WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell recycle

  1. The fast-recycling receptor Megalin defines the apical recycling pathway of epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Bay, Andres E.; Schreiner, Ryan; Benedicto, Ignacio; Paz Marzolo, Maria; Banfelder, Jason; Weinstein, Alan M.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique J.

    2016-01-01

    The basolateral recycling and transcytotic pathways of epithelial cells were previously defined using markers such as transferrin (TfR) and polymeric IgA (pIgR) receptors. In contrast, our knowledge of the apical recycling pathway remains fragmentary. Here we utilize quantitative live-imaging and mathematical modelling to outline the recycling pathway of Megalin (LRP-2), an apical receptor with key developmental and renal functions, in MDCK cells. We show that, like TfR, Megalin is a long-lived and fast-recycling receptor. Megalin enters polarized MDCK cells through segregated apical sorting endosomes and subsequently intersects the TfR and pIgR pathways at a perinuclear Rab11-negative compartment termed common recycling endosomes (CRE). Whereas TfR recycles to the basolateral membrane from CRE, Megalin, like pIgR, traffics to subapical Rab11-positive apical recycling endosomes (ARE) and reaches the apical membrane in a microtubule- and Rab11-dependent manner. Hence, Megalin defines the apical recycling pathway of epithelia, with CRE as its apical sorting station. PMID:27180806

  2. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, J.J.; Calpin, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    As the recycling ethic takes hold at the state and municipal level, municipal officials and private contractors are working together to formulate and implement recycling programs. The questions - What is to be recycled? How should recyclables be separated and collected? Is intermediate processing beneficial? How can recyclables best be marketed? Should the public or private sector perform the service? What are the true costs? - are being addressed. Answers, however, are often different for large and small municipalities and regional versus individual municipal programs. While no one approach will be suitable for all applications, one can learn from the experiences of operating programs. The paper to be presented will describe two operating, recycling programs that are public and private cooperative efforts: one regional (11 communities in Bucks County, Pennsylvania); and one municipal (Quincy, Massachusetts). Information will be presented describing the recycling programs, economics, and performance

  4. Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

    2011-11-29

    Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent. Eliminating the need for using primary aluminum as a diluent would dramatically reduce energy requirements, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and increase scrap utilization in recycling. Electrorefining can be used to extract pure aluminum from mixed scrap. Some example applications include producing primary grade aluminum from specific scrap streams such as consumer packaging and mixed alloy saw chips, and recycling multi-alloy products such as brazing sheet. Electrorefining can also be used to extract valuable alloying elements such as Li from Al-Li mixed scrap. This project was aimed at developing an electrorefining process for purifying aluminum to reduce energy consumption and emissions by 75% compared to conventional technology. An electrolytic molten aluminum purification process, utilizing a horizontal membrane cell anode, was designed, constructed, operated and validated. The electrorefining technology could also be used to produce ultra-high purity aluminum for advanced materials applications. The technical objectives for this project were to: - Validate the membrane cell concept with a lab-scale electrorefining cell; - Determine if previously identified voltage increase issue for chloride electrolytes holds for a fluoride-based electrolyte system; - Assess the probability that voltage change issues can be solved; and - Conduct a market and economic analysis to assess commercial feasibility. The process was tested using three different binary alloy compositions (Al-2.0 wt.% Cu, Al-4.7 wt.% Si, Al-0.6 wt.% Fe) and a brazing sheet scrap composition (Al-2

  5. Recyclable organic solar cells on substrates comprising cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippelen, Bernard; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Zhou, Yinhua; Moon, Robert; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    Recyclable organic solar cells are disclosed herein. Systems and methods are further disclosed for producing, improving performance, and for recycling the solar cells. In certain example embodiments, the recyclable organic solar cells disclosed herein include: a first electrode; a second electrode; a photoactive layer disposed between the first electrode and the second electrode; an interlayer comprising a Lewis basic oligomer or polymer disposed between the photoactive layer and at least a portion of the first electrode or the second electrode; and a substrate disposed adjacent to the first electrode or the second electrode. The interlayer reduces the work function associated with the first or second electrode. In certain example embodiments, the substrate comprises cellulose nanocrystals that can be recycled. In certain example embodiments, one or more of the first electrode, the photoactive layer, and the second electrode may be applied by a film transfer lamination method.

  6. Photon recycling in the graded bandgap solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafat, N.H. [Cairo Univ., Dept. of Mathematics and Engineering Physics, Giza (Egypt); Haleem, A.M. Abdel [Cairo Univ., Dept. of Mathematics and Engineering Physics, EIFayoum (Egypt); Habib, S.E.D. [Cairo Univ., Electronics and Communication Dept., Giza (Egypt)

    2006-07-01

    We derived a general integral expression for the carrier radiative recombination rate in solar cells. The photon Boltzmann equation is solved taking into account the photon recycling effect inside the cell and assuming arbitrary spatial variation of the absorption coefficient. This expression can thus be used for graded bandgap solar cells. (Author)

  7. Recycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre-Petersen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    knowledge and insight. The contributions are manifest in a range of epistemic artifacts, i.e. outcomes of my own experiments with recycled glass as well as a series of creative outcomes of collaborative activities. Through the creation of these works, my collaborators and I have developed tacit as well...

  8. Role of the EHD Family of Endocytic Recycling Regulators for TCR Recycling and T Cell Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseka, Fany M; Goetz, Benjamin T; Mushtaq, Insha; An, Wei; Cypher, Luke R; Bielecki, Timothy A; Tom, Eric C; Arya, Priyanka; Bhattacharyya, Sohinee; Storck, Matthew D; Semerad, Craig L; Talmadge, James E; Mosley, R Lee; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid

    2018-01-15

    T cells use the endocytic pathway for key cell biological functions, including receptor turnover and maintenance of the immunological synapse. Some of the established players include the Rab GTPases, the SNARE complex proteins, and others, which function together with EPS-15 homology domain-containing (EHD) proteins in non-T cell systems. To date, the role of the EHD protein family in T cell function remains unexplored. We generated conditional EHD1/3/4 knockout mice using CD4-Cre and crossed these with mice bearing a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific TCR transgene. We found that CD4 + T cells from these mice exhibited reduced Ag-driven proliferation and IL-2 secretion in vitro. In vivo, these mice exhibited reduced severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Further analyses showed that recycling of the TCR-CD3 complex was impaired, leading to increased lysosomal targeting and reduced surface levels on CD4 + T cells of EHD1/3/4 knockout mice. Our studies reveal a novel role of the EHD family of endocytic recycling regulatory proteins in TCR-mediated T cell functions. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. Recycled Cell Phones - A Treasure Trove of Valuable Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel E.

    2006-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fact Sheet examines the potential value of recycling the metals found in obsolete cell phones. Cell phones seem ubiquitous in the United States and commonplace throughout most of the world. There were approximately 1 billion cell phones in use worldwide in 2002. In the United States, the number of cell phone subscribers increased from 340,000 in 1985 to 180 million in 2004. Worldwide, cell phone sales have increased from slightly more than 100 million units per year in 1997 to an estimated 779 million units per year in 2005. Cell phone sales are projected to exceed 1 billion units per year in 2009, with an estimated 2.6 billion cell phones in use by the end of that year. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimated that, by 2005, as many as 130 million cell phones would be retired annually in the United States. The nonprofit organization INFORM, Inc., anticipated that, by 2005, a total of 500 million obsolete cell phones would have accumulated in consumers' desk drawers, store rooms, or other storage, awaiting disposal. Typically, cell phones are used for only 1 1/2 years before being replaced. Less than 1 percent of the millions of cell phones retired and discarded annually are recycled. When large numbers of cell phones become obsolete, large quantities of valuable metals end up either in storage or in landfills. The amount of metals potentially recoverable would make a significant addition to total metals recovered from recycling in the United States and would supplement virgin metals derived from mining.

  10. Thermal energy recycling fuel cell arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Paul R.

    2017-04-11

    An example fuel cell arrangement includes a fuel cell stack configured to receive a supply fluid and to provide an exhaust fluid that has more thermal energy than the supply fluid. The arrangement also includes an ejector and a heat exchanger. The ejector is configured to direct at least some of the exhaust fluid into the supply fluid. The heat exchanger is configured to increase thermal energy in the supply fluid using at least some of the exhaust fluid that was not directed into the supply fluid.

  11. Increasing ethanol productivity during xylose fermentation by cell recycling of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roca, Christophe Francois Aime; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    The influence of cell recycling of xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae TMB3001 was investigated during continuous cultivation on a xylose-glucose mixture. By using cell recycling at the dilution rate (D) of 0.05 h(-1), the cell-mass concentration could be increased from 2.2 g l(-1) to 22 g...

  12. Circular Economy based on recycling CIGS solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ghodbane, S.; Zimmermann, A.; Palitzsch, W.; Roozeman, R.; Neubauer, E.; Adamovic, N.; Severino, N.; Biermayr, P.; Rakotoniaina J-P.; Pelletier, D.

    2016-01-01

    CABRISS aims at pioneering a circular economy dedicated to handle the critical situation of recycling the important amount of photovoltaic waste and creating benefits to electronics, metallurgy and glass industries.

  13. Circular Economy based on Recycling CIGS solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ghodbane, S.; Zimmermann, A.; Palitzsch, W.; Roozeman, R.; Neubauer, E.; Adamovic, N.; Severino, N.; Biermayr, P.; Rakotoniaina, J-P.; Pelletier, D.

    2017-01-01

    CABRISS aims at pioneering a circular economy dedicated to handle the critical situation of recycling the important amount of photovoltaic waste and creating benefits to electronics, metallurgy and glass industries.

  14. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant with an anode recycle loop turbocharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kazuo; Skiba, Tommy; Patel, Kirtikumar H.

    2016-09-27

    An anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) has a turbocharger turbine (102) secured in fluid communication with a compressed oxidant stream within an oxidant inlet line (218) downstream from a compressed oxidant supply (104), and the anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) also includes a turbocharger compressor (106) mechanically linked to the turbocharger turbine (102) and secured in fluid communication with a flow of anode exhaust passing through an anode exhaust recycle loop (238) of the solid oxide fuel cell power plant (200). All or a portion of compressed oxidant within an oxidant inlet line (218) drives the turbocharger turbine (102) to thereby compress the anode exhaust stream in the recycle loop (238). A high-temperature, automotive-type turbocharger (100) replaces a recycle loop blower-compressor (52).

  15. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant with an anode recycle loop turbocharger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuo; Skiba, Tommy; Patel, Kirtikumar H.

    2015-07-14

    An anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) has a turbocharger turbine (102) secured in fluid communication with a compressed oxidant stream within an oxidant inlet line (218) downstream from a compressed oxidant supply (104), and the anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) also includes a turbocharger compressor (106) mechanically linked to the turbocharger turbine (102) and secured in fluid communication with a flow of anode exhaust passing through an anode exhaust recycle loop (238) of the solid oxide fuel cell power plant (200). All or a portion of compressed oxidant within an oxidant inlet line (218) drives the turbocharger turbine (102) to thereby compress the anode exhaust stream in the recycle loop (238). A high-temperature, automotive-type turbocharger (100) replaces a recycle loop blower-compressor (52).

  16. Cell recycled culture of succinic acid-producing Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens using an internal membrane filtration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pyung-Cheon; Lee, Sang-Yup; Chang, Ho-Nam

    2008-07-01

    Cell recycled culture of succinic acid-producing Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens was anaerobically carried out using an internal membrane filter module in order to examine the physiological response of A. succiniciproducens to a high-cell-density environment. The optimal growth of A. succiniciproducens and its enhanced succinic acid productivity were observed under CO2-rich conditions, established by adding NaHCO3 and Na2CO3, in the cell recycled system. A. succiniciproducens grew up to 6.50 g-DCW/l, the highest cell concentration obtained so far, in cell recycled cultures. The cells did not change their morphology, which is known to be easily changed in unfavorable or stress environments. The maximum productivity of succinic acid was about 3.3 g/l/h, which is 3.3 times higher than those obtained in batch cultures. These results can serve as a guide for designing highly efficient cell recycled systems for succinic acid at a commercial level.

  17. Stabilization of gene expression and cell morphology after explant recycling during fin explant culture in goldfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenais, Nathalie; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Le Bail, Pierre-Yves; Labbe, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The development of fin primary cell cultures for in vitro cellular and physiological studies is hampered by slow cell outgrowth, low proliferation rate, poor viability, and sparse cell characterization. Here, we investigated whether the recycling of fresh explants after a first conventional culture could improve physiological stability and sustainability of the culture. The recycled explants were able to give a supplementary cell culture showing faster outgrowth, cleaner cell layers and higher net cell production. The cells exhibited a highly stabilized profile for marker gene expression including a low cytokeratin 49 (epithelial marker) and a high collagen 1a1 (mesenchymal marker) expression. Added to the cell spindle-shaped morphology, motility behavior, and actin organization, this suggests that the cells bore stable mesenchymal characteristics. This contrast with the time-evolving expression pattern observed in the control fresh explants during the first 2 weeks of culture: a sharp decrease in cytokeratin 49 expression was concomitant with a gradual increase in col1a1. We surmise that such loss of epithelial features for the benefit of mesenchymal ones was triggered by an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process or by way of a progressive population replacement process. Overall, our findings provide a comprehensive characterization of this new primary culture model bearing mesenchymal features and whose stability over culture time makes those cells good candidates for cell reprogramming prior to nuclear transfer, in a context of fish genome preservation. - Highlights: • Recycled fin explants outgrow cells bearing stable mesenchymal traits. • Cell production and quality is enhanced in the recycled explant culture system. • Fresh fin primary culture is highly variable and loose epithelial traits over time

  18. Legionella Effector AnkX Disrupts Host Cell Endocytic Recycling in a Phosphocholination-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samual C. Allgood

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The facultative intracellular bacterium Legionella pneumophila proliferates within amoebae and human alveolar macrophages, and it is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, a life-threatening pneumonia. Within host cells, L. pneumophila establishes a replicative haven by delivering numerous effector proteins into the host cytosol, many of which target membrane trafficking by manipulating the function of Rab GTPases. The Legionella effector AnkX is a phosphocholine transferase that covalently modifies host Rab1 and Rab35. However, a detailed understanding of the biological consequence of Rab GTPase phosphocholination remains elusive. Here, we broaden the understanding of AnkX function by presenting three lines of evidence that it interferes with host endocytic recycling. First, using immunogold transmission electron microscopy, we determined that GFP-tagged AnkX ectopically produced in mammalian cells localizes at the plasma membrane and tubular membrane compartments, sites consistent with targeting the endocytic recycling pathway. Furthermore, the C-terminal region of AnkX was responsible for association with the plasma membrane, and we determined that this region was also able to bind the phosphoinositide lipids PI(3P and PI(4P in vitro. Second, we observed that mCherry-AnkX co-localized with Rab35, a regulator of recycling endocytosis and with major histocompatibility class I protein (MHC-I, a key immunoregulatory protein whose recycling from and back to the plasma membrane is Rab35-dependent. Third, we report that during infection of macrophages, AnkX is responsible for the disruption of endocytic recycling of transferrin, and AnkX's phosphocholination activity is critical for this function. These results support the hypothesis that AnkX targets endocytic recycling during host cell infection. Finally, we have demonstrated that the phosphocholination activity of AnkX is also critical for inhibiting fusion of the Legionella

  19. Recycling Spent Primary Cells for the Synthesis of Spinel ZnMn2O4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... This work investigates the recycling of spent primary cells for the synthesis of spinel zinc manganese oxide (ZnMn2O4) using waste polypropylene as reductant in a domestic microwave oven. Spent zinc-carbon batteries (TigerHead brand) were cut into approximately two equal parts and the ...

  20. Models for high cell density bioreactors must consider biomass volume fraction: Cell recycle example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monbouquette, H G

    1987-06-01

    Intrinsic models, which take into account biomass volume fraction, must be formulated for adequate simulation of high-biomass-density fermentations with cell recycle. Through comparison of corresponding intrinsic and non-intrinsic models in dimensionless form, constraints for non-intrinsic model usage in terms of biokinetic and fermenter operating parameters can be identified a priori. Analysis of a simple product-inhibition model indicates that the non-intrinsic approach is suitable only when the attainable biomass volume fraction in the fermentation broth is less than about 0.10. Inappropriate application of a non-intrinsic model can lead to gross errors in calculated substrate and product concentrations, substrate conversion, and volumetric productivity.

  1. Models for high cell density bioreactors must consider biomass volume fraction: cell recycle example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monbouquette, H.G.

    1987-06-01

    Intrinsic models, which take into account biomass volume fraction, must be formulated for adequate simulation of high-biomass-density fermentations with cell recycle. Through comparison of corresponding intrinsic and non-intrinsic models in dimensionless form, constraints for non-intrinsic model usage in terms of biokinetic and fermenter operating parameters can be identified a priori. Analysis of a simple product-inhibition model indicates that the non-intrinsic approach is suitable only when the attainable biomass volume fraction in the fermentation broth is less than about 0.10. Inappropriate application of a non-intrinsic model can lead to gross errors in calculated substrate and product concentrations, substrate conversion, and volumetric productivity. (Refs. 14).

  2. GGA3 mediates TrkA endocytic recycling to promote sustained Akt phosphorylation and cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuezhi; Lavigne, Pierre; Lavoie, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Although TrkA postendocytic sorting significantly influences neuronal cell survival and differentiation, the molecular mechanism underlying TrkA receptor sorting in the recycling or degradation pathways remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Golgi-localized, γ adaptin-ear–containing ADP ribosylation factor-binding protein 3 (GGA3) interacts directly with the TrkA cytoplasmic tail through an internal DXXLL motif and mediates the functional recycling of TrkA to the plasma membrane. We find that GGA3 depletion by siRNA delays TrkA recycling, accelerates TrkA degradation, attenuates sustained NGF-induced Akt activation, and reduces cell survival. We also show that GGA3’s effect on TrkA recycling is dependent on the activation of Arf6. This work identifies GGA3 as a key player in a novel DXXLL-mediated endosomal sorting machinery that targets TrkA to the plasma membrane, where it prolongs the activation of Akt signaling and survival responses. PMID:26446845

  3. Addressing fuel recycling in solid oxide fuel cell systems fed by alternative fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    %. Furthermore, it is founded that for the case with methanol, ethanol and DME then at high utilization factors, low anode recirculation is recommended while at low utilization factors, high anode recirculation is recommended. If the plant is fed by biogas from biomass gasification then for each utilization......An innovative study on anode recirculation in solid oxide fuel cell systems with alternative fuels is carried out and investigated. Alternative fuels under study are ammonia, pure hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, DME and biogas from biomass gasification. It is shown that the amount of anode off......-fuel recirculation depends strongly on type of the fuel used in the system. Anode recycling combined with fuel cell utilization factors have an important impact on plant efficiency, which will be analysed here. The current study may provide an in-depth understanding of reasons for using anode off-fuel recycling...

  4. Zirconium Recycle Test Equipment for Hot Cell Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Emory D.; DelCul, Guillermo Daniel; Spencer, Barry B.; Bradley, Eric Craig; Brunson, Ronald Ray

    2015-01-01

    The equipment components and assembly support work were modified for optimized, remote hot cell operations to complete this milestone. The modifications include installation of a charging door, Swagelok connector for the off-gas line between the reactor and condenser, and slide valve installation to permit attachment/replacement of the product salt collector bottle.

  5. Process for recycling components of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Lawrence [Edison, NJ

    2012-02-28

    The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a PEM fuel cell can be recycled by contacting the MEA with a lower alkyl alcohol solvent which separates the membrane from the anode and cathode layers of the assembly. The resulting solution containing both the polymer membrane and supported noble metal catalysts can be heated under mild conditions to disperse the polymer membrane as particles and the supported noble metal catalysts and polymer membrane particles separated by known filtration means.

  6. Recycling of NAD(P) by multienzyme systems immobilized by microencapsulation in artificial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T M

    1987-01-01

    Multistep enzyme systems can be immobilized in solution within semipermeable microcapsules. With the ability to recycle cofactors, a number of potentially useful systems have been made possible. Furthermore NAD+ can be retained inside the microcapsules by two approaches. (1) NAD+ can be linked to macromolecules such as dextran or polyethyleneimine. However, in this form, there are significant increases in steric hindrance and diffusion restrictions. (2) "Artificial cells" consisting of lipid-polyamide membrane microcapsules containing multienzyme systems, cofactors, and substrates can retain NAD+ in the free form. Analogous to the intracellular environments of red blood cells, free NAD+ in solution inside the microcapsules is effectively recycled by the multistep enzyme systems which are also in solution. Enzymes in the microcapsules are in high concentrations and in close proximity to one another. Any number and any concentration of different enzyme systems can be microencapsulated all within one artificial cell, within the limit of solubility of the total amount of enzymes. Products of sequential reactions inside the microcapsules are at much higher concentrations than outside. All these factors result in an optimal intracellular environment for multistep enzyme reactions. External substrates in the form of lipophilic or small hydrophilic molecules can equilibrate across the membrane to participate as initial substrates in the multistep reactions in the microcapsules. A number of potential applications are possible using this approach. The lipid-polyamide membrane artificial cell can also be used in basic research as a biochemical cell model for the simpler types of biological cells such as erythrocytes.

  7. Reliability Analysis of III-V Solar Cells Grown on Recycled GaAs Substrates and an Electroplated Nickel Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray-Hua Horng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study involved analyzing the reliability of two types of III-V solar cells: (1 III-V solar cells grown on new and recycled gallium arsenide (GaAs substrates and (2 the III-V solar cells transferred onto an electroplated nickel (Ni substrate as III-V thin-film solar cells by using a cross-shaped pattern epitaxial lift-off (CPELO process. The III-V solar cells were grown on new and recycled GaAs substrates to evaluate the reliability of the substrate. The recycled GaAs substrate was fabricated by using the CPELO process. The performance of the solar cells grown on the recycled GaAs substrate was affected by the uneven surface morphology of the recycled GaAs substrate, which caused the propagation of these dislocations into the subsequently grown active layer of the solar cell. The III-V solar cells were transferred onto an electroplated Ni substrate, which was also fabricated by using CPELO technology. The degradation of the III-V thin-film solar cell after conducting a thermal shock test could have been caused by microcracks or microvoids in the active layer or interface of the heterojunction, which resulted in the reduction of the external quantum efficiency response and the increase of recombination loss.

  8. Myosin 1g Contributes to CD44 Adhesion Protein and Lipid Rafts Recycling and Controls CD44 Capping and Cell Migration in B Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes López-Ortega

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell migration and adhesion are critical for immune system function and involve many proteins, which must be continuously transported and recycled in the cell. Recycling of adhesion molecules requires the participation of several proteins, including actin, tubulin, and GTPases, and of membrane components such as sphingolipids and cholesterol. However, roles of actin motor proteins in adhesion molecule recycling are poorly understood. In this study, we identified myosin 1g as one of the important motor proteins that drives recycling of the adhesion protein CD44 in B lymphocytes. We demonstrate that the lack of Myo1g decreases the cell-surface levels of CD44 and of the lipid raft surrogate GM1. In cells depleted of Myo1g, the recycling of CD44 was delayed, the delay seems to be caused at the level of formation of recycling complex and entry into recycling endosomes. Moreover, a defective lipid raft recycling in Myo1g-deficient cells had an impact both on the capping of CD44 and on cell migration. Both processes required the transportation of lipid rafts to the cell surface to deliver signaling components. Furthermore, the extramembrane was essential for cell expansion and remodeling of the plasma membrane topology. Therefore, Myo1g is important during the recycling of lipid rafts to the membrane and to the accompanied proteins that regulate plasma membrane plasticity. Thus, Myosin 1g contributes to cell adhesion and cell migration through CD44 recycling in B lymphocytes.

  9. Sustainable Hypersaline Microbial Fuel Cells: Inexpensive Recyclable Polymer Supports for Carbon Nanotube Conductive Paint Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattieri, Matteo; Shivel, Nelson D; Sifat, Iram; Bestetti, Massimiliano; Minteer, Shelley D

    2017-05-09

    Microbial fuel cells are an emerging technology for wastewater treatment, but to be commercially viable and sustainable, the electrode materials must be inexpensive, recyclable, and reliable. In this study, recyclable polymeric supports were explored for the development of anode electrodes to be applied in single-chamber microbial fuel cells operated in field under hypersaline conditions. The support was covered with a carbon nanotube (CNT) based conductive paint, and biofilms were able to colonize the electrodes. The single-chamber microbial fuel cells with Pt-free cathodes delivered a reproducible power output after 15 days of operation to achieve 12±1 mW m -2 at a current density of 69±7 mA m -2 . The decrease of the performance in long-term experiments was mostly related to inorganic precipitates on the cathode electrode and did not affect the performance of the anode, as shown by experiments in which the cathode was replaced and the fuel cell performance was regenerated. The results of these studies show the feasibility of polymeric supports coated with CNT-based paint for microbial fuel cell applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Increased memory T cell populations in Pb-exposed children from an e-waste-recycling area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Junjun; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yu; Zeng, Zhijun; Hylkema, Machteld N; Huo, Xia

    Chronic exposure to heavy metals could affect cell-mediated immunity. The aim of this study was to explore the status of memory T cell development in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area. Blood lead (Pb) levels, peripheral T cell subpopulations, and serum levels of cytokines

  11. Rapid expansion of recycling stem cells in cultures of plastic-adherent cells from human bone marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colter, David C.; Class, Reiner; DiGirolamo, Carla M.; Prockop, Darwin J.

    2000-01-01

    Cultures of plastic-adherent cells from bone marrow have attracted interest because of their ability to support growth of hematopoietic stem cells, their multipotentiality for differentiation, and their possible use for cell and gene therapy. Here we found that the cells grew most rapidly when they were initially plated at low densities (1.5 or 3.0 cells/cm2) to generate single-cell derived colonies. The cultures displayed a lag phase of about 5 days, a log phase of rapid growth of about 5 days, and then a stationary phase. FACS analysis demonstrated that stationary cultures contained a major population of large and moderately granular cells and a minor population of small and agranular cells here referred to as recycling stem cells or RS-1 cells. During the lag phase, the RS-1 cells gave rise to a new population of small and densely granular cells (RS-2 cells). During the late log phase, the RS-2 cells decreased in number and regenerated the pool of RS-1 cells found in stationary cultures. In repeated passages in which the cells were plated at low density, they were amplified about 109-fold in 6 wk. The cells retained their ability to generate single-cell derived colonies and therefore apparently retained their multipotentiality for differentiation. PMID:10725391

  12. The cell-based L-glutathione protection assays to study endocytosis and recycling of plasma membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihil, Kristine M; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka

    2013-12-13

    Membrane trafficking involves transport of proteins from the plasma membrane to the cell interior (i.e. endocytosis) followed by trafficking to lysosomes for degradation or to the plasma membrane for recycling. The cell based L-glutathione protection assays can be used to study endocytosis and recycling of protein receptors, channels, transporters, and adhesion molecules localized at the cell surface. The endocytic assay requires labeling of cell surface proteins with a cell membrane impermeable biotin containing a disulfide bond and the N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester at 4 ºC - a temperature at which membrane trafficking does not occur. Endocytosis of biotinylated plasma membrane proteins is induced by incubation at 37 ºC. Next, the temperature is decreased again to 4 ºC to stop endocytic trafficking and the disulfide bond in biotin covalently attached to proteins that have remained at the plasma membrane is reduced with L-glutathione. At this point, only proteins that were endocytosed remain protected from L-glutathione and thus remain biotinylated. After cell lysis, biotinylated proteins are isolated with streptavidin agarose, eluted from agarose, and the biotinylated protein of interest is detected by western blotting. During the recycling assay, after biotinylation cells are incubated at 37 °C to load endocytic vesicles with biotinylated proteins and the disulfide bond in biotin covalently attached to proteins remaining at the plasma membrane is reduced with L-glutathione at 4 ºC as in the endocytic assay. Next, cells are incubated again at 37 °C to allow biotinylated proteins from endocytic vesicles to recycle to the plasma membrane. Cells are then incubated at 4 ºC, and the disulfide bond in biotin attached to proteins that recycled to the plasma membranes is reduced with L-glutathione. The biotinylated proteins protected from L-glutathione are those that did not recycle to the plasma membrane.

  13. p38 signaling and receptor recycling events in a microfluidic endothelial cell adhesion assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwayne A L Vickers

    Full Text Available Adhesion-based microfluidic cell separation has proven to be very useful in applications ranging from cancer diagnostics to tissue engineering. This process involves functionalizing microchannel surfaces with a capture molecule. High specificity and purity capture can be achieved using this method. Despite these advances, little is known about the mechanisms that govern cell capture within these devices and their relationships to basic process parameters such as fluid shear stress and the presence of soluble factors. This work examines how the adhesion of human endothelial cells (ECs is influenced by a soluble tetrapeptide, Arg-Glu-Asp-Val (REDV and fluidic shear stress. The ability of these ECs to bind within microchannels coated with REDV is shown to be governed by shear- and soluble-factor mediated changes in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase expression together with recycling of adhesion receptors from the endosome.

  14. Thicker three-dimensional tissue from a "symbiotic recycling system" combining mammalian cells and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Yuji; Kagawa, Yuki; Sakaguchi, Katsuhisa; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Okano, Teruo

    2017-01-31

    In this paper, we report an in vitro co-culture system that combines mammalian cells and algae, Chlorococcum littorale, to create a three-dimensional (3-D) tissue. While the C2C12 mouse myoblasts and rat cardiac cells consumed oxygen actively, intense oxygen production was accounted for by the algae even in the co-culture system. Although cell metabolism within thicker cardiac cell-layered tissues showed anaerobic respiration, the introduction of innovative co-cultivation partially changed the metabolism to aerobic respiration. Moreover, the amount of glucose consumption and lactate production in the cardiac tissues and the amount of ammonia in the culture media decreased significantly when co-cultivated with algae. In the cardiac tissues devoid of algae, delamination was observed histologically, and the release of creatine kinase (CK) from the tissues showed severe cardiac cell damage. On the other hand, the layered cell tissues with algae were observed to be in a good histological condition, with less than one-fifth decline in CK release. The co-cultivation with algae improved the culture condition of the thicker tissues, resulting in the formation of 160 μm-thick cardiac tissues. Thus, the present study proposes the possibility of creating an in vitro "symbiotic recycling system" composed of mammalian cells and algae.

  15. Organic light-emitting devices integrated with solar cells: High contrast and energy recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Jen; Cho, Ting-Yi; Lin, Chun-Liang; Wu, Chung-Chih

    2007-04-01

    In this letter, the authors report that by integrating organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with solar cells, luminous ambient-light reflection as low as 1.4% (even superior to that achieved with polarizers) can be achieved without compromising the electroluminescence efficiency for high-contrast display applications. Furthermore, in such a configuration, the photon energies of the incident ambient light and the portion of OLED emission not getting outside of the device can be recycled into useful electrical power via the photovoltaic action, instead of being totally wasted as in other reported contrast-enhancement techniques. These features, the authors believe, shall make this technique attractive for high-contrast display applications and portable/mobile electronics that are highly power aware.

  16. Cell-scale dynamic recycling and cortical flow of the actin–myosin cytoskeleton for rapid cell migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiko Yumura

    2012-11-01

    Actin and myosin II play major roles in cell migration. Whereas pseudopod extension by actin polymerization has been intensively researched, less attention has been paid to how the rest of the actin cytoskeleton such as the actin cortex contributes to cell migration. In this study, cortical actin and myosin II filaments were simultaneously observed in migrating Dictyostelium cells under total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The cortical actin and myosin II filaments remained stationary with respect to the substratum as the cells advanced. However, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments and direct observation of filaments showed that they rapidly turned over. When the cells were detached from the substratum, the actin and myosin filaments displayed a vigorous retrograde flow. Thus, when the cells migrate on the substratum, the cortical cytoskeleton firmly holds the substratum to generate the motive force instead. The present studies also demonstrate how myosin II localizes to the rear region of the migrating cells. The observed dynamic turnover of actin and myosin II filaments contributes to the recycling of their subunits across the whole cell and enables rapid reorganization of the cytoskeleton.

  17. Anolyte recycling enhanced bioelectricity generation of the buffer-free single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yueping; Chen, Jinli; Shi, Yugang; Li, Xiufen; Yang, Na; Wang, Xinhua

    2017-11-01

    Anolyte acidification is an inevitable restriction for the bioelectricity generation of buffer-free microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this work, acidification of the buffer-free KCl anolyte has been thoroughly eliminated through anolyte recycling. The accumulated HCO 3 - concentration in the recycled KCl anolyte was above 50mM, which played as natural buffer and elevated the anolyte pH to above 8. The maximum power density (P max ) increased from 322.9mWm -2 to 527.2mWm -2 , which is comparable with the phosphate buffered MFC. Besides Geobacter genus, the gradually increased anolyte pH and conductivity induced the growing of electrochemically active Geoalkalibacter genus, in the anode biofilm. Anolyte recycling is a feasible strategy to strengthen the self-buffering capacity of buffer-free MFCs, thoroughly eliminate the anolyte acidification and prominently enhance the electric power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Simple enzymatic procedure for l‐carnosine synthesis: whole‐cell biocatalysis and efficient biocatalyst recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyland, Jan; Antweiler, Nicolai; Lutz, Jochen; Heck, Tobias; Geueke, Birgit; Kohler, Hans‐Peter E.; Blank, Lars M.; Schmid, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Summary β‐Peptides and their derivates are usually stable to proteolysis and have an increased half‐life compared with α‐peptides. Recently, β‐aminopeptidases were described as a new enzyme class that enabled the enzymatic degradation and formation of β‐peptides. As an alternative to the existing chemical synthesis routes, the aim of the present work was to develop a whole‐cell biocatalyst for the synthesis and production of β‐peptides using this enzymatic activity. For the optimization of the reaction system we chose the commercially relevant β,α‐dipeptide l‐carnosine (β‐alanine‐l‐histidine) as model product. We were able to show that different recombinant yeast and bacteria strains, which overexpress a β‐peptidase, could be used directly as whole‐cell biocatalysts for the synthesis of l‐carnosine. By optimizing relevant reaction conditions for the best‐performing recombinant Escherichia coli strain, such as pH and substrate concentrations, we obtained high l‐carnosine yields of up to 71%. Long‐time as well as biocatalyst recycling experiments indicated a high stability of the developed biocatalyst for at least five repeated batches. Application of the recombinant E. coli in a fed‐batch process enabled the accumulation of l‐carnosine to a concentration of 3.7 g l−1. PMID:21255308

  19. Cell Free Xanthan Gum Production Using Continuous Recycled Packed Fibrous-bed Bioreactor-membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalam, S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the xanthan gum has been produced as a commercial commodity, the biomass isolation and its recovery are still challenging. This study revealed the xanthan gum production by fermentation of Xanthomonas campestris DSMZ using glucose as a carbon source in an immobilised batch and a continuous recycled packed fibrous-bed bioreactor-membrane (CRPBFBM. The pure cotton fibre was used to immobilise the microbial cell biomass and to isolate from the liquid phase containing medium and xanthan gum. The cellulose acetate membrane with 0.45 µm was used to recover the xanthan gum. The batch fermentation showed that the immobilisation technique gave higher xanthan gum concentration at 20g/L than the free moving cell without immobilisation at 18g/L. The CRPBBM produced the highest xanthan gum concentration at 18.7 g/L at the dilution rate of 1.44 d-1. The highest production rate of CRPBFBM was 0.475 g/L-h. Further research needs to be conducted to ascertain the stability of the Xanthomonas Campestris DSMZ during a long period of continuous fermentation as well as up scaling the CRPBFBM.

  20. Increased memory T cell populations in Pb-exposed children from an e-waste-recycling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Junjun; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yu; Zeng, Zhijun; Hylkema, Machteld N; Huo, Xia

    2018-03-01

    Chronic exposure to heavy metals could affect cell-mediated immunity. The aim of this study was to explore the status of memory T cell development in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area. Blood lead (Pb) levels, peripheral T cell subpopulations, and serum levels of cytokines (IL-2/IL-7/IL-15), relevant to generation and homeostasis of memory T cells were evaluated in preschool children from Guiyu (e-waste-exposed group) and Haojiang (reference group). The correlations between blood Pb levels and percentages of memory T cell subpopulations were also evaluated. Guiyu children had higher blood Pb levels and increased percentages of CD4 + central memory T cells and CD8 + central memory T cells than in the Haojiang group. Moreover, blood Pb levels were positively associated with the percentages of CD4 + central memory T cells. In contrast, Pb exposure contributed marginally in the change of percentages of CD8 + central memory T cells in children. There was no significant difference in the serum cytokine levels between the e-waste-exposed and reference children. Taken together, preschool children from an e-waste recycling area suffer from relatively higher levels of Pb exposure, which might facilitate the development of CD4 + central memory T cells in these children. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Design and optimization of a combined fuel reforming and solid oxide fuel cell system with anode off-gas recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Seok; Chung, J.N.; Chen, Yen-Cho

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this work, an analytical, parametric study is performed to evaluate the feasibility and performance of a combined fuel reforming and SOFC system. → Specifically the effects of adding the anode off-gas recycling and recirculation components and the CO 2 absorbent unit are investigated. → The AOG recycle ratio increases with increasing S/C ratio and the addition of AOG recycle eliminates the need for external water consumption. → The key finding is that for the SOFC operating at 900 deg. C with the steam to carbon ratio at 5 and no AOG recirculation, the system efficiency peaks. - Abstract: An energy conversion and management concept for a combined system of a solid oxide fuel cell coupled with a fuel reforming device is developed and analyzed by a thermodynamic and electrochemical model. The model is verified by an experiment and then used to evaluate the overall system performance and to further suggest an optimal design strategy. The unique feature of the system is the inclusion of the anode off-gas recycle that eliminates the need of external water consumption for practical applications. The system performance is evaluated as a function of the steam to carbon ratio, fuel cell temperature, anode off gas recycle ratio and CO 2 adsorption percentage. For most of the operating conditions investigated, the system efficiency starts at around 70% and then monotonically decreases to the average of 50% at the peak power density before dropping down to zero at the limiting current density point. From an engineering application point of view, the proposed combined fuel reforming and SOFC system with a range of efficiency between 50% and 70% is considered very attractive. It is suggested that the optimal system is the one where the SOFC operates around 900 deg. C with S/C ratio higher than 3, maximum CO 2 capture, and minimum AOG recirculation.

  2. Cell-recycle batch process of Scheffersomyces stipitis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae co-culture for second generation bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoor, Selim; Comitini, Francesca; Ciani, Maurizio

    2015-11-01

    To achieve an optimized co-culture ratio of Scheffersomyces stipitis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of second generation bioethanol under a cell-recycle batch process. Three Sacc. cerevisiae strains were evaluated in co-culture with Sch. stipitis CBS 5773 at different ratios using synthetic medium containing glucose and xylose. Bioreactor trials indicated that the optimal condition for ethanol production using Sacc. cerevisiae EC1118 and Sch. stipitis co-culture was 1 % of O2 concentration. To increase ethanol production with Sacc. cerevisiae/Sch. stipitis co-culture a cell-recycle batch process was evaluated. Using this process, the maximum ethanol production (9.73 g l(-1)) and ethanol yield (0.42 g g(-1)) were achieved exhibiting a tenfold increase in ethanol productivity in comparison with batch process (2.1 g l(-1) h(-1)). In these conditions a stabilization of the cells ratio Sacc. cerevisiae/Sch. stipitis (1:5) at steady state condition was obtained. Batch cells recycling fermentation is an effective process to use Sch. stipitis/Sacc. cerevisiae co-culture for second generation ethanol production.

  3. Progress towards a process for the recycling of nickel metal hydride electric cells using a deep eutectic solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R.StJ. Foreman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Solvent extraction experiments relating to the recycling of the transition metals and lanthanides in nickel metal hydride cells are presented. The metal extraction is occurring from a deep eutectic solvent which is formed from chemicals suitable for use in food and related products. While it has been shown that the water content of the DES has a large effect on the extraction of transition metals by a mixture of chloride ionic liquid (Aliquat 336 and an aromatic solvent, the water content has a smaller effect on the solvent extraction of lanthanides with a solution of di(2-ethylhexyl hydrogen phosphate (DEHPA in a saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon. This study suggests that an industrial scale solvent extraction process for the recycling of metals from nickel hydride electrical cells will be feasible.

  4. Anisotropic emission and photon-recycling in strain-balanced quantum well solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, C. I.; Enciso, A.; Contreras-Solorio, D. A.; Rimada, J. C.; Hernandez, L.; Connolly, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Strain-balanced quantum well solar cells (SB-QWSCs) extend the photon absorption edge beyond that of bulk GaAs by incorporation of quantum wells in the i-region of a p–i–n device. Anisotropy arises from a splitting of the valence band due to compressive strain in the quantum wells, suppressing a transition which contributes to emission from the edge of the quantum wells. We have studied both the emission light polarized in the plane perpendicular (TM) to the quantum well which couples exclusively to the light hole transition and the emission polarized in the plane of the quantum wells (TE) which couples mainly to the heavy hole transition. It was found that the spontaneous emission rates TM and TE increase when the quantum wells are deeper. The addition of a distributed Bragg reflector can substantially increase the photocurrent while decreasing the radiative recombination current. We have examined the impact of the photon recycling effect on SB-QWSC performance. We have optimized SB-QWSC design to achieve single junction efficiencies above 30%

  5. Anisotropic emission and photon-recycling in strain-balanced quantum well solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, C. I.; Enciso, A.; Contreras-Solorio, D. A. [Academic Unit of Physics, Autonomous University of Zacatecas, Czda. Solidaridad y Paseo La Bufa S/N, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Rimada, J. C. [Solar Cell Laboratory, Institute of Materials Science and Technology (IMRE), University of Havana, Zapata y G, 10400 La Habana (Cuba); Hernandez, L., E-mail: luisman@fisica.uh.cu [Faculty of Physics, University of Havana, Colina Universitaria. 10400 La Habana (Cuba); Connolly, J. P. [Nanophotonics Technology Center, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2014-04-28

    Strain-balanced quantum well solar cells (SB-QWSCs) extend the photon absorption edge beyond that of bulk GaAs by incorporation of quantum wells in the i-region of a p–i–n device. Anisotropy arises from a splitting of the valence band due to compressive strain in the quantum wells, suppressing a transition which contributes to emission from the edge of the quantum wells. We have studied both the emission light polarized in the plane perpendicular (TM) to the quantum well which couples exclusively to the light hole transition and the emission polarized in the plane of the quantum wells (TE) which couples mainly to the heavy hole transition. It was found that the spontaneous emission rates TM and TE increase when the quantum wells are deeper. The addition of a distributed Bragg reflector can substantially increase the photocurrent while decreasing the radiative recombination current. We have examined the impact of the photon recycling effect on SB-QWSC performance. We have optimized SB-QWSC design to achieve single junction efficiencies above 30%.

  6. Electricity generation and treatment of paper recycling wastewater using a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liping; Logan, Bruce E

    2008-08-01

    Increased interest in sustainable agriculture and bio-based industries requires that we find more energy-efficient methods for treating cellulose-containing wastewaters. We examined the effectiveness of simultaneous electricity production and treatment of a paper recycling plant wastewater using microbial fuel cells. Treatment efficiency was limited by wastewater conductivity. When a 50 mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS, 5.9 mS/cm) was added to the wastewater, power densities reached 501+/-20 mW/m2, with a coulombic efficiency of 16+/-2%. There was efficient removal of soluble organic matter, with 73+/-1% removed based on soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and only slightly greater total removal (76+/-4%) based on total COD (TCOD) over a 500-h batch cycle. Cellulose was nearly completely removed (96+/-1%) during treatment. Further increasing the conductivity (100 mM PBS) increased power to 672+/-27 mW/m2. In contrast, only 144+/-7 mW/m2 was produced using an unamended wastewater (0.8 mS/cm) with TCOD, SCOD, and cellulose removals of 29+/-1%, 51+/-2%, and 16+/-1% (350-h batch cycle). These results demonstrate limitations to treatment efficiencies with actual wastewaters caused by solution conductivity compared to laboratory experiments under more optimal conditions.

  7. Lignocellulosic sugar management for xylitol and ethanol fermentation with multiple cell recycling by Kluyveromyces marxianus IIPE453.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Diptarka; Ghosh, Debashish; Bandhu, Sheetal; Adhikari, Dilip K

    2017-07-01

    Optimum utilization of fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass to deliver multiple products under biorefinery concept has been reported in this work. Alcohol fermentation has been carried out with multiple cell recycling of Kluyveromyces marxianus IIPE453. The yeast utilized xylose-rich fraction from acid and steam treated biomass for cell generation and xylitol production with an average yield of 0.315±0.01g/g while the entire glucose rich saccharified fraction had been fermented to ethanol with high productivity of 0.9±0.08g/L/h. A detailed insight into its genome illustrated the strain's complete set of genes associated with sugar transport and metabolism for high-temperature fermentation. A set flocculation proteins were identified that aided in high cell recovery in successive fermentation cycles to achieve alcohols with high productivity. We have brought biomass derived sugars, yeast cell biomass generation, and ethanol and xylitol fermentation in one platform and validated the overall material balance. 2kg sugarcane bagasse yielded 193.4g yeast cell, and with multiple times cell recycling generated 125.56g xylitol and 289.2g ethanol (366mL). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Cell-Autonomous Regulation of Mu-Opioid Receptor Recycling by Substance P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanna L. Bowman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available How neurons coordinate and reprogram multiple neurotransmitter signals is an area of broad interest. Here, we show that substance P (SP, a neuropeptide associated with inflammatory pain, reprograms opioid receptor recycling and signaling. SP, through activation of the neurokinin 1 (NK1R receptor, increases the post-endocytic recycling of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR in trigeminal ganglion (TG neurons in an agonist-selective manner. SP-mediated protein kinase C (PKC activation is both required and sufficient for increasing recycling of exogenous and endogenous MOR in TG neurons. The target of this cross-regulation is MOR itself, given that mutation of either of two PKC phosphorylation sites on MOR abolishes the SP-induced increase in recycling and resensitization. Furthermore, SP enhances the resensitization of fentanyl-induced, but not morphine-induced, antinociception in mice. Our results define a physiological pathway that cross-regulates opioid receptor recycling via direct modification of MOR and suggest a mode of homeostatic interaction between the pain and analgesic systems.

  9. Cell-Autonomous Regulation of Mu-Opioid Receptor Recycling by Substance P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Shanna L.; Soohoo, Amanda L.; Shiwarski, Daniel J.; Schulz, Stefan; Pradhan, Amynah A.; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY How neurons coordinate and reprogram multiple neurotransmitter signals is an area of broad interest. Here, we show that substance P (SP), a neuropep-tide associated with inflammatory pain, reprograms opioid receptor recycling and signaling. SP, through activation of the neurokinin 1 (NK1R) receptor, increases the post-endocytic recycling of the muopioid receptor (MOR) in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons in an agonist-selective manner. SP-mediated protein kinase C (PKC) activation is both required and sufficient for increasing recycling of exogenous and endogenous MOR in TG neurons. The target of this cross-regulation is MOR itself, given that mutation of either of two PKC phosphorylation sites on MOR abolishes the SP-induced increase in recycling and resensitization. Furthermore, SP enhances the resensitization of fentanyl-induced, but not morphine-induced, antinociception in mice. Our results define a physiological pathway that cross-regulates opioid receptor recycling via direct modification of MOR and suggest a mode of homeo-static interaction between the pain and analgesic systems. PMID:25801029

  10. Recyclable cross-linked anion exchange membrane for alkaline fuel cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jianqiu; Liu, Yazhi; Ge, Qianqian; Yang, Zhengjin; Wu, Liang; Xu, Tongwen

    2018-01-01

    Cross-linking can effectively solve the conductivity-swelling dilemma in anion exchange membranes (AEMs) but will generate solid wastes. To address this, we developed an AEM cross-linked via disulfide bonds, bearing quaternary ammonium groups, which can be easily recycled. The membrane (RC-QPPO) with IEC of 1.78 mmol g-1, when cross-linked, showed enhanced mechanical properties and good hydroxide conductivity (24.6 mS cm-1 at 30 °C). Even at higher IEC value (2.13 mmol g-1), it still has low water uptake, low swelling ratio and delivers a peak power density of 150 mW cm-2 at 65 °C. Exploiting the formation of disulfide bonds from -SH groups, the membrane can be readily cross-linked in alkaline condition and recycled by reversibly breaking disulfide bonds with dithiothreitol (DTT). The recycled membrane solution can be directly utilized to cast a brand-new AEM. By washing away the residual DTT with water and exposure to air, it can be cross-linked again and this process is repeatable. During the recycling and cross-linking processes, the membrane showed a slight IEC decrease of 5% due to functional group degradation. The strategy presented here is promising in enhancing AEM properties and reducing the impact of artificial polymers on the environment.

  11. Kinetic imaging of NPC1L1 and sterol trafficking between plasma membrane and recycling endosomes in hepatoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwig Petersen, Nicole; Færgeman, Nils J; Yu, Liqing

    2008-01-01

    fluorescent protein (NPC1L1-EGFP) and cholesterol analogues in hepatoma cells. At steady state about 42% of NPC1L1 resided in the transferrin (Tf) positive, sterol enriched endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), while time-lapse microscopy demonstrated NPC1L1 traffic between plasma membrane and ERC...... the ERC to the plasma membrane. NPC1L1-EGFP facilitated transport of fluorescent sterols from the plasma membrane to the ERC. Insulin induced translocation of vesicles containing NPC1L1 and fluorescent sterol from the ERC to the cell membrane. Upon polarization of hepatoma cells NPC1L1 resided almost...... exclusively in the canalicular membrane, where the protein is highly mobile. Our study demonstrates dynamic trafficking of NPC1L1 between cell surface and intracellular compartments and suggests that this transport is involved in NPC1L1 mediated cellular sterol uptake....

  12. Structure and Function of the First Full-Length Murein Peptide Ligase (Mpl) Cell Wall Recycling Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debanu; Hervé, Mireille; Feuerhelm, Julie; Farr, Carol L.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Elsliger, Marc-André; Knuth, Mark W.; Klock, Heath E.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Deacon, Ashley M.; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Wilson, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan, an essential polymer made by enzymes in the Mur pathway. These proteins are specific to bacteria, which make them targets for drug discovery. MurC, MurD, MurE and MurF catalyze the synthesis of the peptidoglycan precursor UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine by the sequential addition of amino acids onto UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid (UDP-MurNAc). MurC-F enzymes have been extensively studied by biochemistry and X-ray crystallography. In Gram-negative bacteria, ∼30–60% of the bacterial cell wall is recycled during each generation. Part of this recycling process involves the murein peptide ligase (Mpl), which attaches the breakdown product, the tripeptide L-alanyl-γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelate, to UDP-MurNAc. We present the crystal structure at 1.65 Å resolution of a full-length Mpl from the permafrost bacterium Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4 (PaMpl). Although the Mpl structure has similarities to Mur enzymes, it has unique sequence and structure features that are likely related to its role in cell wall recycling, a function that differentiates it from the MurC-F enzymes. We have analyzed the sequence-structure relationships that are unique to Mpl proteins and compared them to MurC-F ligases. We have also characterized the biochemical properties of this enzyme (optimal temperature, pH and magnesium binding profiles and kinetic parameters). Although the structure does not contain any bound substrates, we have identified ∼30 residues that are likely to be important for recognition of the tripeptide and UDP-MurNAc substrates, as well as features that are unique to Psychrobacter Mpl proteins. These results provide the basis for future mutational studies for more extensive function characterization of the Mpl sequence-structure relationships. PMID:21445265

  13. Unconventional recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, K.M.

    1996-05-01

    Despite advances made in recycling technology and markets for materials over the past few years, recycling at convention centers, particularly on the show floor itself, can be a vexing problem. Part of the problem lies in the fact that recycling at convention centers has more to do with logistics than it does with these industry trends. However, given the varied nature of convention centers, and the shows they book, a rigid approach to recycling at convention centers is not always feasible. Like the numerous different curbside programs serving communities across the country, what works for one convention center--and one show--many not work for another. These difficulties notwithstanding, more convention centers are offering recycling programs today, and more groups booking conventions these days have begun requesting recycling services.

  14. Gene modification of the acetate biosynthesis pathway in Escherichia coli and implementation of the cell recycling technology to increase L-tryptophan production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingyang; Bai, Fang; Chen, Ning; Bai, Gang

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of a novel cell recycling technology based on a special disk centrifuge during microbial fermentation process can continuously separate the product and harmful intermediates, while maintaining the cell viability owing to the installed cooling system. Acetate accumulation is an often encountered problem in L-tryptophan fermentation by Escherichia coli. To extend our previous studies, the current study deleted the key genes underlying acetate biosynthesis to improve l-tryptophan production. The deletion of the phosphotransacetylase (pta)-acetate kinase (ackA) pathway in a gltB (encoding glutamate synthase) mutant of E. coli TRTHB, led to the highest production of l-tryptophan (47.18 g/L) and glucose conversion rate (17.83%), with a marked reduction in acetate accumulation (1.22 g/L). This strain, TRTHBPA, was then used to investigate the effects of the cell recycling process on L-tryptophan fermentation. Four different strategies were developed concerning two issues, the volume ratio of the concentrated cell solution and clear solution and the cell recycling period. With strategy I (concentrated cell solution: clear solution, 1: 1; cell recycling within 24-30 h), L-tryptophan production and the glucose conversion rate increased to 55.12 g/L and 19.75%, respectively, 17.55% and 10.77% higher than those without the cell recycling. In addition, the biomass increased by 13.52% and the fermentation period was shortened from 40 h to 32 h. These results indicated that the cell recycling technology significantly improved L-tryptophan production by E. coli.

  15. Application of cell-based assays for toxicity characterization of complex wastewater matrices: Possible applications in wastewater recycle and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Preeti; Naoghare, Pravin K; Gandhi, Deepa; Devi, S Saravana; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; Bafana, Amit; Kashyap, Sanjay M; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to pre-concentrated inlet or outlet STP wastewater extracts at different concentrations (0.001% to 1%) induced dose-dependent toxicity in MCF-7 cells, whereas drinking water extracts did not induce cytotoxicity in cells treated. GC-MS analysis revealed the occurrence of xenobiotic compounds (Benzene, Phthalate, etc.) in inlet/outlet wastewater extracts. Cells exposed to inlet/outlet extract showed elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS: inlet: 186.58%, pcycle analysis displayed drastic reduction in the G1 phase in treated cells (inlet, G1:45.0%; outlet, G1:58.3%) compared to the control (G1:67.3%). Treated cells showed 45.18% and 28.0% apoptosis compared to the control (1.2%). Drinking water extracts did not show any significant alterations with respect to ROS, Δψm, DNA damage, cell cycle and apoptosis compared to the control. Genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis were found to be differentially expressed in cells exposed to inlet/outlet extracts. Herein, we propose cell-based toxicity assays to evaluate the efficacies of wastewater treatment and recycling processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Thicker three-dimensional tissue from a “symbiotic recycling system” combining mammalian cells and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Yuji; Kagawa, Yuki; Sakaguchi, Katsuhisa; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Okano, Teruo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we report an in vitro co-culture system that combines mammalian cells and algae, Chlorococcum littorale, to create a three-dimensional (3-D) tissue. While the C2C12 mouse myoblasts and rat cardiac cells consumed oxygen actively, intense oxygen production was accounted for by the algae even in the co-culture system. Although cell metabolism within thicker cardiac cell-layered tissues showed anaerobic respiration, the introduction of innovative co-cultivation partially changed the metabolism to aerobic respiration. Moreover, the amount of glucose consumption and lactate production in the cardiac tissues and the amount of ammonia in the culture media decreased significantly when co-cultivated with algae. In the cardiac tissues devoid of algae, delamination was observed histologically, and the release of creatine kinase (CK) from the tissues showed severe cardiac cell damage. On the other hand, the layered cell tissues with algae were observed to be in a good histological condition, with less than one-fifth decline in CK release. The co-cultivation with algae improved the culture condition of the thicker tissues, resulting in the formation of 160 μm-thick cardiac tissues. Thus, the present study proposes the possibility of creating an in vitro “symbiotic recycling system” composed of mammalian cells and algae. PMID:28139713

  17. A recyclable chitosan-based QCM biosensor for sensitive and selective detection of breast cancer cells in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaolian; Bai, Haihua; Luo, Jinmei; Yang, Peihui; Cai, Jiye

    2014-12-07

    A highly sensitive and recyclable quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor was developed using chitosan (CS) and folic acid (FA), generating conjugates that are selectively recognized by MCF-7 cancer cell over-expressed folic acid receptors. The prepared CS-FA conjugate was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy further presented the morphology of the CS-FA conjugate interface. The hydrophilicity of films was characterized by measuring the contact angle. The recognition of MCF-7 cancer cells was investigated in situ using QCM. Captured by FA, the concentration of the MCF-7 cell was determined on-line using a quartz crystal microbalance and a wide linear range of 4.5 × 10(2) to 1.01 × 10(5) cells per mL was obtained, with a detection limit of 430 cells per mL. The fluorescence microscope further confirmed the specificity and biocompatibility of the constructed biosensor. In addition, the regeneration of the QCM biosensor was studied by using lysozyme. This receptor-bound ligand based QCM biosensor also showed good selectivity, and repeatability in the cell mixture. For the first time, this simple, economical and label-free chitosan-based QCM sensing was demonstrated, and such design could provide a promising detection strategy for sensitive detection of cancer cell over-expressed folic acid receptors.

  18. Elevated lead levels and adverse effects on natural killer cells in children from an electronic waste recycling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Huo, Xia; Cao, Junjun; Yang, Tian; Xu, Long; Xu, Xijin

    2016-06-01

    Lead (Pb) has been proved to exert immunotoxicity to influence immune homeostasis in humans. To monitor the internal Pb level and evaluate its effect on natural killer (NK) cells and cytokine/chemokine concentrations, we recruited 285 preschool children from Guiyu, one of the largest electronic waste (e-waste) destinations and recycling areas in the world, and known to have high concentrations of Pb in the air, soil, water, sediment and plants. A total of 126 preschool children were selected from Haojiang as a reference group. Results showed that children in Guiyu, the exposed area, had higher blood Pb levels and lower percentages of NK cells than children from the reference area. A significantly negative association was found between the percentage of NK cells and increasing Pb levels. Moreover, children in Guiyu area had higher platelet counts and IL-1β concentrations, and lower levels of IL-2, IL-27, MIP-1α and MIP-1β were observed in the exposed children. These changes might not be conducive to the development and differentiation of NK cells. Taken together, the elevated Pb levels result in the lower percentages of NK cells, but also alter the levels of platelets, IL-1β and IL-27, which might be unconducive to the activity and function of NK cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrostatic separation for recycling silver, silicon and polyethylene terephthalate from waste photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zisheng; Sun, Bo; Yang, Jie; Wei, Yusheng; He, Shoujie

    2017-04-01

    Electrostatic separation technology has been proven to be an effective and environmentally friendly way of recycling electronic waste. In this study, this technology was applied to recycle waste solar panels. Mixed particles of silver and polyethylene terephthalate, silicon and polyethylene terephthalate, and silver and silicon were separated with a single-roll-type electrostatic separator. The influence of high voltage level, roll speed, radial position corona electrode and angular position of the corona electrode on the separation efficiency was studied. The experimental data showed that separation of silver/polyethylene terephthalate and silicon/polyethylene terephthalate needed a higher voltage level, while separation of silver and silicon needed a smaller angular position for the corona electrode and a higher roll speed. The change of the high voltage level, roll speed, radial position of the corona electrode, and angular position of the corona electrode has more influence on silicon separation efficiency than silver separation efficiency. An integrated process is proposed using a two-roll-type corona separator for multistage separation of a mixture of these three materials. The separation efficiency for silver and silicon were found to reach 96% and 98%, respectively.

  20. V-ATPase-dependent luminal acidification is required for endocytic recycling of a yeast cell wall stress sensor, Wsc1p

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Kazuma; Saito, Mayu; Nagashima, Makiko; Kojima, Ai; Nishinoaki, Show; Toshima, Junko Y.; Toshima, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •A targeted genome screen identified 5 gene groups affecting Wsc1p recycling. •V-ATPase-dependent luminal acidification is required for Wsc1p recycling. •Activity of V-ATPase might be required for cargo recognition by the retromer complex. -- Abstract: Wsc1p is a major cell wall sensor protein localized at the polarized cell surface. The localization of Wsc1p is maintained by endocytosis and recycling from endosomes back to the cell surface, but changes to the vacuole when cells are subjected to heat stress. Exploiting this unique property of Wsc1p, we screened for yeast single-gene deletion mutants exhibiting defects in Wsc1p trafficking. By expressing 3GFP-tagged Wsc1p in mutants with deleted genes whose function is related to intracellular trafficking, we identified 5 gene groups affecting Wsc1p trafficking, impaired respectively in endocytic internalization, multivesicular body sorting, the GARP complex, endosomal maturation/vacuolar fusion, and V-ATPase. Interestingly, deletion of the VPH1 gene, encoding the V o subunit of vacuolar-type H + -ATPase (V-ATPase), led to mis-localization of Wsc1p from the plasma membrane to the vacuole. In addition, disruption of other V-ATPase subunits (vma mutants) also caused defects of Wsc1p trafficking and vacuolar acidification similar to those seen in the vph1Δ mutant. Moreover, we found that deletion of the VPS26 gene, encoding a subunit of the retromer complex, also caused a defect in Wsc1p recycling and mis-localization of Wsc1p to the vacuole. These findings clarified the previously unidentified Wsc1p recycling pathway and requirement of V-ATPase-dependent luminal acidification for Wsc1p recycling

  1. Efficient recyclable organic solar cells on cellulose nanocrystal substrates with a conducting polymer top electrode deposited by film-transfer lamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinhua Zhou; Talha M. Khan; Jen-Chieh Liu; Canek Fuentes-Hernandez; Jae Won Shim; Ehsan Najafabadi; Jeffrey P. Youngblood; Robert J. Moon; Bernard Kippelen

    2014-01-01

    We report on efficient solar cells on recyclable cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) substrates with a new device structure wherein polyethylenimine-modified Ag is used as the bottom electron-collecting electrode and high-conductivity poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS, PH1000) is used as the semitransparent top holecollecting electrode. The...

  2. Continuous Fermentation of Clostridium tyrobutyricum with Partial Cell Recycle as a Long-Term Strategy for Butyric Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar C. Clausen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In making alternative fuels from biomass feedstocks, the production of butyric acid is a key intermediate in the two-step production of butanol. The fermentation of glucose via Clostridium tyrobutyricum to butyric acid produces undesirable byproducts, including lactic acid and acetic acid, which significantly affect the butyric acid yield and productivity. This paper focuses on the production of butyric acid using Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a partial cell recycle mode to improve fermenter yield and productivity. Experiments with fermentation in batch, continuous culture and continuous culture with partial cell recycle by ultrafiltration were conducted. The results show that a continuous fermentation can be sustained for more than 120 days, which is the first reported long-term production of butyric acid in a continuous operation. Further, the results also show that partial cell recycle via membrane ultrafiltration has a great influence on the selectivity and productivity of butyric acid, with an increase in selectivity from ≈9% to 95% butyric acid with productivities as high as 1.13 g/Lh. Continuous fermentation with low dilution rate and high cell recycle ratio has been found to be desirable for optimum productivity and selectivity toward butyric acid and a comprehensive model explaining this phenomenon is given.

  3. The regulated expression, intracellular trafficking, and membrane recycling of the P2Y-like receptor GPR17 in Oli-neu oligodendroglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratangeli, Alessandra; Parmigiani, Elena; Fumagalli, Marta; Lecca, Davide; Benfante, Roberta; Passafaro, Maria; Buffo, Annalisa; Abbracchio, Maria P; Rosa, Patrizia

    2013-02-15

    GPR17 is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is activated by two classes of molecules: uracil-nucleotides and cysteinyl-leukotrienes. GPR17 is required for initiating the differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursors but has to be down-regulated to allow cells to undergo terminal maturation. Although a great deal has been learned about GPR17 expression and signaling, no information is currently available about the trafficking of native receptors after the exposure of differentiating oligodendrocytes to endogenous agonists. Here, we demonstrate that neuron-conditioned medium induces the transcriptionally mediated, time-regulated expression of GPR17 in Oli-neu, an oligodendrocyte precursor cell line, making these cells suitable for studying the endocytic traffic of the native receptor. Agonist-induced internalization, intracellular trafficking, and membrane recycling of GPR17 were analyzed by biochemical and immunofluorescence assays using an ad hoc-developed antibody against the extracellular N-terminal of GPR17. Both UDP-glucose and LTD(4) increased GPR17 internalization, although with different efficiency. At early time points, internalized GPR17 co-localized with transferrin receptor, whereas at later times it partially co-localized with the lysosomal marker Lamp1, suggesting that a portion of GPR17 is targeted to lysosomes upon ligand binding. An analysis of receptor recycling and degradation demonstrated that a significant aliquot of GPR17 is recycled to the cell surface. Furthermore, internalized GPR17 displayed a co-localization with the marker of the "short loop" recycling endosomes, Rab4, while showing very minor co-localization with the "long loop" recycling marker, Rab11. Our results provide the first data on the agonist-induced trafficking of native GPR17 in oligodendroglial cells and may have implications for both physiological and pathological myelination.

  4. Impaired degradation followed by enhanced recycling of epidermal growth factor receptor caused by hypo-phosphorylation of tyrosine 1045 in RBE cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui, Anping; Kobayashi, Akira; Motoyama, Hiroaki; Kitazawa, Masato; Takeoka, Michiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    Since cholangiocarcinoma has a poor prognosis, several epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapies with antibody or small molecule inhibitor treatment have been proposed. However, their effect remains limited. The present study sought to understand the molecular genetic characteristics of cholangiocarcinoma related to EGFR, with emphasis on its degradation and recycling. We evaluated EGFR expression and colocalization by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, cell surface EGFR expression by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and EGFR ubiquitination and protein binding by immunoprecipitation in the human cholangiocarcinoma RBE and immortalized cholangiocyte MMNK-1 cell lines. Monensin treatment and Rab11a depletion by siRNA were adopted for inhibition of EGFR recycling. Upon stimulation with EGF, ligand-induced EGFR degradation was impaired and the expression of phospho-tyrosine 1068 and phospho-p44/42 MAPK was sustained in RBE cells as compared with MMNK-1 cells. In RBE cells, the process of EGFR sorting for lysosomal degradation was blocked at the early endosome stage, and non-degradated EGFR was recycled to the cell surface. A disrupted association between EGFR and the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl, as well as hypo-phosphorylation of EGFR at tyrosine 1045 (Tyr1045), were also observed in RBE cells. In RBE cells, up-regulation of EGFR Tyr1045 phosphorylation is a potentially useful molecular alteration in EGFR-targeted therapy. The combination of molecular-targeted therapy determined by the characteristics of individual EGFR phosphorylation events and EGFR recycling inhibition show promise in future treatments of cholangiocarcinoma

  5. A novel recycling mechanism of native IgE-antigen complexes in human B cells facilitates transfer of antigen to dendritic cells for antigen presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeroff, Paul; Fellmann, Marc; Yerly, Daniel; Bachmann, Martin F; Vogel, Monique

    2017-10-23

    IgE-immune complexes (IgE-ICs) have been shown to enhance antibody and T-cell responses in mice by targeting CD23 (FcεRII), the low-affinity receptor for IgE on B cells. In humans, the mechanism by which CD23-expressing cells take up IgE-ICs and process them is not well understood. To investigate this question, we compared the fate of IgE-ICs in human B cells and in CD23-expressing monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) that represent classical antigen-presenting cells and we aimed at studying IgE-dependent antigen presentation in both cell types. B cells and monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood, and monocytes were differentiated into moDCs. Both cell types were stimulated with IgE-ICs consisting of 4-hydroxy-3-iodo-5-nitrophenylacetyl (NIP)-specific IgE JW8 and NIP-BSA to assess binding, uptake, and degradation dynamics. To assess CD23-dependent T-cell proliferation, B cells and moDCs were pulsed with IgE-NIP-tetanus toxoid complexes and cocultured with autologous T cells. IgE-IC binding was CD23-dependent in B cells, and moDCs and CD23 aggregation, as well as IgE-IC internalization, occurred in both cell types. Although IgE-ICs were degraded in moDCs, B cells did not degrade the complexes but recycled them in native form to the cell surface, enabling IgE-IC uptake by moDCs in cocultures. The resulting proliferation of specific T cells was dependent on cell-cell contact between B cells and moDCs, which was explained by increased upregulation of costimulatory molecules CD86 and MHC class II on moDCs induced by B cells. Our findings argue for a novel model in which human B cells promote specific T-cell proliferation on IgE-IC encounter. On one hand, B cells act as carriers transferring antigen to more efficient antigen-presenting cells such as DCs. On the other hand, B cells can directly promote DC maturation and thereby enhance T-cell stimulation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  7. Light-trapping and recycling for extraordinary power conversion in ultra-thin gallium-arsenide solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyderman, Sergey; John, Sajeev

    2016-06-23

    We demonstrate nearly 30% power conversion efficiency in ultra-thin (~200 nm) gallium arsenide photonic crystal solar cells by numerical solution of the coupled electromagnetic Maxwell and semiconductor drift-diffusion equations. Our architecture enables wave-interference-induced solar light trapping in the wavelength range from 300-865 nm, leading to absorption of almost 90% of incoming sunlight. Our optimized design for 200 nm equivalent bulk thickness of GaAs, is a square-lattice, slanted conical-pore photonic crystal (lattice constant 550 nm, pore diameter 600 nm, and pore depth 290 nm), passivated with AlGaAs, deposited on a silver back-reflector, with ITO upper contact and encapsulated with SiO2. Our model includes both radiative and non-radiative recombination of photo-generated charge carriers. When all light from radiative recombination is assumed to escape the structure, a maximum achievable photocurrent density (MAPD) of 27.6 mA/cm(2) is obtained from normally incident AM 1.5 sunlight. For a surface non-radiative recombination velocity of 10(3) cm/s, this corresponds to a solar power conversion efficiency of 28.3%. When all light from radiative recombination is trapped and reabsorbed (complete photon recycling) the power conversion efficiency increases to 29%. If the surface recombination velocity is reduced to 10 cm/sec, photon recycling is much more effective and the power conversion efficiency reaches 30.6%.

  8. Alteration of the number and percentage of innate immune cells in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Xu, Xijin; Sun, Di; Cao, Junjun; Zhang, Yuling; Huo, Xia

    2017-11-01

    Heavy metal lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are widespread environmental contaminants and exert detrimental effects on the immune system. We evaluated the association between Pb/Cd exposures and innate immune cells in children from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area. A total number of 294 preschool children were recruited, including 153 children from Guiyu (e-waste exposed group), and 141 from Haojiang (reference group). Pb and Cd levels in peripheral blood were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, NK cell percentages were detected by flow cytometer, and other innate immune cells including monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils were immediately measured by automated hematology analyzer. Results showed children in Guiyu had significantly higher Pb and Cd levels than in reference group. Absolute counts of monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils, as well as percentages of eosinophils and neutrophils were significantly higher in the Guiyu group. In contrast, NK cell percentages were significantly lower in Guiyu group. Pb elicited significant escalation in counts of monocytes, eosinophils and basophils, as well as percentages of monocytes, but decline in percentages of neutrophils in different quintiles with respect to the first quintile of Pb concentrations. Cd induced significant increase in counts and percentages of neutrophils in the highest quintile compared with the first quintile of Cd concentrations. We concluded alteration of the number and percentage of innate immune cells are linked to higher levels of Pb and Cd, which indicates Pb and Cd exposures might affect the innate and adaptive immune response in Guiyu children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Online gas composition estimation in solid oxide fuel cell systems with anode off-gas recycle configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, B.; Vrečko, D.; Juričić, Ð.; Pohjoranta, A.; Pianese, C.

    2017-03-01

    Degradation and poisoning of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks are continuously shortening the lifespan of SOFC systems. Poisoning mechanisms, such as carbon deposition, form a coating layer, hence rapidly decreasing the efficiency of the fuel cells. Gas composition of inlet gases is known to have great impact on the rate of coke formation. Therefore, monitoring of these variables can be of great benefit for overall management of SOFCs. Although measuring the gas composition of the gas stream is feasible, it is too costly for commercial applications. This paper proposes three distinct approaches for the design of gas composition estimators of an SOFC system in anode off-gas recycle configuration which are (i.) accurate, and (ii.) easy to implement on a programmable logic controller. Firstly, a classical approach is briefly revisited and problems related to implementation complexity are discussed. Secondly, the model is simplified and adapted for easy implementation. Further, an alternative data-driven approach for gas composition estimation is developed. Finally, a hybrid estimator employing experimental data and 1st-principles is proposed. Despite the structural simplicity of the estimators, the experimental validation shows a high precision for all of the approaches. Experimental validation is performed on a 10 kW SOFC system.

  10. Material recycling; Recycling von Werkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyerer, P. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Pfinztal-Berghausen (Germany)]|[Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kunststoffpruefung und Kunststoffkunde (IKP)

    1996-12-01

    Lasting economizing is the only peaceful possibility for ensuring human life on Earth. Recycling of materials only contributes to lasting economizing if less resources and energy are required than for primary materials. Materials which have been collected and sorted after products have been disassembled result in secondary, tertiary etc. products with virtually the same properties as the primary materials. Non-specific material cycles connected with large scale processes e.g. shredders, hydrogenation, mixed waste recycling result in recycled goods of interior quality and costs which are greater than those of the primary materials. In contrast to metals, paper and glass, synthetic materials from products (e.g. televisions, surfboards, cars, washing machines etc.) especially require and permit differentiated recycling paths. Production waste: For decades now the sorted production waste generated during production, has been reintroduced to the production process of new products at the production location itself if financially interesting. Production waste made of steel, aluminium, glass and paper must be returned to the balst furnace, melting house or slurry. Specific synthetic material cycles: E.g. SMC, PVC window frames and floors, PET bottles, polystyrene, PE and PP disposable syringes, HDPE fuel tanks, PA66 car suction pipes etc. Specific recycling processes: E.g. supercritical hydrooxidation for electronics waste and shredder light fraction alcoholysis for polyurethane. Non-specific recycling processes for organic raw materials: E.g. hydrogenation, high temperature gas generation, thermoselect process etc. Non-specific disposal procedures: E.g. shredders for synthetic materials (light fraction) lead to incineration or to the disposal site, because the costs for separating and sorting the mass synthetic materials are greater than the kilogram prices of the new materials. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] Nachhaltiges Wirtschaften ist die einzige friedliche Moeglichkeit

  11. Cost Reduction of IMM Solar Cells by Recycling Substrates Using Wet Chemical Etching, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the program is to reduce the cost of substrate reclaim for high-efficiency solar cells fabricated by an epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process, and to increase...

  12. Cost Reduction of IMM Solar Cells by Recycling Substrates using Wet Chemical Etching Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program focuses on reducing the cost of substrate reclaim for high-efficiency solar cells fabricated via an epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process, while increasing...

  13. Wnt signaling requires retromer-dependent recycling of MIG-14/Wntless in Wnt-producing cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, P.T.; Lorenowicz, M.J.; Silhankova, M.; Coudreuse, D.Y.M.; Betist, M.C.; Korswagen, H.C.

    2008-01-01

    Wnt proteins are secreted signaling molecules that play a central role in development and adult tissue homeostasis. We have previously shown that Wnt signaling requires retromer function in Wnt-producing cells. The retromer is a multiprotein complex that mediates endosome-to-Golgi transport of

  14. Halotolerant extremophile bacteria from the Great Salt Lake for recycling pollutants in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattieri, Matteo; Suvira, Milomir; Hasan, Kamrul; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2017-07-01

    The treatment of hypersaline wastewater (approximately 5% of the wastewater worldwide) cannot be performed by classical biological techniques. Herein the halotolerant extremophile bacteria obtained from the Great Salt Lake (Utah) were explored in single chamber microbial fuel cells with Pt-free cathodes for more than 18 days. The bacteria samples collected in two different locations of the lake (Stansbury Bay and Antelope Island) showed different electrochemical performances. The maximum achieved power output of 36 mW m-2 was from the microbial fuel cell based on the sample originated from Stansbury Bay, at a current density of 820 mA m-2. The performances throughout the long-term operation are discussed and a bioelectrochemical mechanism is proposed.

  15. Efficient decommissioning and recycling of polymer solar cells: justification for use of silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar R.; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Large 100 m long polymer solar cell modules were installed in a solar park using fast installation (>100 m min−1) and operated for 5 months ensuring a meaningful energy return factor (ERF > 1) followed by fast de-installation (>200 m min−1) and end-of-life management. Focus was on recovery...... of silver that is an essential component of the two electrodes. We employed life cycle analysis as a tool to evaluate the most efficient silver extraction method as well as the impact on the overall life cycle of the solar cells. Silver from the electrodes could be recovered as silver chloride in 95% yield......, which diminishes the overall energy payback time by 13%. The efficient recovery of silver justifies the use of silver electrodes in OPV even in a scenario where it is scaled to production volumes of 1 GWp per day....

  16. Invariant Chain Modulates HLA Class II Protein Recycling and Peptide Presentation in Nonprofessional Antigen Presenting Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Azizul; Hajiaghamohseni, Laela M.; Li, Ping; Toomy, Katherine; Blum, Janice S.

    2007-01-01

    The expression of MHC class II molecules and the invariant chain (Ii) chaperone, is coordinately regulated in professional antigen presenting cells (APC). Ii facilitates class II subunit folding as well as transit and retention in mature endosomal compartments rich in antigenic peptides in these APC. Yet, in nonprofessional APC such as tumors, fibroblasts and endocrine tissues, the expression of class II subunits and Ii may be uncoupled. Studies of nonprofessional APC indicate class II molecu...

  17. Adrenergic Stress Protection of Human iPS Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes by Fast Kv7.1 Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Piccini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The fight-or-flight response (FFR, a physiological acute stress reaction, involves positive chronotropic and inotropic effects on heart muscle cells mediated through β-adrenoceptor activation. Increased systolic calcium is required to enable stronger heart contractions whereas elevated potassium currents are to limit the duration of the action potentials and prevent arrhythmia. The latter effect is accomplished by an increased functional activity of the Kv7.1 channel encoded by KCNQ1. Current knowledge, however, does not sufficiently explain the full extent of rapid Kv7.1 activation and may hence be incomplete. Using inducible genetic KCNQ1 complementation in KCNQ1-deficient human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs, we here reinvestigate the functional role of Kv7.1 in adapting human CMs to adrenergic stress. Under baseline conditions, Kv7.1 was barely detectable at the plasma membrane of hiPSC-CMs, yet it fully protected these from adrenergic stress-induced beat-to-beat variability of repolarization and torsade des pointes-like arrhythmia. Furthermore, isoprenaline treatment increased field potential durations specifically in KCNQ1-deficient CMs to cause these adverse macroscopic effects. Mechanistically, we find that the protective action by Kv7.1 resides in a rapid translocation of channel proteins from intracellular stores to the plasma membrane, induced by adrenergic signaling. Gene silencing experiments targeting RAB GTPases, mediators of intracellular vesicle trafficking, showed that fast Kv7.1 recycling under acute stress conditions is RAB4A-dependent.Our data reveal a key mechanism underlying the rapid adaptation of human cardiomyocytes to adrenergic stress. These findings moreover aid to the understanding of disease pathology in long QT syndrome and bear important implications for safety pharmacological screening.

  18. Endocytosis and recycling of immune complexes by follicular dendritic cells enhances B cell antigen binding and activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesters, Balthasar A.; Chatterjee, Priyadarshini; Kim, Young-A; Gonzalez, Santiago F.; Kuligowski, Michael P.; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Carroll, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Stromal derived follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are a major reservoir for antigen that is essential for formation of germinal centers, the site where memory and effector B cells differentiate. A long-standing question is how FDCs retain antigen in its native form for extended periods and how they display it to specific B cells. Here we found that FDC acquired complement-coated immune complexes (IC) from non-cognate B cells via complement receptors 1 and 2 (CD35 and CD21 respectively) and rapidly internalized them by an actin-dependent pathway. IC were retained intact within a non-degradative cycling compartment and were displayed periodically on the cell surface where they were accessible to antigen-specific B cells. This would explain how antigens are protected from damage and retained over long periods of time, while remaining accessible for B cells. PMID:23770227

  19. Back reflectors based on buried Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for enhancement of photon recycling in monolithic, on-substrate III-V solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, I. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Instituto de Energía Solar, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avda Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kearns-McCoy, C. F. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Ward, J. S.; Steiner, M. A.; Geisz, J. F.; Kurtz, S. R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2014-09-29

    Photon management has been shown to be a fruitful way to boost the open circuit voltage and efficiency of high quality solar cells. Metal or low-index dielectric-based back reflectors can be used to confine the reemitted photons and enhance photon recycling. Gaining access to the back of the solar cell for placing these reflectors implies having to remove the substrate, with the associated added complexity to the solar cell manufacturing. In this work, we analyze the effectiveness of a single-layer reflector placed at the back of on-substrate solar cells, and assess the photon recycling improvement as a function of the refractive index of this layer. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based reflectors, created by lateral oxidation of an AlAs layer, are identified as a feasible choice for on-substrate solar cells, which can produce a V{sub oc} increase of around 65% of the maximum increase attainable with an ideal reflector. The experimental results obtained using prototype GaAs cell structures show a greater than two-fold increase in the external radiative efficiency and a V{sub oc} increase of ∼2% (∼18 mV), consistent with theoretical calculations. For GaAs cells with higher internal luminescence, this V{sub oc} boost is calculated to be up to 4% relative (36 mV), which directly translates into at least 4% higher relative efficiency.

  20. Recycling Lesson Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaz, Abeer Ali

    2013-01-01

    This lesson plan designed for grade 2 students has the goal of teaching students about the environmental practice of recycling. Children will learn language words related to recycling such as: "we can recycle"/"we can't recycle" and how to avoid littering with such words as: "recycle paper" and/or "don't throw…

  1. Orginal Article. Nephritic cell damage and antioxidant status in rats exposed to leachate from battery recycling industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akintunde Jacob K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Limited studies have assessed the toxic effect of sub-acute and sub-chronic exposure of leachate (mixture of metals in mammalian kidney. The sub-acute and sub-chronic exposure of mature male Wistar-strain albino rats (200-220 g were given by oral administration with leachate from Elewi Odo municipal battery recycling industry (EOMABRIL for period of 7 and 60 days respectively, at different concentrations (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. This was to evaluate its toxic effects on male renal functions using biomarkers of oxidative stress and nephro-cellular damage. Control groups were treated equally, but given distilled water instead of the leachate. All the groups were fed with the same standard food and had free access to drinking water. Following the exposure, results showed that the treatment induced systemic toxicity at the doses tested by causing a significant (p<0.05 alteration in enzymatic antioxidantscatalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD in the kidneys which resulted into elevated levels of malonaldehyde (MDA. Reduced glutathione (GSH levels were found to be significantly (p<0.05 depleted relative to the control group. Considerable renal cortical congestion and numerous tubules with protein casts were observed in the lumen of EOMABRIL-treated rats. These findings conclude that possible mechanism by which EOMABRIL at the investigated concentrations elicits nephrotoxicity could be linked to the individual, additive, synergistic or antagonistic interactions of this mixture of metals with the renal bio-molecules, alteration of kidney detoxifying enzymes and necrosis of nephritic tubular epithelial cells.

  2. Comparative technoeconomic analysis of a softwood ethanol process featuring posthydrolysis sugars concentration operations and continuous fermentation with cell recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Steven J; Gurram, Raghu N; Menkhaus, Todd J; Gilcrease, Patrick C

    2015-01-01

    Economical production of second generation ethanol from Ponderosa pine is of interest due to widespread mountain pine beetle infestation in the western United States and Canada. The conversion process is limited by low glucose and high inhibitor concentrations resulting from conventional low-solids dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Inhibited fermentations require larger fermentors (due to reduced volumetric productivity) and low sugars lead to low ethanol titers, increasing distillation costs. In this work, multiple effect evaporation (MEE) and nanofiltration (NF) were evaluated to concentrate the hydrolysate from 30 g/l to 100, 150, or 200 g/l glucose. To ferment this high gravity, inhibitor containing stream, traditional batch fermentation was compared with continuous stirred tank fermentation (CSTF) and continuous fermentation with cell recycle (CSTF-CR). Equivalent annual operating cost (EAOC = amortized capital + yearly operating expenses) was used to compare these potential improvements for a local-scale 5 MGY ethanol production facility. Hydrolysate concentration via evaporation increased EAOC over the base process due to the capital and energy intensive nature of evaporating a very dilute sugar stream; however, concentration via NF decreased EAOC for several of the cases (by 2 to 15%). NF concentration to 100 g/l glucose with a CSTF-CR was the most economical option, reducing EAOC by $0.15 per gallon ethanol produced. Sensitivity analyses on NF options showed that EAOC improvement over the base case could still be realized for even higher solids removal requirements (up to two times higher centrifuge requirement for the best case) or decreased NF performance. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  4. Robust and Recyclable Substrate Template with an Ultrathin Nanoporous Counter Electrode for Organic-Hole-Conductor-Free Monolithic Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Hsien; Yang, Yu-Syuan; Wang, Kuo-Chin; Chiang, Yu-Hsien; Shen, Po-Shen; Lai, Wei-Chih; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Chen, Peter

    2017-12-06

    A robust and recyclable monolithic substrate applying all-inorganic metal-oxide selective contact with a nanoporous (np) Au:NiO x counter electrode is successfully demonstrated for efficient perovskite solar cells, of which the perovskite active layer is deposited in the final step for device fabrication. Through annealing of the Ni/Au bilayer, the nanoporous NiO/Au electrode is formed in virtue of interconnected Au network embedded in oxidized Ni. By optimizing the annealing parameters and tuning the mesoscopic layer thickness (mp-TiO 2 and mp-Al 2 O 3 ), a decent power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.25% is delivered. With mp-TiO 2 /mp-Al 2 O 3 /np-Au:NiO x as a template, the original perovskite solar cell with 8.52% PCE can be rejuvenated by rinsing off the perovskite material with dimethylformamide and refilling with newly deposited perovskite. A renewed device using the recycled substrate once and twice, respectively, achieved a PCE of 8.17 and 7.72% that are comparable to original performance. This demonstrates that the novel device architecture is possible to recycle the expensive transparent conducting glass substrates together with all the electrode constituents. Deposition of stable multicomponent perovskite materials in the template also achieves an efficiency of 8.54%, which shows its versatility for various perovskite materials. The application of such a novel NiO/Au nanoporous electrode has promising potential for commercializing cost-effective, large scale, and robust perovskite solar cells.

  5. Recycling Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Environmental Resources, Harrisburg.

    This document contains lesson plans about recycling for teachers in grades K-12. Titles include: (1) "Waste--Where Does It Come From? Where Does It Go?" (2) "Litter Detectives," (3) "Classroom Paper Recycling," (4) "Recycling Survey," (5) "Disposal and Recycling Costs," (6) "Composting…

  6. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...

  7. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  8. Actinide recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.; Chang, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A multitude of studies and assessments of actinide partitioning and transmutation were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Probably the most comprehensive of these was a study coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conclusions of this study were that only rather weak economic and safety incentives existed for partitioning and transmuting the actinides for waste management purposes, due to the facts that (1) partitioning processes were complicated and expensive, and (2) the geologic repository was assumed to contain actinides for hundreds of thousands of years. Much has changed in the few years since then. A variety of developments now combine to warrant a renewed assessment of the actinide recycle. First of all, it has become increasingly difficult to provide to all parties the necessary assurance that the repository will contain essentially all radioactive materials until they have decayed. Assurance can almost certainly be provided to regulatory agencies by sound technical arguments, but it is difficult to convince the general public that the behavior of wastes stored in the ground can be modeled and predicted for even a few thousand years. From this point of view alone there would seem to be a clear benefit in reducing the long-term toxicity of the high-level wastes placed in the repository

  9. Intracellular Transport of Vaccinia Virus in HeLa Cells Requires WASH-VPEF/FAM21-Retromer Complexes and Recycling Molecules Rab11 and Rab22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Jye-Chian; Chu, Li-Wei; Lo, Yung-Tsun; Lee, Sue-Ping; Chen, Tzu-Jung; Huang, Cheng-Yen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccinia virus, the prototype of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae, infects a wide range of cell lines and animals. Vaccinia mature virus particles of the WR strain reportedly enter HeLa cells through fluid-phase endocytosis. However, the intracellular trafficking process of the vaccinia mature virus between cellular uptake and membrane fusion remains unknown. We used live imaging of single virus particles with a combination of various cellular vesicle markers, to track fluorescent vaccinia mature virus particle movement in cells. Furthermore, we performed functional interference assays to perturb distinct vesicle trafficking processes in order to delineate the specific route undertaken by vaccinia mature virus prior to membrane fusion and virus core uncoating in cells. Our results showed that vaccinia virus traffics to early endosomes, where recycling endosome markers Rab11 and Rab22 are recruited to participate in subsequent virus trafficking prior to virus core uncoating in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we identified WASH-VPEF/FAM21-retromer complexes that mediate endosome fission and sorting of virus-containing vesicles prior to virus core uncoating in the cytoplasm. IMPORTANCE Vaccinia mature virions of the WR strain enter HeLa cells through fluid phase endocytosis. We previously demonstrated that virus-containing vesicles are internalized into phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate positive macropinosomes, which are then fused with Rab5-positive early endosomes. However, the subsequent process of sorting the virion-containing vesicles prior to membrane fusion remains unclear. We dissected the intracellular trafficking pathway of vaccinia mature virions in cells up to virus core uncoating in cytoplasm. We show that vaccinia mature virions first travel to early endosomes. Subsequent trafficking events require the important endosome-tethered protein VPEF/FAM21, which recruits WASH and retromer protein complexes to the endosome. There, the complex

  10. Efficiency gain of solid oxide fuel cell systems by using anode offgas recycle - Results for a small scale propane driven unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Ralph-Uwe; Oelze, Jana; Lindermeir, Andreas; Spitta, Christian; Steffen, Michael; Küster, Torben; Chen, Shaofei; Schlitzberger, Christian; Leithner, Reinhard

    The transfer of high electrical efficiencies of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) into praxis requires appropriate system concepts. One option is the anode-offgas recycling (AOGR) approach, which is based on the integration of waste heat using the principle of a chemical heat pump. The AOGR concept allows a combined steam- and dry-reforming of hydrocarbon fuel using the fuel cell products steam and carbon dioxide. SOFC fuel gas of higher quantity and quality results. In combination with internal reuse of waste heat the system efficiency increases compared to the usual path of partial oxidation (POX). The demonstration of the AOGR concept with a 300 Wel-SOFC stack running on propane required: a combined reformer/burner-reactor operating in POX (start-up) and AOGR modus; a hotgas-injector for anode-offgas recycling to the reformer; a dynamic process model; a multi-variable process controller; full system operation for experimental proof of the efficiency gain. Experimental results proof an efficiency gain of 18 percentage points (η·POX = 23%, η·AOGR = 41%) under idealized lab conditions. Nevertheless, further improvements of injector performance, stack fuel utilization and additional reduction of reformer reformer O/C ratio and system pressure drop are required to bring this approach into self-sustaining operation.

  11. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  12. Recycling nutrients in algae biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura; Vos, M.P.; Torri, C.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Algal fuel cells: Repeated nutrient recycling is demonstrated by reusing the aqueous phase obtained from the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. This is achieved, for the first time, by performing a complete set of four continuous growth–HTL cycles. Results show similar growth rates in

  13. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  14. Influence of photon recycling effects in the operation and design of GaAs solar cells; Influencia del reciclaje de fotones en el funcionamiento y del diseno de las celulas solares de Arsenico de Galio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balenzategui Manzanares, J. L.

    2005-07-01

    Photon recycling (PR) is the process by which photons internally emitted in a semiconductor can be re-absorbed by the material, giving as result new electron-hole pairs. Although this process has been receiving some international research from the Sixties, because their effects revealed as relevant in certain devices and materials (as in gallium arsenide), its influence in the operation of solar cells has been scarcely considered in the past. Thus deposited it has been demonstrated that one of its major effects is an enhancement of the radiative carrier lifetine, photon recycling is not usually taken into account in photovoltaic, neither in device modelling and simulation, nor from the perspective of taking advantage of the phenomenon to improve the efficiency of solar cells. This work describes the results of our investigations in the field of photon recycling. (Author)

  15. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    % for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...

  16. The recycling is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The recycling site currently situated near building 133 has been transferred to the car park of building 156. The site is identified by the sign “RECYCLING” and the above logo. In this new, more accessible site, you will find recycling bins for the following waste: PET (recyclable plastic bottles); Aluminium cans; Nespresso coffee capsules.  

  17. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  18. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  19. Recycling radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Technology Programs Department of Fluor Daniel Fernald investigated alternatives for dealing with the World's largest concentrated supply of radium, the K-65 silos at Fernald, the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) former uranium processing facility near Cincinnati, Ohio. These two silos contain nearly 3,770 curies (by definition 3,770 grams) primarily of Ra-226 (T 1/2 = 1600 a) within 10,000 metric tons of material. Material contents of the silos were to be vitrified according to a Record of Decision (ROD) between the DOE and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Because of cost considerations, that alternative must be reconsidered. Research showed that although Ra-226 had come mostly into disfavor as a therapeutic agent for cancer, isotopes derived from the neutron bombardment of pure Ra-226 and radioactive decay of the resulting purified isotopes could be used to good effect. One of these isotopes, bismuth-213 (Bi-213, T 1/2 = 45.6 m), is being used in clinical trials against acute myelogenous leukemia. The isotope is attached to an antibody that seeks out cancer cells. Because alpha particles dissipate most of their energy within the space of one or a few cells, virtually all the surrounding healthy tissue remains unharmed. Because of the short half life, waste disposal is no problem. Because of past policies, radium for feedstock is difficult to find. A new policy is needed in the United States acknowledging radium's value for feedstock while continuing to control its health and environmental consequences

  20. The functional interplay of Rab11, FIP3 and Rho proteins on the endosomal recycling pathway controls cell shape and symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Jérôme; McCaffrey, Mary W; Graziani, Andrea; Alcover, Andrés

    2016-08-17

    Several families of small GTPases regulate a variety of fundamental cellular processes, encompassing growth factor signal transduction, vesicular trafficking and control of the cytoskeleton. Frequently, their action is hierarchical and complementary, but much of the detail of their functional interactions remains to be clarified. It is well established that Rab family members regulate a variety of intracellular vesicle trafficking pathways. Moreover, Rho family GTPases are pivotal for the control of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. However, the interplay between these 2 types of GTPases has been rarely reported. We discuss here our recent findings showing that Rab11, a key regulator of endosomal recycling, and Rac1, a central actin cytoskeleton regulator involved in lamellipodium formation and cell migration, interplay on endosomes through the Rab11 effector FIP3. In the context of the rapidly reactive T lymphocytes, Rab11-Rac1 endosomal functional interplay is important to control cell shape changes and cell symmetry during lymphocyte spreading and immunological synapse formation and ultimately modulate T cell activation.

  1. Cascaded strand displacement for non-enzymatic target recycling amplification and label-free electronic detection of microRNA from tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Kai; Dou, Baoting; Yang, Jianmei; Yuan, Ruo; Xiang, Yun, E-mail: yunatswu@swu.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    The monitoring of microRNA (miRNA) expression levels is of great importance in cancer diagnosis. In the present work, based on two cascaded toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions (TSDRs), we have developed a label- and enzyme-free target recycling signal amplification approach for sensitive electronic detection of miRNA-21 from human breast cancer cells. The junction probes containing the locked G-quadruplex forming sequences are self-assembled on the senor surface. The presence of the target miRNA-21 initiates the first TSDR and results in the disassembly of the junction probes and the release of the active G-quadruplex forming sequences. Subsequently, the DNA fuel strand triggers the second TSDR and leads to cyclic reuse of the target miRNA-21. The cascaded TSDRs thus generate many active G-quadruplex forming sequences on the sensor surface, which associate with hemin to produce significantly amplified current response for sensitive detection of miRNA-21 at 1.15 fM. The sensor is also selective and can be employed to monitor miRNA-21 from human breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • Amplified and sensitive detection of microRNA from tumor cells is achieved. • Signal amplification is realized by two cascaded strand displacement reactions. • The developed sensor is selective and label-free without involving any enzymes.

  2. MnROAD cells 16-23 (phase II) : forensic investigation into recycled unbound base and asphalt surface materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report presents the findings from an eight-year performance evaluation of eight cells (Cells 16-23) built at the Minnesota Road Research Facility (MnROAD) in 2008. The constructed cells were used for two performance evaluation studies of: 1) unb...

  3. The importance of recycling - Responsible recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Joens Petter

    2014-01-01

    7 times the total emissions from Sweden are saved each year by the recycling industry. It reduces CO 2 emissions and saves the environment. In fact it annually reduces global CO 2 emissions by 500 million tons, which is more than what is being emitted by the world wide aviation industry. Recycling of iron and steel saves 74% energy and reduces water and air pollution by respectively 76% and 86%, compared to primary production. It provides new raw materials and contributes to save energy. There's no sense in producing goods in a permanent material like plastics, that's supposed to be used only once. It's a huge waste of resources. Today the recycling industry provides half of the world's raw materials and this figure is set to increase. It's about environmentally sound management of resources. It's about plain common sense. There has to be a political willingness to facilitate recycling in every way. And from a corporate perspective social responsibility is becoming an increasingly important competitive edge. This is also a communication issue, it has to be a fact that is well known to the market when a company is doing valuable environmental work. We also need a well functioning global market with easy to understand regulations to facilitate global trade. The global demand for recycled materials should influence their collection and use. Fraud and theft has also to be kept at bay which calls for a close collaboration between organizations such as The International Chamber of Commerce, The International Trade Council and the International Maritime Bureau of the commercial crime services. Increasing recycling is the only way to go if we want to minimize our effect on the environment. We have to remember that recycling is essential for the environment. An increase would be a tremendous help to reduce the green house effect. Increasing recycling is not rocket science. We know how to do it, we just have to decide to go through with it

  4. Recycling of automotive aluminum

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Jirang; Roven, Hans Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    With the global warming of concern, the secondary aluminum stream is becoming an even more important component of aluminum production and is attractive because of its economic and environmental benefits. In this work, recycling of automotive aluminum is reviewed to highlight environmental benefits of aluminum recycling, use of aluminum alloys in automotive applications, automotive recycling process, and new technologies in aluminum scrap process. Literature survey shows that newly developed t...

  5. Recycling of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halaszovich, S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper reviews potentials and problems of disposal or recycling of concrete removed from nuclear installations. Due to the difficulties in determining radioactivity limits that are compatible with utilization of recycled material in practice, a method is proposed that takes into account inhalation of dusts, as occurring during the reprocessing or recycling of the concrete, for instance in road building. This method is based on the maximum permissible radioactivity uptake by inhalation of a nuclide mixture of unknown composition. (RB) [de

  6. Challenges in plastics recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann; Damgaard, Anders; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamin...

  7. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  8. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  9. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  10. The first maintenance operations in active cells with an innovative tele-robotic system at AREVA NC recycling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coudray, A. [AREVA-MECACHIMIE, Rue de Millecent, F-50440 Beaumont Hague (France); Piolain, G. [AREVA-NC (France); Geffard, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique - CEA (France)

    2009-06-15

    A few years ago, AREVA NC, started an ambitious Research and Development program in robotics and remote technologies applied to its spent fuel management facilities in France in order to cover the requirements of the different plant life cycles. This program has been carried out in collaboration with the CEA in charge of the conceptual design, as well as of the development of the prototypes, and with MECACHIMIE, a subsidiary of AREVA NC, in charge of the industrial integration. The innovative remote device has been designed and qualified to use a standard industrial robot which has been transformed into a slave tele-manipulator. This publication presents two applications in a high level activity area of the nuclear facility that used the innovative remote handling system in maintenance operations, located at the shearing and dissolution T1 and R1 facilities of the La Hague recycling plant. The purpose of these maintenance operations is to remove the rollers of the dissolver and to clean the inter bucket spaces of the wheel of the dissolver in the high level activity area of the La Hague nuclear facility. The first application imposes the use of a power slave arm system. AREVA NC has realized this operation, at the end of 2005 on T1 facility and in the beginning of 2008 on R1 facility, with the same equipment. This operation requires a remote handling mode with a force feedback in order to get enough dexterity. In 2009, the same equipment will be used to realize the cleaning of the inter bucket spaces of the wheel dissolver with high pressure water. The main challenges to face are the following ones: - access to the area is not allowed due to high radiation level - access to the inter bucket is very difficult with the conventional master/slave tele-manipulators - the use of the camera is not possible during the cleaning operation - the generated quantity of effluents has to be optimized Thus, this operation has to be realized from automated trajectories. For that

  11. Carbon dioxide recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the “Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

  12. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  13. Controlled Crystal Grain Growth in Mixed Cation-Halide Perovskite by Evaporated Solvent Vapor Recycling Method for High Efficiency Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Youhei; Kogo, Atsushi; Udagawa, Yosuke; Kunugita, Hideyuki; Ema, Kazuhiro; Sanehira, Yoshitaka; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2017-06-07

    We developed a new and simple solvent vapor-assisted thermal annealing (VA) procedure which can reduce grain boundaries in a perovskite film for fabricating highly efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs). By recycling of solvent molecules evaporated from an as-prepared perovskite film as a VA vapor source, named the pot-roast VA (PR-VA) method, finely controlled and reproducible device fabrication was achieved for formamidinium (FA) and methylammonium (MA) mixed cation-halide perovskite (FAPbI 3 ) 0.85 (MAPbBr 3 ) 0.15 . The mixed perovskite was crystallized on a low-temperature prepared brookite TiO 2 mesoporous scaffold. When exposed to very dilute solvent vapor, small grains in the perovskite film gradually unified into large grains, resulting in grain boundaries which were highly reduced and improvement of photovoltaic performance in PSC. PR-VA-treated large grain perovskite absorbers exhibited stable photocurrent-voltage performance with high fill factor and suppressed hysteresis, achieving the best conversion efficiency of 18.5% for a 5 × 5 mm 2 device and 15.2% for a 1.0 × 1.0 cm 2 device.

  14. High efficiency cell-recycle continuous sodium gluconate production by Aspergillus niger using on-line physiological parameters association analysis to regulate feed rate rationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fei; Li, Chao; Wang, Zejian; Zhao, Wei; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a system of cell-recycle continuous fermentation for sodium gluconate (SG) production by Aspergillus niger (A. niger) was established. Based on initial continuous fermentation result (100.0h) with constant feed rate, an automatic feedback strategy to regulate feed rate using on-line physiological parameters (OUR and DO) was proposed and applied successfully for the first time in the improved continuous fermentation (240.5h). Due to less auxiliary time, highest SG production rate (31.05±0.29gL(-1)h(-1)) and highest yield (0.984±0.067molmol(-1)), overall SG production capacity (975.8±5.8gh(-1)) in 50-L fermentor of improved continuous fermentation increased more than 300.0% compared to that of batch fermentation. Improvement of mass transfer and dispersed mycelia morphology were the two major reasons responsible for the high SG production rate. This system had been successfully applied to industrial fermentation and SG production was greatly improved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The physiological characteristics of the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis in fully fermentative conditions with cell recycling and in mixed cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luciana Filgueira; Bassi, Ana Paula Guarnieri; Avansini, Simoni Helena; Neto, Adauto Gomes Barbosa; Brasileiro, Bereneuza Tavares Ramos Valente; Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra Regina; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2012-03-01

    The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis plays an important role in industrial fermentation processes, either as a contaminant or as a fermenting yeast. In this study, an analysis has been conducted of the fermentation characteristics of several industrial D. bruxellensis strains collected from distilleries from the Southeast and Northeast of Brazil, compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was found that all the strains of D. bruxellensis showed a lower fermentative capacity as a result of inefficient sugar assimilation, especially sucrose, under anaerobiosis, which is called the Custer effect. In addition, most of the sugar consumed by D. bruxellensis seemed to be used for biomass production, as was observed by the increase of its cell population during the fermentation recycles. In mixed populations, the surplus of D. bruxellensis over S. cerevisiae population could not be attributed to organic acid production by the first yeast, as previously suggested. Moreover, both yeast species showed similar sensitivity to lactic and acetic acids and were equally resistant to ethanol, when added exogenously to the fermentation medium. Thus, the effects that lead to the employment of D. bruxellensis in an industrial process and its effects on the production of ethanol are multivariate. The difficulty of using this yeast for ethanol production is that it requires the elimination of the Custer effect to allow an increase in the assimilation of sugar under anaerobic conditions.

  16. Recycling of Indium From CIGS Photovoltaic Cells: Potential of Combining Acid-Resistant Nanofiltration with Liquid-Liquid Extraction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, Y.S.; Niewersch, C.; Lenz, M.; Corvini, P.F.X.; Schäffer, A.; Wintgens, T.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic consumer products such as smartphones, TV, computers, light-emitting diodes, and photovoltaic cells crucially depend on metals and metalloids. So-called “urban mining” considers them as secondary resources since they may contain precious elements at concentrations many times higher than

  17. Solvent recycle/recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffhausen, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ugaki, S.N.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes Phase I of the Solvent Recycle/Recovery Task of the DOE Chlorinated Solvent Substitution Program for the US Air Force by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., through the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The purpose of the task is to identify and test recovery and recycling technologies for proposed substitution solvents identified by the Biodegradable Solvent Substitution Program and the Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping Program with the overall objective of minimizing hazardous wastes. A literature search to identify recycle/recovery technologies and initial distillation studies has been conducted. 4 refs.

  18. The Compressor Recycle System

    OpenAIRE

    Barstad, Bjørn Ove

    2010-01-01

    The compressor recycle system is the main focus of this thesis. When the mass flow through a compressor becomes too low, the compressor can plunge into surge. Surge is a term that is used for axisymmetric oscillation through a compressor and is highly unwanted. The recycle system feeds compressed gas back to the intake when the mass flow becomes too low, and thereby act as a safety system.A mathematical model of the recycle system is extended and simulated in SIMULINK. The mathematical model ...

  19. Diffusion, capture and recycling of SCAR/WAVE and Arp2/3 complexes observed in cells by single-molecule imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millius, Arthur; Watanabe, Naoki; Weiner, Orion D.

    2012-01-01

    The SCAR/WAVE complex drives lamellipodium formation by enhancing actin nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex. Phosphoinositides and Rac activate the SCAR/WAVE complex, but how SCAR/WAVE and Arp2/3 complexes converge at sites of nucleation is unknown. We analyzed the single-molecule dynamics of WAVE2 and p40 (subunits of the SCAR/WAVE and Arp2/3 complexes, respectively) in XTC cells. We observed lateral diffusion of both proteins and captured the transition of p40 from diffusion to network incorporation. These results suggest that a diffusive 2D search facilitates binding of the Arp2/3 complex to actin filaments necessary for nucleation. After nucleation, the Arp2/3 complex integrates into the actin network and undergoes retrograde flow, which results in its broad distribution throughout the lamellipodium. By contrast, the SCAR/WAVE complex is more restricted to the cell periphery. However, with single-molecule imaging, we also observed WAVE2 molecules undergoing retrograde motion. WAVE2 and p40 have nearly identical speeds, lifetimes and sites of network incorporation. Inhibition of actin retrograde flow does not prevent WAVE2 association and disassociation with the membrane but does inhibit WAVE2 removal from the actin cortex. Our results suggest that membrane binding and diffusion expedites the recruitment of nucleation factors to a nucleation site independent of actin assembly, but after network incorporation, ongoing actin polymerization facilitates recycling of SCAR/WAVE and Arp2/3 complexes. PMID:22349699

  20. Novel web-based real-time dashboard to optimize recycling and use of red cell units at a large multi-site transfusion service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Christopher; Quinn, Jason G; Watson, Stephanie; Doiron, Donald; Crocker, Bryan; Cheng, Calvino

    2014-01-01

    Background: Effective blood inventory management reduces outdates of blood products. Multiple strategies have been employed to reduce the rate of red blood cell (RBC) unit outdate. We designed an automated real-time web-based dashboard interfaced with our laboratory information system to effectively recycle red cell units. The objective of our approach is to decrease RBC outdate rates within our transfusion service. Methods: The dashboard was deployed in August 2011 and is accessed by a shortcut that was placed on the desktops of all blood transfusion services computers in the Capital District Health Authority region. It was designed to refresh automatically every 10 min. The dashboard provides all vital information on RBC units, and implemented a color coding scheme to indicate an RBC unit's proximity to expiration. Results: The overall RBC unit outdate rate in the 7 months period following implementation of the dashboard (September 2011-March 2012) was 1.24% (123 units outdated/9763 units received), compared to similar periods in 2010-2011 and 2009-2010: 2.03% (188/9395) and 2.81% (261/9220), respectively. The odds ratio of a RBC unit outdate postdashboard (2011-2012) compared with 2010-2011 was 0.625 (95% confidence interval: 0.497-0.786; P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Our dashboard system is an inexpensive and novel blood inventory management system which was associated with a significant reduction in RBC unit outdate rates at our institution over a period of 7 months. This system, or components of it, could be a useful addition to existing RBC management systems at other institutions. PMID:25337432

  1. Novel web-based real-time dashboard to optimize recycling and use of red cell units at a large multi-site transfusion service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Christopher; Quinn, Jason G; Watson, Stephanie; Doiron, Donald; Crocker, Bryan; Cheng, Calvino

    2014-01-01

    Effective blood inventory management reduces outdates of blood products. Multiple strategies have been employed to reduce the rate of red blood cell (RBC) unit outdate. We designed an automated real-time web-based dashboard interfaced with our laboratory information system to effectively recycle red cell units. The objective of our approach is to decrease RBC outdate rates within our transfusion service. The dashboard was deployed in August 2011 and is accessed by a shortcut that was placed on the desktops of all blood transfusion services computers in the Capital District Health Authority region. It was designed to refresh automatically every 10 min. The dashboard provides all vital information on RBC units, and implemented a color coding scheme to indicate an RBC unit's proximity to expiration. The overall RBC unit outdate rate in the 7 months period following implementation of the dashboard (September 2011-March 2012) was 1.24% (123 units outdated/9763 units received), compared to similar periods in 2010-2011 and 2009-2010: 2.03% (188/9395) and 2.81% (261/9220), respectively. The odds ratio of a RBC unit outdate postdashboard (2011-2012) compared with 2010-2011 was 0.625 (95% confidence interval: 0.497-0.786; P dashboard system is an inexpensive and novel blood inventory management system which was associated with a significant reduction in RBC unit outdate rates at our institution over a period of 7 months. This system, or components of it, could be a useful addition to existing RBC management systems at other institutions.

  2. Novel web-based real-time dashboard to optimize recycling and use of red cell units at a large multi-site transfusion service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Sharpe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effective blood inventory management reduces outdates of blood products. Multiple strategies have been employed to reduce the rate of red blood cell (RBC unit outdate. We designed an automated real-time web-based dashboard interfaced with our laboratory information system to effectively recycle red cell units. The objective of our approach is to decrease RBC outdate rates within our transfusion service. Methods: The dashboard was deployed in August 2011 and is accessed by a shortcut that was placed on the desktops of all blood transfusion services computers in the Capital District Health Authority region. It was designed to refresh automatically every 10 min. The dashboard provides all vital information on RBC units, and implemented a color coding scheme to indicate an RBC unit′s proximity to expiration. Results: The overall RBC unit outdate rate in the 7 months period following implementation of the dashboard (September 2011-March 2012 was 1.24% (123 units outdated/9763 units received, compared to similar periods in 2010-2011 and 2009-2010: 2.03% (188/9395 and 2.81% (261/9220, respectively. The odds ratio of a RBC unit outdate postdashboard (2011-2012 compared with 2010-2011 was 0.625 (95% confidence interval: 0.497-0.786; P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Our dashboard system is an inexpensive and novel blood inventory management system which was associated with a significant reduction in RBC unit outdate rates at our institution over a period of 7 months. This system, or components of it, could be a useful addition to existing RBC management systems at other institutions.

  3. Dual recycling for GEO 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, H; Freise, A; Malec, M; Heinzel, G; Willke, B; Lueck, H; Strain, K A; Hough, J; Danzmann, K

    2004-01-01

    Dual recycling is the combination of signal recycling and power recycling; both optical techniques improve the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. In addition, signal recycling can reduce the loss of light power due to imperfect interference and allows us, in principle, to beat the standard quantum limit. The interferometric gravitational-wave detector GEO 600 is the first of the kilometre-scale detectors to use signal recycling. We have recently equipped the detector with a signal-recycling mirror with a transmittance of 1%. In this paper, we present details of the detector commissioning and the first locks of the dual-recycled interferometer

  4. Reduce, reuse and recycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Afrika, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the internationally accepted waste management hierarchy (Sakai et al, 1996) into South African policy has changed the focus from “end of pipe” waste management towards waste minimisation (reuse, recycling and cleaner production...

  5. Recycling of used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Ghurye, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on used oil which is a valuable resource that should be recycled. Recycling used oil saves energy and natural resources. Used oil can be reprocessed and used as fuel in industrial burners and boilers. Unfortunately, more than 400 million gallons/year of used oil is lost through widespread dumping, partly due to lack of effective recycling procedures. Although used oil is not currently a federally listed hazardous waste, the U.S. EPA has proposed to list it as a hazardous waste, which will make recycling of used oil even more attractive. Laboratory samples, representing used oil, were used for detailed parametric studies and to determine the limitation of extending some of the current physical separation techniques such as sedimentation and centrifuging developed for oil-water and solid-liquid separation

  6. Recycle or pollute?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guiking, F.C.T.

    1994-01-01

    When growing oil palms, quantities of crop residues are high, which means that recycling is laborious and options to absorb these byproducts are easily saturated. Burning or composting may have harmful environmental effects

  7. Recycling of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Glass is used for many purposes, but in the waste system glass is predominantly found in terms of beverage and food containers with a relatively short lifetime before ending up in the waste. Furthermore there is a large amount of flat glass used in building materials which also ends up in the waste...... system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  8. Recycling of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Metals like iron and aluminium are produced from mineral ore and used for a range of products, some of which have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of municipal waste. Packaging in terms of cans, foils and containers are products with a short lifetime. Other products like...... appliances, vehicles and buildings, containing iron and aluminium metals, have long lifetimes before they end up in the waste stream. The recycling of production waste and postconsumer metals has a long history in the metal industry. Some metal smelters are today entirely based on scarp metals. This chapter...... describes briefly how iron and aluminium are produced and how scrap metal is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of metal recycling. Copper and other metals are also found in waste but in much smaller...

  9. The Recycler Electron Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-03-19

    The Recycler Electron cooler was the first (and so far, the only) cooler working at a relativistic energy (γ = 9.5). It was successfully developed in 1995-2004 and was in operation at Fermilab in 2005-2011, providing cooling of antiprotons in the Recycler ring. This paper describes the cooler, difficulties in achieving the required electron beam parameters and the ways to overcome them, cooling measurements, and details of operation.

  10. A novel approach to recycle bacterial culture waste for fermentation reuse via a microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhu, Yuan; Zhuang, Liangpeng; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Masaya; Goodell, Barry; Sonoki, Tomonori; He, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    Biochemical production processes require water and nutrient resources for culture media preparation, but aqueous waste is generated after the target products are extracted. In this study, culture waste (including cells) produced from a lab-scale fermenter was fed into a microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) system. Electrical energy was generated via the interaction between the microbial consortia and the solid electrode in the MFC. The treated wastewater was reclaimed in this process which was reused as a solvent and a nutrient source in subsequent fermentation. Polarization testing showed that the MFC produced a maximum current density of 37.53 A m(-3) with a maximum power density of 5.49 W m(-3). The MFC was able to generate 0.04 kWh of energy per cubic meter of culture waste treated. The lab-scale fermenters containing pure cultures of an engineered Pseudomonas spp. were used to generate 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDC), a high value platform chemical. When the MFC-MBR-treated wastewater was used for the fermenter culture medium, a specific bacterial growth rate of 1.00 ± 0.05 h(-1) was obtained with a PDC production rate of 708.11 ± 64.70 mg PDC L(-1) h(-1). Comparable values for controls using pure water were 0.95 ± 0.06 h(-1) and 621.01 ± 22.09 mg PDC L(-1) h(-1) (P > 0.05), respectively. The results provide insight on a new approach for more sustainable bio-material production while at the same time generating energy, and suggest that the treated wastewater can be used as a solvent and a nutrient source for the fermentation production of high value platform chemicals.

  11. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 307-312

  12. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 307-312

  13. Recycling of nonmetallics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amey, E.B.; Kelly, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    The first factor determining recyclability is the composition of the material itself. Metals, for example, can be reused with little or no loss in quality. Paper and rubber, by this criterion, are less recyclable. Each time paper is recycled, some cellulose fibers are broken. Shorter fibers can mean weaker paper of perceived lower quality and value. Vulcanizing is an irreversible chemical process that precludes recycling rubber in its original form. Both materials may be reused in other applications often of lower value than the original one. To be recyclable, the discarded material must have a collection infrastructure at the source of waste generation, at a central collection site, or at curbside. The recovered material must also have a market. If it is priced noncompetitively or no market exists, if it does not meet specifications, or if it requires special technology investments which cannot be recovered through future sales, the recovered material may be stockpiled or discarded rather than recycled. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  14. Design study of advanced nuclear fuel recycle system. Conceptual study of recycle system using molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakehi, I.; Shirai, N.; Hatano, M.; Kajitani, M.; Yonezawa, S.; Kawai, T.; Kawamura, F.; Tobe, K.; Takahashi, K.

    1996-12-01

    For the purpose of developing the future nuclear fuel recycle system, the design study of the advanced nuclear fuel recycle system is being conducted. This report describes intermediate accomplishments in the conceptual system study of the advanced nuclear fuel recycle system. Fundamental concepts of this system is the recycle system using molten salt which intend to break through the conventional concepts of purex and pellet fuel system. Contents of studies in this period are as follows, 1)feasibility study of the process by Cd-cathode for nitride fuel, 2)application study for the molten salt of low melting point (AlCl3+organic salt), 3)research for decladding (advantage of decladding by heat treatment), 4)behavior of FPs in electrorefining (behavior of iodine and volatile FP chlorides, FPs behavior in chlorination), 5)criticality analysis in electrorefiner, 6)drawing of off-gas flow diagram, 7)drawing of process machinery concept (cathode processor, vibration packing), 8)evaluation for the amounts of the high level radioactive wastes, 9)quality of the recycle fuels (FPs contamination of recycle fuel), 10)conceptual study of in-cell handling system, 11)meaning of the advanced nuclear fuel recycle system. The conceptual system study will be completed in describing concepts of the system and discussing issues for the developments. (author)

  15. Comparisons of IL-8, ROS and p53 responses in human lung epithelial cells exposed to two extracts of PM2.5 collected from an e-waste recycling area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fangxing; Jin, Shiwei; Xu, Ying; Lu, Yuanan

    2011-04-01

    To identify the different effects of organic-soluble and water-soluble pollutants adsorbed on PM2.5 (PM: particulate matter) released from e-waste (electrical/electronic waste) on inflammatory response, oxidative stress and DNA damage, interleukin-8 (IL-8), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p53 protein levels were determined and compared in human lung epithelial A549 cells exposed to extracts of PM2.5 collected from two sampling sites in an e-waste recycling area in China. It is found that both extracts induced increases of IL-8 release, ROS production and p53 protein expression. The differences between the organic-soluble and water-soluble extracts were determined as of significance for ROS production (p e-waste recycling areas could lead to inflammatory response, oxidative stress and DNA damage, and the organic-soluble extracts had higher potential to induce such adverse effects on human health.

  16. Concrete produced with recycled aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. L. Tenório

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the mechanical and durable properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC for using in concrete. The porosity of recycled coarse aggregates is known to influence the fresh and hardened concrete properties and these properties are related to the specific mass of the recycled coarse aggregates, which directly influences the mechanical properties of the concrete. The recycled aggregates were obtained from construction and demolition wastes (CDW, which were divided into recycled sand (fine and coarse aggregates. Besides this, a recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density was obtained by mixing the recycled aggregates of the CDW with the recycled aggregates of concrete wastes (CW. The concrete was produced in laboratory by combining three water-cement ratios, the ratios were used in agreement with NBR 6118 for structural concretes, with each recycled coarse aggregates and recycled sand or river sand, and the reference concrete was produced with natural aggregates. It was observed that recycled aggregates can be used in concrete with properties for structural concrete. In general, the use of recycled coarse aggregate in combination with recycled sand did not provide good results; but when the less porous was used, or the recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density, the properties of the concrete showed better results. Some RAC reached bigger strengths than the reference concrete.

  17. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  18. Japan's fuel recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) has formulated Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan for the next 20 years, based on the idea that the supply and demand of plutonium should be balanced mainly through the utilization of plutonium for LWRs. The plan was approved by AEC, and is to be incorporated in the 'Long term program for development and utilization of nuclear energy' up for revision next year. The report on 'Nuclear fuel recycling in Japan' by the committee is characterized by Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan and the supply-demand situation for plutonium, the principle of the possession of plutonium not more than the demand in conformity with nuclear nonproliferation attitude, and the establishment of a domestic fabrication system of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel. The total plutonium supply up to 2010 is estimated to be about 85 t, on the other hand, the demand will be 80-90 t. The treatment of plutonium is the key to the recycling and utilization of nuclear fuel. By around 2000, the private sector will commercialize the fabrication of the MOX fuel for LWRs at the annual rate of about 100 t. Commitment to nuclear nonproliferation, future nuclear fuel recycling program in Japan, MOX fuel fabrication system in Japan and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  19. Recycling of reprocessed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randl, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    Since nuclear power was first exploited in the Federal Republic of Germany, the philosophy underlying the strategy of the nuclear fuel cycle has been to make optimum use of the resource potential of recovered uranium and plutonium within a closed fuel cycle. Apart from the weighty argument of reprocessing being an important step in the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, permitting their optimum ecological conditioning after the reprocessing step and subsequent storage underground, another argument that, no doubt, carried weight was the possibility of reducing the demand of power plants for natural uranium. In recent years, strategies of recycling have emerged for reprocessed uranium. If that energy potential, too, is to be exploited by thermal recycling, it is appropriate to choose a slightly different method of recycling from the one for plutonium. While the first generation of reprocessed uranium fuel recycled in the reactor cuts down natural uranium requirement by some 15%, the recycling of a second generation of reprocessed, once more enriched uranium fuel helps only to save a further three per cent of natural uranium. Uranium of the second generation already carries uranium-232 isotope, causing production disturbances, and uranium-236 isotope, causing disturbances of the neutron balance in the reactor, in such amounts as to make further fabrication of uranium fuel elements inexpedient, even after mixing with natural uranium feed. (orig./UA) [de

  20. Arf6, Rab11 and transferrin receptor define distinct populations of recycling endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hotaka; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2013-09-01

    Recycling endosomes are key platforms for endocytic recycling that return internalized molecules back to the plasma membrane. To determine how recycling endosomes perform their functions, searching for proteins and lipids that specifically localized at recycling endosomes has often been performed by colocalization analyses between candidate molecules and conventional recycling endosome markers. However, it remains unclear whether all the conventional markers have identical localizations. Here we report finding that three well-known recycling endosome markers, i.e., Arf6, Rab11 and transferrin receptor (TfR), have different intracellular localizations in PC12 cells. The results of immunofluorescence analyses showed that the signals of endogenous Arf6, Rab11 and TfR in nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells generally differed, although there was some overlapping. Our findings provide new information about recycling endosome markers, and they highlight the heterogeneity of recycling endosomes.

  1. Simultaneous assessment of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against multiple viral infections by combined usage of optimal epitope matrices, anti- CD3 mAb T-cell expansion and "RecycleSpot"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Johnson T

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The assessment of cellular anti-viral immunity is often hampered by the limited availability of adequate samples, especially when attempting simultaneous, high-resolution determination of T cell responses against multiple viral infections. Thus, the development of assay systems, which optimize cell usage, while still allowing for the detailed determination of breadth and magnitude of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses, is urgently needed. This study provides an up-to-date listing of currently known, well-defined viral CTL epitopes for HIV, EBV, CMV, HCV and HBV and describes an approach that overcomes some of the above limitations through the use of peptide matrices of optimally defined viral CTL epitopes in combination with anti-CD3 in vitro T cell expansion and re-use of cells from negative ELISpot wells. The data show that, when compared to direct ex vivo cell preparations, antigen-unspecific in vitro T cell expansion maintains the breadth of detectable T cell responses and demonstrates that harvesting cells from negative ELISpot wells for re-use in subsequent ELISpot assays (RecycleSpot, further maximized the use of available cells. Furthermore when combining T cell expansion and RecycleSpot with the use of rationally designed peptide matrices, antiviral immunity against more than 400 different CTL epitopes from five different viruses can be reproducibly assessed from samples of less than 10 milliliters of blood without compromising information on the breadth and magnitude of these responses. Together, these data support an approach that facilitates the assessment of cellular immunity against multiple viral co-infections in settings where sample availability is severely limited.

  2. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  3. Genetic incorporation of recycled unnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wooseok; Kim, Sanggil; Jo, Kyubong; Lee, Hyun Soo

    2016-02-01

    The genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids (UAAs) into proteins has been a useful tool for protein engineering. However, most UAAs are expensive, and the method requires a high concentration of UAAs, which has been a drawback of the technology, especially for large-scale applications. To address this problem, a method to recycle cultured UAAs was developed. The method is based on recycling a culture medium containing the UAA, in which some of essential nutrients were resupplemented after each culture cycle, and induction of protein expression was controlled with glucose. Under optimal conditions, five UAAs were recycled for up to seven rounds of expression without a decrease in expression level, cell density, or incorporation fidelity. This method can generally be applied to other UAAs; therefore, it is useful for reducing the cost of UAAs for genetic incorporation and helpful for expanding the use of the technology to industrial applications.

  4. Mox fuels recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will firstly emphasis that the first recycling of plutonium is already an industrial reality in France thanks to the high degree of performance of La Hague and MELOX COGEMA's plants. Secondly, recycling of spent Mixed OXide fuel, as a complete MOX fuel cycle, will be demonstrated through the ability of the existing plants and services which have been designed to proceed with such fuels. Each step of the MOX fuel cycle concept will be presented: transportation, reception and storage at La Hague and steps of spent MOX fuel reprocessing. (author)

  5. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling...... of the balance of costs and benefits. Rather, they are a function of the person's moral beliefs, i.e., beliefs in what is the right or wrong thing to do. The paper gives a brief review of the literature with the intention of uncovering problems and shortcomings in the framework of the SEU-model and the Theory...

  6. Business Plan: Paper Recycling Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Muhammad; Askari, Sana; Salman, Muhammad; Askari, Sheba

    2008-01-01

    This Business Plan was written for Business Plan competition organized by Ministry of Youth Affairs Government of Pakistan. It explains the paper recycling business, its pros and cons, cost of paper recycling, plant options and feasibility.

  7. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  8. Concrete produced with recycled aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Tenório, J. J. L.; Gomes, P. C. C.; Rodrigues, C. C.; Alencar, T. F. F. de

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the mechanical and durable properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) for using in concrete. The porosity of recycled coarse aggregates is known to influence the fresh and hardened concrete properties and these properties are related to the specific mass of the recycled coarse aggregates, which directly influences the mechanical properties of the concrete. The recycled aggregates were obtained from construction and demolition wastes (CDW), which were d...

  9. Recycling of the #5 polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, Marino

    2012-08-10

    Polypropylene (PP) is a widely used plastic with consumer applications ranging from food packaging to automotive parts, including car battery casings. To differentiate it from other recyclable plastics, it is designated as #5. Here, the factors contributing to PP recycling rates are briefly reviewed. Considerations include collection and separation efficiency, processing chemistry, and market dynamics for the products derived from recyclates.

  10. The Recycle Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Roger; And Others

    This guide provides lessons that enable students to learn how important it is for each of us to take care of the environment by minimizing the problems caused by too much trash. In the 10 lessons included here, students and their families learn how they can be part of the solution by practicing source reduction and by reusing, recycling, and…

  11. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study wa...

  12. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  13. The plutonium recycle for PWR reactors from brazilian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubini, L.A.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the material requirements of the nuclear fuel cycle with plutonium recycle. The study starts with the calculation of a reference reactor and has flexibility to evaluate the demand under two alternatives of nuclear fuel cycle for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR): Without plutonium recycle; and with plutonium recycle. Calculations of the reference reactor have been carried out with the CELL-CORE codes. Variations in the material requirements were studied considering changes in the installed nuclear capacity of PWR reactors, the capacity factor of these reactors, and the introduction of fast breeders. Recycling plutonium produced inside the system can reach economies of about 5% U 3 O 8 and 6% separative work units if recycle is assumed only after the fifth operation cycle of the thermal reactors. (author)

  14. The Fernald Waste Recycling Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    Recycling is considered a critical component of the waste disposition strategy at the Fernald Plant. It is estimated that 33 million cubic feet of waste will be generated during the Fernald cleanup. Recycling some portion of this waste will not only conserve natural resources and disposal volume but will, even more significantly, support the preservation of existing disposition options such as off-site disposal or on-site storage. Recognizing the strategic implications of recycling, this paper outlines the criteria used at Fernald to make recycle decisions and highlights several of Fernald's current recycling initiatives

  15. Different effects of aluminum on the actin cytoskeleton and brefeldin A-sensitive vesicle recycling in root apex cells of two maize varieties differing in root elongation rate and aluminum tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenós, Montse; Corrales, Isabel; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Illés, Peter; Baluska, Frantisek; Barceló, Juan

    2009-03-01

    A relationship between aluminum (Al) toxicity, endocytosis, endosomes and vesicle recycling in the root transition zone has recently been demonstrated. Here the importance of filamentous actin (F-actin)-based vesicle trafficking for Al tolerance has been investigating in maize varieties differing in their Al sensitivities. More Al was internalized into root tip cells of the Al-sensitive variety 16x36 than in the Al-tolerant variety Cateto. The actin cytoskeleton and vesicle trafficking were primary targets for Al toxicity in the root tips of the sensitive variety. Visualization of boron-cross-linked rhamnogalacturonan II (RGII)-containing brefeldin A (BFA) compartments revealed that Al inhibited the formation of these compartments, especially in variety 16x36. The time sequence of Al effects on pectin recycling matches the growth effects of Al in this sensitive variety. These results support the hypothesis that Al binding to pectin-rich cell walls can contribute to reversible inhibition of root elongation. Al-induced alterations on F-actin were most evident in the central part of the transition zone of Al-sensitive 16x36, where Al was localized inside the nucleoli. In relation to this observation, a role for symplastic Al in both irreversible growth inhibition and amelioration of BFA-induced inhibition of root elongation is discussed.

  16. Recycling phosphorus from wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Camilla Kjærulff

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient and a non-renewable resource of which the future supply to agriculture is challenged by limited and geopolitical unevenly distributed mineral P reserves. Recycling of P from waste is an important mean to minimise the dependence on the limited mineral P...... recycling options. The work of this PhD focused on the plant P availability of sewage sludge, a P-rich residue from wastewater treatment which is commonly applied to agricultural soil in Denmark. The overall objective of the PhD work was to evaluate the plant availability of P in sewage sludge and other...... wastewater-derived products, and to relate this to the availability from other P-containing waste products and mineral P fertiliser. This included aspects of development over time and soil accumulation, as well as effects of soil pH and the spatial distribution in soil. The P sources applied in this PhD work...

  17. MIMO with Energy Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Basciftci, Y. Ozan; Abdelaziz, Amr; Koksal, C. Emre

    2018-01-01

    We consider a Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) point-to-point communication system in which the transmitter is designed such that, each antenna can transmit information or harvest energy at any given point in time. We evaluate the achievable rate by such an energy-recycling MISO system under an average transmission power constraint. Our achievable scheme carefully switches the mode of the antennas between transmission and wireless harvesting, where most of the harvesting happens from the n...

  18. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D and D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness

  19. Usage of Recycled Pet

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyar, A. Ebru; Üstün, Sevcan

    2010-01-01

    The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PE...

  20. Usage of Recycled Pet

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ebru Tayyar; Sevcan Üstün

    2010-01-01

    The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bot...

  1. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  2. Recycling retention functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrable, K.W.; Chabot, G.E.; Johnson, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Beginning with the concept of any number of physiologically meaningful compartments that recycle material with a central extracellular fluid compartment and considering various excretion pathways, we solve the differential equations describing the kinetics by the method of Laplace to obtain concise algebraic expressions for the retentions. These expressions contain both fundamental and eigenvalue rate constants; the eigenvalue rate constants are obtained from the solution of a polynomial incorporating the fundamental rate constants. Mathematically exact expressions that predict the biodistribution resulting from continuous uptakes are used to obtain very simple mathematically exact steady state expressions as well as approximate expressions applicable to any time. These steady state and approximate expressions contain only the fundamental rate constants; also, they include a recycling factor that describes the increase in the biodistributions because of recycling. To obtain the values of the fundamental rate constants, short term kinetics studies along with data on the long term distributions are suggested. Retention functions obtained in this way predict both the short term and long term distributions; they therefore are useful in the interpretation of bioassay data and in the estimation of internal doses

  3. Effects of recycled PVC content and processing temperature on the properties of PVC foam products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sombatsompop, N.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This work used different types of recycled PVC products including PVC pipes and bottles, as rigid recyclates, and PVC plastic coverings, as soft recyclate. The PVC recyclates were added into virgin PVC foam, ranging from 0-100wt%. The PVC blends were then moulded with different processing temperatures, and their properties were monitored. It was found that the concentration of the pipe recyclates up to 60 wt% could be used to add into the PVC virgin for production of rigid PVC foam products. The higher the recyclate content led to the higher the blend density and the mechanical properties (flexural and impact strength, and hardness. For bottle recyclates, up to 60 wt% of bottle recyclates could be used for rigid PVC foam production, but the overall properties, except for the impact strength, of the PVC foam did not improve withincreasing the recycled bottles. For recycled coverings, increasing plastic coverings led to an increase in average cell size, but resulted in decreases of impact and hardness resistances. The flexible or soft PVC foam products could be manufactured with use of 0-100wt% recycled coverings. In summary, it could be concludedthat recyclates of pipes, bottles and plastic coverings can be mixed with virgin PVC foam for making foam products.

  4. Why recycle? A comparison of recycling motivations in four communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Joanne; Linn, Nancy; Burdge, Rabel J.

    1992-11-01

    Four Illinois communities with different sociode-mographic compositions and at various stages of planning for solid waste management were surveyed to determine the influence of sociodemographic variables and planning stages on the factors that motivate recycling behavior. A factor analysis of importance ratings of reasons for recycling and for not recycling yielded five factors interpreted as altruism, personal inconvenience, social influences, economic incentives, and household storage. The four communities were shown to be significantly different in multivariate analyses of the five motivational factors. However, attempts to explain these community differences with regression analyses, which predicted the motivational factors with dummy codes for planning stages, a measure of self-reported recycling behavior, and sociodemographic measures were unsatisfactory. Contrary to expectation, the solid waste management planning stages of the cities (curbside pickup, recycling dropoff center, and planning in progress) contributed only very slightly to the prediction of motivational factors for recycling. Community differences were better explained by different underlying motivational structures among the four communities. Altruistic reasons for recycling (e.g., conserving resources) composed the only factor which was similar across the four communities. This factor was also perceived to be the most important reason for recycling by respondents from all four communities. The results of the study supported the notion that convenient, voluntary recycling programs that rely on environmental concern and conscience for motivation are useful approaches to reducing waste.

  5. Valorizing recycled paper sludge by a bioethanol production process with cellulase recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Daniel; Domingues, Lucília; Gama, Miguel

    2016-09-01

    The feasibility of cellulase recycling in the scope of bioethanol production from recycled paper sludge (RPS), an inexpensive byproduct with around 39% of carbohydrates, is analyzed. RPS was easily converted and fermented by enzymes and cells, respectively. Final enzyme partition between solid and liquid phases was investigated, the solid-bound enzymes being efficiently recovered by alkaline washing. RPS hydrolysis and fermentation was conducted over four rounds, recycling the cellulases present in both fractions. A great overall enzyme stability was observed: 71, 64 and 100% of the initial Cel7A, Cel7B and β-glucosidase activities, respectively, were recovered. Even with only 30% of fresh enzymes added on the subsequent rounds, solid conversions of 92, 83 and 71% were achieved for the round 2, 3 and 4, respectively. This strategy enabled an enzyme saving around 53-60%, while can equally contribute to a 40% reduction in RPS disposal costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparisons of IL-8, ROS and p53 responses in human lung epithelial cells exposed to two extracts of PM2.5 collected from an e-waste recycling area, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Fangxing [College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Jin Shiwei [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan (China); Xu Ying; Lu Yuanan, E-mail: fxyang@ihb.ac.cn, E-mail: ylu@hawaii.edu [Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan (China)

    2011-04-15

    To identify the different effects of organic-soluble and water-soluble pollutants adsorbed on PM2.5 (PM: particulate matter) released from e-waste (electrical/electronic waste) on inflammatory response, oxidative stress and DNA damage, interleukin-8 (IL-8), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p53 protein levels were determined and compared in human lung epithelial A549 cells exposed to extracts of PM2.5 collected from two sampling sites in an e-waste recycling area in China. It is found that both extracts induced increases of IL-8 release, ROS production and p53 protein expression. The differences between the organic-soluble and water-soluble extracts were determined as of significance for ROS production (p < 0.05) and p53 protein expression (p < 0.01). The ROS production and p53 protein expression induced by the organic-soluble extracts were found to be greater than those induced by the water-soluble extracts, for both sampling sites. The results indicated that PM2.5 collected from the e-waste recycling areas could lead to inflammatory response, oxidative stress and DNA damage, and the organic-soluble extracts had higher potential to induce such adverse effects on human health.

  7. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses...... in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass....

  8. Dual recycling for GEO 600

    CERN Document Server

    Heinzel, G; Grote, H; Strain, K; Danzmann, K

    2002-01-01

    Dual recycling is the combination of power recycling and signal recycling. GEO 600, a German-British interferometric gravitational wave detector being built in Germany, has no arm cavities and needs to use dual recycling from the beginning, while the other interferometric detectors may use it at a later stage to enhance their sensitivity. The control scheme to be used in GEO 600 has been demonstrated at the Garching 30 m prototype. This paper summarizes those results and the adaptions necessary in order to apply the scheme for GEO 600.

  9. Waste collection systems for recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Møller, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed...... at recycling centres was not recommendable because the recycling rate would decrease to 20%. In general, the results showed that enhancing recycling and avoiding incineration was recommendable because the environmental performance was improved in several impact categories. The municipal costs for collection...

  10. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  11. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  12. Open-loop recycling: A LCA case study of PET bottle-to-fibre-recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the environmental impact of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle-to-fibre recycling using the methodology of life-cycle assessment (LCA). Four recycling cases, including mechanical recycling, semi-mechanical recycling, back-to-oligomer recycling and back-to-monomer recycling

  13. Behaviour of Recycled Coarse Aggregate Concrete: Age and Successive Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Kirtikanta; Pathappilly, Robin Davis; Sarkar, Pradip

    2016-06-01

    Recycled Coarse Aggregate (RCA) concrete construction technique can be called as `green concrete', as it minimizes the environmental hazard of the concrete waste disposal. Indian standard recommends target mean compressive strength of the conventional concrete in terms of water cement ratio ( w/ c). The present work is an attempt to study the behaviour of RCA concrete from two samples of parent concrete having different age group with regard to the relationship of compressive strength with water cement ratios. Number of recycling may influence the mechanical properties of RCA concrete. The influence of age and successive recycling on the properties such as capillary water absorption, drying shrinkage strain, air content, flexural strength and tensile splitting strength of the RCA concrete are examined. The relationship between compressive strength at different w/ c ratios obtained experimentally is investigated for the two parameters such as age of parent concrete and successive recycling. The recycled concrete using older recycled aggregate shows poor quality. While the compressive strength reduces with successive recycling gradually, the capillary water absorption increases abruptly, which leads to the conclusion that further recycling may not be advisable.

  14. Resources, recycle, and substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.

    A two-fold strategy appears necessary to ensure that the resource needs of the developed and developing nations are met. First, recycle and substitution must be encouraged in those instances where they do find application. Although these measures have limited applicability, they may be of vital importance in those instances where they do apply; in any event, they buy time. Second, practical and economical technologies must be developed to exploit the lower-grade and marginal ores and the oftentimes abundant but highly refractory ores, as well as to greatly increase the recovery of secondary elements present in the ores - elements whose form and amounts in the ores make them economically unrecoverable by themselves, but which are economically recoverable as by-products. It is often the case that if these elements are not recovered during the initial mining and milling operations, they are rendered unrecoverable, in a practical sense, forever. Furthermore, they may even become environmental pollutants. Specific examples of recovery from refractory ores, by-product recovery, and recycle are given. Also, some suggestions of substitutes for important resources are tabulated

  15. Recycling Study Guide [Resource Packet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    This resource packet contains six documents developed by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in order to help teachers infuse the environmental education topics of recycling and solid waste into social studies, art, English, health, mathematics, science, and environmental education classes. "Recycling Study Guide" contains 19…

  16. Recycling Solid Waste in Chattanooga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vredeveld, Ruth; Martin, Robin

    1973-01-01

    Students undertook a group project in collaboration with city officials to study garbage types in the community and possibilities of recycling solid wastes. Data collected from various sources revealed that public attitude was favorable for recycling efforts and that it was feasible economically. (PS)

  17. Recycling Pressure-Sensitive Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihui Guo; Larry Gwin; Carl Houtman; Mark Kroll; Steven J. Severtson

    2012-01-01

    The efficient control of contaminants such as metals, plastics, inks and adhesives during the processing of recovered paper products determines the profitability of recycling mills. In fact, it is arguably the most important technical obstacle in expanding the use of recycled paper.1-4 An especially challenging category of contaminants to manage...

  18. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  19. Making sense of plastics recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, E.; Koster, R.P.; Rageart, K.; Cardon, L.; Moerman, M.; Blessing, E.

    2012-01-01

    Major benefits of plastics recycling are reduced depletion of non-renewable resources and reduction of world-wide waste. Traditional thermo-mechanical recycling causes reduction of mechanical properties for most thermoplastics. Down-cycled materials may nevertheless be suited for certain useful

  20. Enzyme recycling in lignocellulosic biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Pinelo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    platform. Cellulases are the most important enzymes required in this process, but the complex nature of lignocellulose requires several other enzymes (hemicellulases and auxiliary enzymes) for efficient hydrolysis. Enzyme recycling increases the catalytic productivity of the enzymes by reusing them...... upscaled and tested in industrial settings, mainly because of many difficulties with recycling of enzymes from the complex lignocellulose hydrolyzate at industrially relevant conditions, i.e., high solids loadings. The challenges are associated with the large number of different enzymes required...... for efficient hydrolysis, enzyme stability, and the detrimental interaction between enzyme and lignin. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the various methods for enzyme recovery and recycling, for example recycling of free enzymes, readsorption to fresh material, recycling of solids, membrane...

  1. Technology options for future recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, T.

    2001-01-01

    Recycling of nuclear material is indispensable, not only for using valuable resources but also for reducing the debt which we may leave to the next generations. Advanced reprocessing technologies have been developed in several countries to deal with the diversification of nuclear fuels. Also technologies derived from reprocessing or other fuel cycle areas have continued to be developed in terms of recycling. Cost effectiveness and waste-free processing are increasingly important factors in the applicable of an alternate recycling policy. This paper introduces an example of the studies in this field conducted in some countries including Japan and considers the establishment of effective recycling methodologies taking into account the uncertainty of future recycling policy. (author)

  2. Space Plastic Recycling System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Techshot's proposed Space Plastic Recycler (SPR) is an automated closed loop plastic recycling system that allows the automated conversion of disposable ISS...

  3. Actinide recycling in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.; Wiese, H.W.; Krieg, B.

    1995-01-01

    The objective is an assessment of the transmutation of long-lived actinides and fission products and the incineration of plutonium for reducing the risk potential of radioactive waste from reactors in comparison to direct waste disposal. The contribution gives an interim account on homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling of 'risk nuclides' in thermal and fast reactors. Important results: - A homogeneous 5 percent admixture of minor actinides (MA) from N4-PWRs to EFR fuel would allow a transmutation not only of the EFR MA, but in addition of the MA from 5 or 6 PWRs of equal power. However, the incineration is restricted by safety considerations. - LWR have only a very low MA incineration potential, due to their disadvantageous neutron capture/fission ratio. - In order to keep the Cm inventory at a low level, it is advantageous to concentrate the Am heterogeneously in particular fuel elements or rods. (orig./HP)

  4. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  5. Recycling management including transportation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear industry, at least in advanced countries such as Japan, France and other European countries, has developed for years a global strategy of fuel utilization which implies an extensive recycling and reuse of spent fuel. Such recycling strategies are now increasingly required from the industry in general by the various Governments and international organizations. Nuclear fuel recycling and waste management are the two faces of the same policy: the closed fuel cycle, whereby reprocessing of spent fuel makes available for recycling the energetic contents : uranium and plutonium, while segregating the real waste in categories for their specific treatment, conditioning, storage, transportation and final disposal. Plutonium recycling is performed through the fabrication of the so-called mixed oxide fuel (MOX), where fissile plutonium replaces the U 235 isotope used in UO 2 fuel. The international trade of nuclear materials and services, under close control of IAEA and other national and international organization, has let to the circulation of materials between the producers of uranium and enrichment fuel, fabrication, reprocessing and recycling services, and the customers worldwide. The industrial transport experience now accumulated shows an excellent record in terms of safety and quality. This communication will describe the current situation and future trends of the recycling route mainly through COGEMA industrial experience. 1 fig

  6. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  7. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  8. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  9. You're a "What"? Recycling Coordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2011-01-01

    Recycling coordinators supervise curbside and dropoff recycling programs for municipal governments or private firms. Today, recycling is mandatory in many communities. And advancements in collection and processing methods have helped to increase the quantity of materials for which the recycling coordinator is responsible. In some communities,…

  10. The Diffusion Effect of MSW Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tui Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to compare the recycling performance for some waste fractions selected including food waste, bulk waste, paper, metal products, plastics/rubber and glass products and then to develop some directions for the future improvements. The priority of each waste fraction for recycling is also analyzed by using an importance-performance analysis. Traditionally, the recycling rate that is calculated by the ratio of waste recycled to waste collected is used as an indicator to measure recycling performance. Due to a large variation among waste fractions in municipal solid waste (MSW, the recycling rate cannot reflect the actual recycling performance. The ceiling of recycling rate for each waste fraction estimated from the diffusion models is incorporated into a model to calculate recycling performance. The results show that (1 the diffusion effect exists significantly for the recycling of most recyclables but no evidence is found to support the diffusion effect for the recycling of food waste and bulk waste; (2 the recycling performance of waste metal products ranks the top, compared to waste paper, waste glass and other waste fractions; (3 furthermore, an importance-performance analysis (IPA is employed to analyze the priority of recycling programs and thus this paper suggests that the recycling of food waste should be seen as the most priority item to recycle.

  11. Recycling of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagstroem, Ingela

    1999-12-01

    Separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel is a part of the process of recycling fissile material. Extracting agents for partitioning the high level liquid waste (HLLW) from conventional PUREX reprocessing is studied. The CTH-process is based on three consecutive extraction cycles. In the first cycle protactinium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium are removed by extraction with di-2-ethylhexyl-phosphoric acid (HDEHP) from a 6 M nitric acid HLLW solution. Distribution ratios for actinides, fission products and corrosion products between HLLW and 1 M HDEHP in an aliphatic diluent have been investigated. To avoid addition of chemicals the acidity is reduced by a tributylphosphate (TBP) extraction cycle. The distribution ratios of elements present in HLLW have been measured between 50 % TBP in an aliphatic diluent and synthetic HLLW in range 0.1-6 M nitric acid. In the third extraction cycle americium and curium are extracted. To separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides a method based on selective stripping of the actinides from 1 M HDEHP is proposed. The aqueous phase containing ammonia, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and lactic acid is recycled in a closed loop after reextraction of the actinides into a second organic phase also containing 1 M HDEHP. Distribution ratios for americium and neodymium have been measured at varying DTPA and lactic acid concentrations and at varying pH. Nitrogen-donor reagents have been shown to have a potential to separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides. 2,2':6,2''-terpyridine as extractant follows the CHON-principle and can in synergy with 2-bromodecanoic acid separate americium from europium. Distribution ratios for americium and europium, in the range of 0.02-0.12 M nitric acid, between nitric acid and 0.02 M terpyridine with 1 M 2-bromodecanoic acid in tert-butylbenzene (TBB) was investigated. Comparison with other nitrogen-donor reagents show that increasing lipophilicity of the molecule, by substitution of

  12. Ship recycling and marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Chiang; Wang, Nannan; Durak, Onur Sabri

    2010-09-01

    This paper discusses the historical background, structure and enforcement of the '2009 Hong Kong International Convention on the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships.' the 2009 Hong Kong Convention establishes control and enforcement instruments related to ship recycling, determining the control rights of Port States and the obligations of Flag States, Parties and recycling facilities under its jurisdiction. The Convention also controls the communication and exchange of information procedures, establishes a reporting system to be used upon the completion of recycling, and outlines an auditing system for detecting violations. The Convention, however, also contains some deficiencies. This paper concludes these deficiencies will eventually influence the final acceptance of this Convention by the international community. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Technology options for future recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, T.

    2000-01-01

    It goes without saying that recycling of nuclear material is indispensable, not only for the effective use of valuable resources but also to reduce the debt which we may leave to the next generations. Many developments in advanced reprocessing technologies have been carried out in several countries to deal with the diversification of nuclear fuels. Also technologies derived from reprocessing or other fuel cycle areas have continued to be developed in terms of recycling. Cost effectiveness and waste-free processing are increasingly important factors in the applicable of an alternate recycling policy. This paper introduces an example of the studies in this field, which has been conducted in Japan and considers the establishment of effective recycling methodologies taking into account the uncertainty of future policy. (authors)

  14. A recycling molecular beam reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prada-Silva, G.; Haller, G.L.; Fenn, J.B.

    1974-01-01

    In a Recycling Molecular Beam Reactor, RMBR, a beam of reactant gas molecules is formed from a supersonic free jet. After collision with a target the molecules pass through the vacuum pumps and are returned to the nozzle source. Continuous recycling permits the integration of very small reaction probabilities into measurable conversions which can be analyzed by gas chromatography. Some preliminary experiments have been carried out on the isomerization of cyclopropane

  15. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  16. Recycling Endosome Tubule Morphogenesis from Sorting Endosomes Requires the Kinesin Motor KIF13A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Delevoye

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early endosomes consist of vacuolar sorting and tubular recycling domains that segregate components fated for degradation in lysosomes or reuse by recycling to the plasma membrane or Golgi. The tubular transport intermediates that constitute recycling endosomes function in cell polarity, migration, and cytokinesis. Endosomal tubulation and fission require both actin and intact microtubules, but although factors that stabilize recycling endosomal tubules have been identified, those required for tubule generation from vacuolar sorting endosomes (SEs remain unknown. We show that the microtubule motor KIF13A associates with recycling endosome tubules and controls their morphogenesis. Interfering with KIF13A function impairs the formation of endosomal tubules from SEs with consequent defects in endosome homeostasis and cargo recycling. Moreover, KIF13A interacts and cooperates with RAB11 to generate endosomal tubules. Our data illustrate how a microtubule motor couples early endosome morphogenesis to its motility and function.

  17. Odin (ANKS1A modulates EGF receptor recycling and stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefei Tong

    Full Text Available The ANKS1A gene product, also known as Odin, was first identified as a tyrosine-phosphorylated component of the epidermal growth factor receptor network. Here we show that Odin functions as an effector of EGFR recycling. In EGF-stimulated HEK293 cells tyrosine phosphorylation of Odin was induced prior to EGFR internalization and independent of EGFR-to-ERK signaling. Over-expression of Odin increased EGF-induced EGFR trafficking to recycling endosomes and recycling back to the cell surface, and decreased trafficking to lysosomes and degradation. Conversely, Odin knockdown in both HEK293 and the non-small cell lung carcinoma line RVH6849, which expresses roughly 10-fold more EGF receptors than HEK293, caused decreased EGFR recycling and accelerated trafficking to the lysosome and degradation. By governing the endocytic fate of internalized receptors, Odin may provide a layer of regulation that enables cells to contend with receptor cell densities and ligand concentration gradients that are physiologically and pathologically highly variable.

  18. Membrane order in the plasma membrane and endocytic recycling compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaea, David B; Maxfield, Frederick R

    2017-01-01

    The cholesterol content of membranes plays an important role in organizing membranes for signal transduction and protein trafficking as well as in modulating the biophysical properties of membranes. While the properties of model or isolated membranes have been extensively studied, there has been little evaluation of internal membranes in living cells. Here, we use a Nile Red based probe, NR12S, and ratiometric live cell imaging, to analyze the membrane order of the plasma membrane and endocytic recycling compartment. We find that after a brief incubation to allow endocytosis, NR12S is distributed between the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment. The NR12S reports that the endocytic recycling compartment is more highly ordered than the plasma membrane. We also find that the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment are differentially affected by altering cellular cholesterol levels. The membrane order of the plasma membrane, but not the endocytic recycling compartment, is altered significantly when cellular cholesterol content is increased or decreased by 20%. These results demonstrate that changes in cellular cholesterol differentially alter membrane order within different organelles.

  19. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  20. Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Stimulate Cartilage Regeneration and Are Safe for Single-Stage Cartilage Repair in Humans upon Mixture with Recycled Autologous Chondrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Windt, Tommy S; Vonk, Lucienne A; Slaper-Cortenbach, Ineke C M; van den Broek, Marcel P H; Nizak, Razmara; van Rijen, Mattie H P; de Weger, Roel A; Dhert, Wouter J A; Saris, Daniel B F

    Traditionally, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adult bone marrow were described as being capable of differentiating to various lineages including cartilage. Despite increasing interest in these MSCs, concerns regarding their safety, in vivo behavior and clinical effectiveness have

  1. What can Recycling in Thermal Reactors Accomplish?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Piet; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson

    2007-09-01

    Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives.

  2. Auditing an intensive care unit recycling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Mark A; McGain, Forbes; O'Shea, Catherine J; Bates, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    The provision of health care has significant direct environmental effects such as energy and water use and waste production, and indirect effects, including manufacturing and transport of drugs and equipment. Recycling of hospital waste is one strategy to reduce waste disposed of as landfill, preserve resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially remain fiscally responsible. We began an intensive care unit recycling program, because a significant proportion of ICU waste was known to be recyclable. To determine the weight and proportion of ICU waste recycled, the proportion of incorrect waste disposal (including infectious waste contamination), the opportunity for further recycling and the financial effects of the recycling program. We weighed all waste and recyclables from an 11-bed ICU in an Australian metropolitan hospital for 7 non-consecutive days. As part of routine care, ICU waste was separated into general, infectious and recycling streams. Recycling streams were paper and cardboard, three plastics streams (polypropylene, mixed plastics and polyvinylchloride [PVC]) and commingled waste (steel, aluminium and some plastics). ICU waste from the waste and recycling bins was sorted into those five recycling streams, general waste and infectious waste. After sorting, the waste was weighed and examined. Recycling was classified as achieved (actual), potential and total. Potential recycling was defined as being acceptable to hospital protocol and local recycling programs. Direct and indirect financial costs, excluding labour, were examined. During the 7-day period, the total ICU waste was 505 kg: general waste, 222 kg (44%); infectious waste, 138 kg (27%); potentially recyclable waste, 145 kg (28%). Of the potentially recyclable waste, 70 kg (49%) was actually recycled (14% of the total ICU waste). In the infectious waste bins, 82% was truly infectious. There was no infectious contamination of the recycling streams. The PVC waste was 37% contaminated

  3. What can recycling in thermal reactors accomplish?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, Steven J.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Jacobson, Jacob J.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives. (authors)

  4. Waste material recycling: Assessment of contaminants limiting recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    , consumption and waste management stages within a product’s lifecycle (Figure 1). Hence, waste materials contain potentially hazardous chemicals that are unwanted in the new products made of the recycled raw materials. So far, the presence of such chemicals in materials for recycling has not been...... schemes and great potential for increase in recycling, respectively. The approach followed in the present work was developed and performed in four distinct steps. As step one, fractional composition of waste paper (30 fractions) and plastics (9 fractions) from households in Åbenrå municipality (Southern......, chemical analyses for quantification of a range of potential contaminants in paper (mineral oils, phenols, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls and toxic metals) and plastics (phthalates and brominated flame retardants) were done. The results indicated large variations in presence of chemical contaminants...

  5. Specific recycling receptors are targeted to the immune synapse by the intraflagellar transport system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finetti, Francesca; Patrussi, Laura; Masi, Giulia; Onnis, Anna; Galgano, Donatella; Lucherini, Orso Maria; Pazour, Gregory J.; Baldari, Cosima T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT T cell activation requires sustained signaling at the immune synapse, a specialized interface with the antigen-presenting cell (APC) that assembles following T cell antigen receptor (TCR) engagement by major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-bound peptide. Central to sustained signaling is the continuous recruitment of TCRs to the immune synapse. These TCRs are partly mobilized from an endosomal pool by polarized recycling. We have identified IFT20, a component of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system that controls ciliogenesis, as a central regulator of TCR recycling to the immune synapse. Here, we have investigated the interplay of IFT20 with the Rab GTPase network that controls recycling. We found that IFT20 forms a complex with Rab5 and the TCR on early endosomes. IFT20 knockdown (IFT20KD) resulted in a block in the recycling pathway, leading to a build-up of recycling TCRs in Rab5+ endosomes. Recycling of the transferrin receptor (TfR), but not of CXCR4, was disrupted by IFT20 deficiency. The IFT components IFT52 and IFT57 were found to act together with IFT20 to regulate TCR and TfR recycling. The results provide novel insights into the mechanisms that control TCR recycling and immune synapse assembly, and underscore the trafficking-related function of the IFT system beyond ciliogenesis. PMID:24554435

  6. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, M

    2005-01-01

    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted from gibbsite to

  7. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M

    2005-04-05

    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted

  8. Recycling of polymers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatyev, Igor A; Thielemans, Wim; Vander Beke, Bob

    2014-06-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, easy to mold, and lightweight. These and many other advantages make them very promising candidates for commercial applications. In many areas, they have substantially suppressed traditional materials. However, the problem of recycling still is a major challenge. There are both technological and economic issues that restrain the progress in this field. Herein, a state-of-art overview of recycling is provided together with an outlook for the future by using popular polymers such as polyolefins, poly(vinyl chloride), polyurethane, and poly(ethylene terephthalate) as examples. Different types of recycling, primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, and biological recycling, are discussed together with related issues, such as compatibilization and cross-linking. There are various projects in the European Union on research and application of these recycling approaches; selected examples are provided in this article. Their progress is mirrored by granted patents, most of which have a very limited scope and narrowly cover certain technologies. Global introduction of waste utilization techniques to the polymer market is currently not fully developed, but has an enormous potential. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Plutonium recycle in PWR reactors (Brazilian Nuclear Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubini, L.A.

    1978-02-01

    An evaluation is made of the material requirements of the nuclear fuel cycle with plutonium recycle. It starts from the calculation of a reference reactor and allows the evaluation of demand under two alternatives of nuclear fuel cycle for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR): without plutonium recycle; and with plutonium recycle. Calculations of the reference reactor have been carried out with the CELL-CORE codes. For plutonium recycle, the concept of uranium and plutonium homogeneous mixture has been adopted, using self-produced plutonium at equilibrium, in order to get minimum neutronic perturbations in the reactor core. The refueling model studied in the reference reactor was the 'out-in' scheme with a constant number of changed fuel elements (approximately 1/3 of the core). Variations in the material requirements were studied considering changes in the installed nuclear capacity of PWR reactors, the capacity factor of these reactors, and the introduction of fast breeders. Recycling plutonium produced inside the system can reach economies of about 5%U 3 O 8 and 6% separative work units if recycle is assumed only after the 5th operation cycle of the thermal reactors. The cumulative amount of fissile plutonium obtained by the Brazilian Nuclear Program of PWR reactors by 1991 should be sufficient for a fast breeder with the same capacity as Angra 2. For the proposed fast breeder programs, the fissile plutonium produced by thermal reactors is sufficient to supply fast breeder initial necessities. Howewer, U 3 O 8 and SWU economy with recycle is not significant when the proposed fast breeder program is considered. (Author) [pt

  10. Experimental investigation of PV modules recycling; PV module recycle no jikkenteki kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unagida, H.; Kurokawa, K. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Sakuta, K.; Otani, K.; Murata, K. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Recycling, cost/energy analysis and recovery experiment were made on crystalline silicon PV modules with EVA(ethylene vinyl acetate)-laminated structure. The life of modules is dependent not on performance deterioration of PV cells themselves but on yellowing or poor transmittance of EVA caused by ultraviolet ray, and disconnection between cells by thermal stress. Recovery is carried out in 3 stages of cell, wafer and material. Recovery in the stages of cell and wafer results in considerable reduction of energy and cost. The recovery experiment was carried out using PV module samples prepared by cutting the modules into 25times15mm pieces after removing Al frames from the used modules, peeling back sheets and cutting off EVA. Since a nitric acid process at 70-80degC can dissolve EVA effectively, it is promising for reuse of surface glass and PV cells as they are. This process is also carried out under a condition around room temperature and pressure, contributing to cost reduction and energy saving for recycling. Generation of harmful NOx is only a problem to be solved. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Recycling of plastics in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaki, K. [Clean Japan Center, Tokyo (Japan). PET Bottle Recycling Project Dept.

    1998-10-01

    The Clean Japan Center is an NGO concerned with recycling. This article presents an overview of methods for recyling products made of various types of plastic. A number of such methods are in use or being studied. Emphasis is given to the state of plastics recycling in Japan. The uses of waste plastics as materials in other industrials is outlined - these include waste plastics as a reducer in blast furnaces, replacing coke and pulverized coal; waste plastics as a source of heat in cement kilns as an alternative to pulverized coal; and waste plastics being incinerated to generate power. 3 figs.

  12. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  13. The Recycling Solution: How I Increased Recycling on Dilworth Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The grandson of Fred Keller, one of the founders of behavior analysis, Jacob was 10 years old when he conducted the project for his elementary school science fair. We recently contacted Jacob to learn more about his project. He told us the inspiration came from a class field trip to the county recycling center, which included seeing video footage…

  14. Sustainability issues in circuit board recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech; Alting, Leo; Baldo, Gian Luca

    1995-01-01

    The resource recovery and environmental impact issues of printed circuit board recycling by secondary copper smelters are discussed. Guidelines concerning material selection for circuit board manufacture and concerning the recycling processes are given to enhance recovery efficiency and to lower...

  15. Long-term aging of recycled binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Asphalt pavement is Americas most recycled material. Eighty million tons of asphalt, nearly 80% of all milled asphalt pavement, : is recycled every year [1]. To effectively maintain its 40,000 miles of paved roads, the Florida Department of Transp...

  16. Recycled materials in Portland cement concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This report pertains to a comprehensive study involving the use of recycled materials in Portland cement concrete. Three different materials were studied including crushed glass (CG), street sweepings (SS), and recycled concrete (RC). Blast furnace s...

  17. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  18. 75 FR 71003 - America Recycles Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... help create green jobs, support a vibrant American recycling and refurbishing industry, and advance our clean energy economy. While we can celebrate the breadth of our successes on America Recycles Day, we...

  19. Evaluation of a Zirconium Recycle Scrubber System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A hot-cell demonstration of the zirconium recycle process is planned as part of the Materials Recovery and Waste Forms Development (MRWFD) campaign. The process treats Zircaloy® cladding recovered from used nuclear fuel with chlorine gas to recover the zirconium as volatile ZrCl4. This releases radioactive tritium trapped in the alloy, converting it to volatile tritium chloride (TCl). To meet regulatory requirements governing radioactive emissions from nuclear fuel treatment operations, the capture and retention of a portion of this TCl may be required prior to discharge of the off-gas stream to the environment. In addition to demonstrating tritium removal from a synthetic zirconium recycle off-gas stream, the recovery and quantification of tritium may refine estimates of the amount of tritium present in the Zircaloy cladding of used nuclear fuel. To support these objectives, a bubbler-type scrubber was fabricated to remove the TCl from the zirconium recycle off-gas stream. The scrubber was fabricated from glass and polymer components that are resistant to chlorine and hydrochloric acid solutions. Because of concerns that the scrubber efficiency is not quantitative, tests were performed using DCl as a stand-in to experimentally measure the scrubbing efficiency of this unit. Scrubbing efficiency was ~108% ± 3% with water as the scrubber solution. Variations were noted when 1 M NaOH scrub solution was used, values ranged from 64% to 130%. The reason for the variations is not known. It is recommended that the equipment be operated with water as the scrubbing solution. Scrubbing efficiency is estimated at 100%.

  20. Evaluating iodide recycling inhibition as a novel molecular initiating event for thyroid axis disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    The enzyme iodotyrosine deiodinase (dehalogenase, IYD) catalyzes iodide recycling and promotes iodide retention in thyroid follicular cells. Loss of function or chemical inhibition of IYD reduces available iodide for thyroid hormone synthesis, which leads to hormone insufficiency...

  1. A tiered approach to evaluate an iodine recycling inhibition adverse outcome pathway (AOP) in amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    The enzyme iodotyrosine deiodinase (dehalogenase, IYD) catalyzes iodide recycling and promotes iodide retention in thyroid follicular cells. Loss of function or chemical inhibition of IYD reduces thyroid hormone synthesis, which leads to insufficiency in tissues and subsequent ne...

  2. The Diffusion Effect of MSW Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Tui Chen; Fu-Chiang Yang; Shih-Heng Yu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the recycling performance for some waste fractions selected including food waste, bulk waste, paper, metal products, plastics/rubber and glass products and then to develop some directions for the future improvements. The priority of each waste fraction for recycling is also analyzed by using an importance-performance analysis. Traditionally, the recycling rate that is calculated by the ratio of waste recycled to waste collected is used as an indicator t...

  3. Proceedings of the waste recycling workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, R.E.; Thomas, A.F.; Ries, M.A. [eds.] [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Recorded are seventeen talks from five sessions at the workshop. FERMCO`s recycling program, state of the art recycling technology, and an integrated demonstration of deactivation, decommissioning and decommissioning are presented in the plenary session. In the concrete session, decontamination and recycling are discussed. In the transite session, regulations are considered along with recycling and decontamination. In the metals session, radioactive scrap metals are emphasized. And in the regulatory considerations and liabilities session, DOE and EPA viewpoints are discussed. (GHH)

  4. Recycling at Penn State's Beaver Stadium. "Recycle on the Go" Success Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    With a 13-year-old recycling program, The Pennsylvania State University's (Penn State) Beaver Stadium in the past diverted nearly 30 tons of recyclables per year from local landfills. A new initiative to promote recycling in the stadium's tailgating area has helped Penn State more than triple its old recycling record, collecting 112 tons in 2008.…

  5. School Recycling Programs: A Handbook for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This brochure describes some of the many recycling program options that schools can implement in their communities. It focuses on implementing actual recycling projects as a way of teaching the importance and benefits of recycling. The text examines the solid waste crisis and why Americans cannot continue to possess a disposable mentality. It…

  6. Waste management considerations in HTGR recycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Shefcik, J.J.; Heath, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    Waste management considerations in the recycle of HTGR fuel are different from those encountered in the recycle of LWR fuel. The types of waste associated with HTGR recycle operations are discussed, and treatment methods for some of the wastes are described

  7. Recycling Technology: Can It Be Taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clum, James A.; Loper, Carl R., Jr.

    This paper describes the content of a seminar-type engineering course dealing with materials reutilization (recycling). The course, consisting of lecture and discussion by various faculty and outside experts as well as student presentations of research papers on recycling topics, is intended to investigate current areas in which recycling of…

  8. Recycled Office Paper: Why It Costs More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usherson, Judy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses obstacles to making recycled office paper cheaper. Explains how the economics of recycled office paper discourages recycling by commodity mills. Includes discussion of integrated and nonintegrated mills, commodity and specialty mills, specialty printing and writing mills, postconsumer material, supply and demand, and economic…

  9. 40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recycle provisions. 141.76 Section 141...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a... recycle spent filter backwash water, thickener supernatant, or liquids from dewatering processes must meet...

  10. Tire recycling technologies: What is the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Blume, Anke; Heideman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Recycling is a heavily discussed topic nowadays, and recycled tire material to be re-used for the same application is one of the spear points of current R&D activities. Regarding the immense amount of used tires, more than just one outlet for the recycled material is needed. Besides the commonly

  11. The economics of plutonium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.

    1977-11-01

    The individual cost components and the total fuel cycle costs for natural uranium and uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycles for CANDU-PHW reactors are discussed. A calculation is performed to establish the economic conditions under which plutonium recycle would be economically attractive. (auth)

  12. Controlling adhesive behavior during recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Jihui Guo; XinPing Wang; Steve Severtson; Mark Kroll; Mike Nowak

    2004-01-01

    Adhesives can be formulated to facilitate their removal by typical paper recycling unit operations. The investigations described in this paper are focused on determining fundamental properties that control particle size during pulping. While pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) with high elastic moduli tend to survive pulping with larger particles, facestock and...

  13. Project 'Recycling in ontwerp' afgesloten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goselink, E. (Erik); Meer, van der M. (Mariska)

    2013-01-01

    De hogescholen Saxion in Enschede en Windesheim in Zwolle organiseerden op 15 oktober 2013 een congres over recycling voor ontwerpers en ondernemers. Belangrijkste conclusie: gerecycled materiaal is prima bruikbaar bij nieuwe ontwerpen. Artikel verschenen in het vakblad Product van november 2013

  14. Yeast suspension filtration: Flux enhancement using an upward gas/liquid slug flow -- Application to continuous alcoholic fermentation with cell recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercier, M.; Maranges, C.; Fonade, C.; Lafforgue-Delorme, C. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees, Toulouse (France). Centre de Bioingenierie Gilbert Durand

    1998-04-05

    This study deals with the use of an upward gas/liquid slug flow to reduce tubular mineral membrane fouling. The injection of air into the feedstream is designed to create hydrodynamic conditions that destabilize the cake layer over the membrane surface inside the filtration module complex. Experimental study was carried out by filtering a biological suspension (yeast) through different tubular mineral membranes. The effects of operating parameters, including the nature of the membrane, liquid and gas flowrates, and transmembrane pressure, were examined. When external fouling was the main limiting phenomenon, flux enhancements of a factor of three could be achieved was gas sparging compared with single liquid phase crossflow filtration. The economic benefits of this unsteady technique have also been examined. To investigate the possibility of long-term operation of the two-phase flow principle, dense cell perfusion cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were carried out in a fermentor coupled with an ultrafiltration module. The air injection allowed a high and stable flux to be maintained over 100 h of fermentation, with a final cell concentration of 150 g dry weight/L. At equal biomass level, a twofold gain in flux could be attained compared with classical steady crossflow filtration at half the cost.

  15. Residues in the Hendra Virus Fusion Protein Transmembrane Domain Are Critical for Endocytic Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Popa, Andreea; Carter, James R.; Smith, Stacy E.; Hellman, Lance; Fried, Michael G.; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2012-01-01

    Hendra virus is a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus classified as a biosafety level four agent. The fusion (F) protein of Hendra virus is critical for promoting viral entry and cell-to-cell fusion. To be fusogenically active, Hendra virus F must undergo endocytic recycling and cleavage by the endosomal/lysosomal protease cathepsin L, but the route of Hendra virus F following internalization and the recycling signals involved are poorly understood. We examined the intracellular distribution of H...

  16. Materials Recycling: The Virtue of Necessity. Worldwatch Paper 56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, William U.

    This report focuses on the necessity and advantages of recycling. Following an introduction, the report is divided into five sections, addressing respectively: the necessity of recycling; waste paper recycling; aluminum recycling; iron and steel recycling; and three steps to a "recycling society." These steps include: (1) requiring that consumers…

  17. Nuclear fuel cycle waste recycling technology deverlopment - Radioactive metal waste recycling technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Moon, Jei Kwon; Jung, Chong Hun; Park, Sang Yoon

    1998-08-01

    With relation to recycling of the radioactive metal wastes which are generated during operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the following were described in this report. 1. Analysis of the state of the art on the radioactive metal waste recycling technologies. 2. Economical assessment on the radioactive metal waste recycling. 3. Process development for radioactive metal waste recycling, A. Decontamination technologies for radioactive metal waste recycling. B. Decontamination waste treatment technologies, C. Residual radioactivity evaluation technologies. (author). 238 refs., 60 tabs., 79 figs

  18. An industry response to recycle 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.; Loiselle, V.

    1996-01-01

    The US DOE is expected to issue a policy early this year articulating DOE's position on the recycle of DOE radioactive scrap metal. In anticipation of this 'Recycle 2000' initiative, the nuclear industry has formed a new trade association called the Association of Radioactive Metal Recyclers (ARMR). This article describes the Recycle 2000 initiative, provides some background on the ARMR and its membership, and identifies industry views on the actions to be taken and issues to be resolved in Recycle 2000 is to become a reality

  19. Methods of Recycling, Properties and Applications of Recycled Thermoplastic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Elena Grigore

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an updated survey of the main thermoplastic polymers in order to obtain recyclable materials for various industrial and indoor applications. The synthesis approach significantly impacts the properties of such materials and these properties in turn have a significant impact on their applications. Due to the ideal properties of the thermoplastic polymers such as corrosion resistance, low density or user-friendly design, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years, becoming more used than aluminum or other metals. Also, recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today.

  20. Recycling and combustion are complementary; Recycling und Verbrennung bedingen einander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome-Kozmiensky, Karl J. [vivis CONSULT GmbH, Nietwerder (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In Germany, the waste management has developed to a medium position between supply and disposal. Numerous waste management companies also operate sorting plants, composting plants, biogas plants, wind power plants, biomass conversion plants and solar power plants. In addition to their traditional tasks, some companies of the energy sector are devoted to the energetic waste management and recycling. Nearly all companies have recognized this trend and have implemented the utilization of renewable energies including waste materials into their strategy.

  1. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonjes, David J., E-mail: david.tonjes@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States); Waste Reduction and Management Institute, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Center for Bioenergy Research and Development, Advanced Energy Research and Technology Center, Stony Brook University, 1000 Innovation Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11794-6044 (United States); Mallikarjun, Sreekanth, E-mail: sreekanth.mallikarjun@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

  2. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonjes, David J.; Mallikarjun, Sreekanth

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets

  3. Recycling of photoaffinity-labeled insulin receptors in rat adipocytes. Dissociation of insulin-receptor complexes is not required for receptor recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huecksteadt, T.; Olefsky, J.M.; Brandenberg, D.; Heidenreich, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    We have used an iodinated, photoreactive analog of insulin, 125 I-B2(2-nitro-4-azidophenylacetyl)-des-PheB1-insulin, to covalently label insulin receptors on the cell surface of isolated rat adipocytes. Following internalization of the labeled insulin-receptor complexes at 37 0 C, we measured the rate and extent of recycling of these complexes using trypsin to distinguish receptors on the cell surface from those inside the cell. The return of internalized photoaffinity-labeled receptors to the cell surface was very rapid at 37 0 C proceeding with an apparent t 1/2 of 6 min. About 95% of the labeled receptors present in the cell 20 min after the initiation of endocytosis returned to the cell surface by 40 min. Recycling was slower at 25 and 16 0 C compared to 37 0 C and essentially negligible at 12 0 C or in the presence of energy depleters. Addition of excess unlabeled insulin had no effect on the recycling of photoaffinity-labeled insulin receptor complexes, whereas monensin, chloroquine, and Tris partially inhibited this process. These data indicate that dissociation of insulin from internalized receptors is not necessary for insulin receptor recycling. Furthermore, agents which have been shown to prevent vesicular acidification inhibit the recycling of insulin receptors by a mechanism other than prevention of ligand dissociation

  4. Innovative Vacuum Distillation for Magnesium Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianbai; Li, Naiyi; Mei, Xiaoming; Yu, Alfred; Shang, Shixiang

    Magnesium recycling now becomes a very important subject as magnesium consumption increases fast around the world. All commonly used magnesium die-casting alloys can be recycled and recovered to the primary metal quality. The recycled materials may be comprised of biscuits, sprues, runners, flash, overflows, dross, sludge, scrap parts, and old parts that are returned from service, An innovative magnesium recycle method, vacuum distillation, is developed and proved out to be able to recycle magnesium scraps, especially machining chips, oily magnesium, smelting sludge, dross or the mixture. With this process at a specific temperature and environment condition, magnesium in scraps can be gasified and then solidified to become crystal magnesium crown. This `recycled' magnesium crown is collected and used as the raw material of magnesium alloys. The experimental results show the vacuum distillation is a feasible and plausible method to recycle magnesium. Further, the cost analysis will be addressed in this paper.

  5. Unconventional secretion of tissue transglutaminase involves phospholipid-dependent delivery into recycling endosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A Zemskov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although endosomal compartments have been suggested to play a role in unconventional protein secretion, there is scarce experimental evidence for such involvement. Here we report that recycling endosomes are essential for externalization of cytoplasmic secretory protein tissue transglutaminase (tTG. The de novo synthesized cytoplasmic tTG does not follow the classical ER/Golgi-dependent secretion pathway, but is targeted to perinuclear recycling endosomes, and is delivered inside these vesicles prior to externalization. On its route to the cell surface tTG interacts with internalized β1 integrins inside the recycling endosomes and is secreted as a complex with recycled β1 integrins. Inactivation of recycling endosomes, blocking endosome fusion with the plasma membrane, or downregulation of Rab11 GTPase that controls outbound trafficking of perinuclear recycling endosomes, all abrogate tTG secretion. The initial recruitment of cytoplasmic tTG to recycling endosomes and subsequent externalization depend on its binding to phosphoinositides on endosomal membranes. These findings begin to unravel the unconventional mechanism of tTG secretion which utilizes the long loop of endosomal recycling pathway and indicate involvement of endosomal trafficking in non-classical protein secretion.

  6. DWPF recycle minimization: Brainstorming session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, R.A.; Poirier, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The recycle stream from the DWPF constitutes a major source of water addition to the High Level Waste evaporator system. As now designed, the entire flow of 3.5 to 6.5 gal/min (at sign 25% and 75% attainment, respectively), or 2 gal/min during idling, flow to the 2H evaporator system (Tank 43). Substantial improvement in the HLW water balance and tank volume management is expected if the DWPF recycle to the HLW evaporator system can be significantly reduced. A task team has been appointed to study alternatives for reducing the flow to the HLW evaporator system and make recommendations for implementation and/or further study and evaluation. The brainstorming session detailed in this report was designed to produce the first cut options for the task team to further evaluate

  7. Safety analysis of tritium recycling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yong; Zhang Dong; Xing Shixiong

    2009-04-01

    Safety of a tritium recycling system is analysed according to the structure of the system. The method of accident tree is used to analyse the leakage probability of the system. The result show that the leakage probability of the system failure is 1.1 x 10 -3 and the leakage probability of human fault is 7.2 x 10 -3 , which is are in safe limit. But the leakage probability of human fault is higher than system failure. The MCA will occur because of tritium waste emission cell breakage or misplay, in this case, all tritium in the system will leak, which is about 5.84 TBq. The maximal effective individual dose is 1.24 x 10 -3 mSv, the maximal effective close of the collectivity is 15.33 Person·mSv. (authors)

  8. Recycling of used fission material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.

    1991-01-01

    One of the most important social obstructions for the final disposal of nuclear waste is the long lifetime of some radioactive nuclides. However there are new possibilities for recycling high-level radioactive wastes. By nuclear transformation the troublesome components in the waste, the actinides and the long-living fission products can be transformed into products with a shorter decay time. (author). 9 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. Comparison of recycling outcomes in three types of recycling collection units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ashley; Gregoire, Mary; Rasmussen, Heather; Witowich, Gretchen

    2013-03-01

    Commercial institutions have many factors to consider when implementing an effective recycling program. This study examined the effectiveness of three different types of recycling bins on recycling accuracy by determining the percent weight of recyclable material placed in the recycling bins, comparing the percent weight of recyclable material by type of container used, and examining whether a change in signage increased recycling accuracy. Data were collected over 6 weeks totaling 30 days from 3 different recycling bin types at a Midwest University medical center. Five bin locations for each bin type were used. Bags from these bins were collected, sorted into recyclable and non-recyclable material, and weighed. The percent recyclable material was calculated using these weights. Common contaminates found in the bins were napkins and paper towels, plastic food wrapping, plastic bags, and coffee cups. The results showed a significant difference in percent recyclable material between bin types and bin locations. Bin type 2 was found to have one bin location to be statistically different (p=0.048), which may have been due to lack of a trash bin next to the recycling bin in that location. Bin type 3 had significantly lower percent recyclable material (precycling bin and increased contamination due to the combination of commingled and paper into one bag. There was no significant change in percent recyclable material in recycling bins post signage change. These results suggest a signage change may not be an effective way, when used alone, to increase recycling compliance and accuracy. This study showed two or three-compartment bins located next to a trash bin may be the best bin type for recycling accuracy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lithium actinide recycle process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.K.; Pierce, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Several pyrochemical processes have been developed in the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne Laboratory for recovery of actinide elements from LWR spent fuel. The lithium process was selected as the reference process from among the options. In this process the LWR oxide spent fuel is reduced by lithium at 650{degrees}C in the presence of molten LiCl. The Li{sub 2}O formed during the reduction process is soluble in the salt. The spent salt and lithium are recycled after the Li{sub 2}O is electrochemically reduced. The oxygen is liberated as CO{sub 2} at a carbon anode or oxygen at an inert anode. The reduced metal components of the LWR spent fuel are separated from the LiCL salt phase and introduced into an electrorefiner. The electrorefining step separates the uranium and transuranium (TRU) elements into two product streams. The uranium product, which comprises about 96% of the LWR spent fuel mass, may be enriched for recycle into the LWR fuel cycle, stored for future use in breeder reactors, or converted to a suitable form for disposal as waste. The TRU product can be recycled as fast reactor fuel or can be alloyed with constituents of the LWR cladding material to produce a stable waste form.

  11. Divertor retention for recycling impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, K.; Roth, J.; Fussmann, G.

    1992-01-01

    As an important issue for fusion devices with divertor configurations the retention capability for both recycling and non-recycling impurities receives increasing interest. In the case of recycling, gaseous, impurities the retention capability is usually investigated by means of short impurity gas puffs into the plasma vessel and the analysis of the time dependence of the observed line radiation. The detailed understanding of the impurity transport processes related to the retention capability of a certain divertor structure will require modelling of the experimental results with 2D or 3D transport code simulations. However, for the comparison of the global behavior of different configurations a much simpler description of the divertor retention in terms of global time constants may be sufficient. We will give a summary of experimental results from ASDEX for the dependence of the retention capability on parameters like divertor plasma density and temperature and the distance along field lines between main plasma and divertor. In addition we will compare some of these results with similar experiments on DIIID. (author) 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Plutonium and Minor Actinides Recycling in Standard BWR using Equilibrium Burnup Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waris

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Plutonium (Pu and minor actinides (MA recycling in standard BWR with equilibrium burnup model has been studied. We considered the equilibrium burnup model as a simple time independent burnup method, which can manage all possible produced nuclides in any nuclear system. The equilibrium burnup code was bundled with a SRAC cell-calculation code to become a coupled cell-burnup calculation code system. The results show that the uranium enrichment for the criticality of the reactor, the amount of loaded fuel and the required natural uranium supply per year decrease for the Pu recycling and even much lower for the Pu & MA recycling case compared to those of the standard once-through BWR case. The neutron spectra become harder with the increasing number of recycled heavy nuclides in the reactor core. The total fissile rises from 4.77% of the total nuclides number density in the reactor core for the standard once-through BWR case to 6.64% and 6.72% for the Plutonium recycling case and the Pu & MA recycling case, respectively. The two later data may become the main basis why the required uranium enrichment declines and consequently diminishes the annual loaded fuel and the required natural uranium supply. All these facts demonstrate the advantage of plutonium and minor actinides recycling in BWR.

  13. Studies on recycled aggregates-based concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshvir, Major; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2006-06-01

    Reduced extraction of raw materials, reduced transportation cost, improved profits, reduced environmental impact and fast-depleting reserves of conventional natural aggregates has necessitated the use of recycling, in order to be able to conserve conventional natural aggregate. In this study various physical and mechanical properties of recycled concrete aggregates were examined. Recycled concrete aggregates are different from natural aggregates and concrete made from them has specific properties. The percentages of recycled concrete aggregates were varied and it was observed that properties such as compressive strength showed a decrease of up to 10% as the percentage of recycled concrete aggregates increased. Water absorption of recycled aggregates was found to be greater than natural aggregates, and this needs to be compensated during mix design.

  14. Coolant clean-up and recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takao.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the service life of mechanical seals in a shaft sealing device, eliminate leakages and improve the safety by providing a recycle pump for feeding coolants to a coolant clean-up device upon reactor shut-down and adapting the pump treat only low temperature and low pressure coolants. Constitution: The system is adapted to partially take out coolants from the pipeways of a recycling pump upon normal operation and feed them to a clean-up device. Upon reactor shut-down, the recycle pump is stopped and coolants are extracted by the recycle pump for shut-down into the clean-up device. Since the coolants are not fed to the clean-up device by the recycle pump during normal operation as conducted so far, high temperature and high pressure coolants are not directly fed to the recycle pump, thereby enabling to avoid mechanical problems in the pump. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Performance Analysis of Power Bank Fitted with Recycled Laptop Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Hartono, H; Sunarno, W; Sarwanto, S

    2017-01-01

    The result of observation at Science Laboratory of State Vocational High School 3 of Surakarta shows that the power capacity of power bank fitted with recycled laptop batteries was not tested. Power bank test was conducted by preparing used laptop batteries type 18650 from its packaging for a total of five cells, selecting batteries based on their physical appearance, cleaning the pole connections, testing the voltage, testing temperature when power charging from electric outlet to power bank...

  16. Mercury recycling in the United States in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.; Matos, Grecia R.

    2005-01-01

    mercury is estimated because it is a low-volume commodity and its production, use, and disposal is difficult to track. The prices and volumes of each category of mercury-containing material may change dramatically from year to year. For example, the average price of mercury was approximately $150 per flask from 2000 until 2003 and then rose sharply to $650 per flask in fall 2004 and approximately $850 per flask in spring 2005. Since 1927, the common unit for measuring and pricing mercury has been the flask in order to conform to the system used at Almaden, Spain (Meyers, 1951). One flask weighs 34.5 kilograms, and 29 flasks of mercury are contained in a metric ton. In the United States, the chlorine-caustic soda industry, which is the leading end-user of elemental mercury, recycles most of its mercury in-plant as home scrap. Annual purchases of replacement mercury by the chlorine-caustic soda industry indicate that some mercury may be lost through evaporation to the environment, put into a landfill as industrial waste, or trapped within pipes in the plant. Impending closure of domestic and foreign mercury-cell chlorine-caustic soda plants and the shift to nonmercury technology for chlorine-caustic soda production could ultimately result in a significant volume of elemental mercury for recycling, sale, or storage. Globally, mercury is widely used in artisanal, or small-scale, gold mining. Most of that mercury is lost to the environment and is not recycled. The recycling rate for mercury was not available owing to insufficient data in 2000, and the efficiency of mercury recycling was estimated to be 62 percent.

  17. Sorting Recycled Trash: An Activity for Earth Day 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary E.; Harris, Harold H.

    2007-01-01

    Middle or high school students celebrate Earth Day on April 22, 2007 by participating in the activity to separate commingled recyclable trash to simulate sorting in a recycling center. Students would gain an appreciation for recyclable trash, after it is taken to a recycling center and learn about properties of recyclables.

  18. Thorium-U Recycle Facility (7930)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thorium-U Recycle Facility (7930), along with the Transuranic Processing Facility (7920). comprise the Radiochemical Engineering Development Complex. 7930 is a...

  19. Fermilab Recycler Collimation System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B. C. [Fermilab; Adamson, P. [Fermilab; Ainsworth, R. [Fermilab; Capista, D. [Fermilab; Hazelwood, K. [Fermilab; Kourbanis, I. [Fermilab; Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Morris, D. K. [Fermilab; Murphy, M. [Fermilab; Sidorov, V. [Fermilab; Stern, E. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. [Fermilab; Yang, M-J. [Fermilab

    2016-10-04

    To provide 700 kW proton beams for neutrino production in the NuMI facility, we employ slip stacking in the Recycler with transfer to the Main Injector for recapture and acceleration. Slip stacking with 12 Booster batches per 1.33 sec cycle of the Main Injector has been implemented and briefly tested while extensive operation with 8 batches and 10 batches per MI cycle has been demonstrated. Operation in this mode since 2013 shows that loss localization is an essential component for long term operation. Beam loss in the Recycler will be localized in a collimation region with design capability for absorbing up to 2 kW of lost protons in a pair of 20-Ton collimators (absorbers). This system will employ a two stage collimation with a thin molybdenum scattering foil to define the bottom edge of both the injected and decelerated-for-slipping beams. Optimization and engineering design of the collimator components and radiation shielding are based on comprehensive MARS15 simulations predicting high collimation efficiency as well as tolerable levels of prompt and residual radiation. The system installation during the Fermilab 2016 facility shutdown will permit commissioning in the subsequent operating period.

  20. Feasibility of recycling rubber-modified paving materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Recycling has proved to be a sound, economical method of conserving and reusing scarce material resources used in AC pavement construction. Considerable experience with recycling conventional AC mixtures indicates that the resulting recycled pavement...

  1. Effects of recycled shingles and increased RAP percentages : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    As asphalt binder becomes more expensive, the use of recycled asphalt materials becomes : more attractive. Recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) offer a partial substitute for virgin aggregate and binder in asphalt pavem...

  2. [Analysis of residual volatiles in recycled polyethylene terephthalate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkado, Yuka; Kawamura, Yoko; Mutsuga, Motoh; Tamura, Hiro-omi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2005-02-01

    The residual volatiles in recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were analyzed using headspace/GC/MS. Recycled PET samples were made from PET bottles used for beverages, alcohol and soy sauce, and they were recycled in physical recycling plants, chemical recycling plants and superclean-like recycling trials. The physically recycled PET flakes contained small amounts of volatiles such as ethanol, limonene, 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane, acetone, octanal and nonanal. Most of them originated from foods packed in bottles, and only 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane was derived from polymer impurities. In contrast, the superclean-like or chemically recycled PET contained no detectable volatiles, like new PET pellets. The PET sheets shaped from physically recycled PET had no detectable volatiles. Not only the chemically and superclean-like recycled PET, but also the physically recycled PET contained no hazardous volatiles. It was concluded that there is no safety concern about volatiles in recycled PET, for the present use.

  3. Long-term aging of recycled binders : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    At 80 million tons a year representing more than 80% of all milled asphalt pavement : asphalt paving is Americas most recycled material. Asphalt can be recycled in place, which is : very cost effective; however, aging of recycled binder ca...

  4. Promoting Residential Recycling: An Alternative Policy Based on a Recycling Reward System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongzhe Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a reward system that uses a club good to promote recycling. In particular, we examine a context of incomplete information in which the administrator is unable to observe the resident’s attitude towards recycling. The results suggest that despite the lack of information, the administrator is able to induce all types of residents to recycle when the reward is sufficiently high. Furthermore, we show that education programs, technologies that help to reduce the residential recycling cost and penalties for garbage dumping are complementary tools that could also promote recycling.

  5. Nutrient recycling of lipid-extracted waste in the production of an oleaginous thraustochytrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Joshua; Brooks, Marianne S; Armenta, Roberto E

    2016-05-01

    Improving the economics of microalgae production for the recovery of microbial oil requires a comprehensive exploration of the measures needed to improve productivity as well as to reduce the overall processing costs. One avenue for cost reduction involves recycling the effluent waste water remaining after lipid extraction. This study investigates the feasibility of recycling those wastes for growing thraustochytrid biomass, a heterotrophic microalgae, where wastes were generated from the enzymatic extraction of the lipids from the cell biomass. It was demonstrated that secondary cultures of the tested thraustochytrid grown in the recycled wastes performed favorably in terms of cell and oil production (20.48 g cells L(-1) and 40.9 % (w/w) lipid) compared to the control (13.63 g cells L(-1) and 56.8 % (w/w) lipid). Further, the significant uptake of solubilized cell material (in the form of amino acids) demonstrated that the recycled waste has the potential for offsetting the need for fresh medium components. These results indicate that the implementation of a nutrient recycling strategy for industrial microalgae production could be possible, with significant added benefits such as conserving water resources, improving production efficiency, and decreasing material inputs.

  6. Recycling Primer: Getting Back to Basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut State Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hartford.

    The disposal of garbage is a complex issue. Four strategies have been developed to attack the problem. They deal with: (1) waste reduction; (2) recycling; (3) energy recovery; and (4) land filling. This handbook emphasizes recycling as a method of handling the problem of dealing with solid wastes. Included are a list of the categories and uses of…

  7. Plutonium recycle concept for RCC - type PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonet, H.; Charlier, A.; Deramaix, P.; Vanderberg, C.

    1975-01-01

    Self-generated Pu recycling schemes in RCC-type PWRs have been defined. The main results of survey studies performed to compare the relative merits of various Pu recycle strategies and the merits of alternative solutions of the assembly design such as the Pu-island assembly or the all-Pu assembly are presented [fr

  8. The Effectiveness of Dutch Municipal Recycling Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The EU advocates a household waste recycling rate of more than 70%. Although the Netherlands already years ago invested in recycling policies heavily, this is still a large challenge as nowadays on average this rate is approximately 50% and nearly no municipalities

  9. Sustainability and the Recycling of Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donna L.; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    2011-01-01

    With the mention of "sustainability" and "recycling," most people think about reusing paper, plastic, metal, and glass, but what the authors discovered when they embarked on a word-study unit is that the sustainability movement has also brought about the recycling of words. The authors were team-teaching a language awareness class taken by…

  10. Linguistic Recycling and the Open Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Probal

    2001-01-01

    Examines linguistic recycling in the context of domestic Esperanto use. Argues that word-meaning recycling reflects the same fundamental principles as sentential recursion, and that a linguistics theoretically sensitive to these principles strengthens practical efforts towards the social goal of an open speech community. (Author/VWL)

  11. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  12. Recycling of WEEE by magnetic density separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, B.; Giacometti, L.; Di Maio, F.; Rem, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces a new recycling method of WEEE: Magnetic Density Separation. By using this technology, both grade and recovery rate of recycled products are over 90%. Good separations are not only observed in relatively big WEEE samples, but also in samples with smaller sizes or electrical

  13. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  14. India's ship recycling trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Athanasopoulou, V.

    2014-01-01

    The special nature of India's steel industry lends particular importance to ship recycling as a source of scrap. Ship recycling in upgraded 'green' facilities can substitute other 'dirty' ironmaking processes, resulting in energy savings and air pollutant emission reductions for the Indian steel

  15. Recycling from endosomes to the plasma membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, E.M. van

    2001-01-01

    Summary V Chapter?Summary Many membrane proteins are, after endocytic uptake, efficiently recycled back to the plasma membrane. The aim of the studies presented in this thesis was to determine pathways and molecular mechanisms that are involved in recycling. Plasma membrane-derived clathrin-coated

  16. Rubber Recycling: Chemistry, Processing, and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myhre, M.; Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2012-01-01

    For both environmental and economic reasons, there is broad interest in recycling rubber and in the continued development of recycling technologies. The use of postindustrial materials is a fairly well-established and documented business. Much effort over the past decade has been put into dealing

  17. Kinetics of plasma flow in recycling region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraheninnikov, S.I.; Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol'zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow; Chodura, R.

    1994-01-01

    Kinetics of plasma flow in tokamak SOL plasma recycling region for large ratio of Coulomb mean free path, λ T , to neutral recycling length, L N , is considered. Such regimes are quite typical for both current tokamaks and ITER-like reactor conditions and can not be treated by fluid approximation. (orig.)

  18. Recycling of textiles: the South African scene *

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seugnet

    (1997) to investigate textile-recycling practices, was designed to investigate various aspects of textile recy- cling in South Africa. The framework correlates with the objectives for this study. The research framework and how these various as- pects of recycling of solid waste in the South African textile industry were tested will ...

  19. Dual-recycling channel management for WEEE with stochastic demand

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chuanfa; Feng, Lipan; Wang, Xuehong

    2014-01-01

    More and more enterprises collecting e-wastes through the online recycling channel as the rapidly improving of the customer acceptance of the online recycling channel. And they are facing a problem, however, that they have to offer a higher price in the online recycling channel than the traditional recycling channel as well as reducing the searching cost by using the online recycling channel. Base on that, we incorporate a detailed consumer recycling channel choice model where the collection ...

  20. WATER RESISTANCE OF RECYCLED PAPER PANEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rani Suryandono

    2017-06-01

    Alice Wisler (2015 Facts about Recycling Paper. http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/Facts_About_Recycling_Paper. Accessed 2 April 2016 Clay Miller (2011 5 Benefits of Recycling Paper. http://www.ways2gogreenblog.com/2011/09/28/5-benefits-of-recycling-paper/. Accessed 10 May 2016 Hari Goyal (2015 Grades of Paper. http://www.paperonweb.com/grade.htm. Accessed 2 April 2016 Hari Goyal (2015 Properties of Paper. http://www.paperonweb.com/paperpro.htm. Accessed 2 April 2016 Kathryn Sukalich (2016 Everything You Need to Know about Paper Recycling. http://earth911.com/business-policy/business/paper-recycling-details-basics/. Accessed 15 July 2016 [U1] Larry West (2015 Why Recycle Paper. http://environment.about.com/od/recycling/a/The-Benefits-Of-Paper-Recycling-Why-Recycle-Paper.htm. Accesed 15 June 2016 Marie-Luise Blue (2008 The Advantages of Recycling Paper. http://education.seattlepi.com/advantages-recycling-paper-3440.html. Accessed 15 June 2016 Nina Spitzer (2009 http://www.sheknows.com/home-and-gardening/articles/810025/the-impact-of-disposable-coffee-cups-on-the-environment. Accessed 15 June 2016 Radio New Zealand (2010 Iwi not Giving Up Fight against Tasman Mill Discharges. http://www.radionz.co.nz/news/regional/64521/iwi-not-giving-up-fight-against-tasman-mill-discharges. Accessed 15 July 2016 Rick LeBlanc (2016 Paper Recycling Facts, Figures and Information Sources. https://www.thebalance.com/paper-recycling-facts-figures-and-information-sources-2877868?_ga=1.192832942.544061388.1477446686. Accesed 2 April 2016 Robinson Meyer (2016 Will More Newspapers Go Nonprofit? http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/01/newspapers-philadelphia-inquirer-daily-news-nonprofit-lol-taxes/423960/. Accessed 3 August 2016 School of Engineering at Darthmouth (2010 Forest and Paper Industry. http://engineering.dartmouth.edu/~d30345d/courses/engs171/Paper.pdf. Accessed 2 April 2016 T. Subramani, V. Angappan. (2015. Experimental Investigation of Papercrete Concrete

  1. Requirements for the recycling of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petts, M.

    1990-09-01

    The regulatory status of materials destined to be recycled is not always clear. There have been numerous questions from DOE Field Elements regarding the applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to certain materials that can be recycled. The Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has responded to questions relating to the RCRA regulations as they apply to materials that are recycled or are destined for recycling. Additional regulatory requirements for these materials may be promulgated upon the reauthorization of RCRA (e.g., regulation of used oil). Additional EH-23 information Briefs will be issued as these regulations develop. The Office of Environment, Safety and Health has convened a workshop to establish DOE's position on a number of issues associated with mixed waste and materials management, several relative to recycling

  2. The battery recycling loop: a European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, F.

    Restricting the loss of lead into the environment is essential and European legislation has reacted by requiring the recycling of lead/acid batteries. With the forecast of strong growth in the battery market over the next decade, secondary lead output will need to increase substantially to supply this demand. Battery recycling rates are vulnerable, however, to low lead prices and restrictive legislation. Effective recycling schemes are required to ensure maximum recovery and several are successfully in operation. Environmentally sound technology exists to recycle the lead and polypropylene components of batteries. A full range of lead and lead alloys are available to the battery industry from secondary material and now challenge primary products in most battery applications. It is important to optimize recycling efficiency and minimize environmental damage.

  3. Quantify the energy and environmental effects of using recycled asphalt and recycled concrete for pavement construction phase I : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the energy and environment impacts from using recycled materials : for highway construction. Specifically, when recycled asphalt pavement is re-used for producing hot mix : asphalt or when recycled concrete ...

  4. Design analysis: Understanding e-waste recycling by generation Y

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiao; Wakkary, Ron

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to understand e-waste recycling behavior of Generation Y. It presents a pilot study that explores this generation’s e-waste recycling practices, their attitudes towards ewaste recycling, and the barriers to e-waste recycling. The findings reveal the complexity of the actual e-waste recycling behavior, many participants in this study hold a positive attitude towards e-waste recycling, yet there is a shortage of convenient recycling options and e-waste recycling information. Bas...

  5. Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron

    2007-12-01

    It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

  6. Reactor having coolant recycling pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tadashi; Karatsuka, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Hajime.

    1991-01-01

    In a coolant recycling pump for an LMFBR type reactor, vertical grooves are formed to a static portion which surrounds a pump shaft as far as the lower end thereof. Sodium mists present in an annular gap of the pump shaft form a rotational flow, lose its centrifugal force at the grooved portion and are collected positively to the grooved portion. Further, since the rotational flow in the grooved channel is in a state of a cavity flow, the pressure is released in the grooved portion and a secondary eddy current is formed thereby providing a depressurized state. Accordingly, by a synergestic effect of the centrifugal force and the cavity flow, sodium mists can be recovered completely. (T.M.)

  7. Recycling of acetone by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, D.L.; Campbell, B.A.; Phelan, J.E.; Harper, M.

    1992-09-01

    The Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) identifies spent acetone solvent as a listed hazardous waste. At Fernald, acetone has been spent that has been contaminated with radionuclides and therefore is identified as a mixed hazardous waste. At the time of this publication there is no available approved method of recycling or disposal of radioactively contaminated spent acetone solvent. The Consent Decree with the Ohio EPA and the Consent Agreement with the United States EPA was agreed upon for the long-term compliant storage of hazardous waste materials. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility for safely decontaminating spent acetone to background levels of radioactivity for reuse. It was postulated that through heat distillation, radionuclides could be isolated from the spent acetone

  8. Issues in recycling galvanized scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koros, P.J. [LTV Steel Co., Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Hellickson, D.A. [General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States); Dudek, F.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-02-10

    The quality of the steel used for most galvanizing (and tinplate) applications makes scrap derived from their production and use a premier solid charge material for steelmaking. In 1989 the AISI created a Task Force to define the issues and to recommend technologically and economically sound approaches to assure continued, unhindered recyclability of the growing volume of galvanized scrap. The AISI program addressed the treatment of full-sized industrial bales of scrap. The current, on-going MRI (US)--Argonne National Laboratory program is focused on ``loose`` scrap from industrial and post-consumer sources. Results from these programs, issues of scrap management from source to steel melting, the choices for handling zinc in iron and steelmaking and the benefits/costs for removal of zinc (and lead) from scrap prior to melting in BOF and foundry operations are reviewed in this paper.

  9. Centralized consolidation/recycling center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St. Georges, L.T.; Poor, A.D.

    1995-05-01

    There are approximately 175 separate locations on the Hanford Site where dangerous waste is accumulated in hundreds of containers according to compatibility. Materials that are designated as waste could be kept from entering the waste stream by establishing collection points for these materials and wastes and then transporting them to a centralized consolidation/recycling center (hereinafter referred to as the consolidation center). Once there the materials would be prepared for offsite recycling. This document discusses the removal of batteries, partially full aerosol cans, and DOP light ballasts from the traditional waste management approach, which eliminates 89 satellite accumulation areas from the Hanford Site (43 for batteries, 33 for aerosols, and 13 for DOP ballasts). Eliminating these 89 satellite accumulation areas would reduce by hundreds the total number of containers shipped offsite as hazardous waste (due to the increase in containers when the wastes that are accumulated are segregated according to compatibility for final shipment). This new approach is in line with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) draft Universal Waste Rules for these open-quotes nuisanceclose quotes and common waste streams. Additionally, future reviews of other types of wastes that can be handled in this less restrictive and more cost-effective manner will occur as part of daily operations at the consolidation center. The Hanford Site has been identified as a laboratory for reinventing government by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Hazel O'Leary, and as a demonstration zone where open-quotes innovative ideas, processes and technologies can be created, tested and demonstrated.close quotes Additionally, DOE, EPA, and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) have agreed to cut Hanford cleanup costs by $1 billion over a 5-year period

  10. RACK-1 Directs Dynactin-dependent RAB-11 Endosomal Recycling during Mitosis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Erkang; Poole, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    Membrane trafficking pathways are necessary for the addition and removal of membrane during cytokinesis. In animal cells, recycling endosomes act as a major source of the additional membranes during furrow progression and abscission. However, the mechanisms and factors that regulate recycling endosomes during the cell cycle remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans Receptor of Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK-1) is required for cytokinesis, germline membrane organization, and the recruitment of RAB-11–labeled recycling endosomes to the pericentrosomal region and spindle. RACK-1 is also required for proper chromosome separation and astral microtubule length. RACK-1 localizes to the centrosomes, kinetochores, the midbody, and nuclear envelopes during the cell cycle. We found that RACK-1 directly binds to DNC-2, the C. elegans p50/dynamitin subunit of the dynactin complex. Last, RACK-1 may facilitate the sequestration of recycling endosomes by targeting DNC-2 to centrosomes and the spindle. Our findings suggest a mechanism by which RACK-1 directs the dynactin-dependent redistribution of recycling endosomes during the cell cycle, thus ensuring proper membrane trafficking events during cytokinesis. PMID:19158384

  11. Secondary resources and recycling in developing economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathy, Lakshmi; Chaturvedi, Ashish

    2013-09-01

    Recycling of metals extends the efficient use of minerals and metals, reduces pressure on environment and results in major energy savings in comparison to primary production. In developing economies recycling had been an integral part of industrial activity and has become a major concern due to the handling of potentially hazardous material without any regard to the occupational health and safety (OH&S) needs. With rising awareness and interest from policy makers, the recycling scenario is changing and the large scale enterprises are entering the recycling sector. There is widespread expectation that these enterprises would use the Best Available Technologies (BAT) leading to better environment management and enhanced resource recovery. The major challenge is to enhance and integrate the activities of other stakeholders in the value chain to make recycling an economically viable and profitable enterprise. This paper is an attempt to propose a sustainable model for recycling in the developing economies through integration of the informal and formal sectors. The main objective is to augment the existing practices using a scientific approach and providing better technology without causing an economic imbalance to the present practices. In this paper studies on lead acid batteries and e-waste recycling in India are presented to evolve a model for "green economy". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Management and recycling of electronic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanskanen, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the largest growing waste streams globally. Hence, for a sustainable environment and the economic recovery of valuable material for reuse, the efficient recycling of electronic scrap has been rendered indispensable, and must still be regarded as a major challenge for today’s society. In contrast to the well-established recycling of metallic scrap, it is much more complicated to recycle electronics products which have reached the end of their life as they contain many different types of material types integrated into each other. As illustrated primarily for the recycling of mobile phones, the efficient recycling of WEEE is not only a challenge for the recycling industry; it is also often a question of as-yet insufficient collection infrastructures and poor collection efficiencies, and a considerable lack of the consumer’s awareness for the potential of recycling electronics for the benefit of the environment, as well as for savings in energy and raw materials

  13. Optical Properties of Polypropylene upon Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice De Santis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years there has been an increasing interest in the possibility of recycling polymeric materials, using physical recycling. However, is it well known that polymers experience a depletion of all the properties upon recycling. These effects have been widely characterized in the literature for what concerns the mechanical or rheological properties. The changes of optical properties after recycling have been much less studied, even if, especially in food packaging, optical characteristics (above all the opacity are of extreme importance, and thus it is quite significant to assess the effect of recycling on these properties. In this work, the influence of recycling steps on the opacity of films of a commercial grade of isotactic polypropylene (i-PP was studied. The material was extruded several times to mimic the effect of recycling procedures. After extrusion, films were obtained by cooling samples of material at different cooling rates. The opacity of the obtained films was then measured and related to their crystallinity and morphology. It was found that opacity generally increases on increasing the amount of α phase and for the same amount of α phase on increasing the size of the spherulites.

  14. Optical Properties of Polypropylene upon Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years there has been an increasing interest in the possibility of recycling polymeric materials, using physical recycling. However, is it well known that polymers experience a depletion of all the properties upon recycling. These effects have been widely characterized in the literature for what concerns the mechanical or rheological properties. The changes of optical properties after recycling have been much less studied, even if, especially in food packaging, optical characteristics (above all the opacity) are of extreme importance, and thus it is quite significant to assess the effect of recycling on these properties. In this work, the influence of recycling steps on the opacity of films of a commercial grade of isotactic polypropylene (i-PP) was studied. The material was extruded several times to mimic the effect of recycling procedures. After extrusion, films were obtained by cooling samples of material at different cooling rates. The opacity of the obtained films was then measured and related to their crystallinity and morphology. It was found that opacity generally increases on increasing the amount of α phase and for the same amount of α phase on increasing the size of the spherulites. PMID:24288478

  15. Optical properties of polypropylene upon recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Felice; Pantani, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years there has been an increasing interest in the possibility of recycling polymeric materials, using physical recycling. However, is it well known that polymers experience a depletion of all the properties upon recycling. These effects have been widely characterized in the literature for what concerns the mechanical or rheological properties. The changes of optical properties after recycling have been much less studied, even if, especially in food packaging, optical characteristics (above all the opacity) are of extreme importance, and thus it is quite significant to assess the effect of recycling on these properties. In this work, the influence of recycling steps on the opacity of films of a commercial grade of isotactic polypropylene (i-PP) was studied. The material was extruded several times to mimic the effect of recycling procedures. After extrusion, films were obtained by cooling samples of material at different cooling rates. The opacity of the obtained films was then measured and related to their crystallinity and morphology. It was found that opacity generally increases on increasing the amount of α phase and for the same amount of α phase on increasing the size of the spherulites.

  16. Cost effectiveness of recycling: a systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonjes, David J; Mallikarjun, Sreekanth

    2013-11-01

    Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Design of the Advanced LIGO recycling cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Muzammil A; Mueller, Guido

    2008-07-07

    The current LIGO detectors will undergo an upgrade which is expected to improve their sensitivity and bandwidth significantly. These advanced gravitational-wave detectors will employ stable recycling cavities to better confine their spatial eigenmodes instead of the currently installed marginally stable power recycling cavity. In this letter we describe the general layout of the recycling cavities and give specific values for a first possible design. We also address the issue of mode mismatch due to manufacturing tolerance of optical elements and present a passive compensation scheme based upon optimizing the distances between optical elements.

  18. Planning logistics network for recyclables collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković Branislava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization, intensified industrialization, rise of income, and a more sophisticated form of consumerism are leading to an increase in the amount and toxicity of waste all over the world. Whether reused, recycled, incinerated or put into landfill sites, the management of household and industrial waste yield financial and environmental costs. This paper presents a modeling approach that can be used for designing one part of recycling logistics network through defining optimal locations of collection points, and possible optimal scheduling of vehicles for collecting recyclables. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36005

  19. Crumb Rubber in cold recycled bituminous mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondi, Giulio; Tataranni, Piergiorgio; Pettinari, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Today recycling is one of the most innovative and interesting techniques for the rehabilitation of destressed road pavements. In recent years the increased interest in this process, has led to the development of various alternative methods for the recovery and the reuse of road bituminous materials....... Cold recycling is, among the recycling techniques, certainly the most studied and developed: it allows the recovering of bituminous material from an existing pavement without the addition of heat, whilst ensuring the creation of high quality bound base layers. A wide range of materials have been tested...

  20. Reusing recycled aggregates in structural concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Shicong

    The utilization of recycled aggregates in concrete can minimize environmental impact and reduce the consumption of natural resources in concrete applications. The aim of this thesis is to provide a scientific basis for the possible use of recycled aggregates in structure concrete by conducting a comprehensive programme of laboratory study to gain a better understanding of the mechanical, microstructure and durability properties of concrete produced with recycled aggregates. The study also explored possible techniques to of improve the properties of recycled aggregate concrete that is produced with high percentages (≧ 50%) of recycled aggregates. These techniques included: (a) using lower water-to-cement ratios in the concrete mix design; (b) using fly ash as a cement replacement or as an additional mineral admixture in the concrete mixes, and (c) precasting recycled aggregate concrete with steam curing regimes. The characteristics of the recycled aggregates produced both from laboratory and a commercially operated pilot construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycling plant were first studied. A mix proportioning procedure was then established to produce six series of concrete mixtures using different percentages of recycled coarse aggregates with and without the use of fly ash. The water-to-cement (binder) ratios of 0.55, 0.50, 0.45 and 0.40 were used. The fresh properties (including slump and bleeding) of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) were then quantified. The effects of fly ash on the fresh and hardened properties of RAC were then studied and compared with those RAC prepared with no fly ash addition. Furthermore, the effects of steam curing on the hardened properties of RAC were investigated. For micro-structural properties, the interfacial transition zones of the aggregates and the mortar/cement paste were analyzed by SEM and EDX-mapping. Moreover, a detailed set of results on the fracture properties for RAC were obtained. Based on the experimental

  1. Recycling carbon revenues: transforming costs into opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidyula, Manasvini; Alberola, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Governments worldwide generated $26 billion in 2015 in carbon pricing revenues. The benefits and co-benefits of carbon pricing can be enhanced by recycling carbon revenues. Revenue allocation decisions made by governments are vital as these revenues can help shift the narrative on carbon pricing from 'burden to benefit'. Existing carbon pricing schemes can provide useful feedback on revenue recycling. A well-positioned decision-making and governing framework is required to ensure the efficient recycling of carbon revenues

  2. Efficiency of recycling post-consumer plastic packages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzen, van E.U.T.; Jansen, M.; Brouwer, M.T.; Feil, A.; Molenveld, K.; Pretz, Th.

    2017-01-01

    The recycling of packaging waste is an important part of the EU circular economy package, with a political focus on raising the recycling targets for post-consumer plastic packaging waste (PPW). The recycling of PPW involves at least three steps; collection, sorting and mechanical recycling. In

  3. Modelling Recycling Targets:Achieving a 50% Recycling Rate for Household Waste in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, whereEU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency andrecycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of22% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This studyintegrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from whichstreams should b...

  4. Algal recycling enhances algal productivity and settleability in Pediastrum boryanum pure cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jason B K; Craggs, Rupert J; Shilton, Andy N

    2015-12-15

    Recycling a portion of gravity harvested algae (i.e. algae and associated bacteria biomass) has been shown to improve both algal biomass productivity and harvest efficiency by maintaining the dominance of a rapidly-settleable colonial alga, Pediastrum boryanum in both pilot-scale wastewater treatment High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAP) and outdoor mesocosms. While algal recycling did not change the relative proportions of algae and bacteria in the HRAP culture, the contribution of the wastewater bacteria to the improved algal biomass productivity and settleability with the recycling was not certain and still required investigation. P. boryanum was therefore isolated from the HRAP and grown in pure culture on synthetic wastewater growth media under laboratory conditions. The influence of recycling on the productivity and settleability of the pure P. boryanum culture was then determined without wastewater bacteria present. Six 1 L P. boryanum cultures were grown over 30 days in a laboratory growth chamber simulating New Zealand summer conditions either with (Pr) or without (Pc) recycling of 10% of gravity harvested algae. The cultures with recycling (Pr) had higher algal productivity than the controls (Pc) when the cultures were operated at both 4 and 3 d hydraulic retention times by 11% and 38% respectively. Furthermore, algal recycling also improved 1 h settleability from ∼60% to ∼85% by increasing the average P. boryanum colony size due to the extended mean cell residence time and promoted formation of large algal bio-flocs (>500 μm diameter). These results demonstrate that the presence of wastewater bacteria was not necessary to improve algal productivity and settleability with algal recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Syndecan-4 Phosphorylation Is a Control Point for Integrin Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Mark R.; Hamidi, Hellyeh; Bass, Mark D.; Warwood, Stacey; Ballestrem, Christoph; Humphries, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Precise spatiotemporal coordination of integrin adhesion complex dynamics is essential for efficient cell migration. For cells adherent to fibronectin, differential engagement of α5β1 and αVβ3 integrins is used to elicit changes in adhesion complex stability, mechanosensation, matrix assembly, and migration, but the mechanisms responsible for receptor regulation have remained largely obscure. We identify phosphorylation of the membrane-intercalated proteoglycan syndecan-4 as an essential switch controlling integrin recycling. Src phosphorylates syndecan-4 and, by driving syntenin binding, leads to suppression of Arf6 activity and recycling of αVβ3 to the plasma membrane at the expense of α5β1. The resultant elevation in αVβ3 engagement promotes stabilization of focal adhesions. Conversely, abrogation of syndecan-4 phosphorylation drives surface expression of α5β1, destabilizes adhesion complexes, and disrupts cell migration. These data identify the dynamic spatiotemporal regulation of Src-mediated syndecan-4 phosphorylation as an essential switch controlling integrin trafficking and adhesion dynamics to promote efficient cell migration. PMID:23453597

  6. Probabilistic Analysis of Structural Member from Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broukalová, I.; Šeps, K.

    2017-09-01

    The paper aims at the topic of sustainable building concerning recycling of waste rubble concrete from demolition. Considering demands of maximising recycled aggregate use and minimising of cement consumption, composite from recycled concrete aggregate was proposed. The objective of the presented investigations was to verify feasibility of the recycled aggregate cement based fibre reinforced composite in a structural member. Reliability of wall from recycled aggregate fibre reinforced composite was assessed in a probabilistic analysis of a load-bearing capacity of the wall. The applicability of recycled aggregate fibre reinforced concrete in structural applications was demonstrated. The outcomes refer to issue of high scatter of material parameters of recycled aggregate concretes.

  7. Benchmarking in municipal solid waste recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron; Khatib, Mahmood

    2010-11-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the recycling potential of municipalities in Israel, including population size and density, geographic location, current waste levels, and current waste management system. We employ a standard regression analysis in order to develop an econometric model to predict where potential for economically efficient recycling is highest. By applying this model to readily available data, it is possible to predict with close to 90% accuracy whether or not recycling will be economically efficient in any given municipality. Government agencies working to promote advanced waste management solutions have at their disposal only limited resources and budget, and so must concentrate their efforts where they will be most effective. The paper thus provides policy-makers with a powerful tool to help direct their efforts to promote recycling at those municipalities where it is indeed optimal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The continued quest to better recycling behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, WF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During 2010 a national survey on waste management service delivery and recycling behaviour amongst metropolitan households was conducted. WasteCon2010 conference attendees were also surveyed in parallel and on a voluntary basis. This paper reports...

  9. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

  10. Performance of I-57 recycled concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In 1986-1987 the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) constructed a demonstration project on I-57 near Effingham, Illinois to evaluate the viability : of recycling an existing jointed reinforced concrete pavement for use as its primary aggreg...

  11. The feasibility of recycling contaminated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, K.W.; Corroon, W.; Parker, F.L.

    1999-01-01

    The changing mission of the Department of Energy along with the aging of many of its facilities has resulted in renewed emphasis on decontaminating and decommissioning surplus structures. Currently DOE is decontaminating some concrete and sending the clean material to C and D disposal facilities. In other instance, DOE is sending contaminated concrete to LLW disposal facilities. This paper examines the economic feasibility of decontaminating the concrete and recycling the rubble as clean aggregate. A probabilistic cost model was used to examine six potential recycling and disposal scenarios. The model predicted potential costs saving across the DOE complex of nearly one billion dollars. The ability of local markets to assimilate the recycled material was estimated for Washington, Idaho, Tennessee, New Mexico, and South Carolina. The relationships between a number of the economic model's variables were examined to develop operating ranges for initial managerial evaluation of recycling

  12. Solid Waste and Recycling Collection Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the Town’s current collection schedule, including pick-up day and recycling week designation.The Town of Cary collects garbage weekly at the curb on the same...

  13. Proposal of recycling system for waste aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Valenčík

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduced work is focused on waste aluminum recycling process with objective to propose complex production system for recovering of aluminum and some aluminum alloys. Solution is supported by extended analysis concerning purpose, basis and system sequences for recyclation. Based on that, sources, possibilities and conditions for recycling are formed. This has been used in proposal of manufacturing system. The principle is the structural proposal of manufacturing system, which does not only differentiate the stage of aluminum melting process, but also related stages as gross separation, sizing, containerisation and batching, palletisation, stacking and some related operations. Production system respects technological specifications, requirements for rationalisation of manufacturing systems, technical and economical feasibility conditions and is considered in lower automation level. However production system solves complex problem of recycling of some types of aluminum, it improves flexibility, production, quality (melting by high enforcements and in protective atmosphere and extention of production (final products production.

  14. Irradiation performance of HTGR recycle fissile fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, F.J.; Long, E.L. Jr.

    1976-08-01

    The irradiation performance of candidate HTGR recycle fissile fuel under accelerated testing conditions is reviewed. Failure modes for coated-particle fuels are described, and the performance of candidate recycle fissile fuels is discussed in terms of these failure modes. The bases on which UO 2 and (Th,U)O 2 were rejected as candidate recycle fissile fuels are outlined, along with the bases on which the weak-acid resin (WAR)-derived fissile fuel was selected as the reference recycle kernel. Comparisons are made relative to the irradiation behavior of WAR-derived fuels of varying stoichiometry and conclusions are drawn about the optimum stoichiometry and the range of acceptable values. Plans for future testing in support of specification development, confirmation of the results of accelerated testing by real-time experiments, and improvement in fuel performance and reliability are described

  15. Hydrogen recycle modeling in transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrogen recycling models now used in Tokamak transport codes are reviewed and the method by which realistic recycling models are being added is discussed. Present models use arbitrary recycle coefficients and therefore do not model the actual recycling processes at the wall. A model for the hydrogen concentration in the wall serves two purposes: (1) it allows a better understanding of the density behavior in present gas puff, pellet, and neutral beam heating experiments; and (2) it allows one to extrapolate to long pulse devices such as EBT, ISX-C and reactors where the walls are observed or expected to saturate. Several wall models are presently being studied for inclusion in transport codes

  16. Organic household waste - incineration or recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has carried out a cost benefit analysis of the consequences of increasing recycling of organic household waste. In the cost benefit analysis both the economic consequences for the affected parties and the welfare-economic consequences for the society as a whole have been investigated. In the welfare-economic analysis the value of the environmental effects has been included. The analysis shows that it is more expensive for the society to recycle organic household waste by anaerobic digestion or central composting than by incineration. Incineration is the cheapest solution for the society, while central composting is the most expensive. Furthermore, technical studies have shown that there are only small environmental benefits connected with anaerobic digestion of organic waste compared with incineration of the waste. The primary reason for recycling being more expensive than incineration is the necessary, but cost-intensive, dual collection of the household waste. Treatment itself is cheaper for recycling compared to incinerating. (BA)

  17. Recycled concrete aggregate in portland cement concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Aggregates can be produced by crushing hydraulic cement concrete and are known as recycled concrete : aggregates (RCA). This report provides results from a New Jersey Department of Transportation study to identify : barriers to the use of RCA in new ...

  18. Recycled carpet materials for infrastructure applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop novel composite materials for infrastructure applications by recycling nylon based waste carpets. These novel composites have been proven to possess improved mechanical and sound barrier properties to meet...

  19. Recycling measurements in the Texas Experimental Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan, W.L.; Klepper, C.C.; Patterson, D.M.; Richards, B.

    1987-01-01

    Recycling was investigated as a function of density, plasma current, and toroidal field in the Texas Experimental Tokamak, an ohmically heated, edge-fueled device with a full aperture poloidal limiter. Estimates for the recycling contribution to the plasma particle inventory were inferred from a particle accounting which employed measurements of the number of ionization events in the plasma and in the scrape-off layer, the total number of electrons in the plasma, and the neutral gas influx from the gas feed. Isotopic changeover experiments were used to further characterize recycling and to derive the contribution to the plasma particle inventory from the neutrals held both in the wall bulk and on the wall surface. A model was used to estimate the number of neutrals trapped in the wall as well as to examine the interactions of the major plasma participants in recycling - ions, fast neutrals, and slow neutrals. (orig.)

  20. 76 FR 71861 - America Recycles Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... processes that will drive our clean economy and create green jobs. These advances cut waste, preserve our... environmental quality, and laying the foundation for a 21st-century economy. America Recycles Day offers us an...

  1. Use of Recycled Plastics Versus Wood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Strotman, Scott

    1996-01-01

    .... With the recent introduction of recycled plastic "timbers," this efficient application is gaining popularity as a durable, long-lasting alternative to the creosote-treated timbers and pressurized...

  2. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information

  3. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  4. Recycling Mentors: an intergenerational, service-learning program to promote recycling and environmental awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'abundo, Michelle L; Fugate-Whitlock, Elizabeth I; Fiala, Kelly A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of Recycling Mentors was to implement an intergenerational, service-learning program focused on promoting recycling and environmental awareness among students enrolled in Community Health (HEA 301) and Current Issues in Gerontology (GRN 440/540) and adults older than 60 years. Recycling Mentors was conducted in New Hanover County (NHC), North Carolina, where a moderate climate and coastal location attracts many tourists, retirees, and college students. A community like NHC is a good place to implement service-learning that educates both students and older adults about the benefits of recycling to individual health and the environment. During the Fall 2009 semester, undergraduate and graduate students completed institutional review board training and then conducted the program with older adults. The education component of Recycling Mentors included a pre/post survey, brochure, and scheduled visits. Overall, Recycling Mentors was positive service-learning experience with students identifying salient outcomes such as learning about recycling and the environment and working with older adults. In addition, teaching the education component of Recycling Mentors was good practice for students who will be the future health professionals. While service-learning and environmentally themed projects are common, a program that combines the 2 like Recycling Mentors is unique and has the potential to motivate individual change while positively impacting the local community and the environment.

  5. Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with power recycling and twin signal recycling cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräf, Christian; Thüring, André; Vahlbruch, Henning; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2013-03-11

    The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled.In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michelson interferometer with twin signal recycling. We were able to lock the interferometer in all relevant longitudinal degrees of freedom and thus laid the foundation for further investigations of this interferometer configuration to evaluate its viability for the application in gravitational wave detectors.

  6. Defense Waste Processing Facility Recycle Stream Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STONE, MICHAEL

    2006-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) stabilizes high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification of the waste slurries. DWPF currently produces approximately five gallons of dilute recycle for each gallon of waste vitrified. This recycle stream is currently sent to the HLW tank farm at SRS where it is processed through the HLW evaporators with the concentrate eventually sent back to the DWPF for stabilization. Limitations of the HLW evaporators and storage space constraints in the tank farm have the potential to impact the operation of the DWPF and could limit the rate that HLW is stabilized. After an evaluation of various alternatives, installation of a dedicated evaporator for the DWPF recycle stream was selected for further evaluation. The recycle stream consists primarily of process condensates from the pretreatment and vitrification processes. Other recycle streams consist of process samples, sample line flushes, sump flushes, and cleaning solutions from the decontamination and filter dissolution processes. The condensate from the vitrification process contains some species, such as sulfate, that are not appreciably volatile at low temperature and could accumulate in the system if 100% of the evaporator concentrate was returned to DWPF. These species are currently removed as required by solids washing in the tank farm. The cleaning solutions are much higher in solids content than the other streams and are generated 5-6 times per year. The proposed evaporator would be required to concentrate the recycle stream by a factor of 30 to allow the concentrate to be recycled directly to the DWPF process, with a purge stream sent to the tank farm as required to prevent buildup of sulfate and similar species in the process. The overheads are required to meet stringent constraints to allow the condensate to be sent directly to an effluent treatment plant. The proposed evaporator would nearly de-couple the DWPF process from the

  7. Recycled aggregates concrete: aggregate and mix properties

    OpenAIRE

    González-Fonteboa, B.; Martínez-Abella, F.

    2005-01-01

    This study of structural concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate focuses on two issues: 1. The characterization of such aggregate on the Spanish market. This involved conducting standard tests to determine density, water absorption, grading, shape, flakiness and hardness. The results obtained show that, despite the considerable differences with respect to density and water absorption between these and natural aggregates, on the whole recycled aggregate is apt for use in concrete produc...

  8. New approaches for MOX multi-recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gain, T.; Bouvier, E.; Grosman, R.; Senentz, G.H.; Lelievre, F.; Bailly, F.; Brueziere, J. [AREVA NC, 1 place Jean Millier, Paris La Defense, 92084 (France); Murray, P. [AREVA Federal Services LLC, 4800 Hampden Lane, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Due to its low fissile content after irradiation, Pu from used MOX fuel is considered by some as not recyclable in LWR (Light Water Reactors). The point of this paper is hence to go back to those statements and provide a new analysis based on AREVA extended experience in the fields of fissile and fertile material management and optimized waste management. This is done using the current US fuel inventory as a case study. MOX Multi-recycling in LWRs is a closed cycle scenario where U and Pu management through reprocessing and recycling leads to a significant reduction of the used assemblies to be stored. The recycling of Pu in MOX fuel is moreover a way to maintain the self-protection of the Pu-bearing assemblies. With this scenario, Pu content is also reduced repetitively via a multi-recycling of MOX in LWRs. Simultaneously, {sup 238}Pu content decreases. All along this scenario, HLW (High-Level Radioactive Waste) vitrified canisters are produced and planned for deep geological disposal. Contrary to used fuel, HLW vitrified canisters do not contain proliferation materials. Moreover, the reprocessing of used fuel limits the space needed on current interim storage. With MOX multi-recycling in LWR, Pu isotopy needs to be managed carefully all along the scenario. The early introduction of a limited number of SFRs (Sodium Fast Reactors) can therefore be a real asset for the overall system. A few SFRs would be enough to improve the Pu isotopy from used LWR MOX fuel and provide a Pu-isotopy that could be mixed back with multi-recycled Pu from LWRs, hence increasing the Pu multi-recycling potential in LWRs.

  9. Plutonium recycle. In-core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, F.; Berthet, A.; Le Bars, M.

    1985-01-01

    Plutonium recycle in France will concern a dozen of PWR 900 MWe controlled in gray mode till 1995. This paper presents the main characteristics of fuel management with plutonium recycle. The organization of management studies will be copied from this developed for classical management studies. Up these studies, a ''feasibility report'' aims at establishing at each stage of the fuel cycle, the impact of the utilization of fuel containing plutonium [fr

  10. Modern recycling methods in metallurgical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maj

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of environment caused by increased industrial activities is the main topic of discussions in Poland and in the world. The possibilities of waste recovery and recycling vary in different sectors of the industry, and the specific methods, developed and improved all the time, depend on the type of the waste. In this study, the attention has been focussed mainly on the waste from metallurgical industry and on the available techniques of its recycling

  11. Survey of metallurgical recycling processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemsler, J.P.

    1979-03-01

    In the year 2000, the US will consume about 3.2 x 10/sup 15/ Btu to produce the seven major nonferrous metals Al, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Mg, and Ti. Of this amount, 82% will be used in the production of Al. It is projected that 0.6 x 10/sup 15/ Btu will be saved by the recycle of secondary metals. Major opportunities for increasing the extent of recycle and thereby increasing the energy savings are discussed. An inherent feature in the energistics of recycle is that physical processes such as magnetic separation, density separations, melting, and in some instances vaporization are far less energy intensive than are chemical processes associated with dissolution and electrowinning. It is in the domain of scrap of complex composition and physical form, difficult to handle by existing technology, that opportunities exist for new chemical recycle technology. Recycle of scrap metal of adequate grade is currently achieved through pyrometallurgical processes which, in many cases, are not very energy intensive as compared with hydrometallurgical processes. Preliminary flowsheets are presented for the recovery of value metals from batteries considered for use in vehicular propulsion and load leveling applications. The battery types examined are lead/acid, nickel/zinc, nickel/iron, zinc/chlorine, lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide, and sodium/sulfur. A flow sheet has been outlined for an integrated hydrometallurgical process to treat low-grade copper scrap. A fully integrated hydrometallurgical process is outlined, and costs and energy consumption are derived, for recovering zinc metal from electric furnace flue dusts. Costs and energy are high and the process does not appear to warrant development at this time. Improvement in the recycle of magnesium is associated primarily with improved recycle in the Al industry where Mg is an important alloy additive. Ni and Ti recycle are associated with improved collection and sorting of stainless steel and specialty alloys.

  12. Plastic Recycling Experiments in Materials Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to introduce a series of plastic recycling experiments to students in materials-related courses such as materials science, material technology and materials testing. With the plastic recycling experiments, students not only can learn the fundamentals of plastic processing and properties as in conventional materials courses, but also can be exposed to the issue of materials life cycle and the impact on society and environment.

  13. The nonlinear relationship between paper recycling and primary pulp requirements : modeling paper production and recycling in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, Niels J.; Moll, Henri C.; Potting, Josepha

    Waste paper is suitable for recycling back into paper or for incineration for energy recovery. If waste paper is used for recycling, secondary pulp replaces virgin pulp. Fiber recycling is limited, however, because of physical constraints—particularly the breakage of fiber in the recycling

  14. Recycling ampersand incineration: Evaluating the choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denison, R.A.; Ruston, J.

    1993-01-01

    Conflicts between proponents of municipal solid waste incineration and advocates of recycling have escalated with efforts to reduce the volume of waste that ends up in landfills. Central to this debate is competition for materials that are both combustible and recyclable. Environmental and economic concerns also play a major role. This book, produced by the Environmental Defense Fund, compares recycling and incineration. It is intended for 'citizens, government officials, and business people who want to help resolve the solid-waste crisis.' The book is divided into three parts: recycling and incineration; health and environmental risk of incineration; and planning, public participation, and environmental review requirements. The book does an excellent job of discussing the benefits of recycling and the pitfalls of incineration. It provides helpful information for identifying questions that should be raised about incineration, but it does not raise similar queries about recycling. There is much worthwhile information here, but the book would be more useful if it identified critical issues for all waste reduction and management options

  15. Paper recycling framework, the "Wheel of Fiber".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Ilpo; Miranda, Ruben; Kauranen, Ilkka

    2016-06-01

    At present, there is no reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows and makes it possible to compare geographical regions with each other. A functioning paper industry Material Flow Account (MFA) that uses uniform terminology and standard definitions for terms and structures is necessary. Many of the presently used general level MFAs, which are called frameworks in this article, stress the importance of input and output flows but do not provide a uniform picture of material recycling. Paper industry is an example of a field in which recycling plays a key role. Additionally, terms related to paper industry recycling, such as collection rate, recycling rate, and utilization rate, are not defined uniformly across regions and time. Thus, reliably comparing material recycling activity between geographical regions or calculating any regional summaries is difficult or even impossible. The objective of this study is to give a partial solution to the problem of not having a reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows. This is done by introducing a new material flow framework for paper industry in which the flow and stage structure supports the use of uniform definitions for terms related to paper recycling. This new framework is termed the Detailed Wheel of Fiber. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Light recycling in solid state devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ling; Leutz, Ralf; Ries, Harald

    2005-09-01

    The idea of light recycling is rather simple. Assume that part of the light emitted by a light source is returned to the light source itself. If the light source does not completely absorb this light then the part which is not absorbed, is still available for further use. The hidden virtue of light recycling is that the recycled light is superposed in the same phase space (etendue) as the original radiation. Thus the average radiance of the source is increased albeit at the price of a reduction of total radiant power. This seems to violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics because the temperature of the radiation is related to the spectral radiance. Increasing the radiance amounts to reducing the entropy. However, radiating into free space is an irreversible process in which entropy is created. Light recycling reduces the entropy carried by the radiation by reducing the entropy production rate in the emission process itself. We show that the maximum radiance which can be achieved by light recycling is marked by the equilibrium radiance. The equilibrium luminescent spectrum diverges as photon energies approach the splitting of the quasi Fermi levels. The familiar spectrum of LEDs clearly does not diverge because the absorptivity/emissivity approaches zero in this regime. These features render light recycling particularly attractive. We report on preliminary laboratory measurements which show encouraging results.

  17. Low to high performance recycled cementitious materials: case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Etxeberria Larrañaga, Miren

    2015-01-01

    In this work, four real case studies using concrete produced with recycled aggregates are described. The four real cases carried out in Barcelona are: 1) Pavement filling with control low strength material (CLSM) employing fine recycled aggregates, 2) pervious recycled aggregate concrete employing coarse mixed recycled aggregates in the works undertaken at Cervantes park; 3) Concrete blocks produced employing recycled and slag aggregates as well as sea water for a new breakwater dyke and 4) R...

  18. Comparative Study on Mechanical Properties between Pure and Recycled Polypropylenes

    OpenAIRE

    Ariadne L. Juwono; Bernadeth Jong Hiong Jun

    2010-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is one type of thermoplastics that is widely used in our daily activities. A combination of the high demand and the easiness of recycling process, the recycled PP has been generally applied. In this study, the structure and the mechanical properties of the as-received PPs, recycled PPs, and commercial recycled PPs were compared, especially for cloth hanger application. DSC test results showed that recycling process did not cause a significant change to the material's meltin...

  19. Assessing changes on poly(ethylene terephthalate) properties after recycling: Mechanical recycling in laboratory versus postconsumer recycled material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, María del Mar Castro, E-mail: quimcl02@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Ares Pernas, Ana Isabel, E-mail: aares@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Abad López, Ma José, E-mail: mjabad@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); and others

    2014-10-15

    Keeping rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of virgin poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, is necessary to assure the quality of second-market applications. A comparative study of these properties has been undertaken in virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET samples. Viscoelastic characterization was carried out by rheological measurements. Mechanical properties were estimated by tensile and Charpy impact strength tests. Thermal properties and crystallinity were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and a deconvolution procedure was applied to study the population of the different crystals. Molecular conformational changes related to crystallinity values were studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Variations in average molecular weight were predicted from rheology. Besides, the presence-absence of linear and cyclic oligomeric species was measured by mass spectrometry techniques, as MALDI-TOF. Mechanical recycled PET undergoes a significant decline in rheological, mechanical and thermal properties upon increasing the number of reprocessing steps. This is due to the cleavage of the ester bonds with reduction in molar mass and raise in cyclic oligomeric species, in particular [GT{sub c}]{sub n} and [GT{sub c}]{sub n}-G type. Chain shortening plus enrichment in trans conformers favour the crystallization process which occurs earlier and faster with modification in crystal populations. Additional physicochemical steps are necessary to preserve the main benefits of PET. - Highlights: • Combination of multiple techniques to characterize the effects of recycling in PET. • Cleavage of ester bonds reduced viscosity, Mw, toughness in mechanical recycled PET. • Virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET differ in crystal populations. • Cyclic oligomers [GT{sub c}]{sub n} and [GT{sub c}]{sub n}-G increase from the fourth extrusion cycle onwards.

  20. Assessing changes on poly(ethylene terephthalate) properties after recycling: Mechanical recycling in laboratory versus postconsumer recycled material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, María del Mar Castro; Ares Pernas, Ana Isabel; Abad López, Ma José

    2014-01-01

    Keeping rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of virgin poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, is necessary to assure the quality of second-market applications. A comparative study of these properties has been undertaken in virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET samples. Viscoelastic characterization was carried out by rheological measurements. Mechanical properties were estimated by tensile and Charpy impact strength tests. Thermal properties and crystallinity were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and a deconvolution procedure was applied to study the population of the different crystals. Molecular conformational changes related to crystallinity values were studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Variations in average molecular weight were predicted from rheology. Besides, the presence-absence of linear and cyclic oligomeric species was measured by mass spectrometry techniques, as MALDI-TOF. Mechanical recycled PET undergoes a significant decline in rheological, mechanical and thermal properties upon increasing the number of reprocessing steps. This is due to the cleavage of the ester bonds with reduction in molar mass and raise in cyclic oligomeric species, in particular [GT c ] n and [GT c ] n -G type. Chain shortening plus enrichment in trans conformers favour the crystallization process which occurs earlier and faster with modification in crystal populations. Additional physicochemical steps are necessary to preserve the main benefits of PET. - Highlights: • Combination of multiple techniques to characterize the effects of recycling in PET. • Cleavage of ester bonds reduced viscosity, Mw, toughness in mechanical recycled PET. • Virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET differ in crystal populations. • Cyclic oligomers [GT c ] n and [GT c ] n -G increase from the fourth extrusion cycle onwards

  1. Aberrant trafficking of NSCLC-associated EGFR mutants through the endocytic recycling pathway promotes interaction with Src@

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Band Vimla

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR controls a wide range of cellular processes, and altered EGFR signaling contributes to human cancer. EGFR kinase domain mutants found in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC are constitutively active, a trait critical for cell transformation through activation of downstream pathways. Endocytic trafficking of EGFR is a major regulatory mechanism as ligand-induced lysosomal degradation results in termination of signaling. While numerous studies have examined mutant EGFR signaling, the endocytic traffic of mutant EGFR within the NSCLC milieu remains less clear. Results This study shows that mutant EGFRs in NSCLC cell lines are constitutively endocytosed as shown by their colocalization with the early/recycling endosomal marker transferrin and the late endosomal/lysosomal marker LAMP1. Notably, mutant EGFRs, but not the wild-type EGFR, show a perinuclear accumulation and colocalization with recycling endosomal markers such as Rab11 and EHD1 upon treatment of cells with endocytic recycling inhibitor monensin, suggesting that mutant EGFRs preferentially traffic through the endocytic recycling compartments. Importantly, monensin treatment enhanced the mutant EGFR association and colocalization with Src, indicating that aberrant transit through the endocytic recycling compartment promotes mutant EGFR-Src association. Conclusion The findings presented in this study show that mutant EGFRs undergo aberrant traffic into the endocytic recycling compartment which allows mutant EGFRs to engage in a preferential interaction with Src, a critical partner for EGFR-mediated oncogenesis.

  2. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  3. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  4. MOX fuel recycling. Present status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslan, Marc [AREVA Recycling Business Unit, BP93124, F-30203 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2009-06-15

    Recycling of the energy from the used fuel is compulsory for a sustainable development of nuclear renaissance. By 2030 the total amount of used fuel on our planet will have reached about 400 000 t. The potential amount of energy to recycle from this deposit represents about 8 billions of equivalent tons of petrol. Indeed, the recycling of the plutonium and uranium recovered from the used fuels represents important savings of natural uranium and avoid costs of enrichment. The global rate of recycling is about 20 %. The advantages of recycling have been demonstrated by the successful policy of recycling, for more than 30 years, in Europe: - in the first phase which lasts more than 18 years, the utility's number of spent assemblies is reduced by a factor of 8 (one MOX assembly requires the quantity of plutonium generated by 8 UOx assemblies) - in the final phase the final wastes volume is reduced by a factor of 5, after conditioning (vitrified fission products in stable matrix designed for final repository and compacted hulls and skulls) - the radio toxicity of these final wastes, is reduced by a factor of 10: the delay for radioactive decay is tremendously decreased and the level of natural radioactivity is reached within historic memory delays - recycling is a non proliferation policy: the overall quantity of available plutonium is mastered, the plutonium isotopy in the MOX is inappropriate for non civil purposes. Recycling excess weapon grade plutonium into MOX is the only solution chosen by the US administration in order to eliminate the stockpile of excess WG plutonium in the US. Recycling of MOX is an industrial reality in Europe with 35 reactors using MOX, with a satisfactory return of experience. Nowadays, MELOX, AREVA high throughput MOX manufacturing plant (licensed for 195 tHM/year) ensures the world's international demand for MOX with the highest level of quality of the products. The AREVA industrial treatment plant in La Hague (with a capacity

  5. Structural recycled concrete: utilization of recycled aggregate from construction and demolition wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaejos Gutierrez, P.; Sanchez de Juan, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to present the main results of CEDEX research works concerning the use of recycled aggregates for structural concretes. By way of conclusion, recommendations on the requirements of the recycled aggregates have been established, providing information about the influence of these aggregates on the properties of structural concrete. (Author)

  6. Recycling in ontwerp : 'State of the art' van de Nederlandse recycling industrie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottenberg, E. (Eliza); Goselink, E. (Erik)

    2013-01-01

    Dit boekje bevat de samenvatting van onderzoek dat is uitgevoerd binnen het project Recycling in Ontwerp (RiO). Op overzichtelijke wijze wordt inzicht gegeven in de verschillende uitkomsten van de onderzoeken binnen het thema recycling in ontwerp. Onderwerp van studie zijn onder andere de

  7. Energy implications of recycling packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-03-01

    In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite the United States comprehensive solid waste legislation -- the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint We compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the optimum for each material. After products have served their intended uses, there are several alternative paths for material disposition. These include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfill. Only options considered to be environmentally sound are Included. Both houses of Congress specifically excluded combustion for energy recovery from counting towards the recovery goats, probably because combustion is viewed as a form of disposal and is therefore assumed to waste resources and have n environmental effects. However, co-combustion in coal-fired plants or combustion in appropriately pollution-controlled waste-to-energy plants Is safe, avoids landfill costs, and can displace fossil fuels. In some cases, more fossil fuels can be displaced by combustion than by recycling. We compare the alternative life-cycle energies to the energies for producing the products from virgin materials. Results depend on the material and on the objective to be achieved. There are trade-offs among possible goals. For instance, paper packaging recycling conserves trees but may require greater fossil-fuel input than virgin production. Therefore, the objectives for proposed legislation must be examined to see whether they can most effectively be achieved by mandated recycling rates or by other methods of disposition. The optimal choices for the United States may not necessarily be the same as those for Europe and other parts of the world.

  8. Entropy, recycling and macroeconomics of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    We propose a macroeconomic model for water quantity and quality supply multipliers derived by water recycling (Karakatsanis et al. 2013). Macroeconomic models that incorporate natural resource conservation have become increasingly important (European Commission et al. 2012). In addition, as an estimated 80% of globally used freshwater is not reused (United Nations 2012), under increasing population trends, water recycling becomes a solution of high priority. Recycling of water resources creates two major conservation effects: (1) conservation of water in reservoirs and aquifers and (2) conservation of ecosystem carrying capacity due to wastewater flux reduction. Statistical distribution properties of the recycling efficiencies -on both water quantity and quality- for each sector are of vital economic importance. Uncertainty and complexity of water reuse in sectors are statistically quantified by entropy. High entropy of recycling efficiency values signifies greater efficiency dispersion; which -in turn- may indicate the need for additional infrastructure for the statistical distribution's both shifting and concentration towards higher efficiencies that lead to higher supply multipliers. Keywords: Entropy, water recycling, water supply multipliers, conservation, recycling efficiencies, macroeconomics References 1. European Commission (EC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN) and World Bank (2012), System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework (White cover publication), United Nations Statistics Division 2. Karakatsanis, G., N. Mamassis, D. Koutsoyiannis and A. Efstratiades (2013), Entropy and reliability of water use via a statistical approach of scarcity, 5th EGU Leonardo Conference - Hydrofractals 2013 - STAHY '13, Kos Island, Greece, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences

  9. Recycling in the 90's - a shared responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Recycling means different things to different people. To consumers, recycling can mean putting out bottles and cans for curbside collection. To a product maker - a manufacturer of raw materials, fabricator of goods or products, or brand owner - recycling can mean reformulating goods to include recycled materials. To recycling service providers, recycling can mean providing cost-efficient collection services. To public policy makers in all levels of government recycling can mean establishing collection and utilization regulations. For recycling to work successfully, these diverse groups must work together and share responsibility for its success. Also, if recycling is to succeed on a large scale and over the long term, three critical points must be first addressed: These points are: approach, economics, and markets. These points are discussed

  10. Printability of papers recycled from toner and inkjet-printed papers after deinking and recycling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Arif; Aydemir, Cem; Tutak, Dogan; Aravamuthan, Raja

    2017-11-11

    In our contemporary world, while part of the fibers used in the paper industry is obtained from primary fibers such as wood and agricultural plants, the rest is obtained from secondary fibers from waste papers. To manufacture paper with high optical quality from fibers of recycled waste papers, these papers require deinking and bleaching of fibers at desired levels. High efficiency in removal of ink from paper mass during recycling, and hence deinkability, are especially crucial for the optical and printability quality of the ultimate manufactured paper. In the present study, deinkability and printability performance of digitally printed paper with toner or inkjet ink were compared for the postrecycling product. To that end, opaque 80 g/m2 office paper was digitally printed under standard printing conditions with laser toner or inkjet ink; then these sheets of paper were deinked by a deinking process based on the INGEDE method 11 p. After the deinking operation, the optical properties of the obtained recycled handsheets were compared with unprinted (reference) paper. Then the recycled paper was printed on once again under the same conditions as before with inkjet and laser printers, to monitor and measure printing color change before and after recycling, and differences in color universe. Recycling and printing performances of water-based inkjet and toner-based laser printed paper were obtained. The outcomes for laser-printed recycled paper were better than those for inkjet-printed recycled paper. Compared for luminosity Y, brightness, CIE a* and CIE b* values, paper recycled from laser-printed paper exhibited higher value than paper recycled from inkjet-printed paper.

  11. INEL metal recycle annual report, FY-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, T.E.

    1994-09-01

    In 1992, the mission of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was changed from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels to development of technologies for conditioning of spent nuclear fuels and other high-level wastes for disposal in a geologic repository. In addition, the Department of Energy (DOE) directed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a program plan addressing the management of radioactive contaminated scrap metal (RSM) within the DOE complex. Based on discussions with the EM-30 organization, the INEL Metal Recycle program plan was developed to address all issues of RSM management. Major options considered for RSM management were engineered interim storage, land disposal as low-level waste, and beneficial reuse/recycle. From its inception, the Metal Recycle program has emphasized avoidance of storage and disposal costs through beneficial reuse of RSM. The Metal Recycle program plan includes three major activities: Site-by-site inventory of RSM resources; validation of technologies for conversion of RSM to usable products; and identification of parties prepared to participate in development of a RSM recycle business

  12. The unrivalled expertise for Pu recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, W.; Pouilloux, M.

    1997-01-01

    Relying on the outstanding performances of the reprocessing facilities and the growing fabrication facilities, the in-reactor Pu recycling program in France and in other European countries is steadily implemented and has reached full-scale industrial operation. The RCR strategy -Reprocessing, Conditioning and Recycling- developed by COGEMA is now a well proven industrial reality. In 1997, plutonium recycling through MOX fuel is a mature industry, with successful operational experience and large-scale fabrication plants. In this field, COGEMA is the main actor, on operating simultaneously three complete multidesign fuel production plants: MELOX plant (in Marcoule), CADARACHE plant and DESSEL plant (in Belgium). Present MOX production capacity available to COGEMA fits 175 tHM per year and will be extended to reach about 325 tHM in the year 2000, that will represent 75% of the total MOX fabrication capacity in Europe. The industrial mastery and the high production level in MOX production assured by high technology processes confers COGEMA an unrivalled expertise for Pu recycling. This allows COGEMA to be a major actor in Pu-based fuels in the coming second nuclear era with advanced fuel cycles. The paper depicts the steps of the progressive advance of COGEMA to reach the Pu recycling expertise. (author)

  13. Energy implications of glass-container recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L L; Mintz, M M [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This report addresses the question of whether glass-container recycling actually saves energy. Glass-container production in 1991 was 10{sup 7} tons, with cullet making up about 30% of the input to manufacture. Two-thirds of the cullet is postconsumer waste; the remainder is in-house scrap (rejects). Most of the glass recycled is made into new containers. Total primary energy consumption includes direct process-energy use by the industry (adjusted to account for the efficiency of fuel production) plus fuel and raw-material transportation and production energies; the grand total for 1991 is estimated to be about 168 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu. The total primary energy use decreases as the percent of glass recycled rises, but the maximum energy saved is only about 13%. If distance to the landfill is kept fixed and that to the recovery facility multiplied by about eight, to 100 mi, a break-even point is reached, and recycling saves no energy. Previous work has shown that to save energy when using glass bottles, reuse is the clear choice. Recycling of glass does not save much energy or valuable raw material and does not reduce air or water pollution significantly. The most important impacts are the small reduction of waste sent to the landfill and increased production rates at glass plants.

  14. Software recycling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HINKELMAN, K.C.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Site was the first Department of Energy (DOE) complex to recycle excess software rather than dispose of it in the landfill. This plan, which took over a year to complete, was reviewed for potential legal conflicts, which could arise from recycling rather than disposal of software. It was determined that recycling was an approved method of destruction and therefore did not conflict with any of the licensing agreements that Hanford had with the software manufacturers. The Hanford Recycling Program Coordinator combined efforts with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to recycle all Hanford software through a single contract, which went out for bid in January 1995. It was awarded to GreenDisk, Inc. located in Woodinville Washington and implemented in March 1995. The contract was later re-bid and awarded to EcoDisWGreenDisk in December 1998. The new contract included materials such as; software manuals, diskettes, tyvek wrapping, cardboard and paperboard packaging, compact disks (CDs), videotapes, reel-to-reel tapes, magnetic tapes, audio tapes, and many other types of media

  15. SNAP23/25 and VAMP2 mediate exocytic event of transferrin receptor-containing recycling vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Kubo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that Rab11 is involved not only in formation of recycling vesicles containing the transferrin (Tfn–transferrin receptor (TfnR complex at perinuclear recycling endosomes but also in tethering of recycling vesicles to the plasma membrane (PM in concert with the exocyst tethering complex. We here aimed at identifying SNARE proteins responsible for fusion of Tfn–TfnR-containing recycling vesicles with the PM, downstream of the exocyst. We showed that exocyst subunits, Sec6 and Sec8, can interact with SNAP23 and SNAP25, both of which are PM-localizing Qbc-SNAREs, and that depletion of SNAP23 and/or SNAP25 in HeLa cells suppresses fusion of Tfn–TfnR-containing vesicles with the PM, leading to accumulation of the vesicles at the cell periphery. We also found that VAMP2, an R-SNARE, is colocalized with endocytosed Tfn on punctate endosomal structures, and that its depletion in HeLa cells suppresses recycling vesicle exocytosis. These observations indicate that fusion of recycling vesicles with the PM downstream of the exocyst is mediated by SNAP23/25 and VAMP2, and provide novel insight into non-neuronal roles of VAMP2 and SNAP25.

  16. Recycling of used aluminum beverage cans in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itou, Tatsuo [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Both sales volume of aluminum cans and the recycling rate are remarkably increasing in Japan. In 1993, recycled can volume was 11.78 billion cans (116,258 metric tons) and its recycling rate 57.8 percent. Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, the leading manufacturer of aluminum cans in Japan, and their affiliated companies are very deeply involved in recycling used beverage cans (U.B.C) and recycling them back to can stock. In this paper, the author presents the following: (1) recent trends of beverage can consumption in Japan; (2) trend of aluminum cans and recycling rate in Japan; and (3) future of the aluminum can business in Japan.

  17. Recycling of steelmaking dusts: The Radust concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalkanen H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of dusts and other wastes of steelmaking is becoming to a necessity of two reasons: due to high contents of iron oxides dusts are valuable raw material for steelmaking and tightening environmental legislation makes the landfill disposal of wastes more expensive. Fine dust fractions from various stages of steelmaking route contain besides iron and carbon heavy metals especially zinc and lead and heavy hydrocarbons that are acceptable neither for landfill disposal nor for recycling back to processes without any spe4cial treatments. Some theoretical and practical aspects concerning high temperature treatments of steelmaking dusts for removal of hazardous components and production of clean high iron raw material for recycling is discussed in this paper. The Radust technology developed at Koverhar steelwork in Finland for treatment of the most problematic fine fractions of blast furnace and oxygen converter dusts is shortly presented and discussed.

  18. A utility analysis of MOX recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaeffli, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The author presents the advantages of recycling of plutonium and uranium from spent reactor fuel assemblies as follows: natural uranium and enrichment savings, mixed oxide fuel (MOX) fuel assembly cost, MOX compatibility with plant operation, high burnups, spent MOX reprocessing, and non-proliferation aspects.Disadvantages of the recycling effort are noted as well: plutonium degradation with time, plutonium availability, in-core fuel management, administrative authorizations by the licensings authorities, US prior consent, and MOX fuel fabrication capacity. Putting the advantages and disadvantages in perspective, it is concluded that the recycling of MOX in light water reactors represents, under the current circumstances, the most appropriate way of making use of the available plutonium

  19. Erasing Data and Recycling of Optical Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Fujita

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical disks, DVDs and CDs, are convenient recording media on which to safely store data for a long period of time. However, the complete data erasure from recorded media is also important for the security of the data. After erasure of data from optical disks, recycling the material is needed in order to recover the valuable components of the optical disks. Here, data erasure methods for optical disks are discussed in the view of material recycling. The main finding of the study is that the explosion of optical disks in water is a very suitable method for complete erasure of data on the disks as well as recycling of their materials.

  20. Coir dust reinforced recycled polypropylene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Bianca B. dos; Costa, Marysilvia F. da; Thire, Rossana M. da S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental impacts caused by disposed plastics encourage the search for new alternatives. Recycling polymers leads to the degradation of their mechanical properties, which can be modified by the addition of fillers. In this paper, recycled polypropylene from plastic cups with 2%, 5% and 10% of coir dust were produced with and without the addition of additives. These composites were characterized by tensile tests, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy on the fracture surface. It was verified the effectiveness of the addition of coir dust in improving the elasticity modulus of recycled polypropylene besides the effectiveness of additives used in promoting the adhesion of the powder to the matrix. However, higher levels of coir dust caused the appearance of air bubbles inside the material, which contributed to its embrittlement. The addition of coir dust promoted a decrease in the degree of polypropylene crystallinity. (author)

  1. Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKoon, R.

    1993-11-01

    A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R ampersand D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility

  2. Characterization of DWPF recycle condensate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Adamson, D. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-01

    A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle Condensate Tank (RCT) sample was delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization with particular interest in the concentration of I-129, U-233, U-235, total U, and total Pu. Since a portion of Salt Batch 8 will contain DWPF recycle materials, the concentration of I-129 is important to understand for salt batch planning purposes. The chemical and physical characterizations are also needed as input to the interpretation of future work aimed at determining the propensity of the RCT material to foam, and methods to remediate any foaming potential. According to DWPF the Tank Farm 2H evaporator has experienced foaming while processing DWPF recycle materials. The characterization work on the RCT samples has been completed and is reported here.

  3. Reverse logistics for recycling: The customer service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis, E.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer service is a central concern in the logistics practice and a study topic in the forward logistics research. This article investigates the elements of customer service and their importance in reverse logistics for recycling. Since consumer is the first intervenient in any reverse system that aims to recycle household residues, the provision of an adequate customer service gains an increased importance. Applying multivariate statistical methods (exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and discriminant analysis to the data from a sample of 267 Portuguese citizens, this study identifies the levels of customer service in this reverse logistics chain and evaluates their relative importance in achieving consumers’ participation. The study finds that, as in forward logistics, the customer service in reverse channels for recycling also has a hard and a soft level, being the former more important than the later. The results of this research suggest important guidelines to improve such a complex logistics service.

  4. Comments on recycling and hydrogen inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipps, V.

    1987-01-01

    Recycling behavior in tokamaks with metals walls can be understood based on material parameters of diffusion constants, recombination rates, solubilities, etc. of hydrogen in metals. The expected recycling in fusion devices with carbon walls is believed to be determined by the saturation of graphite due to hydrogen impact. This would result in R 1 after a transient pumping with R < 1 and further change in the recycling would be only caused by temperature excursions of the walls. In contrast, present observations in tokamaks (JET, TFTR, TEXTOR) can not be explained by this simple picture. The final clarification of the observed phenomena is still open. The answer to this behavior will also drastically influence the expected tritium inventory in fusion machines

  5. Electric vehicle recycling 2020: Key component power electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulach, Winfried; Schüler, Doris; Sellin, Guido; Elwert, Tobias; Schmid, Dieter; Goldmann, Daniel; Buchert, Matthias; Kammer, Ulrich

    2018-04-01

    Electromobility will play a key role in order to reach the specified ambitious greenhouse gas reduction targets in the German transport sector of 42% between 1990 and 2030. Subsequently, a significant rise in the sale of electric vehicles (EVs) is to be anticipated in future. The amount of EVs to be recycled will rise correspondingly after a delay. This includes the recyclable power electronics modules which are incorporated in every EV as an important component for energy management. Current recycling methods using car shredders and subsequent post shredder technologies show high recycling rates for the bulk metals but are still associated with high losses of precious and strategic metals such as gold, silver, platinum, palladium and tantalum. For this reason, the project 'Electric vehicle recycling 2020 - key component power electronics' developed an optimised recycling route for recycling power electronics modules from EVs which is also practicable in series production and can be implemented using standardised technology. This 'WEEE recycling route' involves the disassembly of the power electronics from the vehicle and a subsequent recycling in an electronic end-of-life equipment recycling plant. The developed recycling process is economical under the current conditions and raw material prices, even though it involves considerably higher costs than recycling using the car shredder. The life cycle assessment shows basically good results, both for the traditional car shredder route and the developed WEEE recycling route: the latter provides additional benefits from some higher recovery rates and corresponding credits.

  6. Attributes to facilitate e-waste recycling behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senawi Nur Hidayah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the set of attributes to facilitate electronic waste (e-waste behaviour among the community. E-waste disposal is increasing from year to year in parallel with increasing of global population. The short lifespan of electronics and poor e-waste recycling behaviour is among the main contributors to the steadily increasing of e-waste generated. Current recycling rate among the nation is lacking behind, which is only 10.5%. A questionnaire survey has been conducted among the students in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to evaluate the current e-waste recycling practice. The results showed that majority of the respondents did not recycle their e-waste on campus. Aggressive efforts is needed to realize the country’s target of 20% recycling rate in year 2020, one of the effective paths is to minimize e-waste generation via active e-waste recycling behaviour among the community. Extensive literatures have been reviewed to classify the attributes to facilitate effective e-waste recycling among the community. Total of five attributes that identified in this study which are Convenience of E- waste Recycling Infrastruture and Services, E-waste Recycling Information, Incentives For E-waste Recycling, Reminder to Recycle E-waste And E-waste Recycling Infrastructure and Services. The set of attributes identified in this study may serve as guideline for the management in designing program to foster e-waste recycling behaviour among the community.

  7. Recycle of radiologically contaminated austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imrich, K.J.; Leader, D.R.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy owns large quantities of radiologically contaminated austenitic stainless steel which could by recycled for reuse if appropriate release standards were in place. Unfortunately, current policy places the formulation of a release standard for USA industry years, if not decades, away. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and various university and industrial partners are participating in initiative to recycle previously contaminated austenitic stainless steels into containers for the storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. This paper describes laboratory scale experiments which demonstrated the decontamination and remelt of stainless steel which had been contaminated with radionuclides

  8. The value of recycling on water conservation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludi-Herrera, Katlyn D.

    2013-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is working to conserve water through recycling. This report will focus on the water conservation that has been accumulated through the recycling of paper, ceiling tiles, compost, and plastic. It will be discussed the use of water in the process of manufacturing these materials and the amount of water that is used. The way that water is conserved will be reviewed. From the stand point of SNL it will be discussed the amount of material that has been accumulated from 2010 to the first two quarters of 2013 and how much water this material has saved.

  9. Improving the competitiveness of green ship recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The end of life of a ship is determined by its owner on the basis of various commercial and technical factors. Once decided to scrap a ship, almost all end-of-life (EOL) ships are sold to recycling yards for dismantling; except for a few which are converted into museums, hotels, storage, and artificial reefs. As the decision is a commercial one, the selection of a yard is predominantly based on the offer price, which depends on the location of the yard and the recycling process employed.Among...

  10. Utilities face pointless ban on plutonium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smock, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. electric utility industry could lose a potential saving of $10 million per nuclear reactor per year if the new policy to defer spent nuclear fuel reprocessing is adopted. The heart of the policy is the hope that other countries will also forgo plutonium recycle. Some American leaders have conceded, though, that unilateral action by the U.S. will have almost no effect on weapons proliferation. In interviews with some foreign officials, EL and P learned that indeed Japan, Iran, and West Germany were not considering cessation of plutonium recycle in their countries

  11. Methanation process utilizing split cold gas recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbl, Daniel G.; Lee, Bernard S.; Schora, Jr., Frank C.; Lam, Henry W.

    1976-07-06

    In the methanation of feed gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen in multiple stages, the feed gas, cold recycle gas and hot product gas is mixed in such proportions that the mixture is at a temperature sufficiently high to avoid carbonyl formation and to initiate the reaction and, so that upon complete reaction of the carbon monoxide and hydrogen, an excessive adiabatic temperature will not be reached. Catalyst damage by high or low temperatures is thereby avoided with a process that utilizes extraordinarily low recycle ratios and a minimum of investment in operating costs.

  12. Self-protection in dry recycle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, W.H.; Wade, D.; Stanford, G.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the INFCE conclusions, the U.S. undertook development of a new dry fuel cycle. Dry recycle processes have been demonstrated to be feasible. Safeguarding such fuel cycles will be dramatically simpler than the PUREX fuel cycle. At every step of the processes, the materials meet the open-quotes spent-fuel standard.close quotes The scale is compatible with collocation of power reactors and their recycle facility, eliminating off-site transportation and storage of plutonium-bearing materials. Material diverted either covertly or overtly would be difficult (relative to material available by other means) to process into weapons feedstock

  13. Environmental decision making for recycling options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    1997-01-01

    A general method for finding new recycling alternatives in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed wire board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where...... the scrap constitutes the least enviromental problem and where resource recovery is largest. It is clearly shown with the two printed wire board scrap cases that the currently used copper recycling scenario is environmentally inferior to the tin and lead primary production scenarios....

  14. Radioactive metals disposal and recycling impact modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, N.W.; Lunn, R.J.; Belton, V.; Kockar, I.

    2014-01-01

    Screening life cycle assessment models developed to investigate hypothetical disposal and recycling options for the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor heat exchangers were used to generate more complex models addressing the main UK radioactive metals inventory. Both studies show there are significant environmental advantages in the metals recycling promoted by the current low level waste disposal policies, strategies and plans. Financial benefits from current metals treatment options are supported and offer even greater benefits when applied to the UK radioactive metals inventory as a whole. (authors)

  15. CED-10/Rac1 regulates endocytic recycling through the RAB-5 GAP TBC-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Sun

    Full Text Available Rac1 is a founding member of the Rho-GTPase family and a key regulator of membrane remodeling. In the context of apoptotic cell corpse engulfment, CED-10/Rac1 acts with its bipartite guanine nucleotide exchange factor, CED-5/Dock180-CED-12/ELMO, in an evolutionarily conserved pathway to promote phagocytosis. Here we show that in the context of the Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal epithelium CED-10/Rac1, CED-5/Dock180, and CED-12/ELMO promote basolateral recycling. Furthermore, we show that CED-10 binds to the RAB-5 GTPase activating protein TBC-2, that CED-10 contributes to recruitment of TBC-2 to endosomes, and that recycling cargo is trapped in recycling endosomes in ced-12, ced-10, and tbc-2 mutants. Expression of GTPase defective RAB-5(Q78L also traps recycling cargo. Our results indicate that down-regulation of early endosome regulator RAB-5/Rab5 by a CED-5, CED-12, CED-10, TBC-2 cascade is an important step in the transport of cargo through the basolateral recycling endosome for delivery to the plasma membrane.

  16. Concrete recycling as a step towards environmental protection - an overview and evaluation of concrete recycling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kalinowska-Wichrowska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the data on the state of natural aggregate resources and attention has been paid to the enormous scale of the production of concrete and produced rubble-concrete waste in the world. The methods of recycling concrete debris used in the world along with their subjective assessment are presented in the paper. The legal regulations on concrete recycling defined by the European Union and Polish law are briefly characterized. The use of an appropriately effective method of recycling concrete debris allows obtaining a high quality secondary aggregate, which can be reused for the production of new concrete and reduces the consumption of natural aggregates.

  17. EVALUATION OF RECYCLED PLASTIC LUMBER FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents an evaluation of the recycled plastic materials (RPM) produced by California Recycling Company (CRC). This evaluation is performed under the Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program of the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory...

  18. Quality control of recycled asphaltic concrete : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    This study examined the variations found in recycled asphaltic concrete mix based upon plant quality control data and verification testing. The data was collected from four recycled hot-mix projects constructed in 1981. All plant control and acceptan...

  19. Environmental suitability of recycled concrete aggregate in highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The use of recycled concrete aggregate materials in highway constructions as compared to the use of virgin : materials reduces virgin natural resource demands on the environment. In order to evaluate their potential use of : recycle materials in high...

  20. Evaluation of recycled concrete as aggregate in new concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated the use of recycled concrete as coarse aggregate in new concrete pavements. : Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) produced from demolished pavements in three geographically dispersed locations in Washington state were used to perfo...

  1. Aluminum recycling in the United States in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkert, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the flow of aluminum from production through its uses with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2000. This materials flow study includes a description of aluminum supply and demand factors for the United States to illustrate the extent of aluminum recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding the system of materials flow from source to ultimate disposition can assist in improving the management of natural resources in a manner that is compatible with sound environmental practices. In 2000, the old scrap recycling efficiency for aluminum was estimated to be 42 percent. Almost 60 percent of the aluminum that was recycled in 2000 came from new scrap, and the recycling rate was estimated to be 36 percent. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

  2. Sensing and controls for power-recycling of TAMA300

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, K

    2002-01-01

    Power recycling will soon be implemented on TAMA300. This paper gives motivation for the TAMA recycling experiment, discusses the planned length sensing/control system and considerations for the lock acquisition process.

  3. A Fundamental Metric for Metal Recycling Applied to Coated Magnesium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskers, C.E.M.; Reuter, M.A.; Boin, U.; Kvithyld, A.

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental metric for the assessment of the recyclability and, hence, the sustainability of coated magnesium scrap is presented; this metric combines kinetics and thermodynamics. The recycling process, consisting of thermal decoating and remelting, was studied by thermogravimetry and differential

  4. PRN 94-2: Recycling Empty Aerosol Pesticide Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice offers registrants use of an optional label statement permitting recycling as an alternative to instructions to dispose of aerosol pesticide containers. Registrants may add a label reference to recycling the empty aerosol pesticide container.

  5. Cold-in-place recycling in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Cold in-place recycling (CIPR) is a continuous multi-step process in which the existing asphalt pavement is : recycled using specialized equipment that cold mills the asphaltic pavement and blends asphalt emulsion and : aggregate (if necessary) with ...

  6. Positrusion Filament Recycling System for ISS, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Positrusion ISS Recycler enables recycling of scrap and waste plastics into high-quality filament for 3D printers to enable sustainable in-situ manufacturing on...

  7. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) - Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2016 Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report aims to increase the understanding of the economic implications of material reuse and recycling. The report...

  8. Performance evaluation of subgrade stabilization with recycled materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Due to rising costs of good quality acceptable materials for remove/replace options and traditional : subgrade stabilization materials, MDOT is in need to identify potential recycled materials to treat : unacceptable subgrade soils. Use of recycled m...

  9. A Study on Home Appliance Recycling Law of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    許, 楊; Yang, XU

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of the recycling based society which reconciles the economy and the environment has received significant attention.The study focuses on the home appliance recycling law. Some used home appliances are treated legally, others are exported illegally. Therefore this paper clarifies the results of the application of the home appliance recycling law and tries to present elemental conditions to create the global recycling system of used home appliances.

  10. Solid waste recycling in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Q Hamidul; Hassan, K Mahbub; Haque, M Ehsanul

    2012-11-01

    Efficient recycling of solid wastes is now a global concern for a sustainable and environmentally sound management. In this study, traditional recycling pattern of solid waste was investigated in Rajshahi municipality which is the fourth largest city of Bangladesh. A questionnaire survey had been carried out in various recycle shops during April 2010 to January 2011. There were 140 recycle shops and most of them were located in the vicinity of Stadium market in Rajshahi. About 1906 people were found to be involved in recycling activities of the city. The major fraction of recycled wastes were sent to capital city Dhaka for further manufacture of different new products. Only a small amount of wastes, specially plastics, were processed in local recycle factories to produce small washing pots and bottle caps. Everyday, an estimated 28.13 tons of recycled solid wastes were handled in Rajshahi city area. This recycled portion accounted for 8.25% of the daily total generated wastes (341 ton d(-1)), 54.6% of total recyclable wastes (51.49 ton d(-1)) and 68.29% of readily recyclable wastes (41.19 ton d(-1)). Major recycled materials were found to be iron, glass, plastic, and papers. Only five factories were involved in preliminary processing of recyclable wastes. Collecting and processing secondary materials, manufacturing recycled-content products, and then buying recycled products created a circle or loop that ensured the overall success of recycling and generated a host of financial, environmental, and social returns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Workplace Waste Recycling Behaviour: A Meta-Analytical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Oke, Adekunle

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase waste recycling, many studies have been conducted to understand factors that may influence waste recycling behaviour. However, these studies have focused on household contexts rather than other waste generation contexts. As a result, this paper seeks to provide a detailed analysis of previous studies on workplace waste recycling behaviour. Drawing from different databases, 51 relevant studies on workplace waste recycling attitudes and behaviour were meta-analysed. Finding...

  12. Aspects Concerning the Use of Recycled Concrete Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robu, I.; Mazilu, C.; Deju, R.

    2016-11-01

    Natural aggregates (gravel and crushed) are essential non-renewable resources which are used for infrastructure works and civil engineering. Using recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) is a matter of high priority in the construction industry worldwide. This paper presents a study on the use of recycled aggregates, from a concrete of specified class, to acquire new cement concrete with different percentages of recycled aggregates.

  13. environmental/economic analysis and recycling of wastes from air

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    (b) Consider the viability of pollution control through recycling. The Air Liquid Nigeria Ltd. is situated at Trans Amadi Industrial Layout in Port Harcourt. ..... Life span = 25 years. BENEFITS OF RECYCLING. 1) Revenue Accruable from Recycling. The plants consume a maximum of. 210 litres (10 drums) of lubricating oil per.

  14. Recycling of polyurethane foams: A strategy in waste management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... recycling. of polyurethane post consumer product as a means of waste reduction in our society is still grossly underutilised. This paper examines the current trend in recycling as a means of waste management and focuses on various methods of recycling polyurethane foams considering their application(s) to the Nigerian ...

  15. A Guide to Recycled Papers: Problems, Sources, and Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Katherine

    This guide explains what is involved in recycling paper. Some background history is presented on the use of recycled paper. Sources of use for this product are pointed out, especially instances where business and industry have found that recycled paper could be used in place of the virgin product. The major part of the guide consists of samples of…

  16. The level of recycling operations in Botswana | Ketlogetswe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a case study that evaluated the level of recycling operations in Botswana. Recycling operations are now recommended as effective waste management strategies for reducing the amount of municipal solid waste disposed at landfill sites. In assessing the level of recycling operations in Botswana, two ...

  17. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Noah Daniel; Börjesson, Johan; Pedersen, Lars Saaby

    2013-01-01

    To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzym...

  18. Optimization of the Development of a Plastic Recycling Machine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Technology ... The performance test analysis carried out defines the characteristics of the machine and shows that at a speed of 268 rpm the machine functions effectively and efficiently in performing its task producing a high finishing recycling efficiency or recyclability of 97%, takes 2 minutes to recycle a ...

  19. Multiple recycling of fuel in prototype fast breeder reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In a thermal neutron reactor, multiple recycle of U–Pu fuel is not possible due to degradation of fissile content of Pu in just one recycle. In the FBR closed fuel cycle, possibility of multi-recycle has been recognized. In the present study, Pu-239 equivalence approach is used to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving ...

  20. Sustainability and training materials for in-place recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-22

    Hot and cold in-place recycling techniques recycle 100 percent of a hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavement, in place, during the maintenance/rehabilitation process. Numerous studies have shown in-place recycling to be a sustainable, cost-effective procedure ...

  1. Improving information recognition and performance of recycling chimneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durugbo, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and improve how recyclers (individuals carrying out the task of recycling) make use of visual cues to carryout recycling tasks in relation to 'recycling chimneys' (repositories for recycled waste). An initial task analysis was conducted through an activity sampling study and an eye tracking experiment using a mobile eye tracker to capture fixations of recyclers during recycling tasks. Following data collection using the eye tracker, a set of recommendations for improving information representation were then identified using the widely researched skills, rules, knowledge framework, and for a comparative study to assess the performance of improved interfaces for recycling chimneys based on Ecological Interface Design principles. Information representation on recycling chimneys determines how we recycle waste. This study describes an eco-ergonomics-based approach to improve the design of interfaces for recycling chimneys. The results are valuable for improving the performance of waste collection processes in terms of minimising contamination and increasing the quantity of recyclables.

  2. Ideas and Activities for Recycling Education for Grades K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Jerry B., Ed.; Olberding, April H., Ed.

    In June 1997, Tennessee Technological University's Center for Manufacturing Research conducted a one-week program on plastics recycling for science teachers. The purpose of the program was to increase the teachers' basic knowledge about the importance of recycling plastics and to better prepare the teachers for teaching recycling in the classroom.…

  3. Textiles and clothing sustainability recycled and upcycled textiles and fashion

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the concepts of recycling and upcycling and their implications for the textiles and fashion sector. In addition to the theoretical concepts, the book also presents various options for recycling and upcycling in textiles and fashion. Although recycling is a much-developed and widely used concept, upcycling is also gaining popularity in the sector.

  4. WINCO Metal Recycle annual report, FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtold, T.E. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This report is a summary of the first year progress of the WINCO Metal Recycle Program. Efforts were directed towards assessment of radioactive scrap metal inventories, economics and concepts for recycling, technology development, and transfer of technology to the private sector. Seven DOE laboratories worked together to develop a means for characterizing scrap metal. Radioactive scrap metal generation rates were established for several of these laboratories. Initial cost estimates indicate that recycle may be preferable over burial if sufficient decontamination factors can be achieved during melt refining. Radiation levels of resulting ingots must be minimized in order to keep fabrication costs low. Industry has much of the expertise and capability to execute the recycling of radioactive scrap metal. While no single company can sort, melt, refine, roll and fabricate, a combination of two to three can complete this operation. The one process which requires development is in melt refining for removal of radionuclides other than uranium. WINCO is developing this capability in conjunction with academia and industry. This work will continue into FY-94.

  5. Aircraft Disposal and Recycle Cost Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, Ricky; Borsato, M.; Wognum, N.; Peruzzini, M.; Stjepandić, J.; Verhagen, W.J.C.

    2016-01-01

    The present study develops a method for the sake of evaluating Disposal and Recycle (D&R) cost in view of the increasing demand in aircraft retirement. Firstly, a process model is extracted. The subordinated cost elements are also identified. Next, the cost aggregations based on the D&R

  6. Multiple recycling of MOX in LWRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvier, E.; Gain, T.; Senentz, G. H.; Lelievre, F.; Baily, F.; Murray, P.

    2012-07-01

    Plutonium from used MCX fuel still contains a significant quantity of fissile materials. This plutonium could hence be used to produce more energy and further decrease the total Pu inventory This opportunity has already been investigated by AREVA through the reprocessing of several used MCX fuels in the La Hague plant and the subsequent manufacturing of new MCX fuels in the MELCX plant AREVA has hence gained experience in the recycling of used MCX fuel and is now able to define different strategies to better manage the Pu isotopy of one used fuel inventory and foster the recyclability of the Pu present in MCX fuels through a multiple recycling of this fuel in LWRs. This Pu management offers interesting solutions to deal with current Pu inventory (whether in used fuel or in an oxide powder form). It also leads to new opportunities to ease used fuel management in interim, storage and nuclear waste management in disposals while preparing a transition with GenIV reactors As an illustration of such a new strategy, the paper presents a reachable scenario of multiple recycling of MCX fuel in LWRs, The implications of such a strategy in terms of Pu and waste management will be discussed through a careful look at the total radioactivity and decay heat of the remaining radionuclides compared to an once through strategy.

  7. Recycling U and Pu in LWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hualing.

    1986-01-01

    This article, from viewpoints of technical feasibility, safety evaluation and socioeconomic benefit-risk analysis, introduces and comments on history and status of recycling U and Pu in LWR, dealing with reactor, reprocessing, conversion and fuel element fabrication et al. Author has analysed LWR fuel cycle strategies in China and made a proposal

  8. Recovery of the secondary raw materials, recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter the recovery and recycling of secondary raw materials is explained. This chapter consists of the following parts: Paper and tetrapaks; Car wrecks; Scrap metal; Plastics; Used tires; Electrical and electronic equipment; Glass; Accumulators and batteries; Spent oil; Low-and non-waste technology.

  9. Improving the competitiveness of green ship recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The end of life of a ship is determined by its owner on the basis of various commercial and technical factors. Once decided to scrap a ship, almost all end-of-life (EOL) ships are sold to recycling yards for dismantling; except for a few which are converted into museums, hotels, storage, and

  10. Viscoelastic behaviour of cold recycled asphalt mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizkova, Zuzana; Suda, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Behaviour of cold recycled mixes depends strongly on both the bituminous binder content (bituminous emulsion or foamed bitumen) and the hydraulic binder content (usually cement). In the case of cold recycled mixes rich in bitumen and with low hydraulic binder content, behaviour is close to the viscoelastic behaviour of traditional hot mix asphalt. With decreasing bituminous binder content together with increasing hydraulic binder content, mixes are characteristic with brittle behaviour, typical for concrete pavements or hydraulically bound layers. The behaviour of cold recycled mixes with low content of both types of binders is similar to behaviour of unbound materials. This paper is dedicated to analysing of the viscoelastic behaviour of the cold recycled mixes. Therefore, the tested mixes contained higher amount of the bituminous binder (both foamed bitumen and bituminous emulsion). The best way to characterize any viscoelastic material in a wide range of temperatures and frequencies is through the master curves. This paper includes interesting findings concerning the dependency of both parts of the complex modulus (elastic and viscous) on the testing frequency (which simulates the speed of heavy traffic passing) and on the testing temperature (which simulates the changing climate conditions a real pavement is subjected to).

  11. Evaluation of recycled asphaltic concrete : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This report describes a project in which approximately 6,200 tons (5,630 Mg) of asphaltic concrete were recycled through a conventional asphalt batch plant. During the construction of the project, a buildup of asphalt-coated fines occurred in the dry...

  12. Technology development for recycling of decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Lee, K. W.

    2010-04-01

    The scenarios for recycling or self-disposal of concrete wastes was established according to the regulatory requirements for clearance settled up in overseas countries as well as our country. Through the radiological safety assessment for those scenarios, the exposure rate for the workers and the public was evaluated to come up with the clearance level of radioactive nuclides. On the basis of the results, the necessary condition of the process equipment for a volume reduction and self-disposal was suggested toward recycling in non-nuclear field and limited recycling in nuclear filed. In order to satisfy the clearance level suggested from the assessment of the scenarios for recycling of dismantled concrete wastes, the processes for thermal crushing and mechanical grinding were optimized through the experiments on the characteristics of the thermal and mechanical treatment of concrete wastes generated from the KRR and UCP. As a consequence, the process which can be reduced the radioactive concrete waste volume by about 70% was established. And also, not only the originative integrated thermal crushing equipment in which the concrete wastes were crushed simultaneously with the thermal treatment but also the rotated paddle type impact crushing equipment were developed. An optimized stabilization processes which have the conditions for manufacturing cemented waste form containing the maximum content of fine concrete waste resulting the minimization of increase in volume of cemented waste form was established

  13. On recycling of nuclear fuel in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    In Japan, atomic energy has become to accomplish the important role in energy supply. Recently the interest in the protection of global environment heightened, and the anxiety on oil supply has been felt due to the circumstances in Mideast. Therefore, the importance of atomic energy as an energy source for hereafter increased, and the future plan of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan must be promoted on such viewpoint. At present in Japan, the construction of nuclear fuel cycle facilities is in progress in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture. The prototype FBR 'Monju' started the general functional test in May, this year. The transport of the plutonium reprocessed in U.K. and France to Japan will be carried out in near future. This report presents the concrete measures of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan from the long term viewpoint up to 2010. The necessity and meaning of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan, the effort related to nuclear nonproliferation, the plan of nuclear fuel recycling for hereafter in Japan, the organization of MOX fuel fabrication in Japan and abroad, the method of utilizing recovered uranium and the reprocessing of spent MOX fuel are described. (K.I.).

  14. Lead use and recycling at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losinski, S.J.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1995-08-01

    As part of DOE's efforts to develop a Department-wide management strategy for the use, reuse, and recycle of lead, DOE has requested that each site provide site-specific management and use practices for lead, specifically management and use information that responds to four specific questions of interest. This report provides the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's response to those areas of interest

  15. Chemical or feedstock recycling of WEEE products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews initiatives with regard to chemical or feedstock recycling of plastics waste from electrical and electronic products. eurostat estimates the amount of waste from electrical and electronic products that is collected is 2.2 million tonnes. Roughly 20% of this waste consists of

  16. Colleges Organize Campuswide Efforts to Recycle Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magner, Denise K.

    1989-01-01

    Spurred by soaring garbage-disposal costs and the closings of local landfills, colleges and universities are organizing campus wide recycling programs. The Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges will soon be adding the subject to its computerized list of information available to member colleges. (MLW)

  17. Successful approaches to recycling urban wood waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid Waste Association of North America

    2002-01-01

    This report presents eight case studies of successful urban wood waste recycling projects and businesses. These studies document the success of recovered products such as lumber and lumber products, mulch, boiler fuel, and alternative cover for landfills. Overall, wood waste accounts for about 17% of the total waste received at municipal solid waste landfills in the...

  18. Rethinking Recycling: An Oregon Waste Reduction Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Environmental Quality, Portland.

    This updated curriculum guide is designed to provide teachers of elementary school science with a set of activities on recycling and waste reduction. The curriculum has three sections: (1) Grades K-3 Lessons; (2) Grades 4-5 Lessons; and (3) Teacher's Resource Guide. It is designed to take students from an introduction to natural resources and…

  19. Field validation of recycled concrete fines usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The amount of recycled concrete fines permitted in concrete mixing water is limited by ASTM C 1602 to 5.0 percent of the mixing : water, by mass, in order to avoid detrimental effects on concrete properties. Depending upon the exact nature of the rec...

  20. Formability of recycled aluminium alloy 5017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, W.H.; Sano, T.; Terasaki, M.; Matsuno, K.; Kals, J.A.G.

    1997-01-01

    Innovations in the production of consumer goods are increasingly driven by the necessity of energy and resource conservation. As one of the consequences, designing with respect to recycleability has become an important issue, this being particularly so for non-durable items. Exemplary for the

  1. Recycling of Aluminum from Fibre Metal Laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, G.; Xiao, Y.; Yang, Y.; Wang, J.; Sun, B.; Boom, R.

    2012-01-01

    Recycling of aluminum alloy scrap obtained from delaminated fibre metal laminates (FMLs) was studied through high temperature refining in the presence of a salt flux. The aluminum alloy scrap contains approximately mass fraction w(Cu) = 4.4%, w(Mg) = 1.1% and w(Mn) = 0.6% (2024 aluminum alloy). The

  2. Recycling of chemical hydrogen storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.F.; Davis, B.R.; Karan, K.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Light weight chemical hydrides such as sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and lithium borohydride (LiBH4) are promising hydrogen storage materials. They offer several advantages including high volumetric storage density, safe storage, practical storage and operating condition, controlled and rapid hydrogen release kinetics in alkaline aqueous media in the presence of catalysts. In addition, borate or borax, the reaction by-product, is environmentally friendly and can be directly disposed or recycled. One technical barrier for utilizing borohydrides as hydrogen storage material is their high production cost. Sodium borohydride currently costs $90 per kg while lithium borohydride costs $8000 per kg. For commercialization, new and improved technology to manufacture borohydrides must be developed - preferably by recycling borates. We are investigating different inorganic recycling routes for regenerating borohydrides from borates. In this paper, the results of a chlorination-based recycling route, incorporating multi-step reactions, will be discussed. Experiments were conducted to establish the efficiency of various steps of the selected regeneration process. The yields of desired products as a function of reaction temperature and composition were obtained from multi-phase batch reactor. Separation efficiency of desired product was also determined. The results obtained so far appear to be promising. (author)

  3. WINCO Metal Recycle annual report, FY 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, T.E.

    1993-12-01

    This report is a summary of the first year progress of the WINCO Metal Recycle Program. Efforts were directed towards assessment of radioactive scrap metal inventories, economics and concepts for recycling, technology development, and transfer of technology to the private sector. Seven DOE laboratories worked together to develop a means for characterizing scrap metal. Radioactive scrap metal generation rates were established for several of these laboratories. Initial cost estimates indicate that recycle may be preferable over burial if sufficient decontamination factors can be achieved during melt refining. Radiation levels of resulting ingots must be minimized in order to keep fabrication costs low. Industry has much of the expertise and capability to execute the recycling of radioactive scrap metal. While no single company can sort, melt, refine, roll and fabricate, a combination of two to three can complete this operation. The one process which requires development is in melt refining for removal of radionuclides other than uranium. WINCO is developing this capability in conjunction with academia and industry. This work will continue into FY-94

  4. Environmental decision making for recycling options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    1997-01-01

    A general method for finding new recycling alternatives in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed wire board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where ...

  5. Global recycling - waste trafficking in disguise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamuk, Bettina; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2007-01-01

    Recycling is used as cover for illegal exporting of hazardous wastes (waste trafficking). This happens in spite of international conventions and codes of good conduct. Additional rules and recommendations are suggested to initiatiate local and national action and compliance with international...

  6. Recycling and imaging of nuclear singlet hyperpolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pileio, Giuseppe; Bowen, Sean; Laustsen, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    observation of the same batch of polarized nuclei over a period of 30 min and more. We report a recycling protocol in which the enhanced nuclear polarization achieved by dissolution-DNP is observed with full intensity and then returned to singlet order. MRI experiments may be run on a portion of the available...

  7. Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

  8. Evaluation of hot in-place recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report documents the construction of hot in-place recycled (HIPR) pavement on SR 542. : HIPR is a process by which rehabilitation of the existing HMA pavement occurs on site in one : operation. HIPR project selection, mix design, construction an...

  9. The A-B-C of recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    A general framework for interpreting behaviour as co-determined by attitudes and structural conditions, developed by Guagnano, Stern, and Dietz for the field of environmental psychology but with general applicability, is used to identify determinants of consumers' recycling behaviour, more...

  10. Natural Borneol Recycling from Cinnamomum camphor chvar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To establish an efficient method to recycle natural borneol from Cinnamomum camphor chvar. Borneol oil residue. Methods: The fractions and raffinate of the oil residue of Cinnamomum camphor chvar. Borneol were obtained by fractional distillation, and analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization ...

  11. Power source device for reactor recycling pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimano, Kunio; Nakamura, Yoichi; Ozaki, Osamu.

    1996-01-01

    The device of the present invention prevents occurrence of an accident of a reactor forecast upon spontaneous power stoppage, loss of power source or trip of the reactor. Namely, a AC/DC converter and a DC/AC connector having an AC voltage frequency controller are connected in series between an AC (bus) in the plant and reactor recycling pumps. A DC voltage controller, a superconductive energy storing device and an excitation power source are connected to the input of the DC/AC converter. The control device receives signals of the spontaneous power stoppage, loss of power source or trip of the reactor to maintain the output voltage of the superconductive energy storing device to a predetermined value. Further, the ratio of AC power voltage and the frequency of AC voltage to be supplied to the reactor recycling pumps is constantly varied to control the flow rate of the pump to a predetermined value. With such procedures, a power source device for the reactor recycling pumps compact in size, easy for maintenance and having high reliability can be realized by adopting a static-type superconductive energy storing device as an auxiliary power source for the reactor recycling pumps. (I.S.)

  12. Recycled sand in lime-based mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, M; Anastasiou, E; Georgiadis Filikas, K

    2014-12-01

    The increasing awareness of the society about safe guarding heritage buildings and at the same time protecting the environment promotes strategies of combining principles of restoration with environmentally friendly materials and techniques. Along these lines, an experimental program was carried out in order to investigate the possibility of producing repair, lime-based mortars used in historic buildings incorporating secondary materials. The alternative material tested was recycled fine aggregates originating from mixed construction and demolition waste. Extensive tests on the raw materials have been performed and mortar mixtures were produced using different binding systems with natural, standard and recycled sand in order to compare their mechanical, physical and microstructure properties. The study reveals the improved behavior of lime mortars, even at early ages, due to the reaction of lime with the Al and Si constituents of the fine recycled sand. The role of the recycled sand was more beneficial in lime mortars rather than the lime-pozzolan or lime-pozzolan-cement mortars as a decrease in their performance was recorded in the latter cases due to the mortars' structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analyzing effective municipal solid waste recycling programs: the case of county-level MSW recycling performance in Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seejeen; Berry, Frances S

    2013-09-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling performance, both nationally and in Florida, USA, has shown little improvement during the past decade. This research examines variations in the MSW recycling program performance in Florida counties in an attempt to identify effective recycling programs. After reviewing trends in the MSW management literature, we conducted an empirical analysis using cross-sectional multiple regression analysis. The findings suggest that the convenience-based hypothesis was supported by showing that curbside recycling had a positive effect on MSW recycling performance. Financial (cost-saving) incentive-based hypotheses were partially supported meaning that individual level incentives can influence recycling performance. Citizen environmental concern was found to positively affect the amount of county recycling, while education and political affiliation yielded no significant results. In conclusion, this article discusses the implications of the findings for both academic research and practice of MSW recycling programs.

  14. A tale of five cities: Using recycling frameworks to analyse inclusive recycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, Anne; Simpson, Michael

    2015-11-01

    'Recycling' is a source of much confusion, particularly when comparing solid waste systems in high-income countries with those in low- and middle-income countries. Few analysts can explain why the performance and structure of recycling appears to be so different in rich countries from poor ones, nor why well-meaning efforts to implement recycling so often fail. The analysis of policy drivers, and the Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) framework, come close to an explanation.This article builds on these earlier works, focusing in on five cities profiled in the 2010 UN-Habitat publication (Scheinberg A, Wilson DC and Rodic L (2010) Solid Waste Management in the World's Cities. UN-Habitat's Third Global Report on the State of Water and Sanitation in the World's Cities. Newcastle-on-Tyne, UK: Earthscan Publications). Data from these cities and others provides the basis for developing a new tool to analyse inclusive recycling performance. The points of departure are the institutional and economic relationships between the service chain, the public obligation to remove waste, pollution, and other forms of disvalue, and the value chain, a system of private enterprises trading valuable materials and providing markets for recyclables. The methodological innovation is to use flows of materials and money as indicators of institutional relationships, and is an extension of process flow diagramming.The authors are using the term 'recycling framework analysis' to describe this new form of institutional analysis. The diagrams increase our understanding of the factors that contribute to high-performance inclusive recycling. By focusing on institutional relationships, the article seeks to improve analysis, planning, and ultimately, outcomes, of recycling interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Recycled de-Oiled Algal Biomass Extract as a Feedstock for Boosting Biodiesel Production from Chlorella minutissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Neha; Patel, Alok; Pruthi, Parul A; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-12-01

    The investigation for the first time assesses the efficacy of recycled de-oiled algal biomass extract (DABE) as a cultivation media to boost lipid productivity in Chlorella minutissima and its comparison with Bold's basal media (BBM) used as control. Presence of organic carbon (3.8 ± 0.8 g/l) in recycled DABE resulted in rapid growth with twofold increase in biomass productivity as compared to BBM. These cells expressed four folds higher lipid productivity (126 ± 5.54 mg/l/d) as compared to BBM. Cells cultivated in recycled DABE showed large sized lipid droplets accumulating 54.12 % of lipid content. Decrement in carbohydrate (17.76 %) and protein content (28.12 %) with loss of photosynthetic pigments compared to BBM grown cells were also recorded. The fatty acid profiles of cells cultivated in recycled DABE revealed the dominance of C16:0 (39.66 %), C18:1 (29.41 %) and C18:0 (15.82 %), respectively. This model is self-sustained and aims at neutralizing excessive feedstock consumption by exploiting recycled de-oiled algal biomass for cultivation of microalgae, making the process cost effective.

  16. LED light recycling using double prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, George; Li, Kenneth

    2013-09-01

    A novel LED recycling scheme using double prisms is presented. Two identical triangular prisms with square bases, one cross-stacked on top of the other, are tight-fit into a mirrored light tunnel. The whole prism/light tunnel assembly is then mounted on top of a square LED source, whose emitting area is the same as that of the base plane of the said prism/light tunnel assembly. Each prism acts as a tapered-down light guide in one dimension, which selectively retro-reflects high angle light along that direction. The outer light tunnel serves as a mirrored wall that folds back any light that escapes outside the two prisms. For a given collection cone angle, the height of the two prisms is optimized using ASAP, a commercial ray-tracing software. Simulation and experimental results show promise in significantly increasing the brightness of the LED sources within the collection cone. Specifically for a 4x recycling ratio a 70% recycling gain in center illuminance has been achieved (i.e., illuminance measured in the forward direction). This scheme has advantages over previous recycling configurations due to its compactness and ease of mounting. For example, compared to Wavien's spherical reflector approach that has been previously published, the current recycling configuration is much smaller in size because instead of fitting a much larger mirrored reflector on top of the LED source, this time we're using a structure that has the same lateral dimensions as those of the LED source itself. Further improvement is also possible if optimization of various system parameters is carried out.

  17. Tar Management and Recycling in Biomass Gasification and Syngas Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Zach

    Removal of tars is critical to the design and operation of biomass gasification systems as most syngas utilization processing equipment (e.g. internal combustion engines, gas turbines, fuel cells, and liquid fuel synthesis reactors) have a low tolerance for tar. Capturing and disposal of tar is expensive due to equipment costs, high hazardous waste disposal costs where direct uses cannot be found, and system energy losses incurred. Water scrubbing is an existing technique commonly used in gasification plants to remove contaminants and tar; however using water as the absorbent is non-ideal as tar compounds have low or no water solubility. Hydrophobic solvents can improve scrubber performance and this study evaluated tar solubility in selected solvents using slip-streams of untreated syngas from a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operated on almond composite feedstock using both air and steam gasification. Tar solubility was compared with Hansen's solubility theory to examine the extent to which the tar removal can be predicted. As collection of tar without utilization leads to a hazardous waste problem, the study investigated the effects of recycling tars back into the gasifier for destruction. Prior to experiments conducted on tar capture and recycle, characterizations of the air and steam gasification of the almond composite mix were made. This work aims to provide a better understanding of tar collection and solvent selection for wet scrubbers, and to provide information for designing improved tar management systems for biomass gasification.

  18. Which chemicals drive biological effects in wastewater and recycled water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Janet Y M; Busetti, Francesco; Charrois, Jeffrey W A; Escher, Beate I

    2014-09-01

    Removal of organic micropollutants from wastewater during secondary treatment followed by reverse osmosis and UV disinfection was evaluated by a combination of four in-vitro cell-based bioassays and chemical analysis of 299 organic compounds. Concentrations detected in recycled water were below the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. Thus the detected chemicals were considered not to pose any health risk. The detected pesticides in the wastewater treatment plant effluent and partially advanced treated water explained all observed effects on photosynthesis inhibition. In contrast, mixture toxicity experiments with designed mixtures containing all detected chemicals at their measured concentrations demonstrated that the known chemicals explained less than 3% of the observed cytotoxicity and less than 1% of the oxidative stress response. Pesticides followed by pharmaceuticals and personal care products dominated the observed mixture effects. The detected chemicals were not related to the observed genotoxicity. The large proportion of unknown toxicity calls for effect monitoring complementary to chemical monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Recycling Of Cis Photovoltaic Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkard, Jr., William F.; Long, Mark O.; Goozner; Robert E.

    1998-07-14

    A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CIS photovoltaic cells and associated photovoltaic manufacturing waste by leaching the waste with dilute nitric acid, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating glass substrate from the leachate, electrolyzing the leachate to plate a copper and selenium metal mixture onto a first cathode, replacing the cathode with a second cathode, re-electrolyzing the leachate to plate cadmium onto the second cathode, separating the copper from selenium, and evaporating the depleted leachate to yield a zinc and indium containing solid.

  20. Model institutional infrastructures for recycling of photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaven, S.J.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.

    1996-01-01

    How will photovoltaic modules (PVMS) be recycled at the end of their service lives? This question has technological and institutional components (Reaven, 1994a). The technological aspect concerns the physical means of recycling: what advantages and disadvantages of the several existing and emerging mechanical, thermal, and chemical recycling processes and facilities merit consideration? The institutional dimension refers to the arrangements for recycling: what are the operational and financial roles of the parties with an interest in PVM recycling? These parties include PVM manufacturers, trade organizations; distributors, and retailers; residential, commercial, and utility PVM users; waste collectors, transporters, reclaimers, and reclaimers; and governments.

  1. Platinum recycling in the United States in 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Henry E.

    2001-01-01

    In the United States, catalytic converters are the major source of secondary platinum for recycling. Other sources of platinum scrap include reforming and chemical process catalysts. The glass industry is a small but significant source of platinum scrap. In North America, it has been estimated that in 1998 more than 20,000 kilograms per year of platinum-group metals from automobile catalysts were available for recycling. In 1998, an estimated 7,690 kilograms of platinum were recycled in the United States. U.S. recycling efficiency was calculated to have been 76 percent in 1998; the recycling rate was estimated at 16 percent.

  2. Peri-Synaptic Glia Recycles Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor for LTP Stabilization and Memory Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoli, Beatrice; Battistini, Giulia; Melani, Riccardo; Blum, Robert; Santi, Spartaco; Berardi, Nicoletta; Canossa, Marco

    2016-11-23

    Glial cells respond to neuronal activation and release neuroactive molecules (termed "gliotransmitters") that can affect synaptic activity and modulate plasticity. In this study, we used molecular genetic tools, ultra-structural microscopy, and electrophysiology to assess the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on cortical gliotransmission in vivo. We find that glial cells recycle BDNF that was previously secreted by neurons as pro-neurotrophin following long-term potentiation (LTP)-inducing electrical stimulation. Upon BDNF glial recycling, we observed tight, temporal, highly localized TrkB phosphorylation on adjacent neurons, a process required to sustain LTP. Engagement of BDNF recycling by astrocytes represents a novel mechanism by which cortical synapses can expand BDNF action and provide synaptic changes that are relevant for the acquisition of new memories. Accordingly, mice deficient in BDNF glial recycling fail to recognize familiar from novel objects, indicating a physiological requirement for this process in memory consolidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Residues in the hendra virus fusion protein transmembrane domain are critical for endocytic recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Andreea; Carter, James R; Smith, Stacy E; Hellman, Lance; Fried, Michael G; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2012-03-01

    Hendra virus is a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus classified as a biosafety level four agent. The fusion (F) protein of Hendra virus is critical for promoting viral entry and cell-to-cell fusion. To be fusogenically active, Hendra virus F must undergo endocytic recycling and cleavage by the endosomal/lysosomal protease cathepsin L, but the route of Hendra virus F following internalization and the recycling signals involved are poorly understood. We examined the intracellular distribution of Hendra virus F following endocytosis and showed that it is primarily present in Rab5- and Rab4-positive endosomal compartments, suggesting that cathepsin L cleavage occurs in early endosomes. Hendra virus F transmembrane domain (TMD) residues S490 and Y498 were found to be important for correct Hendra virus F recycling, with the hydroxyl group of S490 and the aromatic ring of Y498 important for this process. In addition, changes in association of isolated Hendra virus F TMDs correlated with alterations to Hendra virus F recycling, suggesting that appropriate TMD interactions play an important role in endocytic trafficking.

  4. A TOCA/CDC-42/PAR/WAVE functional module required for retrograde endocytic recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhiyong; Grant, Barth D.

    2015-01-01

    Endosome-to-Golgi transport is required for the function of many key membrane proteins and lipids, including signaling receptors, small-molecule transporters, and adhesion proteins. The retromer complex is well-known for its role in cargo sorting and vesicle budding from early endosomes, in most cases leading to cargo fusion with the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Transport from recycling endosomes to the TGN has also been reported, but much less is understood about the molecules that mediate this transport step. Here we provide evidence that the F-BAR domain proteins TOCA-1 and TOCA-2 (Transducer of Cdc42 dependent actin assembly), the small GTPase CDC-42 (Cell division control protein 42), associated polarity proteins PAR-6 (Partitioning defective 6) and PKC-3/atypical protein kinase C, and the WAVE actin nucleation complex mediate the transport of MIG-14/Wls and TGN-38/TGN38 cargo proteins from the recycling endosome to the TGN in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results indicate that CDC-42, the TOCA proteins, and the WAVE component WVE-1 are enriched on RME-1–positive recycling endosomes in the intestine, unlike retromer components that act on early endosomes. Furthermore, we find that retrograde cargo TGN-38 is trapped in early endosomes after depletion of SNX-3 (a retromer component) but is mainly trapped in recycling endosomes after depletion of CDC-42, indicating that the CDC-42–associated complex functions after retromer in a distinct organelle. Thus, we identify a group of interacting proteins that mediate retrograde recycling, and link these proteins to a poorly understood trafficking step, recycling endosome-to-Golgi transport. We also provide evidence for the physiological importance of this pathway in WNT signaling. PMID:25775511

  5. An efflux pump is required for siderophore recycling by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeterian, Emilie; Martin, Lois W; Lamont, Iain L; Schalk, Isabelle J

    2010-06-01

    Pyoverdine (PVDI) is a siderophore produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in order to obtain iron. This molecule is composed of a fluorescent chromophore linked to an octapeptide. Following secretion from the bacteria, PVDI chelates iron ions and the resulting Fe-PVDI complexes are taken up by the bacteria through a cell surface receptor protein. The iron is released in the periplasm and the resulting PVDI is recycled, being secreted out of the bacteria by a previously unknown mechanism. Three genes with the potential to encode an efflux system are adjacent to, and coregulated with, genes required for PVDI-mediated iron transport. Mutation of genes encoding this efflux pump (named PvdRT-OpmQ) prevented recycling of PVDI from the periplasm into the extracellular medium. Fluorescence microscopy showed that in the mutant bacteria PVDI accumulated in the periplasm. Gallium (Ga(3+) ), a metal that cannot be removed from PVDI by reduction, is taken up by P. aeruginosa when chelated by PVDI. Recycling did not occur after transport of PVDI-Ga(3+) and fluorescence accumulated in the periplasm even when the PvdRT-OpmQ efflux pump was functional. Cellular fractionation showed that PVDI-synthesizing bacteria lacking PvdRT-OpmQ secreted PVDI but had an approximately 20-fold increase in the amount of PVD present in the periplasm, consistent with an inability to recycle PVDI. Collectively, these data show that PvdRT-OpmQ is involved in recycling of PVDI from the periplasm to the extracellular medium and recycling requires release of the metal ion from PVDI. © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) - Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2016 Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report aims to increase the understanding of the economic implications of material reuse and recycling. The report shows that recycling and reuse of materials creates jobs, while also generating local and state tax revenues. The 2016 REI Report covers the economic activities of nine sectors: ferrous metals, nonferrous metals (aluminum), glass, paper, plastics, rubber, construction and demolition, electronics and organics (including food and yard trimmings). The 2016 REI Report builds on work from a 2001 REI study. In 2001, to encourage the development of an economic market for recycling, EPA supported the creation of a national Recycling Economic Information (REI) Project and the related REI report, based upon the work of several states and regions. The REI report was a ground breaking national study demonstrating the economic value of recycling and reuse to the U.S. economy. Compiled through a cooperative agreement with the National Recycling Coalition, the study confirmed what many have known for decades: there are significant economic benefits in recycling. The 2016 report focuses on the economic impacts of recycling rather than the environmental benefits, as the environmental benefits have been researched in detail. Accurately estimating the impact that recycling has on jobs, wages and taxes is important because the results can influence policy decisions and provide a more robust picture of recycling by a

  7. Mechanical and chemical recycling of solid plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaert, Kim; Delva, Laurens; Van Geem, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    This review presents a comprehensive description of the current pathways for recycling of polymers, via both mechanical and chemical recycling. The principles of these recycling pathways are framed against current-day industrial reality, by discussing predominant industrial technologies, design strategies and recycling examples of specific waste streams. Starting with an overview on types of solid plastic waste (SPW) and their origins, the manuscript continues with a discussion on the different valorisation options for SPW. The section on mechanical recycling contains an overview of current sorting technologies, specific challenges for mechanical recycling such as thermo-mechanical or lifetime degradation and the immiscibility of polymer blends. It also includes some industrial examples such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) recycling, and SPW from post-consumer packaging, end-of-life vehicles or electr(on)ic devices. A separate section is dedicated to the relationship between design and recycling, emphasizing the role of concepts such as Design from Recycling. The section on chemical recycling collects a state-of-the-art on techniques such as chemolysis, pyrolysis, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrogen techniques and gasification. Additionally, this review discusses the main challenges (and some potential remedies) to these recycling strategies and ground them in the relevant polymer science, thus providing an academic angle as well as an applied one. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of recycling processes for clean rejected MOX fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khot, P.M.; Singh, G.; Shelke, B.K.; Surendra, B.; Yadav, M.K.; Mishra, A.K.; Afzal, Mohd.; Panakkal, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dry and wet (MWDD) methods were developed for 100% recycling of CRO (0.4–44% PuO 2 ). • Dry method showed higher productivity and comparable powder/product characteristics. • MWDD batches demonstrated improved powder/product characteristics to that of virgin. • Second/multiple recycling is possible with MWDD with better powder/product characteristics. • MWDD batches prepared by little milling showed better macroscopic homogeneity to that of virgin. - Abstract: The dry and wet recycling processes have been developed for 100% recycling of Clean Reject Oxide (CRO) generated during the fabrication of MOX fuel, as CRO contains significant amount of plutonium. Plutonium being strategic material need to be circumvented from its proliferation issues related to its storage for long period. It was difficult to recycle CRO containing higher Pu content even with multiple oxidation and reduction steps. The mechanical recycling comprising of jaw crushing and sieving has been coupled with thermal pulverization for recycling CRO with higher Pu content in dry recycling technique. In wet recycling, MicroWave Direct Denitration (MWDD) technique has been developed for 100% recycling of CRO. The powder prepared by dry and wet (MWDD) recycling techniques was characterized by XRD and BET techniques and their effects on the pellets were evaluated. (U,21%Pu)O 2 pellets fabricated from virgin powder and MWDD were characterized using optical microscopy and α-autoradiography and the results obtained were compared

  9. Addressing Criticality in Rare Earth Elements via Permanent Magnets Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nlebedim, I. C.; King, A. H.

    2018-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical for many advanced technologies and are faced with potential supply disruptions. Recycling of permanent magnets (PMs) can be good sources for REEs which can help minimize global dependence on freshly mined REEs, but PMs are rarely recycled. Recycling of PMs has been discussed with respect to improving REEs resource sustainability. Some challenges to be addressed in order to establish industrially deployable technologies for PMs recycling have also been discussed, including profitability, energy efficiency and environmental impacts. Key considerations for promoting circular economy via PMs recycling is proposed with the focus on deciding the target points in the supply chain at which the recycled products will be inserted. Important technical considerations for recycling different forms of waste PMs, including swarfs, slags, shredded and intact hard disk drives magnets, have been presented. The aspects of circular economy considered include reusing magnets, remanufacturing magnets and recovering of REEs from waste PMs.

  10. Sustaining the environment through recycling: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramayah, T; Lee, Jason Wai Chow; Lim, Shuwen

    2012-07-15

    This paper examines the determinants of recycling behaviour among 200 university students from the perspective of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Data was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling technique. Findings indicate that environmental awareness was significantly related to attitude towards recycling, whilst attitude and social norms had significant impact on recycling behaviour. However, convenience and cost of recycling were not significant reasons for recycling. The study has enhanced the understanding of the determinants of recycling behaviour and has implications for schools and governmental agencies in educating and encouraging positive recycling behaviour. It also confirms the appropriateness of the TPB in examining studies of this nature. Further suggestions for future research are offered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Recycling behaviour in healthcare: waste handling at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Joachim; Nunes, Katia R A

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the motivational factors for environmental behaviour in general, presenting a case study on recycling disposable plastics in hospitals. Results show that 90% of over 600 employees from six analysed hospitals in Germany reported that the recycling of disposable plastics on the wards makes sense from an environmental and economic point of view. The case study reports an assessment of recycling attitudes and problems of hospital staff, mainly nurses. Employees in eco-certified hospitals were much more satisfied and reported fewer problems with the recycling system. The gender effect was significant only for saving energy, while age correlated with nearly all reported pro-environmental behaviour at home. At work, the mere introduction of a recycling system was insufficient to achieve good recycling results. Based on the study findings, recommendations are given aimed at improving the safety and sustainability of the recycling system.

  12. Case studies in rural recycling. Public service report series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosper, S.D.; Hallenbeck, W.H.; Brenniman, G.R.

    1994-02-01

    Due to state planning requirements and federal landfill regulations, solid waste management in rural areas (particularly recycling) has received much attention in recent years. The growth of recycling during the 1980s occurred mainly in urban and suburban areas. Therefore, rural recycling is still a relatively new enterprise. This report presents several rural recycling case studies from Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Tennessee, and Ontario, Canada to provide examples of successes and problems. This report also discusses the current issues of cooperative marketing of recyclables and municipal solid waste flow control. With respect to recycling, a rural region does not have ready access to markets for collected materials and has difficulty in generating easily marketable quantities of recyclables. (Copyright (c) 1994 The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois.)

  13. Toward promotion of recycling electric and electronic devices; Denki denshi kiki no recycle no sokushin ni mukete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Measures for promotion of recycling electric and electronic devices are discussed and proposed. It is necessary to change the traditional framework of recycling in which local governments are required to play major roles. It is also necessary to set more clear responsibilities and expenses to be shared by the parties concerned, establish rules for recovering expenses to keep fairness among the parties concerned, and develop measures to promote smooth recovery and recycling of electric and electronic devices. The framework should be based on market principle, to introduce various types of competition, thereby reducing social expenses as far as possible. It is necessary for all parties to share responsibilities for establishing recycling type economic society; makers and importers should supply durable and recyclable products and implement recovery and recycling of the used products they supply to a required level, and, at the same time, consumers should release the used products in the recycling systems. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Nuclear power and recycling in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikegame, R.

    1996-12-31

    Japan has 49 nuclear power plants in operation contributing over 30% of the country`s electric power generation. Steadily improving operational performance has been accompanied by enhanced safety and economic performance. Two ABWR units, Kashiwazaki Kariwa units 6 and 7, have been constructed and the first of these is scheduled to begin commercial operation by the end of 1996. Japan sees nuclear power as an environmentally friendly energy option for the twenty-first century. Recycled uranium and plutonium from light water reactors are perceived as an important fuel requirement for the maintenance of the nuclear power programme and the commercial use of fast breeder reactors as desirable, despite the impact of the recent sodium leak accident at the prototype Monju reactor. Japanese efforts to establish a reprocessing and recycling system will assume increasing importance as time goes on. (UK).

  15. Recycling of solid wastes at kindergartens centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R.M.S.R.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to conduct an activity on environmental awareness campaign at a kindergarten center, with the children age 4-6 years old. The activity included identify the various types of waste generated at the kindergarten and to realize the conservation practice by participating in simple waste management strategies and an explanation about recycling, reusing and reducing waste (3R. The activity provided the children more awareness about the importance of minimizing the plastic wastes. The activity had created an interesting experience to the young generation through practice activity and has given a light on the nature conservation along their growing years. It can be concluded that the awareness of environmental issues among children have risen up as noted by looking at students physical expression. Children have understood the potential to conserve nature from a simple action which is recycling. After the activity, children’s were able to identify and divide the rubbish.

  16. Fission reactor recycling pump handling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togasawa, Hiroshi; Komita, Hideo; Susuki, Shoji; Endo, Takio; Yamamoto, Tetsuzo; Takahashi, Hideaki; Saito, Noboru.

    1991-01-01

    This invention provides a device for handling a recycling pump in a nuclear reactor upon periodical inspections in a BWR type power plant. That is, in a handling device comprising a support for supporting components of a recycling pump, and a lifter for vertically moving the support below a motor case disposed passing through a reactor pressure vessel, a weight is disposed below the support. Then, the center of gravity of the components, the support and the entire weight is substantially aligned with the position for the support. With such a constitution, the components can be moved vertically to the motor case extremely safely, to remarkably suppress vibrations. Further, the operation safety can remarkably be improved by preventing turning down upon occurrence of earthquakes. Further, since vibration-proof jigs as in a prior art can be saved, operation efficiency can be improved. (I.S.)

  17. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Zhu, Zhi; Wang, Weihua; Lu, Xuefeng

    2013-12-01

    The sustainable supply of lipids is the bottleneck for current biodiesel production. Here microbial recycling of glycerol, byproduct of biodiesel production to biodiesel in engineered Escherichia coli strains was reported. The KC3 strain with capability of producing fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) from glucose was used as a starting strain to optimize fermentation conditions when using glycerol as sole carbon source. The YL15 strain overexpressing double copies of atfA gene displayed 1.7-fold increase of FAEE productivity compared to the KC3 strain. The titer of FAEE in YL15 strain reached to 813 mg L(-1) in minimum medium using glycerol as sole carbon source under optimized fermentation conditions. The titer of glycerol-based FAEE production can be significantly increased by both genetic modifications and fermentation optimization. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel expands carbon sources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transverse Instabilities in the Fermilab Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, L.R.; Burov, A.; Shemyakin, A.; Bhat, C.M.; Crisp, J.; Eddy, N.; /Fermilab

    2011-07-01

    Transverse instabilities of the antiproton beam have been observed in the Recycler ring soon after its commissioning. After installation of transverse dampers, the threshold for the instability limit increased significantly but the instability is still found to limit the brightness of the antiprotons extracted from the Recycler for Tevatron shots. In this paper, we describe observations of the instabilities during the extraction process as well as during dedicated studies. The measured instability threshold phase density agrees with the prediction of the rigid beam model within a factor of 2. Also, we conclude that the instability threshold can be significantly lowered for a bunch contained in a narrow and shallow potential well due to effective exclusion of the longitudinal tails from Landau damping.

  19. Economic assessment of plutonium recycle to LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This paper presents an economic evaluation of plutonium recycle in LWR's using published estimates of the cost of the various fuel cycle operations. Total, discounted and levelized fuel cycle costs are computed for four national nuclear power growth pattern scenarios; ''super large'' (>100GW(e) by 2000), ''large'' (60-70GW(e) by 2000) ''medium'' (20-25 GW(e) by 2000) and ''small'' (5-10GW(e) by 2000). It is concluded that in the ''super-large'' and ''large'' cases recycle of uranium and plutonium would have a slight economic advantage over the once-through cycle. In the ''medium'' and ''small'' cases there would be no economic advantage up to the year 2000. The uncertainty in unit fuel cycle costs is large compared with the differences between the two fuel cycles and different conclusions can easily be drawn based on different unit cost assumptions

  20. Recycling of greenhouse gases via methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Eliasson, B.; Kogelschatz, U. [ABB Corporate Research Center, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere can be mitigated by using direct control technologies (capture, disposal or chemical recycling). We report on carbon dioxide and methane recycling with other chemicals, especially with hydrogen and oxygen, to methanol. Methanol synthesis from CO{sub 2} is investigated on various catalysts at moderate pressures ({<=}30 bar) and temperatures ({<=}300{sup o}C). The catalysts show good methanol activities and selectivities. The conversion of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} to methanol is also studied in a silent electrical discharge at pressures of 1 to 4 bar and temperatures close to room temperature. Methanol yields are given for mixtures of CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} and also for CH{sub 4} and air mixtures. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  1. Resource recovery and recycling in OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNeil, J.W.

    It was the importance of the economic issues relevant to resource recovery and re-use that prompted OECD to become involved in this general area, and the author proposes in this talk to describe the principal features of the three main approaches to waste management from an economic perspective. These approaches are reduction of waste generation (i.e. birth control) resource recovery and materials recycling or re-use (reincarnation). Most of OECD's work in this area to date has been on the third of these approaches with particular emphasis on the economics of recycling, so somewhat more attention will be devoted to it. Then some conclusions will be drawn concerning possible policy actions to encourage a rational approach to management of this resource.

  2. Recycling of gaseous impurities in ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poschenrieder, W.; Desinger, K.

    1990-01-01

    The closed divertor configuration of ASDEX isolates the zone of dominant plasma-wall interaction in a rather well defined manner from the plasma in the main chamber. Studies have shown that for recycling gases the effective conductance between divertor and plasma chamber is closely represented by the values for molecular flow also during a discharge. Hence, from partial pressure measurements of contaminant gases in the divertor impurity recycling fluxes can be obtained. In deuterium discharges the problem of mass peak interferences, especially for methane and watervapour, has to be resolved. Data are shown for various ASDEX scenarios: stainless steel walls, carbon wall elements, Ti-gettering and boronization. The results expose the production of CO as main culprit, as long as no gettering or boronization is employed. Then, however, with carbon still present in the machine, the hydrocarbons limit the attainment of optimum performance parameters. What are the conclusions? (orig.)

  3. CFC and HFC recycling equipments: Test performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picini, P.; Caropreso, G.; Cicoli, G.; Posarelli, M.

    1996-12-01

    Actual regulatory conditions about ozone layer depleting chemicals set problems on their disposal and on the management of plants still using illegal CFCs. Anyway fluids that will replace CFCs (i.e. HFCs) will not be allowed to be spread into the atmosphere, due to their high costs and to the greenhouse effect. A viable solution would be the recovery, purification and recycle of contaminated fluids. ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment), in cooperation with ICF (Industria Componenti Frigoriferi) Company leader in the field of air refrigerating and conditioning, patented a device able to extract, to clean and to recycle CFC 12 and HFC 134a in the refrigerating systems. This paper presents experimental data from the qualification tests on a device performing the above mentioned operations regarding systems that use HFC 134a as process fluid

  4. Material properties of frc with recycled aggregate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trčková, Jiřina; Procházka, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2011), s. 105-113 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/08/1197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : recycled aggregate * concrete composite * pullout test Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/abstracts/AGG/02_11/1_Trckova.pdf

  5. Panorama 2016 - Chemical recycling of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forti, Laurent; Fosse, Florian

    2015-12-01

    The ongoing rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is a major environmental and societal concern. Among the potential solutions for reducing carbon emissions in the energy sector, the chemical recycling of CO 2 has received considerable attention. Conversion of carbon dioxide into other recoverable substances offers the benefit of reducing the carbon footprint of newly developed products and of shifting away from the use of fossil resources. Various methods to create a wide range of products are currently being studied. (authors)

  6. Protecting groundwater resources at biosolids recycling sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Michael J; Kumarasamy, Karthik; Brobst, Robert B; Hais, Alan; Schmitz, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    In developing the national biosolids recycling rule (Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulation Part 503 or Part 503), the USEPA conducted deterministic risk assessments whose results indicated that the probability of groundwater impairment associated with biosolids recycling was insignificant. Unfortunately, the computational capabilities available for performing risk assessments of pollutant fate and transport at that time were limited. Using recent advances in USEPA risk assessment methodology, the present study evaluates whether the current national biosolids pollutant limits remain protective of groundwater quality. To take advantage of new risk assessment approaches, a computer-based groundwater risk characterization screening tool (RCST) was developed using USEPA's Multimedia, Multi-pathway, Multi-receptor Exposure and Risk Assessment program. The RCST, which generates a noncarcinogenic human health risk estimate (i.e., hazard quotient [HQ] value), has the ability to conduct screening-level risk characterizations. The regulated heavy metals modeled in this study were As, Cd, Ni, Se, and Zn. Results from RCST application to biosolids recycling sites located in Yakima County, Washington, indicated that biosolids could be recycled at rates as high as 90 Mg ha, with no negative human health effects associated with groundwater consumption. Only under unrealistically high biosolids land application rates were public health risks characterized as significant (HQ ≥ 1.0). For example, by increasing the biosolids application rate and pollutant concentrations to 900 Mg ha and 10 times the regulatory limit, respectively, the HQ values varied from 1.4 (Zn) to 324.0 (Se). Since promulgation of Part 503, no verifiable cases of groundwater contamination by regulated biosolids pollutants have been reported. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Thermal Reduction of NOx with Recycled Plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwoye, Ibukun; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z; Gore, Jeff; Vyazovkin, Sergey; Boyron, Olivier; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor

    2017-07-05

    This study develops technology for mitigation of NO x formed in thermal processes using recycled plastics such as polyethylene (PE). Experiments involve sample characterization, and thermogravimetric decomposition of PE under controlled atmospheres, with NO x concentration relevant to industrial applications. TGA-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and NO x chemiluminescence serve to obtain the removal efficiency of NO x by fragments of pyrolyzing PE. Typical NO x removal efficiency amounts to 80%. We apply the isoconversional method to derive the kinetic parameters, and observe an increasing dependency of activation energy on the reaction progress. The activation energies of the process span 135 kJ/mol to 226 kJ/mol, and 188 kJ/mol to 268 kJ/mol, for neat and recycled PE, respectively, and the so-called compensation effect accounts for the natural logarithmic pre-exponential ln (A/min -1 ) factors of ca. 19-35 and 28-41, in the same order, depending on the PE conversion in the experimental interval of between 5 and 95%. The observed delay in thermal events of recycled PE reflects different types of PE in the plastic, as measurements of intrinsic viscosity indicate that, the recycled PE comprises longer linear chains. The present evaluation of isoconversional activation energies affords accurate kinetic modeling of both isothermal and nonisothermal decomposition of PE in NO x -doped atmosphere. Subsequent investigations will focus on the effect of mass transfer and the presence of oxygen, as reburning of NO x in large-scale combustors take place at higher temperatures than those included in the current study.

  8. Validation of dose calculation programmes for recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Shankar [Menon Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden); Brun-Yaba, Christine [Inst. de Radioprotection et Securite Nucleaire (France); Yu, Charley; Cheng, Jing-Jy [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.; Bjerler, Jan [Studsvik Stensand, Nykoeping (Sweden); Williams, Alexander [Dept. of Energy (United States). Office of Environmental Management

    2002-12-01

    This report contains the results from an international project initiated by the SSI in 1999. The primary purpose of the project was to validate some of the computer codes that are used to estimate radiation doses due to the recycling of scrap metal. The secondary purpose of the validation project was to give a quantification of the level of conservatism in clearance levels based on these codes. Specifically, the computer codes RESRAD-RECYCLE and CERISE were used to calculate radiation doses to individuals during the processing of slightly contaminated material, mainly in Studsvik, Sweden. Calculated external doses were compared with measured data from different steps of the process. The comparison of calculations and measurements shows that the computer code calculations resulted in both overestimations and underestimations of the external doses for different recycling activities. The SSI draws the conclusion that the accuracy is within one order of magnitude when experienced modellers use their programmes to calculate external radiation doses for a recycling process involving material that is mainly contaminated with cobalt-60. No errors in the codes themselves were found. Instead, the inaccuracy seems to depend mainly on the choice of some modelling parameters related to the receptor (e.g., distance, time, etc.) and simplifications made to facilitate modelling with the codes (e.g., object geometry). Clearance levels are often based on studies on enveloping scenarios that are designed to cover all realistic exposure pathways. It is obvious that for most practical cases, this gives a margin to the individual dose constraint (in the order of 10 micro sievert per year within the EC). This may be accentuated by the use of conservative assumptions when modelling the enveloping scenarios. Since there can obviously be a fairly large inaccuracy in the calculations, it seems reasonable to consider some degree of conservatism when establishing clearance levels based on

  9. REGULATIONS ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE DISPOSAL AND RECYCLING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-01-29

    Environmental regulations can have a significant impact on product use, disposal, and recycling. This report summarizes the basic aspects of current federal, state and international regulations which apply to end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules and PV manufacturing scrap destined for disposal or recycling. It also discusses proposed regulations for electronics that may set the ground of what is to be expected in this area in the near future. In the US, several states have started programs to support the recycling of electronic equipment, and materials destined for recycling often are excepted from solid waste regulations during the collection, transfer, storage and processing stages. California regulations are described separately because they are different from those of most other states. International agreements on the movement of waste between different countries may pose barriers to cross-border shipments. Currently waste moves freely among country members of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and between the US and the four countries with which the US has bilateral agreements. However, it is expected, that the US will adopt the rules of the Basel Convention (an agreement which currently applies to 128 countries but not the US) and that the Convection's waste classification system will influence the current OECD waste-handling system. Some countries adopting the Basel Convention consider end-of-life electronics to be hazardous waste, whereas the OECD countries consider them to be non-hazardous. Also, waste management regulations potentially affecting electronics in Germany and Japan are mentioned in this report.

  10. Optimization of electron cooling in the Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A.; Burov, A.; Carlson, K.; Prost, L.R.; Sutherland, M.; Warner, A.; /Fermilab

    2009-04-01

    Antiprotons in Fermilab's Recycler ring are cooled by a 4.3 MeV, 0.1A DC electron beam (as well as by a stochastic cooling system). The paper describes electron cooling improvements recently implemented: adjustments of electron beam line quadrupoles to decrease the electron angles in the cooling section and better stabilization and control of the electron energy.

  11. Correction of unevenness in recycler beam profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisp, J.; Hu, M.; Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    A beam confined between two rf barriers in the Fermilab Recycler Ring exhibits very uneven longitudinal profile. This leads to the consequence that the momentum-mined antiproton bunches will have an intolerable variation in bunch intensity. The observed profile unevenness is the result of a tiny amount of rf imperfection and rf beam-loading. The profile unevenness can be flattened by feeding back the uneven rf fan-back gap voltage to the low-level rf.

  12. PLA recycling by hydrolysis at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristina, Annesini Maria; Rosaria, Augelletti; Sara, Frattari, E-mail: sara.frattari@uniroma1.it; Fausto, Gironi [Department of Chemical Engineering Materials Environment, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Via Eudossiana 18– 00184 Roma (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    In this work the process of PLA hydrolysis at high temperature was studied, in order to evaluate the possibility of chemical recycling of this polymer bio-based. In particular, the possibility to obtain the monomer of lactic acid from PLA degradation was investigated. The results of some preliminary tests, performed in a laboratory batch reactor at high temperature, are presented: the experimental results show that the complete degradation of PLA can be obtained in relatively low reaction times.

  13. Recycling of Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.

    1999-10-06

    The pace of development and fielding of electric vehicles is briefly described and the principal advanced battery chemistries expected to be used in the EV application are identified as Ni/MH in the near term and Li-ion/Li-polymer in the intermediate to long term. The status of recycling process development is reviewed for each of the two chemistries and future research needs are discussed.

  14. Compression Molding of Composite of Recycled HDPE and Recycled Tire Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.; Chen, Zhengyu; Li, Yanze; Peng, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Plastic and rubber recycling is an effective means of reducing solid waste to the environment and preserving natural resources. A project aimed at developing a new composite material from recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) and recycled rubber is currently being conducted at Eastern Illinois University. The recycled plastic pellets with recycled rubber particles are extruded into some HDPE/rubber composite strands. The strand can be further cut into pellets that can be used to fabricate other material forms or products. This experiment was inspired by the above-mentioned research activity. In order to measure Durometer hardness of the extruded composite, a specimen with relatively large dimensions was needed. Thus, compression molding was used to form a cylindrical specimen of 1 in. diameter and 1 in. thickness. The initial poor quality of the molded specimen prompted a need to optimize the processing parameters such as temperature, holding time, and pressure. Design of experiment (DOE) was used to obtain optimum combination of the parameters.

  15. Recycled Polypropylene Improved with Thermoplastic Elastomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Matei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of recycled polypropylene (RPP as raw material for various industries has been known. However, the mechanical and thermal properties of recycled products are lower than those of raw material. The objective of this study was to obtain and investigate the modified recycled polypropylene (RPP with commercial elastomers for possible applications. The compounded RPP-based thermoplastic elastomers were investigated in order to determine their thermal properties (melt flow index (MFI, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, VICAT softening temperature (VST, and heat deflection temperature (HDT, structural characteristics (optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD, and mechanical properties (tensile properties, density, and IZOD impact. The RPP compounded with 10% elastomer recorded higher tensile properties than the unmodified RPP. Also, IZOD impact strength increased from 4.3±0.2 kJ/m2 (registered for RPP to 21.7±2.5 kJ/m2 for the PPR/SIS30 compound, while the degree of crystallinity decreased for all compounds. The obtained results recommend the RPP/elastomers compounds both for environmental remediation from postconsumer PP wastes and to realize new goods with high performance for various applications.

  16. Expanded recycling at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betschart, J.F.; Malinauskas, L.; Burns, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Pollution Prevention Program Office has increased recycling activities, reuse, and options to reduce the solid waste streams through streamlining efforts that applied best management practices. The program has prioritized efforts based on volume and economic considerations and has greatly increased Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) recycle volumes. The Pollution Prevention Program established and chairs a Solid Waste Management Solutions Group to specifically address and solve problems in nonradioactive, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), state-regulated, and sanitary and industrial waste streams (henceforth referred to as sanitary waste in this paper). By identifying materials with recycling potential, identifying best management practices and pathways to return materials for reuse, and introducing the concept and practice of open-quotes asset management,open-quotes the Group will divert much of the current waste stream from disposal. This Group is developing procedures, agreements, and contracts to stage, collect, sort, segregate, transport and process materials, and is also garnering support for the program through the involvement of upper management, facility managers, and generators

  17. Impact of recycling on fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, S.; Gupta, L.K.; Hemant Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Fuel performance in the initial phase (1972-1991) of Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) was not up to the mark as indicated by the presence of iodine in the Primary Heat Transport (PHT) system in two digits most of the time. Adoption of graphite coating and many other changes in the fuel bundle design have helped in achieving and containing the iodine activity values in single digit during most of the operation. However managing iodine free core has been a dream for Indian PHWR operation. To conserve the natural uranium bundles, a scheme of recycling the high burnup fuel has been adopted since 2003. There have been apprehensions that the recycling might deteriorate the fuel performance and result in higher iodine activity in PHT. This paper describes the unique operating experience at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station Unit-3 (RAPS-3) which brings out the facts that present design of fuel is able to remain defect free even at higher burnup with recycling option and at the same time, it is possible to maintain iodine below detection limit during the operation. (author)

  18. STAGE OF TEXTILE RECYCLE WASTE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this article is to examine the stage of textile recycle waste in Romania. For this purpose were analyzed the main sources of textile waste from Romania (industry of manufacture of textiles, wearing apparel, leather and related products, imports of textiles, clothing and footwear and imports of second hand clothing and also evolution of the quantity of textile waste in Romania. The benefits (economic and environmental of the collection and recycling of waste and the legislation on the waste management, have determined the diversification and increasing the number and the capacity of recovery and disposal of waste in Romania. We found the most textile waste in Romania was deposited in deposits onto or into land, in the proportion of 18.51%. This proportion is under the EU average of 34.03%, but is much higher than in other European country. Also, has been an increase in the number of incinerators, in the last years. With all of this, the interest in textile waste management in Romania is far from being to the level of European, where are associations who dealing with the collection and recycling of textiles and is achieved a selective collection of textile waste in the points especially designed for this thing. The information for this paper was gathered from literature, from the EUROSTAT database and INSSE database analysis and by Internet.

  19. Hydrogen recycle modeling and measurements in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    A model for hydrogen recycling developed for use in a tokamak transport code is described and compared with measurements on ISX-B and DITE. The model includes kinetic reflection of charge-exchange neutrals from the wall and deposition, thermal diffusion, and desorption processes in the wall. In a tokamak with a limiter, the inferred recycle coefficient of 0.9-1.0 is due primarily to reflection (0.8-0.9) with the remainder (0.1-0.2) being due to desorption. Laboratory experiments supply much of the data for the model and several areas are discussed where additional data are needed, such as reflection from hydrogen-loaded walls at low (approx. equal to100 eV) energy. Simulation of ISX-B shows that the recently observed density decrease with neutral beam injection may be partially due to a decrease in recycling caused by hardening of the charge-exchange flux incident on the wall from the plasma. Modeling of isotopic exchange in DITE indicates the need for an ion-induced desorption process which responds on a timescale shorter than the wall thermal diffusion time. (orig.)

  20. Encouraging Vietnamese Household Recycling Behavior: Insights and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Ninh Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to provide new insights into various determinants affecting household recycling. By focusing on Vietnam, this research also extends knowledge about sustainable behavior in emerging markets, which are the major culprits in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. Hypotheses were developed as a result of the critical review of relevant studies in the fields of marketing, psychology, and economics, and then tested using a quantitative survey data. Structured questionnaires were administered to Vietnamese respondents which yielded 486 usable responses. Multivariate statistics reveal that all the determinants influenced their recycling behavior except for moral norms. Attitude towards the importance of recycling exerted the strongest influence, followed by subjective norms and warm glow respectively. On the other hand, attitude towards the inconvenience of recycling significantly reduced recycling behavior. The research findings have important implications for strategies aimed at promoting recycling behavior. Communication and education programs should emphasize how household recycling contributes to environmental protection, as well as stress intrinsic rewards when recycling. Public media campaigns should feature opinion leaders and attractive communicators, who can effectively apply social pressure to perform recycling behavior. Organizations should also make every effort to make recycling more convenient.

  1. HOUSEHOLD PARTICIPATION IN RECYCLING PROGRAMS: A CASE STUDY FROM MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilah M Akil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase in per capita income and rapid urbanization, have contributed significantly to changes in consumption behaviour leading to increased waste generation.  Waste disposed to landfill sites is fast becoming unfeasible thus requiring a more effective management of waste material involving waste reduction, reuse and recycling. The success of recycling program, however, is largely dependent on household participation activities which are essentially behaviour driven. The recycling performance of Malaysian households is still low as it stands at 5.5% compared to Singapore and Vietnam which are 56% and 22% respectively. This study examines recycling behaviour among households and the influence of socioeconomic, demographic and behavioural characteristics on households’ participation in recycling program in Malaysia.  A sample of 300 randomly selected household were surveyed.  The findings revealed that most of the households (70% claim that they are practicing recycling particularly types of paper and old clothes. The factors of participation in recycling show equal results both for environmental concerns and economic benefits. Those who did not participate in recycling, listed household issues or behaviour, namely lack of time and materials to recycle, inconvenient, lack of space, lack of facilities and information as well as laziness, as barriers. The paper finally highlights the factors which can encourage household to be involved in recycling and give recommendations to the authorities in terms of facilities and infrastructures to facilitate the program.

  2. Long-distance mechanism of neurotransmitter recycling mediated by glial network facilitates visual function in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ratna; Reddig, Keith; Li, Hong-Sheng

    2014-02-18

    Neurons rely on glia to recycle neurotransmitters such as glutamate and histamine for sustained signaling. Both mammalian and insect glia form intercellular gap-junction networks, but their functional significance underlying neurotransmitter recycling is unknown. Using the Drosophila visual system as a genetic model, here we show that a multicellular glial network transports neurotransmitter metabolites between perisynaptic glia and neuronal cell bodies to mediate long-distance recycling of neurotransmitter. In the first visual neuropil (lamina), which contains a multilayer glial network, photoreceptor axons release histamine to hyperpolarize secondary sensory neurons. Subsequently, the released histamine is taken up by perisynaptic epithelial glia and converted into inactive carcinine through conjugation with β-alanine for transport. In contrast to a previous assumption that epithelial glia deliver carcinine directly back to photoreceptor axons for histamine regeneration within the lamina, we detected both carcinine and β-alanine in the fly retina, where they are found in photoreceptor cell bodies and surrounding pigment glial cells. Downregulating Inx2 gap junctions within the laminar glial network causes β-alanine accumulation in retinal pigment cells and impairs carcinine synthesis, leading to reduced histamine levels and photoreceptor synaptic vesicles. Consequently, visual transmission is impaired and the fly is less responsive in a visual alert analysis compared with wild type. Our results suggest that a gap junction-dependent laminar and retinal glial network transports histamine metabolites between perisynaptic glia and photoreceptor cell bodies to mediate a novel, long-distance mechanism of neurotransmitter recycling, highlighting the importance of glial networks in the regulation of neuronal functions.

  3. Clathrin and LRP-1-independent constitutive endocytosis and recycling of uPAR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cortese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The urokinase receptor (uPAR/CD87 is highly expressed in malignant tumours. uPAR, as a GPI anchored protein, is preferentially located at the cell surface, where it interacts with its ligands urokinase (uPA and the extracellular matrix protein vitronectin, thus promoting plasmin generation, cell-matrix interactions and intracellular signalling events. Interaction with a complex formed by uPA and its inhibitor PAI-1 induces cell surface down regulation and recycling of the receptor via the clathrin-coated pathway, a process dependent on the association to LRP-1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we have found that along with the ligand-induced down-regulation, uPAR also internalizes and recycles constitutively through a second pathway that is independent of LRP-1 and clathrin but shares some properties with macropinocytosis. The ligand-independent route is amiloride-sensitive, does not require uPAR partitioning into lipid rafts, is independent of the activity of small GTPases RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42, and does not require PI3K activity. Constitutively endocytosed uPAR is found in EEA1 positive early/recycling endosomes but does not reach lysosomes in the absence of ligands. Electron microscopy analysis reveals the presence of uPAR in ruffling domains at the cell surface, in macropinosome-like vesicles and in endosomal compartments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that, in addition to the ligand-induced endocytosis of uPAR, efficient surface expression and membrane trafficking might also be driven by an uncommon macropinocytic mechanism coupled with rapid recycling to the cell surface.

  4. Comparative study on plutonium and MA recycling in equilibrium burnup and standard burnup of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waris, Abdul; Kurniadi, Rizal; Su'ud, Zaki; Permana, Sidik

    2005-01-01

    The equilibrium burnup model is a powerful method since its can handle all possible generated nuclides in any nuclear system. Moreover, this method is a simple time independent method. Hence the equilibrium burnup method could be very useful for evaluating and forecasting the characteristics of any nuclear fuel cycle, even the strange one, e.g. all nuclides are confined in the reactor. However, this method needs to be verified since the method is not a standard tool. The present study aimed to compare the characteristics of plutonium recycling and plutonium and minor actinides (MA) recycling in PWR with the equilibrium burnup and the standard burnup. In order to become more comprehensive study, an influence of moderator-to-fuel volume ratio (MFR) changes by changing the pin-pitch of fuel cell has been evaluated. The MFR ranges from 0.5 to 4.0. For the equilibrium burnup we used equilibrium cell-burnup code. We have employed 1368 nuclides in the equilibrium calculation with 129 of them are heavy metals (HMs). For standard burnup, SRAC2002 code has been utilized with 26 HMs and 66 fission products (FPs). The JENDL 3.2 library has been employed for both burnup schemes. The uranium, plutonium and MA vector, which resulted from the equilibrium burnup are directly used as fuel input composition for the standard burnup calculation. Both burnup results demonstrate that plutonium recycling and plutonium and MA recycling can be conducted safer in tight lattice core. They are also show the similar trend in neutron spectrum, which become harder with the increasing number of recycled heavy nuclides as well as the decreasing of the MFR values. However, there are some discrepancy on the effective multiplication factor and the conversion ratio, especially for the reactor core for MFR ≥ 2.0. (author)

  5. The influences of the recycle process on the bacterial community in a pilot scale microalgae raceway pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkelens, Mason; Ball, Andrew S; Lewis, David M

    2014-04-01

    The use of recycled media has been shown to be a necessary step within the lifecycle of microalgal biofuels for economic sustainability and reducing the water footprint. However the impact of the harvesting of microalgae on the bacterial load of the recycled water has yet to be investigated. Within this study PCR-DGGE and real-time PCR was used to evaluate the bacterial community dynamics within the recycled water following harvest and concentration steps for a pilot scale open pond system (120,000L), which was developed for the production of green crude oil from Tetraselmis sp. in hyper saline water. Two stages were used in the harvesting; Stage 1 electroflocculation, and Stage 2 centrifugation. Electroflocculation was shown to have little effect on the bacterial cell concentration. In contrast bacterial diversity and cell concentration within the centrifugation step was greatly reduced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Histamine Recycling Is Mediated by CarT, a Carcinine Transporter in Drosophila Photoreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; An, Futing; Borycz, Jolanta A.; Borycz, Janusz; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Histamine is an important chemical messenger that regulates multiple physiological processes in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Even so, how glial cells and neurons recycle histamine remains to be elucidated. Drosophila photoreceptor neurons use histamine as a neurotransmitter, and the released histamine is recycled through neighboring glia, where it is conjugated to β-alanine to form carcinine. However, how carcinine is then returned to the photoreceptor remains unclear. In an mRNA-seq screen for photoreceptor cell-enriched transporters, we identified CG9317, an SLC22 transporter family protein, and named it CarT (Carcinine Transporter). S2 cells that express CarT are able to take up carcinine in vitro. In the compound eye, CarT is exclusively localized to photoreceptor terminals. Null mutations of cart alter the content of histamine and its metabolites. Moreover, null cart mutants are defective in photoreceptor synaptic transmission and lack phototaxis. These findings reveal that CarT is required for histamine recycling at histaminergic photoreceptors and provide evidence for a CarT-dependent neurotransmitter trafficking pathway between glial cells and photoreceptor terminals. PMID:26713872

  7. Assessing relationships among properties of demolished concrete, recycled aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete using regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Wang, K; Tam, C M

    2008-04-01

    Recycled demolished concrete (DC) as recycled aggregate (RA) and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) is generally suitable for most construction applications. Low-grade applications, including sub-base and roadwork, have been implemented in many countries; however, higher-grade activities are rarely considered. This paper examines relationships among DC characteristics, properties of their RA and strength of their RAC using regression analysis. Ten samples collected from demolition sites are examined. The results show strong correlation among the DC samples, properties of RA and RAC. It should be highlighted that inferior quality of DC will lower the quality of RA and thus their RAC. Prediction of RAC strength is also formulated from the DC characteristics and the RA properties. From that, the RAC performance from DC and RA can be estimated. In addition, RAC design requirements can also be developed at the initial stage of concrete demolition. Recommendations are also given to improve the future concreting practice.

  8. Characterization of quality recycled gypsum and plasterboard with maximized recycled content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jiménez-Rivero

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of secondary materials is imperative to promote a circular economy. In order to improve the way in which the quality of recycled gypsum is assessed, European guidelines on recycled gypsum (RG quality criteria have been outlined in the framework of the Life+ Gypsum to Gypsum (GtoG project. Such GtoG guidelines, along with the European Standard on gypsum plasterboard EN 520, provided the basis for this study. During the GtoG project, gypsum recycling and plasterboard manufacturing processes were monitored by testing the gypsum feedstock and the plasterboard produced. The aim of this paper is to discuss the results obtained on relevant parameters that characterize gypsum as a secondary raw material, as well as the resulting product. The minimum requirements were fulfilled by 56% of the RG samples and 86% of the plasterboard with increased RG.

  9. Influence of recycled aggregate quality and proportioning criteria on recycled concrete properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gayarre, F; Serna, P; Domingo-Cabo, A; Serrano-López, M A; López-Colina, C

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental research using concrete produced by substituting part of the natural coarse aggregates with recycled aggregates from concrete demolition. The influence of the quality of the recycled aggregate (amount of declassified and source of aggregate), the percentage of replacement on the targeted quality of the concrete to be produced (strength and workability) has been evaluated. The granular structure of concrete and replacement criteria were analyzed in this study, factors which have not been analyzed in other studies. The following properties of recycled concretes were analyzed: density, absorption, compressive strength, elastic modulus, amount of occluded air, penetration of water under pressure and splitting tensile strength. A simplified test program was designed to control the costs of the testing while still producing sufficient data to develop reliable conclusions in order to make the number of tests viable whilst guaranteeing the reliability of the conclusions. Several factors were analyzed including the type of aggregate, the percentage of replacement, the type of sieve curve, the declassified content, the strength of concrete and workability of concrete and the replacement criteria. The type of aggregate and the percentage of replacement were the only factors that showed a clear influence on most of the properties. Compressive strength is clearly affected by the quality of recycled aggregates. If the water-cement ratio is kept constant and the loss of workability due to the effect of using recycled aggregate is compensated for with additives, the percentage of replacement of the recycled aggregate will not affect the compressive strength. The elastic modulus is affected by the percentage of replacement. If the percentage of replacement does not exceed 50%, the elastic modulus will only change slightly.

  10. The Role of Sub- and Supercritical CO2 as “Processing Solvent” for the Recycling and Sample Preparation of Lithium Ion Battery Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Nowak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative electrolyte extraction from lithium ion batteries (LIB is of great interest for recycling processes. Following the generally valid EU legal guidelines for the recycling of batteries, 50 wt % of a LIB cell has to be recovered, which cannot be achieved without the electrolyte; hence, the electrolyte represents a target component for the recycling of LIBs. Additionally, fluoride or fluorinated compounds, as inevitably present in LIB electrolytes, can hamper or even damage recycling processes in industry and have to be removed from the solid LIB parts, as well. Finally, extraction is a necessary tool for LIB electrolyte aging analysis as well as for post-mortem investigations in general, because a qualitative overview can already be achieved after a few minutes of extraction for well-aged, apparently “dry” LIB cells, where the electrolyte is deeply penetrated or even gellified in the solid battery materials.

  11. The Role of Sub- and Supercritical CO2 as "Processing Solvent" for the Recycling and Sample Preparation of Lithium Ion Battery Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Sascha; Winter, Martin

    2017-03-06

    Quantitative electrolyte extraction from lithium ion batteries (LIB) is of great interest for recycling processes. Following the generally valid EU legal guidelines for the recycling of batteries, 50 wt % of a LIB cell has to be recovered, which cannot be achieved without the electrolyte; hence, the electrolyte represents a target component for the recycling of LIBs. Additionally, fluoride or fluorinated compounds, as inevitably present in LIB electrolytes, can hamper or even damage recycling processes in industry and have to be removed from the solid LIB parts, as well. Finally, extraction is a necessary tool for LIB electrolyte aging analysis as well as for post-mortem investigations in general, because a qualitative overview can already be achieved after a few minutes of extraction for well-aged, apparently "dry" LIB cells, where the electrolyte is deeply penetrated or even gellified in the solid battery materials.

  12. The culture of Chlorella vulgaris in a recycled supernatant: effects on biomass production and medium quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj-Romdhane, F; Zheng, X; Jaouen, P; Pruvost, J; Grizeau, D; Croué, J P; Bourseau, P

    2013-03-01

    Reusing supernatant of microalgae culture medium can have inhibitory or toxic effects on the biomass production because of the release of organic metabolites by cells in the culture medium during their growth. This work investigated the impact of Chlorella vulgaris medium recycling on culture productivity, cells quality and accumulation of excreted metabolites in the culture medium. No significant impact on the C. vulgaris growth was observed after 63days of recycling, the productivity remained stable at around 0.55kgm(-3)day(-1). Organic matters accumulated in supernatant were identified as biopolymers (BP) poor in nitrogen and with a size above 40kDa (probably polysaccharides), and small organic molecules (SOM) richer in nitrogen with a molecular size ranging from 1 to 3kDa. The concentration of biopolymers in the supernatant increased till to a maximum and then decreased, possibly consumed by bacteria, whereas small organic compounds accumulated in the medium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The culture of Chlorella vulgaris in a recycled supernatant: Effects on biomass production and medium quality

    KAUST Repository

    Hadj-Romdhane, F.

    2013-03-01

    Reusing supernatant of microalgae culture medium can have inhibitory or toxic effects on the biomass production because of the release of organic metabolites by cells in the culture medium during their growth. This work investigated the impact of Chlorella vulgaris medium recycling on culture productivity, cells quality and accumulation of excreted metabolites in the culture medium. No significant impact on the C. vulgaris growth was observed after 63days of recycling, the productivity remained stable at around 0.55kgm-3day-1. Organic matters accumulated in supernatant were identified as biopolymers (BP) poor in nitrogen and with a size above 40kDa (probably polysaccharides), and small organic molecules (SOM) richer in nitrogen with a molecular size ranging from 1 to 3kDa. The concentration of biopolymers in the supernatant increased till to a maximum and then decreased, possibly consumed by bacteria, whereas small organic compounds accumulated in the medium. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF CEMENT PASTE INCLUDING RECYCLED CONCRETE POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Topič

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The disposal and further recycling of concrete is being investigated worldwide, because the issue of complete recycling has not yet been fully resolved. A fundamental difficulty faced by researchers is the reuse of the recycled concrete fines which are very small (< 1 mm. Currently, full recycling of such waste fine fractions is highly energy intensive and resulting in production of CO2. Because of this, the only recycling methods that can be considered as sustainable and environmentally friendly are those which involve recycled concrete powder (RCP in its raw form. This article investigates the performance of RCP with the grain size < 0.25 mm as a potential binder replacement, and also as a microfiller in cement-based composites. Here, the RCP properties are assessed, including how mechanical properties and the microstructure are influenced by increasing the amount of the RCP in a cement paste (≤ 25 wt%.

  15. Comparative analysis of old, recycled and new PV modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Ashfaq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparative analysis of old, recycled and new PV modules. It is possible to recycle even very old products by modern standard processes in a value-conserving manner. About 90% of the materials recovered from solar panels can be recycled into useful products. Carbon emission and energy cost are low in manufacturing recycled SPV. Modules can be manufactured with recycled materials and reinstalled in systems as a full quality product with today’s technology good for another 25–30 years. Analysis of all the models of PV module is done with the help of MATLAB. This helps in comparison and proves the effectiveness of the recycled PV module based systems.

  16. Constrained recycling: a framework to reduce landfilling in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ricardo; Otoma, Suehiro

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a model that integrates three branches of research: (i) economics of solid waste that assesses consumer's willingness to recycle and to pay for disposal; (ii) economics of solid waste that compares private and social costs of final disposal and recycling; and (iii) theories on personal attitudes and social influence. The model identifies two arenas where decisions are made: upstream arena, where residents are decision-makers, and downstream arena, where municipal authorities are decision-makers, and graphically proposes interactions between disposal and recycling, as well as the concept of 'constrained recycling' (an alternative to optimal recycling) to guide policy design. It finally concludes that formative instruments, such as environmental education and benchmarks, should be combined with economic instruments, such as subsidies, to move constraints on source separation and recycling in the context of developing countries.

  17. Effect of Aqueous Phase Recycling in Continuous Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmer, Maika; Madsen, René Bjerregaard; Houlberg, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    The effect of recycling the aqueous phase in a continuous hydrothermal liquefaction process was investigated in terms of product yield distribution, carbon balance, and composition of all main fractions. Using a custom-built continuous reactor system, a long-term experiment was conducted at 350...... degrees C and 250 bar with a feedstock of dried distiller's grains with solubles. In two consecutive recycle experiments, the aqueous phase of the preceding experiment was used as dispersion medium for the feedstock preparation. In these recycle-experiments a significant increase in biocrude yields...... was observed with a maximum increase in the first recycle experiment. However, the recycling of the aqueous phase also resulted in lower heating values and higher water contents in the oil fraction. Based on these findings, recycling the aqueous phase is a trade-off between improved yields and reduced burn...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE WASTE RECYCLING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Truptimala Patanaik*; Niharika Patel; Shilpika Panda; Subhasmita Prusty

    2016-01-01

    Construction solid waste has caused serious environmental problems. Reuse, recycling and reduction of construction materials have been advocated for many years, and various methods have been investigated. There may be six type of building materials: plastic, paper, timber, metal, glass and concrete which can be reused and recycled. This paper examines the rate of reusable & recyclable concrete waste. On the other hand, the reuse of construction waste is highly essential ...

  19. Thermoset composite recycling: Properties of recovered glass fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauson, Justine; Fraisse, Anthony; Toncelli, C.

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of glass fiber thermoset polymer composite is a challenging topic and a process able to recover the glass fibers original properties in a limited cost is still under investigation. This paper focuses on the recycling technique separating the glass fiber from the matrix material. Four...... different recycling processes, mechanical, burn off, pyrolysis and glycolysis are selected are compared based on the properties of the glass fiber recovered. The intention is to use the same characterization methodology....

  20. Recycled Concrete as Aggregate for Structural Concrete Production

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Malešev; Vlastimir Radonjanin; Snežana Marinković

    2010-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the experimental results of the properties of fresh and hardened concrete with different replacement ratios of natural with recycled coarse aggregate is presented in the paper. Recycled aggregate was made by crushing the waste concrete of laboratory test cubes and precast concrete columns. Three types of concrete mixtures were tested: concrete made entirely with natural aggregate (NAC) as a control concrete and two types of concrete made with natural fine and recycle...