Sample records for cell receptor signaling

  1. Molecular cell biology of androgen receptor signalling. (United States)

    Bennett, Nigel C; Gardiner, Robert A; Hooper, John D; Johnson, David W; Gobe, Glenda C


    The classical action of androgen receptor (AR) is to regulate gene transcriptional processes via AR nuclear translocation, response element binding and recruitment of, or crosstalk with, transcription factors. AR also utilises non-classical, non-genomic mechanisms of signal transduction. These precede gene transcription or protein synthesis, and involve steroid-induced modulation of cytoplasmic or cell membrane-bound regulatory proteins. Despite many decades of investigation, the role of AR in gene regulation of cells and tissues remains only partially characterised. AR exerts most of its effects in sex hormone-dependent tissues of the body, but the receptor is also expressed in many tissues not previously thought to be androgen sensitive. Thus it is likely that a complex, more over-arching, role for AR exists. Each AR domain co-ordinates a multitude of individual and vital roles via a diverse array of interacting partner molecules that are necessary for cellular and tissue development and maintenance. Aberrant AR activity, promoted by mutations or binding partner misregulation, can present as many clinical manifestations including androgen insensitivity syndrome and prostate cancer. In the case of malignant prostate cancer, treatment generally revolves around androgen deprivation therapies designed to interfere with AR action and the androgen signalling axis. Androgen therapies for prostate cancer often fail, highlighting a real need for increased research into AR function.

  2. Altered B cell receptor signaling in human systemic lupus erythematosus (United States)

    Jenks, Scott A.; Sanz, Iñaki


    Regulation of B cell receptor signaling is essential for the development of specific immunity while retaining tolerance to self. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by a loss of B cell tolerance and the production of anti-self antibodies. Accompanying this break down in tolerance are alterations in B cell receptor signal transduction including elevated induced calcium responses and increased protein phosphorylation. Specific pathways that negatively regulate B cell signaling have been shown to be impaired in some SLE patients. These patients have reduced levels of the kinase Lyn in lipid raft microdomains and this reduction is inversely correlated with increased CD45 in lipid rafts. Function and expression of the inhibitory immunoglobulin receptor FcγRIIB is also reduced in Lupus IgM- CD27+ memory cells. Because the relative contribution of different memory and transitional B cell subsets can be abnormal in SLE patients, we believe studies targeted to well defined B cell subsets will be necessary to further our understanding of signaling abnormalities in SLE. Intracellular flow cytometric analysis of signaling is a useful approach to accomplish this goal. PMID:18723129

  3. Activating Receptor Signals Drive Receptor Diversity in Developing Natural Killer Cells. (United States)

    Freund, Jacquelyn; May, Rebecca M; Yang, Enjun; Li, Hongchuan; McCullen, Matthew; Zhang, Bin; Lenvik, Todd; Cichocki, Frank; Anderson, Stephen K; Kambayashi, Taku


    It has recently been appreciated that NK cells exhibit many features reminiscent of adaptive immune cells. Considerable heterogeneity exists with respect to the ligand specificity of individual NK cells and as such, a subset of NK cells can respond, expand, and differentiate into memory-like cells in a ligand-specific manner. MHC I-binding inhibitory receptors, including those belonging to the Ly49 and KIR families, are expressed in a variegated manner, which creates ligand-specific diversity within the NK cell pool. However, how NK cells determine which inhibitory receptors to express on their cell surface during a narrow window of development is largely unknown. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that signals from activating receptors are critical for induction of Ly49 and KIR receptors during NK cell development; activating receptor-derived signals increased the probability of the Ly49 bidirectional Pro1 promoter to transcribe in the forward versus the reverse direction, leading to stable expression of Ly49 receptors in mature NK cells. Our data support a model where the balance of activating and inhibitory receptor signaling in NK cells selects for the induction of appropriate inhibitory receptors during development, which NK cells use to create a diverse pool of ligand-specific NK cells.

  4. P2 receptor-mediated signaling in mast cell biology. (United States)

    Bulanova, Elena; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia


    Mast cells are widely recognized as effector cells of allergic inflammatory reactions. They contribute to the pathogenesis of different chronic inflammatory diseases, wound healing, fibrosis, thrombosis/fibrinolysis, and anti-tumor immune responses. In this paper, we summarized the role of P2X and P2Y receptors in mast cell activation and effector functions. Mast cells are an abundant source of ATP which is stored in their granules and secreted upon activation. We discuss the contribution of mast cells to the extracellular ATP release and to the maintenance of extracellular nucleotides pool. Recent publications highlight the importance of purinergic signaling for the pathogenesis of chronic airway inflammation. Therefore, the role of ATP and P2 receptors in allergic inflammation with focus on mast cells was analyzed. Finally, ATP functions as mast cell autocrine/paracrine factor and as messenger in intercellular communication between mast cells, nerves, and glia in the central nervous system.

  5. Activin Receptor Signaling Regulates Prostatic Epithelial Cell Adhesion and Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek P. Simon


    Full Text Available Mutational changes coupled with endocrine, paracrine, and/or autocrine signals regulate cell division during carcinogenesis. The hormone signals remain undefined, although the absolute requirement in vitro for fetal serum indicates the necessity for a fetal serum factor(s in cell proliferation. Using prostatic cancer cell (PCC lines as a model of cancer cell proliferation, we have identified the fetal serum component activin A and its signaling through the activin receptor type II (ActRII, as necessary, although not sufficient, for PCC proliferation. Activin A induced Smad2 phosphorylation and PCC proliferation, but only in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS. Conversely, activin A antibodies and inhibin A suppressed FBS-induced PCC proliferation confirming activin A as one of multiple serum components required for PCC proliferation. Basic fibroblast growth factor was subsequently shown to synergize activin A-induced PCC proliferation. Inhibition of ActRII signaling using a blocking antibody or antisense-P decreased mature ActRII expression, Smad2 phosphorylation, and the apparent viability of PCCs and neuroblastoma cells grown in FBS. Suppression of ActRII signaling in PCC and neuroblastoma cells did not induce apoptosis as indicated by the ratio of active/inactive caspase 3 but did correlate with increased cell detachment and ADAM-15 expression, a disintegrin whose expression is strongly correlated with prostatic metastasis. These findings indicate that ActRII signaling is required for PCC and neuroblastoma cell viability, with ActRII mediating cell fate via the regulation of cell adhesion. That ActRII signaling governs both cell viability and cell adhesion has important implications for developing therapeutic strategies to regulate cancer growth and metastasis.

  6. A sharp T-cell antigen receptor signaling threshold for T-cell proliferation


    Au-Yeung, Byron B.; Zikherman, Julie; James L. Mueller; Ashouri, Judith F.; Matloubian, Mehrdad; Cheng, Debra A.; Chen, Yiling; Shokat, Kevan M; Weiss, Arthur


    Biochemical signals triggered by the T-cell receptor (TCR) are required for stimulating T cells and can be initiated within seconds. However, a hallmark of T-cell activation, cell division, occurs hours after TCR signaling has begun, implying that T cells require a minimum duration and/or accumulate TCR signaling events to drive proliferation. To visualize the accumulated signaling experienced by T cells, we used a fluorescent reporter gene that is activated by TCR stimulation. This technique...

  7. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Signaling in Mammalian Cells

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    Nigel J. Pyne


    Full Text Available The bioactive lipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P binds to a family of G protein-coupled receptors, termed S1P1-S1P5. These receptors function in, for example, the cardiovascular system to regulate vascular barrier integrity and tone, the nervous system to regulate neuronal differentiation, myelination and oligodendrocyte/glial cell survival and the immune system to regulate T- and B-cell subsets and trafficking. S1P receptors also participate in the pathophysiology of autoimmunity, inflammatory disease, cancer, neurodegeneration and others. In this review, we describe how S1P1 can form a complex with G-protein and β-arrestin, which function together to regulate effector pathways. We also discuss the role of the S1P1-Platelet derived growth factor receptor β functional complex (which deploys G-protein/β-arrestin and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling in regulating cell migration. Possible mechanisms by which different S1P-chaperones, such as Apolipoprotein M-High-Density Lipoprotein induce biological programmes in cells are also described. Finally, the role of S1P1 in health and disease and as a target for clinical intervention is appraised.

  8. DMPD: Signals and receptors involved in recruitment of inflammatory cells. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7744810 Signals and receptors involved in recruitment of inflammatory cells. Ben-Ba...ow Signals and receptors involved in recruitment of inflammatory cells. PubmedID 7744810 Title Signals and r...eceptors involved in recruitment of inflammatory cells. Authors Ben-Baruch A, Mic

  9. Erythropoietin regulates Treg cells in asthma through TGFβ receptor signaling. (United States)

    Wan, Guoshi; Wei, Bing


    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, the development of which is suppressed by regulatory T cells (Treg). Erythropoietin (EPO) is originally defined as a hematopoietic growth factor. Recently, the anti-inflammatory effects of EPO in asthma have been acknowledged. However, the underlying mechanisms remain ill-defined. Here, we showed that EPO treatment significantly reduced the severity of an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma in mice, seemingly through promoting Foxp3-mediated activation of Treg cells in OVA-treated mouse lung. The activation of Treg cells resulted from increases in transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), which were mainly produced by M2 macrophages (M2M). In vitro, Co-culture with M2M increased Foxp3 levels in Treg cells and the Treg cell number, in a TGFβ receptor signaling dependent manner. Moreover, elimination of macrophages abolished the therapeutic effects of EPO in vivo. Together, our data suggest that EPO may increase M2M, which activate Treg cells through TGFβ receptor signaling to mitigate the severity of asthma.

  10. Estrogen receptors regulate innate immune cells and signaling pathways. (United States)

    Kovats, Susan


    Humans show strong sex differences in immunity to infection and autoimmunity, suggesting sex hormones modulate immune responses. Indeed, receptors for estrogens (ERs) regulate cells and pathways in the innate and adaptive immune system, as well as immune cell development. ERs are ligand-dependent transcription factors that mediate long-range chromatin interactions and form complexes at gene regulatory elements, thus promoting epigenetic changes and transcription. ERs also participate in membrane-initiated steroid signaling to generate rapid responses. Estradiol and ER activity show profound dose- and context-dependent effects on innate immune signaling pathways and myeloid cell development. While estradiol most often promotes the production of type I interferon, innate pathways leading to pro-inflammatory cytokine production may be enhanced or dampened by ER activity. Regulation of innate immune cells and signaling by ERs may contribute to the reported sex differences in innate immune pathways. Here we review the recent literature and highlight several molecular mechanisms by which ERs regulate the development or functional responses of innate immune cells.

  11. Quantitative Phosphoproteomic Analysis of T-Cell Receptor Signaling. (United States)

    Ahsan, Nagib; Salomon, Arthur R


    TCR signaling critically depends on protein phosphorylation across many proteins. Localization of each phosphorylation event relative to the T-cell receptor (TCR) and canonical T-cell signaling proteins will provide clues about the structure of TCR signaling networks. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis by mass spectrometry provides a wide-scale view of cellular phosphorylation networks. However, analysis of phosphorylation by mass spectrometry is still challenging due to the relative low abundance of phosphorylated proteins relative to all proteins and the extraordinary diversity of phosphorylation sites across the proteome. Highly selective enrichment of phosphorylated peptides is essential to provide the most comprehensive view of the phosphoproteome. Optimization of phosphopeptide enrichment methods coupled with highly sensitive mass spectrometry workflows significantly improves the sequencing depth of the phosphoproteome to over 10,000 unique phosphorylation sites from complex cell lysates. Here we describe a step-by-step method for phosphoproteomic analysis that has achieved widespread success for identification of serine, threonine, and tyrosine phosphorylation. Reproducible quantification of relative phosphopeptide abundance is provided by intensity-based label-free quantitation. An ideal set of mass spectrometry analysis parameters is also provided that optimize the yield of identified sites. We also provide guidelines for the bioinformatic analysis of this type of data to assess the quality of the data and to comply with proteomic data reporting requirements.

  12. P2X and P2Y receptor signaling in red blood cells. (United States)

    Sluyter, Ronald


    Purinergic signaling involves the activation of cell surface P1 and P2 receptors by extracellular nucleosides and nucleotides such as adenosine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respectively. P2 receptors comprise P2X and P2Y receptors, and have well-established roles in leukocyte and platelet biology. Emerging evidence indicates important roles for these receptors in red blood cells. P2 receptor activation stimulates a number of signaling pathways in progenitor red blood cells resulting in microparticle release, reactive oxygen species formation, and apoptosis. Likewise, activation of P2 receptors in mature red blood cells stimulates signaling pathways mediating volume regulation, eicosanoid release, phosphatidylserine exposure, hemolysis, impaired ATP release, and susceptibility or resistance to infection. This review summarizes the distribution of P2 receptors in red blood cells, and outlines the functions of P2 receptor signaling in these cells and its implications in red blood cell biology.

  13. Science Signaling Podcast for 29 November 2016: Pre-B cell receptor signaling in leukemia. (United States)

    Wilson, Bridget S; VanHook, Annalisa M


    This Podcast features an interview with Bridget Wilson, author of a Research Article that appears in the 29 November 2016 issue of Science Signaling, about pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) signaling in B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). Signaling through the pre-BCR, an immature form of the BCR, promotes the survival of B cell progenitors and has been implicated in the pathology of BCP-ALL. Erasmus et al found that pre-BCRs formed transient homomeric complexes that correlated with pro-survival signaling. Preventing homotypic interactions between pre-BCRs sensitized B cells to chemotherapeutic agents, suggesting that interfering with such interactions may improve the efficacy of existing chemotherapies for BCP-ALL.Listen to Podcast.

  14. A balance between B cell receptor and inhibitory receptor signaling controls plasma cell differentiation by maintaining optimal Ets1 levels. (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Mayeux, Jessica; Gutierrez, Toni; Russell, Lisa; Getahun, Andrew; Müller, Jennifer; Tedder, Thomas; Parnes, Jane; Rickert, Robert; Nitschke, Lars; Cambier, John; Satterthwaite, Anne B; Garrett-Sinha, Lee Ann


    Signaling through the BCR can drive B cell activation and contribute to B cell differentiation into Ab-secreting plasma cells. The positive BCR signal is counterbalanced by a number of membrane-localized inhibitory receptors that limit B cell activation and plasma cell differentiation. Deficiencies in these negative signaling pathways may cause autoantibody generation and autoimmune disease in both animal models and human patients. We have previously shown that the transcription factor Ets1 can restrain B cell differentiation into plasma cells. In this study, we tested the roles of the BCR and inhibitory receptors in controlling the expression of Ets1 in mouse B cells. We found that Ets1 is downregulated in B cells by BCR or TLR signaling through a pathway dependent on PI3K, Btk, IKK2, and JNK. Deficiencies in inhibitory pathways, such as a loss of the tyrosine kinase Lyn, the phosphatase Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP1) or membrane receptors CD22 and/or Siglec-G, result in enhanced BCR signaling and decreased Ets1 expression. Restoring Ets1 expression in Lyn- or SHP1-deficient B cells inhibits their enhanced plasma cell differentiation. Our findings indicate that downregulation of Ets1 occurs in response to B cell activation via either BCR or TLR signaling, thereby allowing B cell differentiation and that the maintenance of Ets1 expression is an important function of the inhibitory Lyn → CD22/SiglecG → SHP1 pathway in B cells.

  15. Regulation of cell death receptor S-nitrosylation and apoptotic signaling by Sorafenib in hepatoblastoma cells. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, A; Navarro-Villarán, E; González, R; Pereira, S; Soriano-De Castro, L B; Sarrias-Giménez, A; Barrera-Pulido, L; Álamo-Martínez, J M; Serrablo-Requejo, A; Blanco-Fernández, G; Nogales-Muñoz, A; Gila-Bohórquez, A; Pacheco, D; Torres-Nieto, M A; Serrano-Díaz-Canedo, J; Suárez-Artacho, G; Bernal-Bellido, C; Marín-Gómez, L M; Barcena, J A; Gómez-Bravo, M A; Padilla, C A; Padillo, F J; Muntané, J


    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a relevant role during cell death regulation in tumor cells. The overexpression of nitric oxide synthase type III (NOS-3) induces oxidative and nitrosative stress, p53 and cell death receptor expression and apoptosis in hepatoblastoma cells. S-nitrosylation of cell death receptor modulates apoptosis. Sorafenib is the unique recommended molecular-targeted drug for the treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study was addressed to elucidate the potential role of NO during Sorafenib-induced cell death in HepG2 cells. We determined the intra- and extracellular NO concentration, cell death receptor expression and their S-nitrosylation modifications, and apoptotic signaling in Sorafenib-treated HepG2 cells. The effect of NO donors on above parameters has also been determined. Sorafenib induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. However, low concentration of the drug (10nM) increased cell death receptor expression, as well as caspase-8 and -9 activation, but without activation of downstream apoptotic markers. In contrast, Sorafenib (10 µM) reduced upstream apoptotic parameters but increased caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells. The shift of cell death signaling pathway was associated with a reduction of S-nitrosylation of cell death receptors in Sorafenib-treated cells. The administration of NO donors increased S-nitrosylation of cell death receptors and overall induction of cell death markers in control and Sorafenib-treated cells. In conclusion, Sorafenib induced alteration of cell death receptor S-nitrosylation status which may have a relevant repercussion on cell death signaling in hepatoblastoma cells.

  16. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor and Vitamin D Receptor Signaling Pathways in Cancer Cells

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    Matsuda, Satoru, E-mail:; Kitagishi, Yasuko [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Nara Women’s University, Kita-Uoya Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506 (Japan)


    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors, which respond to specific ligands such as polyunsaturated fatty acids by altering gene expression. Three subtypes of this receptor have been discovered, each evolving to achieve different biological functions. Like other nuclear receptors, the transcriptional activity of PPARs is affected not only by ligand-stimulation, but also by cross-talk with other molecules. For example, both PPARs and the RXRs are ligand-activated transcription factors that coordinately regulate gene expression. In addition, PPARs and vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling pathways regulate a multitude of genes that are of importance for cellular functions including cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Interaction of the PPARs and VDR signaling pathways has been shown at the level of molecular cross-regulation of their transcription factor. A variety of ligands influencing the PPARs and VDR signaling pathways have been shown to reveal chemopreventive potential by mediating tumor suppressive activities in human cancers. Use of these compounds may represent a potential novel strategy to prevent cancers. This review summarizes the roles of the PPARs and the VDR in pathogenesis and progression of cancer.

  17. Integrating signals from the T-cell receptor and the interleukin-2 receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo Beyer


    Full Text Available T cells orchestrate the adaptive immune response, making them targets for immunotherapy. Although immunosuppressive therapies prevent disease progression, they also leave patients susceptible to opportunistic infections. To identify novel drug targets, we established a logical model describing T-cell receptor (TCR signaling. However, to have a model that is able to predict new therapeutic approaches, the current drug targets must be included. Therefore, as a next step we generated the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R signaling network and developed a tool to merge logical models. For IL-2R signaling, we show that STAT activation is independent of both Src- and PI3-kinases, while ERK activation depends upon both kinases and additionally requires novel PKCs. In addition, our merged model correctly predicted TCR-induced STAT activation. The combined network also allows information transfer from one receptor to add detail to another, thereby predicting that LAT mediates JNK activation in IL-2R signaling. In summary, the merged model not only enables us to unravel potential cross-talk, but it also suggests new experimental designs and provides a critical step towards designing strategies to reprogram T cells.

  18. Vitamin D controls T cell antigen receptor signaling and activation of human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Marina Rode; Kongsbak-Wismann, Martin; Schjerling, Peter


    Phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes are key signaling proteins downstream of many extracellular stimuli. Here we show that naive human T cells had very low expression of PLC-gamma1 and that this correlated with low T cell antigen receptor (TCR) responsiveness in naive T cells. However, TCR triggering...... led to an upregulation of approximately 75-fold in PLC-gamma1 expression, which correlated with greater TCR responsiveness. Induction of PLC-gamma1 was dependent on vitamin D and expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Naive T cells did not express VDR, but VDR expression was induced by TCR...... signaling via the alternative mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 pathway. Thus, initial TCR signaling via p38 leads to successive induction of VDR and PLC-gamma1, which are required for subsequent classical TCR signaling and T cell activation....

  19. P2 receptor-mediated signaling in mast cell biology


    Bulanova, Elena; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia


    Mast cells are widely recognized as effector cells of allergic inflammatory reactions. They contribute to the pathogenesis of different chronic inflammatory diseases, wound healing, fibrosis, thrombosis/fibrinolysis, and anti-tumor immune responses. In this paper, we summarized the role of P2X and P2Y receptors in mast cell activation and effector functions. Mast cells are an abundant source of ATP which is stored in their granules and secreted upon activation. We discuss the contribution of ...

  20. A sharp T-cell antigen receptor signaling threshold for T-cell proliferation (United States)

    Au-Yeung, Byron B.; Zikherman, Julie; Mueller, James L.; Ashouri, Judith F.; Matloubian, Mehrdad; Cheng, Debra A.; Chen, Yiling; Shokat, Kevan M.; Weiss, Arthur


    T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling is essential for activation, proliferation, and effector function of T cells. Modulation of both intensity and duration of TCR signaling can regulate these events. However, it remains unclear how individual T cells integrate such signals over time to make critical cell-fate decisions. We have previously developed an engineered mutant allele of the critical T-cell kinase zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 kDa (Zap70) that is catalytically inhibited by a small molecule inhibitor, thereby blocking TCR signaling specifically and efficiently. We have also characterized a fluorescent reporter Nur77–eGFP transgenic mouse line in which T cells up-regulate GFP uniquely in response to TCR stimulation. The combination of these technologies unmasked a sharp TCR signaling threshold for commitment to cell division both in vitro and in vivo. Further, we demonstrate that this threshold is independent of both the magnitude of the TCR stimulus and Interleukin 2. Similarly, we identify a temporal threshold of TCR signaling that is required for commitment to proliferation, after which T cells are able to proliferate in a Zap70 kinase-independent manner. Taken together, our studies reveal a sharp threshold for the magnitude and duration of TCR signaling required for commitment of T cells to proliferation. These results have important implications for understanding T-cell responses to infection and optimizing strategies for immunomodulatory drug delivery. PMID:25136127

  1. Five layers of receptor signalling in γδ T cell differentiation and activation

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    Sérgio T. Ribeiro


    Full Text Available The contributions of gamma-delta T cells to immunity to infection or tumours critically depend on their activation and differentiation into effectors capable of secreting cytokines and killing infected or transformed cells. These processes are molecularly controlled by surface receptors that capture key extracellular cues and convey downstream intracellular signals that regulate gamma-delta T cell physiology. The understanding of how environmental signals are integrated by gamma-delta T cells is critical for their manipulation in clinical settings. Here we discuss how different classes of surface receptors impact on human and murine gamma-delta T cell differentiation, activation and expansion. In particular, we review the role of five receptor types: the T cell receptor (TCR, costimulatory receptors, cytokine receptors, NK receptors and inhibitory receptors. Some of the key players are the costimulatory receptors CD27 and CD28, which differentially impact on pro-inflammatory subsets of gamma-delta T cells; the cytokine receptors IL-2R, IL-7R and IL-15R, which drive functional differentiation and expansion of gamma-delta T cells; the NK receptor NKG2D and its contribution to gamma-delta T cell cytotoxicity; and the inhibitory receptors PD-1 and BTLA that control gamma-delta T cell homeostasis. We discuss these and other receptors in the context of a five-step model of receptor signalling in gamma-delta T cell differentiation and activation, and discuss its implications for the manipulation of gamma-delta T cells in immunotherapy.

  2. Regulation of breast cancer stem cell activity by signaling through the Notch4 receptor


    Harrison, Hannah; Farnie, Gillian; Howell, Sacha J.; Rock, Rebecca E; Stylianou, Spyros; Brennan, Keith R.; Bundred, Nigel J; Clarke, Robert B.


    Notch receptor signaling pathways play an important role not only in normal breast development but also in breast cancer development and progression. We assessed the role of Notch receptors in stem cell activity in breast cancer cell lines and nine primary human tumor samples. Stem cells were enriched by selection of anoikis-resistant cells or cells expressing the membrane phenotype ESA+/CD44+/CD24low. Using these breast cancer stem cell populations, we compared the activation status of Notch...

  3. G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling in Stem Cells and Cancer


    Lynch, Jennifer R.; Jenny Yingzi Wang


    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large superfamily of cell-surface signaling proteins that bind extracellular ligands and transduce signals into cells via heterotrimeric G proteins. GPCRs are highly tractable drug targets. Aberrant expression of GPCRs and G proteins has been observed in various cancers and their importance in cancer stem cells has begun to be appreciated. We have recently reported essential roles for G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) and G protein subunit Gαq in ...

  4. Troglitazone inhibits cell proliferation by attenuation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling independent of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoqi Li; Xuanming Yang; Youli Xu; Xuejun Jiang; Xin Li; Fajun Nan; Hong Tang


    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors. Recent results have shown that agonists of PPARy, such as troglitazone (TGZ), can inhibit cell proliferation and promote cell differentiation independent of PPARγ. In the present study, we provide evidence that TGZ may bind directly to EGFR and trigger its signaling and internalization independent of PPARγ. Detailed studies revealed that prolonged incubation with TGZ effectively attenuated EGFR signaling by target-ing the receptor to the endo-lysosomal degradation machinery. Although the extracellular signal-regulated kinase-signaling pathway was transiently activated by TGZ in EGFR overexpressing cancer cells, inhibition of EGF-induced Akt phosphorylation most likely accounted for the growth arrest of tumor cells caused by TGZ at pharmacologically achievable concentrations. Therefore, we have provided a new line of evidence indicating that TGZ inhibits cell pro-liferation by promoting EGFR degradation and attenuating Akt phosphorylation.

  5. Phosphorylation site dynamics of early T-cell receptor signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chylek, Lily A; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Dengjel, Jörn;


    a systems-level understanding of how these components cooperate to control signaling dynamics, especially during the crucial first seconds of stimulation. Here, we used quantitative proteomics to characterize reshaping of the T-cell phosphoproteome in response to TCR/CD28 co-stimulation, and found...... that diverse dynamic patterns emerge within seconds. We detected phosphorylation dynamics as early as 5 s and observed widespread regulation of key TCR signaling proteins by 30 s. Development of a computational model pointed to the presence of novel regulatory mechanisms controlling phosphorylation of sites...

  6. Differential T cell receptor-mediated signaling in naive and memory CD4 T cells. (United States)

    Farber, D L; Acuto, O; Bottomly, K


    Naive and memory CD4 T cells differ in cell surface phenotype, function, activation requirements, and modes of regulation. To investigate the molecular bases for the dichotomies between naive and memory CD4 T cells and to understand how the T cell receptor (TCR) directs diverse functional outcomes, we investigated proximal signaling events triggered through the TCR/CD3 complex in naive and memory CD4 T cell subsets isolated on the basis of CD45 isoform expression. Naive CD4 T cells signal through TCR/CD3 similar to unseparated CD4 T cells, producing multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated protein species overall and phosphorylating the T cell-specific ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase which is recruited to the CD3zeta subunit of the TCR. Memory CD4 T cells, however, exhibit a unique pattern of signaling through TCR/CD3. Following stimulation through TCR/CD3, memory CD4 T cells produce fewer species of tyrosine-phosphorylated substrates and fail to phosphorylate ZAP-70, yet unphosphorylated ZAP-70 can associate with the TCR/CD3 complex. Moreover, a 26/28-kDa phosphorylated doublet is associated with CD3zeta in resting and activated memory but not in naive CD4 T cells. Despite these differences in the phosphorylation of ZAP-70 and CD3-associated proteins, the ZAP-70-related kinase, p72syk, exhibits similar phosphorylation in naive and memory T cell subsets, suggesting that this kinase could function in place of ZAP-70 in memory CD4 T cells. These results indicate that proximal signals are differentially coupled to the TCR in naive versus memory CD4 T cells, potentially leading to distinct downstream signaling events and ultimately to the diverse functions elicited by these two CD4 T cell subsets.

  7. Quercetin suppresses insulin receptor signaling through inhibition of the insulin ligand–receptor binding and therefore impairs cancer cell proliferation

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    Wang, Feng [Department of Gastroenterology, The Tenth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Yang, Yong, E-mail: [Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065 (United States)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quercetin inhibits insulin ligand–receptor interactions. • Quercetin reduces downstream insulin receptor signaling. • Quercetin blocks insulin induced glucose uptake. • Quercetin suppresses insulin stimulated cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. - Abstract: Although the flavonoid quercetin is known to inhibit activation of insulin receptor signaling, the inhibitory mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that quercetin suppresses insulin induced dimerization of the insulin receptor (IR) through interfering with ligand–receptor interactions, which reduces the phosphorylation of IR and Akt. This inhibitory effect further inhibits insulin stimulated glucose uptake due to decreased cell membrane translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), resulting in impaired cancer cell proliferation. The effect of quercetin in inhibiting tumor growth was also evident in an in vivo model, indicating a potential future application for quercetin in the treatment of cancers.

  8. B-cell receptor signalling and its crosstalk with other pathways in normal and malignant cells. (United States)

    Seda, Vaclav; Mraz, Marek


    The physiology of B cells is intimately connected with the function of their B-cell receptor (BCR). B-cell lymphomas frequently (dys)regulate BCR signalling and thus take advantage of this pre-existing pathway for B-cell proliferation and survival. This has recently been underscored by clinical trials demonstrating that small molecules (fosfamatinib, ibrutinib, idelalisib) inhibiting BCR-associated kinases (SYK, BTK, PI3K) have an encouraging clinical effect. Here we describe the current knowledge of the specific aspects of BCR signalling in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and normal B cells. Multiple factors can contribute to BCR pathway (dys)regulation in these malignancies and the activation of 'chronic' or 'tonic' BCR signalling. In lymphoma B cells, the balance of initiation, amplitude and duration of BCR activation can be influenced by a specific immunoglobulin structure, the expression and mutations of adaptor molecules (like GAB1, BLNK, GRB2, CARD11), the activity of kinases (like LYN, SYK, PI3K) or phosphatases (like SHIP-1, SHP-1 and PTEN) and levels of microRNAs. We also discuss the crosstalk of BCR with other signalling pathways (NF-κB, adhesion through integrins, migration and chemokine signalling) to emphasise that the 'BCR inhibitors' target multiple pathways interconnected with BCR, which might explain some of their clinical activity.

  9. Cell surface receptors for signal transduction and ligand transport: a design principles study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Shankaran


    Full Text Available Receptors constitute the interface of cells to their external environment. These molecules bind specific ligands involved in multiple processes, such as signal transduction and nutrient transport. Although a variety of cell surface receptors undergo endocytosis, the systems-level design principles that govern the evolution of receptor trafficking dynamics are far from fully understood. We have constructed a generalized mathematical model of receptor-ligand binding and internalization to understand how receptor internalization dynamics encodes receptor function and regulation. A given signaling or transport receptor system represents a particular implementation of this module with a specific set of kinetic parameters. Parametric analysis of the response of receptor systems to ligand inputs reveals that receptor systems can be characterized as being: i avidity-controlled where the response control depends primarily on the extracellular ligand capture efficiency, ii consumption-controlled where the ability to internalize surface-bound ligand is the primary control parameter, and iii dual-sensitivity where both the avidity and consumption parameters are important. We show that the transferrin and low-density lipoprotein receptors are avidity-controlled, the vitellogenin receptor is consumption-controlled, and the epidermal growth factor receptor is a dual-sensitivity receptor. Significantly, we show that ligand-induced endocytosis is a mechanism to enhance the accuracy of signaling receptors rather than merely serving to attenuate signaling. Our analysis reveals that the location of a receptor system in the avidity-consumption parameter space can be used to understand both its function and its regulation.

  10. RNase L Suppresses Androgen Receptor Signaling, Cell Migration and Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in Prostate Cancer Cells. (United States)

    Dayal, Shubham; Zhou, Jun; Manivannan, Praveen; Siddiqui, Mohammad Adnan; Ahmad, Omaima Farid; Clark, Matthew; Awadia, Sahezeel; Garcia-Mata, Rafael; Shemshedini, Lirim; Malathi, Krishnamurthy


    The interferon antiviral pathways and prostate cancer genetics converge on a regulated endoribonuclease, RNase L. Positional cloning and linkage studies mapped Hereditary Prostate Cancer 1 (HPC1) to RNASEL. To date, there is no correlation of viral infections with prostate cancer, suggesting that RNase L may play additional roles in tumor suppression. Here, we demonstrate a role of RNase L as a suppressor of androgen receptor (AR) signaling, cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase activity. Using RNase L mutants, we show that its nucleolytic activity is dispensable for both AR signaling and migration. The most prevalent HPC1-associated mutations in RNase L, R462Q and E265X, enhance AR signaling and cell migration. RNase L negatively regulates cell migration and attachment on various extracellular matrices. We demonstrate that RNase L knockdown cells promote increased cell surface expression of integrin β1 which activates Focal Adhesion Kinase-Sarcoma (FAK-Src) pathway and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1-guanosine triphosphatase (Rac1-GTPase) activity to increase cell migration. Activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 is significantly increased in cells where RNase L levels are ablated. We show that mutations in RNase L found in HPC patients may promote prostate cancer by increasing expression of AR-responsive genes and cell motility and identify novel roles of RNase L as a prostate cancer susceptibility gene.

  11. Quantitative impedimetric NPY-receptor activation monitoring and signal pathway profiling in living cells. (United States)

    te Kamp, Verena; Lindner, Ricco; Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Krinke, Dana; Kostelnik, Katja B; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Robitzki, Andrea A


    Label-free and non-invasive monitoring of receptor activation and identification of the involved signal pathways in living cells is an ongoing analytic challenge and a great opportunity for biosensoric systems. In this context, we developed an impedance spectroscopy-based system for the activation monitoring of NPY-receptors in living cells. Using an optimized interdigital electrode array for sensitive detection of cellular alterations, we were able for the first time to quantitatively detect the NPY-receptor activation directly without a secondary or enhancer reaction like cAMP-stimulation by forskolin. More strikingly, we could show that the impedimetric based NPY-receptor activation monitoring is not restricted to the Y1-receptor but also possible for the Y2- and Y5-receptor. Furthermore, we could monitor the NPY-receptor activation in different cell lines that natively express NPY-receptors and proof the specificity of the observed impedimetric effect by agonist/antagonist studies in recombinant NPY-receptor expressing cell lines. To clarify the nature of the observed impedimetric effect we performed an equivalent circuit analysis as well as analyzed the role of cell morphology and receptor internalization. Finally, an antagonist based extensive molecular signal pathway analysis revealed small alterations of the actin cytoskeleton as well as the inhibition of at least L-type calcium channels as major reasons for the observed NPY-induced impedance increase. Taken together, our novel impedance spectroscopy based NPY-receptor activation monitoring system offers the opportunity to identify signal pathways as well as for novel versatile agonist/antagonist screening systems for identification of novel therapeutics in the field of obesity and cancer.

  12. Dopamine receptors modulate cytotoxicity of natural killer cells via cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA, a neurotransmitter in the nervous system, has been shown to modulate immune function. We have previously reported that five subtypes of DA receptors, including D1R, D2R, D3R, D4R and D5R, are expressed in T lymphocytes and they are involved in regulation of T cells. However, roles of these DA receptor subtypes and their coupled signal-transduction pathway in modulation of natural killer (NK cells still remain to be clarified. The spleen of mice was harvested and NK cells were isolated and purified by negative selection using magnetic activated cell sorting. After NK cells were incubated with various drugs for 4 h, flow cytometry measured cytotoxicity of NK cells against YAC-1 lymphoma cells. NK cells expressed the five subtypes of DA receptors at mRNA and protein levels. Activation of D1-like receptors (including D1R and D5R with agonist SKF38393 enhanced NK cell cytotoxicity, but activation of D2-like receptors (including D2R, D3R and D4R with agonist quinpirole attenuated NK cells. Simultaneously, SKF38393 elevated D1R and D5R expression, cAMP content, and phosphorylated cAMP-response element-binding (CREB level in NK cells, while quinpirole reduced D3R and D4R expression, cAMP content, and phosphorylated CREB level in NK cells. These effects of SKF38393 were blocked by SCH23390, an antagonist of D1-like receptors, and quinpirole effects were abolished by haloperidol, an antagonist of D2-like receptors. In support these results, H89, an inhibitor of phosphokinase A (PKA, prevented the SKF38393-dependent enhancement of NK cells and forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase (AC, counteracted the quinpirole-dependent suppression of NK cells. These findings show that DA receptor subtypes are involved in modulation of NK cells and suggest that D1-like receptors facilitate NK cells by stimulating D1R/D5R-cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway and D2-like receptors suppress NK cells by inhibiting D3R/D4R-cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway. The

  13. Delineation of the GPRC6A Receptor Signaling Pathways Using a Mammalian Cell Line Stably Expressing the Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Engesgaard; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Lenea; Thomsen, Alex Rojas Bie;


    receptor has been suggested to couple to multiple G protein classes albeit via indirect methods. Thus, the exact ligand preferences and signaling pathways are yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we generated a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line that stably expresses mouse GPRC6A. In an effort...... of the stable CHO cell line with robust receptor responsiveness and optimization of the highly sensitive homogeneous time resolved fluorescence technology allow fast assessment of Gq activation without previous manipulations like cotransfection of mutated G proteins. This cell-based assay system for GPRC6A...

  14. N-wasp is essential for the negative regulation of B cell receptor signaling.

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    Chaohong Liu


    Full Text Available Negative regulation of receptor signaling is essential for controlling cell activation and differentiation. In B-lymphocytes, the down-regulation of B-cell antigen receptor (BCR signaling is critical for suppressing the activation of self-reactive B cells; however, the mechanism underlying the negative regulation of signaling remains elusive. Using genetically manipulated mouse models and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP, which is coexpressed with WASP in all immune cells, is a critical negative regulator of B-cell signaling. B-cell-specific N-WASP gene deletion causes enhanced and prolonged BCR signaling and elevated levels of autoantibodies in the mouse serum. The increased signaling in N-WASP knockout B cells is concurrent with increased accumulation of F-actin at the B-cell surface, enhanced B-cell spreading on the antigen-presenting membrane, delayed B-cell contraction, inhibition in the merger of signaling active BCR microclusters into signaling inactive central clusters, and a blockage of BCR internalization. Upon BCR activation, WASP is activated first, followed by N-WASP in mouse and human primary B cells. The activation of N-WASP is suppressed by Bruton's tyrosine kinase-induced WASP activation, and is restored by the activation of SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase that inhibits WASP activation. Our results reveal a new mechanism for the negative regulation of BCR signaling and broadly suggest an actin-mediated mechanism for signaling down-regulation.

  15. Cannabinoid receptor type 1- and 2-mediated increase in cyclic AMP inhibits T cell receptor-triggered signaling. (United States)

    Börner, Christine; Smida, Michal; Höllt, Volker; Schraven, Burkhart; Kraus, Jürgen


    The aim of this study was to characterize inhibitory mechanisms on T cell receptor signaling mediated by the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Both receptors are coupled to G(i/o) proteins, which are associated with inhibition of cyclic AMP formation. In human primary and Jurkat T lymphocytes, activation of CB1 by R(+)-methanandamide, CB2 by JWH015, and both by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol induced a short decrease in cyclic AMP lasting less than 1 h. However, this decrease was followed by a massive (up to 10-fold) and sustained (at least up to 48 h) increase in cyclic AMP. Mediated by the cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase A and C-terminal Src kinase, the cannabinoids induced a stable phosphorylation of the inhibitory Tyr-505 of the leukocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck). By thus arresting Lck in its inhibited form, the cannabinoids prevented the dephosphorylation of Lck at Tyr-505 in response to T cell receptor activation, which is necessary for the subsequent initiation of T cell receptor signaling. In this way the cannabinoids inhibited the T cell receptor-triggered signaling, i.e. the activation of the zeta-chain-associated protein kinase of 70 kDa, the linker for activation of T cells, MAPK, the induction of interleukin-2, and T cell proliferation. All of the effects of the cannabinoids were blocked by the CB1 and CB2 antagonists AM281 and AM630. These findings help to better understand the immunosuppressive effects of cannabinoids and explain the beneficial effects of these drugs in the treatment of T cell-mediated autoimmune disorders like multiple sclerosis.

  16. G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling in Stem Cells and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Lynch


    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are a large superfamily of cell-surface signaling proteins that bind extracellular ligands and transduce signals into cells via heterotrimeric G proteins. GPCRs are highly tractable drug targets. Aberrant expression of GPCRs and G proteins has been observed in various cancers and their importance in cancer stem cells has begun to be appreciated. We have recently reported essential roles for G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84 and G protein subunit Gαq in the maintenance of cancer stem cells in acute myeloid leukemia. This review will discuss how GPCRs and G proteins regulate stem cells with a focus on cancer stem cells, as well as their implications for the development of novel targeted cancer therapies.

  17. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 4 channel controls calcium signals and dental follicle stem cell differentiation



    Elevations in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration are a phenomena commonly observed during stem cell differentiation but cease after the process is complete. The Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 4 (TRPM4) is an ion channel that controls Ca2+ signals in excitable and non-excitable cells. However, its role in stem cells remains unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize TRPM4 in rat dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs) and to determine its impact on Ca2+ signaling and the differen...

  18. Role of Cbl-associated protein/ponsin in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and cell adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva Tikkanen


    Full Text Available The Cbl-associated protein/ponsin (CAP is an adaptor protein that contains a so-called Sorbin homology (SoHo domain and three Src homology 3 (SH3 domains which are engaged in diverse protein-protein interactions. CAP has been shown to function in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and cell adhesion and to be involved in the differentiation of muscle cells and adipocytes. In addition, it participates in signaling pathways through several receptor tyrosine kinases such as insulin and neurotrophin receptors. In the last couple of years, several studies have shed light on the details of these processes and identified novel interaction partners of CAP. In this review, we summarize these recent findings and provide an overview on the function of CAP especially in cell adhesion and membrane receptor signaling.

  19. Kainate receptors mediate signaling in both transient and sustained OFF bipolar cell pathways in mouse retina. (United States)

    Borghuis, Bart G; Looger, Loren L; Tomita, Susumu; Demb, Jonathan B


    A fundamental question in sensory neuroscience is how parallel processing is implemented at the level of molecular and circuit mechanisms. In the retina, it has been proposed that distinct OFF cone bipolar cell types generate fast/transient and slow/sustained pathways by the differential expression of AMPA- and kainate-type glutamate receptors, respectively. However, the functional significance of these receptors in the intact circuit during light stimulation remains unclear. Here, we measured glutamate release from mouse bipolar cells by two-photon imaging of a glutamate sensor (iGluSnFR) expressed on postsynaptic amacrine and ganglion cell dendrites. In both transient and sustained OFF layers, cone-driven glutamate release from bipolar cells was blocked by antagonists to kainate receptors but not AMPA receptors. Electrophysiological recordings from bipolar and ganglion cells confirmed the essential role of kainate receptors for signaling in both transient and sustained OFF pathways. Kainate receptors mediated responses to contrast modulation up to 20 Hz. Light-evoked responses in all mouse OFF bipolar pathways depend on kainate, not AMPA, receptors.

  20. Role of ERK/MAPK in endothelin receptor signaling in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Qing-wen; Edvinsson, Lars; Xu, Cang-Bao


    muscle cells (VSMCs) through activation of endothelin type A (ETA) and type B (ETB) receptors. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are involved in ET-1-induced VSMC contraction and proliferation. This study was designed to investigate...

  1. HSP90 promotes Burkitt lymphoma cell survival by maintaining tonic B-cell receptor signaling. (United States)

    Walter, Roland; Pan, Kuan-Ting; Doebele, Carmen; Comoglio, Federico; Tomska, Katarzyna; Bohnenberger, Hanibal; Young, Ryan M; Jacobs, Laura; Keller, Ulrich; Bönig, Halvard; Engelke, Michael; Rosenwald, Andreas; Urlaub, Henning; Staudt, Louis M; Serve, Hubert; Zenz, Thorsten; Oellerich, Thomas


    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm that is currently treated by intensive chemotherapy in combination with anti-CD20 antibodies. Because of their toxicity, current treatment regimens are often not suitable for elderly patients or for patients in developing countries where BL is endemic. Targeted therapies for BL are therefore needed. In this study, we performed a compound screen in 17 BL cell lines to identify small molecule inhibitors affecting cell survival. We found that inhibitors of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) induced apoptosis in BL cells in vitro at concentrations that did not affect normal B cells. By global proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling, we show that, in BL, HSP90 inhibition compromises the activity of the pivotal B-cell antigen receptor (BCR)-proximal effector spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), which we identified as an HSP90 client protein. Consistently, expression of constitutively active TEL-SYK counteracted the apoptotic effect of HSP90 inhibition. Together, our results demonstrate that HSP90 inhibition impairs BL cell survival by interfering with tonic BCR signaling, thus providing a molecular rationale for the use of HSP90 inhibitors in the treatment of BL.

  2. Adaptive and innate immune reactions regulating mast cell activation: from receptor-mediated signaling to responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tkaczyk, Christine; Jensen, Bettina M; Iwaki, Shoko


    differentially activate multiple signaling pathways within the mast cells required for the generation and/or release of inflammatory mediators. Thus, the composition of the suite of mediators released and the physiologic ramifications of these responses are dependent on the stimuli and the microenvironment...... activation. The exact interconnections between the signaling pathways initiated by the surface receptors described in this article remain to be completely worked out; thus, this remains a topic for future investigation....

  3. The TNF receptor and Ig superfamily members form an integrated signaling circuit controlling dendritic cell homeostasis (United States)

    De Trez, Carl; Ware, Carl F.


    Dendritic cells (DC) constitute the most potent antigen presenting cells of the immune system, playing a key role bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. Specialized DC subsets differ depending on their origin, tissue location and the influence of trophic factors, the latter remain to be fully understood. Stromal cell and myeloid-associated Lymphotoxin-β receptor (LTβR) signaling is required for the local proliferation of lymphoid tissue DC. This review focuses the LTβR signaling cascade as a crucial positive trophic signal in the homeostasis of DC subsets. The noncanonical coreceptor pathway comprised of the Immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily member, B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and TNFR superfamily member, Herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) counter regulates the trophic signaling by LTβR. Together both pathways form an integrated signaling circuit achieving homeostasis of DC subsets. PMID:18511331

  4. Purinergic receptors and calcium signalling in human pancreatic duct cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette R; Krabbe, Simon; Novak, Ivana


    Purinergic receptors regulate various processes including epithelial transport. There are several studies on P2 receptors in pancreatic ducts of various species, but relatively little is known about these receptors in human tissue. The aim of this study was to identify purinergic receptors in human......ATP, commonly used to stimulate P2X7 receptors, elicited non-oscillatory and transient Ca(2+) responses. Ivermectin, a potentiator of P2X4 receptors, increased Ca(2+) signals evoked by ATP. The single cell Ca(2+) measurements indicated functional expression of P2Y2 and other P2Y receptors, and notably...... expression of P2X4 and P2X7 receptors. Expression of P2Y2, P2X4 and P2X7 receptors was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. This fingerprint of P2 receptors in human pancreatic duct models forms the basis for studying effect of nucleotides on ion and fluid secretion, as well as on Ca(2+) and tissue homeostasis...

  5. What do we really know about 5-HT1A receptor signaling in neuronal cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in neuronal plasticity. Variations in the levels of 5-HT at the synaptic cleft, expression or dysfunction of serotonin receptors may alter brain development and predispose to various mental diseases. Here, we review the transduction pathways described in various cell types transfected with recombinant 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR, specially contrasting with those findings obtained in neuronal cells. The 5-HT1AR is detected in early stages of neural development and is located in the soma, dendrites and spines of hippocampal neurons. The 5-HT1AR differs from other serotonin receptors because it is coupled to different pathways, depending on the targeted cell. The signaling pathway associated with this receptor is determined by Gα isoforms and some cascades involve βγ signaling. The activity of 5-HT1AR usually promotes a reduction in neuronal excitability and firing, provokes a variation in cAMP and Ca2+, levels which may be linked to specific types of behavior and cognition. Furthermore, evidence indicates that 5-HT1AR induces neuritogesis and synapse formation, probably by modulation of the neuronal cytoskeleton through MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. Advances in understanding the actions of 5-HT1AR and its association with different signaling pathways in the central nervous system will reveal their pivotal role in health and disease.

  6. What Do We Really Know About 5-HT1A Receptor Signaling in Neuronal Cells? (United States)

    Rojas, Paulina S.; Fiedler, Jenny L.


    Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in neuronal plasticity. Variations in the levels of 5-HT at the synaptic cleft, expression or dysfunction of 5-HT receptors may alter brain development and predispose to various mental diseases. Here, we review the transduction pathways described in various cell types transfected with recombinant 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR), specially contrasting with those findings obtained in neuronal cells. The 5-HT1AR is detected in early stages of neural development and is located in the soma, dendrites and spines of hippocampal neurons. The 5-HT1AR differs from other 5-HT receptors because it is coupled to different pathways, depending on the targeted cell. The signaling pathway associated with this receptor is determined by Gα isoforms and some cascades involve βγ signaling. The activity of 5-HT1AR usually promotes a reduction in neuronal excitability and firing, provokes a variation in cAMP and Ca2+, levels which may be linked to specific types of behavior and cognition. Furthermore, evidence indicates that 5-HT1AR induces neuritogesis and synapse formation, probably by modulation of the neuronal cytoskeleton through MAPK and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathways. Advances in understanding the actions of 5-HT1AR and its association with different signaling pathways in the central nervous system will reveal their pivotal role in health and disease. PMID:27932955

  7. B-cell receptor-driven MALT1 activity regulates MYC signaling in mantle cell lymphoma. (United States)

    Dai, Beiying; Grau, Michael; Juilland, Mélanie; Klener, Pavel; Höring, Elisabeth; Molinsky, Jan; Schimmack, Gisela; Aukema, Sietse M; Hoster, Eva; Vogt, Niklas; Staiger, Annette M; Erdmann, Tabea; Xu, Wendan; Erdmann, Kristian; Dzyuba, Nicole; Madle, Hannelore; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Trneny, Marek; Dreyling, Martin; Jöhrens, Korinna; Lenz, Peter; Rosenwald, Andreas; Siebert, Reiner; Tzankov, Alexandar; Klapper, Wolfram; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Krappmann, Daniel; Ott, German; Thome, Margot; Lenz, Georg


    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a mature B-cell lymphoma characterized by poor clinical outcome. Recent studies revealed the importance of B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in maintaining MCL survival. However, it remains unclear which role MALT1, an essential component of the CARD11-BCL10-MALT1 complex that links BCR signaling to the NF-κB pathway, plays in the biology of MCL. Here we show that a subset of MCLs is addicted to MALT1, as its inhibition by either RNA or pharmacologic interference induced cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Gene expression profiling following MALT1 inhibition demonstrated that MALT1 controls an MYC-driven gene expression network predominantly through increasing MYC protein stability. Thus, our analyses identify a previously unappreciated regulatory mechanism of MYC expression. Investigating primary mouse splenocytes, we could demonstrate that MALT1-induced MYC regulation is not restricted to MCL, but represents a common mechanism. MYC itself is pivotal for MCL survival because its downregulation and pharmacologic inhibition induced cytotoxicity in all MCL models. Collectively, these results provide a strong mechanistic rationale to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of targeting the MALT1-MYC axis in MCL patients.

  8. TGFβ activated kinase 1 (TAK1 at the crossroad of B cell receptor and Toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathways in human B cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dániel Szili

    Full Text Available B cell development and activation are regulated by combined signals mediated by the B cell receptor (BCR, receptors for the B-cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF-R and the innate receptor, Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9. However, the underlying mechanisms by which these signals cooperate in human B cells remain unclear. Our aim was to elucidate the key signaling molecules at the crossroads of BCR, BAFF-R and TLR9 mediated pathways and to follow the functional consequences of costimulation.Therefore we stimulated purified human B cells by combinations of anti-Ig, B-cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF and the TLR9 agonist, CpG oligodeoxynucleotide. Phosphorylation status of various signaling molecules, B cell proliferation, cytokine secretion, plasma blast generation and the frequency of IgG producing cells were investigated. We have found that BCR induced signals cooperate with BAFF-R- and TLR9-mediated signals at different levels of cell activation. BCR and BAFF- as well as TLR9 and BAFF-mediated signals cooperate at NFκB activation, while BCR and TLR9 synergistically costimulate mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs, ERK, JNK and p38. We show here for the first time that the MAP3K7 (TGF beta activated kinase, TAK1 is responsible for the synergistic costimulation of B cells by BCR and TLR9, resulting in an enhanced cell proliferation, plasma blast generation, cytokine and antibody production. Specific inhibitor of TAK1 as well as knocking down TAK1 by siRNA abrogates the synergistic signals. We conclude that TAK1 is a key regulator of receptor crosstalk between BCR and TLR9, thus plays a critical role in B cell development and activation.

  9. A model for the biosynthesis and transport of plasma membrane-associated signaling receptors to the cell surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Claudia Popescu


    Full Text Available Intracellular protein transport is emerging as critical in determining the outcome of receptor-activated signal transduction pathways. In plants, relatively little is known about the nature of the molecular components and mechanisms involved in coordinating receptor synthesis and transport to the cell surface. Recent advances in this field indicate that signaling pathways and intracellular transport machinery converge and coordinate to render receptors competent for signaling at their plasma membrane activity sites. The biogenesis and transport to the cell surface of signaling receptors appears to require both general trafficking and receptor-specific factors. Several molecular determinants, residing or associated with compartments of the secretory pathway and known to influence aspects in receptor biogenesis, are discussed and integrated into a predictive cooperative model for the functional expression of signaling receptors at the plasma membrane.

  10. TRPM5, a taste-signaling transient receptor potential ion-channel, is a ubiquitous signaling component in chemosensory cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Thomas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of TRP channels have been identified as key players in the sensation of smell, temperature, mechanical forces and taste. TRPM5 is known to be abundantly expressed in taste receptor cells where it participates in sweet, amino acid and bitter perception. A role of TRPM5 in other sensory systems, however, has not been studied so far. Results Here, we systematically investigated the expression of TRPM5 in rat and mouse tissues. Apart from taste buds, where we found TRPM5 to be predominantly localized on the basolateral surface of taste receptor cells, TRPM5 immunoreactivity was seen in other chemosensory organs – the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ. Most strikingly, we found solitary TRPM5-enriched epithelial cells in all parts of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. Based on their tissue distribution, the low cell density, morphological features and co-immunostaining with different epithelial markers, we identified these cells as brush cells (also known as tuft, fibrillovesicular, multivesicular or caveolated cells. In terms of morphological characteristics, brush cells resemble taste receptor cells, while their origin and biological role are still under intensive debate. Conclusion We consider TRPM5 to be an intrinsic signaling component of mammalian chemosensory organs, and provide evidence for brush cells being an important cellular correlate in the periphery.

  11. Charged MVB protein 5 is involved in T-cell receptor signaling. (United States)

    Wi, Sae Mi; Min, Yoon; Lee, Ki-Young


    Charged multivesicular body protein 5 (CHMP5) has a key role in multivesicular body biogenesis and a critical role in the downregulation of signaling pathways through receptor degradation. However, the role of CHMP5 in T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated signaling has not been previously investigated. In this study, we utilized a short hairpin RNA-based RNA interference approach to investigate the functional role of CHMP5. Upon TCR stimulation, CHMP5-knockdown (CHMP5(KD)) Jurkat T cells exhibited activation of TCR downstream signaling molecules, such as PKCθ and IKKαβ, and resulted in the activation of nuclear factor-κB and the marked upregulation of TCR-induced gene expression. Moreover, we found that activator protein-1 and nuclear factor of activated T-cells transcriptional factors were markedly activated in CHMP5(KD) Jurkat cells in response to TCR stimulation, which led to a significant increase in interleukin-2 secretion. Biochemical studies revealed that CHMP5 endogenously forms high-molecular-weight complexes, including TCR molecules, and specifically interacts with TCRβ. Interestingly, flow cytometry analysis also revealed that CHMP5(KD) Jurkat T cells exhibit upregulation of TCR expression on the cell surface compared with control Jurkat T cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that CHMP5 might be involved in the homeostatic regulation of TCR on the cell surface, presumably through TCR recycling or degradation. Thus CHMP5 is implicated in TCR-mediated signaling.

  12. Purinergic signaling in the cerebellum: Bergmann glial cells express functional ionotropic P2X7 receptors. (United States)

    Habbas, Samia; Ango, Fabrice; Daniel, Hervé; Galante, Micaela


    Astrocytes constitute active networks of intercommunicating cells that support the metabolism and the development of neurons and affect synaptic functions via multiple pathways. ATP is one of the major neurotransmitters mediating signaling between neurons and astrocytes. Potentially acting through both purinergic metabotropic P2Y receptors (P2YRs) and ionotropic P2X receptors (P2XRs), up until now ATP has only been shown to activate P2YRs in Bergmann cells, the radial glia of the cerebellar cortex that envelopes Purkinje cell afferent synapses. In this study, using multiple experimental approaches in acute cerebellar slices we demonstrate the existence of functional P2XRs on Bergmann cells. In particular, we show here that Bergmann cells express uniquely P2X7R subtypes: (i) immunohistochemical analysis revealed the presence of P2X7Rs on Bergmann cell processes, (ii) in whole cell recordings P2XR pharmacological agonists induced depolarizing currents that were blocked by specific antagonists of P2X7Rs, and could not be elicited in slices from P2X₇R-deficient mice and finally, (iii) calcium imaging experiments revealed two distinct calcium signals triggered by application of exogenous ATP: a transient signal deriving from release of calcium from intracellular stores, and a persistent one following activation of P2X7Rs. Our data thus reveal a new pathway by which extracellular ATP may affect glial cell function, thus broadening our knowledge on purinergic signaling in the cerebellum.

  13. Alternate estrogen receptors promote invasion of inflammatory breast cancer cells via non-genomic signaling.

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    Kazufumi Ohshiro

    Full Text Available Although Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC is a rare and an aggressive type of locally advanced breast cancer with a generally worst prognosis, little work has been done in identifying the status of non-genomic signaling in the invasiveness of IBC. The present study was performed to explore the status of non-genomic signaling as affected by various estrogenic and anti-estrogenic agents in IBC cell lines SUM149 and SUM190. We have identified the presence of estrogen receptor α (ERα variant, ERα36 in SUM149 and SUM190 cells. This variant as well as ERβ was present in a substantial concentration in IBC cells. The treatment with estradiol (E2, anti-estrogenic agents 4-hydroxytamoxifen and ICI 182780, ERβ specific ligand DPN and GPR30 agonist G1 led to a rapid activation of p-ERK1/2, suggesting the involvement of ERα36, ERβ and GPR30 in the non-genomic signaling pathway in these cells. We also found a substantial increase in the cell migration and invasiveness of SUM149 cells upon the treatment with these ligands. Both basal and ligand-induced migration and invasiveness of SUM149 cells were drastically reduced in the presence of MEK inhibitor U0126, implicating that the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 by MEK is involved in the observed motility and invasiveness of IBC cells. We also provide evidence for the upregulation of p-ERK1/2 through immunostaining in IBC patient samples. These findings suggest a role of non-genomic signaling through the activation of p-ERK1/2 in the hormonal dependence of IBC by a combination of estrogen receptors. These findings only explain the failure of traditional anti-estrogen therapies in ER-positive IBC which induces the non-genomic signaling, but also opens newer avenues for design of modified therapies targeting these estrogen receptors.

  14. HER/ErbB receptor interactions and signaling patterns in human mammary epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrisler William B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about signaling pathways is typically compiled based on data gathered using different cell lines. This approach implicitly assumes that the cell line dependence is not important. However, different cell lines do not always respond to a particular stimulus in the same way, and lack of coherent data collected from closely related cellular systems can be detrimental to the efforts to understand the regulation of biological processes. To address this issue, we created a clone library of human mammary epithelial (HME cells that expresses different levels of HER2 and HER3 receptors in combination with endogenous EGFR/HER1. Using our clone library, we have quantified the receptor activation patterns and systematically tested the validity of the existing hypotheses about the interaction patterns between HER1-3 receptors. Results Our study identified HER2 as the dominant dimerization partner for both EGFR and HER3. Contrary to earlier suggestions, we find that lateral interactions with HER2 do not lead to strong transactivation between EGFR and HER3, i.e., EGFR activation and HER3 activation are only weakly linked in HME cells. We also find that observed weak transactivation is uni-directional where stimulation of EGFR leads to HER3 activation whereas HER3 stimulation does not activate the EGFR. Repeating our experiments at lower cell confluency established that cell confluency is not a major factor in the observed interaction patterns. We have also quantified the dependence of the kinetics of Erk and Akt activation on different HER receptors. We found that HER3 signaling makes the strongest contribution to Akt activation and that, stimulation of either EGFR or HER3 leads to significant Erk activation. Conclusion Our study shows that clone cell libraries can be a powerful resource in systems biology research by making it possible to differentiate between various hypotheses in a consistent cellular background. Using our

  15. A novel taspine derivative, HMQ1611, inhibits breast cancer cell growth via estrogen receptor α and EGF receptor signaling pathways. (United States)

    Zhan, Yingzhuan; Zhang, Yanmin; Liu, Cuicui; Zhang, Jie; Smith, Wanli W; Wang, Nan; Chen, Yinnan; Zheng, Lei; He, Langchong


    Breast cancer is a common cancer with a leading cause of cancer mortality in women. Currently, the chemotherapy for breast cancer is underdeveloped. Here, we report a novel taspine derivative, HMQ1611, which has anticancer effects using in vitro and in vivo breast cancer models. HMQ1611 reduced cancer cell proliferation in four human breast cancer cell lines including MDA-MB-231, SK-BR-3, ZR-75-30, and MCF-7. HMQ1611 more potently reduced growth of estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive breast cancer cells (ZR-75-30 and MCF-7) than ERα-negative cells (MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3). Moreover, HMQ1611 arrested breast cancer cell cycle at S-phase. In vivo tumor xenograft model, treatment of HMQ1611 significantly reduced tumor size and weight compared with vehicles. We also found that HMQ1611 reduced ERα expression and inhibited membrane ERα-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling following the stimulation of cells with estrogen. Knockdown of ERα by siRNA transfection in ZR-75-30 cells attenuated HMQ1611 effects. In contrast, overexpression of ERα in MDA-MB-231 cells enhanced HMQ1611 effects, suggesting that ERα pathway mediated HMQ1611's inhibition of breast cancer cell growth in ERα-positive breast cancer. HMQ1611 also reduced phosphorylation of EGF receptor (EGFR) and its downstream signaling players extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and AKT activation both in ZR-75-30 and MDA-MB-231 cells. These results showed that the novel compound HMQ1611 had anticancer effects, and partially via ERα and/or EGFR signaling pathways, suggesting that HMQ1611 may be a potential novel candidate for human breast cancer intervention.

  16. The adaptor protein TRAF3 inhibits interleukin-6 receptor signaling in B cells to limit plasma cell development. (United States)

    Lin, Wai W; Yi, Zuoan; Stunz, Laura L; Maine, Christian J; Sherman, Linda A; Bishop, Gail A


    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) is an adaptor protein that inhibits signaling by CD40 and by the receptor for B cell-activating factor (BAFF) and negatively regulates homeostatic B cell survival. Loss-of-function mutations in TRAF3 are associated with human B cell malignancies, in particular multiple myeloma. The cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) supports the differentiation and survival of normal and neoplastic plasma cells. We found that mice with a deficiency in TRAF3 specifically in B cells (B-Traf3(-/-) mice) had about twice as many plasma cells as did their littermate controls. TRAF3-deficient B cells had enhanced responsiveness to IL-6, and genetic loss of IL-6 in B-Traf3(-/-) mice restored their plasma cell numbers to normal. TRAF3 inhibited IL-6 receptor (IL-6R)-mediated signaling by facilitating the association of PTPN22 (a nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase) with the kinase Janus-activated kinase 1 (Jak1), which in turn blocked phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3). Consistent with these results, the number of plasma cells in the PTPN22-deficient mice was increased compared to that in the wild-type mice. Our findings identify TRAF3 and PTPN22 as inhibitors of IL-6R signaling in B cells and reveal a previously uncharacterized role for TRAF3 in the regulation of plasma cell differentiation.

  17. Wedelolactone induces growth of breast cancer cells by stimulation of estrogen receptor signalling. (United States)

    Nehybova, Tereza; Smarda, Jan; Daniel, Lukas; Brezovsky, Jan; Benes, Petr


    Wedelolactone, a plant coumestan, was shown to act as anti-cancer agent for breast and prostate carcinomas in vitro and in vivo targeting multiple cellular proteins including androgen receptors, 5-lipoxygenase and topoisomerase IIα. It is cytotoxic to breast, prostate, pituitary and myeloma cancer cell lines in vitro at μM concentrations. In this study, however, a novel biological activity of nM dose of wedelolactone was demonstrated. Wedelolactone acts as agonist of estrogen receptors (ER) α and β as demonstrated by transactivation of estrogen response element (ERE) in cells transiently expressing either ERα or ERβ and by molecular docking of this coumestan into ligand binding pocket of both ERα and ERβ. In breast cancer cells, wedelolactone stimulates growth of estrogen receptor-positive cells, expression of estrogen-responsive genes and activates rapid non-genomic estrogen signalling. All these effects can be inhibited by pretreatment with pure ER antagonist ICI 182,780 and they are not observed in ER-negative breast cancer cells. We conclude that wedelolactone acts as phytoestrogen in breast cancer cells by stimulating ER genomic and non-genomic signalling pathways.

  18. Localization of the succinate receptor in the distal nephron and its signaling in polarized MDCK cells. (United States)

    Robben, Joris H; Fenton, Robert A; Vargas, Sarah L; Schweer, Horst; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Deen, Peter M T; Milligan, Graeme


    When the succinate receptor (SUCNR1) is activated in the afferent arterioles of the glomerulus it increases renin release and induces hypertension. To study its location in other nephron segments and its role in kidney function, we performed immunohistochemical analysis and found that SUCNR1 is located in the luminal membrane of macula densa cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus in close proximity to renin-producing granular cells, the cortical thick ascending limb, and cortical and inner medullary collecting duct cells. In order to study its signaling, SUCNR1 was stably expressed in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, where it localized to the apical membrane. Activation of the cells by succinate caused Gq and Gi-mediated intracellular calcium mobilization, transient phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and the release of arachidonic acid along with prostaglandins E2 and I2. Signaling was desensitized without receptor internalization but rapidly resensitized upon succinate removal. Immunohistochemical evidence of phosphorylated ERK1/2 was found in cortical collecting duct cells of wild type but not SUCNR1 knockout streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, indicating in vivo relevance. Since urinary succinate concentrations in health and disease are in the activation range of the SUCNR1, this receptor can sense succinate in the luminal fluid. Our study suggests that changes in the luminal succinate concentration may regulate several aspects of renal function.

  19. EGF receptor signalling is essential for electric-field-directed migration of breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Pu, Jin; McCaig, Colin D; Cao, Lin; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Segall, Jeffrey E; Zhao, Min


    The mechanisms by which cancer cells migrate to metastasise are not fully understood. Breast cancers are accompanied by electrical depolarisation of tumour epithelial cells. The electrical changes can be detected on the skin and are used to differentiate malignant from benign breast tumours. Could the electrical signals play a role in metastasis by promoting tumour cell migration? We report that electric fields stimulate and direct migration of human breast cancer cells. Importantly, these effects were more significant in highly metastatic tumour cells than in low metastatic tumour cells. Electric-field-enhanced directional migration correlates well with the expression level of EGF receptor (EGFR/ErbB1). To confirm this, we transfected low metastatic clone MTC cells with human ErbB1, which significantly increased the electrotactic response. Inhibition of ErbB1 completely abolished the directional response of MTLn3 cells to an electric field. Transfection of MTLn3 cells and MDA-MB-435 cells with expression vectors for ErbB family members ErbB1, ErbB2 and ErbB3 also significantly enhanced EF-induced migration. These results suggest that electric signals might play a role in metastasis of breast cancers by enhancing cell migration through the ErbB-signalling pathway.

  20. Enhancing the GLP-1 receptor signaling pathway leads to proliferation and neuroprotection in human neuroblastoma cells


    Li, Yazhou; Tweedie, David; Mattson, Mark P.; Holloway, Harold W.; Greig, Nigel H.


    Increasing evidence suggests that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone of current interest in type 2 diabetes, is neuroprotective in both cell culture and animal models. To characterize the neuroprotective properties of GLP-1 and associated underlying mechanisms, we over-expressed the GLP-1 receptor (R) on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells to generate a neuronal culture system featuring enhanced GLP-1R signaling. In GLP-1R over-expressing SH-SY5Y (SH-hGLP-1R#9) cells, GLP-1 an...

  1. Defective signaling through the B cell antigen receptor in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed ataxia-telangiectasia cells. (United States)

    Khanna, K K; Yan, J; Watters, D; Hobson, K; Beamish, H; Spring, K; Shiloh, Y; Gatti, R A; Lavin, M F


    A characteristic series of immunological abnormalities are observed in the human genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). The recent cloning of a gene mutated in this syndrome provides additional evidence for a defect in intracellular signaling in A-T. We have investigated the possibility that signaling through the B cell antigen receptor is one manifestation of the A-T defect. In response to cross-linking of the B cell receptor, several A-T cell lines were defective in their mitogenic response; in addition Ca2+ mobilization from internal stores was either absent or considerably reduced in these cell lines in response to cross-linking. The defect in signaling was not due to difference in expression of surface immunoglobulin. The defective response in A-T cells was also evident in several arms of the intracellular cascade activated by B cell cross-linking. Tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma1, a key step in activation of the enzyme, was reduced or negligible in some A-T cell lines. This defect in signaling was also seen at the level of Lyn tyrosine kinase activation and its association with and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Our results provide evidence for a role for the ATM gene product in intracellular signaling which may account at least in part for the abnormalities in B cell function in A-T.

  2. Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling is essential for lens fiber cell differentiation. (United States)

    Zhao, Haotian; Yang, Tianyu; Madakashira, Bhavani P; Thiels, Cornelius A; Bechtle, Chad A; Garcia, Claudia M; Zhang, Huiming; Yu, Kai; Ornitz, David M; Beebe, David C; Robinson, Michael L


    The vertebrate lens provides an excellent model to study the mechanisms that regulate terminal differentiation. Although fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are thought to be important for lens cell differentiation, it is unclear which FGF receptors mediate these processes during different stages of lens development. Deletion of three FGF receptors (Fgfr1-3) early in lens development demonstrated that expression of only a single allele of Fgfr2 or Fgfr3 was sufficient for grossly normal lens development, while mice possessing only a single Fgfr1 allele developed cataracts and microphthalmia. Profound defects were observed in lenses lacking all three Fgfrs. These included lack of fiber cell elongation, abnormal proliferation in prospective lens fiber cells, reduced expression of the cell cycle inhibitors p27(kip1) and p57(kip2), increased apoptosis and aberrant or reduced expression of Prox1, Pax6, c-Maf, E-cadherin and alpha-, beta- and gamma-crystallins. Therefore, while signaling by FGF receptors is essential for lens fiber differentiation, different FGF receptors function redundantly.

  3. Insulin receptor-overexpressing β-cells ameliorate hyperglycemia in diabetic rats through Wnt signaling activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available To investigate the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of β-cells with insulin receptor (IR overexpression on diabetes mellitus (DM, rat insulinoma (INS-1 cells were engineered to stably express human insulin receptor (INS-IR cells, and subsequently transplanted into streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats. Compared with INS-1 cells, INS-IR cells showed improved β-cell function, including the increase in glucose utilization, calcium mobilization, and insulin secretion, and exhibited a higher rate of cell proliferation, and maintained lower levels of blood glucose in diabetic rats. These results were attributed to the increase of β-catenin/PPARγ complex bindings to peroxisome proliferator response elements in rat glucokinase (GK promoter and the prolongation of S-phase of cell cycle by cyclin D1. These events resulted from more rapid and higher phosphorylation levels of insulin-signaling intermediates, including insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1/IRS-2/phosphotylinositol 3 kinase/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT 1, and the consequent enhancement of β-catenin nuclear translocation and Wnt responsive genes including GK and cyclin D1. Indeed, the higher functionality and proliferation shown in INS-IR cells were offset by β-catenin, cyclin D1, GK, AKT1, and IRS-2 gene depletion. In addition, the promotion of cell proliferation and insulin secretion by Wnt signaling activation was shown by 100 nM insulin treatment, and to a similar degree, was shown in INS-IR cells. In this regard, this study suggests that transferring INS-IR cells into diabetic animals is an effective and feasible DM treatment. Accordingly, the method might be a promising alternative strategy for treatment of DM given the adverse effects of insulin among patients, including the increased risk of modest weight gain and hypoglycemia. Additionally, this study demonstrates that the novel mechanism of cross-talk between insulin and Wnt signaling plays a primary role in

  4. P2Y₁ receptor-dependent diacylglycerol signaling microdomains in β cells promote insulin secretion. (United States)

    Wuttke, Anne; Idevall-Hagren, Olof; Tengholm, Anders


    Diacylglycerol (DAG) controls numerous cell functions by regulating the localization of C1-domain-containing proteins, including protein kinase C (PKC), but little is known about the spatiotemporal dynamics of the lipid. Here, we explored plasma membrane DAG dynamics in pancreatic β cells and determined whether DAG signaling is involved in secretagogue-induced pulsatile release of insulin. Single MIN6 cells, primary mouse β cells, and human β cells within intact islets were transfected with translocation biosensors for DAG, PKC activity, or insulin secretion and imaged with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Muscarinic receptor stimulation triggered stable, homogenous DAG elevations, whereas glucose induced short-lived (7.1 ± 0.4 s) but high-amplitude elevations (up to 109 ± 10% fluorescence increase) in spatially confined membrane regions. The spiking was mimicked by membrane depolarization and suppressed after inhibition of exocytosis or of purinergic P2Y₁, but not P2X receptors, reflecting involvement of autocrine purinoceptor activation after exocytotic release of ATP. Each DAG spike caused local PKC activation with resulting dissociation of its substrate protein MARCKS from the plasma membrane. Inhibition of spiking reduced glucose-induced pulsatile insulin secretion. Thus, stimulus-specific DAG signaling patterns appear in the plasma membrane, including distinct microdomains, which have implications for the kinetic control of exocytosis and other membrane-associated processes.

  5. An electrostatic selection mechanism controls sequential kinase signaling downstream of the T cell receptor (United States)

    Shah, Neel H; Wang, Qi; Yan, Qingrong; Karandur, Deepti; Kadlecek, Theresa A; Fallahee, Ian R; Russ, William P; Ranganathan, Rama; Weiss, Arthur; Kuriyan, John


    The sequence of events that initiates T cell signaling is dictated by the specificities and order of activation of the tyrosine kinases that signal downstream of the T cell receptor. Using a platform that combines exhaustive point-mutagenesis of peptide substrates, bacterial surface-display, cell sorting, and deep sequencing, we have defined the specificities of the first two kinases in this pathway, Lck and ZAP-70, for the T cell receptor ζ chain and the scaffold proteins LAT and SLP-76. We find that ZAP-70 selects its substrates by utilizing an electrostatic mechanism that excludes substrates with positively-charged residues and favors LAT and SLP-76 phosphosites that are surrounded by negatively-charged residues. This mechanism prevents ZAP-70 from phosphorylating its own activation loop, thereby enforcing its strict dependence on Lck for activation. The sequence features in ZAP-70, LAT, and SLP-76 that underlie electrostatic selectivity likely contribute to the specific response of T cells to foreign antigens. DOI: PMID:27700984

  6. Role of ERK/MAPK in endothelin receptor signaling in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Qing-wen; Edvinsson, Lars; Xu, Cang-Bao


    muscle cells (VSMCs) through activation of endothelin type A (ETA) and type B (ETB) receptors. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are involved in ET-1-induced VSMC contraction and proliferation. This study was designed to investigate...... the ETA and ETB receptor intracellular signaling in human VSMCs and used phosphorylation (activation) of ERK1/2 as a functional signal molecule for endothelin receptor activity. RESULTS: Subconfluent human VSMCs were stimulated by ET-1 at different concentrations (1 nM-1 microM). The activation of ERK1/2...... was examined by immunofluorescence, Western blot and phosphoELISA using specific antibody against phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein. ET-1 induced a concentration- and time- dependent activation of ERK1/2 with a maximal effect at 10 min. It declined to baseline level at 30 min. The ET-1-induced activation of ERK1/2...

  7. SPLUNC1 regulation in airway epithelial cells: role of toll-like receptor 2 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Sean


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory infections including Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp contribute to various chronic lung diseases. We have shown that mouse short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1 protein was able to inhibit Mp growth. Further, airway epithelial cells increased SPLUNC1 expression upon Mp infection. However, the mechanisms underlying SPLUNC1 regulation remain unknown. In the current study, we investigated if SPLUNC1 production following Mp infection is regulated through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 signaling. Methods Airway epithelial cell cultures were utilized to reveal the contribution of TLR2 signaling including NF-κB to SPLUNC1 production upon bacterial infection and TLR2 agonist stimulation. Results Mp and TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4 increased SPLUNC1 expression in tracheal epithelial cells from wild type, but not TLR2-/- BALB/c mice. RNA interference (short-hairpin RNA of TLR2 in normal human bronchial epithelial cells under air-liquid interface cultures significantly reduced SPLUNC1 levels in Mp-infected or Pam3CSK4-treated cells. Inhibition and activation of NF-κB pathway decreased and increased SPLUNC1 production in airway epithelial cells, respectively. Conclusions Our data for the first time suggest that airway epithelial TLR2 signaling is pivotal in mycoplasma-induced SPLUNC1 production, thus improving our understanding of the aberrant SPLUNC1 expression in airways of patients suffering from chronic lung diseases with bacterial infections.

  8. Modulation of B-cell receptor and microenvironment signaling by a guanine exchange factor in B-cell malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Liao; Sanjai Sharma


    Objective: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells over-express a guanine exchange factor (GEF), Rasgrf-1. This GEF increases active Ras as it catalyzes the removal of GDP from Ras so that GTP can bind and activate Ras. This study aims to study the mechanism of action of Rasgrf-1 in B-cell malignancies. Methods: N-terminus truncated Rasgrf-1 variants have a higher GEF activity as compared to the full-length transcript therefore a MCL cell line with stable over-expression of truncated Rasgrf-1 was established. The B-cell receptor (BCR) and chemokine signaling pathways were compared in the Rasgrf-1 over-expressing and a control transfected cell line. Results: Cells over-expressing truncated form of Rasgrf-1 have a higher proliferative rate as compared to control transfected cells. BCR was activated by lower concentrations of anti-IgM antibody in Rasgrf-1 over-expressing cells as compared to control cells indicating that these cells are more sensitive to BCR signaling. BCR signaling also phosphorylates Rasgrf-1 that further increases its GEF function and amplifies BCR signaling. This activation of Rasgrf-1 in over-expressing cells resulted in a higher expression of phospho-ERK, AKT, BTK and PKC-alpha as compared to control cells. Besides BCR, Rasgrf-1 over-expressing cells were also more sensitive to microenvironment stimuli as determined by resistance to apoptosis, chemotaxis and ERK pathway activation. Conclusions: This GEF protein sensitizes B-cells to BCR and chemokine mediated signaling and also upregulates a number of other signaling pathways which promotes growth and survival of these cells.

  9. Transient receptor potential melastatin 4 channel controls calcium signals and dental follicle stem cell differentiation. (United States)

    Nelson, Piper; Ngoc Tran, Tran Doan; Zhang, Hanjie; Zolochevska, Olga; Figueiredo, Marxa; Feng, Ji-Ming; Gutierrez, Dina L; Xiao, Rui; Yao, Shaomian; Penn, Arthur; Yang, Li-Jun; Cheng, Henrique


    Elevations in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration are a phenomena commonly observed during stem cell differentiation but cease after the process is complete. The transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) is an ion channel that controls Ca(2+) signals in excitable and nonexcitable cells. However, its role in stem cells remains unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize TRPM4 in rat dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs) and to determine its impact on Ca(2+) signaling and the differentiation process. We identified TRPM4 gene expression in DFSCs, but not TRPM5, a closely related channel with similar function. Perfusion of cells with increasing buffered Ca(2+) resulted in a concentration-dependent activation of currents typical for TRPM4, which were also voltage-dependent and had Na(+) conductivity. Molecular suppression with shRNA decreased channel activity and cell proliferation during osteogenesis but not adipogenesis. As a result, enhanced mineralization and phosphatase enzyme activity were observed during osteoblast formation, although DFSCs failed to differentiate into adipocytes. Furthermore, the normal agonist-induced first and secondary phases of Ca(2+) signals were transformed into a gradual and sustained increase which confirmed the channels' ability to control Ca(2+) signaling. Using whole genome microarray analysis, we identified several genes impacted by TRPM4 during DFSC differentiation. These findings suggest an inhibitory role for TRPM4 on osteogenesis while it appears to be required for adipogenesis. The data also provide a potential link between the Ca(2+) signaling pattern and gene expression during stem cell differentiation.

  10. The Wnt receptor Ryk plays a role in mammalian planar cell polarity signaling. (United States)

    Macheda, Maria L; Sun, Willy W; Kugathasan, Kumudhini; Hogan, Benjamin M; Bower, Neil I; Halford, Michael M; Zhang, You Fang; Jacques, Bonnie E; Lieschke, Graham J; Dabdoub, Alain; Stacker, Steven A


    Wnts are essential for a wide range of developmental processes, including cell growth, division, and differentiation. Some of these processes signal via the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, which is a β-catenin-independent Wnt signaling pathway. Previous studies have shown that Ryk, a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family, can bind to Wnts. Ryk is required for normal axon guidance and neuronal differentiation during development. Here, we demonstrate that mammalian Ryk interacts with the Wnt/PCP pathway. In vitro analysis showed that the Wnt inhibitory factor domain of Ryk was necessary for Wnt binding. Detailed analysis of two vertebrate model organisms showed Ryk phenotypes consistent with PCP signaling. In zebrafish, gene knockdown using morpholinos revealed a genetic interaction between Ryk and Wnt11 during the PCP pathway-regulated process of embryo convergent extension. Ryk-deficient mouse embryos displayed disrupted polarity of stereociliary hair cells in the cochlea, a characteristic of disturbed PCP signaling. This PCP defect was also observed in mouse embryos that were double heterozygotes for Ryk and Looptail (containing a mutation in the core Wnt/PCP pathway gene Vangl2) but not in either of the single heterozygotes, suggesting a genetic interaction between Ryk and Vangl2. Co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that RYK and VANGL2 proteins form a complex, whereas RYK also activated RhoA, a downstream effector of PCP signaling. Overall, our data suggest an important role for Ryk in Wnt/planar cell polarity signaling during vertebrate development via the Vangl2 signaling pathway, as demonstrated in the mouse cochlea.

  11. Role of ERK/MAPK in endothelin receptor signaling in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvinsson Lars


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelin-1 (ET-1 is a potent vasoactive peptide, which induces vasoconstriction and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs through activation of endothelin type A (ETA and type B (ETB receptors. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK are involved in ET-1-induced VSMC contraction and proliferation. This study was designed to investigate the ETA and ETB receptor intracellular signaling in human VSMCs and used phosphorylation (activation of ERK1/2 as a functional signal molecule for endothelin receptor activity. Results Subconfluent human VSMCs were stimulated by ET-1 at different concentrations (1 nM-1 μM. The activation of ERK1/2 was examined by immunofluorescence, Western blot and phosphoELISA using specific antibody against phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein. ET-1 induced a concentration- and time- dependent activation of ERK1/2 with a maximal effect at 10 min. It declined to baseline level at 30 min. The ET-1-induced activation of ERK1/2 was completely abolished by MEK1/2 inhibitors U0126 and SL327, and partially inhibited by the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059. A dual endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan or the ETA antagonist BQ123 blocked the ET-1 effect, while the ETB antagonist BQ788 had no significant effect. However, a selective ETB receptor agonist, Sarafotoxin 6c (S6c caused a time-dependent ERK1/2 activation with a maximal effect by less than 20% of the ET-1-induced activation of ERK1/2. Increase in bosentan concentration up to 10 μM further inhibited ET-1-induced activation of ERK1/2 and had a stronger inhibitory effect than BQ123 or the combined use of BQ123 and BQ788. To further explore ET-1 intracellular signaling, PKC inhibitors (staurosporin and GF109203X, PKC-delta inhibitor (rottlerin, PKA inhibitor (H-89, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin were applied. The inhibitors showed significant inhibitory effects on ET-1

  12. A Novel Nectin-mediated Cell Adhesion Apparatus That Is Implicated in Prolactin Receptor Signaling for Mammary Gland Development. (United States)

    Kitayama, Midori; Mizutani, Kiyohito; Maruoka, Masahiro; Mandai, Kenji; Sakakibara, Shotaro; Ueda, Yuki; Komori, Takahide; Shimono, Yohei; Takai, Yoshimi


    Mammary gland development is induced by the actions of various hormones to form a structure consisting of collecting ducts and milk-secreting alveoli, which comprise two types of epithelial cells known as luminal and basal cells. These cells adhere to each other by cell adhesion apparatuses whose roles in hormone-dependent mammary gland development remain largely unknown. Here we identified a novel cell adhesion apparatus at the boundary between the luminal and basal cells in addition to desmosomes. This apparatus was formed by the trans-interaction between the cell adhesion molecules nectin-4 and nectin-1, which were expressed in the luminal and basal cells, respectively. Nectin-4 of this apparatus further cis-interacted with the prolactin receptor in the luminal cells to enhance the prolactin-induced prolactin receptor signaling for alveolar development with lactogenic differentiation. Thus, a novel nectin-mediated cell adhesion apparatus regulates the prolactin receptor signaling for mammary gland development.

  13. Toll-like receptor 3 signalling up-regulates expression of the HIV co-receptor G-protein coupled receptor 15 on human CD4+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Kiene

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many HIV-2 and SIV isolates, as well as some HIV-1 strains, can use the orphan 7-transmembrane receptor GPR15 as co-receptor for efficient entry into host cells. GPR15 is expressed on central memory and effector memory CD4(+ T cells in healthy individuals and a subset of these cells is susceptible to HIV-1 and SIV infection. However, it has not been determined whether GPR15 expression is altered in the context of HIV-1 infection. RESULTS: Here, we show that GPR15 expression in CD4(+ T cells is markedly up-regulated in some HIV-1 infected individuals compared to the rest of the infected patients and to healthy controls. Infection of the PM1 T cell line with primary HIV-1 isolates was found to up-regulate GPR15 expression on the infected cells, indicating that viral components can induce GPR15 expression. Up-regulation of GPR15 expression on CD4(+ T cells was induced by activation of Toll-like receptor 3 signalling via TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF and was more prominent on gut-homing compared to lymph node-homing CD4(+ T cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that infection-induced up-regulation of GPR15 expression could increase susceptibility of CD4(+ T cells to HIV infection and target cell availability in the gut in some infected individuals.

  14. Identification of human somatostatin receptor 2 domains involved in internalization and signaling in QGP-1 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cell line. (United States)

    Cambiaghi, Valeria; Vitali, Eleonora; Morone, Diego; Peverelli, Erika; Spada, Anna; Mantovani, Giovanna; Lania, Andrea Gerardo


    Somatostatin exerts inhibitory effects on hormone secretion and cell proliferation via five receptor subtypes (SST1-SST5), whose internalization is regulated by β-arrestins. The receptor domains involved in these effects have been only partially elucidated. The aim of the study is to characterize the molecular mechanism and determinants responsible for somatostatin receptor 2 internalization and signaling in pancreatic neuroendocrine QGP-1 cell line, focusing on the third intracellular loop and carboxyl terminal domains. We demonstrated that in cells transfected with somatostatin receptor 2 third intracellular loop mutant, no differences in β-arrestins recruitment and receptor internalization were observed after somatostatin receptor 2 activation in comparison with cells bearing wild-type somatostatin receptor 2. Conversely, the truncated somatostatin receptor 2 failed to recruit β-arrestins and to internalize after somatostatin receptor 2 agonist (BIM23120) incubation. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of BIM23120 on cell proliferation, cyclin D1 expression, P-ERK1/2 levels, apoptosis and vascular endothelial growth factor secretion was completely lost in cells transfected with either third intracellular loop or carboxyl terminal mutants. In conclusion, we demonstrated that somatostatin receptor 2 internalization requires intact carboxyl terminal while the effects of SS on cell proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis mediated by somatostatin receptor 2 need the integrity of both third intracellular loop and carboxyl terminal.

  15. Imipramine protects retinal ganglion cells from oxidative stress through the tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-lei Han; Guo-hua Liu; Jin Guo; Shu-juan Yu; Jing Huang


    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration is irreversible in glaucoma and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB)-associated signaling pathways have been implicated in the process. In this study, we attempted to examine whether imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, may protect hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced RGC degeneration through the activation of the TrkB pathway in RGC-5 cell lines. RGC-5 cell lines were pre-treated with imipramine 30 minutes before exposure to H2O2. Western blot assay showed that in H2O2-damaged RGC-5 cells, imipramine activated TrkB pathways through extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase/TrkB phosphorylation. TUNEL staining assay also demonstrated that imipramine ameliorated H2O2-induced apoptosis in RGC-5 cells. Finally, TrkB-IgG intervention was able to reverse the protective effect of imipramine on H2O2-induced RGC-5 apoptosis. Imipramine therefore protects RGCs from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through the TrkB signaling pathway.

  16. Imipramine protects retinal ganglion cells from oxidative stress through the tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-lei Han


    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cell (RGC degeneration is irreversible in glaucoma and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB-associated signaling pathways have been implicated in the process. In this study, we attempted to examine whether imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, may protect hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 -induced RGC degeneration through the activation of the TrkB pathway in RGC-5 cell lines. RGC-5 cell lines were pre-treated with imipramine 30 minutes before exposure to H 2 O 2 . Western blot assay showed that in H 2 O 2 -damaged RGC-5 cells, imipramine activated TrkB pathways through extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase/TrkB phosphorylation. TUNEL staining assay also demonstrated that imipramine ameliorated H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis in RGC-5 cells. Finally, TrkB-IgG intervention was able to reverse the protective effect of imipramine on H 2 O 2 -induced RGC-5 apoptosis. Imipramine therefore protects RGCs from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through the TrkB signaling pathway.

  17. Evaluation of bovine thymic function by measurement of signal joint T-cell receptor excision circles. (United States)

    Hisazumi, Rinnosuke; Kayumi, Miya; Zhang, Weidong; Kikukawa, Ryuji; Nasu, Tetuo; Yasuda, Masahiro


    A signal joint T-cell receptor excision circle (sjTREC) is a circular DNA produced by T-cell receptor α gene rearrangement in the thymus. Measurements of sjTREC values have been used to evaluate thymic function. We recently established a quantitative PCR (QPCR) assay of bovine sjTREC. In the present study, we used this QPCR assay to measure the sjTREC value in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and we then evaluated the relationships between sjTREC values and peripheral blood T-cell number, growth stage, gender, and meteorological season. The sjTREC value was highest at the neonatal stage, and its value subsequently decreased with age. On the other hand, the peripheral T-cell number increased with age. The sjTREC value in calves up to 50-days old was significantly higher for males than for females, suggesting that thymic function might differ by gender. In addition, the sjTREC value and the peripheral T-cell number were significantly higher in calves in the summer season than in calves in the winter season. These data suggest that bovine thymic function is highly variable and varies according to the growth stage, gender, and environmental factors such as air temperature or the UV index.

  18. Reconstituted B cell receptor signaling reveals carbohydrate-dependent mode of activation



    Activation of immune cells (but not B cells) with lectins is widely known. We used the structurally defined interaction between influenza hemagglutinin (HA) and its cell surface receptor sialic acid (SA) to identify a B cell receptor (BCR) activation modality that proceeded through non-cognate interactions with antigen. Using a new approach to reconstitute antigen-receptor interactions in a human reporter B cell line, we found that sequence-defined BCRs from the human germline repertoire coul...

  19. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) amplifies the signals induced by the NACHT-LRR (NLR) pattern recognition receptors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, M.G.; Azam, T.; Ferwerda, G.; Girardin, S.E.; Kim, S.H.; Dinarello, C.A.


    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is a member of a new family of myeloid receptors, encoded by a gene cluster linked to the MHC. Engagement of TREM-1 stimulates intracellular signals, resulting in activation of phagocytosis, neutrophil degranulation, and amplification of cyto

  20. p75 neurotrophin receptor signaling: mechanisms for neurotrophic modulation of cell stress? (United States)

    Dobrowsky, R T; Carter, B D


    The recent recognition that the p75 neurotrophin receptor, p75((NTR)), can induce apoptotic signals has contributed to the perception that it acts primarily as a death receptor. Although the molecular mechanisms of p75(NTR) signaling remain to be fully characterized, many of the currently identified pathways activated by p75(NTR) may be generally characterized as stress response signals. This review describes recent advances in identifying the molecular components involved in p75(NTR) signal transduction and suggests that p75(NTR) signaling may more aptly serve as a general mechanism for the transduction and modulation of stress signals.

  1. Suboptimal B-cell antigen receptor signaling activity in vivo elicits germinal center counterselection mechanisms. (United States)

    Königsberger, Sebastian; Weis, Vanessa; Prodöhl, Jan; Stehling, Martin; Hobeika, Elias; Reth, Michael; Kiefer, Friedemann


    Syk and Zap-70 constitute a closely related nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase family, of which both members are functionally indispensable for conferring their respective antigen receptors with enzymatic activity. In this study, we analyze the impact of altering BCR signaling output on B-cell germinal center (GC) fate selection by constitutive, as well as inducible, monoallelic Syk kinase loss in the presence of a Zap-70 knock-in rescue allele. Cre-mediated Syk deletion in Syk(flox/Zap-70) B cells lowers pErk, but not pAkt-mediated signaling. Surprisingly, the use of a B-cell-specific constitutive mb1-cre deleter mouse model showed that a small cohort of peripheral Syk(flox/Zap-70);mb1-cre B cells efficiently circumvents deletion, which ultimately favors these Syk-sufficient cells to contribute to the GC reaction. Using a developmentally unbiased Syk(flox/Zap-70);mb1-creER(T2) approach in combination with an inducible tdRFP allele, we further demonstrate that this monoallelic deletion escape is not fully explained by leakiness of Cre expression, but is possibly the result of differential Syk locus accessibility in maturing B cells. Altogether, this underscores the importance of proper Syk kinase function not only during central and peripheral selection processes, but also during GC formation and maintenance.

  2. B-cell receptor signaling inhibitors for treatment of autoimmune inflammatory diseases and B-cell malignancies. (United States)

    Puri, Kamal D; Di Paolo, Julie A; Gold, Michael R


    B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is essential for normal B-cell development, selection, survival, proliferation, and differentiation into antibody-secreting cells. Similarly, this pathway plays a key role in the pathogenesis of multiple B-cell malignancies. Genetic and pharmacological approaches have established an important role for the Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase isoform p110delta (PI3Kδ) in coupling the BCR and other BCRs to B-cell survival, migration, and activation. In the past few years, several small-molecule inhibitory drugs that target PI3Kδ, Btk, and Syk have been developed and shown to have efficacy in clinical trials for the treatment of several types of B-cell malignancies. Emerging preclinical data have also shown a critical role of BCR signaling in the activation and function of self-reactive B cells that contribute to autoimmune diseases. Because BCR signaling plays a major role in both B-cell-mediated autoimmune inflammation and B-cell malignancies, inhibition of this pathway may represent a promising new strategy for treating these diseases. This review summarizes recent achievements in the mechanism of action, pharmacological properties, and clinical activity and toxicity of these BCR signaling inhibitors, with a focus on their emerging role in treating lymphoid malignancies and autoimmune disorders.

  3. Functional role of T-cell receptor nanoclusters in signal initiation and antigen discrimination. (United States)

    Pageon, Sophie V; Tabarin, Thibault; Yamamoto, Yui; Ma, Yuanqing; Bridgeman, John S; Cohnen, André; Benzing, Carola; Gao, Yijun; Crowther, Michael D; Tungatt, Katie; Dolton, Garry; Sewell, Andrew K; Price, David A; Acuto, Oreste; Parton, Robert G; Gooding, J Justin; Rossy, Jérémie; Rossjohn, Jamie; Gaus, Katharina


    Antigen recognition by the T-cell receptor (TCR) is a hallmark of the adaptive immune system. When the TCR engages a peptide bound to the restricting major histocompatibility complex molecule (pMHC), it transmits a signal via the associated CD3 complex. How the extracellular antigen recognition event leads to intracellular phosphorylation remains unclear. Here, we used single-molecule localization microscopy to quantify the organization of TCR-CD3 complexes into nanoscale clusters and to distinguish between triggered and nontriggered TCR-CD3 complexes. We found that only TCR-CD3 complexes in dense clusters were phosphorylated and associated with downstream signaling proteins, demonstrating that the molecular density within clusters dictates signal initiation. Moreover, both pMHC dose and TCR-pMHC affinity determined the density of TCR-CD3 clusters, which scaled with overall phosphorylation levels. Thus, TCR-CD3 clustering translates antigen recognition by the TCR into signal initiation by the CD3 complex, and the formation of dense signaling-competent clusters is a process of antigen discrimination.

  4. Piperlongumine inhibits atherosclerotic plaque formation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by suppressing PDGF receptor signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Dong Ju [Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kim, Soo Yeon [Division of Life Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seong Su [University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Kim, Chan Woo [Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Department of Bioinspired Science, Ehwa Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, Sandeep [Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Park, Byeoung Soo [Nanotoxtech Co., Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Eun [Division of Applied Biology and Chemistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Yeo Pyo [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hanjoong, E-mail: [Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Department of Bioinspired Science, Ehwa Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Hyun, E-mail: [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Natural Sciences, Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-atherogenic effect of PL was examined using partial carotid ligation model in ApoE KO mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL prevented atherosclerotic plaque development, VSMCs proliferation, and NF-{kappa}B activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Piperlongumine reduced vascular smooth muscle cell activation through PDGF-R{beta} and NF-{kappa}B-signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL may serve as a new therapeutic molecule for atherosclerosis treatment. -- Abstract: Piperlongumine (piplartine, PL) is an alkaloid found in the long pepper (Piper longum L.) and has well-documented anti-platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties; however, the role of PL in prevention of atherosclerosis is unknown. We evaluated the anti-atherosclerotic potential of PL in an in vivo murine model of accelerated atherosclerosis and defined its mechanism of action in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. Local treatment with PL significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation as well as proliferation and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activation in an in vivo setting. PL treatment in VSMCs in vitro showed inhibition of migration and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced proliferation to the in vivo findings. We further identified that PL inhibited PDGF-BB-induced PDGF receptor beta activation and suppressed downstream signaling molecules such as phospholipase C{gamma}1, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and Akt. Lastly, PL significantly attenuated activation of NF-{kappa}B-a downstream transcriptional regulator in PDGF receptor signaling, in response to PDGF-BB stimulation. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a novel, therapeutic mechanism by which PL suppresses atherosclerosis plaque formation in vivo.

  5. Microenvironmental stiffness enhances glioma cell proliferation by stimulating epidermal growth factor receptor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhavi Umesh

    Full Text Available The aggressive and rapidly lethal brain tumor glioblastoma (GBM is associated with profound tissue stiffening and genomic lesions in key members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR pathway. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that increasing microenvironmental stiffness in culture can strongly enhance glioma cell behaviors relevant to tumor progression, including proliferation, yet it has remained unclear whether stiffness and EGFR regulate proliferation through common or independent signaling mechanisms. Here we test the hypothesis that microenvironmental stiffness regulates cell cycle progression and proliferation in GBM tumor cells by altering EGFR-dependent signaling. We began by performing an unbiased reverse phase protein array screen, which revealed that stiffness modulates expression and phosphorylation of a broad range of signals relevant to proliferation, including members of the EGFR pathway. We subsequently found that culturing human GBM tumor cells on progressively stiffer culture substrates both dramatically increases proliferation and facilitates passage through the G1/S checkpoint of the cell cycle, consistent with an EGFR-dependent process. Western Blots showed that increasing microenvironmental stiffness enhances the expression and phosphorylation of EGFR and its downstream effector Akt. Pharmacological loss-of-function studies revealed that the stiffness-sensitivity of proliferation is strongly blunted by inhibition of EGFR, Akt, or PI3 kinase. Finally, we observed that stiffness strongly regulates EGFR clustering, with phosphorylated EGFR condensing into vinculin-positive focal adhesions on stiff substrates and dispersing as microenvironmental stiffness falls to physiological levels. Our findings collectively support a model in which tissue stiffening promotes GBM proliferation by spatially and biochemically amplifying EGFR signaling.

  6. Regulation of VH replacement by B cell receptor-mediated signaling in human immature B cells. (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Lange, Miles D; Hong, Sang Yong; Xie, Wanqin; Xu, Kerui; Huang, Lin; Yu, Yangsheng; Ehrhardt, Götz R A; Zemlin, Michael; Burrows, Peter D; Su, Kaihong; Carter, Robert H; Zhang, Zhixin


    VH replacement provides a unique RAG-mediated recombination mechanism to edit nonfunctional IgH genes or IgH genes encoding self-reactive BCRs and contributes to the diversification of Ab repertoire in the mouse and human. Currently, it is not clear how VH replacement is regulated during early B lineage cell development. In this article, we show that cross-linking BCRs induces VH replacement in human EU12 μHC(+) cells and in the newly emigrated immature B cells purified from peripheral blood of healthy donors or tonsillar samples. BCR signaling-induced VH replacement is dependent on the activation of Syk and Src kinases but is inhibited by CD19 costimulation, presumably through activation of the PI3K pathway. These results show that VH replacement is regulated by BCR-mediated signaling in human immature B cells, which can be modulated by physiological and pharmacological treatments.

  7. Suppression of sustained and transient ON signals of amacrine cells by GABA is mediated by different receptor subtypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张道启; 杨如; 杨雄里


    Intracellular recordings were made from amacrine cells in the isolated, superfused carp retina, and the effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on sustained and transient ON signals of these cells were studied. Exogenous GABA application partially suppressed the sustained response of ON amacrine cells, which could be completely reversed by picrotoxin (PTX), a chloride channel blocker, and by bicuculline (BCC), a specific GABA_A receptor antagonist. On the other hand, suppression by GABA of the ON response which was predominantly driven by rod signals in a certain portion of transient ON-OFF amacrine cells was completely blocked by PTX, but not by BCC, indicating that GABA_C receptors may be involved in the effect. These results suggest that GABA_A and GABA_C receptors may be respectively involved in mediating the transmission of sustained and transient signals in the carp inner retina.

  8. Cell surface receptors for signal transduction and ligand transport - a design principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankaran, Harish; Resat, Haluk; Wiley, H. S.


    Although many different receptors undergo endocytosis, the system-level design principles that govern the evolution of receptor dynamics are far from fully understood. We have constructed a generalized mathematical model to understand how receptor internalization dynamics encodes receptor function and regulation. Parametric analysis of the response of receptor systems to ligand inputs reveals that receptors can be categorized a being: i) avidity-controlled where the response control depends primarily on the extracelluar ligand capture efficiency, ii) consumption-controlled where the ability to internalize surface-bound ligand is the primary control parameter, and iii) dual-sensitivity where both the avidity and consumption parameters are important. We show that the transferrin and low-density lipoprotein receptors are avidity-controlled, the vitellogenin receptor is consumption-controlled and epidermal growth factor receptor is a dual-sensitivity receptor. Significantly, we show that ligand-induced endocytosis is a mechanism to anhance the accuracy of signaling receptors rather than serving to attenuate signaling. Our analysis reveals that the location of a receptor system in the avidity-consumption parameter space can be used to understand both its function and its regulations.

  9. Protease activated receptor signaling is required for African trypanosome traversal of human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J Grab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs as an in vitro model for how African trypanosomes cross the human blood-brain barrier (BBB we recently reported that the parasites cross the BBB by generating calcium activation signals in HBMECs through the activity of parasite cysteine proteases, particularly cathepsin L (brucipain. In the current study, we examined the possible role of a class of protease stimulated HBMEC G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs known as protease activated receptors (PARs that might be implicated in calcium signaling by African trypanosomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using RNA interference (RNAi we found that in vitro PAR-2 gene (F2RL1 expression in HBMEC monolayers could be reduced by over 95%. We also found that the ability of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense to cross F2RL1-silenced HBMEC monolayers was reduced (39%-49% and that HBMECs silenced for F2RL1 maintained control levels of barrier function in the presence of the parasite. Consistent with the role of PAR-2, we found that HBMEC barrier function was also maintained after blockade of Galpha(q with Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT. PAR-2 signaling has been shown in other systems to have neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective roles and our data implicate a role for proteases (i.e. brucipain and PAR-2 in African trypanosome/HBMEC interactions. Using gene-profiling methods to interrogate candidate HBMEC pathways specifically triggered by brucipain, several pathways that potentially link some pathophysiologic processes associated with CNS HAT were identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, the data support a role, in part, for GPCRs as molecular targets for parasite proteases that lead to the activation of Galpha(q-mediated calcium signaling. The consequence of these events is predicted to be increased permeability of the BBB to parasite transmigration and the initiation of neuroinflammation, events precursory to CNS disease.

  10. Glycoprotein 130 receptor signaling mediates α-cell dysfunction in a rodent model of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chow, Samuel Z; Speck, Madeleine; Yoganathan, Piriya;


    knockout (αgp130KO) mice showed no differences in glycemic control, α-cell function, or α-cell mass. However, when subjected to streptozotocin plus high-fat diet to induce islet inflammation and pathophysiology modeling type 2 diabetes, αgp130KO mice had reduced fasting glycemia, improved glucose tolerance......Dysregulated glucagon secretion accompanies islet inflammation in type 2 diabetes. We recently discovered that interleukin (IL)-6 stimulates glucagon secretion from human and rodent islets. IL-6 family cytokines require the glycoprotein 130 (gp130) receptor to signal. In this study, we elucidated...... the effects of α-cell gp130 receptor signaling on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. IL-6 family cytokines were elevated in islets in rodent models of this disease. gp130 receptor activation increased STAT3 phosphorylation in primary α-cells and stimulated glucagon secretion. Pancreatic α-cell gp130...

  11. G protein-coupled receptor 30 ligand G-1 increases aryl hydrocarbon receptor signalling by inhibition of tubulin assembly and cell cycle arrest in human MCF-7 cells. (United States)

    Tarnow, Patrick; Tralau, Tewes; Luch, Andreas


    Regulatory crosstalk between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and oestrogen receptor α (ERα) is well established. Apart from the nuclear receptors ERα and ERβ, oestrogen signalling further involves an unrelated G protein-coupled receptor termed GPR30. In order to investigate potential regulatory crosstalk, this study investigated the influence of G-1 as one of the few GPR30-specific ligands on the AHR regulon in MCF-7 cells. As a well-characterised model system, these human mammary carcinoma cells co-express all three receptors (AHR, ERα and GPR30) and are thus ideally suited to study corresponding regulatory pathway interactions on transcript level. Indeed, treatment with micromolar concentrations of the GPR30-specific agonist G-1 resulted in up-regulation of AHR as well as the transcripts for cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1, two well-known targets of the AHR regulon. While this was partly attributable to G-1-mediated inhibition of tubulin assembly and subsequent cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, the effects nevertheless required functional AHR. However, G-1-induced up-regulation of CYP 1A1 was not mediated by GPR30, as G15 antagonist treatment as well as a knockdown of GPR30 and AHR failed to inhibit this effect.

  12. The retinol esterifying enzyme LRAT supports cell signaling by retinol-binding protein and its receptor STRA6


    Marwarha, Gurdeep; Berry, Daniel C.; Croniger, Colleen M.; Noy, Noa


    Vitamin A, retinol, circulates in blood bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP). At some tissues, holo-RBP is recognized by a plasma membrane receptor termed STRA6, which serves a dual role: it mediates transport of retinol from RBP into cells, and it functions as a cytokine receptor that, on binding holo-RBP, activates JAK2/STAT5 signaling. As STAT target genes include SOCS3, an inhibitor of insulin receptor, holo-RBP suppresses insulin responses in STRA6-expressing cells. We have shown previ...

  13. A Computational Study of the Effects of Syk Activity on B Cell Receptor Signaling Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginald L. McGee


    Full Text Available The kinase Syk is intricately involved in early signaling events in B cells and isrequired for proper response when antigens bind to B cell receptors (BCRs. Experimentsusing an analog-sensitive version of Syk (Syk-AQL have better elucidated its role, buthave not completely characterized its behavior. We present a computational model for BCRsignaling, using dynamical systems, which incorporates both wild-type Syk and Syk-AQL.Following the use of sensitivity analysis to identify significant reaction parameters, we screenfor parameter vectors that produced graded responses to BCR stimulation as is observedexperimentally. We demonstrate qualitative agreement between the model and dose responsedata for both mutant and wild-type kinases. Analysis of our model suggests that the level of NF-KB activation, which is reduced in Syk-AQL cells relative to wild-type, is more sensitiveto small reductions in kinase activity than Erkp activation, which is essentially unchanged.Since this profile of high Erkp and reduced NF-KB is consistent with anergy, this implies thatanergy is particularly sensitive to small changes in catalytic activity. Also, under a range offorward and reverse ligand binding rates, our model of Erkp and NF-KB activation displaysa dependence on a power law affinity: the ratio of the forward rate to a non-unit power of thereverse rate. This dependence implies that B cells may respond to certain details of bindingand unbinding rates for ligands rather than simple affinity alone.

  14. Stimulation of the B-cell receptor activates the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. (United States)

    Rozovski, Uri; Wu, Ji Yuan; Harris, David M; Liu, Zhiming; Li, Ping; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Burger, Jan A; O'Brien, Susan; Jain, Nitin; Verstovsek, Srdan; Wierda, William G; Keating, Michael J; Estrov, Zeev


    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), stimulation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) triggers survival signals. Because in various cells activation of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway provides cells with survival advantage, we wondered whether BCR stimulation activates the JAK/STAT pathway in CLL cells. To stimulate the BCR we incubated CLL cells with anti-IgM antibodies. Anti-IgM antibodies induced transient tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear localization of phosphorylated (p) STAT3. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed that anti-JAK2 antibodies coimmunoprecipitated pSTAT3 and pJAK2 in IgM-stimulated but not unstimulated CLL cells, suggesting that activation of the BCR induces activation of JAK2, which phosphorylates STAT3. Incubation of CLL cells with the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib inhibited IgM-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and induced apoptosis of IgM-stimulated but not unstimulated CLL cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Whether ruxolitinib treatment would benefit patients with CLL remains to be determined.

  15. HRas signal transduction promotes hepatitis C virus cell entry by triggering assembly of the host tetraspanin receptor complex. (United States)

    Zona, Laetitia; Lupberger, Joachim; Sidahmed-Adrar, Nazha; Thumann, Christine; Harris, Helen J; Barnes, Amy; Florentin, Jonathan; Tawar, Rajiv G; Xiao, Fei; Turek, Marine; Durand, Sarah C; Duong, François H T; Heim, Markus H; Cosset, François-Loïc; Hirsch, Ivan; Samuel, Didier; Brino, Laurent; Zeisel, Mirjam B; Le Naour, François; McKeating, Jane A; Baumert, Thomas F


    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry is dependent on coreceptor complex formation between the tetraspanin superfamily member CD81 and the tight junction protein claudin-1 (CLDN1) on the host cell membrane. The receptor tyrosine kinase EGFR acts as a cofactor for HCV entry by promoting CD81-CLDN1 complex formation via unknown mechanisms. We identify the GTPase HRas, activated downstream of EGFR signaling, as a key host signal transducer for EGFR-mediated HCV entry. Proteomic analysis revealed that HRas associates with tetraspanin CD81, CLDN1, and the previously unrecognized HCV entry cofactors integrin β1 and Ras-related protein Rap2B in hepatocyte membranes. HRas signaling is required for lateral membrane diffusion of CD81, which enables tetraspanin receptor complex assembly. HRas was also found to be relevant for entry of other viruses, including influenza. Our data demonstrate that viruses exploit HRas signaling for cellular entry by compartmentalization of entry factors and receptor trafficking.

  16. ERK controls epithelial cell death receptor signalling and cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Coskun, Mehmet; Vainer, Ben


    Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) death signalling through the Fas receptor is impaired in active ulcerative colitis (UC). This is possibly due to the activation of cytoprotective pathways resulting in limitation of the tissue injury secondary to inflammation. We hypothesized that inflammatory...... the resistance to receptor mediated epithelial apoptosis in active UC. Oncogenic c-FLIP could promote propagation of DNA-damaged IECs and contribute to cancer development in UC....

  17. Bovine lactoferrin counteracts Toll-like receptor mediated activation signals in antigen presenting cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Puddu

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (LF, a key element in mammalian immune system, plays pivotal roles in host defence against infection and excessive inflammation. Its protective effects range from direct antimicrobial activities against a large panel of microbes, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, to antinflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we show that monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MD-DCs generated in the presence of bovine LF (bLF fail to undergo activation by up-modulating CD83, co-stimulatory and major histocompatibility complex molecules, and cytokine/chemokine secretion. Moreover, these cells are weak activators of T cell proliferation and retain antigen uptake activity. Consistent with an impaired maturation, bLF-MD-DC primed T lymphocytes exhibit a functional unresponsiveness characterized by reduced expression of CD154 and impaired expression of IFN-γ and IL-2. The observed imunosuppressive effects correlate with an increased expression of molecules with negative regulatory functions (i.e. immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 and programmed death ligand 1, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3. Interestingly, bLF-MD-DCs produce IL-6 and exhibit constitutive signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation. Conversely, bLF exposure of already differentiated MD-DCs completely fails to induce IL-6, and partially inhibits Toll-like receptor (TLR agonist-induced activation. Cell-specific differences in bLF internalization likely account for the distinct response elicited by bLF in monocytes versus immature DCs, providing a mechanistic base for its multiple effects. These results indicate that bLF exerts a potent anti-inflammatory activity by skewing monocyte differentiation into DCs with impaired capacity to undergo activation and to promote Th1 responses. Overall, these bLF-mediated effects may represent a strategy to block excessive DC activation upon TLR-induced inflammation, adding

  18. Regulation of T Cell Receptor Signaling by DENND1B in TH2 Cells and Allergic Disease. (United States)

    Yang, Chiao-Wen; Hojer, Caroline D; Zhou, Meijuan; Wu, Xiumin; Wuster, Arthur; Lee, Wyne P; Yaspan, Brian L; Chan, Andrew C


    The DENN domain is an evolutionary conserved protein module found in all eukaryotes and serves as an exchange factor for Rab-GTPases to regulate diverse cellular functions. Variants in DENND1B are associated with development of childhood asthma and other immune disorders. To understand how DENND1B may contribute to human disease, Dennd1b(-/-) mice were generated and exhibit hyper-allergic responses following antigen challenge. Dennd1b(-/-) TH2, but not other TH cells, exhibit delayed receptor-induced T cell receptor (TCR) downmodulation, enhanced TCR signaling, and increased production of effector cytokines. As DENND1B interacts with AP-2 and Rab35, TH2 cells deficient in AP-2 or Rab35 also exhibit enhanced TCR-mediated effector functions. Moreover, human TH2 cells carrying asthma-associated DENND1B variants express less DENND1B and phenocopy Dennd1b(-/-) TH2 cells. These results provide a molecular basis for how DENND1B, a previously unrecognized regulator of TCR downmodulation in TH2 cells, contributes to asthma pathogenesis and how DENN-domain-containing proteins may contribute to other human disorders.

  19. HER2/ErbB2 receptor signaling in rat and human prolactinoma cells: strategy for targeted prolactinoma therapy. (United States)

    Fukuoka, Hidenori; Cooper, Odelia; Mizutani, Jun; Tong, Yunguang; Ren, Song-Guang; Bannykh, Serguei; Melmed, Shlomo


    Dopamine agonist resistance or intolerance is encountered in approximately 20% of prolactinoma patients. Because human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/ErbB2 is overexpressed in prolactinomas and ErbB receptor ligands regulate prolactin (PRL) gene expression, we tested the role of HER2/ErbB2 in prolactinoma hormone regulation and adenoma cell proliferation to assess the rationale for targeting this receptor for prolactinoma therapy. As we showed prolactinoma HER2 overexpression, we generated constitutively active HER2-stable GH3 cell transfectants (HER2CA). PRL mRNA levels were induced approximately 250-fold and PRL secretion was enhanced 100-fold in HER2CA cells, which also exhibited increased proliferation. Lapatinib, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ErbB1 and HER2, blocked receptor signaling, and suppressed PRL expression more than gefitinib, a TKI of EGFR/ErbB1. Lapatinib also suppressed colony formation in soft agar more than gefitinib. Oral lapatinib treatment caused tumor shrinkage and serum PRL suppression both in HER2CA transfectant-inoculated Wistar-Furth rats and in estrogen-induced Fischer344 rat prolactinomas. In cultured human cells derived from resected prolactinoma tissue, lapatinib suppressed both PRL mRNA expression and secretion. These results demonstrate that prolactinoma HER2 potently induces PRL and regulates experimental prolactinoma cell proliferation. Because pituitary HER2 signaling is abrogated by TKIs, this receptor could be an effective target for prolactinoma therapy.

  20. Cooperation of tyrosine kinase receptor TrkB and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling enhances migration and dispersal of lung tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Götz

    Full Text Available TrkB mediates the effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in neuronal and nonnneuronal cells. Based on recent reports that TrkB can also be transactivated through epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR signaling and thus regulates migration of early neurons, we investigated the role of TrkB in migration of lung tumor cells. Early metastasis remains a major challenge in the clinical management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. TrkB receptor signaling is associated with metastasis and poor patient prognosis in NSCLC. Expression of this receptor in A549 cells and in another adenocarcinoma cell line, NCI-H441, promoted enhanced migratory capacity in wound healing assays in the presence of the TrkB ligand BDNF. Furthermore, TrkB expression in A549 cells potentiated the stimulatory effect of EGF in wound healing and in Boyden chamber migration experiments. Consistent with a potential loss of cell polarity upon TrkB expression, cell dispersal and de-clustering was induced in A549 cells independently of exogeneous BDNF. Morphological transformation involved extensive cytoskeletal changes, reduced E-cadherin expression and suppression of E-cadherin expression on the cell surface in TrkB expressing tumor cells. This function depended on MEK and Akt kinase activity but was independent of Src. These data indicate that TrkB expression in lung adenoma cells is an early step in tumor cell dissemination, and thus could represent a target for therapy development.

  1. The mitochondrial fission factor dynamin-related protein 1 modulates T-cell receptor signalling at the immune synapse. (United States)

    Baixauli, Francesc; Martín-Cófreces, Noa B; Morlino, Giulia; Carrasco, Yolanda R; Calabia-Linares, Carmen; Veiga, Esteban; Serrador, Juan M; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco


    During antigen-specific T-cell activation, mitochondria mobilize towards the vicinity of the immune synapse. We show here that the mitochondrial fission factor dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) docks at mitochondria, regulating their positioning and activity near the actin-rich ring of the peripheral supramolecular activation cluster (pSMAC) of the immune synapse. Mitochondrial redistribution in response to T-cell receptor engagement was abolished by Drp1 silencing, expression of the phosphomimetic mutant Drp1S637D and the Drp1-specific inhibitor mdivi-1. Moreover, Drp1 knockdown enhanced mitochondrial depolarization and T-cell receptor signal strength, but decreased myosin phosphorylation, ATP production and T-cell receptor assembly at the central supramolecular activation cluster (cSMAC). Our results indicate that Drp1-dependent mitochondrial positioning and activity controls T-cell activation by fuelling central supramolecular activation cluster assembly at the immune synapse.

  2. The dual Syk/JAK inhibitor cerdulatinib antagonises B-cell receptor and microenvironmental signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia


    Blunt, Matthew; Koehrer, S.; Dobson, R; Larrayoz, M; Wilmore, S.; Hayman, A.; Parnell, J; Smith, L D; Davies, A.; Johnson, P. W.; Conley, P B; Pandey, A.; Strefford, J C; Stevenson, F.K. (Freda K.); Packham, G


    Purpose: B-cell receptor (BCR)-associated kinase inhibitors such as ibrutinib have revolutionised the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, these agents are not curative and resistance is already emerging in a proportion of patients. Interleukin-4 (IL-4), expressed in CLL lymph nodes, can augment BCR-signalling and reduce the effectiveness of BCR-kinase inhibitors. Therefore simultaneous targeting of the IL-4- and BCR-signalling pathways by cerdulatinib, a novel dual Syk/J...

  3. EGF receptor signaling blocks aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated transcription and cell differentiation in human epidermal keratinocytes


    Sutter, Carrie Hayes; Yin, Hong; Li, Yunbo; Mammen, Jennifer S.; Bodreddigari, Sridevi; Stevens, Gaylene; Cole, Judith A; Sutter, Thomas R.


    Dioxin is an extremely potent carcinogen. In highly exposed people, the most commonly observed toxicity is chloracne, a pathological response of the skin. Most of the effects of dioxin are attributed to its activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a transcription factor that binds to the Ah receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) to regulate the transcription of numerous genes, including CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. In cultures of normal human epidermal keratinocytes dioxin accelerates cell diff...

  4. Integration of Nuclear- and Extranuclear-Initiated Estrogen Receptor Signaling in Breast Cancer Cells (United States)

    Madak Erdogan, Zeynep


    Estrogenic hormones exert their effects through binding to Estrogen Receptors (ERs), which work in concert with coregulators and extranuclear signaling pathways to control gene expression in normal as well as cancerous states, including breast tumors. In this thesis, we have used multiple genome-wide analysis tools to elucidate various ways that…

  5. Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid on E-type Prostaglandin Synthesis and EP4 Receptor Signaling Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

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    Gillian Hawcroft


    Full Text Available The ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, in the free fatty acid (FFA form, has been demonstrated to reduce adenoma number and size in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. However, the mechanistic basis of the antineoplastic activity of EPA in the colorectum remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that EPAFFA negatively modulates synthesis of and signaling by prostaglandin (PG E2 in human colorectal cancer (CRC cells. EPA-FFA induced apoptosis of cyclooxygenase (COX-2-positive human HCA-7 CRC cells in vitro. EPA-FFA in cell culture medium was incorporated rapidly into phospholipid membranes of HCA-7 human CRC cells and acted as a substrate for COX-2, leading to reduced synthesis of PGE2 and generation of PGE3. Alone, PGE3 bound and activated the PGE2 EP4 receptor but with reduced affinity and efficacy compared with its “natural” ligand PGE2. However, in the presence of PGE2, PGE3 acted as an antagonist of EP4 receptor-dependent 3’,5’ cyclic adenosine monophosphate induction in naturally EP4 receptor-positive LoVo human CRC cells and of resistance to apoptosis in HT-29-EP4 human CRC cells overexpressing the EP4 receptor. We conclude that EPA-FFA drives a COX-2dependent “PGE2-to-PGE3 switch” in human CRC cells and that PGE3 acts as a partial agonistat the PGE2 EP4 receptor.

  6. Nitric oxide from inflammatory origin impairs neural stem cell proliferation by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Pereira Carreira


    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation is characterized by activation of microglial cells, followed by production of nitric oxide (NO, which may have different outcomes on neurogenesis, favoring or inhibiting this process. In the present study, we investigated how the inflammatory mediator NO can affect proliferation of neural stem cells (NSC, and explored possible mechanisms underlying this effect. We investigated which mechanisms are involved in the regulation of NSC proliferation following treatment with an inflammatory stimulus (LPS plus IFN-γ, using a culture system of subventricular zone (SVZ-derived NSC mixed with microglia cells obtained from wild-type mice (iNOS+/+ or from iNOS knockout mice (iNOS-/-. We found an impairment of NSC cell proliferation in iNOS+/+ mixed cultures, which was not observed in iNOS-/- mixed cultures. Furthermore, the increased release of NO by activated iNOS+/+ microglial cells decreased the activation of the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway, which was concomitant with an enhanced nitration of the EGF receptor. Preventing nitrogen reactive species formation with MnTBAP, a scavenger of peroxynitrite, or using the peroxynitrite degradation catalyst FeTMPyP, cell proliferation and ERK signaling were restored to basal levels in iNOS+/+ mixed cultures. Moreover, exposure to the NO donor NOC-18 (100 µM, for 48 h, inhibited SVZ-derived NSC proliferation. Regarding the antiproliferative effect of NO, we found that NOC-18 caused the impairment of signaling through the ERK/MAPK pathway, which may be related to increased nitration of the EGF receptor in NSC. Using MnTBAP nitration was prevented, maintaining ERK signaling, rescuing NSC proliferation. We show that NO from inflammatory origin leads to a decreased function of the EGF receptor, which compromised proliferation of NSC. We also demonstrated that NO-mediated nitration of the EGF receptor caused a decrease in its phosphorylation, thus preventing regular proliferation signaling through the

  7. Rapid signaling actions of environmental estrogens in developing granule cell neurons are mediated by estrogen receptor ß. (United States)

    Le, Hoa H; Belcher, Scott M


    Estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) constitute a diverse group of man-made chemicals and natural compounds derived from plants and microbial metabolism. Estrogen-like actions are mediated via the nuclear hormone receptor activity of estrogen receptor (ER)α and ERβ and rapid regulation of intracellular signaling cascades. Previous study defined cerebellar granule cell neurons as estrogen responsive and that granule cell precursor viability was developmentally sensitive to estrogens. In this study experiments using Western blot analysis and pharmacological approaches have characterized the receptor and signaling modes of action of selective and nonselective estrogen ligands in developing cerebellar granule cells. Estrogen treatments were found to briefly increase ERK1/2-phosphorylation and then cause prolonged depression of ERK1/2 activity. The sensitivity of granule cell precursors to estrogen-induced cell death was found to require the integrated activation of membrane and intracellular ER signaling pathways. The sensitivity of granule cells to selective and nonselective ER agonists and a variety of estrogenic and nonestrogenic EDCs was also examined. The ERβ selective agonist DPN, but not the ERα selective agonist 4,4',4'-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) trisphenol or other ERα-specific ligands, stimulated cell death. Only EDCs with selective or nonselective ERβ activities like daidzein, equol, diethylstilbestrol, and bisphenol A were observed to induce E2-like neurotoxicity supporting the conclusion that estrogen sensitivity in granule cells is mediated via ERβ. The presented results also demonstrate the utility of estrogen sensitive developing granule cells as an in vitro assay for elucidating rapid estrogen-signaling mechanisms and to detect EDCs that act at ERβ to rapidly regulate intracellular signaling.

  8. Kinase RIP3 is dispensable for normal NF-kappa Bs, signaling by the B-cell and T-cell receptors, tumor necrosis factor receptor 1, and Toll-like receptors 2 and 4. (United States)

    Newton, Kim; Sun, Xiaoqing; Dixit, Vishva M


    RIP3 is a member of the RIP kinase family. It is expressed in the embryo and in multiple adult tissues, including most hemopoietic cell lineages. Several studies have implicated RIP3 in the regulation of apoptosis and NF-kappa B signaling, but whether RIP3 promotes or attenuates activation of the NF-kappa B family of transcription factors has been controversial. We have generated RIP3-deficient mice by gene targeting and find RIP3 to be dispensable for normal mouse development. RIP3-deficient cells showed normal sensitivity to a variety of apoptotic stimuli and were indistinguishable from wild-type cells in their ability to activate NF-kappa B signaling in response to the following: human tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which selectively engages mouse TNF receptor 1; cross-linking of the B- or T-cell antigen receptors; peptidoglycan, which activates Toll-like receptor 2; and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which stimulates Toll-like receptor 4. Consistent with these observations, RIP3-deficient mice exhibited normal antibody production after immunization with a T-dependent antigen and normal interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, and TNF production after LPS treatment. Thus, we can exclude RIP3 as an essential modulator of NF-kappa B signaling downstream of several receptor systems.

  9. Effects of CS-1 on A431 cell proliferation, cell cycle, and epidermal growth factor receptor signal transduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan Du; Bo Xu; Caixia Wu; Min Li; Fuxiang Ran; Shaoqing Cai; Jingrong Cui


    CS-1,a new alkaloid with a molecular formula of C21H20O8N2S,is extracted from traditional Chinese medicine.Previous studies have shown that CS-1 can inhibit the proliferation of several human carcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro.The aims of this study are to investigate the anti-tumor effect and mechanism of CS-1 in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway in human A431 cell line.Through the sulforhodamine B assay,we found that CS-1 inhibited A431 cell proliferation in the concentration- and time-dependent manners.The inhibitory rate ranged from 14.5% to 87.8% after 24 h of incubation.High content screening (HCS) multiparameters cytotoxicity analysis showed that CS-1 at high concentration had slight cytotoxicity that resulted from the cell permeabilization and slight reduction in total mitochondrial mass,whereas no change in nucleus size/morphology and lysosomal mass-pH was found.The cytotoxicity of CS-1 was not a major reason for its antiproliferative effect.Cell cycle analysis indicated that CS-1 induced G1-phase arrest in A431 cells in a timedependent manner at high concentration (2.5 μM),and S-phase arrest at low concentration (0.625 μM).The HCS assay also showed that CS-1 could inhibit the EGFR internalization,extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (Erk)/ mitogen-activated protein kinase translocation to nucleus,the accumulation of phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt),signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3),and cyclin D1 in the nucleus.These results were confirmed by the western blot analysis.CS-1 might inhibit the epidermal growth factor binding to its receptor,resulting in the inhibition of the accumulation of phosphorylated Erk and Akt,and STAT3 in the nucleus,and affecting the transcription of cyclin D1 and cell cycle arrest in G1/S phase.

  10. The retinol esterifying enzyme LRAT supports cell signaling by retinol-binding protein and its receptor STRA6. (United States)

    Marwarha, Gurdeep; Berry, Daniel C; Croniger, Colleen M; Noy, Noa


    Vitamin A, retinol, circulates in blood bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP). At some tissues, holo-RBP is recognized by a plasma membrane receptor termed STRA6, which serves a dual role: it mediates transport of retinol from RBP into cells, and it functions as a cytokine receptor that, on binding holo-RBP, activates JAK2/STAT5 signaling. As STAT target genes include SOCS3, an inhibitor of insulin receptor, holo-RBP suppresses insulin responses in STRA6-expressing cells. We have shown previously that the two functions of STRA6 are interdependent. These observations suggest factors that regulate STRA6-mediated retinol transport may also control STRA6-mediated cell signaling. One such factor is retinol metabolism, which enables cellular uptake of retinol by maintaining an inward-directed concentration gradient. We show here that lecithin:retinol acyl transferase (LRAT), which catalyzes esterification of retinol to its storage species retinyl esters, is necessary for activation of the STRA6/JAK2/STAT5 cascade by holo-RBP. In accordance, LRAT-null mice are protected from holo-RBP-induced suppression of insulin responses. Hence, STRA6 signaling, which requires STRA6-mediated retinol transport, is supported by LRAT-catalyzed retinol metabolism. The observations demonstrate that STRA6 regulates key cellular processes by coupling circulating holo-RBP levels and intracellular retinol metabolism to cell signaling.

  11. Rice Bran Feruloylated Oligosaccharides Activate Dendritic Cells via Toll-Like Receptor 2 and 4 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Chen Lin


    Full Text Available This work presents the effects of feruloylated oligosaccharides (FOs of rice bran on murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs and the potential pathway through which the effects are mediated. We found that FOs induced phenotypic maturation of DCs, as shown by the increased expression of CD40, CD80/CD86 and MHC-I/II molecules. FOs efficiently induced maturation of DCs generated from C3H/HeN or C57BL/6 mice with normal toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4 or TLR-2 but not DCs from mice with mutated TLR4 or TLR2. The mechanism of action of FOs may be mediated by increased phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs and increased NF-kB activity, which are important signaling molecules downstream of TLR-4 and TLR-2. These data suggest that FOs induce DCs maturation through TLR-4 and/or TLR-2 and that FOs might have potential efficacy against tumor or virus infection or represent a candidate-adjuvant approach for application in immunotherapy and vaccination.

  12. T cell homeostasis requires G protein-coupled receptor-mediated access to trophic signals that promote growth and inhibit chemotaxis


    Cinalli, Ryan M.; Herman, Catherine E.; Lew, Brian O.; Wieman, Heather L.; Thompson, Craig B.; Rathmell, Jeffrey C.


    Signals that regulate T cell homeostasis are not fully understood. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), such as the chemokine receptors, may affect homeostasis by direct signaling or by guiding T cell migration to distinct location-restricted signals. Here, we show that blockade of Gαi-associated GPCR signaling by treatment with pertussis toxin led to T cell atrophy and shortened life-span in T cell-replete hosts and prevented T cell homeostatic growth and proliferation in T cell-deficient hos...

  13. Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling is essential for lens fiber cell differentiation


    Zhao, Haotian; Yang, Tianyu; Madakashira, Bhavani P.; Thiels, Cornelius A.; Bechtle, Chad A.; Garcia, Claudia M.; Zhang, Huiming; Yu, Kai; Ornitz, David M.; Beebe, David C.; Robinson, Michael L.


    The vertebrate lens provides an excellent model to study the mechanisms that regulate terminal differentiation. Although fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are thought to be important for lens cell differentiation, it is unclear which FGF receptors mediate these processes during different stages of lens development. Deletion of three FGF receptors (Fgfr1-3) early in lens development demonstrated that expression of only a single allele of Fgfr2 or Fgfr3 was sufficient for grossly normal lens dev...

  14. Pathway-selective suppression of chemokine receptor signaling in B cells by LPS through downregulation of PLC-β2. (United States)

    Shirakawa, Aiko-Konno; Liao, Fang; Zhang, Hongwei H; Hedrick, Michael N; Singh, Satya P; Wu, Dianqing; Farber, Joshua M


    Lymphocyte activation leads to changes in chemokine receptor expression. There are limited data, however, on how lymphocyte activators can alter chemokine signaling by affecting downstream pathways. We hypothesized that B cell-activating agents might alter chemokine responses by affecting downstream signal transducers, and that such effects might differ depending on the activator. We found that activating mouse B cells using either anti-IgM or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased the surface expression of CCR6 and CCR7 with large increases in chemotaxis to their cognate ligands. By contrast, while anti-IgM also led to enhanced calcium responses, LPS-treated cells showed only small changes in calcium signaling as compared with cells that were freshly isolated. Of particular interest, we found that LPS caused a reduction in the level of B-cell phospholipase C (PLC)-β2 mRNA and protein. Data obtained using PLC-β2(-/-) mice showed that the β2 isoform mediates close to one-half the chemokine-induced calcium signal in resting and anti-IgM-activated B cells, and we found that calcium signals in the LPS-treated cells were boosted by increasing the level of PLC-β2 using transfection, consistent with a functional effect of downregulating PLC-β2. Together, our results show activator-specific effects on responses through B-cell chemokine receptors that are mediated by quantitative changes in a downstream signal-transducing protein, revealing an activity for LPS as a downregulator of PLC-β2, and a novel mechanism for controlling chemokine-induced signals in lymphocytes.

  15. Activin type IB receptor signaling in prostate cancer cells promotes lymph node metastasis in a xenograft model

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    Nomura, Masatoshi, E-mail: [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Tanaka, Kimitaka; Wang, Lixiang; Goto, Yutaka; Mukasa, Chizu; Ashida, Kenji; Takayanagi, Ryoichi [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling induces Snail and S100A4 expressions in prostate cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prostate cancer cell lines expressing an active form of ActRIB were established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling promotes EMT and lymph node metastasis in xenograft model. -- Abstract: Activin, a member of the transforming growth factor-{beta} family, has been known to be a growth and differentiating factor. Despite its pluripotent effects, the roles of activin signaling in prostate cancer pathogenesis are still unclear. In this study, we established several cell lines that express a constitutive active form of activin type IB receptor (ActRIBCA) in human prostate cancer cells, ALVA41 (ALVA-ActRIBCA). There was no apparent change in the proliferation of ALVA-ActRIBCA cells in vitro; however, their migratory ability was significantly enhanced. In a xenograft model, histological analysis revealed that the expression of Snail, a cell-adhesion-suppressing transcription factor, was dramatically increased in ALVA-ActRIBCA tumors, indicating epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Finally, mice bearing ALVA-ActRIBCA cells developed multiple lymph node metastases. In this study, we demonstrated that ActRIBCA signaling can promote cell migration in prostate cancer cells via a network of signaling molecules that work together to trigger the process of EMT, and thereby aid in the aggressiveness and progression of prostate cancers.

  16. Involvement of aquaporin-3 in epidermal growth factor receptor signaling via hydrogen peroxide transport in cancer cells. (United States)

    Hara-Chikuma, Mariko; Watanabe, Sachiko; Satooka, Hiroki


    Aquaporin 3 (AQP3), a water/glycerol channel protein, is capable of transporting hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Here, we show that AQP3-mediated intracellular H2O2 is involved in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cell signaling and its dependent cell function in the EGF receptor (EGFR)-positive cancer cell lines A431 and H1666. AQP3 knockdown suppressed the transport into the cells of extracellular H2O2 produced in response to EGF in A431 and H1666 cells. EGF-induced Erk and Akt activation, which occurred through SHP2 and/or PTEN modulation, was impaired by AQP3 knockdown. Cell growth and migration induced by EGF stimulation were attenuated in AQP3 knockdown cells compared with those in control cells. Coincidentally, tumor growth of A431 cell xenografts in immunodeficient mice was decreased by AQP3 knockdown. Accordingly, a xenograft with AQP3 knockdown A431 cells significantly enhanced the survival of recipient mice compared with the transplantation with control cells. In addition, AQP3 associated with EGFR and NADPH oxidase 2, which we propose is linked to AQP3 producing a localized increase in intracellular H2O2 to function as a second messenger during EGFR cell signaling. Therefore, our findings suggest that AQP3 is required for EGF-EGFR cell signaling in cancer cells and is a therapeutic target for cancer progression.

  17. The Shc family protein adaptor, Rai, negatively regulates T cell antigen receptor signaling by inhibiting ZAP-70 recruitment and activation.

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    Micol Ferro

    Full Text Available Rai/ShcC is a member of the Shc family of protein adaptors expressed with the highest abundance in the central nervous system, where it exerts a protective function by coupling neurotrophic receptors to the PI3K/Akt survival pathway. Rai is also expressed, albeit at lower levels, in other cell types, including T and B lymphocytes. We have previously reported that in these cells Rai attenuates antigen receptor signaling, thereby impairing not only cell proliferation but also, opposite to neurons, cell survival. Here we have addressed the mechanism underlying the inhibitory activity of Rai on TCR signaling. We show that Rai interferes with the TCR signaling cascade one of the earliest steps--recruitment of the initiating kinase ZAP-70 to the phosphorylated subunit of the TCR/CD3 complex, which results in a generalized dampening of the downstream signaling events. The inhibitory activity of Rai is associated to its inducible recruitment to phosphorylated CD3, which occurs in the physiological signaling context of the immune synapse. Rai is moreover found as a pre-assembled complex with ZAP-70 and also constitutively interacts with the regulatory p85 subunit of PI3K, similar to neuronal cells, notwithstanding the opposite biological outcome, i.e. impairment of PI-3K/Akt activation. The data highlight the ability of Rai to establish interactions with the TCR and key signaling mediators which, either directly (e.g. by inhibiting ZAP-70 recruitment to the TCR or sequestering ZAP-70/PI3K in the cytosol or indirectly (e.g. by promoting the recruitment of effectors responsible for signal extinction prevent full triggering of the TCR signaling cascade.

  18. Using NK Cell Lipid Raft Fractionation to Understand the Role of Lipid Rafts in NK Cell Receptor Signaling. (United States)

    Serrano-Pertierra, Esther; López-Larrea, Carlos


    Lipid rafts were first defined as detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) due to their relative insolubility in non-ionic detergents. Although they should not be confused with lipid rafts, DRMs are a valuable starting point for the study of these membrane domains and the interactions of proteins with rafts.Here we describe the isolation of DRMs by ultracentrifugation on a sucrose gradient, a method we have used to study the role of lipid rafts in NKG2D-mediated signaling. We also describe raft fractionation of NK cells involving the selective solubility of β-octylglucoside (β-OG). OG is a non-ionic detergent that efficiently dissolves DRMs but does not disrupt protein associations with the cytoskeleton. Using these two techniques may yield useful information about the proteins involved in receptor recruitment into lipid rafts and the interactions of the actin cytoskeleton with lipid rafts.

  19. Prostaglandin E2 regulates Th17 cell differentiation and function through cyclic AMP and EP2/EP4 receptor signaling. (United States)

    Boniface, Katia; Bak-Jensen, Kristian S; Li, Ying; Blumenschein, Wendy M; McGeachy, Mandy J; McClanahan, Terrill K; McKenzie, Brent S; Kastelein, Robert A; Cua, Daniel J; de Waal Malefyt, René


    Prostaglandins, particularly prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), play an important role during inflammation. This is exemplified by the clinical use of cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors, which interfere with PGE2 synthesis, as effective antiinflammatory drugs. Here, we show that PGE2 directly promotes differentiation and proinflammatory functions of human and murine IL-17-producing T helper (Th17) cells. In human purified naive T cells, PGE2 acts via prostaglandin receptor EP2- and EP4-mediated signaling and cyclic AMP pathways to up-regulate IL-23 and IL-1 receptor expression. Furthermore, PGE2 synergizes with IL-1beta and IL-23 to drive retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR)-gammat, IL-17, IL-17F, CCL20, and CCR6 expression, which is consistent with the reported Th17 phenotype. While enhancing Th17 cytokine expression mainly through EP2, PGE2 differentially regulates interferon (IFN)-gamma production and inhibits production of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 in Th17 cells predominantly through EP4. Furthermore, PGE2 is required for IL-17 production in the presence of antigen-presenting cells. Hence, the combination of inflammatory cytokines and noncytokine immunomodulators, such as PGE2, during differentiation and activation determines the ultimate phenotype of Th17 cells. These findings, together with the altered IL-12/IL-23 balance induced by PGE2 in dendritic cells, further highlight the crucial role of the inflammatory microenvironment in Th17 cell development and regulation.

  20. Involvement of formyl peptide receptors in receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE - and amyloid beta 1-42-induced signal transduction in glial cells

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    Slowik Alexander


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies suggest that the chemotactic G-protein-coupled-receptor (GPCR formyl-peptide-receptor-like-1 (FPRL1 and the receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products (RAGE play an important role in the inflammatory response involved in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Therefore, the expression and co-localisation of mouse formyl peptide receptor (mFPR 1 and 2 as well as RAGE in an APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model using immunofluorescence and real-time RT-PCR were analysed. The involvement of rat or human FPR1/FPRL1 (corresponds to mFPR1/2 and RAGE in amyloid-β 1–42 (Aβ1-42-induced signalling were investigated by extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, the cAMP level in primary rat glial cells (microglia and astrocytes and transfected HEK 293 cells was measured. Formyl peptide receptors and RAGE were inhibited by a small synthetic antagonist WRW4 and an inactive receptor variant delta-RAGE, lacking the intracytoplasmatic domains. Results We demonstrated a strong increase of mFPR1/2 and RAGE expression in the cortex and hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice co-localised to the glial cells. In addition, the Aβ1-42-induced signal transduction is dependant on FPRL1, but also on FPR1. For the first time, we have shown a functional interaction between FPRL1/FPR1 and RAGE in RAGE ligands S100B- or AGE-mediated signalling by ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cAMP level measurement. In addition a possible physical interaction between FPRL1 as well as FPR1 and RAGE was shown with co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence microscopy. Conclusions The results suggest that both formyl peptide receptors play an essential role in Aβ1-42-induced signal transduction in glial cells. The interaction with RAGE could explain the broad ligand spectrum of formyl peptide receptors and their important role for inflammation and the host defence against infections.

  1. Cell signaling and receptors in toxicity of advanced glycation end products (AGEs): α-dicarbonyls, radicals, oxidative stress and antioxidants. (United States)

    Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy


    Considerable attention has been paid to the toxicity of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), including relation to various illnesses. AGEs, generated nonenzymatically from carbohydrates and proteins, comprises large numbers of simple and more complicated compounds. Many reports deal with a role for receptors (RAGE) and cell signaling, including illnesses and aging. Reactive oxygen species appear to participate in signaling. RAGE include angiotensin II type 1 receptors. Many signaling pathways are involved, such as kinases, p38, p21, TGF-β, NF-κβ, TNF-α, JNK and STAT. A recent review puts focus on α-dicarbonyl metabolites, formed by carbohydrate oxidation, and imine derivatives from protein condensation, as a source via electron transfer (ET) of ROS and oxidative stress (OS). The toxic species have been related to illnesses and aging. Antioxidants alleviate the adverse effects.

  2. Effects of toluene exposure on signal transduction: toluene reduced the signaling via stimulation of human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m2 subtypes in CHO cells. (United States)

    Tsuga, Hirofumi; Haga, Tatsuya; Honma, Takeshi


    The organic solvent toluene is used widely in industry and is toxic to the central nervous system (CNS). To clarify the mechanisms of CNS toxicity following toluene exposure, especially with respect to the G protein-coupling of receptors, we determined the effects of toluene on the activation of Gi by stimulating human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m2 subtypes (hm2 receptors) expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We first examined whether toluene affects the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by Gi. The attenuation of forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation by the stimulation of hm2 receptors was reduced in a medium containing toluene. Next, we determined the effects of toluene on carbamylcholine-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding using membrane fractions of CHO cell expressing hm2 receptors. Carbamylcholine-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding activity was markedly reduced when assayed using reaction buffers containing toluene. However, carbamylcholine-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding activity was essentially unchanged following pretreatment of the cells with a toluene-saturated medium prior to membrane isolation. Toluene pretreatment and the toluene itself did not alter the characteristics of the binding of carbamylcholine and [3H]N-methylscopolamine to hm2 receptors. On the contrary of the effect of toluene for [35S]GTPgammaS binding, the effect of toluene for attenuation of forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation by the stimulation of hm2 receptors was irreversible. These observations indicate that toluene acts as an inhibitor of the signal transduction via hm2 receptor stimulation in CHO cells, and at least two mechanisms exist in the inhibition mechanisms by toluene.

  3. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-RAS signaling pathway in penile squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Hong-Feng Gou

    Full Text Available Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC is a rare cancer with poor prognosis and limited response to conventional chemotherapy. The genetic and epigenetic alterations of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR-RAS-RAF signaling in penile SCC are unclear. This study aims to investigate four key members of this pathway in penile SCC. We examined the expression of EGFR and RAS-association domain family 1 A (RASSF1A as well as the mutation status of K-RAS and BRAF in 150 cases of penile SCC. EGFR and RASSF1A expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. KRAS mutations at codons 12 and 13, and the BRAF mutation at codon 600 were analyzed on DNA isolated from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues by direct genomic sequencing. EGFR expression was positive in all specimens, and its over-expression rate was 92%. RASSF1A expression rate was only 3.42%. Significant correlation was not found between the expression of EGFR or RASSF1A and tumor grade, pT stage or lymph node metastases. The detection of KRAS and BRAF mutations analysis was performed in 94 and 83 tumor tissues, respectively. We found KRAS mutation in only one sample and found no BRAF V600E point mutation. In summary, we found over-expression of EGFR in the majority cases of penile SCC, but only rare expression of RASSF1A, rare KRAS mutation, and no BRAF mutation in penile SCC. These data suggest that anti-EGFR agents may be potentially considered as therapeutic options in penile SCC.

  4. {delta}-Opioid receptor-stimulated Akt signaling in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells involves receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated PI3K activation

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    Heiss, Anika; Ammer, Hermann [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Koeniginstrasse 16 80539 Muenchen Federal Republic of Germany (Germany); Eisinger, Daniela A., E-mail: [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Koeniginstrasse 16 80539 Muenchen Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)


    {delta}-Opioid receptor (DOR) agonists possess cytoprotective properties, an effect associated with activation of the 'pro-survival' kinase Akt. Here we delineate the signal transduction pathway by which opioids induce Akt activation in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells. Exposure of the cells to both [D-Pen{sup 2,5}]enkephalin and etorphine resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in Akt activity, as measured by means of an activation-specific antibody recognizing phosphoserine-473. DOR-mediated Akt signaling is blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone and involves inhibitory G{sub i/o} proteins, because pre-treatment with pertussis toxin, but not over-expression of the G{sub q/11} scavengers EBP50 and GRK2-K220R, prevented this effect. Further studies with Wortmannin and LY294002 revealed that phophoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) plays a central role in opioid-induced Akt activation. Opioids stimulate Akt activity through transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), because pre-treatment of the cells with inhibitors for neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinases (AG879) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1 (AG1024), but not over-expression of the G{beta}{gamma} scavenger phosducin, abolished this effect. Activated Akt translocates to the nuclear membrane, where it promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and prevents caspase-3 cleavage, two key events mediating inhibition of cell apoptosis and enhancement of cell survival. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in NG108-15 hybrid cells DOR agonists possess cytoprotective properties mediated by activation of the RTK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  5. L1CAM Binds ErbB Receptors through Ig-Like Domains Coupling Cell Adhesion and Neuregulin Signalling (United States)

    Grijota-Martinez, Carmen; Lakomá, Jarmila; Baars, Sigrid; Garcia-Alonso, Luis; Cabedo, Hugo


    During nervous system development different cell-to-cell communication mechanisms operate in parallel guiding migrating neurons and growing axons to generate complex arrays of neural circuits. How such a system works in coordination is not well understood. Cross-regulatory interactions between different signalling pathways and redundancy between them can increase precision and fidelity of guidance systems. Immunoglobulin superfamily proteins of the NCAM and L1 families couple specific substrate recognition and cell adhesion with the activation of receptor tyrosine kinases. Thus it has been shown that L1CAM-mediated cell adhesion promotes the activation of the EGFR (erbB1) from Drosophila to humans. Here we explore the specificity of the molecular interaction between L1CAM and the erbB receptor family. We show that L1CAM binds physically erbB receptors in both heterologous systems and the mammalian developing brain. Different Ig-like domains located in the extracellular part of L1CAM can support this interaction. Interestingly, binding of L1CAM to erbB enhances its response to neuregulins. During development this may synergize with the activation of erbB receptors through L1CAM homophilic interactions, conferring diffusible neuregulins specificity for cells or axons that interact with the substrate through L1CAM. PMID:22815787

  6. GnRH receptor activation competes at a low level with growth signaling in stably transfected human breast cell lines

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    Morgan Kevin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH analogs lower estrogen levels in pre-menopausal breast cancer patients. GnRH receptor (GnRH-R activation also directly inhibits the growth of certain cells. The applicability of GnRH anti-proliferation to breast cancer was therefore analyzed. Methods GnRH-R expression in 298 primary breast cancer samples was measured by quantitative immunofluorescence. Levels of functional GnRH-R in breast-derived cell lines were assessed using 125I-ligand binding and stimulation of 3H-inositol phosphate production. Elevated levels of GnRH-R were stably expressed in cells by transfection. Effects of receptor activation on in vitro cell growth were investigated in comparison with IGF-I and EGF receptor inhibition, and correlated with intracellular signaling using western blotting. Results GnRH-R immunoscoring was highest in hormone receptor (triple negative and grade 3 breast tumors. However prior to transfection, functional endogenous GnRH-R were undetectable in four commonly studied breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, ZR-75-1, T47D and MDA-MB-231. After transfection with GnRH-R, high levels of cell surface GnRH-R were detected in SVCT and MDA-MB-231 clones while low-moderate levels of GnRH-R occurred in MCF-7 clones and ZR-75-1 clones. MCF-7 sub-clones with high levels of GnRH-R were isolated following hygromycin phosphotransferase transfection. High level cell surface GnRH-R enabled induction of high levels of 3H-inositol phosphate and modest growth-inhibition in SVCT cells. In contrast, growth of MCF-7, ZR-75-1 or MDA-MB-231 clones was unaffected by GnRH-R activation. Cell growth was inhibited by IGF-I or EGF receptor inhibitors. IGF-I receptor inhibitor lowered levels of p-ERK1/2 in MCF-7 clones. Washout of IGF-I receptor inhibitor resulted in transient hyper-elevation of p-ERK1/2, but co-addition of GnRH-R agonist did not alter the dynamics of ERK1/2 re-phosphorylation. Conclusions Breast cancers

  7. Reversibility of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced in breast cancer cells by activation of urokinase receptor-dependent cell signaling. (United States)

    Jo, Minji; Lester, Robin D; Montel, Valerie; Eastman, Boryana; Takimoto, Shinako; Gonias, Steven L


    Hypoxia induces expression of the urokinase receptor (uPAR) and activates uPAR-dependent cell signaling in cancer cells. This process promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). uPAR overexpression in cancer cells also promotes EMT. In this study, we tested whether uPAR may be targeted to reverse cancer cell EMT. When MDA-MB 468 breast cancer cells were cultured in 1% O(2), uPAR expression increased, as anticipated. Cell-cell junctions were disrupted, vimentin expression increased, and E-cadherin was lost from cell surfaces, indicating EMT. Transferring these cells back to 21% O(2) decreased uPAR expression and reversed the signs of EMT. In uPAR-overexpressing MDA-MB 468 cells, EMT was reversed by silencing expression of endogenously produced urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), which is necessary for uPAR-dependent cell signaling, or by targeting uPAR-activated cell signaling factors, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Src family kinases, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells express high levels of uPA and uPAR and demonstrate mesenchymal cell morphology under normoxic culture conditions (21% O(2)). Silencing uPA expression in MDA-MB-231 cells decreased expression of vimentin and Snail, and induced changes in morphology characteristic of epithelial cells. These results demonstrate that uPAR-initiated cell signaling may be targeted to reverse EMT in cancer.

  8. Mactosylceramide Prevents Glial Cell Overgrowth by Inhibiting Insulin and Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling

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    Gerdøe-Kristensen, Stine; Lund, Viktor K; Wandall, Hans H


    , in which the mannosyltransferase Egghead controls conversion of glucosylceramide (GlcCer) to mactosylceramide (MacCer). Lack of elongated GSL in egghead (egh) mutants causes overgrowth of subperineurial glia (SPG), largely due to aberrant activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). However, to what...... extent this effect involves changes in upstream signaling events is unresolved. We show here that glial overgrowth in egh is strongly linked to increased activation of Insulin and Fibroblast Growth Factor receptors (FGFR). Glial hypertrophy is phenocopied when overexpressing gain-of-function mutants...... hyperactivation is caused by absence of MacCer and not by GlcCer accumulation. We conclude that an early product in GSL biosynthesis, MacCer, prevents inappropriate activation of Insulin and Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors in Drosophila glia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  9. NAADP-mediated Ca2+ signaling via type 1 ryanodine receptor in T cells revealed by a synthetic NAADP antagonist (United States)

    Dammermann, Werner; Zhang, Bo; Nebel, Merle; Cordiglieri, Chiara; Odoardi, Francesca; Kirchberger, Tanja; Kawakami, Naoto; Dowden, James; Schmid, Frederike; Dornmair, Klaus; Hohenegger, Martin; Flügel, Alexander; Guse, Andreas H.; Potter, Barry V. L.


    The nucleotide NAADP was recently discovered as a second messenger involved in the initiation and propagation of Ca2+ signaling in lymphoma T cells, but its impact on primary T cell function is still unknown. An optimized, synthetic, small molecule inhibitor of NAADP action, termed BZ194, was designed and synthesized. BZ194 neither interfered with Ca2+ mobilization by d-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate or cyclic ADP-ribose nor with capacitative Ca2+ entry. BZ194 specifically and effectively blocked NAADP-stimulated [3H]ryanodine binding to the purified type 1 ryanodine receptor. Further, in intact T cells, Ca2+ mobilization evoked by NAADP or by formation of the immunological synapse between primary effector T cells and astrocytes was inhibited by BZ194. Downstream events of Ca2+ mobilization, such as nuclear translocation of “nuclear factor of activated T cells” (NFAT), T cell receptor-driven interleukin-2 production, and proliferation in antigen-experienced CD4+ effector T cells, were attenuated by the NAADP antagonist. Taken together, specific inhibition of the NAADP signaling pathway constitutes a way to specifically and effectively modulate T-cell activation and has potential in the therapy of autoimmune diseases. PMID:19541638

  10. Roles for NHERF1 and NHERF2 on the regulation of C3a receptor signaling in human mast cells.

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    Hariharan Subramanian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anaphylatoxin C3a binds to the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR, C3aR and activates divergent signaling pathways to induce degranulation and cytokine production in human mast cells. Adapter proteins such as the Na(+/H(+ exchange regulatory factor (NHERF1 and NHERF2 have been implicated in regulating functions of certain GPCRs by binding to the class I PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/Zo1 motifs present on their cytoplasmic tails. Although C3aR possesses a class I PDZ motif, the possibility that it interacts with NHERF proteins to modulate signaling in human mast cells has not been determined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting, we found that NHERF1 and NHERF2 are expressed in human mast cell lines (HMC-1, LAD2 and CD34(+-derived primary human mast cells. Surprisingly, however, C3aR did not associate with these adapter proteins. To assess the roles of NHERFs on signaling downstream of C3aR, we used lentiviral shRNA to stably knockdown the expression of these proteins in human mast cells. Silencing the expression of NHERF1 and NHERF2 had no effect on C3aR desensitization, agonist-induced receptor internalization, ERK/Akt phosphorylation or chemotaxis. However, loss of NHERF1 and NHERF2 resulted in significant inhibition of C3a-induced mast cell degranulation, NF-κB activation and chemokine production. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that although C3aR possesses a class I PDZ motif, it does not associate with NHERF1 and NHERF2. Surprisingly, these proteins provide stimulatory signals for C3a-induced degranulation, NF-κB activation and chemokine generation in human mast cells. These findings reveal a new level of complexity for the functional regulation of C3aR by NHERFs in human mast cells.

  11. Distinct signalling pathways of murine histamine H1- and H4-receptors expressed at comparable levels in HEK293 cells.

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    Silke Beermann

    Full Text Available Histamine (HA is recognized by its target cells via four G-protein-coupled receptors, referred to as histamine H1-receptor (H1R, H2R, H3R, and H4R. Both H1R and H4R exert pro-inflammatory functions. However, their signal transduction pathways have never been analyzed in a directly comparable manner side by side. Moreover, the analysis of pharmacological properties of the murine orthologs, representing the main targets of pre-clinical research, is very important. Therefore, we engineered recombinant HEK293 cells expressing either mouse (mH1R or mH4R at similar levels and analyzed HA-induced signalling in these cells. HA induced intracellular calcium mobilization via both mH1R and mH4R, with the mH1R being much more effective. Whereas cAMP accumulation was potentiated via the mH1R, it was reduced via the mH4R. The regulation of both second messengers via the H4R, but not the H1R, was sensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX. The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs ERK 1/2 were massively activated downstream of both receptors and demonstrated a functional involvement in HA-induced EGR-1 gene expression. The p38 MAPK was moderately activated via both receptors as well, but was functionally involved in HA-induced EGR-1 gene expression only in H4R-expressing cells. Surprisingly, in this system p38 MAPK activity reduced the HA-induced gene expression. In summary, using this system which allows a direct comparison of mH1R- and mH4R-induced signalling, qualitative and quantitative differences on the levels of second messenger generation and also in terms of p38 MAPK function became evident.

  12. Antigen-affinity controls pre-germinal centser B cell selection by promoting Mcl-1 induction through BAFF receptor signaling (United States)

    Wensveen, Felix M.; Slinger, Erik; van Attekum, Martijn HA; Brink, Robert; Eldering, Eric


    Upon antigen encounter, the responsive B cell pool undergoes stringent selection which eliminates cells with low B cell receptor (BCR) affinity. Already before formation of the germinal center, activated B cells of low-affinity are negatively selected in a process that is molecularly not well understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanism behind pre-GC affinity-mediated B cell selection. We applied affinity mutants of HEL antigen and found that rapidly after activation B cells become highly dependent on the cytokine BAFF. Moreover, expression of BAFF receptor CD268 is regulated in a BCR-affinity dependent fashion. High affinity responses via BAFF correlated with PI3K activation, which controlled expression of the pro-survival protein Mcl-1, and thereby increased survival. In the presence of excess BAFF, or in absence of the Mcl-1 antagonist Noxa, more low-affinity B cells survived the first two days after antigen encounter. This resulted in increased numbers of antigen-specific B cells of low affinity upon immunization and reduced the overall affinity of cells that contributed to the germinal center reaction. Our findings elucidate a crucial molecular pathway of B cell selection in the earliest phases of activation by identifying a novel link between BCR affinity and BAFF-R signaling towards Mcl-1. PMID:27762293

  13. It’s All About Change: The Antigen-driven Initiation of B-Cell Receptor Signaling (United States)

    Liu, Wanli; Sohn, Hae Won; Tolar, Pavel; Pierce, Susan K.


    B-cell responses are initiated by the binding of foreign antigens to the clonally distributed B-cell receptors (BCRs) resulting in the triggering of signaling cascades that activate a variety of genes associated with B-cell activation. Although we now understand the molecular nature of the signaling pathways in considerable detail what remains only poorly understood are the mechanisms by which the information that antigen has bound to the BCR ectodomain is transduced across the B-cell membrane to the BCR cytoplasmic domains to trigger signaling. To a large part this gap in knowledge is because of the paucity of techniques to temporally and spatially resolve changes in the behavior of the BCR that occur within several seconds of antigen binding. With the advent of new live-cell imaging technologies we are gaining our first clear views of the events that lead up to the triggering of BCR signaling cascades. These events may provide potential new targets for therapeutic intervention in disease involving hyper or chronic activation of B cells. PMID:20591989

  14. Cannabinoid receptors in submandibular acinar cells: functional coupling between saliva fluid and electrolytes secretion and Ca2+ signalling. (United States)

    Kopach, Olga; Vats, Juliana; Netsyk, Olga; Voitenko, Nana; Irving, Andrew; Fedirko, Nataliya


    Cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) belong to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily, and activation of CBRs in salivary cells inhibits agonist-stimulated salivation and modifies saliva content. However, the role of different CBR subtypes in acinar cell physiology and in intracellular signalling remains unclear. Here, we uncover functional CB(1)Rs and CB(2)Rs in acinar cells of rat submandibular gland and their essential role in saliva secretion. Pharmacological activation of CB(1)Rs and CB(2)Rs in the submandibular gland suppressed saliva outflow and modified saliva content produced by the submandibular gland in vivo. Using Na(+)-selective microelectrodes to record secretory Na(+) responses in the lumen of acini, we observed a reduction in Na(+) transport following the activation of CBRs, which was counteracted by the selective CB(1)R antagonist AM251. In addition, activation of CB(1)Rs or CB Rs caused inhibition of Na(+)-K(+) 2 -ATPase activity in microsomes derived from the gland tissue as well as in isolated acinar cells. Using a Ca(2+) imaging technique, we showed that activation of CB(1)Rs and CB(2)Rs alters [Ca(2+)](cyt) signalling in acinar cells by distinct pathways, involving Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), respectively. Our data demonstrate the expression of CB(1)Rs and CB(2)Rs in acinar cells, and their involvement in the regulation of salivary gland functioning.

  15. The human megakaryocytic cell line UT-7/TPO expresses functional platelet agonist signals mediated through GPVI and thromboxane receptor. (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ryuji; Yokota, Hiroshi


    We have demonstrated that a unique megakaryocytic cell line UT-7/TPO could respond to one of the primary platelet signals through GP (glycoprotein) VI and a secondary signal of the AA (arachidonic acid) cascade. Unlike other megakaryocytic cell lines, UT-7/TPO was found to express GPVI and its associate signal molecule of FcRgamma (Fc receptor gamma chain). When UT-7/TPO was stimulated with the GPVI agonist convulxin, the [Ca2+]i (intracellular Ca2+) was elevated in a convulxin concentration-dependent manner, and [Ca2+]i elevation was blocked by pretreatment with the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2 and the phospholipase inhibitor U73122. These results strongly indicate that endogenously expressed GPVI signal molecules are functional in UT-7/TPO. Concerning the AA cascade, the expression of COX (cyclooxygenase)-1 and TX (thromboxane) synthase was observed, and this cell line was able to produce TX by exogenous AA, followed by [Ca2+]i elevation mediated through the TX receptor. It is worth noting that convulxin stimulation did not cause TX generation, even through the GPVI pathway and the AA cascade are functional in this cell line. As there are many reports that convulxin-stimulated platelets failed to produce TX, it is suggested that UT-7/TPO has the same property as the platelets in regards to convulxin stimulation. Thus, UT-7/TPO is useful for the observation of both the GPVI pathway and AA cascade without requiring either the induction of differentiation or GPVI transfection. Furthermore, this cell line provides a new tool for research on platelet activation signals.

  16. Neuropeptide Y1 Receptor Regulates Glucocorticoid-Induced Inhibition of Osteoblast Differentiation in Murine MC3T3-E1 Cells via ERK Signaling

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    Wei Yu


    Full Text Available High dose glucocorticoid (GC administration impairs the viability and function of osteoblasts, thus causing osteoporosis and osteonecrosis. Neuropeptide Y1 receptor (Y1 receptor is expressed in bone tissues and cells, and regulates bone remodeling. However, the role of Y1 receptor in glucocorticoid-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation remains unknown. In the present study, osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium was treated with or without of 10−7 M dexamethasone (Dex, Y1 receptor shRNA interference, Y1 receptor agonist [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY, and antagonist BIBP3226. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8 assay and cleaved caspase expression, respectively. Osteoblast differentiation was evaluated by Alizarin Red S staining and osteogenic marker gene expressions. Protein expression was detected by Western blot analysis. Dex upregulated the expression of Y1 receptor in MC3T3-E1 cells associated with reduced osteogenic gene expressions and mineralization. Blockade of Y1 receptor by shRNA transfection and BIBP3226 significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of Dex on osteoblastic activity. Y1 receptor signaling modulated the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK as well as the expressions of osteogenic genes. Y1 receptor agonist inhibited ERK phosphorylation and osteoblast differentiation, while Y1 receptor blockade exhibited the opposite effects. Activation of ERK signaling by constitutive active mutant of MEK1 (caMEK abolished Y1 receptor-mediated Dex inhibition of osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Taken together, Y1 receptor regulates Dex-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation in murine MC3T3-E1 cells via ERK signaling. This study provides a novel role of Y1 receptor in the process of GC-induced suppression in osteoblast survival and differentiation.

  17. Neuropeptide Y1 Receptor Regulates Glucocorticoid-Induced Inhibition of Osteoblast Differentiation in Murine MC3T3-E1 Cells via ERK Signaling. (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Zhu, Chao; Xu, Wenning; Jiang, Leisheng; Jiang, Shengdan


    High dose glucocorticoid (GC) administration impairs the viability and function of osteoblasts, thus causing osteoporosis and osteonecrosis. Neuropeptide Y1 receptor (Y1 receptor) is expressed in bone tissues and cells, and regulates bone remodeling. However, the role of Y1 receptor in glucocorticoid-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation remains unknown. In the present study, osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium was treated with or without of 10(-7) M dexamethasone (Dex), Y1 receptor shRNA interference, Y1 receptor agonist [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY, and antagonist BIBP3226. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and cleaved caspase expression, respectively. Osteoblast differentiation was evaluated by Alizarin Red S staining and osteogenic marker gene expressions. Protein expression was detected by Western blot analysis. Dex upregulated the expression of Y1 receptor in MC3T3-E1 cells associated with reduced osteogenic gene expressions and mineralization. Blockade of Y1 receptor by shRNA transfection and BIBP3226 significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of Dex on osteoblastic activity. Y1 receptor signaling modulated the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) as well as the expressions of osteogenic genes. Y1 receptor agonist inhibited ERK phosphorylation and osteoblast differentiation, while Y1 receptor blockade exhibited the opposite effects. Activation of ERK signaling by constitutive active mutant of MEK1 (caMEK) abolished Y1 receptor-mediated Dex inhibition of osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Taken together, Y1 receptor regulates Dex-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation in murine MC3T3-E1 cells via ERK signaling. This study provides a novel role of Y1 receptor in the process of GC-induced suppression in osteoblast survival and differentiation.

  18. Neuropeptide Y1 Receptor Regulates Glucocorticoid-Induced Inhibition of Osteoblast Differentiation in Murine MC3T3-E1 Cells via ERK Signaling (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Zhu, Chao; Xu, Wenning; Jiang, Leisheng; Jiang, Shengdan


    High dose glucocorticoid (GC) administration impairs the viability and function of osteoblasts, thus causing osteoporosis and osteonecrosis. Neuropeptide Y1 receptor (Y1 receptor) is expressed in bone tissues and cells, and regulates bone remodeling. However, the role of Y1 receptor in glucocorticoid-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation remains unknown. In the present study, osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium was treated with or without of 10−7 M dexamethasone (Dex), Y1 receptor shRNA interference, Y1 receptor agonist [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY, and antagonist BIBP3226. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and cleaved caspase expression, respectively. Osteoblast differentiation was evaluated by Alizarin Red S staining and osteogenic marker gene expressions. Protein expression was detected by Western blot analysis. Dex upregulated the expression of Y1 receptor in MC3T3-E1 cells associated with reduced osteogenic gene expressions and mineralization. Blockade of Y1 receptor by shRNA transfection and BIBP3226 significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of Dex on osteoblastic activity. Y1 receptor signaling modulated the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) as well as the expressions of osteogenic genes. Y1 receptor agonist inhibited ERK phosphorylation and osteoblast differentiation, while Y1 receptor blockade exhibited the opposite effects. Activation of ERK signaling by constitutive active mutant of MEK1 (caMEK) abolished Y1 receptor-mediated Dex inhibition of osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Taken together, Y1 receptor regulates Dex-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation in murine MC3T3-E1 cells via ERK signaling. This study provides a novel role of Y1 receptor in the process of GC-induced suppression in osteoblast survival and differentiation. PMID:28009825

  19. Chronic hyperglycemia downregulates GLP-1 receptor signaling in pancreatic β-cells via protein kinase A

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    Sindhu Rajan


    Conclusions: These data show that glucose acting, at least in part, via PKA leads to the loss of the GLP-1R from the cell surface and an impairment of GLP-1R signaling, which may underlie the reduced clinical efficacy of GLP-1R based therapies in individuals with poorly controlled hyperglycemia.

  20. Androgen receptor signaling is required for androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer cell proliferation and survival

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    Day Wanda V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgens and androgen receptors (AR regulate normal prostate development and growth. They also are involved in pathological development of prostatic diseases, including benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and prostate cancer (PCa. Antiandrogen therapy for PCa, in conjunction with chemical or surgical castration, offers initial positive responses and leads to massive prostate cell death. However, cancer cells later appear as androgen-independent PCa. To investigate the role of AR in prostate cell proliferation and survival, we introduced a vector-based small interfering RNA (siRNA. This siRNA targeted 5'-untranslated region of AR mRNA for extended suppression of AR expression in androgen-sensitive human prostate LNCaP cells. Results The siRNA design successfully suppressed endogenous AR expression, as revealed by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining in LNCaP cells. LNCaP cells did not proliferate in the absence of AR and underwent apoptosis, based on elevated phospho-Histone H2B expression and higher number of apoptotic body as compared to control cells. Conclusion We demonstrated that AR is vital for prostate cell proliferation and survival in this androgen-sensitive prostate cell line. These results further strengthen the hypothesis that AR can be a therapeutic target for treating androgen-sensitive stages of PCa. Unlike antiandorgens, however, siRNA targeting AR provides a direct inactivation of AR function through the suppression of AR protein expression.

  1. Erythropoietin receptor signaling is membrane raft dependent.

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    Kathy L McGraw

    Full Text Available Upon erythropoietin (Epo engagement, Epo-receptor (R homodimerizes to activate JAK2 and Lyn, which phosphorylate STAT5. Although recent investigations have identified key negative regulators of Epo-R signaling, little is known about the role of membrane localization in controlling receptor signal fidelity. Here we show a critical role for membrane raft (MR microdomains in creation of discrete signaling platforms essential for Epo-R signaling. Treatment of UT7 cells with Epo induced MR assembly and coalescence. Confocal microscopy showed that raft aggregates significantly increased after Epo stimulation (mean, 4.3±1.4(SE vs. 25.6±3.2 aggregates/cell; p≤0.001, accompanied by a >3-fold increase in cluster size (p≤0.001. Raft fraction immunoblotting showed Epo-R translocation to MR after Epo stimulation and was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy in Epo stimulated UT7 cells and primary erythroid bursts. Receptor recruitment into MR was accompanied by incorporation of JAK2, Lyn, and STAT5 and their activated forms. Raft disruption by cholesterol depletion extinguished Epo induced Jak2, STAT5, Akt and MAPK phosphorylation in UT7 cells and erythroid progenitors. Furthermore, inhibition of the Rho GTPases Rac1 or RhoA blocked receptor recruitment into raft fractions, indicating a role for these GTPases in receptor trafficking. These data establish a critical role for MR in recruitment and assembly of Epo-R and signal intermediates into discrete membrane signaling units.

  2. A comprehensive, multi-scale dynamical model of ErbB receptor signal transduction in human mammary epithelial cells.

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    Tomáš Helikar

    Full Text Available The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src and receptor tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB1 have been established as collaborators in cellular signaling and their combined dysregulation plays key roles in human cancers, including breast cancer. In part due to the complexity of the biochemical network associated with the regulation of these proteins as well as their cellular functions, the role of Src in EGFR regulation remains unclear. Herein we present a new comprehensive, multi-scale dynamical model of ErbB receptor signal transduction in human mammary epithelial cells. This model, constructed manually from published biochemical literature, consists of 245 nodes representing proteins and their post-translational modifications sites, and over 1,000 biochemical interactions. Using computer simulations of the model, we find it is able to reproduce a number of cellular phenomena. Furthermore, the model predicts that overexpression of Src results in increased endocytosis of EGFR in the absence/low amount of the epidermal growth factor (EGF. Our subsequent laboratory experiments also suggest increased internalization of EGFR upon Src overexpression under EGF-deprived conditions, further supporting this model-generated hypothesis.

  3. Engagement of CD22 on B cells with the monoclonal antibody epratuzumab stimulates the phosphorylation of upstream inhibitory signals of the B cell receptor. (United States)

    Lumb, Simon; Fleischer, Sarah J; Wiedemann, Annika; Daridon, Capucine; Maloney, Alison; Shock, Anthony; Dörner, Thomas


    The binding of antigen to the B cell receptor (BCR) results in a cascade of signalling events that ultimately drive B cell activation. Uncontrolled B cell activation is regulated by negative feedback loops that involve inhibitory co-receptors such as CD22 and CD32B that exert their functions following phosphorylation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs). The CD22-targeted antibody epratuzumab has previously been shown to inhibit BCR-driven signalling events, but its effects on ITIM phosphorylation of CD22 and CD32B have not been properly evaluated. The present study therefore employed both immunoprecipitation and flow cytometry approaches to elucidate the effects of epratuzumab on direct phosphorylation of key tyrosine (Tyr) residues on both these proteins, using both transformed B cell lines and primary human B cells. Epratuzumab induced the phosphorylation of Tyr(822) on CD22 and enhanced its co-localisation with SHP-1. Additionally, in spite of high basal phosphorylation of other key ITIMs on CD22, in primary human B cells epratuzumab also enhanced phosphorylation of Tyr(807), a residue involved in the recruitment of Grb2. Such initiation events could explain the effects of epratuzumab on downstream signalling in B cells. Finally, we were able to demonstrate that epratuzumab stimulated the phosphorylation of Tyr(292) on the low affinity inhibitory Fc receptor CD32B which would further attenuate BCR-induced signalling. Together, these data demonstrate that engagement of CD22 with epratuzumab leads to the direct phosphorylation of key upstream inhibitory receptors of BCR signalling and may help to explain how this antibody modulates B cell function.

  4. Breast cancer cells can switch between estrogen receptor alpha and ErbB signaling and combined treatment against both signaling pathways postpones development of resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, Katrine; Norrie, Ida C; Emdal, Kristina Bennet


    The majority of breast cancers are estrogen responsive, but upon progression of disease other growth promoting pathways are activated, e.g., the ErbB receptor system. The present study focuses on resistance to the pure estrogen antagonist fulvestrant and strategies to treat resistant cells or even...... could be abrogated by combined therapy targeting both receptor systems. Thus, the present study indicates that upon development of antiestrogen resistance, antiestrogen treatment should be continued in combination with signal transduction inhibitors. Further, upfront combination of endocrine therapy...... circumvent development of resistance. Limited effects were observed when targeting EGFR and ErbB2 with the monoclonal antibodies cetuximab, trastuzumab, and pertuzumab, whereas the pan-ErbB inhibitor CI-1033 selectively inhibited growth of fulvestrant resistant cell lines. CI-1033 inhibited Erk but not Akt...

  5. Purinergic receptor signaling at the basolateral membrane of macula densa cells. (United States)

    Liu, Ruisheng; Bell, P Darwin; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Kovacs, Gergly; Johansson, Alf; Persson, A Erik G


    Purinergic receptors are important in the regulation of renal hemodynamics; therefore, this study sought to determine if such receptors influence macula densa cell function. Isolated glomeruli containing macula densa cells, with and without the cortical thick ascending limb, were loaded with the Ca(2+) sensitive indicators, Fura Red (confocal microscopy) or fura 2 (conventional video image analysis). Studies were performed on an inverted microscope in a chamber with a flow-through perfusion system. Changes in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) from exposed macula densa plaques were assessed upon addition of adenosine, ATP, UTP, ADP, or 2-methylthio-ATP (2- MeS-ATP) for 2 min added to the bathing solution. There was no change in [Ca(2+)](i) with addition of adenosine (10(-7) to 10(-3) M). UTP and ATP (10(-4) M) caused [Ca(2+)](i) to increase by 268 +/- 40 nM (n = 21) and 295 +/- 53 nM (n = 21), respectively, whereas in response to 2MesATP and ADP, [Ca(2+)](i) increased by only 67 +/- 13 nM (n = 8) and 93 +/- 36 nM (n = 14), respectively. Dose response curve for ATP (10(-7) to 10(-3) M) added in bath showed an EC(50) of 15 microM. No effect on macula densa [Ca(2+)](i) was seen when ATP was added from the lumen. ATP caused similar increases in macula densa [Ca(2+)](i) in the presence or absence of bath Ca(2+) and addition of 5 mM ethyleneglycotetraacetic acid (EGTA). Suramin (an antagonist of P2X and P2Y receptors) completely inhibited ATP-induced [Ca(2+)](i) dynamics. Also, ATP-Ca(2+) responsiveness was prevented by the phospholipase C inhibitor, U-73122, but not by its inactive analog, U-73343. These results suggest that macula densa cells possess P2Y(2) purinergic receptors on basolateral but not apical membranes and that activation of these receptors results in the mobilization of Ca(2+).

  6. p38 signaling and receptor recycling events in a microfluidic endothelial cell adhesion assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwayne A L Vickers

    Full Text Available Adhesion-based microfluidic cell separation has proven to be very useful in applications ranging from cancer diagnostics to tissue engineering. This process involves functionalizing microchannel surfaces with a capture molecule. High specificity and purity capture can be achieved using this method. Despite these advances, little is known about the mechanisms that govern cell capture within these devices and their relationships to basic process parameters such as fluid shear stress and the presence of soluble factors. This work examines how the adhesion of human endothelial cells (ECs is influenced by a soluble tetrapeptide, Arg-Glu-Asp-Val (REDV and fluidic shear stress. The ability of these ECs to bind within microchannels coated with REDV is shown to be governed by shear- and soluble-factor mediated changes in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase expression together with recycling of adhesion receptors from the endosome.

  7. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is designed to foster the development of a comprehensive understanding of the structure, function, and role in disease...

  8. Sub-lethal irradiation of human colorectal tumor cells imparts enhanced and sustained susceptibility to multiple death receptor signaling pathways.

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    Victoria Ifeadi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Death receptors (DR of the TNF family function as anti-tumor immune effector molecules. Tumor cells, however, often exhibit DR-signaling resistance. Previous studies indicate that radiation can modify gene expression within tumor cells and increase tumor cell sensitivity to immune attack. The aim of this study is to investigate the synergistic effect of sub-lethal doses of ionizing radiation in sensitizing colorectal carcinoma cells to death receptor-mediated apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The ability of radiation to modulate the expression of multiple death receptors (Fas/CD95, TRAILR1/DR4, TRAILR2/DR5, TNF-R1 and LTβR was examined in colorectal tumor cells. The functional significance of sub-lethal doses of radiation in enhancing tumor cell susceptibility to DR-induced apoptosis was determined by in vitro functional sensitivity assays. The longevity of these changes and the underlying molecular mechanism of irradiation in sensitizing diverse colorectal carcinoma cells to death receptor-mediated apoptosis were also examined. We found that radiation increased surface expression of Fas, DR4 and DR5 but not LTβR or TNF-R1 in these cells. Increased expression of DRs was observed 2 days post-irradiation and remained elevated 7-days post irradiation. Sub-lethal tumor cell irradiation alone exhibited minimal cell death, but effectively sensitized three of three colorectal carcinoma cells to both TRAIL and Fas-induced apoptosis, but not LTβR-induced death. Furthermore, radiation-enhanced Fas and TRAIL-induced cell death lasted as long as 5-days post-irradiation. Specific analysis of intracellular sensitizers to apoptosis indicated that while radiation did reduce Bcl-X(L and c-FLIP protein expression, this reduction did not correlate with the radiation-enhanced sensitivity to Fas and/or TRAIL mediated apoptosis among the three cell types. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Irradiation of tumor cells can overcome Fas and TRAIL

  9. Neurotropin promotes NGF signaling through interaction of GM1 ganglioside with Trk neurotrophin receptor in PC12 cells. (United States)

    Fukuda, Yu; Fukui, Takao; Hikichi, Chika; Ishikawa, Tomomasa; Murate, Kenichiro; Adachi, Takeshi; Imai, Hideki; Fukuhara, Koki; Ueda, Akihiro; Kaplan, Allen P; Mutoh, Tatsuro


    Activation of the high-affinity nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor Trk occurs through multiple processes consisted of translocation and clustering within the plasma membrane lipid rafts, dimerization and autophosphorylation. Here we found that a nonprotein extract of inflamed rabbit skin inoculated with vaccinia virus (Neurotropin(®)) enhanced efficiency of NGF signaling. In rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells overexpressing Trk (PCtrk cells), Neurotropin augmented insufficient neurite outgrowth observed at suboptimal concentration of NGF (2ng/mL) in a manner depending on Trk kinase activity. Cellular exposure to Neurotropin resulted in an accumulation of Trk-GM1 complexes without affecting dimerization or phosphorylation states of Trk. Following NGF stimulation, Neurotropin significantly facilitated the time course of NGF-induced Trk autophosphorylation. These observations provide a unique mechanism controlling efficiency of NGF signaling, and raise the therapeutic potential of Neurotropin for various neurological conditions associated with neurotrophin dysfunction.

  10. Biased Type 1 Cannabinoid Receptor Signaling Influences Neuronal Viability in a Cell Culture Model of Huntington Disease. (United States)

    Laprairie, Robert B; Bagher, Amina M; Kelly, Melanie E M; Denovan-Wright, Eileen M


    Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited, autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative disorder with limited treatment options. Prior to motor symptom onset or neuronal cell loss in HD, levels of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) decrease in the basal ganglia. Decreasing CB1 levels are strongly correlated with chorea and cognitive deficit. CB1 agonists are functionally selective (biased) for divergent signaling pathways. In this study, six cannabinoids were tested for signaling bias in in vitro models of medium spiny projection neurons expressing wild-type (STHdh(Q7/Q7)) or mutant huntingtin protein (STHdh(Q111/Q111)). Signaling bias was assessed using the Black and Leff operational model. Relative activity [ΔlogR (τ/KA)] and system bias (ΔΔlogR) were calculated relative to the reference compound WIN55,212-2 for Gαi/o, Gαs, Gαq, Gβγ, and β-arrestin1 signaling following treatment with 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), anandamide (AEA), CP55,940, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and THC+CBD (1:1), and compared between wild-type and HD cells. The Emax of Gαi/o-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling was 50% lower in HD cells compared with wild-type cells. 2-AG and AEA displayed Gαi/o/Gβγ bias and normalized CB1 protein levels and improved cell viability, whereas CP55,940 and THC displayed β-arrestin1 bias and reduced CB1 protein levels and cell viability in HD cells. CBD was not a CB1 agonist but inhibited THC-dependent signaling (THC+CBD). Therefore, enhancing Gαi/o-biased endocannabinoid signaling may be therapeutically beneficial in HD. In contrast, cannabinoids that are β-arrestin-biased--such as THC found at high levels in modern varieties of marijuana--may be detrimental to CB1 signaling, particularly in HD where CB1 levels are already reduced.

  11. PLCε knockdown inhibits prostate cancer cell proliferation via suppression of Notch signalling and nuclear translocation of the androgen receptor. (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Wu, Xiaohou; Ou, Liping; Yang, Xue; Wang, Xiaorong; Tang, Min; Chen, E; Luo, Chunli


    Phospholipase Cε (PLCε), a key regulator of diverse cellular functions, has been implicated in various malignancies. Indeed, PLCε functions include cell proliferation, apoptosis and malignant transformation. Here, we show that PLCε expression is elevated in prostate cancer (PCa) tissues compared to benign prostate tissues. Furthermore, PLCε depletion using an adenovirally delivered shRNA significantly decreased cell growth and colony formation, arresting the PC3 and LNCaP cell lines in the S phase of the cell cycle. We also observed that PLCε was significantly correlated with Notch1 and androgen receptor (AR). Additionally, we demonstrate that the activation of both the Notch and AR signalling pathways is involved in PLCε-mediated oncogenic effects in PCa. Our findings suggest that PLCε is a putative oncogene and prognostic marker, potentially representing a novel therapeutic target for PCa.

  12. TRPC3 amplifies B-cell receptor-induced ERK signalling via protein kinase D-dependent Rap1 activation. (United States)

    Numaga-Tomita, Takuro; Nishida, Motohiro; Putney, James W; Mori, Yasuo


    Sustained activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) has an important role in the decision regarding the cell fate of B-lymphocytes. Recently, we demonstrated that the diacylglycerol-activated non-selective cation channel canonical transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3) is required for the sustained ERK activation induced by the B-cell receptor. However, the signalling mechanism underlying TRPC3-mediated ERK activation remains elusive. In the present study, we have shown that TRPC3 mediates Ca(2+) influx to sustain activation of protein kinase D (PKD) in a protein kinase C-dependent manner in DT40 B-lymphocytes. The later phase of ERK activation depends on the small G-protein Rap1, known as a downstream target of PKD, whereas the earlier phase of ERK activation depends on the Ras protein. It is of interest that sustained ERK phosphorylation is required for the full induction of the immediate early gene Egr-1 (early growth response 1). These results suggest that TRPC3 reorganizes the BCR signalling complex by switching the subtype of small G-proteins to sustain ERK activation in B-lymphocytes.

  13. Activated factor X signaling via protease-activated receptor 2 suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokine production from LPS-stimulated myeloid cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, Eimear M


    Vitamin K-dependent proteases generated in response to vascular injury and infection enable fibrin clot formation, but also trigger distinct immuno-regulatory signaling pathways on myeloid cells. Factor Xa, a protease crucial for blood coagulation, also induces protease-activated receptor-dependent cell signaling. Factor Xa can bind both monocytes and macrophages, but whether factor Xa-dependent signaling stimulates or suppresses myeloid cell cytokine production in response to Toll-like receptor activation is not known. In this study, exposure to factor Xa significantly impaired pro-inflammatory cytokine production from lipopolysaccharide-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, THP-1 monocytic cells and murine macrophages. Furthermore, factor Xa inhibited nuclear factor-kappa B activation in THP-1 reporter cells, requiring phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase activity for its anti-inflammatory effect. Active-site blockade, γ-carboxyglutamic acid domain truncation and a peptide mimic of the factor Xa inter-epidermal growth factor-like region prevented factor Xa inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor-α release. In addition, factor Xa anti-inflammatory activity was markedly attenuated by the presence of an antagonist of protease-activated receptor 2, but not protease-activated receptor 1. The key role of protease-activated receptor 2 in eliciting factor Xa-dependent anti-inflammatory signaling on macrophages was further underscored by the inability of factor Xa to mediate inhibition of tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release from murine bone marrow-derived protease-activated receptor 2-deficient macrophages. We also show for the first time that, in addition to protease-activated receptor 2, factor Xa requires a receptor-associated protein-sensitive low-density lipoprotein receptor to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production. Collectively, this study supports a novel function for factor Xa as an endogenous, receptor

  14. Matched sizes of activating and inhibitory receptor/ligand pairs are required for optimal signal integration by human natural killer cells.

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    Karsten Köhler

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that receptor-ligand complexes segregate or co-localise within immune synapses according to their size, and this is important for receptor signaling. Here, we set out to test the importance of receptor-ligand complex dimensions for immune surveillance of target cells by human Natural Killer (NK cells. NK cell activation is regulated by integrating signals from activating receptors, such as NKG2D, and inhibitory receptors, such as KIR2DL1. Elongating the NKG2D ligand MICA reduced its ability to trigger NK cell activation. Conversely, elongation of KIR2DL1 ligand HLA-C reduced its ability to inhibit NK cells. Whereas normal-sized HLA-C was most effective at inhibiting activation by normal-length MICA, only elongated HLA-C could inhibit activation by elongated MICA. Moreover, HLA-C and MICA that were matched in size co-localised, whereas HLA-C and MICA that were different in size were segregated. These results demonstrate that receptor-ligand dimensions are important in NK cell recognition, and suggest that optimal integration of activating and inhibitory receptor signals requires the receptor-ligand complexes to have similar dimensions.

  15. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von, E-mail:; Raufman, Jean-Pierre [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 22 S. Greene Street, N3W62, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Maryland Health Care System, 10 North Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)


    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  16. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Raufman


    Full Text Available According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  17. Taurolithocholic acid promotes intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell growth via muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and EGFR/ERK1/2 signaling pathway. (United States)

    Amonyingcharoen, Sumet; Suriyo, Tawit; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad


    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignant cancer of the biliary tract and its occurrence is associated with chronic cholestasis which causes an elevation of bile acids in the liver and bile duct. The present study aimed to investigate the role and mechanistic effect of bile acids on the CCA cell growth. Intrahepatic CCA cell lines, RMCCA-1 and HuCCA-1, were treated with bile acids and their metabolites to determine the growth promoting effect. Cell viability, cell cycle analysis, EdU incorporation assays were conducted. Intracellular signaling proteins were detected by western immunoblotting. Among eleven forms of bile acids and their metabolites, only taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) concentration dependently (1-40 µM) increased the cell viability of RMCCA-1, but not HuCCA-1 cells. The cell cycle analysis showed induction of cells in the S phase and the EdU incorporation assay revealed induction of DNA synthesis in the TLCA-treated RMCCA-1 cells. Moreover, TLCA increased the phosphorylation of EGFR, ERK 1/2 and also increased the expression of cyclin D1 in RMCCA-1 cells. Furthermore, TLCA-induced RMCCA-1 cell growth could be inhibited by atropine, a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist, AG 1478, a specific EGFR inhibitor, or U 0126, a specific MEK 1/2 inhibitor. These results suggest that TLCA induces CCA cell growth via mAChR and EGFR/EKR1/2 signaling pathway. Moreover, the functional presence of cholinergic system plays a certain role in TLCA-induced CCA cell growth.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus LMP2A signaling in statu nascendi mimics a B cell antigen receptor-like activation signal

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    Engels Niklas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The latent membrane protein (LMP 2A of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is expressed during different latency stages of EBV-infected B cells in which it triggers activation of cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases. Early studies revealed that an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM in the cytoplasmic N-terminus of LMP2A can trigger a transient increase of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration similar to that observed in antigen-activated B cells when expressed as a chimeric transmembrane receptor. Even so, LMP2A was subsequently ascribed an inhibitory rather than an activating function because its expression seemed to partially inhibit B cell antigen receptor (BCR signaling in EBV-transformed B cell lines. However, the analysis of LMP2A signaling has been hampered by the lack of cellular model systems in which LMP2A can be studied without the influence of other EBV-encoded factors. Results We have reanalyzed LMP2A signaling using B cells in which LMP2A is expressed in an inducible manner in the absence of any other EBV signaling protein. This allowed us for the first time to monitor LMP2A signaling in statu nascendi as it occurs during the EBV life cycle in vivo. We show that mere expression of LMP2A not only stimulated protein tyrosine kinases but also induced phospholipase C-γ2-mediated Ca2+ oscillations followed by activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and induction of the lytic EBV gene bzlf1. Furthermore, expression of the constitutively phosphorylated LMP2A ITAM modulated rather than inhibited BCR-induced Ca2+ mobilization. Conclusion Our data establish that LMP2A expression has a function beyond the putative inhibition of the BCR by generating a ligand-independent cellular activation signal that may provide a molecular switch for different EBV life cycle stages and most probably contributes to EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders.

  19. T Cell Receptor Activation of NF-κB in Effector T Cells: Visualizing Signaling Events Within and Beyond the Cytoplasmic Domain of the Immunological Synapse. (United States)

    Traver, Maria K; Paul, Suman; Schaefer, Brian C


    The T cell receptor (TCR) to NF-κB signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulation of proliferation and effector T cell differentiation and function. In naïve T cells, data suggest that most or all key cytoplasmic NF-κB signaling occurs in a TCR-proximal manner at the immunological synapse (IS). However, the subcellular organization of cytoplasmic NF-κB-activating complexes in effector T cells is more complex, involving signaling molecules and regulatory mechanisms beyond those operative in naïve cells. Additionally, in effector T cells, much signaling occurs at cytoplasmic locations distant from the IS. Visualization of these cytoplasmic signaling complexes has provided key insights into the complex and dynamic regulation of NF-κB signal transduction in effector T cells. In this chapter, we provide in-depth protocols for activating and preparing effector T cells for fluorescence imaging, as well as a discussion of the effective application of distinct imaging methodologies, including confocal and super-resolution microscopy and imaging flow cytometry.

  20. Phenethyl isothiocyanate suppresses EGF-stimulated SAS human oral squamous carcinoma cell invasion by targeting EGF receptor signaling. (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Jye; Lin, Chung-Ming; Lee, Chao-Ying; Shih, Nai-Chen; Amagaya, Sakae; Lin, Yung-Chang; Yang, Jai-Sing


    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is a natural compound that is involved in chemoprevention as well as inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in several types of cancer cells. Previous studies have revealed that PEITC suppresses the invasion of AGS gastric and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells. However, the effects of PEITC on the metastasis of SAS oral cancer cells remain to be determined. Our results showed that PEITC treatment inhibited the invasion of EGF-stimulated SAS cells in a concentration-dependent manner, but appeared not to affect the cell viability. The expression and enzymatic activities of matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) were suppressed by PEITC. Concomitantly, we observed an increase in the protein expression of both tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and -2 (TIMP-2) in treated cells. Furthermore, PEITC treatments decreased the protein phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and downstream signaling proteins including PDK1, PI3K (p85), AKT, phosphorylated IKK and IκB to inactivate NF-κB for the suppression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. In addition, PEITC can trigger the MAPK signaling pathway through the increase in phosphorylated p38, JNK and ERK in treated cells. Our data indicate that PEITC is able to inhibit the invasion of EGF-stimulated SAS oral cancer cells by targeting EGFR and its downstream signaling molecules and finally lead to the reduced expression and enzymatic activities of both MMP-2 and MMP-9. These results suggest that PEITC is promising for the therapy of oral cancer metastasis.

  1. Role of protein kinase C and epidermal growth factor receptor signalling in growth stimulation by neurotensin in colon carcinoma cells

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    Dajani Olav


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotensin has been found to promote colon carcinogenesis in rats and mice, and proliferation of human colon carcinoma cell lines, but the mechanisms involved are not clear. We have examined signalling pathways activated by neurotensin in colorectal and pancreatic carcinoma cells. Methods Colon carcinoma cell lines HCT116 and HT29 and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Panc-1 were cultured and stimulated with neurotensin or epidermal growth factor (EGF. DNA synthesis was determined by incorporation of radiolabelled thymidine into DNA. Levels and phosphorylation of proteins in signalling pathways were assessed by Western blotting. Results Neurotensin stimulated the phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and Akt in all three cell lines, but apparently did so through different pathways. In Panc-1 cells, neurotensin-induced phosphorylation of ERK, but not Akt, was dependent on protein kinase C (PKC, whereas an inhibitor of the β-isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, TGX221, abolished neurotensin-induced Akt phosphorylation in these cells, and there was no evidence of EGF receptor (EGFR transactivation. In HT29 cells, in contrast, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib blocked neurotensin-stimulated phosphorylation of both ERK and Akt, indicating transactivation of EGFR, independently of PKC. In HCT116 cells, neurotensin induced both a PKC-dependent phosphorylation of ERK and a metalloproteinase-mediated transactivation of EGFR that was associated with a gefitinib-sensitive phosphorylation of the downstream adaptor protein Shc. The activation of Akt was also inhibited by gefitinib, but only partly, suggesting a mechanism in addition to EGFR transactivation. Inhibition of PKC blocked neurotensin-induced DNA synthesis in HCT116 cells. Conclusions While acting predominantly through PKC in Panc-1 cells and via EGFR transactivation in HT29 cells, neurotensin used both these pathways in HCT116

  2. Loss of androgen receptor-dependent growth suppression by prostate cancer cells can occur independently from acquiring oncogenic addiction to androgen receptor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M D'Antonio

    Full Text Available The conversion of androgen receptor (AR signaling as a mechanism of growth suppression of normal prostate epithelial cells to that of growth stimulation in prostate cancer cells is often associated with AR mutation, amplification and over-expression. Thus, down-regulation of AR signaling is commonly therapeutic for prostate cancer. The E006AA cell line was established from a hormone naïve, localized prostate cancer. E006AA cells are genetically aneuploid and grow equally well when xenografted into either intact or castrated male NOG but not nude mice. These cells exhibit: 1 X chromosome duplication and AR gene amplification, although paradoxically not coupled with increased AR expression, and 2 somatic, dominant-negative Serine-599-Glycine loss-of-function mutation within the dimerization surface of the DNA binding domain of the AR gene. No effect on the growth of E006AA cells is observed using targeted knockdown of endogenous mutant AR, ectopic expression of wild-type AR, or treatment with androgens or anti-androgens. E006AA cells represent a prototype for a newly identified subtype of prostate cancer cells that exhibit a dominant-negative AR loss-of-function in a hormonally naïve patient. Such loss-of-function eliminates AR-mediated growth suppression normally induced by normal physiological levels of androgens, thus producing a selective growth advantage for these malignant cells in hormonally naïve patients. These data highlight that loss of AR-mediated growth suppression is an independent process, and that, without additional changes, is insufficient for acquiring oncogene addiction to AR signaling. Thus, patients with prostate cancer cells harboring such AR loss-of-function mutations will not benefit from aggressive hormone or anti-AR therapies even though they express AR protein.

  3. Blueberry treatment antagonizes C-2 ceramide-induced stress signaling in muscarinic receptor-transfected COS-7 cells. (United States)

    Joseph, James A; Bielinski, Donna F; Fisher, Derek R


    Previous research has shown that muscarinic receptors (MAChRs) show loss of sensitivity in aging and AD and are selectively sensitive to oxidative stress (OS). Thus, COS-7 cells transfected (tn) with MAChR subtype M1 show > OS sensitivity [as reflected in the ability of the cell to extrude or sequester Ca(2+) following depolarization (recovery) by oxotremorine (oxo) and exposure to dopamine (DA) or amyloid beta (Abeta)] than M3-transfected COS-7 cells. Blueberry (BB) extract pretreatment prevented these deficits. Research has also indicated that C2 ceramide (Cer) has several age-related negative cellular effects (e.g., OS). When these cells were treated with Cer, the significant decrements in the ability of both types of tn cells to initially respond to oxo were antagonized by BB treatment. Present experiments assessed signaling mechanisms involved in BB protection in the presence or absence of DA, Abeta, and/or Cer in this model. Thus, control or BB-treated M1 and M3 tn COS-7 cells were exposed to DA or Abeta(42) in the presence or absence of Cer. Primarily, results showed that the effects of DA or Abeta(42) were to increase stress (e.g., PKCgamma, p38MAPK) and protective signals (e.g., pMAPK). Cer also appeared to raise several of the stress and protective signals in the absence of the other stressors, including PKCgamma, pJNK, pNfkappaB, p53, and p38MAPK, while not significantly altering MAPK, or Akt. pArc was, however, increased by Cer in both types of transfected cells. The protective effects of BB when combined with Cer generally showed greater protection when BB extract was applied prior to Cer, except for one protective signal (pArc) where a greater effect was seen in the M3 cells exposed to Abeta(42.) In the absence of the Abeta(42) or DA, for several of the stress signals (e.g., pNfkappaB, p53), BB lowered their Cer-induced increases in M1- and M3-transfected cells. We are exploring these interactions further, but it is clear that increases in ceramide

  4. Qualitatively different T cell phenotypic responses to IL-2 versus IL-15 are unified by identical dependences on receptor signal strength and duration. (United States)

    Arneja, Abhinav; Johnson, Hannah; Gabrovsek, Laura; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; White, Forest M


    IL-2 and IL-15 are common γ-chain family cytokines involved in regulation of T cell differentiation and homeostasis. Despite signaling through the same receptors, IL-2 and IL-15 have non-redundant roles in T cell biology, both physiologically and at the cellular level. The mechanisms by which IL-2 and IL-15 trigger distinct phenotypes in T cells remain elusive. To elucidate these mechanisms, we performed a quantitative comparison of the phosphotyrosine signaling network and resulting phenotypes triggered by IL-2 and IL-15. This study revealed that the signaling networks activated by IL-2 or IL-15 are highly similar and that T cell proliferation and metabolism are controlled in a quantitatively distinct manner through IL-2/15R signal strength independent of the cytokine identity. Distinct phenotypes associated with IL-2 or IL-15 stimulation therefore arise through differential regulation of IL-2/15R signal strength and duration because of differences in cytokine-receptor binding affinity, receptor expression levels, physiological cytokine levels, and cytokine-receptor intracellular trafficking kinetics. These results provide important insights into the function of other shared cytokine and growth factor receptors, quantitative regulation of cell proliferation and metabolism through signal transduction, and improved design of cytokine based clinical immunomodulatory therapies for cancer and infectious diseases.

  5. Downregulation of steroid hormone receptor expression and activation of cell signal transduction pathways induced by a chiral nonylphenol isomer in mouse sertoli TM4 cells. (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Nie, Shaoping; Yu, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoyin; Huang, Danfei; Xie, Mingyong


    Nonylphenols (NPs) are considered as important environmental toxicants and potential endocrine disrupting compounds which can disrupt male reproductive system. 4-[1-Ethyl-1-methylhexy] phenol (4-NP65 ) is one of the main isomers of technical nonylphenol mixtures. In the present study, effect of NPs was evaluated from an isomer-specific viewpoint using 4-NP65 . Decreased mRNA expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER)-α, ER-β, androgen receptor (AR) and progesterone receptor (PR) were observed in the cells exposed to 4-NP65 for 24 h. Furthermore, 4-NP65 treatment evoked significant decrease in protein expression levels of ER-α and ER-β. Levels of mullerian inhibiting substance and transferrin were found to change significantly in 4-NP65 challenged cells. Additionally, JNK1/2-MAPK pathway was activated due to 4-NP65 exposure, but not ERK1/2 and p38-MAPK pathways. Meanwhile, 4-NP65 increased the p-Akt level and showed no effects on the Akt level which indicated that Akt pathway was activated by 4-NP65 . In conclusion, these findings have shown that 4-NP65 exposure affected expression of cell receptors and cell signaling pathways in Sertoli TM4 cells. We proposed that molecular mechanism of reproductive damage in Sertoli cells induced by NPs may be mediated by cell receptors and/or cell signal transduction pathways, and that the effects were dependent on the side chain of NP isomers. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 469-476, 2017.

  6. PLK1 Signaling in Breast Cancer Cells Cooperates with Estrogen Receptor-Dependent Gene Transcription

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    Michael Wierer


    Full Text Available Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1 is a key regulator of cell division and is overexpressed in many types of human cancers. Compared to its well-characterized role in mitosis, little is known about PLK1 functions in interphase. Here, we report that PLK1 mediates estrogen receptor (ER-regulated gene transcription in human breast cancer cells. PLK1 interacts with ER and is recruited to ER cis-elements on chromatin. PLK1-coactivated genes included classical ER target genes such as Ps2, Wisp2, and Serpina3 and were enriched in developmental and tumor-suppressive functions. Performing large-scale phosphoproteomics of estradiol-treated MCF7 cells in the presence or absence of the specific PLK1 inhibitor BI2536, we identified several PLK1 end targets involved in transcription, including the histone H3K4 trimethylase MLL2, the function of which on ER target genes was impaired by PLK1 inhibition. Our results propose a mechanism for the tumor-suppressive role of PLK1 in mammals as an interphase transcriptional regulator.

  7. Membrane lipids, EGF receptors, and intracellular signals colocalize and are polarized in epithelial cells moving directionally in a physiological electric field. (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Pu, Jin; Forrester, John V; McCaig, Colin D


    Directed cell migration is essential for tissue formation, inflammation, and wound healing. Chemotaxis plays a major role in these situations and is underpinned by asymmetric intracellular signaling. Endogenous electric fields (EFs) are common where cell movement occurs, such as in wound healing, and cells respond to electric field gradients by reorienting and migrating directionally (galvanotaxis/electrotaxis). We show that a physiological EF redistributed both EGF (epidermal growth factor) receptors and detergent-insoluble membrane lipids asymmetrically, leading to cathodal polarization and enhanced activation of the MAP kinase, ERK1/2. This induced leading-edge actin polymerization in directionally migrating mammalian epithelial cells. Inhibiting the EGF receptor-MAP kinase signaling pathway significantly decreased leading edge actin asymmetry and directional migration. We propose a model in which EF-polarized membrane lipid domains and EGF receptors cause asymmetric signaling through MAP kinase, which drives directional cell migration. A comparison is made with the mechanisms underpinning chemotaxis.

  8. Salmeterol and cytokines modulate inositol-phosphate signalling in Human airway smooth muscle cells via regulation at the receptor locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swan Caroline


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR is a key feature of asthma and a causal relationship between airway inflammation and AHR has been identified. The aim of the current study was to clarify the effect of proinflammatory cytokines and asthma medication on primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM inositol phosphate (IPx signalling and define the regulatory loci involved. Methods Primary Human ASM cells were isolated from explants of trachealis muscle from individuals with no history of respiratory disease. The effect of cytokine or asthma medication on histamine or bradykinin induced IPx signalling was assessed by [3H] inositol incorporation. Quantitative Real Time PCR was used to measure mRNA levels of receptors and downstream signalling components. Transcriptional mechanisms were explored using a combination of 5'Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (5'RACE and promoter-reporter techniques. Results Treatment of Human ASM cells with IL-13, IFNγ or salmeterol for 24 hours lead to a modest augmentation of histamine induced IPx responses (144.3 +/- 9.3, 126.4 +/- 7.5 and 117.7 +/- 5.2%, p i.e. H1 Histamine Receptor (HRH1, B2 Bradykinin Receptor (BDKRB2, Gαq/11 and PLC-β1 identified that a significant induction of receptor mRNA (>2 fold was a feature of these responses explaining the cytokine and spasmogen specificity. The HRH1 and BDKRB2 promoter regions were mapped in ASM and promoter-reporter analyses identified that salmeterol can induce HRH1 (>2 fold and BDKRB2 (2–5 fold transcription. The effect of cytokines on HRH1 and BDKRB2 promoter-reporter expression suggested a more complex regulation of mRNA expression involving additional loci to the core promoter. Conclusion Our results indicate that the spasmogen specific receptor locus may be a key site of regulation determining the magnitude of spasmogen mediated ASM IPx responses during airway inflammation or following asthma medication. These data provide further insight into the

  9. Differential regulation of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor signaling by protein kinase C in human mast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kondeti

    Full Text Available Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs are a group of lipid mediators that are potent bronchoconstrictors, powerful inducers of vascular leakage and potentiators of airway hyperresponsiveness. Cys-LTs play an essential role in asthma and are synthesized as well as activated in mast cells (MCs. Cys-LTs relay their effects mainly through two known GPCRs, CysLT1R and CysLT2R. Although protein kinase C (PKC isoforms are implicated in the regulation of CysLT1R function, neither the role of PKCs in cys-LT-dependent MC inflammatory signaling nor the involvement of specific isoforms in MC function are known. Here, we show that PKC inhibition augmented LTD4 and LTE4-induced calcium influx through CysLT1R in MCs. In contrast, inhibition of PKCs suppressed c-fos expression as well MIP1β generation by cys-LTs. Interestingly, cys-LTs activated both PKCα and PKCε isoforms in MC. However, knockdown of PKCα augmented cys-LT mediated calcium flux, while knockdown of PKCε attenuated cys-LT induced c-fos expression and MIP1β generation. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that cys-LT signaling downstream of CysLT1R in MCs is differentially regulated by two distinct PKCs which modulate inflammatory signals that have significant pathobiologic implications in allergic reactions and asthma pathology.

  10. CD147, CD44, and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway cooperate to regulate breast epithelial cell invasiveness. (United States)

    Grass, G Daniel; Tolliver, Lauren B; Bratoeva, Momka; Toole, Bryan P


    The immunoglobulin superfamily glycoprotein CD147 (emmprin; basigin) is associated with an invasive phenotype in various types of cancers, including malignant breast cancer. We showed recently that up-regulation of CD147 in non-transformed, non-invasive breast epithelial cells is sufficient to induce an invasive phenotype characterized by membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP)-dependent invadopodia activity (Grass, G. D., Bratoeva, M., and Toole, B. P. (2012) Regulation of invadopodia formation and activity by CD147. J. Cell Sci. 125, 777-788). Here we found that CD147 induces breast epithelial cell invasiveness by promoting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-ERK signaling in a manner dependent on hyaluronan-CD44 interaction. Furthermore, CD147 promotes assembly of signaling complexes containing CD147, CD44, and EGFR in lipid raftlike domains. We also found that oncogenic Ras regulates CD147 expression, hyaluronan synthesis, and formation of CD147-CD44-EGFR complexes, thus forming a positive feedback loop that may amplify invasiveness. Last, we showed that malignant breast cancer cells are heterogeneous in their expression of surface-associated CD147 and that high levels of membrane CD147 correlate with cell surface EGFR and CD44 levels, activated EGFR and ERK1, and activated invadopodia. Future studies should evaluate CD147 as a potential therapeutic target and disease stratification marker in breast cancer.

  11. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs negatively regulate triple-negative breast cancer growth and epithelial:mesenchymal stem cell signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Narayanan

    Full Text Available The androgen receptor (AR is the most highly expressed steroid receptor in breast cancer with 75-95% of estrogen receptor (ER-positive and 40-70% of ER-negative breast cancers expressing AR. Though historically breast cancers were treated with steroidal androgens, their use fell from favor because of their virilizing side effects and the emergence of tamoxifen. Nonsteroidal, tissue selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs may provide a novel targeted approach to exploit the therapeutic benefits of androgen therapy in breast cancer.Since MDA-MB-453 triple-negative breast cancer cells express mutated AR, PTEN, and p53, MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells stably expressing wildtype AR (MDA-MB-231-AR were used to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-proliferative effects of SARMs. Microarray analysis and epithelial:mesenchymal stem cell (MSC co-culture signaling studies were performed to understand the mechanisms of action.Dihydrotestosterone and SARMs, but not bicalutamide, inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231-AR. The SARMs reduced the MDA-MB-231-AR tumor growth and tumor weight by greater than 90%, compared to vehicle-treated tumors. SARM treatment inhibited the intratumoral expression of genes and pathways that promote breast cancer development through its actions on the AR. SARM treatment also inhibited the metastasis-promoting paracrine factors, IL6 and MMP13, and subsequent migration and invasion of epithelial:MSC co-cultures.1. AR stimulation inhibits paracrine factors that are important for MSC interactions and breast cancer invasion and metastasis. 2. SARMs may provide promise as novel targeted therapies to treat AR-positive triple-negative breast cancer.

  12. A novel MEK-ERK-AMPK signaling axis controls chemokine receptor CCR7-dependent survival in human mature dendritic cells. (United States)

    López-Cotarelo, Pilar; Escribano-Díaz, Cristina; González-Bethencourt, Ivan Luis; Gómez-Moreira, Carolina; Deguiz, María Laura; Torres-Bacete, Jesús; Gómez-Cabañas, Laura; Fernández-Barrera, Jaime; Delgado-Martín, Cristina; Mellado, Mario; Regueiro, José Ramón; Miranda-Carús, María Eugenia; Rodríguez-Fernández, José Luis


    Chemokine receptor CCR7 directs mature dendritic cells (mDCs) to secondary lymph nodes where these cells regulate the activation of T cells. CCR7 also promotes survival in mDCs, which is believed to take place largely through Akt-dependent signaling mechanisms. We have analyzed the involvement of the AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) in the control of CCR7-dependent survival. A pro-apoptotic role for AMPK is suggested by the finding that pharmacological activators induce apoptosis, whereas knocking down of AMPK with siRNA extends mDC survival. Pharmacological activation of AMPK also induces apoptosis of mDCs in the lymph nodes. Stimulation of CCR7 leads to inhibition of AMPK, through phosphorylation of Ser-485, which was mediated by G(i)/Gβγ, but not by Akt or S6K, two kinases that control the phosphorylation of AMPK on Ser-485 in other settings. Using selective pharmacological inhibitors, we show that CCR7-induced phosphorylation of AMPK on Ser-485 is mediated by MEK and ERK. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis and proximity ligation assays indicate that AMPK associates with ERK, but not with MEK. These results suggest that in addition to Akt-dependent signaling mechanisms, CCR7 can also promote survival of mDCs through a novel MEK1/2-ERK1/2-AMPK signaling axis. The data also suggest that AMPK may be a potential target to modulate mDC lifespan and the immune response.

  13. Nonmitogenic Anti-CD3 Monoclonal Antibodies Deliver a Partial T Cell Receptor Signal and Induce Clonal Anergy (United States)

    Smith, Judith A.; Tso, J. Yun; Clark, Marcus R.; Cole, Michael S.; Bluestone, Jeffrey A.


    Anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are potent immunosuppressive agents used in clinical transplantation. However, the activation-related adverse side effects associated with these mAbs have prompted the development of less toxic nonmitogenic anti-CD3 mAb therapies. At present, the functional and biochemical consequences of T cell exposure to nonmitogenic anti-CD3 is unclear. In this study, we have examined the early signaling events triggered by a nonmitogenic anti-CD3 mAb. Like the mitogenic anti-CD3 mAb, nonmitogenic anti-CD3 triggered changes in the T cell receptor (TCR) complex, including ζ chain tyrosine phosphorylation and ZAP-70 association. However, unlike the mitogenic anti-CD3 stimulation, nonmitogenic anti-CD3 was ineffective at inducing the highly phosphorylated form of ζ (p23) and tyrosine phosphorylation of the associated ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase. This proximal signaling deficiency correlated with minimal phospholipase Cγ-1 phosphorylation and failure to mobilize detectable Ca2+. Not only did biochemical signals delivered by nonmitogenic anti-CD3 resemble altered peptide ligand signaling, but exposure of Th1 clones to nonmitogenic anti-CD3 also resulted in functional anergy. Finally, a bispecific anti-CD3 × anti-CD4 F(ab)′2 reconstituted early signal transduction events and induced proliferation, suggesting that defective association of lck with the TCR complex may underlie the observed signaling differences between the mitogenic and nonmitogenic anti-CD3. PMID:9126922

  14. Activated PTHLH Coupling Feedback Phosphoinositide to G-Protein Receptor Signal-Induced Cell Adhesion Network in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Systems-Theoretic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang


    Full Text Available Studies were done on analysis of biological processes in the same high expression (fold change ≥2 activated PTHLH feedback-mediated cell adhesion gene ontology (GO network of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC compared with the corresponding low expression activated GO network of no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues (HBV or HCV infection. Activated PTHLH feedback-mediated cell adhesion network consisted of anaphase-promoting complex-dependent proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolism, cell adhesion, cell differentiation, cell-cell signaling, G-protein-coupled receptor protein signaling pathway, intracellular transport, metabolism, phosphoinositide-mediated signaling, positive regulation of transcription, regulation of cyclin-dependent protein kinase activity, regulation of transcription, signal transduction, transcription, and transport in HCC. We proposed activated PTHLH coupling feedback phosphoinositide to G-protein receptor signal-induced cell adhesion network. Our hypothesis was verified by the different activated PTHLH feedback-mediated cell adhesion GO network of HCC compared with the corresponding inhibited GO network of no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues, or the same compared with the corresponding inhibited GO network of HCC. Activated PTHLH coupling feedback phosphoinositide to G-protein receptor signal-induced cell adhesion network included BUB1B, GNG10, PTHR2, GNAZ, RFC4, UBE2C, NRXN3, BAP1, PVRL2, TROAP, and VCAN in HCC from GEO dataset using gene regulatory network inference method and our programming.

  15. Hypoxia attenuates inflammatory mediators production induced by Acanthamoeba via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in human corneal epithelial cells

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    Pan, Hong [Department of Ophthalmology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107, Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan 250012 (China); The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Public Health, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107, Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Wu, Xinyi, E-mail: [Department of Ophthalmology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107, Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan 250012 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia attenuates Acanthamoeba-induced the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits TLR4 expression in a time-dependent manner in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits Acanthamoeba-induced the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2 in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia decreases Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory response via TLR4 signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS-induced the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 is abated by hypoxia via TLR4 signaling. -- Abstract: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a vision-threatening corneal infection that is intimately associated with contact lens use which leads to hypoxic conditions on the corneal surface. However, the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced host inflammatory response of corneal epithelial cells has not been studied. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced production of inflammatory mediators interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) in human corneal epithelial cells and then evaluated its effects on the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling, including TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) (MyD88) expression as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-{kappa}B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). We then studied the effect of hypoxia on a TLR4-specific inflammatory response triggered by the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our data showed that hypoxia significantly decreased the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Furthermore, hypoxia attenuated Acanthamoeba-triggered TLR4 expression as well as the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2, indicating that hypoxia abated Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory responses by affecting TLR4 signaling. Hypoxia also inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88

  16. Altered Ca(2+) signaling in cancer cells: proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors targeting IP3 receptors. (United States)

    Akl, Haidar; Bultynck, Geert


    Proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors critically control cell-fate decisions like cell survival, adaptation and death. These processes are regulated by Ca(2+) signals arising from the endoplasmic reticulum, which at distinct sites is in close proximity to the mitochondria. These organelles are linked by different mechanisms, including Ca(2+)-transport mechanisms involving the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC). The amount of Ca(2+) transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria determines the susceptibility of cells to apoptotic stimuli. Suppressing the transfer of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum to the mitochondria increases the apoptotic resistance of cells and may decrease the cellular responsiveness to apoptotic signaling in response to cellular damage or alterations. This can result in the survival, growth and proliferation of cells with oncogenic features. Clearly, proper maintenance of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) homeostasis and dynamics including its links with the mitochondrial network is essential to detect and eliminate altered cells with oncogenic features through the apoptotic pathway. Proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors exploit the central role of Ca(2+) signaling by targeting the IP3R. There are an increasing number of reports showing that activation of proto-oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressors directly affects IP3R function and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) homeostasis, thereby decreasing mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on the proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors identified as IP3R-regulatory proteins and how they affect endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) homeostasis and dynamics.

  17. Androgen receptor signalling in peritubular myoid cells is essential for normal differentiation and function of adult Leydig cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welsh, M.; Moffat, L.; Belling, Kirstine Christensen;


    Testosterone synthesis depends on normal Leydig cell (LC) development, but the mechanisms controlling this development remain unclear. We recently demonstrated that androgen receptor (AR) ablation from a proportion of testicular peritubular myoid cells (PTM-ARKO) did not affect LC number, but res......Testosterone synthesis depends on normal Leydig cell (LC) development, but the mechanisms controlling this development remain unclear. We recently demonstrated that androgen receptor (AR) ablation from a proportion of testicular peritubular myoid cells (PTM-ARKO) did not affect LC number......) and insulin-like factor 3 (Insl3)] were significantly reduced in adult PTM-ARKOs, but not all LCs were similarly affected. Two LC sub-populations were identified, one apparently ‘normal’ sub-population that expressed adult LC markers and steroidogenic enzymes as in controls, and another ‘abnormal......’ subpopulation that had arrested development and only weakly expressed INSL3, luteinizing hormone receptor, and several steroidogenic enzymes. Furthermore, unlike ‘normal’ LCs in PTM-ARKOs, the ‘abnormal’ LCs did not involute as expected in response to exogenous testosterone. Differential function of these LC...

  18. Crosstalk between Wnt/β-catenin and estrogen receptor signaling synergistically promotes osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Gao

    Full Text Available Osteogenic differentiation from mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs are initiated and regulated by a cascade of signaling events. Either Wnt/β-catenin or estrogen signaling pathway has been shown to play an important role in regulating skeletal development and maintaining adult tissue homeostasis. Here, we investigate the potential crosstalk and synergy of these two signaling pathways in regulating osteogenic differentiation of MPCs. We find that the activation of estrogen receptor (ER signaling by estradiol (E2 or exogenously expressed ERα in MPCs synergistically enhances Wnt3A-induced early and late osteogenic markers, as well as matrix mineralization. The E2 or ERα-mediated synergy can be effectively blocked by ERα antagonist tamoxifen. E2 stimulation can enhance endochondral ossification of Wnt3A-transduced mouse fetal limb explants. Furthermore, exogenously expressed ERα significantly enhances the maturity and mineralization of Wnt3A-induced subcutaneous and intramuscular ectopic bone formation. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that E2 does not exert any detectable effect on β-catenin/Tcf reporter activity. However, ERα expression is up-regulated within the first 48h in AdWnt3A-transduced MPCs, whereas ERβ expression is significantly inhibited within 24h. Moreover, the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of estrogens aromatase is modulated by Wnt3A in a biphasic manner, up-regulated at 24h but reduced after 48h. Our results demonstrate that, while ER signaling acts synergistically with Wnt3A in promoting osteogenic differentiation, Wnt3A may crosstalk with ER signaling by up-regulating ERα expression and down-regulating ERβ expression in MPCs. Thus, the signaling crosstalk and synergy between these two pathways should be further explored as a potential therapeutic approach to combating bone and skeletal disorders, such as fracture healing and osteoporosis.

  19. Ca2+ is involved in muscarine-acetylcholine-receptor-mediated acetylcholine signal transduction in guard cells of Vicia faba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Fanxia; MIAO Long; ZHANG Shuqiu; LOU Chenghou


    Acetylcholine (ACh) is an important neurochemical transmitter in animals; it also exists in plants and plays a significant role in various kinds of physiological functions in plants. ACh has been known to induce the stomatal opening. By monitoring the changes of cytosolic Ca2+ with fluorescent probe Fluo-3 AM under the confocal microscopy,we found that exogenous ACh increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration of guard cells of Vicia faba L. Muscarine, an agonist of muscarine acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), could do so as well. In contrast, atropine, the antagonist of mAChR abolished the ability of ACh to increase Ca2+ in guard cells.This mechanism is similar to mAChR in animals. When EGTA was used to chelate Ca2+ or ruthenium red to block Ca2+ released from vacuole respectively, the results showed that the increased cytosolic Ca2+ mainly come from intracellular Ca2+ store. The evidence supports that Ca2+ is involved in guard-cell response to ACh and that Ca2+ signal is coupled to mAChRs in ACh signal transduction in guard cells.

  20. Reconstitution of Torso signaling in cultured cells suggests a role for both Trunk and Torso-like in receptor activation. (United States)

    Amarnath, Smita; Stevens, Leslie M; Stein, David S


    Formation of the Drosophila embryonic termini is controlled by the localized activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase Torso. Both Torso and Torso's presumed ligand, Trunk, are expressed uniformly in the early embryo. Polar activation of Torso requires Torso-like, which is expressed by follicle cells adjacent to the ends of the developing oocyte. We find that Torso expressed at high levels in cultured Drosophila cells is activated by individual application of Trunk, Torso-like or another known Torso ligand, Prothoracicotropic Hormone. In addition to assays of downstream signaling activity, Torso dimerization was detected using bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Trunk and Torso-like were active when co-transfected with Torso and when presented to Torso-expressing cells in conditioned medium. Trunk and Torso-like were also taken up from conditioned medium specifically by cells expressing Torso. At low levels of Torso, similar to those present in the embryo, Trunk and Torso-like alone were ineffective but acted synergistically to stimulate Torso signaling. Our results suggest that Torso interacts with both Trunk and Torso-like, which cooperate to mediate dimerization and activation of Torso at the ends of the Drosophila embryo.

  1. T cell receptor-dependent activation of mTOR signaling in T cells is mediated by Carma1 and MALT1, but not Bcl10. (United States)

    Hamilton, Kristia S; Phong, Binh; Corey, Catherine; Cheng, Jing; Gorentla, Balachandra; Zhong, Xiaoping; Shiva, Sruti; Kane, Lawrence P


    Signaling to the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates diverse cellular processes, including protein translation, cellular proliferation, metabolism, and autophagy. Most models place Akt upstream of the mTOR complex, mTORC1; however, in T cells, Akt may not be necessary for mTORC1 activation. We found that the adaptor protein Carma1 [caspase recruitment domain (CARD)-containing membrane-associated protein 1] and at least one of its associated proteins, the paracaspase MALT1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1), were required for optimal activation of mTOR in T cells in response to stimulation of the T cell receptor (TCR) and the co-receptor CD28. However, Bcl10, which binds to Carma1 and MALT1 to form a complex that mediates signals from the TCR to the transcription factor NF-κB (nuclear factor κB), was not required. The catalytic activity of MALT1 was required for the proliferation of stimulated CD4+ T cells, but not for early TCR-dependent activation events. Consistent with an effect on mTOR, MALT1 activity was required for the increased metabolic flux in activated CD4+ T cells. Together, our data suggest that Carma1 and MALT1 play previously unappreciated roles in the activation of mTOR signaling in T cells after engagement of the TCR.

  2. The Association of CXC Receptor 4 Mediated Signaling Pathway with Oxaliplatin-Resistant Human Colorectal Cancer Cells (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Yi; Kuo, Yi-Hung; Tung, Shui-Yi; Shen, Chien-Heng; Hsieh, Yung-Yu; Teng, Chih-Chuan; Lee, Kam-Fai; Chen, Te-Chuan; Lee, Ko-Chao; Kuo, Hsing-Chun


    The stromal cell–derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4) axis plays an important role in tumor angiogenesis and invasiveness in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. In addition, metastatic CRC remains one of the most difficult human malignancies to treat because of its chemoresistant behavior. However, the mechanism by which correlation occurs between CXCR4 and the clinical response of CRC to chemotherapy remains unknown. We generated chemoresistant cells with increasing doses of oxaliplatin (OXA) and 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) to develop resistance at a clinical dose. We found that the putative markers did not change in the parental cells, but HCT-116/OxR and HCT-116/5-FUR were more aggressive and had higher tumor growth (demonstrated by wound healing, chemotaxis assay, and a nude mice xenograft model) with the use of oxaliplatin. Apoptosis induced by oxaliplatin treatment was significantly decreased in HCT-116/OxR compared to the parental cells. Moreover, HCT-116/OxR cells displayed increased levels of p-gp, p-Akt p-ERK, p-IKBβ, CXCR4, and Bcl-2, but they also significantly inhibited the apoptotic pathways when compared to the parental strain. We evaluated the molecular mechanism governing the signaling pathway associated with anti-apoptosis activity and the aggressive status of chemoresistant cells. Experiments involving specific inhibitors demonstrated that the activation of the pathways associated with CXCR4, ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt is critical to the functioning of the HCT-116/OxR and HCT-116/5-FUR characteristics of chemosensitivity. These findings elucidate the mechanism of CXCR4/PI3K/Akt downstream signaling and provide strategies to inhibit CXCR4 mediated signaling pathway in order to overcome CRC’s resistance to chemotherapy. PMID:27668882

  3. Muscarinic receptor signaling and colon cancer progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guofeng Xie; Jean-Pierre Raufman


    Due to the lack of effective treatments, advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Emerging evidence supports the observation that muscarinic receptor (MR) signaling plays a critical role in growth and progression of CRC. MR activation by acetylcholine and bile acids results in transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) and post-EGFR signal transduction that enhances cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Here, the authors review recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying MR-mediated CRC progression and its therapeutic implications.

  4. Lipid rafts are required for signal transduction by angiotensin II receptor type 1 in neonatal glomerular mesangial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adebiyi, Adebowale, E-mail:; Soni, Hitesh; John, Theresa A.; Yang, Fen


    Angiotensin II (ANG-II) receptors (AGTRs) contribute to renal physiology and pathophysiology, but the underlying mechanisms that regulate AGTR function in glomerular mesangium are poorly understood. Here, we show that AGTR1 is the functional AGTR subtype expressed in neonatal pig glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). Cyclodextrin (CDX)-mediated cholesterol depletion attenuated cell surface AGTR1 protein expression and ANG-II-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) elevation in the cells. The COOH-terminus of porcine AGTR1 contains a caveolin (CAV)-binding motif. However, neonatal GMCs express CAV-1, but not CAV-2 and CAV-3. Colocalization and in situ proximity ligation assay detected an association between endogenous AGTR1 and CAV-1 in the cells. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the CAV-1 scaffolding domain (CSD) sequence also reduced ANG-II-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation in the cells. Real-time imaging of cell growth revealed that ANG-II stimulates neonatal GMC proliferation. ANG-II-induced GMC growth was attenuated by EMD 66684, an AGTR1 antagonist; BAPTA, a [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} chelator; KN-93, a Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor; CDX; and a CSD peptide, but not PD 123319, a selective AGTR2 antagonist. Collectively, our data demonstrate [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-dependent proliferative effect of ANG-II and highlight a critical role for lipid raft microdomains in AGTR1-mediated signal transduction in neonatal GMCs. - Highlights: • AGTR1 is the functional AGTR subtype expressed in neonatal mesangial cells. • Endogenous AGTR1 associates with CAV-1 in neonatal mesangial cells. • Lipid raft disruption attenuates cell surface AGTR1 protein expression. • Lipid raft disruption reduces ANG-II-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation in neonatal mesangial cells. • Lipid raft disruption inhibits ANG-II-induced neonatal mesangial cell growth.

  5. Complexity of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signal Processing (United States)

    Volinsky, Natalia; Kholodenko, Boris N.


    Our knowledge of molecular mechanisms of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling advances with ever-increasing pace. Yet our understanding of how the spatiotemporal dynamics of RTK signaling control specific cellular outcomes has lagged behind. Systems-centered experimental and computational approaches can help reveal how overlapping networks of signal transducers downstream of RTKs orchestrate specific cell-fate decisions. We discuss how RTK network regulatory structures, which involve the immediate posttranslational and delayed transcriptional controls by multiple feed forward and feedback loops together with pathway cross talk, adapt cells to the combinatorial variety of external cues and conditions. This intricate network circuitry endows cells with emerging capabilities for RTK signal processing and decoding. We illustrate how mathematical modeling facilitates our understanding of RTK network behaviors by unraveling specific systems properties, including bistability, oscillations, excitable responses, and generation of intricate landscapes of signaling activities. PMID:23906711

  6. T Cell Receptor and Cytokine Signaling Can Function at Different Stages to Establish and Maintain Transcriptional Memory and Enable T Helper Cell Differentiation (United States)

    Bevington, Sarah L.; Cauchy, Pierre; Withers, David R.; Lane, Peter J. L.; Cockerill, Peter N.


    Experienced T cells exhibit immunological memory via a rapid recall response, responding to restimulation much faster than naïve T cells. The formation of immunological memory starts during an initial slow response, when naïve T cells become transformed to proliferating T blast cells, and inducible immune response genes are reprogrammed as active chromatin domains. We demonstrated that these active domains are supported by thousands of priming elements which cooperate with inducible transcriptional enhancers to enable efficient responses to stimuli. At the conclusion of this response, a small proportion of these cells return to the quiescent state as long-term memory T cells. We proposed that priming elements can be established in a hit-and-run process dependent on the inducible factor AP-1, but then maintained by the constitutive factors RUNX1 and ETS-1. This priming mechanism may also function to render genes receptive to additional differentiation-inducing factors such as GATA3 and TBX21 that are encountered under polarizing conditions. The proliferation of recently activated T cells and the maintenance of immunological memory in quiescent memory T cells are also dependent on various cytokine signaling pathways upstream of AP-1. We suggest that immunological memory is established by T cell receptor signaling, but maintained by cytokine signaling.

  7. T Cell Receptor and Cytokine Signaling Can Function at Different Stages to Establish and Maintain Transcriptional Memory and Enable T Helper Cell Differentiation. (United States)

    Bevington, Sarah L; Cauchy, Pierre; Withers, David R; Lane, Peter J L; Cockerill, Peter N


    Experienced T cells exhibit immunological memory via a rapid recall response, responding to restimulation much faster than naïve T cells. The formation of immunological memory starts during an initial slow response, when naïve T cells become transformed to proliferating T blast cells, and inducible immune response genes are reprogrammed as active chromatin domains. We demonstrated that these active domains are supported by thousands of priming elements which cooperate with inducible transcriptional enhancers to enable efficient responses to stimuli. At the conclusion of this response, a small proportion of these cells return to the quiescent state as long-term memory T cells. We proposed that priming elements can be established in a hit-and-run process dependent on the inducible factor AP-1, but then maintained by the constitutive factors RUNX1 and ETS-1. This priming mechanism may also function to render genes receptive to additional differentiation-inducing factors such as GATA3 and TBX21 that are encountered under polarizing conditions. The proliferation of recently activated T cells and the maintenance of immunological memory in quiescent memory T cells are also dependent on various cytokine signaling pathways upstream of AP-1. We suggest that immunological memory is established by T cell receptor signaling, but maintained by cytokine signaling.

  8. Infection of epithelial cells with Chlamydia trachomatis inhibits TNF-induced apoptosis at the level of receptor internalization while leaving non-apoptotic TNF-signalling intact. (United States)

    Waguia Kontchou, Collins; Tzivelekidis, Tina; Gentle, Ian E; Häcker, Georg


    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen of medical importance. C. trachomatis develops inside a membranous vacuole in the cytosol of epithelial cells but manipulates the host cell in numerous ways. One prominent effect of chlamydial infection is the inhibition of apoptosis in the host cell, but molecular aspects of this inhibition are unclear. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a cytokine with important roles in immunity, which is produced by immune cells in chlamydial infection and which can have pro-apoptotic and non-apoptotic signalling activity. We here analysed the signalling through TNF in cells infected with C. trachomatis. The pro-apoptotic signal of TNF involves the activation of caspase-8 and is controlled by inhibitor of apoptosis proteins. We found that in C. trachomatis-infected cells, TNF-induced apoptosis was blocked upstream of caspase-8 activation even when inhibitor of apoptosis proteins were inhibited or the inhibitor of caspase-8 activation, cFLIP, was targeted by RNAi. However, when caspase-8 was directly activated by experimental over-expression of its upstream adapter Fas-associated protein with death domain, C. trachomatis was unable to inhibit apoptosis. Non-apoptotic TNF-signalling, particularly the activation of NF-κB, initiates at the plasma membrane, while the activation of caspase-8 and pro-apoptotic signalling occur subsequently to internalization of TNF receptor and the formation of a cytosolic signalling complex. In C. trachomatis-infected cells, NF-κB activation through TNF was unaffected, while the internalization of the TNF-TNF-receptor complex was blocked, explaining the lack of caspase-8 activation. These results identify a dichotomy of TNF signalling in C. trachomatis-infected cells: Apoptosis is blocked at the internalization of the TNF receptor, but non-apoptotic signalling through this receptor remains intact, permitting a response to this cytokine at sites of infection.

  9. Catechol-o-methyltransferase expression and 2-methoxyestradiol affect microtubule dynamics and modify steroid receptor signaling in leiomyoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salama A Salama

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Development of optimal medicinal treatments of uterine leiomyomas represents a significant challenge. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME is an endogenous estrogen metabolite formed by sequential action of CYP450s and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT. Our previous study demonstrated that 2ME is a potent antiproliferative, proapoptotic, antiangiogenic, and collagen synthesis inhibitor in human leiomyomas cells (huLM. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to investigate whether COMT expression, by the virtue of 2ME formation, affects the growth of huLM, and to explore the cellular and molecular mechanisms whereby COMT expression or treatment with 2ME affect these cells. RESULTS: Our data demonstrated that E(2-induced proliferation was less pronounced in cells over-expressing COMT or treated with 2ME (500 nM. This effect on cell proliferation was associated with microtubules stabilization and diminution of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha and progesterone receptor (PR transcriptional activities, due to shifts in their subcellular localization and sequestration in the cytoplasm. In addition, COMT over expression or treatment with 2ME reduced the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor -1alpha (HIF-1 alpha and the basal level as well as TNF-alpha-induced aromatase (CYP19 expression. CONCLUSIONS: COMT over expression or treatment with 2ME stabilize microtubules, ameliorates E(2-induced proliferation, inhibits ERalpha and PR signaling, and reduces HIF-1 alpha and CYP19 expression in human uterine leiomyoma cells. Thus, microtubules are a candidate target for treatment of uterine leiomyomas. In addition, the naturally occurring microtubule-targeting agent 2ME represents a potential new therapeutic for uterine leiomyomas.

  10. Effects of eccentric exercise on toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (United States)

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; De Paz, José A; Rodriguez-Miguelez, Paula; Cuevas, María J; González-Gallego, Javier


    This study aimed to investigate the response of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway to an acute bout of eccentric exercise, and to assess whether eccentric training attenuated the effects induced by acute eccentric exercise. Twenty men (22.4 ± 0.5 yr) were divided into a control group (CG, n = 8) and a training group (TG, n = 12). Both groups performed two acute eccentric bouts on a squat machine in a 9-wk interval. During this time, TG followed a 6-wk eccentric training program (3 session/wk; 3-5 sets of 10 repetitions with loads ranging between the 40 and 50% of maximal isometric voluntary contraction). CD14, TLR4, and TNF-α mRNA levels, and CD14, TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β, phospho-IκB kinases, phospho-IκB, phospho-ERK-1/2, and TNF-α protein concentration were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, before, immediately, and 2 h after each eccentric bout. The first acute eccentric bout triggered a proinflammatory response mediated by an upregulation of all of the factors measured within the TLR4 signaling pathway. Following the training period and after the second acute bout, CG showed a similar proinflammatory response than that seen after the first bout. However, the eccentric training intervention decreased significantly the protein concentration of all factors analyzed in TG compared with results obtained after the first bout. These results suggest that the TLR4-signaling pathway plays a critical role in the proinflammatory response seen after acute eccentric exercise. This response was attenuated after an eccentric training program through myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent and -independent pathways.

  11. Lipid IVa incompletely activates MyD88-independent Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in mouse macrophage cell lines. (United States)

    Ogura, Norihiko; Muroi, Masashi; Sugiura, Yuka; Tanamoto, Ken-ichi


    We investigated the difference in the effect of synthetic lipid A compounds on MyD88-dependent and -independent Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in mouse macrophage cells. At higher concentrations, Escherichia coli-type hexa-acylated lipid A 506, Salmonella-type hepta-acylated lipid A 516, the lipid A precursor lipid IVa and monophosphoryl lipid A induced similar levels of production of the MyD88-dependent cytokine IL-1β although their potencies varied, whereas the maximum production of the MyD88-independent cytokine RANTES induced by lipid IVa was less than 50% that of other lipid A compounds. A maximum level of NF-κB activation, which is involved in IL-1β gene transcription, was also induced to a similar level by these four lipid A compounds, while the maximum level of IFN-β promoter activity induced during MyD88-independent signaling was also less than 50% for lipid IVa stimulation compared with other lipid A compounds. Early IκBα phosphorylation activated by MyD88-dependent signaling was similarly induced by 506 and lipid IVa, whereas lipid IVa barely stimulated the phosphorylation of IRF3, a MyD88-independent transcription factor, although efficient phosphorylation was observed with 506 stimulation. These results indicate that lipid IVa has limited activity toward MyD88-independent signaling of TLR4, in macrophage cell lines, despite having efficient activity in the MyD88-dependent pathway.

  12. Phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 and stimulation of T-cell factor signaling following activation of EP2 and EP4 prostanoid receptors by prostaglandin E2. (United States)

    Fujino, Hiromichi; West, Kimberly A; Regan, John W


    Recently we have shown that the FP(B) prostanoid receptor, a G-protein-coupled receptor that couples to Galpha(q), activates T-cell factor (Tcf)/lymphoid enhancer factor (Lef)-mediated transcriptional activation (Fujino, H., and Regan, J. W. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 12489-12492). We now report that the EP(2) and EP(4) prostanoid receptors, which couple to Galpha(s), also activate Tcf/Lef signaling. By using a Tcf/Lef-responsive luciferase reporter gene, transcriptional activity was stimulated approximately 10-fold over basal by 1 h of treatment with prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in HEK cells that were stably transfected with the human EP(2) and EP(4) receptors. This stimulation of reporter gene activity was accompanied by a PGE(2)-dependent increase in the phosphorylation of both glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) and Akt kinase. H-89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA), completely blocked the agonist-dependent phosphorylation of GSK-3 in both EP(2)- and EP(4)-expressing cells. However, H-89 pretreatment only blocked PGE(2)-stimulated Lef/Tcf reporter gene activity by 20% in EP(4)-expressing cells compared with 65% inhibition in EP(2)-expressing cells. On the other hand wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, had the opposite effect and inhibited PGE(2)-stimulated reporter gene activity to a much greater extent in EP(4)-expressing cells as compared with EP(2)-expressing cells. These findings indicate that the activation of Tcf/Lef signaling by EP(2) receptors occurs primarily through a PKA-dependent pathway, whereas EP(4) receptors activate Tcf/Lef signaling mainly through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway. This is the first indication of a fundamental difference in the signaling potential of EP(2) and EP(4) prostanoid receptors.

  13. Epidermal growth factor receptor signalling in human breast cancer cells operates parallel to estrogen receptor α signalling and results in tamoxifen insensitive proliferation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerkens, M.; Zhang, Y.; Wester, L.; Water, van de B.; Meerman, J.H.N.


    BACKGROUND Tamoxifen resistance is a major problem in the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER) α -positive breast cancer patients. Although the mechanisms behind tamoxifen resistance are still not completely understood, clinical data suggests that increased expression of receptor tyrosine kinases is

  14. Orexin-A regulates cell apoptosis in human H295R adrenocortical cells via orexin receptor type 1 through the AKT signaling pathway. (United States)

    Chang, Xiaocen; Zhao, Yuyan; Ju, Shujing; Guo, Lei


    Numerous studies have demonstrated the ability of orexin-A to regulate adrenocortical cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. In the present study, human H295R adrenocortical cells were exposed to orexin‑A (10‑10-10‑6 M), with orexin receptor type 1 (OX1 receptor) antagonist SB334867 or AKT antagonist PF‑04691502. It was found that orexin‑A stimulated H295R cell proliferation, reduced the pro‑apoptotic activity of caspase‑3 to protect against apoptotic cell death and increased cortisol secretion. Furthermore, phospho‑AKT protein was increased by orexin‑A. SB334867 (10‑6 M) and PF‑04691502 (10‑6 M) abolished the effects of orexin‑A (10‑6 M). These results suggested that the orexin‑A/OX1 receptor axis has a significant pro-survival function in adrenal cells, which is mediated by AKT activation. Further studies investigating the effects of orexin-A-upregulation may further elucidate the diverse biological effects of orexin-A in adrenal cells.

  15. Genetic ablation of androgen receptor signaling in fetal Leydig cell lineage affects Leydig cell functions in adult testis. (United States)

    Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Lopez, Carolina; Ferguson, Lydia; Myhr, Courtney; Agoulnik, Alexander I


    It is commonly accepted that androgen-producing fetal Leydig cells (FLC) are substituted by adult Leydig cells (ALC) during perinatal testis development. The mechanisms influencing this process are unclear. We used mice with a retinoid acid receptor 2 promoter-Cre recombinase transgene (Rarb-cre) expressed in embryonic FLC precursors, but not in postnatal testis, and a dual fluorescent Cre recombinase reporter to label FLC and ALC in vivo. All FLC in newborn testis had the recombinant, whereas the majority of LC in adult testis had the nonrecombinant reporter. Primary LC cultures from adult testis had either recombinant (20%) or nonrecombinant (80%) cells, demonstrating that the FLC survive in adult testis and their ontogeny is distinct from ALC. Conditional inactivation of androgen receptor (AR) allele using the Rarb-cre transgene resulted in a 50% increase of AR-negative LC in adult testis. The mutant males became infertile with age, with all LC in older testis showing signs of incomplete differentiation, such as a large number of big lipid droplets, an increase of finger-like protrusions, and a misexpression of steroidogenic or FLC- and ALC-specific genes. We propose that the antiandrogenic exposure during early development may similarly result in an increase of FLC in adult testis, leading to abnormal LC differentiation.

  16. Hypoxia and prostaglandin E receptor 4 signalling pathways synergise to promote endometrial adenocarcinoma cell proliferation and tumour growth.

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    Rob D Catalano

    Full Text Available The prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PTGS pathway is a potent driver of tumour development in humans by enhancing the biosynthesis and signalling of prostaglandin (PG E(2. PTGS2 expression and PGE(2 biosynthesis is elevated in endometrial adenocarcinoma, however the mechanism whereby PTGS and PGE(2 regulate endometrial tumour growth is unknown. Here we investigated (a the expression profile of the PGE synthase enzymes (PTGES, PTGES-2, PTGES-3 and PGE receptors (PTGER1-4 in endometrial adenocarcinomas compared with normal endometrium and (b the role of PTGER4 in endometrial tumorigenesis in vivo. We found elevated expression of PTGES2 and PTGER4 and suppression of PTGER1 and PTGER3 in endometrial adenocarcinomas compared with normal endometrium. Using WT Ishikawa endometrial adenocarcinoma cells and Ishikawa cells stably transfected with the full length PTGER4 cDNA (PTGER4 cells xenografted in the dorsal flanks of nude mice, we show that PTGER4 rapidly and significantly enhances tumour growth rate. Coincident with enhanced PTGER4-mediated tumour growth we found elevated expression of PTGS2 in PTGER4 xenografts compared with WT xenografts. Furthermore we found that the augmented growth rate of the PTGER4 xenografts was not due to enhanced angiogenesis, but regulated by an increased proliferation index and hypoxia. In vitro, we found that PGE(2 and hypoxia independently induce expression of PTGER4 indicating two independent pathways regulating prostanoid receptor expression. Finally we have shown that PGE(2 and hypoxia synergise to promote cellular proliferation of endometrial adenocarcinoma cells.

  17. Genes involved in cell adhesion and signaling: a new repertoire of retinoic acid receptor target genes in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. (United States)

    Al Tanoury, Ziad; Piskunov, Aleksandr; Andriamoratsiresy, Dina; Gaouar, Samia; Lutzing, Régis; Ye, Tao; Jost, Bernard; Keime, Céline; Rochette-Egly, Cécile


    Nuclear retinoic acid (RA) receptors (RARα, β and γ) are ligand-dependent transcription factors that regulate the expression of a battery of genes involved in cell differentiation and proliferation. They are also phosphoproteins and we previously showed the importance of their phosphorylation in their transcriptional activity. In the study reported here, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of the genes that are regulated by RARs in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) by comparing wild-type MEFs to MEFs lacking the three RARs. We found that in the absence of RA, RARs control the expression of several gene transcripts associated with cell adhesion. Consequently the knockout MEFs are unable to adhere and to spread on substrates and they display a disrupted network of actin filaments, compared with the WT cells. In contrast, in the presence of the ligand, RARs control the expression of other genes involved in signaling and in RA metabolism. Taking advantage of rescue cell lines expressing the RARα or RARγ subtypes (either wild-type or mutated at the N-terminal phosphorylation sites) in the null background, we found that the expression of RA-target genes can be controlled either by a specific single RAR or by a combination of RAR isotypes, depending on the gene. We also selected genes that require the phosphorylation of the receptors for their regulation by RA. Our results increase the repertoire of genes that are regulated by RARs and highlight the complexity and diversity of the transcriptional programs regulated by RARs, depending on the gene.

  18. P-LAP/IRAP-induced cell proliferation and glucose uptake in endometrial carcinoma cells via insulin receptor signaling

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    Nomura Seiji


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperglycemia or hyperinsulinemia contributes to poorer endometrial cancer survival. It was shown that P-LAP/IRAP translocates to the plasma membrane in response to insulin stimulation. Recently, we demonstrated that P-LAP/IRAP is associated with a poor prognosis in endometrial adenocarcinoma patients. The aim of this study was to examine whether the malignant potential of endometrial cancer enhanced by P-LAP/IRAP is due to increased glucose uptake via the P-LAP/IRAP-mediated activation of insulin signaling. Methods We transfected P-LAP/IRAP cDNA into A-MEC cells (endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line, and A-MEC-LAP cells expressed a remarkably high level of GLUT4 proteins. Results 3H-2-deoxyglucose uptake which responds to insulin in A-MEC-LAP cells was significantly higher than that of A-MEC-pc cells. A-MEC-LAP cells exhibited a significant growth-stimulatory effect compared to A-MEC-pc cells. A-MEC-LAP cells expressed a remarkably high level of p85PI3K protein compared to A-MEC-pc cells, and showed a higher degree of AKT phosphorylation by insulin stimulation. Conclusion In summary, P-LAP/IRAP was involved in the increasing malignant potential of endometrial cancer mediated by insulin. P-LAP/IRAP was suggested to be a potential new target of molecular-targeted therapy for endometrial cancer.

  19. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis supports Th17 differentiation and limits de novo regulatory T cell induction by directly interfering with T cell receptor signaling. (United States)

    Pasztoi, Maria; Bonifacius, Agnes; Pezoldt, Joern; Kulkarni, Devesha; Niemz, Jana; Yang, Juhao; Teich, René; Hajek, Janina; Pisano, Fabio; Rohde, Manfred; Dersch, Petra; Huehn, Jochen


    Adaptive immunity critically contributes to control acute infection with enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis; however, the role of CD4(+) T cell subsets in establishing infection and allowing pathogen persistence remains elusive. Here, we assessed the modulatory capacity of Y. pseudotuberculosis on CD4(+) T cell differentiation. Using in vivo assays, we report that infection with Y. pseudotuberculosis resulted in enhanced priming of IL-17-producing T cells (Th17 cells), whereas induction of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) was severely disrupted in gut-draining mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs), in line with altered frequencies of tolerogenic and proinflammatory dendritic cell (DC) subsets within mLNs. Additionally, by using a DC-free in vitro system, we could demonstrate that Y. pseudotuberculosis can directly modulate T cell receptor (TCR) downstream signaling within naïve CD4(+) T cells and Tregs via injection of effector molecules through the type III secretion system, thereby affecting their functional properties. Importantly, modulation of naïve CD4(+) T cells by Y. pseudotuberculosis resulted in an enhanced Th17 differentiation and decreased induction of Foxp3(+) Tregs in vitro. These findings shed light to the adjustment of the Th17-Treg axis in response to acute Y. pseudotuberculosis infection and highlight the direct modulation of CD4(+) T cell subsets by altering their TCR downstream signaling.

  20. The phenomenon of acquired resistance to metformin in breast cancer cells: The interaction of growth pathways and estrogen receptor signaling. (United States)

    Scherbakov, Alexander M; Sorokin, Danila V; Tatarskiy, Victor V; Prokhorov, Nikolay S; Semina, Svetlana E; Berstein, Lev M; Krasil'nikov, Mikhail A


    Metformin, a biguanide antidiabetic drug, is used to decrease hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Recently, the epidemiological studies revealed the potential of metformin as an anti-tumor drug for several types of cancer, including breast cancer. Anti-tumor metformin action was found to be mediated, at least in part, via activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-intracellular energy sensor, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and some other signaling pathways. Nevertheless, some patients can be non-sensitive or resistant to metformin action. Here we analyzed the mechanism of the formation of metformin-resistant phenotype in breast cancer cells and its role in estrogen receptor (ER) regulation. The experiments were performed on the ER-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells and metformin-resistant MCF-7 subline (MCF-7/M) developed due to long-term metformin treatment. The transcriptional activity of NF-κB and ER was measured by the luciferase reporter gene analysis. The protein expression was determined by immunoblotting (Snail1, (phospho)AMPK, (phospho)IκBα, (phospho)mTOR, cyclin D1, (phospho)Akt and ERα) and immunohistochemical analysis (E-cadherin). We have found that: 1) metformin treatment of MCF-7 cells is accompanied with the stimulation of AMPK and inhibition of growth-related proteins including IκBα, NF-κB, cyclin D1 and ERα; 2) long-term metformin treatment lead to the appearance and progression of cross-resistance to metformin and tamoxifen; the resistant cells are characterized with the unaffected AMPK activity, but the irreversible ER suppression and constitutive activation of Akt/Snail1 signaling; 3) Akt/Snail1 signaling is involved into progression of metformin resistance. The results presented may be considered as the first evidence of the progression of cross-resistance to metformin and tamoxifen in breast cancer cells. Importantly, the acquired resistance to both drugs is based on the

  1. Signaling transduction by IgG receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘銮凤; 裴鹏


    Objective To review and summarize literature regarding stimulatory and inhibitory signaling pathways from different types of Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs).Data source Articles were obtained from Medline from January 1991 to April 2002. Study selection Over 100 English language papers and reviews published over the last 11 years were selected.Results and Conclusions Stimulatory Fcγ receptors include FcγRI, FcγRIIA, FcγRIIC, and FcγRIII A. They transduce signals through the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in subunits or in the cytoplasmic domain. Inhibitory Fcγ receptors, such as FcγRIIB, are single chain receptors, transducing signals through an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) in cytoplasmic domains. Stimulatory signals include protein phosphorylation, increase in intracellular free calcium, the production of 1,4,5-triphosphate inositol (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) mainly through the Src-family kinases, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) and phospholipase C (PLC). Inhibitory signaling has been implicated in the repression of the above activities as well as inhibition of B cell responses through Src homology 2-containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP).

  2. Inactivation of TGFβ receptor II signalling in pancreatic epithelial cells promotes acinar cell proliferation, acinar-to-ductal metaplasia and fibrosis during pancreatitis. (United States)

    Grabliauskaite, Kamile; Saponara, Enrica; Reding, Theresia; Bombardo, Marta; Seleznik, Gitta M; Malagola, Ermanno; Zabel, Anja; Faso, Carmen; Sonda, Sabrina; Graf, Rolf


    Determining signalling pathways that regulate pancreatic regeneration following pancreatitis is critical for implementing therapeutic interventions. In this study we elucidated the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) in pancreatic epithelial cells during tissue regeneration. To this end, we conditionally inactivated TGFβ receptor II (TGFβ-RII) using a Cre-LoxP system under the control of pancreas transcription factor 1a (PTF1a) promoter, specific for the pancreatic epithelium, and evaluated the molecular and cellular changes in a mouse model of cerulein-induced pancreatitis. We show that TGFβ-RII signalling does not mediate the initial acinar cell damage observed at the onset of pancreatitis. However, TGFβ-RII signalling not only restricts acinar cell replication during the regenerative phase of the disease but also limits ADM formation in vivo and in vitro in a cell-autonomous manner. Analyses of molecular mechanisms underlying the observed phenotype revealed that TGFβ-RII signalling stimulates the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and intersects with the EGFR signalling axis. Finally, TGFβ-RII ablation in epithelial cells resulted in increased infiltration of inflammatory cells in the early phases of pancreatitis and increased activation of pancreatic stellate cells in the later stages of pancreatitis, thus highlighting a TGFβ-based crosstalk between epithelial and stromal cells regulating the development of pancreatic inflammation and fibrosis. Collectively, our data not only contribute to clarifying the cellular processes governing pancreatic tissue regeneration, but also emphasize the conserved role of TGFβ as a tumour suppressor, both in the regenerative process following pancreatitis and in the initial phases of pancreatic cancer.

  3. Activation of murine microglial N9 cells is attenuated through cannabinoid receptor CB2 signaling. (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Jia, Ji; Liu, Xiangyu; Bai, Fuhai; Wang, Qiang; Xiong, Lize


    Inhibition of microglial activation is effective in treating various neurological disorders. Activation of microglial cannabinoid CB2 receptor induces anti-inflammatory effects, and the mechanism, however, is still elusive. Microglia could be activated into the classic activated state (M1 state) or the alternative activated state (M2 state), the former is cytotoxic, and the latter is neurotrophic. In this study, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-γ (IFNγ) to activate N9 microglia and hypothesized the pretreatment with cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonist AM1241 attenuates microglial activation by shifting microglial M1 to M2 state. We found that pretreatment with 5 μM AM1241 at 1 h before microglia were exposed to LPS plus IFNγ decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the release of pro-inflammatory factors, increased the expression of arginase 1 (Arg-1) and the release of anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic factors in microglia. However, these effects induced by AM1241 pretreatment were significantly reversed in the presence of 10 μM cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist AM630 or 10 μM protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine. These findings indicated that AM1241 pretreatment attenuates microglial activation by shifting M1 to M2 activated state via CB2 receptor, and the AM1241-induced anti-inflammatory effects may be mediated by PKC.

  4. Localization of the succinate receptor in the distal nephron and its signaling in polarized MDCK cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, J.H.; Fenton, R.A.; Vargas, S.L.; Schweer, H.; Peti-Peterdi, J.; Deen, P.M.T.; Milligan, G.


    When the succinate receptor (SUCNR1) is activated in the afferent arterioles of the glomerulus it increases renin release and induces hypertension. To study its location in other nephron segments and its role in kidney function, we performed immunohistochemical analysis and found that SUCNR1 is loca

  5. 4-1BB Costimulation Ameliorates T Cell Exhaustion Induced by Tonic Signaling of Chimeric Antigen Receptors (United States)

    Long, Adrienne H.; Haso, Waleed M.; Shern, Jack F.; Wanhainen, Kelsey M.; Murgai, Meera; Ingaramo, Maria; Smith, Jillian P.; Walker, Alec J.; Kohler, M. Eric; Venkateshwara, Vikas R.; Kaplan, Rosandra N.; Patterson, George H.; Fry, Terry J.; Orentas, Rimas J.; Mackall, Crystal L.


    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19 have mediated dramatic anti-tumor responses in hematologic malignancies, but tumor regression has rarely occurred using CARs targeting other antigens. It remains unknown whether the impressive effects of CD19 CARs relate to greater susceptibility of hematologic malignancies to CAR therapies, or superior functionality of the CD19 CAR itself. We discovered that tonic CAR CD3ζ phosphorylation, triggered by antigen-independent clustering of CAR scFvs, can induce early exhaustion of CAR T cells that limits anti-tumor efficacy. Such activation is present to varying degrees in all CARs studied, with the exception of the highly effective CD19 CAR. We further identify that CD28 costimulation augments, while 4-1BB costimulation ameliorates, exhaustion induced by persistent CAR signaling. Our results provide biological explanations for the dramatic anti-tumor effects of CD19 CARs and for the observations that CD19.BBz CAR T cells are more persistent than CD19.28z CAR T cells in clinical trials. PMID:25939063

  6. Distinct roles for aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator and ah receptor in estrogen-mediated signaling in human cancer cell lines.

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    Mark P Labrecque

    Full Text Available The activated AHR/ARNT complex (AHRC regulates the expression of target genes upon exposure to environmental contaminants such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD. Importantly, evidence has shown that TCDD represses estrogen receptor (ER target gene activation through the AHRC. Our data indicates that AHR and ARNT act independently from each other at non-dioxin response element sites. Therefore, we sought to determine the specific functions of AHR and ARNT in estrogen-dependent signaling in human MCF7 breast cancer and human ECC-1 endometrial carcinoma cells. Knockdown of AHR with siRNA abrogates dioxin-inducible repression of estrogen-dependent gene transcription. Intriguingly, knockdown of ARNT does not effect TCDD-mediated repression of estrogen-regulated transcription, suggesting that AHR represses ER function independently of ARNT. This theory is supported by the ability of the selective AHR modulator 3',4'-dimethoxy-α-naphthoflavone (DiMNF to repress estrogen-inducible transcription. Furthermore, basal and estrogen-activated transcription of the genes encoding cathepsin-D and pS2 are down-regulated in MCF7 cells but up-regulated in ECC-1 cells in response to loss of ARNT. These responses are mirrored at the protein level with cathepsin-D. Furthermore, knock-down of ARNT led to opposite but corresponding changes in estrogen-stimulated proliferation in both MCF7 and ECC-1 cells. We have obtained experimental evidence demonstrating a dioxin-dependent repressor function for AHR and a dioxin-independent co-activator/co-repressor function for ARNT in estrogen signalling. These results provide us with further insight into the mechanisms of transcription factor crosstalk and putative therapeutic targets in estrogen-positive cancers.

  7. Stilbene induced inhibition of androgen receptor dimerization: implications for AR and ARΔLBD-signalling in human prostate cancer cells.

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    Wolfgang Streicher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advanced castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC is often characterized by an increase of C-terminally truncated, constitutively active androgen receptor (AR variants. Due to the absence of a ligand binding domain located in the AR-C-terminus, these receptor variants (also termed ARΔLBD are unable to respond to all classical forms of endocrine treatments like surgical/chemical castration and/or application of anti-androgens. METHODOLOGY: In this study we tested the effects of the naturally occurring stilbene resveratrol (RSV and (E-4-(2, 6-Difluorostyryl-N, N-dimethylaniline, a fluorinated dialkylaminostilbene (FIDAS on AR- and ARΔLBD in prostate cancer cells. The ability of the compounds to modulate transcriptional activity of AR and the ARΔLBD-variant Q640X was shown by reporter gene assays. Expression of endogenous AR and ARΔLBD mRNA and protein levels were determined by qRT-PCR and Western Blot. Nuclear translocation of AR-molecules was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. AR and ARΔLBD/Q640X homo-/heterodimer formation was assessed by mammalian two hybrid assays. Biological activity of both compounds in vivo was demonstrated using a chick chorioallantoic membrane xenograft assay. RESULTS: The stilbenes RSV and FIDAS were able to significantly diminish AR and Q640X-signalling. Successful inhibition of the Q640X suggests that RSV and FIDAS are not interfering with the AR-ligand binding domain like all currently available anti-hormonal drugs. Repression of AR and Q640X-signalling by RSV and FIDAS in prostate cancer cells was caused by an inhibition of the AR and/or Q640X-dimerization. Although systemic bioavailability of both stilbenes is very low, both compounds were also able to downregulate tumor growth and AR-signalling in vivo. CONCLUSION: RSV and FIDAS are able to inhibit the dimerization of AR and ARΔLBD molecules suggesting that stilbenes might serve as lead compounds for a novel generation of AR-inhibitors.

  8. Bright fluorescence monitoring system utilizing Zoanthus sp. green fluorescent protein (ZsGreen for human G-protein-coupled receptor signaling in microbial yeast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Nakamura

    Full Text Available G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are currently the most important pharmaceutical targets for drug discovery because they regulate a wide variety of physiological processes. Consequently, simple and convenient detection systems for ligands that regulate the function of GPCR have attracted attention as powerful tools for new drug development. We previously developed a yeast-based fluorescence reporter ligand detection system using flow cytometry. However, using this conventional detection system, fluorescence from a cell expressing GFP and responding to a ligand is weak, making detection of these cells by fluorescence microscopy difficult. We here report improvements to the conventional yeast fluorescence reporter assay system resulting in the development of a new highly-sensitive fluorescence reporter assay system with extremely bright fluorescence and high signal-to-noise (S/N ratio. This new system allowed the easy detection of GPCR signaling in yeast using fluorescence microscopy. Somatostatin receptor and neurotensin receptor (implicated in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, respectively were chosen as human GPCR(s. The facile detection of binding to these receptors by cognate peptide ligands was demonstrated. In addition, we established a highly sensitive ligand detection system using yeast cell surface display technology that is applicable to peptide screening, and demonstrate that the display of various peptide analogs of neurotensin can activate signaling through the neurotensin receptor in yeast cells. Our system could be useful for identifying lead peptides with agonistic activity towards targeted human GPCR(s.

  9. TNF receptor signaling inhibits cardiomyogenic differentiation of cardiac stem cells and promotes a neuroadrenergic-like fate. (United States)

    Hamid, Tariq; Xu, Yuanyuan; Ismahil, Mohamed Ameen; Li, Qianhong; Jones, Steven P; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Bolli, Roberto; Prabhu, Sumanth D


    Despite expansion of resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs; c-kit(+)Lin(-)) after myocardial infarction, endogenous repair processes are insufficient to prevent adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure (HF). This suggests that the microenvironment in post-ischemic and failing hearts compromises CSC regenerative potential. Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), are increased after infarction and in HF; whether they modulate CSC function is unknown. As the effects of TNF are specific to its two receptors (TNFRs), we tested the hypothesis that TNF differentially modulates CSC function in a TNFR-specific manner. CSCs were isolated from wild-type (WT), TNFR1-/-, and TNFR2-/- adult mouse hearts, expanded and evaluated for cell competence and differentiation in vitro in the absence and presence of TNF. Our results indicate that TNF signaling in murine CSCs is constitutively related primarily to TNFR1, with TNFR2 inducible after stress. TNFR1 signaling modestly diminished CSC proliferation, but, along with TNFR2, augmented CSC resistance to oxidant stress. Deficiency of either TNFR1 or TNFR2 did not impact CSC telomerase activity. Importantly, TNF, primarily via TNFR1, inhibited cardiomyogenic commitment during CSC differentiation, and instead promoted smooth muscle and endothelial fates. Moreover, TNF, via both TNFR1 and TNFR2, channeled an alternate CSC neuroadrenergic-like fate (capable of catecholamine synthesis) during differentiation. Our results suggest that elevated TNF in the heart restrains cardiomyocyte differentiation of resident CSCs and may enhance adrenergic activation, both effects that would reduce the effectiveness of endogenous cardiac repair and the response to exogenous stem cell therapy, while promoting adverse cardiac remodeling.

  10. ERK1/2 has an essential role in B cell receptor- and CD40-induced signaling in an in vitro model of germinal center B cell selection. (United States)

    Adem, Jemal; Hämäläinen, Aleksi; Ropponen, Antti; Eeva, Jonna; Eray, Mine; Nuutinen, Ulla; Pelkonen, Jukka


    Germinal center (GC) B cells undergo apoptosis after B cell receptor (BCR) ligation, unless they receive CD40-mediated survival signal from helper T cells. In the present study, we used a human follicular lymphoma cell line HF1A3, as an in vitro model to study the selection process in germinal centers. We show here that BCR ligation led to immediate ERK1/2 activation and phosphorylations of its downstream targets, Bim EL/L and Bcl-2 (at Ser70) which resulted in short-term survival. On the other hand, during the late phase of BCR signaling, ERK1/2 phosphorylation was inhibited which resulted in apoptosis. In addition, CD40 signaling led to sustained ERK1/2 activation and up-regulation of Bcl-xL in BCR-primed HF1A3 GC B cells. In conclusion, MEK-ERK pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins are crucial players in BCR-mediated survival/apoptosis and CD40-mediated survival.

  11. Ligand-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 triggers internalization and signaling in intestinal epithelial cells.

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    Ladan Parhamifar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leukotriene D(4 (LTD(4 belongs to the bioactive lipid group known as eicosanoids and has implications in pathological processes such as inflammation and cancer. Leukotriene D(4 exerts its effects mainly through two different G-protein-coupled receptors, CysLT(1 and CysLT(2. The high affinity LTD(4 receptor CysLT(1R exhibits tumor-promoting properties by triggering cell proliferation, survival, and migration in intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, increased expression and nuclear localization of CysLT(1R correlates with a poorer prognosis for patients with colon cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a proximity ligation assay and immunoprecipitation, this study showed that endogenous CysLT(1R formed heterodimers with its counter-receptor CysLT(2R under basal conditions and that LTD(4 triggers reduced dimerization of CysLTRs in intestinal epithelial cells. This effect was dependent upon a parallel LTD(4-induced increase in CysLT(1R tyrosine phosphorylation. Leukotriene D(4 also led to elevated internalization of CysLT(1Rs from the plasma membrane and a simultaneous increase at the nucleus. Using sucrose, a clathrin endocytic inhibitor, dominant-negative constructs, and siRNA against arrestin-3, we suggest that a clathrin-, arrestin-3, and Rab-5-dependent process mediated the internalization of CysLT(1R. Altering the CysLT(1R internalization process at either the clathrin or the arrestin-3 stage led to disruption of LTD(4-induced Erk1/2 activation and up-regulation of COX-2 mRNA levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggests that upon ligand activation, CysLT(1R is tyrosine-phosphorylated and released from heterodimers with CysLT(2R and, subsequently, internalizes from the plasma membrane to the nuclear membrane in a clathrin-, arrestin-3-, and Rab-5-dependent manner, thus, enabling Erk1/2 signaling and downstream transcription of the COX-2 gene.

  12. Sweet Taste Receptor Signaling Network: Possible Implication for Cognitive Functioning

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    Menizibeya O. Welcome


    Full Text Available Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special “sweet” molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning.

  13. Interleukin-7 Receptor Signaling Network: An Integrated Systems Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Megan J. Palmer; Vinay S. Mahajan; Lily C. Trajman; Darrell J. Irvine; Douglas A.Lauffenburger; Jianzhu Chen


    Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is an essential cytokine for the development and homeostatic maintenance of T and B lymphocytes. Binding of IL-7 to its cognate receptor, the IL-7 receptor (IL-7R), activates multiple pathways that regulate lymphocyte survival, glucose uptake, proliferation and differentiation. There has been much interest in understanding how IL-7 receptor signaling is modulated at multiple interconnected network levels. This review examines how the strength of the signal through the IL-7 receptor is modulated in T and B cells, including the use of shared receptor components, signaling crosstaik, shared interaction domains, feedback loops, integrated gene regulation, muitimerization and ligand competition. We discuss how these network control mechanisms could integrate to govern the properties of IL-7R signaling in lymphocytes in health and disease. Analysis of IL-7receptor signaling at a network level in a systematic manner will allow for a comprehensive approach to understanding the impact of multiple signaling pathways on lymphocyte biology.

  14. DC-ATLAS : a systems biology resource to dissect receptor specific signal transduction in dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalieri, D.; Rivero, D.; Beltrame, L.; Buschow, S.I.; Calura, E.; Rizzetto, L.; Gessani, S.; Gauzzi, M.C.; Reith, W.; Baur, A.; Bonaiuti, R.; Brandizi, M.; Filippo, C. De; D'Oro, U.; Draghici, S.; Dunand-Sauthier, I.; Gatti, E.; Granucci, F.; Gundel, M.; Kramer, M.; Kuka, M.; Lanyi, A.; Melief, C.J.; Montfoort, N. van; Ostuni, R.; Pierre, P.; Popovici, R.; Rajnavolgyi, E.; Schierer, S.; Schuler, G.; Soumelis, V.; Splendiani, A.; Stefanini, I.; Torcia, M.G.; Zanoni, I.; Zollinger, R.; Figdor, C.G.; Austyn, J.M.


    BACKGROUND: The advent of Systems Biology has been accompanied by the blooming of pathway databases. Currently pathways are defined generically with respect to the organ or cell type where a reaction takes place. The cell type specificity of the reactions is the foundation of immunological research,

  15. T Cell Receptor Signaling Pathways:New Targets for Herpes Simplex Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-jia CAO; Ya-peng LI; Ying-chi ZHANG; Cui-zhu ZHANG


    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2) cause global morbidity and synergistically correlate with HIV infection.HSV exists life-long in a latent form in sensory neurons with intermittent reactivation,in despite of host immune surveillance.While abundant evidence for HSV interfering with innate immune responses so as to favor the replication and propagation of the virus,several lines of evidence declare that HSV attenuates adaptive immunity by various mechanisms,including but not limited to the ablation of antigen presentation,induction of apoptosis,and interruption of cellular signaling.In this review,we will focus on the perturbative role of HSV in Tcells signaling.

  16. Role of adenosine A2B receptor signaling in contribution of cardiac mesenchymal stem-like cells to myocardial scar formation. (United States)

    Ryzhov, Sergey; Sung, Bong Hwan; Zhang, Qinkun; Weaver, Alissa; Gumina, Richard J; Biaggioni, Italo; Feoktistov, Igor


    Adenosine levels increase in ischemic hearts and contribute to the modulation of that pathological environment. We previously showed that A2B adenosine receptors on mouse cardiac Sca1(+)CD31(-) mesenchymal stromal cells upregulate secretion of paracrine factors that may contribute to the improvement in cardiac recovery seen when these cells are transplanted in infarcted hearts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that A2B receptor signaling regulates the transition of Sca1(+)CD31(-) cells, which occurs after myocardial injury, into a myofibroblast phenotype that promotes myocardial repair and remodeling. In vitro, TGFβ1 induced the expression of the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and increased collagen I generation in Sca1(+)CD31(-) cells. Stimulation of A2B receptors attenuated TGFβ1-induced collagen I secretion but had no effect on αSMA expression. In vivo, myocardial infarction resulted in a rapid increase in the numbers of αSMA-positive cardiac stromal cells by day 5 followed by a gradual decline. Genetic deletion of A2B receptors had no effect on the initial accumulation of αSMA-expressing stromal cells but hastened their subsequent decline; the numbers of αSMA-positive cells including Sca1(+)CD31(-) cells remained significantly higher in wild type compared with A2B knockout hearts. Thus, our study revealed a significant contribution of cardiac Sca1(+)CD31(-) cells to the accumulation of αSMA-expressing cells after infarction and implicated A2B receptor signaling in regulation of myocardial repair and remodeling by delaying deactivation of these cells. It is plausible that this phenomenon may contribute to the beneficial effects of transplantation of these cells to the injured heart.

  17. Cellular signaling by fibroblast growth factor receptors. (United States)

    Eswarakumar, V P; Lax, I; Schlessinger, J


    The 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) designated FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4. Unlike other growth factors, FGFs act in concert with heparin or heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) to activate FGFRs and to induce the pleiotropic responses that lead to the variety of cellular responses induced by this large family of growth factors. A variety of human skeletal dysplasias have been linked to specific point mutations in FGFR1, FGFR2 and FGFR3 leading to severe impairment in cranial, digital and skeletal development. Gain of function mutations in FGFRs were also identified in a variety of human cancers such as myeloproliferative syndromes, lymphomas, prostate and breast cancers as well as other malignant diseases. The binding of FGF and HSPG to the extracellular ligand domain of FGFR induces receptor dimerization, activation and autophosphorylation of multiple tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor molecule. A variety of signaling proteins are phosphorylated in response to FGF stimulation including Shc, phospholipase-Cgamma, STAT1, Gab1 and FRS2alpha leading to stimulation of intracellular signaling pathways that control cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell migration, cell survival and cell shape. The docking proteins FRS2alpha and FRS2beta are major mediators of the Ras/MAPK and PI-3 kinase/Akt signaling pathways as well as negative feedback mechanisms that fine-tune the signal that is initiated at the cell surface following FGFR stimulation.

  18. Cell surface-bound TIMP3 induces apoptosis in mesenchymal Cal78 cells through ligand-independent activation of death receptor signaling and blockade of survival pathways.

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    Christina Koers-Wunrau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their endogenous regulators, the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs 1-4 are responsible for the physiological remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM. Among all TIMPs, TIMP3 appears to play a unique role since TIMP3 is a secreted protein and, unlike the other TIMP family members, is tightly bound to the ECM. Moreover TIMP3 has been shown to be able to induce apoptotic cell death. As little is known about the underlying mechanisms, we set out to investigate the pro-apoptotic effect of TIMP3 in human mesenchymal cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lentiviral overexpression of TIMP3 in mesenchymal cells led to a strong dose-dependent induction of ligand-independent apoptosis as reflected by a five-fold increase in caspase 3 and 7 activity compared to control (pLenti6/V5-GW/lacZ or uninfected cells, whereas exogenous TIMP3 failed to induce apoptosis. Concordantly, increased cleavage of death substrate PARP and the caspases 3 and 7 was observed in TIMP3 overexpressing cultures. Notably, activation of caspase-8 but not caspase-9 was observed in TIMP3-overexpressing cells, indicating a death receptor-dependent mechanism. Moreover, overexpression of TIMP3 led to a further induction of apoptosis after stimulation with TNF-alpha, FasL and TRAIL. Most interestingly, TIMP3-overexpression was associated with a decrease in phosphorylation of cRaf, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (Erk1/2, ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK1 and Akt and serum deprivation of TIMP3-overexpressing cells resulted in a distinct enhancement of apoptosis, pointing to an impaired signaling of serum-derived survival factors. Finally, heparinase treatment of heparan sulfate proteoglycans led to the release of TIMP3 from the surface of overexpressing cells and to a significant decrease in apoptosis indicating that the binding of TIMP3 is necessary for apoptosis induction. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that

  19. B cell antigen receptor-induced activation of an IRAK4-dependent signaling pathway revealed by a MALT1-IRAK4 double knockout mouse model

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    Dufner Almut


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The B cell antigen receptor (BCR and pathogen recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, act in concert to control adaptive B cell responses. However, little is known about the signaling pathways that integrate BCR activation with intrinsic TLR4 stimulation. Antigen receptors initialize activation of the inducible transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB via recruitment of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase caspase recruitment domain protein 11 (CARD11, the adapter molecule B cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10, and the "paracaspase" mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1 into lipid rafts. Upon BCR triggering, this activation strictly depends on BCL10, but not on MALT1, leading to the hypothesis that a MALT1-independent NF-κB activation pathway contributes to BCR-induced NF-κB activation downstream of BCL10. The identity of this pathway has remained elusive. Results Using genetic and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that the IRAK4- and IRAK1-dependent TLR signaling branch is activated upon BCR triggering to induce partial NF-κB activation. BCR-induced MALT1-independent IκB degradation and B cell proliferation were inhibited in MALT1/IRAK4 double knockout B cells. Moreover, IRAK1 was recruited into lipid rafts upon BCR stimulation and activated following transient recruitment of IRAK4. Conclusion We propose that the observed crosstalk between BCR and TLR signaling components may contribute to the discrimination of signals that emanate from single and dual receptor engagement to control adaptive B cell responses.

  20. Glioma Stem Cells but Not Bulk Glioma Cells Upregulate IL-6 Secretion in Microglia/Brain Macrophages via Toll-like Receptor 4 Signaling. (United States)

    a Dzaye, Omar Dildar; Hu, Feng; Derkow, Katja; Haage, Verena; Euskirchen, Philipp; Harms, Christoph; Lehnardt, Seija; Synowitz, Michael; Wolf, Susanne A; Kettenmann, Helmut


    Peripheral macrophages and resident microglia constitute the dominant glioma-infiltrating cells. The tumor induces an immunosuppressive and tumor-supportive phenotype in these glioma-associated microglia/brain macrophages (GAMs). A subpopulation of glioma cells acts as glioma stem cells (GSCs). We explored the interaction between GSCs and GAMs. Using CD133 as a marker of stemness, we enriched for or deprived the mouse glioma cell line GL261 of GSCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Over the same period of time, 100 CD133(+ )GSCs had the capacity to form a tumor of comparable size to the ones formed by 10,000 CD133(-) GL261 cells. In IL-6(-/-) mice, only tumors formed by CD133(+ )cells were smaller compared with wild type. After stimulation of primary cultured microglia with medium from CD133-enriched GL261 glioma cells, we observed an selective upregulation in microglial IL-6 secretion dependent on Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Our results show that GSCs, but not the bulk glioma cells, initiate microglial IL-6 secretion via TLR4 signaling and that IL-6 regulates glioma growth by supporting GSCs. Using human glioma tissue, we could confirm the finding that GAMs are the major source of IL-6 in the tumor context.

  1. GDNF stimulates the proliferation of cultured mouse immature Sertoli cells via its receptor subunit NCAM and ERK1/2 signaling pathway

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    Yang Yongguang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proliferation and final density of Sertoli cells in the testis are regulated by hormones and local factors. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, a distantly related member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, and its receptor subunits GDNF family receptor alpha 1 (GFRα1, RET tyrosine kinase, and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM have been reported to be expressed in the testis and involved in the regulation of proliferation of immature Sertoli cells (ISCs. However, the expression patterns of these receptor subunits and the downstream signaling pathways have not been addressed in ISCs. Results In the present study, we have reported that the proliferation of cultured ISCs was significantly enhanced by GDNF. The receptor subunits GFRα1 and NCAM but not RET were expressed in ISCs, and the stimulatory effect of GDNF on the proliferation of ISCs was significantly reduced by anti-NCAM antibody blocking or siRNA that specifically targets NCAM mRNA. Additionally, the ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, completely abolished the mitogenic effect of GDNF on ISCs. Conclusions GDNF stimulates the proliferation of ISCs via its receptor subunit NCAM and the consequent activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

  2. Modulation of TLR3/TLR4 inflammatory signaling by the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen in glia and immune cells: relevance to therapeutic effects in multiple sclerosis

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    Tadhg eCrowley


    Full Text Available The GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, is used to treat muscle tightness and cramping caused by spasticity in a number of disorders including Multiple Sclerosis (MS, but its precise mechanism of action is unknown. Neuroinflammation drives the central pathology in MS and is mediated by both immunoreactive glial cells and invading lymphocytes. Furthermore, a body of data indicates that the Toll-like receptor (TLR family of innate immune receptors is implicated in MS progression. In the present study we investigated whether modulation of GABAB receptors using baclofen can exert anti-inflammatory effects by targeting TLR3 and(or TLR4-induced inflammatory signaling in murine glial cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs isolated from healthy control individuals and patients with the relapse-remitting (RR form of MS. TLR3 and TLR4 stimulation promoted the nuclear sequestration of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in murine glia, while TLR4, but not TLR3, promoted pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in PBMCs isolated from both healthy donors and RR-MS patients. Importantly, this effect was exacerbated in RR-MS patient immune cells. We present further evidence that baclofen dose-dependently attenuated TLR3- and TLR4-induced inflammatory signaling in primary glial cells. Pre-exposure of PBMCs isolated from healthy donors to baclofen attenuated TLR4-induced TNF-α expression, but did not affect TLR4-induced TNF-α expression in RR-MS patient PBMCs. Interestingly, mRNA expression of the GABAB receptor was reduced in PBMCs from RR-MS donors when compared to healthy controls, an effect that might contribute to the differential sensitivity to baclofen seen in healthy and RR-MS patient cells. Overall these findings indicate that baclofen differentially regulates TLR3 and TLR4 signaling in glia and immune cells, and offers insight on the role of baclofen in the treatment of neuroinflammatory disease states including MS.

  3. Probing Androgen Receptor Signaling in Circulating Tumor Cells in Prostate Cancer (United States)


    Society of Clinical Oncology C. Selected Publications Peer-reviewed original articles 1. Haggarty, S.J., Mayer, T.U., Miyamoto, D.T., Fathi, R., King ...are larger than leukocytes, and thus pores of varying geometries can retain CTCs while allowing leukocytes to pass through.61–65 For example, the ISET...Isolation by Size of Epithelial Tumour cells) system (RARECELLS, France) enriches for CTCs by filtering blood through membranes with pores 8 μm

  4. Membrane Trafficking of Death Receptors: Implications on Signalling

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    Wulf Schneider-Brachert


    Full Text Available Death receptors were initially recognised as potent inducers of apoptotic cell death and soon ambitious attempts were made to exploit selective ignition of controlled cellular suicide as therapeutic strategy in malignant diseases. However, the complexity of death receptor signalling has increased substantially during recent years. Beyond activation of the apoptotic cascade, involvement in a variety of cellular processes including inflammation, proliferation and immune response was recognised. Mechanistically, these findings raised the question how multipurpose receptors can ensure selective activation of a particular pathway. A growing body of evidence points to an elegant spatiotemporal regulation of composition and assembly of the receptor-associated signalling complex. Upon ligand binding, receptor recruitment in specialized membrane compartments, formation of receptor-ligand clusters and internalisation processes constitute key regulatory elements. In this review, we will summarise the current concepts of death receptor trafficking and its implications on receptor-associated signalling events.

  5. Adenosine Receptors Differentially Regulate the Expression of Regulators of G-Protein Signalling (RGS 2, 3 and 4 in Astrocyte-Like Cells.

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    Till Nicolas Eusemann

    Full Text Available The "regulators of g-protein signalling" (RGS comprise a large family of proteins that limit by virtue of their GTPase accelerating protein domain the signal transduction of G-protein coupled receptors. RGS proteins have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, drug abuse, depression and anxiety and aggressive behaviour. Since conditions associated with a large increase of adenosine in the brain such as seizures or ischemia were reported to modify the expression of some RGS proteins we hypothesized that adenosine might regulate RGS expression in neural cells. We measured the expression of RGS-2,-3, and -4 in both transformed glia cells (human U373 MG astrocytoma cells and in primary rat astrocyte cultures stimulated with adenosine agonists. Expression of RGS-2 mRNA as well as RGS2 protein was increased up to 30-fold by adenosine agonists in astrocytes. The order of potency of agonists and the blockade by the adenosine A2B-antagonist MRS1706 indicated that this effect was largely mediated by adenosine A2B receptors. However, a smaller effect was observed due to activation of adenosine A2A receptors. In astrocytoma cells adenosine agonists elicited an increase in RGS-2 expression solely mediated by A2B receptors. Expression of RGS-3 was inhibited by adenosine agonists in both astrocytoma cells and astrocytes. However while this effect was mediated by A2B receptors in astrocytoma cells it was mediated by A2A receptors in astrocytes as assessed by the order of potency of agonists and selective blockade by the specific antagonists MRS1706 and ZM241385 respectively. RGS-4 expression was inhibited in astrocytoma cells but enhanced in astrocytes by adenosine agonists.

  6. Biased and G protein-independent signaling of chemokine receptors

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    Anne eSteen


    Full Text Available Biased signaling or functional selectivity occurs when a 7TM receptor preferentially activates one of several available pathways. It can be divided into three distinct forms: ligand bias, receptor bias, and tissue or cell bias, where it is mediated by different ligands (on the same receptor, different receptors (with the same ligand or different tissues or cells (for the same ligand-receptor pair. Most often biased signaling is differentiated into G protein-dependent and β-arrestin-dependent signaling. Yet, it may also cover signaling differences within these groups. Moreover, it may not be absolute, i.e. full versus no activation. Here we discuss biased signaling in the chemokine system, including the structural basis for biased signaling in chemokine receptors, as well as in class A 7TM receptors in general. This includes overall helical movements and the contributions of micro-switches based on recently published 7TM crystals and molecular dynamics studies. All three forms of biased signaling are abundant in the chemokine system. This challenges our understanding of classic redundancy inevitably ascribed to this system, where multiple chemokines bind to the same receptor and where a single chemokine may bind to several receptors – in both cases with the same functional outcome. The ubiquitous biased signaling confer a hitherto unknown specificity to the chemokine system with a complex interaction pattern that is better described as promiscuous with context-defined roles and different functional outcomes in a ligand-, receptor- or cell/tissue-defined manner. As the low number of successful drug development plans implies, there are great difficulties in targeting chemokine receptors; in particular with regard to receptor antagonists as anti-inflammatory drugs. Un-defined and putative non-selective targeting of the complete cellular signaling system could be the underlying cause of lack of success. Therefore, biased ligands could be the

  7. Heterophilic chemokine receptor interactions in chemokine signaling and biology. (United States)

    Kramp, Birgit K; Sarabi, Alisina; Koenen, Rory R; Weber, Christian


    It is generally accepted that G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), like chemokine receptors, form dimers or higher order oligomers. Such homo- and heterophilic interactions have been identified not only among and between chemokine receptors of CC- or CXC-subfamilies, but also between chemokine receptors and other classes of GPCR, like the opioid receptors. Oligomerization affects different aspects of receptor physiology, like ligand affinity, signal transduction and the mode of internalization, in turn influencing physiologic processes such as cell activation and migration. As particular chemokine receptor pairs exert specific modulating effects on their individual functions, they might play particular roles in various disease types, such as cancer. Hence, chemokine receptor heteromers might represent attractive therapeutic targets. This review highlights the state-of-the-art knowledge on the technical and functional aspects of chemokine receptor multimerization in chemokine signaling and biology.

  8. Decreased signaling competence as a result of receptor overexpression: overexpression of CD4 reduces its ability to activate p56lck tyrosine kinase and to regulate T-cell antigen receptor expression in immature CD4+CD8+ thymocytes.


    Nakayama, T.; Wiest, D L; Abraham, K.M.; Munitz, T I; Perlmutter, R M; Singer, A


    Thymic selection of the developing T-cell repertoire occurs in immature CD4+CD8+ thymocytes, with the fate of individual thymocytes determined by the specificity of T-cell antigen receptor they express. However, T-cell antigen receptor expression in immature CD4+CD8+ thymocytes is actively down-regulated in CD4+CD8+ thymocytes by CD4-mediated tyrosine kinase signals that are generated in the thymus as a result of CD4 engagement by intrathymic ligands. In the present study we have examined the...

  9. Corticosterone induced morphological changes of hippocampal and amygdaloid cell lines are dependent on 5-HT7 receptor related signal pathway. (United States)

    Xu, Y; Zhang, C; Wang, R; Govindarajan, S S; Barish, P A; Vernon, M M; Fu, C; Acharya, A P; Chen, L; Boykin, E; Yu, J; Pan, J; O'Donnell, J M; Ogle, W O


    Stress is an unavoidable life experience. It induces mood, cognitive dysfunction and plasticity changes in chronically stressed individuals. Among the various brain regions that have been studied, the hippocampus and amygdala have been observed to have different roles in controlling the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (limbic-HPA axis). This study investigated how the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) affects neuronal cells. The first aim is to test whether administration of CORT to hippocampal and amygdaloid cell lines induces different changes in the 5-HT receptor subtypes. The second goal is to determine whether stress induced morphological changes in these two cell lines were involved in the 5-HT receptor subtypes expression. We now show that 5-HT(7) receptor mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in HT-22 cells, but downregulated in AR-5 cells by exposure to a physiologically relevant level of CORT (50 μM) for 24 h, which was later confirmed by primary hippocampal and amygdaloid neuron cultures. Additionally, pretreatment of cells with 5-HT(7) antagonist SB-269970 or agonist LP-44 reversed CORT induced cell lesion in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, CORT induced different changes in neurite length, number of neurites and soma size in HT-22 and AR-5 cells were also reversed by pretreatment with either SB-269970 or LP-44. The different effects of 5-HT(7) receptors on cell lines were observed in two members of the Rho family small GTPase expression: the Cdc-42 and RhoA. These observed results support the hypothesis that 5-HT may differentially modulate neuronal morphology in the hippocampus and amygdala depending on the expression levels of the 5-HT receptor subtypes during stress hormone insults.

  10. Signaling through the G-protein-coupled receptor Rickets is important for polarity, detachment, and migration of the border cells in Drosophila. (United States)

    Anllo, Lauren; Schüpbach, Trudi


    Cell migration plays crucial roles during development. An excellent model to study coordinated cell movements is provided by the migration of border cell clusters within a developing Drosophila egg chamber. In a mutagenesis screen, we isolated two alleles of the gene rickets (rk) encoding a G-protein-coupled receptor. The rk alleles result in border cell migration defects in a significant fraction of egg chambers. In rk mutants, border cells are properly specified and express the marker Slbo. Yet, analysis of both fixed as well as live samples revealed that some single border cells lag behind the main border cell cluster during migration, or, in other cases, the entire border cell cluster can remain tethered to the anterior epithelium as it migrates. These defects are observed significantly more often in mosaic border cell clusters, than in full mutant clusters. Reduction of the Rk ligand, Bursicon, in the border cell cluster also resulted in migration defects, strongly suggesting that Rk signaling is utilized for communication within the border cell cluster itself. The mutant border cell clusters show defects in localization of the adhesion protein E-cadherin, and apical polarity proteins during migration. E-cadherin mislocalization occurs in mosaic clusters, but not in full mutant clusters, correlating well with the rk border cell migration phenotype. Our work has identified a receptor with a previously unknown role in border cell migration that appears to regulate detachment and polarity of the border cell cluster coordinating processes within the cells of the cluster themselves.

  11. Effect of cAMP signaling on expression of glucocorticoid receptor, Bim and Bad in glucocorticoid-sensitive and resistant leukemic and multiple myeloma cells. (United States)

    Dong, Hongli; Carlton, Michael E; Lerner, Adam; Epstein, Paul M


    Stimulation of cAMP signaling induces apoptosis in glucocorticoid-sensitive and resistant CEM leukemic and MM.1 multiple myeloma cell lines, and this effect is enhanced by dexamethasone in both glucocorticoid-sensitive cell types and in glucocorticoid-resistant CEM cells. Expression of the mRNA for the glucocorticoid receptor alpha (GR) promoters 1A3, 1B and 1C, expression of mRNA and protein for GR, and the BH3-only proapoptotic proteins, Bim and Bad, and the phosphorylation state of Bad were examined following stimulation of the cAMP and glucocorticoid signaling pathways. Expression levels of GR promoters were increased by cAMP and glucocorticoid signaling, but GR protein expression was little changed in CEM and decreased in MM.1 cells. Stimulation of these two signaling pathways induced Bim in CEM cells, induced Bad in MM.1 cells, and activated Bad, as indicated by its dephosphorylation on ser112, in both cell types. This study shows that leukemic and multiple myeloma cells, including those resistant to glucocorticoids, can be induced to undergo apoptosis by stimulating the cAMP signaling pathway, with enhancement by glucocorticoids, and the mechanism by which this occurs may be related to changes in Bim and Bad expression, and in all cases, to activation of Bad.

  12. Characterisation of Signalling by the Endogenous GPER1 (GPR30 Receptor in an Embryonic Mouse Hippocampal Cell Line (mHippoE-18.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Evans

    Full Text Available Estrogen can modulate neuronal development and signalling by both genomic and non-genomic pathways. Many of its rapid, non-genomic effects on nervous tissue have been suggested to be mediated via the activation of the estrogen sensitive G-protein coupled receptor (GPER1 or GPR30. There has been much controversy over the cellular location, signalling properties and endogenous activators of GPER1. Here we describe the pharmacology and signalling properties of GPER1 in an immortalized embryonic hippocampal cell line, mHippoE-18. This cell line does not suffer from the inherent problems associated with the study of this receptor in native tissue or the problems associated with heterologously expression in clonal cell lines. In mHippoE-18 cells, 17β-Estradiol can mediate a dose-dependent rapid potentiation of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP levels but does not appear to activate the ERK1/2 pathway. The effect of 17β-Estradiol can be mimicked by the GPER1 agonist, G1, and also by tamoxifen and ICI 182,780 which activate GPER1 in a variety of other preparations. The response is not mimicked by the application of the classical estrogen receptor agonists, PPT, (an ERα agonist or DPN, (an ERβ agonist, further suggesting that this effect of 17β-Estradiol is mediated through the activation of GPER1. However, after exposure of the cells to the GPER1 specific antagonists, G15 and G36, the stimulatory effects of the above agonists are replaced by dose-dependent inhibitions of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP levels. This inhibitory effect is mimicked by aldosterone in a dose-dependent way even in the absence of the GPER1 antagonists. The results are discussed in terms of possible "Biased Antagonism" whereby the antagonists change the conformation of the receptor resulting in changes in the agonist induced coupling of the receptor to different second messenger pathways.

  13. Rotavirus activates lymphocytes from non-obese diabetic mice by triggering toll-like receptor 7 signaling and interferon production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Pane


    Full Text Available It has been proposed that rotavirus infection promotes the progression of genetically-predisposed children to type 1 diabetes, a chronic autoimmune disease marked by infiltration of activated lymphocytes into pancreatic islets. Non-obese diabetic (NOD mice provide a model for the human disease. Infection of adult NOD mice with rhesus monkey rotavirus (RRV accelerates diabetes onset, without evidence of pancreatic infection. Rather, RRV spreads to the pancreatic and mesenteric lymph nodes where its association with antigen-presenting cells, including dendritic cells, induces cellular maturation. RRV infection increases levels of the class I major histocompatibility complex on B cells and proinflammatory cytokine expression by T cells at these sites. In autoimmunity-resistant mice and human mononuclear cells from blood, rotavirus-exposed plasmacytoid dendritic cells contribute to bystander polyclonal B cell activation through type I interferon expression. Here we tested the hypothesis that rotavirus induces bystander activation of lymphocytes from NOD mice by provoking dendritic cell activation and proinflammatory cytokine secretion. NOD mouse splenocytes were stimulated with rotavirus and assessed for activation by flow cytometry. This stimulation activated antigen-presenting cells and B cells independently of virus strain and replicative ability. Instead, activation depended on virus dose and was prevented by blockade of virus decapsidation, inhibition of endosomal acidification and interference with signaling through Toll-like receptor 7 and the type I interferon receptor. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells were more efficiently activated than conventional dendritic cells by RRV, and contributed to the activation of B and T cells, including islet-autoreactive CD8+ T cells. Thus, a double-stranded RNA virus can induce Toll-like receptor 7 signaling, resulting in lymphocyte activation. Our findings suggest that bystander activation mediated by type I

  14. Analysis of mutant platelet-derived growth factor receptors expressed in PC12 cells identifies signals governing sodium channel induction during neuronal differentiation. (United States)

    Fanger, G R; Vaillancourt, R R; Heasley, L E; Montmayeur, J P; Johnson, G L; Maue, R A


    The mechanisms governing neuronal differentiation, including the signals underlying the induction of voltage-dependent sodium (Na+) channel expression by neurotrophic factors, which occurs independent of Ras activity, are not well understood. Therefore, Na+ channel induction was analyzed in sublines of PC12 cells stably expressing platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) beta receptors with mutations that eliminate activation of specific signalling molecules. Mutations eliminating activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phospholipase C gamma (PLC gamma), the GTPase-activating protein (GAP), and Syp phosphatase failed to diminish the induction of type II Na+ channel alpha-subunit mRNA and functional Na+ channel expression by PDGF, as determined by RNase protection assays and whole-cell patch clamp recording. However, mutation of juxtamembrane tyrosines that bind members of the Src family of kinases upon receptor activation inhibited the induction of functional Na+ channels while leaving the induction of type II alpha-subunit mRNA intact. Mutation of juxtamembrane tyrosines in combination with mutations eliminating activation of PI3K, PLC gamma, GAP, and Syp abolished the induction of type II alpha-subunit mRNA, suggesting that at least partially redundant signaling mechanisms mediate this induction. The differential effects of the receptor mutations on Na+ channel expression did not reflect global changes in receptor signaling capabilities, as in all of the mutant receptors analyzed, the induction of c-fos and transin mRNAs still occurred. The results reveal an important role for the Src family in the induction of Na+ channel expression and highlight the multiplicity and combinatorial nature of the signaling mechanisms governing neuronal differentiation.

  15. The proliferative effects of Pyropia yezoensis peptide on IEC-6 cells are mediated through the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. (United States)

    Lee, Min-Kyeong; Kim, In-Hye; Choi, Youn-Hee; Choi, Jeong-Wook; Kim, Young-Min; Nam, Taek-Jeong


    For a number of years, seaweed has been used as a functional food in Asian countries, particularly in Korea, Japan and China. Pyropia yezoensis is a marine red alga that has potentially beneficial biological activities. In this study, we examined the mechanisms through which a Pyropia yezoensis peptide [PYP1 (1-20)] induces the proliferation of IEC-6 cells, a rat intestinal epithelial cell line, and the involvement of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. First, cell viability assay revealed that PYP1 (1-20) induced cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Subsequently, we examined the mechanisms responsible for this induction of proliferation induced by PYP1 (1-20). EGFR is widely expressed in mammalian epithelial tissues, and the binding of this ligand affects a variety of cell physiological parameters, such as cell growth and proliferation. PYP1 (1-20) increased the expression of EGFR, Shc, growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) and son of sevenless (SOS). EGFR also induced the activation of the Ras signaling pathway through Raf, MEK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. In addition, cell cycle analysis revealed the expression of cell cycle-related proteins. The results demonstrated an increased number of cells in the G1 phase and an enhanced cell proliferation. In addition, the upregulation of cyclin D, cyclin E, Cdk2, Cdk4 and Cdk6 was observed accompanied by a decreased in p21 and p27 expression. These findings suggest that PYP1 (1-20) stimulates the proliferation of rat IEC-6 cells by activating the EGFR signaling pathway. Therefore, PYP1 (1-20) may be a potential source for the development of bio-functional foods which promotes the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells.

  16. Novel, unifying mechanism for mescaline in the central nervous system: electrochemistry, catechol redox metabolite, receptor, cell signaling and structure activity relationships. (United States)

    Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy


    A unifying mechanism for abused drugs has been proposed previously from the standpoint of electron transfer. Mescaline can be accommodated within the theoretical framework based on redox cycling by the catechol metabolite with its quinone counterpart. Electron transfer may play a role in electrical effects involving the nervous system in the brain. This approach is in accord with structure activity relationships involving mescaline, abused drugs, catecholamines, and etoposide. Inefficient demethylation is in keeping with the various drug properties, such as requirement for high dosage and slow acting. There is a discussion of receptor binding, electrical effects, cell signaling and other modes of action. Mescaline is a nonselective, seretonin receptor agonist. 5-HTP receptors are involved in the stimulus properties. Research addresses the aspect of stereochemical requirements. Receptor binding may involve the proposed quinone metabolite and/or the amino sidechain via protonation. Electroencephalographic studies were performed on the effects of mescaline on men. Spikes are elicited by stimulation of a cortical area. The potentials likely originate in nonsynaptic dendritic membranes. Receptor-mediated signaling pathways were examined which affect mescaline behavior. The hallucinogen belongs to the class of 2AR agonists which regulate pathways in cortical neurons. The research identifies neural and signaling mechanisms responsible for the biological effects. Recently, another hallucinogen, psilocybin, has been included within the unifying mechanistic framework. This mushroom constituent is hydrolyzed to the phenol psilocin, also active, which is subsequently oxidized to an ET o-quinone or iminoquinone.

  17. A Natural Variant of the T Cell Receptor-Signaling Molecule Vav1 Reduces Both Effector T Cell Functions and Susceptibility to Neuroinflammation (United States)

    Kassem, Sahar; Bernard, Isabelle; Dejean, Anne S.; Liblau, Roland; Fournié, Gilbert J.; Colacios, Céline


    The guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav1 is essential for transducing T cell antigen receptor signals and therefore plays an important role in T cell development and activation. Our previous genetic studies identified a locus on rat chromosome 9 that controls the susceptibility to neuroinflammation and contains a non-synonymous polymorphism in the major candidate gene Vav1. To formally demonstrate the causal implication of this polymorphism, we generated a knock-in mouse bearing this polymorphism (Vav1R63W). Using this model, we show that Vav1R63W mice display reduced susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by MOG35-55 peptide immunization. This is associated with a lower production of effector cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17 and GM-CSF) by autoreactive CD4 T cells. Despite increased proportion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in Vav1R63W mice, we show that this lowered cytokine production is intrinsic to effector CD4 T cells and that Treg depletion has no impact on EAE development. Finally, we provide a mechanism for the above phenotype by showing that the Vav1R63W variant has normal enzymatic activity but reduced adaptor functions. Together, these data highlight the importance of Vav1 adaptor functions in the production of inflammatory cytokines by effector T cells and in the susceptibility to neuroinflammation. PMID:27438086

  18. Cultured Human Periosteum-Derived Cells Can Differentiate into Osteoblasts in a Perioxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma-Mediated Fashion via Bone Morphogenetic Protein signaling. (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Eun; Park, Jin-Ho; Yun, Jeong-Won; Kang, Young-Hoon; Park, Bong-Wook; Hwang, Sun-Chul; Cho, Yeong-Cheol; Sung, Iel-Yong; Woo, Dong Kyun; Byun, June-Ho


    The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells towards an osteoblastic fate depends on numerous signaling pathways, including activation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling components. Commitment to osteogenesis is associated with activation of osteoblast-related signal transduction, whereas inactivation of this signal transduction favors adipogenesis. BMP signaling also has a critical role in the processes by which mesenchymal stem cells undergo commitment to the adipocyte lineage. In our previous study, we demonstrated that an agonist of the perioxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, stimulates osteoblastic differentiation of cultured human periosteum-derived cells. In this study, we used dorsomorphin, a selective small molecule inhibitor of BMP signaling, to investigate whether BMP signaling is involved in the positive effects of PPARγ agonists on osteogenic phenotypes of cultured human periosteum-derived cells. Both histochemical detection and bioactivity of ALP were clearly increased in the periosteum-derived cells treated with the PPARγ agonist at day 10 of culture. Treatment with the PPARγ agonist also caused an increase in alizarin red S staining and calcium content in the periosteum-derived osteoblasts at 2 and 3 weeks of culture. In contrast, dorsomorphin markedly decreased ALP activity, alizarin red S staining and calcium content in both the cells treated with PPARγ agonist and the cells cultured in osteogenic induction media without PPARγ agonist during the culture period. In addition, the PPARγ agonist clearly increased osteogenic differentiation medium-induced BMP-2 upregulation in the periosteum-derived osteoblastic cells at 2 weeks of culture as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunoblotting, and immunocytochemical analyses. Although further study will be needed to clarify the mechanisms of PPARγ-regulated osteogenesis

  19. A peptide from Porphyra yezoensis stimulates the proliferation of IEC-6 cells by activating the insulin-like growth factor I receptor signaling pathway. (United States)

    Lee, Min-Kyeong; Kim, In-Hye; Choi, Youn-Hee; Nam, Taek-Jeong


    Porphyra yezoensis (P. yezoensis) is the most noteworthy red alga and is mainly consumed in China, Japan and Korea. In the present study, the effects of a P. yezoensis peptide (PY‑PE) on cell proliferation and the associated signaling pathways were examined in IEC‑6 rat intestinal epithelial cells. First, the MTS assay showed that PY‑PE induced cell proliferation in a dose‑dependent manner. Subsequently, the mechanism behind the proliferative activity induced by PY‑PE was determined. The insulin‑like growth factor‑I receptor (IGF‑IR) signaling pathway was the main focus as it plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation. PY‑PE increased the protein and mRNA expression of IGF‑IR, insulin receptor substrate‑1, Shc and PY‑99. In addition, PY‑PE stimulated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase/Akt activation but inhibited p38 and c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase phosphorylation. Furthermore, PY‑PE treatment increased protein and mRNA expression levels of activator protein‑1, which regulates cell proliferation and survival, in the nuclear fraction. These results have significant implications for understanding the role of cell proliferation signaling pathways in intestinal epithelial cells.

  20. Tissue kallikrein induces SH-SY5Y cell proliferation via epidermal growth factor receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Zhengyu [Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Department of Neurology, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200437 (China); Yang, Qi; Cui, Mei; Liu, Yanping [Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Wang, Tao; Zhao, Hong [Department of Neurology, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200437 (China); Dong, Qiang, E-mail: [Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China)


    Highlights: • TK promotes EGFR phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells. • TK activates ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells. • TK mediates SH-SY5Y cell proliferation via EGFR and ERK1/2 pathway. - Abstract: Tissue kallikrein (TK) is well known to take most of its biological functions through bradykinin receptors. In the present study, we found a novel signaling pathway mediated by TK through epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in human SH-SY5Y cells. We discovered that TK facilitated the activation of EGFR, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and p38 cascade. Interestingly, not p38 but ERK1/2 phosphorylation was severely compromised in cells depleted of EGFR. Nevertheless, impairment of signaling of ERK1/2 seemed not to be restricted to EGFR phosphorylation. We also observed that TK stimulation could induce SH-SY5Y cell proliferation, which was reduced by EGFR down-regulation or ERK1/2 inhibitor. Overall, our findings provided convincing evidence that TK could mediate cell proliferation via EGFR and ERK1/2 pathway in vitro.

  1. Biased and g protein-independent signaling of chemokine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Anne; Larsen, Olav; Thiele, Stefanie;


    Biased signaling or functional selectivity occurs when a 7TM-receptor preferentially activates one of several available pathways. It can be divided into three distinct forms: ligand bias, receptor bias, and tissue or cell bias, where it is mediated by different ligands (on the same receptor...... not be absolute, i.e., full versus no activation. Here we discuss biased signaling in the chemokine system, including the structural basis for biased signaling in chemokine receptors, as well as in class A 7TM receptors in general. This includes overall helical movements and the contributions of micro...... a single chemokine may bind to several receptors - in both cases with the same functional outcome. The ubiquitous biased signaling confers a hitherto unknown specificity to the chemokine system with a complex interaction pattern that is better described as promiscuous with context-defined roles...

  2. Cell signaling review series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiming Lin; Zhenggang Liu


    @@ Signal transduction is pivotal for many, if not all, fundamental cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, transformation and programmed cell death. Deregulation of cell signaling may result in certain types of cancers and other human diseases.

  3. Non-canonical kinase signaling by the death ligand TRAIL in cancer cells : discord in the death receptor family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azijli, K.; Weyhenmeyer, B.; Peters, G. J.; de Jong, S.; Kruyt, F. A. E.


    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-based therapy is currently evaluated in clinical studies as a tumor cell selective pro-apoptotic approach. However, besides activating canonical caspase-dependent apoptosis by binding to TRAIL-specific death receptors, the TRAIL ligand

  4. ERK/Egr-1 signaling pathway is involved in CysLT2 receptor-mediated IL-8 production in HEK293 cells. (United States)

    Lin, Kana; Fang, Sanhua; Cai, Beilei; Huang, Xueqin; Zhang, Xiayan; Lu, Yunbi; Zhang, Weiping; Wei, Erqing


    The CysLT2 receptor is involved in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, differentiation of colorectal cancers, bleomycin-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. However, the signal transduction of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 (CysLT2) in inflammatory responses remains to be clarified. In HEK293 cells stably expressing hCysLT1, hCysLT2 and rGPR17, we determined the signaling pathways for interleukin-8 (IL-8) production after CysLT2 receptor activation. HEK293 cells were stably transfected with the recombinant plasmids of pcDNA3.1(+)-hCysLT1, pcDNA3.1(+)-hCysLT2 and pcDNA3.1-rGPR17. Leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and LTD4 were used as the agonists to induce IL-8 production and the related changes in signal molecules. We found that LTC4 and LTD4 significantly induced IL-8 promoter activation in the HEK293 cells stably expressing hCysLT2, but not in those expressing hCysLT1 and rGPR17. In hCysLT2-HEK293 cells, LTC4 induced elevation of intracellular calcium, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and Egr-1 expression, and stimulated IL-8 expression and release. These responses were blocked by the selective CysLT2 receptor antagonist HAMI3379. The ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 inhibited Egr-1 and IL-8 expression as well as IL-8 release, but the JNK and p38 inhibitors did not have the inhibitory effects. Down-regulation of Egr-1 by RNA interference with its siRNA inhibited the LTC4-induced IL-8 expression and release. In conclusion, these findings indicate the ERK-Egr-1 pathway of CysLT2 receptors mediates IL-8 production induced by the pro-inflammatory mediators LTC4 and LTD4.

  5. Lipid raft localization of epidermal growth factor receptor alters matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in SiHa cells via the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway (United States)

    Zhang, Zongfeng; Wang, Lina; Du, Juan; Li, Yuanbo; Yang, Huilun; Li, Chenxi; Li, Hui; Hu, Haiyang


    Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been identified as an important participant in tumor invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) localization to lipid rafts on signaling pathways involved in the regulation of MMP-1 expression in SiHa cells, a cervical cancer cell line. EGFR activation by EGF specifically induced MMP-1 expression at both the messenger RNA and protein levels. Additionally, it was observed that EGFR localized to lipid rafts, and that the redistribution of EGFR induced by lipid raft disruption strengthened EGF-induced MMP-1 expression. MMP-1 induction was blocked by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase inhibitors PD98059 and U0126. Our results suggested that lipid rafts provide a platform to inhibit EGFR regulation of MMP-1 in SiHa cells through the MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway.

  6. Death receptor-independent FADD signalling triggers hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma in mice with liver parenchymal cell-specific NEMO knockout. (United States)

    Ehlken, H; Krishna-Subramanian, S; Ochoa-Callejero, L; Kondylis, V; Nadi, N E; Straub, B K; Schirmacher, P; Walczak, H; Kollias, G; Pasparakis, M


    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually develops in the context of chronic hepatitis triggered by viruses or toxic substances causing hepatocyte death, inflammation and compensatory proliferation of liver cells. Death receptors of the TNFR superfamily regulate cell death and inflammation and are implicated in liver disease and cancer. Liver parenchymal cell-specific ablation of NEMO/IKKγ, a subunit of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex that is essential for the activation of canonical NF-κB signalling, sensitized hepatocytes to apoptosis and caused the spontaneous development of chronic hepatitis and HCC in mice. Here we show that hepatitis and HCC development in NEMO(LPC-KO) mice is triggered by death receptor-independent FADD-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis. TNF deficiency in all cells or conditional LPC-specific ablation of TNFR1, Fas or TRAIL-R did not prevent hepatocyte apoptosis, hepatitis and HCC development in NEMO(LPC-KO) mice. To address potential functional redundancies between death receptors we generated and analysed NEMO(LPC-KO) mice with combined LPC-specific deficiency of TNFR1, Fas and TRAIL-R and found that also simultaneous lack of all three death receptors did not prevent hepatocyte apoptosis, chronic hepatitis and HCC development. However, LPC-specific combined deficiency in TNFR1, Fas and TRAIL-R protected the NEMO-deficient liver from LPS-induced liver failure, showing that different mechanisms trigger spontaneous and LPS-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in NEMO(LPC-KO) mice. In addition, NK cell depletion did not prevent liver damage and hepatitis. Moreover, NEMO(LPC-KO) mice crossed into a RAG-1-deficient genetic background-developed hepatitis and HCC. Collectively, these results show that the spontaneous development of hepatocyte apoptosis, chronic hepatitis and HCC in NEMO(LPC-KO) mice occurs independently of death receptor signalling, NK cells and B and T lymphocytes, arguing against an immunological trigger as the critical stimulus driving

  7. ABA Signaling in Guard Cells Entails a Dynamic Protein-Protein Interaction Relay from the PYL-RCAR Family Receptors to Ion Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Chul Lee; Chae Woo Lim; Wenzhi Lan; Kai He; Sheng Luan


    Plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) serves as an integrator of environmental stresses such as drought to trigger stomatal closure by regulating specific ion channels in guard cells.We previously reported that SLACl,an outward anion channel required for stomatal closure,was regulated via reversible protein phosphorylation events involving ABA signaling components,including protein phosphatase 2C members and a SnRK2-type kinase (OST1).In this study,we reconstituted the ABA signaling pathway as a protein-protein interaction relay from the PYL/RCAR-type receptors,to the PP2C-SnRK2 phosphatase-kinase pairs,to the ion channel SLACl.The ABA receptors interacted with and inhibited PP2C phosphatase activity against the SnRK2-type kinase,releasing active SnRK2 kinase to phosphorylate,and activate the SLACl channel,leading to reduced guard cell turgor and stomatal closure.Both yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays were used to verify the interactions among the components in the pathway.These biochemical assays demonstrated activity modifications of phosphatases and kinases by their interaction partners.The SLACl channel activity was used as an endpoint readout for the strength of the signaling pathway,depending on the presence of different combinations of signaling components.Further study using transgenic plants overexpressing one of the ABA receptors demonstrated that changing the relative level of interacting partners would change ABA sensitivity.

  8. Fermented milk containing Lactobacillus GG alleviated DSS-induced colitis in mice and activated epidermal growth factor receptor and Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoyo Yoda


    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was assessed for its ability to alleviate DSS-induced colitis in mice and activate epidermal growth factor receptor and Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells. In this study mice were treated with DSS to induce colitis and they were given Lactobacillus GG fermented milk to assess the effect of probiotic on colitis. Lactobacillus GG fermented milk significantly reduced the colitis associated changes suggesting a protective effect against DSS induced colitis.

  9. The role of the CGRP-receptor component protein (RCP) in adrenomedullin receptor signal transduction. (United States)

    Prado, M A; Evans-Bain, B; Oliver, K R; Dickerson, I M


    G protein-coupled receptors are usually thought to act as monomer receptors that bind ligand and then interact with G proteins to initiate signal transduction. In this study we report an intracellular peripheral membrane protein named the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-receptor component protein (RCP) required for signal transduction at the G protein-coupled receptor for adrenomedullin. Cell lines were made that expressed an antisense construct of the RCP cDNA, and in these cells diminished RCP expression correlated with loss of adrenomedullin signal transduction. In contrast, loss of RCP did not diminish receptor density or affinity, therefore RCP does not appear to act as a chaperone protein. Instead, RCP represents a novel class of protein required to couple the adrenomedullin receptor to the cellular signal transduction pathway. A candidate adrenomedullin receptor named the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) has been described, which forms high affinity adrenomedullin receptors when co-expressed with the accessory protein receptor-activity modifying protein 2 (RAMP2). RCP co-immunoprecipitated with CRLR and RAMP2, indicating that a functional adrenomedullin receptor is composed of at least three proteins: the ligand binding protein (CRLR), an accessory protein (RAMP2), and a coupling protein for signal transduction (RCP).

  10. Nicotine stimulates urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor expression and cell invasiveness through mitogen-activated protein kinase and reactive oxygen species signaling in ECV304 endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoi, Pham Ngoc; Park, Jung Sun; Kim, Nam Ho; Jung, Young Do, E-mail:


    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression is elevated during inflammation, tissue remodeling and in many human cancers. This study investigated the effect of nicotine, a major alkaloid in tobacco, on uPAR expression and cell invasiveness in ECV304 endothelial cells. Nicotine stimulated uPAR expression in a dose-dependent manner and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2 (Erk-1/2), c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). Specific inhibitors of MEK-1 (PD98059) and JNK (SP600125) inhibited the nicotine-induced uPAR expression, while the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 did not. Expression vectors encoding dominant negative MEK-1 (pMCL-K97M) and JNK (TAM67) also prevented nicotine-induced uPAR promoter activity. The intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) content was increased by nicotine treatment. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine prevented nicotine-activated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and uPAR expression. Furthermore, exogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased uPAR mRNA expression. Deleted and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated the involvement of the binding sites of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and activator protein (AP)-1 in the nicotine-induced uPAR expression. Studies with expression vectors encoding mutated NF-κB signaling molecules and AP-1 decoy confirmed that NF-κB and AP-1 were essential for the nicotine-stimulated uPAR expression. MAPK (Erk-1/2 and JNK) and ROS functioned as upstream signaling molecules in the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB, respectively. In addition, ECV304 endothelial cells treated with nicotine displayed markedly enhanced invasiveness, which was partially abrogated by uPAR neutralizing antibodies. The data indicate that nicotine induces uPAR expression via the MAPK/AP-1 and ROS/NF-κB signaling pathways and, in turn, stimulates invasiveness in human ECV304 endothelial cells. -- Highlights: ► Endothelial cells

  11. Netrin-1 induces the migration of Schwann cells via p38 MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway mediated by the UNC5B receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Jianwei [General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, No. 154, Anshan Road, Heping District, Tianjin 300052 (China); Tianjin Institute of Orthopedics in Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, No. 155, Munan Road, Tianjin 300050 (China); Sun, Xiaolei; Ma, Jianxiong [Tianjin Institute of Orthopedics in Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, No. 155, Munan Road, Tianjin 300050 (China); Ma, Xinlong, E-mail: [General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, No. 154, Anshan Road, Heping District, Tianjin 300052 (China); Tianjin Institute of Orthopedics in Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, No. 155, Munan Road, Tianjin 300050 (China); Zhang, Yang; Li, Fengbo; Li, Yanjun; Zhao, Zhihu [Tianjin Institute of Orthopedics in Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, No. 155, Munan Road, Tianjin 300050 (China)


    Schwann cells (SCs) play an essentially supportive role in the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve system (PNS). As Netrin-1 is crucial for the normal development of nervous system (NS) and can direct the process of damaged PNS regeneration, our study was designed to determine the role of Netrin-1 in RSC96 Schwann cells (an immortalized rat Schwann cell line) proliferation and migration. Our studies demonstrated that Netrin-1 had no effect on RSC96 cells proliferation, while significantly promoted RSC96 cells migration. The Netrin-1-induced RSC96 cells migration was significantly attenuated by inhibition of p38 and PI3K through pretreatment with SB203580 and LY294002 respectively, but not inhibition of MEK1/2 and JNK by U0126-EtOH and SP600125 individually. Treatment with Netrin-1 enhanced the phosphorylation of p38 and Akt. QRT-PCR indicated that Netrin-1 and only its receptors Unc5a, Unc5b and Neogenin were expressed in RSC96 cells, among which Unc5b expressed the most. And UNC5B protein was significantly increased after stimulated by Netrin-1. In conclusion, we show here that Netrin-1-enhanced SCs migration is mediated by activating p38 MAPK and PI3K-Akt signal cascades via receptor UNC5B, which suggests that Netrin-1 could serve as a new therapeutic strategy and has potential application value for PNS regeneration. - Highlights: • Netrin-1 attracts RSC96 Schwann cells migration in a dose dependent manner. • Netrin-1 induced Schwann cells migration is p38 and PI3K-Akt signaling dependent. • UNC5B may be dominant receptor mediating Netrin-1′ effect on RSC96 cells motility. • Netrin-1 may promote peripheral nerve repair by enhancing Schwann cells motility.

  12. Involvement of M3 Cholinergic Receptor Signal Transduction Pathway in Regulation of the Expression of Chemokine MOB-1, MCP-1 Genes in Pancreatic Acinar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑海; 陈道达; 张景輝; 田原


    Whether M3 cholinergic receptor signal transduction pathway is involved in regulation of the activation of NF-κB and the expression of chemokine MOB-1, MCP-1genes in pancreatic acinar cells was investigated. Rat pancreatic acinar cells were isolated, cultured and treated with carbachol, atropine and PDTC in vitro. The MOB-1 and MCP-1 mRNA expression was detected by using RT-PCR. The activation of NF-κB was monitored by using electrophoretic mobility shift assay.The results showed that as compared with control group, M3 cholinergic receptor agonist (103mol/L, 104-4ol/L carbachol) could induce a concentration-dependent and time-dependent increase in the expression of MOB-1, MCP-1 mRNA in pancreatic acinar cells. After treatment with 10 -3mol/L carbachol for 2 h, the expression of MOB-1, MCP-1 mRNA was strongest. The activity of NF-κB in pancreatic acinar cells was significantly increased (P<0.01) after treated with M3 cholinergic receptor agonist (10-3 mol/L carbachol) in vitro for 30 min. Either M3 cholinergic receptor antagonist (10-5 mol/L atropine) or NF-κB inhibitor (10-2 mol/L PDTC) could obviously inhibit the activation of NF-κB and the chemokine MOB-1, MCP-1 mRNA expression induced by carbachol (P <0.05). This inhibitory effect was significantly increased by atropine plus PDTC (P<0.01). The results of these studies indicated that M3 cholinergic receptor signal transduction pathway was likely involved in regulation of the expression of chemokine MOB-1 and MCP-1genes in pancreatic acinar cells in vitro through the activation of NF-κB.

  13. Nitric oxide/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway activated by M1-type muscarinic acetylcholine receptor cascade inhibits Na+-activated K+ currents in Kenyon cells. (United States)

    Hasebe, Masaharu; Yoshino, Masami


    The interneurons of the mushroom body, known as Kenyon cells, are essential for the long-term memory of olfactory associative learning in some insects. Some studies have reported that nitric oxide (NO) is strongly related to this long-term memory in Kenyon cells. However, the target molecules and upstream and downstream NO signaling cascades are not completely understood. Here we analyzed the effect of the NO signaling cascade on Na(+)-activated K(+) (KNa) channel activity in Kenyon cells of crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus). We found that two different NO donors, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and S-nitroso-N-acetyl-dl-penicillamine (SNAP), strongly suppressed KNa channel currents. Additionally, this inhibitory effect of GSNO on KNa channel activity was diminished by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), and KT5823, an inhibitor of protein kinase G (PKG). Next, we analyzed the role of ACh in the NO signaling cascade. ACh strongly suppressed KNa channel currents, similar to NO donors. Furthermore, this inhibitory effect of ACh was blocked by pirenzepine, an M1 muscarinic ACh receptor antagonist, but not by 1,1-dimethyl-4-diphenylacetoxypiperidinium iodide (4-DAMP) and mecamylamine, an M3 muscarinic ACh receptor antagonist and a nicotinic ACh receptor antagonist, respectively. The ACh-induced inhibition of KNa channel currents was also diminished by the PLC inhibitor U73122 and the calmodulin antagonist W-7. Finally, we found that ACh inhibition was blocked by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). These results suggested that the ACh signaling cascade promotes NO production by activating NOS and NO inhibits KNa channel currents via the sGC/cGMP/PKG signaling cascade in Kenyon cells.

  14. Sphingosine-1-phosphate/S1P receptors signaling modulates cell migration in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. (United States)

    Kong, Yaxian; Wang, Hong; Lin, Tao; Wang, Shuling


    The recruitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to damaged tissues and sites of inflammation is an essential step for clinical therapy. However, the signals regulating the motility of these cells are still not fully understood. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite, is known to have a variety of biological effects on various cells. Here, we investigated the roles of S1P and S1P receptors (S1PRs) in migration of human BMSCs. We found that S1P exerted a powerful migratory action on human BMSCs. Moreover, by employing RNA interference technology and pharmacological tools, we demonstrated that S1PR1 and S1PR3 are responsible for S1P-induced migration of human BMSCs. In contrast, S1PR2 mediates the inhibition of migration. Additionally, we explored the downstream signaling pathway of the S1P/S1PRs axis and found that activation of S1PR1 or S1PR3 increased migration of human BMSCs through a G i /extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2- (ERK1/2-) dependent pathway, whereas activation of S1PR2 decreased migration through the Rho/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) pathway. In conclusion, we reveal that the S1P/S1PRs signaling axis regulates the migration of human BMSCs via a dual-directional mechanism. Thus, selective modulation of S1PR's activity on human BMSCs may provide an effective approach to immunotherapy or tissue regeneration.

  15. Bim regulates B-cell receptor-mediated apoptosis in the presence of CD40 signaling in CD40-pre-activated splenic B cells differentiating into plasma cells. (United States)

    Gao, Yuanyuan; Kazama, Hirotaka; Yonehara, Shin


    B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated apoptosis is critical for B-cell development and homeostasis. CD40 signaling has been shown to protect immature or mature B cells from BCR-mediated apoptosis. In this study, to understand the fate of CD40-pre-activated splenic B cells stimulated by BCR engagement in the presence of CD40 signaling, murine splenic B cells were cultured with anti-Igκ and anti-CD40 antibodies after pre-activation with anti-CD40 antibody. We found that apoptosis was induced in the cultured B cells even in the presence of CD40 signaling during the 3-4 days cultivation. We detected up-regulation of Bim expression followed by Bax activation in this apoptotic process and cessation of the apoptosis in Bim-deficient B cells, indicating that Bim is a key regulator of the BCR-mediated apoptosis in the presence of CD40 signaling in CD40-pre-activated B cells. Importantly, this BCR-mediated apoptosis in CD40-pre-activated B cells was shown to be induced at the initiation of plasma cell differentiation at around the preplasmablast stage, and Bim-deficient B cells cultured under these conditions differentiated into plasma cells. Additionally, transforming growth factor-β was found to protect CD40-pre-activated B cells from BCR-mediated apoptosis in the presence of CD40 signaling. Our identified BCR-mediated apoptosis, which is unpreventable by CD40 signaling, suggests a potential mechanism that regulates the elimination of peripheral B cells, which should be derived from nonspecific T-dependent activation of bystander B cells and continuous stimulation with antigens including self-antigens in the presence of T cell help through CD40.

  16. Impaired signaling via the high-affinity IgE receptor in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-deficient mast cells. (United States)

    Pivniouk, Vadim I; Snapper, Scott B; Kettner, Alexander; Alenius, Harri; Laouini, Dhafer; Falet, Hervé; Hartwig, John; Alt, Frederick W; Geha, Raif S


    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is the product of the gene deficient in boys with X-linked Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. We assessed the role of WASP in signaling through the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) using WASP-deficient mice. IgE-dependent degranulation and cytokine secretion were markedly diminished in bone marrow-derived mast cells from WASP-deficient mice. Upstream signaling events that include FcepsilonRI-triggered total protein tyrosine phosphorylation, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation of FcepsilonRIbeta and Syk were not affected by WASP deficiency. However, tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma and Ca(2+) mobilization were diminished. IgE-dependent activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, cell spreading and redistribution of cellular F-actin in mast cells were reduced in the absence of WASP. We conclude that WASP regulates FcepsilonRI-mediated granule exocytosis, cytokine production and cytoskeletal changes in mast cells.

  17. Rapid actions of plasma membrane estrogen receptors regulate motility of mouse embryonic stem cells through a profilin-1/cofilin-1-directed kinase signaling pathway. (United States)

    Yun, Seung Pil; Ryu, Jung Min; Kim, Mi Ok; Park, Jae Hong; Han, Ho Jae


    Long-term estrogen actions are vital for driving cell growth, but more recent evidence suggests that estrogen mediates more rapid cellular effects. However, the function of estradiol-17β (E(2))-BSA in mouse embryonic stem cells has not been reported. Therefore, we examined the role of E(2)-BSA in mouse embryonic stem cell motility and its related signal pathways. E(2)-BSA (10(-8) m) significantly increased motility after 24 h incubation and increased filamentous (F)-actin expression; these effects were inhibited by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780, indicating that E(2)-BSA bound membrane estrogen receptors and initiated a signal. E(2)-BSA increased c-Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, which was attenuated by ICI 182,780. The E(2)-BSA-induced increase in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation was inhibited by Src inhibitor PP2. As a downstream signal molecule, E(2)-BSA activated cdc42 and increased formation of a complex with the neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP)/cdc42/transducer of cdc42-dependent actin assembly-1 (TOCA-1), which was inhibited by FAK small interfering RNA (siRNA) and EGFR inhibitor AG 1478. In addition, E(2)-BSA increased profilin-1 expression and cofilin-1 phosphorylation, which was blocked by cdc42 siRNA. Subsequently, E(2)-BSA induced an increase in F-actin expression, and cell motility was inhibited by each signal pathway-related siRNA molecule or inhibitors but not by cofilin-1 siRNA. A combined treatment of cofilin-1 siRNA and E(2)-BSA increased F-actin expression and cell motility more than that of E(2)-BSA alone. These data demonstrate that E(2)-BSA stimulated motility by interacting with profilin-1/cofilin-1 and F-actin through FAK- and c-Src/EGFR transactivation-dependent N-WASP/cdc42/TOCA-1 complex.

  18. Proliferative signaling initiated in ACTH receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F.P. Lotfi


    Full Text Available This article reviews recent results of studies aiming to elucidate modes of integrating signals initiated in ACTH receptors and FGF2 receptors, within the network system of signal transduction found in Y1 adrenocortical cells. These modes of signal integration should be central to the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the G0->G1->S transition in the adrenal cell cycle. FGF2 elicits a strong mitogenic response in G0/G1-arrested Y1 adrenocortical cells, that includes a rapid and transient activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases-mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK-MAPK (2 to 10 min, b transcription activation of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc genes (10 to 30 min, c induction of c-Fos and c-Myc proteins by 1 h and cyclin D1 protein by 5 h, and d onset of DNA synthesis stimulation within 8 h. ACTH, itself a weak mitogen, interacts with FGF2 in a complex manner, blocking the FGF2 mitogenic response during the early and middle G1 phase, keeping ERK-MAPK activation and c-Fos and cyclin D1 induction at maximal levels, but post-transcriptionally inhibiting c-Myc expression. c-Fos and c-Jun proteins are mediators in both the strong and the weak mitogenic responses respectively triggered by FGF2 and ACTH. Induction of c-Fos and stimulation of DNA synthesis by ACTH are independent of PKA and are inhibited by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. In addition, ACTH is a poor activator of ERK-MAPK, but c-Fos induction and DNA synthesis stimulation by ACTH are strongly inhibited by the inhibitor of MEK1 PD98059.

  19. Signaling through P2X7 receptor in human T cells involves p56lck, MAP kinases, and transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kappa B. (United States)

    Budagian, Vadim; Bulanova, Elena; Brovko, Luba; Orinska, Zane; Fayad, Raja; Paus, Ralf; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia


    ATP-gated ion channel P2X receptors are expressed on the surface of most immune cells and can trigger multiple cellular responses, such as membrane permeabilization, cytokine production, and cell proliferation or apoptosis. Despite broad distribution and pleiotropic activities, signaling pathways downstream of these ionotropic receptors are still poorly understood. Here, we describe intracellular signaling events in Jurkat cells treated with millimolar concentrations of extracellular ATP. Within minutes, ATP treatment resulted in the phosphorylation and activation of p56(lck) kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase but not p38 kinase. These effects were wholly dependent upon the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) ions in the culture medium. Nevertheless, calmodulin antagonist calmidazolium and CaM kinase inhibitor KN-93 both had no effect on the activation of p56(lck) and ERK, whereas a pretreatment of Jurkat cells with MAP kinase kinase inhibitor P098059 was able to abrogate phosphorylation of ERK. Further, expression of c-Jun and c-Fos proteins and activator protein (AP-1) DNA binding activity were enhanced in a time-dependent manner. In contrast, DNA binding activity of NF-kappa B was reduced. ATP failed to stimulate the phosphorylation of ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and activation of AP-1 in the p56(lck)-deficient isogenic T cell line JCaM1, suggesting a critical role for p56(lck) kinase in downstream signaling. Regarding the biological significance of the ATP-induced signaling events we show that although extracellular ATP was able to stimulate proliferation of both Jurkat and JCaM1 cells, an increase in interleukin-2 transcription was observed only in Jurkat cells. The nucleotide selectivity and pharmacological profile data supported the evidence that the ATP-induced effects in Jurkat cells were mediated through the P2X7 receptor. Taken together, these results demonstrate the ability of extracellular ATP to activate

  20. Regulation of cell fate by lymphotoxin (LT) receptor signalling: Functional differences and similarities of the LT system to other TNF superfamily (TNFSF) members. (United States)

    Albarbar, Balid; Dunnill, Christopher; Georgopoulos, Nikolaos T


    The role of TNFR family members in regulating cell fate both in the immune system and in non-lymphoid tissues has been under extensive research for decades. Moreover, the ability of several family members (death receptors) to induce death (mainly via apoptosis) represents a promising target for cancer therapy. Many studies have focused mostly on death receptors such as TNFRI, Fas and TRAIL-R due to their strong pro-apoptotic potential. Yet, cell death can be triggered via non-classical death receptors, and the lymphotoxin (LT) system represents a very good example of such a TNFR subfamily. Here we provide a comprehensive review of intracellular signalling pathways and cellular responses to LT-specific signalling, and compare for the first time the LT system to other TNFRs, such as CD40. Our aim is to highlight that non-classical TNFR-TNFL dyads such as the LT system demonstrate more complex, cell-type and context-specific capabilities. Understanding these complexities will permit a better understanding of the biological mechanisms via which non-death domain-containing TNFRs induce cell death, but may also allow the design of better therapeutic strategies.

  1. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF) confers resistance to pancreatic cancer cells against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection through IFNA receptor-mediated signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaowinn, Sirichat; Cho, Il-Rae; Moon, Jeong; Jun, Seung Won; Kim, Chang Seok [BK21+, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Ho Young [Department of Microbiology, Pusan National University, Busan 609-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Manbok [Department of Medical Science, Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Sang Seok [Department of Biological Sciences, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young-Hwa, E-mail: [BK21+, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-736 (Korea, Republic of)


    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF), a novel oncogene, plays a crucial role in the development of pancreatic cancer, including its metastasis and proliferation. Therefore, PAUF-expressing pancreatic cancer cells could be important targets for oncolytic virus-mediated treatment. Panc-1 cells expressing PAUF (Panc-PAUF) showed relative resistance to parvovirus H-1 infection compared with Panc-1 cells expressing an empty vector (Panc-Vec). Of interest, expression of type I IFN-α receptor (IFNAR) was higher in Panc-PAUF cells than in Panc-Vec cells. Increased expression of IFNAR in turn increased the activation of Stat1 and Tyk2 in Panc-PAUF cells compared with that in Panc-Vec cells. Suppression of Tyk2 and Stat1, which are important downstream molecules for IFN-α signaling, sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to parvovirus H-1-mediated apoptosis. Further, constitutive suppression of PAUF sensitized Bxpc3 pancreatic cancer cells to parvovirus H-1 infection. Taken together, these results suggested that PAUF conferred resistance to pancreatic cancer cells against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection through IFNAR-mediated signaling. - Highlights: • PAUF confers resistance against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection. • PAUF enhances the expression of IFNAR in Panc-1 cells. • Increased activation of Tyk2 or Stat1 by PAUF provides resistance to parvovirus H-1-mediated apoptosis. • Constitutive inhibition of PAUF enhances parvovirus H-1-mediated oncolysis of Bxpc3 pancreatic cancer cells.

  2. A20 negatively regulates T cell receptor signaling to NF-kappaB by cleaving Malt1 ubiquitin chains. (United States)

    Düwel, Michael; Welteke, Verena; Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Baens, Mathijs; Kloo, Bernhard; Ferch, Uta; Darnay, Bryant G; Ruland, Jürgen; Marynen, Peter; Krappmann, Daniel


    The Carma1-Bcl10-Malt1 signaling module bridges TCR signaling to the canonical IkappaB kinase (IKK)/NF-kappaB pathway. Covalent attachment of regulatory ubiquitin chains to Malt1 paracaspase directs TCR signaling to IKK activation. Further, the ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 was recently suggested to suppress T cell activation, but molecular targets for A20 remain elusive. In this paper, we show that A20 regulates the strength and duration of the IKK/NF-kappaB response upon TCR/CD28 costimulation. By catalyzing the removal of K63-linked ubiquitin chains from Malt1, A20 prevents sustained interaction between ubiquitinated Malt1 and the IKK complex and thus serves as a negative regulator of inducible IKK activity. Upon T cell stimulation, A20 is rapidly removed and paracaspase activity of Malt1 has been suggested to cleave A20. Using antagonistic peptides or reconstitution of Malt1(-/-) T cells, we show that Malt1 paracaspase activity is required for A20 cleavage and optimal IL-2 production, but dispensable for initial IKK/NF-kappaB signaling in CD4(+) T cells. However, proteasomal inhibition impairs A20 degradation and impedes TCR/CD28-induced IKK activation. Taken together, A20 functions as a Malt1 deubiquitinating enzyme and proteasomal degradation and de novo synthesis of A20 contributes to balance TCR/CD28-induced IKK/NF-kappaB signaling.

  3. Engineering cell-cell signaling. (United States)

    Blagovic, Katarina; Gong, Emily S; Milano, Daniel F; Natividad, Robert J; Asthagiri, Anand R


    Juxtacrine cell-cell signaling mediated by the direct interaction of adjoining mammalian cells is arguably the mode of cell communication that is most recalcitrant to engineering. Overcoming this challenge is crucial for progress in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, immune system engineering and therapeutic design. Here, we describe the significant advances that have been made in developing synthetic platforms (materials and devices) and synthetic cells (cell surface engineering and synthetic gene circuits) to modulate juxtacrine cell-cell signaling. In addition, significant progress has been made in elucidating design rules and strategies to modulate juxtacrine signaling on the basis of quantitative, engineering analysis of the mechanical and regulatory role of juxtacrine signals in the context of other cues and physical constraints in the microenvironment. These advances in engineering juxtacrine signaling lay a strong foundation for an integrative approach to utilize synthetic cells, advanced 'chassis' and predictive modeling to engineer the form and function of living tissues.

  4. Angiotensin II receptor type 1 blockers suppress the cell proliferation effects of angiotensin II in breast cancer cells by inhibiting AT1R signaling. (United States)

    Du, Ning; Feng, Jiang; Hu, Li-Juan; Sun, Xin; Sun, Hai-Bing; Zhao, Yang; Yang, Yi-Ping; Ren, Hong


    Chronic stress and a high-fat diet are well-documented risk factors associated with the renin-angiotensin system in the development of breast cancer. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is a novel component of the renin-angiotensin system. Several recent studies have focused on the function of AT1R in cell proliferation during cancer development. Thus, we hypothesized that angiotensin II (Ang Ⅱ) can promote proliferation of breast cancer via activated AT1R; the activation of AT1R may play an important role in promoting breast cancer growth, and AT1R blocker (ARB) may suppress the promotional effect on proliferation by antagonizing AT1R. The expression level of AT1R was found to be significantly upregulated in breast cancer cells by immunohistochemistry, but no correlation between AT1R expression and ER/PR/Her-2 expression was observed. The AT1R(+)-MCF-7 cell line exhibited high expression of AT1R protein, and we generated the AT1R(-)-MCF-7 cell line using RNA interference. ARBs, and in particular irbesartan, effectively inhibited the effects of Ang II on cell proliferation, cell cycle development and downstream AT1R signaling events, including the activation of the Ras-Raf-MAPK pathway and the transcription factors NF-κB and CREB. Irbesartan also significantly altered p53, PCNA and cyclin D1 expression, which was also influenced by activated AT1R in AT1R(+)-MCF-7 cells. These results suggest that ARBs may be useful as a novel preventive and therapeutic strategy for treating breast cancer.

  5. Model of the initiation of signal transduction by ligands in a cell culture: Simulation of molecules near a plane membrane comprising receptors (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.


    Cell communication is a key mechanism in tissue responses to radiation. Several molecules are implicated in radiation-induced signaling between cells, but their contributions to radiation risk are poorly understood. Meanwhile, Green's functions for diffusion-influenced reactions have appeared in the literature, which are applied to describe the diffusion of molecules near a plane membrane comprising bound receptors with the possibility of reversible binding of a ligand and activation of signal transduction proteins by the ligand-receptor complex. We have developed Brownian dynamics algorithms to simulate particle histories in this system which can accurately reproduce the theoretical distribution of distances of a ligand from the membrane, the number of reversibly bound particles, and the number of receptor complexes activating signaling proteins as a function of time, regardless of the number of time steps used for the simulation. These simulations will be of great importance to model interactions at low doses where stochastic effects induced by a small number of molecules or interactions come into play.

  6. Autoimmune Regulator Expression in DC2.4 Cells Regulates the NF-κB Signaling and Cytokine Expression of the Toll-Like Receptor 3 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitong Sun


    Full Text Available Autoimmune regulator (Aire mutations result in autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED, which manifests as multi-organ autoimmunity and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC. Indendritic cells (DCs, pattern recognition receptors (PRR, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs, are closely involved in the recognition of various pathogens, activating the intercellular signaling pathway, followed by the activation of transcription factors and the expression of downstream genes, which take part in mediating the immune response and maintaining immune tolerance. In this study, we found that Aire up-regulated TLR3 expression and modulated the downstream cytokine expression and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB of the TLR3 signaling pathway.

  7. Involvement of P2X7 receptor signaling on regulating the differentiation of Th17 cells and type II collagen-induced arthritis in mice (United States)

    Fan, Zhi-Dan; Zhang, Ya-Yuan; Guo, Yi-Hong; Huang, Na; Ma, Hui-Hui; Huang, Hui; Yu, Hai-Guo


    Interleukin (IL)-17 producing T helper (Th17) cells are major effector cells in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has emerged as a potential site in the regulation of inflammation in RA but little is known of its functional role on the differentiation of Th17 cells. This study investigates the in vitro and in vivo effects of P2X7R on Th17 cell differentiation during type II collagen (CII) induced experimental arthritis model. In CII-treated dendritic cells (DCs) and DC/CD4+ T coculture system, pretreatment with pharmacological antagonists of P2X7R (Suramin and A-438079) caused strong inhibition of production of Th17-promoting cytokines (IL-1β, TGF-β1, IL-23p19 and IL-6). Exposure to CII induced the elevation of mRNAs encoding retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α and γt, which were abolished by pretreatment with P2X7R antagonists. Furthermore, blocking P2X7R signaling abolished the CII-mediated increase in IL-17A. Blockade of P2X7R remarkably inhibited hind paw swelling and ameliorated pathological changes in ankle joint of the collagen-induced arthritis mice. Thus, we demonstrated a novel function for P2X7R signaling in regulating CII-induced differentiation of Th17 cells. P2X7R signaling facilitates the development of the sophisticated network of DC-derived cytokines that favors a Th17 phenotype. PMID:27775097

  8. Redox-dependent regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Heppner


    Full Text Available Tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent cell signaling represents a unique feature of multicellular organisms, and is important in regulation of cell differentiation and specialized cell functions. Multicellular organisms also contain a diverse family of NADPH oxidases (NOXs that have been closely linked with tyrosine kinase-based cell signaling and regulate tyrosine phosphorylation via reversible oxidation of cysteine residues that are highly conserved within many proteins involved in this signaling pathway. An example of redox-regulated tyrosine kinase signaling involves the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, a widely studied receptor system with diverse functions in normal cell biology as well as pathologies associated with oxidative stress such as cancer. The purpose of this Graphical Redox Review is to highlight recently emerged concepts with respect to NOX-dependent regulation of this important signaling pathway.

  9. μ-Opioid Agonist Inhibition of κ-Opioid Receptor-Stimulated Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Phosphorylation Is Dynamin-Dependent in C6 Glioma Cells


    Bohn, Laura M.; Belcheva, Mariana M.; Coscia, Carmine J.


    In previous studies we found that μ-opioids, acting via μ-opioid receptors, inhibit endothelin-stimulated C6 glioma cell growth. In the preceding article we show that the κ-selective opioid agonist U69,593 acts as a mitogen with a potency similar to that of endothelin in the same astrocytic model system. Here we report that C6 cell treatment with μ-opioid agonists for 1 h results in the inhibition of κ-opioid mitogenic signaling. The μ-selective agonist endomorphin-1 attenuates κ-opioid-stimu...

  10. The interleukin-4 receptor: signal transduction by a hematopoietin receptor. (United States)

    Keegan, A D; Pierce, J H


    Over the last several years, the receptors for numerous cytokines have been molecularly characterized. Analysis of their amino acid sequences shows that some of these receptors bear certain motifs in their extracellular domains that define a family of receptors called the Hematopoietin receptor superfamily. Significant advances in characterizing the structure, function, and mechanisms of signal transduction have been made for several members of this family. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent advances made for one of the family members, the interleukin (IL) 4 receptor. Other receptor systems have recently been reviewed elsewhere. The IL-4 receptor consists of, at the minimum, the cloned 140 kDa IL-4-binding chain with the potential for associating with other chains. The IL-4 receptor transduces its signal by activating a tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates cellular substrates, including the receptor itself, and the 170 kDa substrate called 4PS. Phosphorylated 4PS interacts with the SH2 domain of the enzyme PI-3'-kinase and increases its enzymatic activity. These early events in the IL-4 receptor initiated signaling pathway may trigger a series of signals that will ultimately lead to an IL-4 specific biologic outcome.

  11. ERBB receptors in cancer: signaling from the inside. (United States)

    Arteaga, Carlos L


    ERBB receptor tyrosine kinases are activated by ligand-induced dimerization followed by activation and transphosphorylation of their intracellular kinase domains. A recent study by Bill and colleagues demonstrates that receptor transphosphorylation can be regulated from inside the cell by members of the cytohesin protein family. These data highlight a novel mechanism of amplification of ERBB receptor signaling output that may contribute to embryogenesis and cancer progression.

  12. Expression profiling of cumulus cells reveals functional changes during ovulation and central roles of prostaglandin EP2 receptor in cAMP signaling. (United States)

    Tamba, Shigero; Yodoi, Rieko; Morimoto, Kazushi; Inazumi, Tomoaki; Sukeno, Mamiko; Segi-Nishida, Eri; Okuno, Yasushi; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Narumiya, Shuh; Sugimoto, Yukihiko


    To understand the role of prostaglandin (PG) receptor EP2 (Ptger2) signaling in ovulation and fertilization, we investigated time-dependent expression profiles in wild-type (WT) and Ptger2(-/-) cumuli before and after ovulation by using microarrays. We prepared cumulus cells from mice just before and 3, 9 and 14 h after human chorionic gonadotropin injection. Key genes including cAMP-related and epidermal growth factor (EGF) genes, as well as extracellular matrix- (ECM-) related and chemokine genes were up-regulated in WT cumuli at 3 h and 14 h, respectively. Ptger2 deficiency differently affected the expression of many of the key genes at 3 h and 14 h. These results indicate that the gene expression profile of cumulus cells greatly differs before and after ovulation, and in each situation, PGE(2)-EP2 signaling plays a critical role in cAMP-regulated gene expression in the cumulus cells under physiological conditions.

  13. IGF-1 Receptor and adhesion signaling: an important axis in determining cancer cell phenotype and therapy resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla T Cox


    Full Text Available IGF-1R expression and activation levels generally cannot be correlated in cancer cells, suggesting that cellular proteins may modulate IGF-1R activity. Strong candidates for such modulation are found in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion signaling complexes. Activated IGF-1R is present at focal adhesions, where it can stabilize β1 integrin and participate in signaling complexes that promote invasiveness associated with epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT, and resistance to therapy. Whether IGF-1R contributes to EMT or to non-invasive tumor growth may be strongly influenced by the degree of ECM engagement and the presence or absence of key proteins in IGF-1R-cell adhesion complexes. One such protein is PDLIM2, which promotes both cell polarization and EMT by regulating the stability of transcription factors including NFκB, STATs and beta catenin. PDLIM2 exhibits tumor suppressor activity, but is also highly expressed in certain invasive cancers. It is likely that distinct adhesion complex proteins modulate IGF-1R signaling during cancer progression or adaptive responses to therapy. Thus, identifying the key modulators will be important for developing effective therapeutic strategies and predictive biomarkers.

  14. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF) confers resistance to pancreatic cancer cells against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection through IFNA receptor-mediated signaling. (United States)

    Kaowinn, Sirichat; Cho, Il-Rae; Moon, Jeong; Jun, Seung Won; Kim, Chang Seok; Kang, Ho Young; Kim, Manbok; Koh, Sang Seok; Chung, Young-Hwa


    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF), a novel oncogene, plays a crucial role in the development of pancreatic cancer, including its metastasis and proliferation. Therefore, PAUF-expressing pancreatic cancer cells could be important targets for oncolytic virus-mediated treatment. Panc-1 cells expressing PAUF (Panc-PAUF) showed relative resistance to parvovirus H-1 infection compared with Panc-1 cells expressing an empty vector (Panc-Vec). Of interest, expression of type I IFN-α receptor (IFNAR) was higher in Panc-PAUF cells than in Panc-Vec cells. Increased expression of IFNAR in turn increased the activation of Stat1 and Tyk2 in Panc-PAUF cells compared with that in Panc-Vec cells. Suppression of Tyk2 and Stat1, which are important downstream molecules for IFN-α signaling, sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to parvovirus H-1-mediated apoptosis. Further, constitutive suppression of PAUF sensitized Bxpc3 pancreatic cancer cells to parvovirus H-1 infection. Taken together, these results suggested that PAUF conferred resistance to pancreatic cancer cells against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection through IFNAR-mediated signaling.

  15. Picropodophyllin inhibits the growth of Ewing's sarcoma cells through the insulin‑like growth factor‑1 receptor/Akt signaling pathway. (United States)

    Wu, Yong-Tao; Wang, Bao-Jun; Miao, Sheng-Wu; Gao, Jian-Jun


    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is the second most common type of pediatric bone tumor, and is associated with a poor prognosis. Picropodophyllin (PPP), a novel selective inhibitor of insulin‑like growth factor‑1 receptor (IGF‑1R), is able to strongly inhibit various types of cancers. However, the effect of IGF‑1R on ES remains unclear. Following treatment with various concentrations of PPP for various times, cell viability was determined using an MTT assay. In addition, cell proliferation and apoptosis was investigated separately by bromodeoxyuridine staining and flow cytometry, respectively. The PPP‑associated signaling pathway was also investigated. The results of the present study suggested that PPP inhibited cell proliferation and viability of A673 and SK‑ES‑1 human Ewing's sarcoma cells in a dose- and time‑dependent manner. In addition, cell apoptosis rates were increased following treatment with PPP. Further investigation of the underlying mechanism revealed that PPP inhibited Akt phosphorylation. Fumonisin B1, an Akt‑specific activator, reversed the inhibitory effects of PPP on cell growth. Furthermore, the results suggested that PPP decreased the expression levels of IGF‑1R, a common activator of Akt signaling. PPP inhibited the growth of human Ewing's sarcoma cells by targeting the IGF‑1R/Akt signaling pathway. Therefore, PPP may prove useful in the development of an effective strategy for the treatment of Ewing's sarcoma.

  16. TRAIL death receptor 4 signaling via lysosome fusion and membrane raft clustering in coronary arterial endothelial cells: evidence from ASM knockout mice. (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Han, Wei-Qing; Boini, Krishna M; Xia, Min; Zhang, Yang; Li, Pin-Lan


    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptor, death receptor 4 (DR4), have been implicated in the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. However, the signaling mechanism mediating DR4 activation leading to endothelial injury remains unclear. We recently demonstrated that ceramide production via hydrolysis of membrane sphingomyelin by acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) results in membrane raft (MR) clustering and the formation of important redox signaling platforms, which play a crucial role in amplifying redox signaling in endothelial cells leading to endothelial dysfunction. The present study aims to investigate whether TRAIL triggers MR clustering via lysosome fusion and ASM activation, thereby conducting transmembrane redox signaling and changing endothelial function. Using confocal microscopy, we found that TRAIL induced MR clustering and co-localized with DR4 in coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs) isolated from wild-type (Smpd1 (+/+)) mice. Furthermore, TRAIL triggered ASM translocation, ceramide production, and NADPH oxidase aggregation in MR clusters in Smpd1 ( +/+ ) CAECs, whereas these observations were not found in Smpd1 (-/-) CAECs. Moreover, ASM deficiency reduced TRAIL-induced O(2) (-[Symbol: see text]) production in CAECs and abolished TRAIL-induced impairment on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in small resistance arteries. By measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we found that Lamp-1 (lysosome membrane marker protein) and ganglioside G(M1) (MR marker) were trafficking together in Smpd1 (+/+) CAECs, which was absent in Smpd1 (-/-) CAECs. Consistently, fluorescence imaging of living cells with specific lysosome probes demonstrated that TRAIL-induced lysosome fusion with membrane was also absent in Smpd1 (-/-) CAECs. Taken together, these results suggest that ASM is essential for TRAIL-induced lysosomal trafficking, membrane fusion and formation of MR redox signaling platforms

  17. Involvement of IGF-1 receptor signaling pathway in the neuroprotective effects of Icaritin against MPP(+)-induced toxicity in MES23.5 cells. (United States)

    Jiang, Ming-Chun; Chen, Xiao-Han; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Xue-Jie; Chen, Wen-Fang


    Icaritin, a natural derivative of Icariin, is the major bioactive component of Epimedium Genus. The present study tested the hypothesis that the neuroprotective effects of Icaritin against 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+))-induced toxicity involved activation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway in MES23.5 cells. Our results revealed that Icaritin pretreatment attenuated the MPP(+)-induced decrease of cell viability in a dose-dependent fashion. Co-pretreatment with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor LY294002, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD98059 or IGF-1 receptor antagonist JB-1 could completely block the protective effects of Icaritin. Moreover, Icaritin pretreatment down-regulated MPP(+)-induced increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. Further study revealed that Icaritin pretreatment could restore the decreased protein expression of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) induced by MPP(+) and these effects could be completely abolished by LY294002, PD98059 or JB-1. Additionally, Icaritin treatment alone time-dependently enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 in MES23.5 cells. The activation of Akt and ERK1/2 by Icaritin could be completely blocked by JB-1, LY294002 or PD98059. Taken together, our data demonstrate that IGF-1 receptor mediated activation of PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathways are involved in the protective effects of Icaritin against MPP(+)-induced toxicity in MES23.5 cells.

  18. A hepatoprotective Lindera obtusiloba extract suppresses growth and attenuates insulin like growth factor-1 receptor signaling and NF-kappaB activity in human liver cancer cell lines

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    Stroh Thorsten


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In traditional Chinese and Korean medicine, an aqueous extract derived from wood and bark of the Japanese spice bush Lindera obtusiloba (L.obtusiloba is applied to treat inflammations and chronic liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma. We previously demonstrated anti-fibrotic effects of L.obtusiloba extract in hepatic stellate cells. Thus, we here consequently examine anti-neoplastic effects of L.obtusiloba extract on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cell lines and the signaling pathways involved. Methods Four human HCC cell lines representing diverse stages of differentiation were treated with L.obtusiloba extract, standardized according to its known suppressive effects on proliferation and TGF-β-expression. Beside measurement of proliferation, invasion and apoptosis, effects on signal transduction and NF-κB-activity were determined. Results L.obtusiloba extract inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in all HCC cell lines and provoked a reduced basal and IGF-1-induced activation of the IGF-1R signaling cascade and a reduced transcriptional NF-κB-activity, particularly in the poorly differentiated SK-Hep1 cells. Pointing to anti-angiogenic effects, L.obtusiloba extract attenuated the basal and IGF-1-induced expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Conclusions The traditional application of the extract is confirmed by our experimental data. Due to its potential to inhibit critical receptor tyrosine kinases involved in HCC progression via the IGF-1 signaling pathway and NF-κB, the standardized L.obtusiloba extract should be further analysed for its active compounds and explored as (complementary treatment option for HCC.

  19. The Regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression and the Role of Discoidin Domain Receptor 1/2 Signalling in Zoledronate-treated PC3 Cells. (United States)

    Reel, Buket; Korkmaz, Ceren Gonen; Arun, Mehmet Zuhuri; Yildirim, Gokce; Ogut, Deniz; Kaymak, Aysegul; Micili, Serap Cilaker; Ergur, Bekir Ugur


    Discoidin Domain Receptors (DDR1/DDR2) are tyrosine kinase receptors which are activated by collagen. DDR signalling regulates cell migration, proliferation, apoptosis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production. MMPs degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) and play essential role in tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) which strongly inhibit osteoclastic activity are commonly used for osteoporosis treatment. They also have MMP inhibitory effect. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of zoledronate in PC3 cells and the possible role of DDR signalling and downstream pathways in these inhibitory effects. We studied messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions of MMP-2,-9,-8, DDR1/DDR2 type I procollagen (TIP) and mRNA levels of PCA-1, MMP-13 and DDR-initiated signalling pathway players including K-Ras oncogene, ERK1, JNK1, p38, AKT-1 and BCLX in PC3 cells in the presence or absence of zoledronate (10-100 μM) for 2-3 days. Zoledronate (100 μM) down-regulated DDR1/ DDR2, TIP mRNAs but did not change MMP-13 (collagenase-3) mRNA. However, zoledronate up-regulated MMP-8 (collagenase-2) mRNA. Zoledronate also inhibited mRNA expressions of K-Ras, ERK1, AKT-1, BCLX and PCA-1; but did not change JNK1, p38 mRNA levels. Zoledronate (100 μM) supressed DDR1/DDR2, TIP expressions; and gelatinase (MMP-2/MMP-9) expressions/activities. Conversely, zoledronate up-regulated MMP-8 expression in PC3 cells. Zoledronate down-regulates MMP-2/-9 expressions in PC3 prostate cancer cells. DDR1/DDR2 signalling and DDR-initiated downstream Ras/Raf/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways may at least partially responsible for MMP inhibitory effect of zoledronate.

  20. CD3 Ligation on Immature Thymocytes Generates Antagonist-like Signals Appropriate for CD8 Lineage Commitment, Independently of  T Cell Receptor Specificity (United States)

    Albert Basson, M.; Bommhardt, Ursula; Cole, Michael S.; Tso, J. Yun; Zamoyska, Rose


    The signals that direct differentiation of T cells to the CD4 or CD8 lineages in the thymus remain poorly understood. Although it has been relatively easy to direct differentiation of CD4 single positive (CD4+) cells using combinations of antibodies and pharmacological agents that mimic receptor engagements, equivalent stimuli do not induce efficient maturation of CD8+ cells. Here we report that, irrespective of the MHC-restriction specificity of the TCR, differentiation of mature CD8+ thymocytes can be induced by ligation of CD3 polypeptides on immature thymocytes with a F(ab′)2 reagent (CD3fos-F(ab′)2). The tyrosine phosphorylation patterns stimulated by CD3fos-F(ab′)2 have been shown to resemble those delivered to mature T cells by antagonist peptides, which are known to direct positive selection of CD8+ cells, and we can show that this reagent exhibits potent antagonistic-like activity for primary T cell responses. Our results suggest a distinction in the signals that specify lineage commitment in the thymus. We present a model of thymocyte differentiation that proposes that the relative balance of signals delivered by TCR engagement and by p56lck activation is responsible for directing commitment to the CD8 or CD4 lineages. PMID:9547336

  1. Acetylcholine acts through M3 muscarinic receptor to activate the EGFR signaling and promotes gastric cancer cell proliferation (United States)

    Yu, Huangfei; Xia, Hongwei; Tang, Qiulin; Xu, Huanji; Wei, Guoqing; Chen, Ying; Dai, Xinyu; Gong, Qiyong; Bi, Feng


    Acetylcholine (ACh), known as a neurotransmitter, regulates the functions of numerous fundamental central and peripheral nervous system. Recently, emerging evidences indicate that ACh also plays an important role in tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the role of ACh in gastric cancer. Here, we reported that ACh could be auto-synthesized and released from MKN45 and BGC823 gastric cancer cells. Exogenous ACh promoted cell proliferation in a does-dependent manner. The M3R antagonist 4-DAMP, but not M1R antagonist trihexyphenidyl and M2/4 R antagonist AFDX-116, could reverse the ACh-induced cell proliferation. Moreover, ACh, via M3R, activated the EGFR signaling to induce the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT, and blocking EGFR pathway by specific inhibitor AG1478 suppressed the ACh induced cell proliferation. Furthermore, the M3R antagonist 4-DAMP and darifenacin could markedly inhibit gastric tumor formation in vivo. 4-DAMP could also significantly enhance the cytotoxic activity of 5-Fu against the MKN45 and BGC823 cells, and induce the expression of apoptosis-related proteins such as Bax and Caspase-3. Together, these findings indicated that the autocrine ACh could act through M3R and the EGFR signaling to promote gastric cancer cells proliferation, targeting M3R or EGFR may provide us a potential therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer treatment. PMID:28102288

  2. Fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR-3) regulates expression of paneth cell lineage-specific genes in intestinal epithelial cells through both TCF4/beta-catenin-dependent and -independent signaling pathways. (United States)

    Brodrick, Brooks; Vidrich, Alda; Porter, Edith; Bradley, Leigh; Buzan, Jenny M; Cohn, Steven M


    Fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR-3) expression in the developing intestine is restricted to the undifferentiated epithelial cells within the lower portion of the crypt. We previously showed that mice lacking functional FGFR-3 have a significant decrease in the number of Paneth cells in the small intestine. Here, we used Caco2 cells to investigate whether FGFR-3 signaling can directly modulate expression of Paneth cell differentiation markers through its effects on TCF4/β-catenin or through other signaling pathways downstream of this receptor. Caco2 cells treated with FGFR-3 ligands or expressing FGFR-3(K650E), a constitutively active mutant, resulted in a significantly increased expression of genes characteristic of mature Paneth cells, including human α-defensins 5 and 6 (HD5 and HD6) and Paneth cell lysozyme, whereas enterocytic differentiation markers were reduced. Activation of FGFR-3 signaling sustained high levels of β-catenin mRNA expression, leading to increased TCF4/β-catenin-regulated transcriptional activity in Caco2 cells. Sustained activity of the TCF4/β-catenin pathway was required for the induction of Paneth cell markers. Activation of the MAPK pathway by FGFR-3 is also required for the induction of Paneth cell markers in addition to and independent of the effect of FGFR-3 on TCF4/β-catenin activity. These studies suggest that coordinate activation of multiple independent signaling pathways downstream of FGFR-3 is involved in regulation of Paneth cell differentiation.

  3. NFAT5 induction by the pre-T-cell receptor serves as a selective survival signal in T-lymphocyte development. (United States)

    Berga-Bolaños, Rosa; Alberdi, Maria; Buxadé, Maria; Aramburu, José; López-Rodríguez, Cristina


    The Rel-like transcription factors nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and the calcineurin-dependent nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc) control specific points of thymocyte maturation. Thymocytes also express a distinct member of the Rel family, the calcineurin-independent, osmostress response regulator NFAT5. Here we show that IKKβ regulates the expression of NFAT5 in thymocytes, which in turn contributes to the survival of T-cell receptor αβ thymocytes and the transition from the β-selection checkpoint to the double-positive stage in an osmostress-independent manner. NFAT5-deficient thymocytes had normal expression and proximal signaling of the pre-T-cell receptor but exhibited a partial defect in β-chain allelic exclusion and increased apoptosis. Further analysis showed that NFAT5 regulated the expression of the prosurvival factors A1 and Bcl2 and attenuated the proapoptotic p53/Noxa axis. These findings position NFAT5 as a target of the IKKβ/NF-κB pathway in thymocytes and as a downstream effector of the prosurvival role of the pre-T-cell receptor.

  4. NFAT5 induction by the pre–T-cell receptor serves as a selective survival signal in T-lymphocyte development (United States)

    Berga-Bolaños, Rosa; Alberdi, Maria; Buxadé, Maria; Aramburu, José; López-Rodríguez, Cristina


    The Rel-like transcription factors nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and the calcineurin-dependent nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc) control specific points of thymocyte maturation. Thymocytes also express a distinct member of the Rel family, the calcineurin-independent, osmostress response regulator NFAT5. Here we show that IKKβ regulates the expression of NFAT5 in thymocytes, which in turn contributes to the survival of T-cell receptor αβ thymocytes and the transition from the β-selection checkpoint to the double-positive stage in an osmostress-independent manner. NFAT5-deficient thymocytes had normal expression and proximal signaling of the pre–T-cell receptor but exhibited a partial defect in β-chain allelic exclusion and increased apoptosis. Further analysis showed that NFAT5 regulated the expression of the prosurvival factors A1 and Bcl2 and attenuated the proapoptotic p53/Noxa axis. These findings position NFAT5 as a target of the IKKβ/NF-κB pathway in thymocytes and as a downstream effector of the prosurvival role of the pre–T-cell receptor. PMID:24043824

  5. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits TLR4 signaling through the 67-kDa laminin receptor on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated dendritic cells

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    Byun, Eui-Baek [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Han-Gyu [Department of Microbiology and Research Institute for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Nak-Yun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui-Hong, E-mail: [Department of Microbiology and Research Institute for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG-treated DCs inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG-treated DCs inhibited MAPKs activation and NF-{kappa}B p65 translocation via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG elevated the expression of the Tollip protein through 67LR in DCs. -- Abstract: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major active polyphenol of green tea, has been shown to down-regulate inflammatory responses in dendritic cells (DCs); however, the underlying mechanism has not been understood. Recently, we identified the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) as a cell-surface EGCG receptor. In this study, we showed the molecular basis for the down-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction by EGCG in DCs. The expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I and II, which are molecules essential for antigen presentation by DCs, were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. In addition, EGCG-treated DCs inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-{alpha}, interleukin [IL]-1{beta}, and IL-6) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), e.g., extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) p65 translocation through 67LR. Interestingly, we also found that EGCG markedly elevated the expression of the Tollip protein, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, through 67LR. These novel findings provide new insight into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms of the TLR4 signaling pathway and consequent inflammatory responses that are implicated in the development and progression of many chronic diseases.

  6. Modulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor expression and signalling during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of Tera-2 teratocarcinoma cells. (United States)

    Pertovaara, L; Tienari, J; Vainikka, S; Partanen, J; Saksela, O; Lehtonen, E; Alitalo, K


    We have analyzed the regulation of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) during retinoic acid (RA) induced differentiation of Tera-2 human embryonal carcinoma cells. Undifferentiated Tera-2 cells expressed mRNAs for all four known FGFRs. Their differentiation led to loss of FGFR-4 mRNA expression and mRNA levels for FGFR-2 and FGFR-3 were considerably downregulated, whereas the mRNA levels for FGFR-1 remained unaltered. A substantial decrease in binding of K-FGF was found to occur upon RA-induced differentiation of the cells. In undifferentiated Tera-2 cells FGF stimulation caused an increase of c-fos mRNA, and c-jun mRNAs, but no increase of junB mRNA, whereas in the differentiated cells, FGFs strongly stimulated the expression of all three genes. Thus differentiation of the Tera-2 cells leads to marked changes in FGFR gene expression as well as to complex alterations in their responses to exogenous FGFs.

  7. Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine IL-1β Up-Regulates CXC Chemokine Receptor 4 via Notch and ERK Signaling Pathways in Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

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    Yi Sun

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation contributes to tumor development through the induction of oncogenic mutations, genomic instability, early tumor promotion, and enhanced angiogenesis. Here, we report that IL-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1 was expressed in 40 of 41 human tongue squamous cell carcinomas (TSCC. IL-1β up-regulated the expression of CXCR4, a CXC chemokine receptor that mediates cancer growth and metastasis, at both mRNA and protein levels in Tca8113 TSCC cells. IL-1β treatment of Tca8113 cells promoted migration in response to CXCR4 ligand stromal-derived factor α (SDF-1α. The inhibition of IL-1R1 by its antagonist IL-1Ra or RNA interference significantly reversed the up-regulation of CXCR4 induced by IL-1β. IL-1R1 activation also up-regulated the expression of IL-1β itself, suggesting a positive feedback regulation of CXCR4 expression. Furthermore, IL-1β induced the activation of Notch, which was originally considered a stem cell regulator. Pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling reversed the up-regulation of CXCR4 induced by IL-1β, suggesting that Notch signaling may be involved in the growth and metastasis of cancers via up-regulation of CXCR4. In addition, IL-1β induced the activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK and ERK inhibition decreased the up-regulation of CXCR4 induced by IL-1β, suggesting the involvement of ERK signaling in cancer metastasis. Taken together these data suggest that IL-1β and IL-1R1 promote cancer growth and metastasis by up-regulating CXCR4 expression and that CXCR4 may be a link between inflammation and cancer.

  8. Cocaine inhibits dopamine D2 receptor signaling via sigma-1-D2 receptor heteromers.

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    Gemma Navarro

    Full Text Available Under normal conditions the brain maintains a delicate balance between inputs of reward seeking controlled by neurons containing the D1-like family of dopamine receptors and inputs of aversion coming from neurons containing the D2-like family of dopamine receptors. Cocaine is able to subvert these balanced inputs by altering the cell signaling of these two pathways such that D1 reward seeking pathway dominates. Here, we provide an explanation at the cellular and biochemical level how cocaine may achieve this. Exploring the effect of cocaine on dopamine D2 receptors function, we present evidence of σ1 receptor molecular and functional interaction with dopamine D2 receptors. Using biophysical, biochemical, and cell biology approaches, we discovered that D2 receptors (the long isoform of the D2 receptor can complex with σ1 receptors, a result that is specific to D2 receptors, as D3 and D4 receptors did not form heteromers. We demonstrate that the σ1-D2 receptor heteromers consist of higher order oligomers, are found in mouse striatum and that cocaine, by binding to σ1 -D2 receptor heteromers, inhibits downstream signaling in both cultured cells and in mouse striatum. In contrast, in striatum from σ1 knockout animals these complexes are not found and this inhibition is not seen. Taken together, these data illuminate the mechanism by which the initial exposure to cocaine can inhibit signaling via D2 receptor containing neurons, destabilizing the delicate signaling balance influencing drug seeking that emanates from the D1 and D2 receptor containing neurons in the brain.

  9. A species-specific activation of Toll-like receptor signaling in bovine and sheep bronchial epithelial cells triggered by Mycobacterial infections. (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Han, Fei; Liang, Jinping; Yang, Jiali; Shi, Juan; Xue, Jing; Yang, Li; Li, Yong; Luo, Meihui; Wang, Yujiong; Wei, Jun; Liu, Xiaoming


    Pulmonary tuberculosis caused by a Mycobacterium infection remains a major public health problem in most part of the world, in part owing to the transmission of its pathogens between hosts including human, domestic and wild animals. To date, molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis of TB are still incompletely understood. In addition to alveolar macrophages, airway epithelial cells have also been recently recognized as main targets for Mycobacteria infections. In an effort to understand the pathogen-host interaction between Mycobacteria and airway epithelial cells in domestic animals, in present study, we investigated the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in bovine and sheep airway epithelial cells in response to an infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis avirulent H37Ra stain or Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine strain, using primary air-liquid interface (ALI) bronchial epithelial culture models. Our results revealed a host and pathogen species-specific TLR-mediated recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), induction and activation of TLR signaling pathways, and substantial induction of inflammatory response in bronchial epithelial cells in response to Mycobacteria infections between these two species. Interestingly, the activation TLR signaling in bovine bronchial epithelial cells induced by Mycobacteria infection was mainly through a myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-independent TLR signaling pathway, while both MyD88-dependent and independent TLR signaling cascades could be induced in sheep epithelial cells. Equally noteworthy, a BCG infection was able to induce both MyD88-dependent and independent signaling in sheep and bovine airway epithelial cells, but more robust inflammatory responses were induced in sheep epithelial cells relative to the bovines; whereas an H37Ra infection displayed an ability to mainly trigger a MyD88-independent TLR signaling cascade in these two host species, and induce a more extent expression of

  10. IL-27 receptor signalling restricts the formation of pathogenic, terminally differentiated Th1 cells during malaria infection by repressing IL-12 dependent signals.

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    Ana Villegas-Mendez

    Full Text Available The IL-27R, WSX-1, is required to limit IFN-γ production by effector CD4⁺ T cells in a number of different inflammatory conditions but the molecular basis of WSX-1-mediated regulation of Th1 responses in vivo during infection has not been investigated in detail. In this study we demonstrate that WSX-1 signalling suppresses the development of pathogenic, terminally differentiated (KLRG-1⁺ Th1 cells during malaria infection and establishes a restrictive threshold to constrain the emergent Th1 response. Importantly, we show that WSX-1 regulates cell-intrinsic responsiveness to IL-12 and IL-2, but the fate of the effector CD4⁺ T cell pool during malaria infection is controlled primarily through IL-12 dependent signals. Finally, we show that WSX-1 regulates Th1 cell terminal differentiation during malaria infection through IL-10 and Foxp3 independent mechanisms; the kinetics and magnitude of the Th1 response, and the degree of Th1 cell terminal differentiation, were comparable in WT, IL-10R1⁻/⁻ and IL-10⁻/⁻ mice and the numbers and phenotype of Foxp3⁺ cells were largely unaltered in WSX-1⁻/⁻ mice during infection. As expected, depletion of Foxp3⁺ cells did not enhance Th1 cell polarisation or terminal differentiation during malaria infection. Our results significantly expand our understanding of how IL-27 regulates Th1 responses in vivo during inflammatory conditions and establishes WSX-1 as a critical and non-redundant regulator of the emergent Th1 effector response during malaria infection.

  11. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNA is released from EBV-infected cells and activates signaling from Toll-like receptor 3. (United States)

    Iwakiri, Dai; Zhou, Li; Samanta, Mrinal; Matsumoto, Misako; Ebihara, Takashi; Seya, Tsukasa; Imai, Shosuke; Fujieda, Mikiya; Kawa, Keisei; Takada, Kenzo


    Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA (EBER) is nonpolyadenylated, noncoding RNA that forms stem-loop structure by intermolecular base-pairing, giving rise to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-like molecules, and exists abundantly in EBV-infected cells. Here, we report that EBER induces signaling from the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), which is a sensor of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and induces type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokines. A substantial amount of EBER, which was sufficient to induce signaling from TLR3, was released from EBV-infected cells, and the majority of the released EBER existed as a complex with a cellular EBER-binding protein La, suggesting that EBER was released from the cells by active secretion of La. Sera from patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM), chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV), and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH), whose general symptoms are caused by proinflammatory cytokines contained EBER, and addition of RNA purified from the sera into culture medium induced signaling from TLR3 in EBV-transformed lymphocytes and peripheral mononuclear cells. Furthermore, DCs treated with EBER showed mature phenotype and antigen presentation capacity. These findings suggest that EBER, which is released from EBV-infected cells, is responsible for immune activation by EBV, inducing type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokines. EBER-induced activation of innate immunity would account for immunopathologic diseases caused by active EBV infection.

  12. Pharmacological targeting of β-adrenergic receptor functions abrogates NF-κB signaling and MMP-9 secretion in medulloblastoma cells

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    Borhane Annabi


    Full Text Available Borhane Annabi1,*, Eric Vaillancourt-Jean1,*, Alexander G Weil3, Richard Béliveau2,31Laboratoire d’Oncologie Moléculaire, Département de Chimie, Centre de Recherche BioMED, 2Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Université du Québec à Montréal, Quebec, Canada; 3Department of Neurosurgery, CHUM Notre Dame, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Targeting of the vascular endothelium compartment explains, in part, the therapeutic efficacy of the nonselective β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol against common endothelial tumors such as hemangiomas. In vitro, the antiangiogenic biological activity of propranolol was shown to inhibit human brain microvascular endothelial cell tubulogenesis. However, possible interference of propranolol with cell signaling associated with the tumoral compartment remains unexplored. We therefore assessed the potency of propranolol against a pediatric brain tumor-derived DAOY medulloblastoma cell model. Gene expression of β1-, β2-, and β3-adrenergic receptors was confirmed in DAOY cells by semiquantitative RT-PCR. We next found that propranolol dose-dependently inhibited induction of the key extracellular matrix-degrading and blood–brain barrier disrupting enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA. Propranolol not only inhibited PMA-induced phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk, but also that of IkappaB (IκB, preventing the IκB phosphorylation which is a prerequisite for IκB degradation. Propranolol inhibition of IκB phosphorylation was shown to occur with optimal efficacy at 30 µM. Although propranolol, at up to 100 µM, did not affect cell viability, it potentiated PMA-mediated signaling that ultimately led to diminished phosphorylation of Akt. The anti-Erk and anti-Akt phosphorylation effects are both suggestive of antiproliferative and antisurvival signaling, respectively. Our data are

  13. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNA is released from EBV-infected cells and activates signaling from toll-like receptor 3



    Epstein-Barr virus–encoded small RNA (EBER) is nonpolyadenylated, noncoding RNA that forms stem-loop structure by intermolecular base-pairing, giving rise to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)–like molecules, and exists abundantly in EBV-infected cells. Here, we report that EBER induces signaling from the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), which is a sensor of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and induces type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokines. A substantial amount of EBER, which was sufficient to induc...

  14. Microwave Exposure Impairs Synaptic Plasticity in the Rat Hippocampus and PC12 Cells through Over-activation of the NMDA Receptor Signaling Pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Lu; DONG Ji; YAO Bin Wei; ZHAO Li; PENG Rui Yun; SUN Cheng Feng; ZHANG Jing; GAO Ya Bing; WANG Li Feng; ZUO Hong Yan; WANG Shui Ming; ZHOU Hong Mei; XU Xin Ping


    Objective The aim of this study is to investigate whether microwave exposure would affect the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) signaling pathway to establish whether this plays a role in synaptic plasticity impairment. Methods 48 male Wistar rats were exposed to 30 mW/cm² microwave for 10 min every other day for three times. Hippocampal structure was observed through H&E staining and transmission electron microscope. PC12 cells were exposed to 30 mW/cm² microwave for 5 min and the synapse morphology was visualized with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The release of amino acid neurotransmitters and calcium influx were detected. The expressions of several key NMDAR signaling molecules were evaluated. Results Microwave exposure caused injury in rat hippocampal structure and PC12 cells, especially the structure and quantity of synapses. The ratio of glutamic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmitters was increased and the intracellular calcium level was elevated in PC12 cells. A significant change in NMDAR subunits (NR1, NR2A, and NR2B) and related signaling molecules (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II gamma and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein) were examined. Conclusion 30 mW/cm² microwave exposure resulted in alterations of synaptic structure, amino acid neurotransmitter release and calcium influx. NMDAR signaling molecules were closely associated with impaired synaptic plasticity.

  15. Signal transduction by growth factor receptors: signaling in an instant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Joern; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Blagoev, Blagoy;


    -out by mass spectrometry-based proteomics has allowed exciting views on the very early events in signal transduction. Activation profiles of regulated phosphorylation sites on epidermal growth factor receptor and downstream signal transducers showed different kinetics within the first ten seconds...

  16. Molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid receptor signaling

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    Marta Labeur


    Full Text Available This review highlights the most recent findings on the molecular mechanisms of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR. Most effects of glucocorticoids are mediated by the intracellular GR which is present in almost every tissue and controls transcriptional activation via direct and indirect mechanisms. Nevertheless the glucocorticoid responses are tissue -and gene- specific. GR associates selectively with corticosteroid ligands produced in the adrenal gland in response to changes of humoral homeostasis. Ligand interaction with GR promotes either GR binding to genomic glucocorticoid response elements, in turn modulating gene transcription, or interaction of GR monomers with other transcription factors activated by other signalling pathways leading to transrepression. The GR regulates a broad spectrum of physiological functions, including cell differentiation, metabolism and inflammatory responses. Thus, disruption or dysregulation of GR function will result in severe impairments in the maintenance of homeostasis and the control of adaptation to stress.

  17. Crosstalk between androgen and pro-inflammatory signaling remodels androgen receptor and NF-κB cistrome to reprogram the prostate cancer cell transcriptome (United States)

    Malinen, Marjo; Niskanen, Einari A.; Kaikkonen, Minna U.; Palvimo, Jorma J.


    Inflammatory processes and androgen signaling are critical for the growth of prostate cancer (PC), the most common cancer among males in Western countries. To understand the importance of potential interplay between pro-inflammatory and androgen signaling for gene regulation, we have interrogated the crosstalk between androgen receptor (AR) and NF-κB, a key transcriptional mediator of inflammatory responses, by utilizing genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and global run-on sequencing in PC cells. Co-stimulation of LNCaP cells with androgen and pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα invoked a transcriptome which was very distinct from that induced by either stimulation alone. The altered transcriptome that included gene programs linked to cell migration and invasiveness was orchestrated by significant remodeling of NF-κB and AR cistrome and enhancer landscape. Although androgen multiplied the NF-κB cistrome and TNFα restrained the AR cistrome, there was no general reciprocal tethering of the AR to the NF-κB on chromatin. Instead, redistribution of FOXA1, PIAS1 and PIAS2 contributed to the exposure of latent NF-κB chromatin-binding sites and masking of AR chromatin-binding sites. Taken together, concomitant androgen and pro-inflammatory signaling significantly remodels especially the NF-κB cistrome, reprogramming the PC cell transcriptome in fashion that may contribute to the progression of PC. PMID:27672034

  18. Saturated fatty acids up-regulate COX-2 expression in prostate epithelial cells via toll-like receptor 4/NF-κB signaling. (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Hu, Shuai; Cui, Yun; Sun, Meng-Kui; Xie, Feng; Zhang, Qian; Jin, Jie


    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been implicated in prostate carcinogenesis, and recently it has been confirmed to be a molecular target of saturated fatty acids (SFAs). In the present study, we investigated the effect of stearic acid (SA) and palmitic acid (PA), two of the most abundant SFAs contained in dietary fat, on COX-2 expression in prostate epithelial cells and the signaling transduction pathway involved. First, we demonstrated that both SA and PA increased the mRNA and protein expression of COX-2, and consistently induced the activation of NF-κB in RWPE-1, BPH-1 and PC-3 prostate epithelial cell lines. The effect of SA and PA on COX-2 over-expression and NF-κB activation was in a dose-dependent manner, and PA was more potent than SA at the same concentration. Then, we demonstrated inhibition of NF-κB using its specific inhibitor strikingly attenuated PA-induced COX-2 expression. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was revealed to be expressed on RWPE-1, BPH-1 and PC-3 cell lines by PCR and immunofluorescence staining, and blocking its signaling significantly inhibited PA induced COX-2 over-expression and NF-κB activation. Taken together, we demonstrated that SFAs can up-regulate COX-2 expression in prostate epithelial cells, and this effect was mediated mainly through the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

  19. T cell receptor signals to NF-κB are transmitted by a cytosolic p62-Bcl10-Malt1-IKK signalosome. (United States)

    Paul, Suman; Traver, Maria K; Kashyap, Anuj K; Washington, Michael A; Latoche, Joseph R; Schaefer, Brian C


    Antigen-mediated stimulation of the T cell receptor (TCR) triggers activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), a key transcriptional regulator of T cell proliferation and effector cell differentiation. TCR signaling to NF-κB requires both the Carma1-Bcl10-Malt1 (CBM) complex and the inhibitor of κB (IκB) kinase (IKK) complex; however, the molecular mechanisms connecting the CBM complex to activation of IKK are incompletely defined. We found that the active IKK complex is a component of a TCR-dependent cytosolic Bcl10-Malt1 signalosome containing the adaptor protein p62, which forms in effector T cells. Phosphorylated IκBα and NF-κB were transiently recruited to this signalosome before NF-κB translocated to the nucleus. Inhibiting the activity of the kinase TAK1 or IKK blocked the phosphorylation of IKK, but not the formation of p62-Bcl10-Malt1 clusters, suggesting that activation of IKK occurs after signalosome assembly. Furthermore, analysis of T cells from p62-deficient mice demonstrated that the p62-dependent clustering of signaling components stimulated activation of NF-κB in effector T cells. Thus, TCR-stimulated activation of NF-κB requires the assembly of cytosolic p62-Bcl10-Malt1-IKK signalosomes, which may ensure highly regulated activation of NF-κB in response to TCR engagement.

  20. MicroRNA-155 influences B-cell receptor signaling and associates with aggressive disease in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (United States)

    Cui, Bing; Chen, Liguang; Zhang, Suping; Mraz, Marek; Fecteau, Jessie-F; Yu, Jian; Ghia, Emanuela M; Zhang, Ling; Bao, Lei; Rassenti, Laura Z; Messer, Karen; Calin, George A; Croce, Carlo M; Kipps, Thomas J


    High-level leukemia cell expression of micro-RNA 155 (miR-155) is associated with more aggressive disease in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), including those cases with a low-level expression of ζ-chain-associated protein of 70 kD. CLL with high-level miR-155 expressed lower levels of Src homology-2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase 1 and were more responsive to B-cell receptor (BCR) ligation than CLL with low-level miR-155. Transfection with miR-155 enhanced responsiveness to BCR ligation, whereas transfection with a miR-155 inhibitor had the opposite effect. CLL in lymphoid tissue expressed higher levels of miR155HG than CLL in the blood of the same patient. Also, isolated CD5(bright)CXCR4(dim) cells, representing CLL that had been newly released from the microenvironment, expressed higher levels of miR-155 and were more responsive to BCR ligation than isolated CD5(dim)CXCR4(bright) cells of the same patient. Treatment of CLL or normal B cells with CD40-ligand or B-cell-activating factor upregulated miR-155 and enhanced sensitivity to BCR ligation, effects that could be blocked by inhibitors to miR-155. This study demonstrates that the sensitivity to BCR ligation can be enhanced by high-level expression of miR-155, which in turn can be induced by crosstalk within the tissue microenvironment, potentially contributing to its association with adverse clinical outcome in patients with CLL.

  1. Toll-Like Receptor Ligand-Based Vaccine Adjuvants Require Intact MyD88 Signaling in Antigen-Presenting Cells for Germinal Center Formation and Antibody Production (United States)

    Mosaheb, Munir M.; Reiser, Michael L.; Wetzler, Lee M.


    Vaccines are critical in the fight against infectious diseases, and immune-stimulating adjuvants are essential for enhancing vaccine efficacy. However, the precise mechanisms of action of most adjuvants are unknown. There is an urgent need for customized and adjuvant formulated vaccines against immune evading pathogens that remain a risk today. Understanding the specific role of various cell types in adjuvant-induced protective immune responses is vital for an effective vaccine design. We have investigated the role of cell-specific MyD88 signaling in vaccine adjuvant activity in vivo, using Neisserial porin B (PorB), a TLR2 ligand-based adjuvant, compared with an endosomal TLR9 ligand (CpG) and toll-like receptor (TLR)-independent (alum, MF59) adjuvants. We found that intact MyD88 signaling is essential, separately, in all three antigen-presenting cell types [B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs)] for optimal TLR ligand-based adjuvant activity. The role of MyD88 signaling in B cell and DC in vaccine adjuvant has been previously investigated. In this study, we now demonstrate that the immune response was also reduced in mice with macrophage-specific MyD88 deletion (Mac-MyD88−/−). We demonstrate that TLR-dependent adjuvants are potent inducers of germinal center (GC) responses, but GCs are nearly absent in Mac-MyD88−/− mice following immunization with TLR-dependent adjuvants PorB or CpG, but not with TLR-independent adjuvants MF59 or alum. Our findings reveal a unique and here-to-for unrecognized importance of intact MyD88 signaling in macrophages, to allow for a robust vaccine-induced immune responses when TLR ligand-based adjuvants are used.

  2. Androgen receptor in Sertoli cells regulates DNA double-strand break repair and chromosomal synapsis of spermatocytes partially through intercellular EGF-EGFR signaling. (United States)

    Chen, Su-Ren; Hao, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Yan; Deng, Shou-Long; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Yu-Qian; Wang, Xiu-Xia; Liu, Yi-Xun


    Spermatogenesis does not progress beyond the pachytene stages of meiosis in Sertoli cell-specific AR knockout (SCARKO) mice. However, further evidence of meiotic arrest and underlying paracrine signals in SCARKO testes is still lacking. We utilized co-immunostaining of meiotic surface spreads to examine the key events during meiotic prophase I. SCARKO spermatocytes exhibited a failure in chromosomal synapsis observed by SCP1/SCP3 double-staining and CREST foci quantification. In addition, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were formed but were not repaired in the mutant spermatocytes, as revealed by γ-H2AX staining and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity examination. The later stages of DSB repair, such as the accumulation of the RAD51 strand exchange protein and the localization of mismatch repair protein MLH1, were correspondingly altered in SCARKO spermatocytes. Notably, the expression of factors that guide RAD51 loading onto sites of DSBs, including TEX15, BRCA1/2 and PALB2, was severely impaired when either AR was down-regulated or EGF was up-regulated. We observed that some ligands in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family were over-expressed in SCARKO Sertoli cells and that some receptors in the EGF receptor (EGFR) family were ectopically activated in the mutant spermatocytes. When EGF-EGFR signaling was repressed to approximately normal by the specific inhibitor AG1478 in the cultured SCARKO testis tissues, the arrested meiosis was partially rescued, and functional haploid cells were generated. Based on these data, we propose that AR in Sertoli cells regulates DSB repair and chromosomal synapsis of spermatocytes partially through proper intercellular EGF-EGFR signaling.

  3. Coupling planar cell polarity signaling to morphogenesis. (United States)

    Axelrod, Jeffrey D; McNeill, Helen


    Epithelial cells and other groups of cells acquire a polarity orthogonal to their apical-basal axes, referred to as Planar Cell Polarity (PCP). The process by which these cells become polarized requires a signaling pathway using Frizzled as a receptor. Responding cells sense cues from their environment that provide directional information, and they translate this information into cellular asymmetry. Most of what is known about PCP derives from studies in the fruit fly, Drosophila. We review what is known about how cells translate an unknown signal into asymmetric cytoskeletal reorganization. We then discuss how the vertebrate processes of convergent extension and cochlear hair-cell development may relate to Drosophila PCP signaling.

  4. Prolactin receptor and signal transduction to milk protein genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djiane, J.; Daniel, N.; Bignon, C. [Unite d`Endocrinologie Moleculaire, Jouy en Josas (France)] [and others


    After cloning of the mammary gland prolactin (PRL) receptor cDNA, a functional assay was established using co-transfection of PRL receptor cDNA together with a milk protein promoter/chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) construct in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Different mutants of the PRL receptor were tested in this CAT assay to delimit the domains in the receptor necessary for signal transduction to milk protein genes. In CHO cells stably transfected with PRL receptor cDNA, high numbers of PRL receptor are expressed. By metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation, expressed PRL receptor was identified as a single species of 100 kDa. Using these cells, we analyzed the effects of PRL on intracellular free Ca{sup ++} concentration. PRL stimulates Ca{sup ++} entry and induces secondary Ca{sup ++} mobilization. The entry of Ca{sup ++} is a result of an increase in K{sup +} conductance that hyperpolarizes the membranes. We have also analyzed tyrosine phosphorylation induced by PRL. In CHO cells stably transfected with PRL receptor cDNA, PRL induced a very rapid and transient tyrosine phosphorylation of a 100-kDa protein which is most probably the PRL receptor. The same finding was obtained in mammary membranes after PRL injection to lactating rabbits. Whereas tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and lavendustin were without effect, PRL stimulation of milk protein gene promoters was partially inhibited by 2 {mu}M herbimycin in CHO cells co-transfected with PRL receptor cDNA and the {Beta} lactoglobulin CAT construct. Taken together these observations indicate that the cytoplasmic domain of the PRL receptor interacts with one or several tyrosine kinases, which may represent early postreceptor events necessary for PRL signal transduction to milk protein genes. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  5. A novel glycosylation signal regulates transforming growth factor beta receptors as evidenced by endo-beta-galactosidase C expression in rodent cells. (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Misawa, Masako; Matsuzaki, Takashi; Sakurai, Takayuki; Muramatsu, Takashi; Sato, Masahiro


    The αGal (Galα1-3Gal) epitope is a xenoantigen that is responsible for hyperacute rejection in xenotransplantation. This epitope is expressed on the cell surface in the cells of all mammals except humans and Old World monkeys. It can be digested by the enzyme endo-β-galactosidase C (EndoGalC), which is derived from Clostridium perfringens. Previously, we produced EndoGalC transgenic mice to identify the phenotypes that would be induced following EndoGalC overexpression. The mice lacked the αGal epitope in all tissues and exhibited abnormal phenotypes such as postnatal death, growth retardation, skin lesion and abnormal behavior. Interestingly, skin lesions caused by increased proliferation of keratinocytes suggest the role of a glycan structure [in which the αGal epitope has been removed or the N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residue is newly exposed] as a regulator of signal transduction. To verify this hypothesis, we introduced an EndoGalC expression vector into cultured mouse NIH3T3 cells and obtained several EndoGalC-expressing transfectants. These cells lacked αGal epitope expression and exhibited 1.8-fold higher proliferation than untransfected parental cells. We then used several cytokine receptor inhibitors to assess the signal transduction cascades that were affected. Only SB431542 and LY364947, both of which are transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) receptor type-I (TβR-I) inhibitors, were found to successfully reverse the enhanced cell proliferation rate of EndoGalC transfectants, indicating that the glycan structure is a regulator of TβRs. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that the glycan altered association between TβR-I and TβR-II in the absence of ligands.

  6. Intrinsic Properties of immunoglobulin IgG1 Isotype-Switched B Cell Receptors Promote Microclustering and the Initiation of Signaling (United States)

    Liu, Wanli; Meckel, Tobias; Tolar, Pavel; Sohn, Hae Won; Pierce, Susan K.


    Summary Memory B cells express high affinity, immunoglobulin B cell receptors (IgG-BCRs) that enhance B cell responses giving rise to the rapid production of high affinity, IgG antibodies. Despite the central role of IgG-BCRs in memory responses, the mechanisms by which the IgG-BCRs function to enhance B cell responses are not fully understood. Using high-resolution live-cell imaging we showed that independent of affinity, IgG1-BCRs dramatically enhanced the earliest BCR-intrinsic events that followed within seconds of B cells’ encounter with membrane bound antigen including BCR oligomerization and BCR microcluster growth, leading to Syk kinase recruitment and calcium responses. The enhancement of these early events was dependent on a membrane proximal region of the IgG1 cytoplasmic tail not previously appreciated to play a role in IgG1-BCR signaling. Thus, intrinsic properties of the IgG1-BCR enhance early antigen-driven events that ultimately translate into heightened signaling. PMID:20620943

  7. Regulation of FcϵRI Signaling in Mast Cells by G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 2 and Its RH Domain* (United States)

    Subramanian, Hariharan; Gupta, Kshitij; Parameswaran, Narayanan; Ali, Hydar


    Agonist-induced phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by GPCR kinases (GRKs) promotes their desensitization and internalization. Here, we sought to determine the role of GRK2 on FcϵRI signaling and mediator release in mast cells. The strategies utilized included lentiviral shRNA-mediated GRK2 knockdown, GRK2 gene deletion (GRK2flox/flox/cre recombinase) and overexpression of GRK2 and its regulator of G protein signaling homology (RH) domain (GRK2-RH). We found that silencing GRK2 expression caused ∼50% decrease in antigen-induced Ca2+ mobilization and degranulation but resulted in ablation of cytokine (IL-6 and IL-13) generation. The effect of GRK2 on cytokine generation does not require its catalytic activity but is mediated via the phosphorylation of p38 and Akt. Overexpression of GRK2 or its RH domain (GRK2-RH) enhanced antigen-induced mast cell degranulation and cytokine generation without affecting the expression levels of any of the FcϵRI subunits (α, β, and γ). GRK2 or GRK2-RH had no effect on antigen-induced phosphorylation of FcϵRIγ or Src but enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk. These data demonstrate that GRK2 modulates FcϵRI signaling in mast cells via at least two mechanisms. One involves GRK2-RH and modulates tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk, and the other is mediated via the phosphorylation of p38 and Akt. PMID:24904059

  8. Engineering Cell-Cell Signaling


    Blagovic, Katarina; Gong, Emily S.; Milano, Daniel F.; Natividad, Robert J.; Asthagiri, Anand R


    Juxtacrine cell-cell signaling mediated by the direct interaction of adjoining mammalian cells is arguably the mode of cell communication that is most recalcitrant to engineering. Overcoming this challenge is crucial for progress in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, immune system engineering and therapeutic design. Here, we describe the significant advances that have been made in developing synthetic platforms (materials and devices) and synthetic cel...

  9. T cell receptor (TCR-transgenic CD8 lymphocytes rendered insensitive to transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ signaling mediate superior tumor regression in an animal model of adoptive cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quatromoni Jon G


    Full Text Available Abstract Tumor antigen-reactive T cells must enter into an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, continue to produce cytokine and deliver apoptotic death signals to affect tumor regression. Many tumors produce transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ, which inhibits T cell activation, proliferation and cytotoxicity. In a murine model of adoptive cell therapy, we demonstrate that transgenic Pmel-1 CD8 T cells, rendered insensitive to TGFβ by transduction with a TGFβ dominant negative receptor II (DN, were more effective in mediating regression of established B16 melanoma. Smaller numbers of DN Pmel-1 T cells effectively mediated tumor regression and retained the ability to produce interferon-γ in the tumor microenvironment. These results support efforts to incorporate this DN receptor in clinical trials of adoptive cell therapy for cancer.

  10. Ontogeny of catecholamine and adenosine receptor-mediated cAMP signaling of embryonic red blood cells: role of cGMP-inhibited phosphodiesterase 3 and hemoglobin. (United States)

    Baumann, R; Blass, C; Götz, R; Dragon, S


    We have previously shown that the cAMP signaling pathway controls major aspects of embryonic red blood cell (RBC) function in avian embryos (Glombitza et al, Am J Physiol 271:R973, 1996; and Dragon et al, Am J Physiol 271:R982, 1996) that are important for adaptation of the RBC gas transport properties to the progressive hypercapnia and hypoxia of later stages of avian embryonic development. Data about the ontogeny of receptor-mediated cAMP signaling are lacking. We have analyzed the response of primitive and definitive chick embryo RBC harvested from day 3 to 18 of development towards forskolin, beta-adrenergic, and A2 receptor agonists. The results show a strong response of immature definitive and primitive RBC to adenosine A2 and beta-adrenergic receptor agonists, which is drastically reduced in the last stage of development, coincident with the appearance of mature, transcriptionally inactive RBC. Modulation of cGMP-inhibited phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) has a controlling influence on cAMP accumulation in definitive RBC. Under physiological conditions, PDE3 is inhibited due to activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). Inhibition of sGC with the specific inhibitor ODQ decreases receptor-mediated stimulation of cAMP production; this effect is reversed by the PDE3 inhibitor milrinone. sGC is acitivated by nitric oxide (NO), but we found no evidence for production of NO by erythrocyte NO-synthase. However, embryonic hemoglobin releases NO in an oxygen-linked manner that may activate guanylyl cyclase.

  11. The Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor: Its Intracellular Signaling and Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yin


    Full Text Available The growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR, also known as the ghrelin receptor, is involved in mediating a wide variety of biological effects of ghrelin, including: stimulation of growth hormone release, increase of food intake and body weight, modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, regulation of gastrointestinal motility and secretion, protection of neuronal and cardiovascular cells, and regulation of immune function. Dependent on the tissues and cells, activation of GHSR may trigger a diversity of signaling mechanisms and subsequent distinct physiological responses. Distinct regulation of GHSR occurs at levels of transcription, receptor interaction and internalization. Here we review the current understanding on the intracellular signaling pathways of GHSR and its modulation. An overview of the molecular structure of GHSR is presented first, followed by the discussion on its signaling mechanisms. Finally, potential mechanisms regulating GHSR are reviewed.

  12. Epidermal growth factor-like domain-containing protein 7 (EGFL7 enhances EGF receptor-AKT signaling, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and metastasis of gastric cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-Hua Luo

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor-like domain-containing protein 7 (EGFL7 is upregulated in human epithelial tumors and so is a potential biomarker for malignancy. Indeed, previous studies have shown that high EGFL7 expression promotes infiltration and metastasis of gastric carcinoma. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT initiates the metastatic cascade and endows cancer cells with invasive and migratory capacity; however, it is not known if EGFL7 promotes metastasis by triggering EMT. We found that EGFL7 was overexpressed in multiple human gastric cancer (GC cell lines and that overexpression promoted cell invasion and migration as revealed by scratch wound and transwell migration assays. Conversely, shRNA-mediated EGFL7 knockdown reduced invasion and migration. Furthermore, EGFL7-overexpressing cells grew into larger tumors and were more likely to metastasize to the liver compared to underexpressing CG cells following subcutaneous injection in mice. EGFL7 overexpression protected GC cell lines against anoikis, providing a plausible mechanism for this enhanced metastatic capacity. In excised human gastric tumors, expression of EGFL7 was positively correlated with expression levels of the mesenchymal marker vimentin and the EMT-associated transcription repressor Snail, and negatively correlated with expression of the epithelial cell marker E-cadherin. In GC cell lines, EGFL7 knockdown reversed morphological signs of EMT and decreased both vimentin and Snail expression. In addition, EGFL7 overexpression promoted EGF receptor (EGFR and protein kinase B (AKT phospho-activation, effects markedly suppressed by the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478. Moreover, AG1478 also reduced the elevated invasive and migratory capacity of GC cell lines overexpressing EGFL7. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that EGFL7 promotes metastasis by activating EMT through an EGFR-AKT-Snail signaling pathway. Disruption of EGFL7-EGFR-AKT-Snail signaling may a

  13. Mycobacterial Signaling through Toll-like Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyoti eBasu


    Full Text Available Studies over the past decade have helped to decipher molecular networks dependent on Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling, in mycobacteria-infected macrophages. Stimulation of TLRs by mycobacteria and their antigenic components rapidly induces intracellular signaling cascades involved in the activation of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, which play important roles in orchestrating proinflammatory responses and innate defense through generation of a variety of antimicrobial effector molecules. Recent studies have provided evidence that mycobacterial TLR-signaling cross talks with other intracellular antimicrobial innate pathways, the autophagy process and functional vitamin D receptor signaling. In this article we describe recent advances in the recognition, responses, and regulation of mycobacterial signaling through TLRs.

  14. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits expression of receptors for T cell regulatory cytokines and their downstream signaling in mouse CD4+ T cells (United States)

    We previously showed a suppressive effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on T cell cycling and expansion as well as a paradoxical effect on IL-2 levels (up-regulating) and IL-2 receptor (IL-2R)alpha expression (down-regulating). Thus, in the current study we tested the hypothesis that EGCG aff...

  15. Post-translational glycoprotein modifications regulate colon cancer stem cells and colon adenoma progression in Apc(min/+) mice through altered Wnt receptor signaling. (United States)

    Guo, Huabei; Nagy, Tamas; Pierce, Michael


    Deletion of GnT-V (MGAT5), which synthesizes N-glycans with β(1,6)-branched glycans, reduced the compartment of cancer stem cells (CSC) in the her-2 mouse model of breast cancer, leading to delay of tumor onset. Because GnT-V levels are also commonly up-regulated in colon cancer, we investigated their regulation of colon CSC and adenoma development. Anchorage-independent cell growth and tumor formation induced by injection of colon tumor cells into NOD/SCID mice were positively associated with GnT-V levels, indicating regulation of proliferation and tumorigenicity. Using Apc(min/+) mice with different GnT-V backgrounds, knock-out of GnT-V had no significant effect on the number of adenoma/mouse, but adenoma size was significantly reduced and accompanied increased survival of Apc(min/+) mice with GnT-V deletion (p cells, we found that FZD-7 receptors expressed N-linked β(1,6) branching, indicating that FZD-7 can be modified by GnT-V. The aberrant Wnt signaling observed after modulating GnT-V levels is likely to result from altered N-linked β(1,6) branching on FZD-7, thereby affecting Wnt signaling, the compartment of CSC, and tumor progression.

  16. 17-Beta-estradiol inhibits transforming growth factor-beta signaling and function in breast cancer cells via activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase through the G protein-coupled receptor 30. (United States)

    Kleuser, Burkhard; Malek, Daniela; Gust, Ronald; Pertz, Heinz H; Potteck, Henrik


    Breast cancer development and breast cancer progression involves the deregulation of growth factors leading to uncontrolled cellular proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta plays a crucial role in breast cancer because it has the potential to act as either a tumor suppressor or a pro-oncogenic chemokine. A cross-communication between the TGF-beta signaling network and estrogens has been postulated, which is important for breast tumorigenesis. Here, we provide evidence that inhibition of TGF-beta signaling is associated with a rapid estrogen-dependent nongenomic action. Moreover, we were able to demonstrate that estrogens disrupt the TGF-beta signaling network as well as TGF-beta functions in breast cancer cells via the G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30). Silencing of GPR30 in MCF-7 cells completely reduced the ability of 17-beta-estradiol (E2) to inhibit the TGF-beta pathway. Likewise, in GPR30-deficient MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, E2 achieved the ability to suppress TGF-beta signaling only after transfection with GPR30-encoding plasmids. It is most interesting that the antiestrogen fulvestrant (ICI 182,780), which possesses agonistic activity at the GPR30, also diminished TGF-beta signaling. Further experiments attempted to characterize the molecular mechanism by which activated GPR30 inhibits the TGF-beta pathway. Our results indicate that GPR30 induces the stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which interferes with the activation of Smad proteins. Inhibition of MAPK activity prevented the ability of E2 from suppressing TGF-beta signaling. These findings are of great clinical relevance, because down-regulation of TGF-beta signaling is associated with the development of breast cancer resistance in response to antiestrogens.

  17. Wnt signaling and stem cell control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roel Nusse


    Wnt signaling has been implicated in the control over various types of stem cells and may act as a niche factor to maintain stem cells in a self-renewing state.As currently understood,Wnt proteins bind to receptors of the Frizzled and LRP families on the cell surface.Through several cytoplasmic relay components,the signal is transduced to B-catenin,which then enters the nucleus and forms a complex with TCF to activate transcription of Wnt target genes.Wnts can also signal through tyrosine kinase receptors,in particular the ROR and RYK receptors,leading to alternative modes of Wnt signaling.During the growth of tissues,these ligands and receptors are dynamically expressed,often transcriptionally controlled by Wnt signals themselves,to ensure the right balance between proliferation and differentiation.Isolated Wnt proteins are active on a variety of stem cells,including neural,mammary and embryonic stem cells.In general,Wnt proteins act to maintain the undifferentiated state of stem cells,while other growth factors instruct the cells to proliferate.These other factors include FGF and EGF,signaling through tyrosine kinase pathways.

  18. Glut1 promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion by regulating epidermal growth factor receptor and integrin signaling in triple-negative breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Oh, Sunhwa; Kim, Hyungjoo; Nam, KeeSoo; Shin, Incheol


    Elevated glucose levels in cancer cells can be attributed to increased levels of glucose transporter (GLUT) proteins. Glut1 expression is increased in human malignant cells. To investigate alternative roles of Glut1 in breast cancer, we silenced Glut1 in triple-negative breast-cancer cell lines using a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) system. Glut1 silencing was verified by Western blotting and qRT-PCR. Knockdown of Glut1 resulted in decreased cell proliferation, glucose uptake, migration, and invasion through modulation of the EGFR/ MAPK signaling pathway and integrin β1/Src/FAK signaling pathways. These results suggest that Glut1 not only plays a role as a glucose transporter, but also acts as a regulator of signaling cascades in the tumorigenesis of breast cancer. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(3): 132-137].

  19. The co-stimulatory effects of MyD88-dependent Toll-like receptor signaling on activation of murine γδ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Zhang

    Full Text Available γδ T cells express several different toll-like receptor (TLRs. The role of MyD88- dependent TLR signaling in TCR activation of murine γδ T cells is incompletely defined. Here, we report that Pam3CSK4 (PAM, TLR2 agonist and CL097 (TLR7 agonist, but not lipopolysaccharide (TLR4 agonist, increased CD69 expression and Th1-type cytokine production upon anti-CD3 stimulation of γδ T cells from young adult mice (6-to 10-week-old. However, these agonists alone did not induce γδ T cell activation. Additionally, we noted that neither PAM nor CL097 synergized with anti-CD3 in inducing CD69 expression on γδ T cells of aged mice (21-to 22-month-old. Compared to young γδ T cells, PAM and CL097 increased Th-1 type cytokine production with a lower magnitude from anti-CD3- stimulated, aged γδ T cells. Vγ1+ and Vγ4+ cells are two subpopulations of splenic γδ T cells. PAM had similar effects in anti-CD3-activated control and Vγ4+ subset- depleted γδ T cells; whereas CL097 induced more IFN-γ production from Vγ4+ subset-depleted γδ T cells than from the control group. Finally, we studied the role of MyD88-dependent TLRs in γδ T cell activation during West Nile virus (WNV infection. γδ T cell, in particular, Vγ1+ subset expansion was significantly reduced in both MyD88- and TLR7- deficient mice. Treatment with TLR7 agonist induced more Vγ1+ cell expansion in wild-type mice during WNV infection. In summary, these results suggest that MyD88-dependent TLRs provide co-stimulatory signals during TCR activation of γδ T cells and these have differential effects on distinct subsets.

  20. Cell confluence induces switching from proliferation to migratory signaling by site-selective phosphorylation of PDGF receptors on lipid raft platforms. (United States)

    Szöőr, Árpád; Ujlaky-Nagy, László; Tóth, Gábor; Szöllősi, János; Vereb, György


    Platelet derived growth factor receptors (PDGFR) play an important role in tumor pathogenesis and are frequently overexpressed in glioblastoma. Earlier we have shown that only confluent glioblastoma cell cultures exhibit a biphasic calcium transient upon PDGF stimulation. Here, we examined how the change in cell density leads to differential cellular responses to the same PDGF stimulus. PDGF beta receptors and their specific phosphotyrosine residues were fluorescently co-labeled on A172 and T98G glioblastoma cells. The distribution in cell membrane microdomains (lipid rafts) and the phosphorylation state of PDGFR was measured by confocal microscopy and quantitated by digital image processing. Corresponding bulk data were obtained by Western blotting. Activation of relevant downstream signaling pathways was assessed by immunofluorescence in confocal microscopy and by Western blot analysis. Functional outcomes were confirmed with bulk and single cell proliferation assays and motility measurements. In non-confluent (sparse) cultures PDGF-BB stimulation significantly increased phosphorylation of Tyr716 specific for the Ras/MAPK pathway and Tyr751 specific for the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway. As cell monolayers reached confluence, Tyr771 and Tyr1021 were the prominently phosphorylated residues. Tyr771 serves as adaptor for Ras-GAP, which inactivates the MAPK pathway, and Tyr1021 feeds into the phospholipase C-gamma/PKC pathway. Coherent with this, MAPK phosphorylation, Ki-67 positivity and proliferation dominated in dispersed cells, and could be abolished with inhibitors of the MAPK pathway. At the same time, RhoA activation, redistribution of cortactin to leading edges, and increased motility were the prominent output features in confluent cultures. Importantly, the stimulus-evoked confluence-specific changes in the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues occurred mainly in GM1-rich lipid microdomains (rafts). These observations suggest that the same stimulus is

  1. Signal co-operation between integrins and other receptor systems. (United States)

    Streuli, Charles H; Akhtar, Nasreen


    The multicellular nature of metazoans means that all cellular processes need to be tuned by adhesive interactions between cells and their local microenvironment. The spatial organization of cells within tissues requires sophisticated networks of extracellular signals to control their survival and proliferation, movements and positioning, and differentiated function. These cellular characteristics are mediated by multiple inputs from adhesion systems in combination with soluble and developmental signals. In the present review we explore how one class of adhesion receptor, the integrins, co-operate with other types of receptor to control diverse aspects of cell fate. In particular we discuss: (i) how beta3 and beta1 integrins work together with growth factors to control angiogenesis; (ii) how alpha6beta4 integrin co-operates with receptor tyrosine kinases in normal epithelial function and cancer; (iii) the interplay between beta1 integrins and EGF (epidermal growth factor) receptor; (iv) signal integration connecting integrins and cytokine receptors for interleukins, prolactin and interferons; and (v) how integrins and syndecans co-operate in cell migration.

  2. Signal transduction through the IL-4 and insulin receptor families. (United States)

    Wang, L M; Keegan, A; Frankel, M; Paul, W E; Pierce, J H


    Activation of tyrosine kinase-containing receptors and intracellular tyrosine kinases by ligand stimulation is known to be crucial for mediating initial and subsequent events involved in mitogenic signal transduction. Receptors for insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) contain cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domains that undergo autophosphorylation upon ligand stimulation. Activation of these receptors also leads to pronounced and rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) in cells of connective tissue origin. A related substrate, designated 4PS, is similarly phosphorylated by insulin and IGF-1 stimulation in many hematopoietic cell types. IRS-1 and 4PS possess a number of tyrosine phosphorylation sites that are within motifs that bind specific SH2-containing molecules known to be involved in mitogenic signaling such as PI-3 kinase, SHPTP-2 (Syp) and Grb-2. Thus, they appear to act as docking substrates for a variety of signaling molecules. The majority of hematopoietic cytokines bind to receptors that do not possess intrinsic kinase activity, and these receptors have been collectively termed as members of the hematopoietin receptor superfamily. Despite their lack of tyrosine kinase domains, stimulation of these receptors has been demonstrated to activate intracellular kinases leading to tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple substrates. Recent evidence has demonstrated that activation of different members of the Janus family of tyrosine kinases is involved in mediating tyrosine phosphorylation events by specific cytokines. Stimulation of the interleukin 4 (IL-4) receptor, a member of the hematopoietin receptor superfamily, is thought to result in activation of Jak1, Jak3, and/or Fes tyrosine kinases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. GABAB receptors modulate NMDA receptor calcium signals in dendritic spines. (United States)

    Chalifoux, Jason R; Carter, Adam G


    Metabotropic GABA(B) receptors play a fundamental role in modulating the excitability of neurons and circuits throughout the brain. These receptors influence synaptic transmission by inhibiting presynaptic release or activating postsynaptic potassium channels. However, their ability to directly influence different types of postsynaptic glutamate receptors remains unresolved. Here we examine GABA(B) receptor modulation in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons from the mouse prefrontal cortex. We use two-photon laser-scanning microscopy to study synaptic modulation at individual dendritic spines. Using two-photon optical quantal analysis, we first demonstrate robust presynaptic modulation of multivesicular release at single synapses. Using two-photon glutamate uncaging, we then reveal that GABA(B) receptors strongly inhibit NMDA receptor calcium signals. This postsynaptic modulation occurs via the PKA pathway and does not affect synaptic currents mediated by AMPA or NMDA receptors. This form of GABA(B) receptor modulation has widespread implications for the control of calcium-dependent neuronal function.

  4. Local BMP-SMAD1 Signaling Increases LIF Receptor-Dependent STAT3 Responsiveness and Primed-to-Naive Mouse Pluripotent Stem Cell Conversion Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kento Onishi


    Full Text Available Conversion of EpiSCs to naive ESCs is a rare event that is driven by the reestablishment of the naive transcription factor network. In mice, STAT3 activation is sufficient to drive conversion of EpiSCs to the naive pluripotent stem cell (PSC state. However, the lack of responsiveness of EpiSCs to LIF presents a bottleneck in this conversion process. Here, we demonstrate that local accumulation of BMP-SMAD1 signaling, in cooperation with GP130 ligands, enhances the recovery of LIF responsiveness by directly controlling transcription of the LIF receptor (Lif-r. Addition of BMP and LIF to EpiSCs increases both LIF responsiveness and conversion frequencies to naive PSCs. Mechanistically, we show that the transcriptional cofactor P300 plays a critical role by mediating complex formation between STAT3 and SMAD1. This demonstration of how the local microenvironment or stem cell niche reactivates dormant signaling responsiveness and developmental potential may be applicable to other stem cell niche-containing systems.

  5. Does a nonclassical signaling mechanism underlie an increase of estradiol-mediated gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor binding in ovine pituitary cells? (United States)

    Davis, Tracy L; Whitesell, Jennifer D; Cantlon, Jeremy D; Clay, Colin M; Nett, Terry M


    Estradiol-17beta (E2) is the major regulator of GnRH receptor (GnRHR) gene expression and number during the periovulatory period; however, the mechanisms underlying E2 regulation of the GNRHR gene remain undefined. Herein, we find that E2 conjugated to BSA (E2-BSA) mimics the stimulatory effect of E2 on GnRH binding in primary cultures of ovine pituitary cells. The time course for maximal GnRH analog binding was similar for both E2 and E2-BSA. The ability of E2 and E2-BSA to increase GnRH analog binding was blocked by the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182,780. Also, increased GnRH analog binding in response to E2 and the selective ESR1 agonist propylpyrazole triol was blocked by expression of a dominant-negative form of ESR1 (L540Q). Thus, membrane-associated ESR1 is the likely candidate for mediating E2 activation of the GNRHR gene. As cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is an established target for E2 activation in gonadotrophs, we next explored a potential role for this protein as an intracellular mediator of the E2 signal. Consistent with this possibility, adenoviral-mediated expression of a dominant-negative form of CREB (A-CREB) completely abolished the ability of E2 to increase GnRH analog binding in primary cultures of ovine pituitary cells. Finally, the presence of membrane-associated E2 binding sites on ovine pituitary cells was demonstrated using a fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate of E2-BSA. We suggest that E2 regulation of GnRHR number during the preovulatory period reflects a membrane site of action and may proceed through a nonclassical signaling mechanism, specifically a CREB-dependent pathway.

  6. Receptor downregulation and desensitization enhance the information processing ability of signalling receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resat Haluk


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to initiating signaling events, the activation of cell surface receptors also triggers regulatory processes that restrict the duration of signaling. Acute attenuation of signaling can be accomplished either via ligand-induced internalization of receptors (endocytic downregulation or via ligand-induced receptor desensitization. These phenomena have traditionally been viewed in the context of adaptation wherein the receptor system enters a refractory state in the presence of sustained ligand stimuli and thereby prevents the cell from over-responding to the ligand. Here we use the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR as model systems to respectively examine the effects of downregulation and desensitization on the ability of signaling receptors to decode time-varying ligand stimuli. Results Using a mathematical model, we show that downregulation and desensitization mechanisms can lead to tight and efficient input-output coupling thereby ensuring synchronous processing of ligand inputs. Frequency response analysis indicates that upstream elements of the EGFR and GPCR networks behave like low-pass filters with the system being able to faithfully transduce inputs below a critical frequency. Receptor downregulation and desensitization increase the filter bandwidth thereby enabling the receptor systems to decode inputs in a wider frequency range. Further, system-theoretic analysis reveals that the receptor systems are analogous to classical mechanical over-damped systems. This analogy enables us to metaphorically describe downregulation and desensitization as phenomena that make the systems more resilient in responding to ligand perturbations thereby improving the stability of the system resting state. Conclusion Our findings suggest that in addition to serving as mechanisms for adaptation, receptor downregulation and desensitization can play a critical role in temporal information

  7. Activation of ERK, JNK, Akt, and G-protein coupled signaling by hybrid angiotensin II AT1/bradykinin B2 receptors expressed in HEK-293 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jun; Lubinsky, David; Tsomaia, Natia;


    Bradykinin (BK) and angiotensin II (AngII) often have opposite roles in cardiovascular diseases. Our aim here was to construct hybrid receptors which bind AngII but signal as BK. Various sequences of the intracellular face of the AngII type I receptor, AT1R, were replaced with corresponding...

  8. Diverse FGF receptor signaling controls astrocyte specification and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyungjun [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Mi-Ryoung, E-mail: [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Bioimaging Research Center and Cell Dynamics Research Center, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)


    During CNS development, pluripotency neuronal progenitor cells give rise in succession to neurons and glia. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), a major signal that maintains neural progenitors in the undifferentiated state, is also thought to influence the transition from neurogenesis to gliogenesis. Here we present evidence that FGF receptors and underlying signaling pathways transmit the FGF-2 signals that regulate astrocyte specification aside from its mitogenic activity. Application of FGF-2 to cortical progenitors suppressed neurogenesis whereas treatment with an FGFR antagonist in vitro promoted neurogenesis. Introduction of chimeric FGFRs with mutated tyrosine residues into cortical progenitors and drug treatments to specifically block individual downstream signaling pathways revealed that the overall activity of FGFR rather than individual autophosphorylation sites is important for delivering signals for glial specification. In contrast, a signal for cell proliferation by FGFR was mainly delivered by MAPK pathway. Together our findings indicate that FGFR activity promotes astrocyte specification in the developing CNS.

  9. Constitutively active RAS signaling reduces 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D-mediated gene transcription in intestinal epithelial cells by reducing vitamin D receptor expression. (United States)

    DeSmet, Marsha L; Fleet, James C


    High vitamin D status is associated with reduced colon cancer risk but these studies ignore the diversity in the molecular etiology of colon cancer. RAS activating mutations are common in colon cancer and they activate pro-proliferative signaling pathways. We examined the impact of RAS activating mutations on 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D)-mediated gene expression in cultured colon and intestinal cell lines. Transient transfection of Caco-2 cells with a constitutively active mutant K-RAS (G12 V) significantly reduced 1,25(OH)2D-induced activity of both a human 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 24 hydroxyase (CYP24A1) promoter-luciferase and an artificial 3X vitamin D response element (VDRE) promoter-luciferase reporter gene. Young Adult Mouse Colon (YAMC) and Rat Intestinal Epithelial (RIE) cell lines with stable expression of mutant H-RAS had suppressed 1,25(OH)2D-mediated induction of CYP24A1 mRNA. The RAS effects were associated with lower Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA and protein levels in YAMC and RIE cells and they could be partially reversed by VDR overexpression. RAS-mediated suppression of VDR levels was not due to either reduced VDR mRNA stability or increased VDR gene methylation. However, chromatin accessibility to the VDR gene at the proximal promoter (-300bp), an enhancer region at -6kb, and an enhancer region located in exon 3 was significantly reduced in RAS transformed YAMC cells (YAMC-RAS). These data show that constitutively active RAS signaling suppresses 1,25(OH)2D-mediated gene transcription in colon epithelial cells by reducing VDR gene transcription but the mechanism for this suppression is not yet known. These data suggest that cancers with RAS-activating mutations may be less responsive to vitamin D mediated treatment or chemoprevention.

  10. Zinc sensing receptor signaling, mediated by GPR39, reduces butyrate-induced cell death in HT29 colonocytes via upregulation of clusterin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limor Cohen

    Full Text Available Zinc enhances epithelial proliferation, protects the digestive epithelial layer and has profound antiulcerative and antidiarrheal roles in the colon. Despite the clinical significance of this ion, the mechanisms linking zinc to these cellular processes are poorly understood. We have previously identified an extracellular Zn(2+ sensing G-protein coupled receptor (ZnR that activates Ca(2+ signaling in colonocytes, but its molecular identity as well as its effects on colonocytes' survival remained elusive. Here, we show that Zn(2+, by activation of the ZnR, protects HT29 colonocytes from butyrate induced cell death. Silencing of the G-protein coupled receptor GPR39 expression abolished ZnR-dependent Ca(2+ release and Zn(2+-dependent survival of butyrate-treated colonocytes. Importantly, GPR39 also mediated ZnR-dependent upregulation of Na(+/H(+ exchange activity as this activity was found in native colon tissue but not in tissue obtained from GPR39 knock-out mice. Although ZnR-dependent upregulation of Na(+/H(+ exchange reduced the cellular acid load induced by butyrate, it did not rescue HT29 cells from butyrate induced cell death. ZnR/GPR39 activation however, increased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein clusterin in butyrate-treated cells. Furthermore, silencing of clusterin abolished the Zn(2+-dependent survival of HT29 cells. Altogether, our results demonstrate that extracellular Zn(2+, acting through ZnR, regulates intracellular pH and clusterin expression thereby enhancing survival of HT29 colonocytes. Moreover, we identify GPR39 as the molecular moiety of ZnR in HT29 and native colonocytes.

  11. Of ITIMs, ITAMs, and ITAMis: revisiting immunoglobulin Fc receptor signaling. (United States)

    Getahun, Andrew; Cambier, John C


    Receptors for immunoglobulin Fc regions play multiple critical roles in the immune system, mediating functions as diverse as phagocytosis, triggering degranulation of basophils and mast cells, promoting immunoglobulin class switching, and preventing excessive activation. Transmembrane signaling associated with these functions is mediated primarily by two amino acid sequence motifs, ITAMs (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs) and ITIMs (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs) that act as the receptors' interface with activating and inhibitory signaling pathways, respectively. While ITAMs mobilize activating tyrosine kinases and their consorts, ITIMs mobilize opposing tyrosine and inositol-lipid phosphatases. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of signaling by these receptors/motifs and their sometimes blurred lines of function.

  12. Erythropoietin receptor signaling is membrane raft dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.L. McGraw (Kathy); G.M. Fuhler (Gwenny); J.O. Johnson (Joseph); J.A. Clark (Justine); G.C. Caceres (Gisela); L. Sokol (Lubomir); A.F. List (Alan)


    textabstractUpon erythropoietin (Epo) engagement, Epo-receptor (R) homodimerizes to activate JAK2 and Lyn, which phosphorylate STAT5. Although recent investigations have identified key negative regulators of Epo-R signaling, little is known about the role of membrane localization in controlling rece

  13. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule-Associated Polysialic Acid Regulates Synaptic Plasticity and Learning by Restraining the Signaling through GluN2B-Containing NMDA Receptors (United States)

    Kochlamazashvili, Gaga; Senkov, Oleg; Grebenyuk, Sergei; Robinson, Catrina; Xiao, Mei-Fang; Stummeyer, Katharina; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Engel, Andreas K.; Feig, Larry; Semyanov, Alexey; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu; Schachner, Melitta; Dityatev, Alexander


    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is the predominant carrier of α2,8 polysialic acid (PSA) in the mammalian brain. Abnormalities in PSA and NCAM expression are associated with schizophrenia in humans and cause deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and contextual fear conditioning in mice. Here, we show that PSA inhibits opening of recombinant NMDA receptors composed of GluN1/2B (NR1/NR2B) or GluN1/2A/2B (NR1/NR2A/NR2B) but not of GluN1/2A (NR1/NR2A) subunits. Deficits in NCAM/PSA increase GluN2B-mediated transmission and Ca2+ transients in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. In line with elevation of GluN2B-mediated transmission, defects in long-term potentiation in the CA1 region and contextual fear memory in NCAM/PSA-deficient mice are abrogated by application of a GluN2B-selective antagonist. Furthermore, treatment with the glutamate scavenger glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, ablation of Ras-GRF1 (a mediator of GluN2B signaling to p38 MAPK), or direct inhibition of hyperactive p38 MAPK can restore impaired synaptic plasticity in brain slices lacking PSA/NCAM. Thus, PSA carried by NCAM regulates plasticity and learning by inhibition of the GluN2B-Ras-GRF1-p38 MAPK signaling pathway. These findings implicate carbohydrates carried by adhesion molecules in modulating NMDA receptor signaling in the brain and demonstrate reversibility of cognitive deficits associated with ablation of a schizophrenia-related adhesion molecule. PMID:20237287

  14. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 controls lysosomal routing of G-CSF receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Irandoust (Mahban); L.H.J. Aarts (Bart); O. Roovers (Onno); J. Gits (Judith); S.J. Erkeland (Stefan); I.P. Touw (Ivo)


    textabstractThe hematopoietic system provides an attractive model for studying growth factor-controlled expansion and differentiation of cells in relation to receptor routing and its consequences for signal transduction. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins regulate receptor signaling pa

  15. Identification of amino acid residues involved in the interaction between measles virus Haemagglutin (MVH) and its human cell receptor (signaling lymphocyte activation molecule, SLAM). (United States)

    Xu, Qin; Zhang, Peng; Hu, Chunling; Liu, Xin; Qi, Yipeng; Liu, Yingle


    Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM; also known as CD150) is a newly identified cellular receptor for measles virus (MV). The interaction between MV Haemagglutin (MVH) and SLAM is an initial step for MV entry. We have identified several novel SLAM binding sites at residues S429, T436 and H437 of MVH protein and MVH mutants in these residues dramatically decrease the ability to interaction with the cell surface SLAM and fail to coprecipitation with SLAM in vivo as well as malfunction in syncytium formation. At the same time, K58, S59 and H61 of SLAM was also identified to be critical for MVH and SLAM binding. Further, these residues may be useful targets for the development of measles therapy.

  16. Ceramide, a mediator of interleukin 1, tumour necrosis factor α, as well as Fas receptor signalling, induces apoptosis of rheumatoid arthritis synovial cells


    Mizushima, N; Kohsaka, H.; Miyasaka, N


    OBJECTIVES—To examine the effects of ceramide, which is a lipid second messenger of cell surface receptors, including tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 1 (IL1), and Fas receptors, on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial cells.
METHODS—Synovial cells from RA patients and normal skin fibroblasts were cultured with cell permeable ceramide (C2-ceramide). Apoptosis was assessed by microscopic observation of morphological changes, nuclear staining, and DNA electrophoresis. DNA synthesis wa...

  17. Effects of cadmium on estrogen receptor mediated signaling and estrogen induced DNA synthesis in T47D human breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Zang, Yu; Odwin-Dacosta, Shelly; Yager, James D


    Cadmium (Cd) has been shown to bind to the human estrogen receptor (ER), yet studies on Cd's estrogenic effects have yielded inconsistent results. In this study, we investigated the effects of Cd on DNA synthesis and its simultaneous effects on both genomic (mediated by nuclear ER (nER)) and non-genomic (mediated by membrane-bound ER (mER)) signaling in human breast cancer derived T47D cells. No effects on DNA synthesis were observed for non-cytotoxic concentrations of CdCl(2) (0.1-1000 nM), and Cd did not increase progesterone receptor (PgR) or pS2 mRNA levels. However, Cd stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 MAPK, detectable following 10 min and 18 h of treatment. The sustained Cd-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI 182,780, suggesting the involvement of ER. In addition, Cd enhanced DNA synthesis and pS2 mRNA levels in estrogen (10 pM estradiol) treated T47D cells. The MEK1/2 specific inhibitor U0126 blocked DNA synthesis stimulated by estradiol (E2) and the E2-Cd mixtures. These findings indicate that the ERK1/2 signaling is critical in E2-related DNA synthesis. The sustained ERK1/2 phosphorylation may contribute to the Cd-induced enhancement of DNA synthesis and pS2 mRNA in mixture with low-concentration E2.

  18. The evolution of natural killer cell receptors. (United States)

    Carrillo-Bustamante, Paola; Keşmir, Can; de Boer, Rob J


    Natural killer (NK) cells are immune cells that play a crucial role against viral infections and tumors. To be tolerant against healthy tissue and simultaneously attack infected cells, the activity of NK cells is tightly regulated by a sophisticated array of germline-encoded activating and inhibiting receptors. The best characterized mechanism of NK cell activation is "missing self" detection, i.e., the recognition of virally infected or transformed cells that reduce their MHC expression to evade cytotoxic T cells. To monitor the expression of MHC-I on target cells, NK cells have monomorphic inhibitory receptors which interact with conserved MHC molecules. However, there are other NK cell receptors (NKRs) encoded by gene families showing a remarkable genetic diversity. Thus, NKR haplotypes contain several genes encoding for receptors with activating and inhibiting signaling, and that vary in gene content and allelic polymorphism. But if missing-self detection can be achieved by a monomorphic NKR system why have these polygenic and polymorphic receptors evolved? Here, we review the expansion of NKR receptor families in different mammal species, and we discuss several hypotheses that possibly underlie the diversification of the NK cell receptor complex, including the evolution of viral decoys, peptide sensitivity, and selective MHC-downregulation.

  19. IgE receptor signaling in food allergy pathogenesis. (United States)

    Oettgen, Hans C; Burton, Oliver T


    The pathogenesis of food allergy remains poorly understood. Recent advances in the use of murine models have led to discoveries that mast cells and IgE receptor signaling not only drive immediate hypersensitivity reactions but also exert an immunoregulatory function, promoting the development of allergic sensitivity to foods. We review the evidence that IgE, IgE receptors, key signaling kinases and mast cells impair oral tolerance to ingested foods, preventing the induction of regulatory T cells (Treg) and promoting the acquisition of pro-allergic T helper (Th) 2 responses. We discuss innovative strategies that that could be implemented to counteract these immunoregulatory effects of IgE-mediated mast cell activation, and potentially reverse established sensitization, curing food allergy.

  20. Heat shock protein-27 attenuates foam cell formation and atherogenesis by down-regulating scavenger receptor-A expression via NF-κB signaling. (United States)

    Raizman, Joshua E; Chen, Yong-Xiang; Seibert, Tara; Hibbert, Benjamin; Cuerrier, Charles M; Salari, Samira; Zhao, Xiaoling; Hu, Tieqiang; Shi, Chunhua; Ma, Xiaoli; Simard, Trevor; Caravaggio, Justin; Rayner, Katey; Bowdish, Dawn; Moore, Kathryn; O'Brien, Edward R


    Previously, we showed an inverse correlation between HSP27 serum levels and experimental atherogenesis in ApoE(-/-) mice that over-express HSP27 and speculated that the apparent binding of HSP27 to scavenger receptor-A (SR-A) was of mechanistic importance in attenuating foam cell formation. However, the nature and importance of the interplay between HSP27 and SR-A in atheroprotection remained unclear. Treatment of THP-1 macrophages with recombinant HSP27 (rHSP27) inhibited acLDL binding (-34%; p<0.005) and uptake (-38%, p<0.05). rHSP27 reduced SR-A mRNA (-39%, p=0.02), total protein (-56%, p=0.01) and cell surface (-53%, p<0.001) expression. The reduction in SR-A expression by rHSP27 was associated with a 4-fold increase in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling (p<0.001 versus control), while an inhibitor of NF-κB signaling, BAY11-7082, attenuated the negative effects of rHSP27 on both SR-A expression and lipid uptake. To determine if SR-A is required for HSP27 mediated atheroprotection in vivo, ApoE(-/-) and ApoE(-/-) SR-A(-/-) mice fed with a high fat diet were treated for 3weeks with rHSP25. Compared to controls, rHSP25 therapy reduced aortic en face and aortic sinus atherosclerotic lesion size in ApoE(-/-) mice by 39% and 36% (p<0.05), respectively, but not in ApoE(-/-)SR-A(-/-) mice. In conclusion, rHSP27 diminishes SR-A expression, resulting in attenuated foam cell formation in vitro. Regulation of SR-A by HSP27 may involve the participation of NF-κB signaling. Lastly, SR-A is required for HSP27-mediated atheroprotection in vivo.

  1. p53 amplifies Toll-like receptor 5 response in human primary and cancer cells through interaction with multiple signal transduction pathways. (United States)

    Shatz, Maria; Shats, Igor; Menendez, Daniel; Resnick, Michael A


    The p53 tumor suppressor regulates transcription of genes associated with diverse cellular functions including apoptosis, growth arrest, DNA repair and differentiation. Recently, we established that p53 can modulate expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) innate immunity genes but the degree of cross-talk between p53 and TLR pathways remained unclear. Here, using gene expression profiling we characterize the global effect of p53 on the TLR5-mediated transcription in MCF7 cells. We found that combined activation of p53 and TLR5 pathways synergistically increases expression of over 200 genes, mostly associated with immunity and inflammation. The synergy was observed in several human cancer cells and primary lymphocytes. The p53-dependent amplification of transcriptional response to TLR5 activation required expression of NFκB subunit p65 and was mediated by several molecular mechanisms including increased phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, PI3K and STAT3 signaling. Additionally, p53 induction increased cytokine expression in response to TNFα, another activator of NFκB and MAP kinase pathways, suggesting a broad interaction between p53 and these signaling pathways. The expression of many synergistically induced genes is elevated in breast cancer patients responsive to chemotherapy. We suggest that p53's capacity to enhance immune response could be exploited to increase antitumor immunity and to improve cancer treatment.

  2. Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor signaling is necessary for microglia viability, unmasking a microglia progenitor cell in the adult brain. (United States)

    Elmore, Monica R P; Najafi, Allison R; Koike, Maya A; Dagher, Nabil N; Spangenberg, Elizabeth E; Rice, Rachel A; Kitazawa, Masashi; Matusow, Bernice; Nguyen, Hoa; West, Brian L; Green, Kim N


    The colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) is a key regulator of myeloid lineage cells. Genetic loss of the CSF1R blocks the normal population of resident microglia in the brain that originates from the yolk sac during early development. However, the role of CSF1R signaling in microglial homeostasis in the adult brain is largely unknown. To this end, we tested the effects of selective CSF1R inhibitors on microglia in adult mice. Surprisingly, extensive treatment results in elimination of ∼99% of all microglia brain-wide, showing that microglia in the adult brain are physiologically dependent upon CSF1R signaling. Mice depleted of microglia show no behavioral or cognitive abnormalities, revealing that microglia are not necessary for these tasks. Finally, we discovered that the microglia-depleted brain completely repopulates with new microglia within 1 week of inhibitor cessation. Microglial repopulation throughout the CNS occurs through proliferation of nestin-positive cells that then differentiate into microglia.

  3. p53 amplifies Toll-like receptor 5 response in human primary and cancer cells through interaction with multiple signal transduction pathways (United States)

    Shatz, Maria; Shats, Igor; Menendez, Daniel; Resnick, Michael A.


    The p53 tumor suppressor regulates transcription of genes associated with diverse cellular functions including apoptosis, growth arrest, DNA repair and differentiation. Recently, we established that p53 can modulate expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) innate immunity genes but the degree of cross-talk between p53 and TLR pathways remained unclear. Here, using gene expression profiling we characterize the global effect of p53 on the TLR5-mediated transcription in MCF7 cells. We found that combined activation of p53 and TLR5 pathways synergistically increases expression of over 200 genes, mostly associated with immunity and inflammation. The synergy was observed in several human cancer cells and primary lymphocytes. The p53-dependent amplification of transcriptional response to TLR5 activation required expression of NFκB subunit p65 and was mediated by several molecular mechanisms including increased phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, PI3K and STAT3 signaling. Additionally, p53 induction increased cytokine expression in response to TNFα, another activator of NFκB and MAP kinase pathways, suggesting a broad interaction between p53 and these signaling pathways. The expression of many synergistically induced genes is elevated in breast cancer patients responsive to chemotherapy. We suggest that p53's capacity to enhance immune response could be exploited to increase antitumor immunity and to improve cancer treatment. PMID:26220208

  4. Orexin A modulates INS-1E cell proliferation and insulin secretion via extracellular signal-regulated kinase and transient receptor potential channels. (United States)

    Skrzypski, M; Khajavi, N; Mergler, S; Billert, M; Szczepankiewicz, D; Wojciechowicz, T; Nowak, K W; Strowski, M Z


    Orexins A (OXA) and B (OXB) control energy homeostasis by regulating food intake, energy expenditure and sleep-wake cycle. Several studies showed that OXA stimulates insulin secretion and proliferation of beta cells. However, mechanisms of action are still not well understood. Here, we investigated whether ERK and transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) play a role in mediating the effect of OXA on cell growth, insulin production, and secretion using the established INS-1E cell line. Cell proliferation was measured using BrdU assay. Insulin mRNA expression was detected by real-time PCR. Insulin secretion was assessed using ELISA. Intracellular calcium levels were measured using fluorescence calcium imaging (fura-2/AM). Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation was detected by Western blot. TRP channel activity was blocked by lanthanum (III) chloride (La(3+); 100 - 300 μM) or ruthenium red (RuR; 10 μM). OXA (100 nM) stimulated INS-1E cell proliferation, insulin secretion, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, without changing insulin mRNA expression. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by 10 μM U0126 attenuated OXA-stimulated INS-1E cell proliferation. Blockade of TRP channel activity by La(3+) or RuR rendered OXA ineffective at modulating Ca(2+) regulation and insulin release. In contrast, the L-type channel blocker nifedipine (10 μM) failed to affect OXA-stimulated insulin release. Taken together, OXA increases INS-1E cell proliferation via ERK1/2-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, OXA stimulates insulin secretion from INS-1E cells. TRPs are relevant for OXA-stimulated insulin secretion and intracellular calcium regulation.

  5. Synergistic Inhibitory Effects of Cetuximab and Cisplatin on Human Colon Cancer Cell Growth via Inhibition of the ERK-Dependent EGF Receptor Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ju Son


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticancer efficacy of cetuximab combined with cisplatin (combination treatment on colon cancer growth, as well as its underlying action mechanism. Combination treatment synergistically potentiated the effect of cetuximab on cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in HCT116 and SW480 cells. Combination treatment further suppressed the expression of the activated form of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and MAP kinase (p-ERK and p-p38 and also significantly inhibited the activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB. Additionally, the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and interleukin-8 (IL-8 mRNA was significantly reduced by the combination treatment as compared to the expression seen for treatment with cetuximab or cisplatin alone. We found that the synergistic inhibitory effects of cetuximab and cisplatin on AP-1 and NF-κB activation, as well as on cell viability, were reversed by pretreatment with an ERK inhibitor. Results demonstrate that combined treatment with cetuximab and cisplatin exerts synergistic anticancer effects on colon cancer cells and also suggest that the ERK pathway plays a critical role in these effects via the suppression of the EGFR signaling pathway, along with the inhibition of COX-2, IL-8, and AP-1 and NF-κB.

  6. Radically altered T cell receptor signaling in glycopeptide-specific T cell hybridoma induced by antigen with minimal differences in the glycan group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Nielsen, M; Gad, Monika;


    A T cell hybridoma raised against the synthetic glycopeptide T(72)(Tn) was used to study whether the initial TCR signaling events are markedly different when the hybridoma is stimulated with glycopeptides closely related to the cognate glycopeptide antigen. T(72)(Tn) has an alpha-D-GalNAc group O...

  7. Coupling of the p75 neurotrophin receptor to sphingolipid signaling. (United States)

    Dobrowsky, R T; Carter, B D


    The neurotrophins are a family of growth factors involved in the survival and differentiation of specific populations of neurons and glial cells. Many of the trophic signals elicited by neurotrophins are initiated by the binding of these molecules to various Trk tyrosine kinase receptors. In contrast, recent data suggest that neurotrophin-mediated death signals are generated through the interaction of nerve growth factor with the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor, p75NTR, Neurotrophins may signal through p75NTR by stimulating sphingomyelin hydrolysis and generating ceramide in primary cultures of neurons and glial cells as well as in fibroblasts heterologously expressing p75NTR. The biochemical characteristics of p75NTR-dependent ceramide generation are discussed relative to the role of ceramide in p75NTR-dependent apoptosis and the activation of NF-kappa B.

  8. Signal transduction in Dictyostelium fgd A mutants with a defective interaction between surface cAMP receptors and a GTP-binding regulatory protein [published erratum appears in J Cell Biol 1988 Dec;107(6 Pt 1):following 2463



    Transmembrane signal transduction was investigated in four Dictyostelium discoideum mutants that belong to the fgd A complementation group. The results show the following. (a) Cell surface cAMP receptors are present in fgd A mutants, but cAMP does not induce any of the intracellular responses, including the activation of adenylate or guanylate cyclase and chemotaxis. (b) cAMP induces down- regulation and the covalent modification (presumably phosphorylation) of the cAMP receptor. (c) The inhi...

  9. Hypoxia perturbs aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 in human skin and liver-derived cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorrink, Sabine U. [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Severson, Paul L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Kulak, Mikhail V. [Department of Surgery, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Futscher, Bernard W. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Domann, Frederick E., E-mail: [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Surgery, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)


    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an important mediator of toxic responses after exposure to xenobiotics including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Activation of AhR responsive genes requires AhR dimerization with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), a heterodimeric partner also shared by the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. TCDD-stimulated AhR transcriptional activity can be influenced by hypoxia; however, it less well known whether hypoxia interferes with AhR transcriptional transactivation in the context of PCB-mediated AhR activation in human cells. Elucidation of this interaction is important in liver hepatocytes which extensively metabolize ingested PCBs and experience varying degrees of oxygen tension during normal physiologic function. This study was designed to assess the effect of hypoxia on AhR transcriptional responses after exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126). Exposure to 1% O{sub 2} prior to PCB 126 treatment significantly inhibited CYP1A1 mRNA and protein expression in human HepG2 and HaCaT cells. CYP1A1 transcriptional activation was significantly decreased upon PCB 126 stimulation under conditions of hypoxia. Additionally, hypoxia pre-treatment reduced PCB 126 induced AhR binding to CYP1 target gene promoters. Importantly, ARNT overexpression rescued cells from the inhibitory effect of hypoxia on XRE-luciferase reporter activity. Therefore, the mechanism of interference of the signaling crosstalk between the AhR and hypoxia pathways appears to be at least in part dependent on ARNT availability. Our results show that AhR activation and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 were significantly inhibited by hypoxia and hypoxia might therefore play an important role in PCB metabolism and toxicity. - Highlights: • Significant crosstalk exists between AhR and HIF-1α signaling. • Hypoxia perturbs PCB 126 induced AhR function and

  10. Role of inositol phospholipid signaling in natural killer cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew eGumbleton


    Full Text Available Natural Killer (NK cells are important in the host defense against malignancy and infection. At a cellular level NK cells are activated when signals from activating receptors exceed signaling from inhibitory receptors. At a molecular level NK cells undergo an education process to prevent autoimmunity. Mouse models have shown important roles for inositol phospholipid signaling in lymphocytes. NK cells from mice with deletion in different members of the PI3K signaling pathway have defective development, natural killer cell repertoire expression (NKRR and effector function. Here we review the role of inositol phospholipid signaling in NK cell biology.

  11. Functional status and relationships of melanocortin 1 receptor signaling to the cAMP and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 pathways in human melanoma cells. (United States)

    Herraiz, Cecilia; Journé, Fabrice; Ghanem, Ghanem; Jiménez-Cervantes, Celia; García-Borrón, José C


    Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a major determinant of skin phototype frequently mutated in melanoma, is a Gs protein-coupled receptor that regulates pigment production in melanocytes. MC1R stimulation activates cAMP synthesis and the extracellular signal-regulated (ERK) ERK1 and ERK2. In human melanocytes, ERK activation by MC1R relies on cAMP-independent transactivation of the c-KIT receptor. Thus MC1R functional coupling to the cAMP and ERK pathways may involve different structural requirements giving raise to biased effects of skin cancer-associated mutations. We evaluated the impact of MC1R mutations on ERK activation, cAMP production and agonist binding. We found that MC1R mutations impair cAMP production much more often than ERK activation, suggesting less stringent requirements for functional coupling to the ERK pathway. We examined the crosstalk of the cAMP and ERK pathways in HBL human melanoma cells (wild-type for MC1R, NRAS and BRAF). ERK activation by constitutively active upstream effectors or pharmacological inhibition had little effect on MC1R-stimulated cAMP synthesis. High cAMP levels were compatible with normal ERK activation but, surprisingly, the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin abolished ERK activation by MC1R, most likely by a cAMP-independent mechanism. These results indicate little crosstalk of the cAMP and ERK pathways in HBL melanoma cells. Finally, we studied cAMP accumulation in a panel of 22 human melanoma cell lines stimulated with MC1R agonists or forskolin. cAMP synthesis was often inhibited, even in cells wild-type for MC1R and NRAS. Therefore, the cAMP pathway is more frequently impaired in melanoma than could be predicted by the MC1R or NRAS genotype.

  12. Treatment with bisphenol A and methoxychlor results in the growth of human breast cancer cells and alteration of the expression of cell cycle-related genes, cyclin D1 and p21, via an estrogen receptor-dependent signaling pathway. (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Rim; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Min-Ah; Yi, Bo-Rim; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Choi, Kyung-Chul


    Various endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds found in the environment and have the potential to interfere with the endocrine system and hormonal regulation. Among EDCs, bisphenol A (BPA) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxyphenol)-ethane [methoxychlor (MXC)] have estrogenic activity resulting in a variety of dysfunctions in the E2-mediated response by binding to estrogen receptors (ERs), causing human health problems such as abnormal reproduction and carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of BPA and MXC on cell proliferation facilitated by ER signaling in human breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells are known to be ERα-positive and to be a highly E2-responsive cancer cell line; these cells are, therefore, a useful in vitro model for detecting estrogenic activity in response to EDCs. We evaluated cancer cell proliferation following BPA and MXC treatment using an MTT assay. We analyzed alterations in the expression of genes associated with the cell cycle in MCF-7 cells by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR following treatment with BPA or MXC compared to EtOH. To determine whether BPA and MXC stimulate cancer cell growth though ER signaling, we co-treated the cells with agonists (propyl pyrazoletriol, PPT; and diarylpropionitrile, DPN) or an antagonist (ICI 182,780) of ER signaling and reduced ERα gene expression via siRNA in MCF-7 cells before treatment with EDCs. These studies confirmed the carcinogenicity of EDCs in vitro. As a result, BPA and MXC induced the cancer cell proliferation by the upregulation of genes that promote the cell cycle and the downregulation of anti-proliferative genes, especially ones affecting the G1/S transition via ERα signaling. These collective results confirm the carcinogenicity of these EDCs in vitro. Further studies are required to determine whether EDCs promote carcinogenesis in vivo.

  13. Hypoxia perturbs aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 in human skin and liver-derived cell lines. (United States)

    Vorrink, Sabine U; Severson, Paul L; Kulak, Mikhail V; Futscher, Bernard W; Domann, Frederick E


    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an important mediator of toxic responses after exposure to xenobiotics including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Activation of AhR responsive genes requires AhR dimerization with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), a heterodimeric partner also shared by the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. TCDD-stimulated AhR transcriptional activity can be influenced by hypoxia; however, it less well known whether hypoxia interferes with AhR transcriptional transactivation in the context of PCB-mediated AhR activation in human cells. Elucidation of this interaction is important in liver hepatocytes which extensively metabolize ingested PCBs and experience varying degrees of oxygen tension during normal physiologic function. This study was designed to assess the effect of hypoxia on AhR transcriptional responses after exposure to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126). Exposure to 1% O2 prior to PCB 126 treatment significantly inhibited CYP1A1 mRNA and protein expression in human HepG2 and HaCaT cells. CYP1A1 transcriptional activation was significantly decreased upon PCB 126 stimulation under conditions of hypoxia. Additionally, hypoxia pre-treatment reduced PCB 126 induced AhR binding to CYP1 target gene promoters. Importantly, ARNT overexpression rescued cells from the inhibitory effect of hypoxia on XRE-luciferase reporter activity. Therefore, the mechanism of interference of the signaling crosstalk between the AhR and hypoxia pathways appears to be at least in part dependent on ARNT availability. Our results show that AhR activation and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 were significantly inhibited by hypoxia and hypoxia might therefore play an important role in PCB metabolism and toxicity.

  14. Ligand-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 triggers internalization and signaling in intestinal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parhamifar, Ladan; Sime, Wondossen; Yudina, Yuliana;


    Leukotriene D(4) (LTD(4)) belongs to the bioactive lipid group known as eicosanoids and has implications in pathological processes such as inflammation and cancer. Leukotriene D(4) exerts its effects mainly through two different G-protein-coupled receptors, CysLT(1) and CysLT(2). The high affinity...

  15. Conjugated Bilirubin Differentially Regulates CD4+ T Effector Cells and T Regulatory Cell Function through Outside-In and Inside-Out Mechanisms: The Effects of HAV Cell Surface Receptor and Intracellular Signaling (United States)

    Corral-Jara, Karla F.; Gómez-Leyva, Juan F.; Rosenstein, Yvonne; Jose-Abrego, Alexis; Roman, Sonia


    We recently reported an immune-modulatory role of conjugated bilirubin (CB) in hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. During this infection the immune response relies on CD4+ T lymphocytes (TLs) and it may be affected by the interaction of HAV with its cellular receptor (HAVCR1/TIM-1) on T cell surface. How CB might affect T cell function during HAV infection remains to be elucidated. Herein, in vitro stimulation of CD4+ TLs from healthy donors with CB resulted in a decrease in the degree of intracellular tyrosine phosphorylation and an increase in the activity of T regulatory cells (Tregs) expressing HAVCR1/TIM-1. A comparison between CD4+ TLs from healthy donors and HAV-infected patients revealed changes in the TCR signaling pathway relative to changes in CB levels. The proportion of CD4+CD25+ TLs increased in patients with low CB serum levels and an increase in the percentage of Tregs expressing HAVCR1/TIM-1 was found in HAV-infected patients relative to controls. A low frequency of 157insMTTTVP insertion in the viral receptor gene HAVCR1/TIM-1 was found in patients and controls. Our data revealed that, during HAV infection, CB differentially regulates CD4+ TLs and Tregs functions by modulating intracellular pathways and by inducing changes in the proportion of Tregs expressing HAVCR1/TIM-1. PMID:27578921

  16. Minocycline suppresses interleukine-6, its receptor system and signaling pathways and impairs migration, invasion and adhesion capacity of ovarian cancer cells: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Ataie-Kachoie

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-6 has been shown to be a major contributing factor in growth and progression of ovarian cancer. The cytokine exerts pro-tumorigenic activity through activation of several signaling pathways in particular signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2. Hence, targeting IL-6 is becoming increasingly attractive as a treatment option in ovarian cancer. Here, we investigated the effects of minocycline on IL-6 and its signaling pathways in ovarian cancer. In vitro, minocycline was found to significantly suppress both constitutive and IL-1β or 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OH-E2-stimulated IL-6 expression in human ovarian cancer cells; OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and CAOV-3. Moreover, minocycline down-regulated two major components of IL-6 receptor system (IL-6Rα and gp130 and blocked the activation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways leading to suppression of the downstream product MCL-1. In female nude mice bearing intraperitoneal OVCAR-3 tumors, acute administration (4 and 24 h of minocycline (30 mg/kg led to suppression of IL-6. Even single dose of minocycline was effective at significantly lowering plasma and tumor IL-6 levels. In line with this, tumoral expression of p-STAT3, p-ERK1/2 and MCL-1 were decreased in minocycline-treated mice. Evaluation of the functional implication of minocycline on metastatic activity revealed the capacity of minocycline to inhibit cellular migration, invasion and adhesion associated with down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and 9. Thus, the data suggest a potential role for minocycline in suppressing IL-6 expression and activity. These effects may prove to be an important attribute to the upcoming clinical trials of minocycline in ovarian cancer.

  17. Inhibitors of PI(4,5)P2 synthesis reveal dynamic regulation of IgE receptor signaling by phosphoinositides in RBL mast cells. (United States)

    Santos, Marcela de Souza; Naal, Rose Mary Zumstein Georgetto; Baird, Barbara; Holowka, David


    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is a versatile phospholipid that participates in many membrane-associated signaling processes. PI(4,5)P2 production at the plasma membrane (PM) depends on levels of its precursor, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), synthesized principally by two intracellular enzymes, PI4-kinases IIIα and IIIb; the former is preferentially inhibited by phenylarsine oxide (PAO). We found that PAO and quercetin, another lipid kinase inhibitor, rapidly inhibit Ca(2+) responses to antigen in IgE-sensitized rat basophilic leukemia mast cells. Quercetin also rapidly inhibits store-operated Ca(2+) influx stimulated by thapsigargin. In addition, quercetin and PAO effectively inhibit antigen-stimulated ruffling and spreading in these cells, and they inhibit endocytosis of crosslinked IgE receptor complexes, evidently by inhibiting pinching off of endocytic vesicles containing the clustered IgE receptors. A minimal model to account for these diverse effects is inhibition of PI(4,5)P2 synthesis by PAO and quercetin. To characterize the direct effects of these agents on PI(4,5)P2 synthesis, we monitored the reappearance of the PI(4,5)P2-specific PH domain PH-phospholipase C δ-EGFP at the PM after Ca(2+) ionophore (A23187)-induced PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis, followed by Ca(2+) chelation with excess EGTA. Resynthesized PI(4,5)P2 initially appears as micron-sized patches near the PM. Addition of quercetin subsequent to A23187-induced PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis reduces PI(4,5)P2 resynthesis in PM-associated patches, and PAO reduces PI(4,5)P2 at the PM while enhancing PI(4,5)P2 accumulation at the Golgi complex. Taken together, these results provide evidence that PI4P generated by PI4-kinase IIIα is dynamically coupled to PI(4,5)P2 pools at the PM that are important for downstream signaling processes activated by IgE receptors.

  18. Oncogenic K-Ras Signals through Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Wild-Type H-Ras to Promote Radiation Survival in Pancreatic and Colorectal Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A. Cengel


    Full Text Available Pancreatic and colorectal carcinomas frequently express oncogenic/mutant K-Ras that contributes to both tumorigenesis and clinically observed resistance to radiation treatment. We have previously shown that farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTI radiosensitize many pancreatic and colorectal cancer cell lines that express oncogenic K-ras at doses that inhibit the prenylation and activation of H-Ras but not K-Ras. In the present study, we have examined the mechanism of FTI-mediated radiosensitization in cell lines that express oncogenic K-Ras and found that wild-type H-Ras is a contributor to radiation survival in tumor cells that express oncogenic K-Ras. In these experiments, inhibiting the expression of oncogenic K-Ras, wild-type H-Ras, or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR led to similar levels of radiosensitization as treatment with the FTI tipifarnib. Treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib led to similar levels of radiosensitization, and the combinations of tipifarnib or gefitinib plus inhibition of K-Ras, H-Ras, or EGFR expression did not provide additional radiosensitization compared with tipifarnib or gefitinib alone. Finally, supplementing culture medium with the EGFR ligand transforming growth factor o was able to reverse the radiosensitizing effect of inhibiting K-ras expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that EGFRactivated H-Ras signaling is initiated by oncogenic K-Ras to promote radiation survival in pancreatic and colorectal cancers.

  19. Oncogenic K-Ras Signals through Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Wild-Type H-Ras to Promote Radiation Survival in Pancreatic and Colorectal Carcinoma Cells1 (United States)

    Cengel, Keith A.; Voong, K. Rahn; Chandrasekaran, Sanjay; Maggiorella, Laurence; Brunner, Thomas B.; Stanbridge, Eric; Kao, Gary D.; McKenna, W. Gillies; Bernhard, Eric J.


    Pancreatic and colorectal carcinomas frequently express oncogenic/mutant K-Ras that contributes to both tumorigenesis and clinically observed resistance to radiation treatment. We have previously shown that farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTI) radiosensitize many pancreatic and colorectal cancer cell lines that express oncogenic K-ras at doses that inhibit the prenylation and activation of H-Ras but not K-Ras. In the present study, we have examined the mechanism of FTI-mediated radiosensitization in cell lines that express oncogenic K-Ras and found that wild-type H-Ras is a contributor to radiation survival in tumor cells that express oncogenic K-Ras. In these experiments, inhibiting the expression of oncogenic K-Ras, wild-type H-Ras, or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) led to similar levels of radiosensitization as treatment with the FTI tipifarnib. Treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib led to similar levels of radiosensitization, and the combinations of tipifarnib or gefitinib plus inhibition of K-Ras, H-Ras, or EGFR expression did not provide additional radiosensitization compared with tipifarnib or gefitinib alone. Finally, supplementing culture medium with the EGFR ligand transforming growth factor α was able to reverse the radiosensitizing effect of inhibiting K-ras expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that EGFR-activated H-Ras signaling is initiated by oncogenic K-Ras to promote radiation survival in pancreatic and colorectal cancers. PMID:17460778

  20. Oncogenic K-Ras signals through epidermal growth factor receptor and wild-type H-Ras to promote radiation survival in pancreatic and colorectal carcinoma cells. (United States)

    Cengel, Keith A; Voong, K Rahn; Chandrasekaran, Sanjay; Maggiorella, Laurence; Brunner, Thomas B; Stanbridge, Eric; Kao, Gary D; McKenna, W Gillies; Bernhard, Eric J


    Pancreatic and colorectal carcinomas frequently express oncogenic/mutant K-Ras that contributes to both tumorigenesis and clinically observed resistance to radiation treatment. We have previously shown that farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTI) radiosensitize many pancreatic and colorectal cancer cell lines that express oncogenic K-ras at doses that inhibit the prenylation and activation of H-Ras but not K-Ras. In the present study, we have examined the mechanism of FTI-mediated radiosensitization in cell lines that express oncogenic K-Ras and found that wild-type H-Ras is a contributor to radiation survival in tumor cells that express oncogenic K-Ras. In these experiments, inhibiting the expression of oncogenic K-Ras, wild-type H-Ras, or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) led to similar levels of radiosensitization as treatment with the FTI tipifarnib. Treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib led to similar levels of radiosensitization, and the combinations of tipifarnib or gefitinib plus inhibition of K-Ras, H-Ras, or EGFR expression did not provide additional radiosensitization compared with tipifarnib or gefitinib alone. Finally, supplementing culture medium with the EGFR ligand transforming growth factor alpha was able to reverse the radiosensitizing effect of inhibiting K-ras expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that EGFR-activated H-Ras signaling is initiated by oncogenic K-Ras to promote radiation survival in pancreatic and colorectal cancers.

  1. Nerve growth factor blocks the glucose-induced down-regulation of caveolin-1 expression in Schwann cells via p75 neurotrophin receptor signaling. (United States)

    Tan, Wenbin; Rouen, Shefali; Barkus, Kristin M; Dremina, Yelena S; Hui, Dongwei; Christianson, Julie A; Wright, Douglas E; Yoon, Sung Ok; Dobrowsky, Rick T


    Altered neurotrophism in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is associated in part with substantial degenerative changes in Schwann cells (SCs) and an increased expression of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is highly expressed in adult SCs, and changes in its expression can regulate signaling through Erb B2, a co-receptor that mediates the effects of neuregulins in promoting SC growth and differentiation. We examined the hypothesis that hyperglycemia-induced changes in Cav-1 expression and p75NTR signaling may contribute to altered neurotrophism in DPN by modulating SC responses to neuregulins. In an animal model of type 1 diabetes, hyperglycemia induced a progressive decrease of Cav-1 in SCs of sciatic nerve that was reversed by insulin therapy. Treatment of primary neonatal SCs with 20-30 mm d-glucose, but not l-glucose, was sufficient to inhibit transcription from the Cav-1 promoter and decrease Cav-1 mRNA and protein expression. Hyperglycemia prolonged the kinetics of Erb B2 phosphorylation and significantly enhanced the mitogenic response of SCs to neuregulin1-beta1, and this effect was mimicked by the forced down-regulation of Cav-1. Intriguingly, nerve growth factor antagonized the enhanced mitogenic response of SCs to neuregulin1-beta1 and inhibited the glucose-induced down-regulation of Cav-1 transcription, mRNA, and protein expression through p75NTR-dependent activation of JNK. Our data suggest that Cav-1 down-regulation may contribute to altered neurotrophism in DPN by enhancing the response of SCs to neuregulins and that p75NTR-mediated JNK activation may provide a mechanism for the neurotrophic modulation of hyperglycemic stress.

  2. Prostaglandin EP2 receptor signaling protects human trabecular meshwork cells from apoptosis induced by ER stress through down-regulation of p53


    Kalouche, Georges; Boucher, Céline; Coste, Annick; Debussche, Laurent; Orsini, Cécile; Baudouin, Christophe; Debeir, Thomas; Vigé, Xavier; Rostène, William


    International audience; E-prostanoid receptor subtype 2 (EP2) agonists are currently under clinical development as hypotensive agents for the treatment of ocular hypertension. However, the effects of EP2 receptor agonists on trabecular meshwork (TM) alterations leading to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) are still unknown. Here, we evaluated whether EP2 receptor activation exhibits protective functions on TM cell death induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We show that the EP2 recep...

  3. Involvement of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling in the development of small cell lung cancer induced by HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins

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    Rossini Mara


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancers consist of four major types that and for clinical-pathological reasons are often divided into two broad categories: small cell lung cancer (SCLC and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. All major histological types of lung cancer are associated with smoking, although the association is stronger for SCLC and squamous cell carcinoma than adenocarcinoma. To date, epidemiological studies have identified several environmental, genetic, hormonal and viral factors associated with lung cancer risk. It has been estimated that 15-25% of human cancers may have a viral etiology. The human papillomavirus (HPV is a proven cause of most human cervical cancers, and might have a role in other malignancies including vulva, skin, oesophagus, head and neck cancer. HPV has also been speculated to have a role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. To validate the hypothesis of HPV involvement in small cell lung cancer pathogenesis we performed a gene expression profile of transgenic mouse model of SCLC induced by HPV-16 E6/E7 oncoproteins. Methods Gene expression profile of SCLC has been performed using Agilent whole mouse genome (4 × 44k representing ~ 41000 genes and mouse transcripts. Samples were obtained from two HPV16-E6/E7 transgenic mouse models and from littermate's normal lung. Data analyses were performed using GeneSpring 10 and the functional classification of deregulated genes was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (Ingenuity® Systems, Results Analysis of deregulated genes induced by the expression of E6/E7 oncoproteins supports the hypothesis of a linkage between HPV infection and SCLC development. As a matter of fact, comparison of deregulated genes in our system and those in human SCLC showed that many of them are located in the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Signal transduction pathway. Conclusions In this study, the global gene expression of transgenic mouse model of SCLC induced by HPV-16 E

  4. Science Signaling Podcast for 20 December 2016: Trans-inhibition by Fc receptors. (United States)

    Daëron, Marc; VanHook, Annalisa M


    This Podcast features an interview with Marc Daëron, author of a Research Article that appears in the 20 December 2016 issue of Science Signaling, about a mechanism by which an Fc receptor can inhibit signaling by other receptors without aggregating with those other receptors. Engagement of Fc receptors on basophils and mast cells can either activate these cells, which promotes autoimmune and allergic inflammation, or prevent these cells from being activated. Whether these cells are activated depends upon which Fc receptors are present in clusters, because some Fc receptors can inhibit signaling by other Fc receptors that are present in the same signalosome, a phenomenon known as cis-inhibition. Malbec et al. identified a mechanism whereby inhibitory Fc receptors limit signaling by activating Fc receptors without being present in the same signalosome. This mechanism of trans-inhibition also allowed inhibitory Fc receptors to limit signaling by growth factor receptors in mast cells and oncogene-induced proliferation in mastocytoma cells.Listen to Podcast.

  5. Nitric Oxide-Releasing Aspirin Suppresses NF-κB Signaling in Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer Cells in Vitro and in Vivo

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    Niharika Nath


    Full Text Available Estrogen receptor negative (ER(− breast cancer is aggressive, responds poorly to current treatments and has a poor prognosis. The NF-κB signaling pathway is implicated in ER(− tumorigenesis. Aspirin (ASA is chemopreventive against ER(+ but not for ER(− breast cancers. Nitric oxide-releasing aspirin (NO-ASA is a safer ASA where ASA is linked to an NO-releasing moiety through a spacer. In vitro, we investigated anti-proliferation effects of NO-ASA (para- and meta-isomers against ER(− breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-23, effects on NF-κB signaling, and reactive oxygen species by standard techniques. In vivo, effects of NO-ASA were evaluated in a mouse xenograft model using MDA-MB-231 cells. p-NO-ASA inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells at 24 h, the respective IC50s were 13 ± 2 and 17 ± 2 μM; ASA had an IC50 of >3000 μM in both cell lines. The IC50s for m-NO-ASA in MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 were 173 ± 15 and 185 ± 12 μM, respectively, therefore, implying p-NO-ASA as a stronger inhibitor of growth p-NO-ASA reduced cell growth by inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis and causing G0/G1 cell cycle block. Activation of NF-κB was inhibited by both isomers as demonstrated by decreases in NF-κB-DNA binding and luciferase activity at 24 h, However, m-NO-ASA produced transient effects at 3 h such as increased NF-κB-DNA-binding, increased levels of nuclear p50, even though both isomers inhibited IκB degradation. Increase in nuclear p50 by m-NO-ASA was associated with translocation of p50 in to the nucleus as observed by immunoflouresence at 3 h. NO-ASA induced reactive oxygen species (ROS as evidenced by overall increases in both H2DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein and DHE (dihydroethidium-derived fluorescence. Inhibition of ROS by N-acetyl-cysteine reversed the m-NO-ASA-mediated translocation of p50 in to the nucleus. In xenografts, p-NO-ASA inhibited tumor growth by inhibiting proliferation (PCNA and

  6. Enhanced Proliferation of Porcine Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induced by Extracellular Calcium is Associated with the Activation of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor and ERK Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Ye


    Full Text Available Porcine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (pBMSCs have the potential for application in regenerative medicine. This study aims to investigate the effects of extracellular calcium (Ca2+o on pBMSCs proliferation and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrated that 4 mM Ca2+o significantly promoted pBMSCs proliferation by reducing the G0/G1 phase cell percentage and by increasing the S phase cell proportion and the proliferation index of pBMSCs. Accordingly, Ca2+o stimulated the expression levels of proliferative genes such as cyclin A2, cyclin D1/3, cyclin E2, and PCNA and inhibited the expression of p21. In addition, Ca2+o resulted in a significant elevation of intracellular calcium and an increased ratio of p-ERK/ERK. However, inhibition of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR by its antagonist NPS2143 abolished the aforementioned effects of Ca2+o. Moreover, Ca2+o-induced promotion of pBMSCs proliferation, the changes of proliferative genes expression levels, and the activation of ERK1/2 signaling pathway were effectively blocked by U0126, a selective ERK kinase inhibitor. In conclusion, our findings provided evidence that the enhanced pBMSCs proliferation in response to Ca2+o was associated with the activation of CaSR and ERK1/2 signaling pathway, which may be useful for the application of pBMSCs in future clinical studies aimed at tissue regeneration and repair.

  7. Kruppel-like Factor 9 is a Negative Regulator of Ligand-dependent Estrogen Receptor Alpha Signaling in Ishikawa Endometrial Adenocarcinoma Cells (United States)

    Estrogen (E) and progesterone (P), acting through their respective receptors and other nuclear proteins, exhibit opposing activities in target cells. We previously reported that Krüppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) cooperates with progesterone receptor (PR) to facilitate P-dependent gene transcription in ut...

  8. Complementary signaling through flt3 and interleukin-7 receptor alpha is indispensable for fetal and adult B cell genesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitnicka, Ewa; Brakebusch, Cord; Martensson, Inga-Lill


    in FL-/- x IL-7Ralpha-/- BM that also lacks expression of the B cell commitment factor Pax5 and its direct target genes. Furthermore, in contrast to IL-7Ralpha-/- mice, FL-/- x IL-7Ralpha-/- mice also lack mature B cells and detectable committed B cell progenitors during fetal development. Thus...

  9. Cross-membrane signal transduction of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs): from systems biology to systems pharmacology. (United States)

    Benson, Neil; van der Graaf, Piet H; Peletier, Lambertus A


    Receptor tyrosine kinases are high-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. They straddle the cell wall and play an important role in cross-membrane signalling. We present a two-component systems pharmacology model based on the local physiology and identify characteristic features of its dynamics. We thus present a transparent tool for studying the effects of drug intervention and ways of administration on cross-membrane signalling through these receptors.

  10. Macula densa cell signaling. (United States)

    Bell, P Darwin; Lapointe, Jean Yves; Peti-Peterdi, János


    Macula densa cells are renal sensor elements that detect changes in distal tubular fluid composition and transmit signals to the glomerular vascular elements. This tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism plays an important role in regulating glomerular filtration rate and blood flow. Macula densa cells detect changes in luminal sodium chloride concentration through a complex series of ion transport-related intracellular events. NaCl entry via a Na:K:2Cl cotransporter and Cl exit through a basolateral channel lead to cell depolarization and increases in cytosolic calcium. Na/H exchange (NHE2) results in cell alkalization, whereas intracellular [Na] is regulated by an apically located H(Na)-K ATPase and not by the traditional basolateral Na:K ATPase. Communication from macula densa cells to the glomerular vascular elements involves ATP release across the macula densa basolateral membrane through a maxi-anion channel. The adaptation of multi-photon microscopy is providing new insights into macula densa-glomerular signaling.

  11. Chlamydia pneumoniae-induced foam cell formation requires MyD88-dependent and -independent signaling and is reciprocally modulated by liver X receptor activation. (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Shimada, Kenichi; Bulut, Yonca; Doherty, Terence M; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe


    Chlamydia pneumoniae is detected by macrophages and other APCs via TLRs and can exacerbate developing atherosclerotic lesions, but how that occurs is not known. Liver X receptors (LXRs) centrally control reverse cholesterol transport, but also negatively modulate TLR-mediated inflammatory pathways. We isolated peritoneal macrophages from wild-type, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR2/4, MyD88, TRIF, MyD88/TRIF, and IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) KO mice, treated them with live or UV-killed C. pneumoniae in the presence or absence of oxidized LDL, then measured foam cell formation. In some experiments, the synthetic LXR agonist GW3965 was added to macrophages infected with C. pneumoniae in the presence of oxidized LDL. Both live and UV-killed C. pneumoniae induced IRF3 activation and promoted foam cell formation in wild-type macrophages, whereas the genetic absence of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, TRIF, or IRF3, but not TLR3, significantly reduced foam cell formation. C. pneumoniae-induced foam cell formation was significantly reduced by the LXR agonist GW3965, which in turn inhibited C. pneumoniae-induced IRF3 activation, suggesting a bidirectional cross-talk. We conclude that C. pneumoniae facilitates foam cell formation via activation of both MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent (i.e., TRIF-dependent and IRF3-dependent) pathways downstream of TLR2 and TLR4 signaling and that TLR3 is not involved in this process. This mechanism could at least partly explain why infection with C. pneumoniae accelerates the development of atherosclerotic plaque and lends support to the proposal that LXR agonists might prove clinically useful in suppressing atherogenesis.

  12. In vivo TCR signaling in CD4+ T cells imprints a cell-intrinsic, transient low motility pattern independent of chemokine receptor expression levels or microtubular network, integrin and protein kinase C activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eAckerknecht


    Full Text Available Intravital imaging has revealed that T cells change their migratory behavior during physiological activation inside lymphoid tissue. Yet, it remains less well investigated how the intrinsic migratory capacity of activated T cells is regulated by chemokine receptor levels or other regulatory elements. Here, we used an adjuvant-driven inflammation model to examine how motility patterns corresponded with CCR7, CXCR4 and CXCR5 expression levels on OVA-specific DO11.10 CD4+ T cells in draining lymph nodes. We found that while CCR7 and CXCR4 surface levels remained essentially unaltered during the first 48-72 h after activation of CD4+ T cells, their in vitro chemokinetic and directed migratory capacity to the respective ligands CCL19, CCL21 and CXCL12 was substantially reduced during this time window. Activated T cells recovered from this temporary decrease in motility on day 6 post immunization, coinciding with increased migration to the CXCR5 ligand CXCL13. The transiently impaired CD4+ T cell motility pattern correlated with increased LFA-1 expression and augmented phosphorylation of the microtubule regulator Stathmin on day 3 post immunization, yet neither microtubule destabilization nor integrin blocking could reverse TCR-imprinted unresponsiveness. Furthermore, protein kinase C (PKC inhibition did not restore chemotactic activity, ruling out PKC-mediated receptor desensitization as mechanism for reduced migration in activated T cells. Thus, we identify a cell-intrinsic, chemokine receptor level-uncoupled decrease in motility in CD4+ T cells shortly after activation, coinciding with clonal expansion. The transiently reduced ability to react to chemokinetic and chemotactic stimuli may contribute to the sequestering of activated CD4+ T cells in reactive PLNs, allowing for integration of costimulatory signals required for full activation.

  13. Phagocytosis: receptors, signal integration, and the cytoskeleton. (United States)

    Freeman, Spencer A; Grinstein, Sergio


    Phagocytosis is a remarkably complex and versatile process: it contributes to innate immunity through the ingestion and elimination of pathogens, while also being central to tissue homeostasis and remodeling by clearing effete cells. The ability of phagocytes to perform such diverse functions rests, in large part, on their vast repertoire of receptors. In this review, we address the various receptor types, their mobility in the plane of the membrane, and two modes of receptor crosstalk: priming and synergy. A major section is devoted to the actin cytoskeleton, which not only governs receptor mobility and clustering but also is instrumental in particle engulfment. Four stages of the actin remodeling process are identified and discussed: (i) the 'resting' stage that precedes receptor engagement, (ii) the disruption of the cortical actin prior to formation of the phagocytic cup, (iii) the actin polymerization that propels pseudopod extension, and (iv) the termination of polymerization and removal of preassembled actin that are required for focal delivery of endomembranes and phagosomal sealing. These topics are viewed in the larger context of the differentiation and polarization of the phagocytic cells.

  14. Intracellular LINGO-1 negatively regulates Trk neurotrophin receptor signaling. (United States)

    Meabon, James S; de Laat, Rian; Ieguchi, Katsuaki; Serbzhinsky, Dmitry; Hudson, Mark P; Huber, B Russel; Wiley, Jesse C; Bothwell, Mark


    Neurotrophins, essential regulators of many aspects of neuronal differentiation and function, signal via four receptors, p75, TrkA, TrkB and TrkC. The three Trk paralogs are members of the LIG superfamily of membrane proteins, which share extracellular domains consisting of leucine-rich repeat and C2 Ig domains. Another LIG protein, LINGO-1 has been reported to bind and influence signaling of p75 as well as TrkA, TrkB and TrkC. Here we examine the manner in which LINGO-1 influences the function of TrkA, TrkB and TrkC. We report that Trk activation promotes Trk association with LINGO-1, and that this association promotes Trk degradation by a lysosomal mechanism. This mechanism resembles the mechanism by which another LIG protein, LRIG1, promotes lysosomal degradation of receptor tyrosine kinases such as the EGF receptor. We present evidence indicating that the Trk/LINGO-1 interaction occurs, in part, within recycling endosomes. We show that a mutant form of LINGO-1, with much of the extracellular domain deleted, has the capacity to enhance TrkA signaling in PC12 cells, possibly by acting as an inhibitor of Trk down-regulation by full length LINGO-1. We propose that LINGO-1 functions as a negative feedback regulator of signaling by cognate receptor tyrosine kinases including TrkA, TrkB and TrkC.

  15. Nuclear receptor TLX inhibits TGF-β signaling in glioblastoma. (United States)

    Johansson, Erik; Zhai, Qiwei; Zeng, Zhao-Jun; Yoshida, Takeshi; Funa, Keiko


    TLX (also called NR2E1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that maintains stemness of neuronal stem cells. TLX is highly expressed in the most malignant form of glioma, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and is important for the proliferation and maintenance of the stem/progenitor cells of the tumor. Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) is a cytokine regulating many different cellular processes such as differentiation, migration, adhesion, cell death and proliferation. TGF-β has an important function in cancer where it can work as either a tumor suppressor or oncogene, depending on the cancer type and stage of tumor development. Since glioblastoma often have dysfunctional TGF-β signaling we wanted to find out if there is any interaction between TLX and TGF-β in glioblastoma cells. We demonstrate that knockdown of TLX enhances the canonical TGF-β signaling response in glioblastoma cell lines. TLX physically interacts with and stabilizes Smurf1, which can ubiquitinate and target TGF-β receptor II for degradation, whereas knockdown of TLX leads to stabilization of TGF-β receptor II, increased nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 and enhanced expression of TGF-β target genes. The interaction between TLX and TGF-β may play an important role in the regulation of proliferation and tumor-initiating properties of glioblastoma cells.

  16. Inflammatory cytokine signaling in insulin producing beta-cells enhances the colocalization correlation coefficient between L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel and calcium-sensing receptor. (United States)

    Parkash, Jai


    The immunological processes in type 1 diabetes and metabolic/inflammatory disorder in type 2 diabetes converge on common signaling pathway(s) leading to beta-cell death in these two diseases. The cytokine-mediated beta-cell death seems to be dependent on voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC)-mediated Ca2+ entry. The Ca2+ handling molecular networks control the homeostasis of [Ca2+]i in the beta-cell. The activity and membrane density of VDCC are regulated by several mechanisms including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). CaR is a 123-kDa seven transmembrane extracellular Ca2+ sensing protein that belongs to GPCR family C. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), is a cytokine widely known to activate nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription in beta-cells. To obtain a better understanding of TNF-alpha-induced molecular interactions between CaR and VDCC, confocal fluorescence measurements were performed on insulin-producing beta-cells exposed to varying concentrations of TNF-alpha and the results are discussed in the light of increased colocalization correlation coefficient. The insulin producing beta-cells were exposed to 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 ng/ml TNF-alpha for 24 h at 37 degrees . The cells were then immunolabelled with antibodies directed against CaR, VDCC, and NF-kappaB. The confocal fluorescence imaging data showed enhancement in the colocalization correlation coefficient between CaR and VDCC in beta-cells exposed to TNF-alpha thereby indicating increased membrane delimited spatial interactions between these two membrane proteins. TNF-alpha-induced colocalization of VDCC with CaR was inhibited by nimodipine, an inhibitor of L-type VDCC thereby suggesting that VDCC activity is required for spatial interactions with CaR. The 3-D confocal fluorescence imaging data also demonstrated that addition of TNF-alpha to RIN cells led to the translocation of NF-kappaB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Such molecular interactions between CaR and VDCC in tissues

  17. Emerging EPO and EPO receptor regulators and signal transducers. (United States)

    Kuhrt, David; Wojchowski, Don M


    As essential mediators of red cell production, erythropoietin (EPO) and its cell surface receptor (EPO receptor [EPOR]) have been intensely studied. Early investigations defined basic mechanisms for hypoxia-inducible factor induction of EPO expression, and within erythroid progenitors EPOR engagement of canonical Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (JAK2/STAT5), rat sarcoma/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (RAS/MEK/ERK), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways. Contemporary genetic, bioinformatic, and proteomic approaches continue to uncover new clinically relevant modulators of EPO and EPOR expression, and EPO's biological effects. This Spotlight review highlights such factors and their emerging roles during erythropoiesis and anemia.

  18. S-Nitrosothiols modulate G protein-coupled receptor signaling in a reversible and highly receptor-specific manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mönkkönen Kati S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies indicate that the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR signaling machinery can serve as a direct target of reactive oxygen species, including nitric oxide (NO and S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs. To gain a broader view into the way that receptor-dependent G protein activation – an early step in signal transduction – might be affected by RSNOs, we have studied several receptors coupling to the Gi family of G proteins in their native cellular environment using the powerful functional approach of [35S]GTPγS autoradiography with brain cryostat sections in combination with classical G protein activation assays. Results We demonstrate that RSNOs, like S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO and S-nitrosocysteine (CysNO, can modulate GPCR signaling via reversible, thiol-sensitive mechanisms probably involving S-nitrosylation. RSNOs are capable of very targeted regulation, as they potentiate the signaling of some receptors (exemplified by the M2/M4 muscarinic cholinergic receptors, inhibit others (P2Y12 purinergic, LPA1lysophosphatidic acid, and cannabinoid CB1 receptors, but may only marginally affect signaling of others, such as adenosine A1, μ-opioid, and opiate related receptors. Amplification of M2/M4 muscarinic responses is explained by an accelerated rate of guanine nucleotide exchange, as well as an increased number of high-affinity [35S]GTPγS binding sites available for the agonist-activated receptor. GSNO amplified human M4 receptor signaling also under heterologous expression in CHO cells, but the effect diminished with increasing constitutive receptor activity. RSNOs markedly inhibited P2Y12 receptor signaling in native tissues (rat brain and human platelets, but failed to affect human P2Y12 receptor signaling under heterologous expression in CHO cells, indicating that the native cellular signaling partners, rather than the P2Y12 receptor protein, act as a molecular target for this action. Conclusion These in vitro studies

  19. Direct interactions between calcitonin-like receptor (CLR) and CGRP-receptor component protein (RCP) regulate CGRP receptor signaling. (United States)

    Egea, Sophie C; Dickerson, Ian M


    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide with multiple neuroendocrine roles, including vasodilation, migraine, and pain. The receptor for CGRP is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that requires three proteins for function. CGRP binds to a heterodimer composed of the GPCR calcitonin-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP1), a single transmembrane protein required for pharmacological specificity and trafficking of the CLR/RAMP1 complex to the cell surface. In addition, the CLR/RAMP1 complex requires a third protein named CGRP-receptor component protein (RCP) for signaling. Previous studies have demonstrated that depletion of RCP from cells inhibits CLR signaling, and in vivo studies have demonstrated that expression of RCP correlates with CLR signaling and CGRP efficacy. It is not known whether RCP interacts directly with CLR to exert its effect. The current studies identified a direct interaction between RCP and an intracellular domain of CLR using yeast two-hybrid analysis and coimmunoprecipitation. When this interacting domain of CLR was expressed as a soluble fusion protein, it coimmunoprecipitated with RCP and inhibited signaling from endogenous CLR. Expression of this dominant-negative domain of CLR did not significantly inhibit trafficking of CLR to the cell surface, and thus RCP may not have a chaperone function for CLR. Instead, RCP may regulate CLR signaling in the cell membrane, and direct interaction between RCP and CLR is required for CLR activation. To date, RCP has been found to interact only with CLR and represents a novel neuroendocrine regulatory step in GPCR signaling.

  20. Recruitment of activation receptors at inhibitory NK cell immune synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Schleinitz

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cell activation receptors accumulate by an actin-dependent process at cytotoxic immune synapses where they provide synergistic signals that trigger NK cell effector functions. In contrast, NK cell inhibitory receptors, including members of the MHC class I-specific killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR family, accumulate at inhibitory immune synapses, block actin dynamics, and prevent actin-dependent phosphorylation of activation receptors. Therefore, one would predict inhibition of actin-dependent accumulation of activation receptors when inhibitory receptors are engaged. By confocal imaging of primary human NK cells in contact with target cells expressing physiological ligands of NK cell receptors, we show here that this prediction is incorrect. Target cells included a human cell line and transfected Drosophila insect cells that expressed ligands of NK cell activation receptors in combination with an MHC class I ligand of inhibitory KIR. The two NK cell activation receptors CD2 and 2B4 accumulated and co-localized with KIR at inhibitory immune synapses. In fact, KIR promoted CD2 and 2B4 clustering, as CD2 and 2B4 accumulated more efficiently at inhibitory synapses. In contrast, accumulation of KIR and of activation receptors at inhibitory synapses correlated with reduced density of the integrin LFA-1. These results imply that inhibitory KIR does not prevent CD2 and 2B4 signaling by blocking their accumulation at NK cell immune synapses, but by blocking their ability to signal within inhibitory synapses.

  1. Hedgehog signaling pathway and gastrointestinal stem cell signaling network (review). (United States)

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru


    Hedgehog, BMP/TGFbeta, FGF, WNT and Notch signaling pathways constitute the stem cell signaling network, which plays a key role in a variety of processes, such as embryogenesis, maintenance of adult tissue homeostasis, tissue repair during chronic persistent inflammation, and carcinogenesis. Sonic hedgehog (SHH), Indian hedgehog (IHH) and Desert hedgehog (DHH) bind to PTCH1/PTCH or PTCH2 receptor to release Smoothened (SMO) signal transducer from Patched-dependent suppression. SMO then activates STK36 serine/threonine kinase to stabilize GLI family members and to phosphorylate SUFU for nuclear accumulation of GLI. Hedgehog signaling activation leads to GLI-dependent transcriptional activation of target genes, such as GLI1, PTCH1, CCND2, FOXL1, JAG2 and SFRP1. GLI1-dependent positive feedback loop combined with PTCH1-dependent negative feedback loop gives rise to transient proliferation of Hedgehog target cells. Iguana homologs (DZIP1 and DZIP1L) and Costal-2 homologs (KIF7 and KIF27) are identified by comparative integromics. SHH-dependent parietal cell proliferation is implicated in gastric mucosal repair during chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. BMP-RUNX3 signaling induces IHH expression in surface differentiated epithelial cells of stomach and intestine. Hedgehog signals from epithelial cells then induces FOXL1-mediated BMP4 upregulation in mesenchymal cells. Hedgehog signaling is frequently activated in esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and pancreatic cancer due to transcriptional upregulation of Hedgehog ligands and epigenetic silencing of HHIP1/HHIP gene, encoding the Hedgehog inhibitor. However, Hedgehog signaling is rarely activated in colorectal cancer due to negative regulation by the canonical WNT signaling pathway. Hedgehog signaling molecules or targets, such as SHH, IHH, HHIP1, PTCH1 and GLI1, are applied as biomarkers for cancer diagnostics, prognostics and therapeutics. Small-molecule inhibitors for SMO or STK36 are suitable to be used for

  2. Membrane receptor-initiated signaling in 1,25(OH)2D3-stimulated calcium uptake in intestinal epithelial cells. (United States)

    Khanal, Ramesh C; Peters, Tremaine M Sterling; Smith, Nathan M; Nemere, Ilka


    Demonstrating 1,25(OH)2D3-stimulated calcium uptake in isolated chick intestinal epithelial cells has been complicated by simultaneous enhancement of both uptake and efflux. We now report that in intestinal cells of adult birds, or those of young birds cultured for 72 h, 1,25(OH)2D3-stimulates 45Ca uptake to greater than 140% of corresponding controls within 3 min of addition. Such cells have lost hormone-stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity, believed to mediate calcium efflux. To further test this hypothesis, freshly isolated cells were preincubated with calphostin C, and calcium uptake monitored in the presence or absence of steroid. Only cells treated with the PKC inhibitor demonstrated a significant increase in 45Ca uptake in response to 1,25(OH)2D3, relative to corresponding controls. In addition, phorbol ester was shown to stimulate efflux, while forskolin stimulated uptake. To further investigate the mechanisms involved in calcium uptake, we assessed the role of TRPV6 and its activation by beta-glucuronidase. beta-Glucuronidase secretion from isolated intestinal epithelial cells was significantly increased by treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3, PTH, or forskolin, but not by phorbol ester. Treatment of cells with beta-glucuronidase, in turn, stimulated 45Ca uptake. Finally, transfection of cells with siRNA to either beta-glucuronidase or TRPV6 abolished 1,25(OH)2D3-enhanced calcium uptake relative to controls transfected with scrambled siRNA. Confocal microscopy further indicated rapid redistribution of enzyme and calcium channel after steroid. 1,25(OH)2D3 and PTH increase calcium uptake by stimulating the PKA pathway to release beta-glucuronidase, which in turn activates TRPV6. 1,25(OH)2D3-enhanced calcium efflux is mediated by the PKC pathway.

  3. DMPD: Signal transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor-4. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15379975 Signal transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor... Signal transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor-4. PubmedID 15379975 Title Signal transduction by the lip

  4. Signaling Efficiency of the T Cell Receptor Controlled by a Single Amino Acid in the β Chain Constant Region


    Bäckström, B Thomas; Hausmann, Barbara T.; Palmer, Ed


    A single amino acid residue, Gln136, located within the connecting peptide domain of Cβ controls the ability of the α/β TCR to transmit a full signal. TCRs in which this Cβ residue is mutated to Phe, the residue found in TCR-γ, are unresponsive to antigenic ligands. Interestingly, this Cβ residue is either polar or charged in every species studied thus far, including the trout and the skate. In contrast, the analogous residue in Cγ is always hydrophobic. In spite of their compromised antigen ...

  5. Cell transformation mediated by the Epstein-Barr virus G protein-coupled receptor BILF1 is dependent on constitutive signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngaa, Rikke Birgitte; Nørregaard, K.; Kristensen, Martin;


    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) open reading frame BILF1 encodes a seven trans-membrane (TM) G protein-coupled receptor that signals with high constitutive activity through G alpha(i) (Beisser et al., 2005; Paulsen et al., 2005). In this paper, the transforming potential of BILF1 is investigated in vitro...

  6. Soluble and cell surface receptors for tumor necrosis factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallach, D; Engelmann, H; Nophar, Y


    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) initiates its multiple effects on cell function by binding at a high affinity to specific cell surface receptors. Two different molecular species of these receptors, which are expressed differentially in different cells, have been identified. The cDNAs of both receptor...... have recently been cloned. Antibodies to one of these receptor species (the p55, type I receptor) can trigger a variety of TNF like effects by cross-linking of the receptor molecules. Thus, it is not TNF itself but its receptors that provide the signal for the response to this cytokine...... in certain pathological situations. Release of the soluble receptors from the cells seems to occur by proteolytic cleavage of the cell surface forms and appears to be a way of down-regulating the cell response to TNF. Because of their ability to bind TNF, the soluble receptors exert an inhibitory effect...

  7. Coupling Planar Cell Polarity Signaling to Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D. Axelrod


    Full Text Available Epithelial cells and other groups of cells acquire a polarity orthogonal to their apical–basal axes, referred to as Planar Cell Polarity (PCP. The process by which these cells become polarized requires a signaling pathway using Frizzled as a receptor. Responding cells sense cues from their environment that provide directional information, and they translate this information into cellular asymmetry. Most of what is known about PCP derives from studies in the fruit fly, Drosophila. We review what is known about how cells translate an unknown signal into asymmetric cytoskeletal reorganization. We then discuss how the vertebrate processes of convergent extension and cochlear hair-cell development may relate to Drosophila PCP signaling.

  8. Real-time trafficking and signaling of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Sarah Noerklit; Wismann, Pernille; Underwood, Christina Rye


    . A fundamental mechanism controlling the signaling capacity of GPCRs is the post-endocytic trafficking of receptors between recycling and degradative fates. Here, we combined microscopy with novel real-time assays to monitor both receptor trafficking and signaling in living cells. We find that the human GLP-1R...

  9. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-associated Protein 1 (TRAP1) Mutation and TRAP1 Inhibitor Gamitrinib-triphenylphosphonium (G-TPP) Induce a Forkhead Box O (FOXO)-dependent Cell Protective Signal from Mitochondria*


    Kim, Hyunjin; Yang, Jinsung; Kim, Min Ju; Choi, Sekyu; Chung, Ju-Ryung; Kim, Jong-Min; Yoo, Young Hyun; Chung, Jongkyeong; Koh, Hyongjong


    TRAP1 (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1), a mitochondrial Hsp90 family chaperone, has been identified as a critical regulator of cell survival and bioenergetics in tumor cells. To discover novel signaling networks regulated by TRAP1, we generated Drosophila TRAP1 mutants. The mutants successfully developed into adults and produced fertile progeny, showing that TRAP1 is dispensable in development and reproduction. Surprisingly, mutation or knockdown of TRAP1 markedly enhance...

  10. Cytokine signalling in embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Kalisz, Mark; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis


    Cytokines play a central role in maintaining self-renewal in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells through a member of the interleukin-6 type cytokine family termed leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). LIF activates the JAK-STAT3 pathway through the class I cytokine receptor gp130, which forms a trimeric...... pathways seem to converge on c-myc as a common target to promote self-renewal. Whereas LIF does not seem to stimulate self-renewal in human embryonic stem cells it cannot be excluded that other cytokines are involved. The pleiotropic actions of the increasing number of cytokines and receptors signalling...... via JAKs, STATs and SOCS exhibit considerable redundancy, compensation and plasticity in stem cells in accordance with the view that stem cells are governed by quantitative variations in strength and duration of signalling events known from other cell types rather than qualitatively different stem...

  11. MHC class II molecules deliver costimulatory signals in human T cells through a functional linkage with IL-2-receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Kanner, S B; Ledbetter, J A;


    tyrosine phosphorylation of specific substrates including PLC-gamma 1. Combined stimulation of IL-2R and class II molecules had an additive effect on tyrosine phosphorylation. Pretreatment of T cells with a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin A, inhibited IL-2 and class II-induced proliferation...

  12. Estrogen receptor beta growth-inhibitory effects are repressed through activation of MAPK and PI3K signalling in mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Cotrim, C Z; Fabris, V; Doria, M L; Lindberg, K; Gustafsson, J-Å; Amado, F; Lanari, C; Helguero, L A


    Two thirds of breast cancers express estrogen receptors (ER). ER alpha (ERα) mediates breast cancer cell proliferation, and expression of ERα is the standard choice to indicate adjuvant endocrine therapy. ERbeta (ERβ) inhibits growth in vitro; its effects in vivo have been incompletely investigated and its role in breast cancer and potential as alternative target in endocrine therapy needs further study. In this work, mammary epithelial (EpH4 and HC11) and breast cancer (MC4-L2) cells with endogenous ERα and ERβ expression and T47-D human breast cancer cells with recombinant ERβ (T47-DERβ) were used to explore effects exerted in vitro and in vivo by the ERβ agonists 2,3-bis (4-hydroxy-phenyl)-propionitrile (DPN) and 7-bromo-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-benzoxazol-5-ol (WAY). In vivo, ERβ agonists induced mammary gland hyperplasia and MC4-L2 tumour growth to a similar extent as the ERα agonist 4,4',4''-(4-propyl-(1H)-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) trisphenol (PPT) or 17β-estradiol (E2) and correlated with higher number of mitotic and lower number of apoptotic features. In vitro, in MC4-L2, EpH4 or HC11 cells incubated under basal conditions, ERβ agonists induced apoptosis measured as upregulation of p53 and apoptosis-inducible factor protein levels and increased caspase 3 activity, whereas PPT and E2 stimulated proliferation. However, when extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK ½) were activated by co-incubation with basement membrane extract or epidermal growth factor, induction of apoptosis by ERβ agonists was repressed and DPN induced proliferation in a similar way as E2 or PPT. In a context of active ERK ½, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT) signalling was necessary to allow proliferation stimulated by ER agonists. Inhibition of MEK ½ with UO126 completely restored ERβ growth-inhibitory effects, whereas inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 inhibited ERβ-induced proliferation. These

  13. Differential effects of amisulpride and haloperidol on dopamine D2 receptor-mediated signaling in SH-SY5Y cells. (United States)

    Park, Sung Woo; Seo, Mi Kyoung; Cho, Hye Yeon; Lee, Jung Goo; Lee, Bong Ju; Seol, Wongi; Kim, Young Hoon


    Dopamine D(2) receptors (D(2)R) are the primary target of antipsychotic drugs and have been shown to regulate Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) signaling through scaffolding protein β-arrestin 2. Amisulpride, an atypical antipsychotic drug, and haloperidol, a typical antipsychotic drug, are both potent D(2)R antagonists, but their therapeutic effects differ. In the present study, we compared the effects of amisulpride and haloperidol on the β-arrestin 2-mediated Akt/GSK-3β pathway in SH-SY5Y cells. To determine whether these drugs affected neuronal morphology in SH-SY5Y cells, we investigated the effects of amisulpride and haloperidol on neurite outgrowth using immunostaining. We examined the effects of these drugs on Akt and GSK-3β and its well-known downstream regulators, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and Bcl-2 levels using Western blot analysis. Amisulpride, but not haloperidol, was found to enhance neurite outgrowth. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) for β-arrestin 2 knockdown blocked the increase in amisulpride-induced neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, amisulpride increased the levels of Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation, while haloperidol had no effect. The elevation of Akt phosphorylation induced by amisulpride was reduced by β-arrestin 2 siRNA. Moreover, amisulpride effectively increased the levels of phospho-CREB, BDNF, and Bcl-2. However, haloperidol had no effect on the levels of these proteins. Additionally, wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 K) inhibitor, blocked the stimulatory effect of amisulpride on phosphorylated Akt. Together, these results suggest that regulation of the β-arrestin 2-dependent pathway via blockade of the D(2)R in SH-SY5Y cells is one mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of amisulpride, but not haloperidol.

  14. Osteopontin negatively regulates parathyroid hormone receptor signaling in osteoblasts. (United States)

    Ono, Noriaki; Nakashima, Kazuhisa; Rittling, Susan R; Schipani, Ernestina; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Soma, Kunimichi; Denhardt, David T; Kronenberg, Henry M; Ezura, Yoichi; Noda, Masaki


    Systemic hormonal control exerts its effect through the regulation of local target tissues, which in turn regulate upstream signals in a feedback loop. The parathyroid hormone (PTH) axis is a well defined hormonal signaling system that regulates calcium levels and bone metabolism. To understand the interplay between systemic and local signaling in bone, we examined the effects of deficiency of the bone matrix protein osteopontin (OPN) on the systemic effects of PTH specifically within osteoblastic cell lineages. Parathyroid hormone receptor (PPR) transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active form of the receptor (caPPR) specifically in cells of the osteoblast lineage have a high bone mass phenotype. In these mice, OPN deficiency further increased bone mass. This increase was associated with conversion of the major intertrabecular cell population from hematopoietic cells to stromal/osteoblastic cells and parallel elevations in histomorphometric and biochemical parameters of bone formation and resorption. Treatment with small interfering RNA (siRNA) for osteopontin enhanced H223R mutant caPPR-induced cAMP-response element (CRE) activity levels by about 10-fold. Thus, in addition to the well known calcemic feedback system for PTH, local feedback regulation by the bone matrix protein OPN also plays a significant role in the regulation of PTH actions.

  15. Sweet taste receptor expressed in pancreatic beta-cells activates the calcium and cyclic AMP signaling systems and stimulates insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Nakagawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sweet taste receptor is expressed in the taste buds and enteroendocrine cells acting as a sugar sensor. We investigated the expression and function of the sweet taste receptor in MIN6 cells and mouse islets. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression of the sweet taste receptor was determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+ ([Ca(2+](c and cAMP ([cAMP](c were monitored in MIN6 cells using fura-2 and Epac1-camps. Activation of protein kinase C was monitored by measuring translocation of MARCKS-GFP. Insulin was measured by radioimmunoassay. mRNA for T1R2, T1R3, and gustducin was expressed in MIN6 cells. In these cells, artificial sweeteners such as sucralose, succharin, and acesulfame-K increased insulin secretion and augmented secretion induced by glucose. Sucralose increased biphasic increase in [Ca(2+](c. The second sustained phase was blocked by removal of extracellular calcium and addition of nifedipine. An inhibitor of inositol(1, 4, 5-trisphophate receptor, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, blocked both phases of [Ca(2+](c response. The effect of sucralose on [Ca(2+](c was inhibited by gurmarin, an inhibitor of the sweet taste receptor, but not affected by a G(q inhibitor. Sucralose also induced sustained elevation of [cAMP](c, which was only partially inhibited by removal of extracellular calcium and nifedipine. Finally, mouse islets expressed T1R2 and T1R3, and artificial sweeteners stimulated insulin secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Sweet taste receptor is expressed in beta-cells, and activation of this receptor induces insulin secretion by Ca(2+ and cAMP-dependent mechanisms.

  16. Pattern recognition receptor signaling in human dendritic cells is enhanced by ICOS ligand and modulated by the Crohn's disease ICOSLG risk allele. (United States)

    Hedl, Matija; Lahiri, Amit; Ning, Kaida; Cho, Judy H; Abraham, Clara


    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by dysregulated intestinal immune homeostasis and cytokine secretion. Multiple loci are associated with IBD, but a functional explanation is missing for most. Here we found that pattern-recognition receptor (PRR)-induced cytokine secretion was diminished in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) from rs7282490 ICOSLG GG risk carriers. Homotypic interactions between the costimulatory molecule ICOS and the ICOS ligand on MDDCs amplified nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2)-initiated cytokine secretion. This amplification required arginine residues in the ICOSL cytoplasmic tail that recruited the adaptor protein RACK1 and the kinases PKC and JNK leading to PKC, MAPK, and NF-κB activation. MDDC from rs7282490 GG risk-carriers had reduced ICOSL expression and PRR-initiated signaling and this loss-of-function ICOSLG risk allele associated with an ileal Crohn's disease phenotype, similar to polymorphisms in NOD2. Taken together, ICOSL amplifies PRR-initiated outcomes, which might contribute to immune homeostasis.

  17. Steroid Hormone Receptor Signals as Prognosticators for Urothelial Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Ide


    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of preclinical or clinical evidence suggesting that steroid hormone receptor-mediated signals play a critical role in urothelial tumorigenesis and tumor progression. These receptors include androgen receptor, estrogen receptors, glucocorticoid receptor, progesterone receptor, vitamin D receptor, retinoid receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, and others including orphan receptors. In particular, studies using urothelial cancer tissue specimens have demonstrated that elevated or reduced expression of these receptors as well as alterations of their upstream or downstream pathways correlates with patient outcomes. This review summarizes and discusses available data suggesting that steroid hormone receptors and related signals serve as biomarkers for urothelial carcinoma and are able to predict tumor recurrence or progression.

  18. The Interconnectedness of Cancer Cell Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alnawaz Rehemtulla


    Full Text Available The elegance of fundamental and applied research activities have begun to reveal a myriad of spatial and temporal alterations in downstream signaling networks affected by cell surface receptor stimulation including G protein– coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases. Interconnected biochemical pathways serve to integrate and distribute the signaling information throughout the cell by orchestration of complex biochemical circuits consisting of protein interactions and covalent modification processes. It is clear that scientific literature summarizing results from both fundamental and applied scientific research activities has served to provide a broad foundational biologic data-base that has been instrumental in advancing our continued understanding of underlying cancer biology. This article reflects on historical advances and the role of innovation in the competitive world of grant-sponsored research.

  19. Cell death sensitization of leukemia cells by opioid receptor activation (United States)

    Friesen, Claudia; Roscher, Mareike; Hormann, Inis; Fichtner, Iduna; Alt, Andreas; Hilger, Ralf A.; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Miltner, Erich


    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) regulates a number of cellular processes and modulates cell death induction. cAMP levels are altered upon stimulation of specific G-protein-coupled receptors inhibiting or activating adenylyl cyclases. Opioid receptor stimulation can activate inhibitory Gi-proteins which in turn block adenylyl cyclase activity reducing cAMP. Opioids such as D,L-methadone induce cell death in leukemia cells. However, the mechanism how opioids trigger apoptosis and activate caspases in leukemia cells is not understood. In this study, we demonstrate that downregulation of cAMP induced by opioid receptor activation using the opioid D,L-methadone kills and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Enhancing cAMP levels by blocking opioid-receptor signaling strongly reduced D,L-methadone-induced apoptosis, caspase activation and doxorubicin-sensitivity. Induction of cell death in leukemia cells by activation of opioid receptors using the opioid D,L-methadone depends on critical levels of opioid receptor expression on the cell surface. Doxorubicin increased opioid receptor expression in leukemia cells. In addition, the opioid D,L-methadone increased doxorubicin uptake and decreased doxorubicin efflux in leukemia cells, suggesting that the opioid D,L-methadone as well as doxorubicin mutually increase their cytotoxic potential. Furthermore, we found that opioid receptor activation using D,L-methadone alone or in addition to doxorubicin inhibits tumor growth significantly in vivo. These results demonstrate that opioid receptor activation via triggering the downregulation of cAMP induces apoptosis, activates caspases and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Hence, opioid receptor activation seems to be a promising strategy to improve anticancer therapies. PMID:23633472

  20. IL-1beta-induced pro-apoptotic signalling is facilitated by NCAM/FGF receptor signalling and inhibited by the C3d ligand in the INS-1E rat beta cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L G; Størling, J; Heding, P


    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: IL-1beta released from immune cells induces beta cell pro-apoptotic signalling via mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). In neurons, the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) signals to several elements involved in IL-1beta-induced pro-ap...

  1. The Role of Cgrp-Receptor Component Protein (Rcp in Cgrp-Mediated Signal Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Prado


    Full Text Available The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP-receptor component protein (RCP is a 17-kDa intracellular peripheral membrane protein required for signal transduction at CGRP receptors. To determine the role of RCP in CGRP-mediated signal transduction, RCP was depleted from NIH3T3 cells using antisense strategy. Loss of RCP protein correlated with loss of cAMP production by CGRP in the antisense cells. In contrast, loss of RCP had no effect on CGRP-mediated binding; therefore RCP is not acting as a chaperone for the CGRP receptor. Instead, RCP is a novel signal transduction molecule that couples the CGRP receptor to the cellular signal transduction machinery. RCP thus represents a prototype for a new class of signal transduction proteins that are required for regulation of G protein-coupled receptors.

  2. Neurotransmitter receptor-mediated signaling pathways as modulators of carcinogenesis. (United States)

    Schuller, Hildegard M


    The autonomic nervous system with its two antagonistic branches, the sympathicus and the parasympathicus, regulates the activities of all body functions that are not under voluntary control. While the autonomic regulation of organ functions has been extensively studied, little attention has been given to the potential role of neurohumoral transmission at the cellular level in the development of cancer. Studies conducted by our laboratory first showed that binding of the parasympathetic neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, as well as nicotine or its nitrosated cancer-causing derivative, NNK, to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors comprised of alpha7 subunits activated a mitogenic signal transduction pathway in normal and neoplastic pulmonary neuroendocrine cells. On the other hand, beta-adrenergic receptors (Beta-ARs), which transmit signals initiated by binding of the catecholamine neurotransmitters of the sympathicus, were identified by our laboratory as important regulators of cell proliferation in cell lines derived from human adenocarcinomas of the lungs, pancreas, and breast. The tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK bound with high affinity to Beta1- and Beta2-ARs, thus activating cAMP, protein kinase A, and the transcription factor CREB. Collectively, neurotransmitter receptors of the nicotinic and Beta-adrenergic families appear to regulate cellular functions essential for the development and survival of the most common human cancers.

  3. Dependence of Wilms tumor cells on signaling through insulin-like growth factor 1 in an orthotopic xenograft model targetable by specific receptor inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielen, Aleksandra; Box, Gary; Perryman, Lara;


    pathway inactivation. By contrast, Wilms tumor cells established orthotopically within the kidney were histologically accurate and exhibited significantly elevated insulin-like growth factor-mediated signaling, and growth was significantly reduced on treatment with NVP-AEW541 in parallel with signaling...

  4. Direct BMP2/4 signaling through BMP receptor IA regulates fetal thymocyte progenitor homeostasis and differentiation to CD4+CD8+ double-positive cell. (United States)

    Hager-Theodorides, Ariadne L; Ross, Susan E; Sahni, Hemant; Mishina, Yuji; Furmanski, Anna L; Crompton, Tessa


    BMP2/4 signaling is required for embryogenesis and involved in thymus morphogenesis and T-lineage differentiation. In vitro experiments have shown that treatment of thymus explants with exogenous BMP4 negatively regulated differentiation of early thymocyte progenitors and the transition from CD4-CD8- (DN) to CD4+CD8+ (DP). Here we show that in vivo BMP2/4 signaling is required for fetal thymocyte progenitor homeostasis and expansion, but negatively regulates differentiation from DN to DP cell. Unexpectedly, conditional deletion of BMPRIA from fetal thymocytes (using the Cre-loxP system and directing excision to hematopoietic lineage cells with the Vav promoter) demonstrated that physiological levels of BMP2/4 signaling directly to thymocytes through BMPRIA are required for normal differentiation and expansion of early fetal DN thymocytes. In contrast, the arrest in early thymocyte progenitor differentiation caused by exogenous BMP4 treatment of thymus explants is induced in part by direct signaling to thymocytes through BMPRIA, and in part by indirect signaling through non-hematopoietic cells. Analysis of the transition from fetal DN to DP cell, both by ex vivo analysis of conditional BMPRIA-deficient thymocytes and by treatment of thymus explants with the BMP4-inhibitor Noggin demonstrated that BMP2/4 signaling is a negative regulator at this stage. We showed that at this stage of fetal T-cell development BMP2/4 signals directly to thymocytes through BMPRIA.

  5. Correlation of prolactin levels and PRL-receptor expression with Stat and Mapk cell signaling in the prostate of long-term sexually active rats. (United States)

    Rojas-Durán, Fausto; Pascual-Mathey, Luz I; Serrano, Karina; Aranda-Abreu, Gonzalo E; Manzo, Jorge; Soto-Cid, Abraham H; Hernandez, Ma Elena


    Prolactin (PRL) is a key hormone for prostate function, with a basal level in serum and associated with two characteristic circadian peaks. In the male rat, the execution of one bout of sexual behavior with consecutive ejaculations produces a significant transient increase in PRL. However, the impact of a constant sexual life on both PRL levels and prostate function is unknown. Thus, by using constantly copulating males we analyzed the levels of serum PRL, the effect on prostate PRL receptors, and activation of pStat3, pStat5 and Mapk signaling pathways. Sexually experienced Wistar male rats were used, which underwent periodic sessions of sexual behavior tests. Males were subjected to a session of sexual behavior to achieve at least one and up to four ejaculations. Of these, a blood sample was collected from randomly selected males and the ventral prostate was removed for analysis. Serum PRL was quantified, the mRNA for PRL receptors was determined, and signaling pathways were analyzed. Data show that a constant sexual life produced a constant elevation of PRL in serum during four consecutive ejaculations. The ventral prostate showed a different mRNA expression profile for the long and short isoform of the PRL receptor, and both mRNA levels increased. Although the gland did not show modification of the activation of the pStat5 signaling pathway, the levels of pStat3 increased, and the Mapk pathway showed one significant elevation after the third ejaculation. Thus, we showed that an active and constant sexual life produces a sustained increase in serum PRL, its receptors, and the pStat3 signaling pathway. These responses seem to underlie the required physiological need to produce the quantity and quality of prostatic semen to ensure the appropriate environment for sperm to reach and fertilize the ovum.

  6. Dopamine receptor-interacting protein 78 acts as a molecular chaperone for CCR5 chemokine receptor signaling complex organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Qun Kuang

    Full Text Available Chemokine receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR family. CCR5 and CXCR4 act as co-receptors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and several efforts have been made to develop ligands to inhibit HIV infection by blocking those receptors. Removal of chemokine receptors from the cell surface using polymorphisms or other means confers some levels of immunity against HIV infection. Up to now, very limited success has been obtained using ligand therapies so we explored potential avenues to regulate chemokine receptor expression at the plasma membrane. We identified a molecular chaperone, DRiP78, that interacts with both CXCR4 and CCR5, but not the heterodimer formed by these receptors. We further characterized the effects of DRiP78 on CCR5 function. We show that the molecular chaperone inhibits CCR5 localization to the plasma membrane. We identified the interaction region on the receptor, the F(x6LL motif, and show that upon mutation of this motif the chaperone cannot interact with the receptor. We also show that DRiP78 is involved in the assembly of CCR5 chemokine signaling complex as a homodimer, as well as with the Gαi protein. Finally, modulation of DRiP78 levels will affect receptor functions, such as cell migration in cells that endogenously express CCR5. Our results demonstrate that modulation of the functions of a chaperone can affect signal transduction at the cell surface.

  7. Dopamine receptor-interacting protein 78 acts as a molecular chaperone for CCR5 chemokine receptor signaling complex organization. (United States)

    Kuang, Yi-Qun; Charette, Nicholle; Frazer, Jennifer; Holland, Patrick J; Attwood, Kathleen M; Dellaire, Graham; Dupré, Denis J


    Chemokine receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. CCR5 and CXCR4 act as co-receptors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and several efforts have been made to develop ligands to inhibit HIV infection by blocking those receptors. Removal of chemokine receptors from the cell surface using polymorphisms or other means confers some levels of immunity against HIV infection. Up to now, very limited success has been obtained using ligand therapies so we explored potential avenues to regulate chemokine receptor expression at the plasma membrane. We identified a molecular chaperone, DRiP78, that interacts with both CXCR4 and CCR5, but not the heterodimer formed by these receptors. We further characterized the effects of DRiP78 on CCR5 function. We show that the molecular chaperone inhibits CCR5 localization to the plasma membrane. We identified the interaction region on the receptor, the F(x)6LL motif, and show that upon mutation of this motif the chaperone cannot interact with the receptor. We also show that DRiP78 is involved in the assembly of CCR5 chemokine signaling complex as a homodimer, as well as with the Gαi protein. Finally, modulation of DRiP78 levels will affect receptor functions, such as cell migration in cells that endogenously express CCR5. Our results demonstrate that modulation of the functions of a chaperone can affect signal transduction at the cell surface.

  8. Neurotensin receptor-1 inducible palmitoylation is required for efficient receptor-mediated mitogenic-signaling within structured membrane microdomains



    Neurotensin receptor-1 (NTSR-1) is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been recently identified as a mediator of cancer progression. NTSR-1 and its endogenous ligand, neurotensin (NTS), are co-expressed in several breast cancer cell lines and breast cancer tumor samples. Based on our previously published study demonstrating that intact structured membrane microdomains (SMDs) are required for NTSR-1 mitogenic signaling, we hypothesized that regulated receptor palmitoylation is respons...

  9. Thyroid hormones regulate fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling during chondrogenesis. (United States)

    Barnard, Joanna C; Williams, Allan J; Rabier, Bénédicte; Chassande, Olivier; Samarut, Jacques; Cheng, Sheue-Yann; Bassett, J H Duncan; Williams, Graham R


    Childhood hypothyroidism causes growth arrest with delayed ossification and growth-plate dysgenesis, whereas thyrotoxicosis accelerates ossification and growth. Thyroid hormone (T(3)) regulates chondrocyte proliferation and is essential for hypertrophic differentiation. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are also important regulators of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, and activating mutations of FGF receptor-3 (FGFR3) cause achondroplasia. We investigated the hypothesis that T(3) regulates chondrogenesis via FGFR3 in ATDC5 cells, which undergo a defined program of chondrogenesis. ATDC5 cells expressed two FGFR1, four FGFR2, and one FGFR3 mRNA splice variants throughout chondrogenesis, and expression of each isoform was stimulated by T(3) during the first 6-12 d of culture, when T(3) inhibited proliferation by 50%. FGFR3 expression was also increased in cells treated with T(3) for 21 d, when T(3) induced an earlier onset of hypertrophic differentiation and collagen X expression. FGFR3 expression was reduced in growth plates from T(3) receptor alpha-null mice, which exhibit skeletal hypothyroidism, but was increased in T(3) receptor beta(PV/PV) mice, which display skeletal thyrotoxicosis. These findings indicate that FGFR3 is a T(3)-target gene in chondrocytes. In further experiments, T(3) enhanced FGF2 and FGF18 activation of the MAPK-signaling pathway but inhibited their activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1. FGF9 did not activate MAPK or signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 pathways in the absence or presence of T(3). Thus, T(3) exerted differing effects on FGFR activation during chondrogenesis depending on which FGF ligand stimulated the FGFR and which downstream signaling pathway was activated. These studies identify novel interactions between T(3) and FGFs that regulate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation during chondrogenesis.

  10. Ric-8A, a Gα protein guanine nucleotide exchange factor potentiates taste receptor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J Fenech


    Full Text Available Taste receptors for sweet, bitter and umami tastants are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs. While much effort has been devoted to understanding G-protein-receptor interactions and identifying the components of the signalling cascade downstream of these receptors, at the level of the G-protein the modulation of receptor signal transduction remains relatively unexplored. In this regard a taste-specific regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS, RGS21, has recently been identified. To study whether guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs are involved in the transduction of the signal downstream of the taste GPCRs we investigated the expression of Ric-8A and Ric-8B in mouse taste cells and their interaction with G-protein subunits found in taste buds. Mammalian Ric-8 proteins were initially identified as potent GEFs for a range of Gα subunits and Ric-8B has recently been shown to amplify olfactory signal transduction. We find that both Ric-8A and Ric-8B are expressed in a large portion of taste bud cells and that most of these cells contain IP3R-3 a marker for sweet, umami and bitter taste receptor cells. Ric-8A interacts with Gα-gustducin and Gαi2 through which it amplifies the signal transduction of hTas2R16, a receptor for bitter compounds. Overall, these findings are consistent with a role for Ric-8 in mammalian taste signal transduction.

  11. E3 ubiquitin ligases Pellinos as regulators of pattern recognition receptor signaling and immune responses. (United States)

    Medvedev, Andrei E; Murphy, Michael; Zhou, Hao; Li, Xiaoxia


    Pellinos are a family of E3 ubiquitin ligases discovered for their role in catalyzing K63-linked polyubiquitination of Pelle, an interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor-associated kinase homolog in the Drosophila Toll pathway. Subsequent studies have revealed the central and non-redundant roles of mammalian Pellino-1, Pellino-2, and Pelino-3 in signaling pathways emanating from IL-1 receptors, Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, T- and B-cell receptors. While Pellinos ability to interact with many signaling intermediates suggested their scaffolding roles, recent findings in mice expressing ligase-inactive Pellinos demonstrated the importance of Pellino ubiquitin ligase activity. Cell-specific functions of Pellinos have emerged, e.g. Pellino-1 being a negative regulator in T lymphocytes and a positive regulator in myeloid cells, and details of molecular regulation of receptor signaling by various members of the Pellino family have been revealed. In this review, we summarize current information about Pellino-mediated regulation of signaling by pattern recognition receptors, T-cell and B-cell receptors and tumor necrosis factor receptors, and discuss Pellinos roles in sepsis and infectious diseases, as well as in autoimmune, inflammatory, and allergic disorders. We also provide our perspective on the potential of targeting Pellinos with peptide- or small molecule-based drug compounds as a new therapeutic approach for septic shock and autoimmune pathologies.

  12. Noncell- and cell-autonomous G-protein-signaling converges with Ca2+/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling to regulate str-2 receptor gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Lans (Hannes); G. Jansen (Gert)


    textabstractIn the sensory system of C. elegans, the candidate odorant receptor gene str-2 is strongly expressed in one of the two AWC neurons and weakly in both ASI neurons. Asymmetric AWC expression results from suppression of str-2 expression by a Ca2+/MAPK signaling pathway in one of the AWC neu

  13. Cocaine disrupts histamine H3 receptor modulation of dopamine D1 receptor signaling: σ1-D1-H3 receptor complexes as key targets for reducing cocaine's effects. (United States)

    Moreno, Estefanía; Moreno-Delgado, David; Navarro, Gemma; Hoffmann, Hanne M; Fuentes, Silvia; Rosell-Vilar, Santi; Gasperini, Paola; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Mar; Medrano, Mireia; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carme; Ferré, Sergi; Ortiz, Jordi; Canela, Enric; McCormick, Peter J


    The general effects of cocaine are not well understood at the molecular level. What is known is that the dopamine D1 receptor plays an important role. Here we show that a key mechanism may be cocaine's blockade of the histamine H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of D1 receptor function. This blockade requires the σ1 receptor and occurs upon cocaine binding to σ1-D1-H3 receptor complexes. The cocaine-mediated disruption leaves an uninhibited D1 receptor that activates Gs, freely recruits β-arrestin, increases p-ERK 1/2 levels, and induces cell death when over activated. Using in vitro assays with transfected cells and in ex vivo experiments using both rats acutely treated or self-administered with cocaine along with mice depleted of σ1 receptor, we show that blockade of σ1 receptor by an antagonist restores the protective H3 receptor-mediated brake on D1 receptor signaling and prevents the cell death from elevated D1 receptor signaling. These findings suggest that a combination therapy of σ1R antagonists with H3 receptor agonists could serve to reduce some effects of cocaine.

  14. HBpF-proBDNF: A New Tool for the Analysis of Pro-Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Receptor Signaling and Cell Biology (United States)

    Gaub, Perrine; de Léon, Andrès; Gibon, Julien; Soubannier, Vincent; Dorval, Geneviève; Séguéla, Philippe; Barker, Philip A.


    Neurotrophins activate intracellular signaling pathways necessary for neuronal survival, growth and apoptosis. The most abundant neurotrophin in the adult brain, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is first synthesized as a proBDNF precursor and recent studies have demonstrated that proBDNF can be secreted and that it functions as a ligand for a receptor complex containing p75NTR and sortilin. Activation of proBDNF receptors mediates growth cone collapse, reduces synaptic activity, and facilitates developmental apoptosis of motoneurons but the precise signaling cascades have been difficult to discern. To address this, we have engineered, expressed and purified HBpF-proBDNF, an expression construct containing a 6X-HIS tag, a biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) sequence, a PreScission™ Protease cleavage site and a FLAG-tag attached to the N-terminal part of murine proBDNF. Intact HBpF-proBDNF has activities indistinguishable from its wild-type counterpart and can be used to purify proBDNF signaling complexes or to monitor proBDNF endocytosis and retrograde transport. HBpF-proBDNF will be useful for characterizing proBDNF signaling complexes and for deciphering the role of proBDNF in neuronal development, synapse function and neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26950209

  15. Cysteinyl-Leukotriene Receptors and Cellular Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Enrico Rovati


    Full Text Available Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cysteinyl-LTs exert a range of proinflammatory effects, such as constriction of airways and vascular smooth muscle, increase of endothelial cell permeability leading to plasma exudation and edema, and enhanced mucus secretion. They have proved to be important mediators in asthma, allergic rhinitis, and other inflammatory conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, atopic dermatitis, and urticaria. The classification into subtypes of the cysteinyl-LT receptors (CysLTRs was based initially on binding and functional data, obtained using the natural agonists and a wide range of antagonists. CysLTRs have proved remarkably resistant to cloning. However, in 1999 and 2000, the CysLT1R and CysLT2R were successfully cloned and both shown to be members of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs superfamily. Molecular cloning has confirmed most of the previous pharmacological characterization and identified distinct expression patterns only partially overlapping. Recombinant CysLTRs couple to the Gq/11 pathway that modulates inositol phospholipids hydrolysis and calcium mobilization, whereas in native systems, they often activate a pertussis toxin-insensitive Gi/o-protein, or are coupled promiscuously to both G-proteins. Interestingly, recent data provide evidence for the existence of an additional receptor subtype that seems to respond to both cysteinyl-LTs and uracil nucleosides, and of an intracellular pool of CysLTRs that may have roles different from those of plasma membrane receptors. Finally, a cross-talk between the cysteinyl-LT and the purine systems is being delineated. This review will summarize recent data derived from studies on the molecular and cellular pharmacology of CysLTRs.

  16. Shc adaptor proteins are key transducers of mitogenic signaling mediated by the G protein-coupled thrombin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Y; Grall, D; Salcini, A E


    The serine protease thrombin activates G protein signaling systems that lead to Ras activation and, in certain cells, proliferation. Whereas the steps leading to Ras activation by G protein-coupled receptors are not well defined, the mechanisms of Ras activation by receptor tyrosine kinases have...... kinase activation, gene induction and cell growth. From these data, we conclude that Shc represents a crucial point of convergence between signaling pathways activated by receptor tyrosine kinases and G protein-coupled receptors....

  17. Identification of intracellular domains in the growth hormone receptor involved in signal transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, N; Allevato, G; Norstedt, G


    The growth hormone (GH) receptor belongs to the GH/prolactin/cytokine super-family of receptors. The signal transduction mechanism utilized by this class of receptors remains largely unknown. In order to identify functional domains in the intracellular region of the GH receptor we generated...... a number of GH receptor mutants and analyzed their function after transfection into various cell lines. A truncated GH receptor missing 184 amino acids at the C-terminus was unable to mediate GH effects on transcription of the Spi 2.1 and insulin genes. However, this mutant was fully active in mediating GH...

  18. Cellular phosphatases facilitate combinatorial processing of receptor-activated signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui Zaved


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although reciprocal regulation of protein phosphorylation represents a key aspect of signal transduction, a larger perspective on how these various interactions integrate to contribute towards signal processing is presently unclear. For example, a key unanswered question is that of how phosphatase-mediated regulation of phosphorylation at the individual nodes of the signaling network translates into modulation of the net signal output and, thereby, the cellular phenotypic response. Results To address the above question we, in the present study, examined the dynamics of signaling from the B cell antigen receptor (BCR under conditions where individual cellular phosphatases were selectively depleted by siRNA. Results from such experiments revealed a highly enmeshed structure for the signaling network where each signaling node was linked to multiple phosphatases on the one hand, and each phosphatase to several nodes on the other. This resulted in a configuration where individual signaling intermediates could be influenced by a spectrum of regulatory phosphatases, but with the composition of the spectrum differing from one intermediate to another. Consequently, each node differentially experienced perturbations in phosphatase activity, yielding a unique fingerprint of nodal signals characteristic to that perturbation. This heterogeneity in nodal experiences, to a given perturbation, led to combinatorial manipulation of the corresponding signaling axes for the downstream transcription factors. Conclusion Our cumulative results reveal that it is the tight integration of phosphatases into the signaling network that provides the plasticity by which perturbation-specific information can be transmitted in the form of a multivariate output to the downstream transcription factor network. This output in turn specifies a context-defined response, when translated into the resulting gene expression profile.

  19. N-Acetylglucosamine Functions in Cell Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Konopka


    Full Text Available The amino sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc is well known for the important structural roles that it plays at the cell surface. It is a key component of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan, fungal cell wall chitin, and the extracellular matrix of animal cells. Interestingly, recent studies have also identified new roles for GlcNAc in cell signaling. For example, GlcNAc stimulates the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans to undergo changes in morphogenesis and expression of virulence genes. Pathogenic E. coli responds to GlcNAc by altering the expression of fimbriae and CURLI fibers that promote biofilm formation and GlcNAc stimulates soil bacteria to undergo changes in morphogenesis and production of antibiotics. Studies with animal cells have revealed that GlcNAc influences cell signaling through the posttranslational modification of proteins by glycosylation. O-linked attachment of GlcNAc to Ser and Thr residues regulates a variety of intracellular proteins, including transcription factors such as NFκB, c-myc, and p53. In addition, the specificity of Notch family receptors for different ligands is altered by GlcNAc attachment to fucose residues in the extracellular domain. GlcNAc also impacts signal transduction by altering the degree of branching of N-linked glycans, which influences cell surface signaling proteins. These emerging roles of GlcNAc as an activator and mediator of cellular signaling in fungi, animals, and bacteria will be the focus of this paper.

  20. Neurokinin-1 receptor signalling impacts bone marrow repopulation efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Berger

    Full Text Available Tachykinins are a large group of neuropeptides with both central and peripheral activity. Despite the increasing number of studies reporting a growth supportive effect of tachykinin peptides in various in vitro stem cell systems, it remains unclear whether these findings are applicable in vivo. To determine how neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R deficient hematopoietic stem cells would behave in a normal in vivo environment, we tested their reconstitution efficiency using competitive bone marrow repopulation assays. We show here that bone marrow taken from NK-1R deficient mice (Tacr1(-/- showed lineage specific B and T cell engraftment deficits compared to wild-type competitor bone marrow cells, providing evidence for an involvement of NK-1R signalling in adult hematopoiesis. Tachykinin knockout mice lacking the peptides SP and/or HK-1 (Tac1 (-/-, Tac4 (-/- and Tac1 (-/-/Tac4 (-/- mice repopulated a lethally irradiated wild-type host with similar efficiency as competing wild-type bone marrow. The difference between peptide and receptor deficient mice indicates a paracrine and/or endocrine mechanism of action rather than autocrine signalling, as tachykinin peptides are supplied by the host environment.

  1. Receptor component protein (RCP): a member of a multi-protein complex required for G-protein-coupled signal transduction. (United States)

    Prado, M A; Evans-Bain, B; Dickerson, I M


    The calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor component protein (RCP) is a 148-amino-acid intracellular protein that is required for G-protein-coupled signal transduction at receptors for the neuropeptide CGRP. RCP works in conjunction with two other proteins to constitute a functional CGRP receptor: calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and receptor-activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1). CRLR has the stereotypical seven-transmembrane topology of a G-protein-coupled receptor; it requires RAMP1 for trafficking to the cell surface and for ligand specificity, and requires RCP for coupling to the cellular signal transduction pathway. We have made cell lines that expressed an antisense construct of RCP and determined that CGRP-mediated signal transduction was reduced, while CGRP binding was unaffected. Furthermore, signalling at two other endogenous G-protein-coupled receptors was unaffected, suggesting that RCP was specific for a limited subset of receptors.

  2. Structural Dynamics of Insulin Receptor and Transmembrane Signaling. (United States)

    Tatulian, Suren A


    The insulin receptor (IR) is a (αβ)2-type transmembrane tyrosine kinase that plays a central role in cell metabolism. Each αβ heterodimer consists of an extracellular ligand-binding α-subunit and a membrane-spanning β-subunit that comprises the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase (TK) domain and the phosphorylation sites. The α- and β-subunits are linked via a single disulfide bridge, and the (αβ)2 tetramer is formed by disulfide bonds between the α-chains. Insulin binding induces conformational changes in IR that reach the intracellular β-subunit followed by a protein phosphorylation and activation cascade. Defects in this signaling process, including IR dysfunction caused by mutations, result in type 2 diabetes. Rational drug design aimed at treatment of diabetes relies on knowledge of the detailed structure of IR and the dynamic structural transformations during transmembrane signaling. Recent X-ray crystallographic studies have provided important clues about the mode of binding of insulin to IR, the resulting structural changes and their transmission to the TK domain, but a complete understanding of the structural basis underlying insulin signaling has not been achieved. This review presents a critical analysis of the current status of the structure-function relationship of IR, with a comparative assessment of the other IR family receptors, and discusses potential advancements that may provide insight into the molecular mechanism of insulin signaling.

  3. Effect of hyperprolactinemia on PRL-receptor expression and activation of Stat and Mapk cell signaling in the prostate of long-term sexually-active rats. (United States)

    Pascual-Mathey, Luz I; Rojas-Duran, Fausto; Aranda-Abreu, Gonzalo E; Manzo, Jorge; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Muñoz-Zavaleta, David A; Garcia, Luis I; Hernandez, Ma Elena


    The abnormal elevation of serum PRL, referred to as hyperprolactinemia (HyperPRL), produces alterations in several reproductive parameters of male rats such as penile erection or decreased tendency to reach ejaculation. Additionally, this situation produces a significant modification of prostate histology, as observed in the epithelial structure and alveolar area, which could reach a level of hyperplasia in the long-term. In this tissue, HyperPRL produces an increase in expression of PRL receptors and activation of the Stat3 signaling pathway that is correlated with the evolution of prostate pathologies. However, the impact of HyperPRL in long-term sexually active male rats is unknown. In this work, using constantly copulating Wistar male rats with induced HyperPRL, we analyzed the level of serum PRL, the effect on prostate PRL receptors, and activation of pStat3, pStat5 and Mapk signaling pathways. Two procedures to induce HyperPRL were employed, comprising daily IP administration or adenohypophysis transplant, and although neither affected the execution of sexual behavior, the serum PRL profile following successive ejaculations was affected. Messenger RNA expression of the short and long isoforms of the PRL receptor at the ventral prostate was affected in different ways depending on the procedure to induce HyperPRL. The ventral prostate did not show any modification in terms of activation of the pStat5 signaling pathway in subjects with daily administration of PRL, although this was significantly increased in ADH transplanted subjects in the second and fourth consecutive ejaculation. A similar profile was found for the pStat3 pathway which additionally showed a significant increase in the third and fourth ejaculation of daily-injected subjects. The Mapk signaling pathway did not show any modifications in subjects with daily administration of PRL, but showed a significant increase in the second and third ejaculations of subjects with ADH transplants. Thus

  4. Receptor Expression in Rat Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures (United States)

    Young, Ronald B.


    One on the most persistent problems with long-term space flight is atrophy of skeletal muscles. Skeletal muscle is unique as a tissue in the body in that its ability to undergo atrophy or hypertrophy is controlled exclusively by cues from the extracellular environment. The mechanism of communication between muscle cells and their environment is through a group of membrane-bound and soluble receptors, each of which carries out unique, but often interrelated, functions. The primary receptors include acetyl choline receptors, beta-adrenergic receptors, glucocorticoid receptors, insulin receptors, growth hormone (i.e., somatotropin) receptors, insulin-like growth factor receptors, and steroid receptors. This project has been initiated to develop an integrated approach toward muscle atrophy and hypertrophy that takes into account information on the populations of the entire group of receptors (and their respective hormone concentrations), and it is hypothesized that this information can form the basis for a predictive computer model for muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. The conceptual basis for this project is illustrated in the figure below. The individual receptors are shown as membrane-bound, with the exception of the glucocorticoid receptor which is a soluble intracellular receptor. Each of these receptors has an extracellular signalling component (e.g., innervation, glucocorticoids, epinephrine, etc.), and following the interaction of the extracellular component with the receptor itself, an intracellular signal is generated. Each of these intracellular signals is unique in its own way; however, they are often interrelated.

  5. Fidelity in planar cell polarity signalling. (United States)

    Ma, Dali; Yang, Chung-hui; McNeill, Helen; Simon, Michael A; Axelrod, Jeffrey D


    The polarity of Drosophila wing hairs displays remarkable fidelity. Each of the approximately 30,000 wing epithelial cells constructs an actin-rich prehair that protrudes from its distal vertex and points distally. The distal location and orientation of the hairs is virtually error free, thus forming a nearly perfect parallel array. This process is controlled by the planar cell polarity signalling pathway. Here we show that interaction between two tiers of the planar cell polarity signalling mechanism results in the observed high fidelity. The first tier, mediated by the cadherin Fat, dictates global orientation by transducing a directional signal to individual cells. The second tier, orchestrated by the 7-pass transmembrane receptor Frizzled, aligns each cell's polarity with that of its neighbours through the action of an intercellular feedback loop, enabling polarity to propagate from cell to cell. We show that a