation is based on the use of commercially available programs for semiconductor device simulation that do not initially have the potential for PR modelling and, thus, it can be extended to and applied by other researchers whishing to compare its relative influence on the performance of different structures and materials. (author)

  17. Novel regulation of cell [Na(+)] in macula densa cells: apical Na(+) recycling by H-K-ATPase. (United States)

    Peti-Peterdi, János; Bebok, Zsuzsa; Lapointe, Jean-Yves; Bell, P Darwin


    Na-K-ATPase is the nearly ubiquitous enzyme that maintains low-Na(+), high-K(+) concentrations in cells by actively extruding Na(+) in exchange for K(+). The prevailing paradigm in polarized absorbing epithelial cells, including renal nephron segments and intestine, has been that Na-K-ATPase is restricted to the basolateral membrane domain, where it plays a prominent role in Na(+) absorption. We have found, however, that macula densa (MD) cells lack functionally and immunologically detectable amounts of Na-K-ATPase protein. In fact, these cells appear to regulate their cytosolic [Na(+)] via another member of the P-type ATPase family, the colonic form of H-K-ATPase, which is located at the apical membrane in these cells. We now report that this constitutively expressed apical MD colonic H-K-ATPase can function as a Na(H)-K-ATPase and regulate cytosolic [Na(+)] in a novel manner. This apical Na(+)-recycling mechanism may be important as part of the sensor function of MD cells and represents a new paradigm in cell [Na(+)] regulation.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Recycling pathways of the sphingolipid glucosylceramide were studied by employing a fluorescent analog of glucosylceramide, 6-[N-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]hexanoylglucosylsphingosine (C6-NBD-glucosylceramide). Direct recycling of the glycolipid from early endosomes to the plasma membra

  19. Evidence for a medial K+ recycling pathway from inner hair cells. (United States)

    Spicer, S S; Schulte, B A


    K+ effluxed from outer hair cells and their nerves is thought to flow laterally to strial marginal cells for recycling into scala media. Observations reported here provide evidence that K+ effluxed from inner hair cells and inner radial nerves travels medially through border cells, inner sulcus cells (ISCs), limbal fibrocytes and interdental cells (IDCs) for return to endolymph. Morphologic features of ISCs in the medial route resembled those of Hensen and Claudius cells in the lateral indicating an ion transport role for ISCs like that of Hensen and Claudius cells. Na,K-ATPase in plasmalemma of IDCs testified to their capacity to resorb and transport K+ through their known gap junctions. IDCs were differentiated into three subgroups. The most lateral IDCs formed short and long columns. Long columns contacted the medialmost ISC inferiorly and the undersurface of the tectorial membrane superiorly providing thereby a potential transcellular route for K+ transit from ISCs to endolymph. Short columns faced inner sulcus below and tectorial membrane above and accordingly possessed cells with opposite polarity at the bottom and top of the column. Short columns thus appeared situated to resorb electrolytes from limbal stroma for release into inner sulcus and beneath tectorial membrane at opposite ends of the column. The central IDCs were positioned for resorbing and transporting K+ effluxing from the Na,K-ATPase-rich stellate fibrocytes which spread toward the IDCs from near the inner sulcus. The most medial IDCs lined cuplike invaginations near the attachment of Reissner's membrane and lay apposed to light fibrocytes located between supralimbal fibrocytes and the medial IDCs. Content of Na,K-ATPase and position in the K+ transport route likened the limbal stellate fibrocytes to the spiral ligament type II fibrocytes and supralimbal fibrocytes to suprastrial fibrocytes in the lateral wall. From content of creatine kinase and position in the transport path, limbal light

  20. Hanford recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, I.M.


    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  1. Fm1-43 reveals membrane recycling in adult inner hair cells of the mammalian cochlea. (United States)

    Griesinger, Claudius B; Richards, Chistopher D; Ashmore, Jonathan F


    Neural transmission of complex sounds demands fast and sustained rates of synaptic release from the primary cochlear receptors, the inner hair cells (IHCs). The cells therefore require efficient membrane recycling. Using two-photon imaging of the membrane marker FM1-43 in the intact sensory epithelium within the cochlear bone of the adult guinea pig, we show that IHCs possess fast calcium-dependent membrane uptake at their apical pole. FM1-43 did not permeate through the stereocilial mechanotransducer channel because uptake kinetics were neither changed by the blockers dihydrostreptomycin and d-tubocurarine nor by treatment of the apical membrane with BAPTA, known to disrupt mechanotransduction. Moreover, the fluid phase marker Lucifer Yellow produced a similar labeling pattern to FM1-43, consistent with FM1-43 uptake via endocytosis. We estimate the membrane retrieval rate at approximately 0.5% of the surface area of the cell per second. Labeled membrane was rapidly transported to the base of IHCs by kinesin-dependent trafficking and accumulated in structures that resembled synaptic release sites. Using confocal imaging of FM1-43 in excised strips of the organ of Corti, we show that the time constants of fluorescence decay at the basolateral pole of IHCs and apical endocytosis were increased after depolarization of IHCs with 40 mm potassium, a stimulus that triggers calcium influx and increases synaptic release. Blocking calcium channels with either cadmium or nimodipine during depolarization abolished the rate increase of apical endocytosis. We suggest that IHCs use fast calcium-dependent apical endocytosis for activity-associated replenishment of synaptic membrane.

  2. FM dye photo-oxidation as a tool for monitoring membrane recycling in inner hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Kamin

    Full Text Available Styryl (FM dyes have been used for more than two decades to investigate exo- and endocytosis in conventional synapses. However, they are difficult to use in the inner hair cells of the auditory pathway (IHCs, as FM dyes appear to penetrate through mechanotransducer channels into the cytosol of IHCs, masking endocytotic uptake. To solve this problem we applied to IHCs the FM dye photo-oxidation technique, which renders the dyes into electron microscopy markers. Photo-oxidation allowed the unambiguous identification of labeled organelles, despite the presence of FM dye in the cytosol. This enabled us to describe the morphologies of several organelles that take up membrane in IHCs, both at rest and during stimulation. At rest, endosome-like organelles were detected in the region of the cuticular plate. Larger tubulo-cisternal organelles dominated the top and nuclear regions. Finally, the basal region, where the IHC active zones are located, contained few labeled organelles. Stimulation increased significantly membrane trafficking in the basal region, inducing the appearance of labeled vesicles and cistern-like organelles. The latter were replaced by small, synaptic-like vesicles during recovery after stimulation. In contrast, no changes in membrane trafficking were induced by stimulation in the cuticular plate region or in the top and nuclear regions. We conclude that synaptic vesicle recycling takes place mostly in the basal region of the IHCs. Other organelles participate in abundant constitutive membrane trafficking throughout the rest of the IHC volume.

  3. FM dye photo-oxidation as a tool for monitoring membrane recycling in inner hair cells. (United States)

    Kamin, Dirk; Revelo, Natalia H; Rizzoli, Silvio O


    Styryl (FM) dyes have been used for more than two decades to investigate exo- and endocytosis in conventional synapses. However, they are difficult to use in the inner hair cells of the auditory pathway (IHCs), as FM dyes appear to penetrate through mechanotransducer channels into the cytosol of IHCs, masking endocytotic uptake. To solve this problem we applied to IHCs the FM dye photo-oxidation technique, which renders the dyes into electron microscopy markers. Photo-oxidation allowed the unambiguous identification of labeled organelles, despite the presence of FM dye in the cytosol. This enabled us to describe the morphologies of several organelles that take up membrane in IHCs, both at rest and during stimulation. At rest, endosome-like organelles were detected in the region of the cuticular plate. Larger tubulo-cisternal organelles dominated the top and nuclear regions. Finally, the basal region, where the IHC active zones are located, contained few labeled organelles. Stimulation increased significantly membrane trafficking in the basal region, inducing the appearance of labeled vesicles and cistern-like organelles. The latter were replaced by small, synaptic-like vesicles during recovery after stimulation. In contrast, no changes in membrane trafficking were induced by stimulation in the cuticular plate region or in the top and nuclear regions. We conclude that synaptic vesicle recycling takes place mostly in the basal region of the IHCs. Other organelles participate in abundant constitutive membrane trafficking throughout the rest of the IHC volume.

  4. Anisotropic emission and photon-recycling in strain-balanced quantum well solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, C. I.; Enciso, A.; Contreras-Solorio, D. A. [Academic Unit of Physics, Autonomous University of Zacatecas, Czda. Solidaridad y Paseo La Bufa S/N, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Rimada, J. C. [Solar Cell Laboratory, Institute of Materials Science and Technology (IMRE), University of Havana, Zapata y G, 10400 La Habana (Cuba); Hernandez, L., E-mail: [Faculty of Physics, University of Havana, Colina Universitaria. 10400 La Habana (Cuba); Connolly, J. P. [Nanophotonics Technology Center, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, 46022 Valencia (Spain)


    Strain-balanced quantum well solar cells (SB-QWSCs) extend the photon absorption edge beyond that of bulk GaAs by incorporation of quantum wells in the i-region of a p–i–n device. Anisotropy arises from a splitting of the valence band due to compressive strain in the quantum wells, suppressing a transition which contributes to emission from the edge of the quantum wells. We have studied both the emission light polarized in the plane perpendicular (TM) to the quantum well which couples exclusively to the light hole transition and the emission polarized in the plane of the quantum wells (TE) which couples mainly to the heavy hole transition. It was found that the spontaneous emission rates TM and TE increase when the quantum wells are deeper. The addition of a distributed Bragg reflector can substantially increase the photocurrent while decreasing the radiative recombination current. We have examined the impact of the photon recycling effect on SB-QWSC performance. We have optimized SB-QWSC design to achieve single junction efficiencies above 30%.

  5. Progress towards a process for the recycling of nickel metal hydride electric cells using a deep eutectic solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R.StJ. Foreman


    Full Text Available Solvent extraction experiments relating to the recycling of the transition metals and lanthanides in nickel metal hydride cells are presented. The metal extraction is occurring from a deep eutectic solvent which is formed from chemicals suitable for use in food and related products. While it has been shown that the water content of the DES has a large effect on the extraction of transition metals by a mixture of chloride ionic liquid (Aliquat 336 and an aromatic solvent, the water content has a smaller effect on the solvent extraction of lanthanides with a solution of di(2-ethylhexyl hydrogen phosphate (DEHPA in a saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon. This study suggests that an industrial scale solvent extraction process for the recycling of metals from nickel hydride electrical cells will be feasible.

  6. Selective recycle of viable animal cells by coupling of airlift reactor and cell settler. (United States)

    Hülscher, M; Scheibler, U; Onken, U


    A new system for the perfusion culture of animal cells in suspension is described. It consists of an airlift loop reactor and a settling tank for cell retention. Insufficient nutrient and oxygen supply of the cells in the settling tank was prevented by cooling the cell suspension before entering the settler. As a result, the catabolic activity of the cells in the settler was reversibly reduced. Furthermore, the density gradient induced by cooling caused a liquid motion through the settler. Thus, it was not necessary to pump medium containing shear, sensitive cells. With this simple system, it was possible to prduce 2 to 5 g of antibodies in a 5.4-L reactor in continuous runs of 400 to 600 h. The productivity was increased by a factor of 17 and the cell density was 4 times higher in comparison with the corresponding batch system. The cell retention system was found to have the property of separating viable and nonviable cells. With the increasing perfusion rate, dead cells and debris were preferably washed out. For perfusion rates up to 1.3 d(-1), the retention efficiency of the settler was nearly 100% for viable cells; hence, this system may show advantages at the industrial scale.

  7. Evaluation and Optimization to Recycle Used TiO2 Photoelectrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruei-Tang Chen


    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for recycling and activating the titanium oxide (TiO2/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs by repeated dye adsorption and desorption processes using various desorption agents. This simple and convenient method could be utilized to activate TiO2 photoelectrodes for DSCs after the long-term operation. The devices are immersed in acidic, alkaline, and neutral media of various concentrations for desorption and then are soaked in the N719 solution again. The optimal device had an overall power conversion efficiency (AM 1.5 G, 100 mW/cm2 with 5 × 10−3 M NaOH solution as a desorption agent being 6.44% better than that of devices that had not undergone recycling and activation.

  8. Transcytosis of HIV-1 through vaginal epithelial cells is dependent on trafficking to the endocytic recycling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballington L Kinlock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While it is accepted that viruses can enter epithelial cells by endocytosis, the lack of an established biological mechanism for the trafficking of infectious virions through vaginal epithelial cells and their release from the plasma membrane has contributed to ongoing controversy about whether endocytosis is a mere artifact of some cell culture systems and whether squamous vaginal epithelial cells are even relevant as it pertains to HIV-1 transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated the intracellular trafficking pathway that HIV-1 exploits to transcytose vaginal epithelial cells. The reduction of endosome tubulation by recycling endosome inhibitors blocked transcytosis of HIV-1 in a cell culture and transwell system. In addition, we demonstrate that although heat-inactivated virus was endocytosed as efficiently as native virus, heat-inactivated virus was trafficked exclusively to the lysosomal pathway for degradation following endocytosis. Lysosomal protease-specific inhibitors blocked the degradation of inactivated virions. Immunofluorescence analysis not only demonstrated that HIV-1 was inside the cells but the different colocalization pattern of native vs. heat inactivated virus with transferrin provided conclusive evidence that HIV-1 uses the recycling pathway to get across vaginal epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, our findings demonstrate the precise intracellular trafficking pathway utilized by HIV-1 in epithelial cells, confirms that HIV-1 transcytosis through vaginal epithelial cells is a biological phenomenon and brings to light the differential intracellular trafficking of native vs heat-inactivated HIV-1 which with further exploration could prove to provide valuable insights that could be used in the prevention of transcytosis/transmission of HIV-1 across the mucosal epithelia.

  9. Research data supporting "Photon recycling in lead-iodide perovskite solar cells"


    Pazos-Outón, Luis M.; Szumilo, Monika; Lamboll, Robin; Richter, Johannes M.; Crespo-Quesada, Micaela; Abdi - Jalebi, Mojtaba; Beeson, Harry J.; Vrucinic, Milan; Alsari, Mejd; Snaith, Henry J.; Ehrler, Bruno; Friend, Richard H.; Deschler, Felix


    Data for the figures presented in the manuscript. These research data support “Photon recycling in lead-iodide perovskite solar cells” published in “Science” ( This work was supported by the EPSRC [grant number EP/M005143/1] and Winton Programme for the Physics of Sustainability.

  10. Structure and function of the first full-length murein peptide ligase (Mpl cell wall recycling protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debanu Das

    Full Text Available Bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan, an essential polymer made by enzymes in the Mur pathway. These proteins are specific to bacteria, which make them targets for drug discovery. MurC, MurD, MurE and MurF catalyze the synthesis of the peptidoglycan precursor UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine by the sequential addition of amino acids onto UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid (UDP-MurNAc. MurC-F enzymes have been extensively studied by biochemistry and X-ray crystallography. In gram-negative bacteria, ∼30-60% of the bacterial cell wall is recycled during each generation. Part of this recycling process involves the murein peptide ligase (Mpl, which attaches the breakdown product, the tripeptide L-alanyl-γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelate, to UDP-MurNAc. We present the crystal structure at 1.65 Å resolution of a full-length Mpl from the permafrost bacterium Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4 (PaMpl. Although the Mpl structure has similarities to Mur enzymes, it has unique sequence and structure features that are likely related to its role in cell wall recycling, a function that differentiates it from the MurC-F enzymes. We have analyzed the sequence-structure relationships that are unique to Mpl proteins and compared them to MurC-F ligases. We have also characterized the biochemical properties of this enzyme (optimal temperature, pH and magnesium binding profiles and kinetic parameters. Although the structure does not contain any bound substrates, we have identified ∼30 residues that are likely to be important for recognition of the tripeptide and UDP-MurNAc substrates, as well as features that are unique to Psychrobacter Mpl proteins. These results provide the basis for future mutational studies for more extensive function characterization of the Mpl sequence-structure relationships.

  11. Recycling of used perfluorosulfonic acid membranes (United States)

    Grot, Stephen; Grot, Walther


    A method for recovering and recycling catalyst coated fuel cell membranes includes dissolving the used membranes in water and solvent, heating the dissolved membranes under pressure and separating the components. Active membranes are produced from the recycled materials.

  12. Kinetic imaging of NPC1L1 and sterol trafficking between plasma membrane and recycling endosomes in hepatoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwig Petersen, Nicole; Færgeman, Nils J; Yu, Liqing;


    Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) is a recently identified protein that mediates intestinal cholesterol absorption and regulates biliary cholesterol excretion. The itineraries and kinetics of NPC1L1 trafficking remain uncertain. In this study, we have visualized movement of NPC1L1-enhanced green...... fluorescent protein (NPC1L1-EGFP) and cholesterol analogues in hepatoma cells. At steady state about 42% of NPC1L1 resided in the transferrin (Tf) positive, sterol enriched endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), while time-lapse microscopy demonstrated NPC1L1 traffic between plasma membrane and ERC...... exclusively in the canalicular membrane, where the protein is highly mobile. Our study demonstrates dynamic trafficking of NPC1L1 between cell surface and intracellular compartments and suggests that this transport is involved in NPC1L1 mediated cellular sterol uptake....

  13. Nonvolatile RRAM cells from polymeric composites embedding recycled SiC powders. (United States)

    De Girolamo Del Mauro, Anna; Nenna, Giuseppe; Miscioscia, Riccardo; Freda, Cesare; Portofino, Sabrina; Galvagno, Sergio; Minarini, Carla


    Silicon carbide powders have been synthesized from tires utilizing a patented recycling process. Dynamic light scattering, Raman spectroscopy, SEM microscopy, and X-ray diffraction have been carried out to gather knowledge about powders and the final composite structure. The obtained powder has been proven to induce resistive switching in a PMMA polymer-based composite device. Memory effect has been detected in two-terminal devices having coplanar contacts and quantified by read-write-erase measurements in terms of level separation and persistence.

  14. V-ATPase-dependent luminal acidification is required for endocytic recycling of a yeast cell wall stress sensor, Wsc1p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Kazuma; Saito, Mayu; Nagashima, Makiko; Kojima, Ai; Nishinoaki, Show [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Niijuku 6-3-1, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8585 (Japan); Toshima, Junko Y., E-mail: [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Wakamatsu-cho 2-2, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan); Research Center for RNA Science, RIST, Tokyo University of Science, Niijuku 6-3-1, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8585 (Japan); Toshima, Jiro, E-mail: [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Niijuku 6-3-1, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8585 (Japan); Research Center for RNA Science, RIST, Tokyo University of Science, Niijuku 6-3-1, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8585 (Japan)


    Highlights: •A targeted genome screen identified 5 gene groups affecting Wsc1p recycling. •V-ATPase-dependent luminal acidification is required for Wsc1p recycling. •Activity of V-ATPase might be required for cargo recognition by the retromer complex. -- Abstract: Wsc1p is a major cell wall sensor protein localized at the polarized cell surface. The localization of Wsc1p is maintained by endocytosis and recycling from endosomes back to the cell surface, but changes to the vacuole when cells are subjected to heat stress. Exploiting this unique property of Wsc1p, we screened for yeast single-gene deletion mutants exhibiting defects in Wsc1p trafficking. By expressing 3GFP-tagged Wsc1p in mutants with deleted genes whose function is related to intracellular trafficking, we identified 5 gene groups affecting Wsc1p trafficking, impaired respectively in endocytic internalization, multivesicular body sorting, the GARP complex, endosomal maturation/vacuolar fusion, and V-ATPase. Interestingly, deletion of the VPH1 gene, encoding the V{sub o} subunit of vacuolar-type H{sup +}-ATPase (V-ATPase), led to mis-localization of Wsc1p from the plasma membrane to the vacuole. In addition, disruption of other V-ATPase subunits (vma mutants) also caused defects of Wsc1p trafficking and vacuolar acidification similar to those seen in the vph1Δ mutant. Moreover, we found that deletion of the VPS26 gene, encoding a subunit of the retromer complex, also caused a defect in Wsc1p recycling and mis-localization of Wsc1p to the vacuole. These findings clarified the previously unidentified Wsc1p recycling pathway and requirement of V-ATPase-dependent luminal acidification for Wsc1p recycling.

  15. Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus sp. RKY2 in a cell-recycle continuous fermentation using lignocellulosic hydrolyzates as inexpensive raw materials. (United States)

    Wee, Young-Jung; Ryu, Hwa-Won


    Continuous lactic acid fermentations were conducted using lignocellulosic hydrolyzates and corn steep liquor as inexpensive raw materials. Lactic acid concentrations decreased with increases in the dilution rate, whereas the residual substrate concentrations increased. However, lactic acid yields were maintained at more than 0.90 g g(-1) over all cases experimented. The cell-recycle cultivation system exerted positive effects on fermentation efficiency, including volumetric productivity, which is attributable to the retention of cells in the bioreactor. The cell-recycle continuous fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates yielded a lactic acid productivity of 6.7 g l(-1) h(-1) for a dilution rate of 0.16 h(-1) using 30 g l(-1) of corn steep liquor and 1.5 g l(-1) of yeast extract as nutrients. The productivity (6.7 g l(-1) h(-1)) acquired by the cell-recycle continuous fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates was 1.6 times higher than the lactic acid productivity yielded in the continuous fermentation without cell-recycle system.

  16. Tire Recycling (United States)


    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  17. Secretion and membrane recycling in plant cells: novel intermediary structures visualized in ultrarapidly frozen sycamore and carrot suspension-culture cells. (United States)

    Staehelin, L A; Chapman, R L


    Freeze-fracture electron microscopy of propane-jet-frozen samples has been employed to investigate vesicle-mediated secretion and membrane recycling events in carrot (Daucus carota L.) and sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) suspension-culture cells. Stabilization of the cells by means of ultrarapid freezing has enabled us to preserve the cells in a turgid state and to visualize new intermediate membrane configurations related to these events. Indeed, many of the observed membrane configurations, such as flattened membrane vesicles with slit-shaped membrane fusion sites and horseshoe-shaped membrane infoldings, appear to result from the action of turgor forces on the plasma membrane. Individual cells exhibited great variations in numbers and types of membrane configurations postulated to be related to secretion and membrane-recycling events. In the majority of cells, the different membrane profiles displayed a patchy distribution, and within each patch the membrane configurations tended to be of the same stage. This result indicates that secretory events are triggered in domains measuring from 0.1 to about 10 μm in diameter. Based on an extensive analysis of the different membrane configurations seen in our samples, we have formulated the following model of vesicle-mediated secretion in plant cells: Fusion of a secretory vesicle with the plasma membrane leads to the formation of a single, narrow-necked pore that increases in diameter up to about 60 nm. During discharge, the vesicle is flattened, forming a disc-shaped structure perpendicular to the plane of the plasma membrane. As the vesicle is flattened, the pore is converted to a slit, the maximum length of which coincides with the diameter of the flattened vesicle. The flattened vesicle then tips over and concomitantly the plasma-membrane slit becomes curved into a horseshoe-shaped configuration as it extends along the outer margins of the tipped-over vesicle. Some coated pits are present interspersed

  18. Nanodomains in biomembranes with recycling

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Mareike; Destainville, Nicolas


    Cell membranes are out of thermodynamic equilibrium notably because of membrane recycling, i.e. active exchange of material with the cytosol. We propose an analytically tractable model of biomembrane predicting the effects of recycling on the size of protein nanodomains. It includes a short-range attraction between proteins and a weaker long-range repulsion which ensures the existence of so-called cluster phases at equilibrium, where monomeric proteins coexist with finite-size domains. Our main finding is that when taking recycling into account, the typical cluster size increases logarithmically with the recycling rate. Using physically realistic model parameters, the predicted two-fold increase due to recycling in living cells is very likely experimentally measurable with the help of super-resolution microscopy.

  19. Optimization of a microbial fuel cell for wastewater treatment using recycled scrap metals as a cost-effective cathode material. (United States)

    Lefebvre, Olivier; Tan, Zi; Shen, Yujia; Ng, How Y


    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) for wastewater treatment is still hindered by the prohibitive cost of cathode material, especially when platinum is used to catalyze oxygen reduction. In this study, recycled scrap metals could be used efficiently as cathode material in a specially-designed MFC. In terms of raw power, the scrap metals ranked as follows: W/Co > Cu/Ni > Inconel 718 > carpenter alloy; however, in terms of cost and long term stability, Inconel 718 was the preferred choice. Treatment performance--assessed on real and synthetic wastewater--was considerably improved either by filling the anode compartment with carbon granules or by operating the MFC in full-loop mode. The latter option allowed reaching 99.7% acetate removal while generating a maximum power of 36 W m(-3) at an acetate concentration of 2535 mg L(-1). Under these conditions, the energy produced by the system averaged 0.1 kWh m(-3) of wastewater treated.

  20. Continuous Fermentation of Clostridium tyrobutyricum with Partial Cell Recycle as a Long-Term Strategy for Butyric Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar C. Clausen


    Full Text Available In making alternative fuels from biomass feedstocks, the production of butyric acid is a key intermediate in the two-step production of butanol. The fermentation of glucose via Clostridium tyrobutyricum to butyric acid produces undesirable byproducts, including lactic acid and acetic acid, which significantly affect the butyric acid yield and productivity. This paper focuses on the production of butyric acid using Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a partial cell recycle mode to improve fermenter yield and productivity. Experiments with fermentation in batch, continuous culture and continuous culture with partial cell recycle by ultrafiltration were conducted. The results show that a continuous fermentation can be sustained for more than 120 days, which is the first reported long-term production of butyric acid in a continuous operation. Further, the results also show that partial cell recycle via membrane ultrafiltration has a great influence on the selectivity and productivity of butyric acid, with an increase in selectivity from ≈9% to 95% butyric acid with productivities as high as 1.13 g/Lh. Continuous fermentation with low dilution rate and high cell recycle ratio has been found to be desirable for optimum productivity and selectivity toward butyric acid and a comprehensive model explaining this phenomenon is given.

  1. Impaired degradation followed by enhanced recycling of epidermal growth factor receptor caused by hypo-phosphorylation of tyrosine 1045 in RBE cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Anping


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since cholangiocarcinoma has a poor prognosis, several epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-targeted therapies with antibody or small molecule inhibitor treatment have been proposed. However, their effect remains limited. The present study sought to understand the molecular genetic characteristics of cholangiocarcinoma related to EGFR, with emphasis on its degradation and recycling. Methods We evaluated EGFR expression and colocalization by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, cell surface EGFR expression by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS, and EGFR ubiquitination and protein binding by immunoprecipitation in the human cholangiocarcinoma RBE and immortalized cholangiocyte MMNK-1 cell lines. Monensin treatment and Rab11a depletion by siRNA were adopted for inhibition of EGFR recycling. Results Upon stimulation with EGF, ligand-induced EGFR degradation was impaired and the expression of phospho-tyrosine 1068 and phospho-p44/42 MAPK was sustained in RBE cells as compared with MMNK-1 cells. In RBE cells, the process of EGFR sorting for lysosomal degradation was blocked at the early endosome stage, and non-degradated EGFR was recycled to the cell surface. A disrupted association between EGFR and the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl, as well as hypo-phosphorylation of EGFR at tyrosine 1045 (Tyr1045, were also observed in RBE cells. Conclusion In RBE cells, up-regulation of EGFR Tyr1045 phosphorylation is a potentially useful molecular alteration in EGFR-targeted therapy. The combination of molecular-targeted therapy determined by the characteristics of individual EGFR phosphorylation events and EGFR recycling inhibition show promise in future treatments of cholangiocarcinoma.

  2. Online gas composition estimation in solid oxide fuel cell systems with anode off-gas recycle configuration (United States)

    Dolenc, B.; Vrečko, D.; Juričić, Ð.; Pohjoranta, A.; Pianese, C.


    Degradation and poisoning of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks are continuously shortening the lifespan of SOFC systems. Poisoning mechanisms, such as carbon deposition, form a coating layer, hence rapidly decreasing the efficiency of the fuel cells. Gas composition of inlet gases is known to have great impact on the rate of coke formation. Therefore, monitoring of these variables can be of great benefit for overall management of SOFCs. Although measuring the gas composition of the gas stream is feasible, it is too costly for commercial applications. This paper proposes three distinct approaches for the design of gas composition estimators of an SOFC system in anode off-gas recycle configuration which are (i.) accurate, and (ii.) easy to implement on a programmable logic controller. Firstly, a classical approach is briefly revisited and problems related to implementation complexity are discussed. Secondly, the model is simplified and adapted for easy implementation. Further, an alternative data-driven approach for gas composition estimation is developed. Finally, a hybrid estimator employing experimental data and 1st-principles is proposed. Despite the structural simplicity of the estimators, the experimental validation shows a high precision for all of the approaches. Experimental validation is performed on a 10 kW SOFC system.

  3. Regulation of V-ATPase recycling via a RhoA- and ROCKII-dependent pathway in epididymal clear cells. (United States)

    Shum, Winnie Waichi; Da Silva, Nicolas; Belleannée, Clémence; McKee, Mary; Brown, Dennis; Breton, Sylvie


    Luminal acidification in the epididymis is critical for sperm maturation and storage. Clear cells express the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) in their apical membrane and are major contributors to proton secretion. We showed that this process is regulated via recycling of V-ATPase-containing vesicles. We now report that RhoA and its effector ROCKII are enriched in rat epididymal clear cells. In addition, cortical F-actin was detected beneath the apical membrane and along the lateral membrane of "resting" clear cells using a pan-actin antibody or phalloidin-TRITC. In vivo luminal perfusion of the cauda epididymal tubule with the ROCK inhibitors Y27632 (10-30 μM) and HA1077 (30 μM) or with the cell-permeable Rho inhibitor Clostridium botulinum C3 transferase (3.75 μg/ml) induced the apical membrane accumulation of V-ATPase and extension of V-ATPase-labeled microvilli in clear cells. However, these newly formed microvilli were devoid of ROCKII. In addition, Y27632 (30 μM) or HA1077 (30 μM) decreased the ratio of F-actin to G-actin detected by Western blot analysis in epididymal epithelial cells, and Y27632 also decreased the ratio of F-actin to G-actin in clear cells isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting from B1-enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) transgenic mice. These results provide evidence that depolymerization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton via inhibition of RhoA or its effector ROCKII favors the recruitment of V-ATPase from the cytosolic compartment into the apical membrane in clear cells. In addition, our data suggest that the RhoA-ROCKII pathway is not locally involved in the elongation of apical microvilli. We propose that inhibition of RhoA-ROCKII might be part of the intracellular signaling cascade that is triggered upon agonist-induced apical membrane V-ATPase accumulation.

  4. Cost Reduction of IMM Solar Cells by Recycling Substrates using Wet Chemical Etching Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program focuses on reducing the cost of substrate reclaim for high-efficiency solar cells fabricated via an epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process, while increasing...

  5. Cost Reduction of IMM Solar Cells by Recycling Substrates Using Wet Chemical Etching Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the program is to reduce the cost of substrate reclaim for high-efficiency solar cells fabricated by an epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process, and to increase...

  6. Efficient decommissioning and recycling of polymer solar cells: justification for use of silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar R.; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Jørgensen, Mikkel


    Large 100 m long polymer solar cell modules were installed in a solar park using fast installation (>100 m min−1) and operated for 5 months ensuring a meaningful energy return factor (ERF > 1) followed by fast de-installation (>200 m min−1) and end-of-life management. Focus was on recovery...... of silver that is an essential component of the two electrodes. We employed life cycle analysis as a tool to evaluate the most efficient silver extraction method as well as the impact on the overall life cycle of the solar cells. Silver from the electrodes could be recovered as silver chloride in 95% yield...

  7. The regeneration and recycle of chromium etching solutions using concentrator cell membrane technology. (United States)

    Chaudhary, Abdul J; Ganguli, Bijita; Grimes, Susan M


    The regeneration of chromium (VI) and the recovery of etched copper from chromium etching solutions by electrodialysis is improved by the addition of a concentrator cell in the catholyte chamber. The concentrator media used are ion-exchange resins or activated carbon cloth. The maximum percentages for the regeneration of chromium and recovery of copper in these systems is however less than 80% and 90% respectively because of the competition between the processes of oxidation of Cr(III) and electrodeposition of copper. A novel combination of electrolysis with electrodialysis and concentrator cell technology is developed that achieves 92% chromium regeneration and 90% copper recovery.

  8. How the stimulus defines the dynamics of vesicle pool recruitment, fusion mode, and vesicle recycling in neuroendocrine cells. (United States)

    Cárdenas, Ana María; Marengo, Fernando D


    vesicle location (B). Furthermore, low-frequency stimulation favors kiss-and-run exocytosis (A), whereas higher frequencies promote full fusion (B). In this review, we analyze the mechanisms by which a given stimulation pattern defines the mode of exocytosis, and recruitment and recycling of neurosecretory vesicles. This article is part of a mini review series on Chromaffin cells (ISCCB Meeting, 2015).

  9. Ubiquitylation of the chemokine receptor CCR7 enables efficient receptor recycling and cell migration


    Schäuble, Karin; Hauser, Mark A.; Rippl, Alexandra; Bruderer, Roland; Otero, Carolina; Gröttrup, Marcus; Legler, Daniel F.


    The chemokine receptor CCR7 is essential for lymphocyte and dendritic cell homing to secondary lymphoid organs. Owing to the ability to induce directional migration, CCR7 and its ligands CCL19 and CCL21 are pivotal for the regulation of the immune system. Here, we identify a novel function for receptor ubiquitylation in the regulation of the trafficking process of this G-protein-coupled seven transmembrane receptor. We discovered that CCR7 is ubiquitylated in a constitutive, ligand-independen...

  10. Genetic and physiological alterations occurring in a yeast population continuously propagated at increasing temperatures with cell recycling. (United States)

    Souza, Crisla S; Thomaz, Daniel; Cides, Elaine R; Oliveira, Karen F; Tognolli, João O; Laluce, Cecilia


    This work investigated the effects of increasing temperature from 30°C to 47°C on the physiological and genetic characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 63M after continuous fermentation with cell recycling in a system of five reactors in series. Steady state was attained at 30°C, and then the temperature of the system was raised so it ranged from 35°C in the last reactor to 43°C in the first reactor or feeding reactor with a 2°C difference between reactors. After 15 days at steady state, the temperature was raised from 37°C to 45°C for 25 days at steady state, then from 39°C to 47°C for 20 days at steady state. Starter strain 63M was a hybrid strain constructed to have a MAT a/α, LYS/lys, URA/ura genotype. This hybrid yeast showed vigorous growth on plates at 40°C, weak growth at 41°C, positive assimilation of melibiose, positive fermentation of galactose, raffinose and sucrose. Of 156 isolates obtained from this system at the end of the fermentation process, only 17.3% showed the same characteristics as starter strain 63M. Alterations in mating type reaction and in utilization of raffinose, melibiose, and sucrose were identified. Only 1.9% of the isolates lost the ability to grow at 40°C. Isolates showing requirements for lysine and uracil were also obtained. In addition, cell survival was observed at 39-47°C, but no isolates showing growth above 41°C were obtained.

  11. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  12. Comparative technoeconomic analysis of a softwood ethanol process featuring posthydrolysis sugars concentration operations and continuous fermentation with cell recycle. (United States)

    Schneiderman, Steven J; Gurram, Raghu N; Menkhaus, Todd J; Gilcrease, Patrick C


    Economical production of second generation ethanol from Ponderosa pine is of interest due to widespread mountain pine beetle infestation in the western United States and Canada. The conversion process is limited by low glucose and high inhibitor concentrations resulting from conventional low-solids dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Inhibited fermentations require larger fermentors (due to reduced volumetric productivity) and low sugars lead to low ethanol titers, increasing distillation costs. In this work, multiple effect evaporation (MEE) and nanofiltration (NF) were evaluated to concentrate the hydrolysate from 30 g/l to 100, 150, or 200 g/l glucose. To ferment this high gravity, inhibitor containing stream, traditional batch fermentation was compared with continuous stirred tank fermentation (CSTF) and continuous fermentation with cell recycle (CSTF-CR). Equivalent annual operating cost (EAOC = amortized capital + yearly operating expenses) was used to compare these potential improvements for a local-scale 5 MGY ethanol production facility. Hydrolysate concentration via evaporation increased EAOC over the base process due to the capital and energy intensive nature of evaporating a very dilute sugar stream; however, concentration via NF decreased EAOC for several of the cases (by 2 to 15%). NF concentration to 100 g/l glucose with a CSTF-CR was the most economical option, reducing EAOC by $0.15 per gallon ethanol produced. Sensitivity analyses on NF options showed that EAOC improvement over the base case could still be realized for even higher solids removal requirements (up to two times higher centrifuge requirement for the best case) or decreased NF performance.

  13. The small GTPase Rab8 interacts with VAMP-3 to regulate the delivery of recycling T-cell receptors to the immune synapse. (United States)

    Finetti, Francesca; Patrussi, Laura; Galgano, Donatella; Cassioli, Chiara; Perinetti, Giuseppe; Pazour, Gregory J; Baldari, Cosima T


    IFT20, a component of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system that controls ciliogenesis, regulates immune synapse assembly in the non-ciliated T-cell by promoting T-cell receptor (TCR) recycling. Here, we have addressed the role of Rab8 (for which there are two isoforms Rab8a and Rab8b), a small GTPase implicated in ciliogenesis, in TCR traffic to the immune synapse. We show that Rab8, which colocalizes with IFT20 in Rab11(+) endosomes, is required for TCR recycling. Interestingly, as opposed to in IFT20-deficient T-cells, TCR(+) endosomes polarized normally beneath the immune synapse membrane in the presence of dominant-negative Rab8, but were unable to undergo the final docking or fusion step. This could be accounted for by the inability of the vesicular (v)-SNARE VAMP-3 to cluster at the immune synapse in the absence of functional Rab8, which is responsible for its recruitment. Of note, and similar to in T-cells, VAMP-3 interacts with Rab8 at the base of the cilium in NIH-3T3 cells, where it regulates ciliary growth and targeting of the protein smoothened. The results identify Rab8 as a new player in vesicular traffic to the immune synapse and provide insight into the pathways co-opted by different cell types for immune synapse assembly and ciliogenesis.

  14. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling (United States)

    Palliser, Janna


    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  15. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller


    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  16. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.


    the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...... will need to make efforts to recover all recyclable fractions, and that the increased recycling efforts of only selected municipalities will not be sufficient to reach the target.......Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22...

  17. Certified Electronics Recyclers (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  18. Efficiency gain of solid oxide fuel cell systems by using anode offgas recycle - Results for a small scale propane driven unit (United States)

    Dietrich, Ralph-Uwe; Oelze, Jana; Lindermeir, Andreas; Spitta, Christian; Steffen, Michael; Küster, Torben; Chen, Shaofei; Schlitzberger, Christian; Leithner, Reinhard

    The transfer of high electrical efficiencies of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) into praxis requires appropriate system concepts. One option is the anode-offgas recycling (AOGR) approach, which is based on the integration of waste heat using the principle of a chemical heat pump. The AOGR concept allows a combined steam- and dry-reforming of hydrocarbon fuel using the fuel cell products steam and carbon dioxide. SOFC fuel gas of higher quantity and quality results. In combination with internal reuse of waste heat the system efficiency increases compared to the usual path of partial oxidation (POX). The demonstration of the AOGR concept with a 300 Wel-SOFC stack running on propane required: a combined reformer/burner-reactor operating in POX (start-up) and AOGR modus; a hotgas-injector for anode-offgas recycling to the reformer; a dynamic process model; a multi-variable process controller; full system operation for experimental proof of the efficiency gain. Experimental results proof an efficiency gain of 18 percentage points (η·POX = 23%, η·AOGR = 41%) under idealized lab conditions. Nevertheless, further improvements of injector performance, stack fuel utilization and additional reduction of reformer reformer O/C ratio and system pressure drop are required to bring this approach into self-sustaining operation.

  19. The recycling is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department


    The recycling site currently situated near building 133 has been transferred to the car park of building 156. The site is identified by the sign “RECYCLING” and the above logo. In this new, more accessible site, you will find recycling bins for the following waste: PET (recyclable plastic bottles); Aluminium cans; Nespresso coffee capsules.  

  20. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima


    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  1. Rethink, Rework, Recycle. (United States)

    Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.


    Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)

  2. Recycling of resting cells in the JB-1 ascites tumour after treatment with 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C). (United States)

    Dombernowsky, P; Bichel, P


    Resting cells in tumours present a major problem in cancer chemotherapy. In the plateau phase of grwoth of the murine JB-1 ascites tumour (i.e. 10 days after 2-5 X 10(6) cells i.p.) large fractions of non-cycling cells with G1 and G2 DNA content (Q1 and Q2 cells) are present, and the fate of these resting cells was investigated after treatment with 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (Ara-C). The experimental work of growth curves, percentage of labelled mitoses curves after continuous labelling with 3H-TdR, and cytophotometric determination of single-cell DNA content in unlabelled tumour cells. Treatment with an i.p. single injection of Ara-C 200 mg/kg in the plateau JB-1 tumour resulted in a significant reduction in the number of tumour cells 1 and 2 days later as compared with untreated controls, while no difference in the number of tumour cells was observed after 3 days. In tumours prelabelled with 3H-TdR 24 hr before Ara-C treatment, a significant decrease in the percentage of labelled mitoses was observed 6-8 hr later followed by a return to the initial value after 12 hr, and a new pronounced fall from 20 hr after Ara-C. The second fall in the percentage of labelled mitoses disappeared when the labelling with 3H-TdR was continued also after Ara-C treatment. Cytophotometry of unlabelled tumour cells prelabelled for 24 hr with 3H-TdR before Ara-C treatment showed 20 hr after Ara-C a pronounced decrease in the fraction of Q1 cells paralleled by an increase in the fraction of unlabelled cells with S DNA content. The results indicate recycling of resting cells first with G2 and later with G1 DNA content, which contribute to the regrowth of the tumours.

  3. Recycling of demolished concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagataki, S. [Niigata Univ., Niigata (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Iida, K. [Technology Centre of Taisei Corp., Yokohama (Japan)


    There is a significant amount of research being conducted in Japan on ways to recycle demolished concrete. The material is already being used for road bases and foundations, but in the future, the concrete will have to be recycled as concrete aggregate. Recycling may also include the cement in the concrete in order to address the issue of global warming and carbon dioxide reductions. This initiative is in response to predictions that in the future there will be tremendous quantities of demolished concrete to deal with. Recycling of cement is also necessary in terms of resolving environmental problems and promoting sustainable development. The properties of concrete made with recycled aggregates were described and were compared with original concrete made of known materials. The paper also proposed an approach that should be taken to recycling concrete in the twenty-first century in which reduced limestone was used to reclaim cement. Recycled concrete with cement requires more energy, but uses less resources and discharges less carbon dioxide. Currently, recycled aggregate does not meet the Japanese Industrial Standard for concrete aggregate. The resistance to freeze/thaw cycles was not adequate. The amount of mortar adhered to the recycled aggregate had little affect on the strength and durability of recycled concrete. It was concluded that the quality of recycled concrete aggregate depends on the quality of original concrete. 11 refs., 12 tabs., 11 figs.

  4. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar


    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  5. The phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3) promotes cell migration through Arf-activity-dependent stimulation of integrin α5 recycling. (United States)

    Krndija, Denis; Münzberg, Christin; Maass, Ulrike; Hafner, Margit; Adler, Guido; Kestler, Hans A; Seufferlein, Thomas; Oswald, Franz; von Wichert, Götz


    The formation of metastasis is one of the most critical problems in oncology. The phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3) is a new target in colorectal cancer, mediating metastatic behavior through a promigratory function. However, detailed explanations for this effect have remained elusive. Here we show that PRL-3 interacts with the ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1). PRL-3 colocalizes with Arf1 in an endosomal compartment and associates with transmembrane proteins such as the transferrin receptor and α5 integrins. PRL-3 interacts with Arf1 through a distinct motif and regulates activation of Arf1. PRL-3-mediated migration depends on expression and activation of Arf1 and is sensitive to treatment with Brefeldin A. We also demonstrate that PRL-3 modulates recycling of α5 integrins and that its phosphatase activity as well as Arf activation and compartmentalization with Arf1 are required for this effect. In summary our data identify a new function for PRL-3 and show that Arf1 is a new PRL-3-dependent mediator of enhanced migration of cancer cells through enhanced recycling of matrix receptors.

  6. Influence of photon recycling effects in the operation and design of GaAs solar cells; Influencia del reciclaje de fotones en el funcionamiento y del diseno de las celulas solares de Arsenico de Galio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balenzategui Manzanares, J. L.


    Photon recycling (PR) is the process by which photons internally emitted in a semiconductor can be re-absorbed by the material, giving as result new electron-hole pairs. Although this process has been receiving some international research from the Sixties, because their effects revealed as relevant in certain devices and materials (as in gallium arsenide), its influence in the operation of solar cells has been scarcely considered in the past. Thus deposited it has been demonstrated that one of its major effects is an enhancement of the radiative carrier lifetine, photon recycling is not usually taken into account in photovoltaic, neither in device modelling and simulation, nor from the perspective of taking advantage of the phenomenon to improve the efficiency of solar cells. This work describes the results of our investigations in the field of photon recycling. (Author)

  7. Efficient paper recycling


    Gregor-Svetec, Diana; Možina, Klemen; Blaznik, Barbara; Urbas, Raša; Vrabič Brodnjak, Urška; Golob, Gorazd


    Used paper and paper products are important raw material for paper and board industry. Paper recycling increases the material lifespan and is a key strategy that contributes to savings of primary raw material, reduction of energy and chemicals consumption, reduction of the impact on fresh water and improvement of waste management strategies. The paper recycling rate is still highly inhomogeneous among the countries of Central Europe. Since recovered paper is not only recycled in the country w...

  8. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry


    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  9. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce


    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  10. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...... in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed circuit board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where the scrap constitutes the least environmental problem and where...

  11. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower


    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  12. Recycling Wood Composite Panels: Characterizing Recycled Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wan


    Full Text Available Downgraded medium density fiberboard (MDF, particleboard (PB, and oriented strandboard (OSB panels were individually subjected to steam explosion treatment. Downgraded MDF and PB panels were separately treated with thermal chemical impregnation using 0.5% butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA. And downgraded PB panels were processed with mechanical hammermilling. The pH, buffer capacity, fiber length, and particle size of these recycled materials were evaluated. After the steam explosion and thermal chemical impregnation treatments, the pH and buffer capacity of recycled urea formaldehyde resin (UF-bonded MDF and PB furnishes increased and the fiber length decreased. The hammermilling of recycled PB was less likely to break particles down into sizes less than 1 mm2.

  13. Cascaded strand displacement for non-enzymatic target recycling amplification and label-free electronic detection of microRNA from tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Kai; Dou, Baoting; Yang, Jianmei; Yuan, Ruo; Xiang, Yun, E-mail:


    The monitoring of microRNA (miRNA) expression levels is of great importance in cancer diagnosis. In the present work, based on two cascaded toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions (TSDRs), we have developed a label- and enzyme-free target recycling signal amplification approach for sensitive electronic detection of miRNA-21 from human breast cancer cells. The junction probes containing the locked G-quadruplex forming sequences are self-assembled on the senor surface. The presence of the target miRNA-21 initiates the first TSDR and results in the disassembly of the junction probes and the release of the active G-quadruplex forming sequences. Subsequently, the DNA fuel strand triggers the second TSDR and leads to cyclic reuse of the target miRNA-21. The cascaded TSDRs thus generate many active G-quadruplex forming sequences on the sensor surface, which associate with hemin to produce significantly amplified current response for sensitive detection of miRNA-21 at 1.15 fM. The sensor is also selective and can be employed to monitor miRNA-21 from human breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • Amplified and sensitive detection of microRNA from tumor cells is achieved. • Signal amplification is realized by two cascaded strand displacement reactions. • The developed sensor is selective and label-free without involving any enzymes.

  14. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young


    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  15. The Fermilab recycler ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Hu


    The Fermilab Recycler is a permanent magnet storage ring for the accumulation of antiprotons from the Antiproton Source, and the recovery and cooling of the antiprotons remaining at the end of a Tevatron store. It is an integral part of the Fermilab III luminosity upgrade. The following paper describes the design features, operational and commissioning status of the Recycler Ring.

  16. Role of ARF6, Rab11 and external Hsp90 in the trafficking and recycling of recombinant-soluble Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (rNadA in human epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bozza

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (NadA is a meningococcus surface protein thought to assist in the adhesion of the bacterium to host cells. We have previously shown that NadA also promotes bacterial internalization in a heterologous expression system. Here we have used the soluble recombinant NadA (rNadA lacking the membrane anchor region to characterize its internalization route in Chang epithelial cells. Added to the culture medium, rNadA internalizes through a PI3K-dependent endocytosis process not mediated by the canonical clathrin or caveolin scaffolds, but instead follows an ARF6-regulated recycling pathway previously described for MHC-I. The intracellular pool of rNadA reaches a steady state level within one hour of incubation and colocalizes in endocytic vesicles with MHC-I and with the extracellularly labeled chaperone Hsp90. Treatment with membrane permeated and impermeable Hsp90 inhibitors 17-AAG and FITC-GA respectively, lead to intracellular accumulation of rNadA, strongly suggesting that the extracellular secreted pool of the chaperone is involved in rNadA intracellular trafficking. A significant number of intracellular vesicles containing rNadA recruit Rab11, a small GTPase associated to recycling endosomes, but do not contain transferrin receptor (TfR. Interestingly, cell treatment with Hsp90 inhibitors, including the membrane-impermeable FITC-GA, abolished Rab11-rNadA colocalization but do not interfere with Rab11-TfR colocalization. Collectively, these results are consistent with a model whereby rNadA internalizes into human epithelial cells hijacking the recycling endosome pathway and recycle back to the surface of the cell via an ARF6-dependent, Rab11 associated and Hsp90-regulated mechanism. The present study addresses for the first time a meningoccoccal adhesin mechanism of endocytosis and suggests a possible entry pathway engaged by N. meningitidis in primary infection of human epithelial cells.

  17. The glucose transporter (GLUT-4) and vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 (VAMP-2) are segregated from recycling endosomes in insulin- sensitive cells (United States)


    Insulin stimulates glucose transport in adipocytes by translocation of the glucose transporter (GLUT-4) from an intracellular site to the cell surface. We have characterized different synaptobrevin/vesicle- associated membrane protein (VAMP) homologues in adipocytes and studied their intracellular distribution with respect to GLUT-4. VAMP-1, VAMP- 2, and cellubrevin cDNAs were isolated from a 3T3-L1 adipocyte expression library. VAMP-2 and cellubrevin were: (a) the most abundant isoforms in adipocytes, (b) detectable in all insulin responsive tissues, (c) translocated to the cell surface in response to insulin, and (d) found in immunoadsorbed GLUT-4 vesicles. To further define their intracellular distribution, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with a transferrin/HRP conjugate (Tf/HRP) and endosomes ablated following addition of DAB and H2O2. While this resulted in ablation of > 90% of the transferrin receptor (TfR) and cellubrevin found in intracellular membranes, 60% of GLUT-4 and 90% of VAMP-2 was not ablated. Immuno-EM on intracellular vesicles from adipocytes revealed that VAMP-2 was colocalized with GLUT-4, whereas only partial colocalization was observed between GLUT-4 and cellubrevin. These studies show that two different v-SNAREs, cellubrevin and VAMP-2, are partially segregated in different intracellular compartments in adipocytes, implying that they may define separate classes of secretory vesicles in these cells. We conclude that a proportion of GLUT-4 is found in recycling endosomes in nonstimulated adipocytes together with cellubrevin and the transferrin receptor. In addition, GLUT-4 and VAMP-2 are selectively enriched in a postendocytic compartment. Further study is required to elucidate the function of this latter compartment in insulin-responsive cells. PMID:8707843

  18. Recycling of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    Metals like iron and aluminium are produced from mineral ore and used for a range of products, some of which have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of municipal waste. Packaging in terms of cans, foils and containers are products with a short lifetime. Other products like...... describes briefly how iron and aluminium are produced and how scrap metal is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of metal recycling. Copper and other metals are also found in waste but in much smaller...

  19. Engineered Plastics Containing Recycled Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yang Wu


    @@ 1. Introduction In Australia 10.5 million rubber tyres are discarded annually, representing 120,000 tonnes of wasted rubber resource. Growing local and global concern about the impact of this waste on the environment requires action for the management and recycling of this highly valuable resource through the development of recycling technologies and innovative recycled/recyclable products.

  20. Recycling of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders


    Glass is used for many purposes, but in the waste system glass is predominantly found in terms of beverage and food containers with a relatively short lifetime before ending up in the waste. Furthermore there is a large amount of flat glass used in building materials which also ends up in the waste...... system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  1. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann


    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  2. The physiological characteristics of the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis in fully fermentative conditions with cell recycling and in mixed cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Pereira, Luciana Filgueira; Bassi, Ana Paula Guarnieri; Avansini, Simoni Helena; Neto, Adauto Gomes Barbosa; Brasileiro, Bereneuza Tavares Ramos Valente; Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra Regina; de Morais, Marcos Antonio


    The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis plays an important role in industrial fermentation processes, either as a contaminant or as a fermenting yeast. In this study, an analysis has been conducted of the fermentation characteristics of several industrial D. bruxellensis strains collected from distilleries from the Southeast and Northeast of Brazil, compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was found that all the strains of D. bruxellensis showed a lower fermentative capacity as a result of inefficient sugar assimilation, especially sucrose, under anaerobiosis, which is called the Custer effect. In addition, most of the sugar consumed by D. bruxellensis seemed to be used for biomass production, as was observed by the increase of its cell population during the fermentation recycles. In mixed populations, the surplus of D. bruxellensis over S. cerevisiae population could not be attributed to organic acid production by the first yeast, as previously suggested. Moreover, both yeast species showed similar sensitivity to lactic and acetic acids and were equally resistant to ethanol, when added exogenously to the fermentation medium. Thus, the effects that lead to the employment of D. bruxellensis in an industrial process and its effects on the production of ethanol are multivariate. The difficulty of using this yeast for ethanol production is that it requires the elimination of the Custer effect to allow an increase in the assimilation of sugar under anaerobic conditions.

  3. Modeling of a thermally integrated 10 kWe planar solid oxide fuel cell system with anode offgas recycling and internal reforming by discretization in flow direction (United States)

    Wahl, Stefanie; Segarra, Ana Gallet; Horstmann, Peter; Carré, Maxime; Bessler, Wolfgang G.; Lapicque, François; Friedrich, K. Andreas


    Combined heat and power production (CHP) based on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is a very promising technology to achieve high electrical efficiency to cover power demand by decentralized production. This paper presents a dynamic quasi 2D model of an SOFC system which consists of stack and balance of plant and includes thermal coupling between the single components. The model is implemented in Modelica® and validated with experimental data for the stack UI-characteristic and the thermal behavior. The good agreement between experimental and simulation results demonstrates the validity of the model. Different operating conditions and system configurations are tested, increasing the net electrical efficiency to 57% by implementing an anode offgas recycle rate of 65%. A sensitivity analysis of characteristic values of the system like fuel utilization, oxygen-to-carbon ratio and electrical efficiency for different natural gas compositions is carried out. The result shows that a control strategy adapted to variable natural gas composition and its energy content should be developed in order to optimize the operation of the system.

  4. High efficiency cell-recycle continuous sodium gluconate production by Aspergillus niger using on-line physiological parameters association analysis to regulate feed rate rationally. (United States)

    Lu, Fei; Li, Chao; Wang, Zejian; Zhao, Wei; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang


    In this paper, a system of cell-recycle continuous fermentation for sodium gluconate (SG) production by Aspergillus niger (A. niger) was established. Based on initial continuous fermentation result (100.0h) with constant feed rate, an automatic feedback strategy to regulate feed rate using on-line physiological parameters (OUR and DO) was proposed and applied successfully for the first time in the improved continuous fermentation (240.5h). Due to less auxiliary time, highest SG production rate (31.05±0.29gL(-1)h(-1)) and highest yield (0.984±0.067molmol(-1)), overall SG production capacity (975.8±5.8gh(-1)) in 50-L fermentor of improved continuous fermentation increased more than 300.0% compared to that of batch fermentation. Improvement of mass transfer and dispersed mycelia morphology were the two major reasons responsible for the high SG production rate. This system had been successfully applied to industrial fermentation and SG production was greatly improved.

  5. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan


    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 307-312

  6. Recycling of Indium From CIGS Photovoltaic Cells: Potential of Combining Acid-Resistant Nanofiltration with Liquid-Liquid Extraction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, Y.S.; Niewersch, C.; Lenz, M.; Corvini, P.F.X.; Schäffer, A.; Wintgens, T.


    Electronic consumer products such as smartphones, TV, computers, light-emitting diodes, and photovoltaic cells crucially depend on metals and metalloids. So-called “urban mining” considers them as secondary resources since they may contain precious elements at concentrations many times higher than t

  7. Novel web-based real-time dashboard to optimize recycling and use of red cell units at a large multi-site transfusion service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Sharpe


    Full Text Available Background: Effective blood inventory management reduces outdates of blood products. Multiple strategies have been employed to reduce the rate of red blood cell (RBC unit outdate. We designed an automated real-time web-based dashboard interfaced with our laboratory information system to effectively recycle red cell units. The objective of our approach is to decrease RBC outdate rates within our transfusion service. Methods: The dashboard was deployed in August 2011 and is accessed by a shortcut that was placed on the desktops of all blood transfusion services computers in the Capital District Health Authority region. It was designed to refresh automatically every 10 min. The dashboard provides all vital information on RBC units, and implemented a color coding scheme to indicate an RBC unit′s proximity to expiration. Results: The overall RBC unit outdate rate in the 7 months period following implementation of the dashboard (September 2011-March 2012 was 1.24% (123 units outdated/9763 units received, compared to similar periods in 2010-2011 and 2009-2010: 2.03% (188/9395 and 2.81% (261/9220, respectively. The odds ratio of a RBC unit outdate postdashboard (2011-2012 compared with 2010-2011 was 0.625 (95% confidence interval: 0.497-0.786; P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Our dashboard system is an inexpensive and novel blood inventory management system which was associated with a significant reduction in RBC unit outdate rates at our institution over a period of 7 months. This system, or components of it, could be a useful addition to existing RBC management systems at other institutions.

  8. Recycling of indium from CIGS photovoltaic cells: potential of combining acid-resistant nanofiltration with liquid-liquid extraction. (United States)

    Zimmermann, Yannick-Serge; Niewersch, Claudia; Lenz, Markus; Kül, Zöhre Zohra; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Schäffer, Andreas; Wintgens, Thomas


    Electronic consumer products such as smartphones, TV, computers, light-emitting diodes, and photovoltaic cells crucially depend on metals and metalloids. So-called "urban mining" considers them as secondary resources since they may contain precious elements at concentrations many times higher than their primary ores. Indium is of foremost interest being widely used, expensive, scarce and prone to supply risk. This study first investigated the capability of different nanofiltration membranes of extracting indium from copper-indium-gallium- selenide photovoltaic cell (CIGS) leachates under low pH conditions and low transmembrane pressure differences (98% by nanofiltration, separating it from parts of the Ag, Sb, Se, and Zn present. LLE using di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) extracted 97% of the indium from the retentates, separating it from all other elements except for Mo, Al, and Sn. Overall, 95% (2.4 g m(-2) CIGS) of the indium could be extracted to the D2EHPA phase. Simultaneously, by nanofiltration the consumption of D2EHPA was reduced by >60% due to the metal concentration in the reduced retentate volume. These results show clearly the potential for efficient scarce metal recovery from secondary resources. Furthermore, since nanofiltration was applicable at very low pH (≥ 0.6), it may be applied in hydrometallurgy typically using acidic conditions.

  9. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri


    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  10. A novel approach to recycle bacterial culture waste for fermentation reuse via a microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor system. (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhu, Yuan; Zhuang, Liangpeng; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Masaya; Goodell, Barry; Sonoki, Tomonori; He, Zhen


    Biochemical production processes require water and nutrient resources for culture media preparation, but aqueous waste is generated after the target products are extracted. In this study, culture waste (including cells) produced from a lab-scale fermenter was fed into a microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) system. Electrical energy was generated via the interaction between the microbial consortia and the solid electrode in the MFC. The treated wastewater was reclaimed in this process which was reused as a solvent and a nutrient source in subsequent fermentation. Polarization testing showed that the MFC produced a maximum current density of 37.53 A m(-3) with a maximum power density of 5.49 W m(-3). The MFC was able to generate 0.04 kWh of energy per cubic meter of culture waste treated. The lab-scale fermenters containing pure cultures of an engineered Pseudomonas spp. were used to generate 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDC), a high value platform chemical. When the MFC-MBR-treated wastewater was used for the fermenter culture medium, a specific bacterial growth rate of 1.00 ± 0.05 h(-1) was obtained with a PDC production rate of 708.11 ± 64.70 mg PDC L(-1) h(-1). Comparable values for controls using pure water were 0.95 ± 0.06 h(-1) and 621.01 ± 22.09 mg PDC L(-1) h(-1) (P > 0.05), respectively. The results provide insight on a new approach for more sustainable bio-material production while at the same time generating energy, and suggest that the treated wastewater can be used as a solvent and a nutrient source for the fermentation production of high value platform chemicals.

  11. Comparisons of IL-8, ROS and p53 responses in human lung epithelial cells exposed to two extracts of PM2.5 collected from an e-waste recycling area, China (United States)

    Yang, Fangxing; Jin, Shiwei; Xu, Ying; Lu, Yuanan


    To identify the different effects of organic-soluble and water-soluble pollutants adsorbed on PM2.5 (PM: particulate matter) released from e-waste (electrical/electronic waste) on inflammatory response, oxidative stress and DNA damage, interleukin-8 (IL-8), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p53 protein levels were determined and compared in human lung epithelial A549 cells exposed to extracts of PM2.5 collected from two sampling sites in an e-waste recycling area in China. It is found that both extracts induced increases of IL-8 release, ROS production and p53 protein expression. The differences between the organic-soluble and water-soluble extracts were determined as of significance for ROS production (p e-waste recycling areas could lead to inflammatory response, oxidative stress and DNA damage, and the organic-soluble extracts had higher potential to induce such adverse effects on human health.

  12. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde


    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  13. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling...... of the balance of costs and benefits. Rather, they are a function of the person's moral beliefs, i.e., beliefs in what is the right or wrong thing to do. The paper gives a brief review of the literature with the intention of uncovering problems and shortcomings in the framework of the SEU-model and the Theory...

  14. Business Plan: Paper Recycling Plant


    Ali, Muhammad; Askari, Sana; Salman, Muhammad; Askari, Sheba


    This Business Plan was written for Business Plan competition organized by Ministry of Youth Affairs Government of Pakistan. It explains the paper recycling business, its pros and cons, cost of paper recycling, plant options and feasibility.

  15. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  16. Recycled Insect Models (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Meyer, Mary Ann


    This article presents an engaging activity in which high school students use a dichotomous key to guide the creation and classification of model insects from recycled plastic lids and containers. Besides teaching the use of a dichotomous key and the effect of evolutionary descent upon groupings of organisms, this activity focuses on an…

  17. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla


    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  18. Simultaneous assessment of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against multiple viral infections by combined usage of optimal epitope matrices, anti- CD3 mAb T-cell expansion and "RecycleSpot"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Johnson T


    Full Text Available Abstract The assessment of cellular anti-viral immunity is often hampered by the limited availability of adequate samples, especially when attempting simultaneous, high-resolution determination of T cell responses against multiple viral infections. Thus, the development of assay systems, which optimize cell usage, while still allowing for the detailed determination of breadth and magnitude of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses, is urgently needed. This study provides an up-to-date listing of currently known, well-defined viral CTL epitopes for HIV, EBV, CMV, HCV and HBV and describes an approach that overcomes some of the above limitations through the use of peptide matrices of optimally defined viral CTL epitopes in combination with anti-CD3 in vitro T cell expansion and re-use of cells from negative ELISpot wells. The data show that, when compared to direct ex vivo cell preparations, antigen-unspecific in vitro T cell expansion maintains the breadth of detectable T cell responses and demonstrates that harvesting cells from negative ELISpot wells for re-use in subsequent ELISpot assays (RecycleSpot, further maximized the use of available cells. Furthermore when combining T cell expansion and RecycleSpot with the use of rationally designed peptide matrices, antiviral immunity against more than 400 different CTL epitopes from five different viruses can be reproducibly assessed from samples of less than 10 milliliters of blood without compromising information on the breadth and magnitude of these responses. Together, these data support an approach that facilitates the assessment of cellular immunity against multiple viral co-infections in settings where sample availability is severely limited.

  19. Recycling, Canadian update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmanan, V. I. [Process Research ORTECH Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Shaw, L. [Canadian Association of Recycling Industries, Almonte, ON (Canada)


    An update on the recycling industry in Canada is provided by way of selected examples involving the recovery of gallium from electronic scrap, magnesium recovery from mine tailings and energy recovery from metal industry processes. These examples have been selected to illustrate the synergy between major mining, metallurgical and utility industries with end users in the building materials, automotive and electronic industries. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  20. Recycling of merchant ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Klopott


    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the issues concerning ship recycling. It highlights ships' high value as sources of steel scrap and non-ferrous metals, without omitting the fact that they also contain a range of hazardous substances. Moreover, the article also focuses on basic ship demolition methods and their environmental impact, as well as emphasizes the importance of “design for ship recycling” philosophy.

  1. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules. (United States)

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun


    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  2. Waste collection systems for recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Møller, Jacob


    and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed......Recycling of paper and glass from household waste is an integrated part of waste management in Denmark, however, increased recycling is a legislative target. The questions are: how much more can the recycling rate be increased through improvements of collection schemes when organisational...... by means of a life cycle assessment and an assessment of the municipality's costs. Kerbside collection would provide the highest recycling rate, 31% compared to 25% in the baseline scenario, but bring schemes with drop-off containers would also be a reasonable solution. Collection of recyclables...

  3. Recycling of Paper and Cardboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders


    Paper and cardboard are produced from pulp derived from plant fibers, primarily wood. Paper and cardboard is used for many different products, such as for packaging material, newsprint and advertisements. Most of these products have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most...... and cardboard are produced and how waste paper is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of paper recycling....

  4. Valorizing recycled paper sludge by a bioethanol production process with cellulase recycling. (United States)

    Gomes, Daniel; Domingues, Lucília; Gama, Miguel


    The feasibility of cellulase recycling in the scope of bioethanol production from recycled paper sludge (RPS), an inexpensive byproduct with around 39% of carbohydrates, is analyzed. RPS was easily converted and fermented by enzymes and cells, respectively. Final enzyme partition between solid and liquid phases was investigated, the solid-bound enzymes being efficiently recovered by alkaline washing. RPS hydrolysis and fermentation was conducted over four rounds, recycling the cellulases present in both fractions. A great overall enzyme stability was observed: 71, 64 and 100% of the initial Cel7A, Cel7B and β-glucosidase activities, respectively, were recovered. Even with only 30% of fresh enzymes added on the subsequent rounds, solid conversions of 92, 83 and 71% were achieved for the round 2, 3 and 4, respectively. This strategy enabled an enzyme saving around 53-60%, while can equally contribute to a 40% reduction in RPS disposal costs.

  5. Regulation of Plasma Membrane Recycling by CFTR (United States)

    Bradbury, Neil A.; Jilling, Tamas; Berta, Gabor; Sorscher, Eric J.; Bridges, Robert J.; Kirk, Kevin L.


    The gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is defective in patients with cystic fibrosis. Although the protein product of the CFTR gene has been proposed to function as a chloride ion channel, certain aspects of its function remain unclear. The role of CFTR in the adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent regulation of plasma membrane recycling was examined. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate is known to regulate endocytosis and exocytosis in chloride-secreting epithelial cells that express CFTR. However, mutant epithelial cells derived from a patient with cystic fibrosis exhibited no cAMP-dependent regulation of endocytosis and exocytosis until they were transfected with complementary DNA encoding wild-type CFTR. Thus, CFTR is critical for cAMP-dependent regulation of membrane recycling in epithelial tissues, and this function of CFTR could explain in part the pleiotropic nature of cystic fibrosis.

  6. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses...... in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass....

  7. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.


    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  8. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab


    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  9. Waste material recycling: Assessment of contaminants limiting recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    systematically investigated. This PhD project provided detailed quantitative data following a consistent approach to assess potential limitations for the presence of chemicals in relation to material recycling. Paper and plastics were used as illustrative examples of materials with well-established recycling...... schemes and great potential for increase in recycling, respectively. The approach followed in the present work was developed and performed in four distinct steps. As step one, fractional composition of waste paper (30 fractions) and plastics (9 fractions) from households in Åbenrå municipality (Southern...... recycling has been recognised as a backbone of circular economy, with constant measures and initiatives being proposed in order to increase the recycling rates of materials being consumed. Material cycles are complex and dynamic systems where chemicals are added and removed in production, manufacturing...

  10. Design by recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalli, V. [By Design Consultants, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    A 'cradle to cradle' concept of building materials' lifecycle is presented in an effort to highlight the advantages of designing buildings in such a way as to ensure sound waste management strategies and practices, facilitate future renovation and demolition by reducing the generation of wastes, and allow for individual materials to be reused and recycled for use in new projects or products, continuing their lifecycle by diverting them from landfill. Some techniques to achieve these objectives include (1) avoidance of concealed, fixed connections, (2) use of reversible type connections, (3) use of materials that have an inherent finish, (4) use of simplified assemblies and modular materials. Examples of 'design for recycling' are cited, including Ottawa's Grace Hospital for the waste management program developed for use during its demolition, and the Mountain Equipment Co-Op for various features such as exposed timber posts with bolted connections, removable interior partitions with inherent finishes and exposed removable light and electrical fixtures. tabs., figs.

  11. Ribosome recycling: An essential process of protein synthesis. (United States)

    Kiel, Michael C; Kaji, Hideko; Kaji, Akira


    A preponderance of textbooks outlines cellular protein synthesis (translation) in three basic steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. However, researchers in the field of translation accept that a vital fourth step exists; this fourth step is called ribosome recycling. Ribosome recycling occurs after the nascent polypeptide has been released during the termination step. Despite the release of the polypeptide, ribosomes remain bound to the mRNA and tRNA. It is only during the fourth step of translation that ribosomes are ultimately released from the mRNA, split into subunits, and are free to bind new mRNA, thus the term "ribosome recycling." This step is essential to the viability of cells. In bacteria, it is catalyzed by two proteins, elongation factor G and ribosome recycling factor, a near perfect structural mimic of tRNA. Eukaryotic organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts possess ribosome recycling factor and elongation factor G homologues, but the nature of ribosome recycling in eukaryotic cytoplasm is still under investigation. In this review, the discovery of ribosome recycling and the basic mechanisms involved are discussed so that textbook writers and teachers can include this vital step, which is just as important as the three conventional steps, in sections dealing with protein synthesis.

  12. Making sense of plastics recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, E.; Koster, R.P.; Rageart, K.; Cardon, L.; Moerman, M.; Blessing, E.


    Major benefits of plastics recycling are reduced depletion of non-renewable resources and reduction of world-wide waste. Traditional thermo-mechanical recycling causes reduction of mechanical properties for most thermoplastics. Down-cycled materials may nevertheless be suited for certain useful appl

  13. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally! (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda


    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  14. Collection of Recyclables from Cubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøhlk, Sanne; Bogh, Morten Bie; Mikkelsen, Hardy


    Collection of recyclable materials is a major part of reverse logistics and an important issue in sustainable logistics. In this paper we consider a case study where paper and glass are collected from recycling cubes and transported to a treatment facility where it is processed for reuse. We...... situation for both the public company and the logistics provider....

  15. Enzyme recycling in lignocellulosic biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Pinelo, Manuel


    platform. Cellulases are the most important enzymes required in this process, but the complex nature of lignocellulose requires several other enzymes (hemicellulases and auxiliary enzymes) for efficient hydrolysis. Enzyme recycling increases the catalytic productivity of the enzymes by reusing them...... upscaled and tested in industrial settings, mainly because of many difficulties with recycling of enzymes from the complex lignocellulose hydrolyzate at industrially relevant conditions, i.e., high solids loadings. The challenges are associated with the large number of different enzymes required...... for efficient hydrolysis, enzyme stability, and the detrimental interaction between enzyme and lignin. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the various methods for enzyme recovery and recycling, for example recycling of free enzymes, readsorption to fresh material, recycling of solids, membrane...

  16. Urban water recycling. (United States)

    Asano, T


    Increasing urbanization has resulted in an uneven distribution of population, industries, and water in urban areas; thus, imposing unprecedented pressures on water supplies and water pollution control. These pressures are exacerbated during the periods of drought and climatic uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to summarize emergence of water reclamation, recycling and reuse as a vital component of sustainable water resources in the context of integrated water resources management in urban and rural areas. Water quality requirements and health and public acceptance issues related to water reuse are also discussed. Reclaimed water is a locally controllable water resource that exists right at the doorstep of the urban environment, where water is needed the most and priced the highest. Closing the water cycle loop not only is technically feasible in agriculture, industries, and municipalities but also makes economic sense. Society no longer has the luxury of using water only once.

  17. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities. (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward


    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  18. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.


    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  19. Kinetic analysis reveals the ordered coupling of translation termination and ribosome recycling in yeast


    Shoemaker, Christopher J.; Green, Rachel


    Although well defined in bacterial systems, the molecular mechanisms underlying ribosome recycling in eukaryotic cells have only begun to be explored. Recent studies have proposed a direct role for eukaryotic termination factors eRF1 and eRF3 (and the related factors Dom34 and Hbs1) in downstream recycling processes; however, our understanding of the connection between termination and recycling in eukaryotes is limited. Here, using an in vitro reconstituted yeast translation system, we identi...

  20. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Vale-Costa


    Full Text Available Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral–host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC, and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition.

  1. You're a "What"? Recycling Coordinator (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria


    Recycling coordinators supervise curbside and dropoff recycling programs for municipal governments or private firms. Today, recycling is mandatory in many communities. And advancements in collection and processing methods have helped to increase the quantity of materials for which the recycling coordinator is responsible. In some communities,…

  2. New approaches to recycling tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, R.


    Steel-belted radial tires are potentially one of the most recyclable products created by modern industry, although the potential has been barely tapped. Discarded tires pile up at an astonishing rate each year - 234 million in the US and 26 million passenger tire equivalents in Canada. They represent a mother lode of raw material waiting for modern day miners to transform them into recycled rubber, steel, fiber and energy. The tremendous increase in use of steel belted radials since the early 1970s has complicated their recyclability compared to the bias ply tire, but it has also accomplished waste reduction by tripling tire service life. Part one of this report describes processes being developed to convert tires to crumb rubber, as well as some potential uses of recycled rubber. Part two, to appear next month, will examine such uses as rubberized athletic tracks and highway asphalt.

  3. Ship recycling and marine pollution. (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Chiang; Wang, Nannan; Durak, Onur Sabri


    This paper discusses the historical background, structure and enforcement of the '2009 Hong Kong International Convention on the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships.' the 2009 Hong Kong Convention establishes control and enforcement instruments related to ship recycling, determining the control rights of Port States and the obligations of Flag States, Parties and recycling facilities under its jurisdiction. The Convention also controls the communication and exchange of information procedures, establishes a reporting system to be used upon the completion of recycling, and outlines an auditing system for detecting violations. The Convention, however, also contains some deficiencies. This paper concludes these deficiencies will eventually influence the final acceptance of this Convention by the international community.

  4. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.


    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  5. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower


    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  6. Coming or going? Un-BLOC-ing delivery and recycling pathways during melanosome maturation. (United States)

    Futter, Clare E; Cutler, Daniel F


    Melanosome biogenesis requires successive waves of cargo delivery from endosomes to immature melanosomes, coupled with recycling of the trafficking machinery. Dennis et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. report differential roles for BLOC-1 and BLOC-3 complexes in delivery and recycling of melanosomal biogenetic components, supplying directionality to melanosome maturation.

  7. Recycling of E-cadherin: a potential mechanism for regulating cadherin dynamics. (United States)

    Le, T L; Yap, A S; Stow, J L


    E-Cadherin plays critical roles in many aspects of cell adhesion, epithelial development, and the establishment and maintenance of epithelial polarity. The fate of E-cadherin once it is delivered to the basolateral cell surface, and the mechanisms which govern its participation in adherens junctions, are not well understood. Using surface biotinylation and recycling assays, we observed that some of the cell surface E-cadherin is actively internalized and is then recycled back to the plasma membrane. The pool of E-cadherin undergoing endocytosis and recycling was markedly increased in cells without stable cell-cell contacts, i.e., in preconfluent cells and after cell contacts were disrupted by depletion of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that endocytic trafficking of E-cadherin is regulated by cell-cell contact. The reformation of cell junctions after replacement of Ca2+ was then found to be inhibited when recycling of endocytosed E-cadherin was disrupted by bafilomycin treatment. The endocytosis and recycling of E-cadherin and of the transferrin receptor were similarly inhibited by potassium depletion and by bafilomycin treatment, and both proteins were accumulated in intracellular compartments by an 18 degrees C temperature block, suggesting that endocytosis may occur via a clathrin-mediated pathway. We conclude that a pool of surface E-cadherin is constantly trafficked through an endocytic, recycling pathway and that this may provide a mechanism for regulating the availability of E-cadherin for junction formation in development, tissue remodeling, and tumorigenesis.

  8. Odin (ANKS1A modulates EGF receptor recycling and stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefei Tong

    Full Text Available The ANKS1A gene product, also known as Odin, was first identified as a tyrosine-phosphorylated component of the epidermal growth factor receptor network. Here we show that Odin functions as an effector of EGFR recycling. In EGF-stimulated HEK293 cells tyrosine phosphorylation of Odin was induced prior to EGFR internalization and independent of EGFR-to-ERK signaling. Over-expression of Odin increased EGF-induced EGFR trafficking to recycling endosomes and recycling back to the cell surface, and decreased trafficking to lysosomes and degradation. Conversely, Odin knockdown in both HEK293 and the non-small cell lung carcinoma line RVH6849, which expresses roughly 10-fold more EGF receptors than HEK293, caused decreased EGFR recycling and accelerated trafficking to the lysosome and degradation. By governing the endocytic fate of internalized receptors, Odin may provide a layer of regulation that enables cells to contend with receptor cell densities and ligand concentration gradients that are physiologically and pathologically highly variable.

  9. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M


    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted

  10. Recycling of polymers: a review. (United States)

    Ignatyev, Igor A; Thielemans, Wim; Vander Beke, Bob


    Plastics are inexpensive, easy to mold, and lightweight. These and many other advantages make them very promising candidates for commercial applications. In many areas, they have substantially suppressed traditional materials. However, the problem of recycling still is a major challenge. There are both technological and economic issues that restrain the progress in this field. Herein, a state-of-art overview of recycling is provided together with an outlook for the future by using popular polymers such as polyolefins, poly(vinyl chloride), polyurethane, and poly(ethylene terephthalate) as examples. Different types of recycling, primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, and biological recycling, are discussed together with related issues, such as compatibilization and cross-linking. There are various projects in the European Union on research and application of these recycling approaches; selected examples are provided in this article. Their progress is mirrored by granted patents, most of which have a very limited scope and narrowly cover certain technologies. Global introduction of waste utilization techniques to the polymer market is currently not fully developed, but has an enormous potential.

  11. Specific recycling receptors are targeted to the immune synapse by the intraflagellar transport system. (United States)

    Finetti, Francesca; Patrussi, Laura; Masi, Giulia; Onnis, Anna; Galgano, Donatella; Lucherini, Orso Maria; Pazour, Gregory J; Baldari, Cosima T


    T cell activation requires sustained signaling at the immune synapse, a specialized interface with the antigen-presenting cell (APC) that assembles following T cell antigen receptor (TCR) engagement by major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-bound peptide. Central to sustained signaling is the continuous recruitment of TCRs to the immune synapse. These TCRs are partly mobilized from an endosomal pool by polarized recycling. We have identified IFT20, a component of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system that controls ciliogenesis, as a central regulator of TCR recycling to the immune synapse. Here, we have investigated the interplay of IFT20 with the Rab GTPase network that controls recycling. We found that IFT20 forms a complex with Rab5 and the TCR on early endosomes. IFT20 knockdown (IFT20KD) resulted in a block in the recycling pathway, leading to a build-up of recycling TCRs in Rab5(+) endosomes. Recycling of the transferrin receptor (TfR), but not of CXCR4, was disrupted by IFT20 deficiency. The IFT components IFT52 and IFT57 were found to act together with IFT20 to regulate TCR and TfR recycling. The results provide novel insights into the mechanisms that control TCR recycling and immune synapse assembly, and underscore the trafficking-related function of the IFT system beyond ciliogenesis.

  12. Recycling dodecylamine intercalated vanadate nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Odair P., E-mail:; Souza Filho, Antonio G., E-mail:; Alves, Oswaldo L., E-mail: oalves@iqm.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas-UNICAMP, LQES - Laboratorio de Quimica do Estado Solido, Instituto de Quimica (Brazil)


    In this article, we report the thermal decomposition processes of dodecylamine intercalated vanadate nanotubes and their recycling process. Structural, vibrational, and morphological properties of the annealed samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The data analysis unveiled that vanadate nanotubes (VONTs) decompose into nanoplates which is isostructural to xerogel, and finally to nanoparticle aggregates whose composition is a single V{sub 2}O{sub 5} bulk phase. These aggregates can be successfully recycled for converting the residues of decomposition process into vanadate nanotubes again.

  13. Clathrin-independent internalization and recycling. (United States)

    Gong, Qiang; Huntsman, Christopher; Ma, Dzwokai


    The functionality of receptor and channel proteins depends directly upon their expression level on the plasma membrane. Therefore, the ability to selectively adjust the surface level of a particular receptor or channel protein is pivotal to many cellular signaling events. The internalization and recycling pathway plays a major role in the regulation of protein surface level, and thus has been a focus of research for many years. Although several endocytic pathways have been identified, most of our knowledge has come from the clathrin-dependent pathway, while the other pathways remain much less well defined. Considering that clathrin-independent internalization may account for as much as 50% of the total endocytic activity in the cell, the lack of such knowledge constitutes a major gap in our efforts to understand how different internalization pathways are utilized and coordinated. Recent studies have provided valuable insights into this area, yet many more questions still remain. In this review, we will give a panoramic introduction to the current knowledge of various internalization and recycling pathways, with an emphasis on the latest findings that have broadened our view of the clathrin-independent pathways. We will also dedicate one section to the emerging studies of the clathrin-independent internalization pathways in neuronal cells.

  14. The Recycling Solution: How I Increased Recycling on Dilworth Road (United States)

    Keller, J. Jacob


    The grandson of Fred Keller, one of the founders of behavior analysis, Jacob was 10 years old when he conducted the project for his elementary school science fair. We recently contacted Jacob to learn more about his project. He told us the inspiration came from a class field trip to the county recycling center, which included seeing video footage…

  15. Complete kinetic mechanism for recycling of the bacterial ribosome. (United States)

    Borg, Anneli; Pavlov, Michael; Ehrenberg, Måns


    How EF-G and RRF act together to split a post-termination ribosomal complex into its subunits has remained obscure. Here, using stopped-flow experiments with Rayleigh light scattering detection and quench-flow experiments with radio-detection of GTP hydrolysis, we have clarified the kinetic mechanism of ribosome recycling and obtained precise estimates of its kinetic parameters. Ribosome splitting requires that EF-G binds to an already RRF-containing ribosome. EF-G binding to RRF-free ribosomes induces futile rounds of GTP hydrolysis and inhibits ribosome splitting, implying that while RRF is purely an activator of recycling, EF-G acts as both activator and competitive inhibitor of RRF in recycling of the post-termination ribosome. The ribosome splitting rate and the number of GTPs consumed per splitting event depend strongly on the free concentrations of EF-G and RRF. The maximal recycling rate, here estimated as 25 sec(-1), is approached at very high concentrations of EF-G and RRF with RRF in high excess over EF-G. The present in vitro results, suggesting an in vivo ribosome recycling rate of ∼5 sec(-1), are discussed in the perspective of rapidly growing bacterial cells.

  16. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue (United States)

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  17. Glioactive ATP controls BDNF recycling in cortical astrocytes (United States)

    Vignoli, Beatrice; Canossa, Marco


    ABSTRACT We have recently reported that long-term memory retention requires synaptic glia for proBDNF uptake and recycling. Through the recycling course, glial cells release endocytic BDNF, a mechanism that is activated in response to glutamate via AMPA and mGluRI/II receptors. Cortical astrocytes express receptors for many different transmitters suggesting for a complex signaling controlling endocytic BDNF secretion. Here, we demonstrated that the extracellular nucleotide ATP, activating P2X and P2Y receptors, regulates endocytic BDNF secretion in cultured astrocytes. Our data indicate that distinct glioactive molecules can participate in BDNF glial recycling and suggest that cortical astrocytes contributing to neuronal plasticity can be influenced by neurotransmitters in tune with synaptic needs.

  18. Experimental investigation of PV modules recycling; PV module recycle no jikkenteki kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unagida, H.; Kurokawa, K. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Sakuta, K.; Otani, K.; Murata, K. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)


    Recycling, cost/energy analysis and recovery experiment were made on crystalline silicon PV modules with EVA(ethylene vinyl acetate)-laminated structure. The life of modules is dependent not on performance deterioration of PV cells themselves but on yellowing or poor transmittance of EVA caused by ultraviolet ray, and disconnection between cells by thermal stress. Recovery is carried out in 3 stages of cell, wafer and material. Recovery in the stages of cell and wafer results in considerable reduction of energy and cost. The recovery experiment was carried out using PV module samples prepared by cutting the modules into 25times15mm pieces after removing Al frames from the used modules, peeling back sheets and cutting off EVA. Since a nitric acid process at 70-80degC can dissolve EVA effectively, it is promising for reuse of surface glass and PV cells as they are. This process is also carried out under a condition around room temperature and pressure, contributing to cost reduction and energy saving for recycling. Generation of harmful NOx is only a problem to be solved. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Continental moisture recycling as a Poisson process



    On their journey across large land masses, water molecules experience a number of precipitation-evaporation cycles (recycling events). We derive analytically the frequency distributions of recycling events for the water molecules contained in a given air parcel. Given the validity of certain simplifying assumptions, continental moisture recycling is shown to develop either into a Poisson distribution or a geometric distribution. We distinguish two cases: in case (A) recycling events a...

  20. Proceedings of the waste recycling workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, R.E.; Thomas, A.F.; Ries, M.A. [eds.] [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)


    Recorded are seventeen talks from five sessions at the workshop. FERMCO`s recycling program, state of the art recycling technology, and an integrated demonstration of deactivation, decommissioning and decommissioning are presented in the plenary session. In the concrete session, decontamination and recycling are discussed. In the transite session, regulations are considered along with recycling and decontamination. In the metals session, radioactive scrap metals are emphasized. And in the regulatory considerations and liabilities session, DOE and EPA viewpoints are discussed. (GHH)

  1. Recycling at Penn State's Beaver Stadium. "Recycle on the Go" Success Story (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009


    With a 13-year-old recycling program, The Pennsylvania State University's (Penn State) Beaver Stadium in the past diverted nearly 30 tons of recyclables per year from local landfills. A new initiative to promote recycling in the stadium's tailgating area has helped Penn State more than triple its old recycling record, collecting 112 tons in 2008.…

  2. The chemical recycle of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Beyer Schuch


    Full Text Available The chemical recycle of cotton textiles and/or other cellulosic materials for the purpose of manufacturing regenerated high quality textiles fibres is a novel process. The objective of related research is based on the forecast of population growth, on resource scarcity predictions, and on the negative environmental impact of the textile industry. These facts lead the need of broadening the scope for long-term textile-to-textile recycle - as the mechanical recycle of natural fibres serve for limited number of cycles, still depends on input of virgin material, and offer a reduced-in-quality output. Critical analysis of scientific papers, relevant related reports, and personal interviews were the base of this study, which shows viable results in laboratorial scale of using low-quality cellulosic materials as input for the development of high-quality regenerated textile fibres though ecological chemical process. Nevertheless, to scale up and implement this innovative recycle method, other peripheral structures are requested, such as recover schemes or appropriate sort, for instance. Further researches should also be considered in regards to colours and impurities.

  3. Chemical recycling of scrap composites (United States)

    Allred, Ronald E.; Salas, Richard M.


    There are no well-developed technologies for recycling composite materials other than grinding to produce fillers. New approaches are needed to reclaim these valuable resources. Chemical or tertiary recycling, conversion of polymers into low molecular weight hydrocarbons for reuse as chemicals or fuels, is emerging as the most practical means for obtaining value from waste plastics and composites. Adherent Technologies is exploring a low-temperature catalytic process for recycling plastics and composites. Laboratory results show that all types of plastics, thermosets as well as thermoplastics, can be converted in high yields to valuable hydrocarbon products. This novel catalytic process runs at 200 C, conversion times are rapid, the process is closed and, thus, nonpolluting, and no highly toxic gas or liquid products have been observed so no negative environmental impact will result from its implementation. Tests on reclamation of composite materials show that epoxy, imide, and engineering thermoplastic matrices can be converted to low molecular weight hydrocarbons leaving behind the reinforcing fibers for reuse as composite reinforcements in secondary, lower-performance applications. Chemical recycling is also a means to dispose of sensitive or classified organic materials without incineration and provides a means to eliminate or reduce mixed hazardous wastes containing organic materials.

  4. Textile Recycling, Convenience, and the Older Adult. (United States)

    Domina, Tanya; Koch, Kathryn


    Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of older adults (n=217) indicated that older adults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile…

  5. Recycling in Schools: From Fad to Business. (United States)

    Porter, J. Winston


    Numerous business issues arise when organizing a school recycling program. Important questions include the appropriate program organization, deciding what materials to recycle, the selection of appropriate business partners, and various financial issues. Offers suggestions for achieving a successful recycling program. (MLF)

  6. 78 FR 69531 - America Recycles Day, 2013 (United States)


    ... Second World Wars, Americans showed their patriotism by participating in scrap drives and salvage... our health and harm our environment if not recycled properly. Recycling not only reduces pollution... the world around us. In our homes, offices, and schools, let us strive to make recycling a part of...

  7. Sustainability issues in circuit board recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech; Alting, Leo; Baldo, Gian Luca


    The resource recovery and environmental impact issues of printed circuit board recycling by secondary copper smelters are discussed. Guidelines concerning material selection for circuit board manufacture and concerning the recycling processes are given to enhance recovery efficiency and to lower...... the impacts on the external environment from recycling...

  8. Coupling of permeabilized microorganisms for efficient enantioselective reduction of ketone with cofactor recycling. (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Witholt, Bernard; Li, Zhi


    A novel, simple and efficient cofactor recycling method for enantioselective bioreduction has been developed by the use of permeabilized cells of a reductase-containing microorganism and a glucose dehydrogenase-containing microorganism

  9. Recycling Trends in the Plastics Manufacturing and Recycling Companies in Malaysia (United States)

    Wahab, D. A.; Abidin, A.; Azhari, C. H.

    This study presents the findings from a study on the consumption of recycled materials and recycling practices in the plastics manufacturing industry and recycling companies in Malaysia. The findings were obtained from a survey conducted in twenty plastic manufacturing companies and detailed case studies in three recycling companies. The survey conducted in the plastic manufacturing companies` shows that the consumption rate for poly-olefins (PP and PE) is the highest among the resin types and the industrial sector that consumes the most plastic materials is the electrical and electronics sector. The consumption of recycled materials is high among the local manufacturing companies (80%) which are largely due to cost savings; about 20% of these companies conducted in-house recycling. The study has also shown that the medium scale industry consumes the most recycled materials as compared to the large and small scale industry. The rate of disposal for plastic materials in the local industry is approximately 5%. The detailed case studies conducted in the recycling companies have successfully identified the main processes involved in plastic recycling namely manual sorting, cleaning, drying, meshing/pelletising and packaging. These recycling companies obtained recycled materials from various sources including industrial scrap, dumping sites, local producers as well as imported sources. Pricing of recycled materials were based on classification according to grade and quality of the recycled materials. The study has reflected the extent of in-house recycling trends in the local plastic manufacturing companies and their dependency on the supply from the local recycling companies.

  10. Some Problems of Recycling Industrial Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jiu-ju; LU Zhong-wu; YUE Qiang


    The industrial system should learn from the natural ecosystem.The resource utilization efficiency should be increased and the environmental load should be decreased,depending on the materials recycled in the system.The classification of industrial materials from the viewpoint of large-scale recycling was stated.Recycling of materials,on three different levels,was introduced in the industrial system.The metal flow diagram in the life cycle of products,in the case of no materials recycled,materials partially recycled,and materials completely recycled,was given.The natural resource conservation and the waste emission reduction were analyzed under the condition of materials completely recycled.The expressions for the relation between resource efficiency and material recycling rate,and the relation between eco-effieiency and material recycling rate were derived,and the curves describing the relationship between them were protracted.The diagram of iron flow in the life cycle of iron and steel products in China,in 2001,was given,and the iron resource efficiency,material recycling rate,and iron coo-efficiency were analyzed.The variation of iron resource efficiency with the material recycling rate was analyzed for two different production ratios.

  11. Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase/VPS34 and dynamin are critical for apical endocytic recycling. (United States)

    Carpentier, Sarah; N'Kuli, Francisca; Grieco, Giuseppina; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; Janssens, Virginie; Emonard, Hervé; Bilanges, Benoît; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart; Gaide Chevronnay, Héloïse P; Pierreux, Christophe E; Tyteca, Donatienne; Courtoy, Pierre J


    Recycling is a limiting step for receptor-mediated endocytosis. We first report three in vitro or in vivo evidences that class III PI3K/VPS34 is the key PI3K isoform regulating apical recycling. A substractive approach, comparing in Opossum Kidney (OK) cells a pan-class I/II/III PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) with a class I/II PI3K inhibitor (ZSTK474), suggested that class III PI3K/VPS34 inhibition induced selective apical endosome swelling and sequestration of the endocytic receptor, megalin/LRP-2, causing surface down-regulation. GFP-(FYVE)x2 overexpression to sequester PI(3)P caused undistinguishable apical endosome swelling. In mouse kidney proximal tubular cells, conditional Vps34 inactivation also led to vacuolation and intracellular megalin redistribution. We next report that removal of LY294002 from LY294002-treated OK cells induced a spectacular burst of recycling tubules and restoration of megalin surface pool. Acute triggering of recycling tubules revealed recruitment of dynamin-GFP and dependence of dynamin-GTPase, guidance directionality by microtubules, and suggested that a microfilamentous net constrained endosomal swelling. We conclude that (i) besides its role in endosome fusion, PI3K-III is essential for endosome fission/recycling; and (ii) besides its role in endocytic entry, dynamin also supports tubulation of recycling endosomes. The unleashing of recycling upon acute reversal of PI3K inhibition may help study its dynamics and associated machineries.

  12. Photoactivation approaches reveal a role for Rab11 in FGFR4 recycling and signalling. (United States)

    Haugsten, Ellen M; Brech, Andreas; Liestøl, Knut; Norman, Jim C; Wesche, Jørgen


    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) plays important roles during development and in the adult to maintain tissue homeostasis. Moreover, overexpression of FGFR4 or activating mutations in FGFR4 has been identified as tumour-promoting events in several forms of cancer. Endocytosis is important for regulation of signalling receptors and we have previously shown that FGFR4 is mainly localized to transferrin-positive structures after ligand-induced endocytosis. Here, using a cell line with a defined pericentriolar endocytic recycling compartment, we show that FGFR4 accumulates in this compartment after endocytosis. Furthermore, using classical recycling assays and a new, photoactivatable FGFR4-PA-GFP fusion protein combined with live-cell imaging, we demonstrate that recycling of FGFR4 is dependent on Rab11. Upon Rab11b depletion, FGFR4 is trapped in the pericentriolar recycling compartment and the total levels of FGFR4 in cells are increased. Moreover, fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1)-induced autophosphorylation of FGFR4 as well as phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)-γ is prolonged in cells depleted of Rab11. Interestingly, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and AKT pathways were not prolonged but rather reduced in Rab11-depleted cells, indicating that recycling of FGFR4 is important for the nature of its signalling output. Thus, Rab11-dependent recycling of FGFR4 maintains proper levels of FGFR4 in cells and regulates FGF1-induced FGFR4 signalling.

  13. Investigating why recycling gravity harvested algae increases harvestability and productivity in high rate algal ponds. (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N


    It has previously been shown that recycling gravity harvested algae promotes Pediastrum boryanum dominance and improves harvestability and biomass production in pilot-scale High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs) treating domestic wastewater. In order to confirm the reproducibility of these findings and investigate the mechanisms responsible, this study utilized twelve 20 L outdoor HRAP mesocosms operated with and without algal recycling. It then compared the recycling of separated solid and liquid components of the harvested biomass against un-separated biomass. The work confirmed that algal recycling promoted P. boryanum dominance, improved 1 h-settleability by >20% and increased biomass productivity by >25% compared with controls that had no recycling. With regard to the improved harvestability, of particular interest was that recycling the liquid fraction alone caused a similar improvement in settleability as recycling the solid fraction. This may be due to the presence of extracellular polymeric substances in the liquid fraction. While there are many possible mechanisms that could account for the increased productivity with algal recycling, all but two were systematically eliminated: (i) the mean cell residence time was extended thereby increasing the algal concentration and more fully utilizing the incident sunlight and, (ii) the relative proportions of algal growth stages (which have different specific growth rates) was changed, resulting in a net increase in the overall growth rate of the culture.

  14. Yeast suspension filtration: Flux enhancement using an upward gas/liquid slug flow -- Application to continuous alcoholic fermentation with cell recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercier, M.; Maranges, C.; Fonade, C.; Lafforgue-Delorme, C. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees, Toulouse (France). Centre de Bioingenierie Gilbert Durand


    This study deals with the use of an upward gas/liquid slug flow to reduce tubular mineral membrane fouling. The injection of air into the feedstream is designed to create hydrodynamic conditions that destabilize the cake layer over the membrane surface inside the filtration module complex. Experimental study was carried out by filtering a biological suspension (yeast) through different tubular mineral membranes. The effects of operating parameters, including the nature of the membrane, liquid and gas flowrates, and transmembrane pressure, were examined. When external fouling was the main limiting phenomenon, flux enhancements of a factor of three could be achieved was gas sparging compared with single liquid phase crossflow filtration. The economic benefits of this unsteady technique have also been examined. To investigate the possibility of long-term operation of the two-phase flow principle, dense cell perfusion cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were carried out in a fermentor coupled with an ultrafiltration module. The air injection allowed a high and stable flux to be maintained over 100 h of fermentation, with a final cell concentration of 150 g dry weight/L. At equal biomass level, a twofold gain in flux could be attained compared with classical steady crossflow filtration at half the cost.

  15. Life cycle and textiles recycling



    Within the vision of development of European textile and clothing industry for 2020 from the standpoint of the European Technology Platform (ETP), the paper analyzes a segment which includes life cycle and recycling of textiles. It is the fact that the complexity of new textile and clothing product has caused the development of new-higher standards. For this reason in development of highly innovative products, today is included also quality assurance during his whole life cycle starting from ...

  16. Sorting Techniques for Plastics Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper presents the basic principles of three different types of separating methods and a general guideline for choosing the most effective method for sorting plastic mixtures. It also presents the results of the tests carried out for separation of PVC, ABS and PET from different kinds of plastic mixtures in order to improve the grade of the raw input used in mechanical or feedstock recycling.

  17. Comparison of recycling outcomes in three types of recycling collection units. (United States)

    Andrews, Ashley; Gregoire, Mary; Rasmussen, Heather; Witowich, Gretchen


    Commercial institutions have many factors to consider when implementing an effective recycling program. This study examined the effectiveness of three different types of recycling bins on recycling accuracy by determining the percent weight of recyclable material placed in the recycling bins, comparing the percent weight of recyclable material by type of container used, and examining whether a change in signage increased recycling accuracy. Data were collected over 6 weeks totaling 30 days from 3 different recycling bin types at a Midwest University medical center. Five bin locations for each bin type were used. Bags from these bins were collected, sorted into recyclable and non-recyclable material, and weighed. The percent recyclable material was calculated using these weights. Common contaminates found in the bins were napkins and paper towels, plastic food wrapping, plastic bags, and coffee cups. The results showed a significant difference in percent recyclable material between bin types and bin locations. Bin type 2 was found to have one bin location to be statistically different (p=0.048), which may have been due to lack of a trash bin next to the recycling bin in that location. Bin type 3 had significantly lower percent recyclable material (precycling bin and increased contamination due to the combination of commingled and paper into one bag. There was no significant change in percent recyclable material in recycling bins post signage change. These results suggest a signage change may not be an effective way, when used alone, to increase recycling compliance and accuracy. This study showed two or three-compartment bins located next to a trash bin may be the best bin type for recycling accuracy.

  18. Thermo-economic modeling of a solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine power plant with semi-direct coupling and anode recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheddie, Denver F. [Center for Energy Studies, University of Trinidad and Tobago, Point Lisas Campus, Esperanza Road, Brechin Castle, Couva (Trinidad and Tobago); Tobago; Murray, Renique [Natural Gas Institute of the Americas, University of Trinidad and Tobago, Point Lisas Campus, Esperanza Road, Brechin Castle, Couva (Trinidad and Tobago); Tobago


    Power generation using gas turbine (GT) power plants operating on the Brayton cycle suffers from low efficiencies, resulting in poor fuel to power conversion. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is proposed for integration into a 10 MW gas turbine power plant, operating at 30% efficiency in order to improve system efficiencies and economics. The SOFC system is semi-directly coupled to the gas turbine power plant, with careful attention paid to minimize the disruption to the GT operation. A thermo-economic model is developed for the hybrid power plant, and predicts an optimized power output of 21.6 MW at 49.2% efficiency. The model also predicts a breakeven per-unit energy cost of USD 4.70 cents /kWh for the hybrid system based on futuristic mass generation SOFC costs. Results show that SOFCs can be semi-directly integrated into existing GT power systems to improve their thermodynamic and economic performance. (author)

  19. Immobilization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in mesoporous silica-based material: An efficiency continuous cell-recycle fermentation system for lactic acid production. (United States)

    Zhao, Zijian; Xie, Xiaona; Wang, Zhi; Tao, Yanchun; Niu, Xuedun; Huang, Xuri; Liu, Li; Li, Zhengqiang


    Lactic acid bacteria immobilization methods have been widely used for lactic acid production. Until now, the most common immobilization matrix used is calcium alginate. However, Ca-alginate gel disintegrated during lactic acid fermentation. To overcome this deficiency, we developed an immobilization method in which Lactobacillus rhamnosus cells were successfully encapsulated into an ordered mesoporous silica-based material under mild conditions with a high immobilization efficiency of 78.77% by using elemental analysis. We also optimized the cultivation conditions of the immobilized L. rhamnosus and obtained a high glucose conversion yield of 92.4%. Furthermore, L. rhamnosus encapsulated in mesoporous silica-based material exhibited operational stability during repeated fermentation processes and no decrease in lactic acid production up to 8 repeated batches.

  20. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.


    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  1. Endosomal recycling controls plasma membrane area during mitosis. (United States)

    Boucrot, Emmanuel; Kirchhausen, Tomas


    The shape and total surface of a cell and its daughters change during mitosis. Many cells round up during prophase and metaphase and reacquire their extended and flattened shape during cytokinesis. How does the total area of plasma membrane change to accommodate these morphological changes and by what mechanism is control of total membrane area achieved? Using single-cell imaging methods, we have found that the amount of plasma membrane in attached cells in culture decreases at the beginning of mitosis and recovers rapidly by the end. Clathrin-based endocytosis is normal throughout all phases of cell division, whereas recycling of internalized membranes back to the cell surface slows considerably during the rounding up period and resumes at the time at which recovery of cell membrane begins. Interference with either one of these processes by genetic or chemical means impairs cell division. The total cell-membrane area recovers even in the absence of a functional Golgi apparatus, which would be needed for export of newly synthesized membrane lipids and proteins. We propose a mechanism by which modulation of endosomal recycling controls cell area and surface expression of membrane-bound proteins during cell division.

  2. Plutonium and Minor Actinides Recycling in Standard BWR using Equilibrium Burnup Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waris


    Full Text Available Plutonium (Pu and minor actinides (MA recycling in standard BWR with equilibrium burnup model has been studied. We considered the equilibrium burnup model as a simple time independent burnup method, which can manage all possible produced nuclides in any nuclear system. The equilibrium burnup code was bundled with a SRAC cell-calculation code to become a coupled cell-burnup calculation code system. The results show that the uranium enrichment for the criticality of the reactor, the amount of loaded fuel and the required natural uranium supply per year decrease for the Pu recycling and even much lower for the Pu & MA recycling case compared to those of the standard once-through BWR case. The neutron spectra become harder with the increasing number of recycled heavy nuclides in the reactor core. The total fissile rises from 4.77% of the total nuclides number density in the reactor core for the standard once-through BWR case to 6.64% and 6.72% for the Plutonium recycling case and the Pu & MA recycling case, respectively. The two later data may become the main basis why the required uranium enrichment declines and consequently diminishes the annual loaded fuel and the required natural uranium supply. All these facts demonstrate the advantage of plutonium and minor actinides recycling in BWR.

  3. The recycling industries : a Canadian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, L. [CARI, Almonte, ON (Canada); Lakshmanan, V.I. [Ortech International, Mississauga, ON (Canada)


    The economic and environmental benefits that the recycling sector has to offer in terms of resource conservation benefits was discussed with particular focus on the synergies that exist between major mining and metallurgical industries and end users. The main objective of recycling is to conserve natural resources, reducing primary process waste as well as air and water effluent generated by these processes. Recycling provides energy conservation, creates jobs and reduces the demand for sanitary landfills. The main concerns that exist within the recycling industry is the government's actions through laws, regulations and taxes which sometimes discourage recycling. The need for the public to become more informed about the benefits of recycling was emphasized. It was also noted that manufacturers should consider the final disposition of a product in their product design and manufacture. 1 tab.

  4. Recyclability of PET from virgin resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancini Sandro Donnini


    Full Text Available Bottle grade virgin PET (polyethylene terephthalate resin was investigated through five consecutive injection molding steps to simulate recycling cycles. Tests were carried out after each recycling to evaluate degradation, crystallinity (by density and Differential Scanning Calorimetry-DSC measurements, hardness, and tensile and flexural properties. Consecutive recycling resulted in cumulative chain breaks caused by the material's contact with degrading agents such as temperature, oxygen, mechanical stresses, light, and water. In the fifth recycling step, for example, the number of carboxylic end groups, an indicator of the extent of chain-break, tripled in comparison to the initial molecule. The smaller chains that were formed fit more easily among the larger ones, thus increasing the percentage of crystalline phase in the structure. These two changes in the polymer's structure explained the recycled products' final properties, i.e., the injected samples became progressively harder and more fragile in each recycling step.

  5. Carbon Revenue Recycling - Opportunities and Challenges


    Elena Simonova; Rock Lefebvre


    Environmental policy instruments that generate budget revenues may become an increasingly attractive policy option for Canada's federal government due to amplified fiscal pressures. If that is the case, revenue recycling is an essential element of pricing carbon. This paper present a brief overview of benefits of recycling carbon revenues and the challenges that may be encountered when choosing a specific option for revenue recycling. The analysis shows that the existing research leaves the o...

  6. Continental moisture recycling as a Poisson process



    On their journey over large land masses, water molecules experience a number of precipitation–evaporation cycles (recycling events). We derive analytically the frequency distributions of recycling events for the water molecules contained in a given air parcel. Given the validity of certain simplifying assumptions, the frequency distribution of recycling events is shown to develop either into a Poisson distribution or a geometric distribution. We distingu...

  7. Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with Power Recycling and Twin Signal Recycling cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Gräf, Christian; Vahlbruch, Henning; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman


    The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled. In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michel...

  8. Recycling probability and dynamical properties of germinal center reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer-Hermann, M; Or-Guil, M; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Deutsch, Andreas; Or-Guil, Michal


    We introduce a new model for the dynamics of centroblasts and centrocytes in a germinal center. The model reduces the germinal center reaction to the elements considered as essential and embeds proliferation of centroblasts, point mutations of the corresponding antibody types represented in a shape space, differentiation to centrocytes, selection with respect to initial antigens, differentiation of positively selected centrocytes to plasma or memory cells and recycling of centrocytes to centroblasts. We use exclusively parameters with a direct biological interpretation such that, once determined by experimental data, the model gains predictive power. Based on the experiment of Han et al.(1995) we predict that a high rate of recycling of centrocytes to centroblasts is necessary for the germinal center reaction to work reliably. Furthermore, we find a delayed start of the production of plasma and memory cells with respect to the start of point mutations, which turns to be necessary for the optimization process ...

  9. Thorium-U Recycle Facility (7930) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thorium-U Recycle Facility (7930), along with the Transuranic Processing Facility (7920). comprise the Radiochemical Engineering Development Complex. 7930 is a...

  10. Gold recycling; a materials flow study (United States)

    Amey, Earle B.


    This materials flow study includes a description of trends in consumption, loss, and recycling of gold-containing materials in the United States in 1998 in order to illustrate the extent to which gold is presently being recycled and to identify recycling trends. The quantity of gold recycled, as a percent of the apparent supply of gold, was estimated to be about 30 percent. Of the approximately 446 metric tons of gold refined in the United States in 1998, the fabricating and industrial use losses were 3 percent.

  11. Public Perception of Strategies for Increasing Participation in Recycling Programs. (United States)

    Nyamwange, Monica


    Assesses public perception of selected strategies for increasing participation in city recycling programs: increasing the level of knowledge about recycling, using effective channels to inform the community about recycling, increasing the convenience of recycling by placing recycling containers in accessible locations, and getting input from the…

  12. Sorting Recycled Trash: An Activity for Earth Day 2007 (United States)

    Harris, Mary E.; Harris, Harold H.


    Middle or high school students celebrate Earth Day on April 22, 2007 by participating in the activity to separate commingled recyclable trash to simulate sorting in a recycling center. Students would gain an appreciation for recyclable trash, after it is taken to a recycling center and learn about properties of recyclables.

  13. An Investigation on Thermal Recycling of Recycled Plastic Resin (United States)

    Yamakita, Ryuji; Miura, Katsuya; Ishino, Yojiro; Ohiwa, Norio

    Thermal recycling of recycled plastic resin is focused in this investigation. Fine grinding of plastic resin and preparation of high temperature oxidizing atmosphere are indispensable for effective and successful burn-up of plastic resin. Polyethylene terephthalate resin powder is employed and high temperature oxidizing atmosphere is generated downstream an annular burner. Through a circular nozzle set coaxially in the closed bottom end of the annular burner, PET-powder and propane-air mixture are issued vertically upward into the high temperature oxidizing atmosphere. Temperature and O2 concentration fields downstream the annular burner are first examined by varying the circular jet equivalence ratio with the air flow rate kept constant and without PET-powder supply. PET-powder having a mass-median diameter of either 89.7µm or 145µm is then issued into the high temperature region along with propane-air mixture by varying the PET-powder mass flow rate. Appearances of the PET-powder flame are observed using a high-speed CCD video camera and unburnt PET particles are traced during their passages in the high temperature region. Variation of O2 concentration fields due to PET-powder combustion is also measured in the PET flame. According to the results, overall limit conditions for effective burn-up of PET-powder are finally discussed.

  14. Zircon Recycling in Arc Intrusions (United States)

    Miller, J.; Barth, A.; Matzel, J.; Wooden, J.; Burgess, S.


    Recycling of zircon has been well established in arc intrusions and arc volcanoes, but a better understanding of where and how zircons are recycled can help illuminate how arc magma systems are constructed. To that end, we are conducting age, trace element (including Ti-in-zircon temperatures; TzrnTi) and isotopic studies of zircons from the Late Cretaceous (95-85 Ma) Tuolumne Intrusive Suite (TIS) in the Sierra Nevada Batholith (CA). Within the TIS zircons inherited from ancient basement sources and/or distinctly older host rocks are uncommon, but recycled zircon antecrysts from earlier periods of TIS-related magmatism are common and conspicuous in the inner and two most voluminous units of the TIS, the Half Dome and Cathedral Peak Granodiorites. All TIS units have low bulk Zr ([Zr]825°C), [Zr] in the TIS is a factor of 2 to 3 lower than saturation values. Low [Zr] in TIS rocks might be attributed to a very limited supply of zircon in the source, by disequilibrium melting and rapid melt extraction [1], by melting reactions involving formation of other phases that can incorporate appreciable Zr [2], or by removal of zircon at an earlier stage of magma evolution. Based on a preliminary compilation of literature data, low [Zr] is common to Late Cretaceous N.A. Cordilleran granodioritic/tonalitic intrusions (typically Tzrnsat [3]. A corollary is that slightly older zircon antecrysts that are common in the inner units of the TIS could be considered inherited if they are derived from remelting of slightly older intrusions. Remelting at such low temperatures in the arc would require a source of external water. Refs: [1] Sawyer, J.Pet 32:701-738; [2] Fraser et al, Geology 25:607-610; [3] Harrison et al, Geology 35:635- 638

  15. Recycling and Remanufacturing in Input-Output Models


    Randall Jackson; Taelim Choi; Nancey Green Leigh


    Recycling and remanufacturing activities are gaining in importance, as a growing population and economy use up and wear out modern products, exhaust landfill capacity, threaten the environment, and discard potentially valuable and increasingly scarce resources. As an example, an estimated five billion pounds of carpet were sent to landfills in 2003 (CARE, 2003). Likewise, Americans discard computers, cell phones, LCDs and other electronic devices at an alarming rate. Estimates range from 100 ...

  16. Integrated Recycling Test Fuel Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.S. Fielding; K.H. Kim; B. Grover; J. Smith; J. King; K. Wendt; D. Chapman; L. Zirker


    The Integrated Recycling Test is a collaborative irradiation test that will electrochemically recycle used light water reactor fuel into metallic fuel feedstock. The feedstock will be fabricated into a metallic fast reactor type fuel that will be irradiation tested in a drop in capsule test in the Advanced Test Reactor on the Idaho National Laboratory site. This paper will summarize the fuel fabrication activities and design efforts. Casting development will include developing a casting process and system. The closure welding system will be based on the gas tungsten arc burst welding process. The settler/bonder system has been designed to be a simple system which provides heating and controllable impact energy to ensure wetting between the fuel and cladding. The final major pieces of equipment to be designed are the weld and sodium bond inspection system. Both x-radiography and ultrasonic inspection techniques have been examine experimentally and found to be feasible, however the final remote system has not been designed. Conceptual designs for radiography and an ultrasonic system have been made.

  17. Recycling of Rare Earth Elements (United States)

    Lorenz, Tom; Bertau, Martin


    Any development of an effective process for rare earth (RE) recycling has become more and more challenging, especially in recent years. Since 2011, when commodity prices of REs had met their all-time maximum, prices have dropped rapidly by more than 90 %. An economic process able to offset these fluctuations has to take unconventional methods into account beside well-known strategies like acid/basic leaching or solvent extraction. The solid-state chlorination provides such an unconventional method for mobilizing RE elements from waste streams. Instead of hydrochloric acid this kind of chlorination decomposes NH4Cl thermally to release up to 400 °C hot HCl gas. After cooling the resulting solid metal chlorides may be easily dissolved in pH-adjusted water. Without producing strongly acidic wastes and with NH4Cl as cheap source for hydrogen chloride, solid-state chlorination provides various advantages in terms of costs and disposal. In the course of the SepSELSA project this method was examined, adjusted and optimized for RE recycling from fluorescent lamp scraps as well as Fe14Nd2B magnets. Thereby many surprising influences and trends required various analytic methods to examine the reasons and special mechanisms behind them.

  18. Recycling of typical supercapacitor materials. (United States)

    Vermisoglou, Eleni C; Giannouri, Maria; Todorova, Nadia; Giannakopoulou, Tatiana; Lekakou, Constantina; Trapalis, Christos


    A simple, facile and low-cost method for recycling of supercapacitor materials is proposed. This process aims to recover some fundamental components of a used supercapacitor, namely the electrolyte salt tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4) dissolved in an aprotic organic solvent such as acetonitrile (ACN), the carbonaceous material (activated charcoal, carbon nanotubes) purified, the current collector (aluminium foil) and the separator (paper) for further utilization. The method includes mechanical shredding of the supercapacitor in order to reduce its size, and separation of aluminium foil and paper from the carbonaceous resources containing TEABF4 by sieving. The extraction of TEABF4 from the carbonaceous material was based on its solubility in water and subsequent separation through filtering and distillation. A cyclic voltammetry curve of the recycled carbonaceous material revealed supercapacitor behaviour allowing a potential reutilization. Furthermore, as BF4(-) stemming from TEABF4 can be slowly hydrolysed in an aqueous environment, thus releasing F(-) anions, which are hazardous, we went on to their gradual trapping with calcium acetate and conversion to non-hazardous CaF2.

  19. Chemical solutions for greywater recycling. (United States)

    Pidou, Marc; Avery, Lisa; Stephenson, Tom; Jeffrey, Paul; Parsons, Simon A; Liu, Shuming; Memon, Fayyaz A; Jefferson, Bruce


    Greywater recycling is now accepted as a sustainable solution to the general increase of the fresh water demand, water shortages and for environment protection. However, the majority of the suggested treatments are biological and such technologies can be affected, especially at small scale, by the variability in strength and flow of the greywater and potential shock loading. This investigation presents the study of alternative processes, coagulation and magnetic ion exchange resin, for the treatment of greywater for reuse. The potential of these processes as well as the influence of parameters such as coagulant or resin dose, pH or contact time were investigated for the treatment of two greywaters of low and high organic strengths. The results obtained revealed that magnetic ion exchange resin and coagulation were suitable treatment solutions for low strength greywater sources. However, they were unable to achieve the required level of treatment for the reuse of medium to high strength greywaters. Consequently, these processes could only be considered as an option for greywater recycling in specific conditions that is to say in case of low organic strength greywater or less stringent standards for reuse.

  20. Fermilab Recycler Collimation System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B. C. [Fermilab; Adamson, P. [Fermilab; Ainsworth, R. [Fermilab; Capista, D. [Fermilab; Hazelwood, K. [Fermilab; Kourbanis, I. [Fermilab; Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Morris, D. K. [Fermilab; Murphy, M. [Fermilab; Sidorov, V. [Fermilab; Stern, E. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. [Fermilab; Yang, M-J. [Fermilab


    To provide 700 kW proton beams for neutrino production in the NuMI facility, we employ slip stacking in the Recycler with transfer to the Main Injector for recapture and acceleration. Slip stacking with 12 Booster batches per 1.33 sec cycle of the Main Injector has been implemented and briefly tested while extensive operation with 8 batches and 10 batches per MI cycle has been demonstrated. Operation in this mode since 2013 shows that loss localization is an essential component for long term operation. Beam loss in the Recycler will be localized in a collimation region with design capability for absorbing up to 2 kW of lost protons in a pair of 20-Ton collimators (absorbers). This system will employ a two stage collimation with a thin molybdenum scattering foil to define the bottom edge of both the injected and decelerated-for-slipping beams. Optimization and engineering design of the collimator components and radiation shielding are based on comprehensive MARS15 simulations predicting high collimation efficiency as well as tolerable levels of prompt and residual radiation. The system installation during the Fermilab 2016 facility shutdown will permit commissioning in the subsequent operating period.

  1. Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling: Practices and Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohajeri, M.


    Hot mix asphalt recycling has become common practice all over the world since the 1970s because of the crisis in oil prices. In the Netherlands, hot recycling has advanced to such an extent that in most of the mixtures more than 50% of reclaimed asphalt (RA) is allowed. These mixtures with such a hi

  2. Recycling Today Makes for a Better Tomorrow. (United States)

    Raze, Robert E., Jr.


    Today's children must be educated about solid waste management and recycling to reduce the amount of waste that goes into landfills. The article describes what can be recycled (newspapers, corrugated cardboard, paper, glass, aluminum, textiles, motor oil, organic wastes, appliances, steel cans, and plastics). It also lists student environment…

  3. Greenelec: Product design linked to recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkenende, R.; Occhionorelli, V.; Van Meensel, W.; Felix, J.; Sjölin, S.; Aerts, M.; Huisman, J.; Becker, J.; Van Schaik, A.; Reuter, M.


    GreenElec aims to significantly improve on the resource efficiency of electronics and electronic products. This is accomplished by close cooperation between manufacturers and recyclers. Design guidelines for improved recycling have been formulated and products (lamps and displays) have been redesign

  4. Rubber Recycling: Chemistry, Processing, and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myhre, M.; Saiwari, S.; Dierkes, W.K.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.


    For both environmental and economic reasons, there is broad interest in recycling rubber and in the continued development of recycling technologies. The use of postindustrial materials is a fairly well-established and documented business. Much effort over the past decade has been put into dealing wi


    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  6. Recycled Pulsars: Spins, Masses and Ages

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, Thomas M


    Recycled pulsars are mainly characterized by their spin periods, B-fields and masses. All these quantities are affected by previous interactions with a companion star in a binary system. Therefore, we can use these quantities as fossil records and learn about binary evolution. Here, I briefly review the distribution of these observed quantities and summarize our current understanding of the pulsar recycling process.

  7. Sustainability and the Recycling of Words (United States)

    Miller, Donna L.; Nilsen, Alleen Pace


    With the mention of "sustainability" and "recycling," most people think about reusing paper, plastic, metal, and glass, but what the authors discovered when they embarked on a word-study unit is that the sustainability movement has also brought about the recycling of words. The authors were team-teaching a language awareness class taken by…

  8. Recycling from endosomes to the plasma membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, E.M. van


    Summary V Chapter?Summary Many membrane proteins are, after endocytic uptake, efficiently recycled back to the plasma membrane. The aim of the studies presented in this thesis was to determine pathways and molecular mechanisms that are involved in recycling. Plasma membrane-derived clathrin-coated v

  9. India's ship recycling trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Athanasopoulou, V.


    The special nature of India's steel industry lends particular importance to ship recycling as a source of scrap. Ship recycling in upgraded 'green' facilities can substitute other 'dirty' ironmaking processes, resulting in energy savings and air pollutant emission reductions for the Indian steel sec

  10. Non-Recycled Pulsars in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, Ryan S; Lorimer, Duncan R; Mnatsakanov, Robert; Turk, Philip J; Ransom, Scott M


    We place limits on the population of non-recycled pulsars originating in globular clusters through Monte Carlo simulations and frequentist statistical techniques. We set upper limits on the birth rates of non-recycled cluster pulsars and predict how many may remain in the clusters, and how many may escape the cluster potentials and enter the field of the Galaxy.

  11. Recycling of WEEE by magnetic density separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, B.; Giacometti, L.; Di Maio, F.; Rem, P.C.


    The paper introduces a new recycling method of WEEE: Magnetic Density Separation. By using this technology, both grade and recovery rate of recycled products are over 90%. Good separations are not only observed in relatively big WEEE samples, but also in samples with smaller sizes or electrical wire

  12. Phosphate recycling in the phosphorus industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, W.J.; Klapwijk, A.; Potjer, A.; Rulkens, W.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Kiestra, F.D.G.; Lijmbach, A.C.M.


    The feasibility of phosphate recycling in the white phosphorus production process is discussed. Several types of materials may be recycled, provided they are dry inorganic materials, low in iron, copper and zinc. Sewage sludge ash may be used if no iron is used for phosphate precipitation in the tre

  13. Preconceptual Design Description for Caustic Recycle Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.


    The U.S. Department of Energy plans to vitrify both high-level and low-activity waste at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. One aspect of the planning includes a need for a caustic recycle process to separate sodium hydroxide for recycle. Sodium is already a major limitation to the waste-oxide loading in the low-activity waste glass to be vitrified at the Waste Treatment Plant, and additional sodium hydroxide will be added to remove aluminum and to control precipitation in the process equipment. Aluminum is being removed from the high level sludge to reduce the number of high level waste canisters produced. A sodium recycle process would reduce the volume of low-activity waste glass produced and minimize the need to purchase new sodium hydroxide, so there is a renewed interest in investigating sodium recycle. This document describes an electrochemical facility for recycling sodium for the WTP.

  14. Recycling under a material balance constraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittel, Karen [ETH Zurich, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research, ZUE F14, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Amigues, Jean-Pierre [INRA/University of Toulouse, Universite des Sciences Sociales, INRA (IDEI and LERNA), 21 Allee de Brienne, 31000 Toulouse (France); Kuhn, Thomas [Chemnitz University of Technology, Department of Economics, TU Chemnitz, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)


    In this paper we analyze the dynamic implications of recycling for resource use, the level of economic activity and the long-run development of the economy. In contrast to former approaches, we take explicit account of the circulation of matter in the economy. We consider virgin resources and recycled wastes as essential inputs to production. These material inputs either end up as waste after consumption or are bound in the capital stock - depending on the utilization of the produced output. As accumulating wastes can be recycled and again be employed in production, the waste stock serves as a source of valuable inputs in our model. We focus on the implications of recycling-related market failures and the integration of material balances on the dynamics of the economy. It is shown that a market for waste and subsidies to resource extractors and recycling firms can restore optimality in the decentralized economy. (author)

  15. Design analysis: Understanding e-waste recycling by generation Y


    Zhang, Xiao; Wakkary, Ron


    This paper aims to understand e-waste recycling behavior of Generation Y. It presents a pilot study that explores this generation’s e-waste recycling practices, their attitudes towards ewaste recycling, and the barriers to e-waste recycling. The findings reveal the complexity of the actual e-waste recycling behavior, many participants in this study hold a positive attitude towards e-waste recycling, yet there is a shortage of convenient recycling options and e-waste recycling information. Bas...

  16. Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient? (United States)

    Lavee, Doron


    It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

  17. Recycling production designs: the value of coordination and flexibility in aluminum recycling operations (United States)

    Brommer, Tracey H.

    The growing motivation for aluminum recycling has prompted interest in recycling alternative and more challenging secondary materials. The nature of these alternative secondary materials necessitates the development of an intermediate recycling facility that can reprocess the secondary materials into a liquid product Two downstream aluminum remelters will incorporate the liquid products into their aluminum alloy production schedules. Energy and environmental benefits result from delivering the products as liquid but coordination challenges persist because of the energy cost to maintain the liquid. Further coordination challenges result from the necessity to establish a long term recycling production plan in the presence of long term downstream aluminum remelter production uncertainty and inherent variation in the daily order schedule of the downstream aluminum remelters. In this context a fundamental question arises, considering the metallurgical complexities of dross reprocessing, what is the value of operating a coordinated set of by-product reprocessing plants and remelting cast houses? A methodology is presented to calculate the optimal recycling center production parameters including 1) the number of recycled products, 2) the volume of recycled products, 3) allocation of recycled materials across recycled products, 4) allocation of recycled products across finished alloys, 4) the level of flexibility for the recycling center to operate. The methods implemented include, 1) an optimization model to describe the long term operations of the recycling center, 2) an uncertainty simulation tool, 3) a simulation optimization method, 4) a dynamic simulation tool with four embedded daily production optimization models of varying degrees of flexibility. This methodology is used to quantify the performance of several recycling center production designs of varying levels of coordination and flexibility. This analysis allowed the identification of the optimal recycling

  18. Ethanol production from whey in a membrane recycle bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tin, C.S.F.; Mawson, A.J. (Massey Univ., Palmerston North (New Zealand). Dept. of Biotechnology)


    Ethanol production from sulphuric acid whey permeate by Kluyveromyces marxianus Y-113 was examined in a membrane recycle bioreactor. The system was operated with 100% cell recycle and at a steady-state with 10 g litre [sup -1] biomass. At rate constant D=0.44h[sup -1] almost complete utilization of 53g litre [sup -1] lactose was achieved with an ethanol productivity of 8.6g litre [sup -1]h[sup -1]. Increasing the inlet lactose concentration or dilution rate increased the ethanol productivity but at the expense of lactose utilization. Elevated biomass or ethanol concentrations markedly decreased the specific growth rate and specific ethanol production rate. (author)

  19. Which chemicals drive biological effects in wastewater and recycled water? (United States)

    Tang, Janet Y M; Busetti, Francesco; Charrois, Jeffrey W A; Escher, Beate I


    Removal of organic micropollutants from wastewater during secondary treatment followed by reverse osmosis and UV disinfection was evaluated by a combination of four in-vitro cell-based bioassays and chemical analysis of 299 organic compounds. Concentrations detected in recycled water were below the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. Thus the detected chemicals were considered not to pose any health risk. The detected pesticides in the wastewater treatment plant effluent and partially advanced treated water explained all observed effects on photosynthesis inhibition. In contrast, mixture toxicity experiments with designed mixtures containing all detected chemicals at their measured concentrations demonstrated that the known chemicals explained less than 3% of the observed cytotoxicity and less than 1% of the oxidative stress response. Pesticides followed by pharmaceuticals and personal care products dominated the observed mixture effects. The detected chemicals were not related to the observed genotoxicity. The large proportion of unknown toxicity calls for effect monitoring complementary to chemical monitoring.

  20. Nutrient recycling of lipid-extracted waste in the production of an oleaginous thraustochytrid. (United States)

    Lowrey, Joshua; Brooks, Marianne S; Armenta, Roberto E


    Improving the economics of microalgae production for the recovery of microbial oil requires a comprehensive exploration of the measures needed to improve productivity as well as to reduce the overall processing costs. One avenue for cost reduction involves recycling the effluent waste water remaining after lipid extraction. This study investigates the feasibility of recycling those wastes for growing thraustochytrid biomass, a heterotrophic microalgae, where wastes were generated from the enzymatic extraction of the lipids from the cell biomass. It was demonstrated that secondary cultures of the tested thraustochytrid grown in the recycled wastes performed favorably in terms of cell and oil production (20.48 g cells L(-1) and 40.9 % (w/w) lipid) compared to the control (13.63 g cells L(-1) and 56.8 % (w/w) lipid). Further, the significant uptake of solubilized cell material (in the form of amino acids) demonstrated that the recycled waste has the potential for offsetting the need for fresh medium components. These results indicate that the implementation of a nutrient recycling strategy for industrial microalgae production could be possible, with significant added benefits such as conserving water resources, improving production efficiency, and decreasing material inputs.

  1. Processing solid propellants for recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whinnery, L.L.; Griffiths, S.K.; Handrock, J.L.; Lipkin, J.


    Rapid evolution in the structure of military forces worldwide is resulting in the retirement of numerous weapon systems. Many of these systems include rocket motors containing highly energetic propellants based on hazardous nitrocellulose/nitroglycerin (NC/NG) mixtures. Even as the surplus quantities of such material increases, however, current disposal methods -- principally open burning and open detonation (OB/OD) -- are coming under close scrutiny from environmental regulators. Environmentally conscious alternatives to disposal of propellant and explosives are thus receiving renewed interest. Recycle and reuse alternatives to OB/OD appear particularly attractive because some of the energetic materials in the inventories of surplus weapon systems represent potentially valuable resources to the commercial explosives and chemical industries. The ability to reclaim such resources is therefore likely to be a key requirement of any successful technology of the future in rocket motor demilitarization. This document consists of view graphs from the poster session.

  2. Heterogeneous Recycling in Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forget, Benoit; Pope, Michael; Piet, Steven J.; Driscoll, Michael


    Current sodium fast reactor (SFR) designs have avoided the use of depleted uranium blankets over concerns of creating weapons grade plutonium. While reducing proliferation risks, this restrains the reactor design space considerably. This project will analyze various blanket and transmutation target configurations that could broaden the design space while still addressing the non-proliferation issues. The blanket designs will be assessed based on the transmutation efficiency of key minor actinide (MA) isotopes and also on mitigation of associated proliferation risks. This study will also evaluate SFR core performance under different scenarios in which depleted uranium blankets are modified to include minor actinides with or without moderators (e.g. BeO, MgO, B4C, and hydrides). This will be done in an effort to increase the sustainability of the reactor and increase its power density while still offering a proliferation resistant design with the capability of burning MA waste produced from light water reactors (LWRs). Researchers will also analyze the use of recycled (as opposed to depleted) uranium in the blankets. The various designs will compare MA transmutation efficiency, plutonium breeding characteristics, proliferation risk, shutdown margins and reactivity coefficients with a current reference sodium fast reactor design employing homogeneous recycling. The team will also evaluate the out-of-core accumulation and/or burn-down rates of MAs and plutonium isotopes on a cycle-by-cycle basis. This cycle-by-cycle information will be produced in a format readily usable by the fuel cycle systems analysis code, VISION, for assessment of the sustainability of the deployment scenarios.

  3. Exploring metal recycling business in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soga, K. [DOWA Environmental Management Co., Ltd., Suzhou, Jiangsu (China)


    Recycling activities related to the copper smelting process in China were discussed. Although China is a key player in terms of resource circulation in the world, the lack of proper recycling capabilities has hindered the growth of a recycling industry in China. A recycling network established by DOWA Environmental Management was established by contracting with Chinese smelters and refineries. This paper also provided details of recent recycling initiatives, metal scrap processes, industrial waste treatment processes, and soil remediation programs recently initiated in the country. The study concluded by suggesting that the trade of recycling materials must not remain one-sided between China and other developed countries. The high demand for natural resources in Brazil, Russia, India and China can be used as an incentive to increase recycling processes on a wider scale. A pilot project is now being planned by DOWA to establish an international network to collect and transfer used cellular phones to Japan for resource recovery. The company will research and evaluate feasible collection schemes for each participating country. The project may be expanded to include other products. 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  4. Optical properties of polypropylene upon recycling. (United States)

    De Santis, Felice; Pantani, Roberto


    In the last few years there has been an increasing interest in the possibility of recycling polymeric materials, using physical recycling. However, is it well known that polymers experience a depletion of all the properties upon recycling. These effects have been widely characterized in the literature for what concerns the mechanical or rheological properties. The changes of optical properties after recycling have been much less studied, even if, especially in food packaging, optical characteristics (above all the opacity) are of extreme importance, and thus it is quite significant to assess the effect of recycling on these properties. In this work, the influence of recycling steps on the opacity of films of a commercial grade of isotactic polypropylene (i-PP) was studied. The material was extruded several times to mimic the effect of recycling procedures. After extrusion, films were obtained by cooling samples of material at different cooling rates. The opacity of the obtained films was then measured and related to their crystallinity and morphology. It was found that opacity generally increases on increasing the amount of α phase and for the same amount of α phase on increasing the size of the spherulites.

  5. Optical Properties of Polypropylene upon Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice De Santis


    Full Text Available In the last few years there has been an increasing interest in the possibility of recycling polymeric materials, using physical recycling. However, is it well known that polymers experience a depletion of all the properties upon recycling. These effects have been widely characterized in the literature for what concerns the mechanical or rheological properties. The changes of optical properties after recycling have been much less studied, even if, especially in food packaging, optical characteristics (above all the opacity are of extreme importance, and thus it is quite significant to assess the effect of recycling on these properties. In this work, the influence of recycling steps on the opacity of films of a commercial grade of isotactic polypropylene (i-PP was studied. The material was extruded several times to mimic the effect of recycling procedures. After extrusion, films were obtained by cooling samples of material at different cooling rates. The opacity of the obtained films was then measured and related to their crystallinity and morphology. It was found that opacity generally increases on increasing the amount of α phase and for the same amount of α phase on increasing the size of the spherulites.

  6. Crumb Rubber in cold recycled bituminous mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondi, Giulio; Tataranni, Piergiorgio; Pettinari, Matteo


    together with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) and, consequently, there is a large number of variables that can be considered in the mix-design process of new eco-friendly Cold Recycled Mixes. In particular, the present research involves the use of Crumb Rubber within a mixture containing 100% Reclaimed...... Asphalt Pavement, cold recycled with bitumen emulsion and cement. Two different Crumb Rubbers were adopted: one from the ambient production method, and one produced with the cryogenic process. The goal of this research project was to analyze and evaluate the different physical and mechanical...... characteristics induced by the shared use of two different types of Crumb Rubber in the Cold Recycled Mixes....

  7. Breaking the COPI monopoly on Golgi recycling. (United States)

    Storrie, B; Pepperkok, R; Nilsson, T


    The unexpected discovery of a transport pathway from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) independent of COPI coat proteins sheds light on how Golgi resident enzymes and protein toxins gain access to the ER from as far as the trans Golgi network. This new pathway provides an explanation for how membrane is recycled to allow for an apparent concentration of anterograde cargo at distinct stages of the secretory pathway. As signal-mediated COPI-dependent recycling also involves the concentration of resident proteins into retrograde COPI vesicles, the main bulk of lipids must be recycled, possibly through a COPI-independent pathway.

  8. Planning logistics network for recyclables collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković Branislava


    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization, intensified industrialization, rise of income, and a more sophisticated form of consumerism are leading to an increase in the amount and toxicity of waste all over the world. Whether reused, recycled, incinerated or put into landfill sites, the management of household and industrial waste yield financial and environmental costs. This paper presents a modeling approach that can be used for designing one part of recycling logistics network through defining optimal locations of collection points, and possible optimal scheduling of vehicles for collecting recyclables. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36005


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lothar Reh


    Increasing population and individual wealth have led to a higher demand for energy and raw material resources as well as for steady improvement of processing technology in view of efficient use of resources and avoiding emissions in production and recycling processes. Present situation and future trend of recycling processing are discussed by examples from the aluminium and steel industries, recycling of cars and post-consumer municipal recovery.The importance of more intense observance of thermodynamic laws and of a 4E strategy "Economy, Energy, Environment and Education" is outlined.

  10. Financing electronic waste recycling Californian households' willingness to pay advanced recycling fees. (United States)

    Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M


    The growth of electronic waste (e-waste) is of increasing concern because of its toxic content and low recycling rates. The e-waste recycling infrastructure needs to be developed, yet little is known about people's willingness to fund its expansion. This paper examines this issue based on a 2004 mail survey of California households. Using an ordered logit model, we find that age, income, beliefs about government and business roles, proximity to existing recycling facilities, community density, education, and environmental attitudes are significant factors for explaining people's willingness to pay an advanced recycling fee (ARF) for electronics. Most respondents are willing to support a 1% ARF. Our results suggest that policymakers should target middle-aged and older adults, improve programs in communities with existing recycling centers or in rural communities, and consider public-private partnerships for e-waste recycling programs.

  11. Electrochemical Membrane Reactors for Sustainable Chlorine Recycling (United States)

    Vidakovic-Koch, Tanja; Martinez, Isai Gonzalez; Kuwertz, Rafael; Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas; Sundmacher, Kai


    Polymer electrolyte membranes have found broad application in a number of processes, being fuel cells, due to energy concerns, the main focus of the scientific community worldwide. Relatively little attention has been paid to the use of these materials in electrochemical production and separation processes. In this review, we put emphasis upon the application of Nafion membranes in electrochemical membrane reactors for chlorine recycling. The performance of such electrochemical reactors can be influenced by a number of factors including the properties of the membrane, which play an important role in reactor optimization. This review discusses the role of Nafion as a membrane, as well as its importance in the catalyst layer for the formation of the so-called three-phase boundary. The influence of an equilibrated medium on the Nafion proton conductivity and Cl− crossover, as well as the influence of the catalyst ink dispersion medium on the Nafion/catalyst self-assembly and its importance for the formation of an ionic conducting network in the catalyst layer are summarized. PMID:24958294

  12. Electrochemical Membrane Reactors for Sustainable Chlorine Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Kunz


    Full Text Available Polymer electrolyte membranes have found broad application in a number of processes, being fuel cells, due to energy concerns, the main focus of the scientific community worldwide. Relatively little attention has been paid to the use of these materials in electrochemical production and separation processes. In this review, we put emphasis upon the application of Nafion membranes in electrochemical membrane reactors for chlorine recycling. The performance of such electrochemical reactors can be influenced by a number of factors including the properties of the membrane, which play an important role in reactor optimization. This review discusses the role of Nafion as a membrane, as well as its importance in the catalyst layer for the formation of the so-called three-phase boundary. The influence of an equilibrated medium on the Nafion proton conductivity and Cl crossover, as well as the influence of the catalyst ink dispersion medium on the Nafion/catalyst self-assembly and its importance for the formation of an ionic conducting network in the catalyst layer are summarized.

  13. Solid waste recycling in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh. (United States)

    Bari, Q Hamidul; Hassan, K Mahbub; Haque, M Ehsanul


    Efficient recycling of solid wastes is now a global concern for a sustainable and environmentally sound management. In this study, traditional recycling pattern of solid waste was investigated in Rajshahi municipality which is the fourth largest city of Bangladesh. A questionnaire survey had been carried out in various recycle shops during April 2010 to January 2011. There were 140 recycle shops and most of them were located in the vicinity of Stadium market in Rajshahi. About 1906 people were found to be involved in recycling activities of the city. The major fraction of recycled wastes were sent to capital city Dhaka for further manufacture of different new products. Only a small amount of wastes, specially plastics, were processed in local recycle factories to produce small washing pots and bottle caps. Everyday, an estimated 28.13 tons of recycled solid wastes were handled in Rajshahi city area. This recycled portion accounted for 8.25% of the daily total generated wastes (341 ton d(-1)), 54.6% of total recyclable wastes (51.49 ton d(-1)) and 68.29% of readily recyclable wastes (41.19 ton d(-1)). Major recycled materials were found to be iron, glass, plastic, and papers. Only five factories were involved in preliminary processing of recyclable wastes. Collecting and processing secondary materials, manufacturing recycled-content products, and then buying recycled products created a circle or loop that ensured the overall success of recycling and generated a host of financial, environmental, and social returns.

  14. Ascorbate recycling in human neutrophils: Induction by bacteria


    Wang, Yaohui; Russo, Thomas A.; Kwon, Oran; Chanock, Stephen; Rumsey, Steven C.; Levine, Mark


    Ascorbate (vitamin C) recycling occurs when extracellular ascorbate is oxidized, transported as dehydroascorbic acid, and reduced intracellularly to ascorbate. We investigated microorganism induction of ascorbate recycling in human neutrophils and in microorganisms themselves. Ascorbate recycling was determined by measuring intracellular ascorbate accumulation. Ascorbate recycling in neutrophils was induced by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, and the fungal pathogen C...

  15. Recycling industrial architecture : the redefinition of the recycling principles in the context of sustainable architectural design


    Šijaković, Milan


    The aim of this thesis is the elucidation of the concept of architectural recycling as an environmentally sustainable alternative to demolition and preservation. More precisely, the research aim relates to the redefinition of recycling design principles in the context of the sustainable architectural design. The process of architectural recycling was placed in the context of a sustainable architectural design, as the global concept of sustainable development is imposed as a general context fo...

  16. Exploring the recycling dilemma: consumer motivation and experiences in mandatory garbage recycling programs.


    Smeesters, Dirk; Warlop, Luk; Vanden Abeele, Pierre; Ratneshwar, S


    Household recycling is conceptualized as a social dilemma in which households have a choice between cooperative and defective options. Promoting cooperative choice in the recycling dilemma has emerged as an important issue for social marketing in recent years. Most of the available insights that could guide policy makers in designing appropriate social marketing strategies are based on research conducted in the context of voluntary recycling programs. Increasingly social marketing action take...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin


    Full Text Available Rotary tilting furnace is the most efficient installation for recycling of dispersible metal wastes of any alloy. Several constructions have been designed for chips heating and melting, scale recovery, ets.

  18. Solid Waste and Recycling Collection Routes (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the Town’s current collection schedule, including pick-up day and recycling week designation.The Town of Cary collects garbage weekly at the curb on the same...

  19. Design and optimization of photovoltaics recycling infrastructure. (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ki; Fthenakis, Vasilis


    With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States.

  20. Design and Optimization of Photovoltaics Recycling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.K.; Fthenakis, V.


    With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States.

  1. Proposal of recycling system for waste aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Valenčík


    Full Text Available Introduced work is focused on waste aluminum recycling process with objective to propose complex production system for recovering of aluminum and some aluminum alloys. Solution is supported by extended analysis concerning purpose, basis and system sequences for recyclation. Based on that, sources, possibilities and conditions for recycling are formed. This has been used in proposal of manufacturing system. The principle is the structural proposal of manufacturing system, which does not only differentiate the stage of aluminum melting process, but also related stages as gross separation, sizing, containerisation and batching, palletisation, stacking and some related operations. Production system respects technological specifications, requirements for rationalisation of manufacturing systems, technical and economical feasibility conditions and is considered in lower automation level. However production system solves complex problem of recycling of some types of aluminum, it improves flexibility, production, quality (melting by high enforcements and in protective atmosphere and extention of production (final products production.

  2. Benchmarking in municipal solid waste recycling. (United States)

    Lavee, Doron; Khatib, Mahmood


    The paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the recycling potential of municipalities in Israel, including population size and density, geographic location, current waste levels, and current waste management system. We employ a standard regression analysis in order to develop an econometric model to predict where potential for economically efficient recycling is highest. By applying this model to readily available data, it is possible to predict with close to 90% accuracy whether or not recycling will be economically efficient in any given municipality. Government agencies working to promote advanced waste management solutions have at their disposal only limited resources and budget, and so must concentrate their efforts where they will be most effective. The paper thus provides policy-makers with a powerful tool to help direct their efforts to promote recycling at those municipalities where it is indeed optimal.

  3. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal


    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  4. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.


    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

  5. Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with power recycling and twin signal recycling cavities. (United States)

    Gräf, Christian; Thüring, André; Vahlbruch, Henning; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman


    The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled.In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michelson interferometer with twin signal recycling. We were able to lock the interferometer in all relevant longitudinal degrees of freedom and thus laid the foundation for further investigations of this interferometer configuration to evaluate its viability for the application in gravitational wave detectors.

  6. Survey of metallurgical recycling processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemsler, J.P.


    In the year 2000, the US will consume about 3.2 x 10/sup 15/ Btu to produce the seven major nonferrous metals Al, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Mg, and Ti. Of this amount, 82% will be used in the production of Al. It is projected that 0.6 x 10/sup 15/ Btu will be saved by the recycle of secondary metals. Major opportunities for increasing the extent of recycle and thereby increasing the energy savings are discussed. An inherent feature in the energistics of recycle is that physical processes such as magnetic separation, density separations, melting, and in some instances vaporization are far less energy intensive than are chemical processes associated with dissolution and electrowinning. It is in the domain of scrap of complex composition and physical form, difficult to handle by existing technology, that opportunities exist for new chemical recycle technology. Recycle of scrap metal of adequate grade is currently achieved through pyrometallurgical processes which, in many cases, are not very energy intensive as compared with hydrometallurgical processes. Preliminary flowsheets are presented for the recovery of value metals from batteries considered for use in vehicular propulsion and load leveling applications. The battery types examined are lead/acid, nickel/zinc, nickel/iron, zinc/chlorine, lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide, and sodium/sulfur. A flow sheet has been outlined for an integrated hydrometallurgical process to treat low-grade copper scrap. A fully integrated hydrometallurgical process is outlined, and costs and energy consumption are derived, for recovering zinc metal from electric furnace flue dusts. Costs and energy are high and the process does not appear to warrant development at this time. Improvement in the recycle of magnesium is associated primarily with improved recycle in the Al industry where Mg is an important alloy additive. Ni and Ti recycle are associated with improved collection and sorting of stainless steel and specialty alloys.



    TRIPA Simona


    Aim of this article is to examine the stage of textile recycle waste in Romania. For this purpose were analyzed the main sources of textile waste from Romania (industry of manufacture of textiles, wearing apparel, leather and related products, imports of textiles, clothing and footwear and imports of second hand clothing) and also evolution of the quantity of textile waste in Romania. The benefits (economic and environmental) of the collection and recycling of waste and the legislation ...

  8. Economical and Ecological Fesasibility of Plastic Recycling


    Hirschpold, Andrew; Juctye, Kristina; Renzhong, Jiang; Debin, LIU; Varona, Hector P.; Kevelaitis, Karolis


    #Group 3 International Nat Bas Economical and Ecological Feasibility of Plastic Recycling Abstract This project is carried out as the final project for the first semester of Bachelor of Science studies. Our project will aim on plastic recycling. Plastic is a manmade material which covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic products made thru polymerization. The development of plastic products has accompanied the development of human’s history since it was invented while they ...

  9. WE(EE) Demand - Recycled Plastic


    Førby, Marie; Pedersen, Jakob; Borgen, Nanna; Hansen, Rasmus Nør


    Plastic management – from production to waste – has massive negative effects on the environment of which one of the main problems are the CO2 released from the fossil fuels. The focus of this paper lies on the possibilities of increasing demand for recycled plastics from electric and electronic equipment (WEEE-plastic) through modifications in the Danish waste systems. Due to the chemical build of plastic, it is not possible to reprocess it with mechanical recycle technologies while keeping t...

  10. Plastic Recycling Experiments in Materials Education (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.


    The objective of this project was to introduce a series of plastic recycling experiments to students in materials-related courses such as materials science, material technology and materials testing. With the plastic recycling experiments, students not only can learn the fundamentals of plastic processing and properties as in conventional materials courses, but also can be exposed to the issue of materials life cycle and the impact on society and environment.

  11. Modern recycling methods in metallurgical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maj


    Full Text Available The contamination of environment caused by increased industrial activities is the main topic of discussions in Poland and in the world. The possibilities of waste recovery and recycling vary in different sectors of the industry, and the specific methods, developed and improved all the time, depend on the type of the waste. In this study, the attention has been focussed mainly on the waste from metallurgical industry and on the available techniques of its recycling

  12. Recycling of coal combustion wastes. (United States)

    Oz, Derya; Koca, Sabina; Koca, Huseyin


    The separation of unburned carbon from coal-fired power plant bottom ashes was conducted in order to increase the possibility of the recycling of coal combustion wastes. A two-stage flotation technique was used for this study. In the rougher flotation experiments the amounts of collector, dispersant and frother, pulp density, pH, particle size distribution, flotation time and flotation temperature were tested as variables. After rougher flotation experiments, at optimum conditions, the carbon content of the concentrate increased from 13.85 to 51.54% at a carbon recovery of 54.54%. Under the same conditions, the carbon content was reduced to 4.54% at a weight yield of over 80% in the tailings fraction. This fraction meets the industrial specifications and can be utilized as a cement additive. After the cleaner flotation experiment the carbon content of the product was enhanced to 64.81% with a 52.16% carbon recovery. This fraction can be blended back into the coal feed to the power plant boilers.

  13. Algal recycling enhances algal productivity and settleability in Pediastrum boryanum pure cultures. (United States)

    Park, Jason B K; Craggs, Rupert J; Shilton, Andy N


    Recycling a portion of gravity harvested algae (i.e. algae and associated bacteria biomass) has been shown to improve both algal biomass productivity and harvest efficiency by maintaining the dominance of a rapidly-settleable colonial alga, Pediastrum boryanum in both pilot-scale wastewater treatment High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAP) and outdoor mesocosms. While algal recycling did not change the relative proportions of algae and bacteria in the HRAP culture, the contribution of the wastewater bacteria to the improved algal biomass productivity and settleability with the recycling was not certain and still required investigation. P. boryanum was therefore isolated from the HRAP and grown in pure culture on synthetic wastewater growth media under laboratory conditions. The influence of recycling on the productivity and settleability of the pure P. boryanum culture was then determined without wastewater bacteria present. Six 1 L P. boryanum cultures were grown over 30 days in a laboratory growth chamber simulating New Zealand summer conditions either with (Pr) or without (Pc) recycling of 10% of gravity harvested algae. The cultures with recycling (Pr) had higher algal productivity than the controls (Pc) when the cultures were operated at both 4 and 3 d hydraulic retention times by 11% and 38% respectively. Furthermore, algal recycling also improved 1 h settleability from ∼60% to ∼85% by increasing the average P. boryanum colony size due to the extended mean cell residence time and promoted formation of large algal bio-flocs (>500 μm diameter). These results demonstrate that the presence of wastewater bacteria was not necessary to improve algal productivity and settleability with algal recycling.

  14. The nonlinear relationship between paper recycling and primary pulp requirements : modeling paper production and recycling in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, Niels J.; Moll, Henri C.; Potting, Josepha


    Waste paper is suitable for recycling back into paper or for incineration for energy recovery. If waste paper is used for recycling, secondary pulp replaces virgin pulp. Fiber recycling is limited, however, because of physical constraints—particularly the breakage of fiber in the recycling process—a

  15. Perspectives on recycling centres and future developments. (United States)

    Engkvist, I-L; Eklund, J; Krook, J; Björkman, M; Sundin, E


    The overall aim of this paper is to draw combined, all-embracing conclusions based on a long-term multidisciplinary research programme on recycling centres in Sweden, focussing on working conditions, environment and system performance. A second aim is to give recommendations for their development of new and existing recycling centres and to discuss implications for the future design and organisation. Several opportunities for improvement of recycling centres were identified, such as design, layout, ease with which users could sort their waste, the work environment, conflicting needs and goals within the industry, and industrialisation. Combining all results from the research, which consisted of different disciplinary aspects, made it possible to analyse and elucidate their interrelations. Waste sorting quality was recognized as the most prominent improvement field in the recycling centre system. The research identified the importance of involving stakeholders with different perspectives when planning a recycling centre in order to get functionality and high performance. Practical proposals of how to plan and build recycling centres are given in a detailed checklist.

  16. Paper recycling framework, the "Wheel of Fiber". (United States)

    Ervasti, Ilpo; Miranda, Ruben; Kauranen, Ilkka


    At present, there is no reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows and makes it possible to compare geographical regions with each other. A functioning paper industry Material Flow Account (MFA) that uses uniform terminology and standard definitions for terms and structures is necessary. Many of the presently used general level MFAs, which are called frameworks in this article, stress the importance of input and output flows but do not provide a uniform picture of material recycling. Paper industry is an example of a field in which recycling plays a key role. Additionally, terms related to paper industry recycling, such as collection rate, recycling rate, and utilization rate, are not defined uniformly across regions and time. Thus, reliably comparing material recycling activity between geographical regions or calculating any regional summaries is difficult or even impossible. The objective of this study is to give a partial solution to the problem of not having a reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows. This is done by introducing a new material flow framework for paper industry in which the flow and stage structure supports the use of uniform definitions for terms related to paper recycling. This new framework is termed the Detailed Wheel of Fiber.

  17. Recycling BiCG for Model Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ahuja, Kapil; Chang, Eun R; Gugercin, Serkan


    Science and engineering problems frequently require solving a sequence of dual linear systems. Two examples are the Iterative Rational Krylov Algorithm (IRKA) for model reduction and Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods in electronic structure calculations. This paper introduces Recycling BiCG, a BiCG method that recycles two Krylov subspaces from one pair of linear systems to the next pair. We develop an augmented bi-Lanczos algorithm and a modified two-term recurrence to include recycling in the iteration. The recycle spaces are approximate left and right invariant subspaces corresponding to the eigenvalues close to the origin. These recycle spaces are found by solving a small generalized eigenvalue problem alongside the dual linear systems being solved in the sequence. We test our algorithm in two application areas. First, we solve a discretized partial differential equation of convection-diffusion type, because these are well-known model problems. Second, we use Recycling BiCG for the linear systems arising ...

  18. Quality requirements for reclaimed/recycled water (United States)

    Janik, Daniel S.; Sauer, Richard L.; Pierson, Duane L.; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.


    Water used during current and previous space missions has been either carried or made aloft. Future human space endeavors will require some form of water reclamation and recycling. There is little experience in the U.S. space program with this technology. Water reclamation and recycling constitute engineering challenges of the broadest nature that will require an intensive research and development effort if this technology is to mature in time for practical use on the proposed U.S. Space Station. In order for this to happen, reclaimed/recycled water specifications will need to be devised to guide engineering development. Present NASA Potable Water Specifications are not applicable to reclaimed or recycled water. Adequate specifications for ensuring the quality of the reclaimed or recycled potable water system is reviewed, limitations of present water specifications are examined, world experience with potable water reclamation/recycling systems and systems analogs is reviewed, and an approach to developing pertinent biomedical water specifications for spacecraft is presented. Space Station water specifications should be designed to ensure the health of all likely spacecraft inhabitants including man, animals, and plants.

  19. Continental moisture recycling as a Poisson process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Goessling


    Full Text Available On their journey across large land masses, water molecules experience a number of precipitation-evaporation cycles (recycling events. We derive analytically the frequency distributions of recycling events for the water molecules contained in a given air parcel. Given the validity of certain simplifying assumptions, continental moisture recycling is shown to develop either into a Poisson distribution or a geometric distribution. We distinguish two cases: in case (A recycling events are counted since the water molecules were last advected across the ocean-land boundary. In case (B recycling events are counted since the water molecules were last evaporated from the ocean. For case B we show by means of a simple scale analysis that, given the conditions on Earth, realistic frequency distributions may be regarded as a mixture of a Poisson distribution and a geometric distribution. By contrast, in case A the Poisson distribution generally appears as a reasonable approximation. This conclusion is consistent with the simulation results of an earlier study where an atmospheric general circulation model equipped with water vapor tracers was used. Our results demonstrate that continental moisture recycling can be interpreted as a Poisson process.

  20. The Development of Recycling Agent for Asphalt Pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A type of recycling agent was developed and its use for modifying used asphalt is described.The results show that the viscosity and three main properties of the aged asphalt were remarkably improved.With 5%-7% content of recycling agent, the main properties of recycled asphalt comported with China GB asphalt standard AH-70 and the recycled asphalt concrete could be used as high-grade highway.Furthermore,the recycling mechanism of the aged asphalt is discussed.

  1. Assessing changes on poly(ethylene terephthalate) properties after recycling: Mechanical recycling in laboratory versus postconsumer recycled material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, María del Mar Castro, E-mail: [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Ares Pernas, Ana Isabel, E-mail: [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Abad López, Ma José, E-mail: [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); and others


    Keeping rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of virgin poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, is necessary to assure the quality of second-market applications. A comparative study of these properties has been undertaken in virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET samples. Viscoelastic characterization was carried out by rheological measurements. Mechanical properties were estimated by tensile and Charpy impact strength tests. Thermal properties and crystallinity were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and a deconvolution procedure was applied to study the population of the different crystals. Molecular conformational changes related to crystallinity values were studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Variations in average molecular weight were predicted from rheology. Besides, the presence-absence of linear and cyclic oligomeric species was measured by mass spectrometry techniques, as MALDI-TOF. Mechanical recycled PET undergoes a significant decline in rheological, mechanical and thermal properties upon increasing the number of reprocessing steps. This is due to the cleavage of the ester bonds with reduction in molar mass and raise in cyclic oligomeric species, in particular [GT{sub c}]{sub n} and [GT{sub c}]{sub n}-G type. Chain shortening plus enrichment in trans conformers favour the crystallization process which occurs earlier and faster with modification in crystal populations. Additional physicochemical steps are necessary to preserve the main benefits of PET. - Highlights: • Combination of multiple techniques to characterize the effects of recycling in PET. • Cleavage of ester bonds reduced viscosity, Mw, toughness in mechanical recycled PET. • Virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET differ in crystal populations. • Cyclic oligomers [GT{sub c}]{sub n} and [GT{sub c}]{sub n}-G increase from the fourth extrusion cycle onwards.

  2. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  3. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  4. Energy implications of recycling packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)


    In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite the United States comprehensive solid waste legislation -- the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint We compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the optimum for each material. After products have served their intended uses, there are several alternative paths for material disposition. These include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfill. Only options considered to be environmentally sound are Included. Both houses of Congress specifically excluded combustion for energy recovery from counting towards the recovery goats, probably because combustion is viewed as a form of disposal and is therefore assumed to waste resources and have n environmental effects. However, co-combustion in coal-fired plants or combustion in appropriately pollution-controlled waste-to-energy plants Is safe, avoids landfill costs, and can displace fossil fuels. In some cases, more fossil fuels can be displaced by combustion than by recycling. We compare the alternative life-cycle energies to the energies for producing the products from virgin materials. Results depend on the material and on the objective to be achieved. There are trade-offs among possible goals. For instance, paper packaging recycling conserves trees but may require greater fossil-fuel input than virgin production. Therefore, the objectives for proposed legislation must be examined to see whether they can most effectively be achieved by mandated recycling rates or by other methods of disposition. The optimal choices for the United States may not necessarily be the same as those for Europe and other parts of the world.

  5. Entropy, recycling and macroeconomics of water resources (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris


    We propose a macroeconomic model for water quantity and quality supply multipliers derived by water recycling (Karakatsanis et al. 2013). Macroeconomic models that incorporate natural resource conservation have become increasingly important (European Commission et al. 2012). In addition, as an estimated 80% of globally used freshwater is not reused (United Nations 2012), under increasing population trends, water recycling becomes a solution of high priority. Recycling of water resources creates two major conservation effects: (1) conservation of water in reservoirs and aquifers and (2) conservation of ecosystem carrying capacity due to wastewater flux reduction. Statistical distribution properties of the recycling efficiencies -on both water quantity and quality- for each sector are of vital economic importance. Uncertainty and complexity of water reuse in sectors are statistically quantified by entropy. High entropy of recycling efficiency values signifies greater efficiency dispersion; which -in turn- may indicate the need for additional infrastructure for the statistical distribution's both shifting and concentration towards higher efficiencies that lead to higher supply multipliers. Keywords: Entropy, water recycling, water supply multipliers, conservation, recycling efficiencies, macroeconomics References 1. European Commission (EC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN) and World Bank (2012), System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework (White cover publication), United Nations Statistics Division 2. Karakatsanis, G., N. Mamassis, D. Koutsoyiannis and A. Efstratiades (2013), Entropy and reliability of water use via a statistical approach of scarcity, 5th EGU Leonardo Conference - Hydrofractals 2013 - STAHY '13, Kos Island, Greece, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences

  6. Aberrant trafficking of NSCLC-associated EGFR mutants through the endocytic recycling pathway promotes interaction with Src@

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Band Vimla


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR controls a wide range of cellular processes, and altered EGFR signaling contributes to human cancer. EGFR kinase domain mutants found in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC are constitutively active, a trait critical for cell transformation through activation of downstream pathways. Endocytic trafficking of EGFR is a major regulatory mechanism as ligand-induced lysosomal degradation results in termination of signaling. While numerous studies have examined mutant EGFR signaling, the endocytic traffic of mutant EGFR within the NSCLC milieu remains less clear. Results This study shows that mutant EGFRs in NSCLC cell lines are constitutively endocytosed as shown by their colocalization with the early/recycling endosomal marker transferrin and the late endosomal/lysosomal marker LAMP1. Notably, mutant EGFRs, but not the wild-type EGFR, show a perinuclear accumulation and colocalization with recycling endosomal markers such as Rab11 and EHD1 upon treatment of cells with endocytic recycling inhibitor monensin, suggesting that mutant EGFRs preferentially traffic through the endocytic recycling compartments. Importantly, monensin treatment enhanced the mutant EGFR association and colocalization with Src, indicating that aberrant transit through the endocytic recycling compartment promotes mutant EGFR-Src association. Conclusion The findings presented in this study show that mutant EGFRs undergo aberrant traffic into the endocytic recycling compartment which allows mutant EGFRs to engage in a preferential interaction with Src, a critical partner for EGFR-mediated oncogenesis.

  7. Renew or die: The molecular mechanisms of peptidoglycan recycling and antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative pathogens. (United States)

    Domínguez-Gil, Teresa; Molina, Rafael; Alcorlo, Martín; Hermoso, Juan A


    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious health threats. Cell-wall remodeling processes are tightly regulated to warrant bacterial survival and in some cases are directly linked to antibiotic resistance. Remodeling produces cell-wall fragments that are recycled but can also act as messengers for bacterial communication, as effector molecules in immune response and as signaling molecules triggering antibiotic resistance. This review is intended to provide state-of-the-art information about the molecular mechanisms governing this process and gather structural information of the different macromolecular machineries involved in peptidoglycan recycling in Gram-negative bacteria. The growing body of literature on the 3D structures of the corresponding macromolecules reveals an extraordinary complexity. Considering the increasing incidence and widespread emergence of Gram-negative multidrug-resistant pathogens in clinics, structural information on the main actors of the recycling process paves the way for designing novel antibiotics disrupting cellular communication in the recycling-resistance pathway.

  8. Urban mining : Recycling gypsum waste in Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCamley, J.A. [New West Gypsum Recycling Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    Wallboard manufacturing, construction and deconstruction activities in North America, Europe and Japan result in large amounts of gypsum scrap, which creates an environmental problem. Disposing of this gypsum scrap in landfills often leads to hydrogen sulfide emissions and metallic sulfide groundwater leachates. Europe has dealt with the problem by enacting legislation that will come into effect in July 2005. The legislation is designed to strongly encourage gypsum recycling throughout entire jurisdictions. It is estimated that approximately 10 to 17 per cent of all gypsum used in the wallboard industry ends up as gypsum scrap. In North America, it represents almost one per cent of total waste. Each year in the United States, between 2.5 and 4.5 million tonnes of gypsum scrap are generated, with numbers very similar to Europe (the higher use of brick and concrete in Europe reduces the percentage of total tonnage). Gypsum has been banned from the landfills of British Columbia's Greater Vancouver region, forcing the recycling of all gypsum scrap. Large quantities of gypsum scrap are processed by New West Recycling, a Canadian firm using proprietary technology. This process leads to the re-incorporation of scrap gypsum into new wallboard, with the percentages sometimes reaching as high as 25 per cent. A case study of New West Recycling Inc., located in Langley, British Columbia was presented and recommendations were made concerning how other urban regions can implement gypsum scrap recycling programs modeled after this one. 6 refs.

  9. Life cycle perspective of plastic recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballhorn, R. [Targeted Research on Waste Minimization and Recycling Project, Darmstadt (Germany)


    Some recent European Union directives on recycling plastics are discussed, with particular reference to the automobile industry, highlighting developing chemical technologies such as selective solution/precipitation approaches, to increase the fraction of high quality recyclates. Some promising technologies, including separation by tribo-electrical charging, sorting by optical means, separation by gasification, dissolution, hydrogenation and co-processing with heavy oil residues are described, with examples involving the conversion of mixed plastic waste by gasification, and the production of PA6 monomer from carpet waste. Conclusion based on study results to date indicate that with regard to 'end of life' vehicles the driving force for dismantling is the recovery of resalable parts and metal, not plastic. Technologies for dismantling are seen as relatively crude. Moreover, the large investment required to construct a full dismantling facility and the lack of a well-developed 'after market' for recycled products makes it unlikely that such a facility will be built in the near future. The most promising way to cope with the economic and ecological challenges appears to be a combination of chemical recycling and energy recovery, accompanied by an aggressive effort to develop the 'after market' for the recycled products. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Building recycling rates through the informal sector. (United States)

    Wilson, David C; Araba, Adebisi O; Chinwah, Kaine; Cheeseman, Christopher R


    Many developing country cities aspire to modern waste management systems, which are associated with relatively high recycling rates of clean, source separated materials. Most already have informal sector recycling systems, which are driven solely by the revenues derived from selling recovered materials, even though they are saving the formal sector money by reducing waste quantities. There is clear potential for 'win-win' co-operation between the formal and informal sectors, as providing support to the informal sector, to build recycling rates and to address some of the social issues could reduce the overall costs of waste management for the formal sector. This paper shows that recycling rates already achieved by the informal sector can be quite high, typically in the range from 20% to 50%; often up to half of this is in the form of clean, source separated materials collected directly from households and businesses by itinerant waste buyers. Four country case studies provide a number of lessons on how this solid foundation could be used to build high recycling rates of clean materials.

  11. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik


    comparisons of different management options for waste paper. Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location......A review of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs) on paper and cardboard waste has been undertaken. The objectives of the review were threefold. Firstly, to see whether a consistent message comes out of published LCA literature on optimum disposal or recycling solutions for this waste type....... Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made...

  12. Recycling of magnesium drive train components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel FEGHNER; Carsten BLAWERT; Norbert HORT; Karl Ulrich KAINER


    With the development of new heat resistant magnesium alloys, the automotive industry has introduced several parts to the drive train. The rising number of large magnesium components will result in a higher quantity of automotive post consumer scrap. It was the aim of this work to find a reasonable alloy system for the recycling of these magnesium drive train components. A matrix of potential recy-cling alloys based on the magnesium alloy AM50 was prepared via permanent mould casting. The ma-terials were investigated via tensile testing, creep tests and salt spray tests. Three alloys were selected for processing via high pressure die casting and the tests were repeated on the new materials. A promising system for recycling has been isolated and will be investigated more deeply for the influence of impurities.

  13. Recycling of magnesium drive train components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel; FECHNER; Carsten; BLAWERT; Norbert; HORT; Karl; Ulrich; KAINER


    With the development of new heat resistant magnesium alloys, the automotive industry has introduced several parts to the drive train. The rising number of large magnesium components will result in a higher quantity of automotive post consumer scrap. It was the aim of this work to find a reasonable alloy system for the recycling of these magnesium drive train components. A matrix of potential recy-cling alloys based on the magnesium alloy AM50 was prepared via permanent mould casting. The materials were investigated via tensile testing, creep tests and salt spray tests. Three alloys were selected for processing via high pressure die casting and the tests were repeated on the new materials. A promising system for recycling has been isolated and will be investigated more deeply for the influence of impurities.

  14. Developing sustainable resource recovery and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapham, M. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Minerals and Metals Sector


    The issues that should be addressed when developing resource recovery and recycling programs and initiatives were highlighted. When well thought out, these initiatives result in substantial increases in the recovery of products and materials at their end-of-life cycle. The issues discussed included design for the environment, consumption patterns, sustainable markets for recovered products, infrastructure, policy mechanisms, and technology. Each issue was examined from a life cycle approach. The author outlined several benefits associated with a resource recovery and recycling program including materials and energy efficiencies, reduced burdens to landfill, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and social implications. The author also presented some examples of Canadian initiatives in the resource recovery and recycling sector. 15 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  15. Reuse and recycling - reverse logistics opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopicki, R.; Berg, M.J.; Legg, L.


    This book is intended to serve as a managerial guide for planning and implementing waste reduction programs. It is based on the premise that proactive management of environmental issues is becoming vital to corporate success, and that these issues are creating new roles and opportunities for logistic professionals. Examined in detail are nonhazardous waste reduction activities; reuse and recycling activities; and source reduction. The book is based on in-depth interviews with seventeen firms and several trade associations acknowledged to be leaders in waste reduction efforts. Topics discussed include adapting inbound supply chains to use more recycled goods; minimizing packaging waste; reverse distribution capabilities for taking back products and packaging; and the use of third party services for recycling, reuse, and source reduction activities. Included are two case analyses of progressive firms like E.I. Dupont Nemours and Home Depot and their waste reduction efforts.

  16. Erasing Data and Recycling of Optical Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Fujita


    Full Text Available Optical disks, DVDs and CDs, are convenient recording media on which to safely store data for a long period of time. However, the complete data erasure from recorded media is also important for the security of the data. After erasure of data from optical disks, recycling the material is needed in order to recover the valuable components of the optical disks. Here, data erasure methods for optical disks are discussed in the view of material recycling. The main finding of the study is that the explosion of optical disks in water is a very suitable method for complete erasure of data on the disks as well as recycling of their materials.

  17. Reverse logistics for recycling: The customer service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis, E.


    Full Text Available Customer service is a central concern in the logistics practice and a study topic in the forward logistics research. This article investigates the elements of customer service and their importance in reverse logistics for recycling. Since consumer is the first intervenient in any reverse system that aims to recycle household residues, the provision of an adequate customer service gains an increased importance. Applying multivariate statistical methods (exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and discriminant analysis to the data from a sample of 267 Portuguese citizens, this study identifies the levels of customer service in this reverse logistics chain and evaluates their relative importance in achieving consumers’ participation. The study finds that, as in forward logistics, the customer service in reverse channels for recycling also has a hard and a soft level, being the former more important than the later. The results of this research suggest important guidelines to improve such a complex logistics service.

  18. Recycling of steelmaking dusts: The Radust concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalkanen H.


    Full Text Available Recycling of dusts and other wastes of steelmaking is becoming to a necessity of two reasons: due to high contents of iron oxides dusts are valuable raw material for steelmaking and tightening environmental legislation makes the landfill disposal of wastes more expensive. Fine dust fractions from various stages of steelmaking route contain besides iron and carbon heavy metals especially zinc and lead and heavy hydrocarbons that are acceptable neither for landfill disposal nor for recycling back to processes without any spe4cial treatments. Some theoretical and practical aspects concerning high temperature treatments of steelmaking dusts for removal of hazardous components and production of clean high iron raw material for recycling is discussed in this paper. The Radust technology developed at Koverhar steelwork in Finland for treatment of the most problematic fine fractions of blast furnace and oxygen converter dusts is shortly presented and discussed.

  19. Rare earth elements: end use and recyclability (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.


    Rare earth elements are used in mature markets (such as catalysts, glassmaking, lighting, and metallurgy), which account for 59 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements, and in newer, high-growth markets (such as battery alloys, ceramics, and permanent magnets), which account for 41 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements. In mature market segments, lanthanum and cerium constitute about 80 percent of rare earth elements used, and in new market segments, dysprosium, neodymium, and praseodymium account for about 85 percent of rare earth elements used. Regardless of the end use, rare earth elements are not recycled in large quantities, but could be if recycling became mandated or very high prices of rare earth elements made recycling feasible.

  20. Characterization of DWPF recycle condensate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Adamson, D. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle Condensate Tank (RCT) sample was delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization with particular interest in the concentration of I-129, U-233, U-235, total U, and total Pu. Since a portion of Salt Batch 8 will contain DWPF recycle materials, the concentration of I-129 is important to understand for salt batch planning purposes. The chemical and physical characterizations are also needed as input to the interpretation of future work aimed at determining the propensity of the RCT material to foam, and methods to remediate any foaming potential. According to DWPF the Tank Farm 2H evaporator has experienced foaming while processing DWPF recycle materials. The characterization work on the RCT samples has been completed and is reported here.

  1. In-Space Recycler Technology Demonstration (United States)

    Hoyt, Rob; Werkheiser, NIKI; Kim, Tony


    In 2014, a 3D printer was installed and used successfully on the International Space Station (ISS), creating the first additively manufactured part in space. While additive manufacturing is a game changing technology for exploration missions, the process still requires raw feedstock material to fabricate parts. Without a recycling capability, a large supply of feedstock would need to be stored onboard, which negates the logistical benefits of these capabilities. Tethers Unlimited, Inc. (TUI), received a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) award to design and build the first In-space Recycler for demonstration aboard the ISS in 2017. To fully test this technology in microgravity, parts will be 3D printed, recycled into reusable filament, and then reprinted into new parts. Recycling scrap into printer filament is quite challenging in that a recycler must be able to handle a large variety of possible scrap configurations and densities. New challenges include: dealing with inevitable contamination of the scrap material, minimizing damage to the molecular structure of the plastic during reprocessing, managing a larger volume of hot liquid plastic, and exercising greater control over the cooling/resolidification of the material. TUI has developed an architecture that addresses these challenges by combining standard, proven technologies with novel, patented processes developed through this effort. Results show that the filament diameter achieved is more consistent than commercial filament, with only minimal degradation of material properties over recycling steps. In May 2016, TUI completed fabrication of a flight prototype, which will ultimately progress to the demonstration unit for the ISS as a testbed for future exploration missions. This capability will provide significant cost savings by reducing the launch mass and volume required for printer feedstock as well as reduce waste that must be stored or disposed.

  2. Attributes to facilitate e-waste recycling behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senawi Nur Hidayah


    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the set of attributes to facilitate electronic waste (e-waste behaviour among the community. E-waste disposal is increasing from year to year in parallel with increasing of global population. The short lifespan of electronics and poor e-waste recycling behaviour is among the main contributors to the steadily increasing of e-waste generated. Current recycling rate among the nation is lacking behind, which is only 10.5%. A questionnaire survey has been conducted among the students in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to evaluate the current e-waste recycling practice. The results showed that majority of the respondents did not recycle their e-waste on campus. Aggressive efforts is needed to realize the country’s target of 20% recycling rate in year 2020, one of the effective paths is to minimize e-waste generation via active e-waste recycling behaviour among the community. Extensive literatures have been reviewed to classify the attributes to facilitate effective e-waste recycling among the community. Total of five attributes that identified in this study which are Convenience of E- waste Recycling Infrastruture and Services, E-waste Recycling Information, Incentives For E-waste Recycling, Reminder to Recycle E-waste And E-waste Recycling Infrastructure and Services. The set of attributes identified in this study may serve as guideline for the management in designing program to foster e-waste recycling behaviour among the community.

  3. Impaired recycling of surfactant-like liposomes in type II pneumocytes from injured lungs


    Muller, B.; Garn, H; Hochscheid, R


    Methods: Different stages of lung injury were induced by exposing rats to 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for 3, 20, and 28 days. Type II cells were isolated from these lungs and recycling of 3H-DPPC labelled surfactant-like liposomes was studied in vitro.

  4. The value of recycling on water conservation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludi-Herrera, Katlyn D.


    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is working to conserve water through recycling. This report will focus on the water conservation that has been accumulated through the recycling of paper, ceiling tiles, compost, and plastic. It will be discussed the use of water in the process of manufacturing these materials and the amount of water that is used. The way that water is conserved will be reviewed. From the stand point of SNL it will be discussed the amount of material that has been accumulated from 2010 to the first two quarters of 2013 and how much water this material has saved.

  5. Economic analysis of recycling contaminated concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen, A.; Ayers, K.W.; Boren, J.K.; Parker, F.L. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)


    Decontamination and Decommissioning activities in the DOE complex generate large volumes of radioactively contaminated and uncontaminated concrete. Currently, this concrete is usually decontaminated, the contaminated waste is disposed of in a LLW facility and the decontaminated concrete is placed in C&D landfills. A number of alternatives to this practice are available including recycling of the concrete. Cost estimates for six alternatives were developed using a spreadsheet model. The results of this analysis show that recycling alternatives are at least as economical as current practice.

  6. Hydrogen recycling in graphite at higher fluxes (United States)

    Larsson, D.; Bergsåker, H.; Hedqvist, A.

    Understanding hydrogen recycling is essential for particle control in fusion devices with a graphite wall. At Extrap T2 three different models have been used. A zero-dimensional (0D) recycling model reproduces the density behavior in plasma discharges as well as in helium glow discharge. A more sophisticated one-dimensional (1D) model is used along with a simple mixing model to explain the results in isotopic exchange experiments. Due to high fluxes some changes in the models were needed. In the paper, the three models are discussed and the results are compared with experimental data.

  7. Incinerate, recycle, or wash and reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbe, M. A.


    Full Text Available What is the best way to minimize the environmental impact of using a product such as paper? Three debating teams were formed within a university class. One team advocated increased recycling of paper. Another team pointed to evidence showing reduced environmental impact and lower net CO2 emissions if the paper is incinerated rather than recycled. A third team advocated the replacement of paper by items such as porcelain plates and video screens, cutting costs and reducing waste by multiple reuse.

  8. Environmental decision making for recycling options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech


    A general method for finding new recycling alternatives in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed wire board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where...... the scrap constitutes the least enviromental problem and where resource recovery is largest. It is clearly shown with the two printed wire board scrap cases that the currently used copper recycling scenario is environmentally inferior to the tin and lead primary production scenarios....

  9. Energy-recycling pixel for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display (United States)

    Yang, Che-Yu; Cho, Ting-Yi; Chen, Yen-Yu; Yang, Chih-Jen; Meng, Chao-Yu; Yang, Chieh-Hung; Yang, Po-Chuan; Chang, Hsu-Yu; Hsueh, Chun-Yuan; Wu, Chung-Chih; Lee, Si-Chen


    The authors report a pixel structure for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays that has a hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cell inserted between the driving polycrystalline Si thin-film transistor and the pixel OLED. Such an active-matrix OLED pixel structure not only exhibits a reduced reflection (and thus improved contrast) compared to conventional OLEDs but also is capable of recycling both incident photon energies and internally generated OLED radiation. Such a feature of energy recycling may be of use for portable/mobile electronics, which are particularly power aware.

  10. Synapse clusters are preferentially formed by synapses with large recycling pool sizes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Welzel

    Full Text Available Synapses are distributed heterogeneously in neural networks. The relationship between the spatial arrangement of synapses and an individual synapse's structural and functional features remains to be elucidated. Here, we examined the influence of the number of adjacent synapses on individual synaptic recycling pool sizes. When measuring the discharge of the styryl dye FM1-43 from electrically stimulated synapses in rat hippocampal tissue cultures, a strong positive correlation between the number of neighbouring synapses and recycling vesicle pool sizes was observed. Accordingly, vesicle-rich synapses were found to preferentially reside next to neighbours with large recycling pool sizes. Although these synapses with large recycling pool sizes were rare, they were densely arranged and thus exhibited a high amount of release per volume. To consolidate these findings, functional terminals were marked by live-cell antibody staining with anti-synaptotagmin-1-cypHer or overexpression of synaptopHluorin. Analysis of synapse distributions in these systems confirmed the results obtained with FM 1-43. Our findings support the idea that clustering of synapses with large recycling pool sizes is a distinct developmental feature of newly formed neural networks and may contribute to functional plasticity.

  11. CED-10/Rac1 regulates endocytic recycling through the RAB-5 GAP TBC-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Sun

    Full Text Available Rac1 is a founding member of the Rho-GTPase family and a key regulator of membrane remodeling. In the context of apoptotic cell corpse engulfment, CED-10/Rac1 acts with its bipartite guanine nucleotide exchange factor, CED-5/Dock180-CED-12/ELMO, in an evolutionarily conserved pathway to promote phagocytosis. Here we show that in the context of the Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal epithelium CED-10/Rac1, CED-5/Dock180, and CED-12/ELMO promote basolateral recycling. Furthermore, we show that CED-10 binds to the RAB-5 GTPase activating protein TBC-2, that CED-10 contributes to recruitment of TBC-2 to endosomes, and that recycling cargo is trapped in recycling endosomes in ced-12, ced-10, and tbc-2 mutants. Expression of GTPase defective RAB-5(Q78L also traps recycling cargo. Our results indicate that down-regulation of early endosome regulator RAB-5/Rab5 by a CED-5, CED-12, CED-10, TBC-2 cascade is an important step in the transport of cargo through the basolateral recycling endosome for delivery to the plasma membrane.

  12. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) - Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2016 Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report aims to increase the understanding of the economic implications of material reuse and recycling. The report...


    This report presents an evaluation of the recycled plastic materials (RPM) produced by California Recycling Company (CRC). This evaluation is performed under the Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program of the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory...

  14. The current status of research on resources recycling in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Seung-Hee; Kuh, Sung-Eun; Kim, Dong-Su [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea)


    The current domestic research status for resources recycling has been reviewed by surveying the technical and review papers reported to some academic journals. The surveyed articles were classified based upon several categories, including recycling fields according to the kinds of recyclable materials, applied recycling technologies, organizations where the research was conducted, and references according to publication year and region. The survey showed that the recycling of metallurgical waste is being studied most actively. Also, the investigation of fly ash recycling is surveyed to be actively conducted. In the aspect of recycling technologies, chemical technologies are shown to be more widely applied than physical ones. For research-conducting organizations, academic institutes have been more active in the research of recycling field compared with national/private research institutes and industries. In the reference survey, English-written articles and the articles published between 1991-1995 period are shown to be most referred. (author). 6 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  15. Endocytic structures and synaptic vesicle recycling at a central synapse in awake rats. (United States)

    Körber, Christoph; Horstmann, Heinz; Sätzler, Kurt; Kuner, Thomas


    The synaptic vesicle (SV) cycle has been studied extensively in cultured cells and slice preparations, but not much is known about the roles and relative contributions of endocytic pathways and mechanisms of SV recycling in vivo, under physiological patterns of activity. We employed horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as an in vivo marker of endocytosis at the calyx of Held synapse in the awake rat. Ex vivo serial section scanning electron microscopy and 3D reconstructions revealed two categories of labelled structures: HRP-filled SVs and large cisternal endosomes. Inhibition of adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3 (AP-1, AP-3) by in vivo application of Brefeldin A (BFA) disrupted endosomal SV budding while SV recycling via clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) remained unaffected. In conclusion, our study establishes cisternal endosomes as an intermediate of the SV cycle and reveals CME and endosomal budding as the predominant mechanisms of SV recycling in a tonically active central synapse in vivo.

  16. Design of a lamella settler for biomass recycling in continuous ethanol fermentation process. (United States)

    Tabera, J; Iznaola, M A


    The design and application of a settler to a continuous fermentation process with yeast recycle were studied. The compact lamella-type settler was chosen to avoid large volumes associated with conventional settling tanks. A rationale of the design method is covered. The sedimentation area was determined by classical batch settling rate tests and sedimentation capacity calculation. Limitations on the residence time of the microorganisms in the settler, rather than sludge thickening considerations, was the approach employed for volume calculation. Fermentation rate tests with yeast after different sedimentation periods were carried out to define a suitable residence time. Continuous cell recycle fermentation runs, performed with the old and new sedimentation devices, show that lamella settler improves biomass recycling efficiency, being the process able to operate at higher sugar concentrations and faster dilution rates.

  17. Comparative Study on Mechanical Properties between Pure and Recycled Polypropylenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne L. Juwono


    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP is one type of thermoplastics that is widely used in our daily activities. A combination of the high demand and the easiness of recycling process, the recycled PP has been generally applied. In this study, the structure and the mechanical properties of the as-received PPs, recycled PPs, and commercial recycled PPs were compared, especially for cloth hanger application. DSC test results showed that recycling process did not cause a significant change to the material's melting point, which stayed in a range of 160-163 oC. Meanwhile, FTIR test results showed that the commercial recycled PPs contained of Polyethylene (PE, which was not found in the as-received and the recycled PPs. Tensile and hardness tests demonstrated that there were no significant differences between the as-received and recycled PPs. In contrast, tensile test results of the commercial recycled PPs showed that the tensile strength, Young modulus and strain-at-break were lower than those of the as-received PPs by 22.1%, 8.1% and 65.7% respectively. The hardness test results of the commercial recycled PPs showed that the recycling process had a little effect on the material's hardness. These facts were supported by SEM observation on the surface that the contour of the commercial recycled PPs was relatively flatter and had smaller grain size than those of the as-received PPs. This indicated that the commercial recycled PPs were more brittle compared to the recycled PPs. To conclude, the recycled PPs have similar properties to the as-received PPs so that recycled PPs are suitable to be applied as cloth hanger application.

  18. Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop (United States)

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.


    Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

  19. Business-to-business: Buying Recycled. (United States)

    Millberg, Laura


    A survey of Minnesota businesses about their efforts to buy recycled content products. Results discuss reactive versus proactive policies, the corporate advantage of environmental protection, how efforts are hampered by confusion, suppliers as key informants, and businesses' need for information. (MDH)

  20. Global recycling - waste trafficking in disguise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamuk, Bettina; Hansen, Jens Aage


    Recycling is used as cover for illegal exporting of hazardous wastes (waste trafficking). This happens in spite of international conventions and codes of good conduct. Additional rules and recommendations are suggested to initiatiate local and national action and compliance with international...

  1. WINCO Metal Recycle annual report, FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtold, T.E. [ed.


    This report is a summary of the first year progress of the WINCO Metal Recycle Program. Efforts were directed towards assessment of radioactive scrap metal inventories, economics and concepts for recycling, technology development, and transfer of technology to the private sector. Seven DOE laboratories worked together to develop a means for characterizing scrap metal. Radioactive scrap metal generation rates were established for several of these laboratories. Initial cost estimates indicate that recycle may be preferable over burial if sufficient decontamination factors can be achieved during melt refining. Radiation levels of resulting ingots must be minimized in order to keep fabrication costs low. Industry has much of the expertise and capability to execute the recycling of radioactive scrap metal. While no single company can sort, melt, refine, roll and fabricate, a combination of two to three can complete this operation. The one process which requires development is in melt refining for removal of radionuclides other than uranium. WINCO is developing this capability in conjunction with academia and industry. This work will continue into FY-94.

  2. They're plastic, but they recycle. (United States)

    Halpain, Shelley


    Dendritic spines form and grow during hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). In this issue of Neuron, a new study by Park et al. uses both serial reconstruction electron microscopy and time-lapse imaging to show that plasma membrane for such spine expansion is trafficked from recycling endosomes that reside locally at the spines themselves.

  3. Ceramic foams for Al-recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luyten, J.; Vandermeulen, W.; Schutter, F. de [VITO, Materials Technology, Mol (Belgium); Simensen, C. [Sintef, Materials Technology, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Ryckeboer, M. [Remi Claeys Aluminium, Lichtervelde (Belgium)


    The recycling of Al scrap requires an efficient purification step. In this investigation a filter technique is used to remove intermetallic compounds containing Fe, Mn and Si out of the molten Al. The paper describes the synthesis of the filters, the construction of the filter installation, and the results of the different filter tests. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Chemical or feedstock recycling of WEEE products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.


    This chapter reviews initiatives with regard to chemical or feedstock recycling of plastics waste from electrical and electronic products. eurostat estimates the amount of waste from electrical and electronic products that is collected is 2.2 million tonnes. Roughly 20% of this waste consists of pla

  5. Recycled sand in lime-based mortars. (United States)

    Stefanidou, M; Anastasiou, E; Georgiadis Filikas, K


    The increasing awareness of the society about safe guarding heritage buildings and at the same time protecting the environment promotes strategies of combining principles of restoration with environmentally friendly materials and techniques. Along these lines, an experimental program was carried out in order to investigate the possibility of producing repair, lime-based mortars used in historic buildings incorporating secondary materials. The alternative material tested was recycled fine aggregates originating from mixed construction and demolition waste. Extensive tests on the raw materials have been performed and mortar mixtures were produced using different binding systems with natural, standard and recycled sand in order to compare their mechanical, physical and microstructure properties. The study reveals the improved behavior of lime mortars, even at early ages, due to the reaction of lime with the Al and Si constituents of the fine recycled sand. The role of the recycled sand was more beneficial in lime mortars rather than the lime-pozzolan or lime-pozzolan-cement mortars as a decrease in their performance was recorded in the latter cases due to the mortars' structure.

  6. The ideomotor recycling theory for language. (United States)

    Badets, Arnaud


    For language acquisition and processing, the ideomotor theory predicts that the comprehension and the production of language are functionally based on their expected perceptual effects (i.e., linguistic events). This anticipative mechanism is central for action-perception behaviors in human and nonhuman animals, but a recent ideomotor recycling theory has emphasized a language account throughout an evolutionary perspective.

  7. Recycling and imaging of nuclear singlet hyperpolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pileio, Giuseppe; Bowen, Sean; Laustsen, Christoffer


    observation of the same batch of polarized nuclei over a period of 30 min and more. We report a recycling protocol in which the enhanced nuclear polarization achieved by dissolution-DNP is observed with full intensity and then returned to singlet order. MRI experiments may be run on a portion of the available...

  8. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Noah Daniel; Börjesson, Johan; Pedersen, Lars Saaby;


    To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzyme...

  9. Textiles and clothing sustainability recycled and upcycled textiles and fashion

    CERN Document Server


    This book discusses in detail the concepts of recycling and upcycling and their implications for the textiles and fashion sector. In addition to the theoretical concepts, the book also presents various options for recycling and upcycling in textiles and fashion. Although recycling is a much-developed and widely used concept, upcycling is also gaining popularity in the sector.

  10. Aspects Concerning the Use of Recycled Concrete Aggregates (United States)

    Robu, I.; Mazilu, C.; Deju, R.


    Natural aggregates (gravel and crushed) are essential non-renewable resources which are used for infrastructure works and civil engineering. Using recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) is a matter of high priority in the construction industry worldwide. This paper presents a study on the use of recycled aggregates, from a concrete of specified class, to acquire new cement concrete with different percentages of recycled aggregates.

  11. Analyzing effective municipal solid waste recycling programs: the case of county-level MSW recycling performance in Florida, USA. (United States)

    Park, Seejeen; Berry, Frances S


    Municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling performance, both nationally and in Florida, USA, has shown little improvement during the past decade. This research examines variations in the MSW recycling program performance in Florida counties in an attempt to identify effective recycling programs. After reviewing trends in the MSW management literature, we conducted an empirical analysis using cross-sectional multiple regression analysis. The findings suggest that the convenience-based hypothesis was supported by showing that curbside recycling had a positive effect on MSW recycling performance. Financial (cost-saving) incentive-based hypotheses were partially supported meaning that individual level incentives can influence recycling performance. Citizen environmental concern was found to positively affect the amount of county recycling, while education and political affiliation yielded no significant results. In conclusion, this article discusses the implications of the findings for both academic research and practice of MSW recycling programs.

  12. A tale of five cities: Using recycling frameworks to analyse inclusive recycling performance. (United States)

    Scheinberg, Anne; Simpson, Michael


    'Recycling' is a source of much confusion, particularly when comparing solid waste systems in high-income countries with those in low- and middle-income countries. Few analysts can explain why the performance and structure of recycling appears to be so different in rich countries from poor ones, nor why well-meaning efforts to implement recycling so often fail. The analysis of policy drivers, and the Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) framework, come close to an explanation.This article builds on these earlier works, focusing in on five cities profiled in the 2010 UN-Habitat publication (Scheinberg A, Wilson DC and Rodic L (2010) Solid Waste Management in the World's Cities. UN-Habitat's Third Global Report on the State of Water and Sanitation in the World's Cities. Newcastle-on-Tyne, UK: Earthscan Publications). Data from these cities and others provides the basis for developing a new tool to analyse inclusive recycling performance. The points of departure are the institutional and economic relationships between the service chain, the public obligation to remove waste, pollution, and other forms of disvalue, and the value chain, a system of private enterprises trading valuable materials and providing markets for recyclables. The methodological innovation is to use flows of materials and money as indicators of institutional relationships, and is an extension of process flow diagramming.The authors are using the term 'recycling framework analysis' to describe this new form of institutional analysis. The diagrams increase our understanding of the factors that contribute to high-performance inclusive recycling. By focusing on institutional relationships, the article seeks to improve analysis, planning, and ultimately, outcomes, of recycling interventions.

  13. PET Recycling Behavior of consumers in Lahore, Pakistan, Available knowledge and general attitudes, Impact on recycling


    Meer, van der, R.W.; , Usman


    Abstract Lahore, Pakistan is one of the most populated and hottest regions of the world. Due to long summers beverages consumption is generally high leading to an increase in consumption of beverage PET bottles. There is a huge amount of municipal waste which is not being recycled and as a result it ends up in land refills. Through a survey I have tried to figure out that how different factors like income level, educational level, recycling facility, knowledge and incentives influence recycli...

  14. Porosity of the recycled concrete with substitution of recycled concrete aggregate. An experimental study


    Gómez Soberón, José Manuel Vicente


    In this paper, we present the experimental analysis of samples of recycled concrete (RC) with replacement of natural aggregate (NA) by recycled aggregate originating from concrete (RCA). The results of the tests of mechanical properties of RC were used for comparison with tests of mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), in which the distribution of the theoretical pore radius, critical pore ratio, the surface area of the concrete, threshold ratio and average pore radius were studied at ages of 7...

  15. Polymer recycling: potential application of radiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burillo, Guillermina; Clough, Roger L. E-mail:; Czvikovszky, Tibor; Guven, Olgun; Le Moel, Alain; Liu Weiwei; Singh, Ajit; Yang Jingtian; Zaharescu, Traian


    Management of solid waste is an important problem, which is becoming progressively worse as a byproduct of continuing economic growth and development. Polymeric materials (plastics and rubbers) comprise a steadily increasing proportion of the municipal and industrial waste going into landfill. Development of technologies for reducing polymeric waste, which are acceptable from the environmental standpoint, and which are cost-effective, has proven to be a difficult challenge due to complexities inherent in the reuse of polymers. Establishing optimal processes for the reuse/recycling of polymeric materials thus remains a worldwide challenge as we enter the new century. Due to the ability of ionizing radiation to alter the structure and properties of bulk polymeric materials, and the fact that it is applicable to essentially all polymer types, irradiation holds promise for impacting the polymer waste problem. The three main possibilities for use of radiation in this application are: (1) enhancing the mechanical properties and performance of recovered materials or material blends, principally through crosslinking, or through surface modification of different phases being combined; (2) treatment causing or enhancing the decomposition of polymers, particularly through chain scission, leading to recovery of either low molecular weight mixtures, or powders, for use as chemical feedstocks or additives; (3) production of advanced polymeric materials designed for environmental compatibility. This paper provides an overview of the polymer recycling problem, describes the major technological obstacles to the implementation of recycling technologies, and outlines some of the approaches being taken. A review of radiation-based recycling research is then provided, followed by a discussion of future directions where irradiation may be relevant to the problems currently inhibiting the widespread recycling of polymeric materials.

  16. Bioreduction with efficient recycling of NADPH by coupled permeabilized microorganisms. (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; O'Connor, Kevin; Wang, Daniel I C; Li, Zhi


    The glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) from Bacillus subtilis BGSC 1A1 was cloned and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(pGDH1) and XL-1 Blue(pGDH1). Controlled permeabilization of recombinant E. coli BL21 and XL-1 Blue with EDTA-toluene under optimized conditions resulted in permeabilized cells with specific activities of 61 and 14 U/g (dry weight) of cells, respectively, for the conversion of NADP(+) to NADPH upon oxidation of glucose. The permeabilized recombinant strains were more active than permeabilized B. subtilis BGSC 1A1, did not exhibit NADPH/NADH oxidase activity, and were useful for regeneration of both NADH and NADPH. Coupling of permeabilized cells of Bacillus pumilus Phe-C3 containing an NADPH-dependent ketoreductase and an E. coli recombinant expressing GDH as a novel biocatalytic system allowed enantioselective reduction of ethyl 3-keto-4,4,4-trifluorobutyrate with efficient recycling of NADPH; a total turnover number (TTN) of 4,200 mol/mol was obtained by using E. coli BL21(pGDH1) as the cofactor-regenerating microorganism with initial addition of 0.005 mM NADP(+). The high TTN obtained is in the practical range for producing fine chemicals. Long-term stability of the permeabilized cell couple and a higher product concentration were demonstrated by 68 h of bioreduction of ethyl 3-keto-4,4,4-trifluorobutyrate with addition of 0.005 mM NADP(+) three times; 50.5 mM (R)-ethyl 3-hydroxy-4,4,4-trifluorobutyrate was obtained with 95% enantiomeric excess, 84% conversion, and an overall TTN of 3,400 mol/mol. Our method results in practical synthesis of (R)-ethyl 3-hydroxy-4,4,4-trifluorobutyrate, and the principle described here is generally applicable to other microbial reductions with cofactor recycling.

  17. Effect of leachate recycle and inoculation on microbial characteristics of municipal refuse in landfill bioreactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Population development of key groups of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria involved in municipal refuse decomposition under laboratory landfill bioreactors with and without leachate recycle adinoculation was measured since modeling municipal refuse was landfilled in bioreactors for about 210 days. Hydrolytic fermentative bacteria (HFB), hydrogen-producing acetogenic bacteria (HPAB), methane-producing bacteria (MPB), sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), anaerobic and aerobic cellulolytic bacteria and denitrabacteria were enumerated by the most probable number technique. The results showed that the dominant microorganismgroups were the methanogenic bacteria including hydrolytic fermentative, hydrogen-producing acetogenic and methane-producing bacteria. They were present in fresh refuse but at low values and positively affected by leachate recycle and refuse inoculation. The amounts of HFB or HPAB in digesters D4 and D5 operated with noculation and leachate recycle reached their maximum values of1010-1012 cells/g dry refuse for HFB or 105-106 cells/g dry refuse for HPAB on day 60, in digester D3 operated with leachate recycle on day 120 for HFB (109 cells/g dry refuse) or on day 90 for HPAB (105 cells/g dry refuse), and in digesters D1 and D2 on day 210 for HFB (109 cells/g dry refuse) or on day 90 for HPAB (104-106 cells/g dry refuse). The population of methane-producing bacteria in digesters D4 and D5 sharply increased on days 60 and 90 respectively, however in igesters D1, D2 and D3 on day 120. Leachate recycle and inoculation changed the cellulolytic microorganisms composition of refuse ecosystem, the higher amounts of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria were measured in digesters D4 and D5 (107 cells/g dry refuse), followed by digesters D3 (106 cells/g dry refuse), D2 or D1(104 cells/g dry refuse). However, the amounts of aerobic cellulolytic bacteria were much lower than that of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria. And it was higher in digester D3 than those in digesters D1, D2

  18. Tar Management and Recycling in Biomass Gasification and Syngas Purification (United States)

    McCaffrey, Zach

    Removal of tars is critical to the design and operation of biomass gasification systems as most syngas utilization processing equipment (e.g. internal combustion engines, gas turbines, fuel cells, and liquid fuel synthesis reactors) have a low tolerance for tar. Capturing and disposal of tar is expensive due to equipment costs, high hazardous waste disposal costs where direct uses cannot be found, and system energy losses incurred. Water scrubbing is an existing technique commonly used in gasification plants to remove contaminants and tar; however using water as the absorbent is non-ideal as tar compounds have low or no water solubility. Hydrophobic solvents can improve scrubber performance and this study evaluated tar solubility in selected solvents using slip-streams of untreated syngas from a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operated on almond composite feedstock using both air and steam gasification. Tar solubility was compared with Hansen's solubility theory to examine the extent to which the tar removal can be predicted. As collection of tar without utilization leads to a hazardous waste problem, the study investigated the effects of recycling tars back into the gasifier for destruction. Prior to experiments conducted on tar capture and recycle, characterizations of the air and steam gasification of the almond composite mix were made. This work aims to provide a better understanding of tar collection and solvent selection for wet scrubbers, and to provide information for designing improved tar management systems for biomass gasification.

  19. Multiple recycling of fuel in prototype fast breeder reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Pandikumar; V Gopalakrishnan; P Mohanakrishnan


    In a thermal neutron reactor, multiple recycle of U–Pu fuel is not possible due to degradation of fissile content of Pu in just one recycle. In the FBR closed fuel cycle, possibility of multi-recycle has been recognized. In the present study, Pu-239 equivalence approach is used to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving near constant input inventory of Pu and near stable Pu isotopic composition after a few recycles of the same fuel of the prototype fast breeder reactor under construction at Kalpakkam. After about five recycles, the cycle-to-cycle variation in the above parameters is below 1%.

  20. End-of-life vehicle recycling based on disassembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiang; QIN Ye; CHEN Ming; WANG Cheng-tao


    The end-of-life vehicle recycling was studied based on the disassembly. The end-of-life recycling and the disassembly were reviewed and discussed. A disassembly experiment of an end-of-life engine was carried out, which strictly recorded the process of dismantling. Based on the results, a model of the end-of-life recycling was presented. In this model, the end-of-life parts were classified by three ways which included to recycle directly, to recycleafter remanufacturing and to discard. By using this model, the dismantling efficiency and the recycling rate can be improved. Also, it obtains a good result after used in a dismantling factory.

  1. Shear friction capacity of recycled concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiras, J.


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the behavior of recycled concrete in response to the phenomenon of shear transfer. To perform it, a conventional control concrete and a concrete with 50% recycled coarse aggregate were designed. An additional goal was to shed light on how this behavior is modified with a pozzolanic addition, silica fume. Therefore, two types of concrete were designed, a conventional and a recycled concrete, both made with 8% of silica fume. In conclusion, a reduction of shear friction capacity was observed in recycled concretes, considerably higher in the case of the specimen without reinforcement. The addition of silica fume improved the behavior of recycled concretes. The results obtained were compared with the formulations of the different authors. In all cases, these were found to be conservative. However, the safety margins offered by recycled concretes are lower than those obtained with conventional concretes.

    En esta investigación se estudió el comportamiento de los hormigones reciclados frente al fenómeno de transmisión de cortante. Para ello se diseñó un hormigón convencional de control y un hormigón con el 50% del árido grueso reciclado. Adicionalmente, para determinar cómo este comportamiento se ve modificado con la incorporación de una adición puzolánica (humo de sílice, se procedió al diseño de un hormigón convencional y su correspondiente reciclado con un 8% de humo de sílice. Los resultados indicaron una disminución de la capacidad frente a este fenómeno en los hormigones reciclados, más acusada en ausencia de armadura pasante. La adición de humo de sílice mejora el comportamiento de este material. Los resultados experimentales obtenidos se compararon con formulaciones teóricas de diversos autores, concluyéndose que éstas son, en todos los casos, conservadoras, aunque reducen el margen de seguridad en los hormigones reciclados.

  2. Magnesium recycling in the United States in 1998 (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.


    As concern for the environment has grown in recent years, the importance of recycling has become more evident. The more materials that are recycled, the fewer natural resources will be consumed and the fewer waste products will end up in landfills, the water, and the air. As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the 1998 flow of magnesium in the United States from extraction through its uses with particular emphasis on recycling. In 1998, the recycling efficiency for magnesium was estimated to be 33 percent--almost 60 percent of the magnesium that was recycled came from new scrap, primarily waste from die-casting operations. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

  3. Recycling behaviour in healthcare: waste handling at work. (United States)

    Vogt, Joachim; Nunes, Katia R A


    This article reviews the motivational factors for environmental behaviour in general, presenting a case study on recycling disposable plastics in hospitals. Results show that 90% of over 600 employees from six analysed hospitals in Germany reported that the recycling of disposable plastics on the wards makes sense from an environmental and economic point of view. The case study reports an assessment of recycling attitudes and problems of hospital staff, mainly nurses. Employees in eco-certified hospitals were much more satisfied and reported fewer problems with the recycling system. The gender effect was significant only for saving energy, while age correlated with nearly all reported pro-environmental behaviour at home. At work, the mere introduction of a recycling system was insufficient to achieve good recycling results. Based on the study findings, recommendations are given aimed at improving the safety and sustainability of the recycling system.

  4. Investigation of Adding Proportion of RAP in Recycled Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao He


    Full Text Available According to the relationship between gradation and proportion of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP and design gradation of recycled mixture, the authors discussed the influence of proportion of RAP on gradation adjustment of recycled mixture. And then, recycled mixture with 0%, 30%, 50%, 70% of RAP were made, and Influence of proportion of RAP on high and low temperature performance, water stability and anti-aging performance of recycled mixture were discussed. The results and analysis indicate that gradation of recycled mixture would not be adjusted to aiming gradation if proportion of RAP was too big. With the increase of proportion of RAP, high temperature performance and anti-aging performance of recycled mixture enhanced, but low temperature performance and water stability decayed sharply. In practical application, reasonable proportion of RAP should be determined according to gradation, performance demand and economy of recycled mixture.

  5. Experimental study on fracture properties of Waste fiber recycled concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jing Hai


    Full Text Available In order to study the influence of the replacement ratio of recycled aggregate and the volume of waste fiber on the fracture performance of concrete, the three-point bending test is carried out on the waste fiber recycled concrete precast beams. Calculate the waste recycled fiber concrete fracture parameters according to the double-K fracture model. The results show that the fracture indexes of recycled fiber are related to the recycled aggregate replacement ratio and the volume content of waste fiber. The larger the replacement rate of recycled aggregate is, the smaller the fracture indexes of the specimens are. The volume content of waste fiber is 0.12%, which has the most significant effect on the fracture performance. The study shows that waste fiber can improve the fracture properties of recycled aggregate concrete.

  6. Roles of Electrolyte Characterization on Bauxite Electrolysis Desulfurization with Regeneration and Recycling (United States)

    Gong, Xuzhong; Wang, Zhi; Zhuang, Siyuan; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuhua; Wang, Mingyong


    The recycling of NaCl used as supporting electrolyte for bauxite electrolysis was carried out in this study. The electrolyte was regenerated by adding anhydrous CaCl2 into the solution after filtration, and effects of electrolyte characterization on bauxite electrolysis were examined by observing the change in desulfurization ratio and cell voltage. The results indicated that the desulfurization ratio increased with increasing recycling times of electrolyte. In the meantime, the increase in recycling times has led to the decrease in pH value as well as the increase in Fe ion concentration in the electrolyte, which were the main reasons for the increase in the desulfurization ratio with increasing recycling of electrolyte. The pH value of electrolyte after second electrolysis was lower than 1.5, and the desulfurization ratio increased obviously due to the increase in Fe3+ concentration and suppression of jarosite formation. The increase in Ca2+ concentration did not apparently change desulfurization ratio and anode surface activity. However, with Ca2+ addition, the cathode surface was covered by CaSO4·nH2O, thus resulting in the increase of cell voltage.

  7. Roles of Electrolyte Characterization on Bauxite Electrolysis Desulfurization with Regeneration and Recycling (United States)

    Gong, Xuzhong; Wang, Zhi; Zhuang, Siyuan; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuhua; Wang, Mingyong


    The recycling of NaCl used as supporting electrolyte for bauxite electrolysis was carried out in this study. The electrolyte was regenerated by adding anhydrous CaCl2 into the solution after filtration, and effects of electrolyte characterization on bauxite electrolysis were examined by observing the change in desulfurization ratio and cell voltage. The results indicated that the desulfurization ratio increased with increasing recycling times of electrolyte. In the meantime, the increase in recycling times has led to the decrease in pH value as well as the increase in Fe ion concentration in the electrolyte, which were the main reasons for the increase in the desulfurization ratio with increasing recycling of electrolyte. The pH value of electrolyte after second electrolysis was lower than 1.5, and the desulfurization ratio increased obviously due to the increase in Fe3+ concentration and suppression of jarosite formation. The increase in Ca2+ concentration did not apparently change desulfurization ratio and anode surface activity. However, with Ca2+ addition, the cathode surface was covered by CaSO4·nH2O, thus resulting in the increase of cell voltage.

  8. Intracellular recycling and cross-presentation by MHC class I molecules. (United States)

    van Endert, Peter


    Cross-presentation of internalized antigens by dendritic cells requires efficient delivery of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I molecules to peptide-loading compartments. Strong evidence suggests that such loading can occur outside of the endoplasmic reticulum; however, the trafficking pathways and sources of class I molecules involved are poorly understood. Examination of non-professional, non-phagocytic cells has revealed a clathrin-independent, Arf6-dependent recycling pathway likely traveled by internalized optimally loaded (closed) class I molecules. Some closed and all open MHC class I molecules travel to late endosomes to be degraded but might also partly be re-loaded with peptides and recycled. Studies of viral interference revealed pathways in which class I molecules are directed to degradation in lysosomes upon ubiquitination at the surface, or upon AP-1 and HIV-nef-dependent misrouting from the Golgi network to lysosomes. While many observations made in non-professional cells remain to be re-examined in dendritic cells, available evidence suggests that both recycling and neo-synthesized class I molecules can be loaded with cross-presented peptides. Recycling molecules can be recruited to phagosomes triggered by innate signals such as TLR4 ligands, and may therefore specialize in loading with phagocytosed antigens. In contrast, AP-1-dependent accumulation at, or trafficking through, a Golgi compartment of newly synthesized molecules appears to be important for cross-presentation of soluble proteins and possibly of long peptides that are processed in the so-called vacuolar pathway. However, significant cell biological work will be required to confirm this or any other model and to integrate knowledge on MHC class I biochemistry and trafficking in models of CD8(+) T-cell priming by dendritic cells.

  9. Recycle of silicate waste into mesoporous materials. (United States)

    Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Minwoo; Yu, Jong-Sung


    Template synthesis of porous carbon materials usually requires selective removal of template silica from the carbon/silica composites. It not only involves waste of valuable chemicals, but also poses significant environmental concerns including high waste treatment cost. Recycling of silicates released from such nanocasting methods is successfully performed for the first time to regenerate valuable mesoporous MCM and SBA type silica materials, which will not only help in saving valuable chemicals, but also in decreasing chemical waste, contributing in improvement of our environmental standards. This approach can thus improve cost effectiveness for the mass production of nanostructured carbon and others utilizing silica directed nanocasting method by recycling otherwise silicate waste into highly desirable valuable mesoporous silica.

  10. Claus recycle with double combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bishtawi, Ribhi; Haimour, No' man [University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)


    A new modification is developed on conventional Claus process to increase the overall sulfur recovery as well as to decrease the costs. The modification combines both oxygen enrichment and recycling. The process is simulated and studied for various N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} ratios with and without using SURE double combustion technique. The predictions show that using pure oxygen in combustion, condensing water vapor in a condenser following the first sulfur condenser and recycling the effluent gas to combine it with fresh acid gas feed leads to large savings in the production cost and to a clean environment. However, it leads to a high adiabatic flame temperature which exceeds the maximum allowable temperature of the furnace material of construction as well as its refractory. To avoid these effects, it is necessary to use SURE double combustion technique. The oxygen flow rate to the first combustion stage should not exceed 78% O{sub 2}.

  11. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel. (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Zhu, Zhi; Wang, Weihua; Lu, Xuefeng


    The sustainable supply of lipids is the bottleneck for current biodiesel production. Here microbial recycling of glycerol, byproduct of biodiesel production to biodiesel in engineered Escherichia coli strains was reported. The KC3 strain with capability of producing fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) from glucose was used as a starting strain to optimize fermentation conditions when using glycerol as sole carbon source. The YL15 strain overexpressing double copies of atfA gene displayed 1.7-fold increase of FAEE productivity compared to the KC3 strain. The titer of FAEE in YL15 strain reached to 813 mg L(-1) in minimum medium using glycerol as sole carbon source under optimized fermentation conditions. The titer of glycerol-based FAEE production can be significantly increased by both genetic modifications and fermentation optimization. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel expands carbon sources for biodiesel production.

  12. Recycling Pulsars: spins, masses and ages

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, T M; Langer, N


    Although the first millisecond pulsars (MSPs) were discovered 30 years ago we still do not understand all details of their formation process. Here, we present new results from Tauris, Langer & Kramer (2012) on the recycling scenario leading to radio MSPs with helium or carbon-oxygen white dwarf companions via evolution of low- and intermediate mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs, IMXBs). We discuss the location of the spin-up line in the (P,Pdot)-diagram and estimate the amount of accreted mass needed to obtain a given spin period and compare with observations. Finally, we constrain the true ages of observed recycled pulsars via calculated isochrones in the (P,Pdot)-diagram.

  13. Recycling of solid wastes at kindergartens centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R.M.S.R.


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to conduct an activity on environmental awareness campaign at a kindergarten center, with the children age 4-6 years old. The activity included identify the various types of waste generated at the kindergarten and to realize the conservation practice by participating in simple waste management strategies and an explanation about recycling, reusing and reducing waste (3R. The activity provided the children more awareness about the importance of minimizing the plastic wastes. The activity had created an interesting experience to the young generation through practice activity and has given a light on the nature conservation along their growing years. It can be concluded that the awareness of environmental issues among children have risen up as noted by looking at students physical expression. Children have understood the potential to conserve nature from a simple action which is recycling. After the activity, children’s were able to identify and divide the rubbish.

  14. Transverse Instabilities in the Fermilab Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, L.R.; Burov, A.; Shemyakin, A.; Bhat, C.M.; Crisp, J.; Eddy, N.; /Fermilab


    Transverse instabilities of the antiproton beam have been observed in the Recycler ring soon after its commissioning. After installation of transverse dampers, the threshold for the instability limit increased significantly but the instability is still found to limit the brightness of the antiprotons extracted from the Recycler for Tevatron shots. In this paper, we describe observations of the instabilities during the extraction process as well as during dedicated studies. The measured instability threshold phase density agrees with the prediction of the rigid beam model within a factor of 2. Also, we conclude that the instability threshold can be significantly lowered for a bunch contained in a narrow and shallow potential well due to effective exclusion of the longitudinal tails from Landau damping.

  15. Recycling of greenhouse gases via methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Eliasson, B.; Kogelschatz, U. [ABB Corporate Research Center, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)


    Greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere can be mitigated by using direct control technologies (capture, disposal or chemical recycling). We report on carbon dioxide and methane recycling with other chemicals, especially with hydrogen and oxygen, to methanol. Methanol synthesis from CO{sub 2} is investigated on various catalysts at moderate pressures ({<=}30 bar) and temperatures ({<=}300{sup o}C). The catalysts show good methanol activities and selectivities. The conversion of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} to methanol is also studied in a silent electrical discharge at pressures of 1 to 4 bar and temperatures close to room temperature. Methanol yields are given for mixtures of CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} and also for CH{sub 4} and air mixtures. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  16. Design of Road Pavement Using Recycled Aggregate (United States)

    Remišová, Eva; Decký, Martin; Mikolaš, Milan; Hájek, Matej; Kovalčík, Luboš; Mečár, Martin


    The presented article gives special attention to codified clauses of the road construction law, the relevant clauses of the standards and technical regulations to design and control the quality of recycled aggregate constructions. The article also presents the authors’ suggestions to design of earth constructions and pavements of roads according to the Slovak technical standards, technical regulations and objectively determined results of research and development of road infrastructure. The article presents a comparison of the mechanical characteristics measurements of the structural layers of road pavements built from the recycled and natural aggregate. It also presents correlation functions of results obtained from in situ and in laboratory CBR (Californian Bearing Ratio) measuring, representing the world's most widely used control method of bearing capacity of mentioned construction layers.

  17. Resource recovery and recycling in OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNeil, J.W.

    It was the importance of the economic issues relevant to resource recovery and re-use that prompted OECD to become involved in this general area, and the author proposes in this talk to describe the principal features of the three main approaches to waste management from an economic perspective. These approaches are reduction of waste generation (i.e. birth control) resource recovery and materials recycling or re-use (reincarnation). Most of OECD's work in this area to date has been on the third of these approaches with particular emphasis on the economics of recycling, so somewhat more attention will be devoted to it. Then some conclusions will be drawn concerning possible policy actions to encourage a rational approach to management of this resource.

  18. Gravitational sedimentation can solve the problem of cellular recycling of yeast in continuous alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, A.B.R.A. (Dept. de Engenharia Quimica, Escola de Engenharia da UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)); Nelson, D.L. (Dept. de Engenharia Quimica, Escola de Engenharia da UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil))


    Adjustments in the geometry of the separation zone of an inclined parallel plate sedimenter, previously developed, permitted an extensive increase in the volumetric clarification rate of broth containing yeast (S. cerevisiae). The prototype, having an internal capacity of 1340 ml, was fed with fermentation broth containing 18.8% v/v cells, while 16.4 ml/min of clarified broth containing 0.3% v/v cells was removed in the overflow. The underflow, containing 23.8% v/v cells, was recycled to the fermenter at a rate of 60.6 ml/min. These results demonstrated the viability of using exclusively gravitational sedimentation for cellular recycling in continuous alcoholic fermentation. Without a doubt, this system represents the simplest technological alternative among those thus far proposed for continuous alcoholic fermentation. The low cost of installation, maintenance and operation permitted projection of its application for any scale of production. (orig.)

  19. Theoretical study of closed-loop recycling liquid-liquid chromatography and experimental verification of the theory. (United States)

    Kostanyan, Artak E; Erastov, Andrey A


    The non-ideal recycling equilibrium-cell model including the effects of extra-column dispersion is used to simulate and analyze closed-loop recycling counter-current chromatography (CLR CCC). Previously, the operating scheme with the detector located before the column was considered. In this study, analysis of the process is carried out for a more realistic and practical scheme with the detector located immediately after the column. Peak equation for individual cycles and equations describing the transport of single peaks and complex chromatograms inside the recycling closed-loop, as well as equations for the resolution between single solute peaks of the neighboring cycles, for the resolution of peaks in the recycling chromatogram and for the resolution between the chromatograms of the neighboring cycles are presented. It is shown that, unlike conventional chromatography, increasing of the extra-column volume (the recycling line length) may allow a better separation of the components in CLR chromatography. For the experimental verification of the theory, aspirin, caffeine, coumarin and the solvent system hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (1:1:1:1) were used. Comparison of experimental and simulated processes of recycling and distribution of the solutes in the closed-loop demonstrated a good agreement between theory and experiment.

  20. Remote fabrication and irradiation test of recycled nuclear fuel prepared by the oxidation and reduction of spent oxide fuel (United States)

    Jin Ryu, Ho; Chan Song, Kee; Il Park, Geun; Won Lee, Jung; Seung Yang, Myung


    A direct dry recycling process was developed in order to reuse spent pressurized light water reactor (LWR) nuclear fuel in CANDU reactors without the separation of sensitive nuclear materials such as plutonium. The benefits of the dry recycling process are the saving of uranium resources and the reduction of spent fuel accumulation as well as a higher proliferation resistance. In the process of direct dry recycling, fuel pellets separated from spent LWR fuel rods are oxidized from UO2 to U3O8 at 500 °C in an air atmosphere and reduced into UO2 at 700 °C in a hydrogen atmosphere, which is called OREOX (oxidation and reduction of oxide fuel). The pellets are pulverized during the oxidation and reduction processes due to the phase transformation between cubic UO2 and orthorhombic U3O8. Using the oxide powder prepared from the OREOX process, the compaction and sintering processes are performed in a remote manner in a shielded hot cell due to the high radioactivity of the spent fuel. Most of the fission gas and volatile fission products are removed during the OREOX and sintering processes. The mini-elements fabricated by the direct dry recycling process are irradiated in the HANARO research reactor for the performance evaluation of the recycled fuel pellets. Post-irradiation examination of the irradiated fuel showed that microstructural evolution and fission gas release behavior of the dry-recycled fuel were similar to high burnup UO2 fuel.

  1. Recycling of Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The pace of development and fielding of electric vehicles is briefly described and the principal advanced battery chemistries expected to be used in the EV application are identified as Ni/MH in the near term and Li-ion/Li-polymer in the intermediate to long term. The status of recycling process development is reviewed for each of the two chemistries and future research needs are discussed.

  2. Clathrin-independent internalization and recycling


    Gong, Qiang; Huntsman, Christopher; Ma, Dzwokai


    Abstract The functionality of receptor and channel proteins depends directly upon their expression level on the plasma membrane. Therefore, the ability to selectively adjust the surface level of a particular receptor or channel protein is pivotal to many cellular signalling events. The internalization and recycling pathway plays a major role in the regulation of protein surface level, and thus has been a focus of research for many years. Although several endocytic pathways have been identifie...

  3. Microwave Study of Recycled ABS Resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A; M; Hasna


    This article provides a review of the research unde rt aken in order to determine the suitability of utilizing microwave technology in the production of Recycled ABS Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene resin for mouldin gs. The experimental investigation determined the suitability of the existing re cycled ABS material, the mould material used with respect to performance and lon gevity, potential commercial plant and equipment, end mould compression. Introduction Frequency Characterization of ABS The first ...

  4. Alternative Approaches to Recycling Nuclear Wastes (United States)

    Hannum, William H.


    Nuclear power exists, and as the demand for non-fossil electricity generation increases, many more nuclear plants are being planned and built. The result is growing inventories of spent nuclear fuel containing plutonium that -- in principle, at least -- can be used to make nuclear explosives. There are countries and organizations that are believed to want nuclear weapons, posing a knotty proliferation problem that calls for realistic control of nuclear materials. Phasing out nuclear power and sequestering all dangerous materials in guarded storage or in geological formations would not be a realistic approach. Plutonium from commercial spent fuel is very hard to make into a weapon. However, a rogue nation could operate a power plant so as to produce plutonium with weapons-quality isotopics, and then chemically purify it. IAEA safeguards are designed to discourage this, but the only enforcement is referral to the United Nations General Assembly. The traditional reprocessing method, PUREX, produces plutonium that has the chemical purity needed for weapons. However, there are alternative approaches that produce only highly radioactive blends of fissionable materials and fission products. Recycle offers a market for spent nuclear fuel, promoting more rigorous accounting of these materials. Unlike PUREX, the new technologies permit the recycle and consumption of essentially all of the high-hazard transuranics, and will reduce the required isolation time for the waste to less than 500 years. Facilities for recovering recyclable materials from LWR spent fuel will be large and expensive. Only a very few such plants will be needed, leading to appropriate concentration of safeguards measures. Plants for recycling the spent fuel from fast burner reactors can be collocated with the power plants and share the safeguards.

  5. Recycling troubleshooting experience with fuzzy logic (United States)

    Lirov, Yuval


    Increasing complexity of systems requires improved support capabilities. Automation controls the support costs while meeting the growing demands at the same time. Proteus is a firm-wide proactive problem management system with automated advisory capabilities. Proteus non-obtrusively accumulates troubleshooting expertise and quickly recycles it by combining case-based reasoning with text retrieval and fuzzy logic pattern matching. It has linear on-line and sub-quadratic preprocessing computational time complexities.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Environmental regulations can have a significant impact on product use, disposal, and recycling. This report summarizes the basic aspects of current federal, state and international regulations which apply to end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules and PV manufacturing scrap destined for disposal or recycling. It also discusses proposed regulations for electronics that may set the ground of what is to be expected in this area in the near future. In the US, several states have started programs to support the recycling of electronic equipment, and materials destined for recycling often are excepted from solid waste regulations during the collection, transfer, storage and processing stages. California regulations are described separately because they are different from those of most other states. International agreements on the movement of waste between different countries may pose barriers to cross-border shipments. Currently waste moves freely among country members of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and between the US and the four countries with which the US has bilateral agreements. However, it is expected, that the US will adopt the rules of the Basel Convention (an agreement which currently applies to 128 countries but not the US) and that the Convection's waste classification system will influence the current OECD waste-handling system. Some countries adopting the Basel Convention consider end-of-life electronics to be hazardous waste, whereas the OECD countries consider them to be non-hazardous. Also, waste management regulations potentially affecting electronics in Germany and Japan are mentioned in this report.

  7. Dresden 1 plutonium recycle program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresnick, S.D.


    This is the final report on the Dresden 1 Plutonium Recycle Demonstration Program. It covers the work performed from July 1, 1978 to completion, which includes in-pool inspection of two fuel assemblies, removal of two fuel rods, and post-irradiation examination (PIE) of six fuel rods. Appendix A describes the inspection and rod removal operations, and Appendix B describes the PIE work.

  8. PLA recycling by hydrolysis at high temperature (United States)

    Cristina, Annesini Maria; Rosaria, Augelletti; Sara, Frattari; Fausto, Gironi


    In this work the process of PLA hydrolysis at high temperature was studied, in order to evaluate the possibility of chemical recycling of this polymer bio-based. In particular, the possibility to obtain the monomer of lactic acid from PLA degradation was investigated. The results of some preliminary tests, performed in a laboratory batch reactor at high temperature, are presented: the experimental results show that the complete degradation of PLA can be obtained in relatively low reaction times.

  9. Shower Water Recycle. 3. Microfiltration Studies (United States)


    microfiltration, wastewater recycle, 06 09 wastewater treatment, wastewater microbiology 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number...microfilter achieved complete removal of Klebsiella terrigena and 3.7 micron polystyrene beads used to simulate protozoan cysts. 20. DISTRIBUTION...Biomedical Research and Development Laboratory (USABROL) study addresses one of many technologies that may be used to treat shower wastewater for

  10. Technologies for greywater recycling in buildings


    Laine, Anu Talvikki


    The potential of four pilot-scale wastewater treatment processes for in-building greywater recycling has been assessed. The evaluation of three membrane bioreactors (MBRs) and a biological aerated filter (BAF) was principally with reference to the non-potable water reuse quality standards. In the steady-state trials the feedwater quality was changed from synthetic greywater to blackwater (primary sewage influent) simulating the variability of domestic wastewater. The submerged MBR met bot...

  11. Kicker pulsers for recycler NOVA upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Chris C


    An upgrade of the Recycler injection kicker system required a faster rise time pulser. This system required a field rise and fall time of < 57 ns and a field flattop of 1.6 {\\mu}s. This paper describes the variety of improvements made over the years that have resulted in this latest thyratron pulser. The effects of the trigger, the reservoir and the load impedance on delay and rise time will be discussed.

  12. Biosorption and recycling of gold using various microorganisms. (United States)

    Tsuruta, Takehiko


    In order to obtain basic information on the biosorption and recycling of gold from aqueous systems using microbial cells, the biosorption of gold by various microorganisms was investigated. Of 75 strains of microorganisms tested (25 bacteria, 19 actinomycetes, 17 fungi and 14 yeasts), high abilities of gold biosorption from a solution containing hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III) were found in some gram-negative bacterial strains, such as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Erwinia herbicola, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and P. maltophilia. Most of the gram-positive bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi and yeasts had a lower ability for gold biosorption than gram-negative bacteria. On the other hand, all of the microorganisms tested adsorbed far smaller amounts of gold from a solution containing gold dicyanoaurate (I). The biosorption of gold from a solution containing hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III) using P. maltophilia having a high adsorbing ability for gold was very rapid and was affected by the pH of the solution, external gold concentration, and cell amounts. P. maltophilia cells immobilized with polyacrylamide gel also have a high ability for gold biosorption. The gold adsorbed on the immobilized cells is easily desorbed with 0.1 M thiourea solution. The immobilized P. maltophilia cells can be used repeatedly in biosorption-desorption cycles.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona


    Full Text Available Aim of this article is to examine the stage of textile recycle waste in Romania. For this purpose were analyzed the main sources of textile waste from Romania (industry of manufacture of textiles, wearing apparel, leather and related products, imports of textiles, clothing and footwear and imports of second hand clothing and also evolution of the quantity of textile waste in Romania. The benefits (economic and environmental of the collection and recycling of waste and the legislation on the waste management, have determined the diversification and increasing the number and the capacity of recovery and disposal of waste in Romania. We found the most textile waste in Romania was deposited in deposits onto or into land, in the proportion of 18.51%. This proportion is under the EU average of 34.03%, but is much higher than in other European country. Also, has been an increase in the number of incinerators, in the last years. With all of this, the interest in textile waste management in Romania is far from being to the level of European, where are associations who dealing with the collection and recycling of textiles and is achieved a selective collection of textile waste in the points especially designed for this thing. The information for this paper was gathered from literature, from the EUROSTAT database and INSSE database analysis and by Internet.

  14. Recycling of irradiated high-density polyethylene (United States)

    Navratil, J.; Manas, M.; Mizera, A.; Bednarik, M.; Stanek, M.; Danek, M.


    Radiation crosslinking of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is a well-recognized modification of improving basic material characteristics. This research paper deals with the utilization of electron beam irradiated HDPE (HDPEx) after the end of its lifetime. Powder of recycled HDPEx (irradiation dose 165 kGy) was used as a filler into powder of virgin low-density polyethylene (LDPE) in concentrations ranging from 10% to 60%. The effect of the filler on processability and mechanical behavior of the resulting mixtures was investigated. The results indicate that the processability, as well as mechanical behavior, highly depends on the amount of the filler. Melt flow index dropped from 13.7 to 0.8 g/10 min comparing the lowest and the highest concentration; however, the higher shear rate the lower difference between each concentration. Toughness and hardness, on the other hand, grew with increasing addition of the recycled HDPEx. Elastic modulus increased from 254 to 450 MPa and material hardness increased from 53 to 59 ShD. These results indicate resolving the problem of further recycling of irradiated polymer materials while taking advantage of the improved mechanical properties.

  15. Environmentally sound technologies for recycling secondary lead (United States)

    Andrews, D.; Raychaudhuri, A.; Frias, C.

    Advances in hydrometallurgy are providing increasingly simple means for controlling the entire lead chain from concentrate to recycled lead. Used in parallel with pyrometallurgy, these processes allow furnace temperatures to be reduced to the minimum, which is essential for casting or alloying. Fumes and atmospheric pollution are minimized, furnace slags are digested, and most residues (other than purification cements) are non-toxic and convertible into marketable products. These new processes provide the cleanest and healthiest practicable means for recycling lead from batteries. By substituting melting for smelting, the heat requirement and cycle time per charge are reduced by more than half. A new hydrometallurgical plant could be installed alongside an existing pyrometallurgical plant without interference, doubling its potential capacity when operational (and more, if electrowinning is used). Over 99.5% of the lead originally present is recovered in tests of a combined PLACID-pyro plant. The average purity of electrowon PLACID lead is 99.995%. Results from the PLINT process should be similar. The purity of the lead chain can thereby be sustained through recycling. Perfect solid/paste separation is not mandatory, and PLINT-type plant units can be of any size. Such processes constitute a good basis for development of clean processes, which are suitable for use in Asian societies.

  16. Internalization and recycling of receptor-bound gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in pituitary gonadotropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schvartz, I.; Hazum, E.


    The fate of cell surface gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors on pituitary cells was studied utilizing lysosomotropic agents and monensin. Labeling of pituitary cells with a photoreactive GnRH derivative, (azidobenzoyl-D-Lys6)GnRH, revealed a specific band of Mr = 60,000. When photoaffinity-labeled cells were exposed to trypsin immediately after completion of the binding, the radioactivity incorporated into the Mr = 60,000 band decreased, with a concomitant appearance of a proteolytic fragment (Mr = 45,000). This fragment reflects cell surface receptors. Following GnRH binding, the hormone-receptor complexes underwent internalization, partial degradation, and recycling. The process of hormone-receptor complex degradation was substantially prevented by lysosomotropic agents, such as chloroquine and methylamine, or the proton ionophore, monensin. Chloroquine and monensin, however, did not affect receptor recycling, since the tryptic fragment of Mr = 45,000 was evident after treatment with these agents. This suggests that recycling of GnRH receptors in gonadotropes occurs whether or not the internal environment is acidic. Based on these findings, we propose a model describing the intracellular pathway of GnRH receptors.

  17. Influence of RFID tags on recyclability of plastic packaging. (United States)

    Aliaga, César; Ferreira, Beatriz; Hortal, Mercedes; Pancorbo, María Ángeles; López, José Manuel; Navas, Francisco Javier


    The use of Radio Frequency IDentification Technology (RFID) in the packaging sector is an important logistical improvement regarding the advantages offered by this technology in comparison with barcodes. Nevertheless, the presence of these devices in plastic packaging, and consequently in plastic waste, can cause several problems in the recycling plants due to the materials included in these devices. In this study, the mentioned recycling constraints have been experimentally identified in a pilot scale recycling study consisting in three recycling tests with an increasing presence of RFID tags. Differences in each test were evaluated. Furthermore, the quality of the recycled material of each test was studied through the injection and testing of tests probes. The results of the pilot scale recycling tests did not show a decrease in the quality of the recycled plastic due to the presence of RFID tags. Nevertheless, several operational problems during the recycling process were observed such as the obstruction of the screens, which lessened the process yield and created process interruptions, as well as the loss of extruded plastic during the process. These recycling constraints cannot be directly extrapolated to the industrial plants due to the different working scales. Nevertheless, technological solutions are proposed in order to avoid these recycling constraints if they appear.

  18. Encouraging Vietnamese Household Recycling Behavior: Insights and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Ninh Nguyen


    Full Text Available This research aims to provide new insights into various determinants affecting household recycling. By focusing on Vietnam, this research also extends knowledge about sustainable behavior in emerging markets, which are the major culprits in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. Hypotheses were developed as a result of the critical review of relevant studies in the fields of marketing, psychology, and economics, and then tested using a quantitative survey data. Structured questionnaires were administered to Vietnamese respondents which yielded 486 usable responses. Multivariate statistics reveal that all the determinants influenced their recycling behavior except for moral norms. Attitude towards the importance of recycling exerted the strongest influence, followed by subjective norms and warm glow respectively. On the other hand, attitude towards the inconvenience of recycling significantly reduced recycling behavior. The research findings have important implications for strategies aimed at promoting recycling behavior. Communication and education programs should emphasize how household recycling contributes to environmental protection, as well as stress intrinsic rewards when recycling. Public media campaigns should feature opinion leaders and attractive communicators, who can effectively apply social pressure to perform recycling behavior. Organizations should also make every effort to make recycling more convenient.

  19. Economy Analysis of a Recycle Model of End-of-Life Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Ye; WANG Xiang; CHEN Ming; WANG Cheng-tao


    In order to evaluate recycle economy of end-of-life vehicles quantitatively,an economy model based on a recycle model of end-of-life vehicles and recycle cost analysis. With a practical example of recycling engines of endof-life vehicles ,the validity of the recycle economy model and good recycle economy of the end-of-life vehicle engine tors to raise the recycle economy of the end-of-life vehicle.

  20. The Na+/H+ Exchanger NHE6 in the Endosomal Recycling System Is Involved in the Development of Apical Bile Canalicular Surface Domains in HepG2 Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohgaki, Ryuichi; Matsushita, Masafumi; Kanazawa, Hiroshi; Ogihara, Satoshi; Hoekstra, Dick; van IJzendoorn, Sven C. D.


    Polarized epithelial cells develop and maintain distinct apical and basolateral surface domains despite a continuous flux of membranes between these domains. The Na+/H+ exchanger NHE6 localizes to endosomes but its function is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that polarized hepatoma HepG2 cells express

  1. Current organic waste recycling and the potential for local recycling through urban agriculture in Metro Manila. (United States)

    Hara, Yuji; Furutani, Takashi; Murakami, Akinobu; Palijon, Armando M; Yokohari, Makoto


    Using the solid waste management programmes of three barangays (the smallest unit of local government in the Philippines) in Quezon City, Metro Manila, as a case study, this research aimed to further the development of efficient organic waste recycling systems through the promotion of urban agricultural activities on green and vacant spaces. First, the quantity of organic waste and compost produced through ongoing barangay projects was measured. The amount of compost that could potentially be utilized on farmland and vacant land within the barangays was then identified to determine the possibility of a local recycling system. The results indicate that, at present, securing buyers for compost is difficult and, therefore, most compost is distributed to large neighbouring farm villages. However, the present analysis of potential compost use within the barangay demonstrates that a more local compost recycling system is indeed feasible.

  2. Clathrin and LRP-1-independent constitutive endocytosis and recycling of uPAR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cortese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The urokinase receptor (uPAR/CD87 is highly expressed in malignant tumours. uPAR, as a GPI anchored protein, is preferentially located at the cell surface, where it interacts with its ligands urokinase (uPA and the extracellular matrix protein vitronectin, thus promoting plasmin generation, cell-matrix interactions and intracellular signalling events. Interaction with a complex formed by uPA and its inhibitor PAI-1 induces cell surface down regulation and recycling of the receptor via the clathrin-coated pathway, a process dependent on the association to LRP-1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we have found that along with the ligand-induced down-regulation, uPAR also internalizes and recycles constitutively through a second pathway that is independent of LRP-1 and clathrin but shares some properties with macropinocytosis. The ligand-independent route is amiloride-sensitive, does not require uPAR partitioning into lipid rafts, is independent of the activity of small GTPases RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42, and does not require PI3K activity. Constitutively endocytosed uPAR is found in EEA1 positive early/recycling endosomes but does not reach lysosomes in the absence of ligands. Electron microscopy analysis reveals the presence of uPAR in ruffling domains at the cell surface, in macropinosome-like vesicles and in endosomal compartments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that, in addition to the ligand-induced endocytosis of uPAR, efficient surface expression and membrane trafficking might also be driven by an uncommon macropinocytic mechanism coupled with rapid recycling to the cell surface.

  3. Histamine Recycling Is Mediated by CarT, a Carcinine Transporter in Drosophila Photoreceptors. (United States)

    Xu, Ying; An, Futing; Borycz, Jolanta A; Borycz, Janusz; Meinertzhagen, Ian A; Wang, Tao


    Histamine is an important chemical messenger that regulates multiple physiological processes in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Even so, how glial cells and neurons recycle histamine remains to be elucidated. Drosophila photoreceptor neurons use histamine as a neurotransmitter, and the released histamine is recycled through neighboring glia, where it is conjugated to β-alanine to form carcinine. However, how carcinine is then returned to the photoreceptor remains unclear. In an mRNA-seq screen for photoreceptor cell-enriched transporters, we identified CG9317, an SLC22 transporter family protein, and named it CarT (Carcinine Transporter). S2 cells that express CarT are able to take up carcinine in vitro. In the compound eye, CarT is exclusively localized to photoreceptor terminals. Null mutations of cart alter the content of histamine and its metabolites. Moreover, null cart mutants are defective in photoreceptor synaptic transmission and lack phototaxis. These findings reveal that CarT is required for histamine recycling at histaminergic photoreceptors and provide evidence for a CarT-dependent neurotransmitter trafficking pathway between glial cells and photoreceptor terminals.

  4. Recycling of cadmium and selenium from photovoltaic modules and manufacturing wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K. (eds.)


    Since the development of the first silicon based photovoltaic cell in the 1950's, large advances have been made in photovoltaic material and processing options. At present there is growing interest in the commercial potential of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic modules. As the commercial potential of these technologies becomes more apparent, interest in the environmental, health and safety issues associated with their production, use and disposal has also increased because of the continuing regulatory focus on cadmium and selenium. In future, recycling of spent or broken CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes may be needed for environmental, economic or political reasons. To assist industry to identify recycling options early in the commercialization process, a Workshop was convened. At this Workshop, representatives from the photovoltaic, electric utility, and nonferrous metals industries met to explore technical and institutional options for the recycling of spent CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes. This report summarizes the results of the Workshop. This report includes: (1) A discussion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and their potential implications to the photovoltaic industry; (2) an assessment of the needs of the photovoltaic industry from the perspective of module manufacturers and consumers; (3) an overview of recycling technologies now employed by other industries for similar types of materials; and, (4) a list of recommendation.

  5. Recycling of cadmium and selenium from photovoltaic modules and manufacturing wastes. A workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K. [eds.


    Since the development of the first silicon based photovoltaic cell in the 1950`s, large advances have been made in photovoltaic material and processing options. At present there is growing interest in the commercial potential of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic modules. As the commercial potential of these technologies becomes more apparent, interest in the environmental, health and safety issues associated with their production, use and disposal has also increased because of the continuing regulatory focus on cadmium and selenium. In future, recycling of spent or broken CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes may be needed for environmental, economic or political reasons. To assist industry to identify recycling options early in the commercialization process, a Workshop was convened. At this Workshop, representatives from the photovoltaic, electric utility, and nonferrous metals industries met to explore technical and institutional options for the recycling of spent CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes. This report summarizes the results of the Workshop. This report includes: (1) A discussion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and their potential implications to the photovoltaic industry; (2) an assessment of the needs of the photovoltaic industry from the perspective of module manufacturers and consumers; (3) an overview of recycling technologies now employed by other industries for similar types of materials; and, (4) a list of recommendation.

  6. Effect of Aqueous Phase Recycling in Continuous Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmer, Maika; Madsen, René Bjerregaard; Houlberg, Kasper;


    The effect of recycling the aqueous phase in a continuous hydrothermal liquefaction process was investigated in terms of product yield distribution, carbon balance, and composition of all main fractions. Using a custom-built continuous reactor system, a long-term experiment was conducted at 350...... degrees C and 250 bar with a feedstock of dried distiller's grains with solubles. In two consecutive recycle experiments, the aqueous phase of the preceding experiment was used as dispersion medium for the feedstock preparation. In these recycle-experiments a significant increase in biocrude yields...... was observed with a maximum increase in the first recycle experiment. However, the recycling of the aqueous phase also resulted in lower heating values and higher water contents in the oil fraction. Based on these findings, recycling the aqueous phase is a trade-off between improved yields and reduced burn...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Topič


    Full Text Available The disposal and further recycling of concrete is being investigated worldwide, because the issue of complete recycling has not yet been fully resolved. A fundamental difficulty faced by researchers is the reuse of the recycled concrete fines which are very small (< 1 mm. Currently, full recycling of such waste fine fractions is highly energy intensive and resulting in production of CO2. Because of this, the only recycling methods that can be considered as sustainable and environmentally friendly are those which involve recycled concrete powder (RCP in its raw form. This article investigates the performance of RCP with the grain size < 0.25 mm as a potential binder replacement, and also as a microfiller in cement-based composites. Here, the RCP properties are assessed, including how mechanical properties and the microstructure are influenced by increasing the amount of the RCP in a cement paste (≤ 25 wt%.

  8. Constrained recycling: a framework to reduce landfilling in developing countries. (United States)

    Diaz, Ricardo; Otoma, Suehiro


    This article presents a model that integrates three branches of research: (i) economics of solid waste that assesses consumer's willingness to recycle and to pay for disposal; (ii) economics of solid waste that compares private and social costs of final disposal and recycling; and (iii) theories on personal attitudes and social influence. The model identifies two arenas where decisions are made: upstream arena, where residents are decision-makers, and downstream arena, where municipal authorities are decision-makers, and graphically proposes interactions between disposal and recycling, as well as the concept of 'constrained recycling' (an alternative to optimal recycling) to guide policy design. It finally concludes that formative instruments, such as environmental education and benchmarks, should be combined with economic instruments, such as subsidies, to move constraints on source separation and recycling in the context of developing countries.

  9. Additional water use influencing strength and fluidity of recycled concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学兵; 方志; 邓寿昌; 成珂; 覃银辉


    Through adding different additional water use,the compressive strength,splitting tensile strength and fluidity of recycled concrete of three aggregate combination forms were studied by experiment respectively.The experimental results show that with the increase of adding additional water use,the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of recycled coarse aggregate concrete decrease,but that of recycled fine aggregate concrete and recycled all aggregate concrete increase firstly then decrease.When additional water use is added more 15% or 20% than that of basic ordinary concrete,the recycled coarse aggregate concrete and fine one can get pretty good fluidity.When it is added more 30%,the recycled all aggregate concrete has fluidity that is just satisfied.

  10. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector


    Lindsay Miller; Katie Soulliere; Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu; Simon Tseng; Edwin Tam


    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technolog...

  11. Recycling of tobacco wastes after tobacco products manufacturing


    T. A. Don; A. G. Mirgorodskaya; O. K. Bedritskaya


    Utilizing tobacco wastes is one of the important problems for tobacco industry. They can be divided into easy recycled which can be returned into technological process without special treatment, and irretrievable which can be recycled only after special treatment. Easy recycled wastes consist of leaf parts and large tobacco scraps, which are cleaned from the dust and then returned into manufacturing process. Irretrievable wastes consist of small tobacco scraps which use for reconstituted toba...

  12. Application of recycled aggregates in concrete -- Experiences from the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietersen, H. S.; Fraay, A. L. A.; Hendriks, C. F.


    Experiences with the use of recycled aggregates obtained from demolition waste are described. The practice is particularly well developed in the Netherlands due the lack of landfill space available. The emphasis is on recycled aggregates in concrete, as opposed to recycled aggregates in road construction. Mix design, strength, durability, (chloride ingress and freeze-thaw resistance), environmental performance, product standardization, quality control, and quality certification are some of the topics covered.

  13. What do we know about metal recycling rates? (United States)

    Graedel, T.E.; Allwood, J.; Birat, J.-P.; Buchert, M.; Hageluken, C.; Reck, B.K.; Sibley, S.F.; Sonnemann, G.


    The recycling of metals is widely viewed as a fruitful sustainability strategy, but little information is available on the degree to which recycling is actually taking place. This article provides an overview on the current knowledge of recycling rates for 60 metals. We propose various recycling metrics, discuss relevant aspects of recycling processes, and present current estimates on global end-of-life recycling rates (EOL-RR; i.e., the percentage of a metal in discards that is actually recycled), recycled content (RC), and old scrap ratios (OSRs; i.e., the share of old scrap in the total scrap flow). Because of increases in metal use over time and long metal in-use lifetimes, many RC values are low and will remain so for the foreseeable future. Because of relatively low efficiencies in the collection and processing of most discarded products, inherent limitations in recycling processes, and the fact that primary material is often relatively abundant and low-cost (which thereby keeps down the price of scrap), many EOL-RRs are very low: Only for 18 metals (silver, aluminum, gold, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, niobium, nickel, lead, palladium, platinum, rhenium, rhodium, tin, titanium, and zinc) is the EOL-RR above 50% at present. Only for niobium, lead, and ruthenium is the RC above 50%, although 16 metals are in the 25% to 50% range. Thirteen metals have an OSR greater than 50%. These estimates may be used in considerations of whether recycling efficiencies can be improved; which metric could best encourage improved effectiveness in recycling; and an improved understanding of the dependence of recycling on economics, technology, and other factors. ?? 2011 by Yale University.

  14. Thermoset composite recycling: Properties of recovered glass fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauson, Justine; Fraisse, Anthony; Toncelli, C.


    Recycling of glass fiber thermoset polymer composite is a challenging topic and a process able to recover the glass fibers original properties in a limited cost is still under investigation. This paper focuses on the recycling technique separating the glass fiber from the matrix material. Four...... different recycling processes, mechanical, burn off, pyrolysis and glycolysis are selected are compared based on the properties of the glass fiber recovered. The intention is to use the same characterization methodology....

  15. Use of recycled plastics in wood plastic composites - a review. (United States)

    Kazemi Najafi, Saeed


    The use of recycled and waste thermoplastics has been recently considered for producing wood plastic composites (WPCs). They have great potential for WPCs manufacturing according to results of some limited researches. This paper presents a detailed review about some essential properties of waste and recycled plastics, important for WPCs production, and of research published on the effect of recycled plastics on the physical and mechanical properties of WPCs.

  16. Childhood Lead Exposure from Battery Recycling in Vietnam


    Daniell, William E.; Lo Van Tung; Wallace, Ryan M.; Havens, Deborah J.; Karr, Catherine J; Nguyen Bich Diep; Croteau, Gerry A.; Beaudet, Nancy J.; Nguyen Duy Bao


    Background. Battery recycling facilities in developing countries can cause community lead exposure. Objective. To evaluate child lead exposure in a Vietnam battery recycling craft village after efforts to shift home-based recycling outside the village. Methods. This cross-sectional study evaluated 109 children in Dong Mai village, using blood lead level (BLL) measurement, parent interview, and household observation. Blood samples were analyzed with a LeadCare II field instrument; highest BLLs...

  17. Do Economists Reach a Conclusion on Household and Municipal Recycling?


    Matthew Gunter


    Do economists reach a conclusion on household and municipal recycling? I explore the policy judgments of published economists on recycling and find that there is no broad consensus. The mainstream recycling literature is dominated by a guided-market approach; taxes and subsidies are advocated to correct for market failures. There are two less popular but still significant approaches: a minimal government laissez faire approach and a command and control regulatory approach. Laissez faire econo...

  18. Design and analysis of cold-recycled mixtures (United States)

    Bienvenu, Michael Eric

    The purpose of this research was to utilize state of the art technology to develop a design and analysis method for cold-recycled mixtures. There is no current universally accepted design method for cold recycling of asphalt pavements. The objective of this research was to devise a simplified method of determining the optimum asphalt content using the maximum allowable amount of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) in the cold-recycled mix based on material properties. The maximum allowable RAP content of the recycled mix in this study was determined to be 75%. This study introduces adaptations of SUPERPAVEsp{TM} technology for binder characterization and develops a binder blending chart for use in cold-recycled mix design. The binder blending chart is valuable in determination of maximum allowable RAP content of the recycled mix, the acceptable ranges of recycling agent residue in the binder blend, and in selection of the most desirable recycling agent for the RAP being recycled. The study also recommends mix and curing procedures for the production of test specimens and the incorporation of mechanical tests (resilient modulus and indirect tensile strength) and pavement prediction models in the determination of the optimum recycled mix. As a means of supporting the results of the mixture testing methodology, SUPERPAVEsp{TM} volumetric and intermediate mix testing are utilized for comparison of results, though the SUPERPAVEsp{TM} mix tests are not components of the recommended design methodology. The procedure which results from this research provides a more reliable means of cold-recycled mix design and analysis by the incorporation of better analysis tools for material characterization, especially in selection and proportioning of the most appropriate recycling agent for a particular project.

  19. Quantification of re-absorption and re-emission processes to determine photon recycling efficiency in perovskite single crystals (United States)

    Fang, Yanjun; Wei, Haotong; Dong, Qingfeng; Huang, Jinsong


    Photon recycling, that is, iterative self-absorption and re-emission by the photoactive layer itself, has been speculated to contribute to the high open-circuit voltage in several types of high efficiency solar cells. For organic-inorganic halide perovskites that have yielded highly efficient photovoltaic devices, however, it remains unclear whether the photon recycling effect is significant enough to improve solar cell efficiency. Here we quantitatively evaluate the re-absorption and re-emission processes to determine photon recycling efficiency in hybrid perovskite with its single crystals by measuring the ratio of the re-emitted photons to the initially excited photons, which is realized by modulating their polarization to differentiate them. The photon recycling efficiencies are revealed to be less than 0.5% in CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals under excitation intensity close to one sun, highlighting the intrinsically long carrier recombination lifetime instead of the photon-recycling-induced photon propagation as the origin of their long carrier diffusion length.

  20. The culture of Chlorella vulgaris in a recycled supernatant: Effects on biomass production and medium quality

    KAUST Repository

    Hadj-Romdhane, F.


    Reusing supernatant of microalgae culture medium can have inhibitory or toxic effects on the biomass production because of the release of organic metabolites by cells in the culture medium during their growth. This work investigated the impact of Chlorella vulgaris medium recycling on culture productivity, cells quality and accumulation of excreted metabolites in the culture medium. No significant impact on the C. vulgaris growth was observed after 63days of recycling, the productivity remained stable at around 0.55kgm-3day-1. Organic matters accumulated in supernatant were identified as biopolymers (BP) poor in nitrogen and with a size above 40kDa (probably polysaccharides), and small organic molecules (SOM) richer in nitrogen with a molecular size ranging from 1 to 3kDa. The concentration of biopolymers in the supernatant increased till to a maximum and then decreased, possibly consumed by bacteria, whereas small organic compounds accumulated in the medium. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The Role of Sub- and Supercritical CO2 as “Processing Solvent” for the Recycling and Sample Preparation of Lithium Ion Battery Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Nowak


    Full Text Available Quantitative electrolyte extraction from lithium ion batteries (LIB is of great interest for recycling processes. Following the generally valid EU legal guidelines for the recycling of batteries, 50 wt % of a LIB cell has to be recovered, which cannot be achieved without the electrolyte; hence, the electrolyte represents a target component for the recycling of LIBs. Additionally, fluoride or fluorinated compounds, as inevitably present in LIB electrolytes, can hamper or even damage recycling processes in industry and have to be removed from the solid LIB parts, as well. Finally, extraction is a necessary tool for LIB electrolyte aging analysis as well as for post-mortem investigations in general, because a qualitative overview can already be achieved after a few minutes of extraction for well-aged, apparently “dry” LIB cells, where the electrolyte is deeply penetrated or even gellified in the solid battery materials.

  2. Energetic conditions of effective recycling of composite castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jackowski


    Full Text Available The most reasonable way of recycling the metal composite materials consists in separation of the components. In case of the composites with saturated reinforcement it is the only recycling method. The process of separation of the components always undergoes in the presence of an additional liquid phase called a recycling medium. In a three-phase system including the material of composite reinforcement – liquid composite matrix – liquid recycling medium, an important role for the recycling process is played by the changes in energy values at the interfacial surfaces. Proper choice of the recycling medium enables simultaneous process of transition of the reinforcing phase particles into the environment (the suspension composites or also simultaneous outflow of the metal matrix from the reinforcement capillaries (the composites with saturated reinforcement. Moreover, a very important role in recycling of composite materials with saturated reinforcement is played by geometry of the reinforcement material capillaries. Energetic conditions render impossible simultaneous outflow of the matrix from the capillaries of varying and irregular geometry. It means that a choice of proper recycling medium is necessary condition for the recycling process, although not always a sufficient one.

  3. Development of a Prototype Automated Sorting System for Plastic Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Wahab


    Full Text Available Automated sorting for plastic recyclables has been seen as the way forward in the plastic recycling industry. Automated sorting provides significant improvements in terms of efficiency and consistency in the sorting process. In the case of macro sorting, which is the most common type of automated sorting, efficiency is determined by the mechanical details of the material handling system as well as the detection system. This paper provides a review on the state of-the-art technologies that have been deployed by some of the recycling facilities abroad. The design and development of a cost effective prototype automated system for sorting plastic recyclables is proposed and discussed.

  4. Experimental study on dynamic splitting of recycled concrete using SHPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yubin


    Full Text Available To study the recycled concrete splitting tensile properties and fracture state with various recycled coarse aggregate replacement percentage (i.e. 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, the dynamic splitting test of recycled concrete was carried out using large diameter (75 mm split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB. The results show that the recycled concrete splitting tensile strength increases with the increase of loading rate, and the loading rate also affects the recycled concrete fracture state, which indicates that the recycled concrete has obvious rate sensitivity. The damage state of the recycled concrete is not only the destruction of the interface between coarse aggregate and cement mortar, but also associates with the fracture damage of aggregates. Under the same water cement ratio, when the replacement percentage of coarse aggregates is around 50%–75%, the gradation of natural and recycled coarse aggregate is optimal, and thus the splitting tensile strength is the largest. This study offers theoretical basis for the engineering applications of recycled concrete.

  5. Influence of landfill structures on stabilization of fully recycled leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The experiment was conducted to treat the leachate from two simulating columns by recycling to the columns themselves without being discharged into the enviroment. The columns were employed to simulate anaerobic and semi-aerobic landfills separately. The influence of landfill structure on stabilization of fully recycled leachate was studied. The results show that semi-aerobic landfill structure accelerates the stabilization of leachate recycled. The full recycle of leachate in semi-aerobic landfill is a very feasible and effective technology for leachate treatment with low cost and energy saving especially in arid and rare rainfall regions. Meanwhile, the environmental impact of landfill can be greatly minimized.

  6. Battery recycling machine; Maquina recicladora de pilas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuera Gonzalez, R.M; Esquivel Montes, C.E; Perez Razo, E; Sanchez Guerrero, O.A. [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Ixtapaluca, Ixtapaluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    Batteries pollute the environment and therefore require special treatment or confine recycling in appropriate places, Mexico only has places for confining the batteries and send them to other countries for recycling. The purpose of this project is to reduce the contamination of soil and create a culture for the recycling of batteries. The prototype performs the separation of metals and chemical residues, so that later they can be processed separately. The machine is divided into two parts, mechanics and electronics, the mechanical part was designed to disarm it for easy maintenance, another advantage in the field of electronics and security is to control the machine from a computer at a distance significantly reducing accidents. To automate the machine will use a PLC clock for easy programming. [Spanish] Las pilas contaminan el medio ambiente y por ello requieren un tratamiento especial de reciclaje o confinarlos en lugares adecuados, Mexico solo cuenta con lugares para confinar las pilas y mandarlas a otros paises para su reciclaje. El proposito de este proyecto es reducir la contaminacion del suelo y crear una cultura para el reciclaje de pilas. El prototipo realiza la separacion de metales y residuos quimicos, para que mas adelante se puedan procesar por separado. La maquina se divide en dos partes; la mecanica y la electronica, la parte mecanica fue disenada para desarmarse esto para su facil mantenimiento, otra de las ventajas en el campo de electronica y seguridad es poder controlar el prototipo desde una computadora, a una distancia considerable reduciendo asi los accidentes. Para automatizar la maquina se utilizo un reloj PLC por su facil programacion.

  7. Methadone Recycling Sustains Drug Reservoir in Tissue. (United States)

    Linares, Oscar A; Fudin, Jeffrey; Daly, Annemarie; Schiesser, William E; Boston, Raymond C


    We hypothesize that there is a tissue store of methadone content in humans that is not directly accessible, but is quantifiable. Further, we hypothesize the mechanism by which methadone content is sustained in tissue stores involves methadone uptake, storage, and release from tissue depots in the body (recycling). Accordingly, we hypothesize that such tissue stores, in part, determine plasma methadone levels. We studied a random sample of six opioid-naïve healthy subjects. We performed a clinical trial simulation in silico using pharmacokinetic modeling. We found a large tissue store of methadone content whose size was much larger than methadone's size in plasma in response to a single oral dose of methadone 10 mg. The tissue store measured 13-17 mg. This finding could only be explained by the contemporaneous storage of methadone in tissue with dose recycling. We found that methadone recycles 2-5 times through an inaccessible extravascular compartment (IAC), from an accessible plasma-containing compartment (AC), before exiting irreversibly. We estimate the rate of accumulation (or storage) of methadone in tissue was 0.029-7.29 mg/h. We predict 39 ± 13% to 83 ± 6% of methadone's tissue stores "spillover" into the circulation. Our results indicate that there exists a large quantifiable tissue store of methadone in humans. Our results support the notion that methadone in humans undergoes tissue uptake, storage, release into the circulation, reuptake from the circulation, and re-release into the circulation, and that spillover of methadone from tissue stores, in part, maintain plasma methadone levels in humans.

  8. Characterization of DWPF recycle condensate tank materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle Condensate Tank (RCT) sample was delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization with particular interest in the concentration of I-129, U-233, U-235, total U, and total Pu. Since a portion of Salt Batch 8 will contain DWPF recycle materials, the concentration of I-129 is important to undertand for salt batch planning purposes. The chemical and physical characterizations are also needed as input to the interpretation of future work aimed at determining the propensity of the RCT material to foam, and methods to remediate any foaming potential. According to DWPF the Tank Farm 2H evaporator has experienced foaming while processing DWPF recycle materials. The characterization work on the RCT samples has been completed and is reported here. The composition of the Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) RCT material is largely a low base solution of 0.2M NaNO2 and 0.1M NaNO3 with a small amount of formate present. Insoluble solids comprise only 0.05 wt.% of the slurry. The solids appear to be largely sludge-like solids based on elemental composition and SEM-EDS analysis. The sample contains an elevated concentration of I-129 (38x) and substantial 59% fraction of Tc-99, as compared to the incoming SB8 Tank 40 feed material. The Hg concentration is 5x, when compared to Fe, of that expected based on sludge carryover. The total U and Pu concentrations are reduced significantly, 0.536 wt.% TS and 2.42E-03 wt.% TS, respectively, with the fissile components, U-233, U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241, an order of magnitude lower in concentration than those in the SB8 Tank 40 DWPF feed material. This report will be revised to include the foaming study requested in the TTR and outlined in the TTQAP when that work is concluded.

  9. Recycling of petroleum-contaminated sand. (United States)

    Taha, R; Ba-Omar, M; Pillay, A E; Roos, G; al-Hamdi, A


    The environmental impact of using petroleum-contaminated sand (PCS) as a substitute in asphalt paving mixtures was examined. An appreciable component of PCS is oily sludge, which is found as the dregs in oil storage tanks and is also produced as a result of oil spills on clean sand. The current method for the disposal of oily sludge is land farming. However, this method has not been successful as an oil content of tests and environmental studies were conducted to establish the integrity of the materials containing the recycled sludge. These included physical and chemical characterization of the sludge itself, and an assessment of the mechanical properties of materials containing 0%, 5%, 22% and 50% oily sludge. The blended mixtures were subjected to special tests, such as Marshall testing and the determination of stability and flow properties. The experimental results indicated that mixtures containing up to 22% oily sludge could meet the necessary criteria for a specific asphalt concrete wearing course or bituminous base course. To maximize the assay from the recycled material, the environmental assessment was restricted to the 50% oily sludge mixture. Leachates associated with this particular mixture were assayed for total organic residue and certain hazardous metal contaminants. The results revealed that the organics were negligible, and the concentrations of the metals were not significant. Thus, no adverse environmental impact should be anticipated from the use of the recycled product. Our research showed that the disposal of oily sludge in asphalt paving mixtures could possibly yield considerable savings per tonne of asphalt concrete, and concurrently minimize any direct impact on the environment.

  10. Role of nutrient recycling in upwelling ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitledge, T E


    The regeneration of nitrogen is an important process that increases the efficiency of the upwelling ecosystem by enlarging their spatial scales. Ammonium regeneration was considered to contribute 42 to 72 percent of phytoplankton nitrogen requirements in the northwest Africa, Peru, and Baja California upwelling systems. Zooplankton are responsible for the largest portion of regenerated nitrogen; however, fish and benthic sediments may be nearly as large. Comparisons of the importance of ammonium regeneration in upwelling areas with coastal and open ocean regions indicate that the percentage contributions are similar. Future nutrient regeneration studies are needed to assess the recycling of benthic sediments, microzooplankton, gelatinous zooplankton, demersal fish, bacterioplankton, and mollusks.

  11. Roles for glutathione transferases in antioxidant recycling. (United States)

    Dixon, David P; Steel, Patrick G; Edwards, Robert


    Uniquely among the plant glutathione transferases, two classes possess a catalytic cysteine capable of performing glutathione-dependent reductions. These are the dehydroascorbate reductases (DHARs) and the lambda-class glutathione transferases (GSTLs). Using immobilized GSTLs probed with crude plant extracts we have identified flavonols as high affinity ligands and subsequently demonstrated a novel glutathione-dependent role for these enzymes in recycling oxidized quercetin. By comparing the activities of DHARs and GSTLs we now propose a unified catalytic mechanism that suggests oxidized anthocyanidins and tocopherols may be alternative polyphenolic substrates of GSTLs.

  12. Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via EBCHR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKoon, R.H.


    A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6%-niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

  13. Recycling cobalt from spent lithium ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-dong XIA; Xiao-qian XIE; Yao-wu SHI; Yong-ping LEI; Fu GUO


    Spent lithium ion battery is a useful resource of cobalt. In this paper, cobalt was recovered by a chemical process based upon the analysis of the structure and com-position of the lithium ion battery. X-ray diffraction results show that cobalt oxalate and cobaltous sulfate have been obtained in two different processes. Compared with the cobaltous oxalate process, the cobaltous sulfate process was characterized by less chemical substance input and a cobalt recovery rate of as much as 88%. A combination of these two processes in the recycling industry may win in the aspects of compact process and high recovery rate.

  14. The A-B-C of recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    specifically the source separation of compostable kitchen waste. The investigation was carried out before and after the introduction of a system, facilitating such separation, in a Danish community. Hypotheses derived from the A-B-C model, predicting that changes over time in the correlation between attitude......A general framework for interpreting behaviour as co-determined by attitudes and structural conditions, developed by Guagnano, Stern, and Dietz for the field of environmental psychology but with general applicability, is used to identify determinants of consumers' recycling behaviour, more...

  15. Recycling and Ambivalence: Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of Household Recycling among Young Adults (United States)

    Ojala, Maria


    Theories about ambivalence, as well as quantitative and qualitative empirical approaches, are applied to obtain an understanding of recycling among young adults. A questionnaire was mailed to 422 Swedish young people. Regression analyses showed that a mix of negative emotions (worry) and positive emotions (hope and joy) about the environmental…

  16. Recycling bin concepts for hotels on Zanzibar Island : - Efficient and sustainable recycling for one of Zanrec Plastics Ltd. customer groups


    Gobena, Elina; Lundén, Hanna


    This report presents a developed recycling bin concept for Zanrec Plastics Ltd. (Zanrec Plastics in this report), a Swedish company that is about to implement a solid waste recycling system on Zanzibar Island, Tanzania. Zanrec Plastics will negotiate waste management with the hotels, that produce a large part of the recyclable garbage on the island, and the project aim is to develop a concept that will help Zanrec Plastics in these negotiations. Zanrec Plastics requirements on the concepts re...

  17. Shigella subverts the host recycling compartment to rupture its vacuole. (United States)

    Mellouk, Nora; Weiner, Allon; Aulner, Nathalie; Schmitt, Christine; Elbaum, Michael; Shorte, Spencer L; Danckaert, Anne; Enninga, Jost


    Shigella enters epithlial cells via internalization into a vacuole. Subsequent vacuolar membrane rupture allows bacterial escape into the cytosol for replication and cell-to-cell spread. Bacterial effectors such as IpgD, a PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase that generates PI(5)P and alters host actin, facilitate this internalization. Here, we identify host proteins involved in Shigella uptake and vacuolar membrane rupture by high-content siRNA screening and subsequently focus on Rab11, a constituent of the recycling compartment. Rab11-positive vesicles are recruited to the invasion site before vacuolar rupture, and Rab11 knockdown dramatically decreases vacuolar membrane rupture. Additionally, Rab11 recruitment is absent and vacuolar rupture is delayed in the ipgD mutant that does not dephosphorylate PI(4,5)P₂ into PI(5)P. Ultrastructural analyses of Rab11-positive vesicles further reveal that ipgD mutant-containing vacuoles become confined in actin structures that likely contribute to delayed vacular rupture. These findings provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of vacuole progression and rupture during Shigella invasion.

  18. Recycling of Waste Streams of the Biotechnological Poly(hydroxyalkanoate Production by Haloferax mediterranei on Whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Koller


    Full Text Available For manufacturing “bioplastics” such as poly(hydroxyalkanoates (PHA, the combination of utilization of inexpensive carbon sources with the application of robust microbial production strains is considered a decisive step to make this process more cost-efficient and sustainable. PHA production based on surplus whey from dairy industry was accomplished by the extremely halophile archaeon Haloferax mediterranei. After fermentative production of PHA-rich biomass and the subsequent cell harvest and downstream processing for PHA recovery, environmentally hazardous, highly saline residues, namely spent fermentation broth and cell debris, remain as residues. These waste streams were used for recycling experiments to assess their recyclability in subsequent production processes. It was demonstrated that spent fermentation broth can be used to replace a considerable part of fresh saline fermentation medium in subsequent production processes. In addition, 29% of the expensive yeast extract, needed as nitrogen and phosphate source for efficient cultivation of the microorganism, can be replaced by cell debris from prior cultivations. The presented study provides strategies to combine the reduction of costs for biomediated PHA production with minimizing ecological risks by recycling precarious waste streams. Overall, the presented work shall contribute to the quick economic success of these promising biomaterials.

  19. Recycling vs. stabilisation of soil sugars - a long-term laboratory incubation experiment (United States)

    Basler, A.; Dippold, M.; Helfrich, M.; Dyckmans, J.


    Independent of its chemical structure carbon (C) persists in soil for several decades, controlled by stabilisation and recycling. To disentangle the importance of the two factors on the turnover dynamics of soil sugars, an important compound of soil organic matter (SOM), a three year incubation experiment was conducted on a silty loam soil under different types of land use (arable land, grassland and forest) by adding 13C-labeled glucose. The compound specific isotope analysis of soil sugars was used to examine the dynamics of different sugars during incubation. Sugar dynamics were dominated by a pool of high mean residence times (MRT) indicating that recycling plays an important role for sugars. However, this was not substantially affected by soil C content. Six months after label addition the contribution of the label was much higher for microbial biomass than for CO2 production for all examined soils, corroborating that substrate recycling was very effective within the microbial biomass. Two different patterns of tracer dynamics could be identified for different sugars: while fucose (fuc) and mannose (man) showed highest label contribution at the beginning of the incubation with a subsequent slow decline, galactose (gal) and rhamnose (rha) were characterised by slow label incorporation with subsequently constant levels, which indicates that recycling is dominating the dynamics of these sugars. This may correspond to (a) different microbial growing strategies (r and K-strategist) or (b) location within or outside the cell membrane (lipopolysaccharides vs. exopolysaccharides) and thus be subject of different re-use within the microbial food web. Our results show how the microbial community recycles substrate very effectively and that high losses of substrate only occur during initial stages after substrate addition.

  20. Marker Recycling in Candida albicans through CRISPR-Cas9-Induced Marker Excision (United States)


    ABSTRACT We describe here a new approach to marker recycling, a controlled sequence of steps in which a genetic marker is selected and then lost. Marker recycling is important for genetic manipulation, because it allows a single selection marker to be used repeatedly. Our approach relies upon the ability of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to make a targeted double-strand break in DNA and the expectation that a double-strand break within a selection marker may promote recombination between directly repeated sequences that flank the marker. We call the approach CRISPR-Cas9-induced marker excision (CRIME). We tested the utility of this approach with the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, which is typically diploid. We used two selection markers, modified to include flanking direct repeats. In a proof-of-principle study, we created successive homozygous deletions in three genes through use of the two markers and had one of the markers available in the final strain for further selection and recycling. This strategy will accelerate the creation of multiple-mutant strains in C. albicans. CRISPR-Cas9 systems have been applied to many organisms, so the genetic design principles described here may be broadly applicable. IMPORTANCE It is critical to be able to alter genes in order to elucidate their functions. These alterations often rely upon markers that allow selection for a rare cell in a population that has incorporated a piece of DNA. The number of alterations that can be accomplished is thus limited by the number of selection markers that are available. This limitation is circumvented by marker recycling strategies, in which a marker is eliminated after its initial use. Then, the marker can be used again. In this report, we describe a new marker recycling strategy that is enabled by recently developed CRISPR-Cas9 technology. PMID:28317025

  1. Actin-Sorting Nexin 27 (SNX27)-Retromer Complex Mediates Rapid Parathyroid Hormone Receptor Recycling. (United States)

    McGarvey, Jennifer C; Xiao, Kunhong; Bowman, Shanna L; Mamonova, Tatyana; Zhang, Qiangmin; Bisello, Alessandro; Sneddon, W Bruce; Ardura, Juan A; Jean-Alphonse, Frederic; Vilardaga, Jean-Pierre; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A; Friedman, Peter A


    The G protein-coupled parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR) regulates mineral-ion homeostasis and bone remodeling. Upon parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulation, the PTHR internalizes into early endosomes and subsequently traffics to the retromer complex, a sorting platform on early endosomes that promotes recycling of surface receptors. The C terminus of the PTHR contains a type I PDZ ligand that binds PDZ domain-containing proteins. Mass spectrometry identified sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) in isolated endosomes as a PTHR binding partner. PTH treatment enriched endosomal PTHR. SNX27 contains a PDZ domain and serves as a cargo selector for the retromer complex. VPS26, VPS29, and VPS35 retromer subunits were isolated with PTHR in endosomes from cells stimulated with PTH. Molecular dynamics and protein binding studies establish that PTHR and SNX27 interactions depend on the PDZ recognition motif in PTHR and the PDZ domain of SNX27. Depletion of either SNX27 or VPS35 or actin depolymerization decreased the rate of PTHR recycling following agonist stimulation. Mutating the PDZ ligand of PTHR abolished the interaction with SNX27 but did not affect the overall rate of recycling, suggesting that PTHR may directly engage the retromer complex. Coimmunoprecipitation and overlay experiments show that both intact and mutated PTHR bind retromer through the VPS26 protomer and sequentially assemble a ternary complex with PTHR and SNX27. SNX27-independent recycling may involve N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor, which binds both PDZ intact and mutant PTHRs. We conclude that PTHR recycles rapidly through at least two pathways, one involving the ASRT complex of actin, SNX27, and retromer and another possibly involving N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor.

  2. Flows of engineered nanomaterials through the recycling process in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Guzman, Alejandro; Sun, Tianyin; Nowack, Bernd, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Recycling is one of the likely end-of-life fates of nanoproducts. • We assessed the material flows of four nanomaterials in the Swiss recycling system. • After recycling, most nanomaterials will flow to landfills or incineration plants. • Recycled construction waste, plastics and textiles may contain nanomaterials. - Abstract: The use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in diverse applications has increased during the last years and this will likely continue in the near future. As the number of applications increase, more and more waste with nanomaterials will be generated. A portion of this waste will enter the recycling system, for example, in electronic products, textiles and construction materials. The fate of these materials during and after the waste management and recycling operations is poorly understood. The aim of this work is to model the flows of nano-TiO{sub 2}, nano-ZnO, nano-Ag and CNT in the recycling system in Switzerland. The basis for this study is published information on the ENMs flows on the Swiss system. We developed a method to assess their flow after recycling. To incorporate the uncertainties inherent to the limited information available, we applied a probabilistic material flow analysis approach. The results show that the recycling processes does not result in significant further propagation of nanomaterials into new products. Instead, the largest proportion will flow as waste that can subsequently be properly handled in incineration plants or landfills. Smaller fractions of ENMs will be eliminated or end up in materials that are sent abroad to undergo further recovery processes. Only a reduced amount of ENMs will flow back to the productive process of the economy in a limited number of sectors. Overall, the results suggest that risk assessment during recycling should focus on occupational exposure, release of ENMs in landfills and incineration plants, and toxicity assessment in a small number of recycled inputs.

  3. Recycling of Spent Nickel-Cadmium Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A technique for recycling spent nickel-cadmium batteries, which makes separation of cadmium and nickel possible, is developed by laboratory-scale experiments. NH3-H2CO3 aqueous solution was used in this leaching technique. Since neutralization and/or solvent extraction were not required in the separation procedure of nickel and cadmium, the closed systemization of the process becomes possible. Experimental results show that, (1) if the NH3 concentration of leaching solution is sufficiently high and the ratio of H2CO3 to NH3 is properly adjusted, both Ni(OH)2 and Cd(OH)2 react with NH3 and quickly dissolve into leaching solution, and (2) Ni(OH)2 can be converted into insoluble NiO by calcination at 500€癈, and CdO from Cd(OH)2 by calcination maintains good solubility in NH3-H2CO3 aqueous solution. As a conclusion, the recycling technique characterized by two step leaching can be developed based on such changes in dissolution behavior by calcination. Meanwhile, the yields of 99.8% for nickel and 97.6% for cadmium are obtained, and the purities of recovered nickel and cadmium are 99.9% and 98.6%, respectively.

  4. Study of Fast Instability in Fermilab Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipov, Sergey [Chicago U.; Adamson, Philip [Fermilab; Nagaitsev, Sergei [Fermilab; Yang, Ming-Jen [Fermilab


    One of the factors which may limit the intensity in the Fermilab Recycler is a fast transverse instability. It develops within a hundred turns and, in certain conditions, may lead to a beam loss. Various peculiar features of the instability: its occurrence only above a certain intensity threshold, and only in horizontal plane, as well as the rate of the instability, suggest that its cause is electron cloud. We studied the phenomena by observing the dynamics of stable and unstable beam. We found that beam motion can be stabilized by a clearing bunch, which confirms the electron cloud nature of the instability. The findings suggest electron cloud trapping in Recycler combined function mag-nets. Bunch-by-bunch measurements of betatron tune show a tune shift towards the end of the bunch train and allow the estimation of the density of electron cloud and the rate of its build-up. The experimental results are in agreement with numerical simulations of electron cloud build-up and its interaction with the beam.

  5. Biodegradation and Recycling of Urban Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Gautam


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Rapid urbanization and population growth are largely responsible for very high increasing rate of solid waste in the urban areas, its proper management and recycling is major problems of Municipal Corporation. The proposed study attempted to proper management, physicochemical analysis of Urban Solid Waste (USW and its conversion to enriched compost by ecofriendly process. Approach: For this study, we used turned windrows method for composting of USW, microbial inoculums added uniformly and temperature, pH, moisture maintained throughout the composting process. The chemical composition of compost obtained at the end of the composting process compare to the United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA standards. Results: A study in Jabalpur had shown the 47% of Urban Solid Waste (USW were degradable and 53% non-degradable. The initial compositions of urban waste were indicates an organic carbon status of 38% with the C: N ratio of 950. The additives used in solid urban waste composting such as cow dung and green manure recorded organic carbon content of 25.60 and 34.60 and C:N ratio of 30.11 and 11.23. Conclusion: The results of the study clearly indicate that the recycling of solid urban waste can transform garbage or municipal solid waste to enriched composts. This is practical significance if adopted by urban farmers as a result of soil health and in turn the productivity of soil can be maintained for further agriculture.

  6. Subduction and volatile recycling in Earth's mantle (United States)

    King, S. D.; Ita, J. J.; Staudigel, H.


    The subduction of water and other volatiles into the mantle from oceanic sediments and altered oceanic crust is the major source of volatile recycling in the mantle. Until now, the geotherms that have been used to estimate the amount of volatiles that are recycled at subduction zones have been produced using the hypothesis that the slab is rigid and undergoes no internal deformation. On the other hand, most fluid dynamical mantle flow calculations assume that the slab has no greater strength than the surrounding mantle. Both of these views are inconsistent with laboratory work on the deformation of mantle minerals at high pressures. We consider the effects of the strength of the slab using two-dimensional calculations of a slab-like thermal downwelling with an endothermic phase change. Because the rheology and composition of subducting slabs are uncertain, we consider a range of Clapeyron slopes which bound current laboratory estimates of the spinel to perovskite plus magnesiowustite phase transition and simple temperature-dependent rheologies based on an Arrhenius law diffusion mechanism. In uniform viscosity convection models, subducted material piles up above the phase change until the pile becomes gravitationally unstable and sinks into the lower mantle (the avalanche). Strong slabs moderate the 'catastrophic' effects of the instabilities seen in many constant-viscosity convection calculations; however, even in the strongest slabs we consider, there is some retardation of the slab descent due to the presence of the phase change.

  7. Grindability, Grading and Wettability of Recycled Plaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志新; 彭家惠; 赵海鑫; 邱星星; 赵敏


    The changes of grindability, grading and wettability of recycled plaster(R-P)and the mechanisms of these changes were studied by using vickers hardness, particle size distribution(PSD), scanning electron micro-scope(SEM) and nitrogen adsorption porosimetry to reveal that R-P was obviously different from plaster of Paris(POP). At the same milling time, R-P had the characteristics of high specific surface area, fine particle diame-ter and uneven size distribution compared with POP, so R-P possessed both good grindability and poor grading. The water absorption, dissolution rate and mass loss in dry-wet cycle of the hardened recycled gypsum(hardened RG) increased, while the water saturated strength and dry-wet cycle strength decreased significantly compared with the hardened virgin gypsum(hardened VG). Therefore, poor wettability could be seen in R-P. The analyses indi-cated that the changes of grindability and grading could be attributed to the reduction in hardness and the increase in the porosity of hardened RG and that the poor wettability of R-P was caused by the increase of large pores and the changes of microstructure of hardened RG.

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Completely Recyclable Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke De Schepper


    Full Text Available Since the construction sector uses 50% of the Earth’s raw materials and produces 50% of its waste, the development of more durable and sustainable building materials is crucial. Today, Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW is mainly used in low level applications, namely as unbound material for foundations, e.g., in road construction. Mineral demolition waste can be recycled as crushed aggregates for concrete, but these reduce the compressive strength and affect the workability due to higher values of water absorption. To advance the use of concrete rubble, Completely Recyclable Concrete (CRC is designed for reincarnation within the cement production, following the Cradle-to-Cradle (C2C principle. By the design, CRC becomes a resource for cement production because the chemical composition of CRC will be similar to that of cement raw materials. If CRC is used on a regular basis, a closed concrete-cement-concrete material cycle will arise, which is completely different from the current life cycle of traditional concrete. Within the research towards this CRC it is important to quantify the benefit for the environment and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA needs to be performed, of which the results are presented in a this paper. It was observed that CRC could significantly reduce the global warming potential of concrete.

  9. Filtration application from recycled expanded polystyrene. (United States)

    Shin, C


    Water-in-oil emulsion with drop size less than 100 mum is difficult to separate. Coalescence filtration is economical and effective for separation of secondary dispersions. Coalescence performance depends on flow rate, bed depth, fiber surface properties, and drop size. The amount of surface area of the fibers directly affects the efficiency. A new recycling method was investigated in the previous work in which polystyrene (PS) sub-mum fibers were electro-spun from recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS). These fibers are mixed with micro glass fibers to modify the glass fiber filter media. The filter media are tested in the separation of water droplets from an emulsion of water droplets in oil. The experimental results in this work show that adding nanofibers to conventional micron sized fibrous filter media improves the separation efficiency of the filter media but also increases the pressure drop. An optimum in the performance occurs (significant increase in efficiency with minimal increase in pressure drop) with the addition of about 4% by mass of 500 nm diameter PS nanofibers to glass fibers for the filters.

  10. 78 FR 20640 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue (United States)


    ... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental... will generally allow for the recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue, relying principally...

  11. A reciclagem de PVC no Brasil Recycling of PVC Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Magda Piva


    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa discute as possibilidades práticas da reciclagem de PVC. Na reciclagem de polímeros, a do PVC representa uma importante parcela. PVC é um polímero que é usado em uma ampla faixa de produtos: filmes, fios, cabos, em compostos para uma variedade de formas. A reciclagem é uma técnica vantajosa, capaz de reproduzir as propriedades do polímero original, no polímero reciclado e isto em condições razoavelmente econômicas. A tecnologia brasileira, em relação a produtos reciclados, apresenta algumas diferenças da reciclagem tradicional. Métodos alternativos de reciclagens são necessários se os processos não desvalorizam os resultados finais.This research discuss the practical possibilities of recycling PVC. PVC, plays an important part in the recycleability of polymers; PVC is a polymer which is used in a very wide range of products -films, wire, cabes, in compounds for a variety of forms. Recycling is only worthwile, one is able to reproduce the original polymer properties in the polymer being recycled, and this under reasonable economics conditions. The brasilian technology that produces recycled products is a little different from the tradicional recycling. Therefore alternative methods to recycle are needed if recycling is not to devalue the end results.

  12. Study on Consumer Opposition to Exporting Recyclable Wastes (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Koizumi, Kunishige; Zhou, Weisheng

    Trans-boundary trade from Japan to China of recyclable wastes such as waste copper has increased rapidly, because of resource demands through economic growth. These wastes are recycled at high rates thanks to the Chinese manual recycling process by a lot of low wage migrant workers from rural districts. China benefits by supplying jobs to many migrant workers and getting cheap resources. Although, Japanese consumers may have some opposition to exporting end-of-pipe home appliance wastes to foreign countries. From the results of the path-analysis from the questionnaire to Japanese consumers, it became clear that their reluctance came from anxiety about illegal dumping, the labor environment at the import country and the destruction of the ecosystem. Through conjoint analysis, willingness to pay the recycling fee decreases - 1,625 yen (equal to 34% of the current recycling fee of 4,630 yen) when choosing global recycling as opposed to domestic recycling, hypothesizing that consumers would rather recycle domestically instead of globally.

  13. Regulation and government programs from a Canadian recyclers perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, L.G. [Canadian Association of Recycling Industries, Almonte, ON (Canada)


    The environmental benefits of recycling were described. Recycling was defined as taking products at the end of their useful lives and then sorting and processing them to produce a secondary source of materials that can be used in the production of new goods. Recycling results in energy savings, creates jobs and reduces the demand for larger or more landfills. The author discussed many pros and cons regarding recycling in the following areas of concern: (1) the dumping of hazardous wastes by developed nations on developing nations, (2) the charging of disposal fees for waste, (3) taxing products made from recycled materials, (4) the use of air bags in automobiles, (5) the release of CFC from refrigerators, (6) blue box recycling programs, and (7) waste management at industrial parks. The actual response by various governments to these issues were also described. It was emphasized that often laws and regulations designed to control waste management when applied to recycling do not actually produce environmental improvements. Finally, new approaches with environmental solutions to some of the dilemmas associated with recycling were presented. 1 tab.

  14. Reuse Recycler: High Intensity Proton Stacking at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermilab


    After a successful career as an antiproton storage and cooling ring, Recycler has been converted to a high intensity proton stacker for the Main Injector. We discuss the commissioning and operation of the Recycler in this new role, and the progress towards the 700 kW design goal.

  15. Recycled Coarse Aggregate Produced by Pulsed Discharge in Water (United States)

    Namihira, Takao; Shigeishi, Mitsuhiro; Nakashima, Kazuyuki; Murakami, Akira; Kuroki, Kaori; Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Tomoda, Yuichi; Sakugawa, Takashi; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Ohtsu, Masayasu

    In Japan, the recycling ratio of concrete scraps has been kept over 98 % after the Law for the Recycling of Construction Materials was enforced in 2000. In the present, most of concrete scraps were recycled as the Lower Subbase Course Material. On the other hand, it is predicted to be difficult to keep this higher recycling ratio in the near future because concrete scraps increase rapidly and would reach to over 3 times of present situation in 2010. In addition, the demand of concrete scraps as the Lower Subbase Course Material has been decreased. Therefore, new way to reuse concrete scraps must be developed. Concrete scraps normally consist of 70 % of coarse aggregate, 19 % of water and 11 % of cement. To obtain the higher recycling ratio, the higher recycling ratio of coarse aggregate is desired. In this paper, a new method for recycling coarse aggregate from concrete scraps has been developed and demonstrated. The system includes a Marx generator and a point to hemisphere mesh electrode immersed in water. In the demonstration, the test piece of concrete scrap was located between the electrodes and was treated by the pulsed discharge. After discharge treatment of test piece, the recycling coarse aggregates were evaluated under JIS and TS and had enough quality for utilization as the coarse aggregate.

  16. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry


    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  17. Recycling tires? Reversible crosslinking of poly(butadiene). (United States)

    Trovatti, Eliane; Lacerda, Talita M; Carvalho, Antonio J F; Gandini, Alessandro


    Furan-modified poly(butadiene) prepared by the thiol-ene click reaction is crosslinked with bismaleimides through the Diels-Alder reaction, giving rise to a novel recyclable elastomer. This is possible because of the thermal reversibility of the adducts responsible for the formation of the network. The use of this strategy provides the possibility to produce recyclable tires.

  18. Economic potential of recycling business in Lahore, Pakistan. (United States)

    Batool, Syeda Adila; Chaudhry, Nawaz; Majeed, Khalid


    The state of household waste recycling in Lahore city, Pakistan with a population of 7.2 million was analyzed. Data on solid waste recycling were gathered from residents of low-, middle- and high-income groups, as well as from scavengers and junkshops. The recycling activities in Lahore exert a significant impact on resource conservation, creation of jobs, provision of economic opportunity and reduction in the magnitude of waste disposal problems. A cost analysis is presented to show the income that can be generated through a well-planned recycling program. It is shown that 21.2% of all recyclable waste in Lahore is recycled, and it generates an amount of Rs. 271 million (US dollars 4.5 million) per year through the informal sector. However, if the recycling practice is owned by the formal sector, it can save an amount of Rs. 65 million by reducing the collection cost. If recycling is adopted as an industry, it can generate revenues of Rs. 530 million (US dollars 8.8 million) per year and can also save enormous amount of energy, as well as the natural resources.

  19. Effective Technology for Recycling Metal. Proceedings of Two Special Workshops. (United States)

    National Association of Secondary Material Industries, Inc., New York, NY.

    The National Association of Secondary Material Industries (NASMI) and the Bureau of Mines have cooperated to sponsor two technically-oriented workshops related to the role of metals recycling and air pollution control technology. The proceedings of these workshops, "Effective Technology and Research for Scrap Metal Recycling" and "Air Pollution…


    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants at a New Jersey Department of Transportation garage. The specific recycling units evaluated are based on the technologies of filtrat...


    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants for a facility such as the New Jersey Department of Transportation garage in Ewing, New Jersey. he specific recycling evaluated is b...

  2. Pilot beverage carton collection and recycling 2013: Concise technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden Van Velzen, E.U.; Brouwer, M.T.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Pretz, Th.; Feil, A.; Jansen, M.


    This report gives a technological description of the four common collection and recycling schemes that have been tested in the Netherlands as part of the pilot beverage cartons in 2013. During this pilot the collection and recycling of beverage cartons was tested in 37 different municipalities, with

  3. Recycling cellulases for cellulosic ethanol production at industrial relevant conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Haven, Mai Østergaard; Chylenski, Piotr;


    wheat straw. Industrial conditions were used to study the impact of hydrolysis temperature (40 or 50. °C) and residence time on recyclability. Enzyme recycling at 12% DM indicated that hydrolysis at 50. °C, though ideal for ethanol yield, should be kept short or carried out at lower temperature...

  4. Multimodal network design for sustainable household plastic recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing Xiaoyun, Xiaoyun; Groot, J.J.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.


    Purpose – This research studies a plastic recycling system from a reverse logistics angle and investigates the potential benefits of a multimodality strategy to the network design of plastic recycling. This research aims to quantify the impact of multimodality on the network, to provide decision sup

  5. Study Concerning Characterization of Some Recycled Concrete Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robu Ion


    Full Text Available Using recycled concrete aggregates (RCA is a matter of high priority in the construction industry worldwide. In countries like the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, USA, Japan, France recycled concrete aggregates obtained from demolition are valorized up to 90%, mainly for road construction and less in the manufacture of new concrete.

  6. Recycling light metals: Optimal thermal de-coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvithyld, A.; Meskers, C.E.M.; Gaal, S.; Reuter, M.


    Thermal de-coating of painted and lacquered scrap is one of the new innovations developed for aluminum recycling. If implemented in all recycling and optimized as suggested in this article, recovery would be improved with considerable economic impact. Generally, contaminated scrap is difficult to re

  7. Predictors of Behavior Factors of High School Students against Recycling (United States)

    Cimen, Osman; Yilmaz, Mehmet


    This study aims to determine the variables that predict high school students' recycling behaviors. The study was designed as survey model. The study's sample consists of 203 students at a high school in Ankara. A recycling behavior scale developed by the researchers was used as a data collection tool. The scale has 3 dimensions: recycling…

  8. Logistics Mode and Network Planning for Recycle of Crop Straw Resources


    Zhou, Lingyun; Gu, Weidong; Zhang, Qing


    To realize the straw biomass industrialized development, it should speed up building crop straw resource recycle logistics network, increasing straw recycle efficiency, and reducing straw utilization cost. On the basis of studying straw recycle process, this paper presents innovative concept and property of straw recycle logistics network, analyses design thinking of straw recycle logistics network, and works out straw recycle logistics mode and network topological structure. Finally, it come...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Demin


    Full Text Available The first part examines the theoretical possibility of recycling dust of arc steel furnaces. The different modes of dust disposal depending on the task of recycling are discussed: recycling at minimal cost; recycling with a maximum extraction of iron; recycling with maximum extraction of zinc. The results of laboratory studies providing information on the technical feasibility of recycling dust formed at the Belarusian metallurgic plant are provided.

  10. Recycling : An essential enterprise for resource conservation and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puvvada, G.V.K.; Sridhar, R.; Lakshmanan, V.I. [Process Research ORTECH, Mississauga, ON (Canada)


    The demand for both ferrous and non-ferrous metals is expected to increase despite the fact that ore reserves contain lower grade ore and are highly complex. The situation increases the pressure to adopt conservation measures such as recycling and reducing waste generation. This paper examined the recycling of essential metals such as copper, aluminum, iron and steel, as well as associated issues. It included a section on the importance of innovation in the recycling industry if it is to remain viable from an economic and environmental perspective. To better illustrate their discussion, the authors provided examples of several case studies that are either completed or underway at Process Research ORTECH Inc. The case studies dealt with the recycling of zinc from steel mill dust (EAF dusts), recycling of fly ash (innovative TORBED{sup TM} reactor), and the recovery of water from textile effluents (reverse osmosis, and mechanical vapor recompression evaporators). 15 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  11. Performance of Recycled Porous Hot Mix Asphalt with Gilsonite Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludfi Djakfar


    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the performance of porous asphalt using waste recycled concrete material and explore the effect of adding Gilsonite to the mixture. As many as 90 Marshall specimens were prepared with varied asphalt content, percentage of Gilsonite as an additive, and proportioned recycled and virgin coarse aggregate. The test includes permeability capability and Marshall characteristics. The results showed that recycled concrete materials seem to have a potential use as aggregate in the hot mix asphalt, particularly on porous hot mix asphalt. Adding Gilsonite at ranges 8–10% improves the Marshall characteristic of the mix, particularly its stability, without decreasing significantly the permeability capability of the mix. The use of recycled materials tends to increase the asphalt content of the mix at about 1 to 2% higher. With stability reaching 750 kg, the hot mix recycled porous asphalt may be suitable for use in the local roads with medium vehicle load.

  12. Safeguards and nonproliferation aspects of a dry fuel recycling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, K.K.S.


    Los Alamos National Laboratory undertook an independent assessment of the proliferation potentials and safeguardability of a dry fuel recycling technology, whereby spent pressurized-water reactor (PWR) fuels are used to fuel canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactors. Objectives of this study included (1) the evaluation of presently available technologies that may be useful to safeguard technology options for dry fuel recycling (2) and identification of near-term and long-term research needs to develop process-specific safeguards requirements. The primary conclusion of this assessment is that like all other fuel cycle alternatives proposed in the past, the dry fuel recycle entails prolfferation risks and that there are no absolute technical fixes to eliminate such risks. This study further concludes that the proliferation risks of dry fuel recycling options are relatively minimal and presently known safeguards systems and technologies can be modified and/or adapted to meet the requirements of safeguarding such fuel recycle facilities.

  13. The importance of recycling in a climate perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik


    An overview of the greenhouse gas implications of material recovery and recycling is presented for a variety of materials, i.e. steel, aluminium, glass, plastics, wood, paper and cardboard, aggregates and wood. The benefits of recycling in terms of greenhouse gas reductions are quantified and set...... in perspective to other measures. It is shown that the present aluminium recycling alone in a country like Denmark saves greenhouse gas emission equivalent to heating of over half a million family houses. Assumptions and system boundaries are often discussed in the quantification of the benefits of recycling...... recycling. It is argued that biomass should be considered a constrained resource in a long term perspective, and that the marginal for the use of biomass is either a fossil resource or an arable land resource. In both cases, use of biomass draws on a marginal with high greenhouse gas implications...

  14. Use of Recycled Aggregate and Fly Ash in Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myle N. James


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recycled materials aggregate from the demolished concrete structures and fly ash from burning coal shows the possible application as structural and non structural components in concrete structures. This research aims to evaluate the feasibility of using concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate and fly ash in concrete pavement. Approach: Two water cement ratio (0.45 and 0.55 the compressive strength, modulus of electricity and flexural strength for concrete with recycled aggregate and fly ash with 0, 25% replacing cement in mass were considered. Results: The material properties of recycled aggregate concrete with fly ash indicate comparable results with that of concrete with natural aggregate and without fly ash. Conclusion/Recommendations: The recycled materials could be used in concrete pavement and it will promote the sustainability of concrete.

  15. Tungsten recycling in the United States in 2000 (United States)

    Shedd, Kim B.


    This report, which is one of a series of reports on metals recycling, defines and quantifies the flow of tungsten-bearing materials in the United States from imports and stock releases through consumption and disposition in 2000, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap). Because of tungsten's many diverse uses, numerous types of scrap were available for recycling by a wide variety of processes. In 2000, an estimated 46 percent of U.S. tungsten supply was derived from scrap. The ratio of tungsten consumed from new scrap to that consumed from old scrap was estimated to be 20:80. Of all the tungsten in old scrap available for recycling, an estimated 66 percent was either consumed in the United States or exported to be recycled.

  16. 嗜酸性氧化亚铁硫杆菌休止细胞保存时间及循环利用对施氏矿物生物合成的影响%Effects of storage time and recycling of resting Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans cells on biogenic schwertmannite formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏双友; 梁剑茹; 廖岳华; 周立祥


    利用嗜酸性氧化亚铁硫杆菌(Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans,简称A.ferrooxidans)休止细胞促进FeSO4形成的施氏矿物具有纯度高比表面积大的特点,对去除水环境中有毒重(类)金属有重要作用.为提供施氏矿物规模化生产优化参数,本研究通过摇瓶试验探讨了休止细胞保存时间对其活力的影响,以及休止细胞再次循环利用对施氏矿物生物合成中Fe2+氧化率和矿物产量的影响.结果表明,新鲜制备的A.ferrooxidans菌休止细胞可在48 h内将144 mmol·L-1 Fe2+(250 mL体系)全部氧化成Fe3+,在高浓度SO24-存在下约有41.99%的Fe3+被转化成棕红色施氏矿物沉淀,矿物产量达到1.34 g.当休止细胞在4℃保存达45 d时,Fe2+氧化率与新鲜细胞相比下降5.61%,施氏矿物产量降低35.07%.二次利用的循环A.ferrooxidans菌氧化Fe2+的能力大幅下降,其氧化性能只占新鲜休止细胞的1/7,这主要是由菌体本身氧化活性下降和矿物吸附包裹部分A.ferrooxidans菌导致菌体数量下降两个原因所致.可见,新制备的A.ferrooxidans菌休止细胞应现制现用,在4℃、pH=2.5的酸水中保存时间不宜超过30 d,A.ferrooxidans菌休止细胞可循环利用于施氏矿物的生物合成,但其效能仅为新鲜休止细胞的15%左右.%Schwertmannite biosynthesized by resting Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans) with FeSO4 has high purity and specific surface area. It can play an important role in the removal of toxic heavy metals or metalloids in water environments. To provide the optimum parameters for industrial scale production of schwertmannite, the effects of storage time of resting A. ferrooxidans cells and reuse of the recycling cells on the strain growth andits ability to facilitate Fe2 + oxidation and mineral formation were investigated in batch experiments. The results indicated that the fresh resting A.ferrooxidans cells harvested within 30 d could completely oxidize 144 mmol·L- 1 Fe2

  17. Improvement of Bearing Capacity in Recycled Aggregates Suitable for Use as Unbound Road Sub-Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Garach


    Full Text Available Recycled concrete aggregates and mixed recycled aggregates are specified as types of aggregates with lower densities, higher water absorption capacities, and lower mechanical strength than natural aggregates. In this paper, the mechanical behaviour and microstructural properties of natural aggregates, recycled concrete aggregates and mixed recycled aggregates were compared. Different specimens of unbound recycled mixtures demonstrated increased resistance properties. The formation of new cement hydrated particles was observed, and pozzolanic reactions were discovered by electronon microscopy in these novel materials. The properties of recycled concrete aggregates and mixed recycled aggregates suggest that these recycled materials can be used in unbound road layers to improve their mechanical behaviour in the long term.

  18. Development potential of e-waste recycling industry in China. (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Yang, Jie; Liu, Lili


    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE or e-waste) recycling industries in China have been through several phases from spontaneous informal family workshops to qualified enterprises with treatment fund. This study attempts to analyse the development potential of the e-waste recycling industry in China from the perspective of both time and scale potential. An estimation and forecast of e-waste quantities in China shows that, the total e-waste amount reached approximately 5.5 million tonnes in 2013, with 83% of air conditioners, refrigerators, washing machines, televisions sand computers. The total quantity is expected to reach ca. 11.7 million tonnes in 2020 and 20 million tonnes in 2040, which indicates a large increase potential. Moreover, the demand for recycling processing facilities, the optimal service radius of e-waste recycling enterprises and estimation of the profitability potential of the e-waste recycling industry were analysed. Results show that, based on the e-waste collection demand, e-waste recycling enterprises therefore have a huge development potential in terms of both quantity and processing capacity, with 144 and 167 e-waste recycling facilities needed, respectively, by 2020 and 2040. In the case that e-waste recycling enterprises set up their own collection points to reduce the collection cost, the optimal collection service radius is estimated to be in the range of 173 km to 239 km. With an e-waste treatment fund subsidy, the e-waste recycling industry has a small economic profit, for example ca. US$2.5/unit for television. The annual profit for the e-waste recycling industry overall was about 90 million dollars in 2013.

  19. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Noah


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is necessary to develop efficient methods to produce renewable fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. One of the main challenges to the industrialization of lignocellulose conversion processes is the large amount of cellulase enzymes used for the hydrolysis of cellulose. One method for decreasing the amount of enzyme used is to recycle the enzymes. In this study, the recycle of enzymes associated with the insoluble solid fraction after the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated for pretreated corn stover under a variety of recycling conditions. Results It was found that a significant amount of cellulase activity could be recovered by recycling the insoluble biomass fraction, and the enzyme dosage could be decreased by 30% to achieve the same glucose yields under the most favorable conditions. Enzyme productivity (g glucose produced/g enzyme applied increased between 30 and 50% by the recycling, depending on the reaction conditions. While increasing the amount of solids recycled increased process performance, the methods applicability was limited by its positive correlation with increasing total solids concentrations, reaction volumes, and lignin content of the insoluble residue. However, increasing amounts of lignin rich residue during the recycle did not negatively impact glucose yields. Conclusions To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzyme usage, and research should be continued for its industrial application.

  20. Recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) for direct food contact applications: challenge test of an inline recycling process. (United States)

    Franz, R; Welle, F


    Of all the plastics used for packaging, due to its low diffusivity and chemical inertness, poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is one of the favoured candidate plastics for closed-loop recycling for new packaging applications. In the work reported here, a PET-recycling process was investigated with respect to its cleaning efficiency and compliance of the PET recyclate with food law. The key technology of the investigated PET-recycling process to remove contaminants consists of a predecontamination-extruder combination. At the end of the recycling process, there is either a pelletizing system or downstream equipment to produce preforms or flat sheets. Therefore, the process has two process options, an inline production of PET preforms and a batch option producing PET pellets. In the case of possible misuse of PET bottles by the consumer, the inline process produces higher concentrations in the bottle wall of the recyclate containing preforms. Owing to the dilution of the PET output material by large amounts of uncontaminated PET, the batch option is the less critical process in terms of consumer protection. Regarding an appropriate testing procedure for the evaluation of a bottle-to-bottle recycling process, both process options have their own specific requirements with respect to the design of a challenge test. A novel challenge test approach to the inline mode of a recycling process is presented here.

  1. Biodegradation of organic wastes containing surfactants in a biomass recycle reactor. (United States)

    Konopka, A; Zakharova, T; Oliver, L; Camp, D; Turco, R F


    The microbial biodegradation of simulated graywater, containing 21.5 mg of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate liter-1, was investigated with a continuous-flow bioreactor with 100% biomass recycle. Low concentrations of organic matter in the ultrafiltration eluate were achieved by hydraulic residence times as short as 1.6 h and for periods of up to 74 days at a hydraulic residence time of 6 h. Upon a shift from the chemostat to the biomass recycle mode, the increase in biomass with time approximated a linear rather than an exponential function. Biomass densities as high as 6.8 g of cell protein liter-1 were reached; this was 50-fold higher than the steady-state biomass level in chemostats fed the same medium. We assessed physiological changes in the microbial community after a switch from the chemostat to the biomass recycle mode. Over 150 h, there was a two- to fourfold decrease in the respiratory potential of the microbes. After this decrease, respiratory potentials were relatively constant up to 74 days of operation. A decline in reactivity was also indicated by increasing lag periods before growth in response to organic nutrient inputs and by a decrease in the proportion of cells able to reduce tetrazolium dye. However, the bioreactor system was still capable of rapidly metabolizing inputs of organic matter, because of the very high biomass concentrations. It appears that < 10% of the organic carbon inputs accumulate as biomass. PMID:8795219

  2. Recycling of electric arc furnace dust through dissolution in deep eutectic ionic liquids and electrowinning. (United States)

    Bakkar, Ashraf


    The dust waste formed during steelmaking in electric arc furnace (EAF) is rich in ferrous and nonferrous metals. Recycling of this dust as a raw material in iron or steel-making is hazardous and therefore it is mostly dumped. This paper demonstrates recycling of EAF dust through selective dissolution of metal oxides in a deep eutectic ionic liquid. It was found that about 60% of Zn and 39% of Pb could be dissolved from the dust when stirred for 48h in 1 choline chloride:2 urea ionic liquid at 60°C. The resultant electrolyte was subsequently fed to a conventional three-electrode cell where cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements were conducted to describe its electrochemical behavior. Two deposition peaks were determined and ascribed to deposition of zinc and lead. Static potentials were successively applied to electrowin metallic zinc. SEM/EDX investigations showed that the zinc electrowon contained remarkable contents of lead.

  3. Modeling of closed-loop recycling liquid-liquid chromatography: Analytical solutions and model analysis. (United States)

    Kostanyan, Artak E


    In closed-loop recycling (CLR) chromatography, the effluent from the outlet of a column is directly returned into the column through the sample feed line and continuously recycled until the required separation is reached. To select optimal operating conditions for the separation of a given feed mixture, an appropriate mathematical description of the process is required. This work is concerned with the analysis of models for the CLR separations. Due to the effect of counteracting mechanisms on separation of solutes, analytical solutions of the models could be helpful to understand and optimize chromatographic processes. The objective of this work was to develop analytical expressions to describe the CLR counter-current (liquid-liquid) chromatography (CCC). The equilibrium dispersion and cell models were used to describe the transport and separation of solutes inside a CLR CCC column. The Laplace transformation is applied to solve the model equations. Several possible CLR chromatography methods for the binary and complex mixture separations are simulated.

  4. CO2 Sequestration and Recycle by Photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven S.C. Chuang


    Visible light-photocatalysis could provide a cost-effective route to recycle CO2 to useful chemicals or fuels. Research is planned to study the reactivity of adsorbates, their role in the photosynthesis reaction, and their relation to the nature of surface sites during photosynthesis of methanol and hydrocarbons from CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O. The year two research focus catalyst screening and IR studies. Key research results show Pd/TiO2 exhibits the highest activity for hydrocarbon synthesis from photocatalytic reactions. The in situ IR could successfully monitor the adsorbate hydrocarbon species on Cu/TiO2. Year III research will focus on developing a better understanding of the key factors which control the catalyst activity.

  5. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Almeida, B.; Almeida, M.; Martins, S.; Alexandra Macarico, V.; Tomas da Fonseca, A.


    In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze-slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyro plasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing. (Author)

  6. Recycling technologies and market opportunities: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goland, A.N.; Petrakis, L. [eds.


    These proceedings are the result of our collective effort to meet that challenge. They reflect the dedication and commitment of many people in government, academia, the private sector and national laboratories to finding practical solutions to one of the most pressing problems of our time -- how to deal effectively with the growing waste s that is the product of our affluent industrial society. The Conference was successful in providing a clear picture of the scope of the problem and of the great potential that recycling holds for enhancing economic development while at the same time, having a significant positive impact on the waste management problem. That success was due in large measure to the enthusiastic response of our panelists to our invitation to participate and share their expertise with us.

  7. Composition of waste materials and recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona

    decisions in waste planning thus require a holistic and systematic assessment of environmental impacts of different waste management options. Such assessment requires reliable information on the physical and chemical waste properties to model the flows of waste materials and substances throughout the entire...... the selection of appropriate acid digestion method for future waste characterization studies and the comparison of data across existing studies. A consistent dataset for 73 physico-chemical parameters in 49 residual and 24 source-segregated Danish household waste fractions was obtained and is now available...... for future modelling and assessment of waste management systems. The analyzed fractions were selected based on material properties with relevance for potential recycling processes. The physico-chemical analysis revealed chemical differences between residual and source-segregated samples for several fractions...

  8. Energy transmission using recyclable quantum entanglement (United States)

    Ye, Ming-Yong; Lin, Xiu-Min


    It is known that faster-than-light (FTL) transmission of energy could be achieved if the transmission were considered in the framework of non-relativistic classical mechanics. Here we show that FTL transmission of energy could also be achieved if the transmission were considered in the framework of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. In our transmission protocol a two-spin Heisenberg model is considered and the energy is transmitted by two successive local unitary operations on the initially entangled spins. Our protocol does not mean that FTL transmission can be achieved in reality when the theory of relativity is considered, but it shows that quantum entanglement can be used in a recyclable way in energy transmission.

  9. HI Recycling Formation of Tidal Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Duc, P A; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Brinks, Elias


    Galactic collisions trigger a number of phenomena, such as transportation inward of gas from distances of up to kiloparsecs from the center of a galaxy to the nuclear region, fuelling a central starburst or nuclear activity. The inverse process, the ejection of material into the intergalactic medium by tidal forces, is another important aspect and can be studied especially well through detailed HI observations of interacting systems which have shown that a large fraction of the gaseous component of colliding galaxies can be expelled. Part of this tidal debris might fall back, be dispersed throughout the intergalactic medium or recondense to form a new generation of galaxies: the so-called tidal dwarf galaxies. The latter are nearby examples of galaxies in formation. The properties of these recycled objects are reviewed here and different ways to identify them are reviewed.

  10. Recycled aggregates concrete: aggregate and mix properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Fonteboa, B.


    Full Text Available This study of structural concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate focuses on two issues: 1. The characterization of such aggregate on the Spanish market. This involved conducting standard tests to determine density, water absorption, grading, shape, flakiness and hardness. The results obtained show that, despite the considerable differences with respect to density and water absorption between these and natural aggregates, on the whole recycled aggregate is apt for use in concrete production. 2. Testing to determine the values of basic concrete properties: mix design parameters were established for structural concrete in non-aggressive environments. These parameters were used to produce conventional concrete, and then adjusted to manufacture recycled concrete aggregate (RCA concrete, in which 50% of the coarse aggregate was replaced by the recycled material. Tests were conducted to determine the physical (density of the fresh and hardened material, water absorption and mechanical (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity properties. The results showed that, from the standpoint of its physical and mechanical properties, concrete in which RCA accounted for 50% of the coarse aggregate compared favourably to conventional concrete.

    Se aborda el estudio de hormigones estructurales fabricados con áridos reciclados procedentes de hormigón, incidiéndose en dos aspectos: 1. Caracterización de tales áridos, procedentes del mercado español. Para ello se llevan a cabo ensayos de densidad, absorción, granulometría, coeficiente de forma, índice de lajas y dureza. Los resultados obtenidos han puesto de manifiesto que, a pesar de que existen diferencias notables (sobre todo en cuanto a densidad y absorción con los áridos naturales, las características de los áridos hacen posible la fabricación de hormigones. 2. Ensayos sobre propiedades básicas de los hormigones: se establecen parámetros de dosificaci

  11. Plasma Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Activity in Bottlenose Dolphins Contributes to Avoiding Accumulation of Non-recyclable Purines (United States)

    López-Cruz, Roberto I.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bernal, Jaime A.; Real-Valle, Roberto A.; Lugo-Lugo, Orlando; Zenteno-Savín, Tania


    Marine mammals are exposed to ischemia/reperfusion and hypoxia/reoxygenation during diving. During oxygen deprivation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) breakdown implies purine metabolite accumulation, which in humans is associated with pathological conditions. Purine recycling in seals increases in response to prolonged fasting and ischemia. Concentrations of metabolites and activities of key enzymes in purine metabolism were examined in plasma and red blood cells from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and humans. Hypoxanthine and inosine monophosphate concentrations were higher in plasma from dolphins than humans. Plasma hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) activity in dolphins suggests an elevated purine recycling rate, and a mechanism for avoiding accumulation of non-recyclable purines (xanthine and uric acid). Red blood cell concentrations of hypoxanthine, adenosine diphosphate, ATP and guanosine triphosphate were lower in dolphins than in humans; adenosine monophosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentrations were higher in dolphins. HGPRT activity in red blood cells was higher in humans than in dolphins. The lower concentrations of purine catabolism and recycling by-products in plasma from dolphins could be beneficial in providing substrates for recovery of ATP depleted during diving or vigorous swimming. These results suggest that purine salvage in dolphins could be a mechanism for delivering nucleotide precursors to tissues with high ATP and guanosine triphosphate requirements. PMID:27375492

  12. Plasma Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Activity in Bottlenose Dolphins Contributes to Avoiding Accumulation of Non-recyclable Purines. (United States)

    López-Cruz, Roberto I; Crocker, Daniel E; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bernal, Jaime A; Real-Valle, Roberto A; Lugo-Lugo, Orlando; Zenteno-Savín, Tania


    Marine mammals are exposed to ischemia/reperfusion and hypoxia/reoxygenation during diving. During oxygen deprivation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) breakdown implies purine metabolite accumulation, which in humans is associated with pathological conditions. Purine recycling in seals increases in response to prolonged fasting and ischemia. Concentrations of metabolites and activities of key enzymes in purine metabolism were examined in plasma and red blood cells from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and humans. Hypoxanthine and inosine monophosphate concentrations were higher in plasma from dolphins than humans. Plasma hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) activity in dolphins suggests an elevated purine recycling rate, and a mechanism for avoiding accumulation of non-recyclable purines (xanthine and uric acid). Red blood cell concentrations of hypoxanthine, adenosine diphosphate, ATP and guanosine triphosphate were lower in dolphins than in humans; adenosine monophosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentrations were higher in dolphins. HGPRT activity in red blood cells was higher in humans than in dolphins. The lower concentrations of purine catabolism and recycling by-products in plasma from dolphins could be beneficial in providing substrates for recovery of ATP depleted during diving or vigorous swimming. These results suggest that purine salvage in dolphins could be a mechanism for delivering nucleotide precursors to tissues with high ATP and guanosine triphosphate requirements.

  13. Recycling Strategy and Recyclability Assessment Model Based on the Artificial Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Now, a rapidly growing concern for the environmental protection and resource utilization has stimulated many new activities in the in dustrialized world for coping with urgent environmental problems created by the steadily increasing consumption of industrial products. Increasingly stringent r egulations and widely expressed public concern for the environment highlight the importance of disposing solid waste generated from industrial and consumable pr oducts. How to efficiently recycle and tackle this p...

  14. Refrigerant recycling apparatus, method and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, J.P.; Gordon, R.F.


    A refrigerant recycling apparatus for recovery and purification of refrigerant is described comprising: (a) an input conduit system for connecting a refrigerant source to the refrigerant recycling apparatus; (b) a first disposable filter capable of removing moisture and particulates from the refrigerant, said disposable filter being located such that the filter is easily accessible for service; (c) a primary heat exchanger configured so as to provide heat to the refrigerant thereby causing the refrigerant to be vaporized; (d) a secondary heat exchanger for further heating of the refrigerant to further assist in vaporization of the refrigerant; (e) an expansion valve located prior in line to said primary and secondary heat exchangers for controlling the flow of the refrigerant and reducing the pressure of the refrigerant, thereby allowing the refrigerant to expand to a predominantly gaseous state; (f) a separator for removing oil from the refrigerant; (g) a compressor pump having a vacuum producing inlet and a pressure producing outlet, the pump being a hermetically sealed, lubricated-for-life positive displacement pump; (h) a condenser for cooling the refrigerant; (i) a second disposable filter for removing moisture, acids, and other particulates from the refrigerant passing there through, said disposable filter being located in an area easily accessible for servicing; (j) an interconnecting conduit system for interconnecting the input conduit system, the first and second disposable filters, the heat exchangers, the compressor pump, the condenser, the expansion valve, and the refrigerant source; (k) a moisture indicator located after the second disposable filter, for measuring the degree of moisture present within the refrigerant after the refrigerant has flowed through the second disposable filter.

  15. Energy Return on Investment - Fuel Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, W; Simon, A J; Fratoni, M; Smith, C; Schwab, P; Murray, P


    This report provides a methodology and requisite data to assess the potential Energy Return On Investment (EROI) for nuclear fuel cycle alternatives, and applies that methodology to a limited set of used fuel recycle scenarios. This paper is based on a study by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and a parallel evaluation by AREVA Federal Services LLC, both of which were sponsored by the DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program. The focus of the LLNL effort was to develop a methodology that can be used by the FCT program for such analysis that is consistent with the broader energy modeling community, and the focus of the AREVA effort was to bring industrial experience and operational data into the analysis. This cooperative effort successfully combined expertise from the energy modeling community with expertise from the nuclear industry. Energy Return on Investment is one of many figures of merit on which investment in a new energy facility or process may be judged. EROI is the ratio of the energy delivered by a facility divided by the energy used to construct, operate and decommission that facility. While EROI is not the only criterion used to make an investment decision, it has been shown that, in technologically advanced societies, energy supplies must exceed a minimum EROI. Furthermore, technological history shows a trend towards higher EROI energy supplies. EROI calculations have been performed for many components of energy technology: oil wells, wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, biofuels, and nuclear reactors. This report represents the first standalone EROI analysis of nuclear fuel reprocessing (or recycling) facilities.

  16. Peptidoglycan Recycling in Gram-Positive Bacteria Is Crucial for Survival in Stationary Phase (United States)

    Borisova, Marina; Gaupp, Rosmarie; Duckworth, Amanda; Schneider, Alexander; Dalügge, Désirée; Mühleck, Maraike; Deubel, Denise; Unsleber, Sandra; Yu, Wenqi; Muth, Günther; Bischoff, Markus; Götz, Friedrich


    ABSTRACT Peptidoglycan recycling is a metabolic process by which Gram-negative bacteria reutilize up to half of their cell wall within one generation during vegetative growth. Whether peptidoglycan recycling also occurs in Gram-positive bacteria has so far remained unclear. We show here that three Gram-positive model organisms, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Streptomyces coelicolor, all recycle the sugar N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc) of their peptidoglycan during growth in rich medium. They possess MurNAc-6-phosphate (MurNAc-6P) etherase (MurQ in E. coli) enzymes, which are responsible for the intracellular conversion of MurNAc-6P to N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate and d-lactate. By applying mass spectrometry, we observed accumulation of MurNAc-6P in MurNAc-6P etherase deletion mutants but not in either the isogenic parental strains or complemented strains, suggesting that MurQ orthologs are required for the recycling of cell wall-derived MurNAc in these bacteria. Quantification of MurNAc-6P in ΔmurQ cells of S. aureus and B. subtilis revealed small amounts during exponential growth phase (0.19 nmol and 0.03 nmol, respectively, per ml of cells at an optical density at 600 nm [OD600] of 1) but large amounts during transition (0.56 nmol and 0.52 nmol) and stationary (0.53 nmol and 1.36 nmol) phases. The addition of MurNAc to ΔmurQ cultures greatly increased the levels of intracellular MurNAc-6P in all growth phases. The ΔmurQ mutants of S. aureus and B. subtilis showed no growth deficiency in rich medium compared to the growth of the respective parental strains, but intriguingly, they had a severe survival disadvantage in late stationary phase. Thus, although peptidoglycan recycling is apparently not essential for the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, it provides a benefit for long-term survival. PMID:27729505

  17. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Miller


    Full Text Available Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  18. Current Status on Resource and Recycling Technology for Rare Earths (United States)

    Takeda, Osamu; Okabe, Toru H.


    The development of recycling technologies for rare earths is essential for resource security and supply stability because high-quality rare earth mines are concentrated in China and the demand for rare earth metals such as neodymium and dysprosium, used as raw materials in permanent magnets (neodymium magnet), is expected to increase rapidly in the near future. It is also important to establish a recycling-based society from the perspective of the conservation of finite and valuable mineral resources and the reduction of the environmental load associated with mining and smelting. In this article, the current status of rare earth resource as well as that of recycling technology for the magnets is reviewed. The importance of establishing an efficient recycling process for rare earths is discussed from the characteristics of supply chain of rare earths, and the technological bases of the recycling processes for the magnet are introduced. Further, some fundamental researches on the development of new recycling processes based on pyrometallurgical process are introduced, and the features of the recycling processes are evaluated.

  19. Recycling of Waste Engine Oils Using a New Washing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardasht Rafat


    Full Text Available This paper addresses recycling of waste engine oils treated using acetic acid. A recycling process was developed which eventually led to comparable results with some of the conventional methods. This gives the recycled oil the potential to be reused in cars’ engines after adding the required additives. The advantage of using the acetic acid is that it does not react or only reacts slightly with base oils. The recycling process takes place at room temperature. It has been shown that base oils and oils’ additives are slightly affected by the acetic acid. Upon adding 0.8 vol% of acetic acid to the used oil, two layers were separated, a transparent dark red colored oil and a black dark sludge at the bottom of the container. The base oils resulting from other recycling methods were compared to the results of this paper. The comparison showed that the recycled oil produced by acetic acid treatment is comparable to those recycled by the other conventional methods.

  20. Childhood Lead Exposure from Battery Recycling in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Daniell


    Full Text Available Background. Battery recycling facilities in developing countries can cause community lead exposure. Objective. To evaluate child lead exposure in a Vietnam battery recycling craft village after efforts to shift home-based recycling outside the village. Methods. This cross-sectional study evaluated 109 children in Dong Mai village, using blood lead level (BLL measurement, parent interview, and household observation. Blood samples were analyzed with a LeadCare II field instrument; highest BLLs (≥45 μg/dL were retested by laboratory analysis. Surface and soil lead were measured at 11 households and a school with X-ray fluorescence analyzer. Results. All children had high BLLs; 28% had BLL ≥45 μg/dL. Younger age, family recycling, and outside brick surfaces were associated with higher BLL. Surface and soil lead levels were high at all tested homes, even with no recycling history. Laboratory BLLs were lower than LeadCare BLLs, in 24 retested children. Discussion. In spite of improvements, lead exposure was still substantial and probably associated with continued home-based recycling, legacy contamination, and workplace take-home exposure pathways. There is a need for effective strategies to manage lead exposure from battery recycling in craft villages. These reported BLL values should be interpreted cautiously, although the observed field-laboratory discordance may reflect bias in laboratory results.

  1. User-Assisted Store Recycling for Dynamic Task Graph Schedulers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt, Mehmet Can [Quantcast Corporation, San Francisco, CA; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA; Agrawal, Gagan [The Ohio State University, Neil Avenue Columbus, OH; Ren, Bin [The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA


    The emergence of the multi-core era has led to increased interest in designing effective yet practical parallel programming models. Models based on task graphs that operate on single-assignment data are attractive in several ways: they can support dynamic applications and precisely represent the available concurrency. However, they also require nuanced algorithms for scheduling and memory management for efficient execution. In this paper, we consider memory-efficient dynamic scheduling of task graphs. Specifically, we present a novel approach for dynamically recycling the memory locations assigned to data items as they are produced by tasks. We develop algorithms to identify memory-efficient store recycling functions by systematically evaluating the validity of a set of (user-provided or automatically generated) alternatives. Because recycling function can be input data-dependent, we have also developed support for continued correct execution of a task graph in the presence of a potentially incorrect store recycling function. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that our approach to automatic store recycling incurs little to no overheads, achieves memory usage comparable to the best manually derived solutions, often produces recycling functions valid across problem sizes and input parameters, and efficiently recovers from an incorrect choice of store recycling functions.

  2. Biological risk factors in informal recyclers of Medellin city, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana L. Ballesteros


    Full Text Available The informal recyclers constitute a vulnerable population to problems of health by their constant exhibition to biological, chemical, physical and social risks, without protection. Objective: this work identify the biological risk facts to which the informal recyclers of the Bazaar of the Bridges of Medellin city. Methods: it was performed a Cross-sectional study. The sample was no probabilistic with 88 recyclers and the analysis unit was the informal recycler. It was applied a survey, a guide of observation of the activity of the recycler and were studied variables of person, place, time, type of biological risk facts, frequency of exhibition, felt morbidity and measures of protection. The analysis was statistical descriptive. Results: it was identified biological risk facts related to the contact with material in decomposition (96.6%, contaminated material (96.6%, animals (62.5% and arthropoda (79.5%. The se The se--curity measures to protect them from biological risk facts are used in less than 52% of recyclers; in addition, only 13.6% of the population were vaccinated, which increases the probability of becoming ill in this population. Conclusions: that the informal recyclers are exposed to different biological risk facts with little prevention, causing that population be vulnerable for the acquisition of infectious diseases.

  3. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: electronics recycling industry communication. (United States)

    Mueller, Julia R; Boehm, Michael W; Drummond, Charles


    Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased.

  4. Natural selection for costly nutrient recycling in simulated microbial metacommunities. (United States)

    Boyle, Richard A; Williams, Hywel T P; Lenton, Timothy M


    Recycling of essential nutrients occurs at scales from microbial communities to global biogeochemical cycles, often in association with ecological interactions in which two or more species utilise each others' metabolic by-products. However, recycling loops may be unstable; sequences of reactions leading to net recycling may be parasitised by side-reactions causing nutrient loss, while some reactions in any closed recycling loop are likely to be costly to participants. Here we examine the stability of nutrient recycling loops in an individual-based ecosystem model based on microbial functional types that differ in their metabolism. A supplied nutrient is utilised by a "source" functional type, generating a secondary nutrient that is subsequently used by two other types-a "mutualist" that regenerates the initial nutrient at a growth rate cost, and a "parasite" that produces a refractory waste product but does not incur any additional cost. The three functional types are distributed across a metacommunity in which separate patches are linked by a stochastic diffusive migration process. Regions of high mutualist abundance feature high levels of nutrient recycling and increased local population density leading to greater export of individuals, allowing the source-mutualist recycling loop to spread across the system. Individual-level selection favouring parasites is balanced by patch-level selection for high productivity, indirectly favouring mutualists due to the synergistic productivity benefits of the recycling loop they support. This suggests that multi-level selection may promote nutrient cycling and thereby help to explain the apparent ubiquity and stability of nutrient recycling in nature.

  5. Recycling: key component of a sustainable development strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapham, M. [Natural Resources Canada, Mineral and Metal Policy Branch, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    Challenges facing the recycling industry in Canada and elsewhere, some tools, standards and methods that are used to address these challenges and examples of how sustainable development strategies are being incorporated into the corporate business plans of the recycling industry are discussed. Support of senior management, commitment of resources and recognition that implementation of recycling strategies may take several years, are identified as some of the prerequisites to successful implementation of sustainable development strategies. The role government plays in encouraging the changing awareness by industry of the need for balancing environmental, economic and social needs are also reviewed. 10 refs.

  6. Nonlinear dynamics and control of a recycle fixed bed reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Recke, Bodil; Jørgensen, Sten Bay


    The purpose of this paper is twofold. Primarily to describe the dynamic behaviour that can be observed in a fixed bed reactor with recycle of unconverted reactant. Secondly to describe the possibilities of model reduction in order to facilitate control design. Reactant recycle has been shown...... to introduce periodic solution to the fixed bed reactor, a phenomenon which is not seen for the system without the recycle, at least not within the Peclet number range investigated in the present work. The possibility of model reduction by the methods of modal decomposition, and by characteristics...

  7. Occurrence and Control of Legionella in Recycled Water Systems (United States)

    Jjemba, Patrick K.; Johnson, William; Bukhari, Zia; LeChevallier, Mark W.


    Legionella pneumophila is on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Candidate Contaminant list (CCL) as an important pathogen. It is commonly encountered in recycled water and is typically associated with amoeba, notably Naegleria fowleri (also on the CCL) and Acanthamoeba sp. No legionellosis outbreak has been linked to recycled water and it is important for the industry to proactively keep things that way. A review was conducted examine the occurrence of Legionella and its protozoa symbionts in recycled water with the aim of developing a risk management strategy. The review considered the intricate ecological relationships between Legionella and protozoa, methods for detecting both symbionts, and the efficacy of various disinfectants. PMID:26140674

  8. Monopoly power and the recycling of raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.E.


    A leader-follower model of monopolist recycling in the case of the Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA) shows that industry output in the presence of raw-material recycling will be at least as great and sometimes significantly greater than when there is no recycling. Monopoly rents will drop as the technology for scrap recovery or conversion improves, and rise if the scrap leaks into export markets. The consumer benefits if the scrap-recovery sector is separate from the monopolist, but will not be worse off if production is integrated. The monopolist has no incentive for partial integration even if there are no entry barriers. 7 references. (DCK)

  9. Energy efficiency of material and energy recycling, sustainability of different recycling methods; Energieeffizienz der stofflichen und energetischen Verwertung ausgewaehlter Abfallfraktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friecke, Klaus; Bahr, Tobias [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Lehrstuhl Abfall- und Ressourcenwirtschaft; Bidlingmaier, Werner [Bauhaus-Universitaet Weimar (Germany). Professur Abfallwirtschaft; Turk, Thomas [Poeyry Environment GmbH, Witzenhausen (Germany). Abt. IGW


    The approach for the sustainable usage of natural resources should lead to improved resource efficiency at the same time as a decrease of the negative ecological consequences of resource usage. Following this approach, the instruments of waste management particularly the material recycling and the energy recycling are also to be subject to a critical examination. The material recycling of paper and cardboard as well as plastics and biowaste has clear advantages over energy recycling processes in the aspect of energy efficiency. From the view of resource resp. energy efficiency also the recovering rate of metals is higher when they are collected from raw waste than when they are recovered from slag. This applies particularly for the nonferrous. This applies particularly for the nonferrous metals. Coupled with this as a rule, the climate change effects are also to be classified as lower. Which consequences can be drawn from these facts? Material recycling must be intensified. For paper/cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals its is apparent that material recycling can be massively increased through intensifying the separate collecting systems and making them more flexible, in conjunction with an intensive use of sorting technologies. Collection and sorting systems are to be coordinated with each other. The goal of the whole system must be the reaching of an optimum between covering rate which is as high as possible and a high quality of recyclable material. (orig.)

  10. Microbial carbon recycling - an underestimated process controlling soil carbon dynamics - Part 1: A long-term laboratory incubation experiment (United States)

    Basler, A.; Dippold, M.; Helfrich, M.; Dyckmans, J.


    Independent of its chemical structure carbon (C) persists in soil for several decades, controlled by stabilization and recycling. To disentangle the importance of the two factors on the turnover dynamics of soil sugars, an important compound of soil organic matter (SOM), a 3-year incubation experiment was conducted on a silty loam soil under different types of land use (arable land, grassland and forest) by adding 13C-labelled glucose. The compound-specific isotope analysis of soil sugars was used to examine the dynamics of different sugars during incubation. Sugar dynamics were dominated by a pool of high mean residence times (MRT) indicating that recycling plays an important role for sugars. However, this was not substantially affected by soil C content. Six months after label addition the contribution of the label was much higher for microbial biomass than for CO2 production for all examined land use types, corroborating that substrate recycling was very effective within the microbial biomass. Two different patterns of tracer dynamics could be identified for different sugars: while fucose and mannose showed highest label contribution at the beginning of the incubation with a subsequent slow decline, galactose and rhamnose were characterized by slow label incorporation with subsequently constant levels, which indicates that recycling is dominating the dynamics of these sugars. This may correspond to (a) different microbial growing strategies (r and K-strategist) or (b) location within or outside the cell membrane (lipopolysaccharides vs. exopolysaccharides) and thus be subject of different re-use within the microbial food web. Our results show how the microbial community recycles substrate very effectively and that high losses of substrate only occur during initial stages after substrate addition. This study indicates that recycling is one of the major processes explaining the high MRT observed for many SOM fractions and thus is crucial for understanding the

  11. Direct phasing from Patterson syntheses by δ recycling. (United States)

    Rius, Jordi


    The direct methods origin-free modulus sum function [Rius (1993). Acta Cryst. A49, 406-409] includes in its definition the structure factor G(Φ) of the squared crystal structure expressed in terms of Φ, the set of φ phases of the normalized structure factors E's of the crystal structure of unit-cell volume V. Here the simpler sum function variant S'(P) = ∑(H)E(-H)∫(V)δ(P,Δ)(Φ)exp(i2πHr)dV extended over all H reflections is introduced which involves no G's and in which the δ(P,Δ) function corresponds to δ(P) = FT(-1){(E(2)(H) - )exp[iφ(H)(Φ)]} (where FT = Fourier transform) with all values smaller than Δ = 2.5σ(P) equated to zero (σ(2)(P) is the variance of δ(P) calculable from the experimental intensities). The new phase estimates are obtained by Fourier transforming δ(P,Δ). This iterative phasing method (δ recycling) only requires calculation of Fourier transforms at two stages. Since δ(M) ≃ δ(P)/2, similar arguments are valid for δ(M) = FT(-1)[(E(H) - )exp(iφ(H))] from which the corresponding S'(M) phasing function follows.

  12. Insects recycle endosymbionts when the benefit is over. (United States)

    Vigneron, Aurélien; Masson, Florent; Vallier, Agnès; Balmand, Séverine; Rey, Marjolaine; Vincent-Monégat, Carole; Aksoy, Emre; Aubailly-Giraud, Etienne; Zaidman-Rémy, Anna; Heddi, Abdelaziz


    Symbiotic associations are widespread in nature and represent a driving force in evolution. They are known to impact fitness, and thereby shape the host phenotype. Insects subsisting on nutritionally poor substrates have evolved mutualistic relationships with intracellular symbiotic bacteria (endosymbionts) that supply them with metabolic components lacking in their diet. In many species, endosymbionts are hosted within specialized host cells, called the bacteriocytes, and transmitted vertically across host generations. How hosts balance the costs and benefits of having endosymbionts, and whether and how they adjust symbiont load to their physiological needs, remains largely unexplored. By investigating the cereal weevil Sitophilus association with the Sodalis pierantonius endosymbiont, we discover that endosymbiont populations intensively multiply in young adults, before being rapidly eliminated within few days. We show that young adults strongly depend on endosymbionts and that endosymbiont proliferation after metamorphosis matches a drastic host physiological need for the tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) amino acids to rapidly build their protective exoskeleton. Tyr and Phe are precursors of the dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) molecule that is an essential component for the cuticle synthesis. Once the cuticle is achieved, DOPA reaches high amounts in insects, which triggers endosymbiont elimination. This elimination relies on apoptosis and autophagy activation, allowing digestion and recycling of the endosymbiont material. Thus, the weevil-endosymbiont association reveals an adaptive interplay between metabolic and cellular functions that minimizes the cost of symbiosis and speeds up the exoskeleton formation during a critical phase when emerging adults are especially vulnerable.

  13. Developing Statistical Evaluation Model of Introduction Effect of MSW Thermal Recycling (United States)

    Aoyama, Makoto; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    For the effective utilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) through a thermal recycling, new technologies, such as an incineration plant using a Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC), are being developed. The impact of new technologies should be evaluated statistically for various municipalities, so that the target of technological development or potential cost reduction due to the increased cumulative number of installed system can be discussed. For this purpose, we developed a model for discussing the impact of new technologies, where a statistical mesh data set was utilized to estimate the heat demand around the incineration plant. This paper examines a case study by using a developed model, where a conventional type and a MCFC type MSW incineration plant is compared in terms of the reduction in primary energy and the revenue by both electricity and heat supply. Based on the difference in annual revenue, we calculate the allowable investment in MCFC-type MSW incineration plant in addition to conventional plant. The results suggest that allowable investment can be about 30 millions yen/(t/day) in small municipalities, while it is only 10 millions yen/(t/day) in large municipalities. The sensitive analysis shows the model can be useful for discussing the difference of impact of material recycling of plastics on thermal recycling technologies.

  14. Measures taken for recycling at beer breweries; Beer kojo ni okeru saishigenka eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, M. [Kirin Breweri Company, Tokyo (Japan)


    Full recycling of waste was achieved in our all breweries in 1998. This paper introduces the history to solve the problems relating to waste in our beer brewerise, our basic consideration for recycling, the status of waste generation and recycling activities, our measures taken for recycling and its relating cost, and in addition, the general measures taken by our industry as a whole. (author)

  15. Research and Development of a New Waste Collection Bin to Facilitate Education in Plastic Recycling (United States)

    Chow, Cheuk-fai; So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Cheung, Tsz-Yan


    Plastic recycling has been an alternative method for solid waste management apart from landfill and incineration. However, recycling quality is affected when all plastics are discarded into a single recycling bin that increases cross contaminations and operation cost to the recycling industry. Following the engineering design process, a new…

  16. The Efficiency of Informality: Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Reductions from Informal Recycling in Bogotá, Colombia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergara, Sintana E.; Damgaard, Anders; Gomez, Daniel


    replaced their informal recycling sectors with municipally run recycling schemes and have had to build their recycling rates anew, most industrializing cities in the Global South remain centers of recycling and reuse through the work of informal workers. Bogotá, Colombia, is emblematic of many cities...

  17. Recycle PET再生涤纶机织面料的染整工艺探讨%Discussion on Dyeing Process of Recycle PET recycled Polyester Woven Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛以强; 李峻


    介绍Recycle PET再生涤纶面料在未来的能源利用和循环经济发展中的前景,着重实验并探讨再生涤纶机织面料的前处理和染色工艺,对其前处理精练退浆剂、分散染料等选择提出有效的实验方法,本文提出一些改善再生涤纶面料在染整过程中的染色均匀性、布面平整、批差等问题,为再生涤纶面料的染整开发提供了一定的实践经验。%Introduce Recycle PET recycled polyester fabric in the future prospects of energy use and economic development cycle, focusing experiment and explore renewable pretreatment and dyeing polyester woven fabric, and propose effective pretreatment scouring desizing agent, disperse dyes and other options for its experimental methods, this paper presents some improvements recycled polyester fabric dyeing process in dyeing uniformity, fabric formation, batch and poor, for the development of recycled polyester fabric dyeing and provide some practical experience.

  18. The GPRC6A Receptor displays Constitutive Internalization and Sorting to the Slow Recycling Pathway. (United States)

    Jacobsen, Stine Engesgaard; Ammendrup-Johnsen, Ina; Jansen, Anna Mai; Gether, Ulrik; Madsen, Kenneth Lindegaard; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans


    The class C G protein-coupled receptor GPRC6A is a putative nutrient sensing receptor and represents a possible new drug target in metabolic disorders. However, the specific physiological role of this receptor has yet to be identified, and the mechanisms regulating its activity and cell surface availability also remain enigmatic. In the present study, we investigated the trafficking properties of GPRC6A by use of both a classical antibody feeding internalization assay in which cells were visualized using confocal microscopy and a novel internalization assay that is based on real-time measurements of fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Both assays revealed that GPRC6A predominantly undergoes constitutive internalization while the agonist-induced effects were imperceptible. Moreover, post-endocytic sorting was investigated by assessing the co-localization of internalized GPRC6A with selected Rab protein markers. Internalized GPRC6A was mainly co-localized with the early endosome marker Rab5 and the long loop recycling endosome marker Rab11 and to a much lesser extent with the late endosome marker Rab7. This suggests that upon agonist-independent internalization, GPRC6A is recycled via the Rab11-positive slow recycling pathway, which may be responsible for ensuring a persistent pool of GPRC6A receptors at the cell surface despite chronic agonist exposure. Distinct trafficking pathways have been reported for several of the class C receptors, and our results thus substantiate that non-canonical trafficking mechanisms are a common feature for the nutrient sensing class C family that ensure functional receptors in the cell membrane despite prolonged agonist exposure.

  19. Simulation of nylon 6 polymerization in tubular reactors with recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.K.; Kunzru, D.; Kumar, A.; Agarwal, K.K.


    In the hydrolytic polymerization of epsilon-caprolactam, the ring opening of the monomer is much slower than the polyaddition reaction. Hence, the mixing of aminocaproic acid to the feed results in a faster conversion of the monomer. Industrially, this fact is exploited by using a recycle stream. An isothermal plug flow reactor (PFR) with a recycle is simulated in this study, using two techniques: the method of successive substitutions and Wegstein's method. It is found that, under certain operating conditions, the use of a recycle stream gives higher monomer conversions and lower cyclic dimer concentrations than either a PFR or a homogeneous continuous flow stirred tank reactor (HCSTR), with the degree of polymerization almost the same as that obtained in an HCSTR, and thus offers a considerable advantage. However, when a recycle reactor is coupled with a subsequent flashing operation and a finishing reactor, these advantages are considerably reduced.

  20. Electron Cloud Measurements in Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey Scott [Indiana U.; Backfish, M. [Fermilab; Tan, C. Y. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab


    This conference paper presents a series of electron cloud measurements in the Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler. A new instability was observed in the Recycler in July 2014 that generates a fast transverse excitation in the first high intensity batch to be injected. Microwave measurements of electron cloud in the Recycler show a corresponding depen- dence on the batch injection pattern. These electron cloud measurements are compared to those made with a retard- ing field analyzer (RFA) installed in a field-free region of the Recycler in November. RFAs are also used in the Main Injector to evaluate the performance of beampipe coatings for the mitigation of electron cloud. Contamination from an unexpected vacuum leak revealed a potential vulnerability in the amorphous carbon beampipe coating. The diamond-like carbon coating, in contrast, reduced the electron cloud signal to 1% of that measured in uncoated stainless steel beampipe.

  1. Physical/chemical closed-loop water-recycling (United States)

    Herrmann, Cal C.; Wydeven, Theodore


    Water needs, water sources, and means for recycling water are examined in terms appropriate to the water quality requirements of a small crew and spacecraft intended for long duration exploration missions. Inorganic, organic, and biological hazards are estimated for waste water sources. Sensitivities to these hazards for human uses are estimated. The water recycling processes considered are humidity condensation, carbon dioxide reduction, waste oxidation, distillation, reverse osmosis, pervaporation, electrodialysis, ion exchange, carbon sorption, and electrochemical oxidation. Limitations and applications of these processes are evaluated in terms of water quality objectives. Computerized simulation of some of these chemical processes is examined. Recommendations are made for development of new water recycling technology and improvement of existing technology for near term application to life support systems for humans in space. The technological developments are equally applicable to water needs on Earth, in regions where extensive water recycling is needed or where advanced water treatment is essential to meet EPA health standards.

  2. External costs of material recycling strategies for fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallberg, B. E-mail:; Aquilonius, K.; Lechon, Y.; Cabal, H.; Saez, R.M.; Schneider, T.; Lepicard, S.; Ward, D.; Hamacher, T.; Korhonen, R


    This paper is based on studies performed within the framework of the project Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF3). Several fusion power plant designs (SEAFP Models 1-6) were compared focusing on part of the plant's life cycle: environmental impact of recycling the materials. Recycling was considered for materials replaced during normal operation, as well as materials from decommissioning of the plant. Environmental impact was assessed and expressed as external cost normalised with the total electrical energy output during plant operation. The methodology used for this study has been developed by the Commission of the European Union within the frame of the ExternE project. External costs for recycling, normalised with the energy production during plant operation, are very low compared with those for other energy sources. Results indicate that a high degree of recycling is preferable, at least when considering external costs, because external costs of manufacturing of new materials and disposal costs are higher.

  3. Road Routes for Waste Disposal - MDC_RecyclingRoute (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This CURBSIDE RECYCLING ROUTES BOUNDARIES LAYER IS A polygon feature class created for the Miami-Dade Department of Solid Waste Management (DSWM). It contains the...

  4. Recycling of sewage in Swedish municipalities - Policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederberg, H.


    The construction of sewage treatment plants, which increased dramatically during the sixties in Sweden, was based on the idea that sewage is a waste, despite the fact that it contains considerable amounts of nourishment. Environmental research today, focuses more and more on recycling and on the potential resource inherent in sewage. This chapter deals with how to manage a change from problem elimination to recycling of resources, and discuss such from an institutional perspective. A shift towards recycling implies a shift of techniques, decision-makers and process strategies. Implementation of recycling will need strategic principles, and thereby results from research focusing common property resource management can be used in the policy process 32 refs, 5 figs

  5. 40 CFR 261.6 - Requirements for recyclable materials. (United States)


    ... initiating the shipment. (ii) Scrap metal that is not excluded under § 261.4(a)(13); (iii) Fuels produced... recycling process itself is exempt from regulation except as provided in § 261.6(d).) (2) Owners...

  6. Recycling of plastic waste by density separation: prospects for optimization. (United States)

    Gent, Malcolm Richard; Menendez, Mario; Toraño, Javier; Diego, Isidro


    A review of existing industrial processing and results of alternative processing investigations for separating solid mixtures and specifically recycling plastic waste by density separation is presented. Media density separation is shown to be fundamental for separation and/or pre-concentration in the recycling of plastics. The current use of static media processes limits the capacity and size of material that can be treated commercially. Investigations have shown that the hydroscopic properties of plastics can be reduced to improve such separations. This indicates that an alternative processing method is required to increase the commercial recovery of recyclable plastics. Cylindroconical and cylindrical cyclone-type media separators, such as those used for processing coal, are reviewed and suggested as a potential substitute. Both have superior production capacities and are able to process a larger range in particle sizes treated. A summary of results of investigations with cyclone media devices for recycling plastics is presented.

  7. Consumer Education: The Key to Successful Plastics Recycling. (United States)

    Cutler, Alan; Moore, Susan


    Examines consumer education strategies for decreasing contamination in plastics collected for recycling. Discusses research that suggests the problem may not be consumers ignoring rules but rather that consumers appear to be adhering diligently to rules of their own invention. (LZ)

  8. Recycling of waste lead storage battery by vacuum methods. (United States)

    Lin, Deqiang; Qiu, Keqiang


    Waste lead storage battery is the most important recyclable lead material not only in various European and other OECD countries but also in China. Pollution control of lead has become the focus of people's attention in the world. A vacuum process for recycling waste lead storage battery was developed in this work. The experimental results showed that all the valuable materials in waste lead storage battery could be satisfactorily recycled by vacuum technologies. The vacuum melting of lead grids and the vacuum reduction of lead pastes produce the lead bullion with the direct recovery ratio of 96.29% and 98.98%, respectively. The vacuum pyrolysis of plastics can produce pyrolysis oil with yield of more than 93 wt.%. These vacuum recycling technologies offer improvements in metallurgical and environmental performance.

  9. In vitro structure-activity relationship of Re-cyclized octreotide analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannoon, Shorouk F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Bigott-Hennkens, Heather M. [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Ma Lixin [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); International Institute of Nano and Molecular Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Service, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Gallazzi, Fabio [Structural Biology Core, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Lewis, Michael R., E-mail: lewismic@missouri.ed [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Service, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Jurisson, Silvia S., E-mail: jurissons@missouri.ed [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)


    Introduction: Development of radiolabeled octreotide analogues is of interest for targeting somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-positive tumors for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We are investigating a direct labeling approach for incorporation of a Re ion into octreotide analogues, where the peptide sequences are cyclized via coordination to Re rather than through a disulfide bridge. Methods: Various octreotide analogue sequences and coordination systems (e.g., S{sub 2}N{sub 2} and S{sub 3}N) were synthesized and cyclized with nonradioactive Re. In vitro competitive binding assays with {sup 111}In-DOTA-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide in AR42J rat pancreatic tumor cells yielded IC{sub 50} values as a measure of SSTR affinity of the Re-cyclized analogues. Three-dimensional structures of Re-cyclized Tyr{sup 3}-octreotate and its disulfide-bridged analogue were calculated from two-dimensional NMR experiments to visualize the effect of metal cyclization on the analogue's pharmacophore. Results: Only two of the 11 Re-cyclized analogues investigated showed moderate in vitro binding affinity toward somatostatin subtype 2 receptors. Three-dimensional molecular structures of Re- and disulfide-cyclized Tyr{sup 3}-octreotate were calculated, and both of their pharmacophore turns appear to be very similar with minor differences due to metal coordination to the amide nitrogen of one of the pharmacophore amino acids. Conclusions: Various Re-cyclized analogues were developed and analogue 4 had moderate affinity toward somatostatin subtype 2 receptors. In vitro stable studies that are in progress showed stable radiometal cyclization of octreotide analogues via NS{sub 3} and N{sub 2}S{sub 2} coordination forming five- and six-membered chelate rings. In vivo biodistribution studies are underway of {sup 99m}Tc-cyclized analogue 4.

  10. Possibilities and limits of pyrolysis for recycling plastic rich waste streams rejected from phones recycling plants. (United States)

    Caballero, B M; de Marco, I; Adrados, A; López-Urionabarrenechea, A; Solar, J; Gastelu, N


    The possibilities and limits of pyrolysis as a means of recycling plastic rich fractions derived from discarded phones have been studied. Two plastic rich samples (⩾80wt% plastics) derived from landline and mobile phones provided by a Spanish recycling company, have been pyrolysed under N2 in a 3.5dm(3) reactor at 500°C for 30min. The landline and mobile phones yielded 58 and 54.5wt% liquids, 16.7 and 12.6wt% gases and 28.3 and 32.4wt% solids respectively. The liquids were a complex mixture of organic products containing valuable chemicals (toluene, styrene, ethyl-benzene, etc.) and with high HHVs (34-38MJkg(-1)). The solids were composed of metals (mainly Cu, Zn, and Al) and char (≈50wt%). The gases consisted mainly of hydrocarbons and some CO, CO2 and H2. The halogens (Cl, Br) of the original samples were mainly distributed between the gases and solids. The metals and char can be easily separated and the formers may be recycled, but the uses of the char will be restricted due to its Cl/Br content. The gases may provide the energy requirements of the processing plant, but HBr and HCl must be firstly eliminated. The liquids could have a potential use as energy or chemicals source, but the practical implementation of these applications will be no exempt of great problems that may become insurmountable (difficulty of economically recovering pure chemicals, contamination by volatile metals, etc.).

  11. Xenon isotopic constraints on the timing of atmospheric volatile recycling (United States)

    Parai, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.


    Constraints on the recycling of atmospheric volatiles into the deep Earth provide important insights into mantle temperature, cooling rate, structure and style of convection over Earth history. Studies of ancient atmospheric gases trapped in Archean cherts show that the Xe isotopic composition of the atmosphere at ~3.5 Ga differed from the modern atmosphere [1]. This suggests the atmosphere evolved in isotopic composition until it reached its present-day composition at some time after 3.5 Ga. The evolution of the atmospheric Xe isotopic composition presents an opportunity to constrain the timing of Xe recycling into the Earth's mantle. Xe isotopes measured in mid-ocean ridge basalts [MORBs; 2,3] and plume-related basalts [4,5] indicate that both the upper mantle and plume source Xe isotopic compositions are dominated by recycled Xe [e.g., 3]. We find that the mantle source Xe isotopic compositions cannot be explained by recycling ancient atmospheric Xe alone; rather, subduction and incorporation of material bearing the modern atmospheric Xe composition must dominate. We note that our findings are consistent with a number of physical reasons that recently-subducted volatiles should be more prevalent than ancient subducted volatiles. First, a higher Archean mantle potential temperature should inhibit early Xe recycling to the deep Earth. Second, since the mantle turnover time scale is estimated to be between a few hundreds of Myr and 1 Gyr, the mantle recycled atmospheric Xe budget should be primarily composed of Xe subducted after ~2.5 Ga, at which point the atmosphere approaches the modern Xe composition [1]. Therefore, even if ancient atmospheric Xe were recycled efficiently to the mantle early in Earth history, the recycled atmospheric Xe budget of the mantle should still be dominated by the modern atmospheric Xe composition. [1] Pujol et al., 2011, EPSL; [2] Tucker et al., 2012, EPSL; [3] Parai and Mukhopadhyay, 2015, G-cubed; [4] Mukhopadhyay, 2012, Nature; [5

  12. Serbia: A new process for waste rubber and plastic recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozren Ocic


    Full Text Available This paper intends to describe a new technological process for waste rubber and plastic recycling up to the commercial components in safe environmental friendly way. Researches and all relevant technical-technological data related to this process are checked at constructed pilot plant. The future construction of these units for waste rubber and plastic recycling will allow interested parties to achieve the environmental effectiveness and economic efficiency.

  13. Fargo-Moorhead Urban Study. Energy Conservation Appendix. Recycling, Thermography. (United States)


    1 II. PROJECT NEEDS AND OBJECTIVES 2 III. PROCEDURES 4 Recycling Committee 4 Selection of Marketing Consultants 5 Market Analysis 5 Marketing Strategy 7...the marketing strategy . o Monitoring and evaluation. The recycling committee operated in close cooperation with the representative of the St. Paul... Marketing Strategy : Upon the completion of the market analysis and the 71 determination that the marketing efforts would concentrate on newspaper

  14. Tantalum recycling from waste of electrical and electronic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowicz Andrzej


    Full Text Available The possibility of tantalum recycling from waste of electrical and electronic equipment was investigated. Study was carried out using basic physical and chemical methods, ie. mechanical separation via crushing, leaching of silver layer in diluted HNO3, grinding and oxidation of anodes and thermic reduction with metallic reducing agent. A recovery rate of anodes was determined at 96%, and recycling efficiency of tantalum to pure form was determined more than 50%. Also was made mass balance.

  15. Preparation of Magnesium Silicide from Recycled Materials for Energy Storage.


    Bumba, Jakub


    Recycling technologies help to save energy, materials and environment. This is the main reason of their popularity. The recovery of semiconductors and metals depends on recycling treatment. A new multi-step technology, which enables to obtain pure silicon and hydrogen from waste materials,is reported in this study. The only by-product is magnesium phosphate, which is a desired fertilizer. Magnesium silicide was successfully prepared from milled silicon photovoltaic (PV) panels and mill...

  16. Management and performance of Taiwan's waste recycling fund. (United States)

    Fan, Kuo-Shuh; Lin, Chun-Hsu; Chang, Tien-Chin


    Taiwan's resource recycling program was formally established in 1989, starting with the mandatory recycling of polyethylene terephthalate bottles. The number of mandatory regulated materials was extended to 8 categories with 27 items by 2002. Because of false data reporting, financial scandal, lack of transparency of the system, and the demand from parliament, the recycling policy has gradually changed from entirely privatized to being nationalized. Currently, the structure is built on six main bodies: fund management committee, consumers, industries responsible, recyclers, fee reviewing committee, and auditing agents. The industries that are responsible submit a fee, which is set by the fee reviewing committee, to the waste recycling fund (WRF), which is operated by the fund management committee. The auditing agents routinely check the responsible industries by documentation review as well as on-site counting to ensure that the fee is correctly submitted. The WRF provides initiatives to collect and dispose of the end-of-life products. The fund is split into a trust fund and a nonbusiness fund to deal with the collection, disposal, and treatment of the listed materials. The latter deals with the supporting works and ensures that the system runs effectively. The ratio of trust fund to nonbusiness fund is 80-20%. It is no doubt that the current practice achieves some improvements. Household waste has been reduced by 22%. And, most importantly, the benefit-to-cost ratio was as high as 1.24. However, similar to other state-owned systems, the resource recycling program has been criticized for false reporting from the responsible industries, a rigid system, and complicated procedures. To build a sustainable enterprise, the recycling program should be privatized as the recycling market and operating procedures are well established and fully mature.

  17. Strength Mechanism and Influence Factors for Cold Recycled Asphalt Mixture


    Tao Ma; Hao Wang; Yongli Zhao; Xiaoming Huang; Yuhui Pi


    This study focused on the key factors affecting the tensile strength of cold recycled asphalt mixture with cement and emulsified asphalt. The specific surface areas and strength of RAP were analyzed. The interaction between the emulsified asphalt and cement was observed. Comprehensive laboratory testing was conducted to evaluate the influences of RAP, emulsified asphalt, and cement on the tensile strength of cold recycled asphalt mixture. It is found that although RAP is used as aggregates, i...

  18. Zirconium alloys produced by recycling zircaloy tunings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamba, N.S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catálisis y Petroquímica, INCAPE (FIQ, UNL–CONICET), Santiago del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Carbajal-Ramos, I.A. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, CNEA e Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Ulla, M.A.; Pierini, B.T. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catálisis y Petroquímica, INCAPE (FIQ, UNL–CONICET), Santiago del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Gennari, F.C., E-mail: [Centro Atómico Bariloche, CNEA e Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)


    Highlights: •Zr–Ti alloys were successfully produced by two-step procedure. •Zircaloy tunings were used as a valuable source of Zr. •Zircaloy tunings and Ti powders was milled under hydrogen to produce hydride powders. •Hydride powders were decomposed by heating at 900 °C to synthesize the Zr-based alloy. •The procedure could be extended to the production of other Zr-based alloys. -- Abstract: Zircaloy chips were recycled to successfully produce Zr–Ti alloys with bcc structure and different compositions. The procedure developed involves two steps. First, the reactive mechanical alloying (RMA) of the zircaloy tunings and Ti powders was performed to produce metal hydride powders, with a high refinement of the microstructure and a Zr–Ti homogeneous composition. Second, the metal hydride powders were thermally decomposed by heating up to 900 °C to synthesize the Zr-based alloy with a selected composition. The change in the nature of the powders from ductile to brittle during milling avoids both cold working phenomena between the metals and the use of a control agent. A minimum milling time is necessary to produce the solid solution with the selected composition. The microstructure and structure of the final alloys obtained was studied. The present procedure could be extended to the production of Zr-based alloys with the addition of other metals different from Ti.

  19. Recycling and valorisation of stainless steel slags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dessel, J. [Belgian Building Research Institute, Brussels (Belgium)


    The project described in this paper involves the collaboration of eleven partners. The project aims to create a value-added product by recovering usable non-ferrous metals from the production of stainless steel and use the recycled slag as a secondary material for road construction and concrete applications. The objective of the project is to return the metal contained in the slag to stainless steel production, and to treat the non-metallic slag, perhaps by a metallurgical process based upon direct plasma technology, prior to use in a variety of processes. The project also aims to investigate the environmental characteristics of the slag, which is essential for it to be used as secondary material. The major challenge appears to be the development of an improved process for separating the slag from the metallic particles in order to avoid the frequent breakdowns and significant repairs associated with use of the material. It is expected that using magnetic and density-based separation processes will reduce the cost of maintenance by about 20 per cent. Results achieved to date, and economic factors impacting on feasibility, are also discussed. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  20. Bicarbonate is a recycling substrate for cyanase. (United States)

    Johnson, W V; Anderson, P M


    Cyanase is an inducible enzyme in Escherichia coli that catalyzes bicarbonate-dependent decomposition of cyanate to ammonia and bicarbonate. Previous studies provided evidence that carbamate is an initial product and that the kinetic mechanism is rapid equilibrium random (bicarbonate serving as substrate as opposed to activator); the following mechanism was proposed (Anderson, P. M. (1980) Biochemistry 19, 2282-2888; Anderson, P. M., and Little, R. M. (1986) Biochemistry 25, 1621-1626). (formula; see text) Direct evidence for this mechanism was obtained in this study by 1) determining whether CO2 or HCO3- serves as substrate and is formed as product, 2) identifying the products formed from [14C]HCO3- and [14C] OCN-, 3) identifying the products formed from [13C] HCO3- and [12C]OCN- in the presence of [18O]H2O, and 4) determining whether 18O from [18O]HCO3- is incorporated into CO2 derived from OCN-. Bicarbonate (not CO2) is the substrate. Carbon dioxide (not HCO3-) is produced in stoichiometric amounts from both HCO3- and OCN-. 18O from [18O]H2O is not incorporated into CO2 formed from either HCO3- or OCN-. Oxygen-18 from [18O]HCO3- is incorporated into CO2 derived from OCN-. These results support the above mechanism, indicating that decomposition of cyanate catalyzed by cyanase is not a hydrolysis reaction and that bicarbonate functions as a recycling substrate.